Science.gov

Sample records for reference group reviews

  1. The Non-Membership Reference Group and Ego.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, David

    This research essentially presents an overview, historically and contemporarily, of the social-psychological concept of the reference group (or "other"), including theoretical and empirical literature reviews. Basic problems of definition and conceptual confusion are discussed. Concepts such as relative deprivation, anticipatory socialization,…

  2. Review of the Reference Dose and Reference Concentration Processes Document

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Summarizes the review and deliberations of the Risk Assessment Forum’s RfD/RfC Technical Panel and its recommendations for improvements in oral referencedose/inhalation reference concentration (RfD/RfC) process.

  3. MOVES Model Review Work Group

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The FACA MOVES Review Work Group was formed under the Mobile Sources Technical Review Subcommittee (MSTRS), and is charged to provide input to EPA via the MSTRS and the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee on specific issues regarding MOVES development.

  4. Reference group effects in the measurement of personality and attitudes.

    PubMed

    Credé, Marcus; Bashshur, Michael; Niehorster, Sarah

    2010-09-01

    Reference-group effects (discovered in cross-cultural settings) occur when responses to self-report items are based not on respondents' absolute level of a construct but rather on their level relative to a salient comparison group. In this article, we examine the impact of reference-group effects on the assessment of self-reported personality and attitudes. Two studies illustrate that a reference-group effect can be induced by small changes to instruction sets, changes that mirror the instruction sets of commonly used measures of personality. Scales that specified different reference groups showed substantial reductions in criterion-related validities for academic performance, self-reported counterproductive behaviors, and self-reported health outcomes relative to reference-group-free versions of those scales.

  5. With Reference to Reference Genes: A Systematic Review of Endogenous Controls in Gene Expression Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Joanne R.; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The choice of reference genes that are stably expressed amongst treatment groups is a crucial step in real-time quantitative PCR gene expression studies. Recent guidelines have specified that a minimum of two validated reference genes should be used for normalisation. However, a quantitative review of the literature showed that the average number of reference genes used across all studies was 1.2. Thus, the vast majority of studies continue to use a single gene, with β-actin (ACTB) and/or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) being commonly selected in studies of vertebrate gene expression. Few studies (15%) tested a panel of potential reference genes for stability of expression before using them to normalise data. Amongst studies specifically testing reference gene stability, few found ACTB or GAPDH to be optimal, whereby these genes were significantly less likely to be chosen when larger panels of potential reference genes were screened. Fewer reference genes were tested for stability in non-model organisms, presumably owing to a dearth of available primers in less well characterised species. Furthermore, the experimental conditions under which real-time quantitative PCR analyses were conducted had a large influence on the choice of reference genes, whereby different studies of rat brain tissue showed different reference genes to be the most stable. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising reference genes before conducting gene expression studies. PMID:26555275

  6. With Reference to Reference Genes: A Systematic Review of Endogenous Controls in Gene Expression Studies.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Joanne R; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The choice of reference genes that are stably expressed amongst treatment groups is a crucial step in real-time quantitative PCR gene expression studies. Recent guidelines have specified that a minimum of two validated reference genes should be used for normalisation. However, a quantitative review of the literature showed that the average number of reference genes used across all studies was 1.2. Thus, the vast majority of studies continue to use a single gene, with β-actin (ACTB) and/or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) being commonly selected in studies of vertebrate gene expression. Few studies (15%) tested a panel of potential reference genes for stability of expression before using them to normalise data. Amongst studies specifically testing reference gene stability, few found ACTB or GAPDH to be optimal, whereby these genes were significantly less likely to be chosen when larger panels of potential reference genes were screened. Fewer reference genes were tested for stability in non-model organisms, presumably owing to a dearth of available primers in less well characterised species. Furthermore, the experimental conditions under which real-time quantitative PCR analyses were conducted had a large influence on the choice of reference genes, whereby different studies of rat brain tissue showed different reference genes to be the most stable. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising reference genes before conducting gene expression studies.

