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Sample records for reference flow injection

  1. Determination of organomercury in biological reference materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using flow injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchemin, D.; Siu, K.W.; Berman, S.S.

    1988-12-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used for the determination of organomercury in two marine biological standard reference materials for trace metals (dogfish muscle tissue DORM-1 and lobster hepatopancreas TORT-1). In most parts of this study, the organomercury was extracted as the chloride from the material with toluene and back extracted into an aqueous medium of cysteine acetate. Since the final extracts contained more than 4% sodium, isotope dilution and flow injection analysis were used to respectively counter the effect of concomitant elements and avoid clogging the interface. Comparison of results with gas chromatography shows that the only significant organomercury is methyl-mercury. At least 93% of mercury in DORM-1 and 39% of mercury in TORT-1 exist as methylmercury.

  2. Online Determination of Trace Amounts of Tannic Acid in Colored Tannery Wastewaters by Automatic Reference Flow Injection Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Liang

    2010-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive method was proposed for online determination of tannic acid in colored tannery wastewater by automatic reference flow injection analysis. Based on the tannic acid reduction phosphotungstic acid to form blue compound in pH 12.38 alkaline solutions, the shade of blue compound is in a linear relation to the content of tannic acid at the point of the maximum absorption peak of 760 nm. The optimal experimental conditions had been obtained. The linear range of the proposed method was between 200 μg L−1 to 80 mg L−1 and the detection limit was 0.58 μg L−1. The relative standard deviation was 3.08% and 2.43% for 500 μg L−1 and 40 mg L−1 of tannic acid standard solution, respectively, (n = 10). The method had been successfully applied to determination of tannic acid in colored tannery wastewaters and the analytical results were satisfactory. PMID:20508812

  3. Miniaturized flow injection analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Folta, J.A.

    1997-07-01

    A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis is described, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38{times}25{times}3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction. 9 figs.

  4. Miniaturized flow injection analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Folta, James A.

    1997-01-01

    A chemical analysis technique known as flow injection analysis, wherein small quantities of chemical reagents and sample are intermixed and reacted within a capillary flow system and the reaction products are detected optically, electrochemically, or by other means. A highly miniaturized version of a flow injection analysis system has been fabricated utilizing microfabrication techniques common to the microelectronics industry. The microflow system uses flow capillaries formed by etching microchannels in a silicon or glass wafer followed by bonding to another wafer, commercially available microvalves bonded directly to the microflow channels, and an optical absorption detector cell formed near the capillary outlet, with light being both delivered and collected with fiber optics. The microflow system is designed mainly for analysis of liquids and currently measures 38.times.25.times.3 mm, but can be designed for gas analysis and be substantially smaller in construction.

  5. Residual ozone determination by flow injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Straka, M.R.; Pacey, G.E.; Gordon, G.

    1984-09-01

    It has been proposed that ozone be used to replace free chlorine for the disinfection of drinking water and waste water. For the use of ozone in this capacity, it would be necessary to have a fast accurate and precise method to analyze for the presence of residuals. An automated method for ozone determination based on the indigo reagent method is presented. This method is based on the advantages of flow injection analysis (FIA) techniques. 19 references, 3 tables, 2 figures.

  6. A volumetric flow sensor for automotive injection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, U.; Krötz, G.; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.

    2008-04-01

    For further optimization of the automotive power train of diesel engines, advanced combustion processes require a highly flexible injection system, provided e.g. by the common rail (CR) injection technique. In the past, the feasibility to implement injection nozzle volumetric flow sensors based on the thermo-resistive measurement principle has been demonstrated up to injection pressures of 135 MPa (1350 bar). To evaluate the transient behaviour of the system-integrated flow sensors as well as an injection amount indicator used as a reference method, hydraulic simulations on the system level are performed for a CR injection system. Experimentally determined injection timings were found to be in good agreement with calculated values, especially for the novel sensing element which is directly implemented into the hydraulic system. For the first time pressure oscillations occurring after termination of the injection pulse, predicted theoretically, could be verified directly in the nozzle. In addition, the injected amount of fuel is monitored with the highest resolution ever reported in the literature.

  7. Solenoid pumps for flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Weeks, D A; Johnson, K S

    1996-08-01

    Methods employing flow injection analysis (FIA), particularly for in situ seawater techniques, would benefit from reduction in pump size and power requirement, longer maintenance intervals, and the ability to incorporate microprocessor control of each reagent and sample flow stream. In this work, the peristaltic pump of a conventional FIA system was replaced by three solenoid-driven diaphragm pumps with integral Viton check valves, and the system was tested by performing the simple nitrite analysis, which has well-defined FIA performance characteristics. Sixty injections per hour were possible with flow rates of 0.5 mL/min for reagents and sample. The coefficient of variation was 1% for 10 μM NO(2)(-) concentrations, and the detection limit was less than 0.1 μM NO(2)(-). These values match the reported performance for this method using peristaltic pumps.

  8. Reversed flow injection spectrophotometric determination of chlorate.

    PubMed

    Chuesaard, Thanyarat; Wonganan, Tharinee; Wongchanapiboon, Teerapol; Liawruangrath, Saisunee

    2009-09-15

    An interfacing has been developed to connect a spectrophotometer with a personal computer and used as a readout system for development of a simple, rapid and sensitive reversed flow injection (rFI) procedure for chlorate determination. The method is based on the oxidation of indigo carmine by chlorate ions in an acidic solution (dil. HCl) leading to the decrease in absorbance at 610 nm. The decrease in absorbance is directly related to the chlorate concentration present in the sample solutions. Optimum conditions for chlorate were examined. A linear calibration graph over the range of 0.1-0.5 mg L(-1) chlorate was established with the regression equation of Y=104.5X+1.0, r(2)=0.9961 (n=6). The detection limit (3 sigma) of 0.03 mg L(-1), the limit of quantitation (10 sigma) of 0.10 mg L(-1) and the RSD of 3.2% for 0.3 mg L(-1) chlorate (n=11) together with a sample throughput of 92 h(-1) were obtained. The recovery of the added chlorate in spiked water samples was 98.5+/-3.1%. Major interferences for chlorate determination were found to be BrO(3)(-), ClO(2)(-), ClO(-) and IO(3)(-) which were overcome by using SO(3)(2-) (as Na(2)SO(3)) as masking agent. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of chlorate in spiked water samples with the minimum reagent consumption of 14.0 mL h(-1). Good agreement between the proposed rFIA and the reference methods was found verified by Student's t-test at 95% confidence level.

  9. Automated Protein Assay Using Flow Injection Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Carrie A. C.; Oates, Matthew R.; Hage, David S.

    1998-08-01

    The technique of flow injection analysis (FIA) is a common instrumental method used in detecting a variety of chemical and biological agents. This paper describes an undergraduate laboratory that uses FIA to perform a bicinchoninic acid (BCA) colorimetric assay for quantitating protein samples. The method requires less than 2 min per sample injection and gives a response over a broad range of protein concentrations. This method can be used in instrumental analysis labs to illustrate the principles and use of FIA, or as a means for introducing students to common methods employed in the analysis of biological agents.

  10. Tracer injection techniques in flowing surface water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wörman, A.

    2009-04-01

    Residence time distributions for flowing water and reactive matter are commonly used integrated properties of the transport process for determining technical issues of water resource management and in eco-hydrological science. Two general issues for tracer techniques are that the concentration-vs-time relation following a tracer injection (the breakthrough curve) gives unique transport information in different parts of the curve and separation of hydromechanical and reactive mechanisms often require simultaneous tracer injections. This presentation discusses evaluation methods for simultaneous tracer injections based on examples of tracer experiments in small rivers, streams and wetlands. Tritiated water is used as a practically inert substance to reflect the actual hydrodynamics, but other involved tracers are Cr(III)-51, P-32 and N-15. Hydromechanical, in-stream dispersion is reflected as a symmetrical spreading of the spatial concentration distribution. This requires that the transport distance over water depth is larger than about five times the flow Peclet number. Transversal retention of both inert and reactive solutes is reflected in terms of the tail of the breakthrough curve. Especially, reactive solutes can have a substantial magnification of the tailing behaviour depending on reaction rates or partitioning coefficients. To accurately discriminate between the effects of reactions and hydromechanical mixing its is relevant to use simultaneous injections of inert and reactive tracers with a sequential or integrated evaluation procedure. As an example, the slope of the P-32 tailing is consistently smaller than that of a simultaneous tritium injection in Ekeby wetland, Eskilstuna. The same applies to N-15 injected in the same experiment, but nitrogen is affected also by a systematic loss due to denitrification. Uptake in stream-bed sediments can be caused by a pumping effect arising when a variable pressure field is created on the stream bottom due to bed

  11. Operator-free flow injection analyser

    PubMed Central

    de Faria, Lourival C.

    1991-01-01

    A flow injection analyser has been constructed to allow an operator-free determination of up to 40 samples. Besides the usual FIA apparatus, the analyser includes a home-made sample introduction device made with three electromechanical three-way valves and an auto-sampler from Technicon which has been adapted to be commanded by an external digital signal. The analyser is controlled by a single board SDK-8085 microcomputer. The necessary interface to couple the analyser components to the microcomputer is also described. The analyser was evaluated for a Cr(VI)-FIA determination showing a very good performance with a relative standard deviation for 15 signals from the injection of 100 μl of a 1.0 mg.ml-1 standard Cr(VI) solution being equal to 0.5%. PMID:18924899

  12. Immobilized Bioluminescent Reagents in Flow Injection Analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Abdul

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Bioluminescent reactions exhibits two important characteristics from an analytical viewpoint; they are selective and highly sensitive. Furthermore, bioluminescent emissions are easily measured with a simple flow-through detector based on a photomultiplier tube and the rapid and reproducible mixing of sample and expensive reagent is best achieved by a flow injection manifold. The two most important bioluminescent systems are the enzyme (luciferase)/substrate (luciferin) combinations extracted from fireflies (Photinus pyralis) and marine bacteria (Virio harveyi) which requires ATP and NAD(P)H respectively as cofactors. Reactions that generate or consume these cofactors can also be coupled to the bioluminescent reaction to provide assays for a wide range of clinically important species. A flow injection manifold for the study of bioluminescent reactions is described, as are procedures for the extraction, purification and immobilization of firefly and bacterial luciferase and oxidoreductase. Results are presented for the determination of ATP using firefly system and the determination of other enzymes and substrates participating in ATP-converting reactions e.g. creatine kinase, ATP-sulphurylase, pyruvate kinase, creatine phosphate, pyrophosphate and phophoenolypyruvate. Similarly results are presented for the determination of NAD(P)H, FMN, FMNH_2 and several dehydrogenases which produce NAD(P)H and their substrates, e.g. alcohol, L-lactate, L-malate, L-glutamate, Glucose-6-phosphate and primary bile acid.

  13. Flow injection spectrophotometric determination of boron in ceramic materials.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Ramos, S; Medina-Hernández, M J; Sagrado, S

    1998-03-01

    A flow injection spectrophotometric method for the determination of boron in ceramic materials is described. The method is based on spectrophotometric measurement of the decrease in the pH produced by the reaction between boric acid and mannitol in the presence of an acid-base indicator. A bichannel FI (flow injection) manifold in which the sample solutions were injected into deionized water (at pH 5.4) and the stream was later merged with the reagent stream (a mannitol solution containing 1x10(-4) mol l(-1) bromocresol green at pH 5.4), was used. Transient signals were monitored at 616 nm. A theoretical model which describes the dependence between the absorbance values and boric acid concentration is presented. The model predicts a non linear dependence between the absorbance or increment in absorbance and the boric acid concentration. In contrast, the model predicts a linear dependence between the inverse of the absorbance values and the boric acid concentration. The calibration graphs (1/A vs mug ml(-1) B(2)O(3)) were linear over the range 1-30 mug ml(-1) of B(2)O(3). The relative standard deviations were 0.7 and 0.4% for 4 and 8 mug ml(-1) of B(2)O(3), respectively. The limit of detection was 0.02 mug ml(-1) of B(2)O(3) (3sigma criterium). The method was used to determine boron in nine ceramic materials with very different nominal boron compositions. The results were compared with those obtained using a potentiometric titration method as reference method. No significant differences (at 95% probability level) were found between the proposed and reference methods. The method is rapid, reliable, precise and free of interferences.

  14. Parametric Studies of Flow Separation using Air Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Wei

    2004-01-01

    Boundary Layer separation causes the airfoil to stall and therefore imposes dramatic performance degradation on the airfoil. In recent years, flow separation control has been one of the active research areas in the field of aerodynamics due to its promising performance improvements on the lifting device. These active flow separation control techniques include steady and unsteady air injection as well as suction on the airfoil surface etc. This paper will be focusing on the steady and unsteady air injection on the airfoil. Although wind tunnel experiments revealed that the performance improvements on the airfoil using injection techniques, the details of how the key variables such as air injection slot geometry and air injection angle etc impact the effectiveness of flow separation control via air injection has not been studied. A parametric study of both steady and unsteady air injection active flow control will be the main objective for this summer. For steady injection, the key variables include the slot geometry, orientation, spacing, air injection velocity as well as the injection angle. For unsteady injection, the injection frequency will also be investigated. Key metrics such as lift coefficient, drag coefficient, total pressure loss and total injection mass will be used to measure the effectiveness of the control technique. A design of experiments using the Box-Behnken Design is set up in order to determine how each of the variables affects each of the key metrics. Design of experiment is used so that the number of experimental runs will be at minimum and still be able to predict which variables are the key contributors to the responses. The experiments will then be conducted in the 1ft by 1ft wind tunnel according to the design of experiment settings. The data obtained from the experiments will be imported into JMP, statistical software, to generate sets of response surface equations which represent the statistical empirical model for each of the metrics as

  15. Numerical simulation of flow separation control by oscillatory fluid injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resendiz Rosas, Celerino

    2005-07-01

    In this work, numerical simulations of flow separation control are performed. The separation control technique studied is called "synthetic jet actuation". The developed code employs a cell centered finite volume scheme which handles viscous, steady and unsteady compressible turbulent flows. The pulsating zero mass jet flow is simulated by imposing a harmonically varying transpiration boundary condition on the airfoil's surface. Turbulence is modeled with the algebraic model of Baldwin and Lomax. The application of synthetic jet actuators is based in their ability to energize the boundary layer, thereby providing significant increase in the lift coefficient. This has been corroborated experimentally and it is corroborated numerically in this research. The performed numerical simulation investigates the flow over a NACA0015 airfoil. For this flow Re = 9 x 105 and the reduced frequency and momentum coefficient are F + = 1.1 and Cmu = 0.04 respectively. The oscillatory injection takes place at 12.27% chord from the leading edge. A maximum increase in the mean lift coefficient of 93% is predicted by the code. A discrepancy of approximately 10% is observed with corresponding experimental data from the literature. The general trend is, however, well captured. The discrepancy is attributed to the modeling of the injection boundary condition and to the turbulence model. A sensitivity analysis of the lift coefficient to different values of the oscillation parameters is performed. It is concluded that tangential injection, F+ ≈ O(1) and the utilized grid resolution around the site of injection are optimal. Streamline fields obtained for different angles of injection are analyzed. Flow separation and attachment as functions of the injection angle and of the velocity of injection can be observed. It is finally concluded that a reliable numerical tool has been developed which can be utilized as a support tool in the optimization of the synthetic jet operation and in the

  16. Downstream influence of swept slot injection in hypersonic turbulent flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hefner, J. N.; Cary, A. M., Jr.; Bushnell, D. B.

    1977-01-01

    Results of an experimental and numerical investigation of tangential swept slot injection into a thick turbulent boundary layer at Mach 6 are presented. Film cooling effectiveness, skin friction, and flow structure downstream of the swept slot injection were investigated. The data were compared with that for unswept slots, and it was found that cooling effectiveness and skin friction reductions are not significantly affected by sweeping the slot.

  17. Flow monitoring and control system for injection wells

    DOEpatents

    Corey, John C.

    1993-01-01

    A system for monitoring and controlling the injection rate of fluid by an injection well of an in-situ remediation system for treating a contaminated groundwater plume. The well is fitted with a gated insert, substantially coaxial with the injection well. A plurality of openings, some or all of which are equipped with fluid flow sensors and gates, are spaced along the insert. The gates and sensors are connected to a surface controller. The insert may extend throughout part of, or substantially the entire length of the injection well. Alternatively, the insert may comprise one or more movable modules which can be positioned wherever desired along the well. The gates are opened part-way at the start of treatment. The sensors monitor and display the flow rate of fluid passing through each opening on a controller. As treatment continues, the gates are opened to increase flow in regions of lesser flow, and closed to decrease flow in regions of greater flow, thereby approximately equalizing the amount of fluid reaching each part of the plume.

  18. Flow monitoring and control system for injection wells

    DOEpatents

    Corey, J.C.

    1993-02-16

    A system for monitoring and controlling the injection rate of fluid by an injection well of an in-situ remediation system for treating a contaminated groundwater plume. The well is fitted with a gated insert, substantially coaxial with the injection well. A plurality of openings, some or all of which are equipped with fluid flow sensors and gates, are spaced along the insert. The gates and sensors are connected to a surface controller. The insert may extend throughout part of, or substantially the entire length of the injection well. Alternatively, the insert may comprise one or more movable modules which can be positioned wherever desired along the well. The gates are opened part-way at the start of treatment. The sensors monitor and display the flow rate of fluid passing through each opening on a controller. As treatment continues, the gates are opened to increase flow in regions of lesser flow, and closed to decrease flow in regions of greater flow, thereby approximately equalizing the amount of fluid reaching each part of the plume.

  19. Injected power and entropy flow in a heated granular gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visco, P.; Puglisi, A.; Barrat, A.; Trizac, E.; van Wijland, F.

    2005-10-01

    Our interest goes to the power injected in a heated granular gas and to the possibility to interpret it in terms of entropy flow. We numerically determine the distribution of the injected power by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Then, we provide a kinetic-theory approach to the computation of such a distribution function. Finally, after showing why the injected power does not satisfy a fluctuation relation à la Gallavotti-Cohen, we put forward a new quantity which does fulfill such a relation, and is not only applicable in a variety of frameworks outside the granular world, but also experimentally accessible.

  20. Material flow data for numerical simulation of powder injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duretek, I.; Holzer, C.

    2017-01-01

    The powder injection molding (PIM) process is a cost efficient and important net-shape manufacturing process that is not completely understood. For the application of simulation programs for the powder injection molding process, apart from suitable physical models, exact material data and in particular knowledge of the flow behavior are essential in order to get precise numerical results. The flow processes of highly filled polymers are complex. Occurring effects are very hard to separate, like shear flow with yield stress, wall slip, elastic effects, etc. Furthermore, the occurrence of phase separation due to the multi-phase composition of compounds is quite probable. In this work, the flow behavior of a 316L stainless steel feedstock for powder injection molding was investigated. Additionally, the influence of pre-shearing on the flow behavior of PIM-feedstocks under practical conditions was examined and evaluated by a special PIM injection molding machine rheometer. In order to have a better understanding of key factors of PIM during the injection step, 3D non-isothermal numerical simulations were conducted with a commercial injection molding simulation software using experimental feedstock properties. The simulation results were compared with the experimental results. The mold filling studies amply illustrate the effect of mold temperature on the filling behavior during the mold filling stage. Moreover, the rheological measurements showed that at low shear rates no zero shear viscosity was observed, but instead the viscosity further increased strongly. This flow behavior could be described with the Cross-WLF approach with Herschel-Bulkley extension very well.

  1. Axisymmetric flows from fluid injection into a confined porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bo; Zheng, Zhong; Celia, Michael A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2016-02-01

    We study the axisymmetric flows generated from fluid injection into a horizontal confined porous medium that is originally saturated with another fluid of different density and viscosity. Neglecting the effects of surface tension and fluid mixing, we use the lubrication approximation to obtain a nonlinear advection-diffusion equation that describes the time evolution of the sharp fluid-fluid interface. The flow behaviors are controlled by two dimensionless groups: M, the viscosity ratio of displaced fluid relative to injected fluid, and Γ, which measures the relative importance of buoyancy and fluid injection. For this axisymmetric geometry, the similarity solution involving R2/T (where R is the dimensionless radial coordinate and T is the dimensionless time) is an exact solution to the nonlinear governing equation for all times. Four analytical expressions are identified as asymptotic approximations (two of which are new solutions): (i) injection-driven flow with the injected fluid being more viscous than the displaced fluid (Γ ≪ 1 and M < 1) where we identify a self-similar solution that indicates a parabolic interface shape; (ii) injection-driven flow with injected and displaced fluids of equal viscosity (Γ ≪ 1 and M = 1), where we find a self-similar solution that predicts a distinct parabolic interface shape; (iii) injection-driven flow with a less viscous injected fluid (Γ ≪ 1 and M > 1) for which there is a rarefaction wave solution, assuming that the Saffman-Taylor instability does not occur at the reservoir scale; and (iv) buoyancy-driven flow (Γ ≫ 1) for which there is a well-known self-similar solution corresponding to gravity currents in an unconfined porous medium [S. Lyle et al. "Axisymmetric gravity currents in a porous medium," J. Fluid Mech. 543, 293-302 (2005)]. The various axisymmetric flows are summarized in a Γ-M regime diagram with five distinct dynamic behaviors including the four asymptotic regimes and an intermediate regime

  2. Flow in a porous nozzle with massive wall injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, R. B.

    1973-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the effect of massive wall injection on the flow characteristics in a nozzle. The experiments were performed on a water table with a porous-nozzle test section. This had 45 deg and 15 deg half angles of convergence and divergence, respectively, throat radius of 2.5 inches, and throat width of 3 inches. The hydraulic analogy was employed to qualitatively extend the results to a compressible gas flow through the nozzle. An analysis of the water table flow was made using a one-dimensional flow assumption in the continuity and momentum equations. An analysis of a compressible flow in a nozzle was made in a manner analogous to that for the water flow. It is shown that the effect of blowing is to move the sonic position downstream of the geometric throat. Similar results were determined for the incompressible water table flow. Limited photographic results are presented for an injection of air, CO2, and Freon-12 into a main-stream air flow in a convergent-divergent nozzle. Schlieren photographs were used to visualize the flow.

  3. Flow regimes for fluid injection into a confined porous medium

    DOE PAGES

    Zheng, Zhong; Guo, Bo; Christov, Ivan C.; ...

    2015-02-24

    We report theoretical and numerical studies of the flow behaviour when a fluid is injected into a confined porous medium saturated with another fluid of different density and viscosity. For a two-dimensional configuration with point source injection, a nonlinear convection–diffusion equation is derived to describe the time evolution of the fluid–fluid interface. In the early time period, the fluid motion is mainly driven by the buoyancy force and the governing equation is reduced to a nonlinear diffusion equation with a well-known self-similar solution. In the late time period, the fluid flow is mainly driven by the injection, and the governingmore » equation is approximated by a nonlinear hyperbolic equation that determines the global spreading rate; a shock solution is obtained when the injected fluid is more viscous than the displaced fluid, whereas a rarefaction wave solution is found when the injected fluid is less viscous. In the late time period, we also obtain analytical solutions including the diffusive term associated with the buoyancy effects (for an injected fluid with a viscosity higher than or equal to that of the displaced fluid), which provide the structure of the moving front. Numerical simulations of the convection–diffusion equation are performed; the various analytical solutions are verified as appropriate asymptotic limits, and the transition processes between the individual limits are demonstrated.« less

  4. Flow regimes for fluid injection into a confined porous medium

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Zhong; Guo, Bo; Christov, Ivan C.; Celia, Michael A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2015-02-24

    We report theoretical and numerical studies of the flow behaviour when a fluid is injected into a confined porous medium saturated with another fluid of different density and viscosity. For a two-dimensional configuration with point source injection, a nonlinear convection–diffusion equation is derived to describe the time evolution of the fluid–fluid interface. In the early time period, the fluid motion is mainly driven by the buoyancy force and the governing equation is reduced to a nonlinear diffusion equation with a well-known self-similar solution. In the late time period, the fluid flow is mainly driven by the injection, and the governing equation is approximated by a nonlinear hyperbolic equation that determines the global spreading rate; a shock solution is obtained when the injected fluid is more viscous than the displaced fluid, whereas a rarefaction wave solution is found when the injected fluid is less viscous. In the late time period, we also obtain analytical solutions including the diffusive term associated with the buoyancy effects (for an injected fluid with a viscosity higher than or equal to that of the displaced fluid), which provide the structure of the moving front. Numerical simulations of the convection–diffusion equation are performed; the various analytical solutions are verified as appropriate asymptotic limits, and the transition processes between the individual limits are demonstrated.

  5. Determination of Reaction Stoichiometries by Flow Injection Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rios, Angel; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes a method of flow injection analysis intended for calculation of complex-formation and redox reaction stoichiometries based on a closed-loop configuration. The technique is suitable for use in undergraduate laboratories. Information is provided for equipment, materials, procedures, and sample results. (JM)

  6. Determination of Acidity Constants by Gradient Flow-Injection Titration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conceicao, Antonio C. L.; Minas da Piedade, Manuel E.

    2006-01-01

    A three-hour laboratory experiment, designed for an advanced undergraduate course in instrumental analysis that illustrates the application of the gradient chamber flow-injection titration (GCFIT) method with spectrophotometric detection to determine acidity constants is presented. The procedure involves the use of an acid-base indicator to obtain…

  7. Flow monitoring and control system for injection wells

    DOEpatents

    Corey, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for monitoring and controlling the rate of fluid flow from an injection well used for in-situ remediation of contaminated groundwater. The United States Government has rights in this invention pursuant to Contract No. DE-AC09-89SR18035 between the US Department of Energy and Westinghouse Savannah River Company.

  8. Enhancing resolution of free-flow zone electrophoresis via a simple sheath-flow sample injection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Kong, Fan-Zhi; Liu, Ji; Li, Jun-Min; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Li, Guo-Qing; Wang, Ju-Fang; Xiao, Hua; Fan, Liu-Yin; Cao, Cheng-Xi; Li, Shan

    2016-07-01

    In this work, a simple and novel sheath-flow sample injection method (SFSIM) is introduced to reduce the band broadening of free-flow zone electrophoresis separation in newly developed self-balance free-flow electrophoresis instrument. A needle injector was placed in the center of the separation inlet, into which the BGE and sample solution were pumped simultaneously. BGE formed sheath flow outside the sample stream, resulting in less band broadening related to hydrodynamics and electrodynamics. Hemoglobin and C-phycocyanin were successfully separated by the proposed method in contrast to the poor separation of free-flow electrophoresis with the traditional injection method without sheath flow. About 3.75 times resolution enhancement could be achieved by sheath-flow sample injection method.

  9. Theory of Gas Injection: Interaction of Phase Behavior and Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dindoruk, B.

    2015-12-01

    The theory of gas injection processes is a central element required to understand how components move and partition in the reservoir as one fluid is displacing another (i.e., gas is displacing oil). There is significant amount of work done in the area of interaction of phase-behavior and flow in multiphase flow conditions. We would like to present how the theory of gas injection is used in the industry to understand/design reservoir processes in various ways. The tools that are developed for the theory of gas injection originates from the fractional flow theory, as the first solution proposed by Buckley-Leveret in 1940's, for water displacing oil in porous media. After 1960's more and more complex/coupled equations were solved using the initial concept(s) developed by Buckley-Leverett, and then Welge et al. and others. However, the systematic use of the fractional flow theory for coupled set of equations that involves phase relationships (EOS) and phase appearance and disappearance was mainly due to the theory developed by Helfferich in early 80's (in petroleum literature) using method of characteristics primarily for gas injection process and later on by the systematic work done by Orr and his co-researchers during the last two decades. In this talk, we will present various cases that use and extend the theory developed by Helfferich and others (Orr et al., Lake et al. etc.). The review of various injection systems reveals that displacement in porous media has commonalities that can be represented with a unified theory for a class of problems originating from the theory of gas injection (which is in a way generalized Buckley-Leverett problem). The outcome of these solutions can be used for (and are not limited to): 1) Benchmark solutions for reservoir simulators (to quantify numerical dispersion, test numerical algorithms) 2) Streamline simulators 3) Design of laboratory experiments and their use (to invert the results) 4) Conceptual learning and to investigate

  10. Injection Induced Mixing in Flows Separating From Smooth Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamczyk, John J. (Technical Monitor); Wundrow, David W.

    2004-01-01

    An analytic model for predicting the effect of unsteady local surface injection on the flow separating from a streamlined body at angle of attack is proposed. The model uses the premise that separation control results from enhanced mixing along the shear layer that develops between the main stream and the fluid in the underlying recirculation zone. High-Reynolds-number asymptotic methods are used to connect the unsteady surface injection to an instability wave propagating on the separating shear layer and then to the large-scale coherent structures that produce the increased mixing. The results is a tool that can guide the choice of fluid-actuator parameters to maximize flow-control effectiveness and may also facilitate computer-based numerical experiments.

  11. Flow Simulation of Solid Rocket Motors. 1; Injection Induced Water-Flow Tests from Porous Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, N.; Yeh, Y. P.; Smith, A. W.; Heaman, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    Prior to selecting a proper porous material for use in simulating the internal port flow of a solid rocket motor (SRM), in cold-flow testing, the flow emerging from porous materials is experimentally investigated. The injection-flow emerging from a porous matrix always exhibits a lumpy velocity profile that is spatially stable and affects the development of the longitudinal port flow. This flow instability, termed pseudoturbulence, is an inherent signature of the porous matrix and is found to generally increase with the wall porosity and with the injection flow rate. Visualization studies further show that the flow from porous walls made from shaving-type material (sintered stainless-steel) exhibits strong recirculation zones that are conspicuously absent in walls made from nodular or spherical material (sintered bronze). Detailed flow visualization observations and hot-film measurements are reported from tests of injection-flow and a coupled cross-flow from different porous wall materials. Based on the experimental data, discussion is provided on the choice of suitable material for SRM model testing while addressing the consequences and shortcomings from such a test.

  12. Angled Injection: Turbulent Flow Hybrid Bearings Comparison to Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanAndres, Luis; Childs, Dara

    1997-01-01

    Hydrostatic/hydrodynamic (hybrid) journal bearings handling process liquids have limited dynamic stability characteristics and their application as support elements to high speed flexible rotating systems is severely restricted. Measurements on water hybrid bearings with angled orifice injection have demonstrated improved rotordynamic performance with virtual elimination of cross-coupled stiffness coefficients and null or negative whirl frequency ratios. A bulk-flow model for prediction of the static performance and force coefficients of hybrid bearings with angled orifice injection is advanced. The analysis reveals that the fluid momentum exchange at the orifice discharge produces a pressure rise in the hydrostatic recess retards the shear flow induced by journal rotation, and thus, reduces cross-coupling forces. The predictions from the model are compared with experimental measurements for a 45 deg. angled orifice injection, 5 recess water hybrid bearing operating at 10.2, 17.4, and 24.6 krpm and with supply pressures of 4, 5.5, and 7 MPa. The correlations include recess pressures, flow rates, and rotordynamic force coefficients at the journal centered position.

  13. Transverse jet injection into a supersonic turbulent cross-flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Z. A.; Thornber, B.; Drikakis, D.

    2011-04-01

    Jet injection into a supersonic cross-flow is a challenging fluid dynamics problem in the field of aerospace engineering which has applications as part of a rocket thrust vector control system for noise control in cavities and fuel injection in scramjet combustion chambers. Several experimental and theoretical/numerical works have been conducted to explore this flow; however, there is a dearth of literature detailing the instantaneous flow which is vital to improve the efficiency of the mixing of fluids. In this paper, a sonic jet in a Mach 1.6 free-stream is studied using a finite volume Godunov type implicit large eddy simulations technique, which employs fifth-order accurate MUSCL (Monotone Upstream-centered Schemes for Conservation Laws) scheme with modified variable extrapolation and a three-stage second-order strong-stability-preserving Runge-Kutta scheme for temporal advancement. A digital filter based turbulent inflow data generation method is implemented in order to capture the physics of the supersonic turbulent boundary layer. This paper details the averaged and instantaneous flow features including vortex structures downstream of the jet injection, along with the jet penetration, jet mixing, pressure distributions, turbulent kinetic energy, and Reynolds stresses in the downstream flow. It demonstrates that Kelvin-Helmholtz type instabilities in the upper jet shear layer are primarily responsible for mixing of the two fluids. The results are compared to experimental data and recently performed classical large eddy simulations (LES) with the same initial conditions in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the numerical methods and utility of the inflow generation method. Results here show equivalent accuracy for 1/45th of the computational resources used in the classical LES study.

  14. Sonic injection through diamond orifices into a hypersonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Huaiguo

    The objective for the present study was to experimentally characterize the performance of diamond shaped injectors for hypersonic flow applications. First, an extensive literature review was performed. Second, a small scale Mach 5.0 wind tunnel facility was installed. Third, a detailed experimental parametric investigation of sonic injection through a diamond orifice (five incidence angles and three momentum ratios) and a circular injector (three momentum ratios) into the Mach 5.0 freestream was performed. Also, the use of downstream plume vorticity control ramps was investigated. Fourth, a detailed analysis of the experimental data to characterize and model the flow for the present range of conditions was achieved. The experimental techniques include surface oil flow visualization, Mie-Scattering flow visualization, particle image velocimetry (PIV), shadowgraph photograph, and a five-hole mean flow probe. The results show that the diamond injectors have the potential to produce attached shock depending on the incidence angle and jet momentum ratio. For example, the incidence angles less than or equal to 45° at J = 0.43 generated attached interaction shocks. The attached shock produced reduced total pressure loss (drag for scramjet) and eliminated potential hot spots, associated with the upstream flow separation. The jet interaction shock angle increased with jet incidence angle and momentum ratio due to increased penetration and flow disturbances. The plume penetration and cross-sectional area increased with incidence angle and momentum ratio. The increased jet interaction shock angle and strength produced increased total pressure loss, jet interaction force and total normal force. The characteristic kidney bean shaped plume was not discernable from the diamond injectors indicating increased effectiveness for film cooling applications. A vorticity generation ramp increased the penetration of the plume and the plume shape was indicative of higher levels of

  15. Recent Development in Optical Chemical Sensors Coupling with Flow Injection Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Catalina Bosch; Rojas, Fuensanta Sánchez

    2006-01-01

    Optical techniques for chemical analysis are well established and sensors based on these techniques are now attracting considerable attention because of their importance in applications such as environmental monitoring, biomedical sensing, and industrial process control. On the other hand, flow injection analysis (FIA) is advisable for the rapid analysis of microliter volume samples and can be interfaced directly to the chemical process. The FIA has become a widespread automatic analytical method for more reasons; mainly due to the simplicity and low cost of the setups, their versatility, and ease of assembling. In this paper, an overview of flow injection determinations by using optical chemical sensors is provided, and instrumentation, sensor design, and applications are discussed. This work summarizes the most relevant manuscripts from 1980 to date referred to analysis using optical chemical sensors in FIA.

  16. Determination of carbofuran by flow-injection with chemiluminescent detection.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zenghong; Ouyang, Xiaoqing; Guo, Liangqia; Lin, Xucong; Chen, Guonan

    2005-01-01

    It was found that carbofuran enhances the chemiluminescence reaction between sodium sulphite and Ce(4+) in sulphuric acid, and this formed the basis of a flow-injection system with chemiluminescence detection for determination of carbofuran. Under optimum conditions, the enhanced chemiluminescence intensity was linear, with the concentration of carbofuran in the range 8 x 10(-8)-1.0 x 10(-5) g[sol ]mL, with a detection limit of 2.84 x 10(-8) g[sol ]mL (3 s[sol ]k). The proposed method was applied to the analysis of carbofuran in cabbage, with satisfactory results.

  17. Enhanced sensitivity in flow injection analysis using a long pathlength liquid waveguide capillary flow cell for spectrophotometric detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-Zhong

    2006-01-01

    Incorporation of a liquid waveguide capillary flow cell into a flow injection instrument enhances the sensitivity of flow injection analysis with spectrophotometric detection by two orders of magnitude. Nitrite determination at nM levels has been used to demonstrate the feasibility of this novel technique for trace analysis. Combining the long pathlength spectrophotometry with flow injection analysis, this technique has advantages of low detection limit, good precision and high sample throughput.

  18. A factorial design for optimizing a flow injection analysis system.

    PubMed

    Luna, J R; Ovalles, J F; León, A; Buchheister, M

    2000-05-01

    The use of a factorial design for the response exploration of a flow injection (FI) system is described and illustrated by FI spectrophotometric determination of paraquat. Variable response (absorbance) is explored as a function of the factors flow rate and length of the reaction coil. The present study was found to be useful to detect and estimate any interaction among the factors that may affect the optimal conditions for the maximal response in the optimization of the FI system, which is not possible with a univariate design. In addition, this study showed that factorial experiments enable economy of experimentation and yield results of high precision due to the use of the whole data for calculating the effects.

  19. Effect of injection wells with partially perforated completion on CO2/brine flow distribution and injectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyant, E.; Han, W. S.; Kim, K. Y.; Jung, N. H.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon Capture and Sequestration is a viable technology to reduce the concentration of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere. The success of an injection project requires large amounts of dry supercritical CO2 to be injected into brine saturated aquifers within the subsurface. However, solid salt precipitation causes a reduction of permeability, having adverse effects on well injectivity as well as pressure build-up. This study evaluated the accumulation of precipitated salt, brine flux patterns, and pressure build-up for two well constructions, 1) partially completed with 4 injection intervals and 2) fully completed throughout the thickness of the target formation. This study found that when a partially completed well is implemented, precipitation of solid salt experiences a greater radial extent then a fully completed well. Both well designs showed non-localized salt precipitation in low permeability formations (5 and 50 mD) and localized salt precipitation at high permeability (250 and 500 mD). It was also found that two different brine flux patterns occurred; under low-k conditions the brine flux was primarily outward and parallel to the direction of the CO2 migration and salt precipitation became limited. While under high-k conditions there developed back-flow of the brine to the tail of the plume as the plume experienced greater vertical movement, and the counter-flowing brine sustained the precipitation process amplifying salt precipitation. When this process occurred the permeability reduction factor became orders of magnitude less then when non-localized salt precipitation occurred, and formed an impermeable barrier around the injection well. The formation of this barrier was found to have the effect of increasing the pressure build-up near the well in regions of the reservoir in which it occurred. A sensitivity analysis on the anisotropic/isotropic nature of the reservoir and the value of the critical porosity was also conducted. The

  20. Simple and clean determination of tetracyclines by flow injection analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, Michael Pérez; Pezza, Helena Redigolo; Pezza, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    An environmentally reliable analytical methodology was developed for direct quantification of tetracycline (TC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) using continuous flow injection analysis with spectrophotometric detection. The method is based on the diazo coupling reaction between the tetracyclines and diazotized sulfanilic acid in a basic medium, resulting in the formation of an intense orange azo compound that presents maximum absorption at 434 nm. Experimental design was used to optimize the analytical conditions. The proposed technique was validated over the concentration range of 1 to 40 μg mL- 1, and was successfully applied to samples of commercial veterinary pharmaceuticals. The detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) limits were 0.40 and 1.35 μg mL- 1, respectively. The samples were also analyzed by an HPLC method, and the results showed agreement with the proposed technique. The new flow injection method can be immediately used for quality control purposes in the pharmaceutical industry, facilitating monitoring in real time during the production processes of tetracycline formulations for veterinary use.

  1. Sensitive flow-injection spectrophotometric analysis of bromopride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Liliane Spazzapam; Weinert, Patrícia Los; Pezza, Leonardo; Pezza, Helena Redigolo

    2014-12-01

    A flow injection spectrophotometric procedure employing merging zones is proposed for direct bromopride determination in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids. The proposed method is based on the reaction between bromopride and p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (p-DAC) in acid medium, in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), resulting in formation of a violet product (λmax = 565 nm). Experimental design methodologies were used to optimize the experimental conditions. The Beer-Lambert law was obeyed in a bromopride concentration range of 3.63 × 10-7 to 2.90 × 10-5 mol L-1, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9999. The limits of detection and quantification were 1.07 × 10-7 and 3.57 × 10-7 mol L-1, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of bromopride in pharmaceuticals and human urine, and recoveries of the drug from these media were in the ranges 99.6-101.2% and 98.6-102.1%, respectively. This new flow injection procedure does not require any sample pretreatment steps.

  2. Flow injection analysis of MWC fly ash leaching characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Willemin, J.A.; Nesbitt, C.C.; Dewey, G.R.; Sandall, J.F.; Sutter, L.L.

    1995-11-01

    A completely mixed batch reactor leaching method utilizing flow injection analysis (the CMBR-FIA method) was developed to study the lead leaching characteristics of municipal waste combustor fly ash. Flow injection analysis (FIA) coupled with atomic absorption spectrophotometry enabled the determination of lead concentrations at one minute intervals. The pH and oxidation-reduction potential of the solution were continuously monitored to characterize the leaching conditions. Automatic titration was used to alter the solution pH to defined endpoints. The CMBR-FIA method offers the ability to immediately observe alterations to the leaching solution, and grants the freedom to study a number of parameters concurrently. The CMBR-FIA method is a rapid and reliable means to investigate leaching characteristics. This paper describes the method and demonstrates its use to monitor the leaching of lead from municipal solid waste combustor fly ash as a function of pH. Soluble lead concentrations are shown to increase quickly with decreasing pH. A maximum of 50% of the total lead concentration was available in solution at pH 2. This value gradually decreased with time to over 35% of the total. 16 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Reference Solutions for Benchmark Turbulent Flows in Three Dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diskin, Boris; Thomas, James L.; Pandya, Mohagna J.; Rumsey, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    A grid convergence study is performed to establish benchmark solutions for turbulent flows in three dimensions (3D) in support of turbulence-model verification campaign at the Turbulence Modeling Resource (TMR) website. The three benchmark cases are subsonic flows around a 3D bump and a hemisphere-cylinder configuration and a supersonic internal flow through a square duct. Reference solutions are computed for Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes equations with the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model using a linear eddy-viscosity model for the external flows and a nonlinear eddy-viscosity model based on a quadratic constitutive relation for the internal flow. The study involves three widely-used practical computational fluid dynamics codes developed and supported at NASA Langley Research Center: FUN3D, USM3D, and CFL3D. Reference steady-state solutions computed with these three codes on families of consistently refined grids are presented. Grid-to-grid and code-to-code variations are described in detail.

  4. Numerical investigation of supersonic base flow with parallel injection. [in scramjet combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullins, G. A.; Anderson, J. D., Jr.; Drummond, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation represents the first detailed numerical calculations of base flow with gas injection using a geometry and primary flow condition germane to a scramjet combustor. The investigation is concerned with the numerical solution of the complete two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for the flowfield in the vicinity of the base with parallel gas injection, taking into account the fluid dynamic aspects of this flowfield. The flow is dominated by separation, and by mixed regions of locally subsonic and supersonic flow. A comparison is conducted of flows with and without injection, and the effect of base injection on the wave patterns and shear layers of such flows is clearly established.

  5. Holographic interferometry with an injection seeded Nd:YAG laser and two reference beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of twin injection seeded Nd:YAG lasers is compared with the performance of an argon-ion laser for recording dual-reference-beam holograms in AGFA 8E56 emulsion. Optical heterodyning is used to measure interference, and the results are expressed in terms of heterodyning signal level and intensity signal-to-noise. The Nd:YAG laser system is to be used for optical inspections of structures for cracks, defects, gas leaks, and structural changes.

  6. Holographic interferometry with an injection seeded Nd:YAG laser and two reference beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of twin injection seeded Nd:YAG lasers is compared with the performance of an argon-ion laser for recording dual-reference-beam holograms in AGFA 8E56 emulsion. Optical heterodyning is used to measure interference, and the results are expressed in terms of heterodyning signal level and intensity signal-to-noise. The Nd:YAG laser system is to be used for optical inspections of structures for cracks, defects, gas leaks, and structural changes.

  7. Novel approaches to analysis by flow injection gradient titration.

    PubMed

    Wójtowicz, Marzena; Kozak, Joanna; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2007-09-26

    Two novel procedures for flow injection gradient titration with the use of a single stock standard solution are proposed. In the multi-point single-line (MP-SL) method the calibration graph is constructed on the basis of a set of standard solutions, which are generated in a standard reservoir and subsequently injected into the titrant. According to the single-point multi-line (SP-ML) procedure the standard solution and a sample are injected into the titrant stream from four loops of different capacities, hence four calibration graphs are able to be constructed and the analytical result is calculated on the basis of a generalized slope of these graphs. Both approaches have been tested on the example of spectrophotometric acid-base titration of hydrochloric and acetic acids with using bromothymol blue and phenolphthalein as indicators, respectively, and sodium hydroxide as a titrant. Under optimized experimental conditions the analytical results of precision less than 1.8 and 2.5% (RSD) and of accuracy less than 3.0 and 5.4% (relative error (RE)) were obtained for MP-SL and SP-ML procedures, respectively, in ranges of 0.0031-0.0631 mol L(-1) for samples of hydrochloric acid and of 0.1680-1.7600 mol L(-1) for samples of acetic acid. The feasibility of both methods was illustrated by applying them to the total acidity determination in vinegar samples with precision lower than 0.5 and 2.9% (RSD) for MP-SL and SP-ML procedures, respectively.

  8. From continuous flow analysis to programmable Flow Injection techniques. A history and tutorial of emerging methodologies.

    PubMed

    Ruzicka, Jaromir Jarda

    2016-09-01

    Automation of reagent based assays, also known as Flow Analysis, is based on sample processing, in which a sample flows towards and through a detector for monitoring of its components. The Achilles heel of this methodology is that the majority of FA techniques use constant continuous forward flow to transport the sample - an approach which continually consumes reagents and generates chemical waste. Therefore the purpose of this report is to highlight recent developments of flow programming that not only save reagents, but also lead by means of advanced sample processing to selective and sensitive assays based on stop flow measurement. Flow programming combined with a novel approach to data harvesting yields a novel approach to single standard calibration, and avoids interference caused by refractive index. Finally, flow programming is useful for sample preparation, such as rapid, extensive sample dilution. The principles are illustrated by selected references to an available online tutorial http://www.flowinjectiontutorial,com/.

  9. Online assay of bone specific alkaline phosphatase with a flow injection-bead injection system.

    PubMed

    Hartwell, Supaporn Kradtap; Somprayoon, Duangporn; Kongtawelert, Prachya; Ongchai, Siriwan; Arppornchayanon, Olarn; Ganranoo, Lucksagoon; Lapanantnoppakhun, Somchai; Grudpan, Kate

    2007-09-26

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) has been used as one of the biomarkers for bone resorption and liver diseases. Normally, total alkaline phosphatase is quantified along with other symptoms to determine the releasing source of the alkaline phosphatase. A semi-automated flow injection-bead injection system was proposed to conveniently and selectively assay bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) based on its specific binding to wheat germ coated beads. Amount of BALP in serum was determined from the intensity of the yellow product produced from bound BALP on the retained beads and its substrate pNPP. The used beads were discarded and the fresh ones were introduced for the next analysis. The reaction cell was designed to be opened and closed using a computer controlled solenoid valve for a precise incubation time. The performance of the proposed system was evaluated by using it to assay BALP in human serum. The results were compared to those obtained by using a commercial ELISA kit. The system is proposed to be an easy and cost effective system for quantification of BALP as an alternative to batch wise wheat germ specific binding technique.

  10. Flow injection chemiluminescence determination of naphazoline hydrochloride in pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Iranifam, Mortaza; Sorouraddin, Mohammad H

    2014-02-01

    A simple and sensitive flow injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) method was developed for the determination of naphazoline hydrochloride (NPZ). The method is based on the enhancing effect of NPZ on the weak CL signal from the reaction of KIO4 with H2 O2 . Experimental parameters that affected the CL signal, including the pH of the KIO4 solution, concentrations of KIO4 , H2 O2 and disodium-EDTA and flow rate were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the increment of CL intensity was linearly proportional to the concentration of NPZ in the range 5.0 × 10(-6) to 70 × 10(-6) mol/L. The detection limit was 1.0 × 10(-6) mol/L and the relative standard deviation for 50 × 10(-6) mol/L NPZ solution was 2.8% (n = 11). In addition, a high throughput of 120 samples/h was achieved. The utility of this method was demonstrated by determining NPZ in pharmaceuticals.

  11. Resin Flow Analysis in the Injection Cycle of a Resin Transfer Molded Radome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golestanian, Hossein; Poursina, Mehrdad

    2007-04-01

    Resin flow analysis in the injection cycle of an RTM process was investigated. Fiberglass and carbon fiber mats were used as reinforcements with EPON 826 epoxy resin. Numerical models were developed in ANSYS finite element software to simulate resin flow behavior into a mold of conical shape. Resin flow into the woven fiber mats is modeled as flow through porous media. The injection time for fiberglass/epoxy composite is found to be 4407 seconds. Required injection time for the carbon/epoxy composite is 27022 seconds. Higher injection time for carbon/epoxy part is due to lower permeability value of the carbon fibers compared to glass fiber mat.

  12. Holographic interferometry with an injection seeded Nd:YAG laser and two reference beams

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, A.J. )

    1990-06-20

    The performance of twin injection seeded Nd:YAG lasers is compared with the performance of an argon-ion laser for recording dual-reference-beam holograms in AGFA 8E56 emulsion. Optical heterodyning is used to measure interference and the results are expressed in terms of heterodyning signal level and intensity signal to noise. The Nd:YAG laser system is to be used for optical inspections of structures for cracks, defects, gas leaks, and structural changes. Key words: holography, lasers, neodymium, heterodyning, Interferometry.

  13. Remote calorimetric detection of urea via flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Gaddes, David E; Demirel, Melik C; Reeves, W Brian; Tadigadapa, Srinivas

    2015-12-07

    The design and development of a calorimetric biosensing system enabling relatively high throughput sample analysis are reported. The calorimetric biosensor system consists of a thin (∼20 μm) micromachined Y-cut quartz crystal resonator (QCR) as a temperature sensor placed in close proximity to a fluidic chamber packed with an immobilized enzyme. Layer by layer enzyme immobilization of urease is demonstrated and its activity as a function of the number of layers, pH, and time has been evaluated. This configuration enables a sensing system where a transducer element is physically separated from the analyte solution of interest and is thereby free from fouling effects typically associated with biochemical reactions occuring on the sensor surface. The performance of this biosensing system is demonstrated by detection of 1-200 mM urea in phosphate buffer via a flow injection analysis (FIA) technique. Miniaturized fluidic systems were used to provide continuous flow through a reaction column. Under this configuration the biosensor has an ultimate resolution of less than 1 mM urea and showed a linear response between 0-50 mM. This work demonstrates a sensing modality in which the sensor itself is not fouled or contaminated by the solution of interest and the enzyme immobilized Kapton® fluidic reaction column can be used as a disposable cartridge. Such a system enables reuse and reliability for long term sampling measurements. Based on this concept a biosensing system is envisioned which can perform rapid measurements to detect biomarkers such as glucose, creatinine, cholesterol, urea and lactate in urine and blood continuously over extended periods of time.

  14. Highly sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of pyrogallol compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanwal, Shamsa; Fu, Xiaohong; Su, Xingguang

    2009-12-01

    A highly sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescent method for the direct determination of pyrogallol compounds has been developed. Proposed method is based on the enhanced effect of pyrogallol compounds on the chemiluminescence signals of KMnO 4-H 2O 2 system in slightly alkaline medium. Three important pyrogallol compounds, pyrogallic acid, gallic acid and tannic acid, have been detected by this method, and the possible mechanism of the CL reaction is also discussed. The proposed method is simple, convenient, rapid (60 samples h -1), and sensitive, has a linear range of 8 × 10 -10 mol L -1 to 1 × 10 -5 mol L -1, for pyrogallic acid, with a detection limit of 6 × 10 -11 mol L -1, 4 × 10 -8 mol L -1 to 5 × 10 -3 mol L -1 for gallic acid with a detection limit of 9 × 10 -10 mol L -1, and 8 × 10 -8 mol L -1 to 5 × 10 -2 mol L -1 for tannic acid, with a detection limit of 2 × 10 -9 mol L -1, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 15) was 0.8, 1.1 and 1.3% for 5 × 10 -6 mol L -1 pyrogallic acid, gallic acid and tannic acid, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of pyrogallol compounds in tea and coffee samples.

  15. Exploratory study of the effects of injection configurations and inlet flow conditions on the characteristics of flow in spherical chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. V.

    1972-01-01

    Flow visualization studies were conducted to evaluate techniques for injecting simulated-fuel and simulated-propellant gases into a spherical cavity for application to open-cycle gaseous-core nuclear rockets. Preliminary studies were conducted with six simulated-fuel injectors and eight simulated-propellant injection configurations. Additional tests were conducted with the best configuration to determine the effect of weight-flow ratio, gas density ratio, injector location, and flow distribution on the simulated-fuel containment characteristics.

  16. Injectant mole-fraction imaging in compressible mixing flows using planar laser-induced iodine fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.; Abbitt, John D., III; Mcdaniel, James C.

    1989-01-01

    A technique is described for imaging the injectant mole-fraction distribution in nonreacting compressible mixing flow fields. Planar fluorescence from iodine, seeded into air, is induced by a broadband argon-ion laser and collected using an intensified charge-injection-device array camera. The technique eliminates the thermodynamic dependence of the iodine fluorescence in the compressible flow field by taking the ratio of two images collected with identical thermodynamic flow conditions but different iodine seeding conditions.

  17. Selective determination of chlorine dioxide using gas diffusion flow injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hollowell, D.A.; Pacey, G.E.; Gordon, G.

    1985-12-01

    An automated absorbance technique for the determination of aqueous chlorine dioxide has been developed by utilizing gas diffusion flow injection analysis. A gas diffusion membrane is used to separate the donor (sampling) stream from the acceptor (detecting) stream. The absorbance of chlorine dioxide is monitored at 359 nm. The first method uses distilled water as the acceptor stream and gives a detection limit of 0.25 mg/L chlorine dioxide. This system is over 550 times more selective for chlorine dioxide than chlorine. To further minimize chlorine interference, oxalic acid is used in the acceptor stream. The detection limit for this system is 0.45 mg/L chlorine dioxide. This second system is over 5400 times more selective for chlorine dioxide than chlorine. Both methods show excellent selectivity for chlorine dioxide over iron and manganese compounds, as well as other oxychlorinated compounds such as chlorite and perchlorate ions. 18 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

  18. Paper-based analytical device for electrochemical flow-injection analysis of glucose in urine.

    PubMed

    Lankelma, Jan; Nie, Zhihong; Carrilho, Emanuel; Whitesides, George M

    2012-05-01

    This article describes a new design for a paper-based electrochemical system for flow-injection analysis. Capillary wicking facilitates a gravity-driven flow of buffer solution continuously through paper and nitrocellulose, from a buffer reservoir at one end of the device to a sink at the other. A difference in height between the reservoir and the sink leads to a continuous and constant flow. The nitrocellulose lies horizontally on a working electrode, which consists of a thin platinum layer deposited on a solid support. The counter and reference electrodes are strategically positioned upstream in the buffer reservoir. A simple pipetting device was developed for reliable application of (sub)microliter volumes of sample without the need of commercial micropipets; this device did not damage the nitrocellulose membrane. Demonstration of the system for the determination of the concentration of glucose in urine resulted in a noninvasive, quantitative assay that could be used for diagnosis and monitoring of diabetes. This method does not require disposable test strips, with enzyme and electrodes, that are thrown away after each measurement. Because of its low cost, this system could be used in medical environments that are resource-limited.

  19. Transonic injection in interaction with transverse compressible flow.

    PubMed

    Dizene, R; Charbonnier, J M; Dorignac, E; Lablanc, R

    2002-10-01

    An extensive study devoted to modelling blade cooling was undertaken at CEAT a few years ago in collaboration with SNECMA. For the turbomachinery applications, an experimental configuration of a turbulent boundary layer with heat transfer was studied for compressible and incompressible flows. The research presented here is a part of that study and this paper reports on the experimental results of an investigation concerned with a row of transonic jets interacting with a transverse flow. In many applications, the cooling layer does not emerge onto the surface from a tangential slot but comes from a slot normal to or inclined to what is otherwise a flush surface. In this case the freestream interacts with the coolant flow. The secondary (jet) flow is introduced at an angle of 45 degrees to the mainstream flow direction. Visualization studies using the surface flow patterns and surface temperature flow patterns are reported and discussed.

  20. Determination of arsenic in a nickel alloy by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, C. P.; Tyson, J. F.; Offley, S. G.

    1992-08-01

    The development of a method for the direct determination of trace arsenic quantities in nickel alloy digests, by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry, is described. An optimization study of the manifold and chemical parameters produced system performance, in terms of tolerance of the nickel matrix and sensitivity, such that matrix removal and pre-reduction of As(V) to As (III) prior to arsine generation were eliminated. Full recovery of the As(V) signal from a solution containing 5 ng ml -1 in the presence of 60 μg ml -1 nickel was obtained. Validation of the method was achieved by analyzing a British Chemical Standard (BCS) Certified Reference Material (CRM) #346 IN nickel alloy containing arsenic at a concentration of 50 μg g -1. Following dissolution in nitric and hydrofluoric acids by a microwave assisted procedure, the only subsequent preparation required was dilution by the appropriate factor. Up to 60 injections h -1 may be made, with a detection limit of 0.5 ng ml -1 arsenic (250 pg absolute) as As(V) in a 500 μl sample. The peak height characteristic concentration is 0.46 ng ml -1, with a relative standard deviation of 3.5% for a 10 ng ml -1 As(V) standard ( n = 6).

  1. Differentiating organic and conventional sage by chromatographic and mass spectrometry flow-injection fingerprints

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and flow injection electrospray ionization with ion trap mass spectrometry (FIMS) fingerprints combined with the principal component analysis (PCA) were examined for their potential in differentiating commercial organic and conventional sage samples. The...

  2. High-throughput chemical residue analysis by fast extraction and dilution flow injection mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nanita, Sergio C

    2011-01-21

    Fast extraction and dilution flow injection mass spectrometry (FED-FI-MS) is presented as a technique to increase throughput in quantitative multiresidue screening in complex matrices, while meeting current analytical method quality requirements.

  3. Micropolar boundary layer flow at a stagnation point on a moving wall with suction and injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanien, I. A.; Hady, F. M.

    1988-10-01

    The flow of a micropolar fluid at a two-dimensional stagnation point on a moving wall with suction and injection is studied. Numerical computations were carried out on a VME-2955 computer. The effects of the suction/injection parameter and dimensionless material parameters are discussed.

  4. Bubble formation during horizontal gas injection into downward-flowing liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Hua; Thomas, Brian G.

    2001-12-01

    Bubble formation during gas injection into turbulent downward-flowing water is studied using high-speed videos and mathematical models. The bubble size is determined during the initial stages of injection and is very important to turbulent multiphase flow in molten-metal processes. The effects of liquid velocity, gas-injection flow rate, injection hole diameter, and gas composition on the initial bubble-formation behavior have been investigated. Specifically, the bubble-shape evolution, contact angles, size, size range, and formation mode are measured. The bubble size is found to increase with increasing gas-injection flow rate and decreasing liquid velocity and is relatively independent of the gas injection hole size and gas composition. Bubble formation occurs in one of four different modes, depending on the liquid velocity and gas flow rate. Uniform-sized spherical bubbles form and detach from the gas injection hole in mode I for a low liquid speed and small gas flow rate. Modes III and IV occur for high-velocity liquid flows, where the injected gas elongates down along the wall and breaks up into uneven-sized bubbles. An analytical two-stage model is developed to predict the average bubble size, based on realistic force balances, and shows good agreement with measurements. Preliminary results of numerical simulations of bubble formation using a volume-of-fluid (VOF) model qualitatively match experimental observations, but more work is needed to reach a quantitative match. The analytical model is then used to estimate the size of the argon bubbles expected in liquid steel in tundish nozzles for conditions typical of continuous casting with a slide gate. The average argon bubble sizes generated in liquid steel are predicted to be larger than air bubbles in water for the same flow conditions. However, the differences lessen with increasing liquid velocity.

  5. ASSESSING THE GEOCHEMICAL FATE OF DEEP-WELL-INJECTED HAZARDOUS WASTE: A REFERENCE GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The geochemical fate of deep-well-injected wastes must be thoroughly understood to avoid problems when incompatibility between the injected wastes and the injection-zone formation is a possibility. An understanding of geochemical fate will be useful when a geochemical no-migratio...

  6. Improved optical techniques for studying sonic and supersonic injection into Mach 3 flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buggele, Alvin E.; Seasholtz, Richard G.

    1997-11-01

    Filtered Rayleigh Scattering and shadowgraph flow visualization were used to characterize the penetration of helium or moist air injected transversely at several pressures to a Mach 3 flow in the NASA Lewis 3.81 inch by 10 inch continuous flow supersonic wind tunnel. This work is in support of the LOX augmented nuclear thermal rocket program. The present study used an injection-seeded, frequency doubled Nd:YAG pulsed laser to illuminate a transverse section of the injectant plume. Rayleigh scattered light was passed through an iodine absorption cell to suppress stray laser light and was imaged onto a cooled CCD camera. The scattering was based on condensation of water vapor in the injectant flow. Results are presented for various configurations of sonic and supersonic injector designs mounted primarily in the floor of the tunnel. Injectors studied include a single 0.25 inch diameter hole, five 0.112 inch diameter holes on 0.177 inch spacing, and a 7 degree half angle wedge. High speed shadowgraph flow visualization images were obtained with several video camera systems. Roof and floor static pressure data are presented several ways for the three configurations of injection designs with and without helium and/or air injection into Mach 3 flow.

  7. Gold nanorods for surface Plasmon resonance detection of mercury (II) in flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Trieu, Khang; Heider, Emily C; Brooks, Scott C; Barbosa, Fernando; Campiglia, Andres D

    2014-10-01

    This article investigates the flow injection analysis of mercury (II) ions in tap water samples via surface Plasmon resonance detection. Quantitative analysis of mercury (II) is based on the chemical interaction of metallic mercury with gold nanorods immobilized on a glass substrate. A new flow cell design is presented with the ability to accommodate the detecting substrate in the sample compartment of commercial spectrometers. Two alternatives are here considered for mercury (II) detection, namely stop-flow and continuous flow injection analysis modes. The best limit of detection (2.4 ng mL(-1)) was obtained with the continuous flow injection analysis approach. The accurate determination of mercury (II) ions in samples of unknown composition is demonstrated with a fortified tap water sample.

  8. A 3-D nonisothermal flow simulation and pulling force model for injection pultrusion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, Ibrahim

    1998-12-01

    Injected Pultrusion (IP) is an efficient way of producing high quality, low cost, high volume and constant cross-section polymeric composites. This process has been developed recently, and the efforts to optimize it are still underway. This work is related to the development of a 3-D non-isothermal flow model for the IP processes. The governing equations for transport of mass, momentum and, energy are formulated by using a local volume averaging approach, and the Finite Element/Control Volume method is used to solve the system of equations numerically. The chemical species balance equation is solved in the Lagrangian frame of reference whereas the energy equation is solved using Galerkin, SU (Streamline Upwind), and SUPG (Streamline Upwind Petrov Galerkin) approaches. By varying degrees of freedom and the flow rates of the resin, it is shown that at high Peclet numbers the SUPG formulation performs better than the SU and the Galerkin methods in all cases. The 3-D model predictions for degree of cure and temperature are compared with a one dimensional analytical solution and the results are found satisfactory. Moreover, by varying the Brinkman Number, it is shown that the effect of viscous dissipation is insignificant. The 3-D flow simulations have been carried out for both thin and thick parts and the results are compared with the 2-D model. It is shown that for thick parts 2-D simulations render erroneous results. The effect of changing permeability on the flow fronts is also addressed. The effect of increasing taper angle on the model prediction is also investigated. A parametric study is conducted to isolate optimum conditions for both isothermal and non-isothermal cases using a straight rectangular die and a die with a tapered inlet. Finally, a simple pulling force model is developed and the pulling force required to pull the carbon-epoxy fiber resin system is estimated for dies of varying tapered inlet.

  9. Application of quantum dots in clinical and alimentary fields using multicommutated flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Llorent-Martínez, E J; Molina-García, L; Kwiatkowski, R; Ruiz-Medina, A

    2013-05-15

    In recent years, the number of scientific papers regarding the use of quantum dots (QDs) has increased almost exponentially, especially emphasizing their use for new applications and describing new approaches. One of the future trends in the development of new methods of analysis is the use of automated methodologies. Among them, Multicommutated Flow Injection Analysis has been here selected in order to show its potentiality in pharmaceutical and food analysis. Using water-soluble CdTe QDs modified by mercaptopropionic acid, a flow system was developed for the determination of ascorbic acid. The system was based on the quenching effect produced by ascorbic acid on the fluorescence of QDs. Under the optimized conditions, the relationship between the fluorescence intensity of the QDs and ascorbic acid concentration was linear in the range of 12-250 μg mL(-1), obtaining a sample throughput of 68 determinations per hour. The proposed method was applied to the determination of ascorbic acid in pharmaceutical formulations, goji capsules and fruit juices. The results obtained were in good agreement with those showed by a reference method, so indicating the utility of the proposed method in the clinical and alimentary fields.

  10. Completely automated system for determining halogenated organic compounds by multisyringe flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Maya, Fernando; Estela, José Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor

    2008-08-01

    A new, multisyringe flow injection setup was designed to develop the first completely automated flow methodology for the expeditious, accurate in-line determination of halogenated organic compounds (HOCs) in water. The target compounds are preconcentrated and isolated by solid-phase extraction. Following elution, previously organically bound halogens are released as free hydrogen halides by the combined action of UV light and a chemical oxidant for their subsequent spectrophotometric determination by reaction with Hg(SCN) 2 and Fe(3+). Optimizing the major hydrodynamic and chemical variables resulted in improved performance. Recovery of various HOCs was assessed, and potential interferents were examined. Under the selected operating conditions, the proposed method exhibits variable analytical performance depending on the particular sample volume used (e.g., a sample volume of 5 mL provides a linear working range of 140-2000 microg L(-1), a LOD of 100 microg L(-1), and a throughput of 9 samples h(-1)). The method was successfully used to determine total adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) in well water and leachates, and the results validated against an AOX reference method. The role of the proposed system in the environmental analytical field is critically discussed.

  11. Flow visualization of lateral jet injection into swirling crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrell, G. B.; Aoki, K.; Lilley, D. G.

    1985-01-01

    Flow visualization experiments have been conducted to characterize the time-mean flowfield of a deflected turbulent jet in a confining cylindrical crossflow. Jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios of 2, 4, and 6 were investigated, under crossflow inlet swirler vane angles of 0 (swirler removed), 45 and 70 degrees. Smoke, neutrally-buoyant helium-filled soap bubbles, and multi-spark flow visualization were employed to highlight interesting features of the deflected jet, as well as the trajectory and spread pattern of the jet. Gross flowfield characterization was obtained for a range of lateral jet-to-crossflow velocity ratios and a range of inlet swirl strengths in the main flow. The flow visualization results agree well with the measurements obtained elsewhere with the six-orientation single hot-wire method.

  12. Insights into Cold Water Injection Stimulation Effects through Analytical Solutions to Flow and Heat Transport

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Plummer

    2013-09-01

    Wells in traditional hydrothermal reservoirs are used to extract heat and to dispose of cooled water. In the first case, high productivity (the ratio of production flow rate to the pressure differential required to produce that rate) to is preferred in order to maximize power generation, while minimizing the parasitic energy loss of pumping. In the second case, high injectivity (the ratio of injection flow rate to the pressure differential required to produce that rate) is preferred, in order to reduce pumping costs. In order to improve productivity or injectivity, cold water is sometimes injected into the reservoir in an attempt to cool and contract the surrounding rock matrix and thereby induce dilation and/or extension of existing fractures or to generate new fractures. Though the increases in permeability associated with these changes are likely localized, by improving connectivity to more extensive high-permeability fractures they can at least temporarily provide substantially improved productivity or injectivity.

  13. Liquid sprays and flow studies in the direct-injection diesel engine under motored conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung Lee; Carpenter, Mark H.; Ramos, Juan I.; Schock, Harold J.; Stegeman, James D.

    1988-01-01

    A two dimensional, implicit finite difference method of the control volume variety, a two equation model of turbulence, and a discrete droplet model were used to study the flow field, turbulence levels, fuel penetration, vaporization, and mixing in diesel engine environments. The model was also used to study the effects of engine speed, injection angle, spray cone angle, droplet distribution, and intake swirl angle on the flow field, spray penetration and vaporization, and turbulence in motored two-stroke diesel engines. It is shown that there are optimum conditions for injection, which depend on droplet distribution, swirl, spray cone angle, and injection angle. The optimum conditions result in good spray penetration and vaporization and in good fuel mixing. The calculation presented clearly indicates that internal combustion engine models can be used to assess, at least qualitatively, the effects of injection characteristics and engine operating conditions on the flow field and on the spray penetration and vaporization in diesel engines.

  14. Effect of combustor geometry and fuel injection scheme on the combustion process in a supersonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zun; Wang, Zhenguo; Sun, Mingbo; Bai, Xue-Song

    2016-12-01

    The combustion process in a hydrogen fueled scramjet combustor with a rearwall-expansion cavity was investigated numerically under inflow conditions of Ma=2.52 with stagnation pressure P0=1.6 Mpa and stagnation temperature T0=1486 K. The numerical solver was first evaluated for supersonic reactive flows in a similar combustor configuration where experimental data is available. Wall-pressure distribution was compared with the experiments, and grid independency analysis and chemical mechanism comparison were conducted. The numerical results showed fairly good agreements with the available experimental data under supersonic combustion conditions. Then the numerical solver was used to study the effects of combustor geometry, fuel injection scheme and injection equivalence ratio on the combustion process. It was found that under the same fuel injection condition, the combustor configuration with a rearwall-expansion cavity is in favor of the supersonic combustion mode and present better ability of thermal choking prevention than the other combustor configurations. For the rearwall-expansion cavity combustor, the supersonic flow field was found to be sensitive to the injector position and injection scheme, but not highly sensitive to the injection pressure. Besides, rearwall-expansion cavity with the combined fuel injection scheme (with an injection upstream the cavity and a direct injection on the rear wall) is an optimized injection scheme during the flame stabilization process.

  15. Flow regime analysis for fluid injection into a confined aquifer: implications for CO2 sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, B.; Zheng, Z.; Celia, M. A.; Stone, H.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon dioxide injection into a confined saline aquifer may be modeled as an axisymmetric two-phase flow problem. Assuming the two fluids segregate in the vertical direction due to strong buoyancy, and neglecting capillary pressure and miscibility, the lubrication approximation leads to a nonlinear advection-diffusion equation that describes the evolution of the sharp fluid-fluid interface. The flow behaviors in the system are controlled by two dimensionless groups: M, the viscosity ratio of the displaced fluid relative to injected fluid, and Γ , the gravity number, which represents the relative importance of buoyancy and fluid injection. Four different analytical solutions can be derived as the asymptotic approximations, representing specific values of the parameter pairs. The four solutions correspond to: (1) Γ << 1, M <1; (2) Γ << 1, M =1; (3) Γ << 1, M >1; and (4) Γ >> 1, any M values. The first two of these solutions are new, while the third corresponds to the solution of Nordbotten and Celia (2006) for confined injections and the fourth corresponds to the solution of (Lyle et al., 2005) for gravity currents in an unconfined aquifer. Overall, the various axisymmetric flows can be summarized in a Γ-M regime diagram with five distinct dynamic behaviors including the four asymptotic regimes and an intermediate regime (Fig. 1). Data from a number of CO2 injection sites around the world can be used to compute the two dimensionless groups Γ and M associated with each injection. When plotted on the regime diagram, these values show the flow behavior for each injection and how the values vary from site to site. For all the CO2 injections, M is always larger than 1, while Γ can range from 0.01 up to 100. The pairs of (Γ, M) with lower Γ values correspond to solution (3), while the ones with higher Γ values can move up to the intermediate regime and the flow regime for solution (4). The higher values of Γ correspond to pilot-scale injections with low

  16. Micromachined pre-focused M×N flow switches for continuous multi-sample injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gwo-Bin; Hwei, Bao-Herng; Huang, Guan-Ruey

    2001-11-01

    In this paper we present a novel microfluidic chip capable of continuous multi-sample switching and injection for bio-analytical applications. The innovative device integrates two important microfluidic phenomena, including hydrodynamic focusing and valveless flow switching inside multi-ported microchannels. The multiple samples can be pre-focused to narrow streams and can then be continuously injected into desired outlet ports. In this study, a theoretical model based on the `flow-rate-ratio' method is first proposed to predict the performance of the microfluidic device. Then, a simple but reliable one-mask micromachining process is developed to fabricate the pre-focused M×N flow switch on a quartz substrate. The multi-sample switching and injection is then verified experimentally with the use of microscopic visualization of water sheath flows and dye-containing sample flows. The experimental data indicate that the multi-sample flows can be hydrodynamically pre-focused and then guided into the desired outlet ports precisely based on relative sheath and sample flow rates. The data predicted by the proposed theoretical model are highly consistent with the experimental results. It is also noted that the `pre-focusing' function added prior to multi-sample flow switching is crucial for precise sample injection. The novel microfluidic chip has great potential for high-throughput chemical analysis, cell fusion, fraction collection, fast sample mixing and many other applications in the field of micro-total-analysis systems.

  17. An Ion-Selective Electrode/Flow-Injection Analysis Experiment: Determination of Potassium in Serum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerhoff, Mark E.; Kovach, Paul M.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a low-cost, senior-level, instrumental analysis experiment in which a home-made potassium tubular flow-through electrode is constructed and incorporated into a flow injection analysis system (FIA). Also describes experiments for evaluating the electrode's response properties, examining basic FIA concepts, and determining potassium in…

  18. Flow visualization of film cooling with spanwise injection from a small array of holes and compound-angle injection from a large array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, L. M.

    1978-01-01

    Film injection from discrete holes in a smooth, flat plate was studied for two configurations: (1) spanwise injection through a four hole staggered array; and (2) compound angle injection through a 49 hole staggered array. The ratio of boundary layer thicknesses to hole diameter and the Reynolds number were typical of gas turbine film cooling applications. Streaklines showing the motion of the injected air were obtained by photographing small, neutrally buoyant, helium-filled soap bubbles that followed the flow field.

  19. Flow in a discrete slotted nozzle with massive injection. [water table tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, H. C.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the effect of massive wall injection on the flow characteristics in a slotted nozzle. Some of the experiments were performed on a water table with a slotted-nozzle test section. This has 45 deg and 15 deg half angles of convergence and divergence, respectively, throat radius of 2.5 inches, and throat width of 3 inches. The hydraulic analogy was employed to qualitatively extend the results to a compressible gas flow through the nozzle. Experimental results from the water table include contours of constant Froude and Mach number with and without injection. Photographic results are also presented for the injection through slots of CO2 and Freon-12 into a main-stream air flow in a convergent-divergent nozzle in a wind tunnel. Schlieren photographs were used to visualize the flow, and qualititative agreement between the results from the gas tunnel and water table is good.

  20. Numerical analysis for the multi-phase flow of pulverized coal injection inside blast furnace tuyere

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.W.

    2005-09-01

    The pulverized coal injection (PCI) system was modified from single lance injection into double lance injection at No. 3 Blast Furnace of CSC. It is beneficial to reduce the cost of coke. However, the injected coal was found very close to the inner wall of the tuyere during the operation, such as to cause the possibility of erosion for the tuyere. In this study a three-dimensional mathematical model has been developed based on a computational fluid dynamics software PHOENICS to simulate the fluid flow phenomena inside blast furnace tuyere. The model was capable of handling steady-state, three-dimensional multi-phase flow of pulverized coal injection. The model was applied to simulate the flow patterns of the injection coal inside the tuyere with two kinds of lance design for the PCI system. The distribution of injection coal was simulated such as to estimate the possibility of erosion for the tuyere. The calculated results agreed with the operating experience of CSC plant and the optimum design of double lance was suggested. The model was also applied to simulate the oxygen concentration distribution with these different oxygen enrichments for the coal/oxygen lance system. The calculated results agreed with the experimental measurement. These test results demonstrate that the model is both reasonably reliable and efficient.

  1. Study of argon flowing afterglow with nitrogen injection

    SciTech Connect

    Mazánková, V.; Krčma, F.; Trunec, D.

    2013-10-28

    In this work, the reaction kinetics in argon flowing afterglow with nitrogen addition was studied by optical emission spectroscopy. The DC flowing post-discharge in pure argon was created in quartz tube at the total gas pressure of 1000 Pa and discharge power of 60 W. The nitrogen was added into the afterglow at the distance of 9 cm behind the active discharge. The optical emission spectra were measured along the flow tube. The argon spectral lines and after nitrogen addition also nitrogen second positive system (SPS) were identified in the spectra. The measurement of spatial dependence of SPS intensity showed a very slow decay of the intensity and the decay rate did not depend on the nitrogen concentration. In order to explain this behavior a kinetic model for reaction in afterglow was developed. This model showed that C {sup 3}Π{sub u} state of molecular nitrogen, which is the upper state of SPS emission, is produced by excitation transfer from argon metastables to nitrogen molecules. However, the argon metastables are also produced at Ar{sub 2}{sup +} ion recombination with electrons and this limits the decay of argon metastable concentration and it results in very slow decay of SPS intensity.

  2. Pre- and post-injection flow characterization in a heavy-duty diesel engine using high-speed PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegers, R. P. C.; Luijten, C. C. M.; Dam, N. J.; de Goey, L. P. H.

    2012-09-01

    High-speed particle image velocimetry (HS-PIV) using hollow microspheres has been applied to characterize the flow in a heavy-duty diesel engine during and after fuel injection. The injection timings were varied in the range representing those used in premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) regimes, and multiple injections have been applied to investigate their influence on the flow inside the combustion chamber. By injecting into pure nitrogen, combustion is avoided and the flow can be studied long after injection. The results show a sudden change of air motion at the start of injection as a result of the air entrainment at the core of the spray. Furthermore, as expected, spray injection causes a considerable increase in the cycle-to-cycle fluctuations of the flow pattern, the more so for longer injection durations.

  3. Phase Change Effects on Immiscible Flow Displacements in Radial Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadlouydarab, Majid; Azaiez, Jalel; Chen, Zhangxin

    2014-11-01

    We report a systematic simulation of immiscible fluid-fluid displacements in radial injection in the presence of phase change. Due to the presence of two fluid-fluid interfaces in the system, a special treatment has been adopted. To track the leading interface position, two highly accurate methods including Level Set and Immersed Interface Method were used, while for locating the trailing interface an energy equation was adopted assuming the existence of a constant thin condensate layer. Dimensional analysis led to three important dimensionless groups including capillary number (Ca), Jacob number (Ja) and viscosity ratios (M) of the three fluids. Simulation results indicate significant influences of these parameters on the development of the instability and the interfacial morphology of fingers. Increasing Ca or M tends to amplify the interfacial instability, fingertip splitting, and results in longer fingers. In contrast, increasing Ja has stabilizing effects due to an increase of the thickness of the condensate layer. On the other hand at lower viscosity ratios as well as lower Ca, because of compensation effects of the phase change, both leading and trailing interfaces are found to be less unstable. Moreover accumulated condensate and oil saturation depletion curves show increasing and decreasing trends, respectively, when the Ca increases. Although viscosity ratio and Ja have similar effects on the accumulated condensate, they do not show any effect on the oil depletion saturation.

  4. Numerical Simulation of the Flow Behavior and Breakthrough Phenomenon in Co-Injection Molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilinca, Florin; Hétu, Jean-François

    2007-05-01

    A study of the flow behavior during sequential co-injection molding is shown using a three-dimensional finite element flow analysis code. Solutions of the non-Newtonian, non-isothermal melt flow are obtained by solving the momentum, continuity and energy equations. Two additional transport equations are solved for tracking polymer/air and skin/core polymers interfaces. The co-injection model is integrated into the NRC's 3D injection molding software. Solutions are shown for the filling of a spiral-flow mould for which experimental measurements are available. The numerical approach predicts the core advance stage during which the core flow front catches up on the skin flow front and the core expansion phase when the flow fronts of core and skin materials advance together without breakthrough. The breakthrough phenomenon is also predicted. The predicted flow front behavior is compared to the experimental observations for various skin/core melt temperature and skin/core viscosity ratio. Simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data and indicate correctly the trends in solution change when processing parameters are changing.

  5. Magnetized plasma flow injection into tokamak and high-beta compact torus plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Komoriya, Yuuki; Tazawa, Hiroyasu; Asai, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Steinhauer, Loren; Itagaki, Hirotomo; Onchi, Takumi; Hirose, Akira

    2010-11-01

    As an application of a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), magnetic helicity injection via injection of a highly elongated compact torus (magnetized plasma flow: MPF) has been conducted on both tokamak and field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas. The injected plasmoid has significant amounts of helicity and particle contents and has been proposed as a fueling and a current drive method for various torus systems. In the FRC, MPF is expected to generate partially spherical tokamak like FRC equilibrium by injecting a significant amount of magnetic helicity. As a circumstantial evidence of the modified equilibrium, suppressed rotational instability with toroidal mode number n = 2. MPF injection experiments have also been applied to the STOR-M tokamak as a start-up and current drive method. Differences in the responses of targets especially relation with beta value and the self-organization feature will be studied.

  6. An automatic system for acidity determination based on sequential injection titration and the monosegmented flow approach.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Joanna; Wójtowicz, Marzena; Gawenda, Nadzieja; Kościelniak, Paweł

    2011-06-15

    An automatic sequential injection system, combining monosegmented flow analysis, sequential injection analysis and sequential injection titration is proposed for acidity determination. The system enables controllable sample dilution and generation of standards of required concentration in a monosegmented sequential injection manner, sequential injection titration of the prepared solutions, data collecting, and handling. It has been tested on spectrophotometric determination of acetic, citric and phosphoric acids with sodium hydroxide used as a titrant and phenolphthalein or thymolphthalein (in the case of phosphoric acid determination) as indicators. Accuracy better than |4.4|% (RE) and repeatability better than 2.9% (RSD) have been obtained. It has been applied to the determination of total acidity in vinegars and various soft drinks. The system provides low sample (less than 0.3 mL) consumption. On average, analysis of a sample takes several minutes.

  7. Recovery of injected freshwater to differentiate fracture flow in a low-permeability brackish aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miotliński, Konrad; Dillon, Peter J.; Pavelic, Paul; Cook, Peter G.; Page, Declan W.; Levett, Kerry

    2011-10-01

    SummaryA low-permeability weathered siltstone-sandstone aquifer containing brackish water was investigated to measure recoverability of injected freshwater with the aim of determining the significance of secondary porosity in contributing to groundwater flow and transport. Examination of the core, borehole geophysics, Radon-222, electromagnetic flowmeter (EMF) profiles and step-drawdown pumping tests did not identify whether fractures contribute to groundwater flow. A number of injection and recovery tests lasting from 3 days to 3 months using potable water showed a large degree of mixing with native groundwater. Withdrawal greater than 12-17% of the injected volume resulted in recovered water containing more native groundwater than injected water. A finite element solute transport model was set up to reproduce the observed salinity in recovered water. Without the inclusion of discrete fractures in the model it was not possible to get a fit between the observed and modelled salinity of recovered water within a realistic range of dispersivity values. The model was subsequently verified by using data from long-term injection and recovery trials. This evaluation of mixing conclusively demonstrated that the aquifer behaved as a fractured rock aquifer and not as an aquifer with primary porosity alone. Therefore, aquifer storage and recovery can be a very useful hydrogeological method to identify the occurrence of fracture flow in aquifers where there is a measurable concentration difference between the injected water and ambient groundwater.

  8. High-throughput pesticide residue quantitative analysis achieved by tandem mass spectrometry with automated flow injection.

    PubMed

    Nanita, Sergio C; Pentz, Anne M; Bramble, Frederick Q

    2009-04-15

    The use of automated flow injection with MS/MS detection for fast quantitation of agrochemicals in food and water samples was demonstrated in this study. Active ingredients from the sulfonylurea herbicide and carbamate insecticide classes were selected as model systems. Samples were prepared using typical procedures from residue methods, placed in an autosampler, and injected directly into a triple quadrupole instrument without chromatographic separation. The technique allows data acquisition in 15 s per injection, with samples being injected every 65 s, representing a significant improvement from the 15-30 min needed in typical HPLC/MS/MS methods. The availability of HPLC systems is an advantage since they can be used in flow-injection mode (bypassing the column compartment). Adequate accuracy, linearity, and precision (R(2) > 0.99 and RSD < 20%) were obtained using external standards prepared in each control matrix. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) achieved for all analytes was 0.01 mg/kg in food samples and 0.1 ng/mL in water; while limits of detection (LOD) were estimated to be about 0.003 mg/kg and 0.03 ng/mL in food and water, respectively. The advantages and limitations of flow injection MS/MS for ultratrace-level quantitative analysis in complex matrixes are discussed.

  9. Adaptation of a load-inject valve for a flow injection chemiluminescence system enabling dual-reagent injection enhances understanding of environmental Fenton chemistry.

    PubMed

    Jones, Matthew R; Nightingale, Philp D; Turner, Suzanne M; Liss, Peter S

    2013-09-24

    Environmental Fenton chemistry has been poorly constrained within the marine environment at a multi-component level. A simple, unique, reconfiguration of a flow-injection analytical system combined with luminol chemiluminescence allows quasi-simultaneously the measurement, using a single load-inject valve and a single photon multiplier tube, of reduced iron, Fe(II), and hydrogen peroxide. The system enables rapid, every 22s, measurements with good accuracy at environmentally relevant concentrations, less than 5% relative standard deviations on both a 5 nM Fe(II) standard and a 60 nM hydrogen peroxide standard. Limits of detection were as low as 40 pM Fe(II) and 100 pM hydrogen peroxide. The system showed excellent capability by measuring from within an organic rich seawater the photochemically induced production of Fe(II) and hydrogen peroxide and their subsequent cycling and Fenton like interactions.

  10. Characteristics of heat exchange in the region of injection into a supersonic high-temperature flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakirov, F. G.; Shaykhutdinov, Z. G.

    1985-04-01

    An experimental investigation of the local heat transfer coefficient distribution during gas injection into the supersonic-flow portion of a Laval nozzle is discussed. The controlling dimensionless parameters of the investigated process are presented in terms of a generalized relation for the maximum value of the heat transfer coefficient in the nozzle cross section behind the injection hole. Data on the heat transfer coefficient variation along the nozzle length as a function of gas injection rate are also presented, along with the heat transfer coefficient distribution over a cross section of the nozzle.

  11. Inhibition of Information Flow to the Default Mode Network During Self-Reference Versus Reference to Others.

    PubMed

    Soch, Joram; Deserno, Lorenz; Assmann, Anne; Barman, Adriana; Walter, Henrik; Richardson-Klavehn, Alan; Schott, Björn H

    2016-07-11

    The default mode network (DMN), a network centered around the cortical midline, shows deactivation during most cognitive tasks and pronounced resting-state connectivity, but is actively engaged in self-reference and social cognition. It is, however, yet unclear how information reaches the DMN during social cognitive processing. Here, we addressed this question using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data acquired during self-reference (SR) and reference to others (OR). Both conditions engaged the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG), most likely reflecting semantic processing. Within the DMN, self-reference preferentially elicited rostral anterior cingulate and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (rACC/vmPFC) activity, whereas OR engaged posterior cingulate and precuneus (PCC/PreCun). DCM revealed that the regulation of information flow to the DMN was primarily inhibitory. Most prominently, SR elicited inhibited information flow from the LIFG to the PCC/PreCun, while OR was associated with suppression of the connectivity from the LIFG to the rACC/vmPFC. These results suggest that task-related DMN activation is enabled by inhibitory down-regulation of task-irrelevant information flow when switching from rest to stimulus-specific processing.

  12. Single-channel flow injection spectrophotometric determination of nickel using furildioxime in micellar solution.

    PubMed

    Memon, Najma; Memon, Saima; Solangi, Amber R; Soomro, Rubina; Soomro, Rabel

    2012-01-01

    A very simple, selective, and fast flow injection spectrophotometeric method is developed for determination of nickel using furildioxime as complexing agent. Micellar solution of brij-35 is employed to solubilize the sparingly soluble complex of Ni-furildioxime in buffered aqueous system (pH-9.00). Under optimized conditions, absorbance is linear from 0.02 to 10 μg mL(-1) using 500 μL sample volume and from 10 to 30 μg mL(-1) using 50 μL sample volume of nickel at 480 nm, with R(2) = 0.9971 and 0.9916, respectively. The molar absorption coefficient and Sandell's sensitivity were 6.0 × 10(3) L mol(-1) cm(-1) and 0.01 ng cm(-2), respectively. The sample throughput of the method is 120 samples per hour with RSD of 0.01-0.2% for 0.02 to 10 μg mL(-1) nickel (n = 5), indicating that the method is highly precise and reproducible. Interference from cobalt is removed by Nitroso R-salt-modified XAD-16. The developed method is validated by analysing certified reference materials and is applied to assess nickel content of commercially available cigarettes.

  13. The determination of trace lead in Chinese medicinal herbs by flow injection analysis in polyethyleneglycol medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Aiqin; Zhu, Xiashi; Huang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yaqin

    2008-01-01

    In this work, a new flow injection analysis (FIA) for the determination of Pb 2+ in Chinese medicinal herbs was developed. In the buffer solution of borax-NaOH (pH 10.5), Pb 2+ reacted with 2-[(5-bromo-2-pyridyl)-azo]-5-(diethyl-amino)phenol (5-Br-PADAP) to form a complex. The experimental results showed that the sensitivity was enhanced in the presence of polyethyleneglycol-800 (PG-800). The main factors affecting the determination were investigated in detail. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range and detection limit is 0.0-0.3 μg/mL and 1.5 ng/mL (correlation coefficient r = 0.9996), respectively. The linear regression equation is A = -0.005 + 0.60 c (μg/mL). The sample throughout is 10 h -1. Foreign substrates effects were also investigated. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of lead in reference material, goldthread and lepidium seed.

  14. Novel PVC-membrane electrode for flow injection potentiometric determination of Biperiden in pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Khaled, Elmorsy; El-Sabbagh, Inas A; El-Kholy, N G; Ghahni, E Y Abdel

    2011-12-15

    The construction and performance characteristics of Biperiden (BP) polyvinyl chloride (PVC) electrodes are described. Different methods for electrode fabrication are tested including; incorporation of BP-ion pairs (BP-IPs), incorporation of ion pairing agents, or soaking the plain electrode in BP-ion pairs suspension solution. Electrode matrices were optimized referring to the effect of modifier content and nature, plasticizer and the method of modification. The proposed electrodes work satisfactorily in the BP concentration range from 10(-5) to 10(-2)mol L(-1), with fast response time (7s) and adequate operational lifetime (28 days). The electrode potential is pH independent within the range 2.0-7.0, with good selectivity towards BP in presence of various interfering species. The developed electrodes have been applied for potentiometric determination of BP in pharmaceutical formulation under batch and flow injection analysis (FIA) conditions. FIA offers the advantages of accuracy and automation feasibility with high sampling frequency. The dissolution profile for Akineton tablets (2mg BP/tablet) was studied using the proposed electrode in comparison with the official methods.

  15. Study of nitrogen flowing afterglow with mercury vapor injection

    SciTech Connect

    Mazánková, V. Krčma, F.; Trunec, D.

    2014-10-21

    The reaction kinetics in nitrogen flowing afterglow with mercury vapor addition was studied by optical emission spectroscopy. The DC flowing post-discharge in pure nitrogen was created in a quartz tube at the total gas pressure of 1000 Pa and discharge power of 130 W. The mercury vapors were added into the afterglow at the distance of 30 cm behind the active discharge. The optical emission spectra were measured along the flow tube. Three nitrogen spectral systems – the first positive, the second positive, and the first negative, and after the mercury vapor addition also the mercury resonance line at 254 nm in the spectrum of the second order were identified. The measurement of the spatial dependence of mercury line intensity showed very slow decay of its intensity and the decay rate did not depend on the mercury concentration. In order to explain this behavior, a kinetic model for the reaction in afterglow was developed. This model showed that the state Hg(6 {sup 3}P{sub 1}), which is the upper state of mercury UV resonance line at 254 nm, is produced by the excitation transfer from nitrogen N{sub 2}(A{sup 3}Σ{sup +}{sub u}) metastables to mercury atoms. However, the N{sub 2}(A{sup 3}Σ{sup +}{sub u}) metastables are also produced by the reactions following the N atom recombination, and this limits the decay of N{sub 2}(A{sup 3}Σ{sup +}{sub u}) metastable concentration and results in very slow decay of mercury resonance line intensity. It was found that N atoms are the most important particles in this late nitrogen afterglow, their volume recombination starts a chain of reactions which produce excited states of molecular nitrogen. In order to explain the decrease of N atom concentration, it was also necessary to include the surface recombination of N atoms to the model. The surface recombination was considered as a first order reaction and wall recombination probability γ = (1.35 ± 0.04) × 10{sup −6} was determined from the experimental data. Also

  16. Active Flow Separation Control of a Stator Vane Using Surface Injection in a Multistage Compressor Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culley, Dennis E.; Bright, Michelle M.; Prahst, Patricia S.; Strazisar, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    Micro-flow control actuation embedded in a stator vane was used to successfully control separation and improve near stall performance in a multistage compressor rig at NASA Glenn. Using specially designed stator vanes configured with internal actuation to deliver pulsating air through slots along the suction surface, a research study was performed to identify performance benefits using this microflow control approach. Pressure profiles and unsteady pressure measurements along the blade surface and at the shroud provided a dynamic look at the compressor during microflow air injection. These pressure measurements lead to a tracking algorithm to identify the onset of separation. The testing included steady air injection at various slot locations along the vane. The research also examined the benefit of pulsed injection and actively controlled air injection along the stator vane. Two types of actuation schemes were studied, including an embedded actuator for on-blade control. Successful application of an online detection and flow control scheme will be discussed. Testing showed dramatic performance benefit for flow reattachment and subsequent improvement in diffusion through the use of pulsed controlled injection. The paper will discuss the experimental setup, the blade configurations, and preliminary CFD results which guided the slot location along the blade. The paper will also show the pressure profiles and unsteady pressure measurements used to track flow control enhancement, and will conclude with the tracking algorithm for adjusting the control.

  17. An automatic, vigorous-injection assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction technique for stopped-flow spectrophotometric detection of boron.

    PubMed

    Alexovič, Michal; Wieczorek, Marcin; Kozak, Joanna; Kościelniak, Paweł; Balogh, Ioseph S; Andruch, Vasil

    2015-02-01

    A novel automatic vigorous-injection assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure based on the use of a modified single-valve sequential injection manifold (SV-SIA) was developed and applied for determination of boron in water samples. The major novelties in the procedure are the achieving of efficient dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction by means of single vigorous-injection (250 µL, 900 µL s(-1)) of the extraction solvent (n-amylacetate) into aqueous phase resulting in the effective dispersive mixing without using dispersive solvent and after self-separation of the phases, as well as forwarding of the extraction phase directly to a Z-flow cell (10 mm) without the use of a holding coil for stopped-flow spectrophotometric detection. The calibration working range was linear up to 2.43 mg L(-1) of boron at 426nm wavelength. The limit of detection, calculated as 3s of a blank test (n=10), was found to be 0.003 mg L(-1), and the relative standard deviation, measured as ten replicable concentrations at 0.41 mg L(-1) of boron was determined to be 5.6%. The validation of the method was tested using certified reference material.

  18. Supersonic flow past axisymmetric body with strong local two-phase surface injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, V. A.; Gol'Din, V. D.; Grishin, A. M.

    1984-01-01

    It is known [1 3] that in order to provide heat shield or to improve the aerodynamics of the body strong injection of cooling gas into the supersonic stream is utilized. Analysis of flow characteristics in the neighborhood of the solid body in the presence of strong single-phase injection and the effect of injection on the aerodynamic characteristics of some axisymmetric bodies are given, e.g., in [2 4]. Supersonic flow past a blunt-nosed axisymmetric body with blowing of a mixture of gas and solid particles through a porous segment in the leading edge region is considered in the present paper. Such a situation could occur in modeling the breakdown of the heat shield of a flight vehicle during its reentry into the thick layers of atmosphere and also in the case of forced introduction of particles in the flow of the injected gas in order to break up the leading edge shock and accordingly the variation in the drag of the body [5]. A description of the trajectory of the particles has been obtained as a result of numerical and analytical solution of the problem and their analysis is used to arrive at conclusions on their intersection and, consequently, also on the multiple-valued nature of the flow parameters in the neighborhood of the line dividing the external flow and the injected two-phase mixture. Sufficient conditions for multiple-valuedness have been analytically found which agree with numerical results. It has been established that with a change in composition of sufficiently small particles within the limits 0.1 to 0.6 by weight of the injected mixture the drag coefficient of the body does not change by more than 10%.

  19. Analysis of the injection of a heated turbulent jet into a cross flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J. F.; Schetz, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    The development of a theoretical model is investigated of the incompressible jet injection process. The discharge of a turbulent jet into a cross flow was mathematically modeled by using an integral method which accounts for natural fluid mechanisms such as turbulence, entrainment, buoyancy, and heat transfer. The analytical results are supported by experimental data and demonstrate the usefulness of the theory for estimating the trajectory and flow properties of the jet for a variety of injection conditions. The capability of predicting jet flow properties, as well as two- and three-dimensional jet paths, was enhanced by obtaining the jet cross-sectional area during the solution of the conservation equations. Realistic estimates of temperature in the jet fluid were acquired by accounting for heat losses in the jet flow due to forced convection and to entrainment of free-stream fluid into the jet.

  20. Modeling and flow analysis of pure nylon polymer for injection molding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuruzzaman, D. M.; Kusaseh, N.; Basri, S.; Oumer, A. N.; Hamedon, Z.

    2016-02-01

    In the production of complex plastic parts, injection molding is one of the most popular industrial processes. This paper addresses the modeling and analysis of the flow process of the nylon (polyamide) polymer for injection molding process. To determine the best molding conditions, a series of simulations are carried out using Autodesk Moldflow Insight software and the processing parameters are adjusted. This mold filling commercial software simulates the cavity filling pattern along with temperature and pressure distributions in the mold cavity. In the modeling, during the plastics flow inside the mold cavity, different flow parameters such as fill time, pressure, temperature, shear rate and warp at different locations in the cavity are analyzed. Overall, this Moldflow is able to perform a relatively sophisticated analysis of the flow process of pure nylon. Thus the prediction of the filling of a mold cavity is very important and it becomes useful before a nylon plastic part to be manufactured.

  1. Micromachined pre-focused 1×N flow switches for continuous sample injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gwo-Bin; Hung, Chen-I.; Ke, Bin-Jo; Huang, Guan-Ruey; Hwei, Bao-Herng

    2001-09-01

    In this paper, we present an investigation of a microfluidic chip capable of continuous sample switching and injection for bio-analytical applications. The novel device integrates two important microfluidic phenomena, including hydrodynamic focusing and valveless flow switching inside multi-ported microchannels. In this study, a simple theoretical model based on the `flow-rate-ratio' method is first proposed to predict the performance of the device. Based on these data, a pre-focused 1×N flow switch is designed and fabricated using micromachining techniques. A novel micromachining technique is demonstrated which combines quartz template fabrication and replication of microstructures on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrates for mass production of microfluidic devices. Three-dimensional templates with an inverse image of microfluidic channels are fabricated on quartz substrates and then used to imprint microstructures onto PMMA substrates using hot embossing methods. Finally, the flow switching is verified experimentally with the use of microscopic visualization of water sheath flows and a dye-containing sample flow. The experimental data indicate that the sample flow could be hydrodynamically pre-focused to a narrow stream and then guided into a desired outlet port based on relative sheath and sample flow rates. It also shows that the added `pre-focusing' function prior to the flow switching is crucial for precise sample injection. The microfluidic chip could be applied in the fields of bio/chemical analysis.

  2. New once-a-month injectable contraceptives, with particular reference to Cyclofem/Cyclo-Provera.

    PubMed

    Hall, P E

    1998-08-01

    Once-a-month injectable contraceptives containing a progestogen and an estrogen have been developed that disrupt vaginal bleeding patterns less than the widely used progestogen-only preparations. Pharmacokinetic studies were undertaken of dosages and ratios of the progestogens and the respective estrogens. In Phase III clinical trials, annual pregnancy rates were below 0.4% for Mesigyna (norethisterone enanthate/estradiol valerate, Schering AG, Berlin, Germany) and below 0.2% for Cyclofem (MPA/E2C) (medroxyprogesterone acetate/estradiol cypionate, Aplicaciones Farmaceuticas, SA, Mexico and PT Tunggal, Indonesia). More than two-thirds of women had predictable, regular cycles, and discontinuation due to bleeding-related problems occurred less than half as often as with progestogen-only injectables. With MPA/E2C, return to fertility is similar to that observed with other hormonal or intrauterine methods, and both products have little effect on lipids or hemostasis. Introductory trials of MPA/E2C in 12000 women with 100000 woman-months of experience confirmed the high efficacy of the product in routine use. The use of MPA/E2C in a non-reusable injection device, Uniject (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ) is discussed. Once-a-month hormonal contraceptives have been shown to provide a safe contraceptive option for all women and an alternative for women who wish to use injectable formulations that cause less disruption in vaginal bleeding and minimal side effects.

  3. An oil flow study of the reference Shuttle-C configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pokora, Darlene C.; Springer, Anthony M.

    1994-01-01

    An oil flow study of the reference Shuttle-C configuration is presented. The Shuttle-C vehicle was a proposed shuttle derived vehicle where the orbiter was to be replaced by an unmanned cargo carrier element. Oil flows are shown for the range of Mach numbers from Mach 1.10 to 3.48 at various angles-of-attack and roll angles. The major flow field phenomena over the Shuttle-C reference configuration are shown in these oil flows. Using the oil flows, a qualitative understanding of the flow around the vehicle can be determined, aiding the quantitative definition of aerodynamic data from theoretical analyses and test results. The oil flows presented in this study were obtained from configurations tested in the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's 14-Inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel from October 1988 through February 1989.

  4. Benchmark initiative on coupled multiphase flow and geomechanical processes during CO2 injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benisch, K.; Annewandter, R.; Olden, P.; Mackay, E.; Bauer, S.; Geiger, S.

    2012-12-01

    CO2 injection into deep saline aquifers involves multiple strongly interacting processes such as multiphase flow and geomechanical deformation, which threat to the seal integrity of CO2 repositories. Coupled simulation codes are required to establish realistic prognoses of the coupled process during CO2 injection operations. International benchmark initiatives help to evaluate, to compare and to validate coupled simulation results. However, there is no published code comparison study so far focusing on the impact of coupled multiphase flow and geomechanics on the long-term integrity of repositories, which is required to obtain confidence in the predictive capabilities of reservoir simulators. We address this gap by proposing a benchmark study. A wide participation from academic and industrial institutions is sought, as the aim of building confidence in coupled simulators become more plausible with many participants. Most published benchmark studies on coupled multiphase flow and geomechanical processes have been performed within the field of nuclear waste disposal (e.g. the DECOVALEX project), using single-phase formulation only. As regards CO2 injection scenarios, international benchmark studies have been published comparing isothermal and non-isothermal multiphase flow processes such as the code intercomparison by LBNL, the Stuttgart Benchmark study, the CLEAN benchmark approach and other initiatives. Recently, several codes have been developed or extended to simulate the coupling of hydraulic and geomechanical processes (OpenGeoSys, ELIPSE-Visage, GEM, DuMuX and others), which now enables a comprehensive code comparison. We propose four benchmark tests of increasing complexity, addressing the coupling between multiphase flow and geomechanical processes during CO2 injection. In the first case, a horizontal non-faulted 2D model consisting of one reservoir and one cap rock is considered, focusing on stress and strain regime changes in the storage formation and the

  5. Enhanced mixing via alternating injection in radial Hele-Shaw flows.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Yao; Huang, Yi-Cheng; Huang, Yu-Sheng; Miranda, José A

    2015-10-01

    Mixing at low Reynolds numbers, especially in the framework of confined flows occurring in Hele-Shaw cells, porous media, and microfluidic devices, has attracted considerable attention lately. Under such circumstances, enhanced mixing is limited due to the lack of turbulence, and absence of sizable inertial effects. Recent studies, performed in rectangular Hele-Shaw cells, have demonstrated that the combined action of viscous fluid fingering and alternating injection can dramatically improve mixing efficiency. In this work, we revisit this important fluid mechanical problem, and analyze it in the context of radial Hele-Shaw flows. The development of radial fingering instabilities under alternating injection conditions is investigated by intensive numerical simulations. We focus on the impact of the relevant physical parameters of the problem (Péclet number Pe, viscosity contrast A, and injection time interval Δt) on fluid mixing performance.

  6. Differentiating organic from conventional peppermints using chromatographic and flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprints

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting techniques were tested for their potential in differentiating organic and conventional peppermint samples. Ten organic and ten conventional peppermint samples were examined using HPLC-UV and FI...

  7. A Microconduit Flow Injection Analysis Demonstration Using a 35-mm Slide Projector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvie, Ian D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Described is a 35mm projector demonstration which combines the advantages a highly magnified view of the sample zone as it undergoes dispersion and the ability to show more than a single-line flow injection analysis manifold. Manufacture and use of the slide for demonstration are discussed. (CW)

  8. Determination of Nitrogen by Flow Injection Analysis in Environmental and Wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Straw, K.A.

    1999-03-01

    In summary, three generations of Lachat FIA systems have been used in the laboratory over a period of 13 yrs, running, in addition to the 4 N methods, Cr{sup +6}, SiO{sub 2}, Fluoride by ISE. Overall flow injection systems have been versatile and reliable and a good choice in the lab for analyzing a wide variety of samples quickly.

  9. Experimental Study of Dual Injections with a Cavity in Supersonic Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukai, T.; Zare-Behtash, H.; Lo, K. H.; Kontis, K.; Obayashi, S.

    The design of supersonic injection systems is a key issue for the development of a supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) [1]. Since supersonic flow is present in the combustion chamber of the scramjet, it is difficult to satisfy features which indicate fuel-air mixing and flame stabilisation.

  10. Detection of Catechol by Potentiometric-Flow Injection Analysis in the Presence of Interferents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunsford, Suzanne K.; Widera, Justyna; Zhang, Hong

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an undergraduate analytical chemistry experiment developed to teach instrumental lab skills while incorporating common interferents encountered in the real-world analysis of catechol. The lab technique incorporates potentiometric-flow injection analysis on a dibenzo-18-crown-6 dual platinum electrode to detect catechol in…

  11. Flow injection analysis system based on amperometric thin-film transducers for free chlorine detection in swimming pool waters.

    PubMed

    Olivé-Monllau, Rosa; Orozco, Jahir; Fernández-Sánchez, César; Baeza, Mireia; Bartrolí, Jordi; Jimenez-Jorquera, Cecilia; Céspedes, Francisco

    2009-03-15

    This work reports on the performance of a user-friendly flow injection analysis (FIA) system for the monitoring of free chlorine. A methacrylate flow cell integrating a gold thin-film microelectrode, together with an on-chip gold counter electrode, both fabricated by microfabrication technology, provided robustness, low output impedance, rapid response and low cost to the proposed flow system. An external Ag/AgCl reference electrode placed downstream the chip completes the electrochemical cell. Amperometric detection of chlorine was carried out at a set potential of +350 mV, without oxygen interference. The proposed flow system responded linearly to chlorine concentrations in a range from 0.2 to 5 mgl(-1), with a sensitivity of 0.23 microAlmg(-1), the estimated limit of detection being 0.02 mgl(-1). In addition, the system response was kept stable for at least 10 days (+/-3sigma criterion), by keeping the flow system in an inert atmosphere when not in use. Fifteen samples of swimming pool waters were analyzed and no matrix effects were detected. Also, results were in good agreement with those obtained by a standard method. The excellent analytical performance of the system together with its good working stability would also enable its application for the detection of chlorine in other matrices such as tap water or chlorine stock solutions.

  12. Application of Optical Flow Sensors for Dead Reckoning, Heading Reference, Obstacle Detection, and Obstacle Avoidance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    OPTICAL FLOW SENSORS FOR DEAD RECKONING, HEADING REFERENCE, OBSTACLE DETECTION, AND OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE by Tarek M. Nejah September 2015... SENSORS FOR DEAD RECKONING, HEADING REFERENCE, OBSTACLE DETECTION, AND OBSTACLE AVOIDANCE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Nejah, Tarek M. 7...avoidance using only one optical mouse sensor was presented in this thesis. Odometry, position tracking, and obstacle avoidance are important issues in

  13. Diesel fuel injection pump with signal rotor giving reference position and rotation position signals

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Y.; Kobayashi, F.; Miyagi, H.

    1986-03-11

    This patent describes a distribution type fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine having a crankshaft and cylinders. The fuel injection system consists of: an input shaft mounted for rotation in a predetermined phase relationship with the crankshaft; a housing; a plunger; a combination of a cam plate and a cam follower incorporated between the input shaft and the plunger to drive the plunger in a first axial direction to reduce the size of the high pressure chamber in a first group of certain spaced rotational phases of the input shaft. A spring biases the plunger in a second axial direction opposite to the first axial direction to increase the size of the high pressure chamber in a second group of certain spaced rotational phases. Each rotational phase of the second group is located between corresponding two adjacent ones of the first group of rotational phases; means for communicating the high pressure chamber with a source of fuel when the plunger is moving in the second axial direction and for communicating the high pressure chamber with successive ones of the plurality of cylinders when the plunger is moving in the first axial direction; a solenoid valve which selectively vents the high pressure chamber according to selective energization and deenergization thereof to control the amount of fuel supplied to respective ones of the cylinders; a signal rotor having signal generating means circumferentially spaced around a circular portion thereof; a signal pickup means for detecting each of the signal generating means as it passes a predetermined location adjacent to the circular portion of the signal rotor; an electronic calculating means for calculating an amount of fuel to be injected for each fuel injection according to engine rotational speed and accelerator pedal opening amount. The calculating means determines a rotational angle of the crankshaft.

  14. Laminar flow at a three-dimensional stagnation point with large rates of injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Libby, P. A.

    1976-01-01

    Exact calculations of the titled flow are presented and compared to the predictions of an asymptotic analysis for large rates of injection. The inner layer of the boundary layer is found to involve outflow in both orthogonal directions whether the external flow along the y axis is inward or outward. As a result, the flow at a nearly two-dimensional stagnation point involves drastic changes as a weak outflow changes to a weak inflow. It is also found that the velocity profiles in the two directions in the inner layer are quite different.

  15. Optimized and validated flow-injection spectrophotometric analysis of topiramate, piracetam and levetiracetam in pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Hadad, Ghada M; Abdel-Salam, Randa A; Emara, Samy

    2011-12-01

    Application of a sensitive and rapid flow injection analysis (FIA) method for determination of topiramate, piracetam, and levetiracetam in pharmaceutical formulations has been investigated. The method is based on the reaction with ortho-phtalaldehyde and 2-mercaptoethanol in a basic buffer and measurement of absorbance at 295 nm under flow conditions. Variables affecting the determination such as sample injection volume, pH, ionic strength, reagent concentrations, flow rate of reagent and other FIA parameters were optimized to produce the most sensitive and reproducible results using a quarter-fraction factorial design, for five factors at two levels. Also, the method has been optimized and fully validated in terms of linearity and range, limit of detection and quantitation, precision, selectivity and accuracy. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of pharmaceutical preparations.

  16. Laminar flow across an unbounded square cylinder with suction or injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantokratoras, Asterios

    2017-02-01

    The flow around a horizontal square cylinder with uniform suction or injection at the front and rear sides is considered in the present paper. The problem is investigated numerically with a finite volume method using the SIMPLE algorithm. This flow has been investigated in the past for Reynolds numbers greater than 70. In the present work, the investigation is extended to very low Reynolds numbers (up to 0.001, Stokes flow) including eight different cases concerning suction-injection at the two sides. It is found that the drag coefficient takes negative and zero values in many cases and varies linearly at low Re numbers. In all eight cases, the vortices around the cylinder have been calculated. It is found that at low Re numbers, some vortices are symmetrical both about the horizontal and vertical cylinder axes.

  17. Flow-Injection Coulometric Detection Based on Ion Transfer and Its Application to the Determination of Chlorpromazine

    PubMed Central

    Ortuño, Joaquín A.; Gil, Antonio; Sánchez-Pedreño, Concepción

    2008-01-01

    A flow-injection coulometric method for the determination of chlorpromazine based on ion transfer into a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane, was developed. The detector used consists of a flow-through cell that incorporates a plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane which contains tetrabutylammonium tetraphenylborate as electrolyte. The membrane is located between the flowing solution and an inner aqueous electrolyte solution. Two pairs of electrodes, each pair formed by a reference electrode and a working electrode, are used, one pair in each solution. The potential between the reference electrodes was controlled by a four-electrode potentiostat with ohmic drop compensation. A potential step capable of producing the transfer of the chlorpromazine ion into the membrane was applied during the passage of a wide portion of sample plug through the cell and the corresponding quantity of the electricity was measured. In the selected conditions, a linear relationship was observed between the quantity of electricity and chlorpromazine concentrations over a range of 1×10-6 −1×10-4 M. The detection limit was 2 × 10-7 M. Good repeatability and between-day reproducibility was obtained. No interference was observed on the part of some common ions and pharmaceutical excipients. The method proposed was applied satisfactorily to the determination of chlorpromazine in pharmaceuticals and human urine. PMID:27879901

  18. Flow rate dependent extra-column variance from injection in capillary liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Pankaj; Liu, Kun; Sharma, Sonika; Lawson, John S; Dennis Tolley, H; Lee, Milton L

    2015-02-06

    Efficiency and resolution in capillary liquid chromatography (LC) can be significantly affected by extra-column band broadening, especially for isocratic separations. This is particularly a concern in evaluating column bed structure using non-retained test compounds. The band broadening due to an injector supplied with a commercially available capillary LC system was characterized from experimental measurements. The extra-column variance from the injection valve was found to have an extra-column contribution independent of the injection volume, showing an exponential dependence on flow rate. The overall extra-column variance from the injection valve was found to vary from 34 to 23 nL. A new mathematical model was derived that explains this exponential contribution of extra-column variance on chromatographic performance. The chromatographic efficiency was compromised by ∼130% for a non-retained analyte because of injection valve dead volume. The measured chromatographic efficiency was greatly improved when a new nano-flow pumping system with integrated injection valve was used.

  19. The Co-axial Flow of Injectable Solid Hydrogels with Encapsulated Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Brandon; Pochan, Darrin; Sathaye, Sameer

    2013-03-01

    Hydrogels are quickly becoming an important biomaterial that can be used for the safe, localized injection of cancer drugs, the injection of stem cells into areas of interest or other biological applications. Our peptides can be self-assembled in a syringe where they form a gel, sheared by injection and, once in the body, immediately reform a localized pocket of stiff gel. My project has been designed around looking at the possibility of having a co-axial strand, in which one gel can surround another. This co-axial flow can be used to change the physical properties of our gel during injection, such as stiffening our gel using hyaluronic acid or encapsulating cells in the gel and surrounding the gel with growth medium or other biological factors. Rheology on hyaluron stiffened gels and cells encapsulated in gels was performed for comparison to the results from co-axial flow. Confocal microscopy was used to examine the coaxial gels after flow and to determine how the co-axial nature of the gels is affected by the concentration of peptide.

  20. Flow-induced birefringence: the hidden PSF killer in high performance injection-molded plastic optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidley, Matthew D.; Tkaczyk, Tomasz; Kester, Robert; Descour, Michael R.

    2006-02-01

    A 7-mm OD, NA = 1 water immersion injection-molded plastic endoscope objective has been fabricated for a laser scanning fiber confocal reflectance microscope (FCRM) system specifically designed for in vivo detection of cervical and oral pre-cancers. Injection-molded optics was selected for the ability to incorporate aspheric surfaces into the optical design and its high volume capabilities. Our goal is high performance disposable endoscope probes. This objective has been built and tested as a stand-alone optical system, a Strehl ratio greater than 0.6 has been obtained. One of the limiting factors of optical performance is believed to be flow-induced birefringence. We have investigated different configurations for birefringence visualization and believe the circular polariscope is most useful for inspection of injection-molded plastic optics. In an effort to decrease birefringence effects, two experiments were conducted. They included: (1) annealing of the optics after fabrication and (2) modifying the injection molding prameters (packing pressures, injection rates, and hold time). While the second technique showed improvement, the annealing process could not improve quality without physically warping the lenses. Therefore, to effectively reduce flow-induced birefringence, molding conditions have to be carefully selected. These parameters are strongly connected to the physical part geometry. Both optical design and fabrication technology have to be considered together to deliver low birefringence while maintaining the required manufacturing tolerances. In this paper we present some of our current results that illustrate how flow-induced birefringence can degrade high performance injection-molded plastic optical systems.

  1. Analysis of a laminar boundary layer flow over a flat plate with injection or suction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadri, S.; Babaelahi, M.

    2013-01-01

    An analysis is performed to study a laminar boundary layer flow over a porous flat plate with injection or suction imposed at the wall. The basic equations of this problem are reduced to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by means of appropriate transformations. These equations are solved analytically by the optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM), and the solutions are compared with the numerical solution (NS). The effect of uniform suction/injection on the heat transfer and velocity profile is discussed. A constant surface temperature in thermal boundary conditions is used for the horizontal flat plate.

  2. Streakline flow visualization of discrete-hole film cooling with normal, slanted, and compound angle injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colladay, R. S.; Russell, L. M.

    1976-01-01

    Film injection from discrete holes in a three-row, staggered array with five-diameter spacing was studied for three hole angles: (1) normal, (2) slanted 30 deg to the surface in the direction of the main stream, and (3) slanted 30 deg to the surface and 45 deg laterally to the main stream. The ratio of the boundary layer thickness-to-hole diameter and Reynolds number were typical of gas-turbine film-cooling applications. Detailed streaklines showing the turbulent motion of the injected air were obtained by photographing very small neutrally buoyant, helium-filled soap bubbles which follow the flow field.

  3. Development of mediated BOD biosensor system of flow injection mode for shochu distillery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Oota, Shinichi; Hatae, Yuta; Amada, Kei; Koya, Hidekazu; Kawakami, Mitsuyasu

    2010-09-15

    Although microbial biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) sensors utilizing redox mediators have attracted much attention as a rapid BOD measurement method, little attempts have been made to apply the mediated BOD biosensors to the flow injection analysis system. In this work, a mediated BOD sensor system of flow injection mode, constructed by combining an immobilized microbial reactor with an electrochemical flow cell of three electrodes configuration, has been developed to estimate BOD of shochu distillery wastewater (SDW). It was demonstrated consequently that the mediated sensing was realized by employing phosphate buffer containing potassium hexacyanoferrate as the carrier. The output current was found to yield a peak with a sample injection, and to result from reoxidation of reduced mediator at the electrode. By employing the peak area as the sensor response, the effects of flow rate and pH of the carrier on the sensitivity were investigated. The sensor system using a microorganism of high SDW-assimilation capacity showed good performance and proved to be available for estimation of BOD of SDW.

  4. Numerical prediction of flow induced fibers orientation in injection molded polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oumer, A. N.; Hamidi, N. M.; Mat Sahat, I.

    2015-12-01

    Since the filling stage of injection molding process has important effect on the determination of the orientation state of the fibers, accurate analysis of the flow field for the mold filling stage becomes a necessity. The aim of the paper is to characterize the flow induced orientation state of short fibers in injection molding cavities. A dog-bone shaped model is considered for the simulation and experiment. The numerical model for determination of the fibers orientation during mold-filling stage of injection molding process was solved using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software called MoldFlow. Both the simulation and experimental results showed that two different regions (or three layers of orientation structures) across the thickness of the specimen could be found: a shell region which is near to the mold cavity wall, and a core region at the middle of the cross section. The simulation results support the experimental observations that for thin plates the probability of fiber alignment to the flow direction near the mold cavity walls is high but low at the core region. It is apparent that the results of this study could assist in decisions regarding short fiber reinforced polymer composites.

  5. Flow visualization study of the effect of injection hole geometry on an inclined jet in crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Frederick F.; Ciancone, Michael L.

    1987-01-01

    A flow visualization was studied by using neutrally buoyant, helium-filled soap bubbles, to determine the effect of injection hole geometry on the trajectory of an air jet in a crossflow and to investigate the mechanisms involved in jet deflection. Experimental variables were the blowing rate, and the injection hole geometry cusp facing upstream (CUS), cusp facing downstream (CDS), round, swirl passage, and oblong. It is indicated that jet deflection is governed by both the pressure drag forces and the entrainment of free-stream fluid into the jet flow. For injection hole geometries with similar cross-sectional areas and similar mass flow rates, the jet configuration with the larger aspect ratio experienced a greater deflection. Entrainment arises from lateral shearing forces on the sides of the jet, which set up a dual vortex motion within the jet and thereby cause some of the main-stream fluid momentum to be swept into the jet flow. This additional momentum forces the jet nearer the surface. Of the jet configurations, the oblong, CDS, and CUS configurations exhibited the largest deflections. The results correlate well with film cooling effectiveness data, which suggests a need to determine the jet exit configuration of optimum aspect ratio to provide maximum film cooling effectiveness.

  6. Flow visualization study of the effect of injection hole geometry on an inclined jet in crossflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, F. F.; Ciancone, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    A flow visualization was studied by using neutrally buoyant, helium-filled soap bubbles, to determine the effect of injection hole geometry on the trajectory of an air jet in a crossflow and to investigate the mechanisms involved in jet deflection. Experimental variables were the blowing rate, and the injection hole geometry cusp facing upstream (CUS), cusp facing downstream (CDS), round, swirl passage, and oblong. It is indicated that jet deflection is governed by both the pressure drag forces and the entrainment of free-stream fluid into the jet flow. For injection hole geometries with similar cross-sectional areas and similar mass flow rates, the jet configuration with the larger aspect ratio experienced a greater deflection. Entrainment arises from lateral shearing forces on the sides of the jet, which set up a dual vortex motion within the jet and thereby cause some of the main-stream fluid momentum to be swept into the jet flow. This additional momentum forces the jet nearer the surface. Of the jet configurations, the oblong, CDS, and CUS configutations exhibited the largest deflections. The results correlate well with film cooling effectiveness data, which suggests a need to determine the jet exit configuration of optimum aspect ratio to provide maximum film cooling effectiveness.

  7. Spike-Nosed Bodies and Forward Injected Jets in Supersonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilinsky, M.; Washington, C.; Blankson, I. M.; Shvets, A. I.

    2002-01-01

    The paper contains new numerical simulation and experimental test results of blunt body drag reduction using thin spikes mounted in front of a body and one- or two-phase jets injected against a supersonic flow. Numerical simulations utilizing the NASA CFL3D code were conducted at the Hampton University Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Laboratory (FM&AL) and experimental tests were conducted using the facilities of the IM/MSU Aeromechanics and Gas Dynamics Laboratory. Previous results were presented at the 37th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference. Those results were based on some experimental and numerical simulation tests for supersonic flow around spike-nosed or shell-nosed bodies, and numerical simulations were conducted only for a single spike-nosed or shell-nosed body at zero attack angle, alpha = 0 degrees. In this paper, experimental test results of gas, liquid and solid particle jet injection against a supersonic flow are presented. In addition, numerical simulation results for supersonic flow around a multiple spike-nosed body with non-zero attack angles and with a gas and solid particle forward jet injection are included. Aerodynamic coefficients: drag, C (sub D), lift, C(sub L), and longitudinal momentum, M(sub z), obtained by numerical simulation and experimental tests are compared and show good agreement.

  8. Effect of reference conditions on flow rate, modifier fraction and retention in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    PubMed

    De Pauw, Ruben; Shoykhet Choikhet, Konstantin; Desmet, Gert; Broeckhoven, Ken

    2016-08-12

    When using compressible mobile phases such as fluidic CO2, the density, the volumetric flow rates and volumetric fractions are pressure dependent. The pressure and temperature definition of these volumetric parameters (referred to as the reference conditions) may alter between systems, manufacturers and operating conditions. A supercritical fluid chromatography system was modified to operate in two modes with different definition of the eluent delivery parameters, referred to as fixed and variable mode. For the variable mode, the volumetric parameters are defined with reference to the pump operating pressure and actual pump head temperature. These conditions may vary when, e.g. changing the column length, permeability, flow rate, etc. and are thus variable reference conditions. For the fixed mode, the reference conditions were set at 150bar and 30°C, resulting in a mass flow rate and mass fraction of modifier definition which is independent of the operation conditions. For the variable mode, the mass flow rate of carbon dioxide increases with system pump operating pressure, decreasing the fraction of modifier. Comparing the void times and retention factor shows that the deviation between the two modes is almost independent of modifier percentage, but depends on the operating pressure. Recalculating the set volumetric fraction of modifier to the mass fraction results in the same retention behaviour for both modes. This shows that retention in SFC can be best modelled using the mass fraction of modifier. The fixed mode also simplifies method scaling as it only requires matching average column pressure.

  9. Simultaneous determination of nanomolar nitrite and nitrate in seawater using reverse flow injection analysis coupled with a long path length liquid waveguide capillary cell.

    PubMed

    Feng, Sichao; Zhang, Min; Huang, Yongming; Yuan, Dongxing; Zhu, Yong

    2013-12-15

    A reverse flow injection analysis (rFIA) method coupled with 1m liquid waveguide capillary cell and spectrophotometric detection for simultaneous determination of nanomolar nitrite and nitrate in seawater was developed. The design of two analytical channels sharing the same detection system in the proposed method allowed the analysis of both nitrite and nitrate with single sample injection. Different strategies of reagent injection were investigated to obtain a higher sensitivity and a better peak shape. A dual-wavelength detection mode was chosen to eliminate the light source shifting and sample matrix interference. Experimental parameters were optimized based on a univariate experimental design and the matrix effect from seawater was preliminarily investigated. The proposed method had high sensitivity with detection limit of 0.6 nmol L(-1) for both nitrite and nitrate. The linearity was 2-500 nmol L(-1) for both analytes, and the upper limit could be extended by choosing a lower sensitivity detection wavelength. The analytical results of 26 surface seawater samples obtained with the proposed method showed good agreement with those using a reference method operated using an automated segmented flow analyzer. The proposed method could greatly minimize the trouble introduced by bubbles in the segmented flow analyzer. It also had the advantages of high precision and high sample throughput (nitrite and nitrate detected in triplicate; 5 h(-1)). Compared to normal flow injection analysis, the rFIA method is superior due to its lower reagent consumption, less dispersion of sample, as well as higher sensitivity.

  10. Simulations of Injection, Mixing, and Combustion in Supersonic Flow Using a Hybrid RANS/LES Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, David Michael

    There is a great need for accurate and reliable numerical simulation of injection, mixing, and combustion in supersonic combustion ramjet engines. This study seeks to improve the accuracy and reliability which these flow can be simulated with by investigating the use of recent improvements in turbulence modeling and numerical methods. The present numerical simulations use implicit time integration and low-dissipation flux evaluation schemes in an unstructured grid framework. A hybrid Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes and large-eddy simulation approach is used to model turbulence. The large-scale turbulent structure of the flow is resolved, while the near-wall structure is fully modeled. The effects of numerics, grid resolution, and boundary conditions are investigated. The simulation approach is thoroughly validated against available experimental data at a variety of flow conditions. The simulations focus on the injection of fuel through circular injector ports that are oriented either normal to the supersonic crossflow, or at a low angle with respect to the crossflow. The instantaneous flow structure resolved by the simulations is qualitatively compared to experimental flowfield visualization. Quantitative comparisons are made to mean wall pressure, mean velocity, turbulence quantities, and mean mixing data. The simulations are found to do very well at predicting the mean flowfield as well as fluctuations in velocity and injectant concentration. The simulation approach is then used to simulate the flow within a model supersonic combustor. The focus is on the non-reacting case. The simulation results are found to agree well with experimental measurements of temperature and species concentrations. The flow is examined to improve understanding of the mixing within the model combustor. Preliminary results for a simulation including hydrogen combustion are also presented.

  11. Testing and comparison of four ionic tracers to measure stream flow loss by multiple tracer injection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zellweger, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    An injectate containing lithium, sodium, chloride and bromide was added continuously at five sites along a 507 m study reach of St Kevin Gulch, Lake County, Colorado to determine which sections of the stream were losing water to the stream bed and to ascertain how well the four tracers performed. The acidity of the stream (pH 3.6) made it possible for lithium and sodium, which are normally absorbed by ion exchange with stream bed sediment, to be used as conservative tracers. Net flow losses as low as 0.81 s-1, or 8% of flow, were calculated between measuring sites. By comparing the results of simultaneous injection it was determined whether subsections of the study reach were influent or effluent. Evaluation of tracer concentrations along 116 m of stream indicated that all four tracers behaved conservatively. Discharges measured by Parshall flumes were 4-18% greater than discharges measured by tracer dilution. -from Author

  12. "Reagentless" flow injection determination of ammonia and urea using membrane separation and solid phase basification.

    PubMed

    Akse, J R; Thompson, J O; Sauer, R L; Atwater, J E

    1998-07-01

    Flow injection analysis instrumentation and methodology for the determination of ammonia and ammonium ions in an aqueous solution are described. Using in-line solid phase basification beds containing crystalline media. the speciation of ammoniacal nitrogen is shifted toward the un-ionized form. which diffuses in the gas phase across a hydrophobic microporous hollow fiber membrane into a pure-water-containing analytical stream. The two streams flow in a countercurrent configuration on opposite sides of the membrane. The neutral pH of the analytical stream promotes the formation of ammonium cations, which are detected using specific conductance. The methodology provides a lower limit of detection of 10 microgram/L and a dynamic concentration range spanning three orders of magnitude using a 315-microliters sample injection volume. Using immobilized urease to enzymatically promote the hydrolysis of urea to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide, the technique has been extended to the determination of urea.

  13. Reagents regeneration flow injection analysis (RRFIA) for spectrophotometric determination of methamphetamine coupled with solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Teshima, Norio; Fukui, Nobukazu; Sakai, Tadao

    2005-12-15

    Methamphetamine (MPA), being a stimulant drug, reacts with tetrabromophenolphthalein ethyl ester (TBPEH) to form a red-violet ion associate, TBPEHMPA, in 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) at pH 9. The maximum absorption wavelength was at 570nm. After measuring, yellow TBPEH with DCE could be regenerated by mixing with the buffer solution at pH 3. The regenerated TBPEH/DCE could be reused as an ion association reagent and extracting solvent. In addition, the reagent regeneration could be performed by the on-line flow injection system and the cyclic flow injection analysis system was demonstrated for the determination of MPA without consumption of ion association reagent and organic solvent. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.5-3.5x10(-5)M with good repeatability. The sample throughput was 20h(-1).

  14. "Reagentless" flow injection determination of ammonia and urea using membrane separation and solid phase basification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, J. R.; Thompson, J. O.; Sauer, R. L.; Atwater, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    Flow injection analysis instrumentation and methodology for the determination of ammonia and ammonium ions in an aqueous solution are described. Using in-line solid phase basification beds containing crystalline media. the speciation of ammoniacal nitrogen is shifted toward the un-ionized form. which diffuses in the gas phase across a hydrophobic microporous hollow fiber membrane into a pure-water-containing analytical stream. The two streams flow in a countercurrent configuration on opposite sides of the membrane. The neutral pH of the analytical stream promotes the formation of ammonium cations, which are detected using specific conductance. The methodology provides a lower limit of detection of 10 microgram/L and a dynamic concentration range spanning three orders of magnitude using a 315-microliters sample injection volume. Using immobilized urease to enzymatically promote the hydrolysis of urea to produce ammonia and carbon dioxide, the technique has been extended to the determination of urea.

  15. Single standard calibration and data processing in flow injection titration based on concentration gradients

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, M. C. U.; Santos, A. V.; Honorato, R. S.; Pasquini, C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes use of gradients of concentration generated in flow injection (FI) systems to perform determinations based on points where the concentration of titrant and analyte are at stoichiometric ratio. Two procedures were developed. In one procedure the titrant is injected in a FI manifold and merges with the sample which is continuously pumped towards the detector. In the other procedure the sample is injected and merged with the titrant which is continuously pumped. Both techniques make use of concentration gradients of the sample or titrant generated in FI manifolds that contain a mixing chamber. This gradient is calibrated employing only one standard solution (usually the titrant) in order to convert any detector signal, obtained in the elapsed time after injection, to instantaneous concentration values. The flow system is microcomputer controlled and data are treated to locate points where the concentration of titrant and analyte are at the stoichiometric ratio. These points are found in abrupt changes of the signal × concentration curves obtained in the presence of the reaction. The method has been evaluated for determination of Fe(II) and acetic acid by spectrophotometric and conductimetric detection, respectively. Results show a mean relative standard deviation lower than 1%, an average accuracy of 1% and a high sampling processing capability (40 to 60 samples per hour). PMID:18924802

  16. Stability Analysis of High-Speed Boundary-Layer Flow with Gas Injection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    the boundary layer [1,2]. Non-equilibrium effects such as molecular vibration and dissociation can damp acoustic disturbances [3,4]. Carbon dioxide ...potential beneficial application of adding carbon dioxide into boundary-layer flows in order to delay transition onset. Experimentally, this is...will occur immediately following the injection of cold carbon dioxide . The test cases with air and nitrogen as the test gas suggested the momentum

  17. Modulating flow and aerodynamic characteristics of a square cylinder in crossflow using a rear jet injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rong F.; Hsu, Ching M.; Chen, Yu T.

    2017-01-01

    The temporally evolved flow behaviors around a square cylinder subject to modulation of a planar jet issued from the cylinder's downstream surface into the wake were studied using the laser-assisted smoke flow visualization method and synchronized hot-wire anemometers. The drag force asserted on the square cylinder was obtained by measuring the surface pressures. Four characteristic flow modes (wake-dominated, transitional, critical, and jet-dominated) were observed in different regimes of freestream Reynolds number and jet injection ratio. In the wake-dominated mode, the jet swung periodically back and forth on the downstream surface due to the wake vortex shedding. In the transitional mode, the vortex shedding in the wake vanished so that the flow around the cylinder presented no periodic oscillations. In the critical mode, the wake width became smaller and therefore made the vortex shedding frequency larger than that observed in the wake dominated mode. In the jet-dominated mode, the jet had a large momentum that entrained wake fluids and therefore stabilized the instabilities of the wake, separated boundary layers on lateral surfaces, and stagnation point on the upstream surface. Two standing vortices appeared in the near wake beside the high-momentum jet. The width of the wake was decreased substantially by jet entrainment. The drag coefficient decreased with an increase in the jet injection ratio. The downstream surface jet injection caused the pressure coefficients to decrease at the upstream surface and to increase at the downstream surface. Therefore, the drag coefficients were decreased significantly by 26%, 33%, and 38% at the injection ratios of 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5, respectively.

  18. Determination of total mercury in environmental and biological samples by flow injection cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, James; Jones, Phil; Hill, Steve J.

    1996-12-01

    A simple and accurate method has been developed for the determination of total mercury in environmental and biological samples. The method utilises an off-line microwave digestion stage followed by analysis using a flow injection system with detection by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry. The method has been validated using two certified reference materials (DORM-1 dogfish and MESS-2 estuarine sediment) and the results agreed well with the certified values. A detection limit of 0.2 ng g -1 Hg was obtained and no significant interference was observed. The method was finally applied to the determination of mercury in river sediments and canned tuna fish, and gave results in the range 0.1-3.0 mg kg -1.

  19. SAG injection in a North Sea stratified reservoir: Flow experiment and simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hanssen, J.E.; Surguchev, L.M.; Svorstoel, I.

    1994-12-31

    This paper is a study of a novel recovery process for stratified reservoirs with large permeability contrasts. A slug of foaming surfactant is injected alternately with gas, thus by analogy with WAG making this a SAG injection process. A combined experimental and numerical evaluation demonstrating effective diversion by foam and significant recovery potential over WAG of the method is reported. An experiment with the new process was performed in a visual 2-D porous medium flow model approximately scaled to the conditions of a North Sea reservoir that is characterized by high permeability contrast and limited interlayer communication. The experiment showed poor performance of conventional WAG, which swept mainly the high-permeable layer. Placement of a surfactant slug and later foam generation in the swept layer was successfully demonstrated and gave efficient injectant diversion into the other layers, resulting in complete sweep of the reservoir model by continued WAG. In summary the results of this paper show experimentally and by simulation on the same system that SAG injection as implemented here is superior to WAG injection and that the rich observations made in the experimental ca be matched with reasonable accuracy using a commercial simulator with only empirical parameters.

  20. Reverse flow injection spectrophotometric determination of iodate and iodide in table salt.

    PubMed

    Xie, Zhihai; Zhao, Jingchan

    2004-05-28

    A very simple and sensitive reverse flow injection method is described for the determination of iodate and iodide. The iodate reacts with excess iodide in acidic medium to form tri-iodide, which can be spectrophotometrically monitored at 351nm, and the absorbance is directly related to the concentration of iodate in the sample. The determination of iodide is based on oxidizing iodide to iodate. The calibration curve is linear in the range of 0.02-3.0mugml(-1) I with r(2)=0.9998, and the limit of detection is 0.008mugml(-1) I. The chemical and flow injection variables were studied and optimized to make the procedure suitable for quantitating iodate and iodide in table salts. It is shown that the reverse flow injection analysis could greatly improve the sensitivity and precision for determination of iodate with a relative standard deviation of 0.9%. A complete analysis, including sampling and washing, could be performed in 35s. The procedure was applied successfully to the determination of iodate and iodide in table salts, and the results were statistically compared with results determined by standard iodometry method.

  1. Potentiometric electronic tongue-flow injection analysis system for the monitoring of heavy metal biosorption processes.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D; del Valle, M; Alegret, S; Valderrama, C; Florido, A

    2012-05-15

    An automated flow injection potentiometric (FIP) system with electronic tongue detection (ET) is used for the monitoring of biosorption processes of heavy metals on vegetable wastes. Grape stalk wastes are used as biosorbent to remove Cu(2+) ions in a fixed-bed column configuration. The ET is formed by a 5-sensor array with Cu(2+) and Ca(2+)-selective electrodes and electrodes with generic response to heavy-metals, plus an artificial neural network response model of the sensor's cross-response. The real-time monitoring of both the Cu(2+) and the cation exchanged and released (Ca(2+)) in the effluent solution is performed by using flow-injection potentiometric electronic tongue system. The coupling of the electronic tongue with automation features of the flow-injection system allows us to accurately characterize the Cu(2+) ion-biosorption process, through obtaining its breakthrough curves, and the profile of the Ca(2+) ion release. In parallel, fractions of the extract solution are analysed by spectroscopic techniques in order to validate the results obtained with the reported methodology. The sorption performance of grape stalks is also evaluated by means of well-established sorption models.

  2. Pervaporation-flow injection with chemiluminescence detection for determination of iodide in multivitamin tablets.

    PubMed

    Nacapricha, D; Sangkarn, P; Karuwan, C; Mantim, T; Waiyawat, W; Wilairat, P; Cardwell, T; McKelvie, I D; Ratanawimarnwong, N

    2007-04-30

    This paper describes the use of a pervaporation (PV) technique in a flow injection (FI) system for selective improvement in iodide analysis. Iodide in the sample zone is oxidized to iodine, which permeates through a hydrophobic membrane. Detection of the diffused iodine is achieved using the chemiluminescent (CL) emission at 425nm that results from the reaction between iodine and luminol. The method was applied for the analysis of some pharmaceutical products, such as nuclear emergency tablets and multivitamin tablets. Ascorbic acid present in multivitamin samples interfered seriously with the analysis, and off-line sample treatment using anion exchange resin was employed to successfully remove ascorbic acid before the analysis. Ascorbic acid was flushed from the column using 0.4M sodium nitrate followed by elution of iodide with 2M sodium nitrate. The detection limit (3S.D.) of the system was 0.5mgl(-1), with reproducibility of 5.2% R.S.D. at 5mgl(-1). Sample throughput was determined as 30injectionsh(-1). There was good agreement between iodide concentrations from extracted samples determined using four different methods, i.e., PV-FI, gas diffusion-flow injection, potentiometry and ICP-MS. A comparison of the analytical features of the developed pervaporation system with these of the previously reported chemiluminescence gas diffusion-flow injection previously reported is also described.