  7. Specificity, contexts, and reference groups matter when assessing autistic traits

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Jennifer L.; Dern, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Many of the personality and behavioral traits (e.g., social imperviousness, directness in conversation, lack of imagination, affinity for solitude, difficulty displaying emotions) that are known to be sensitive to context (with whom?) and reference group (according to whom?) also appear in questionnaire-based assessments of autistic traits. Therefore, two experiments investigated the effects of specifying contexts and reference groups when assessing autistic traits in autistic and non-autistic participants. Experiment 1 (124 autistic and 124 non-autistic participants) demonstrated that context matters when assessing autistic traits (F(1,244) = 267.5, p < .001, η2p = .523). When the context of the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire was specified as the participants’ out-group (e.g., “I like being around non-autistic people” or “I like being around autistic people”), both autistic and non-autistic participants self-reported having more autistic traits; when the context was specified as the participants’ in-group, participants reported having fewer autistic traits. Experiment 2 (82 autistic and 82 non-autistic participants) demonstrated that reference group matters when assessing autistic traits (F(2,160) = 94.38, p < .001, η2p = .541). When the reference group on the Social Responsiveness Scale was specified as the participants’ out-group (e.g., “According to non-autistic people, I have unusual eye contact”), autistic participants reported having more autistic traits; when the reference group was their in-group, autistic participants reported having fewer autistic traits. Non-autistic participants appeared insensitive to reference group on the Social Responsiveness Scale. Exploratory analyses suggested that when neither the context nor the reference group is specified (for assessing autistic traits on the Autism-Spectrum Quotient), both autistic and non-autistic participants use the majority (“non-autistic people”) as the implied context and

  8. Review of the literature on reference pricing.

    PubMed

    López-Casasnovas, G; Puig-Junoy, J

    2000-11-17

    This paper reviews the literature on reference pricing (RP) in pharmaceutical markets. The RP strategy for cost containment of expenditure on drugs is analyzed as part of the procurement mechanism. We review the existing literature and the state-of-the-art regarding RP by focusing on its economic effects. In particular, we consider: (1) the institutional context and problem-related factors which appear to underline the need to implement an RP strategy; i.e. its nature, characteristics and the sort of health care problems commonly addressed; (2) how RP operates in practice; that is, how third party-payers (the insurers/buyers) have established the RP systems existing on the international scene (i.e. information methods, monitoring procedures and legislative provisions); (3) the range of effects resulting from particular RP strategies (including effects on choice of appropriate pharmaceuticals, insurer savings, total drug expenditures, prices of referenced and non-referenced products and dynamic efficiency; (4) the market failures which an RP policy is supposed to address and the main advantages and drawbacks which emerge from an analysis of its effects. Results suggest that RP systems achieve better their postulated goals (1) if cost inflation in pharmaceuticals is due to high prices rather than to the excess of prescription rates, (2) when the larger is the existing difference in prices among equivalent drugs, and (3) more important is the actual market for generics.

  9. Review of the problems involved in using enzymes in blood group serology--provision of freeze-dried ICSH/ISBT protease enzyme and anti-D reference standards. International Council for Standardization in Haematology. International Society of Blood Transfusion.

    PubMed

    Scott, M L; Voak, D; Phillips, P K; Hoppe, P A; Kochman, S A

    1994-01-01

    Proteolytic enzyme preparations and techniques used routinely in blood group serology for the detection of atypical patient antibodies prior to transfusion vary widely and are often poorly standardised. Recent advances have been made in the use of biochemical methods to standardise and stabilise the potency of the enzyme preparations used. A joint working party of the International Council for Standardization in Haematology (ICSH) and the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) has investigated possibilities for the provision of standards for the protease preparations and techniques. The specification for these standards was that the performance of enzyme reference preparation in the reference technique should be of equivalent sensitivity to the ICSH/ISBT LISS spin indirect antiglobulin test using a titration series of a reference weak anti-D, and be free from false-positive reactions. The working party circulated materials for evaluation in inter-laboratory trials, followed by a laboratory workshop meeting to achieve agreement on the specification for reference materials and methods. Reference freeze-dried papain at 0.6 azoalbumin units and weak anti-D preparations (91/562) have been prepared and validated to meet these specifications. The performance of a test enzyme preparation in the technique for which it is recommended for use should be at least equal to that of the reference papain preparation, by the reference two-stage technique in terms of sensitivity, using a titration series of the reference anti-D, and freedom from false-positive reactions, using six fresh inert sera. The reference papain and weak anti-D can also be used to calibrate the level of proteolytic activity required in other procedures in blood group serology, such as new technology methods for antibody detection, and automated and microplate cell grouping procedures. These preparations and an agreed method for their use are now available from listed centres as ICSH/ISBT and Food

  10. Relative Deprivation and Health: Which Reference Groups Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangyo, Eiji; Park, Albert

    2011-01-01

    We examine the extent to which self-reported health and psychosocial health are affected by relative economic status in China, for the first time examining the importance of reference groups not defined by geographic location or demographic characteristics. We propose a methodology to address potential bias from subjective reporting biases and…

  11. [Reference group norm and its effects on fertility behavior].