  3. Hydrodynamic sample injection into short electrophoretic capillary in systems with a flow-gating interface.

    PubMed

    Opekar, František; Tůma, Petr

    2017-01-13

    An electrophoretic apparatus with a flow-gating interface has been developed, enabling hydrodynamic sequence injection of the sample into the separation capillary from the liquid flow by underpressure generated in the outlet electrophoretic vessel. The properties of the apparatus were tested on an artificial sample of an equimolar mixture of 100μM potassium and sodium ions and arginine. The repeatability of the injection of the tested ions expressed as RSD (in%) for the peak area, peak height and migration time was in the range 0.76-2.08, 0.18-0.68 and 0.28-0.48, respectively. Under optimum conditions, the apparatus was used for sequence monitoring of the reaction between the antidiabetic drug phenyl biguanide and the glycation agent methyl glyoxal. The reaction solution was continuously sampled by a microdialysis probe from a thermostated external vessel using a syringe pump at a flow rate of 3μLmin(-1) and was injected into a separation capillary at certain time intervals. The electrophoretic separation progressed in a capillary with an internal diameter of 50μm with a length of 11.5cm and was monitored using a contactless conductivity detector.

  4. Fluoroscopically guided extraforaminal cervical nerve root blocks: analysis of epidural flow of the injectate with respect to needle tip position.

    PubMed

    Shipley, Kyle; Riew, K Daniel; Gilula, Louis A

    2014-02-01

    Study Design Retrospective evaluation of consecutively performed fluoroscopically guided cervical nerve root blocks. Objective To describe the incidence of injectate central epidural flow with respect to needle tip position during fluoroscopically guided extraforaminal cervical nerve root blocks (ECNRBs). Methods Between February 19, 2003 and June 11, 2003, 132 consecutive fluoroscopically guided ECNRBs performed with contrast media in the final injected material (injectate) were reviewed on 95 patients with average of 1.3 injections per patient. Fluoroscopic spot images documenting the procedure were obtained as part of standard quality assurance. An independent observer not directly involved in the procedures retrospectively reviewed the images, and the data were placed into a database. Image review was performed to determine optimal needle tip positioning for injectate epidural flow. Results Central epidural injectate flow was obtained in only 28.9% of injections with the needle tip lateral to midline of the lateral mass (zone 2). 83.8% of injectate went into epidural space when the needle tip was medial to midline of the lateral mass (zone 3). 100% of injectate flowed epidurally when the needle tip was medial to or at the medial cortex of the lateral mass (zone 4). There was no statistically significant difference with regards to central epidural flow and the needle tip position on lateral view. Conclusion To ensure central epidural flow with ECNRBs one must be prepared to pass the needle tip medial to midplane of the lateral mass or to medial cortex of the lateral mass. Approximately 16% of ECNRBs with needle tip medial to midline of the lateral mass did not flow into epidural space. One cannot claim a nerve block is an epidural block unless epidural flow of injectate is observed.

  5. MICROSCALE FLOW INJECTION AND MICROBORE HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATORGRAPHY COUPLED WITH INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY VIA A HIGH-EFFICIENCY NEBULIZER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A high-effeciency nebulizer has been used for coupling microscale flow injection and microbore high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The microscale flow injection system was configured to minimize band broadening between...

  6. Sensitive competitive flow injection chemiluminescence immunoassay for IgG using gold nanoparticle as label

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Honglan; Shangguan, Li; Liang, Lin; Ling, Chen; Gao, Qiang; Zhang, Chengxiao

    2011-11-01

    A sensitive competitive flow injection chemiluminescence (CL-FIA) immunoassay for immunoglobulin G (IgG) was developed using gold nanoparticle as CL label. In the configuration, anti-IgG antibody was immobilized on a glass capillary column surface by 3-(aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane and glutaraldehyde to form immunoaffinity column. Analyte IgG and gold nanoparticle labeled IgG were passed through the immunoaffinity column mounted in a flow system and competed for the surface-confined anti-IgG antibody. CL emission was generated from the reaction between luminol and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of Au (III), generated from chemically oxidative dissolution of gold nanoparticle by an injection of 0.10 mol L -1 HCl-0.10 mol L -1 NaCl solution containing 0.10 mmol L -1 Br 2. The concentration of analyte IgG was inversely related to the amount of bound gold nanoparticle labeled IgG and the CL intensity was linear with the concentration of analyte IgG from 1.0 ng mL -1 to 40 ng mL -1 with a detection limit of 5.2 × 10 -10 g mL -1. The whole assay time including the injections and washing steps was only 30 min for one sample, which was competitive with CL immunoassays based on a gold nanoparticle label and magnetic separation. This work demonstrates that the CL immunoassay incorporation of nanoparticle label and flow injection is promising for clinical assay with sensitivity and high-speed.

  7. Characterization and optimization of low cost microfluidic thread based electroanalytical device for micro flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Agustini, Deonir; Bergamini, Márcio F; Marcolino-Junior, Luiz Humberto

    2017-01-25

    The micro flow injection analysis (μFIA) is a powerful technique that uses the principles of traditional flow analysis in a microfluidic device and brings a number of improvements related to the consumption of reagents and samples, speed of analysis and portability. However, the complexity and cost of manufacturing processes, difficulty in integrating micropumps and the limited performance of systems employing passive pumps are challenges that must be overcome. Here, we present the characterization and optimization of a low cost device based on cotton threads as microfluidic channel to perform μFIA based on passive pumps with good analytical performance in a simple, easy and inexpensive way. The transport of solutions is made through cotton threads by capillary force facilitated by gravity. After studying and optimizing several features related to the device, were obtained a flow rate of 2.2 ± 0.1 μL s(-1), an analytical frequency of 208 injections per hour, a sample injection volume of 2.0 μL and a waste volume of approximately 40 μL per analysis. For chronoamperometric determination of naproxen, a detection limit of 0.29 μmol L(-1) was reached, with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.69% between injections and a RSD of 3.79% with five different devices. Thus, based on the performance presented by proposed microfluidic device, it is possible to overcome some limitations of the μFIA systems based on passive pumps and allow expansion in the use of this technique.

  8. Automated determination of nitrate plus nitrite in aqueous samples with flow injection analysis using vanadium (III) chloride as reductant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu; Lin, Kunning; Chen, Nengwang; Yuan, Dongxing; Ma, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Determination of nitrate in aqueous samples is an important analytical objective for environmental monitoring and assessment. Here we report the first automatic flow injection analysis (FIA) of nitrate (plus nitrite) using VCl3 as reductant instead of the well-known but toxic cadmium column for reducing nitrate to nitrite. The reduced nitrate plus the nitrite originally present in the sample react with the Griess reagent (sulfanilamide and N-1-naphthylethylenediamine dihydrochloride) under acidic condition. The resulting pink azo dye can be detected at 540 nm. The Griess reagent and VCl3 are used as a single mixed reagent solution to simplify the system. The various parameters of the FIA procedure including reagent composition, temperature, volume of the injection loop, and flow rate were carefully investigated and optimized via univariate experimental design. Under the optimized conditions, the linear range and detection limit of this method are 0-100 µM (R(2)=0.9995) and 0.1 µM, respectively. The targeted analytical range can be easily extended to higher concentrations by selecting alternative detection wavelengths or increasing flow rate. The FIA system provides a sample throughput of 20 h(-1), which is much higher than that of previously reported manual methods based on the same chemistry. National reference solutions and different kinds of aqueous samples were analyzed with our method as well as the cadmium column reduction method. The results from our method agree well with both the certified value and the results from the cadmium column reduction method (no significant difference with P=0.95). The spiked recovery varies from 89% to 108% for samples with different matrices, showing insignificant matrix interference in this method.

  9. Hybrid LES/RANS Simulation of Transverse Sonic Injection into a Mach 2 Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boles, John A.; Edwards, Jack R.; Baurle, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    A computational study of transverse sonic injection of air and helium into a Mach 1.98 cross-flow is presented. A hybrid large-eddy simulation / Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (LES/RANS) turbulence model is used, with the two-equation Menter baseline (Menter-BSL) closure for the RANS part of the flow and a Smagorinsky-type model for the LES part of the flow. A time-dependent blending function, dependent on modeled turbulence variables, is used to shift the closure from RANS to LES. Turbulent structures are initiated and sustained through the use of a recycling / rescaling technique. Two higher-order discretizations, the Piecewise Parabolic Method (PPM) of Colella and Woodward, and the SONIC-A ENO scheme of Suresh and Huyhn are used in the study. The results using the hybrid model show reasonably good agreement with time-averaged Mie scattering data and with experimental surface pressure distributions, even though the penetration of the jet into the cross-flow is slightly over-predicted. The LES/RANS results are used to examine the validity of commonly-used assumptions of constant Schmidt and Prandtl numbers in the intense mixing zone downstream of the injection location.

  10. Automated multiple flow-injection analysis in clinical chemistry: determination of total protein with Biuret reagent.

    PubMed

    Shideler, C E; Stewart, K K; Crump, J; Wills, M R; Savory, J; Renoe, B W

    1980-09-01

    We have examined the feasibility of the automated multiple flow-injection technique for application to clinical chemistry by adapting to this system the biuret method for the determination of total protein. Samples were discretely and rapidly introduced into a continuously flowing, nonsegmented reagent stream by means of an automatic sampler and high-pressure injection valve. Pumps operating at 1380-2070 kPa (200-300 psi) were utilized to introduce the biuret reagent and saline diluent into the system separately at flow rates of 72 and 47 microL/s, respectively. Use of 20-microL sample and a 3.0-s reaction-delay coil was adequately sensitive for analysis for total protein by this method. Samples were analyzed at a rate of 150/h with no detectable between-sample carryover. Within-run precision studies yielded relative standard deviations of 2.5% and less. Total protein values obtained by this method correlated well with those obtained by centrifugal analyzer and bubble-segmented continuous-flow biuret methods.

  11. Effect of Transpiration Injection on Skin Friction in an Internal Supersonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castiglone, L. A.; Northam, G. B.; Baker, N. R.; Roe, L. A.

    1996-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center that included development and evaluation of an operational facility for wall drag measurement of potential scramjet fuel injection or wall cooling configurations. The facility consisted of a supersonic tunnel, with one wall composed of a series of interchangeable aluminum plates attached to an air bearing suspension system. The system was equipped with load cells that measured drag forces of 115 psia (793 kPa). This flow field contained a train of weak, unsteady, reflecting shock waves that were produced in the Mach 2 nozzle flows, the effect of reflecting shocks (which are to be expected in scramjet combustors) in internal flows has not previously been documented.

  12. Flow injection-chemical vapor generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry hyphenated system for organic mercury determination: A step forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeli, Valeria; Biagi, Simona; Ghimenti, Silvia; Onor, Massimo; D'Ulivo, Alessandro; Bramanti, Emilia

    2011-11-01

    Monomethylmercury and ethylmercury were determined on line using flow injection-chemical vapor generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry without neither requiring a pre-treatment with chemical oxidants, nor UV/MW additional post column interface, nor organic solvents, nor complexing agents, such as cysteine. Inorganic mercury, monomethylmercury and ethylmercury were detected by atomic fluorescence spectrometry in an Ar/H 2 miniaturized flame after sodium borohydride reduction to Hg 0, monomethylmercury hydride and ethylmercury hydride, respectively. The effect of mercury complexing agent such as cysteine, ethylendiaminotetracetic acid and HCl with respect to water and Ar/H 2 microflame was investigated. The behavior of inorganic mercury, monomethylmercury and ethylmercury and their cysteine-complexes was also studied by continuous flow-chemical vapor generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry in order to characterize the reduction reaction with tetrahydroborate. When complexed with cysteine, inorganic mercury, monomethylmercury and ethylmercury cannot be separately quantified varying tetrahydroborate concentration due to a lack of selectivity, and their speciation requires a pre-separation stage (e.g. a chromatographic separation). If not complexed with cysteine, monomethylmercury and ethylmercury cannot be separated, as well, but their sum can be quantified separately with respect to inorganic mercury choosing a suitable concentration of tetrahydroborate (e.g. 10 - 5 mol L - 1 ), thus allowing the organic/inorganic mercury speciation. The detection limits of the flow injection-chemical vapor generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry method were about 45 nmol L - 1 (as mercury) for all the species considered, a relative standard deviation ranging between 1.8 and 2.9% and a linear dynamic range between 0.1 and 5 μmol L - 1 were obtained. Recoveries of monomethylmercury and ethylmercury with respect to inorganic mercury were never less than 91%. Flow injection

  13. Modeling of the flow continuum and optimal design of control-oriented injection systems in liquid composite molding processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokce, Ali

    Several methodologies are presented in this dissertation that aim to ensure successful filling of the mold cavity consistently, during the mold filling stage of Liquid Composite Molding (LCM) processes such as Resin Transfer Molding (RTM), Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) and Seemann Composites Resin Infusion Molding (SCRIMP). Key parameters that affect the resin flow in the mold cavity can be divided into two main groups as continuum-related parameters and injection-related parameters. Flow continuum, which consists of all the spaces resin can reach in the mold cavity, has two major components: the porous medium, which is made up of the fiber reinforcements, and the flow channels that are introduced into the flow continuum unintentionally and offer an easy flow path to the resin. The properties that characterize the porous medium and the unintentional flow channels are continuum-related parameters. The injection-related parameters include resin injection locations (gates), resin injection conditions and air drainage locations (vents). Modeling the flow continuum is crucial in predicting the resin flow in the mold cavity. In this study, permeability, the key property of the porous medium, is predicted using the Method of Cells, a proven method to predict macroscopic properties of heterogeneous materials. Unintentional flow channels, which are also called racetracking channels, are modeled using a probabilistic approach. Injection-related parameters are the key tools to influence the resin flow in the mold cavity. In this study, Branch and Bound Search is modified for single gate optimization. Due to its pertinence to injection system design, the parameters that govern gate effectiveness in steering the resin advance are studied. A combinatorial search algorithm is proposed for vent optimization. Vent optimization and gate optimization algorithms are integrated for simultaneous gate and vent optimization. Overall, these methodologies reduce the cycle

  14. Flow injection determination of bromide ion in a developer using bromide ion-selective electrode detector.

    PubMed

    Masadome, T; Asano, Y; Nakamura, T

    1999-10-01

    A potentiometric flow injection determination method for bromide ion in a developer was proposed, by utilizing a flow-through type bromide ion-selective electrode detector. The sensing membrane of the electrode was Ag(2)S-AgBr membrane. The response of the electrode detector as a peak-shape signal was obtained for injected bromide ion in a developer. A linear relationship was found to exist between peak height and the concentration of the bromide ion in a developer in a concentration range from 1.0x10(-3) to 1.0x10(-2) mol l(-1). The relative standard deviation for 10 injections of a 6x10(-3) mol l(-1) bromide ion in a developer was 1.3% and the sampling rate was ca 17-20 samples h(-1). The present method was free from the interference of an organic reducing reagent, an organic substance in a developer sample solution for the determination of bromide ion in a developer.

  15. Flow injection colorimetric method using acidic ceric nitrate as reagent for determination of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Pinyou, Piyanut; Youngvises, Napaporn; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2011-05-15

    Ceric ammonium nitrate has been used for qualitative analysis of ethanol. It forms an intensely colored unstable complex with alcohol. In this work, a simple flow injection (FI) colorimetric method was developed for the determination of ethanol, based on the reaction of ethanol with ceric ion in acidic medium to produce a red colored product having maximum absorption at 415 nm. Absorbance of this complex could be precisely measured in the FI system. A standard or sample solution was injected into a deionized water donor stream and flowed to a gas diffusion unit, where the ethanol diffused through a gas permeable membrane made of plumbing PTFE tape into an acceptor stream to react with ceric ammonium nitrate in nitric acid. Color intensity of the reddish product was monitored by a laboratory made LED based colorimeter and the signal was recorded on a computer as a peak. Peak height obtained was linearly proportional to the concentration of ethanol originally presented in the injected solution in the range of 0.1-10.0% (v/v) (r(2)=0.9993), with detection limit of 0.03% (v/v). With the use of gas diffusion membrane, most of the interferences could be eliminated. The proposed method was successfully applied for determination of ethanol in some alcoholic beverages, validating by gas chromatographic method.

  16. Determination of trace amounts of phosphate by flow-injection photometry.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Sathrugnan; Hashigaya, Seigo; Kajiya, Tasuku; Hirata, Shizuko

    2004-04-01

    This paper describes a simple and rapid procedure for determination of traces of phosphate by means of molybdenum blue chemistry. The use of a cost-effective home-made flow cell with a long path length in combination with a light emitting diode (LED) and a photodiode (PD) is demonstrated as a simple absorbance detector for flow-injection analysis. In this method, a sample is injected into the carrier stream through an injection valve and mixed online with mixed reagent (a mixture of molybdate, bismuth, and ascorbic acid in sulfuric acid). The color intensity of the resulting association complex, molybdenum blue, is measured photometrically ( lambda(max) 875 nm). The proposed method can be used to detect phosphate in the range 0.02-4.0 mg x L(-1) and the precision of the proposed procedure is less than 5% at 0.1 mg x L(-1) phosphorus as phosphate. The method has been successfully applied to a variety of natural water samples.

  17. Approximate solutions for Forchheimer flow during water injection and water production in an unconfined aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, Simon A.; Moutsopoulos, Konstantinos N.

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the hydraulics around injection and production wells in unconfined aquifers associated with rainwater and reclaimed water aquifer storage schemes is an issue of increasing importance. Much work has been done previously to understand the mathematics associated with Darcy's law in this context. However, groundwater flow velocities around injection and production wells are likely to be sufficiently large such as to induce significant non-Darcy effects. This article presents a mathematical analysis to look at Forchheimer's equation in the context of water injection and water production in unconfined aquifers. Three different approximate solutions are derived using quasi-steady-state assumptions and the method of matched asymptotic expansion. The resulting approximate solutions are shown to be accurate for a wide range of practical scenarios by comparison with a finite difference solution to the full problem of concern. The approximate solutions have led to an improved understanding of the flow dynamics. They can also be used as verification tools for future numerical models in this context.

  18. Visualization analysis of tiger-striped flow mark generation phenomena in injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owada, Shigeru; Yokoi, Hidetoshi

    2016-03-01

    The generation mechanism of tiger-striped flow marks of polypropylene (PP)/rubber/talc blends in injection molding was investigated by dynamic visualization analysis in a glass-inserted mold. The analysis revealed that the behavior of the melt flow front correlates with the flow mark generation. The cloudy part in the tiger-striped flow marks corresponded to the low transcription rate area of the melt diverging near the cavity wall, while the glossy part corresponded to the high transcription rate area of the melt converging toward the cavity wall side. The melt temperature at the high transcription rate area was slightly lower than that at the low transcription rate area. These phenomena resulted due to the difference in the temperature of the melt front that was caused by the asymmetric fountain flow. These results suggest the followings; At the moment when the melt is broken near the one side of cavity wall due to piling the extensional strains up to a certain level, the melt spurts out near the broken side. It results in generating asymmetric fountain flow temporarily to relax the extensional front surface, which moves toward the opposite side to form the high transcription area.

  19. National Combustion Code Validated Against Lean Direct Injection Flow Field Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iannetti, Anthony C.

    2003-01-01

    Most combustion processes have, in some way or another, a recirculating flow field. This recirculation stabilizes the reaction zone, or flame, but an unnecessarily large recirculation zone can result in high nitrogen oxide (NOx) values for combustion systems. The size of this recirculation zone is crucial to the performance of state-of-the-art, low-emissions hardware. If this is a large-scale combustion process, the flow field will probably be turbulent and, therefore, three-dimensional. This research dealt primarily with flow fields resulting from lean direct injection (LDI) concepts, as described in Research & Technology 2001. LDI is a concept that depends heavily on the design of the swirler. The LDI concept has the potential to reduce NOx values from 50 to 70 percent of current values, with good flame stability characteristics. It is cost effective and (hopefully) beneficial to do most of the design work for an LDI swirler using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are CAE tools that can calculate three-dimensional flows in complex geometries. However, CFD codes are only beginning to correctly calculate the flow fields for complex devices, and the related combustion models usually remove a large portion of the flow physics.

  20. Visualization of regional cerebrospinal fluid flow with a dye injection technique in focal arachnoid pathologies.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Hida, Kazutoshi; Takeda, Masaaki; Mitsuhara, Takafumi; Morishige, Mizuki; Yamada, Naoto; Kurisu, Kaoru

    2015-05-01

    Surgical lysis of the thickened arachnoid membrane is the first choice of treatment in spinal arachnoid pathologies that cause flow disturbances or blockage of CSF. However, it is important to consider that while extensive lysis of the arachnoid may temporarily provide a wide pathway for CSF, an extensive lytic procedure may later cause secondary adhesion. Thus, it is ideal for the proper extent of the arachnoid lysis to be determined after careful analysis of regional CSF flow. The authors report their limited experience with intraoperative visualization of CSF flow in spinal arachnoid pathologies. Two patients with a dorsal arachnoid web (DAW) with cervical syringomyelia and 1 patient with focal adhesive arachnoiditis causing edema of the spinal cord were surgically treated at the authors' institution between 2007 and 2013. In all cases, the presence of a DAW or focal adhesive arachnoiditis was suspected from the findings on MRI, namely 1) an indentation on the upper thoracic spinal cord and 2) syringomyelia and/or edema of the spinal cord above the indentation. Exploratory surgery disclosed a transversely thickened arachnoid septum on the dorsal side of the indented cord. To prove blockage of the CSF by the septum and to decide on the extent of arachnoid lysis, regional CSF flow around the arachnoid septum was visualized by subarachnoid injection of gentian violet solution close to the web. Injected dye stagnated just close to the arachnoid septum in all cases, and these findings documented CSF blockage by the septum. In 2 cases, a 2-minute observation showed that the injected dye stayed close to the web without diffusion. The authors performed not only resection of the web itself but also lysis of the thickened arachnoid on both sides of the spinal cord to make a CSF pathway on the ventral side. In the third case, the dye stagnated close to the web at first but then diffused through the nerve root to the ventral CSF space. The lysis procedure was completed

  1. Droplet-based microfluidic flow injection system with large-scale concentration gradient by a single nanoliter-scale injection for enzyme inhibition assay.

    PubMed

    Cai, Long-Fei; Zhu, Ying; Du, Guan-Sheng; Fang, Qun

    2012-01-03

    We described a microfluidic chip-based system capable of generating droplet array with a large scale concentration gradient by coupling flow injection gradient technique with droplet-based microfluidics. Multiple modules including sample injection, sample dispersion, gradient generation, droplet formation, mixing of sample and reagents, and online reaction within the droplets were integrated into the microchip. In the system, nanoliter-scale sample solution was automatically injected into the chip under valveless flow injection analysis mode. The sample zone was first dispersed in the microchannel to form a concentration gradient along the axial direction of the microchannel and then segmented into a linear array of droplets by immiscible oil phase. With the segmentation and protection of the oil phase, the concentration gradient profile of the sample was preserved in the droplet array with high fidelity. With a single injection of 16 nL of sample solution, an array of droplets with concentration gradient spanning 3-4 orders of magnitude could be generated. The present system was applied in the enzyme inhibition assay of β-galactosidase to preliminarily demonstrate its potential in high throughput drug screening. With a single injection of 16 nL of inhibitor solution, more than 240 in-droplet enzyme inhibition reactions with different inhibitor concentrations could be performed with an analysis time of 2.5 min. Compared with multiwell plate-based screening systems, the inhibitor consumption was reduced 1000-fold.

  2. Determination of Hypochlorite in Bleaching Products with Flower Extracts to Demonstrate the Principles of Flow Injection Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Luiz Antonio; Prieto, Katia Roberta; Carvalheiro, Eder Tadeu Gomes; Carvalheiro, Carla Cristina Schmitt

    2005-01-01

    The use of crude flower extracts to the principle of analytical chemistry automation, with the flow injection analysis (FIA) procedure developed to determine hypochlorite in household bleaching products was performed. The FIA comprises a group of techniques based on injection of a liquid sample into a moving, nonsegmented carrier stream of a…

  3. Flow, spray and combustion analysis by laser techniques in the combustion chamber of a direct-injection diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hentschel, W.; Schindler, K.-P.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show how the analysis of in -cylinder flow, fuel injection, and combustion by means of state-of-the-art optical techniques, as laser light-sheet, laser doppler anemometry and laser shadowgraphy, can help to support the understanding of the interaction of swirl flow development, spray formation, auto-ignition and combustion in near production-line direct-injection diesel engines and thus advances the development of engines with lower fuel consumption and emissions.

  4. Simple flow injection colorimetric system for determination of paraquat in natural water.

    PubMed

    Chuntib, Prakit; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2015-11-01

    A simple and low cost flow injection colorimetric system has been developed for determination of paraquat in natural water. The developed method is based on the reduction of paraquat by using sodium dithionite as a reducing agent in an alkaline medium to produce a blue free radical ion that can be detected by a simple light emitting diode-light dependent resistor (LED-LDR) colorimeter. The standard or sample solution was injected via a set of 3-way solenoid valves into a water carrier stream and flowed to merge with reagent to generate a colored product which is proportional to the concentration of paraquat ion in the solution. Under the optimum condition of the system, i.e., mixing coil length 30 cm, flow rate 2.0 mL min(-1), sample volume 100 μL, concentrations of dithionite 0.1% (w/v) and sodium hydroxide 0.06 mol L(-1), a linear calibration graph in the range of 0.2-10.0 mg L(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996, and a limit of detection of 0.15 mg L(-1) were achieved. Relative standard deviation for 9 replicate injections of 1 mg L(-1) paraquat is 3.7%. A sample throughput of 40 injections h(-1) was achieved. The limit of detection can be improved by off-line preconcentration of paraquat employing a column packed with Dowex 50WX8-100 (H) cation exchange resin and eluted with 10% (w/v) ammonium chloride in ammonium buffer solution pH 10. The eluting solution was then injected into the FI system for paraquat determination. The proposed system did not suffer from interferences of some possible ions in natural water and other herbicides. Recoveries obtained by spiking 0.5 and 5.0 mg L(-1) paraquat standard into water samples were in the range of 104-110% and 101-105%, respectively. The developed system can be conveniently applied for screening of paraquat contaminated in natural water.

  5. Flow injection analysis of mercury(II) in pharmaceuticals based on enzyme inhibition and biosensor detection.

    PubMed

    Bertocchi, P; Ciranni, E; Compagnone, D; Magearu, V; Palleschi, G; Pirvutoiu, S; Valvo, L

    1999-06-01

    An enzymatic amperometric procedure for measurement of mercury(II) in pharmaceuticals, based on the inhibition of invertase and on a glucose electrode was studied. Analytical parameters for measurements in batch and flow injection analysis (FIA) have been optimised. Mercury(II) was detected in the 10-60 ppb range with RSD < or =2%. A sample throughput of 6 h(-1) for batch and 15 h(-1) for FIA was obtained. The total mercury(II) from thimerosal (thiomersal, sodium ethylmercurithiosalicylate) in eye-drop samples was measured with the amperometric procedure after oxidative cleavage treatment. Results for both batch and FIA procedures correlated well with atomic absorbtion spectroscopy (AAS) data.

  6. The effect of wall suction/injection on MHD Marangoni convection boundary layer flow in nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, Rohana Abdul; Arifin, Norihan Md.

    2014-07-01

    The problem of Marangoni-driven boundary layer flow over a permeable flat surface in an electrically conducting nanofluid is considered in the present paper. Numerical solutions of the similarity equations are obtained using the shooting method. Three types of nanoparticles, namely copper (Cu), alumina (Al2O3) and titania (TiO2) are considered by using a water-based fluid to investigate the effect of nanoparticle volume fraction parameter φ of the nanofluid. It is found that the wall suction or injection has the significant effect on the velocity and temperature profiles.

  7. Large Eddy Simulation of a Cavitating Multiphase Flow for Liquid Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cailloux, M.; Helie, J.; Reveillon, J.; Demoulin, F. X.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a numerical method for modelling a compressible multiphase flow that involves phase transition between liquid and vapour in the context of gasoline injection. A discontinuous compressible two fluid mixture based on the Volume of Fluid (VOF) implementation is employed to represent the phases of liquid, vapour and air. The mass transfer between phases is modelled by standard models such as Kunz or Schnerr-Sauer but including the presence of air in the gas phase. Turbulence is modelled using a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) approach to catch instationnarities and coherent structures. Eventually the modelling approach matches favourably experimental data concerning the effect of cavitation on atomisation process.

  8. Injection of Nucleate-Boiling Slug Flows into a Heat Exchange Chamber in Microgravity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    usefhl reaction medimn. Properties I FC-72 Apperu·ar1ce Clear, colorless Average Molecular Weight 338 Boiling Point (I atm) 56°C Pour Point -90°C...at n01mal boiling point ) 88J/g Liqtrid Density 1680kg/m3 Kinematic Viscosity 0.38 centistokes Absolute Viscosity 0.64 centipoise Liqtrid Specific...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2015-0029 Injection of nucleate- boiling slug flows into a heat exchange chamber in microgravity Jaume

  9. Investigation of a chemiluminescent system for the determination of ammonia by flow-injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kraus, P.R.; Crouch, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    A novel system for the determination of ammonia based on the chemiluminescent reaction between hypochlorite and luminol is presented. The technique of flow injection analysis was employed to automate the system. Ammonia reacts with hypochlorite to form monochloramine in basic solution which decreases the observed chemiluminescence intensity. Several interferents are identified, and the reasons why they interfere are discussed. The effects of interferents are minimized through the use of a double-tube dialyzer where the ammonia is diffused across the dialyzer membrane into a recipient stream of hydrochloric acid.

  10. Determination of thallium in soils by flow-injection-differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Lukaszewski, Z; Zembrzuski, W

    1992-03-01

    A relatively simple and quick method for the determination of thallium in soils is described. The method does not require any separation prior to determination. Total decomposition of the sample was performed in a teflon bomb. The interferences of iron, aluminum and manganese were removed by media exchange performed in a flow-injection measuring system, and the other interferences were removed by the use of the base electrolyte consisting of 0.15M EDTA and 0.1M ascorbic acid. The contents of thallium in the examined samples of soil were between 100 and 350 ppb.

  11. Trace determination of aqueous sulfite, sulfide, and methanethiol by fluorometric flow injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, P.K.; Yang, H.C.

    1986-11-01

    Preservation of sulfite, sulfide, and methanethiol in buffered formaldehyde and oxaldihydroxamic acid stabilizers has been studied. Flow injection analysis procedures that involve T mixing or membrane-based reagent introduction have been developed for the fast (24 samples/h) analysis of these anions based upon the reaction with N-acridinylmaleimide in a water-N,N-dimethylformamide medium to form a fluorescent product. Detection limits are 0.04, 0.60, and 0.80 ..mu..M, respectively, for the three sulfur species; differential analysis is possible.

  12. Generation of electromagnetic emission during the injection of dense supersonic plasma flows into arched magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfeld, Dmitry; Golubev, Sergey; Viktorov, Mikhail; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Yushkov, George

    2015-11-01

    Interaction of dense supersonic plasma flows with an inhomogeneous arched magnetic field is one of the key problems in near-Earth and space plasma physics. In this work a new experimental approach is suggested to study interaction of supersonic (ion Mach number up to 2.7) dense (up to 1015cm-3) plasma flows with inhomogeneous magnetic field (an arched magnetic trap with a field strength up to 3.3 T) which opens wide opportunities to model space plasma processes in laboratory conditions. Fully ionized plasma flows with density from 1013cm-3 to 1015cm-3 are created by plasma generator on the basis of pulsed vacuum arc discharge and injected into open magnetic trap across magnetic field lines. The filling of the arched magnetic trap with plasma and further magnetic field lines break by dense plasma flow was accompanied by pulsed electromagnetic emission at electron cyclotron frequency range, which can generated by electrons in the place of intensive deceleration of plasma flow in magnetic field. Grant of Ministry of Education 14.Z50.31.0007.

  13. Scale-up from batch to flow-through wet milling process for injectable depot formulation.

    PubMed

    Lehocký, Róbert; Pěček, Daniel; Štěpánek, František

    2016-12-01

    Injectable depot formulations are aimed at providing long-term sustained release of a drug into systemic circulation, thus reducing plasma level fluctuations and improving patient compliance. The particle size distribution of the formulation in the form of suspension is a key parameter that controls the release rate. In this work, the process of wet stirred media milling (ball milling) of a poorly water-soluble substance has been investigated with two main aims: (i) to determine the parametric sensitivity of milling kinetics; and (ii) to develop scale-up methodology for process transfer from batch to flow-through arrangement. Ball milling experiments were performed in two types of ball mills, a batch mill with a 30ml maximum working volume, and a flow-through mill with a 250ml maximum working volume. Milling parameters were investigated in detail by methodologies of QbD to map the parametric space. Specifically, the effects of ball size, ball fill level, and rpm on the particle breakage kinetics were systematically investigated at both mills, with an additional parameter (flow-rate) in the case of the flow-through mill. The breakage rate was found to follow power-law kinetics with respect to dimensionless time, with an asymptotic d50 particle size in the range of 200-300nm. In the case of the flow-through mill, the number of theoretical passes through the mill was found to be an important scale-up parameter.

  14. Flow injection analysis of trace chromium (VI) in drinking water with a liquid waveguide capillary cell and spectrophotometric detection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Yuan, Dongxing; Byrne, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is an acknowledged hazardous material in drinking waters. As such, effective monitoring and assessment of the risks posed by Cr(VI) are important analytical objectives for both human health and environmental science. However, because of the lack of highly sensitive, rapid, and simple procedures, a relatively limited number of studies have been carried out in this field. Here we report a simple and sensitive analytical procedure of flow injection analysis (FIA) for sub-nanomolar Cr(VI) in drinking water samples with a liquid core waveguide capillary cell (LWCC). The procedure is based on a highly selective reaction between 1, 5-diphenylcarbazide and Cr(VI) under acidic conditions. The optimized experimental parameters included reagent concentrations, injection volume, length of mixing coil, and flow rate. Measurements at 540 nm, and a 650-nm reference wavelength, produced a 0.12-nM detection limit. Relative standard deviations for 1, 2, and 10 nM samples were 5.6, 3.6, and 0.72 % (n = 9), and the analysis time was <2 min sample(-1). The effects of salinity and interfering ions, especially Fe(III), were evaluated. Using the FIA-LWCC method, different sources of bottled waters and tap waters were examined. The Cr(VI) concentrations of the bottled waters ranged from the detection limit to ∼20 nM, and tap waters collected from the same community supply had Cr(VI) concentration around 14 nM.

  15. Flow Rates Measurement and Uncertainty Analysis in Multiple-Zone Water-Injection Wells from Fluid Temperature Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Reges, José E. O.; Salazar, A. O.; Maitelli, Carla W. S. P.; Carvalho, Lucas G.; Britto, Ursula J. B.

    2016-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the development of flow sensors in the oil and gas industry. It presents a methodology to measure the flow rates into multiple-zone water-injection wells from fluid temperature profiles and estimate the measurement uncertainty. First, a method to iteratively calculate the zonal flow rates using the Ramey (exponential) model was described. Next, this model was linearized to perform an uncertainty analysis. Then, a computer program to calculate the injected flow rates from experimental temperature profiles was developed. In the experimental part, a fluid temperature profile from a dual-zone water-injection well located in the Northeast Brazilian region was collected. Thus, calculated and measured flow rates were compared. The results proved that linearization error is negligible for practical purposes and the relative uncertainty increases as the flow rate decreases. The calculated values from both the Ramey and linear models were very close to the measured flow rates, presenting a difference of only 4.58 m³/d and 2.38 m³/d, respectively. Finally, the measurement uncertainties from the Ramey and linear models were equal to 1.22% and 1.40% (for injection zone 1); 10.47% and 9.88% (for injection zone 2). Therefore, the methodology was successfully validated and all objectives of this work were achieved. PMID:27420068

  16. Flow injection potentiometric system for the simultaneous determination of inositol phosphates and phosphate: phosphorus nutritional evaluation on seeds and grains.

    PubMed

    Parra, Aleix; Ramon, Meritxell; Alonso, Julián; Lemos, Sherlan G; Vieira, Edivan C; Nogueira, Ana R A

    2005-10-05

    A simple flow injection potentiometric (FIP) system, which uses a tubular cobalt electrode, has been developed for phosphorus nutritional evaluation of seeds and grains. Inorganic phosphorus, P(i), is determined using a 1 x 10(-2) mol.L(-1) potassium phthalate buffer solution adjusted at pH 4. A sensitivity of 47 mV/decade and an operating range from 10 to 1000 mg.L(-1) (1 x 10(-4)-1 x 10(-2) M) of dihydrogen phosphate are obtained. The inositol phosphates amount, which is referred to the organic phosphorus, P(org), is directly determined from extracts using a 1 x 10(-2) mol.L(-1) Tris-HCl buffer solution adjusted at pH 8. A sensitivity of 127 mV/decade and an operating range of 10-1000 mg.L(-1) (2.5 x 10(-4)-5 x 10(-3) M) of P(org) (expressed as inositol hexakisphosphoric acid monocalcium) are achieved. Some samples of seed and grain are analyzed by an ICP-OES and a spectrophotometric method to compare results to the developed flow system; no significant differences at the 95% confidence level are observed using a paired t test. Other samples such as animal nursing feed, soybean meal, and corn are also analyzed with the proposed FIP system, showing a good correlation to the ICP-OES values.

  17. Flow injection on-line solid phase extraction for ultra-trace lead screening with hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wan, Zhuo; Xu, Zhangrun; Wang, Jianhua

    2006-01-01

    A flow injection (FI) on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure for ultra-trace lead separation and preconcentration was developed, followed by hydride generation and atomic fluorescence spectrometric (AFS) detection. Lead is retained on an iminodiacetate chelating resin packed microcolumn, and is afterward eluted with 2.5% (v/v) hydrochloric acid to facilitate the hydride generation by reaction with alkaline tetrahydroborate solution with 1% (m/v) potassium ferricyanide as an oxidizing (or sensitizing) reagent. The hydride was separated from the reaction medium in the gas-liquid separator and swept into the atomizer for quantification. The chemical variables and the FI flow parameters were carefully optimized. With a sample loading volume of 4.8 ml, quantitative retention of lead was obtained, along with an enrichment factor of 11.3 and a sampling frequency of 50 h(-1). A detection limit of 4 ng l(-1), defined as 3 times the blank standard deviation (3 sigma), was achieved along with a RSD value of 1.6% at the 0.4 microg l(-1) level. The procedure was validated by determining lead contents in two certified reference materials, and its practical applicability was further demonstrated by analysing a variety of biological and environmental samples.

  18. The influence of boundary layers on supersonic inlet flow unstart induced by mass injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Hyungrok; Im, Seong-Kyun; Mungal, M. Godfrey; Cappelli, Mark A.

    2011-09-01

    A transverse jet is injected into a supersonic model inlet flow to induce unstart. Planar laser Rayleigh scattering from condensed CO2 particles is used to visualize flow dynamics during the unstart process, while in some cases, wall pressure traces are simultaneously recorded. Studies conducted over a range of inlet configurations reveal that the presence of turbulent wall boundary layers strongly affect the unstart dynamics. It is found that relatively thick turbulent boundary layers in asymmetric wall boundary layer conditions prompt the formation of unstart shocks; in symmetric boundary conditions lead to the propagation of pseudo-shocks; and in both cases facilitate fast inlet unstart, when compared with thin, laminar boundary layers. Incident shockwaves and associated reflections are found to affect the speed of pressure disturbances. These disturbances, which induce boundary layer separation, are found to precede the formation of unstart shocks. The results confirm the importance of and need to better understand shock-boundary layer interactions in inlet unstart dynamics.

  19. Determination of cyanide by a flow injection analysis-atomic absorption spectrometric method.

    PubMed

    López Gómez, A V; Martínez Calatayud, J

    1998-10-01

    A new flow injection analysis (FIA) procedure is proposed for the indirect atomic absorption spectrometric determination of cyanide. The FIA manifold is based on the insertion of the sample into a distilled water carrier, then the sample flows through a solid-phase reactor filled with silver iodide entrapped in polymeric resin beads. The calibration graph is linear over the range 0.2-6.0 mg l-1 of cyanide (correlation coefficient 0.9974), the detection limit is 0.1 mg l-1, the sample throughput is 193 h-1 and the RSD is 0.8%. The method is simple, quick and more selective than other published FIA procedures. The reproducibility obtained by using different solid-phase reactors and solutions is in the range 2.2-3.1% (RSD). The method was applied to the determination of cyanide in commercial samples such as pharmaceutical formulations and industrial electrolytic baths.

  20. Selective chlorine dioxide determination using gas-diffusion flow injection analysis with chemiluminescent detection

    SciTech Connect

    Hollowell, D.A.; Gord, J.R.; Gordon, G.; Pacey, G.E.

    1986-06-01

    An automated chemiluminescent technique has been developed utilizing the advantages of gas-diffusion flow injection analysis. A gas-diffusion membrane separates the donor (sampling) stream from the acceptor (detecting) stream and removes ionic interferences. A novel chemiluminescence flow-through detector cell is used to measure the concentration of chlorine dioxide as a function of the intensity of the chemiluminescence produced from its reaction with luminol. The chemiluminescent reagent merges with the analyte directly in front of the photomultiplier tube in order to maximize the sensitivity of the system. The detection limit for chlorine dioxide is approximately 5 ppb. The method is over 1500 times more selective for chlorine dioxide than for chlorine on a mole basis. This method eliminates interference from iron and manganese compounds, as well as other oxychlorinated compounds such as chlorite ion and chlorate ion.

  1. Effect of Trailing Edge Flow Injection on Fan Noise and Aerodynamic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fite, E. Brian; Woodward, Richard P.; Podboy, Gary G.

    2006-01-01

    An experimental investigation using trailing edge blowing for reducing fan rotor/guide vane wake interaction noise was completed in the NASA Glenn 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel. Data were acquired to measure noise, aerodynamic performance, and flow features for a 22" tip diameter fan representative of modern turbofan technology. The fan was designed to use trailing edge blowing to reduce the fan blade wake momentum deficit. The test objective was to quantify noise reductions, measure impacts on fan aerodynamic performance, and document the flow field using hot-film anemometry. Measurements concentrated on approach, cutback, and takeoff rotational speeds as those are the primary conditions of acoustic interest. Data are presented for a 2% (relative to overall fan flow) trailing edge injection rate and show a 2 dB reduction in Overall Sound Power Level (OAPWL) at all fan test speeds. The reduction in broadband noise is nearly constant and is approximately 1.5 dB up to 20 kHz at all fan speeds. Measurements of tone noise show significant variation, as evidenced by reductions of up to 6 dB in the 2 BPF tone at 6700 rpm.: and increases of nearly 2 dB for the 4 BPF tone at approach speed. Aerodynamic performance measurements show the fan with 2 % injection has an overall efficiency that is comparable to the baseline fan and operates, as intended, with nearly the same pressure ratio and mass flow parameters. Hot-film measurements obtained at the approach operating condition indicate that mean blade wake filling in the tip region was not as significant as expected. This suggests that additional acoustic benefits could be realized if the trailing edge blowing could be modified to provide better filling of the wake momentum deficit. Nevertheless, the hot-film measurements indicate that the trailing edge blowing provided significant reductions in blade wake turbulence. Overall, these results indicate that further work may be required to fully understand the proper

  2. A diffuse interface approach to injection-driven flow of different miscibility in heterogeneous porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ching-Yao; Yan, Pei-Yu

    2015-08-01

    Miscible and immiscible injection flows in heterogeneous porous media, for which the permeability is characterized by a log Gaussian distribution, are simulated by a robust diffuse-interface formulation. The robust numerical method enables direct qualitative and quantitative comparisons regarding pattern formations in various fluid miscibility conditions. For miscible injections, the typical size of fingering structures depends strongly on the correlation length and forms tapered fingers with sharper tips. On the other hand, the typical size of immiscible fingers is affected less significantly by the permeability heterogeneity, and wide spreading tips are retained in the fingering patterns. Prominence of fingering instability is quantitatively evaluated by the channeling width and the interfacial length. The channeling width shows strong and monotonic dependences on the heterogeneous variance. On the contrary, maximum channeling width occurs at intermediate correlation length due to local resonant effect between the faster penetrating fingers and permeability heterogeneity. On the other hand, effects of the correlation length and the permeability variance on the interfacial lengths are generally consistent. Longer interfacial length is perturbed by smaller correlation length or higher variance. Interesting invariant evolutions of interfacial lengths are revealed regardless of the permeability variance in sufficiently large correlation length under all miscibility conditions. In addition, the regime of slower growth of interfacial length at later times experimentally observed in homogeneous miscible injection is verified in heterogeneous porous media as well.

  3. Flow injection analysis of ketoprofen based on the order transform second chemiluminescence reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Yafeng; Cao, Guiping; Ge, Chuanqin

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores an order-transform-second-chemiluminescence (OTSCL) method combining the flow injection technique for the determination of ketoprofen. When ketoprofen solution was injected into the mixture after the end of the reaction of alkaline luminol and sodium periodate or sodium periodate solution was injected into the reaction mixture of ketoprofen and alkaline luminol, a new chemiluminescence (CL) reaction was initiated and strong CL signal was detected. A mechanism for the OTSCL has been proposed on the basis of the chemiluminescence kinetic characteristic, UV-visible absorption and chemiluminescent spectra. Under optimal experimental conditions, the CL response is proportional to the concentration of ketoprofen over the range of 2.0 × 10 -7 to 1.0 × 10 -5 mol/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.9950 and a detection limit of 8.0 × 10 -9 mol/L (3 σ). The relative standard deviation for 11 repetitive determinations of 1.0 × 10 -6 mol/L ketoprofen is 2.9%. The utility of this method was demonstrated by determining ketoprofen in pharmaceutical formulations without interference from its potential impurities.

  4. Re-evaluation of a subsurface injection experiment for testing flow and transport models

    SciTech Connect

    Fayer, M.J.; Lewis, R.E.; Engelman, R.E.; Pearson, A.L.; Murray, C.J.; Smoot, J.L. Lu, A.H.; Randall, P.R.; Wegener, W.H.

    1995-12-01

    The current preferred method for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Hanford Site is to vitrify the wastes so they can be stored in a near-surface, shallow-land burial facility (Shord 1995). Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) managed the PNL Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to assist Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in designing and assessing the performance of a disposal facility for the vitrified LLW. Vadose zone flow and transport models are recognized as necessary tools for baseline risk assessments of stored waste forms. The objective of the Controlled Field Testing task of the PVTD Project is to perform and analyze field experiments to demonstrate the appropriateness of conceptual models for the performance assessment. The most convincing way to demonstrate appropriateness is to show that the model can reproduce the movement of water and contaminants in the field. Before expensive new experiments are initiated, an injection experiment conducted at the Hanford Site in 1980 (designated the ``Sisson and the Lu experiment``) should be completely analyzed and understood. Briefly, in that test, a solution containing multiple tracers was injected at a single point into the subsurface sediments. The resulting spread of the water and tracers was monitored in wells surrounding the injection point. Given the advances in knowledge, computational capabilities, and models over the last 15 years, it is important to re-analyze the data before proceeding to other experiments and history-matching exercises.

  5. Generation of electromagnetic emission during the injection of dense supersonic plasma flows into arched magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viktorov, Mikhail; Golubev, Sergey; Mansfeld, Dmitry; Vodopyanov, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Interaction of dense supersonic plasma flows with an inhomogeneous arched magnetic field is one of the key problems in near-Earth and space plasma physics. It can influence on the energetic electron population formation in magnetosphere of the Earth, movement of plasma flows in magnetospheres of planets, energy release during magnetic reconnection, generation of electromagnetic radiation and particle precipitation during solar flares eruption. Laboratory study of this interaction is of big interest to determine the physical mechanisms of processes in space plasmas and their detailed investigation under reproducible conditions. In this work a new experimental approach is suggested to study interaction of supersonic (ion Mach number up to 2.7) dense (up to 1015 cm-3) plasma flows with inhomogeneous magnetic field (an arched magnetic trap with a field strength up to 3.3 T) which opens wide opportunities to model space plasma processes in laboratory conditions. Fully ionized plasma flows with density from 1013 cm-3 to 1015 cm-3 are created by plasma generator on the basis of pulsed vacuum arc discharge. Then plasma is injected in an arched open magnetic trap along or across magnetic field lines. The filling of the arched magnetic trap with dense plasma and further magnetic field lines break by dense plasma flow were experimentally demonstrated. The process of plasma deceleration during the injection of plasma flow across the magnetic field lines was experimentally demonstrated. Pulsed plasma microwave emission at the electron cyclotron frequency range was observed. It was shown that frequency spectrum of plasma emission is determined by position of deceleration region in the magnetic field of the magnetic arc, and is affected by plasma density. Frequency spectrum shifts to higher frequencies with increasing of arc current (plasma density) because the deceleration region of plasma flow moves into higher magnetic field. The observed emission can be related to the

  6. Flow injection method for the determination of silver concentration in drinking water for spacecrafts.

    PubMed

    Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta; Kobylinska, Dorota Korte; Franko, Mladen; Sarzanini, Corrado

    2010-04-14

    A flow injection method has been developed for determination of silver. The method is based on a reduction reaction with sodium borohydride which leads to the formation of a colloidal species which is monitored at a wavelength of 390 nm. The reaction variables flow rate, sodium borohydride concentration and pH, which affect sensitivity, were investigated and their effects were established using a two-levels, three-factor experimental design. Further optimization of manifold variables (reaction coil and injection volume) allowed us to determine silver in the range 0.050-5.0 mg L(-1) with a minimum detectable concentration of 0.050 mg L(-1). Silver is added, as biocide, to drinking water for spacecrafts. The chemical species of silver, present in this kind of sample, were characterized by a procedure based on the selective retention of Ag(+) onto a 2.2.2. cryptand based substrate followed by determination of the non-bound and bound (after elution) Ag(+) by the FIA method. The method optimized was applied to a drinking water sample provided for the launch with the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) module Jule Verne to the International Space Station (March 9, 2008).

  7. Direct-injection chemiluminescence detector. Properties and potential applications in flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Koronkiewicz, Stanislawa; Kalinowski, Slawomir

    2015-02-01

    We present a novel chemiluminescence detector, with a cone-shaped detection chamber where the analytical reaction takes place. The sample and appropriate reagents are injected directly into the chamber in countercurrent using solenoid-operated pulse micro-pumps. The proposed detector allows for fast measurement of the chemiluminescence signal in stop-flow conditions from the moment of reagents mixing. To evaluate potential applications of the detector the Fenton-like reaction with a luminol-H2O2 system and several transition metal ions (Co(2+), Cu(2+), Cr(3+), Fe(3+)) as a catalyst were investigated. The results demonstrate suitability of the proposed detector for quantitative analysis and for investigations of reaction kinetics, particularly rapid reactions. A multi-pumping flow system was designed and optimized. The developed methodology demonstrated that the shape of the analytical signals strongly depends on the type and concentration of the metal ions. The application of the detector in quantitative analysis was assessed for determination of Fe(III). The direct-injection chemiluminescence detector allows for a sensitive and repeatable (R.S.D. 2%) determination. The intensity of chemiluminescence increased linearly in the range from about 0.5 to 10 mg L(-1) Fe(III) with the detection limit of 0.025 mg L(-1). The time of analysis depended mainly on reaction kinetics. It is possible to achieve the high sampling rate of 144 samples per hour.

  8. Flow injection analysis of picric acid explosive using a copper electrode as electrochemical detector.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, João R C; de Araujo, William R; Salles, Maiara O; Paixão, Thiago R L C

    2013-01-30

    A simple and fast electrochemical method for quantitative analysis of picric acid explosive (nitro-explosive) based on its electrochemical reduction at copper surfaces is reported. To achieve a higher sample throughput, the electrochemical sensor was adapted in a flow injection system. Under optimal experimental conditions, the peak current response increases linearly with picric acid concentration over the range of 20-300 μmol L(-1). The repeatability of the electrode response in the flow injection analysis (FIA) configuration was evaluated as 3% (n=10), and the detection limit of the method was estimated to be 6.0 μmol L(-1) (S/N=3). The sample throughput under optimised conditions was estimated to be 550 samples h(-1). Peroxide explosives like triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD) were tested as potential interfering substances for the proposed method, and no significant interference by these explosives was noticed. The proposed method has interesting analytical parameters, environmental applications, and low cost compared with other electroanalytical methods that have been reported for the quantification of picric acid. Additionally, the possibility to develop an in situ device for the detection of picric acid using a disposable sensor was evaluated.

  9. Non-extraction flow injection determination of cationic surfactants using eriochrome black-T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ensafi, Ali A.; Hemmateenejad, B.; Barzegar, S.

    2009-09-01

    A new, rapid, sensitive, non-extraction batch, and flow injection spectrophotometric method for the determination of cationic surfactants (CSs) such as cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), tetra-n-butyl ammonium chloride (TBAC) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) is proposed. The method is based on the interaction of cationic surfactants with eriochrome black-T to form an ion-association complex. This complex has strong absorbance at 708 nm. The effects of chemical parameters and FIA variables on the determination of cationic surfactants were studied in detail, especially for CTAB. Under optimum conditions, the two linear calibration ranges of the method are 3.0 × 10 -6 to 5.0 × 10 -3 mol L -1 CTAB, CPB and DTAB for the batch spectrophotometric method and 2.0 × 10 -6 to 2.0 × 10 -4 mol L -1 CTAB, CPB and TBC for the flow injection spectrophotometric method. The sample throughput was 35 ± 5 samples h -1 at room temperature. The relative standard deviations for 10 replicates of analysis of (2.0, 0.6 and 0.2) × 10 -4 mol L -1 CTAB were 1.2, 1.3, and 0.8%, respectively. In addition, the influence of potential interfering substances on the determination of cationic surfactants was studied. The proposed method is simple and rapid, using no toxic organic solvents. It was applied to the determination of trace CS in industrial wastewater with satisfactory results.

  10. Spectrophotometric determination of chloride in waters using a multisyringe flow injection system.

    PubMed

    Maya, Fernando; Estela, José Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor

    2008-02-15

    A multisyringe flow injection system (MSFIA) with spectrophotometric detection is proposed as a fast, robust and low-reagent consumption system for the determination of chloride (Cl(-)) in waters. The system is based in the classic reaction of Cl(-) with Fe(3+) and Hg(SCN)(2), but due to the hazardous properties of this last reagent, the proposed methodology has been developed with the aim to minimize the consumption of this one, consuming less than 0.05 mg of Hg for a Cl(-) determination, being the system of this type with the lowest Hg consumption. The linear working range was between 1 and 40 mg L(-1) Cl(-) and the detection limit was 0.2 mg L(-1) Cl(-). The repeatability (RSD) was 0.8% for a 10 mg L(-1) Cl(-) solution, and the injection throughput was 130 h(-1). The proposed system is compared with other chloride monitoring flow systems, this comparison is realized with a point of view of the equilibrium between the obtained analytical features and produced residues toxicity. The proposed system was applied to the determination of Cl(-) in mineral, tap and well water.

  11. Lung function in North American Indian children: reference standards for spirometry, maximal expiratory flow volume curves, and peak expiratory flow.

    PubMed

    Wall, M A; Olson, D; Bonn, B A; Creelman, T; Buist, A S

    1982-02-01

    Reference standards of lung function was determined in 176 healthy North American Indian children (94 girls, 82 boys) 7 to 18 yr of age. Spirometry, maximal expiratory flow volume curves, and peak expiratory flow rate were measured using techniques and equipment recommended by the American Thoracic Society. Standing height was found to be an accurate predictor of lung function, and prediction equations for each lung function variable are presented using standing height as the independent variable. Lung volumes and expiratory flow rates in North American Indian children were similar to those previously reported for white and Mexican-American children but were greater than those in black children. In both boys and girls, lung function increased in a curvilinear fashion. Volume-adjusted maximal expiratory flow rates after expiring 50 or 75% of FVC tended to decrease in both sexes as age and height increased. Our maximal expiratory flow volume curve data suggest that as North American Indian children grow, lung volume increases at a slightly faster rate than airway size does.

  12. Seismic monitoring of the June, 1988 Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program flow/injection test

    SciTech Connect

    Jarpe, S.P.; Kasameyer, P.W.; Hutchings, L.J.; Hauk, T.F.

    1988-10-04

    The purpose of the seismic monitoring project was to characterize in detail the micro-seismic activity related to the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (SSSDP) flow-injection test in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field. Our goal was to determine if any sources of seismic energy related to the test were observable at the surface. We deployed our recording stations so that we could detect and locate both impulsive microearthquakes and continuous seismic noise energy. Our network, which was sensitive enough to be triggered by magnitude 0.0 or larger events, found no impulsive microearthquakes in the vicinity of the flow test in the 8 month period before the test and only one event during the flow test. This event has provided the opportunity to compare the detection and location capabilities of small networks and arrays in a geothermal environment. At present, we are carefully scanning all of the data that we collected during the flow test for evidence of anomalous seismic noise sources and for impulsive events smaller than the network detection threshold (magnitude 0.0). 8 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Influence of Mold Surface Treatments on Flow of Polymer in Injection Moulding. Application to Weldlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chailly, M.; Charmeau, J.-Y.; Bereaux, Y.; Monasse, B.

    2007-04-01

    Due to increasing expectations from the market, the aspect of molded parts has to be improved constantly. Some of the defects observed on these parts such as weldlines are related to the filling stage. To limit this, we investigated the influence on weldlines using various surface deposits on the mold surface, mainly PVD and PACVD deposits : Chromium nitride (CrN), Titanium nitride (TiN), Diamond like Carbon (DLC), Chromium and polished steel (PG) on an instrumented plate mold. Injection campaign was led on three polymers which differ in terms of nature (amorphous, semi-crystalline, copolymers). We studied the evolution of the dimensions of weldlines appearing on the plate using the same injection parameters for a given polymer, but with various deposits and thicknesses. Another aspect that had been investigated is the morphology of the weldline through the thickness of the part, depending on polymer nature. Adhesion of polymer at the flow front with the mold surface proved to change. The modification of the initial contact in the filling stage and thus the thermal resistance at the mold implied a change in the process, increasing or reducing the pressure loss in the flow and differential shrinkage in the final part. The induced impact on dimensions of the weldlines allowed to distinguish which surface treatments were able to reduce the defect. A complementary study was led on both polymers in molten state and deposits in terms of wetting using a sessile drop method to confirm the adhesion at the polymer/mold interface. This study proved the influence of the use of surface treatments has clearly an impact on the filling stage of the injection molding process, and it is necessary to get a better knowledge of the interactions between physical adhesion, tribology of polymer/mold contact, and thermal properties of the coatings and their impact on solidification of the polymer.

  14. High-throughput nanoliter sample introduction microfluidic chip-based flow injection analysis system with gravity-driven flows.

    PubMed

    Du, Wen-Bin; Fang, Qun; He, Qiao-Hong; Fang, Zhao-Lun

    2005-03-01

    In this work, a simple, robust, and automated microfluidic chip-based FIA system with gravity-driven flows and liquid-core waveguide (LCW) spectrometric detection was developed. The high-throughput sample introduction system was composed of a capillary sampling probe and an array of horizontally positioned microsample vials with a slot fabricated on the bottom of each vial. FI sample loading and injection were performed by linearly moving the array of vials filled alternately with 50-microL samples and carrier, allowing the probe inlet to enter the solutions in the vials through the slots sequentially and the sample and carrier solution to be introduced into the chip driven by gravity. The performance of the system was demonstrated using the complexation of o-phenanthroline with Fe(II) as a model reaction. A 20-mm-long Teflon AF 2400 capillary (50-microm i.d., 375-microm o.d.) was connected to the chip to function as a LCW detection flow cell with a cell volume of 40 nL and effective path length of 1.7 cm. Linear absorbance response was obtained in the range of 1.0-100 microM Fe(II) (r2=0.9967), and a good reproducibility of 0.6% RSD (n=18) was achieved. The sensitivity was comparable with that obtained using conventional FIA systems, which typically consume 10,000-fold more sample. The highest sampling throughput of 1000 h-1 was obtained by using injection times of 0.08 and 3.4 s for sample and carrier solution, respectively, with a sample consumption of only 0.6 nL for each cycle.

  15. Pungency evaluation of onion cultivars from the Venezuelan West-Center region by flow injection analysis-UV-visible spectroscopy pyruvate determination.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Pineda; Lué-Merú, Marcó P; Ricardo, Rivas; Máximo, Gallignani; Maribel, Valero; Luis, Burguera José; Marcela, Burguera

    2004-12-15

    A flow injection analysis (FIA) method was developed for the determination of pyruvate in onion cultivars (Allium cepa L.) from the West-Center region of Venezuela. The reference Schwimmer and Weston (1961) (J. Agric. Food Chem. 9 (1961) 301) Batch method was modified and adapted to FIA conditions. The formation kinetic of the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-pyruvate complex was evaluated at room temperature and at 37 degrees C. It was demonstrated the suitability of the chromopher formation at room temperature. The optimal values for the FIA parameters were: sample injection volume 3mL, flow rate 6mLmin(-1), reactor length 1.5m, sodium hydroxide concentration 1.0molL(-1) and hydrochloric acid concentration 0.5molL(-1). The working calibration range was extended from 80mgL(-1) (Batch method) to 700mgL(-1) with the FIA set up. The sample dilution step is thus avoided, simplifying the whole analysis process. The pungency in representative samples of the cultivars Yellow granex 438, Ultra Hybrid and Red onion "Sangre de Toro" was evaluated by the flow injection analysis (FIA)-pyruvate method and the results were compared to the reference Batch pyruvate method and to the taste panel test. Non-significant differences were found at the 95% of confidence level between the FIA method and the Batch reference method. Correlation coefficient when comparing the FIA results to the taste panel test was r(2) = 0.8353. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found in the pungency of the cultivars, the Ultra Hybrid having the highest pungency. The pungency order from minor to major was: Red onion, Texas Grano 438 and Ultra Hybrid.

  16. Flow injection potentiometric determination of bismuth(III) in anti-acid formulations.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, M F; Fatibello-Filho, O

    2001-06-19

    A flow injection potentiometric procedure is proposed for determining bismuth(III) in anti-acid formulations. In this work, a tubular electrode coated with an ion-pair formed between [Bi(EDTA)](-) and tricaprylylmethylammonium cation (Aliquat 336) in a poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) was constructed and used in a single channel flow injection system. The effect of membrane composition, pH and flow injection parameter over the Bi(III) tubular electrode response (slope (mV/decade)) was initially evaluated in quintuplicate in 0.5 mol l(-1) EDTA solution as carrier. The best response (-59.6+/-0.9 mV/decade) was attained with the 5% m/m ion-pair; 65% m/m o-nitrophenyl octyl ether (o-NPOE) and 30% m/m PVC in pH 6-9. The electrode showed a linear response to E (mV) versus log [Bi(EDTA)](-) in the bismuth(III) concentration range from 2.0x10(-5) to 1.0x10(-2) mol l(-1) and a useful lifetime of at least 5 months (more than 1000 determinations for each polymeric membrane). The detection limit was 1.2x10(-5) mol l(-1) and the R.S.D. was less than 2.0% for a solution containing 5.0x10(-4) mol l(-1) bismuth(III) (n=10). Several species such as Cd(II), Mn(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Mg(II), Cr(III) and Al(III) at 1.0x10(-3) mol l(-1) concentration in 0.5 mol l(-1) EDTA solution did not cause any interference. The frequency rate was 90 determinations per hour and the results obtained for bismuth(III) in anti-acid formulations using this flow procedure and those obtained using a spectrophotometric procedure are in agreement at the 95% confidence level.

  17. Evaluation of Flow-Injection Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Rapid and High-Throughput Quantitative Determination of B-Vitamins in Nutritional Supplements

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandari, Deepak; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2012-01-01

    The use of flow-injection electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for rapid and high-throughput mass spectral analysis of selected B-vitamins, viz. B1, B2, B3, B5, and B6, in nutritional formulations was demonstrated. A simple and rapid (~5 min) in-tube sample preparation was performed by adding extraction solvent to a powdered sample aliquot followed by agitation, centrifugation, and filtration to recover an extract for analysis. Automated flow injection introduced 1 L of the extracts directly into the mass spectrometer ion source without chromatographic separation. Sample-to-sample analysis time was 60 s representing significant improvement over conventional liquid chromatography approaches which typically require 25-45 min, and often require more significant sample preparation procedures. Quantitative capabilities of the flow-injection analysis were tested using the method of standard additions and NIST standard reference material (SRM 3280) multivitamin/multielement tablets. The quantity determined for each B-vitamin in SRM 3280 was within the statistical range provided for the respective certified values. The same sample preparation and analysis approach was also applied to two different commercial vitamin supplement tablets and proved to be successful in the quantification of the selected B-vitamins as evidenced by an agreement with the labels values and the results obtained using isotope dilution liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

  18. Rapid Quantitation of Ascorbic and Folic Acids in SRM 3280 Multivitamin/Multielement Tablets using Flow-Injection Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Bhandari, Deepak; Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE: Ascorbic acid (AA) and folic acid (FA) are water-soluble vitamins and are usually fortified in food and dietary supplements. For the safety of human health, proper intake of these vitamins is recommended. Improvement in the analysis time required for the quantitative determination of these vitamins in food and nutritional formulations is desired. METHODS: A simple and fast (~5 min) in-tube sample preparation was performed, independently for FA and AA, by mixing extraction solvent with a powdered sample aliquot followed by agitation, centrifugation, and filtration to recover an extract for analysis. Quantitative detection was achieved by flow-injection (1 L injection volume) electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) in negative ion mode using the method of standard addition. RESULTS: Method of standard addition was employed for the quantitative estimation of each vitamin in a sample extract. At least 2 spiked and 1 non-spiked sample extract were injected in triplicate for each quantitative analysis. Given an injection-to-injection interval of approximately 2 min, about 18 min was required to complete the quantitative estimation of each vitamin. The concentration values obtained for the respective vitamins in the standard reference material (SRM) 3280 using this approach were within the statistical range of the certified values provided in the NIST Certificate of Analysis. The estimated limit of detections of FA and AA were 13 and 5.9 ng/g, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Flow-injection ESI-MS/MS was successfully applied for the rapid quantitation of FA and AA in SRM 3280 multivitamin/multielement tablets.

  19. Flow injection analysis of nanomolar silicate using long pathlength absorbance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Byrne, Robert H

    2012-01-15

    Determination of silicate at low concentrations (i.e., nanomolar levels) is an important analytical objective for both marine science and the semiconductor industry. Here we report the use of flow injection analysis (FIA) in combination with long pathlength liquid core waveguide (LCW) spectrometry to achieve detection limits for dissolved silica on the order of 10nM. Sample throughput for the simple, automated analytical apparatus used in this work is 12h(-1) at low levels of dissolved silica; this rate can be increased by a factor of three for higher (micromolar) levels of dissolved silica. The analytical protocol is based on the reaction of silicate with ammonium molybdate to form a yellow silicomolybdate complex, which is subsequently reduced to silicomolybdenum blue by ascorbic acid. Optimization of the FIA procedure included consideration of the compositions and concentrations of reagents, volume of the injection loop, flow rate conditions, and lengths of mixing coils. The interference by phosphate was examined and eliminated through addition of oxalic acid. The dissolved silica detection limit of 7.2nM in pure water is consistent with the strictest standard for the semiconductor industry, and the 9.0nM detection limit for seawater shows that this analytical method is also suitable for oligotrophic ocean waters. The targeted analytical range of 10nM to 5μM can be easily extended to higher concentrations without altering the experimental hardware-i.e., by simply changing flow rates or selecting alternative analytical wavelengths. Compared to previously published LCW-based spectrophotometric methods, this analytical system exhibits improved sensitivity, reduced sample consumption, and higher sample throughput.

  20. Effects of fuel injection on mixing and upstream interactions in supersonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Qiuya

    Scramjet engine performance has been studied experimentally and computationally almost under steady-state conditions. Transients of the airflow and fueling in the scramjet's isolator or combustor create important fluid-dynamic/ combustion interactions. Spark schlieren photography was employed to study the effects of pressure rise in the combustion chamber on the isolator flow at three conditions with isolator entrance Mach number of 1.6, 1.9 and 2.5, covering the range of dual-mode combustion and transition to full scramjet operation. Heat release through combustion in the model scramjet was simulated by incrementally blocking the flow exit until upstream-interaction was induced and a shock train formed in the isolator. Theoretical predictions of the pressure rise in the isolator under separated flow conditions were calculated, which agreed well with the experimental data. The prediction is sensitive to the accurate modeling of the isolator inlet conditions and the correct selection of wall friction coefficient. Gaseous helium and argon have been transversely injected into a Mach 1.6 airflow simulating a light and a heavy fuel injection behind a thin triangular pylon placed upstream, in the isolator, which has a negligible impact on pressure losses. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) was used to observe the penetration and mixing in the test section at three cross-sections including the recirculation region and beyond. Results were compared to the no-pylon cases, which showed the presence of the pylon resulted in improving both penetration and spreading of the jet. Simulation for shock wave/ boundary-layer interaction was conducted in Fluent for case of M=1.9 at 60% blockage by using k-ε RNG model with two different near wall treatments. In both cases, the shock ran out of isolator before the computation converged, this is different from experimental results. Proper actual wall friction force may have a very important effect on the computation, which needs

  1. Smooth reference equations for slow vital capacity and flow-volume curve indexes.

    PubMed

    Pistelli, F; Bottai, M; Viegi, G; Di Pede, F; Carrozzi, L; Baldacci, S; Pedreschi, M; Giuntini, C

    2000-03-01

    We derived reference values for slow vital capacity (VC) and flow-volume curve indexes (FVC, FEV(1), and flows) from the 1,185 tracings provided by 1,039 "normal" subjects who participated in one or both cross-sectional surveys of the Po River Delta study in 1980-1982 and in 1988-1991. Definition of "normal" was based on negative answers to questions on respiratory symptoms/diseases or recent infections, current/past tobacco smoking, and work exposure to noxious agents. Reference equations were derived separately by sex as linear regressions of body mass index (BMI = weight/height(2)), BMI-squared, height, height-squared, and age. Age entered all the models by natural cubic splines using two break points, except for the ratios FEV(1)/VC and FEV(1)/FVC. Random effects models were applied to adjust for the potential intrasubject correlation. BMI, along with height and age, appeared to be an important predictor, which was significantly associated with VC, FEV(1), FVC, FEV(1)/FVC, and PEF in both sexes, and with FEV(1)/VC and FEF(25-75) in females. Natural cubic splines provided smooth reference equation curves (no "jumps" or "angled points") over the entire age span, differently from the conventional reference equations. Thus, we recommend the use of smooth continuous equations for predicting lung function indexes, along with the inclusion of BMI in the equations.

  2. State of the art in on-line techniques coupled to flow injection analysis FIA/on-line- a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Puchades, R.; Maquieira, A.; Atienza, J.; Herrero, M. A.

    1990-01-01

    Flow injection analysis (FIA) has emerged as an increasingly used laboratory tool in chemical analysis. Employment of the technique for on-line sample treatment and on-line measurement in chemical process control is a growing trend. This article reviews the recent applications of FlA. Most papers refer to on-line sample treatment. Although FIA is very well suited to continuous on-line process monitoring, few examples have been found in this areamost of them have been applied to water treatment or fermentation processes. PMID:18925271

  3. Direct liquid sample introduction for flow injection analysis and liquid chromatography with inductively coupled argon plasma spectrometric detection

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, K.E.; Rice, G.W.; Fassel, V.A.

    1984-02-01

    The coupling of flow injection analysis (FIA) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) offers new and attractive approaches for the determination of elemental concentrations in a wide variety of sample matrices. One of the most attractive features that FIA offers is a rapid and precise means of automating sample introduction into an ICP for simultaneous, multielement analysis at the trace, minor, and major constituent level with minimal sample consumption. The utilization of the ICP as a detector for HPLC retains most of the advantages of FIA-ICP, while providing the analyst with a powerful and versatile means of compound separation. This added dimension becomes particularly important when metal speciation is of primary interest, rather than total metal content. To date, the coupling of FIA and HPLC to the ICP has only been accomplished using conventional cross-flow, concentric, or Babington-type pneumatic nebulizers. Limits of detection under these conditions have generally been observed to be poorer when compared to conventional continuous sample flow conditions. These limitations have been attributed to the large dead-volume and the sample losses associated with conventional nebulizers and band broadening of eluents from FIA transfer tubing or HPLC columns prior to entering the nebulizer unit. In an effort to resolve these difficulties, a microconcentric nebulizer has been developed which is inserted directly into the tip of a conventional sample introduction tube of an ICP torch. Preliminary data on the potential utility of direct liquid sample introduction into the ICP are presented. 12 references, 6 figures, 1 table.

  4. A luminol-based micro-flow-injection electrochemiluminescent system to determine reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Wei, Xiuhua; Tu, Yifeng

    2011-09-15

    A flow injection analysis (FIA) system with electrochemiluminescent (ECL) detection has been established. Based on a specially designed flow-through ECL cell with a very simple structure, the system possesses rapid response and high sensitivity. With luminol as the ECL reagent, the response of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was investigated on the developed FIA-ECL system. After optimizing the experimental conditions, such as the electric parameters, the buffer condition and the flow rate, it was demonstrated that the developed FIA-ECL system works well for quantified assays. Compared with reported works, the present results indicate that the developed FIA-ECL system has the lowest limit of detection (S/N=3) of 3.0×10(-9) mol/L for H(2)O(2), which is equal to the level of chemiluminescence (CL). The developed system was successfully used to monitor the yield of reactive oxygen species (ROSs) in water vapour during the work of an ultrasonic humidifier with H(2)O(2) as index. And the amount of ROSs in some other real samples, including tap water, drinking water and river water was detected with recoveries from 92.0% to 106%.

  5. Flow injection methods for the determination of retinol and α-tocopherol using lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Asgher, Mohammad; Yaqoob, Mohammad; Waseem, Amir; Nabi, Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Flow injection (FI) methods are reported to determine retinol and α-tocopherol based on its enhancement affect of lucigenin chemiluminescence (CL) in alkaline medium. Surfactants including Brij-35, Triton X-100, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecyl sulfate have been reported for the first time to enhance lucigenin CL intensity in the presence of retinol and α-tocopherol. With Brij-35, the CL intensity was enhanced by 67% for retinol and 58% for α-tocopherol. CTAB was found to enhance the CL intensity by 16% for retinol whereas for α-tocopherol, the CL intensity was quenched up to 95%. Retinol could be determined specifically in the presence of α-tocopherol using CTAB. The calibration graphs were found to be linear up to 1.43 mg/L (R(2) = 0.9985, n = 8) with a detection limit (3s) of 1.43 × 10(-3) mg/L for retinol and 2.15 mg/L (R(2) = 0.9989; n = 8) with a detection limit (3s) of 4.31 × 10(-4) mg/L for α-tocopherol. An injection throughput of 120/h, and relative standard deviations of 0.9-2.8% (n = 4) were achieved in the concentration range studied. The influence of common ions, excipients in pharmaceutical formulations and related organic compounds on the determination of retinol and α-tocopherol individually was studied. The proposed methods were applied to determine retinol and α-tocopherol in pharmaceutical formulations and human blood serum. The results did not differ significantly from the CL method and HPLC reference method at 95% confidence level.

  6. Flow Injection Mass Spectroscopic Fingerprinting and Multivariate Analysis for Differentiation of Three Panax Species

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pei; Harnly, James M.; Harrington, Peter de B.

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the use of spectral fingerprints acquired by flow injection(FI)-MS and multivariate analysis to differentiate three Panax species: P. ginseng, P. quinquefolius, and P. notoginseng. Data were acquired using both high resolution and unit resolution MS, and were processed using principal component analysis (PCA), soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and a fuzzy rule-building expert system (FuRES). Both high and unit resolution MS allowed discrimination among the three Panax species. PLS-DA and FuRES provided classification with 100% accuracy while SIMCA provided classification accuracies of 77 and 88% by high- and low-resolution MS, respectively. The method does not quantify any of the sample components. With FI-MS, the analysis time was less than 2 min. PMID:21391484

  7. Preprocessing, classification modeling and feature selection using flow injection electrospray mass spectrometry metabolite fingerprint data.

    PubMed

    Enot, David P; Lin, Wanchang; Beckmann, Manfred; Parker, David; Overy, David P; Draper, John

    2008-01-01

    Metabolome analysis by flow injection electrospray mass spectrometry (FIE-MS) fingerprinting generates measurements relating to large numbers of m/z signals. Such data sets often exhibit high variance with a paucity of replicates, thus providing a challenge for data mining. We describe data preprocessing and modeling methods that have proved reliable in projects involving samples from a range of organisms. The protocols interact with software resources specifically for metabolomics provided in a Web-accessible data analysis package FIEmspro (http://users.aber.ac.uk/jhd) written in the R environment and requiring a moderate knowledge of R command-line usage. Specific emphasis is placed on describing the outcome of modeling experiments using FIE-MS data that require further preprocessing to improve quality. The salient features of both poor and robust (i.e., highly generalizable) multivariate models are outlined together with advice on validating classifiers and avoiding false discovery when seeking explanatory variables.

  8. Flow injection amperometric detection of insulin at cobalt hydroxide nanoparticles modified carbon ceramic electrode.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Esmaeil; Omidinia, Eskandar; Heidari, Hassan; Fazli, Maryam

    2016-02-15

    Cobalt hydroxide nanoparticles were prepared onto a carbon ceramic electrode (CHN|CCE) using the cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique. The modified electrode was characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that CHN with a single-layer structure was uniformly electrodeposited on the surface of CCE. The electrocatalytic activity of the modified electrode toward the oxidation of insulin was studied by CV. CHN|CCE was also used in a homemade flow injection analysis system for insulin determination. The limit of detection (signal/noise [S/N] = 3) and sensitivity were found to be 0.11 nM and 11.8 nA/nM, respectively. Moreover, the sensor was used for detection of insulin in human serum samples. This sensor showed attractive properties such as high stability, reproducibility, and high selectivity.

  9. Photodegradation and flow-injection determination of simetryn herbicide by luminol chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Amir; Yaqoob, Mohammad; Nabi, Abdul

    2008-08-01

    A novel and simple flow injection chemiluminescence method is reported for the determination of simetryn, a common herbicide. The method is based on the direct oxidation of luminol by the photoproducts of the simetryn in alkaline medium in the absence of catalyst/oxidant. The linear concentration range was 0.01 - 2 microg mL(-1) simetryn with a correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.9997 and relative standard deviations (RSD; n = 4) in the range of 0.9 - 2.3%. The limit of detection (S/N = 3) was 7.5 ng mL(-1) with a sample throughput of 100 h(-1). The proposed method has been applied to determine simetryn in natural waters using Sep-Pak C(18) cartridges for solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure. The recoveries were in the range of 97 +/- 1 to 104 +/- 2%. The mechanism of chemiluminescence reaction has also been discussed briefly.

  10. Bienzymatic Biosensor for Rapid Detection of Aspartame by Flow Injection Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Radulescu, Maria-Cristina; Bucur, Bogdan; Bucur, Madalina-Petruta; Radu, Gabriel Lucian

    2014-01-01

    A rapid, simple and stable biosensor for aspartame detection was developed. Alcohol oxidase (AOX), carboxyl esterase (CaE) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were immobilised with glutaraldehyde (GA) onto screen-printed electrodes modified with cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPC). The biosensor response was fast. The sample throughput using a flow injection analysis (FIA) system was 40 h−1 with an RSD of 2.7%. The detection limits for both batch and FIA measurements were 0.1 μM for methanol and 0.2 μM for aspartame, respectively. The enzymatic biosensor was successfully applied for aspartame determination in different sample matrices/commercial products (liquid and solid samples) without any pre-treatment step prior to measurement. PMID:24412899

  11. Determination of tsumacide residues in vegetable samples using a flow-injection chemiluminescence method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiyan; Hao, Yuhong; Ren, Juanjuan; He, Pingang; Fang, Yuzhi

    2007-01-01

    A sensitive, simple and rapid flow-injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) method is described to determine tsumacide pesticide residue based on the CL reaction of the alkaline degradation product of tsumacide with acidic KMnO(4) when rhodamine 6G was present. Under the optimum conditions, the relative CL intensity is linear with the concentration of tsumacide in the range of 2.0 x 10(-3)-0.20 mg/L. The detection limit is 6.6 x 10(-4) mg/L (3sigma) and the relative standard deviation for 2.0 x 10(-2) mg/L tsumacide solution was 2.28% (intra-day) and 4.85% (inter-day). The proposed method has been applied to determine the residue of tsumacide in vegetable samples and the recovery test is very satisfactory.

  12. A simple microfluidic integrated with an optical sensor for micro flow injection colorimetric determination of glutathione.

    PubMed

    Supharoek, Sam-ang; Youngvises, Napaporn; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2012-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive method for fabricating a microfluidic platform was developed. A printed circuit board (PCB) was used to make a master mold for replicating a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel. The master mold was fabricated by a simple photolithographic method, employing a photoresist dry film. The process did not use hazardous chemicals, a clean room or any expensive instrument. The PDMS microchannel was clamped with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) plates, where a light emitting diode (LED) as a light source and a light dependent resistor (LDR) as a light sensor were attached to form a simple optical sensor. The system was successfully employed as a micro flow injection analysis for the determination of glutathione in dietary supplement samples. A linear calibration graph in the range of 5.0 - 60.0 mg L(-1) glutathione was obtained with a detection limit of 0.01 mg L(-1). The system provided a sample throughput of 48 h(-1), with microliter consumption of the reagent.

  13. Bienzymatic biosensor for rapid detection of aspartame by flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Radulescu, Maria-Cristina; Bucur, Bogdan; Bucur, Madalina-Petruta; Radu, Gabriel Lucian

    2014-01-09

    A rapid, simple and stable biosensor for aspartame detection was developed. Alcohol oxidase (AOX), carboxyl esterase (CaE) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were immobilised with glutaraldehyde (GA) onto screen-printed electrodes modified with cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPC). The biosensor response was fast. The sample throughput using a flow injection analysis (FIA) system was 40 h⁻¹ with an RSD of 2.7%. The detection limits for both batch and FIA measurements were 0.1 µM for methanol and 0.2 µM for aspartame, respectively. The enzymatic biosensor was successfully applied for aspartame determination in different sample matrices/commercial products (liquid and solid samples) without any pre-treatment step prior to measurement.

  14. Chemiluminescence determination of potassium bromate in flour based on flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhengyu; Zhang, Zhengwei; Yu, Yan; Liu, Zhen; Chen, Jianqiu

    2016-01-01

    A novel and highly sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence method for the determination of potassium bromate (KBrO3) has been developed. This method is based on the luminescence properties of the KBrO3-Na2SO3-quinine sulfate system in acid medium. Optimized experimental conditions and a possible mechanism were investigated. The relative chemiluminescence intensity responded linearly to the concentration of KBrO3 in the range of 7.054 × 10(-6)-1.008 × 10(-4) mol/L with a detection limit of 2.116 × 10(-6) mol/L. The relative standard deviation (RSD) at 5.0 × 10(-5) mol/L KBrO3 (n = 12) was 2.3%. The proposed method was applied successfully to the determination of KBrO3 in flour.

  15. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of melamine in urine and plasma.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoshuang; Shi, Xiyan; Tang, Yuhai; Yue, Zhongjin; He, Qiqi

    2012-01-01

    A novel flow-injection chemiluminescence method for the determination of melamine in urine and plasma was developed. It was found that melamine can remarkably enhance chemiluminescence emission from the luminol-K(3) Fe(CN)(6) system in an alkaline medium. Under the optimum conditions, chemiluminescence intensity had a good linear relationship with the concentration of melamine in the range 9.0 × 10(-9) -7.0 × 10(-6) g/mL, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9992. The detection limit (3σ) was 3.5 ng/mL. The method has been applied to determine the concentration of melamine in samples using liquid-liquid extraction. Average recoveries of melamine were 102.6% in urine samples and 95.1% in plasma samples. The method provided a reproducible and stable approach for the sensitive detection of melamine in urine and plasma samples.

  16. Flow-injection determination of acetone with diazotized anthranilic acid through a fluorescent reaction intermediate.

    PubMed

    García de María, C; Hueso Domínguez, K B; Martín Garrido, N

    2007-09-26

    Acetone and diazotized anthranilic acid react in alkaline solution, giving a fluorescent intermediate that can be measured at excitation and emission wavelengths of 305 and 395 nm, respectively. Based on this, a fluorimetric flow-injection method is proposed for the determination of acetone in aqueous solution. Under the proposed conditions, acetone can be detected at concentrations higher than 8 x 10(-7)M, with a linear application range from 1 x 10(-6) to 2 x 10(-4)M and an R.S.D. of 2.7% (1.0 x 10(-5)M, n=10). A sampling frequency of 24h(-1) is achieved. Some potentially interfering species are investigated.

  17. Flow injection spectrophotometric determination of ultra trace amounts of oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Ensafi, A A; Kazemzadeh, A

    2000-07-01

    A new simple, sensitive and rapid catalytic-spectrophotometric method for the determination of oxalic acid has been described based on its catalytic effect on the redox reaction between dichromate and Brilliant cresyl blue in acidic media by means of a flow injection analysis method. The color change of Brilliant cresyl blue due to its oxidation was monitored spectrophotometrically at 625 nm. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.020-4.70 microg/mL oxalic acid with a limit of detection 0.005 microg/mL of oxalic acid. The relative standard deviation for ten replicate measurements of 0.020 microg/mL and 0.900 microg/mL was 2.2% and 1.7%, respectively. No serious interference was identified. Oxalic acid was determined in wastewater and in spinach by the proposed method with satisfactory results.

  18. Determination of arsenic in industrial samples by pervaporation flow injection with amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Rupasinghe, Thusitha W T; Cardwell, Terence J; Cattrall, Robert W; Kolev, Spas D

    2009-10-12

    This paper describes a simple and inexpensive pervaporation flow injection (PFI) system for the on-line determination of arsenic in industrial samples based on amperometric detection. The PFI system uses on-line hydride generation for the separation of As(III) from the sample matrix thus substantially reducing matrix interferences associated with "dirty" industrial samples. A method for the speciation of As(III) and As(V) is also described. The PFI system is validated using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. There was no statistically significant difference at the 95% confidence level between the results for the two methods. The proposed PFI method is characterised by a wide analytical concentration range (0.05-60mgL(-1)), a detection limit for As(III) of 1.0microgL(-1) and a sample throughput of 12h(-1).

  19. Flow Injection Analysis of 5-(Hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde in Honey by a Modified Winkler Method.

    PubMed

    Castoldi, Karine; Milani, Maria Izabel; Rossini, Eduardo L; Pezza, Leonardo; Pezza, Helena R

    2016-01-01

    One of the quality indicators for honey is 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (HMF), which is formed during the heating or aging of honey. The International Honey Commission recommends three methods for the determination of HMF in honey: the Winkler method, the White method, and determination by HPLC. The Winkler method uses the carcinogenic substance p-toluidine, which is not in accordance with the principles of Green Chemistry. The present work describes the determination of HMF in honey by flow injection analysis (FIA) using a modified Winkler method, replacing p-toluidine with p-aminobenzoic acid. The linear range was 1.00 to 40.0 mg L(-1), the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.43 mg L(-1), and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 1.32 mg L(-1). The method is an efficient and environmentally friendly technique for the analysis of HMF in honey.

  20. Effect of orifice-area reduction on flow characteristics during injection through spinal needles.

    PubMed

    Myers, M R; Malinauskas, R A

    1998-02-01

    A reduction in hole size for certain side-port spinal needles has been advocated in recent reports. While the influence of orifice-area reduction on the aspiration capability of the needle has been studied, the influence on the anaesthetic delivery properties is relatively unknown. As a first step in understanding the effects of hole-size reduction on anaesthetic distribution within the subarachnoid space, we studied flows emanating from isolated needles using computer simulations. Following validation of the numerical model using experimental particle visualisation, trajectories of anaesthetic particles injected through 25 G Whitacre needles of various orifice areas were computed and used to determine the orientation and rate of spread of the anaesthetic jet exiting the needle. Two factors impacting the concentration distribution were observed: the rate of spread of the anaesthetic jet increases markedly with decreasing orifice area and the jet alignment shifts toward perpendicular to the needle axis.

  1. Flow injection spectrophotometry using natural reagent from Morinda citrifolia root for determination of aluminium in tea.

    PubMed

    Tontrong, Sopa; Khonyoung, Supada; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2012-05-01

    A flow injection (FI) spectrophotometric method with using natural reagent extracted from Morinda citrifolia root has been developed for determination of aluminium. The extract contained anthraquinone compounds which could react with Al(3+) to form reddish complexes which had maximum absorption wavelength at 499.0nm. The extract could be used as a reagent in FI system without further purification to obtain pure compound. A sensitive method for determination of aluminium in concentration range of 0.1-1.0mgL(-1), with detection limit of 0.05mgL(-1) was achieved. Relative standard deviations of 1.2% and 1.7% were obtained for the determination of 0.1 and 0.6mgL(-1) Al(3+) (n=11). Sample throughput of 35h(-1) was achieved with the consumption of 3mL each of carrier and reagent solutions per injection. The developed method was successfully applied to tea samples, validated by the FAAS standard method. The method is simple, fast, economical and could be classified as a greener analytical method.

  2. Flow injection spectrophotometric determination of anionic surfactants using methyl orange as chromogenic reagent.

    PubMed

    He, Q; Chen, H

    2000-06-01

    A flow injection(FI) spectrophotometric method for the determination of anionic surfactants was developed on the basis of the competition for the cationic surfactant cetyl pyridine (CP+) chloride between the acidic dye methyl orange (MO) and anionic surfactants. In a pH 5.0 medium the cation of cetyl pyridine (CP+) reacts with dissociated methyl orange (MO-) to form an ion-associate complex, causing a blue shift of lambda(max) from 465 nm for MO- to 358 nm for the CP+ x MO- associate. The MO- in the ion-associate complex can be quantitatively substituted by such anionic surfactants as sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (DBS) or sodium lauryl sulfate (LS), leading to an increase in the absorbance measured at 465 nm. This increased absorbance value is proportional to the concentration of anionic surfactants. Various chemical and physical parameters for the FI spectrophotometric method were optimized, and interference-free levels were examined. At the optimized conditions, Beer's law was obeyed in the range 1.4 approximately 25 mg/L sodium DBS for an injected sample volume of 180 microL, and a detection limit of 0.22 mg/L for sodium DBS was achieved at a sampling rate of 90 h(-1). Eleven determinations of a 16 mg/L sodium DBS solution gave a RSD of 0.4%. The proposed method has successfully been applied to the determination of anionic surfactant concentration in waste water and in detergents.

  3. Sensitive determination of 2-methoxyestradiol in pharmaceutical preparations and serum samples using flow injection chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hanchun; Zhang, Min; Zeng, Wenyuan; Zeng, Xiaoying; Zhang, Zhenzhong

    2014-05-01

    A rapid and sensitive flow injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) method is described for the determination of 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME) based on enhancement of the CL intensity from a potassium ferricyanide-calcein system in sodium hydroxide medium. The optimum conditions for the CL emission were investigated. Under optimized conditions, a linear calibration graph was obtained over the range 1.0 × 10(-8) to 1.0 × 10(-6) mol/L (r = 0.998) 2ME with a detection limit (3σ) of 5.4 × 10(-9) mol/L. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for 5.0 × 10(-7) mol/L 2ME was 1.7%. As a preliminary application, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of 2ME in injection solutions and serum samples. The possible CL mechanism was also proposed.

  4. Single-Well Injection-Withdrawal Experiments for Ground Flow Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzbecher, E.; Maier, F.

    2012-04-01

    We present a closer look on the Single-Well Injection-Withdrawal Experiment (SWIW) also known as Push-Pull Experiments and its ability to determine the groundwater velocity, as one of the major parameters concerning reservoir management. SWIW are tripartite. One starts with the tracer injection, followed by a quiescence period, where the tracer transport is dominated by the ambient flow field in the reservoir. The last phase is the withdrawal where the tracer break trough curve (BTC) is recorded. From the shape of the BTC, we are able to determine the groundwater velocity. The problem is numerically modeled using COMSOL Multiphysics. We compare with an advanced inversion scheme, based on analytical solutions and implemented in MATLAB. The results show that the BTC of a SWIW experiment is highly dependent on interaction between the parameters for groundwater velocity, pumping rates and the duration of the quiescence phase as well as the reservoir geometry. For the specific tracer applied in the model a minor influence is given by diffusion, dispersion and sorption processes. In dependence of the quiescence time and the groundwater velocity one can distinguish between three characteristic BTC types for the single tracer SWIW. These are given for tracers around the well, tracer between well and stagnation point and tracer beyond the stagnation point. The transition between these different cases is also discussed. The COMSOL Multiphysics model is used to investigate observations from a SWIW experiment performed recently in Japan. The latter is performed in cooperation with Technical University Berlin. Acknowledgements: Gebo, Logro

  5. Numerical investigation of scale effect of various injection diameters on interaction in cold kerosene-fueled supersonic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lin; Qi, Yin-Yin; Liu, Wei-Lai; Xu, Bao-Jian; Ge, Jia-Ru; Xuan, Xiang-Chun; Jen, Tien-Chien

    2016-12-01

    The incident shock wave generally has a strong effect on the transversal injection field in cold kerosene-fueled supersonic flow, possibly due to its affecting the interaction between incoming flow and fuel through various operation conditions. This study is to address scale effect of various injection diameters on the interaction between incident shock wave and transversal cavity injection in a cold kerosene-fueled scramjet combustor. The injection diameters are separately specified as from 0.5 to 1.5 mm in 0.5 mm increments when other performance parameters, including the injection angle, velocity and pressure drop are all constant. A combined three dimensional Couple Level Set & Volume of Fluids (CLSVOF) approach with an improved K-H & R-T model is used to characterize penetration height, span expansion area, angle of shock wave and sauter mean diameter (SMD) distribution of the kerosene droplets with/without considering evaporation. Our results show that the injection orifice surely has a great scale effect on the transversal injection field in cold kerosene-fueled supersonic flows. Our findings show that the penetration depth, span angle and span expansion area of the transverse cavity jet are increased with the injection diameter, and that the kerosene droplets are more prone to breakup and atomization at the outlet of the combustor for the orifice diameter of 1.5 mm. The calculation predictions are compared against the reported experimental measurements and literatures with good qualitative agreement. The simulation results obtained in this study can provide the evidences for better understanding the underlying mechanism of kerosene atomization in cold supersonic flow and scramjet design improvement.

  6. Extinction Dynamics of a Co-flow Diffusion Flame by Very Small Water Droplets Injected into the Air Stream

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-28

    flame extinction with UFM are available in the literature. Ndubizu et al. [18-20] conducted experiments on the effects of UFM on a forced convection ...injected air Reynolds number of 4 x 105 (Re=650). This suggests that the bulk of the air is affected by the natural convection and deviates...significantly from the streamlines of the injected air at the bottom of the burner. Therefore, the fluid flow set up by the natural convection is

  7. On the existence of solutions of an equation arising in the theory of laminar flow in a uniformly porous channel with injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, K. G.

    1986-01-01

    The existence of concave solutions of Berman's equation which describes the laminar flow in channels with injection through porous walls is established. It was found that the (unique) concave solutions exist for all injection Reynolds number R < 0.

  8. On the existence of solutions of an equation arising in the theory of laminar flow in a uniformly porous channel with injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Ke-Gang

    1987-01-01

    The existence of concave solutions of Berman's equation which describes the laminar flow in channels with injection through porous walls is established. It was found that the (unique) concave solutions exist for all injection Reynolds numbers R less than 0.

  9. Flow injection chemiluminescence analysis of phenolic compounds using the NCS-luminol system.

    PubMed

    Haghighi, Behzad; Dadashvand, Reza

    2006-03-01

    A flow injection system coupled with two simple and sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) methods is described for the determination of some phenolic compounds. The methods are based on the inhibition effects of the investigated phenols on the CL signal intensities of N-chlorosuccinimide-KI-luminol (NCS-KI-luminol) and NCS-luminol systems. The influences of the chemical and hydrodynamic parameters on the decrease in CL signal intensities of NCS-KI-luminol and NCS-luminol systems for hydroquinone, catechol, and resorcinol, serving as the model compounds of analyte, were studied in the flow injection mode of analysis. Under the selected conditions, the proposed CL systems were used for the determination of some phenolic compound and analytical characteristics of the systems including calibration equation, correlation coefficient, linear dynamic range, limit of detection, and sample throughput. The limits of detection for hydroquinone, catechol, and resorcinol were 0.002, 0.01, and 0.3 microM using the NCS-KI-luminol system; for the NCS-luminol system these were 0.01, 0.17, and 1.6 microM, respectively. The relative standard deviation for 10 repeated measurements of 0.04, 0.06, and 1 microM of hydroquinone, catechol, and resorcinol were 1.9, 1.4, and 2.0%, respectively, with the NCS-KI-luminol system; for 0.2, 0.5, and 4 microM of hydroquinone, catechol, and resorcinol these were 2.6, 2.2, and 3.7%, respectively, using the NCS-luminol system. The method was applied to the determination of catechol in known environmental water samples with a relative error of less than 6%. A possible reaction mechanism of the proposed CL system is discussed briefly.

  10. Numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in laser metal deposition by powder injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhiqiang

    Laser metal deposition is an additive manufacturing technique which allows quick fabrication of fully-dense metallic components directly from Computer Aided Design (CAD) solid models. A self-consistent three-dimensional model was developed for the laser metal deposition process by powder injection, which simulates heat transfer, phase changes, and fluid flow in the melt pool. The governing equations for solid, liquid and gas phases in the calculation domain have been formulated using the continuum model. The free surface in the melt pool has been tracked by the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method, while the VOF transport equation was solved using the Piecewise Linear Interface Calculation (PLIC) method. Surface tension was modeled by taking the Continuum Surface Force (CSF) model combined with a force-balance flow algorithm. Laser-powder interaction was modeled to account for the effects of laser power attenuation and powder temperature rise during the laser metal deposition process. The governing equations were discretized in the physical space using the finite volume method. The advection terms were approximated using the MUSCL flux limiter scheme. The fluid flow and energy equations were solved in a coupled manner. The incompressible flow equations were solved using a two-step projection method, which requires a solution of a Poisson equation for the pressure field. The discretized pressure Poisson equation was solved using the ICCG (Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient) solution technique. The energy equation was solved by an enthalpy-based method. Temperature-dependent thermal-physical material properties were considered in the numerical implementation. The numerical model was validated by comparing simulations with experimental measurements.

  11. Phosphite determination in fertilizers after online sequential sample preparation in a flow injection system.

    PubMed

    Dametto, Patrícia Roberta; Franzini, Vanessa Pezza; Gomes Neto, José Anchieta

    2007-07-25

    A flow injection spectrophotometric system is proposed for phosphite determination in fertilizers by the molybdenum blue method after the processing of each sample two times on-line without and with an oxidizing step. The flow system was designed to add sulfuric acid or permanganate solutions alternately into the system by simply displacing the injector-commutator from one resting position to another, allowing the determination of phosphate and total phosphate, respectively. The concentration of phosphite is obtained then by difference between the two measurents. The influence of flow rates, sample volume, and dimension of flow line connecting the injector-commutator to the main analytical channel was evaluated. The proposed method was applied to phosphite determination in commercial liquid fertilizers. Results obtained with the proposed FIA system were not statistically different from those obtained by titrimetry at the 95% confidence level. In addition, recoveries within 94 and 100% of spiked fertilizers were found. The relative standard deviation (n = 12) related to the phosphite-converted-phosphate peak alone was

  12. Development and validation of a flow-injection assay for dissolution studies of the anti-depressant drug venlafaxine.

    PubMed

    Tzanavaras, Paraskevas D; Verdoukas, Aspasia; Themelis, Demetrius G

    2005-12-01

    The first flow-injection method has been developed, optimized and validated for the determination of venlafaxine, an antidepressant drug. The method is based on a direct measurement of the absorbance of the analyte in an acidic medium, at 274 nm. Flow-injection parameters, such as sample injection volume and flow rate, were studied and optimized. The proposed method was validated in terms of linearity, repeatability, detection limit, accuracy and selectivity. Linearity was obeyed in the range 30 - 150 mg L(-1) of venlafaxine, while the detection limit (1.5 mg L(-1)) and repeatability (sr < 1.0%, n = 12) were satisfactory. The sampling rate was 30 h(-1). The results of dissolution studies of venlafaxine tablets obtained by the proposed method were in good agreement with those by high-performance liquid chromatography.

  13. Bio-convection on the nonlinear radiative flow of a Carreau fluid over a moving wedge with suction or injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, C. S. K.; Ibrahim, S. M.; Anuradha, S.; Priyadharshini, P.

    2016-11-01

    In modern days, the mass transfer rate is challenging to the scientists due to its noticeable significance for industrial as well as engineering applications; owing to this we attempt to study the cross-diffusion effects on the magnetohydrodynamic nonlinear radiative Carreau fluid over a wedge filled with gyro tactic microorganisms. Numerical results are presented graphically as well as in tabular form with the aid of the Runge-Kutta and Newton methods. The effects of pertinent parameters on velocity, temperature, concentration and density of motile organism distributions are presented and discussed for two cases (suction and injection flows). For real-life application we also calculated the local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers. It is observed that thermal and concentration profiles are not uniform in the suction and injection flow cases. It is found that the heat and mass transport phenomenon is high in the injection case, while heat and mass transfer rates are high in the suction flow case.

  14. Determination of subnanomolar concentrations of vanadium in environmental water samples using flow injection with luminol chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Attiq-ur-Rehman; Yaqoob, Mohammad; Waseem, Amir; Nabi, Abdul

    2011-01-01

    A flow injection chemiluminescence method is described for the determination of subnanomolar concentrations of vanadium in environmental water samples. The procedure is based on the oxidation of luminol in the presence of dissolved oxygen catalyzed by vanadium(IV). Vanadium(V) reduction and preconcentration of vanadium(IV) was carried out using in-line silver reductor and 8-hydroxyquinoline chelating columns at pH 3.15, respectively. The calibration graph for vanadium(IV) was linear in the concentration range of 0.025-10 µg/L with relative standard deviation in the range of 0.4-5.58%. The detection limit (3s blank) was 3.8 × 10(-3) µg/L without preconcentration; when the vanadium(IV) was preconcentrated with an 8-HQ column for 1 min (2.0 mL of sample loaded), the detection limit of 5.1 × 10(-4) µg/L was achieved. One analytical cycle can be completed in 2.0 min. The analysis of certified reference materials (CASS-4, NASS-5 and SLRS-4) by the proposed method showed good agreement with the certified values. The method was successfully applied to the determination of total dissolved vanadium in environmental water samples.

  15. Sequential determination of multi-nutrient elements in natural water samples with a reverse flow injection system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kunning; Ma, Jian; Yuan, Dongxing; Feng, Sichao; Su, Haitao; Huang, Yongming; Shangguan, Qipei

    2017-05-15

    An integrated system was developed for automatic and sequential determination of NO2(-), NO3(-), PO4(3-), Fe(2+), Fe(3+) and Mn(2+) in natural waters based on reverse flow injection analysis combined with spectrophotometric detection. The system operation was controlled by a single chip microcomputer and laboratory-programmed software written in LabVIEW. The experimental parameters for each nutrient element analysis were optimized based on a univariate experimental design, and interferences from common ions were evaluated. The upper limits of the linear range (along with detection limit, µmolL(-1)) of the proposed method was 20 (0.03), 200 (0.7), 12 (0.3), 5 (0.03), 5 (0.03), 9 (0.2) µmolL(-1), for NO2(-), NO3(-), PO4(3-), Fe(2+), Fe(3+) and Mn(2+), respectively. The relative standard deviations were below 5% (n=9-13) and the recoveries varied from 88.0±1.0% to 104.5±1.0% for spiked water samples. The sample throughput was about 20h(-1). This system has been successfully applied for the determination of multi-nutrient elements in different kinds of water samples and showed good agreement with reference methods (slope 1.0260±0.0043, R(2)=0.9991, n=50).

  16. A novel flow injection spectrophotometric method using plant extracts as green reagent for the determination of doxycycline.

    PubMed

    Palamy, Sysay; Ruengsitagoon, Wirat

    2017-01-15

    A novel flow injection spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of doxycycline in pharmaceutical preparations using iron(III) contained in extracts from plants. The assay was based on the complex formed between doxycycline and iron(III) characterized by an absorption maximum at 435nm. The calibration graphs obtained over the doxycycline concentration range 5-250μgmL(-1) gave correlation coefficients of 0.9979, 0.9987 and 0.9987 with the three green reagents prepared from Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (S. alata), Polygonum hydropiper L. (P. hydropiper) or Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw. (D. esculentum), respectively. The relative standard deviations of the repeatability was <2.00%. The percentage recoveries were in the range of 98.27-101.03%. Doxycycline contents obtained by this new method and by the reference methods reported in literature were in agreement at 95% confidence level with the paired t-test. The sample throughput was 36h(-1) for each green reagent.

  17. A novel flow injection spectrophotometric method using plant extracts as green reagent for the determination of doxycycline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palamy, Sysay; Ruengsitagoon, Wirat

    2017-01-01

    A novel flow injection spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of doxycycline in pharmaceutical preparations using iron(III) contained in extracts from plants. The assay was based on the complex formed between doxycycline and iron(III) characterized by an absorption maximum at 435 nm. The calibration graphs obtained over the doxycycline concentration range 5-250 μg mL- 1 gave correlation coefficients of 0.9979, 0.9987 and 0.9987 with the three green reagents prepared from Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (S. alata), Polygonum hydropiper L. (P. hydropiper) or Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw. (D. esculentum), respectively. The relative standard deviations of the repeatability was < 2.00%. The percentage recoveries were in the range of 98.27-101.03%. Doxycycline contents obtained by this new method and by the reference methods reported in literature were in agreement at 95% confidence level with the paired t-test. The sample throughput was 36 h- 1 for each green reagent.

  18. CFD Validation of Gas Injection in Flowing Mercury over Vertical Smooth and Grooved Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, Ashraf A; Wendel, Mark W; Felde, David K; Riemer, Bernie

    2009-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL).The nuclear spallation reaction occurs when a proton beam hits liquid mercury. This interaction causes thermal expansion of the liquid mercury which produces high pressure waves. When these pressure waves hit the target vessel wall, cavitation can occur and erode the wall. Research and development efforts at SNS include creation of a vertical protective gas layer between the flowing liquid mercury and target vessel wall to mitigate the cavitation damage erosion and extend the life time of the target. Since mercury is opaque, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used as a diagnostic tool to see inside the liquid mercury and guide the experimental efforts. In this study, CFD simulations of three dimensional, unsteady, turbulent, two-phase flow of helium gas injection in flowing liquid mercury over smooth, vertically grooved and horizontally grooved walls are carried out with the commercially available CFD code Fluent-12 from ANSYS. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) model is used to track the helium-mercury interface. V-shaped vertical and horizontal grooves with 0.5 mm pitch and about 0.7 mm depth were machined in the transparent wall of acrylic test sections. Flow visualization data of helium gas coverage through transparent test sections is obtained with a high-speed camera at the ORNL target test facility (TTF). The helium gas mass flow rate is 8 mg/min and introduced through a 0.5 mm diameter port. The local mercury velocity is 0.9 m/s. In this paper, the helium gas flow rate and the local mercury velocity are kept constant for the three cases. Time integration of predicted helium gas volume fraction over time is done to evaluate the gas coverage and calculate the average thickness of the helium gas layer. The predicted time-integrated gas coverage over vertically grooved and horizontally grooved test sections is better than over a smooth wall. The

  19. Performance of 4600-pound-thrust centrifugal-flow-type turbojet engine with water-alcohol injection at inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasser, Philip W

    1950-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the effects of injecting a water-alcohol mixture of 2:1 at the compressor inlet of a centrifugal-flow type turbojet engine was conducted in an altitude test chamber at static sea-level conditions and at an altitude of 20,000 feet with a flight Mach number of 0.78 with an engine operating at rated speed. The net thrust was augmented by 0.16 for both flight conditions with a ratio of injected liquid to air flow of 0.05. Further increases in the liquid-air ratio did not give comparable increases in thrust.

  20. Determination of Potassium, Sodium, and Total Alkalies in Portland Cement, Fly Ash, Admixtures, and Water of Concrete by a Simple Flow Injection Flame Photometric System

    PubMed Central

    Junsomboon, Jaroon; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2011-01-01

    A simple flow injection with flame photometric detection has been developed for determination of sodium, potassium, and total alkalies in portland cement, fly ash, admixtures, and water of concrete. A liquid sample or a digest of solid sample was injected into a water carrier stream which flowed to a flame photometer. A change in emission intensity at a selected wavelength was recorded as a peak. An amplifier circuit was fabricated, which helped improve sensitivity of the flame photometer. Calibration graphs in the range of 0.05–1.0 mg L−1 and 1.0–20.0 mg L−1 were obtained with a detection limit of 0.02 mg L−1, for both potassium and sodium determination. Relative standard deviations for 11 replicates of injecting of 10 mg L−1 potassium and sodium solutions were 1.69 and 1.79%, respectively. Sample throughput of 120 h−1 was achieved. The proposed method was successfully applied to portland cement, fly ash, admixtures, and water samples validated by the ASTM standard method and certified reference materials of portland cement. PMID:21747733

  1. Determination of potassium, sodium, and total alkalies in portland cement, fly ash, admixtures, and water of concrete by a simple flow injection flame photometric system.

    PubMed

    Junsomboon, Jaroon; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2011-01-01

    A simple flow injection with flame photometric detection has been developed for determination of sodium, potassium, and total alkalies in portland cement, fly ash, admixtures, and water of concrete. A liquid sample or a digest of solid sample was injected into a water carrier stream which flowed to a flame photometer. A change in emission intensity at a selected wavelength was recorded as a peak. An amplifier circuit was fabricated, which helped improve sensitivity of the flame photometer. Calibration graphs in the range of 0.05-1.0 mg L(-1) and 1.0-20.0 mg L(-1) were obtained with a detection limit of 0.02 mg L(-1), for both potassium and sodium determination. Relative standard deviations for 11 replicates of injecting of 10 mg L(-1) potassium and sodium solutions were 1.69 and 1.79%, respectively. Sample throughput of 120 h(-1) was achieved. The proposed method was successfully applied to portland cement, fly ash, admixtures, and water samples validated by the ASTM standard method and certified reference materials of portland cement.

  2. The role of flow injection analysis within the framework of an automated laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Stockwell, Peter B.

    1990-01-01

    Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) was invented at roughly the same time by two quite dissimilar research groups [1,2]. FIA was patented by both groups in 1974; a year also marked by the publication of the first book on automatic chemical analysis [3]. This book was a major undertaking for its authors and it is hoped that it has added to the knowledge of those analysts attempting to automate their work or to increase the level of computerization/automation and thus reduce staffing commitments. This review discusses the role of FIA in laboratory automation, the advantages and disadvantages of the FIA approach, and the part it could play in future developments. It is important to stress at the outset that the FIA approach is all too often closely paralleled with convention al continuous flow analysis (CFA). This is a mistake for many reasons, none the least of which because of the considerable success of the CFA approach in contrast to the present lack of penetration in the commercial market-place of FIA instrumentation. PMID:18925262

  3. Ultra-sensitive Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) determination of calcium in ice cores at ppt level.

    PubMed

    Traversi, R; Becagli, S; Castellano, E; Maggi, V; Morganti, A; Severi, M; Udisti, R

    2007-07-02

    A Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) spectrofluorimetric method for calcium determination in ice cores was optimised in order to achieve better analytical performances which would make it suitable for reliable calcium measurements at ppt level. The method here optimised is based on the formation of a fluorescent compound between Ca and Quin-2 in buffered environment. A careful evaluation of operative parameters (reagent concentration, buffer composition and concentration, pH), influence of interfering species possibly present in real samples and potential favourable effect of surfactant addition was carried out. The obtained detection limit is around 15 ppt, which is one order of magnitude lower than the most sensitive Flow Analysis method for Ca determination currently available in literature and reproducibility is better than 4% for Ca concentrations of 0.2 ppb. The method was validated through measurements performed in parallel with Ion Chromatography on 200 samples from an alpine ice core (Lys Glacier) revealing an excellent fit between the two chemical series. Calcium stratigraphy in Lys ice core was discussed in terms of seasonal pattern and occurrence of Saharan dust events.

  4. Numerical simulation of internal and near-nozzle flow of a gasoline direct injection fuel injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Kaushik; Som, Sibendu; Battistoni, Michele; Li, Yanheng; Quan, Shaoping; Senecal, Peter Kelly

    2015-12-01

    A numerical study of two-phase flow inside the nozzle holes and the issuing spray jets for a multi-hole direct injection gasoline injector has been presented in this work. The injector geometry is representative of the Spray G nozzle, an eight-hole counterbore injector, from, the Engine Combustion Network (ECN). Simulations have been carried out for the fixed needle lift. Effects of turbulence, compressibility and, non-condensable gases have been considered in this work. Standard k—ɛ turbulence model has been used to model the turbulence. Homogeneous Relaxation Model (HRM) coupled with Volume of Fluid (VOF) approach has been utilized to capture the phase change phenomena inside and outside the injector nozzle. Three different boundary conditions for the outlet domain have been imposed to examine non-flashing and evaporative, non-flashing and non-evaporative, and flashing conditions. Inside the nozzle holes mild cavitation-like and in the near-nozzle region flash boiling phenomena have been predicted in this study when liquid fuel is subjected to superheated ambiance. Noticeable hole to hole variation has been also observed in terms of mass flow rates for all the holes under both flashing and non-flashing conditions.

  5. Flow injection sample pretreatment in the determination of trace elements in waters by atomic spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Tyson, J.F.

    1995-12-31

    Flow injection (FI) techniques are a way of automating sampling pretreatment procedures with direct coupling to the instrument. For a variety of reasons, flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) would be the method of choice for the determination of trace elements in water samples were it not for some of the inherent limitations of this technique. These limitations are concerned with the various interferences that arise from matrix components and with the atom number density in the source. This together with the various noise sources sets detection limits which are not low enough for many applications. Thus many FI procedures are devised with the aim of overcoming these limitations and thus solid phase extraction (SPE) as a means of preconcentration features largely in recently published work. Results will be presented for the determination of trace elements in water samples (both fresh and saline) in which SPE procedures were used to (a) remove the potentially interfering sea-water matrix for determinations using ICP-MS and (b) preconcentrate cadmium from surface waters prior to determination by FAAS. Hydride generation methods have been applied for the determination of selenium and arsenic. In highly saline media the elevated recoveries of Se have been investigated and for the determination of As, an evaluation of the claim that the use of surfactants improves the performance of a flow based hydride generation system has critically evaluated.

  6. Indirect flow-injection spectrophotometric determination of meloxicam, tenoxicam and piroxicam in pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Al-Momani, Idrees F

    2006-12-01

    A simple and sensitive indirect spectrophotometric method for the assay of meloxicam (MX), tenoxicam (TX) and piroxicam (PX) in pure and in pharmaceutical formulations by flow injection analysis (FIA) has been proposed. The method is based on the oxidation of these drugs by a known excess of N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) in an acidic medium, followed by a reaction of excess oxidant with chloranilic acid (CAA) to bleach its purple color. The absorbance values increased linearly with increasing concentrations of the drugs. Variables, such as the acidity, reagent concentrations, flow rate of reagents and other FI parameters were optimized to produce the most sensitive and reproducible results. The system obeyed Beer's low over concentration ranges of 10 - 160, 20 - 200 and 10 - 160 microg/ml for MX, TX and PX, respectively. The common excipients and additives did not interfere with their determinations. The method was successfully applied to the determinations of MX, TX and PX in various pharmaceutical preparations. The results obtained by the proposed method were found to be in good agreement with those found by the official HPLC methods.

  7. [Research on optimization of mathematical model of flow injection-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Cui, Jian; Zhao, Xue-Hong; Wang, Yan; Xiao, Ya-Bing; Jiang, Xue-Hui; Dai, Li

    2014-01-01

    Flow injection-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry was a widely used method in the industries of health, environmental, geological and metallurgical fields for the merit of high sensitivity, wide measurement range and fast analytical speed. However, optimization of this method was too difficult as there exist so many parameters affecting the sensitivity and broadening. Generally, the optimal conditions were sought through several experiments. The present paper proposed a mathematical model between the parameters and sensitivity/broadening coefficients using the law of conservation of mass according to the characteristics of hydride chemical reaction and the composition of the system, which was proved to be accurate as comparing the theoretical simulation and experimental results through the test of arsanilic acid standard solution. Finally, this paper has put a relation map between the parameters and sensitivity/broadening coefficients, and summarized that GLS volume, carrier solution flow rate and sample loop volume were the most factors affecting sensitivity and broadening coefficients. Optimizing these three factors with this relation map, the relative sensitivity was advanced by 2.9 times and relative broadening was reduced by 0.76 times. This model can provide a theoretical guidance for the optimization of the experimental conditions.

  8. Total polyphenols content in white wines on a microfluidic flow injection analyzer with embedded optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Oscar, Sandoval-Ventura; Fernando, Olguín-Contreras Luis; Del Pilar, Cañizares-Macías María

    2017-04-15

    Absorbance detection in food microdevices has not been thoroughly used due to low levels of sensitivity in measurements. Thus, it is necessary to develop microfluidic methods for improving photometric detection. For this purpose, a simple coupled-optical-fiber-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microdevice was developed, to quantify polyphenols content in white wine employing the Folin-Ciocalteu reaction method. A 6V and 10W halogen lamp with an optical path length of 7mm between optical fibers, which were placed into the microchip, using guides at the outlet of the flow, increased the level of sensitivity during detection. The linear range was from 0.03mmol/L to 0.18mmol/L. Thus, the corresponding equation was: Abs=4.00(±0.16) [tannic acid]+0.17(±0.017). Intra-laboratory repeatability and reproducibility percentages were 2.95% and 6.84%, respectively. Such results were compared to those obtained from applying the conventional flow-injection analysis method, based on the same type of reaction. The relative error between methods was less than 13%.

  9. Successive determination of urinary bilirubin and creatinine employing simultaneous injection effective mixing flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Ponhong, Kraingkrai; Teshima, Norio; Grudpan, Kate; Vichapong, Jitlada; Motomizu, Shoji; Sakai, Tadao

    2015-02-01

    A novel four-channel simultaneous injection effective mixing flow analysis (SIEMA) system has been assembled for successive determination of bilirubin and creatinine in urinary samples. The chemical variables and physical parameters in the flow system were optimized for the enhancement of successive analytical performances. The interferences from urine matrices on the determination of bilirubin and creatinine were eliminated to dilute urine samples. The calibration graphs with the optimum conditions were achieved to be in 0.024-5.0 mg L(-1) for bilirubin and 2-100 mg L(-1) for creatinine. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) at 3 mg L(-1) of bilirubin and at 50 mg L(-1) of creatinine for 11 runs were 1.5 and 1.0%, respectively. The limits of detections (3σ of blank) for bilirubin and creatinine were 7 µg L(-1) and 0.6 mg L(-1), respectively. The sample throughput for stepwise detection was 22 h(-1). The proposed method was applied to the successive determination of bilirubin and creatinine in urine samples.

  10. Multicommuted flow injection method for fast photometric determination of phenolic compounds in commercial virgin olive oil samples.

    PubMed

    Lara-Ortega, Felipe J; Sainz-Gonzalo, Francisco J; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2016-01-15

    A multicommuted flow injection method has been developed for the determination of phenolic species in virgin olive oil samples. The method is based on the inhibitory effect of antioxidants on a stable and colored radical cation formation from the colorless compound N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DMPD(•+)) in acidic medium in the presence of Fe(III) as oxidant. The signal inhibition by phenolic species and other antioxidants is proportional to their concentration in the olive oil sample. Absorbance was recorded at 515nm by means of a modular fiber optic spectrometer. Oleuropein was used as the standard for phenols determination and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (trolox) was the reference standard used for total antioxidant content calculation. Linear response was observed within the range of 250-1000mg/kg oleuropein, which was in accordance with phenolic contents observed in commercial extra virgin olive oil in the present study. Fast and low-volume liquid-liquid extraction of the samples using 60% MeOH was made previous to their insertion in the flow multicommuted system. The five three-way solenoid valves used for multicommuted liquid handling were controlled by a homemade electronic interface and Java-written software. The proposed approach was applied to different commercial extra virgin olive oil samples and the results were consistent with those obtained by the Folin Ciocalteu (FC) method. Total time for the sample preparation and the analysis required in the present approach can be drastically reduced: the throughput of the present analysis is 8 samples/h in contrast to 1sample/h of the conventional FC method. The present method is easy to implement in routine analysis and can be regarded as a feasible alternative to FC method.

  11. Flow-injection chemiluminescence method to detect a β2 adrenergic agonist.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangbin; Tang, Yuhai; Shang, Jian; Wang, Zhongcheng; Yu, Hua; Du, Wei; Fu, Qiang

    2015-02-01

    A new method for the detection of β2 adrenergic agonists was developed based on the chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of β2 adrenergic agonist with potassium ferricyanide-luminol CL. The effect of β2 adrenergic agonists including isoprenaline hydrochloride, salbutamol sulfate, terbutaline sulfate and ractopamine on the CL intensity of potassium ferricyanide-luminol was discovered. Detection of the β2 adrenergic agonist was carried out in a flow system. Using uniform design experimentation, the influence factors of CL were optimized. The optimal experimental conditions were 1 mmol/L of potassium ferricyanide, 10 µmol/L of luminol, 1.2 mmol/L of sodium hydroxide, a flow speed of 2.6 mL/min and a distance of 1.2 cm from 'Y2 ' to the flow cell. The linear ranges and limit of detection were 10-100 and 5 ng/mL for isoprenaline hydrochloride, 20-100 and 5 ng/mL for salbutamol sulfate, 8-200 and 1 ng/mL for terbutaline sulfate, 20-100 and 4 ng/mL for ractopamine, respectively. The proposed method allowed 200 injections/h with excellent repeatability and precision. It was successfully applied to the determination of three β2 adrenergic agonists in commercial pharmaceutical formulations with recoveries in the range of 96.8-98.5%. The possible CL reaction mechanism of potassium ferricyanide-luminol-β2 adrenergic agonist was discussed from the UV/vis spectra.

  12. Feedback-amplified electrochemical dual-plate boron-doped diamond microtrench detector for flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Grace E M; Gross, Andrew J; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Lubben, Anneke T; Marken, Frank

    2015-08-01

    An electrochemical flow cell with a boron-doped diamond dual-plate microtrench electrode has been developed and demonstrated for hydroquinone flow injection electroanalysis in phosphate buffer pH 7. Using the electrochemical generator-collector feedback detector improves the sensitivity by one order of magnitude (when compared to a single working electrode detector). The diffusion process is switched from an analyte consuming "external" process to an analyte regenerating "internal" process with benefits in selectivity and sensitivity.

  13. Reference values of fetal erythrocytes in maternal blood during pregnancy established using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Harry; Nabbe, Karin C A M; Kooren, Jurgen A; Adriaansen, Henk J; Roelandse-Koop, Elianne A; Schuitemaker, Joost H N; Hoffmann, Johannes J M L

    2011-10-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the fetal RBC count in maternal blood during uncomplicated pregnancies from 26 weeks onward. We used a flow cytometric method specifically designed for use in a routine hematology analyzer. Pregnant women were recruited through midwives. The participating laboratories used the FMH QuikQuant method (Trillium Diagnostics, Brewer, ME) in a CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer (Abbott Diagnostics, Santa Clara, CA). The method is based on a monoclonal antibody to hemoglobin F. Flow cytometric data were analyzed by 2 independent observers. The 95th percentile reference range was estimated according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. A total of 236 samples were statistically analyzed. Gestational ages ranged from 21.6 to 41 weeks (mean, 32.0 weeks), and the fetal RBC count in maternal blood ranged from 0.00% to 0.50% (median, 0.025%). The fetal RBC count in maternal blood shows no correlation with gestational age. The established reference range during normal pregnancy is less than 0.125%.

  14. Spectrophotometric detection of arsenic using flow-injection hydride generation following sorbent extraction preconcentration.

    PubMed

    Neto, J A; Montes, R; Cardoso, A A

    1999-12-06

    An automated system with a C(18) bonded silica gel packed minicolumn is proposed for spectrophotometric detection of arsenic using flow-injection hydride generation following sorbent extraction preconcentration. Complexes formed between arsenic(III) and ammonium diethyl dithiophosphate (ADDP) are retained on a C(18) sorbent. The eluted As-DDP complexes are merged with a 1.5% (w/v) NaBH(4) and the resulting solution is thereafter injected into the hydride generator/gas-liquid separator. The arsine generated is carried out by a stream of N(2) and trapped in an alkaline iodine solution in which the analyte is determined by the arsenomolybdenum blue method. With preconcentration time of 120 s, calibration in the 5.00-50.0 mug As l(-1) range and sampling rate of about 20 samples h(-1) are achieved, corresponding to 36 mg ADDP plus 36 mg ammonium heptamolybdate plus 7 mg hydrazine sulfate plus 0.7 mg stannous chloride and about 7 ml sample consumed per determination. The detection limit is 0.06 mug l(-1) and the relative standard deviation (n=12) for a typical 17.0 mug As l(-1) sample is ca. 6%. The accuracy was checked for arsenic determination in plant materials from the NIST (1572 citrus leaves; 1573 tomato leaves) and the results were in agreement with the certified values at 95% confidence level. Good recoveries (94-104%) of spiked tap waters, sugars and synthetic mixtures of trivalent and pentavalent arsenic were also found.

  15. Determination of acetaldehyde in saliva by gas-diffusion flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Ramdzan, Adlin N; Mornane, Patrick J; McCullough, Michael J; Mazurek, Waldemar; Kolev, Spas D

    2013-07-05

    The consumption of ethanol is known to increase the likelihood of oral cancer. In addition, there has been a growing concern about possible association between long term use of ethanol-containing mouthwashes and oral cancer. Acetaldehyde, known to be a carcinogen, is the first metabolite of ethanol and it can be produced in the oral cavity after consumption or exposure to ethanol. This paper reports on the development of a gas-diffusion flow injection method for the online determination of salivary acetaldehyde by its colour reaction with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) and ferric chloride. Acetaldehyde samples and standards (80 μL) were injected into the donor stream containing NaCl from which acetaldehyde diffused through the hydrophobic Teflon membrane of the gas-diffusion cell into the acceptor stream containing the two reagents mentioned above. The resultant intense green coloured dye was monitored spectrophotometrically at 600 nm. Under the optimum working conditions the method is characterized by a sampling rate of 9h(-1), a linear calibration range of 0.5-15 mg L(-1) (absorbance=5.40×10(-2) [acetaldehyde, mg L(-1)], R(2)=0.998), a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.90% (n=10, acetaldehyde concentration of 2.5 mg L(-1)), and a limit of detection (LOD) of 12.3 μg L(-1). The LOD and sampling rate of the proposed method are superior to those of the conventional gas chromatographic (GC) method (LOD=93.0 μg L(-1) and sampling rate=4 h(-1)). The reliability of the proposed method was illustrated by the fact that spiked with acetaldehyde saliva samples yielded excellent recoveries (96.6-101.9%), comparable to those obtained by GC (96.4-102.3%) and there was no statistically significant difference at the 95% confidence level between the two methods when non-spiked saliva samples were analysed.

  16. Simple flow injection method for simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III).

    PubMed

    Kozak, J; Jodłowska, N; Kozak, M; Kościelniak, P

    2011-09-30

    The method is based on spectrophotometric determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) at a single wavelength (530 nm) with the use of a dedicated reversed-flow injection system. In the system, EDTA solution is injected into a carrier stream (HNO(3)) and then merged with a sample stream containing a mixture of sulfosalicylic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline as indicators. In an acid environment (pH≅3) the indicators form complexes with both Fe(III) and Fe(II), but EDTA replaces sulfosalicylic acid, forming a more stable colourless complex with Fe(III), whereas Fe(II) remains in a complex with 1,10-phenenthroline. As a result, the area and minimum of the characteristic peak can be exploited as measures corresponding to the Fe(III) and Fe(II) concentrations, respectively. The analytes were not found to affect each other's signals, hence two analytical curves were constructed with the use of a set of standard solutions, each containing Fe(II) and Fe(III). Both analytes were determined in synthetic samples within the concentration ranges of 0.05-4.0 and 0.09-6.0 mg L(-1), respectively, with precision less than 1.5 and 2.6% (RSD) and with accuracy less than 4.3 and 5.6% (RE). The method was applied to determination of the analytes in water samples collected from artesian wells and the results of the determination were consistent with those obtained using the ICP-OES technique.

  17. Numerical Solution for the Effect of Suction or Injection on Flow of Nanofluids Past a Stretching Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Elazem, Nader Y.

    2016-06-01

    The flow of nanofluids past a stretching sheet has attracted much attention owing to its wide applications in industry and engineering. Numerical solution has been discussed in this article for studying the effect of suction (or injection) on flow of nanofluids past a stretching sheet. The numerical results carried out using Chebyshev collocation method (ChCM). Useful results for temperature profile, concentration profile, reduced Nusselt number, and reduced Sherwood number are discussed in tabular and graphical forms. It was also demonstrated that both temperature and concentration profiles decrease by an increase from injection to suction. Moreover, the numerical results show that the temperature profiles decrease at high values of Prandtl number Pr. Finally, the present results showed that the reduced Nusselt number is a decreasing function, whereas the reduced Sherwood number is an increasing function at fixed values of Prandtl number Pr, Lewis number Le and suction (or injection) parameter s for variation of Brownian motion parameter Nb, and thermophoresis parameter Nt.

  18. Comparison of Flow Injection MS, NMR, and DNA Sequencing: Methods for Identification and Authentication of Black Cohosh (Actaea racemosa)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (1H-NMR), two metabolic fingerprinting methods, and DNA sequencing were used to identify and authenticate Actaea species. Initially, samples of Actaea racemosa L. from a single source were distinguished from ...

  19. On-line dynamic fractionation and automatic determination of inorganic phosphorus in environmental solid substrates exploiting sequential injection microcolumn extraction and flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Buanuam, Janya; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald; Shiowatana, Juwadee

    2006-06-16

    Sequential injection microcolumn extraction (SI-MCE) based on the implementation of a soil-containing microcartridge as external reactor in a sequential injection network is, for the first time, proposed for dynamic fractionation of macronutrients in environmental solids, as exemplified by the partitioning of inorganic phosphorus in agricultural soils. The on-line fractionation method capitalises on the accurate metering and sequential exposure of the various extractants to the solid sample by application of programmable flow as precisely coordinated by a syringe pump. Three different soil phase associations for phosphorus, that is, exchangeable, Al- and Fe-bound, and Ca-bound fractions, were elucidated by accommodation in the flow manifold of the three steps of the Hieltjes-Lijklema (HL) scheme involving the use of 1.0M NH4Cl, 0.1M NaOH and 0.5M HCl, respectively, as sequential leaching reagents. The precise timing and versatility of SI for tailoring various operational extraction modes were utilized for investigating the extractability and the extent of phosphorus re-distribution for variable partitioning times. Automatic spectrophotometric determination of soluble reactive phosphorus in soil extracts was performed by a flow injection (FI) analyser based on the Molybdenum Blue (MB) chemistry. The 3sigma detection limit was 0.02 mg P L(-1) while the linear dynamic range extended up to 20 mg P L(-1) regardless of the extracting media. Despite the variable chemical composition of the HL extracts, a single FI set-up was assembled with no need for either manifold re-configuration or modification of chemical composition of reagents. The mobilization of trace elements, such as Cd, often present in grazed pastures as a result of the application of phosphate fertilizers, was also explored in the HL fractions by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

  20. High-resolution quantitative metabolome analysis of urine by automated flow injection NMR.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Laeticia; Godejohann, Markus; Martin, François-Pierre J; Collino, Sebastiano; Bürkle, Alexander; Moreno-Villanueva, María; Bernhardt, Jürgen; Toussaint, Olivier; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Gonos, Efstathios S; Sikora, Ewa; Grune, Tilman; Breusing, Nicolle; Franceschi, Claudio; Hervonen, Antti; Spraul, Manfred; Moco, Sofia

    2013-06-18

    Metabolism is essential to understand human health. To characterize human metabolism, a high-resolution read-out of the metabolic status under various physiological conditions, either in health or disease, is needed. Metabolomics offers an unprecedented approach for generating system-specific biochemical definitions of a human phenotype through the capture of a variety of metabolites in a single measurement. The emergence of large cohorts in clinical studies increases the demand of technologies able to analyze a large number of measurements, in an automated fashion, in the most robust way. NMR is an established metabolomics tool for obtaining metabolic phenotypes. Here, we describe the analysis of NMR-based urinary profiles for metabolic studies, challenged to a large human study (3007 samples). This method includes the acquisition of nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy one-dimensional and J-resolved two-dimensional (J-Res-2D) (1)H NMR spectra obtained on a 600 MHz spectrometer, equipped with a 120 μL flow probe, coupled to a flow-injection analysis system, in full automation under the control of a sampler manager. Samples were acquired at a throughput of ~20 (or 40 when J-Res-2D is included) min/sample. The associated technical analysis error over the full series of analysis is 12%, which demonstrates the robustness of the method. With the aim to describe an overall metabolomics workflow, the quantification of 36 metabolites, mainly related to central carbon metabolism and gut microbial host cometabolism, was obtained, as well as multivariate data analysis of the full spectral profiles. The metabolic read-outs generated using our analytical workflow can therefore be considered for further pathway modeling and/or biological interpretation.

  1. Pharmacokinetic of pseudoephedrine in rat serum with luminol-pepsin chemiluminescence system by flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Kai; Li, Yajuan; Zheng, Xiaohui; Song, Zhenghua

    2015-02-01

    Pepsin (Pep) accelerated the electron transferring rate of excited 3-aminophathlate and enhanced luminol-dissolved oxygen chemiluminescence (CL) intensity, and the flow injection (FI) luminol-Pep CL system was first developed. It was found that the CL intensity of luminol-Pep reaction could be remarkably inhibited by pseudoephedrine (PE); the decrement of CL intensity was linear to the logarithm of PE concentration in the range of 0.1∼100.0 nmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.03 nmol mL(-1) (3σ). At a flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1), the complete process including washing and sampling was performed within 40 s, offering a sample throughput of 90 h(-1). This proposed method was successfully applied to determining PE in rat serum for 18 h after intragastric administration with the elimination ratio of 42.34 % and recoveries from 90.3 to 110.6 %. The pharmacokinetic results showed that PE could be rapidly absorbed into serum with peak concentration (C max) of 1.45 ± 0.18 g L(-1) at the time (T max) of 1.49 ± 0.02 h; the absorption half-life (0.35 ± 0.04 h), elimination half-life (1.86 ± 0.24 h), the area under curve (109.81 ± 6.03 mg L(-1) h(-1)), mean residence time (3.82 ± 0.27 h), and elimination rate constant (2.26 ± 0.23 L g(-1) h(-1)) in rats vivo were derived, respectively. The possible CL mechanism of luminol-Pep-PE reaction was discussed by FI-CL, fluorescence, and molecular docking (MD) methods.

  2. High-Resolution Quantitative Metabolome Analysis of Urine by Automated Flow Injection NMR

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Metabolism is essential to understand human health. To characterize human metabolism, a high-resolution read-out of the metabolic status under various physiological conditions, either in health or disease, is needed. Metabolomics offers an unprecedented approach for generating system-specific biochemical definitions of a human phenotype through the capture of a variety of metabolites in a single measurement. The emergence of large cohorts in clinical studies increases the demand of technologies able to analyze a large number of measurements, in an automated fashion, in the most robust way. NMR is an established metabolomics tool for obtaining metabolic phenotypes. Here, we describe the analysis of NMR-based urinary profiles for metabolic studies, challenged to a large human study (3007 samples). This method includes the acquisition of nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy one-dimensional and J-resolved two-dimensional (J-Res-2D) 1H NMR spectra obtained on a 600 MHz spectrometer, equipped with a 120 μL flow probe, coupled to a flow-injection analysis system, in full automation under the control of a sampler manager. Samples were acquired at a throughput of ∼20 (or 40 when J-Res-2D is included) min/sample. The associated technical analysis error over the full series of analysis is 12%, which demonstrates the robustness of the method. With the aim to describe an overall metabolomics workflow, the quantification of 36 metabolites, mainly related to central carbon metabolism and gut microbial host cometabolism, was obtained, as well as multivariate data analysis of the full spectral profiles. The metabolic read-outs generated using our analytical workflow can therefore be considered for further pathway modeling and/or biological interpretation. PMID:23718684

  3. A spectrophotometric flow injection system for streptomycin determination in veterinary samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frugeri, Pedro Marcos; Lago, Ayla Campos do; Wisniewski, Célio; Luccas, Pedro Orival

    2014-01-01

    In this work a spectrophotometric flow injection analysis system for streptomycin determination in veterinary samples, is being proposed. The method is based on streptomycin alkaline hydrolysis that forms guanidine, followed by the reaction with Fe(II). The colored product has absorption peak at 520 nm. To evaluate and optimize the system parameters, chemometrics tools, such as factorial design, Pareto chart and Doelhert design, were used. The veterinary samples are diluted in water and introduced in the FIA system, therefore no sample preparation is required. The optimized system presented: linear range of 60 up to 1000 mg L-1, limit of detection of 18 mg L-1 and sampling rate of 36 readings per hour. The precision was checked and the CV for veterinary sample readings were always less than 6.5%. The accuracy was studied by comparison with chromatographic method, thus, five samples of pharmaceutical veterinary were determined by HPLC and by the proposed method, and the results are in agreement (t-test, p = 0.05).

  4. The electrochemiluminescence of luminol on titania nanotubes functionalised indium tin oxide glass for flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qun; Xiao, Changbin; Tu, Yifeng

    2015-10-01

    The titania nanotubes (TiNTs) had been immobilised onto the indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass to intensify the electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol. The morphology, structure and properties such as specific surface area and transmittance of synthesised TiNTs were characterised. The results indicated that the TiNTs was several hundred nanometres in length with the diameter of 20 nm. In flow injection analysis (FIA) mode, the TiNTs dramatically enhanced the ECL emission of luminol for about 25 multiple, meanwhile decreased the requirement of buffer pH and exciting potential. The ECL emission of luminol on functionalised ITO electrode has sensitive response toward hydrogen peroxide, and extraordinarily responsive toward the antioxidant. Under the optimal conditions, the ECL emission exhibited a linear response within the concentration range from 0.1 mg L(-1) to 30 mg L(-1) and an absolute detection limit of 1.65×10(-10) g of resveratrol. The gross antioxidant activity of blueberry and kiwi were determined with satisfactory recoveries.

  5. Application of hot platinum microelectrodes for determination of flavonoids in flow injection analysis and capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Magnuszewska, Jolanta; Krogulec, Tadeusz

    2013-07-05

    The determination of quercetin and rutin by flow injection analysis (FIA) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) using electrochemical detection was described. These flavonoids were determined at normal (unheated) and hot platinum microelectrodes using cyclic voltammetry. When quercetin or rutin is reaching the platinum electrode, a change of the current in the region of the platinum oxide formation is observed. Integration of the current changes in this in this region creates analytical signals in the form of peaks. An increase of temperature to about 76°C in a small zone adjacent to the microelectrode causes an increase of the analytical signal by more than 6 times under FIA conditions. This method enables the use of hot microelectrodes as detectors in HPLC or CE. In CE the improvement of the analytical signal at hot microelectrodes is smaller than in FIA and increase only 1.3-3.4 times. Heated microelectrodes were used for analysis of the flavonoids in natural samples of the plant (extract of sea buckthorn) and a pharmaceutical preparation (Cerutin).