    PubMed

    Kown, H W

    1980-11-01

    Explores the relatively untouched field of the role of reference groups in fertility behavior, and proposes further research in this important area. A reference group is a social unit which an individual perceives as holding values in common with his own, and which is a basis for self evaluation and attitude formation. The contingent consistency hypothesis proposes that social pressures reinforce the effect of attitude on behavior. The attitudes and behaviors examined here pertain to the use of family planning; contingent effects are norms of parents and other kin. The influence of the community on individual family formation is explored. The relationship between fertility transition and changes in values is also addressed. According to research findings, parents conceal cultural pressures for childbearing, either deliberately to avoid the appearance of being manipulated by others, or unintentionally because the pressures are internalized. In traditional societies, many choices are culturally proscribed, while in modern societies an individual exercises more freedom of choice. The study of reference groups is important because society shapes and directs individual behavior, and without such a mechanism an individual finds it difficult to adjust to rapid social change. Further research should focus on groups and communities rather than on individuals, through understanding the difficulties surrounding individuals in departing from unquestioning conservative attitudes. (Author's modified)

  12. Groups of Pesticides in Registration Review

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Review cases are in groups of related pesticides: organophosphates, N-methyl carbamates, pyrethroids pyrethrins and synergists, sulfonylureas, neonicotinoids, fumigants, triazines, imidazolinones, isothiazolinones, and pyridines.

  13. Reference Accuracy: Authors', Reviewers', Editors', and Publishers' Contributions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Scientific authors are responsible for the accuracy of their writings and references to others' works. However, relying on authors is not enough when it comes to processing their manuscripts. Joint efforts of authors, peer reviewers, editors, and publishers throughout the publishing process may prevent most reference errors. This article analyzes essential aspects of bibliographic management and focuses on the importance of validating references by all stakeholders of scholarly publishing. PMID:25469055

  14. Detecting Deception within Small Groups: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Vernham, Zarah; Granhag, Pär-Anders; Mac Giolla, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Investigators often have multiple suspects to interview in order to determine whether they are guilty or innocent of a crime. Nevertheless, co-offending has been significantly neglected within the deception detection literature. The current review is the first of its kind to discuss co-offending and the importance of examining the detection of deception within groups. Groups of suspects can be interviewed separately (individual interviewing) or simultaneously (collective interviewing) and these differing interviewing styles are assessed throughout the review. The review emphasizes the differences between lone individuals and groups. It focuses on the theoretical implications of group deceit and the reasons why groups need to be understood in terms of investigative interviewing and deception detection if all types of crime-related incidents are to be recognized and dealt with appropriately. Group strategies, consistency within- and between-statements, joint memory, and group dynamics are referred to throughout the review and the importance of developing interview protocols specifically for groups is discussed. The review concludes by identifying the gaps in the literature and suggesting ideas for future research, highlighting that more research is required if we are to obtain a true understanding of the deception occurring within groups and how best to detect it. PMID:27445957

  15. Development of a Unified Reference System for a Multi-personnel Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, D.; Fitzpaynes, J. Y. L.

    1973-01-01

    The establishment of a reference filing system, based on optical coincidence retrieval, for an eight-man research group studying gas reactions is described. The complete system is simple to use and gives rapid, precise reference retrieval. (1 reference) (Author)

  16. The reference group perspective for smoking cessation: an examination of the influence of social norms and social identification with reference groups on smoking cessation self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Phua, Joe J

    2013-03-01

    This study proposed the Reference Group Perspective for smoking cessation, examining smokers' identification with three reference groups: best friends, colleagues, and family members, and hypothesizing that identification with each group would moderate the relationship between injunctive and descriptive norms of the group and smoking cessation self-efficacy. Results of an online questionnaire (N = 208) indicated that injunctive and descriptive norms of all three reference groups significantly affected smoking cessation self-efficacy, and this relationship was moderated by identification. Injunctive norms were stronger in predicting smoking cessation self-efficacy than descriptive norms, with injunctive norms of family members and descriptive norms of best friends having the most significant effect. Positive attitude toward smoking was also significantly associated with smoking cessation self-efficacy.