  6. Study on the interaction of catalase with pesticides by flow injection chemiluminescence and molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xijuan; Wang, Zhuming; Chen, Donghua; Luo, Kai; Xiong, Xunyu; Song, Zhenghua

    2014-08-01

    The interaction mechanisms of catalase (CAT) with pesticides (including organophosphates: disulfoton, isofenphos-methyl, malathion, isocarbophos, dimethoate, dipterex, methamidophos and acephate; carbamates: carbaryl and methomyl; pyrethroids: fenvalerate and deltamethrin) were first investigated by flow injection (FI) chemiluminescence (CL) analysis and molecular docking. By homemade FI-CL model of lg[(I0-I)/I]=lgK+nlg[D], it was found that the binding processes of pesticides to CAT were spontaneous with the apparent binding constants K of 10(3)-10(5) L mol(-1) and the numbers of binding sites about 1.0. The binding abilities of pesticides to CAT followed the order: fenvalerate>deltamethrin>disulfoton>isofenphos-methyl>carbaryl>malathion>isocarbophos>dimethoate>dipterex>acephate>methomyl>methamidophos, which was generally similar to the order of determination sensitivity of pesticides. The thermodynamic parameters revealed that CAT bound with hydrophobic pesticides by hydrophobic interaction force, and with hydrophilic pesticides by hydrogen bond and van der Waals force. The pesticides to CAT molecular docking study showed that pesticides could enter into the cavity locating among the four subdomains of CAT, giving the specific amino acid residues and hydrogen bonds involved in CAT-pesticides interaction. It was also found that the lgK values of pesticides to CAT increased regularly with increasing lgP, Mr, MR and MV, suggesting that the hydrophobicity and steric property of pesticide played essential roles in its binding to CAT.

  7. Ultrasensitive determination of DNA sequences by flow injection chemiluminescence using silver ions as labels.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lichun; Liu, Xiuhui; Zhou, Min; Ma, Yongjun; Wu, Guofan; Lu, Xiaoquan

    2014-10-27

    We presented a new strategy for ultrasensitive detection of DNA sequences based on the novel detection probe which was labeled with Ag(+) using metallothionein (MT) as a bridge. The assay relied on a sandwich-type DNA hybridization in which the DNA targets were first hybridized to the captured oligonucleotide probes immobilized on Fe3O4@Au composite magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), and then the Ag(+)-modified detection probes were used to monitor the presence of the specific DNA targets. After being anchored on the hybrids, Ag(+) was released down through acidic treatment and sensitively determined by a coupling flow injection-chemiluminescent reaction system (Ag(+)-Mn(2+)-K2S2O8-H3PO4-luminol) (FI-CL). The experiment results showed that the CL intensities increased linearly with the concentrations of DNA targets in the range from 10 to 500 pmol L(-1) with a detection limit of 3.3 pmol L(-1). The high sensitivity in this work may be ascribed to the high molar ratio of Ag(+)-MT, the sensitive determination of Ag(+) by the coupling FI-CL reaction system and the perfect magnetic separation based on Fe3O4@Au composite MNPs. Moreover, the proposed strategy exhibited excellent selectivity against the mismatched DNA sequences and could be applied to real samples analysis.

  8. Flow injection analysis as a tool for enhancing oceanographic nutrient measurements--a review.

    PubMed

    Worsfold, Paul J; Clough, Robert; Lohan, Maeve C; Monbet, Philippe; Ellis, Peter S; Quétel, Christophe R; Floor, Geerke H; McKelvie, Ian D

    2013-11-25

    Macronutrient elements (C, N and P) and micronutrient elements (Fe, Co, Cu, Zn and Mn) are widely measured in their various physico-chemical forms in open ocean, shelf sea, coastal and estuarine waters. These measurements help to elucidate the biogeochemical cycling of these elements in marine waters and highlight the ecological and socio-economic importance of the oceans. Due to the dynamic nature of marine waters in terms of chemical, biological and physical processes, it is advantageous to make these measurements in situ and in this regard flow injection analysis (FIA) provides a suitable shipboard platform. This review, therefore, discusses the role of FIA in the determination of macro- and micro-nutrient elements, with an emphasis on manifold design and detection strategies for the reliable shipboard determination of specific nutrient species. The application of various FIA manifolds to oceanographic nutrient determinations is discussed, with an emphasis on sensitivity, selectivity, high throughput analysis and suitability for underway analysis and depth profiles. Strategies for enhancing sensitivity and minimizing matrix effects, e.g. refractive index (schlieren) effects and the important role of uncertainty budgets in underpinning method validation and data quality are discussed in some detail.

  9. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of diazepam by oxidation with N-bromosuccinimide.

    PubMed

    Han, Suqin; Jia, Shize; Guo, Liang

    2013-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) method is described for the determination of diazepam based on its reaction with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) in alkaline medium in the presence of dichlorofluorescein (DCF) as an effective energy-transfer agent. Under optimum conditions, the proposed method allowed the measurement of diazepam over the range of 2.0 × 10(-6) to 2.0 × 10(-4) mol/L with a detection limit of 5.0 × 10(-7) mol/L. The relative standard deviation for 11 parallel measurements of 2.0 × 10(-5) mol/L diazepam was 2.1%. The method was applied satisfactorily for the determination of diazepam in pharmaceutical preparations, and the results agree well with those obtained by spectrophotometry. The use of the proposed system for the determination of diazepam in urine and plasma samples was also tested. The possible mechanism of the chemiluminescence reaction is discussed briefly.

  10. A Detailed Investigation of Staged Normal Injection into a Mach 2 Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eklund, Dean R.; Northam, G. Burton; Hartfield, Roy J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the staged injection of two jets of air behind a rearward facing step into a Mach 2 flow was performed using the SPARK 3-D Navier-Stokes code. Calculated mole fraction distributions were compared with an extensive set of planar mole fraction measurements made with a laser induced iodine fluorescence technique. A statistical measure, the standard deviation, was used to help assess agreement between calculation and experiment. Overall, good agreement was found between calculated and measured values. Generally, agreement was better in the far field of the injectors. The effect of grid resolution was investigated by calculating solutions on grids of 60,000, 200,000, and 450,000 points. Differences in the solutions on the two finer grids were small. However, the mole fraction distributions were distinguishable. The effect of turbulence modeling was investigated by employing three different algebraic models for the jet turbulence: the Baldwin-Lomax model, the Prandtl mixing length model, and the Eggers mixing length model. Overall, the Eggers mixing length model was found to be superior for this case. Finally, the effect of the jet exit conditions was examined. A recently proposed Mach number distribution at the jet exit was found to slightly improve agreement between measurement and calculation.

  11. Trace and ultratrace analysis methods for the determination of phosphorus by flow-injection techniques.

    PubMed

    Motomizu, Shoji; Li, Zhen-Hai

    2005-04-15

    Trace (< or =1 mg/l or 30 microM) and ultratrace (< or =1 microg/l or 30 nM) analysis methods for phosphorus determination by flow-injection analysis are reviewed. Most of the methods cited in this review are fundamentally based on the reaction of orthophosphate with molybdate to form heteropoly acids, such as molybdenum yellow and molybdenum blue, and some of the methods are based on the formation of such secondary reactions as ion associates and their aggregates with bulky cations, such as cationic dyes and quaternary ammonium ions. The heteropoly acids themselves can be measured by spectrophotometry, and the ion associate formed with a cationic dye, Malachite Green (MG), can be measured based on the coloration of MG. Light scattering detection methods can be used for measuring the aggregates of ion associates formed with bulky cations. Highly sensitive detection of phosphorus can be accomplished by fluorophotometry; Rhodamine B (RB) and its analogues react with molybdophosphate to form ion associates, which shows fluorescence quenching of RB: LOD is about 5 nM. The detection method based on the chemiluminescence of luminal oxidized with molybdophosphoric acids is probably the most sensitive of all the detection methods reported so far: LOD of the method is as low as 1nM. The LOD of the molybdenum blue method can be improved by using a liquid core waveguide: LOD is 0.5 nM.

  12. Determination of propafenone hydrochloride by flow-injection analysis coupled with resonance light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoli; Xu, Dongpo; Liu, Shaopu; Liu, Zhongfang; Liu, Sa

    2009-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and rapid flow injection analysis (FIA) method with resonance light scattering (RLS) was described for the determination of propafenone (PPF). The method was based on the ion-association reaction of 12-tungstophosphoric acid (TP) with propafenone. In pH 1.0 acidic medium, TP reacted with PPF to form an ion-associate complex, which resulted in a significant enhancement of RLS intensity. The maximum scattering peak was located at 340 nm, the RLS intensity was proportional to the concentration of PPF in the range 0.003-9.0 microg/mL, and the detection limit (3sigma) of 1.0 ng/mL was obtained at a sampling rate of 60 samples/h. The feasible reaction conditions and FIA parameters for the system were optimized. The method proposed in this paper shows satisfactory reproducibility with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.1% for 10 successive determinations of 2.0 microg/mL PPF. The present method had been successfully applied to the determination of PPF in serum samples and pharmaceutical samples. The results obtained were in agreement with the method used in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia.

  13. Flow injection fluorometric determination of ascorbic acid using perylenebisimide-linked nitroxide.

    PubMed

    Maki, Tomoharu; Soh, Nobuaki; Nakano, Koji; Imato, Toshihiko

    2011-09-30

    A simple and sensitive flow injection fluorometric method for the determination of ascorbic acid is described. Perylenebisimide-linked nitroxide (PBILN) is used as a fluorescent reagent, which permits the selective determination of ascorbic acid. The fluorescence of the perylenebisimide moiety in PBILN is quenched by the nitroxide moiety, which is linked to the perylenebisimide. When a stream of a solution of ascorbic acid is merged with a stream of PBILN, the ascorbic acid reacts with the nitroxide moiety of PBILN to form hydroxylamine, and the fluorescence properties of the perylenebisimide moiety are recovered. As a result, a peak-shaped fluorescence signal is produced, which can be observed by a fluorescence detector located downstream. Under optimized conditions, a good linear relationship between the concentration of ascorbic acid and peak height in the concentration range from 0.5 to 10 μmol L(-1) was found and the detection limit (S/N=3) was 0.28 μmol L(-1). The relative standard deviation for the determination of 4.0 μmol L(-1) ascorbic acid samples was 1.0% (n=5). The proposed method was applied to the determination of ascorbic acid in several soft drink beverages and the analytical results were in good agreement with those obtained using a conventional method.

  14. Development of a flow injection analysis method for the determination of acrylamide copolymers in oilfield brines

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, K.C.; Burke, R.A.; Schramm, L.L.; Nasr-El-Din, H.A.

    1995-11-01

    An automated method for the determination of acrylamide polymers by flow injection analysis (FIA) has been developed and optimized for routine use. The method has been extensively tested for interferences common in oilfield brines. Potential interferences were examined from Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Cr{sup 3+}, Al{sup 3+}, Zr{sup 3+}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, Cl{sup {minus}}, OH{sup {minus}}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}, sample coloration, and commonly used surfactants. The analysis is specific for amides, and the sensitivity to concentration of amide groups in the polymer was shown to be constant as the degree of polymer hydrolysis was varied. The range of the method is 0.1 to 100 mg/L. Sample throughput is 30 samples/h with triplicate analysis. Relative standard deviations of 0.2% are readily obtained from standard solutions and 0.5% from complex samples (at 50 mg/L). The method is applicable to the determination of aqueous, acrylamide-based polymers in process streams, surface waters and oilfield brines.

  15. Method for (236)U Determination in Seawater Using Flow Injection Extraction Chromatography and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Steier, Peter; Nielsen, Sven; Golser, Robin

    2015-07-21

    An automated analytical method implemented in a flow injection (FI) system was developed for rapid determination of (236)U in 10 L seawater samples. (238)U was used as a chemical yield tracer for the whole procedure, in which extraction chromatography (UTEVA) was exploited to purify uranium, after an effective iron hydroxide coprecipitation. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was applied for quantifying the (236)U/(238)U ratio, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) was used to determine the absolute concentration of (238)U; thus, the concentration of (236)U can be calculated. The key experimental parameters affecting the analytical effectiveness were investigated and optimized in order to achieve high chemical yields and simple and rapid analysis as well as low procedure background. Besides, the operational conditions for the target preparation prior to the AMS measurement were optimized, on the basis of studying the coprecipitation behavior of uranium with iron hydroxide. The analytical results indicate that the developed method is simple and robust, providing satisfactory chemical yields (80-100%) and high analysis speed (4 h/sample), which could be an appealing alternative to conventional manual methods for (236)U determination in its tracer application.

  16. Flow injection analysis of nitrate and nitrite in commercial baby foods.

    PubMed

    Chetty, Adrian A; Prasad, Surendra

    2016-04-15

    Commercial baby foods are an easy alternative to home-made meals especially for working parents in a nuclear family therefore it is imperative to determine the nitrate and nitrite content in commercially available baby foods varieties marketed in Fiji. A total of 108 baby food samples were analyzed for nitrate and nitrite using our standardized flow injection analysis (FIA) technique with colorimetric detection technique employing sulfanilamide and N-(1-naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride as color reagents where the samples throughput was 38 h(-1). The commercial baby food varieties chosen comprised of vegetables, cereals, fruits and milk. The study shows that the nitrate content of the baby foods studied ranges from 2.10 to 220.67 mg kg(-1) whereas the nitrite content ranges from 0.44 to 3.67 mg kg(-1). Typical recoveries of spiked nitrate residues ranged from 92% to 106%. The study shows that the average nitrate content of commercially available baby foods in Fiji descends below the maximum level proposed by the European Union Legislation.

  17. Determination of Trace Nickel in Natural Water by Flow Injection Analysis with Cetrimonium Bromide as Sensitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z. X.; Zhang, C. X.; Li, N.; Zhang, X. S.

    2015-11-01

    2-(5-Bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (5-Br-PADAP) is a highly sensitive chromogenic reagent that can react with most of the transition and alkaline earth metals. The Ni(II)-5-Br-PADAP complex is more stable than other metal-5-Br-PADAP complexes. In the presence of seignette salt, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) can decompose most of the 5-Br-PADAP complexes with metals except for iron, cobalt, and nickel. Cetrimonium bromide (CTMAB) as a sensitizer for the color reaction forms a ternary complex with nickel and 5-Br-PADAP with maximum absorption wavelength at 561 nm. CTMAB can significantly improve the sensitivity and selectivity of nickel determination, as well as the stability and solubility of compounds. In this study, the determination of trace nickel in natural water samples was performed by flow injection analysis. The calibration lines were established in the range of 0-200 μg/l of nickel (n ≥ 3), and the limit of detection was 0.093 μg/l. The relative standard deviation was 2.55% for the determination of 25 μg/l nickel (n ≥ 20). The recoveries of this method ranged from 91.0 to 101% for environmental water samples. A large amount of aluminum, calcium, cadmium, copper, bicarbonate, magnesium, zinc, and iron, except for cobalt, did not interfere with the determination of nickel.

  18. The determination of glutamine with flow-injection chemiluminescence detection and mechanism study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Ming; Liu, Zhuan-Li; Shi, Yan-Mei; Tian, Wei

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop an inexpensive, simple, rapid and sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) method for the determination of glutamine (Gln) using a flow-injection (FI) system. Gln was found to strongly inhibit the CL signal of the luminol-H(2)O(2)-CuSO(4) system in Na(2)B(4)O(7) solution. A new FI-CL method was developed for the determination of Gln. Parameters affecting the reproducibility and CL detection were optimized systematically. Under the optimized conditions, the corresponding linear regression equation was established over the range of 5.0 x 10(-7) to 2.5 x 10(-6) mol/L with the detection limit of 1.8 x 10(-8) mol/L. The relative standard deviation was found to be 1.8% for 11 replicate determinations of 1.5 x 10(-6) mol/L Gln. The proposed method has been satisfactorily applied for the determination of Gln in real samples (Marzulene-s granules) with recoveries in the range of 98.7-108.6%. The minimum sampling rate was about 100 samples/h. The possible mechanism of this inhibitory CL was studied by fluorescence spectrophotometer and UV-vis spectrophotometer.

  19. Microfluidic Flow Injection Analysis with Thermal Lens Microscopic Detection for Determination of NGAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radovanović, Tatjana; Liu, Mingqiang; Likar, Polona; Klemenc, Matjaž; Franko, Mladen

    2015-06-01

    A combined microfluidic flow injection analysis-thermal lens microscopy (FIA-TLM) system was applied for determination of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL)—a biomarker of acute kidney injury. NGAL was determined following a commercial ELISA assay and transfer of the resulting solution into the FIA-TLM system with a 100 m deep microchannel. At an excitation power of 100 mW, the FIA-TLM provided about seven times lower limits of detection (1.5 pg as compared to a conventional ELISA test, and a sample throughput of six samples per minute, which compares favorably with sample throughput of the microtiter plate reader, which reads 96 wells in about 30 min. Comparison of results for NGAL in plasma samples from healthy individuals and for NGAL dynamics in patients undergoing coronary angiography measured with transmission mode spectrometry on a microtiter plate reader and with FIA-TLM showed good agreement. In addition to improved LOD, the high sensitivity of FIA-TLM offers possibilities of a further reduction of the total reaction time of the NGAL ELISA test by sacrificing some of the sensitivity while reducing the duration of individual incubation steps.

  20. PVC membrane electrode for the potentiometric determination of Ipratropium bromide using batch and flow injection techniques.

    PubMed

    Hassouna, M E M; Elsuccary, S A A

    2008-06-15

    Ipratropium (IP(+)) ion-selective electrode (ISE) has been constructed from poly(vinyl chloride) matrix membrane containing Ipratropium-tetraphenylborate (IP-TPB) as the electroactive component using 2-nitrophenyloctylether as plasticizer. The electrode exhibits near Nernstian response to Ipratropium bromide (IPBr) over the concentration range 10(-5) to 10(-2) mol L(-1) and detection limit 5.1x10(-6) mol L(-1). The electrode offers significant advantages including long lifetime (>2 months), excellent stability and reproducibility, fast response time (<10 s), wide pH working range (pH 2-9), high thermal stability (isothermal coefficient 0.37 mV/degrees C) and superior selectivity for IPBr over a large number of inorganic and organic substances. The electrode was successfully used as indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of IPBr versus sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) and in the determination of IPBr in Atrovent vials and spiked urine samples applying batch and flow injection techniques, with satisfactory results.

  1. Spectrophotometric cocaine determination in a biphasic medium employing flow-batch sequential injection analysis.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Maria José; dos Anjos, Edijane V; Honorato, Ricardo S; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Paim, Ana Paula S

    2008-11-23

    Quantifying cocaine in apprehended samples is important to the Brazilian Federal Police because the concentration can indicate the origin of the drug and consequently the traffic route. In addition to the other risks of using this drug is the variability in cocaine concentration, which makes large doses lethal. Gas Chromatography with a Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) and a Mass Selective Detector (GC-MS) are the techniques usually employed, but these systems are not available in all police laboratories, due to the relatively high cost. In the present work, a flow-system procedure for the spectrophotometric determination of cocaine using cobalt thiocyanate as a complexing reagent was developed. In this reaction, two phases are formed: the superior (pink) contains an excess of cobalt thiocyanate solution and the lower layer (blue) contains the complex cocaine-cobalt thiocyanate. Samples and reagent are inserted through a sequential-injection valve between two air bubbles inside a reaction chamber. An optic fiber sensor connected to the chamber recorded the absorbance at 630 nm signal. The detection and quantification limits were 29.4 mg L(-1) and 98 mg L(-1), respectively. Relative standard deviation was 4.9% for solutions containing 400 mg L(-1) (n=10), with stable baselines. The analytical throughput was 12 determinations per hour.

  2. Determination of nabumetone in pharmaceutical formulation by flow injection analysis (FIA) with UV-detection.

    PubMed

    Can, N O; Tuncel, M; Aboul-Enein, H Y

    2003-01-01

    A precise and accurate FIA method for the quantification of nabumetone (NAB) in pharmaceuticals is described. The best suitable carrier solvent system consisted of ethanol: water (30:70 v/v). Sample solution (4.7 x 10(-6) M NAB) was prepared in this solvent and injected to the instrumental system at a flow rate of 1.2 ml x min(-1). The signals were detected by a UV detector at 228.8 nm. The calibration curves of NAB was linear in the concentration range of 1.4 x 10(-6) M-2.8 x 10(-5) M. The intra- and inter-assay precision were less than 2.6%. The method exhibited a good linearity with the correlation coefficients. The LOD and LOQ values were found to be 4.4 x 10(-7) and 1.3 x 10(-6) M, respectively. The effects of the tablet excipients were insignificant at the 95% probability level. The calculated tablet content was 99% which is agreement with the ranges stated by pharmacopoeias.

  3. Geochemical consequences of flow differentiation in a multiple injection dike (Trinity ophiolite, N. California)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brouxel, M.

    1991-01-01

    A clinopyroxene-rich dike of the Trinity ophiolite sheeted-dike complex shows three different magmatic pulses, probably injected in a short period of time (no well developed chilled margin) and important variations of the clinopyroxene and plagioclase percentages between its core (highly porphyritic) and margins (aphyric). This variation, interpreted as related to a flow differentiation phenomenon (mechanical phenocryst redistribution), has important geochemical consequences. It produces increases in the FeO, MgO, CaO, Cr and Ni contents from the margin to the core, together with increases in the clinopyroxene percentage, and decreases in the SiO2, Zr, Y, Nb and REE contents together with a decrease in the percentage of the fine-grained groundmass toward the core of the dike. This mineralogical redistribution, which also affects the incompatible trace element ratios because of the difference in plagioclase and clinopyroxene mineral/liquid partition coefficients, illustrate the importance of fractionation processes outside of a magma chamber. ?? 1991.

  4. Flow injection amperometric sensor with a carbon nanotube modified screen printed electrode for determination of hydroquinone.

    PubMed

    Upan, Jantima; Reanpang, Preeyaporn; Chailapakul, Orawon; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2016-01-01

    Flow injection amperometric (FI-Amp) sensor was developed for sensitive and selective determination of hydroquinone. A simple screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was modified with various nanomaterials for improvement of sensitivity on the determination of quinone. As a result, the appropriate sensitivity is obtained from the SPCE modified with carbon nanotube (CNT) which indicated that CNT contributed to the transfer of electron to quinone. The reproducibility (n=9) and repeatability (n=111) of SPCE-CNT were obtained at 4.4% and 3.6%RSD, respectively. The SPCE-CNT electrode and enzymatic column were incorporated to the FI-Amp system to determine hydroquinone. Laccase was immobilized on silica gel using a cross-linking method by glutaraldehyde modification and then packed in the column. The laccase column has high efficiency for catalytic oxidation of hydroquinone to quinone, which further detects by amperometric detection. Parameters affecting response of the proposed sensor, i.e., pH, ionic strength, and temperature have been optimized. The proposed system provided a wide linear range between 1 and 50 µM with detection limit of 0.1 µM. Satisfactory recoveries in the range of 91.2-103.8% were obtained for the analysis of water sample.

  5. Determination of iodide using flow injection with acidic potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Yaqoob, Mohammad; Atiq-ur-Rehman; Waseem, Amir; Nabi, Abdul

    2006-01-01

    A simple and rapid flow-injection method is described for the determination of iodide, based on potassium permanganate chemiluminescence detection via oxidation of formaldehyde in aqueous hydrochloric acid. The calibration graph was linear over the range 1.0-12 x 10(-6) mol/L (r2 = 0.9955) with relative standard deviations (n = 4) in the range 1.0-3.5%. The detection limit (3sigma) was 1.0 x 10(-7) mol/L, with sample throughput of 120/h. The effect of interfering cations [Ca(II), Mg(II), Ni(II), Fe(II), Fe(III) and Pb(II)] and anions (Cl-, SO4(2-), PO4(3-), NO3-, NO2-, F- and SO3(2-)) were studied. The method was applied to iodized salt samples and the results obtained in the range 0.03 +/- 0.005 - 0.10 +/- 0.006 mg I/g were in reasonable agreement with the amount labelled. The method was statistically compared with the results obtained by titration; no significant disagreement at 95% confidence was observed.

  6. Colorimetric determination of free and total cholesterol by flow injection analysis with a fiber optic detector.

    PubMed

    Krug, A; Suleiman, A A; Guilbault, G G; Kellner, R

    1992-04-01

    A flow injection method for the determination of total and free cholesterol is presented. Cholesterol esterase and cholesterol oxidase are immobilized on aminoalkyl glass beads. The beads are packed into a tubular glass reactor. The cholesterol esters traversing through the esterase reactor are cleaved to cholesterol and fatty acids. The oxidase reactor converts cholesterol to cholest-4-en-3-one and hydrogen peroxide is generated. The sample stream is merged with reagent streams consisting of a peroxidase solution and a solution of 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, and a hydrogen peroxide-dependent color reaction takes place in a short coiled reactor. The signal is monitored by means of fiber optic instrumentation. Cholesterol concentration can be related to the absorption of the oxidized dye form at a wavelength of 425 nm. The working range is 0.5-0.8 mmol l-1, and the sample throughputs are 60 and 30 h-1 for free and total cholesterol, respectively.

  7. MHD Modelling of Coronal Loops: Injection of High-Speed Chromospheric Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petralia, A.; Reale, F.; Orlando, S.; Klimchuk, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Context. Observations reveal a correspondence between chromospheric type II spicules and bright upward-moving fronts in the corona observed in the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) band. However, theoretical considerations suggest that these flows are probably not the main source of heating in coronal magnetic loops. Aims. We investigate the propagation of high-speed chromospheric flows into coronal magnetic flux tubes and the possible production of emission in the EUV band. Methods. We simulated the propagation of a dense 104 K chromospheric jet upward along a coronal loop by means of a 2D cylindrical MHD model that includes gravity, radiative losses, thermal conduction, and magnetic induction. The jet propagates in a complete atmosphere including the chromosphere and a tenuous cool (approximately 0.8 MK) corona, linked through a steep transition region. In our reference model, the jet initial speed is 70 km per second, its initial density is 10(exp 11) per cubic centimeter, and the ambient uniform magnetic field is 10 G. We also explored other values of jet speed and density in 1D and different magnetic field values in 2D, as well as the jet propagation in a hotter (approximately 1.5 MK) background loop. Results. While the initial speed of the jet does not allow it to reach the loop apex, a hot shock-front develops ahead of it and travels to the other extreme of the loop. The shock front compresses the coronal plasma and heats it to about 10(exp 6) K. As a result, a bright moving front becomes visible in the 171 Angstrom channel of the SDO/AIA mission. This result generally applies to all the other explored cases, except for the propagation in the hotter loop. Conclusions. For a cool, low-density initial coronal loop, the post-shock plasma ahead of upward chromospheric flows might explain at least part of the observed correspondence between type II spicules and EUV emission excess.

  8. Determination of Zinc-Based Additives in Lubricating Oils by Flow-Injection Analysis with Flame-AAS Detection Exploiting Injection with a Computer-Controlled Syringe.

    PubMed

    Pignalosa, Gustavo; Knochen, Moisés; Cabrera, Noel

    2005-01-01

    A flow-injection system is proposed for the determination of metal-based additives in lubricating oils. The system, operating under computer control uses a motorised syringe for measuring and injecting the oil sample (200 muL) in a kerosene stream, where it is dispersed by means of a packed mixing reactor and carried to an atomic absorption spectrometer which is used as detector. Zinc was used as model analyte. Two different systems were evaluated, one for low concentrations (range 0-10 ppm) and the second capable of providing higher dilution rates for high concentrations (range 0.02%-0.2% w/w). The sampling frequency was about 30 samples/h. Calibration curves fitted a second-degree regression model (r(2) = 0.996). Commercial samples with high and low zinc levels were analysed by the proposed method and the results were compared with those obtained with the standard ASTM method. The t test for mean values showed no significant differences at the 95% confidence level. Precision (RSD%) was better than 5% (2% typical) for the high concentrations system. The carryover between successive injections was found to be negligible.

  9. Determination of Zinc-Based Additives in Lubricating Oils by Flow-Injection Analysis with Flame-AAS Detection Exploiting Injection with a Computer-Controlled Syringe

    PubMed Central

    Pignalosa, Gustavo; Cabrera, Noel

    2005-01-01

    A flow-injection system is proposed for the determination of metal-based additives in lubricating oils. The system, operating under computer control uses a motorised syringe for measuring and injecting the oil sample (200 μL) in a kerosene stream, where it is dispersed by means of a packed mixing reactor and carried to an atomic absorption spectrometer which is used as detector. Zinc was used as model analyte. Two different systems were evaluated, one for low concentrations (range 0–10 ppm) and the second capable of providing higher dilution rates for high concentrations (range 0.02%–0.2% w/w). The sampling frequency was about 30 samples/h. Calibration curves fitted a second-degree regression model (r 2 = 0.996). Commercial samples with high and low zinc levels were analysed by the proposed method and the results were compared with those obtained with the standard ASTM method. The t test for mean values showed no significant differences at the 95% confidence level. Precision (RSD%) was better than 5% (2% typical) for the high concentrations system. The carryover between successive injections was found to be negligible. PMID:18924720

  10. Investigation of Thrust Augmentation of a 1600-pound Thrust Centrifugal-flow-type Turbojet Engine by Injection of Refrigerants at Compressor Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William L.; Dowman, Harry W.

    1947-01-01

    Investigations were conducted to determine effectiveness of refrigerants in increasing thrust of turbojet engines. Mixtures of water an alcohol were injected for a range of total flows up to 2.2 lb/sec. Kerosene was injected into inlets covering a range of injected flows up to approximately 30% of normal engine fuel flow. Injection of 2.0 lb/sec of water alone produced an increase in thrust of 35.8% of rate engine conditions and kerosene produced a negligible increase in thrust. Carbon dioxide increased thrust 23.5 percent.

  11. A rapid and accurate method for determining protein content in dairy products based on asynchronous-injection alternating merging zone flow-injection spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qin-Qin; Li, Yong-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    An accurate and rapid method and a system to determine protein content using asynchronous-injection alternating merging zone flow-injection spectrophotometry based on reaction between coomassie brilliant blue G250 (CBBG) and protein was established. Main merit of our approach is that it can avoid interferences of other nitric-compounds in samples, such as melamine and urea. Optimized conditions are as follows: Concentrations of CBBG, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), NaCl and HCl are 150 mg/l, 30 mg/l, 0.1 mol/l and 1.0% (v/v), respectively; volumes of the sample and reagent are 150 μl and 30 μl, respectively; length of a reaction coil is 200 cm; total flow rate is 2.65 ml/min. The linear range of the method is 0.5-15 mg/l (BSA), its detection limit is 0.05 mg/l, relative standard deviation is less than 1.87% (n=11), and analytical speed is 60 samples per hour.

  12. Sickle cell anemia: reference values of cerebral blood flow determined by continuous arterial spin labeling MRI.

    PubMed

    Arkuszewski, M; Krejza, J; Chen, R; Melhem, E R

    2013-04-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a chronic illness associated with progressive deterioration in patients' quality of life. The major complications of SCA are cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) such as asymptomatic cerebral infarct or overt stroke. The risk of CVA may be related to chronic disturbances in cerebral blood flow (CBF), but the thresholds of "normal" steady-state CBF are not well established. The reference tolerance limits of CBF can be useful to estimate the risk of CVA in asymptomatic children with SCA, who are negative for hyperemia or evidence of arterial narrowing. Continuous arterial spin labeling (CASL) MR perfusion allows for non-invasive quantification of global and regional CBF. To establish such reference tolerance limits we performed CASL MR examinations on a 3-Tesla MR scanner in a carefully selected cohort of 42 children with SCA (mean age, 8.1±3.3 years; range limits, 2.3-14.4 years; 24 females), who were not on chronic transfusion therapy, had no history of overt stroke or transient ischemic attack, were free of signs and symptoms of focal vascular territory ischemic brain injury, did not have intracranial arterial narrowing on MR angiography and were at low risk for stroke as determined by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography.

  13. Determination of As, Hg and Pb in herbs using slurry sampling flow injection chemical vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tai, Chia-Yi; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Sahayam, A C

    2016-02-01

    Analysis of herbs for As, Hg and Pb has been carried out using slurry sampling inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with flow injection vapor generation. Slurry containing 0.5% m/v herbal powder, 0.1% m/v citric acid and 2% v/v HCl was injected into the VG-ICP-MS system for the determination of As, Hg and Pb that obviate dissolution and mineralization. Standard addition and isotope dilution methods were used for quantifications in selected herbal powders. This method has been validated by the determination of As, Hg and Pb in NIST standard reference materials SRM 1547 Peach Leaves and SRM 1573a Tomato Leaves. The As, Hg and Pb analysis results of the reference materials agreed with the certified values. The precision obtained by the reported procedure was better than 7% for all determinations. The detection limit estimated from standard addition curve was 0.008, 0.003, and 0.007 ng mL(-1) for As, Hg and Pb, respectively.

  14. A bulk liquid membrane-flow injection (BLM-FI) coupled system for the preconcentration and determination of vanadium in saline waters.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Juan J; García-Vargas, Manuel; Moreno, Carlos

    2013-01-15

    A bulk liquid membrane-flow injection (BLM-FI) system has been developed for the preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination of vanadium in saline waters. The preconcentration step was based on a bulk liquid membrane containing Aliquat 336 (acting as a carrier) dissolved in dodecane/dodecanol. Vanadium species were chemically pumped due to the pH gradient between the sample (pH 3.2) and the receiving solution (pH 9.8). Vanadium transport through the membrane was monitored by a new and sensitive spectrophotometric method based on its reaction with di-2-pyridyl ketone benzoylhydrazone (dPKBH) in an acidic medium. As a consequence of membrane transport, vanadium was recovered in an ammonium solution, where total vanadium concentration was spectrophotometrically determined at 375 nm, as the pentavalent species, by using a flow injection analysis (FIA) system. Under optimal conditions, this FIA system provided a detection limit of 4.7 μg L(-1) (3s(blank)/m) and RSD 2.72%, for vanadium determination in saline samples. Both preconcentration and determination steps were previously optimized by modified simplex methodologies. The proposed coupled method was successfully applied to the determination of vanadium in a certified reference material (TMDA-62) and in two seawater samples.

  15. Establish an automated flow injection ESI-MS method for the screening of fragment based libraries: Application to Hsp90.

    PubMed

    Riccardi Sirtori, Federico; Caronni, Dannica; Colombo, Maristella; Dalvit, Claudio; Paolucci, Mauro; Regazzoni, Luca; Visco, Carlo; Fogliatto, Gianpaolo

    2015-08-30

    ESI-MS is a well established technique for the study of biopolymers (nucleic acids, proteins) and their non covalent adducts, due to its capacity to detect ligand-target complexes in the gas phase and allows inference of ligand-target binding in solution. In this article we used this approach to investigate the interaction of ligands to the Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90). This enzyme is a molecular chaperone involved in the folding and maturation of several proteins which has been subjected in the last years to intensive drug discovery efforts due to its key role in cancer. In particular, reference compounds, with a broad range of dissociation constants from 40pM to 100μM, were tested to assess the reliability of ESI-MS for the study of protein-ligand complexes. A good agreement was found between the values measured with a fluorescence polarization displacement assay and those determined by mass spectrometry. After this validation step we describe the setup of a medium throughput screening method, based on ESI-MS, suitable to explore interactions of therapeutic relevance biopolymers with chemical libraries. Our approach is based on an automated flow injection ESI-MS method (AFI-MS) and has been applied to screen the Nerviano Medical Sciences proprietary fragment library of about 2000 fragments against Hsp90. In order to discard false positive hits and to discriminate those of them interacting with the N-terminal ATP binding site, competition experiments were performed using a reference inhibitor. Gratifyingly, this group of hits matches with the ligands previously identified by NMR FAXS techniques and confirmed by X-ray co-crystallization experiments. These results support the use of AFI-MS for the screening of medium size libraries, including libraries of small molecules with low affinity typically used in fragment based drug discovery. AFI-MS is a valid alternative to other techniques with the additional opportunities to identify compounds interacting with

  16. Modeling of Transient Flow Mixing of Streams Injected into a Mixing Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voytovych, Dmytro M.; Merkle, Charles L.; Lucht, Robert P.; Hulka, James R.; Jones, Gregg W.

    2006-01-01

    Ignition is recognized as one the critical drivers in the reliability of multiple-start rocket engines. Residual combustion products from previous engine operation can condense on valves and related structures thereby creating difficulties for subsequent starting procedures. Alternative ignition methods that require fewer valves can mitigate the valve reliability problem, but require improved understanding of the spatial and temporal propellant distribution in the pre-ignition chamber. Current design tools based mainly on one-dimensional analysis and empirical models cannot predict local details of the injection and ignition processes. The goal of this work is to evaluate the capability of the modern computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools in predicting the transient flow mixing in pre-ignition environment by comparing the results with the experimental data. This study is a part of a program to improve analytical methods and methodologies to analyze reliability and durability of combustion devices. In the present paper we describe a series of detailed computational simulations of the unsteady mixing events as the cold propellants are first introduced into the chamber as a first step in providing this necessary environmental description. The present computational modeling represents a complement to parallel experimental simulations' and includes comparisons with experimental results from that effort. A large number of rocket engine ignition studies has been previously reported. Here we limit our discussion to the work discussed in Refs. 2, 3 and 4 which is both similar to and different from the present approach. The similarities arise from the fact that both efforts involve detailed experimental/computational simulations of the ignition problem. The differences arise from the underlying philosophy of the two endeavors. The approach in Refs. 2 to 4 is a classical ignition study in which the focus is on the response of a propellant mixture to an ignition source, with

  17. Use of flow injection mass spectrometric fingerprinting and chemometrics for differentiation of three black cohosh species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huilian; Sun, Jianghao; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Zhong, Haiyan; Fletcher, Edward J.; Harnly, James; Chen, Pei

    2015-03-01

    Flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) was used to provide chemical fingerprints of black cohosh (Actaea racemosa L.) in a manner of minutes by omitting the separation step. This method has proven to be a powerful tool for botanical authentication and in this study it was used to distinguish between three Actaea species prior to a more detailed chemical analysis using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS). Black cohosh has become increasingly popular as a dietary supplement in the United States for the treatment of symptoms related to menopause. However, it has been known to be adulterated with the Asian Actaea dahurica (Turcz. ex Fisch. & C.A.Mey.) Franch. species (syn. Cimicifuga dahurica (Turcz.) Maxim). Existing methods for identification of black cohosh and differentiation of Actaea species are usually lengthy, laborious, and lack robustness, often based on the comparison of a few pre-selected components. Chemical fingerprints were obtained for 77 black cohosh samples and their related species using FIMS in the negative ion mode. The analysis time for each sample was less than 2 min. All data were processed using principal component analysis (PCA). FIMS fingerprints could readily differentiate all three species. Representative samples from each of the three species were further examined using UHPLC-MS to provide detailed profiles of the chemical differences between the three species and were compared to the PCA loadings. This study demonstrates a simple, fast, and easy analytical method that can be used to differentiate A. racemosa, Actaea podocarpa, and A. dahurica.

  18. The comparison of flow injection analysis and quartz chemical sensors for the determination of hydrazine

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    Due to the wide variety of its uses, hydrazine is present in many different work environments. Hydrazine is a suspect human carcinogen and poses a potential health risk if a person is exposed to hydrazine. The levels of hydrazine in the work environment must be monitored to avert potential health risks. Two different methods are investigated as possible monitors for hydrazine in a work environment. The primary goal of this research is to compare a flow injection analysis (FIA) method and a quartz chemical sensor for the determination of hydrazine vapor at sub ppm levels. The first study involves a comparison of FIA methods for direct hydrazine determination in the liquid phase. This study demonstrates the optimum conditions for the types of chemistry being investigated. This information is carried forward to a second study involving a comparison of gas diffusion FIA methods for hydrazine analysis. A third study develops and defines important principles in reverse dual phase gas diffusion FIA. A method for determining carbon dioxide is used to demonstrate these principles. A fourth study applies the information about the chemistry of hydrazine from the second study to the reverse dual phase gas diffusion FIA system developed for carbon dioxide. A fifth study demonstrates the applicability of quartz chemical sensors for hydrazine analysis. This study involves both surface acoustic wave devices (SAWs) and quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs). A summary follows these different studies which compares the success of each method. The criteria of evaluation are reviewed. New developments resulting from this research are presented. A final addendum includes work done on the automation of a method for free chlorine determination.

  19. Emerging flow injection mass spectrometry methods for high-throughput quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Nanita, Sergio C; Kaldon, Laura G

    2016-01-01

    Where does flow injection analysis mass spectrometry (FIA-MS) stand relative to ambient mass spectrometry (MS) and chromatography-MS? Improvements in FIA-MS methods have resulted in fast-expanding uses of this technique. Key advantages of FIA-MS over chromatography-MS are fast analysis (typical run time <60 s) and method simplicity, and FIA-MS offers high-throughput without compromising sensitivity, precision and accuracy as much as ambient MS techniques. Consequently, FIA-MS is increasingly becoming recognized as a suitable technique for applications where quantitative screening of chemicals needs to be performed rapidly and reliably. The FIA-MS methods discussed herein have demonstrated quantitation of diverse analytes, including pharmaceuticals, pesticides, environmental contaminants, and endogenous compounds, at levels ranging from parts-per-billion (ppb) to parts-per-million (ppm) in very complex matrices (such as blood, urine, and a variety of foods of plant and animal origin), allowing successful applications of the technique in clinical diagnostics, metabolomics, environmental sciences, toxicology, and detection of adulterated/counterfeited goods. The recent boom in applications of FIA-MS for high-throughput quantitative analysis has been driven in part by (1) the continuous improvements in sensitivity and selectivity of MS instrumentation, (2) the introduction of novel sample preparation procedures compatible with standalone mass spectrometric analysis such as salting out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) with volatile solutes and NH4(+) QuEChERS, and (3) the need to improve efficiency of laboratories to satisfy increasing analytical demand while lowering operational cost. The advantages and drawbacks of quantitative analysis by FIA-MS are discussed in comparison to chromatography-MS and ambient MS (e.g., DESI, LAESI, DART). Generally, FIA-MS sits 'in the middle' between ambient MS and chromatography-MS, offering a balance between analytical

  20. Estimating maximum sustainable injection pressure duringgeological sequestration of CO2 using coupled fluid flow andgeomechanical fault-slip analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, J.; Birkholzer, J.; Cappa, F.; Tsang, C.-F.

    2006-10-17

    This paper demonstrates the use of coupled fluid flow andgeomechanical fault slip (fault reactivation) analysis to estimate themaximum sustainable injection pressure during geological sequestration ofCO2. Two numerical modeling approaches for analyzing faultslip areapplied, one using continuum stress-strain analysis and the other usingdiscrete fault analysis. The results of these two approaches to numericalfault-slip analyses are compared to the results of a more conventionalanalytical fault-slip analysis that assumes simplified reservoirgeometry. It is shown that the simplified analytical fault-slip analysismay lead to either overestimation or underestimation of the maximumsustainable injection pressure because it cannot resolve importantgeometrical factors associated with the injection induced spatialevolution of fluid pressure and stress. We conclude that a fully couplednumerical analysis can more accurately account for the spatial evolutionof both insitu stresses and fluid pressure, and therefore results in amore accurate estimation of the maximum sustainable CO2 injectionpressure.

  1. Investigation of SF6 injection during cyclic C2H2/SF6 flow for the formation of geometrically controlled carbon coils.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Young-Chul; Park, Bitna; Park, Semi; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2014-12-01

    Carbon coils could be synthesized using C2H2/H2 as source gases along with SF6 as an incorporated additive gas using a thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system. To obtain geometrically controlled carbon coils, a cyclic process, namely the turning on and off of C2H2 or SF6 flow during the initial reaction stage, was carried out. According to the different reaction processes, different interruption/injection times of C2H2 or SF6 flow and different injection sequences of the gas flow were investigated while maintaining the identical overall injection time of C2H2 and/or SF6 flow. The formation of carbon microcoils (CMCs) is favored by the lowest interruption/injection time ratio of SF6 flow within one cycle. In addition, the injection of SF6 flow prior to the injection of C2H2 flow promotes the formation of CMCs. Based on these results we revealed the role of the SF6 flow injection for the enhanced formation of geometrically controlled CMCs. The etching of materials, thereby promoting an increase in the number of nucleation sites for the survived growth species to form CMCs, by the increased fluorine concentration, originating from the dominant SF6 influx, is understood to be the main cause for the exclusive CMCs formation.

  2. Numerical Simulations of Two-Phase Reacting Flow in a Single-Element Lean Direct Injection (LDI) Combustor Using NCC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Nan-Suey; Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Wey, C. Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A series of numerical simulations of Jet-A spray reacting flow in a single-element lean direct injection (LDI) combustor have been conducted by using the National Combustion Code (NCC). The simulations have been carried out using the time filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS) approach ranging from the steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), unsteady RANS (URANS), to the dynamic flow structure simulation (DFS). The sub-grid model employed for turbulent mixing and combustion includes the well-mixed model, the linear eddy mixing (LEM) model, and the filtered mass density function (FDF/PDF) model. The starting condition of the injected liquid spray is specified via empirical droplet size correlation, and a five-species single-step global reduced mechanism is employed for fuel chemistry. All the calculations use the same grid whose resolution is of the RANS type. Comparisons of results from various models are presented.

  3. Electroanalysis of tetracycline using nickel-implanted boron-doped diamond thin film electrode applied to flow injection system.

    PubMed

    Treetepvijit, Surudee; Chuanuwatanakul, Suchada; Einaga, Yasuaki; Sato, Rika; Chailapakult, Orawon

    2005-05-01

    The electrochemical analysis of tetracycline was investigated using nickel-implanted boron-doped diamond thin film electrode by cyclic voltammetry and amperometry with a flow injection system. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the electrochemical oxidation of tetracycline. Comparison experiments were carried out using as-deposited boron-doped diamond thin film electrode (BDD). Nickel-implanted boron-doped diamond thin film electrode (Ni-DIA) provided well-resolved oxidation irreversible cyclic voltammograms. The current signals were higher than those obtained using the as-deposited BDD electrode. Results using nickel-implanted boron-doped diamond thin film electrode in flow injection system coupled with amperometric detection are presented. The optimum potential for tetracycline was 1.55 V versus Ag/AgCl. The linear range of 1.0 to 100 microM and the detection limit of 10 nM were obtained. In addition, the application for drug formulation was also investigated.

  4. Chemiluminescence determination of ferulic acid by flow-injection analysis using cerium(IV) sensitized by rhodamine 6G.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ju Peng; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun

    2008-11-01

    A simple, sensitive and rapid flow-injection chemiluminescence method has been developed for the determination of ferulic acid based on the chemiluminescence reaction of ferulic acid with rhodamine 6G and ceric sulfate in sulphuric acid medium. Strong chemiluminescence signal was observed when ferulic acid was injected into the acidic ceric sulfate solution in a flow-cell. The present method allowed the determination of ferulic acid in the concentration range of 8.0 x 10(-6) to 1.0 x 10(-4) mol l(-1) and the detection limit for ferulic acid was 8.7 x 10(-9) mol l(-1). The relative standard deviation was 2.4% for 10 replicate analyses of 1.0 x 10(-5) mol l(-1) ferulic acid. The proposed method was applied to the determination of ferulic acid in Taita Beauty Essence samples with satisfactory results.

  5. Flow injection conductometric system with gas diffusion separation for the determination of Kjeldahl nitrogen in milk and chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Junsomboon, Jaroon; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2008-10-10

    A simple flow injection (FI) conductometric system with gas diffusion separation was developed for the determination of Kjeldahl nitrogen (or proteins) in milk and chicken meat. The sample was digested according to the Kjeldahl standard method and the digest was diluted and directly injected into the donor stream consisting of 4M NaOH. In alkaline medium, ammonium was converted to ammonia, which diffused through the PTFE membrane to dissolve in an acceptor stream (water). Dissociation of ammonia caused a change in conductance of the acceptor solution, which was linearly proportional to the concentration of ammonium originally present in the injected solution. A conductometric flow through cell and an amplifier circuit was fabricated, which helped improve sensitivity of the conductometric detection system. With using a plumbing Teflon tape as a gas diffusion membrane and without thermostating control of the system, a linear calibration graph in range of 10-100mgL(-1) N-NH(4) was obtained, with detection limit of 1mgL(-1) and good precision (relative standard deviation of 0.3% for 11 replicate injections of 50mgL(-1) N-NH(4)). The developed method was validated by the standard Kjeldahl distillation/titration method for the analysis of milk and chicken meat samples. The proposed system had sample throughput of 35h(-1) and consumed much smaller amounts of chemical than the standard method (275mg vs 17.5g of NaOH per analysis, respectively).

  6. Turbulent Boundary Layer on a Finely Perforated Surface Under Conditions of Air Injection at the Expense of External Flow Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilov, V. I.; Boiko, A. V.; Kavun, I. N.

    2015-11-01

    The characteristics of an incompressible turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate with air blown in though a finely perforated surface from an external confined flow through an input device, located on the "idle" side of the plate, have been investigated experimentally and numerically. A stable decrease in the local values of the coefficient of surface friction along the plate length that attains 85% at the end of the perforated portion is shown. The experimental and calculated data obtained point to the possibility of modeling, under earth conditions, the process of controlling a turbulent boundary layer with air injection by using the resources of an external confined flow.

  7. An apparatus for the determination of volatile analytes by stopped-flow injection analysis using an integrated fiber optic detector.

    PubMed

    Baxter, P J; Růzicka, J; Christian, G D; Olson, D C

    1994-03-01

    A new method for the analysis of volatile analytes using a stopped-flow injection system originating from either a gas or liquid phase has been developed. It uses an integrated fiber optic detector which also serves as a reactor. This system combines the advantages of gas diffusion and stopped-flow, making the overall assay very sensitive. Both gas streams and aqueous solutions containing ammonia were analyzed. The limits of detection are 40 ppb for gas phase analysis and 1.0 ppm for aqueous phase analysis.

  8. Simultaneous determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in tannery wastewater using low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shujuan; Zhang, Xinshen; Yu, Lingyun; Wang, Li; Li, Hui

    2012-03-01

    Trivalent and hexavalent chromium have been successfully separated and determined using low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometric analysis (LPIC-FIA). A column packed with crosslinking starch microspheres was used for on-line separation of Cr(III) from Cr(VI) in a flow-injection system because of its absorptive effect on Cr(III). To determine the concentration of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in samples, we used 3.0 mmol/L nitric acid to elute adsorbed Cr(III) from the column and then used ceric sulfate-sulfuric acid as oxidant to convert all Cr(III) into Cr(VI). Then, Cr(VI) directly came from the samples and Cr(VI) came from Cr(III) successively formed a amaranthine complex with diphenycarbazide and the complex shows a maximum absorption at 530 nm. Analytical parameters including the concentration of eluent and oxidant solution, oxidizing temperature, length of oxidizing reaction coil, reaction coil and injection coil, interfering effects, etc., were optimized. The limit of detection was 1.25 μg/L for Cr(VI) and 3.76 μg/L for Cr(III). The linear relationship between absorption with the concentration of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) was 0.001-1.000 mg/L and 0.030-1.000 mg/L with correlation coefficients of 0.9995 and 0.9994, respectively. The relative standard deviation of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) was 1.21% and 1.66%, respectively (n=10). Major cations and anions did not show any interference. We validated this method through certified reference materials and through measuring the recovery in tannery wastewater.

  9. Structure of backward facing step flow in low Reynolds number controlled by synthetic jet array with different injection velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Saneyuki

    2013-11-01

    This study presents detailed structure of separated flow downstream of a backward facing step affected by a non-uniform periodic disturbance along spanwise direction induced by synthetic jet array. The Reynolds number based on the step height ranged from 300 to 900. The frequency of the synthetic jet actuation was selected within the acceptance frequency range of separating shear layer. The periodic disturbance generates periodic transverse vortices whose size and shape change corresponding to the strength of the disturbance. The effect of different injection velocities in the synthetic jet array from those of adjacent jets on the transverse vortex structure and resulting reattachment process is discussed based on the wall shear stress measured by the Micro Flow Sensor (MFS) and flow visualization. Near wall behavior of the transverse vortex above the MFS was related to the sensor output. The results show that non-uniform injection velocity manipulated in the jet array induces difference in the distorted vortex structure and reattachment process in spanwise direction, which strongly depend on the Reynolds number and injection velocities of the synthetic jets.

  10. Comparison of Flow Injection MS, NMR, and DNA Sequencing: Methods for Identification and Authentication of Black Cohosh (Actaea racemosa)

    PubMed Central

    Harnly, James; Chen, Pei; Sun, Jianghao; Huang, Huilian; Colson, Kimberly L.; Yuk, Jimmy; McCoy, Joe-Ann H.; Harbaugh Reynaud, Danica T.; Harrington, Peter B.; Fletcher, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    Flow injection mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, two metabolic fingerprinting methods, and DNA sequencing were used to identify and authenticate Actaea species. Initially, samples of Actaea racemosa from a single source were distinguished from other Actaea species based on principal component analysis and soft independent modeling of class analogies of flow injection mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry metabolic fingerprints. The chemometric results for flow injection mass spectrometry and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry agreed well and showed similar agreement throughout the study. DNA sequencing using DNA sequence data from two independent gene regions confirmed the metabolic fingerprinting results. Differences were observed between A. racemosa samples from four different sources, although the variance within species was still significantly less than the variance between species. A model based on the combined A. racemosa samples from the four sources consistently permitted distinction between species. Additionally, the combined A. racemosa samples were distinguishable from commercial root samples and from commercial supplements in tablet, capsule, or liquid form. DNA sequencing verified the lack of authenticity of the commercial roots but was unsuccessful in characterizing many of the supplements due to the lack of available DNA. PMID:26692457

  11. Stability Analysis of High-Speed Boundary-Layer Flow with Gas Injection (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    to improve the injector performance • Shaping of injector – Conical shapes – Cylindrical shape • Suction-blowing of zero mass injection • Conclusions...16Distribution A: Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Injector of conical shape 5-deg half-angle sharp cone with the injector having the slope...pressure for conical injectors (injection rate 13.5 g/s) =1 =3 Baseline (=0) Injection region 18Distribution A: Approved for Public Release

  12. Evaluation of a direct injection nebulizer interface for flow injection analysis and high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic detection

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, K.E.

    1986-06-01

    A direct injection nebulizer (DIN) was designed, developed, and evaluated to determine its potential utilization as an effective interface for flow injection analysis (FIA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic detection. The analytical figures of merit for the DIN when used as an interface for FIA-ICP-AES were found to be comparable to or better than those obtained with conventional pneumatic nebulization in terms of limits of detection (LODs), reproducibility, linearity, and interelement effects. Stable plasma operation was maintained for the DIN sample introduction of a variety of pure organic solvents, including acetonitrile, methanol, methylisobutylketone, and pyridine. The HPLC-DIN-ICP-AES facility was specifically applied for the speciation of inorganic and organometallic species contained in synthetic mixtures, vanilla extracts, and a variety of energy-related materials, such as shale oil process water, coal extracts, shale oil, crude oil, and an SRC II. Suggestions for future research are also considered. 227 refs., 44 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. A comparison of continuous pneumatic nebulization and flow injection-direct injection nebulization for sample introduction in inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Crain, J.S.; Kiely, J.T.

    1995-08-01

    Dilute nitric acid blanks and solutions containing Ni, Cd, Pb, and U (including two laboratory waste samples) were analyzed eighteen times over a two-month period using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Two different sample introduction techniques were employed: flow injection-direct injection nebulization (FI-DIN) and continuous pneumatic nebulization (CPN). Using comparable instrumental measurement procedures, FI-DIN analyses were 33% faster and generated 52% less waste than CPN analyses. Instrumental limits of detection obtained with FI-DIN and CPN were comparable but not equivalent (except in the case of Pb) because of nebulizer-related differences in sensitivity (i.e., signal per unit analyte concentration) and background. Substantial and statistically significant differences were found between FI-DIN and CPN Ni determinations, and in the case of the laboratory waste samples, there were also small but statistically significant differences between Cd determinations. These small (2 to 3%) differences were not related to polyatomic ion interference (e.g., {sup 95}Mo{sup 16}O{sup +}), but in light of the time savings and waste reduction to be realized, they should not preclude the use of FI-DIN in place of CPN for determination of Cd, Pb, U and chemically.

  14. A comparison of continuous pneumatic nebulization and flow injection-direction injection nebulization for sample introduction in inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Crain, J.S.; Kiely, J.T.

    1997-08-01

    Samples containing Ni, Cd, Pb, and U were analyzed eighteen times over a two-month period using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Sample introduction was accomplished by either flow injection-direct injection nebulization (FI-DIN) or continuous pneumatic nebulization (CPN). Using comparable instrumental measurement procedures, FI-DIN analyses were 33% faster and generated 52% less waste than CPN analyses. Instrumental limits of detection obtained with FI-DIN and CPN were comparable but not equivalent (except in the case of Pb) because of nebulizer-related differences in sensitivity (i.e., signal per unit analyte concentration) and background. Substantial and statistically significant differences were found between FI-DIN and CPN Ni determinations, and in the case of laboratory waste samples, there were also small but statistically significant differences between Cd determinations. These small (2 to 3%) differences were not related to polyatomic ion interference (e.g., {sup 95}Mo{sup 16}O{sup +}), but in light of the time and waste savings to be realized, they should not preclude the use of FI-DIN in place of CPN for determination of Cd, Pb, U, and similar elements present at trace concentrations.

  15. Post-injection Multiphase Flow Modeling and Risk Assessments for Subsurface CO2 Storage in Naturally Fractured Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, G.

    2015-12-01

    Subsurface storage of carbon dioxide in geological formations is widely regarded as a promising tool for reducing global atmospheric CO2 emissions. Successful geologic storage for sequestrated carbon dioxides must prove to be safe by means of risk assessments including post-injection analysis of injected CO2 plumes. Because fractured reservoirs exhibit a higher degree of heterogeneity, it is imperative to conduct such simulation studies in order to reliably predict the geometric evolution of plumes and risk assessment of post CO2injection. The research has addressed the pressure footprint of CO2 plumes through the development of new techniques which combine discrete fracture network and stochastic continuum modeling of multiphase flow in fractured geologic formations. A subsequent permeability tensor map in 3-D, derived from our preciously developed method, can accurately describe the heterogeneity of fracture reservoirs. A comprehensive workflow integrating the fracture permeability characterization and multiphase flow modeling has been developed to simulate the CO2plume migration and risk assessments. A simulated fractured reservoir model based on high-priority geological carbon sinks in central Alabama has been employed for preliminary study. Discrete fracture networks were generated with an NE-oriented regional fracture set and orthogonal NW-fractures. Fracture permeability characterization revealed high permeability heterogeneity with an order of magnitude of up to three. A multiphase flow model composed of supercritical CO2 and saline water was then applied to predict CO2 plume volume, geometry, pressure footprint, and containment during and post injection. Injection simulation reveals significant permeability anisotropy that favors development of northeast-elongate CO2 plumes, which are aligned with systematic fractures. The diffusive spreading front of the CO2 plume shows strong viscous fingering effects. Post-injection simulation indicates significant

  16. Flow injection analysis with on-line nylon powder extraction for room-temperature phosphorescence determination of thiabendazole.

    PubMed

    Piccirilli, G N; Escandar, G M

    2009-07-30

    A fast and very selective flow-through phosphorescence optosensor was designed and characterized for the determination of the fungicide thiabendazole in water samples. For the first time, thiabendazole was determined using a flow-through optosensor based on the phosphorescence signals obtained when it is retained in a solid support. While thiabendazole does not phosphoresce in packing materials commonly used to fill the flow-cell, significant emission signals are observed when it is retained on nylon powder in the presence of iodide and sulfite. The experimental set-up was based on a flow-injection manifold coupled to an on-line phosphorescence detector containing nylon powder packed in a conventional flow-cell. Potassium iodide and sodium sulfite were added to sample aliquots to improve the thiabendazole phosphorescence and injected in the flow manifold using water as carrier. After the phosphorescence emission was registered, the analyte was eluted from the packed nylon with a 65% (v/v) methanol-water mixture. Optimal instrumentation, experimental and flow conditions were evaluated. Using a sample volume of 2000 microL, the analytical signal showed a very good linearity in the range 12.9-110 ng mL(-1), with a detection limit of 4.5 ng mL(-1), and a sample throughput of about 14 samples per hour. The effects of the presence of concomitant species in the thiabendazole phosphorescence signal were studied, and a comparison with the fluorescence nylon-powder optosensor was carried out and discussed. Finally, the applicability of the proposed optosensor was tested in water samples, and satisfactory recoveries ranging between 97% and 105% were obtained.

  17. Analytical model for steady flow through a finite channel with one porous wall with arbitrary variable suction or injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartwig, Jason; Darr, Samuel

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an exact solution of two-dimensional laminar flow through a finite length channel with one porous wall. It improves upon previous solutions by (1) satisfying the no-slip boundary condition at the channel dead end, (2) adding a turbulent term to the porous wall boundary condition, (3) allowing for arbitrary variable suction or injection across the porous wall, and (4) model validation against new cryogenic liquid hydrogen and oxygen experimental data. Of particular interest in the current work is the modeling of cryogenic propellant flow through a porous liquid acquisition device (LAD) screen and channel inside a propellant tank. First, a detailed review of the literature is presented for previously attempted solutions to channel flow with one porous wall. Next, the governing equations, boundary conditions, and model assumptions are used to derive the analytical flow solution and present general model results for pressure and velocity fields within the channel. Then, the model solution is compared with horizontal LAD channel flow data in liquid oxygen as well as vertical LAD channel flow data in an inverted outflow configuration in liquid hydrogen. Model results are used to update the static cryogenic bubble point pressure model with a dynamic bubble point term which factors in enhanced convection and cooling at the screen during propellant outflow. Convective heat transfer at the LAD screen during outflow is also quantified by comparing model and data. The new analytical flow solution with the dynamic bubble point model is shown to compare well with available cryogenic experimental data.

  18. A submersible battery-powered flow injection (FI) sensor for the determination of nitrate in estuarine and coastal waters.

    PubMed

    David, A R; McCormack, T; Worsfold, P J

    1999-01-01

    The design, construction and performance of a remotely deployed submersible flow injection-based nutrient (total oxidized nitrogen) sensor are described. The sensor featured a custom-built microcomputer and a solid-state, flow-through spectrophotometric detector, and the derivatization chemistry was based on in-line copper-cadmium reduction of nitrate to nitrite, and diazotization with N1NED and sulphanilamide. The limit of detection was 0.0014 mg l(-1) NO3-N and the linear range was 0.0014- 0.77 mg l(-1) with a 260 microl sample volume and a 20 mm path length flow cell. Results from submersed deployments in the Tamar estuary and North Sea are also reported.

  19. Laminar and turbulent flow solutions with radiation and ablation injection for Jovian entry. [radiative heating rates for the Galileo probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, A.; Tiwari, S. N.

    1980-01-01

    Laminar and turbulent flow-field solutions with coupled carbon-phenolic mass injection are presented for the forebody of a probe entering a nominal Jupiter atmosphere. Solutions are obtained for a 35-degree hyperboloid and for a 45-degree spherically blunted cone using a time-dependent, finite-difference method. The radiative heating rates for the coupled laminar flow are significantly reduced as compared to the corresponding no-blowing case; however, for the coupled turbulent flow, it is found that the surface radiative heating rates are substantially increased and often exceed the corresponding no-blowing values. Turbulence is found to have no effect on the surface radiative heating rates for the no-blowing solutions. The present results are compared with the other available solutions, and some additional solutions are presented.

  20. Examination of the temporal effect in a flow injection analysis system using multi-channel absorbance detection.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shu-Hui; Chang, Kai-Chieh; Chen, Yu-Chun; Yu, Tiing; Pai, Su-Cheng

    2009-05-22

    In addition to the Poiseuille effect, a so-called temporal effect was proposed recently to elucidate the commonly observed tailing peak signals of flow injection analysis (FIA). A multi-channel absorbance detector was used in this study to obtain the FIA peaks on both the spatial and temporal coordinates. The temporal effect was analyzed by comparison of the profiles between the experimental and the corresponding Gaussian peaks, and by comparison of asymmetry factors between the spatial and the temporal peaks. The temporal effect appeared to be the major factor under flow rates ranging from 0.5 to 8 ml min (-1). This was despite the presence of a spatially frontal peak observed in the FIA tubing, which was found to result in a tailing peak on the temporal coordinate due to this discussed cause. In addition, the temporal effect became greater as the flow rate increased.

  1. Determination of free and total sulfites in wine using an automatic flow injection analysis system with voltammetric detection.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Luis Moreira; Grosso Pacheco, Joao; Jorge Magalhaes, Paulo; Antonio Rodrigues, Jose; Araujo Barros, Aquiles

    2010-02-01

    An automated flow injection analysis (FIA) system, based on an initial analyte separation by gas-diffusion and subsequent determination by square-wave voltammetry (SWV) in a flow cell, was developed for the determination of total and free sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) in wine. The proposed method was compared with two iodometric methodologies (the Ripper method and a simplified method commonly used by the wine industry). The developed method displayed good repeatability (RSD lower than 6%) and linearity (between 10 and 250 mg l(-1)) as well as a suitable LOD (3 mg l(-1)) and LOQ (9 mg l(-1)). A major advantage of this system is that SO(2) is directly detected by flow SWV.

  2. Determination of menadione sodium bisulfite in pharmaceutical preparations by flow-injection on-line photochemical spectrofluorometry.

    PubMed

    He, Q; Wang, Z; Cao, X; Chen, H; Ke, Y

    2001-10-01

    A flow-injection on-line photochemical spectrofluorometry (FI-PF) was developed for the determination of menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB) using acetone and sodium sulfite as sensitizing reagents. An injected sample band carried by a water stream was on-line merged with a mixed NaOH, Na2SO3 and acetone solution in a "T" connector. It was then driven to pass a knotted PTFE photochemical reactor (0.5 mm i.d. x 200 cm, KR) that was freely coiled around a 6-W low-pressure mercury lamp. While passing the KR, MSB was derived into an intensively fluorescent compound that was on-line delivered into a flow-through cell and detected therein at an emission wavelength of 459 nm and an excitation wavelength of 336 nm. Under optimized conditions a detection limit of 0.38 microg l(-1) was achieved at a sampling rate of 90 h(-1). Eleven determinations of 0.5 mg l(-1) and 0.05 mg l(-1) MSB standard solution gave RSDs of 0.75% and 1.3%, respectively. The calibration curve was linear in the MSB concentration range 0.005-1.5 mg l(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied to assay the MSB content in MSB injection.

  3. New method for simultaneous determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in water using flow injection technique.

    PubMed

    Kozak, J; Gutowski, J; Kozak, M; Wieczorek, M; Kościelniak, P

    2010-05-23

    The method exploits the possibilities of flow injection gradient titration in a system of reversed flow with spectrophotometric detection. In the developed approach a small amount of titrant (EDTA) is injected into a stream of sample containing a mixture of indicators (sulfosalicylic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline). In acid environment sulfosalicylic acid forms a complex with Fe(III), whereas 1,10-phenanthroline forms a complex with Fe(II). Measurements are performed at wavelength lambda=530 nm when radiation is absorbed by both complexes. After injection EDTA replaces sulfosalicylic acid and forms with Fe(III) more stable colourless complex. As a result, a characteristic "cut off" peak is registered with a width corresponding to the Fe(III) concentration and with a height corresponding to the Fe(II) concentration. Calibration was performed by titration of four two-component standard solutions of the Fe(II)/Fe(III) concentrations established in accordance with 2(2) factorial plan. The method was tested with the use of synthetic samples and then it was applied to the analysis of water samples taken from artesian wells. Under optimized experimental conditions Fe(II) and Fe(III) were determined with precision less than 0.8 and 2.5% (RSD) and accuracy less than 3.2 and 5.1% (relative error) within the concentration ranges of 0.1-3.0 and 0.9-3.5 mg L(-1) of both analytes, respectively.

  4. Skin friction reduction in supersonic flow by injection through slots, porous sections and combinations of the two

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schetz, J. A.; Vanovereem, J.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study of skin friction reduction in a Mach 3.0 air steam with gaseous injection through a tangential slot, a porous wall section, and combinations of the two was conducted. The primary data obtained were wall shear values measured directly with a floating element balance and also inferred from Preston Tube measurements. Detailed profiles at several axial stations, wall pressure distributions and schlieren photographs are presented. The data indicate that a slot provides the greatest skin friction reduction in comparison with a reference flat plate experiment. The porous wall section arrangement suffers from an apparent roughness-induced rise in skin friction at low injection rates compared to the flat plate. The combination schemes demonstrated a potential for gain.

  5. Experimental Study of a Reference Model Vertical-Axis Cross-Flow Turbine

    PubMed Central

    Wosnik, Martin; Gunawan, Budi; Neary, Vincent S.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical power, total rotor drag, and near-wake velocity of a 1:6 scale model (1.075 m diameter) of the US Department of Energy’s Reference Model vertical-axis cross-flow turbine were measured experimentally in a towing tank, to provide a comprehensive open dataset for validating numerical models. Performance was measured for a range of tip speed ratios and at multiple Reynolds numbers by varying the rotor’s angular velocity and tow carriage speed, respectively. A peak power coefficient CP = 0.37 and rotor drag coefficient CD = 0.84 were observed at a tip speed ratio λ0 = 3.1. A regime of weak linear Re-dependence of the power coefficient was observed above a turbine diameter Reynolds number ReD ≈ 106. The effects of support strut drag on turbine performance were investigated by covering the rotor’s NACA 0021 struts with cylinders. As expected, this modification drastically reduced the rotor power coefficient. Strut drag losses were also measured for the NACA 0021 and cylindrical configurations with the rotor blades removed. For λ = λ0, wake velocity was measured at 1 m (x/D = 0.93) downstream. Mean velocity, turbulence kinetic energy, and mean kinetic energy transport were compared with results from a high solidity turbine acquired with the same test apparatus. Like the high solidity case, mean vertical advection was calculated to be the largest contributor to near-wake recovery. However, overall, lower levels of streamwise wake recovery were calculated for the RM2 case—a consequence of both the relatively low solidity and tapered blades reducing blade tip vortex shedding—responsible for mean vertical advection—and lower levels of turbulence caused by higher operating tip speed ratio and therefore reduced dynamic stall. Datasets, code for processing and visualization, and a CAD model of the turbine have been made publicly available. PMID:27684076

  6. Experimental Study of a Reference Model Vertical-Axis Cross-Flow Turbine.

    PubMed

    Bachant, Peter; Wosnik, Martin; Gunawan, Budi; Neary, Vincent S

    The mechanical power, total rotor drag, and near-wake velocity of a 1:6 scale model (1.075 m diameter) of the US Department of Energy's Reference Model vertical-axis cross-flow turbine were measured experimentally in a towing tank, to provide a comprehensive open dataset for validating numerical models. Performance was measured for a range of tip speed ratios and at multiple Reynolds numbers by varying the rotor's angular velocity and tow carriage speed, respectively. A peak power coefficient CP = 0.37 and rotor drag coefficient CD = 0.84 were observed at a tip speed ratio λ0 = 3.1. A regime of weak linear Re-dependence of the power coefficient was observed above a turbine diameter Reynolds number ReD ≈ 106. The effects of support strut drag on turbine performance were investigated by covering the rotor's NACA 0021 struts with cylinders. As expected, this modification drastically reduced the rotor power coefficient. Strut drag losses were also measured for the NACA 0021 and cylindrical configurations with the rotor blades removed. For λ = λ0, wake velocity was measured at 1 m (x/D = 0.93) downstream. Mean velocity, turbulence kinetic energy, and mean kinetic energy transport were compared with results from a high solidity turbine acquired with the same test apparatus. Like the high solidity case, mean vertical advection was calculated to be the largest contributor to near-wake recovery. However, overall, lower levels of streamwise wake recovery were calculated for the RM2 case-a consequence of both the relatively low solidity and tapered blades reducing blade tip vortex shedding-responsible for mean vertical advection-and lower levels of turbulence caused by higher operating tip speed ratio and therefore reduced dynamic stall. Datasets, code for processing and visualization, and a CAD model of the turbine have been made publicly available.

  7. Direct automatic determination of bitterness and total phenolic compounds in virgin olive oil using a pH-based flow-injection analysis system.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Mesa, José A; Mateos, Raquel

    2007-05-16

    Flavor and taste are sensorial attributes of virgin olive oil (VOO) highly appreciated by consumers. Among the organoleptic properties of VOO, bitterness is related to the natural phenolic compounds present in the oil. Sensorial analysis is the official method to evaluate VOO flavor and bitterness, which requires highly specialized experts. Alternatively, methods based on physicochemical determinations could be useful for the industry. The present work presents a flow-injection analysis system for the direct automatic determination of bitterness and total phenolic compounds in VOO without prior isolation, based on the spectral shift undergone by phenolic compounds upon pH variation. This system enables a complete automation of the process, including dilution of the sample and its sequential injection into buffer solutions of acidic and alkaline pH. The variation of the absorbance at 274 nm showed a high correlation with bitterness and the total phenolic content of VOO, due to the close relationship between these two parameters. Thus, the proposed method determines the bitterness and phenolic compounds, with results similar to those from reference methods (relative errors ranging from 1% to 8% for bitterness and from 2% and 7% for phenolic compounds). The precision evaluated at two levels of both parameters ranged between 0.6% and 1.5% for bitterness and between 0.7% and 2.6% for phenolic compounds.

  8. Design and realization of the high-precision weighing systems as the gravimetric references in PTB's national water flow standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Rainer; Beyer, Karlheinz; Baade, Hans-Joachim

    2012-07-01

    PTB's ‘Hydrodynamic Test Field’, which represents a high-accuracy water flow calibration facility, serves as the national primary standard for liquid flow measurands. As the core reference device of this flow facility, a gravimetric standard has been incorporated, which comprises three special-design weighing systems: 300 kg, 3 tons and 30 tons. These gravimetric references were realized as a combination of a strain-gauge-based and an electromagnetic-force-compensation load-cell-based balance, each. Special emphasis had to be placed upon the dynamics design of the whole weighing system, due to the high measurement resolution and the dynamic behavior of the weighing systems, which are dynamically affected by mechanical vibrations caused by environmental impacts, flow machinery operation, flow noise in the pipework and induced wave motions in the weigh tanks. Taking into account all the above boundary conditions, the design work for the gravimetric reference resulted in a concrete foundation ‘rock’ of some 300 tons that rests on a number of vibration isolators. In addition to these passively operating vibration isolators, the vibration damping effect is enhanced by applying an electronic level regulation device.

  9. Flow-injection chemiluminescence analysis for sensitive determination of atenolol using cadmium sulfide quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khataee, Alireza; Lotfi, Roya; Hasanzadeh, Aliyeh; Iranifam, Mortaza; Joo, Sang Woo

    2016-03-01

    A sensitive, rapid and simple flow-injection chemiluminescence (CL) system based on the light emitted from KMnO4-cadmium sulfide quantum dots (CdS QDs) reaction in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in acidic medium was developed as a CL probe for the sensitive determination of atenolol. Optical and structural features of CdS QDs capped with L-cysteine, which synthesized via hydrothermal approach, were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL), and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The CL intensity of KMnO4-CdS QDs-CTAB was remarkably enhanced in the presence of trace level of atenolol. Under optimum experimental conditions, there is a linear relationship between the increase in CL intensity of KMnO4-CdS QDs-CTAB system and atenolol concentration in a range of 0.001 to 4.0 mg L- 1 and 4.0 to 18.0 mg L- 1, with a detection limit (3σ) of 0.0010 mg L- 1. A possible mechanism for KMnO4-CdS QDs-CTAB-atenolol CL reaction is proposed. To prove the practical application of the KMnO4-CdS QDs-CTAB CL method, the method was applied for the determination of atenolol in spiked environmental water samples and commercial pharmaceutical formulation. Furthermore, corona discharge ionization ion mobility spectrometry (CD-IMS) technique was utilized for determination of atenolol. Figure S2. Optimization of the CL reaction conditions: (a) effect of KMnO4 concentration. Conditions: the concentrations of H2SO4, CdS QDs and atenolol were 1 mol L-1, 0.35 mol L-1, and 4.0 mg L-1, respectively; (b) effect of acidic media. Conditions: the concentrations of KMnO4 was 0.04 mmol L-1, other conditions were as in (a); (c) effect of CdS QDs concentration. Conditions: H2SO4 concentration was 1.0 mol L-1, other conditions were as in (b), and (d) effect of CTAB concentration. Conditions: CdS QDs concentration was 0.35 mmol L-1, other conditions were as in (c). Figure S3. UV-Vis absorption spectra of KMnO4-CdS QDs-atenolol CL system

  10. Automated continuous monitoring of inorganic and total mercury in wastewater and other waters by flow-injection analysis and cold-vapour atomic absorption spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Birnie, S. E.

    1988-01-01

    An automated continuous monitoring system for the determination of inorganic and total mercury by flow-injection analysis followed by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectrometry is described. The method uses a typical flow-injection manifold where digestion and reduction of the injected sample takes place. Mercury is removed by aeration from the flowing stream in a specially designed air-liquid separator and swept into a silica cell for absorption measurement at a wavelength of 253.7 nm. A calibration curve up to 10 μg Hg ml-1 using three different path length cells is obtained with a detection limit of 0.02 μg Hg ml-1. The sampling rate of an injection every 3 min produces 20 results per hour from a flowing stream. PMID:18925201

  11. Determination of aqueous ozone for potable water treatment applications by chemiluminescence flow-injection analysis. A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Chung, H K; Bellamy, H S; Dasgupta, P K

    1992-06-01

    The feasibility of determining aqueous ozone by chemiluminescence flow-injection analysis (CL-FIA) was studied for applications in potable water treatment. The ozonated water sample is injected into a pure water carrier and mixed with a dye reagent in front of a photodetector. Many reagents undergo fast CL reactions with aqueous ozone. Most of these reactions display considerable selectivity for ozone over other oxidants of importance in water treatment. Even when there is steady-state response to another oxidant, significant discrimination against the interferents is possible by taking advantage of the much faster kinetics of the CL reaction with ozone. A simple design of a Siemens-type ozone generator and preparation of standard ozone solutions are also described.

  12. Laminar boundary layer flow of a nanofluid along a wedge in the presence of suction/injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasmani, R. Md.; Muhaimin, I.; Kandasamy, R.

    2013-05-01

    The behavior of an incompressible laminar boundary layer flow over a wedge in a nanofluid with suction or injection has been investigated. The model used for the nanofluid integrates the effects of the Brownian motion and thermophoresis parameters. The governing partial differential equations of this problem, subjected to their boundary conditions, are solved by the Runge-Kutta-Gill technique with the shooting method for finding the skin friction and the rate of heat and mass transfer. The result are presented in the form of velocity, temperature, and volume fraction profiles for different values of the suction/injection parameter, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis parameter, pressure gradient parameter, Prandtl number, and Lewis number. The conclusion is drawn that these parameters significantly affect the temperature and volume fraction profiles, but their influence on the velocity profile is comparatively smaller.

  13. Simultaneous flow-injection measurement of hydroxide, chloride, hypochlorite and chlorate in Chlor-alkali cell effluents.

    PubMed

    Tian, K; Dasgupta, P K

    2000-07-31

    A flow injection method is reported for the simultaneous determination of hydroxide, chloride, hypochlorite, and chlorate ions that exist in Chlor-alkali cell effluents in concentrations ranging from sub-millimolar to several molar. The hydroxide concentration is determined by the heat of neutralization of the injected sample into an acidic carrier stream and the chloride concentration is calculated from the measured conductance data. For the measurement of hypochlorite and chlorate, colorimetric iodometry is used. Iodide is oxidized to iodine by OCl(-) and ClO(3)(-) in acid solutions. While room temperature is sufficient for the reaction between OCl(-) and I(-), the reaction between ClO(3)(-) and I(-) requires an elevated temperature. The different reaction requirements are utilized to differentiate between NaOCl and NaClO(3), respectively.

  14. Sensitive kinetic-catalytic spectrophotometric method for cobalt determination using a chip coupled to a multisyringe flow injection analysis system.

    PubMed

    Abouhiat, Fatima Zohra; Henríquez, Camelia; El Yousfi, Farida; Cerdà, Víctor

    2017-05-01

    The development of an automated kinetic-catalytic spectrophotometric method for cobalt determination is presented. The method is based on the catalytic effect of Co in the oxidation of hydroxybenzoic acid by H2O2 in basic media. The method has been automated using a multisyringe flow injection system coupled to a monolithic flow conduit called chip (chip-MSFIA). All reagents and sample are simultaneously propelled into the chip to achieve an efficient mixing. The reaction product is monitored at 482nm. The reaction takes place very fast at room temperature, thus the fixed-time method is applied to quantify Co concentration in samples. Variables such as, reagents concentration, pH, flow rate and reaction time have been optimized to improve the selectivity and sensitivity of the proposed system. Under optimal conditions, Co may be determined in the range 0.02-10.00μgL(-1) achieving a limit of detection of 0.02μgL(-1) and an injection throughput of 68h(-1). Relative standard deviations are below 3%. The method has been successfully applied to water samples and a pharmaceutical formulation. The accuracy of the method has been validated by add-recovery tests and satisfactory recoveries from 91% to 97% were obtained.

  15. Pulsed Injection Flow Control for Throttling in Supersonic Nozzles - A Computational Fluid Dynamics Design Study (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-14

    other high temperature real gas effects. Although such effects are relevant when numerically 4 assessing rocket engine performance, the fundamental...Study of Rocket Thrust Control by Gas Injection,” Massachusetts Institite of Technolog, Naval Supersonic Laboratory, Technical Report 448...because of its space access mission. However, potential cadidates for this technology include gas turbines and rockets whose application required the

  16. Modeling of biomass smoke injection into the lower stratosphere by a large forest fire (Part I): reference simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trentmann, J.; Luderer, G.; Winterrath, T.; Fromm, M. D.; Servranckx, R.; Textor, C.; Herzog, M.; Graf, H.-F.; Andreae, M. O.

    2006-11-01

    Wildland fires in boreal regions have the potential to initiate deep convection, so-called pyro-convection, due to their release of sensible heat. Under favorable atmospheric conditions, large fires can result in pyro-convection that transports the emissions into the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere. Here, we present three-dimensional model simulations of the injection of fire emissions into the lower stratosphere by pyro-convection. These model simulations are constrained and evaluated with observations obtained from the Chisholm fire in Alberta, Canada, in 2001. The active tracer high resolution atmospheric model (ATHAM) is initialized with observations obtained by radiosonde. Information on the fire forcing is obtained from ground-based observations of the mass and moisture of the burned fuel. Based on radar observations, the pyro-convection reached an altitude of about 13 km, well above the tropopause, which was located at about 11.2 km. The model simulation yields a similarly strong convection with an overshoot of the convection above the tropopause. The main outflow from the pyro-convection occurs at about 10.6 km, but a significant fraction (about 8%) of the emitted mass of the smoke aerosol is transported above the tropopause. In contrast to regular convection, the region with maximum updraft velocity in the pyro-convection is located close to the surface above the fire. This results in high updraft velocities >10 m s-1 at cloud base. The temperature anomaly in the plume decreases rapidly with height from values above 50 K at the fire to about 5 K at about 3000 m above the fire. While the sensible heat released from the fire is responsible for the initiation of convection in the model, the release of latent heat from condensation and freezing dominates the overall energy budget. Emissions of water vapor from the fire do not significantly contribute to the energy budget of the convection.

  17. Modeling of biomass smoke injection into the lower stratosphere by a large forest fire (Part I): reference simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trentmann, J.; Luderer, G.; Winterrath, T.; Fromm, M. D.; Servranckx, R.; Textor, C.; Herzog, M.; Graf, H.-F.; Andreae, M. O.

    2006-07-01

    Wildland fires in boreal regions have the potential to initiate deep convection, so-called pyro-convection, due to their release of sensible heat. Under favorable atmospheric conditions, large fires can result in pyro-convection that transports the emissions into the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere. Here, we present three-dimensional model simulations of the injection of fire emissions into the lower stratosphere by pyro-convection. These model simulations are constrained and evaluated with observations obtained from the Chisholm fire in Alberta, Canada, in 2001. The active tracer high resolution atmospheric model (ATHAM) is initialized with observations obtained by radiosonde. Information on the fire forcing is obtained from ground-based observations of the mass and moisture of the burned fuel. Based on radar observations, the pyro-convection reached an altitude of about 13 km, well above the tropopause, which was located at about 11.2 km. The model simulation yields a similarly strong convection with an overshoot of the convection above the tropopause. The main outflow from the pyro-convection occurs at about 10.6 km, but a significant fraction (about 8%) of the emitted mass of the smoke aerosol is transported above the tropopause. In contrast to regular convection, the region with maximum updraft velocity in the pyro-convection is located close to the surface above the fire. This results in high updraft velocities >10 ms-1 at cloud base. The temperature anomaly in the plume decreases rapidly with height from values above 50 K at the fire to about 5 K at about 3000 m above the fire. While the sensible heat released from the fire is responsible for the initiation of convection in the model, the release of latent heat from condensation and freezing dominates the overall energy budget. Emissions of water vapor from the fire do not significantly contribute to the energy budget of the convection.

  18. Slurry sampling flow injection chemical vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of trace Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Ni; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Chen, Yen-Ling; Sahayam, A C

    2015-02-20

    A slurry sampling inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method has been developed for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions using flow injection (FI) vapor generation (VG) as the sample introduction system. A slurry containing 2% m/v lotion, 2% m/v thiourea, 0.05% m/v L-cysteine, 0.5 μg mL(-1) Co(II), 0.1% m/v Triton X-100 and 1.2% v/v HCl was injected into a VG-ICP-MS system for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi without dissolution and mineralization. Because the sensitivities of the analytes in the slurry and that of aqueous solution were quite different, an isotope dilution method and a standard addition method were used for the determination. This method has been validated by the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in GBW09305 Cosmetic (Cream) reference material. The method was also applied for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in three cosmetic lotion samples obtained locally. The analysis results of the reference material agreed with the certified value and/or ETV-ICP-MS results. The detection limit estimated from the standard addition curve was 0.025, 0.1, 0.2, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.03 ng g(-1) for Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi, respectively, in original cosmetic lotion sample.

  19. CSCM Navier-Stokes thermal/aerodynamic analysis of hypersonic nozzle flows with slot injection and wall cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Codding, William H.; Lombard, C. K.; Yang, J. Y.

    1988-01-01

    The Conservative Supra-Characteristic Method (CSCM) Navier-Stokes solver is applied to ascertain the problems inherent in the design of a nominal Mach 14 nozzle for NASA-Ames' 3.5-ft Hypersonic Wind Tunnel; attention is given to the effects of boundary layer cooling systems on the aerodynamic redesign of the nozzle throat region. Complete nozzle flowfields are calculated with and without slot injection of either hot or cold fluid into the boundary layer just upstream of the throat, as well as with alternatively adiabatic and cold walls. The CSCM method is capable of resolving subtle differences in the flows.

  20. Two-dimensional analysis of two-phase reacting flow in a firing direct-injection diesel engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, H. Lee

    1989-01-01

    The flow field, spray penetration, and combustion in two-stroke diesel engines are described. Fuel injection begins at 345 degrees after top dead center (ATDC) and n-dodecane is used as the liquid fuel. Arrhenius kinetics is used to calculate the reaction rate term in the quasi-global combustion model. When the temperature, fuel, and oxygen mass fraction are within suitable flammability limits, combustion begins spontaneously. No spark is necessary to ignite a localized high temperature region. Compression is sufficient to increase the gaseous phase temperature to a point where spontaneous chemical reactions occur. Results are described for a swirl angle of 22.5 degrees.

  1. A portable battery-powered flow injection monitor for the in situ analysis of nitrate in natural waters

    PubMed Central

    Blundell, N. J.; Hopkins, A.; Worsfold, P. J.; Casey, H.

    1993-01-01

    The design and performance of a portable, automated flow injection (FI)-based photometric monitor are described. The system is controlled by an in-house microcomputer system that enables the monitor (including a solid state detector) to operate from a 12 V battery supply. The monitor uses the cadmium reduction/diazotization method to analyse for nitrate with a linear range of 0 to 12 mg l-1 and a limit of detection of 0.05 mg l-1 (NO3-N). The hardware and software design, monitor performance and results obtained during unattended operation are presented. PMID:18924971

  2. Novel flow injection-fluorometric method for the determination of trace silicate and its application to ultrapurified water analysis.

    PubMed

    Sabarudin, Akhmad; Oshima, Mitsuko; Ishii, Naoe; Motomizu, Shoji

    2003-08-29

    A highly sensitive fluorescence quenching method for the determination of silicate based on the formation of an ion associate between molybdosilicate and Rhodamine B (RB) in nitric acid medium was developed. A flow injection system coupled with a fluorescence detector was used for the measurement of fluorescence intensity at 560 and 580 nm as excitation and emission wavelengths, respectively. The calibration graph for Si showed a linear range of 0.1-5 ng cm(-3) with correlation coefficient of 0.9999, and the detection limit of 0.06 ng cm(-3). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of silicate in ultrapurified water with satisfactory results.

  3. Partial least-squares-discriminant analysis differentiating Chinese wolfberries by UPLC-MS and flow injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weiying; Jiang, Qianqian; Shi, Haiming; Niu, Yuge; Gao, Boyan; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2014-09-17

    Lycium barbarum L. fruits (Chinese wolfberries) were differentiated for their cultivation locations and the cultivars by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and flow injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting techniques combined with chemometrics analyses. The partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was applied to the data projection and supervised learning with validation. The samples formed clusters in the projected data. The prediction accuracies by PLS-DA with bootstrapped Latin partition validation were greater than 90% for all models. The chemical profiles of Chinese wolfberries were also obtained. The differentiation techniques might be utilized for Chinese wolfberry authentication.

  4. Numerical simulations of shock-wave interaction with a boundary layer in the plane supersonic flows with jet injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beketaeva, A. O.; Moisseyeva, Ye. S.; Naimanova, A. Zh.

    2016-03-01

    A supersonic air flow in a plane channel with a transverse turbulent jet of hydrogen injected through a slot on the bottom wall is simulated. The algorithm for solving the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for the flow of a perfect multispecies gas on the basis of the WENO scheme is proposed. The main attention is paid to the interaction of the shock-wave structure with the boundary layers on the upper and lower duct walls under the conditions of an internal turbulent flow. Namely, a detailed study of the structure of the flow is done, and separation and mixing depending on the jet slot width are investigated. It is found that in addition to well-known shock-wave structures produced by the interaction of the free stream with the transverse jet and the bow shock interaction with the boundary layers near the walls, an additional system of shock waves and the flow separation arise on the bottom wall downstream at some distance from the jet. The comparison with the experimental data is performed.

  5. In-line electrochemical reagent generation coupled to a flow injection biamperometric system for the determination of sulfite in beverage samples.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Nattany T G; Barbosa, Elaine M O; da Silva, Paulo A B; de Souza, Gustavo C S; Nascimento, Valberes B; Lavorante, André F

    2016-07-15

    This work reports an in-line electrochemical reagent generation coupled to a flow injection biamperometric procedure for the determination of SO3(2-). The method was based on a redox reaction between the I3(-) and SO3(2-) ions, after the diffusion of SO2 through a gas diffusion chamber. Under optimum experimental conditions, a linear response ranging from 1.0 to 12.0 mg L(-1) (R=0.9999 and n=7), a detection and quantification limit estimated at 0.26 and 0.86 mg L(-1), respectively, a standard deviation relative of 0.4% (n=10) for a reference solution of 4.0 mg L(-1) SO3(2-) and sampling throughput for 40 determinations per hour were achieved. Addition and recovery tests with juice and wine samples were performed resulting in a range between 92% and 110%. There were no significant differences at a 95% confidence level in the analysis of eight samples when comparing the new method with a reference procedure.

  6. A flow injection analysis system for monitoring silver (I) ion and iodine residuals in recycled water from recovery systems used for spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Jill P; Emmert, Gary L

    2013-08-20

    A laboratory-built flow injection analyzer is reported for monitoring the drinking water disinfectants silver (I) ion and iodine in water produced from NASA's water recovery system. This analyzer uses spectrophotometric detection with a custom made 10cm optical flow cell. Optimization and interference studies are discussed for the silver (I) ion configuration. Subsequent results using the silver (I) configuration with minor modifications and alternative reagents gave promising results for iodine determinations as well. The estimated MDL values for Ag(+) and I2 are 52μg L(-1) Ag(+) and 2μg L(-1) I2; the mean percent recoveries were 104% and 96.2% for Ag(+) and I2 respectfully; and percent relative standard deviations were estimated at 1.4% for Ag(+) and 5.7% for I2. The agreement of this potentially multifunctional analyzer to reference methods for each respective water disinfectant is measured using Bland-Altman analysis as well as more traditional estimates.

  7. 3D-Printed Fluidic Devices for Nanoparticle Preparation and Flow-Injection Amperometry Using Integrated Prussian Blue Nanoparticle-Modified Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Gregory W; Satterwhite, Jennifer E; Bhakta, Snehasis; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Gillette, Kelsey M; Chen, Eric; Rusling, James F

    2015-01-01

    A consumer-grade fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3D printer was used to construct fluidic devices for nanoparticle preparation and electrochemical sensing. Devices were printed using poly(ethylene terephthalate) and featured threaded ports to connect polyetheretherketone (PEEK) tubing via printed fittings prepared from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). These devices included channels designed to have 800 μm × 800 μm square cross sections and were semitransparent to allow visualization of the solution-filled channels. A 3D-printed device with a Y-shaped mixing channel was used to prepare Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs) under flow rates of 100 to 2000 μL min(-1). PBNPs were then attached to gold electrodes for hydrogen peroxide sensing. 3D-printed devices used for electrochemical measurements featured threaded access ports into which a fitting equipped with reference, counter, and PBNP-modified working electrodes could be inserted. PBNP-modified electrodes enabled amperometric detection of H2O2 in the 3D-printed channel by flow-injection analysis, exhibiting a detection limit of 100 nM and linear response up to 20 μM. These experiments show that a consumer-grade FFF printer can be used to fabricate low-cost fluidic devices for applications similar to those that have been reported with more expensive 3D-printing methods.

  8. 3D-Printed Fluidic Devices for Nanoparticle Preparation and Flow-Injection Amperometry Using Integrated Prussian Blue Nanoparticle-Modified Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Gregory W.; Satterwhite, Jennifer E.; Bhakta, Snehasis; Kadimisetty, Karteek; Gillette, Kelsey M.; Chen, Eric; Rusling, James F.

    2015-01-01

    A consumer-grade fused filament fabrication (FFF) 3D printer was used to construct fluidic devices for nanoparticle preparation and electrochemical sensing. Devices were printed using poly(ethylene terephthalate) and featured threaded ports to connect polyetheretherketone (PEEK) tubing via printed fittings prepared from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). These devices included channels designed to have 800 × 800 µm2 square cross sections and were semitransparent to allow visualization of the solution-filled channels. A 3D-printed device with a Y-shaped mixing channel was used to prepare Prussian blue nanoparticles (PBNPs) under flow rates of 100 to 2000 µL min−1. PBNPs were then attached to gold electrodes for hydrogen peroxide sensing. 3D-printed devices used for electrochemical measurements featured threaded access ports into which a fitting equipped with reference, counter, and PBNP-modified working electrodes could be inserted. PBNP-modified electrodes enabled amperometric detection of H2O2 in the 3D-printed channel by flow-injection analysis, exhibiting a detection limit of 100 nM and linear response up to 20 µM. These experiments show that a consumer-grade FFF printer can be used to fabricate low-cost fluidic devices for applications similar to those that have been reported with more expensive 3D-printing methods. PMID:25901660

  9. Continuous ultrasound-assisted extraction coupled to flow injection-pervaporation, derivatization, and spectrophotometric detection for the determination of ammonia in cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Caballo-López, A; Luque de Castro, M D

    2006-04-01

    A dynamic system for the continuous removal of ammonia from cigarettes with ultrasound assistance and iterative change of the flow direction of the extractant through the sample cell has been developed. A 0.1-g sample of cigarette was subjected to 7 min of ultrasound-assisted extraction (application and duration of pulse 0.7 s, output amplitude 85% of the converter nominal amplitude), and 1 M NaOH solution was used both as extractant and as carrier in the dynamic system. The ultrasound-assisted extractor was coupled to a pervaporation unit through a flow injection interface in order to develop a fully automated method. In arriving at the pervaporator, the ammonia is transferred from the donor-carrier stream to an acceptor stream, where the classical Berthelot reaction takes place--thus favoring pervaporation. The blue complex formed is spectrophotometrically monitored at 655 nm. The method was applied to the determination of ammonia in a selection of 10 European cigarette brands and Kentucky Reference 2R4F cigarettes.

  10. The history of the microsphere method for measuring blood flows with special reference to myocardial blood flow: a personal memoir.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Julien I E

    2017-04-01

    We use many types of equipment and technologies to make our measurements but give little thought to how they developed. Evolution was once described as a series of recoils from blind alleys, and this is exemplified by the gradual development of the microsphere method of measuring blood flows. The microsphere method is one of the most frequently used methods for measuring blood flow to organs and portions of organs. The method can measure myocardial blood flow with reasonable accuracy (within 10%) down to samples weighing >50 mg but probably will not do so for samples weighing 1-10 mg. Microspheres with diameters from 10 to 15 μm provide the best compromise between accurate flow measurement and retention in tissue. Radioactive labels have been almst entirely replaced by fluorescent labels, but colored microspheres and neutron-activated labels are also used.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The contributions of the various individuals who developed the microsphere method of measuring regional blood flows and how these advances took place are brought to light in this paper.

  11. Injection, flow, and mixing of CO2 in porous media with residual gas.

    SciTech Connect

    Oldenburg, C.M.; Doughty, C.A.

    2010-09-01

    Geologic structures associated with depleted natural gas reservoirs are desirable targets for geologic carbon sequestration (GCS) as evidenced by numerous pilot and industrial-scale GCS projects in these environments world-wide. One feature of these GCS targets that may affect injection is the presence of residual CH{sub 4}. It is well known that CH{sub 4} drastically alters supercritical CO{sub 2} density and viscosity. Furthermore, residual gas of any kind affects the relative permeability of the liquid and gas phases, with relative permeability of the gas phase strongly dependent on the time-history of imbibition or drainage, i.e., dependent on hysteretic relative permeability. In this study, the effects of residual CH{sub 4} on supercritical CO{sub 2} injection were investigated by numerical simulation in an idealized one-dimensional system under three scenarios: (1) with no residual gas; (2) with residual supercritical CO{sub 2}; and (3) with residual CH{sub 4}. We further compare results of simulations that use non-hysteretic and hysteretic relative permeability functions. The primary effect of residual gas is to decrease injectivity by decreasing liquid-phase relative permeability. Secondary effects arise from injected gas effectively incorporating residual gas and thereby extending the mobile gas plume relative to cases with no residual gas. Third-order effects arise from gas mixing and associated compositional effects on density that effectively create a larger plume per unit mass. Non-hysteretic models of relative permeability can be used to approximate some parts of the behavior of the system, but fully hysteretic formulations are needed to accurately model the entire system.

  12. The role of pressure drop and flow redistribution on modeling mercury control using sorbent injection in baghouse filters.

    PubMed

    Flora, Joseph R V; Hargis, Richard A; O'Dowd, William J; Karash, Andrew; Pennline, Henry W; Vidic, Radisav D

    2006-03-01

    A mathematical model based on simple cake filtration theory was coupled to a previously developed two-stage mathematical model for mercury (Hg) removal using powdered activated carbon injection upstream of a baghouse filter. Values of the average permeability of the filter cake and the filter resistance extracted from the model were 4.4 x 10(-13) m2 and 2.5 x 10(-4) m(-1), respectively. The flow is redistributed during partial cleaning of the filter, with flows higher across the newly cleaned filter section. The calculated average Hg removal efficiency from the baghouse is lower because of the high mass flux of Hg exiting the filter in the newly cleaned section. The model shows that calculated average Hg removal is affected by permeability, filter resistance, fraction of the baghouse cleaned, and cleaning interval.

  13. Flame AAS determination of lead in water with flow-injection preconcentration and speciation using functionalized cellulose sorbent.

    PubMed

    Naghmush, A M; Pyrzyńska, K; Trojanowicz, M

    1995-06-01

    The on-line solid phase extraction of trace amount of lead in flow-injection system with flame AAS detection was investigated using cellulose sorbents with phosphonic acid and carboxymethyl groups, C(18) sorbent non-modified and modified with Pyrocatechol Violet or 8-quinolinol, commercial chelating sorbents Chelex 100 and Spheron Oxin 1000, non-polar sorbent Amberlite XAD-2 modified with Pyrocatechol Violet and several cation-exchange resins. The best dynamic characteristics of retention were observed for functionalized cellulose sorbents. For Cellex P assumed as optimum sorbent, elution with a separate fractions of nitric acid and ethanol allows the differentiation between tetraalkyllead and sum of inorganic lead and organolead species of smaller number of alkyl groups. The detection limit for the determination of inorganic Pb(II) was estimated as 0.17 microg/l. at preconcentration from 50 ml sample at a flow rate of 7 ml/min.

  14. The role of pressure drop and flow redistribution on modeling mercury control using sorbent injection in baghouse filters

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph R.V. Flora; Richard A. Hargis; William J. O'Dowd; Andrew Karash; Henry W. Pennline; Radisav D. Vidic

    2006-03-15

    A mathematical model based on simple cake filtration theory was coupled to a previously developed two-stage mathematical model for mercury (Hg) removal from coal combustion using powdered activated carbon injection upstream of a baghouse filter. Values of the average permeability of the filter cake and the filter resistance extracted from the model were 4.4 x 10{sup -13}m{sup 2} and 2.5 x 10{sup -4}m{sup -1}, respectively. The flow is redistributed during partial cleaning of the filter, with flows higher across the newly cleaned filter section. The calculated average Hg removal efficiency from the baghouse is lower because of the high mass flux of Hg exiting the filter in the newly cleaned section. The model shows that calculated average Hg removal is affected by permeability, filter resistance, fraction of the baghouse cleaned, and cleaning interval. 17 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Fluid flows due to earthquakes with reference to Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, J.B.

    1993-05-01

    Yucca Mountain geohydrology is dominated by a deep water table in volcanic tuffa beds which are cut by numerous faults. Certain zones in these tuffas and most of the fault apertures are filled with a fine-grained calcitic cement. Earthquakes have occured in this region with the most recent being of magnitude 5.6 and at a distance of about 20 km. Earthquakes in western U.S.A. have been observed to cause fluid flows through and out of the crust of the Earth. These flows are concentrated along the faults with normal faulting producing the largest flows. An earthquake produces rapid pressure changes at and below the ground surface, thereby forcing flows of gas, water, slurries and dissolved salts. In order to examine the properties of flows produced by earthquakes, we simulate the phenomena using computer-based modeling. We investigate the effects of adults and high permeability zones on the pattern of flows induced by the earthquake. We demonstrate that faults act as conduits to the surface and that the higher the permeability of a zone, the more the flows will concentrate there. Numerical estimates of flow rates from these simulations compare favorably with data from observed flows due to earthquakes. Simple volumetric arguments demonstrate the ease with which fluids from the deep water table can reach the surface along fault conduits.

  16. Computational/experimental investigation of staged injection into a Mach 2 flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eklund, D. R.; Fletcher, D. G.; Hartfield, R. J., Jr.; Mcdaniel, J. C.; Northam, G. B.; Dancey, C. L.; Wang, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    The stage normal injection of two jets of air into a Mach 2 freestream behind a rearward-facing step has been investigated using laser-induced iodine fluorescence and laser doppler anemometry techniques. A detailed data set has been compiled that includes profiles of pressure, temperature, two components of velocity, and mole fraction of the injectant at 44 locations, plus planar surveys of pressure, temperature, velocity, and mole fraction. A companion numerical study was performed using the SPARK Navier-Stokes code. Good overall agreement was observed for this complex, highly three-dimensional flowfield. Discrepancies were observed in the computed and measured total temperatures, turbulent mixing, and shock strengths. The effect of grid resolution was investigated by calculating solutions on grids of 60,000 points, 200,000 points, and 450,000 points. Differences in the solutions on the two finer grids were small. The effect of turbulence modeling was investigated by calculating solutions with three different algebraic models for the jet turbulence. Overall, the turbulence models were found to have the greatest effect on the numerical solutions, followed by the grid resolution and the injectant Mach number.

  17. Flow Instabilities During Injection of CO2 into SalineAquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Julio E.; Pruess, Karsten

    2003-04-15

    Injection of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into saline aquifers has been proposed as a means to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (geological carbon sequestration). The injection process can be classified as immiscible displacement of an aqueous phase by a less dense and less viscous gas phase. Under disposal conditions (supercritical CO{sub 2}) the viscosity of carbon dioxide can be less than the viscosity of the aqueous phase by a factor of 15. Because of the lower viscosity, the CO{sub 2} displacement front will have a tendency towards instability so that waves or rounded lobes of saturation may appear and grow into fingers that lead to enhanced dissolution, bypassing, and possibly poor sweep efficiency. This paper presents an analysis, through high-resolution numerical simulations, of the onset of instabilities (viscous fingering) during injection of CO{sub 2} into saline aquifers. We explore the influence of viscosity ratio, relative permeability functions, and capillary pressure on finger growth and spacing. In addition, we address the issues of finger triggering, convergence under grid refinement and boundary condition effects. Simulations were carried out on scalar machines, and on an IBM RS/6000 SP (a distributed-memory parallel computer with 6080 processors) with a parallelized version of TOUGH2.

  18. Effect of Moderate Air Flow on the Distribution of Fuel Sprays After Injection Cut-0ff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Spencer, R C

    1935-01-01

    High-speed motion pictures were taken of fuel sprays with the NACA spray-photographic apparatus to study the distribution of the liquid fuel from the instant of injection cut-off until about 0.05 second later. The fuel was injected into a glass-walled chamber in which the air density was varied from 1 to 13 times atmospheric air density (0.0765 to 0.99 pound per cubic foot) and in which the air was at room temperature. The air in the chamber was set in motion by means of a fan, and was directed counter to the spray at velocities up to 27 feet per second. The injection pressure was varied from 2,000 to 6,000 pounds per square inch. A 0.20-inch single-orifice nozzle, an 0.008-inch single-orifice nozzle, a multiorifice nozzle, and an impinging-jets nozzle were used. The best distribution was obtained by the use of air and a high-dispersion nozzle.

  19. Validation Studies for Numerical Simulations of Flow Phenomena Expected in the Lower Plenum of a Prismatic VHTR Reference Design

    SciTech Connect

    Richard W. Johnson

    2005-09-01

    The final design of the very high temperature reactor (VHTR) of the fourth generation of nuclear power plants (Gen IV) has not yet been established. The VHTR may be either a prismatic (block) or pebble bed type. It may be either gas-cooled or cooled with an as yet unspecified molten salt. However, a conceptual design of a gas-cooled VHTR, based on the General Atomics GT-MHR, does exist and is called the prismatic VHTR reference design, MacDonald et al [2003], General Atomics [1996]. The present validation studies are based on the prismatic VHTR reference design. In the prismatic VHTR reference design, the flow in the lower plenum will be introduced by dozens of turbulent jets issuing into a large crossflow that must negotiate dozens of cylindrical support columns as it flows toward the exit duct of the reactor vessel. The jets will not all be at the same temperature due to the radial variation of power density expected in the core. However, it is important that the coolant be well mixed when it enters the power conversion unit to ensure proper operation and long life of the power conversion machinery. Hence, it is deemed important to be able to accurately model the flow and mixing of the variable temperature coolant in the lower plenum and exit duct. Accurate flow modeling involves determining modeling strategies including the fineness of the grid needed, iterative convergence tolerance, numerical discretization method used, whether the flow is steady or unsteady, and the turbulence model and wall treatment employed. It also involves validation of the computer code and turbulence model against a series of separate and combined flow phenomena and selection of the data used for the validation. The present report describes progress made to date for the task entitled ‘CFD software validation of jets in crossflow’ which was designed to investigate the issues pertaining to the validation process.

  20. Studies of the analyte-carrier interface in flow injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    Chemical analysis in flowing solution is popular for automation of classical methods. However, most of the classical methods are not specific enough for direct multicomponent analysis of simple mixtures. This research project has the goals of study of rapid multicomponent analysis of transient species in flowing media, and investigations of chemical reactions at interfaces and of effects of competition on distribution of products from interfacial reaction. This report summarizes work done over the past 4.5 years; support has been terminated.

  1. Flow injection analysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry for bulk carbon stable isotope analysis of alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Jochmann, Maik A; Steinmann, Dirk; Stephan, Manuel; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2009-11-25

    A new method for bulk carbon isotope ratio determination of water-soluble samples is presented that is based on flow injection analysis-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (FIA-IRMS) using an LC IsoLink interface. Advantages of the method are that (i) only very small amounts of sample are required (2-5 microL of the sample for up to 200 possible injections), (ii) it avoids complex sample preparation procedures such as needed for EA-IRMS analysis (only sample dilution and injection,) and (iii) high throughput due to short analysis times is possible (approximately 15 min for five replicates). The method was first tested and evaluated as a fast screening method with industrially produced ethanol samples, and additionally the applicability was tested by the measurement of 81 alcoholic beverages, for example, whiskey, brandy, vodka, tequila, and others. The minimal sample concentration required for precise and reproducible measurements was around 50 microL L(-1) ethanol/water (1.71 mM carbon). The limit of repeatability was determined to be r=0.49%. FIA-IRMS represents a fast screening method for beverage authenticity control. Due to this, samples can be prescreened as a decisive criterion for more detailed investigations by HPLC-IRMS or multielement GC-IRMS measurements for a verification of adulteration.

  2. Automatic determination of insolubles in lubricating oils by flow injection analysis employing an LED-photometer detector.

    PubMed

    Pignalosa, Gustavo; Sixto, Alexandra; Knochen, Moisés

    2007-10-31

    A flow injection system is presented for the determination of the insolubles content in used lubricating oil samples. The system is based on the injection of an aliquot of the sample in a stream of organic solvent where it is dispersed, and measurement of the scattered radiation (measured as apparent absorbance) in the visible range (lambda=640nm). An LED-based photometer was used for this purpose. The whole system including sample injection and data acquisition was controlled by a personal computer. Calibration curves exhibited good linearity (h=0.415+/-0.016C+0.00+/-0.03, r(2)=0.9995, confidence level of 95%) in the range up to 2.68% (insolubles in pentane). Detection and quantification limits were respectively 0.07% and 0.16% (w/w). The method was validated by analysis of 25 real samples by the proposed method and the FTIR method finding high correlation. Waste generation and reactive consumption is much less than in the official method (ASTM D-893). The proposed method employs 25mL of kerosene per sample while the official method employs 200mL of pentane.

  3. Coupled Flow and Deformation Modeling of Carbon Dioxide Migration in the Presence of a Caprock Fracture during Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, Hema J; Gondle, Raj K; Bromhal, Grant S

    2013-08-01

    Understanding the transport of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) during long-term CO{sub 2} injection into a typical geologic reservoir, such as a saline aquifer, could be complicated because of changes in geochemical, hydrogeological, and hydromechanical behavior. While the caprock layer overlying the target aquifer is intended to provide a tight, impermeable seal in securing injected CO{sub 2}, the presence of geologic uncertainties, such as a caprock fracture or fault, may provide a channel for CO{sub 2} leakage. There could also be a possibility of the activation of a new or existing dormant fault or fracture, which could act as a leakage pathway. Such a leakage event during CO{sub 2} injection may lead to a different pressure and ground response over a period of time. In the present study, multiphase fluid flow simulations in porous media coupled with geomechanics were used to investigate the overburden geologic response and plume behavior during CO{sub 2} injection in the presence of a hypothetical permeable fractured zone in a caprock, existing or activated. Both single-phase and multiphase fluid flow simulations were performed. The CO{sub 2} migration through an existing fractured zone leads to changes in the fluid pressure in the overburden geologic layers and could have a significant impact on ground deformation behavior. Results of the study show that pressure signatures and displacement patterns are significantly different in the presence of a fractured zone in the caprock layer. The variation in pressure and displacement signatures because of the presence of a fractured zone in the caprock at different locations may be useful in identifying the presence of a fault/fractured zone in the caprock. The pressure signatures can also serve as a mechanism to identify the activation of leakage pathways through the caprock during CO{sub 2} injection. Pressure response and ground deformation behavior from sequestration modeling could be useful in the development of

  4. Flow-injection electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of crude cell extracts for high-throughput bacterial identification.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Seetharaman; Kell, Douglas B; Goodacre, Royston

    2002-02-01

    Flow-injection electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (FI-ESI-MS) of unfractionated cell-free extracts obtained from bacterial cells suspended in a solvent mixture was investigated as a rapid analytical method for reproducible, high-throughput bacterial identification. Five bacterial strains (two Escherichia coli, two Bacillus spp. and one Brevibacillus laterosporus) were studied in this investigation. Axenically grown bacterial cells were suspended in an acidic organic solvent and the cell-free extract was sequentially injected into a solvent flow stream that was sprayed into the ionization chamber of the ESI-MS. The spectra produced contained reproducible information, which was useful for discriminating between the bacteria. Tandem mass spectrometry was used to characterize further the peaks, and at least three classes of macromolecules, namely phospholipids, glycolipids, and proteins, were found to contribute most to the spectral information. Bacterial extracts stored under different conditions gave very similar mass spectra for each of the five bacterial strains, indicating that the extracts were stable even at room temperature for up to 24 h, with no loss of information content, which has obvious implications for automated high-throughput analysis. An analysis of the components of the extracting solvent mixture and their effects on the spectral information showed that acetonitrile contributes most significantly to the extraction process and hence to the information content of the spectra.

  5. Biosensing of glucose in flow injection analysis system based on glucose oxidase-quantum dot modified pencil graphite electrode.

    PubMed

    Sağlam, Özlem; Kızılkaya, Bayram; Uysal, Hüseyin; Dilgin, Yusuf

    2016-01-15

    A novel amperometric glucose biosensor was proposed in flow injection analysis (FIA) system using glucose oxidase (GOD) and Quantum dot (ZnS-CdS) modified Pencil Graphite Electrode (PGE). After ZnS-CdS film was electrochemically deposited onto PGE surface, GOD was immobilized on the surface of ZnS-CdS/PGE through crosslinking with chitosan (CT). A pair of well-defined reversible redox peak of GOD was observed at GOD/CT/ZnS-CdS/PGE based on enzyme electrode by direct electron transfer between the protein and electrode. Further, obtained GOD/CT/ZnS-CdS/PGE offers a disposable, low cost, selective and sensitive electrochemical biosensing of glucose in FIA system based on the decrease of the electrocatalytic response of the reduced form of GOD to dissolved oxygen. Under optimum conditions (flow rate, 1.3mL min(-1); transmission tubing length, 10cm; injection volume, 100μL; and constant applied potential, -500mV vs. Ag/AgCl), the proposed method displayed a linear response to glucose in the range of 0.01-1.0mM with detection limit of 3.0µM. The results obtained from this study would provide the basis for further development of the biosensing using PGE based FIA systems.

  6. Fabrication of an Amperometric Flow-Injection Microfluidic Biosensor Based on Laccase for In Situ Determination of Phenolic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Rivera, Juan C.; Osma, Johann F.

    2015-01-01

    We aim to develop an in situ microfluidic biosensor based on laccase from Trametes pubescens with flow-injection and amperometry as the transducer method. The enzyme was directly immobilized by potential step chronoamperometry, and the immobilization was studied using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrode response by amperometry was probed using ABTS and syringaldazine. A shift of interfacial electron transfer resistance and the electron transfer rate constant from 18.1 kΩ to 3.9 MΩ and 4.6 × 10−2 cm s−1 to 2.1 × 10−4 cm s−1, respectively, evidenced that laccase was immobilized on the electrode by the proposed method. We established the optimum operating conditions of temperature (55°C), pH (4.5), injection flow rate (200 µL min−1), and applied potential (0.4 V). Finally, the microfluidic biosensor showed better lower limit of detection (0.149 µM) and sensitivity (0.2341 nA µM−1) for ABTS than previous laccase-based biosensors and the in situ operation capacity. PMID:26509166

  7. Simultaneous determination of vanadium(IV) and vanadium(V) by flow injection analysis using kinetic spectrophotometry with Xylenol Orange.

    PubMed

    Oguma, Koichi; Yoshioka, Osamu; Noro, Junji; Sakurai, Hiroki

    2012-07-15

    A flow injection method of analysis has been developed for the simultaneous determination of V(IV) and V(V) using the difference in the rate of complex formation between vanadium in two different oxidation states and Xylenol Orange in acidic media. The proposed method used a spectrophotometric detector equipped with two flow cells aligned with the same optical path to yield two successive peaks per each sample injection. V(IV) and V(V) were determined by solving simultaneous equations in two unknowns, the concentrations of V(IV) and V(V), obtained from measurements of the two peak heights. The detection limit calculated as 3σ of noise signals was 0.01μg/mL for both V(IV) and V(V). The relative standard deviations for V(IV) and V(V) at the 1μg/mL level were 1.6 and 2.4%, respectively. The sample throughput was found to be about 19h(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of V(IV) and V(V) in synthetic scrubbing solutions used in desulphurization with reasonable accuracy.

  8. Development of a dual cell, flow-injection sample holder, and NMR probe for comparative ligand-binding studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquardsen, Thorsten; Hofmann, Martin; Hollander, Johan G.; Loch, Caroline M. P.; Kiihne, Suzanne R.; Engelke, Frank; Siegal, Gregg

    2006-09-01

    NMR based ligand screening is becoming increasingly important for the very early stages of drug discovery. We have proposed a method that makes highly efficient use of a single sample of a scarce target, or one with poor or limited solubility, to screen an entire compound library. This comparative method is based on immobilizing the target for the screening procedure. In order to support the method, a dual cell, flow injection probe with a single receiver coil has been constructed. The flow injection probe has been mated to a single high performance pump and sample handling system to enable the automated analysis of large numbers of compound mixes for binding to the target. The probe, having an 8 mm 1H/ 2H dual tuned coil and triple axis gradients, is easily shimmed and yields NMR spectra of comparable quality to a standard 5 mm high-resolution probe. The lineshape in the presence of a solid support is identical to that in glass NMR tubes in a 5 mm probe. Control spectra of each cell are identical and well separated, while ligand binding in a complex mixture can be readily detected in 20-30 min, thus paving the way for use of the probe for actual drug discovery efforts.

  9. Flow-Injection Determination of Thiabendazole Fungicide in Water Samples Using a Diperiodatocuprate(III)-Sulfuric Acid-Chemiluminescence System.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Mohammad; Yaqoob, Mohammad; Munawar, Nusrat; Nabi, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Chemiluminescence (CL) with a flow-injection method is reported for the determination of thiabendazole (TBZ) fungicide based on its enhancement effect on diperiodatocuprate(III) (DPC)-sulfuric acid-CL system. The calibration graph was linear in the concentration range of 1 - 2000 μg L(-1) (R(2) = 0.9999, n = 8) with a limit of detection (S/N = 3) of 0.3 μg L(-1). The injection throughput was 160 h(-1) with relative standard deviations (RSD, n = 4) of 1.1 - 2.9% in the concentration range studied. The experimental variables e.g., reagents concentrations, flow rates, sample volume, and PMT voltage were optimized, and the potential interferences were investigated individually. The method was successfully applied to the determination of TBZ in water samples showing good agreement and recovery in the range of 92 ± 2.2 - 108 ± 3% (n = 3) using dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (DLLME). The possible CL reaction mechanism for DPC-sulfuric acid-TBZ is also discussed.

  10. Fabrication of an Amperometric Flow-Injection Microfluidic Biosensor Based on Laccase for In Situ Determination of Phenolic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Rivera, Juan C; Osma, Johann F

    2015-01-01

    We aim to develop an in situ microfluidic biosensor based on laccase from Trametes pubescens with flow-injection and amperometry as the transducer method. The enzyme was directly immobilized by potential step chronoamperometry, and the immobilization was studied using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrode response by amperometry was probed using ABTS and syringaldazine. A shift of interfacial electron transfer resistance and the electron transfer rate constant from 18.1 kΩ to 3.9 MΩ and 4.6 × 10(-2) cm s(-1) to 2.1 × 10(-4) cm s(-1), respectively, evidenced that laccase was immobilized on the electrode by the proposed method. We established the optimum operating conditions of temperature (55°C), pH (4.5), injection flow rate (200 µL min(-1)), and applied potential (0.4 V). Finally, the microfluidic biosensor showed better lower limit of detection (0.149 µM) and sensitivity (0.2341 nA µM(-1)) for ABTS than previous laccase-based biosensors and the in situ operation capacity.

  11. Chemiluminescence determination of sulphadiazine in drugs by flow injection analysis using the peroxyoxalate reaction in micellar medium.

    PubMed

    Lattanzio, Giuseppe; García-Campaña, Ana M; Soto-Chinchilla, Jorge J; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura; Girotti, Steffano

    2008-01-22

    Peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence (PO-CL) is an indirect type of CL which allows the detection of native fluorophores or compounds derivatized with fluorescent labels. We propose a flow injection analysis (FIA) configuration based on the use of a two-injection valve system for the introduction of both PO and derivatized analyte solutions in the flow system, avoiding the problems arising from the use of organic solvents, such as acetonitrile, as no special tubes nor special pumps are required. Furthermore, the use of micellar media (sodium dodecyl sulphate, SDS) as a carrier and the addition of tetrahydrofurane (THF) in the PO solutions increase both the solubility and stability of POs, avoiding their rapid degradation in water. The proposed CL-FIA system has been applied to the determination of sulphadiazine (a sulphonamide mainly used in the treatment of urinary tract infections for human and veterinary use) using bis[2,4,6-trichlorophenyl]oxalate (TCPO) as CL precursor, H2O2 as oxidant, imidazole as a catalyst and fluorescamine as the fluorescent derivatizing agent. The optimization of variables was carried out by means of experimental designs and the method showed a LOQ of 379 microg l(-1) (calibration range 126-2000 microg l(-1)). It has been satisfactorily applied to the quantification of sulphadiazine in pills for human use and ampoules for veterinary use.

  12. Simultaneous determination of codeine and noscapine by flow-injection chemiluminescence method using N-PLS regression.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, B; Khayamian, T; Mokhtari, A

    2009-02-20

    A flow injection chemiluminescent (FI-CL) method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of codeine and noscapine using N-PLS regression. The method is based on the fact that kinetic characteristics of codeine and noscapine are different in the Ru(phen)(3)(2+)-Ce(IV) CL system. In flow injection mode, codeine gives broad peak with the highest CL intensity at 4.4s, whereas the maximum CL intensity of the noscapine appears at about 2.6s. Moreover, the effect of increasing H(2)SO(4) concentration was different on the CL intensity of the compounds. An experimental design, central composite design (CCD), was used to realize the optimized variables such as Ru(II) and Ce(IV) concentrations for the both compounds. At the optimized condition, a three-way data structure (samples, H(2)SO(4) concentration, time) was constructed and followed by N-PLS regression. The number of factors for the N-PLS regression was selected based on the minimum values for the root mean squared error of cross validation (RMSECV). The proposed method is applied to the simultaneous quantification of codeine and noscapine in the pharmaceutical preparations.

  13. Biosensor based on acetylcholinesterase immobilized onto layered double hydroxides for flow injection/amperometric detection of organophosphate pesticides.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jingming; Guan, Zhangqiong; Song, Dandan

    2013-01-15

    We developed a highly sensitive flow injection/amperometric biosensor for the detection of organophosphate pesticides (OPs) using layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as the immobilization matrix of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). LDHs provided a biocompatible microenvironment to keep the bioactivity of AChE, due to the intrinsic properties of LDHs (such as a regular structure, good mechanical, chemical and thermal stabilities, and swelling properties). By integrating the flow injection analysis (FIA) with amperometric detection, the resulting AChE-LDHs modified electrode greatly catalyzed the oxidation of the enzymatically generated thiocholine product, and facilitated the detection automation, thus increasing the detection sensitivity. The analytical conditions for the FIA/amperometric detection of OPs were optimized by using methyl parathion (MP) as a model. The inhibition of MP was proportional to its concentration ranging from 0.005 to 0.3μg mL(-1) and 0.3 to 4.0μg mL(-1) with a detection limit 0.6ng mL(-1) (S/N=3). The developed biosensor exhibited good reproducibility and acceptable stability.

  14. Precision of the reportable result. Simultaneous optimisation of number of preparations and injections for sample and reference standard in quantitative liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ermer, J; Agut, C

    2014-08-01

    In pharmaceutical analysis, the precision of the reportable result, i.e. the result which is to be compared to the specification limit, is relevant for the evaluation of the suitability of the analytical procedure. But also for other applications, the precision of the result is important and an optimisation often of interest. However, increasing the number of determinations (e.g. injections or preparations) will reduce only the variability (or standard error) of the corresponding precision level. Therefore, the knowledge of the individual variance contributions, obtained from reliable precision studies is important to determine on a scientific basis which format of the (reportable) result, i.e. the number of injections and sample preparations (or even series), should be used. In case of relative analytical procedures such as LC, the calibration model and format, i.e. the number of determinations of the reference standard is one of the factors (besides instrument, operator, reagents, etc.) affecting the between-series variance contribution at intermediate precision/reproducibility level. Consequently, the precision of the reportable result is only valid for the calibration format used to obtain intermediate precision/reproducibility. Instead of repeating the whole precision study to optimize the calibration format, the present paper describes a statistical approach using variability results from the original precision study.

  15. Studies of mixing and combustion in hypervelocity flows with hot hydrogen injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belanger, Jacques Jean

    1993-01-01

    The ability to build an air-breathing single-stage-to-orbit propulsion system requires the examination of key elements such as turbulent mixing rates, especially at the 'zero shear' fuel-air mixing condition, and combustion efficiency. The required data can only be obtained in experiments which simultaneously match the flight total pressure and total enthalpy as well as the fuel conditions. GALCIT, with its new free piston shock tunnel T5, has the capability to do some of these combustion experiments. But prior to these tests, it was felt that there was a need to simulate the gas dynamical processes in the free piston shock tunnel and also in a new combustion driven shock tunnel built for these experiments so that both systems could be used as efficiently as possible. The numerical code helped explain the piston motion in the free piston shock tunnel. The code was also very useful for the design of the combustion driven shock tunnel. Because hydrogen has to be injected into the combustion chamber of the propulsion system after being used as a cooling fluid, a combustion driven shock tunnel was built to reproduce this 'hot' hydrogen at up to 1500 K for the experiments. To reduce the complexity of the problem, a very basic configuration for the hydrogen injection system was tested. This was first done with an injection system mounted flush with the surface of a flat plate in the test section of T5. Different test conditions as well as Mach 2 and 5 nozzle injectors at angles of 15 or 30 degrees were tested to determine criteria for significant combustion. Lower limits in pressure and enthalpy were found where hydrogen combustion becomes very limited using this 'hot' hydrogen fuel. The second set of experiments still used an injection system mounted slush with the surface but involved a small combustor model previously tested in the hypervelocity HYPULSE facility. Low pressure experiments were performed to reproduce some of the HYPULSE tests and excellent agreement was

  16. Effect of Suction/Injection on Unsteady Hydromagnetic Convective Flow of Reactive Viscous Fluid between Vertical Porous Plates with Thermal Diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Uwanta, I. J.; Hamza, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    An investigation is performed to study the effect of suction/injection on unsteady hydromagnetic natural convection flow of viscous reactive fluid between two vertical porous plates in the presence of thermal diffusion. The partial differential equations governing the flow have been solved numerically using semi-implicit finite-difference scheme. For steady case, analytical solutions have been derived using perturbation series method. Suction/injection is used to control the fluid flow in the channel, and an exothermic chemical reaction of Arrhenius kinetic is considered. Numerical results are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively with respect to various parameters embedded in the problem. PMID:27382632

  17. Generalized solution for 1-D non-Newtonian flow in a porous domain due to an instantaneous mass injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Federico, V.; Ciriello, V.

    2011-12-01

    Non-Newtonian fluid flow in porous media is of considerable interest in hydrology, chemical and petroleum engineering, and biofluid mechanics. We consider an infinite porous domain of plane (d=1), cylindrical (d=2) or semi-spherical geometry (d=3), having uniform permeability k and porosity Φ, initially at uniform pressure and saturated by a weakly compressible non-Newtonian fluid, and analyze the dynamics of the pressure variation generated within the domain by an instantaneous mass injection m0 in its origin. The fluid is described by a rheological power-law model of given consistency index H and flow behavior index n; the flow law is a modified Darcy's law depending on H, Φ, n. Coupling flow law and mass balance equations yields the nonlinear partial differential equation governing the pressure field; an analytical solution is derived in space r and time t as a function of a self-similar variable η=r/tβ(n). We revisit and expand the work in previous papers by providing a dimensionless general formulation and solution to the problem for d=1,2,3. When a shear-thinning fluid (n<1) is considered, the analytical solution exhibits traveling wave characteristics, in variance with Newtonian fluids; the front velocity is proportional to t(n-2)/2 in plane geometry, t(2n-3)/(3-n) in cylindrical geometry, and t(3n-4)/(4-2n) in semi-spherical geometry. The front position is a markedly increasing function of n and is inversely dependent on d; the pressure front advances at a slower rate for larger values of compressibility, higher injected mass and lower porosity. When pressure is considered, it is seen that an increase in d from 1 to 3 brings about an order of magnitude reduction. An increase in compressibility implies a significant decrease in pressure, especially at early times. To reflect the uncertainty inherent in values of the problem parameters, we then consider selected properties of fluid (flow behavior index n) and porous domain (permeability k, porosity

  18. Preferential flow characterization in fractured aquifer by injecting dissolved oxygen in boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vurro, Michele; Donnaloia, Mietta; Masciopinto, Costantino; Pennetta, Luigi; Robbins, Gary; Vitale, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    A new approach to identify contributing fractures and wellbore flow in fractured and karst aquifers is presented. It is time efficient, low cost and based on a benign tracer: the dissolved oxygen (DO). The method was already applied by other scientists to test fractured crystalline rock wells. The DO method consists in elevating water DO concentration in a borehole by bubbling air at assigned water depths using a porous polypropylene tube (bubbler) connected to a compressed air tank with tubing. After the aeration, the resulting profile should be a linear increase in DO with depth due to the effects of water pressure on oxygen solubility. Any changes in the DO profile will be then observed when water flows into and through the well. DO dilution can be used to locate inflowing fractures and to define active flow zones in wells. If there is no change in the DO profile, a "dead zones" in the well is present, that is to say no flow is taking place or can be identified. The DO tests in this work have been carried out in the industrial area of Bari, at the experimental station, constituted by five wells drilled at the CNR-IRSA. The wells penetrate karstic limestone. Results show enhanced flow through at depths between 32 and 37 meters below the water level: DO concentrations decrease until they reach values close to 0 mg/l. DO curves show also the presence of inflowing fractures, as testified by the decrease in the DO concentrations due to the effects of water dilution, at depths of 4 and 9 meters (below the water table) in the north well, at 4 and 10 meters in the central well, and at 30 meters in the south well. The benefits of utilizing DO as a tracer include ease of accessibility, low cost and time-efficiency as well as non-toxic nature of the tracer and no impact on flow conditions.

  19. In vivo assessment of coronary flow and cardiac function after bolus adenosine injection in adenosine receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Teng, Bunyen; Tilley, Stephen L; Ledent, Catherine; Mustafa, S Jamal

    2016-06-01

    Bolus injections of adenosine and the A2A adenosine receptor (AR) selective agonist (regadenoson) are used clinically as a substitute for a stress test in people who cannot exercise. Using isolated tissue preparations, our lab has shown that coronary flow and cardiac effects of adenosine are mostly regulated by the AR subtypes A1, A2A, and A2B In this study, we used ultrasound imaging to measure the in vivo effects of adenosine on coronary blood flow (left coronary artery) and cardiac function in anesthetized wild-type, A1 knockout (KO), A2AKO, A2BKO, A3KO, A1, and A3 double KO (A1/3 DKO) and A2A and A2B double KO (A2A/2B DKO) mice in real time. Echocardiographic and Doppler studies were performed using a Visualsonic Vevo 2100 ultrasound system. Coronary blood flow (CBF) baseline data were obtained when animals were anesthetized with 1% isoflourane. Diameter (D) and velocity time integral (VTI) were measured on the left coronary arteries (CBF = ((π/4) × D(2) × VTI × HR)/1000). CBF changes were the highest within 2 min of injection (about 10 mg/kg). Heart rate, cardiac output, and stroke volume were measured by tracing the left ventricle long axis. Our data support a role for the A2 AR in CBF and further support our conclusions of previous studies from isolated tissues. Adenosine-mediated decreases in cardiac output and stroke volume may be A2B and/or A3 AR-mediated; however, the A1 and A2 ARs also play roles in overall cardiac function. These data further provide a powerful translational tool in studying the cardiovascular effects of adenosine in disease states.

  20. Determination of lithium in pharmaceutical formulations used in the treatment of bipolar disorder by flow injection analysis with spectrophotometric detection.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cássia Maria L da; Almeida, Vanessa G K; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2007-10-15

    In this work, a flow injection system with spectrophotometric detection was developed for the determination of lithium in pharmaceutical formulations used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Reaction between Quinizarine (1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone) and Li(I) ion in alkaline medium containing dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) was explored for this purpose. The flow system was optimized regarding to its chemical (DMSO, Quinizarine and NaOH concentrations and sample pH) and physical parameters (sample loop volume, carrier flow rate and reactor length) in order to establish better conditions in terms of sensitivity and sampling frequency. The results obtained showed that the concentration of DMSO in the reagent solution presents remarkable influence on the magnitude of analytical signal. Chemical species that could be found in the formulations such as Na(I), K(I), Mg(II), Ca(II), Ti(IV), Cl(-), CO(3)(2-) e sodium dodecylsulfate were tested as possible interfering ions. Among them, only non-monovalent cations presented noticeable interference on lithium signal. However, they were not found in concentrations high enough to cause interference in the determination of lithium in the samples. Sample preparation was performed by sonicating a slurry prepared by dispersing 100mg of powdered sample in 15mL of 0.10molL(-1) HCl solution. Results obtained by developed methodology were not statistically different from those obtained by flame emission spectrometry. In the optimized conditions the method presented a linear range of 5-40mgL(-1) and a relative standard deviation of 3.6% at 5mgL(-1) Li concentration. Detection and quantification limits were 0.54 and 1.8mgL(-1), respectively. Sampling frequency, calculated as the time interval passed between two consecutive injections, was 60 samples per hour. The methodology was successfully applied in the determination of lithium in three commercial samples.

  1. Flow Control and Measurement in Electric Propulsion Systems: Towards an AIAA Reference Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, John Steven; Baldwin, Jeff; Frieman, Jason D.; Walker, Mitchell L. R.; Hicks, Nathan S.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Singleton, James T.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate control and measurement of propellant flow to a thruster is one of the most basic and fundamental requirements for operation of electric propulsion systems, whether they be in the laboratory or on flight spacecraft. Hence, it is important for the electric propulsion community to have a common understanding of typical methods for flow control and measurement. This paper addresses the topic of propellant flow primarily for the gaseous propellant systems which have dominated laboratory research and flight application over the last few decades, although other types of systems are also briefly discussed. While most flight systems have employed a type of pressure-fed flow restrictor for flow control, both thermal-based and pressure-based mass flow controllers are routinely used in laboratories. Fundamentals and theory of operation of these types of controllers are presented, along with sources of uncertainty associated with their use. Methods of calibration and recommendations for calibration processes are presented. Finally, details of uncertainty calculations are presented for some common calibration methods and for the linear fits to calibration data that are commonly used.

  2. Experimental Investigation of Transverse Supersonic Gaseous Injection Enhancement Into Supersonic Flow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-01

    1 0 In combusting flows, Northam and Capriotti found the swept ramp design increased combustion efficiency and had less total temperature sensitivity...Greenberg, C. S. Byington and D. P. Capriotti , "Evaluation of Parallel Configurations for Mach 2 Combustion", Journal of Propulsion and Power, Vol. 8

  3. Determination of scandium, yttrium and lanthanides in silicate rocks and four new canadian iron-formation reference materials by flame atomic-absorption spectrometry with microsample injection.

    PubMed

    Sen Gupta, J G

    1984-12-01

    Enhancement of sensitivity by factors of up to 1.5 by use of the microsampling technique, coupled with the advantage of using small samples in small solution volumes, permits rapid flame AAS determination of traces of Sc, Y, Nd, Eu, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm and Yb in ultramafic and most other rocks of low rare-earth content, which would be either impossible or very difficult to analyse by direct aspiration because of the need for much larger sample weights and solution volumes. The rare-earths are separated by a modified ion-exchange or a double calcium oxalate and single hydrous ferric oxide co-precipitation procedure, and ultimately determined in an ethanolic perchlorate solution, buffered with 1% lanthanum, by the flame microsample injection technique, with a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. The results obtained by this technique for six international reference rocks SY-2 (syenite), BCR-1 (basalt), BHVO-1 (Hawaiian basalt), SCo-1 (cody shale), MAG-1 (marine mud) and STM-1 (syenite) are compared with those obtained previously by the direct aspiration method and with other reported data. Results are given for four new Canadian iron formation reference materials FeR-1 to FeR-4.

  4. Flow-injection post-chemiluminescence method for the determination of palmatine.

    PubMed

    Han, Suqin; Wei, Bei; Hao, Fang

    2013-07-01

    A post-chemiluminescence (PCL) phenomenon was observed when palmatine was injected in a mixture of N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and alkaline dichlorofluorescein (DCF) after the chemiluminescence (CL) reaction of NBS-alkaline DCF had finished. Based on the PCL reaction, a rapid and sensitive method for the determination of palmatine was established. Under optimum conditions, the CL intensity was linear, with the concentration of palmatine in the range of 5.0 × 10(-9) to 1.0 × 10(-6) M. The detection limit was 6.0 × 10(-10) M for palmatine. The relative standard deviation for 11 parallel measurements of 1.0 × 10(-7) M palmatine was 1.5%. This method was applied to the determination of palmatine in pharmaceutical samples and biological fluids, with satisfactory results. The possible reaction mechanism is discussed briefly.

  5. Wavelength selection in injection-driven Hele-Shaw flows: A maximum amplitude criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Eduardo; Miranda, Jose

    2013-11-01

    As in most interfacial flow problems, the standard theoretical procedure to establish wavelength selection in the viscous fingering instability is to maximize the linear growth rate. However, there are important discrepancies between previous theoretical predictions and existing experimental data. In this work we perform a linear stability analysis of the radial Hele-Shaw flow system that takes into account the combined action of viscous normal stresses and wetting effects. Most importantly, we introduce an alternative selection criterion for which the selected wavelength is determined by the maximum of the interfacial perturbation amplitude. The effectiveness of such a criterion is substantiated by the significantly improved agreement between theory and experiments. We thank CNPq (Brazilian Sponsor) for financial support.