  17. Managing and Coding References for Systematic Reviews and Scoping Reviews in EndNote.

    PubMed

    Peters, Micah D J

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a novel approach for using EndNote to manage and code references in the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews and scoping reviews. The process is simple and easy for reviewers new to both EndNote and systematic reviews. This process allows reviewers to easily conduct and report systematic reviews in line with the internationally recognized PRISMA reporting guidelines and also facilitates the overall task of systematic or scoping review conduct and reporting from the initial search through to structuring the results, discussion, and conclusions in a rigorous, reproducible, and user-friendly manner.

  18. Reference manual for the POISSON/SUPERFISH Group of Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The POISSON/SUPERFISH Group codes were set up to solve two separate problems: the design of magnets and the design of rf cavities in a two-dimensional geometry. The first stage of either problem is to describe the layout of the magnet or cavity in a way that can be used as input to solve the generalized Poisson equation for magnets or the Helmholtz equations for cavities. The computer codes require that the problems be discretized by replacing the differentials (dx,dy) by finite differences ({delta}X,{delta}Y). Instead of defining the function everywhere in a plane, the function is defined only at a finite number of points on a mesh in the plane.

  19. Methods to estimate irrigated reference crop evapotranspiration - a review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Jat, M K; Shankar, V

    2012-01-01

    Efficient water management of crops requires accurate irrigation scheduling which, in turn, requires the accurate measurement of crop water requirement. Irrigation is applied to replenish depleted moisture for optimum plant growth. Reference evapotranspiration plays an important role for the determination of water requirements for crops and irrigation scheduling. Various models/approaches varying from empirical to physically base distributed are available for the estimation of reference evapotranspiration. Mathematical models are useful tools to estimate the evapotranspiration and water requirement of crops, which is essential information required to design or choose best water management practices. In this paper the most commonly used models/approaches, which are suitable for the estimation of daily water requirement for agricultural crops grown in different agro-climatic regions, are reviewed. Further, an effort has been made to compare the accuracy of various widely used methods under different climatic conditions.

  20. 7 CFR 3411.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3411.11 Section... PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3411.11 Composition of peer review groups. (a) Peer review group members and ad hoc reviewers will be selected based upon their training...

  1. Reference Group Perspectives and the Vocational Maturity of Lower Socioeconomic Black Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elsie J.

    1976-01-01

    The reference group perspectives of 188 lower socioeconomic black high school seniors were found to be related to their career maturity. Students' post-high school plans (either work- or college-bound) and their views of the opportunity structure of America were related to both their reference group perspectives orientation and their career…

  2. Group Work for Bulimia: A Review of Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimpfer, David G.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews descriptive and experimental research relating to the eating disorder known as bulimia nervosa. Reviews outcome studies of group treatment of bulimia to examine the effectiveness of group intervention. Provides recommendations for practice and future research. (Author/PVV)

  3. Effects of reference pricing in pharmaceutical markets: a review.

    PubMed

    Galizzi, Matteo Maria; Ghislandi, Simone; Miraldo, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to provide a systematic and updated survey of original scientific studies on the effect of the introduction of reference pricing (RP) policies in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. We searched PubMed, EconLit and Web of Knowledge for articles on RP. We reviewed studies that met the inclusion criteria established in the search strategy. From a total of 468 references, we selected the 35 that met all of the inclusion criteria. Some common themes emerged in the literature. The first was that RP was generally associated with a decrease in the prices of the drugs subject to the policy. In particular, price drops seem to have been experienced in virtually every country that implemented a generic RP (GRP) policy. A GRP policy applies only to products with expired patents and generic competition, and clusters drugs according to chemical equivalence (same form and active compound). More significant price decreases were observed in the sub-markets in which drugs were already facing generic competition prior to RP. Price drops varied widely according to the amount of generic competition and industrial strategies: brand-named drugs originally priced above RP values decreased their prices to a greater extent. A second common theme was that both therapeutic RP (TRP) and GRP have been associated with significant and consistent savings in the first years of application. A third general result is that generic market shares significantly increased whenever the firms producing brand-named drugs did not adopt one of the following strategies: lowering prices to RP values; launching new dosages and/or formulations; or marketing substitute drugs still under patent protection. Finally, concerning TRP, although more evidence is needed, studies based on a large number of patient-level observations showed no association between the RP policy and health outcomes.