  6. The use of a micropump based on capillary and evaporation effects in a microfluidic flow injection chemiluminescence system.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yan-Xia; Xu, Zhang-Run; Dai, Jing; Fang, Zhao-Lun

    2006-02-15

    The performance of a micropump operating on evaporation and capillary effects, developed for microfluidic (lab-on-a-chip) systems, was studied employing it as the fluid drive in a microfluidic flow injection (FI) system, with chemiluminescence (CL) detection. The micropump featured simple structure, small dimensions, low fabrication cost and stable and adjustable flow-rates during long working periods. Using a micropump with 6.6cm(2) evaporation area, with the ambient temperature and relative humidity fluctuating within 2h in the ranges 20-21 degrees C and 30-32%, respectively, an average flow-rate of 3.02muL/min was obtained, with a precision better than 1.2% R.S.D. (n=61). When applied to the microchip FI-CL system using the luminol/hexacyanoferrate/H(2)O(2) reaction, a precision of 1.4% R.S.D. (n=11) was obtained for luminol at a sampling frequency of 30h(-1).

  7. Flow injection analysis of chemical oxygen demand (COD) by using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongbin; Ma, Chuanjun; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Zhao, Huimin

    2009-03-15

    A simple, environmentally friendly and continuous flow method was developed for the determination of COD based on a flow injection analysis (FIA) system, in which a BDD electrode was employed as the detecting element. The structure and the electrochemical behavior of BDD were investigated by a scanning electron microscope, Raman spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry, respectively. The results demonstrated thatthe high-quality BDD film prepared here was suitable to be used as an electrode, with which the COD measurement could be conducted. The effect of several important experimental parameters, such as applied potentials, pH, flow rates, and supporting electrolyte concentrations, on the analytical performance was investigated. Under optimized testing conditions, the proposed method was successfully applied in the COD analysis of synthetic samples. The linear range and the detection limit were 2-175 and 1 mg L(-1), respectively. In addition, the COD values determined by the proposed method compared well with those analyzed bythe conventional method as demonstrated by small relative errors.

  8. Determination of beta-D-glucose using flow injection analysis and composite-type amperometric tubular biosensors.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Romero, Giaan A; Rojas-Hernández, Alberto; Morales-Pérez, Adriana; Ramírez-Silva, M Teresa

    2004-04-15

    An amperometric tubular cell involving composite biosensors for the determination of beta-d-glucose in a flow injection analysis (FIA) system is proposed. Diverse configurations and parameters are evaluated to improve the system's response. The configuration producing less noise resulted when the biosensor was located closer to the auxiliary electrode, which also required coupling both electrodes within the system under a continuous flow regime. Further, we report on the influence of the active area of the biosensor and of the flow rate used. Statistical analyses of the data revealed two regions with a linear response range for the determination of beta-d-glucose, with a detection limit of 4.7 x 10(-4) M and in the low concentration region a sensitivity of 17.46 +/- 0.12 microAM(-1). At the beta-d-glucose concentrations studied there was no evidence of enzymatic saturation. An increment on the ionic strength of the sample and carrier passing through the analysis system decreases its sensitivity. The reproducibility of the analytical system in terms of its standard deviation was 2.9% with a 95% confidence level, having a lifetime that lasted at least 100 days. beta-d-Glucose was determined in different commercial medical glucose-containing solutions, the experimental results are in good agreement with those reported by the manufacturer.

  9. Flow-injection chemiluminescence sensor for determination of isoniazid in urine sample based on molecularly imprinted polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yan; Zhou, Houjiang; Zhang, Zhujun; He, Deyong; He, Chao

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) of isoniazid is synthesized through thermal radical copolymerization of metharylic acid (MAA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) in the presence of isoniazid template molecules. A novel flow injection chemiluminescence sensor for isoniazid determination is developed by packing the isoniazid-MIP into the flow cell as recognition elements. Isoniazid could be selectively adsorbed by the MIPs and the adsorbed isoniazid was sensed by its great enhancing effect on the weak CL reaction between luminol and periodate which were mixed in the flow cell. The enhanced CL intensity is linear in the range 2 × 10 -9 to 2 × 10 -7 g/mL and the detection limit is 7 × 10 -10 g/mL (3 σ) isoniazid with a relative standard deviation 2.8% ( n = 9) for 8 × 10 -8 g/mL. The sensor is reversible and reusable. It has a great improvement in sensitivity and selectivity for CL analysis. As a result, the sensor has been successfully applied to determination of isoniazid in human urine. At the same time, the binding characteristic of the polymer to isoniazid was evaluated by batch method and the dynamic method, respectively.

  10. Cadmium determination in natural water samples with an automatic multisyringe flow injection system coupled to a flow-through screen printed electrode.

    PubMed

    Henríquez, C; Laglera, L M; Alpizar, M J; Calvo, J; Arduini, F; Cerdà, V

    2012-07-15

    Heavy metals, as cadmium, attract a rising attention in environmental studies due to their increasing release by human activities and acute toxicity. In situ analytical methods are needed to minimize current uncertainties caused by the transport and conservation of samples. Here, we present the completely automatic determination of Cd in natural waters using a newly developed screen printed electrode sensor (SPE), inserted in a homemade purpose-built flow cell coupled to a Multi-Syringe Flow Injection Analysis system (MSFIA). The working electrode of SPEs was constituted by a carbon film modified with Nafion. Cd was plated on an in situ bismuth film and determined using Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry. Different chemical conditions of deposition and stripping were studied. A sample/acetic buffer mixture was found to be a well suited medium to form the Bi film and perform the analysis. Cd was quantified via calibration by on line standard additions. The limit of detection was found to be 0.79μgL(-1), well below the limit stipulated by the European directive (5μgL(-1)). Good sample throughput (14h(-1)) and low consumption of reagent and sample (1.3mL) were also obtained in line with previous works in Cd flow analysis.

  11. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of acetylsalicylic acid based on its enhancing effect on the lucigenin–hydrogen peroxide system.

    PubMed

    Wabaidur, S M; Alam, S M; Alothmana, Z A; Eldesokya, Gaber

    2014-09-01

    A sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence method for the determination of acetylsalicylic acid is described. It is based on the enhanced chemiluminescent emission of the alkaline lucigenin–H2O2 system by acetylsalicylic acid. The difference in chemiluminescent intensity of alkaline lucigenin–H2O2 in the presence of acetylsalicylic acid from that in the absence of acetylsalicylic acid was linear at acetylsalicylic acid concentrations in the range of 0.0029–47.37 μg/mL, with detection and quantification limits of 0.0011 and 0.0029 μg/mL, respectively. The correlation coefficient of the working curve was 0.9983. The relative standard deviation (n = 10) for 25 μg/mL acetylsalicylic acid is 1.95%. All experimental parameters were optimized. The method was successfully applied to the determination of acetylsalicylic acid in pharmaceutical preparations. The recovery results obtained by the method were satisfactory.

  12. Differentiating organic and conventional sage by chromatographic and mass spectrometry flow injection fingerprints combined with principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Boyan; Lu, Yingjian; Sheng, Yi; Chen, Pei; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2013-03-27

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and flow injection electrospray ionization with ion trap mass spectrometry (FIMS) fingerprints combined with principal component analysis (PCA) were examined for their potential in differentiating commercial organic and conventional sage samples. The individual components in the sage samples were also characterized with an ultraperformance liquid chromatograph with a quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UPLC Q-TOF MS). The results suggested that both HPLC and FIMS fingerprints combined with PCA could differentiate organic and conventional sage samples effectively. FIMS may serve as a quick test capable of distinguishing organic and conventional sages in 1 min and could potentially be developed for high-throughput applications, whereas HPLC fingerprints could provide more chemical composition information with a longer analytical time.

  13. Rapid flow injection method for the determination of sulfite in wine using the permanganate-luminol luminescence system.

    PubMed

    Navarrro, Mercedes Villar; Payán, María Ramos; López, Miguel Angel Bello; Fernández-Torres, Rut; Mochón, Manuel Callejón

    2010-10-15

    A simple, rapid and sensitive chemiluminescence method for the determination of sulfite has been developed by combining flow-injection analysis and its sensitizing effect on the known chemiluminescence emission produced by the oxidation of luminol in alkaline medium; in this work permanganate has been proposed as oxidizing reactive. The optimum conditions for the chemiluminescence emission were established. The chemiluminescence was proportional to the sulfite concentration over the range 1.6 × 10(-5) and 4.0 × 10(-4)mol L(-1). The detection limit was 4.7 × 10(-6)mol L(-1) of sulfite. The method has been satisfactorily used for the determination of free and bound sulfite in wines.

  14. A computer-assisted metal analyser using flow injection coupled with direct current plasma–optical emission spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, M. C.; Simons, R. A.; Svehla, G.; Stockwell, P. B.

    1990-01-01

    An automated routine method was developed for the determination of trace metals using a flow injection system into a direct current plasma spectrometer. The characteristic emission in the ‘Spectra- Metrics’ three-electrode jet is channelled through an echelle grating to the detector of the instrument. The emission signal is continuously recorded, and, after digitalization, calculated and recorded by a Touchstone software package and interface card. The software has facilities for recording peaks, generating calibration curves, calculating and printing results, enhancing line sensitivities, monitoring signal response and for filter noise, recalibration, background correction, status monitoring and general diagnostics. Up to 70 elements can be determined both in aqueous and non-aqueous media. PMID:18925272

  15. Determination of zinc in edible oils by flow injection FAAS after extraction induced by emulsion breaking procedure.

    PubMed

    Bakircioglu, Dilek; Topraksever, Nukte; Kurtulus, Yasemin Bakircioglu

    2014-05-15

    A new procedure using extraction induced by emulsion breaking (EIEB) procedure has been developed for extraction/preconcentration of zinc in various edible oils (canola oil, corn oil, hazelnut oil, olive oil, and sunflower oil) prior to its determination by the single line flow injection (FI) flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the procedure were investigated including the type and concentrations of surfactant, the concentration of HNO3, and the other operational conditions (emulsion breaking time and temperature). The limits of detection of 1.1 and 1.0 μg L(-1) were observed for zinc when aqueous standard and oil-based standards were added to the emulsions for calibration, respectively. The proposed procedure of combining EIEB and single line FI-FAAS can be regarded as a new procedure for the determination of zinc in edible oil samples.

  16. Extractable sulphate-sulphur, total sulphur and trace-element determinations in plant material by flow injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Heanes, D.L. )

    1990-01-01

    A rapid, accurate and reproducible procedure for determining total sulphur(S) and trace elements (copper, zinc, manganese and iron) in plant material is described. Plant material is digested in culture tubes with a mixture of nitric and perchloric acids containing ammonium metavanadate and calcium chloride. In the acid digest, concentrations of total-S as sulphate are determined by turbidimetry and trace-elements by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry using flow injection analysis. The results for a range of plant materials compare well with those obtained by conventional procedures for the same elements. The microprocessor controlled digestion and multielement assay procedure described here offers improved laboratory efficiencies in materials, time and cost effectiveness. The techniques should be particularly useful when plant tissues are in limited supply.

  17. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of olanzapine using N-chlorosuccinimide-calcein reaction sensitized by zinc (II).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fang; Fan, Qi; Cai, Huan

    2014-05-01

    A novel, rapid and sensitive chemiluminescence (CL) method combined with flow-injection (FI) has been established for the estimation of olanzapine. This method is based on the CL signal generated between N-chlorosuccinimide and olanzapine in an alkaline medium in the presence of calcein and Zn(II). Under optimum conditions, the CL signal was proportional to the olanzapine concentration ranging from 1.0 × 10(-10) to 3.0 × 10(-7) g/mL. The detection limit is 8.9 × 10(-11) g/mL olanzapine (3σ) and the relative standard deviation for 3.0 × 10(-9) g/mL of olanzapine is 1.9% (n = 11). The current CL method was applied to determine olanzapine in pharmaceutical formulations and biological fluids with satisfactory results. The possible CL reaction mechanism is discussed briefly.

  18. Determination of arsenic in gold by flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with matrix removal by reductive precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becotte-Haigh, Paul; Tyson, Julian F.; Denoyer, Eric; Hinds, Michael W.

    1996-12-01

    Arsenic was determined in gold by flow injection hydride generation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following a batch mode reductive precipitation removal of the interfering gold matrix. A solution of potassium iodide, L-ascorbic acid, and hydrochloric acid was used as the reluctant. The recovery of gold by precipitation and filtration was 99 ± 3%. The detection limit for arsenic in gold was 55 ng g -1 in the solid. The concentration of arsenic that was determined in the Royal Canadian Mint gold sample FAU-10 was 29.7 μg g -1 in the solid; this value was indistinguishable, with 95% confidence, from values determined at the Royal Canadian Mint by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The standard deviation for four replicate determinations of the arsenic in FAU-10 was 0.972 μg g -1 in the solid.

  19. On the MHD squeeze flow between two parallel disks with suction or injection via HAM and HPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganji, D. D.; Abbasi, M.; Rahimi, J.; Gholami, M.; Rahimipetroudi, I.

    2014-09-01

    An analysis has been performed to study the problem of magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) squeeze flow of an electrically conducting fluid between two infinite, parallel disks. The analytical methods called Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM) and Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) have been used to solve nonlinear differential equations. It has been attempted to show the capabilities and wide-range applications of the proposed methods in comparison with a type of numerical analysis as Boundary Value Problem (BVP) in solving this problem. Also, the velocity fields have been computed and shown graphically for various values of physical parameters. The objective of the present work is to investigate the effect of squeeze Reynolds number, Hartmann number and the suction/injection parameter on the velocity field. Furthermore, the results reveal that HAM and HPM are very effective and convenient.

  20. TiO2 nanotube sensor for online chemical oxygen demand determination in conjunction with flow injection technique.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuejin; Yin, Weiping; Li, Jianyong; Bai, Jing; Huang, Ke; Li, Jinhua; Zhou, Baoxue

    2014-06-01

    A simple, rapid and environmental friendly online chemical oxygen demand (COD) analytical method based on TiO2 nanotube sensor in conjunction with the flow injection technique was proposed to determine the COD of aqueous samples, especially for refractory organics, low-concentration wastewater, and surface water. The new method can overcome the drawbacks of the conventional COD determination methods. The results show that with the new method, each analysis takes only about 1 to 3 min, the linear range is up to 1 to 500 mg x L(-1) of the compound of interest, and the detection limit is 1 mg x L(-1). The COD values obtained by the proposed method are more accurate than those obtained by the conventional method.

  1. Measuring the concentrations of drinking water disinfection by-products using capillary membrane sampling-flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Geme, Gija; Brown, Michael A; Simone, Paul; Emmert, Gary L

    2005-10-01

    A capillary membrane sampling-flow injection analysis method is presented for selectively measuring the concentrations of total trihalomethanes (THMs) and total haloacetic acids (HAAs) in drinking water. The method is based on the reaction between nicotinamide and THM or HAA species to yield a fluorescent product. Two configurations are presented, one selective for total THMs and another selective for total HAAs. The construction of a capillary membrane sampler is described, and the results of method detection limit, accuracy and precision studies are reported for each method. Interference, selectivity and linearity studies are reported as well as the effect of temperature and ionic strength changes. Drinking water samples were analyzed by each proposed method and the results were compared to USEPA methods 502.2 and 552.3.

  2. Prediction of electron concentration reductions in re-entry flow fields due to electrophilic liquid and water injection.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pergament, H. S.; Mikatarian, R. R.; Kurzius, S. C.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of an analytical model which leads to predictions of reductions in electron concentrations in reentry flow fields due to the injection of electrophilic liquids and water. The processes incorporated into the model are: penetration and breakup of the liquid jet, droplet acceleration and vaporization, expansion of the liquid spray due to droplet vaporization, electrophilic vapor diffusion, heterogeneous and homogeneous charged species recombination kinetics and homogeneous electron attachment kinetics. Spray boundary calculations are shown to be in good agreement with photographic observations of water and Freon E-3 sprays in wind tunnel tests of a scale model RAM C-III flight vehicle. Fixed-bias electrostatic probe data taken during the RAM C-III flight are interpreted in terms of effective jet penetration distances - which are shown to be consistent with calculations using the present model.

  3. Trace and ultratrace analysis of purified water samples and hydrogen peroxide solutions for phosphorus by flow-injection method.

    PubMed

    Li, Zenhai; Oshima, Mitsuko; Sabarudin, Akhmad; Motomizu, Shoji

    2005-03-01

    A highly sensitive fluorescence-quenching method for the determination of phosphorus based on the formation of an ion associate between molybdophosphate and Rhodamine B (RB) was developed. A simple flow-injection system coupled with a fluorescence detector was used to measure the fluorescence intensity at 560 nm and 580 nm as an excitation and an emission wavelength, respectively. The calibration graph for phosphorus showed a good linearity in the range of (0 - 1) x 10(-7) M (1 M = 1 mol L(-1)), and a detection limit of 1 x 10(-9) M (S/N = 3). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of ultratrace amounts of phosphorus in ultrapurified and purified water samples, and to the determination of trace amounts of phosphorus in commercially-available hydrogen peroxide solutions with satisfactory results.

  4. Evaluation of flow injection analysis method with spectrophotometric detection for the determination of atrazine in soil extracts.

    PubMed

    Martins, Elisandra C; Melo, Vander De F; Abate, Gilberto

    2016-09-01

    A method for determining atrazine in soil extracts was evaluated by flow injection analysis with spectrophotometric detection. The method is based on the reaction of atrazine with pyridine in an acid medium followed by the reaction with NaOH and sulfanilic acid. Several analytical conditions were previously studied and optimized. Under the best conditions of analysis, the limits of detection and quantification were 0.15 and 0.45 mg L(-1), respectively, for a linear response between 0.50 and 2.50 mg L(-1), and a sampling throughput of 21 determinations per hour. Using the standard addition method, the maximum relative standard deviation of 17% and recovery values between 80 and 100% were observed for three extracts from soil samples with different composition. The proposed method is simple, low-cost and easy to use, and can be employed for studies involving atrazine in soil samples or for screening of atrazine in soils.

  5. Determination of Trace Amounts of Chromium(III) in Water Samples Using Online Flow Injection Catalytic Spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z. X.; Zhang, X. S.

    2017-01-01

    A new online flow injection spectrophotometric method for the determination of trivalent chromium was developed. This method is based on the property of trivalent chromium to be a catalyst for the oxidation of Indigo Carmine (IC) with potassium periodate and to lose its color in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and sodium tripolyphosphate. It was shown that Tween-20 serves as an additional accelerator of the catalytic oxidation. The linear dynamic range of the determination of Cr(III) was 1-40.0 μg/L, while the limit of detection was 0.05 μg/L. The correlation coefficient r was 0.998, while the relative standard deviation for 5 μg/L of the Cr(III) solution was 3.83%. The feasibility of this method was checked by its application to trivalent chromium determination in real water samples.

  6. Determination of hydrogen peroxide concentrations by flow injection analysis based on the enhanced chemiluminescent reaction using peroxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Eremin, S.A.; Vlasenko, S.B.; Osipov, A.P.; Eremina, I.D.; Egerov, A.M. )

    1989-01-01

    The technique of flow injection analysis was employed in the determination of hydrogen peroxide. The method was based on the chemiluminescence reaction of luminol with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} which is catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase and enhanced by p-iodophenol. Hydrogen peroxide was linearly detected in the range 10{sup {minus}6}M-10{sup {minus}4}M by measuring the maximum intensity of light emitted. The detection limit is about 1 10{sup {minus}6}M hydrogen peroxide. Transition metal cations at millimolar concentrations do not have any interference on the determination of hydrogen peroxide by FIA based on the enhanced chemiluminescent reaction. This technique is relatively rapid and simple, and permits measurement of up to 80 samples/hr using generally available equipment.

  7. Extraction and analysis of lead in sweeteners by flow-injection Donnan dialysis with flame atomic absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Antonia, A; Allen, L B

    2001-10-01

    Flow-injection Donnan dialysis is demonstrated for the extraction of lead in sweeteners using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS). For spiked concentrations in the low microgram per gram range, recoveries were greater than 90%, and the relative standard deviation was typically less than 10% for a 15-min dialysis procedure. The method detection limit is 350 ng/g. Donnan dialysis is shown to be successful for the extraction of lead in sucrose, corn syrup, and honey but limited in performance for molasses and artificial syrup. This paper also includes a comparison to other procedures for the determination of lead in sweeteners and presents options for realizing improved method performance with Donnan dialysis.

  8. Spectrophotometric determination of rare earth elements by flow injection analysis based on their reaction with xylenol orange and cetylpyridinium bromide.

    PubMed

    Havel, J; Moreno, C; Hrdlicka, A; Valiente, M

    1994-08-01

    Individual rare earth elements (REE) and their mixtures were determined by a FIA method based on the reaction with Xylenol Orange (XO) in the presence of cetylpyridinium bromide (CPB). Volumes of 30 microl of 2.5-25 microM REE solutions were injected into a carrier stream of 0.1M acetate buffer of pH 4.5 or 5.5 that was 0.06 mM in XO and 0.6 mM in CPB. At 1.8 ml/min flow rate, a sampling frequency of up to 100 samples per hour was achieved. The detection limits were in the range of 0.1-0.4 microg/ml REE and relative standard deviation of the measurement was 0.88% rel.

  9. Flow injection with in-line reduction column and conductometric detection for determination of total inorganic nitrogen in soil.

    PubMed

    Yanu, Pattama; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2015-11-01

    A cost effective flow injection (FI) conductometric system has been developed for determination of total inorganic nitrogen (TIN). The system is aimed for evaluation of nitrogen nutrient in soil for agricultural application. Inorganic nitrogen compounds were extracted from soil according to the standard method by using potassium chloride solution as an extractant, and the extracted solution was then injected into the FI system. Nitrate and nitrite are converted to ammonium ion by an in-line reduction column packed with a Devarda's alloy. A gas diffusion unit was incorporated into the FI system to separate ammonium ion from other ions in a donor stream by forming ammonia gas that can diffuse through a PTFE membrane to re-dissolve in an acceptor stream. Conductance of the acceptor stream was directly proportional to ammonium ion concentration. Various parameters affecting reduction efficiency of the column, e.g., column diameter, column packing procedure, and column length was investigated and optimized. A linear calibration graph in the range of 2.00-60.00 mg L(-1) N-NH4(+) (y=0.123x+0.039, R(2) =0.997) was obtained with a limit of detection of 0.47 mg L(-1). Sample throughput of 20 samples h(-1) was achieved. The result of developed method was correlated with total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) obtained from the Kjeldahl digestion method. The proposed method could be used as an alternative method to the Kjeldahl method for determination of TIN in soil.

  10. Evaluation of flow injection analysis for determination of cholinesterase activities in biological material.

    PubMed

    Cabal, Jiri; Bajgar, Jiri; Kassa, Jiri

    2010-09-06

    The method for automatic continual monitoring of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in biological material is described. It is based on flexible system of plastic pipes mixing samples of biological material with reagents for enzyme determination; reaction product penetrates through the semipermeable membrane and it is spectrophotometrically determined (Ellman's method). It consists of sampling (either in vitro or in vivo), adding the substrate and flowing to dialyzer; reaction product (thiocholine) is dialyzed and mixed with 5,5'-dithio-bis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) transported to flow spectrophotometer. Flowing of all materials is realised using peristaltic pump. The method was validated: time for optimal hydratation of the cellophane membrane; type of the membrane; type of dialyzer; conditions for optimal permeation of reaction components; optimization of substrate and DTNB concentrations (linear dependence); efficacy of peristaltic pump; calibration of analytes after permeation through the membrane; excluding of the blood permeation through the membrane. Some examples of the evaluation of the effects of AChE inhibitors are described. It was demonstrated very good uniformity of peaks representing the enzyme activity (good reproducibility); time dependence of AChE inhibition caused by VX in vitro in the rat blood allowing to determine the half life of inhibition and thus, bimolecular rate constants of inhibition; reactivation of inhibited AChE by some reactivators, and continual monitoring of the activity in the whole blood in vivo in intact and VX-intoxicated rats. The method is simple and not expensive, allowing automatic determination of AChE activity in discrete or continual samples in vitro or in vivo. It will be evaluated for further research of cholinesterase inhibitors.

  11. Hyphenating multisyringe flow injection lab-on-valve analysis with atomic fluorescence spectrometry for on-line bead injection preconcentration and determination of trace levels of hydride-forming elements in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Long, Xiangbao; Miró, Manuel; Hansen, Elo Harald; Estela, José Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor

    2006-12-15

    In this work the third generation of flow injection analysis, that is, the so-called micro-lab-on-valve (microLOV) approach, is proposed for the first time for the separation, preconcentration, and monitoring of metalloids as hyphenated with atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). This was made feasible by interfacing the micromachined LOV-module with AFS by a multisyringe flowing stream network for on-line postcolumn derivatization of the eluate aimed at generation of hydride species. The potential of this new hyphenated technique for environmental assays was ascertained via determination of ultratrace level concentrations of total inorganic arsenic in freshwater. Employing quantitative preoxidation of As(III) to As(V) in the samples by means of permanganate, the method involves preconcentration of arsenate at pH 10 on a renewable anion exchanger, namely, Q-Sepharose, packed in a LOV microcolumn. The analyte species is afterward stripped out and concurrently prereduced by a 300 microL eluent plug containing 6 mol L(-)1 HCl and 10% KI. The eluate is downstream merged with a metered volume of sodium tetrahydroborate (0.3% w/v) for generation of arsine, which is subsequently quantified by AFS. The flow system facilitates on-column reduction of the retained arsenic with no need for application of programmable stopped flow. Yet, the high concentration of reductant and extreme pH conditions for elution hinder the sorbent to be reused due to gradual deactivation of the functional moieties, so that maximum benefit can be taken from the application of the bead renewable strategy. The proposed procedure is characterized by a high tolerance to metal species and interfering hydride-forming elements. In fact, ratios of Se(IV) to As < or = 5000 and Sb(V) to As < or = 500 are tolerated at the 10% interference level. Under the optimized experimental conditions, a detection limit (3sigma) of 0.02 ng mL(-1) As, a dynamic linear range of 0.05-2.0 ng mL(-1) As (by tailoring the AFS

  12. An automated method of on-line extraction coupled with flow injection and capillary electrophoresis for phytochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongli; Ding, Xiuping; Wang, Min; Chen, Xingguo

    2010-11-01

    In this study, an automated system for phytochemical analysis was successfully fabricated for the first time in our laboratory. The system included on-line decocting, filtering, cooling, sample introducing, separation, and detection, which greatly simplified the sample preparation and shortened the analysis time. Samples from the decoction extract were drawn every 5 min through an on-line filter and a condenser pipe to the sample loop from which 20-μL samples were injected into the running buffer and transported into a split-flow interface coupling the flow injection and capillary electrophoresis systems. The separation of glycyrrhetinic acid (GTA) and glycyrrhizic acid (GA) took less than 5 min by using a 10 mM borate buffer (adjusted pH to 8.8) and +10 kV voltage. Calibration curves showed good linearity with correlation coefficients (R) more than 0.9991. The intra-day repeatabilities (n = 5, expressed as relative standard deviation) of the proposed system, obtained using GTA and GA standards, were 1.1% and 0.8% for migration time and 0.7% and 0.9% for peak area, respectively. The mean recoveries of GTA and GA in the off-line extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch root were better than 99.0%. The limits of detection (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) of the proposed method were 6.2 μg/mL and 6.9 μg/mL for GTA and GA, respectively. The dynamic changes of GTA and GA on the decoction time were obtained during the on-line decoction process of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch root.

  13. Sequential injection kinetic flow assay for monitoring glycerol in a sugar fermentation process by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Karina B Hueso; Tóth, Ildikó V; Souto, M Renata S; Mendes, Filipa; De María, Cándido García; Vasconcelos, Isabel; Rangel, António O S S

    2010-03-01

    A sequential injection system to monitor glycerol in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation process was developed. The method relies on the rate of formation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide in its reduced form (NADH, measured spectrophotometrically at 340 nm) from the reaction of glycerol with NAD(+) cofactor, catalysed by the enzyme glycerol dehydrogenase present in solution. This procedure enables the determination of glycerol between 0.046 and 0.46 g/l, (corresponding to yeast fermentation samples with concentrations up to 50 g/l) with good repeatability (relative standard deviation for n = 10 lower than 2.2% for three different samples) at a sampling frequency of 25/h. The detection and quantification limits using a miniaturised spectrophotometer were 0.13 and 0.44 mM, respectively. Reagent consumption was of 0.45 mumol NAD(+) and 1.8 microg enzyme per assay, and the waste production was 2.8 ml per determination. Results obtained for samples were in agreement with those obtained with a high-performance liquid chromatography method.

  14. Surface-enhanced Raman detection of RNA and DNA bases following flow-injection analysis or HPLC separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, Therese M.; Sheng, Rong-Sheng; Ni, Fan

    1990-11-01

    The goal of this study is to develop Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection methods for flow injection analysis (FIA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Nucleic acid bases have been chosen for analysis because of their importance in life processes. The advantages to the use of SERS-based detection include its sensitivity, specificity and versatility. With the development of improved methodology, the detection limits should be comparable to UV spectroscopy. However, the specificity is considerably superior to that obtained with electronic spectroscopy in that the Raman spectrum provides a molecular fingerprint of the individual analytes. Raman spectroscopy is very versatile: aqueous samples, gases and solids can be analyzed with equal facility. The results presented here demonstrate that SERS can be used as a detection method for both FIA and HPLC detection. In the following experiments Ag sols have been used as the active substrate. The effect of various parameters such as temperature, pH, flow rate, and the nature of the interface between the HPLC system and the Raman spectrometer have been examined. One of the most significant findings is that the temperature of the Ag sol/HPLC effluent mixture has a dramatic effect on the SERS intensities. This effect is a result of increased colloid aggregation at higher temperatures. Aggregation is known to produce greater enhancement in SERS and proceeds much more rapidly at elevated temperatures. An increase in the temperature of the Ag sol enables SERS detection under flowing conditions and in real time. This is a substantial improvement over many of the previous attempts to interface SERS detection to FIA or HPLC. In most of the previous studies, it was necessary to stop the flow as the analyte eluted from the chromatogram and measure the SERS spectra under static conditions.

  15. Electrochemical flow injection analysis of hydrazine in an excess of an active pharmaceutical ingredient: achieving pharmaceutical detection limits electrochemically.

    PubMed

    Channon, Robert B; Joseph, Maxim B; Bitziou, Eleni; Bristow, Anthony W T; Ray, Andrew D; Macpherson, Julie V

    2015-10-06

    The quantification of genotoxic impurities (GIs) such as hydrazine (HZ) is of critical importance in the pharmaceutical industry in order to uphold drug safety. HZ is a particularly intractable GI and its detection represents a significant technical challenge. Here, we present, for the first time, the use of electrochemical analysis to achieve the required detection limits by the pharmaceutical industry for the detection of HZ in the presence of a large excess of a common active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), acetaminophen (ACM) which itself is redox active, typical of many APIs. A flow injection analysis approach with electrochemical detection (FIA-EC) is utilized, in conjunction with a coplanar boron doped diamond (BDD) microband electrode, insulated in an insulating diamond platform for durability and integrated into a two piece flow cell. In order to separate the electrochemical signature for HZ such that it is not obscured by that of the ACM (present in excess), the BDD electrode is functionalized with Pt nanoparticles (NPs) to significantly shift the half wave potential for HZ oxidation to less positive potentials. Microstereolithography was used to fabricate flow cells with defined hydrodynamics which minimize dispersion of the analyte and optimize detection sensitivity. Importantly, the Pt NPs were shown to be stable under flow, and a limit of detection of 64.5 nM or 0.274 ppm for HZ with respect to the ACM, present in excess, was achieved. This represents the first electrochemical approach which surpasses the required detection limits set by the pharmaceutical industry for HZ detection in the presence of an API and paves the wave for online analysis and application to other GI and API systems.

  16. Velocity field of a round jet in a cross flow for various jet injection angles and velocity ratios. [Langley V/STOL tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fearn, R. L.; Weston, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    A subsonic round jet injected from a flat plate into a subsonic crosswind of the same temperature was investigated. Velocity and pressure measurements in planes perpendicular to the path of the jet were made for nominal jet injection angles of 45 deg, 60 deg, 75 deg, 90 deg, and 105 deg and for jet/cross flow velocity ratios of four and eight. The velocity measurements were obtained to infer the properties of the vortex pair associated with a jet in a cross flow. Jet centerline and vortex trajectories were determined and fit with an empirical equation that includes the effects of jet injection angle, jet core length, and jet/cross flow velocity ratios.

  17. Large-scale synthesis of the controlled-geometry carbon coils by the manipulation of the SF6 gas flow injection time.

    PubMed

    Eum, Jun-Ho; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Yi, Soung Soo; Jang, Kiwan

    2012-05-01

    Carbon coils could be synthesized using C2H2/H2 as source gases and SF6 as an incorporated additive gas under thermal chemical vapor deposition system. Nickel catalyst layer deposition and then hydrogen plasma pretreatment were performed prior to the carbon coils deposition reaction. According to the different reaction processes, the injection time of SF6 gas flow was varied. The characteristics (formation density, morphology, and geometry) of the deposited carbon coils on the substrates were investigated according to the different reaction processes. Finally, the large-scale synthesis of carbon coils and their geometry control could be achieved merely by manipulating SF6 gas flow injection time. Three cases growth aspects were proposed according to SF6 gas flow injection time in association with the fluorine's characteristics for etching the materials or enhancing the nucleation sites.

  18. Pretreatment of oily samples for analysis by flow injection-spectrometric methods.

    PubMed

    Burguera, José Luis; Burguera, Marcela

    2011-01-15

    This review presents a critical discussion of selected reports dealing with the pretreatment methods of oily samples and the determination of their organic and inorganic constituents using flow systems and spectrometric methods. Special emphasis is given to the on-line couplings with detection systems based on UV-visible spectrophotometry and spectrofluorimetry, atomic absorption spectrometry either with flame or electrothermal atomization as well as inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Simple dilution with organic solvents, digestion with concentrated acids under thermal heating, microwave or ultrasound radiation and emulsification procedures are mostly used. The empirical preparation of certain organized assemblies like micelles, emulsions and specially microemulsions added to the confusion of some of the terms, demand a brief description of their characteristics, the correct formulation and some of their applications to the manipulation and treatment of oily samples. The analytical capabilities of combining flow manifolds with spectrometric methods for the determination of specific parameters in oily samples apparently have not been sufficiently exploited yet.

  19. Numerical Analysis of Flow Evolution in a Helium Jet Injected into Ambient Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satti, Rajani P.; Agrawal, Ajay K.

    2005-01-01

    A computational model to study the stability characteristics of an evolving buoyant helium gas jet in ambient air environment is presented. Numerical formulation incorporates a segregated approach to solve for the transport equations of helium mass fraction coupled with the conservation equations of mixture mass and momentum using a staggered grid method. The operating parameters correspond to the Reynolds number varying from 30 to 300 to demarcate the flow dynamics in oscillating and non-oscillating regimes. Computed velocity and concentration fields were used to analyze the flow structure in the evolving jet. For Re=300 case, results showed that an instability mode that sets in during the evolution process in Earth gravity is absent in zero gravity, signifying the importance of buoyancy. Though buoyancy initiates the instability, below a certain jet exit velocity, diffusion dominates the entrainment process to make the jet non-oscillatory as observed for the Re=30 case. Initiation of the instability was found to be dependent on the interaction of buoyancy and momentum forces along the jet shear layer.

  20. Flow injection analysis with bioluminescence-based fiber-optic biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Loic J.; Gautier, Sabine; Coulet, Pierre R.

    1991-09-01

    Fiber optic biosensors based on the firefly and the bacterial bioluminescence reactions have been constructed and incorporated in a specially designed flow-cell for the sensitive determination of ATP and NADH, respectively. The bioluminescence enzymes were immobilized on preactivated polyamide membranes which were placed in close contact with the surface on one end of a glass-fiber bundle, the other end being connected to the photomultiplier tube of a luminometer. When using the continuous-flow device with the firefly luciferase or the bacterial system immobilized separately on different membranes, the detection limit for ATP and NADH were 0.25 and 2 pmol, respectively. The versatility of the fiber optic probe has been improved by co-immobilizing the bacterial bioluminescent system and the firefly luciferase on the same support enabling the use of a single sensor for the selective, specific, and alternate determination of these two analytes. Compatible reaction conditions preserving the activity of each co-immobilized enzyme without impairing its stability were found. The selection of the appropriate reaction medium was done using a four port valve. Alternate quantification of ATP and NADH could then be performed in the linear ranges 0.25 pmol - 3 nmol and 5 pmol - 1 nmol, respectively with a RSD of 4.0 - 4.5%.

  1. A novel flow-injection method for the determination of Pt(IV) in environmental samples based on chemiluminescence reaction of lucigenin and biosorption.

    PubMed

    Malejko, Julita; Godlewska-Zyłkiewicz, Beata; Kojło, Anatol

    2010-06-15

    A new flow-injection chemiluminescence method (FI-CL) was developed for the determination of trace amounts of Pt(IV). The method is based on the quenching effect of the analyte on CL emission generated by lucigenin in alkaline solution. Application of a column filled with an algae Chlorella vulgaris immobilized on Cellex-T resin allowed to preconcentrate and separate the Pt(IV) ions from complex environmental samples, such as road dust. The developed method is simple and does not require sophisticated instrumentation. It is also characterized by a very low limit of detection (0.1ngmL(-1)), good sensitivity and precision (RSD<3%). The accuracy of the presented method was confirmed by analysis of a certified reference material of tunnel dust (BCR-723). The content of Pt in road dust samples collected in Białystok (Poland) in 2009 determined by the evaluated method was 351.8+/-54.6ngg(-1) and was higher than in samples collected in years 2000 and 2003.

  2. Masking Agents Evaluation for Lead Determination by Flow Injection-Hydride Generation-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry Technique: Effect of KI, L-Cysteine, and 1,10-Phenanthroline

    PubMed Central

    Beltrán, Blanca G.; Ferrer, Laura; Cerdà, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    Hydride generation (HG) of lead technique presents interferences from foreign ions of complex matrix samples. In order to minimize these interferences, the effect of masking agents such as KI, L-cysteine, and 1,10-phenanthroline was studied in the absence and in the presence of selected interfering species (As, Cr, Cu, and Fe). Different modes of addition of masking agents were accomplished, that is, to either sample or KBH4 reducing solution. The lead determinations were performed using a flow injection analysis (FIA) system coupled to HG and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). The linearity of calibration curves (1–10 μg Pb L−1) was not affected by the addition of the masking agents. The use of KI in the reducing solution diminished interferences from concentrations of As and Cu, while 1,10-phenanthroline showed a positive effect on the interference by As. Moreover, Cr and Cu appeared to be the most serious interfering ions for plumbane (PbH4), because they drastically reduced the analytical signal of lead. Fe did not present any interference under the employed experimental conditions, even at high levels. The accuracy was established through the analysis of certified reference material (i.e., BCR-610, groundwater) using KI as masking agent. The detection limit reached by FIA-HG-AFS proposed methodology was 0.03 μg Pb L−1. PMID:27148365

  3. Trace Lead Measurement and Online Removal of Matrix Interference in Geosamples by Ion-Exchange Coupled with Flow Injection and Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Chun-Hua; Huang, Xu-Guang

    2009-01-01

    A flow injection method has been developed for the direct determination of free available Pb(II). The method is based on the chemical sorption of Pb(II), from pH7 solutions, on a column packed of chelating resin. The retained complex was afterwards eluted with hydrochloric acid followed by hydride generation with reduction by tetrahydroborate. The preconcentration system proposed in this paper allows the elimination of great part of the saline content in the sample. A thorough scrutiny was made for chemical variables and FI parameters. With a sampling volume of 10.5 mL, quantitative retention of Pb (II) was obtained, along with an enrichment factor of 40 and a sampling frequency of 15 h−1. The detection limit, defined as 3 times the blank standard deviation (3σ), was 0.0031 ngml−1. The precision was characterized by an RSD value of 3.78% (at the 4 ng·ml−1 level, n = 11). The developed method has been applied to the determination of trace Pb in three standard reference materials. Accuracy was assessed through comparing the results with the accepted values. PMID:19746179

  4. Iodine speciation in coastal and inland bathing waters and seaweeds extracts using a sequential injection standard addition flow-batch method.

    PubMed

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-02-01

    The present work describes the development of a sequential injection standard addition method for iodine speciation in bathing waters and seaweeds extracts without prior sample treatment. Iodine speciation was obtained by assessing the iodide and iodate content, the two inorganic forms of iodine in waters. For the determination of iodide, an iodide ion selective electrode (ISE) was used. The indirect determination of iodate was based on the spectrophotometric determination of nitrite (Griess reaction). For the iodate measurement, a mixing chamber was employed (flow batch approach) to explore the inherent efficient mixing, essential for the indirect determination of iodate. The application of the standard addition method enabled detection limits of 0.14 µM for iodide and 0.02 µM for iodate, together with the direct introduction of the target water samples, coastal and inland bathing waters. The results obtained were in agreement with those obtained by ICP-MS and a colorimetric reference procedure. Recovery tests also confirmed the accuracy of the developed method which was effectively applied to bathing waters and seaweed extracts.

  5. Ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of tetracycline drugs from egg supplements before flow injection analysis coupled to a liquid waveguide capillary cell.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Michael Pérez; Pezza, Helena Redigolo; Pezza, Leonardo

    2016-09-01

    A simple, rapid, and efficient ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (US-DLLME) method was developed for extraction of tetracycline residues from egg supplement samples, with subsequent determination by flow injection analysis (FIA) coupled to a liquid waveguide capillary cell (LWCC) and a controlled temperature heating bath. Tetracyclines react with diazotized p-sulfanilic acid, in a slightly alkaline medium, to form azo compounds that can be measured at 435 nm. The reaction sensitivity improved substantially (5.12-fold) using an in-line heating temperature of 45 °C. Multivariate methodology was used to optimize the factors affecting the extraction efficiency, considering the volumes of extraction and disperser solvents, sonication time, extraction time, and centrifugation time. Good linearity in the range 30-600 μg L(-1) was obtained for all the tetracyclines, with regression coefficients (r) higher than 0.9974. The limits of detection ranged from 6.4 to 11.1 μg L(-1), and the recoveries were in the range 85.7-96.4 %, with relative standard deviation lower than 9.8 %. Analyte recovery was improved by approximately 6 % when the microextraction was assisted by ultrasound. The results obtained with the proposed US-DLLME-FIA method were confirmed by a reference HPLC method and showed that the egg supplement samples analyzed were suitable for human consumption.

  6. Determination of rare earth elements in geological samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry with flow injection liquid-liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhifang; Liu, Congqiang; Zhang, Hongxiang; Ma, Yingjun; Lin, Soulin

    2003-12-01

    A direct sampling with organic solvent extracts for simultaneous multi-element determination implemented with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) associated with a flow injection liquid-liquid extraction (FI-LLE) sample preconcentration method was studied. The "robustness" of the plasma discharge with tributyl phosphate (TBP) loading was diagnosed by using the Mg II 279.55 nm and Mg I 285.21 nm lines intensity ratio. A FI-LLE preconcentration system for rare earth elements (REEs)-nitrate-TBP was established by using a laboratory-designed phase separator. For these elements, an average sensitivity enhancement factor of 64 was obtained with respect to ICP-AES sampling with aqueous solutions. The precision of the method was characterized by a relative standard deviation (%RSD) of 1.8 - 5.2%. A throughput of 27 samples per hour can be achieved with an organic solvent consumption of less than 200 microl per determination. Good results were obtained for the analysis of standard reference materials.

  7. Masking Agents Evaluation for Lead Determination by Flow Injection-Hydride Generation-Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry Technique: Effect of KI, L-Cysteine, and 1,10-Phenanthroline.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Blanca G; Leal, Luz O; Ferrer, Laura; Cerdà, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    Hydride generation (HG) of lead technique presents interferences from foreign ions of complex matrix samples. In order to minimize these interferences, the effect of masking agents such as KI, L-cysteine, and 1,10-phenanthroline was studied in the absence and in the presence of selected interfering species (As, Cr, Cu, and Fe). Different modes of addition of masking agents were accomplished, that is, to either sample or KBH4 reducing solution. The lead determinations were performed using a flow injection analysis (FIA) system coupled to HG and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). The linearity of calibration curves (1-10 μg Pb L(-1)) was not affected by the addition of the masking agents. The use of KI in the reducing solution diminished interferences from concentrations of As and Cu, while 1,10-phenanthroline showed a positive effect on the interference by As. Moreover, Cr and Cu appeared to be the most serious interfering ions for plumbane (PbH4), because they drastically reduced the analytical signal of lead. Fe did not present any interference under the employed experimental conditions, even at high levels. The accuracy was established through the analysis of certified reference material (i.e., BCR-610, groundwater) using KI as masking agent. The detection limit reached by FIA-HG-AFS proposed methodology was 0.03 μg Pb L(-1).

  8. Evaluation of chelation preconcentration for the determination of actinide elements by flow injection ICP-MS

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, E.H.; Truscott, J.B.; Bromley, L.; Jones, P.; Turner, J.; Fairman, B.E.

    1998-12-31

    A chelation column preconcentration method has been developed for the determination of uranium and thorium in waters by ICP-MS. Detection limits of 24 pg and 60 pg respectively were obtained, but these were blank limited. Uranium and Thorium were determined in certified reference materials. Results for uranium were 121 {+-} 21 and 15 {+-} 3 ng/g in NIST 1566a and NIST 1575 compared with certified values of 132 {+-} 12 and 20 {+-} 4 ng/g respectively. Results for thorium were 29 {+-} 8 and 28 {+-} 5 ng/g in NIST 1566a and NIST 1575 compared with indicative and certified values of 40 and 37 {+-} 3 ng/g respectively. The on-line separation of actinide radionuclides was achieved by selective elution of U, Th, Pu, Np, and Am.

  9. AN EXAMINATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL FLOW OF CRUDE OIL, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE MIDDLE EAST,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    crude oil transportation, its technology, worldwide pattern, and future. It gives special emphasis to the movement of crude oil between the Middle East and Western Europe because of the critical supply-and-demand relationships existing between the two regions; further, it underscores the growth of both the crude oil tanker and crude oil pipelines, and the effect that this growth will have on the future patterns of crude oil flow. And it notes that the interest of the Soviet Union in

  10. Flying over uneven moving terrain based on optic-flow cues without any need for reference frames or accelerometers.

    PubMed

    Expert, Fabien; Ruffier, Franck

    2015-02-26

    Two bio-inspired guidance principles involving no reference frame are presented here and were implemented in a rotorcraft, which was equipped with panoramic optic flow (OF) sensors but (as in flying insects) no accelerometer. To test these two guidance principles, we built a tethered tandem rotorcraft called BeeRotor (80 grams), which was tested flying along a high-roofed tunnel. The aerial robot adjusts its pitch and hence its speed, hugs the ground and lands safely without any need for an inertial reference frame. The rotorcraft's altitude and forward speed are adjusted via two OF regulators piloting the lift and the pitch angle on the basis of the common-mode and differential rotor speeds, respectively. The robot equipped with two wide-field OF sensors was tested in order to assess the performances of the following two systems of guidance involving no inertial reference frame: (i) a system with a fixed eye orientation based on the curved artificial compound eye (CurvACE) sensor, and (ii) an active system of reorientation based on a quasi-panoramic eye which constantly realigns its gaze, keeping it parallel to the nearest surface followed. Safe automatic terrain following and landing were obtained with CurvACE under dim light to daylight conditions and the active eye-reorientation system over rugged, changing terrain, without any need for an inertial reference frame.

  11. Plasma heating, plasma flow and wave production around an electron beam injected into the ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winckler, J. R.; Erickson, K. N.

    1986-01-01

    A brief historical summary of the Minnesota ECHO series and other relevant electron beam experiments is given. The primary purpose of the ECHO experiments is the use of conjugate echoes as probes of the magnetosphere, but beam-plasma and wave studies were also made. The measurement of quasi-dc electric fields and ion streaming during the ECHO 6 experiment has given a pattern for the plasma flow in the hot plasma region extending to 60m radius about the ECHO 6 electron beam. The sheath and potential well caused by ion orbits is discussed with the aid of a model which fits the observations. ELF wave production in the plasma sheath around the beam is briefly discussed. The new ECHO 7 mission to be launched from the Poker Flat range in November 1987 is described.

  12. Detection of Total Phenol in Green and Black Teas by Flow Injection System and Unmodified Screen Printed Electrode

    PubMed Central

    de Mattos, Ivanildo Luiz; Zagal, José Heraclito

    2010-01-01

    A flow injection system using an unmodified gold screen-printed electrode was employed for total phenol determination in black and green teas. In order to avoid passivation of the electrode surface due to the redox reaction, preoxidation of the sample was realized by hexacyanoferrate(III) followed by addition of an EDTA solution. The complex formed in the presence of EDTA minimizes or avoids polymerization of the oxidized phenols. The previously filtered tea sample and hexacyanoferrate(III) reagent were introduced simultaneously into two-carrier streams producing two reproducible zones. At confluence point, the pre-oxidation of the phenolic compounds occurs while this zone flows through the coiled reactor and receives the EDTA solution before phenol detection. The consumption of ferricyanide was monitorized at 360 mV versus Ag/AgCl and reflected the total amount of phenolic compounds present in the sample. Results were reported as gallic acid equivalents (GAEs). The proposed system is robust, versatile, environmentally-friendly (since the reactive is used only in the presence of the sample), and allows the analysis of about 35–40 samples per hour with detection limit = 1 mg/L without the necessity for surface cleaning after each measurement. Precise results are in agreement with those obtained by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. PMID:21461407

  13. Application of Prussian Blue electrodes for amperometric detection of free chlorine in water samples using Flow Injection Analysis.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Pedro; Martín, Miriam; González-Mora, José Luis; González-Elipe, Agustín R

    2016-01-01

    The performance for free chlorine detection of surfactant-modified Prussian Blue screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs/PB-BZT) have been assessed by cyclic voltammetry and constant potential amperometry. The characterization of SPCEs/PB-BZT by X-ray photoemission, Raman and infrared spectroscopies confirmed the correct electrodeposition of the surfactant-modified PB film. These electrodes were incorporated in a Flow Injection device and the optimal working conditions determined as a function of experimental variables such as detection potential, electrolyte concentration or flow-rate. The sensor presented a linear response in the range 0-3 ppm free chlorine, with a sensitivity of 16.2 μA ppm(-1) cm(-2). The limit of detection (LOD) (S/N=3.3) and the limit of quantification (S/N=10) amounted to 8.25 and 24.6 ppb, respectively, adequate for controlling tap and drinking waters. To demonstrate the feasibility of using this free chlorine sensor for real applications possible interferences such as nitrate, nitrite and sulfate ions were successfully tested and discarded. Real free chlorine analysis was carried out in spiked tap water samples and commercial bleaches.

  14. Sensitive determination of gentiopicroside in medicine and bio-fluids using luminol-myoglobin chemiluminescence combined with flow injection technique.

    PubMed

    He, Xili; Xie, Xiaofeng; Shao, Xiaodong; Song, Zhenghua

    2010-01-01

    A novel chemiluminescence method for the determination of gentiopicroside is presented, which was based on the inhibitory effect of gentiopicroside on the chemiluminescence reaction between luminol and myoglobin in a flow-injection system. The decrement of chemiluminescence intensity was linear with the logarithm of gentiopicroside concentration over the range from 10.0 pg mL(-1) to 500.0 ng mL(-1) (r(2) = 0.9992), with a detection limit of 3.0 pg mL(-1) (3σ). At a flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1), a complete analytical process could be performed within 0.5 min, including sampling and washing, with a relative standard deviation of less than 3.0% (n = 5). The proposed procedure was applied successfully in the determination of gentiopicroside in pharmaceutical preparations, human urine and serum without any pretreatment procedure. The possible mechanism of the reaction was also discussed.

  15. Photoamperometric flow injection analysis of glucose based on dehydrogenase modified quantum dots-carbon nanotube nanocomposite electrode.

    PubMed

    Ertek, Bensu; Dilgin, Yusuf

    2016-12-01

    In this work, a core-shell quantum dot (QD, ZnS-CdS) was electrodeposited onto multiwalled carbon nanotube modified glassy carbon electrode (ZnS-CdS/MWCNT/GCE) and following glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) was immobilized onto QD modified electrode. The proposed electrode (GDH/ZnS-CdS/MWCNT/GCE) was effectively used for the photoelectrochemical biosensing of glucose in flow injection analysis (FIA) system using a home-made flow cell. Results from cyclic voltammetric and FI amperometric measurements have revealed that GDH/ZnS-CdS/MWCNT/GCE is capable of signaling photoelectrocatalytic activity toward NADH when the surface of enzyme modified electrode was irradiated with a light source (250W Halogen lamp). Thus, photoelectrochemical biosensing of glucose was monitored by recording current-time curve of enzymatically produced NADH at optimized conditions. The biosensor response was found linear over the range 0.010-2.0mM glucose with detection limits of 6.0 and 4.0μM for amperometric and photoamperometric methods, respectively. The relative standard deviations (n=5) for 0.5mM glucose were 5.8% and 3.8% for photoamperometric and amperometric results, respectively. The photoelectrochemical biosensor was successfully applied to the real samples. The results with this biosensor showed good selectivity, repeatability and sensitivity for monitoring glucose in amperometric and photoamperometric FIA studies.

  16. Electrochemical analysis of chloramphenicol using boron-doped diamond electrode applied to a flow-injection system.

    PubMed

    Chuanuwatanakul, Suchada; Chailapakul, Orawon; Motomizu, Shoji

    2008-04-01

    The electrochemical properties of chloramphenicol at a boron-doped diamond thin-film (BDD) electrode were studied using cyclic voltammetry. The highest current response of chloramphenicol was obtained with phosphate buffer, pH 6 (0.1 M) in 1% ethanol. The relationship between the concentration of chloramphenicol and the current response was linear over the range of 0.1-10 mM (R2=0.9990). The amount of chloramphenicol was analyzed by flow-injection analysis. A thin-layer flow cell equipped with a BDD electrode was used as an amperometric detector, and experiments were carried out at -0.7 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The linear relationship between the current response and the concentration of chloramphenicol in the range of 0.1-50 microM (R2=0.9948) and the limit of detection of 0.03 microM (S/N=3) were obtained. This method has been successfully applied to the determination of chloramphenicol in sterile eye drops and milk sample by the standard addition method. The average recoveries of chloramphenicol in eye drops were 98.0%, and the average recoveries of chloramphenicol from spiked milk were 93.9-103%.

  17. Determination of s-triazines with copper and glassy carbon electrodes. Flow injection analysis of aziprotryne in water samples.

    PubMed

    Zapardiel, A; Bermejo, E; Pérez, J A; Chicharro, M

    2000-07-01

    The detection and determination of s-triazines, atrazine-desethyl and aziprotryne by cyclic voltammetry and an amperometric method using a metallic copper electrode and a glassy carbon electrode are described. The concentrations of atrazine-desethyl and aziprotryne in 0.1 M NaOH solutions were determined using the oxidation signal corresponding to the Cu(0)/Cu(I) redox process. The detection level calculated for these s-triazines were 0.3 and 0.5 microg/mL of analyte, respectively. The glassy carbon electrode was shown to give sensitive reduction response to aziprotryne in flow injection mode. No special activation was required for the glassy carbon electrode. A detection limit of 0.2 microg/mL (20 ng aziprotryne) was obtained for a sample loop of 0.1 mL at a fixed potential of -1.0 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) in 0.1 M HCl and a flow rate of 3.5 mL/min. Furthermore, the glassy carbon electrode showed stable response in such a system, and the relative standard deviation was only 2.7% using the same surface, and 6.3% using different surfaces. The method developed was applied to the determination of aziprotryne in environmental and tap water samples; using a prior solid-phase extraction step, aziprotryne concentrations lower than 1.0 ng/mL could be measured.

  18. Hyphenation of sequential- and flow injection analysis with FTIR-spectroscopy for chemical analysis in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lendl, B.; Schindler, R.; Kellner, R.

    1998-06-01

    A survey of the principles of sequential (SIA)-and flow injection analysis (FIA) systems with FTIR spectroscopic detection is presented to introduce these hyphenations as powerful techniques for performing chemical analysis in aqueous solution. The strength of FIA/SIA-FTIR systems lies in the possibility to perform highly reproducible and automated sample manipulations such as sample clean-up and/or chemical reactions prior to spectrum acquisition. It is shown that the hyphenation of FIA/SIA systems with an FTIR spectrometer enhances the problem solving capabilities of the FTIR spectrometer as also parameters which can not be measured directly (e.g. enzyme activities) can be determined. On the other hand application of FTIR spectroscopic detection in FIA or SIA is also of advantage as it allows to shorten conventional analysis procedures (e.g. sucrose or phosphate analysis) or to establish and apply a multivariate calibration model for simultaneous determinations (e.g. glucose, fructose and sucrose analysis). In addition to these examples two recent instrumental developments in miniaturized FIA/SIA-FTIR systems, a μ-Flow through cell based on IR fiber optics and a micromachined SI-enzyme reactor are presented in this paper.

  19. Flow injection chemiluminescence sensor based on core-shell magnetic molecularly imprinted nanoparticles for determination of sulfadiazine.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fuguang; Li, Huaijiang; Sun, Min; Fan, Lulu; Qiu, Huamin; Li, Xiangjun; Luo, Chuannan

    2012-03-09

    A novel flow injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) sensor for determination of sulfadiazine (SDZ) using core-shell magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) as recognition element is developed. Briefly, a hydrophilic MMIPs layer was produced at the surface of Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) via combination of molecular imprinting and reversible stimuli responsive hydrogel. And it provided the MMIPs with excellent adsorption capacity and rapid adsorption rate due to the imprinted sites mostly situated on the surface of MMIPs. Then the prepared SDZ-MMIPs were packed into flow cell to establish a novel FI-CL sensor. The sensor provided a wide linear range for SDZ of 4.0×10(-7) to 1.0×10(-4) mol L(-1) with a detection limit of 1.54×10(-7) mol L(-1). And the relative standard deviation (RSD) for the determination of 1.0×10(-6) mol L(-1) SDZ was 2.56% (n=11). The proposed method was applied to determine SDZ in urine samples and satisfactory results were obtained.

  20. Paper-based enzyme immobilization for flow injection electrochemical biosensor integrated with reagent-loaded cartridge toward portable modular device.

    PubMed

    Tan, Swee Ngin; Ge, Liya; Tan, Hsih Yin; Loke, Weng Keong; Gao, Jinrong; Wang, Wei

    2012-11-20

    Paper-based enzyme immobilization for a flow injection electrochemical biosensor integrated with a reagent-loaded cartridge toward a portable device was developed. A paper disk was immobilized with enzyme, then it was integrated in a flow cell as an electrochemical biosensor. A silicon tube reagent-loaded cartridge was integrated into the system, a complicated procedure was simplified as a one-click operation toward development for point-of-care applications. In this research, glucose oxidase (GOx) was employed as a model enzyme, silver ion as an inhibition reagent for GOx, and EDTA as a regeneration reagent. When GOx was inhibited by silver ions, glucose was introduced for electrochemical measurements before and after inhibited enzyme regeneration and the difference was caused by silver inhibition. The modular device has great potential for other applications, e.g., detection of enzyme activity and substrate. The platform based on double-test mode provided accurate results due to elimination of an average or control value in comparison with classical routine approaches.

  1. Flow injection analysis of organic peroxide explosives using acid degradation and chemiluminescent detection of released hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Mahbub, Parvez; Zakaria, Philip; Guijt, Rosanne; Macka, Mirek; Dicinoski, Greg; Breadmore, Michael; Nesterenko, Pavel N

    2015-10-01

    The applicability of acid degradation of organic peroxides into hydrogen peroxide in a pneumatically driven flow injection system with chemiluminescence reaction with luminol and Cu(2+) as a catalyst (FIA-CL) was investigated for the fast and sensitive detection of organic peroxide explosives (OPEs). The target OPEs included hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD), triacetone triperoxide (TATP) and methylethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP). Under optimised conditions maximum degradations of 70% and 54% for TATP and HMTD, respectively were achieved at 162 µL min(-1), and 9% degradation for MEKP at 180 µL min(-1). Flow rates were precisely controlled in this single source pneumatic pressure driven multi-channel FIA system by model experiments on mixing of easily detectable component solutions. The linear range for detection of TATP, HMTD and H2O2 was 1-200 µM (r(2)=0.98-0.99) at both flow rates, while that for MEKP was 20-200 µM (r(2)=0.97) at 180 µL min(-1). The detection limits (LODs) obtained were 0.5 µM for TATP, HMTD and H2O2 and 10 µM for MEKP. The detection times varied from 1.5 to 3 min in this FIA-CL system. Whilst the LOD for H2O2 was comparable with those reported by other investigators, the LODs and analysis times for TATP and HMTD were superior, and significantly, this is the first time the detection of MEKP has been reported by FIA-CL.

  2. Thermodynamic study of β-cyclodextrin-dye inclusion complexes using gradient flow injection technique and molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Izadmanesh, Y; Ghasemi, Jahan B

    2016-08-05

    Gradient flow injection technique-diode array spectrophotometry was applied for β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)-dye inclusion complex studies. A single injection of a small amount of mixed β-CD-dye solution (100μl) into the carrier solution of the dye and recording the spectra gave the titration data. The mole ratio data were calculated by calibrating the dispersion pattern using a calibrator dye (rose bengal). Model-based multivariate methods were used to analyze the spectral-mole ratio data and, as a result, estimate stability constants and concentration-spectral profiles. Reliability was tested by applying this method to study the β-CD host-guest complexes with several dyes as guest molecules. Singular value decomposition (SVD) was used to select the chemical model and reduce noise. Molecular modeling provided the ability to predict the guest conformation-orientation (posing) within the cavity of β-CD and the nature of the involved interactions. Among those dyes showing observable spectral variation, the stoichiometric ratio of β-CD: dye (and log Kf) of methyl orange, fluorescein, phenol red, 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR), and crystal violet were calculated to be 1:1 (4.26±0.01), 1:1 (1.53±0.08), 1:1 (3.11±0.04), 1:1 (1.06±0.12), and 2:1 (5.27±0.03), respectively. Compared with the classical method of titration, this method is simple and fast and has the advantage of needing reduced human interference. Molecular modeling facilitates a better understanding of the type of interactions and conformation of guest molecules in the β-CD cavity. The details of the proposed method are discussed in this paper.

  3. Thermodynamic study of β-cyclodextrin-dye inclusion complexes using gradient flow injection technique and molecular modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izadmanesh, Y.; Ghasemi, Jahan B.

    2016-08-01

    Gradient flow injection technique-diode array spectrophotometry was applied for β-cyclodextrin (β-CD)-dye inclusion complex studies. A single injection of a small amount of mixed β-CD-dye solution (100 μl) into the carrier solution of the dye and recording the spectra gave the titration data. The mole ratio data were calculated by calibrating the dispersion pattern using a calibrator dye (rose bengal). Model-based multivariate methods were used to analyze the spectral-mole ratio data and, as a result, estimate stability constants and concentration-spectral profiles. Reliability was tested by applying this method to study the β-CD host-guest complexes with several dyes as guest molecules. Singular value decomposition (SVD) was used to select the chemical model and reduce noise. Molecular modeling provided the ability to predict the guest conformation-orientation (posing) within the cavity of β-CD and the nature of the involved interactions. Among those dyes showing observable spectral variation, the stoichiometric ratio of β-CD: dye (and log Kf) of methyl orange, fluorescein, phenol red, 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol (PAR), and crystal violet were calculated to be 1:1 (4.26 ± 0.01), 1:1 (1.53 ± 0.08), 1:1 (3.11 ± 0.04), 1:1 (1.06 ± 0.12), and 2:1 (5.27 ± 0.03), respectively. Compared with the classical method of titration, this method is simple and fast and has the advantage of needing reduced human interference. Molecular modeling facilitates a better understanding of the type of interactions and conformation of guest molecules in the β-CD cavity. The details of the proposed method are discussed in this paper.

  4. A novel flow injection potentiometric graphite coated ion-selective electrode for the low level determination of uranyl ion.

    PubMed

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Mizani, Farhang; Mousavi, Mir Fazlollah; Alizadeh, Naader; Alizadeh, Kamal; Eshghi, Hossein; Karami, Hassan

    2007-04-18

    Solution studies on the binding properties of uranyl ion toward four different recently synthesized benzo-substituted macrocyclic diamides L1-L4 revealed the occurrence of a 1:1 complexation of the ligands with UO(2)(2+) ion, with a stability order of L2>L1>L4>L3. Consequently, L2 was used as a suitable neutral ionophore for the preparation of novel polymeric membrane (PME) and coated graphite (CGE) UO(2)(2+)-selective electrodes. The electrodes exhibit a Nernstian behavior for UO(2)(2+) ions over wide concentration ranges (1.0 x 10(-6) - 1.0 x 10(-1) M for PME and 1.0 x 10(-7) - 1.0 x 10(-1) M for CGE) and very low limits of detection (8.0 x 10(-7) M for PME and 7.3 x 10(-8) M for CGE). The proposed potentiometric sensors manifest advantages of fast response and, most importantly, good selectivity with respect to many alkali, alkaline earth, transition, and heavy metal ions. The potentiometric responses of the electrodes are independent of the pH of the test solution in the pH range 2.9-3.7. The CGE was used in flow injection potentiometry and resulted in well defined peaks for uranyl ions with stable baseline, excellent reproducibility and very high sampling rate of 170 injections per hour. The proposed FIP system was used for the determination of trace uranyl ions in real and synthetic samples.

  5. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during cardiopulmonary bypass with special reference to effects of hypotension induced by prostacyclin

    SciTech Connect

    Feddersen, K.; Aren, C.; Nilsson, N.J.; Radegran, K.

    1986-04-01

    Cerebral blood flow and metabolism of oxygen, glucose, and lactate were studied in 43 patients undergoing aortocoronary bypass. Twenty-five patients received prostacyclin infusion, 50 ng per kilogram of body weight per minute, during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), and 18 patients served as a control group. Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied by intraarterially injected xenon 133 and a single scintillation detector. Oxygen tension, carbon dioxide tension, oxygen saturation, glucose, and lactate were measured in arterial and cerebral venous blood. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased during hypothermia and prostacyclin infusion to less than 30 mm Hg. The regional CBF was, on average, 22 (standard deviation (SD) 4) ml/100 gm/min before CPB. It increased in the control group during hypothermia to 34 (SD 12) ml/100 gm/min, but decreased in the prostacyclin group to 15 (SD 5) ml/100 gm/min. It increased during rewarming in the prostacyclin group. After CPB, regional CBF was about 40 ml/100 gm/min in both groups. The cerebral arteriovenous oxygen pressure difference decreased more in the control group than in the prostacyclin group during hypothermia. The cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen decreased in both groups from approximately 2 ml/100 gm/min to about 1 ml/100 gm/min during hypothermia, increased again during rewarming, and after CPB was at the levels measured before bypass in both groups. There was no difference between the groups in regard to glucose and lactate metabolism.

  6. Effects of exogenous amines on mammalian cells, with particular reference to membrane flow.

    PubMed Central

    Dean, R T; Jessup, W; Roberts, C R

    1984-01-01

    We have reviewed the evidence that amines accumulate in intracellular vesicles of low pH, such as lysosomes and endosomes. There is consequent elevation of intravesicular pH, and inhibition of receptor-ligand dissociation often results from this pH change. We have argued that the capacity for fusion of such vesicles is also reduced by the high pH. We suggest that the variety of effects of amines on membrane flow and macromolecular transport we describe are at least partly due to such reduced fusion (Figs. 1 and 2). We propose that an internal low pH may facilitate heterologous vesicle-vesicle and vesicle-plasma membrane fusion. There is some evidence that clathrin can accelerate phospholipid vesicle fusion in vitro at low pH (Blumenthal et al., 1983) but no direct evidence on the role of intravesicular pH. This idea is consistent not only with the preceding discussion, but also with the fact that the intracellular membrane-bound compartments least involved in fusion events (e.g. mitochondria) are of neutral or alkaline internal pH. Membrane fusion is certainly required for the formation of vesicles at the periphery of the Golgi apparatus, and possibly earlier in the transport and processing of biosynthetic products in the Golgi (Bergeron et al., 1982). Thus the accumulation of amines in the Golgi may be responsible for several effects on the flow of macromolecules along their translocation pathways. The status of the plasma membrane in this view is complex. It might be argued that the pH dictating the fusion step in endocytosis is that of the extracellular fluid, in which case the inhibitory effects of amines on this process are not explained. However, the rapidity of acidification of the newly formed endocytic vesicles allows the possibility that plasma membrane invaginations might temporarily sequester areas which are of lower pH than that of the bulk extracellular fluid even before fusion, since the proton pumping enzyme(s) are probably present on the plasma

  7. Oral mucosal blood flow, plasma epinephrine and haemodynamic responses after injection of lidocaine with epinephrine during midazolam sedation and isoflurane anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Homma, Y; Ichinohe, T; Kaneko, Y

    1999-04-01

    We have investigated the relationship between oral mucosal blood flow and plasma epinephrine concentration, and the effects of conscious sedation vs general anaesthesia on haemodynamic responses after submucosal epinephrine injection in 14 subjects. The same seven patients were studied both as controls and after sedation. For sedation, midazolam i.v. was used. Another seven patients underwent orthognathic surgery with isoflurane anaesthesia. All subjects received a submucosal injection of epinephrine 0.8 microgram kg-1, given as 2% lidocaine hydrochloride with epinephrine 12.5 micrograms ml-1. Baseline mucosal blood flow and peak increase in plasma epinephrine concentration in the general anaesthesia and sedation groups were approximately 2.0 and 1.5 times, respectively, higher than those in the control group. Mean plasma epinephrine concentration reached a maximum 3 min after administration of epinephrine in all groups. Overall, there was a significant correlation (r = 0.65) between baseline mucosal blood flow and the maximum increase in plasma epinephrine concentration. There were no differences in haemodynamic changes except for heart rate, between the three groups. These results suggest that plasma epinephrine concentration after submucosal injection depends on the initial mucosal blood flow in the injected area. Haemodynamic changes, except heart rate, in the sedation and general anaesthesia groups were similar despite different changes in maximum plasma epinephrine concentration.

  8. Differentiation of the two major species of Echinacea (E. augustifolia and E. purpurea) using a flow injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting method and chemometric analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid, simple, and reliable flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) method was developed to discriminate two major Echinacea species (E. purpurea and E. angustifolia) samples. Fifty-eight Echinacea samples collected from United States were analyzed using FIMS. Principle component analysis (PCA) a...

  9. Upgrade of a semi-automatic flow injection analysis system to a fully automatic one by means of a resident program

    PubMed Central

    Prodromidis, M. I.; Tsibiris, A. B.

    1995-01-01

    The program and the arrangement for a versatile, computer-controlled flow injection analysis system is described. A resident program (which can be run simultaneously and complementary to any other program) controls (on/off, speed, direction) a pump and a pneumatic valve (emptying and filling position). The system was designed to be simple and flexible for both research and routine work. PMID:18925039

  10. Differentiation of the four major types (C. Burmannii, C. Verum, C. cassia, And C. Loureiroi) of cinnamons using a flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple and efficient flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) method was developed to differentiate cinnamon (Cinnamomum) bark (CB) samples of the four major species (C. burmannii, C. verum, C. aromaticum, and C. loureiroi) of cinnamon. Fifty cinnamon samples collected from China, Vietnam, Indon...

  11. Preserving drinking water quality in geotechnical operations: predicting the feedback between fluid injection, fluid flow, and contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Frank R.

    2014-05-01

    Not only in densely populated areas the preservation of drinking water quality is of vital interest. On the other side, our modern economies request for a sustained energy supply and a secure storage of waste materials. As energy sources with a high security of supply, oil, natural gas, and geothermal energy cover ca. 60% of Europe's energy demand; together with coal more than 75% (IEA 2011). Besides geothermal energy, all of the resources have a high greenhouse gas footprint. All these production activities are related to fluid injection and/or fluid production. The same holds true for gas storage operations in porous reservoirs, to store natural gases, oil, or greenhouse gases. Different concerns are discussed in the public and geoscientific community to influence the drinking water quality: - wastewater discharges from field exploration, drilling, production, well treatment and completion - wastewater sequestration - gas storage - tight gas and tight oil production (including hydraulic fracturing) - Shale gas production (including hydraulic fracturing) - mine drainage This overview contribution focusses on strategies to systematically reduce the risk of water pollution in geotechnical operations of deep reservoirs. The principals will be exemplarily revealed for different geotechnical operations. - How to control hydraulic fracturing operations to reduce the risk of enhanced seismic activity and avoiding the connection of originally separated aquifers. The presented approach to quantitatively predict the impact of stimulation activities is based on petrophysical models taking the feedback of geomechanical processes and fluid flow in porous media, fissures and faults into account. The specific flow patterns in various rock types lead to distinguished differences in operational risk. - How can a proper planning of geotechnical operations reduce the involved risks. A systematic risk reduction strategy will be discussed. On selected samples the role of exploration

  12. Novel miniaturized sensors for potentiometric batch and flow-injection analysis (FIA) of perchlorate in fireworks and propellants.

    PubMed

    Almeer, Saeed H M A; Zogby, Ibrahim A; Hassan, Saad S M

    2014-11-01

    Three planar miniaturized perchlorate membrane sensors (3×5 mm(2)) are prepared using a flexible Kaptan substrate coated with nitron-perchlorate (NT-ClO4) [sensor 1], methylene blue-perchlorate (MB-ClO4) [sensor II] and indium-porphyrin (In-Por) [sensor III] as electroactive materials in PVC membranes plasticized with 2-NPPE. Sensors I, II and III display near-Nernstian response for 1.0×10(-5)-1.0×10(-2), 3.1×10(-5)-1.0×10(-2) and 3.1×10(-6)-1.0×10(-2) mol L(-1) ClO4(-) with lower detection limits of 6.1×10(-6), 6.9×10(-6) and 1.2×10(-6) mol L(-1), and anionic calibration slopes of 50.9±0.4, 48.4±0.4 and 57.7±0.3 mV decade(-1), respectively. Methods for determining perchlorate using these sensors offer many attractive advantages including simplicity, flexibility, cost effectiveness, wide linear dynamic response range (0.1-1000 ppm), low detection limit (<1.2×10(-6) mol L(-1)≡0.1 ppm), small sample test volume (100 μL), safety, short response time (<20 s), long life span (~8 weeks), and extended wide working pH range (4.5-8.0). The sensors show high selectivity in the presence of some inorganic ions (e.g., PO4(3-), SO4(2-), S2O3(2-), NO2(-), NO3(-), N3(-), CN(-), Cl(-), Br(-), I(-)) and automation feasibility. Indium-porphyrin based membrane sensor (sensor III) is used as a detector in a wall-jet flow injection set-up to enable accurate flow injection analysis (FIA) of perchlorate in some fireworks without interferences from the associated reducing agents (sulfur and charcoal), binders (dextrin, lactose), coloring agents (calcium, strontium, copper, iron, sodium), color brighten (linseed oil) and regulators (aluminum flakes) which are commonly used in the formulations. The sensor is also used for perchlorate assessment in some propellant powders. The results fairly agree with data obtained by ion-chromatography.

  13. A novel flow injection chemiluminescence determination of Cr(VI) with Dichlorotris(1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II).

    PubMed

    Luaces, M D; Martínez, N C; Granda, M; Valdés, A C; Pérez-Conde, C; Gutiérrez, A M

    2011-09-30

    A selective novel reverse flow injection system with chemiluminescence detection (rFI-CL) for the determination of Cr(VI) in presence of Cr(III) with Dichlorotris (1,10-phenanthroline)ruthenium(II), (Ru(phen)(3)Cl(2)), is described in this work. This new method is based on the oxidation capacity of Cr(VI) in H(2)SO(4) media. First, the Ruthenium(II) complex is oxidized to Ruthenium(III) complex by Cr(VI) and afterwards it is reduced to the excited state of the Ruthenium(II) complex by a sodium oxalate solution, emitting light inside the detector. The intensity of chemiluminescence (CL) is proportional to the concentration of Cr(VI) and, under optimum conditions, it can be determined over the range of 3-300 μg L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.9 μg L(-1). The RSD was 8.4% and 1.5% at 5 and 50 μg L(-1), respectively. For the rFI-CL method various analytical parameters were optimized: flow rate (1 mL min(-1)), H(2)SO(4) carrier concentration (20% w/V), Ru(phen)(3)Cl(2) concentration (5mM) and sodium oxalate concentration (0.1M). The effect of Cr(III), Fe(III), Al(III), Cd(II), Zn(II), Hg(II), Pb(II), Ca(II) and Mg(II), was studied. The method is highly sensitive and selective, allowing a fast, on-line determination of Cr(VI) in the presence of Cr(III). Finally, the method was tested in four different water samples (tap, reservoir, well and mineral), with good recovery percentage.

  14. Repetitive determination of chemical oxygen demand by cyclic flow injection analysis using on-line regeneration of consumed permanganate.

    PubMed

    Zenki, Michio; Fujiwara, Satoru; Yokoyama, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    A cyclic flow injection analysis (cyclic FIA) for the repetitive determination of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was developed. The acidic KMnO4 method was carried out by adopting a single-line circulating flow system. The oxidant (KMnO4) consumed by the oxidation of organic substances was regenerated and reused repeatedly, resulting in an extreme reduction of hazardous wastes. Only 50 ml of the reagent carrier solution containing 0.2 mM KMnO4 and 1 mM HIO4 in 0.8 M H2SO4 solution was continuously circulated through the system. The KMnO4 could play two roles: acting as an oxidant of the organic substances and/or a spectrophotometric reagent. The co-existing HIO4 acted as a regenerator of KMnO4, which made it possible to recycle the system repeatedly. Under two different digestions (70 and 130 degrees C), 50 repetitive determinations of standard sodium oxalate (6.5 mg COD L(-1)) and D-glucose (7.2 mg COD L(-1)) were skillfully carried out with a slightly decreased baseline. The analytical frequency was 30 samples per hour for COD determination. The proposed method saved consumption of the used reagents, KMnO4 and H2SO4, and thus these wastes were extremely reduced. The obtained COD values with the proposed method were co-related with those provided by the manual standard method, but were fairly low owing to the insufficient digestion step.

  15. Transient Fluid Flow Along Basement Faults and Rupture Mechanics: Can We Expect Injection-Induced Earthquake Behavior to Correspond Directly With Injection Operations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norbeck, J. H.; Horne, R. N.

    2015-12-01

    We explored injection-induced earthquake behavior in geologic settings where basement faults are connected hydraulically to overlying saline aquifers targeted for wastewater disposal. Understanding how the interaction between natural geology and injection well operations affects the behavior of injection-induced earthquake sequences has important implications for characterizing seismic hazard risk. Numerical experiments were performed to investigate the extent to which seismicity is influenced by the migration of pressure perturbations along fault zones. Two distinct behaviors were observed: a) earthquake ruptures that were confined to the pressurized region of the fault and b) sustained earthquake ruptures that propagated far beyond the pressure front. These two faulting mechanisms have important implications for assessing the manner in which seismicity can be expected respond to injection well operations.Based upon observations from the numerical experiments, we developed a criterion that can be used to classify the expected faulting behavior near wastewater disposal sites. The faulting criterion depends on the state of stress, the initial fluid pressure, the orientation of the fault, and the dynamic friction coefficient of the fault. If the initial ratio of shear to effective normal stress resolved on the fault (the prestress ratio) is less than the fault's dynamic friction coefficient, then earthquake ruptures will tend to be limited by the distance of the pressure front. In this case, parameters that affect seismic hazard assessment, like the maximum earthquake magnitude or earthquake recurrence interval, could correlate with injection well operational parameters. For example, the maximum earthquake magnitude might be expected to grow over time in a systematic manner as larger patches of the fault are exposed to significant pressure changes. In contrast, if the prestress ratio is greater than dynamic friction, a stress drop can occur outside of the pressurized

  16. Analysis of Ground-Water Flow in the Madison Aquifer using Fluorescent Dyes Injected in Spring Creek and Rapid Creek near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    The Madison aquifer, which contains fractures and solution openings in the Madison Limestone, is used extensively for water supplies for the city of Rapid City and other suburban communities in the Rapid City, S. Dak., area. The 48 square-mile study area includes the west-central and southwest parts of Rapid City and the outcrops of the Madison Limestone extending from south of Spring Creek to north of Rapid Creek. Recharge to the Madison Limestone occurs when streams lose flow as they cross the outcrop. The maximum net loss rate for Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones are 21 and 10 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), respectively. During 2003 and 2004, fluorescent dyes were injected in the Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones to estimate approximate locations of preferential flow paths in the Madison aquifer and to measure the response and transit times at wells and springs. Four injections of about 2 kilograms of fluorescein dye were made in the Spring Creek loss zone during 2003 (sites S1, S2, and S3) and 2004 (site S4). Injection at site S1 was made in streamflow just upstream from the loss zone over a 12-hour period when streamflow was about equal to the maximum loss rate. Injections at sites S2, S3, and S4 were made in specific swallow holes located in the Spring Creek loss zone. Injection at site R1 in 2004 of 3.5 kilograms of Rhodamine WT dye was made in streamflow just upstream from the Rapid Creek loss zone over about a 28-hour period. Selected combinations of 27 wells, 6 springs, and 3 stream sites were monitored with discrete samples following the injections. For injections at sites S1-S3, when Spring Creek streamflow was greater than or equal to 20 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from five wells that were located as much as about 2 miles from the loss zone. Time to first arrival (injection at site S1) ranged from less than 1 to less than 10 days. The maximum fluorescein concentration (injection at site S1) of 120 micrograms per liter (ug/L) at well CO

  17. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of phentolamine based on its enhancing effect on the luminol-potassium ferricyanide system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuming; Liu, Weibing

    2005-07-01

    It was found that the light emission produced by the oxidation of luminol by potassium ferricyanide in the basic medium was enhanced by phentolamine, a drug recently used to treatment of male and female sexual dysfunction. The optimum conditions for this chemiluminescent reaction were studied in detail by a flow-injection system. A new, simple and rapid method has been developed under the optimum conditions for determination of phentolamine. This method has the advantages of high sensitivity, good reproducibility and low detection limit. On the basis of investigation of chemiluminescent, fluorescent and UV spectra of phentolamine in basic solution containing potassium ferricyanide and luminol, a possible mechanism of this reaction was proposed. In the optimum conditions, CL intensities are proportional to concentrations of the phentolamine in the 0.01-1 microg/mL range. The limit of detection is 3.0 ng/mL for phentolamine. The method has been applied to the determination of phentolamine in the commercial preparations, synthetic samples and biological fluids with satisfactory results.

  18. Microemulsion-enhanced electrochemiluminescence of luminol-H2O2 for sensitive flow injection analysis of antioxidant compounds.

    PubMed

    Xiuhua, Wei; Chao, Liu; Yifeng, Tu

    2012-05-30

    A microemulsion enhanced electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol-H(2)O(2) was studied with the flow-injection (FI) technique. The results revealed that the microemulsion composed with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), n-butanol, n-heptane and water greatly enhanced the ECL especially in acidic medium. The ECL emission increased for 20 to 2 times in this microemulsion medium over the pH range of 5.0-8.0 compared to that in aqueous solution. The mechanism of enhancement of surfactant and microemulsion for luminol-H(2)O(2) ECL was discussed. It is mainly based on the electrostatic interaction between luminol anion and the head group of surfactant, which causes the adsorption and promotes the dissociation of luminol on the surfaces of the microemulsion droplets, favors the oxidation of luminol by the yielded reactive oxygen species (ROSs) during electrolysis. This research is very significant for ECL applications because of the extended practicable pH range which was suitable for environmental and biological systems. As an example, this FI-ECL technique can be applied for determination of oligo proanthocyanidin (OPC) because of its antioxidant property and to evaluate the total antioxidant activity of the grape skin using OPC as an index.

  19. Antibody-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for the detection of carcinoembryonic antigen using a flow-injection electrochemical device.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jin; Yang, Qingwei

    2007-05-01

    A magnetocontrolled immunosensing strategy based on flow-injection electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was developed for the determination of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in human serum. The immunosensor was fabricated by immobilizing anti-CEA on epoxysilane-modified core-shell magnetic Fe3O4/SiO2 nanoparticles. The detection principle is based on the difference between the resistances measured before and after the antigen-antibody interaction. The performance of the immunosensor and factors influencing this performance were also proposed. The resistance response depended linearly on the CEA concentration over the range 1.5-60 ng/ml, and the immunosensor gave a detection limit of 0.5 ng/ml (S/N=3). Coefficients of variance (CVs) of <9.8% were obtained for the intra- and interassay precisions. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of CEA in human serum. The recoveries obtained by spiking CEA standards into normal serum were 87-113%. The performance of the immunosensor was compared with a commercially available CEA ELISA. Satisfactory results were obtained according to a paired t-test method (t value

  20. Online spectrophotometric determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) by flow injection combined with low pressure ion chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shujuan; Li, Nan; Zhang, Xinshen; Yang, Dongjing; Jiang, Heimei

    2015-03-01

    A simple and new low pressure ion chromatography combined with flow injection spectrophotometric procedure for determining Fe(II) and Fe(III) was established. It is based on the selective adsorption of low pressure ion chromatography column to Fe(II) and Fe(III), the online reduction reaction of Fe(III) and the reaction of Fe(II) in sodium acetate with phenanthroline, resulting in an intense orange complex with a suitable absorption at 515 nm. Various chemical (such as the concentration of colour reagent, eluant and reductive agent) and instrumental parameters (reaction coil length, reductive coil length and wavelength) were studied and were optimized. Under the optimum conditions calibration graph of Fe(II)/Fe(III) was linear in the Fe(II)/Fe(III) range of 0.040-1.0 mg/L. The detection limit of Fe(III) and Fe(II) was respectively 3.09 and 1.55 μg/L, the relative standard deviation (n = 10) of Fe(II) and Fe(III) 1.89% and 1.90% for 0.5 mg/L of Fe(II) and Fe(III) respectively. About 2.5 samples in 1 h can be analyzed. The interfering effects of various chemical species were studied. The method was successfully applied in the determination of water samples.

  1. Flow injection analysis with electrochemical detection for rapid identification of platinum-based cytostatics and platinum chlorides in water.

    PubMed

    Kominkova, Marketa; Heger, Zbynek; Zitka, Ondrej; Kynicky, Jindrich; Pohanka, Miroslav; Beklova, Miroslava; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2014-02-04

    Platinum-based cytostatics, such as cisplatin, carboplatin or oxaliplatin are widely used agents in the treatment of various types of tumors. Large amounts of these drugs are excreted through the urine of patients into wastewaters in unmetabolised forms. This phenomenon leads to increased amounts of platinum ions in the water environment. The impacts of these pollutants on the water ecosystem are not sufficiently investigated as well as their content in water sources. In order to facilitate the detection of various types of platinum, we have developed a new, rapid, screening flow injection analysis method with electrochemical detection (FIA-ED). Our method, based on monitoring of the changes in electrochemical behavior of analytes, maintained by various pH buffers (Britton-Robinson and phosphate buffer) and potential changes (1,000, 1,100 and 1,200 mV) offers rapid and cheap selective determination of platinum-based cytostatics and platinum chlorides, which can also be present as contaminants in water environments.

  2. Development of a flow-injection fluorescence method for estimation of total polycyclic aromatic compounds in asphalt fumes.

    PubMed

    Neumeister, Charles E; Olsen, Larry D; Dollberg, Donald D

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, measurements of specific polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) have been attempted as an estimate of asphalt fume exposure. However, asphalt fumes contain numerous alkyl substituted PACs, including PACs containing heteroatoms of nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. Many of these compounds coelute precluding the resolution of the individual compounds resulting in ambiguous data. Moreover, many researchers believe that some observed health hazards are associated with PACs overall and not just a few select PACs. Therefore, NIOSH method 5800 was developed to evaluate total PACs as a chemical class in asphalt fumes. Asphalt fume samples were collected on a poly(tetrafluoroethylene) filter backed by an XAD-2 sorbent tube. The samples were extracted with hexane; then, a cyano-solid-phase-extraction column was used to remove the polar compounds while the aliphatic and aromatic compounds were eluted with hexane. An equal volume of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was added to the hexane extract, causing the aromatic compounds to partition into the DMSO, thus isolating the PACs. The PACs were then analyzed for fluorescence using a flow-injection method with two fluorescence detectors. Wavelength settings for the first detector (254-nm excitation, 370-nm emission) emphasized the 2- to 4-ring PACs that may cause eye and respiratory tract irritation. Wavelength settings of the second detector (254-nm excitation, 400-nm emission) emphasized the 4- and higher-ring PACs that are often mutagenic and possibly carcinogenic.

  3. Flow Injection Analysis with Electrochemical Detection for Rapid Identification of Platinum-Based Cytostatics and Platinum Chlorides in Water

    PubMed Central

    Kominkova, Marketa; Heger, Zbynek; Zitka, Ondrej; Kynicky, Jindrich; Pohanka, Miroslav; Beklova, Miroslava; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2014-01-01

    Platinum-based cytostatics, such as cisplatin, carboplatin or oxaliplatin are widely used agents in the treatment of various types of tumors. Large amounts of these drugs are excreted through the urine of patients into wastewaters in unmetabolised forms. This phenomenon leads to increased amounts of platinum ions in the water environment. The impacts of these pollutants on the water ecosystem are not sufficiently investigated as well as their content in water sources. In order to facilitate the detection of various types of platinum, we have developed a new, rapid, screening flow injection analysis method with electrochemical detection (FIA-ED). Our method, based on monitoring of the changes in electrochemical behavior of analytes, maintained by various pH buffers (Britton-Robinson and phosphate buffer) and potential changes (1,000, 1,100 and 1,200 mV) offers rapid and cheap selective determination of platinum-based cytostatics and platinum chlorides, which can also be present as contaminants in water environments. PMID:24499878

  4. Separation and determination of four active anthraquinones in Chinese herbal preparations by flow injection-capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lihong; Fan, Liuyin; Chen, Hongli; Chen, Xingguo; Hu, Zhide

    2005-08-01

    A simple, rapid, and accurate method for the separation and determination of physcion, chrysophanol, aloe-emodin, and emodin in Rhubarb, Juemingzi, and Chinese herbal preparations was developed by combination of flow injection-capillary zone electrophoresis for the first time. The analysis was carried out using an unmodified fused-silica capillary (75 mm x 50 microm ID x 375 microm OD, effective separation length of 48 mm) and direct ultraviolet detection at 254 nm. By a series of optimization, the sample solvent consisted of NaOH (100 mmol/L) and ACN (1:1 v/v), and a running buffer composed of 15 mmol/L sodium borate - 12.5 mmol/L sodium dihydrogen phosphate - 42% v/v ACN (pH 10.1) was applied for the separation of the four anthraquinones. The separation was rapid and highly reproducible, with complete resolution of all four compounds within 6 min. The sample throughput rate could reach up to 12 per h. The repeatability (defined as relative standard deviation) was 4.45, 4.44, 4.34, 0.61% with peak height evaluation and 1.62, 0.89, 2.49, 2.19% with peak area evaluation for physcion, chrysophanol, aloe-emodin, and emodin, respectively.

  5. Dissolved elemental mercury investigations in Long Island Sound using on-line Au amalgamation-flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Tseng, C M; Balcom, P H; Lamborg, C H; Fitzgerald, W F

    2003-03-15

    A novel semiautomatic dissolved elemental mercury analyzer (DEMA) was developed for investigating dissolved elemental Hg (DEM) in natural waters. This on-line setup couples the main analytical steps from sample introduction, gas-liquid separation, and Au amalgamation/separation to final detection/data acquisition using flow injection techniques. This approach provides ease of operation and high analytical performance and is suitable for shipboard use. The analyzer can be fully automated and also be modified to examine other Hg species (e.g., reactive and total Hg and monomethyl-Hg). Here, we present the results of laboratory performance tests and make a comparison with a traditional manual method. DEM measured by both manual and the DEMA show good agreement. Representative field DEM data from spring and summer 1999 in Long Island Sound, U.S.A. (LIS) are presented. Spatial and temporal DEM variations were evident. Rapid and accurate determinations of DEM are necessary to observe its distribution dynamics, evaluate emissions, and assess its role in the aquatic biogeochemical cycling of Hg.

  6. WETTABILITY ALTERATION OF POROUS MEDIA TO GAS-WETTING FOR IMPROVING PRODUCTIVITY AND INJECTIVITY IN GAS-LIQUID FLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas Firoozabadi

    2003-12-01

    Wettability alteration to intermediate gas-wetting in porous media by treatment with FC-759, a fluoropolymer polymer, has been studied experimentally. Berea sandstone was used as the main rock sample in our work and its wettability before and after chemical treatment was studied at various temperatures from 25 to 93 C. We also studied recovery performance for both gas/oil and oil/water systems for Berea sandstone before and after wettability alteration by chemical treatment. Our experimental study shows that chemical treatment with FC-759 can result in: (1) wettability alteration from strong liquid-wetting to stable intermediate gas-wetting at room temperature and at elevated temperatures; (2) neutral wetting for gas, oil, and water phases in two-phase flow; (3) significant increase in oil mobility for gas/oil system; and (4) improved recovery behavior for both gas/oil and oil/water systems. This work reveals a potential for field application for improved gas-well deliverability and well injectivity by altering the rock wettability around wellbore in gas condensate reservoirs from strong liquid-wetting to intermediate gas-wetting.

  7. Ultrasensitive detection of streptomycin using flow injection analysis-electrochemical quartz crystal nanobalance (FIA-EQCN) biosensor.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Geetesh K; Sharma, Atul; Bhand, Sunil

    2015-05-15

    This work presents the development of an ultrasensitive biosensor for detection of streptomycin residues in milk samples using flow injection analysis-electrochemical quartz crystal nanobalance (FIA-EQCN) technique. Monoclonal antibody specific to streptomycin was immobilized on to the thiol modified gold quartz crystal surface. A broad dynamic range (0.3-300 ng/mL) was obtained for streptomycin with a good linearity in the range 0.3-10 ng/mL for PBS and 0.3-50 ng/mL for milk. The correlation coefficient (R(2)) of the biosensor was found to be 0.994 and 0.997 for PBS and milk respectively. Excellent recoveries were obtained from the streptomycin spiked milk samples in the range 98-99.33%, which shows the applicability of the developed biosensor in milk. The reproducibility of the developed biosensor was found satisfactory with % RSD (n=5) 0.351. A good co-relation was observed between the streptomycin recoveries measured through the developed biosensor and the commercial ELISA kit. The analytical figures of merit of the developed biosensor confirm that the developed FIA-EQCN biosensor could be very effective for low-level detection of streptomycin in milk samples.

  8. Replacing immunoassays for mephedrone, ketamines and six amphetamine-type stimulants with flow injection analysis tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lua, Ingrid A; Lin, Shiou-Ling; Lin, Huei R; Lua, Ahai C

    2012-10-01

    A screening procedure was developed for the simultaneous detection of mephedrone, six amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS), ketamine and its two metabolites with electrospray ionization flow injection analysis tandem mass spectrometry (FIA-MS-MS). Urine samples were fortified with deuterated analogues as internal standards, extracted with ethyl acetate and analyzed with FIA-MS-MS. The mass analyzer was operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Two product ions were monitored for each drug and internal standards. For each analyte, the limit of detection was less than 4 µg/L, within-day and between-day precisions (percent coefficient of variation) at three different concentrations were less than 7.3% and bias was between -17.3 and 11.8%. Total analysis time with FIA-MS-MS is 1.8 min per sample. A group of 215 urine samples were screened with immunoassay for ATS and analyzed with FIA-MS-MS and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for ketamines and ATS. The analysis of ATS by immunoassay and GC-MS was 96.7% concordant. The analysis of three ketamines and seven ATS by FIA-MS-MS and GC-MS was 97.2% concordant. The FIA-MS-MS procedure is efficient, accurate, flexible and capable of detecting analytes of different chemical groups. It can replace immunoassays for the screening of new designer drugs when commercial immunoassays are unavailable.

  9. Flow injection spectrophotometric method for chloride determination in natural waters using Hg(SCN)(2) immobilized in epoxy resin.

    PubMed

    Silva, Claudineia R; Vieira, Heberth J; Canaes, Larissa S; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2005-02-28

    A flow injection (FI) spectrophotometric method was proposed for the determination of chloride ion in natural waters. The determination of chloride was carried out by reaction with Hg(SCN)(2) immobilized in an epoxy resin bead in a solid-phase reactor (SPR) and the thiocyanate ions released were determined spectrophotometrically at 480nm after complexing reaction with Fe(III). The analytical curve for chloride was linear in the concentration range from 5.6 x 10(-5) to 2.2 x 10(-4)moll(-1) with a detection limit of 1.4 x 10(-5)moll(-1). The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) was 2.2% for a solution containing 2.2 x 10(-4)moll(-1) (n = 10). The simple manifold allows a routine analytical frequency of 100 determinations per hour. The main advantage of the developed method is the 400% reduction of the Hg waste solution generated when compared to conventional methods for chloride determination based on the same spectrophotometric reaction.

  10. Chemometrics-assisted simultaneous determination of cobalt(II) and chromium(III) with flow-injection chemiluminescence method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Baoxin; Wang, Dongmei; Lv, Jiagen; Zhang, Zhujun

    2006-09-01

    In this paper, a flow-injection chemiluminescence (CL) system is proposed for simultaneous determination of Co(II) and Cr(III) with partial least squares calibration. This method is based on the fact that both Co(II) and Cr(III) catalyze the luminol-H 2O 2 CL reaction, and that their catalytic activities are significantly different on the same reaction condition. The CL intensity of Co(II) and Cr(III) was measured and recorded at different pH of reaction medium, and the obtained data were processed by the chemometric approach of partial least squares. The experimental calibration set was composed with nine sample solutions using orthogonal calibration design for two component mixtures. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 2 × 10 -7 to 8 × 10 -10 and 2 × 10 -6 to 4 × 10 -9 g/ml for Co(II) and Cr(III), respectively. The proposed method offers the potential advantages of high sensitivity, simplicity and rapidity for Co(II) and Cr(III) determination, and was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of both analytes in real water sample.

  11. Determination of lead in wine and rum samples by flow injection-hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Elçi, Latif; Arslan, Zikri; Tyson, Julian F

    2009-03-15

    A method for direct determination of lead in wine and rum samples was developed, using a flow injection hydride generation system coupled to an atomic absorption spectrometer with flame-quartz atomizer (FI-HG-AAS). Lead hyride (PbH(4)) was generated using potassium ferricyanide (K(3)Fe(CN)(6)), as oxidant and sodium tetrahydroborate (NaBH(4)) as reductant. Samples were acidified to 0.40% (v/v) HCl for wine and to 0.30% (v/v) HCl for rum, which were then mixed on-line with 3% (m/v) K(3)Fe(CN)(6) solution in 0.03% (v/v) HCl prior to reaction with 0.2% (m/v) alkaline NaBH(4) solution. Lead contents of a rum and two different red wine samples were determined by FI-HG-AAS agreed with those obtained by ICP-MS. The analytical figures of merit of method developed were determined. The calibration curve was linear up to 8.0 microg L(-1) Pb with a regression coefficient of 0.998. The relative error was lower than 4.58%. The relative standard deviation (n=7) was better than 12%. A detection limit of 0.16 microg L(-1) was achieved for a sample volume of 170 microL.

  12. Application of a novel metabolomic approach based on atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry using flow injection analysis for the study of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    González-Domínguez, Raúl; García-Barrera, Tamara; Gómez-Ariza, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    The use of atmospheric pressure photoionization is not widespread in metabolomics, despite its considerable potential for the simultaneous analysis of compounds with diverse polarities. This work considers the development of a novel analytical approach based on flow injection analysis and atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry for rapid metabolic screening of serum samples. Several experimental parameters were optimized, such as type of dopant, flow injection solvent, and their flows, given that a careful selection of these variables is mandatory for a comprehensive analysis of metabolites. Toluene and methanol were the most suitable dopant and flow injection solvent, respectively. Moreover, analysis in negative mode required higher solvent and dopant flows (100 µl min(-1) and 40 µl min(-1), respectively) compared to positive mode (50 µl min(-1) and 20 µl min(-1)). Then, the optimized approach was used to elucidate metabolic alterations associated with Alzheimer's disease. Thereby, results confirm the increase of diacylglycerols, ceramides, ceramide-1-phosphate and free fatty acids, indicating membrane destabilization processes, and reduction of fatty acid amides and several neurotransmitters related to impairments in neuronal transmission, among others. Therefore, it could be concluded that this metabolomic tool presents a great potential for analysis of biological samples, considering its high-throughput screening capability, fast analysis and comprehensive metabolite coverage.

  13. Local changes in blood flow within the early and midcycle corpus luteum after prostaglandin F(2 alpha) injection in the cow.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Tomas J; Yoshizawa, Nobuyuki; Ohtani, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Akio

    2002-03-01

    One of the postulated main luteolytic actions of prostaglandin (PG) F(2 alpha) is to decrease ovarian blood flow. However, before Day 5 of the normal cycle, the corpus luteum (CL) is refractory to the luteolytic action of PGF(2 alpha). Therefore, we aimed to determine in detail the real-time changes in intraluteal blood flow after PGF(2 alpha) injection at the early and middle stages of the estrous cycle in the cow. Normally cycling cows at Day 4 (early CL, n = 5) or Days 10--12 (mid CL, n = 5) of the estrous cycle (estrus = Day 0) were examined by transrectal color and pulsed Doppler ultrasonography to determine the blood flow area, the time-averaged maximum velocity (TAMXV), and the volume of the CL after an i.m. injection of a PGF(2 alpha) analogue. Ultrasonographic examinations were carried out just before PG injection (0 h) and then at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h after the injection. Blood samples were collected at each of these times for progesterone (P) determination. The ratio of the colored area to a sectional plane at the maximum diameter of the CL was used as a quantitative index of the changes in blood flow within the luteal tissue. Blood flow within the midcycle CL initially increased (P < 0.05) at 0.5-2 h, decreased at 4 h to the same levels observed at 0 h, and then further decreased to a lower level from 8 h (P < 0.05) to 48 h (P < 0.001). Plasma P concentrations decreased (P < 0.05) from 4.7 +/- 0.5 ng/ml (0 h) to 0.6 +/- 0.2 ng/ml (24 h). The TAMXV and CL volume decreased at 8 h (P < 0.05) and further decreased (P < 0.001) from 12 to 24 h after PG injection, indicating structural luteolysis. These changes were not detected in the early CL, in which luteolysis did not occur. In the early CL, the blood flow gradually increased in parallel with the CL volume, plasma P concentration, and TAMXV from Day 4 to Day 6. The present results indicate that PGF(2 alpha) induces an acute blood flow increase followed by a decrease in the midcycle CL but not

  14. On-line UV-photooxidation with peroxodisulfate for automated flow injection and for high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsalev, Dimiter L.; Sperling, Michael; Welz, Bernhard

    2000-04-01

    An automated on-line UV photooxidation with peroxodisulfate of some environmentally relevant organoarsenic and organotin compounds in a system built from commercially available modules has been studied and optimised with a view to both species-independent quantification of the total arsenic or tin in samples containing different organic species by flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-HGAAS) and speciation analysis by coupled high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with HGAAS detection. For organoarsenicals, the reaction with alkaline peroxodisulfate in a 10-15-m knotted reactor for >1.5 min insures >90% transformation of inorganic As(III) and six organoarsenic species to arsenate: monomethylarsonate, dimethylarsinate, arsenobetaine, arsenocholine, trimethylarsine oxide and tetramethylarsonium. For organotins, the UV photooxidation with acidic peroxodisulfate at 95-100°C provides recoveries of >80% for the inorganic tin, dimethyltin, trimethyltin, triethyltin, tripropyltin, triphenyltin, monobutyltin, dibutyltin and tributyltin but only approximately 15% for tetrabutyltin. The best characteristic masses in integrated absorbance ( Aint) and peak-height ( Ap) measurements, respectively, are 30 pg and 480 pg for arsenic(V) and 22 pg and 410 pg for tin(IV), employing 100-μl injections. The RSDs are 5.5% and 8.5% at 5 ng As(V) levels and 4.3% and 6.4% at 10 ng Sn(IV) levels in Aint and Ap modes, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD, 3σ) for As are 7 μg l -1 and 4 μg l -1 in FI-UV-HGAAS and HPLC-UV-HGAAS, respectively. The LODs for i-Sn(IV) are 2 μg l -1 in FI-UV-HGAAS, with both Aint and Ap measurements. The sample throughput rates are 20 and 12 samples per hour with 10-m and 15-m knotted reactors (i.d. 0.5 mm), respectively. Urine certified reference materials containing 0.052-0.48 μg ml -1 As have been analysed for their total arsenic content.

  15. A flow injection analyser conductometric coupled system for the field analysis of free dissolved CO2 and total dissolved inorganic carbon in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Martinotti, Valter; Balordi, Marcella; Ciceri, Giovanni

    2012-05-01

    A flow injection analyser coupled with a gas diffusion membrane and a conductometric microdetector was adapted for the field analysis of natural concentrations of free dissolved CO2 and dissolved inorganic carbon in natural waters and used in a number of field campaigns for marine water monitoring. The dissolved gaseous CO2 presents naturally, or that generated by acidification of the sample, is separated by diffusion using a hydrophobic semipermeable gas porous membrane, and the permeating gas is incorporated into a stream of deionised water and measured by means of an electrical conductometric microdetector. In order to make the system suitable and easy to use for in-field measurements aboard oceanographic ships, the single components of the analyser were compacted into a robust and easy to use system. The calibration of the system is carried out by using standard solutions of potassium bicarbonate at two concentration ranges. Calibration and sample measurements are carried out inside a temperature-constant chamber at 25 °C and in an inert atmosphere (N2). The detection and quantification limits of the method, evaluated as 3 and 10 times the standard deviation of a series of measurements of the matrix solution were 2.9 and 9.6 μmol/kg of CO2, respectively. Data quality for dissolved inorganic carbon was checked with replicate measurements of a certified reference material (A. Dickson, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego), both accuracy and repeatability were -3.3% and 10%, respectively. Optimization, performance qualification of the system and its application in various natural water samples are reported and discussed. In the future, the calibration step will be operated automatically in order to improve the analytical performance and the applicability will be increased in the course of experimental surveys carried out both in marine and freshwater ecosystems. Considering the present stage of development of the method, it

  16. Perturbation solutions for a micropolar fluid flow in a semi-infinite expanding or contracting pipe with large injection or suction through porous wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Xinhui; Yuan, Lili; Cao, Limei; Zheng, Liancun; Shen, Yanan; Li, Lin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate an unsteady incompressible laminar micropolar flow in a semi-infinite porous pipe with large injection or suction through a deforming pipe wall. Using suitable similarity transformations, the governing partial differential are transformed into a coupled nonlinear singular boundary value problem. For large injection, the asymptotic solutions are constructed using the Lighthill method, which eliminates singularity of solution in the high order derivative. For large suction, a series expansion matching method is used. Analytical solutions are validated against the numerical solutions obtained by Bvp4c.

  17. Ultrasensitive flow injection chemiluminescence detection of DNA hybridization using signal DNA probe modified with Au and CuS nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shusheng; Zhong, Hua; Ding, Caifeng

    2008-10-01

    A novel and sensitive flow injection chemiluminescence assay for sequence-specific DNA detection based on signal amplification with nanoparticles (NPs) is reported in the present work. The "sandwich-type" DNA biosensor was fabricated with the thiol-functionalized capture DNA first immobilized on an Au electrode and hybridized with one end of target DNA, the other end of which was recognized with a signal DNA probe labeled with CuS NPs and Au NPs on the 3'- and 5'-terminus, respectively. The hybridization events were monitored by the CL intensity of luminol-H2O2-Cu(2+) after the cupric ions were dissolved from the hybrids. We demonstrated that the incorporation of Au NPs in this sensor design significantly enhanced the sensitivity and the selectivity because a single Au NP can be loaded with hundreds of signal DNA probe strands, which were modified with CuS NPs. The ratios of Au NPs, signal DNA probes, and CuS NPs modified on the gold electrode were approximately 1/101/103. A preconcentration process of cupric ions performed by anodic stripping voltammetry technology further increased the sensor performance. As a result of these two combined effects, this DNA sensor could detect as low as femtomolar target DNA and exhibited excellent selectivity against two-base mismatched DNA. Under the optimum conditions, the CL intensity was increased with the increase of the concentration of target DNA in the range of 2.0 x 10(-14)-2.0 x 10(-12) M. A detection limit of 4.8 x 10(-15) M target DNA was achieved.

  18. Ion-selective electrodes for potentiometric determination of ranitidine hydrochloride, applying batch and flow injection analysis techniques.

    PubMed

    Issa, Yousry M; Badawy, Sayed S; Mutair, Ali A

    2005-12-01

    New ranitidine hydrochloride (RaCl)-selective electrodes of the conventional polymer membrane type are described. They are based on incorporation of ranitidine-tetraphenylborate (Ra-TPB) ion-pair or ranitidine-phosphotungstate (RaPT) ion-associate in a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane plasticized with dioctylphthalate (DOP) or dibutylphthalate (DBP). The electrodes are fully characterized in terms of the membrane composition, solution temperature, and pH. The sensors showed fast and stable responses. Nernstian response was found over the concentration range of 2.0 x 10(-5) M to 1.0 x 10(-2) M and 1.0 x 10(-5) M to 1.0 x 10(-2) M in the case of Ra-TPB electrode and over the range of 1.03 x 10(-5) M to 1.00 x 10(-2) M and 1.0 x 10(-5) M to 1.0 x 10(-2) M in the case of Ra-PT electrode for batch and FIA systems, respectively. The electrodes exhibit good selectivity for RaCl with respect to a large number of common ions, sugars, amino acids, and components other than ranitidine hydrochloride of the investigated mixed drugs. The electrodes have been applied to the potentiometric determination of RaCl in pure solutions and in pharmaceutical preparations under batch and flow injection conditions with a lower detection limit of 1.26 x 10(-5) M and 5.62 x 10(-6) M at 25 +/- 1 degrees C. An average recovery of 100.91% and 100.42% with a relative standard deviation of 0.72% and 0.53% has been achieved.

  19. Reactive multiphase flow at the pore-scale: the melting of a crystalline framework during the injection of buoyant hot volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrea, P.; Huber, C.; Bachmann, O.; Chopard, B.

    2010-12-01

    Multiphase reactive flows occur naturally in various environments in the shallow subsurface, e.g. CO2 injections in saturated reservoirs, exsolved methane flux in shallow sediments and H20-CO2 volatiles in magmatic systems. Because of their multiphase nature together with the nonlinear feedbacks between reactions (dissolution/melting or precipitation) and the flow field at the pore-scale, the study of these dynamical processes remains a great challenge. In this study we focus on the injection of buoyant hot volatiles exsolved from a magmatic intrusion underplating a crystal-rich magma (porous medium). We use some simple theoretical models and a pore-scale multiphase reactive lattice Boltzmann model to investigate how the heat carried by the volatile phase affects the evolution of the porous medium spatially and temporally. We find that when the reaction rate is relatively slow and when the injection rate of volatiles is large (high injection Capillary number), the dissolution of the porous medium can be described by a local Peclet number (ratio of advective to diffusive flux of heat/reactant in the main gas channel). When the injection rate of volatile is reduced, or when the reaction rate is large, the dynamics transition to more complex regimes, where subvertical gas channels are no longer stable and can break into disconnected gas slugs. For the case of the injection of hot volatiles in crystal-rich magmatic systems, we find that the excess enthalpy advected by buoyant volatiles penetrates the porous medium over distances ~r Pe, where r is the average radius of the volatile channel (~pore size). The transport of heat by buoyant gases through a crystal mush is therefore in most cases limited to distances < meters. Our results also suggest that buoyant volatiles can carry chemical species (Li,F, Cl) far into a mush as their corresponding local Peclet number is several orders of magnitude greater than that for heat, owing to their low diffusion coefficients.

  20. Differentiation of Aurantii Fructus Immaturus from Poniciri Trifoliatae Fructus Immaturus using flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) metabolic fingerprinting method combined with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Chen, Pei

    2015-03-25

    A flow-injection mass spectrometric metabolic fingerprinting method in combination with chemometrics was used to differentiate Aurantii Fructus Immaturus from its counterfeit Poniciri Trifoliatae Fructus Immaturus. Flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprints of 9 Aurantii Fructus Immaturus samples and 12 Poniciri Trifoliatae Fructus Immaturus samples were acquired and analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). The authentic herbs were differentiated from their counterfeits easily. Eight characteristic components which were responsible for the differences between the samples were tentatively identified. Furthermore, three out of the eight components, naringin, hesperidin, and neohesperidin, were quantified. The results are useful to help identify the authenticity of Aurantii Fructus Immaturus.

  1. Mechanism of porous core electroosmotic pump flow injection system and its application to determination of chromium(VI) in waste-water.

    PubMed

    Gan, W E; Yang, L; He, Y Z; Zeng, R H; Cervera, M L; de la Guardia, M

    2000-04-03

    An electroosmotic pump flow injection system is introduced in this paper. According to electroosmotic theory, the pump's properties were described. A large flow range (mul min(-1)-ml min(-1)), moderate carrier pressure (>0.15 MPa), reduced performance voltage (<500 V) and stable flow rate (RSD<3.0% in 4 h) are the main properties of the pump. NH(4)OH (0.35 mM) was used as carrier for improving the pump's flow stability. The electroosmotic efficiency of the pump's medium, porous core, can be recovered and regenerated. A sandwich zone was used for sample and reagent introduction in order to adapt to the pump performance. Flow injection-spectrophotometry was employed for the determination of Cr(VI) in waste-water, based on the formation of the complex with 1,5-diphenylcarbazide and absorbance measurement at 540 nm. Within the calibration range of 0-7.0 mg l(-1) of Cr(VI), the RSD was 0.4% (n=5). The recovery of 0.70 mg l(-1) Cr(VI) added to the waste-water sample was 94.5+/-2.0% (n=5).

  2. E × B flow velocity deduced from the poloidal motion of fluctuation patterns in neutral beam injected L-mode plasmas on KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W.; Leem, J.; Yun, G. S.; Park, H. K.; Ko, S. H.; Choi, M. J.; Wang, W. X.; Budny, R. V.; Ethier, S.; Park, Y. S.; Luhmann, N. C.; Domier, C. W.; Lee, K. D.; Ko, W. H.; Kim, K. W.

    2016-05-01

    A method for direct assessment of the equilibrium E × B flow velocity ( E ×B flow shear is responsible for the turbulence suppression and transport reduction in tokamak plasmas) is investigated based on two facts. The first one is that the apparent poloidal rotation speed of density fluctuation patterns is close to the turbulence rotation speed in the direction perpendicular to the local magnetic field line within the flux surface. And the second "well-known" fact is that the turbulence rotation velocity consists of the equilibrium E × B flow velocity and intrinsic phase velocity of turbulence in the E × B flow frame. In the core region of the low confinement (L-mode) discharges where a strong toroidal rotation is induced by neutral beam injection, the apparent poloidal velocities (and turbulence rotation velocities) are good approximations of the E ×B flow velocities since linear gyrokinetic simulations suggest that the intrinsic phase velocity of the dominant turbulence is significantly lower than the apparent poloidal velocity. In the neutral beam injected L-mode plasmas, temporal and spatial scales of the measured turbulence are studied by comparing with the local equilibrium parameters relevant to the ion-scale turbulence.

  3. Circulatory kinetics of intravenously injected {sup 238}Pu(IV) citrate and {sup 14}C-CaNa{sub 3}-DTPA in mice: Comparison with rat, dog, and Reference Man

    SciTech Connect

    Durbin, P.W.; Kullgren, B.; Schmidt, C.T.

    1997-02-01

    New ligands for in vivo chelation of Pu(IV) are being synthesized and evaluated in mice for efficacy and toxicity. Biokinetic studies of the new ligands, CaNa{sub 3}-DTPA, and Pu(IV) are major components of those investigations. Young adult female mice were injected intravenously (iv) with {sup 3}H-inulin, {sup 14}C-CaNa{sub 3}-DTPA, or {sup 238}Pu(IV) citrate to provide base- line data for plasma clearance, tissue uptake, and excretion rates and to determine the dilution volume (VOD) and renal clearance rate (RC) of filterable substances. Published plasma clearance data in Reference Man, dog, and rat were collected. Based on combined data for {sup 3}H-inulin and {sup 14}C-CaNa{sub 3}-DTPA, VOD = 17% of body weight and RC = 18 mL kg{sup -1} min{sup -1} for mice. Retention of {sup 14}C-CaNa{sub 3}-DTPA in the four species is proportional to body weight and inversely proportional to RC: Integrals of the retention of {sup 14}C-CaNa{sub 3}-DTPA from R(t) = 1.0 to R(t) = 0.05 are 108, 43, 28, and 10 DF min, respectively, for Reference Man, dog, rat, and mouse. Clearances of iv-injected Pu(IV) citrate from plasma are in the same order: The plasma curve integrals from injection to 1440 min are 840, 640, 280, and 67 DF min, respectively, for Reference Man, dog, rat, and mouse. In mice, a large fraction of newly injected Pu(IV) is rapidly transferred to the interstitial water of bulk soft tissue (excluding liver and kidneys), from which it is cleared at the same rate as from the plasma. Rapid plasma clearance, escape into interstitial water (22%ID at 20 min), significant early urinary excretion (8%ID in 12 h), and prompt deposition in liver and skeleton (complete in 12 h) are evidence of inefficient binding to plasma protein of newly injected Pu(IV) in mice. Slow plasma clearance, little early urinary excretion, and delayed deposition in liver and skeleton reflect more efficient binding of newly injected Pu(IV) in Reference Man and dog. 39 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Wall-slip of highly filled powder injection molding compounds: Effect of flow channel geometry and roughness

    SciTech Connect

    Hausnerova, Berenika; Sanetrnik, Daniel; Paravanova, Gordana

    2014-05-15

    The paper deals with the rheological behavior of highly filled compounds proceeded via powder injection molding (PIM) and applied in many sectors of industry (automotive, medicine, electronic or military). Online rheometer equipped with slit dies varying in surface roughness and dimensions was applied to investigate the wall-slip as a rheological phenomenon, which can be considered as a parameter indicating the separation of compound components (polymer binder and metallic powder) during high shear rates when injection molded.

  5. On-line flow injection molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction for the preconcentration and determination of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine samples.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Montserrat; Bartolomé, Mónica; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Paniagua, Gema; Gañan, Judith; Gallego-Picó, Alejandrina; Garcinuño, Rosa María

    2017-05-01

    New analytical strategies tend to automation of sample pre-treatment and flow analysis techniques provided a number of enhanced analytical methods allowing high throughput. Flow techniques are usually faster, more robust and more flexible than their batch equivalents. In addition, flow methods use less sample and reagent amounts and reduce analytical costs and waste. A flow injection solid-phase extraction pre-concentration system using a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) packed micro-column was developed for the determination of 1-hydroxypyrene in human urine with fluorescence detection. The pre-concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene on the MIP was carried out based on the specific retention of analyte by on-line introducing the sample into the micro-column system. Methanol and dichloromethane mixture was used to elute the retained analyte for fluorometric analysis. Important influencing factors were studied in detail, in batch and in flow (MISPE procedure optimisation, sample and eluent volumes, flow rate, dimensions of MIP micro-column and amounts of packing material, etc). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first on-line flow injection molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction for the pre-concentration and determination of hydroxylate PAH metabolite in urine samples. The optimised method was successfully applied to the determination of 1-Hydroxypyrene in spiked urine samples, with recoveries in the range of 74-85% and RSD<4.6%. Under optimum experimental conditions, the linearity concentration range used was 10-400μgL(-1), R(2)>0.996. We obtained limit of detection and quantification of 3.1μgL(-1) and 10.5μgL(-1), respectively.

  6. Simultaneous determination of some food additives in soft drinks and other liquid foods by flow injection on-line dialysis coupled to high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kritsunankul, Orawan; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2011-06-15

    Flow injection on-line dialysis was developed for sample pretreatment prior to the simultaneous determination of some food additives by high performance liquid chromatography (FID-HPLC). A liquid sample or mixed standard solution (900 μL) was injected into a donor stream (5%, w/v, sucrose) of FID system and was pushed further through a dialysis cell, while an acceptor solution (0.025 mol L(-1) phosphate buffer, pH 3.75) was held in the opposite side of the dialysis membrane. The dialysate was then flowed to an injection loop of the HPLC valve, where it was further injected into the HPLC system and analyzed under isocratic reverse-phase HPLC conditions and UV detection (230 nm). The order of elution of five food additives was acesulfame-K, saccharin, caffeine, benzoic acid and sorbic acid, respectively, with the analysis time of 14 min. On-line dialysis and HPLC analysis could be performed in parallel, providing sample throughput of 4.3h(-1). Dialysis efficiencies of five food additives were in ranges of 5-11%. Linear calibration graphs were in ranges of 10-100 mg L(-1) for acesulfame-K and saccharin, 10-250 mg L(-1) for benzoic acid and 10-500 mg L(-1) for caffeine and sorbic acid. Good precisions (RSD<5%) for all the additives were obtained. The proposed system was applied to soft drink and other liquid food samples. Acceptable percentage recoveries could be obtained by appropriate dilution of the sample before injecting into the system. The developed system has advantages of high degrees of automation for sample pretreatment, i.e., on-line sample separation and dilution and low consumption of chemicals and materials.

  7. Combined effects of suction/injection and wall surface curvature on natural convection flow in a vertical micro-porous annulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, B. K.; Aina, B.; Muhammad, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates analytically the hydrodynamic and thermal behaviour of a fully developed natural convection flow in a vertical micro-porous-annulus (MPA) taking into account the velocity slip and temperature jump at the outer surface of inner porous cylinder and inner surface of outer porous cylinder. A closed — form solution is presented for velocity, temperature, volume flow rate, skin friction and rate of heat transfer expressed as a Nusselt number. The influence of each governing parameter on hydrodynamic and thermal behaviour is discussed with the aid of graphs. During the course of investigation, it is found that as suction/injection on the cylinder walls increases, the fluid velocity and temperature is enhanced. In addition, it is observed that wall surface curvature has a significant effect on flow and thermal characteristics.

  8. Ion Imprinted Polymer for Preconcentration and Determination of Ultra-Trace Cadmium, Employing Flow Injection Analysis with Thermo Spray Flame Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    do Lago, Ayla Campos; Marchioni, Camila; Mendes, Tássia Venga; Wisniewski, Célio; Fadini, Pedro Sergio; Luccas, Pedro Orival

    2016-11-01

    This work proposes a preconcentration method using an ion imprinted polymer (IIP) for determination of cadmium, in several samples, employing a mini-column filled with the polymer coupled into a flow injection analysis system with detection by thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (FIA-TS-FF-AAS). The polymer was synthesized via bulk using methacrylic acid and vinylimidazole as a functional monomer. For the FIA system initial assessment, the variables: pH, eluent concentration and buffer concentration were studied, employing a 23 full factorial design. To obtain the optimum values for each significant variable, a Doehlert matrix was employed. After the optimization conditions as: pH 5.8, eluent (HNO3) concentration of 0.48 mol L(-1) and buffer concentration of 0.01 mol L(-1), were adopted. The proposed method showed a linear response in the range of 0.081-10.0 μg L(-1), limits detection and quantification of 0.024 and 0.081 μg L(-1), respectively; preconcentration factor of 165, consumptive index of 0.06 mL, concentration efficiency 132 min(-1), and frequency of readings equal to 26 readings h(-1) The accuracy was checked by analysis of certified reference materials for trace metals and recovery tests. The obtained results were in agreement with 95% confidence level (t-test). The method was adequate to apply in samples of: jewelry (earrings) (2.38 ± 0.28 μg kg(-1)), black tea (1.09 ± 0.15 μg kg(-1)), green tea (3.85 ± 0.13 μg kg(-1)), cigarette tobacco (38.27 ± 0.22 μg kg(-1)), and hair (0.35 ± 0.02 μg kg(-1)).

  9. Automation of flow injection gas diffusion-ion chromatography for the nanomolar determination of methylamines and ammonia in seawater and atmospheric samples

    PubMed Central

    Gibb, Stuart W.; Wood, John W.; Fauzi, R.; Mantoura, C.

    1995-01-01

    The automation and improved design and performance of Flow Injection Gas Diffusion-Ion Chromatography (FIGD-IC), a novel technique for the simultaneous analysis of trace ammonia (NH3) and methylamines (MAs) in aqueous media, is presented. Automated Flow Injection Gas Diffusion (FIGD) promotes the selective transmembrane diffusion of MAs and NH3 from aqueous sample under strongly alkaline (pH > 12, NaOH), chelated (EDTA) conditions into a recycled acidic acceptor stream. The acceptor is then injected onto an ion chromatograph where NH3 and the MAs are fully resolved as their cations and detected conductimetrically. A versatile PC interfaced control unit and data capture unit (DCU) are employed in series to direct the selonoid valve switching sequence, IC operation and collection of data. Automation, together with other modifications improved both linearily (R2 > 0.99 MAs 0-100 nM, NH3 0-1000 nM) and precision (<8%) of FIGD-IC at nanomolar concentrations, compared with the manual procedure. The system was successfully applied to the determination of MAs and NH3 in seawater and in trapped particulate and gaseous atmospheric samples during an oceanographic research cruise. PMID:18925047

  10. Experimental study about estimating the permeability and storativity properties of CO2 in low permeable rocks under the CO2 injection by flow-pump method.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, H.; Mitani, Y.; Ikemi, H.; Kitamura, K.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, it is generally believed that the increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) emission has become a major contributing factor of a global warming. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is an emerging technology and considered as the promising method to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere. Generally, CCS is intended to apply in oil or natural gas reservoir layers with overlying cap rock. However, in Japan, few proper sites are available for CCS. Therefore, low-permeable rock mass without cap rock is suggested as alternative option. It is required to clarify behavior of CO2 in rock for longitudinal and stable storage of CO2. In order to clarify the properties of permeability and storativity of low permeable rocks, Ainoura sandstone, saturated with water injected with a constant and appropriate flow rate of supercritical CO2, flow pump permeability test under the condition of temperature and pressure of in-situ CO2 reservoir has been conducted. In this experiment, the differential pressure between both ends of specimen changed in 4 stages and finally in stable condition. Furthermore, relative permeability of water and CO2, and specific storage of specimen during CO2 injection has been calculated with theoretical analysis of flow pump permeability test for two phase flow. Using the results of the experiment, 3D core-scale flow-simulation by using TOUGH2 (ECO2N module) has been conducted due to confirm the flow of fluid and CO2 distribution in the specimen. To compare the results of simulation and experimental results, the permeability and storativity properties of carbon dioxide in low permeable rock has been estimated. As a result, low permeable rocks could become an effective storage of supercritical CO2.

  11. Quasi-flow injection analysis for rapid determination of caffeine in tea using the sample pre-treatment method with a cartridge column filled with polyvinylpolypyrrolidone.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Yuji; Nakamura, Akiko; Kohno, Iho; Hatanaka, Kirara; Kitai, Miki; Tanimoto, Tsuyoshi

    2008-01-04

    The sample pre-treatment method using a polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) cartridge column combined with a quasi-flow injection analysis (quasi-FIA) system realized the rapid determination of caffeine in three types of tea, green, oolong and black tea. The measurement time for each tea sample pre-treated using a PVPP cartridge column was shortened to 20s. In the present system, the limits of detection and quantification were 0.3 microM (1.5 pmol injected) and 0.7 microM (3.5 pmol injected), respectively, and a linear calibration curve was afforded up to 800 microM (4 nmol injected). Within-run precision of analysis of standard solutions of 10 and 100 microM caffeine was 0.11 and 0.16% (n=6), respectively. Between-run precision of analysis of the same solutions over 6 days was 0.78 and 0.74% (n=6), respectively. Comparison with the conventional HPLC method indicated that the present quasi-FIA method using sample pre-treatment with a PVPP cartridge column was useful for the simple and precise determination of caffeine in green, oolong and black tea samples.

  12. The effects of engine speed and injection characteristics on the flow field and fuel/air mixing in motored two-stroke diesel engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, H. L.; Carpenter, M. H.; Ramos, J. I.

    1987-01-01

    A numerical analysis is presented on the effects of the engine speed, injection angle, droplet distribution function, and spray cone angle on the flow field, spray penetration and vaporization, and turbulence in a turbocharged motored two-stroke diesel engine. The results indicate that the spray penetration and vaporization, velocity, and turbulence kinetic energy increase with the intake swirl angle. Good spray penetration, vaporization, and mixing can be achieved by injecting droplets of diameters between 50 and 100 microns along a 120-deg cone at about 315 deg before top-dead-center for an intake swirl angle of 30 deg. The spray penetration and vaporization were found to be insensitive to the turbulence levels within the cylinder. The results have also indicated that squish is necessary in order to increase the fuel vaporization rate and mixing.

  13. Establishment of a finite element model for extracting chemical reaction kinetics in a micro-flow injection system with high throughput sampling.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zeng-Qiang; Du, Wen-Bin; Li, Jin-Yi; Xia, Xing-Hua; Fang, Qun

    2015-08-01

    Numerical simulation can provide valuable insights for complex microfluidic phenomena coupling mixing and diffusion processes. Herein, a novel finite element model (FEM) has been established to extract chemical reaction kinetics in a microfluidic flow injection analysis (micro-FIA) system using high throughput sample introduction. To reduce the computation burden, the finite element mesh generation is performed with different scales based on the different geometric sizes of micro-FIA. In order to study the contribution of chemical reaction kinetics under non-equilibrium condition, a pseudo-first-order chemical kinetics equation is adopted in the numerical simulations. The effect of reactants diffusion on reaction products is evaluated, and the results demonstrate that the Taylor dispersion plays a determining role in the micro-FIA system. In addition, the effects of flow velocity and injection volume on the reaction product are also simulated. The simulated results agree well with the ones from experiments. Although gravity driven flow is used to the numerical model in the present study, the FEM model also can be applied into the systems with other driving forces such as pressure. Therefore, the established FEM model will facilitate the understanding of reaction mechanism in micro-FIA systems and help us to optimize the manifold of micro-FIA systems.

  14. Application of direct-injection detector integrated with the multi-pumping flow system to chemiluminescence determination of the total polyphenol index.

    PubMed

    Nalewajko-Sieliwoniuk, Edyta; Iwanowicz, Magdalena; Kalinowski, Sławomir; Kojło, Anatol

    2016-03-10

    In this work, we present a novel chemiluminescence (CL) method based on direct-injection detector (DID) integrated with the multi-pumping flow system (MPFS) to chemiluminescence determination of the total polyphenol index. In this flow system, the sample and the reagents are injected directly into the cone-shaped detection cell placed in front of the photomultiplier window. Such construction of the detection chamber allows for fast measurement of the CL signal in stopped-flow conditions immediately after mixing the reagents. The proposed DID-CL-MPFS method is based on the chemiluminescence of nanocolloidal manganese(IV)-hexametaphosphate-ethanol system. The application of ethanol as a sensitizer, eliminated the use of carcinogenic formaldehyde. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the chemiluminescence intensities are proportional to the concentration of gallic acid in the range from 5 to 350 ng mL(-1). The DID-CL-MPFS method offers a number of advantages, including low limit of detection (0.80 ng mL(-1)), high precision (RSD = 3.3%) and high sample throughput (144 samples h(-1)) as well as low consumption of reagents, energy and low waste generation. The proposed method has been successfully applied to determine the total polyphenol index (expressed as gallic acid equivalent) in a variety of plant-derived food samples (wine, tea, coffee, fruit and vegetable juices, herbs, spices).

  15. Development of flow injection potentiometric methods for the off-line and on-line determination of fluoride to monitor the biodegradation of a monofluorophenol in two bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Raquel B R; Santos, Inês C; Pedrosa, Marta F F; Duque, Anouk F; Castro, Paula M L; Rangel, António O S S

    2011-06-15

    Water treatment has become a source of concern as new pollutants and higher volumes of waste water must be treated. Emerging biological approaches, namely the use of bioreactors, for cleaning processes have been introduced. The use of bioreactors requires the development of efficient monitoring tools, preferably with real-time measurements. In this work, a couple of flow injection systems were developed and optimized for the potentiometric determination of fluoride to monitor a rotating biological contactor (RBC) bioreactor and a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with off-line and on-line sampling. Both the RBC and the SBR bioreactors were set up for the biodegradation of the halogenated organic compound 2-fluorophenol and, as fluoride was a degradation byproduct, the process was monitored by following up its concentration. The described flow injection potentiometric methods enabled the fluoride determination within the required quantification range 0.10-100mM. The possible interferences from the growth medium were minimized in-line. The determination rate was 78 h(-1) for the off-line monitoring of RBC and 50(-1)h for the on-line monitoring of the SBR, with a sample consumption of 0.500 mL and 0.133 mL per determination, respectively. Furthermore, the overall reagent consumption was quite low. The accuracy of the system was evaluated by comparison with a batch procedure. The SBR efficiency was monitored both on-line by the flow system and off-line by HPLC, for comparison purposes.

  16. Chitosan-guar gum-silver nanoparticles hybrid matrix with immobilized enzymes for fabrication of beta-glucan and glucose sensing photometric flow injection system.

    PubMed

    Bagal-Kestwal, Dipali R; Kestwal, Rakesh Mohan; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Chiang, Been-Huang

    2014-01-01

    Simple and fast photometric flow injection analysis system was developed for sensing of β-1,3-glucan from medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum during fermentation. For this purpose, the chitosan-guar gum-silver nanoparticle-beta glucanase (Ch-GG-AgNPs-βG) beads and Ch-GG-AgNPs-GOD (glucose oxidase) beads were prepared. The bead packed mini-columns were then used to assemble a flow injection analysis (FIA) system for the detection of β-(1→3)-d-glucan biomarker or glucose. This colorimetric flow system can detect glucose and glucan with detection limits as low as 50ngmL(-1) and 100ngmL(-1) (S/N=3), respectively. The analysis time of this FIA was approximately 40s, which is faster than the previously reported glucan sensors. The glucose and glucan calibration curves were obtained in the range of 0.25-1.25μgmL(-1) (R(2)=0.988) and 0.2-1.0μgmL(-1)(R(2)=0.979), respectively. The applicability of the nano-bio-composite FIA sensor system for spiked and real β-(1→3)-d-glucan samples were tested, and the accuracy of the results were greater than 95%. Thus, the designed FIA provides a simple, interference free and rapid tool for monitoring glucose and β-glucan content, which can be used for various food samples with a little modification.

  17. Effects of Mean Flow Profiles on Instability of a Low-Density Gas Jet Injected into a High-Density Gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedantam, Nanda Kishore

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the mean flow profiles on the instability characteristics in the near-injector region of low-density gas jets injected into high-density ambient gas mediums. To achieve this, a linear temporal stability analysis and a spatio-temporal stability analysis of a low-density round gas jet injected vertically upwards into a high-density ambient gas were performed by assuming three different sets of mean velocity and density profiles. The flow was assumed to be isothermal and locally parallel. Viscous and diffusive effects were ignored. The mean flow parameters were represented as the sum of the mean value and a small normal-mode fluctuation. A second order differential equation governing the pressure disturbance amplitude was derived from the basic conservation equations. The first set of mean velocity and density profiles assumed were those used by Monkewitz and Sohn for investigating absolute instability in hot jets. The second set of velocity and density profiles assumed for this study were the ones used by Lawson. And the third set of mean profiles included a parabolic velocity profile and a hyperbolic tangent density profile. The effects of the inhomogeneous shear layer and the Froude number (signifying the effects of gravity) on the temporal and spatio-temporal results for each set of mean profiles were delineated. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  18. Computational and Experimental Characterization of the Mach 6 Facility Nozzle Flow for the Enhanced Injection and Mixing Project at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drozda, Tomasz G.; Cabell, Karen F.; Passe, Bradley J.; Baurle, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics analyses and experimental data are presented for the Mach 6 facility nozzle used in the Arc-Heated Scramjet Test Facility for the Enhanced Injection and Mixing Project (EIMP). This project, conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center, aims to investigate supersonic combustion ramjet (scramjet) fuel injection and mixing physics relevant to flight Mach numbers greater than 8. The EIMP experiments use a two-dimensional Mach 6 facility nozzle to provide the high-speed air simulating the combustor entrance flow of a scramjet engine. Of interest are the physical extent and the thermodynamic properties of the core flow at the nozzle exit plane. The detailed characterization of this flow is obtained from three-dimensional, viscous, Reynolds-averaged simulations. Thermodynamic nonequilibrium effects are also investigated. The simulations are compared with the available experimental data, which includes wall static pressures as well as in-stream static pressure, pitot pressure and total temperature obtained via in-stream probes positioned just downstream of the nozzle exit plane.

  19. Towards a comprehensive atlas of cortical connections in a primate brain: Mapping tracer injection studies of the common marmoset into a reference digital template.

    PubMed

    Majka, Piotr; Chaplin, Tristan A; Yu, Hsin-Hao; Tolpygo, Alexander; Mitra, Partha P; Wójcik, Daniel K; Rosa, Marcello G P

    2016-08-01

    The marmoset is an emerging animal model for large-scale attempts to understand primate brain connectivity, but achieving this aim requires the development and validation of procedures for normalization and integration of results from many neuroanatomical experiments. Here we describe a computational pipeline for coregistration of retrograde tracing data on connections of cortical areas into a 3D marmoset brain template, generated from Nissl-stained sections. The procedure results in a series of spatial transformations that are applied to the coordinates of labeled neurons in the different cases, bringing them into common stereotaxic space. We applied this procedure to 17 injections, placed in the frontal lobe of nine marmosets as part of earlier studies. Visualizations of cortical patterns of connections revealed by these injections are supplied as Supplementary Materials. Comparison between the results of the automated and human-based processing of these cases reveals that the centers of injection sites can be reconstructed, on average, to within 0.6 mm of coordinates estimated by an experienced neuroanatomist. Moreover, cell counts obtained in different areas by the automated approach are highly correlated (r = 0.83) with those obtained by an expert, who examined in detail histological sections for each individual. The present procedure enables comparison and visualization of large datasets, which in turn opens the way for integration and analysis of results from many animals. Its versatility, including applicability to archival materials, may reduce the number of additional experiments required to produce the first detailed cortical connectome of a primate brain. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2161-2181, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Characterization of performance reference compound kinetics and analyte sampling rate corrections under three flow regimes using nylon organic chemical integrative samplers.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Shane A; Belden, Jason B

    2016-09-30

    Performance reference compounds (PRCs) can be spiked into passive samplers prior to deployment. If the dissipation kinetics of PRCs from the sampler corresponds to analyte accumulation kinetics, then PRCs can be used to estimate in-situ sampling rates, which may vary depending on environmental conditions. Under controlled laboratory conditions, the effectiveness of PRC corrections on prediction accuracy of water concentrations were evaluated using nylon organic chemical integrative samplers (NOCIS). Results from PRC calibrations suggest that PRC elimination occurs faster under higher flow conditions; however, minimal differences were observed for PRC elimination between fast flow (9.3cm/s) and slow flow (5.0cm/s) conditions. Moreover, minimal differences were observed for PRC elimination from Dowex Optipore L-493; therefore, PRC corrections did not improve results for NOCIS configurations containing Dowex Optipore L-493. Regardless, results suggest that PRC corrections were beneficial for NOCIS configurations containing Oasis HLB; however, due to differences in flow dependencies of analyte sampling rates and PRC elimination rates across the investigated flow regimes, the use of multiple PRC corrections was necessary. As such, a "Best-Fit PRC" approach was utilized for Oasis HLB corrections using caffeine-(13)C3, DIA-d5, or no correction based on the relative flow dependencies of analytes and these PRCs. Although PRC corrections reduced the variability when in-situ conditions differed from laboratory calibrations (e.g. static versus moderate flow), applying PRC corrections under similar flow conditions increases variability in estimated values.