  4. Establishing a reference group for distal 18q-: Clinical description and molecular basis

    PubMed Central

    Cody, Jannine D.; Hasi, Minire; Soileau, Bridgette; Heard, Patricia; Carter, Erika; Sebold, Courtney; O’Donnell, Louise; Perry, Brian; Stratton, Robert F.; Hale, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Although constitutional chromosome abnormalities have been recognized since the 1960s, clinical characterization and development of treatment options have been hampered by their obvious genetic complexity and relative rarity. Additionally, deletions of 18q are particularly heterogeneous, with no two people having the same breakpoints. We identified sixteen individuals with deletions that, despite unique breakpoints, encompass the same set of genes within a 17.6 Mb region. This group represents the most genotypically similar group yet identified with distal 18q deletions. As the deletion is of average size when compared with other 18q deletions, this group can serve as a reference point for the clinical and molecular description of this condition. We performed a thorough medical record review as well as a series of clinical evaluations on 14 of the 16 individuals. Common functional findings included developmental delays, hypotonia, growth hormone deficiency, and hearing loss. Structural anomalies included foot anomalies, ear canal atresia/stenosis, and hypospadias. The majority of individuals performed within the low normal range of cognitive ability but had more serious deficits in adaptive abilities. Of interest, the hemizygous region contains 38 known genes, 26 of which are sufficiently understood to tentatively determine dosage sensitivity. Published data suggest that 20 are unlikely to cause an abnormal phenotype in the hemizygous state and five are likely to be dosage sensitive: TNX3, NETO1, ZNF407, TSHZ1, and NFATC. A sixth gene, ATP9B, may be conditionally dosage sensitive. Not all distal 18q- phenotypes can be attributed to these six genes; however, this is an important advance in the molecular characterization of 18q deletions. PMID:24092497

  5. [A work group reviews the AIDS testing of selected groups].

    PubMed

    Albinus, S

    1988-02-01

    A working group of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) advisory group to the health administration of Denmark has been studying the advantages and disadvantages of routine tests of certain groups. One advantage of offering routine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) tests to all pregnant women is that it makes it possible to follow the course of the epidemic. Secondly, it makes it possible for an individual woman to get an abortion if she is HIV-positive. On the other hand, routine HIV tests may keep female drug addicts who do not wish to be tested out of the pregnancy health care system. A specific problem is the greater number of false positives among pregnant women that among other groups. Normally tests are repeated immediately and again several months later if a new test is ambiguous but this possibility does not apply to pregnant women since the time limit for having an abortion will be exceeded. Still another advantage of offering routine HIV tests to pregnant women is that it will contribute to making HIV tests more routine, which will generally be an advantage to the AIDS campaign. A tentative conclusion is that it will be more productive to have routine HIV tests in venereal disease clinics where there is a higher percentage of population at risk.

  6. Vagus nerve pain referred to the craniofacial region. A case report and literature review with implications for referred cardiac pain.

    PubMed

    Myers, D E

    2008-02-23

    The pain of angina pectoris and myocardial infarction is sometimes referred to the head and neck region. The mechanism for this effect remains obscure. A case is presented here that reports that electrical stimulation of a cardiac branch of the left vagus nerve in humans can cause referred craniofacial pain. This leads to the hypothesis that the vagus nerve plays a role in mediating this pain. A review of the clinical and physiologic literature supports this hypothesis.

  7. Mentoring Together: A Literature Review of Group Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huizing, Russell L.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have shown the benefits of mentoring in both personal and professional growth. It would seem that group mentoring would only enhance those benefits. This work represents a literature review of peer-reviewed articles and dissertations that contribute to the theory and research of group mentoring. This work reviews the articles that…

  8. 42 CFR 52h.4 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 52h.4 Section... PEER REVIEW OF RESEARCH GRANT APPLICATIONS AND RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT PROJECTS § 52h.4 Composition of peer review groups. (a) To the extent applicable, the selection and appointment of members...

  9. A Review of Group Systems Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Joanie V.; Caple, Richard B.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to see interpersonal and group processes beyond the individual level is an essential skill for group therapists (Crouch, Bloch & Wanlass, 1994; Dies, 1994; Fuhriman & Burlingame, 1994). In addition to interpersonal therapy models (e.g., Sullivan and Yalom), there are a number of systems theory models that offer a broad array of…

  10. Reference Group Interaction and Sex Role Orientation: A Comparative Analysis by Sex and Mother's Achieved Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomeh, Aida K.; Vasko, Catherine

    This paper examines the role of parents and friends (reference groups) in forming college students' sex-role orientations. Emphasis is placed on the mother's domestic, parental, and achieved (professional/occupational) role and on the mother's modeling transmission effect on her daughter's and son's sex-role attitudes. The hypothesis is that…

  11. 75 FR 55793 - Cooperative Agreement to Support the Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... capacity found nowhere else. As part of the implementation of the WHO Global Strategy for Food Safety, WHO... to Estimate the Global Burden of Foodborne Diseases--Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference... global foodborne disease epidemiology. FERG consists of the following groups: a Core (or Steering)...

  12. Review of Meningococcal Group B Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Granoff, Dan M.

    2009-01-01

    No broadly effective vaccines are available for prevention of group B meningococcal disease, which account for > 50% of all cases. The group B capsule is an autoantigen and is not a suitable vaccine target. Outer-membrane vesicle (OMV) vaccines appear to be safe and effective but serum bactericidal (SBA) responses of infants are specific for a porin protein (PorA), which is antigenically variable. To broaden protection, OMV vaccines have been prepared from more than 1 strain; from mutants with more than 1 PorA; or mutants with genetically detoxified endotoxin and overexpressed desirable antigens such as factor H-binding protein (fHbp). Also, recombinant protein vaccines such as fHbp, given alone or combined with other antigens, are in late-stage clinical development and may be effective against the majority of group B strains. Thus, the prospects have never been better for developing vaccines for prevention of meningococcal disease, including group B strains. PMID:20144017

  13. Report of the IAU Working Group on Reference Systems Sub-Group on Time and Sub-Group on Astronomical Constants.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, T.

    The author reports the activity of two Sub-Groups (SG) of IAU Working Group on Reference Systems (IAU/WGRS), SG on Time and SG on Astronomical Constants. Also he gives explanations on some recommendations from IAU/WSGRS adopted at the IAU Colloquium No. 127 held at Virginia Beach on October, 1990; two on the introduction of general relativity, three on the new time-scales, and one for the continuation of activity on astronomical constants and other new tasks.

  14. Reference values for craniofacial structures in children 4 to 6 years old: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hönn, Mirjam; Göz, Gernot

    2007-05-01

    This review article addresses the question as to what methods can be used to investigate cranial structure and growth development in children 4 to 6 years old, and what the relevant reference values are for this age group. We screened the literature for epidemiological, longitudinal and cross-sectional studies investigating healthy children 4 to 6 years old without abnormalities and orthodontic therapy. Radiographic cephalometry is a practical, valid tool for analyzing craniofacial structure and growth processes. But it has several disadvantages, including the use of ionizing radiation, measuring points that are difficult to locate, no means of radiographic enlargement without distorting reference values, and the data's two-dimensionality. Anthropometry is another procedure for creating reference values for the craniofacial structure in children. Its advantages over radiographic cephalometry include three-dimensional results and no radiation exposure. Moreover, it yields precise and valid results for a wide variety of potential applications. In addition to these procedures, there are other techniques with which cranial structure and growth development in children 4 to 6 years old can be investigated. Those reported in the literature in this connection include standardized photographs, the creation of computerized and magnetic resonance images, and investigations performed on dry skulls. In short, there is great demand nowadays for investigations aimed at developing reference values for Caucasian children 4 to 6 years old. Radiographic cephalometry and anthropometry are two very common methods. Anthropometry is expected to become increasingly important because it involves no exposure to radiation.

  15. Focusing on Content: Discourse in L2 Peer Review Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorobel, Oksana; Kim, Deoksoon

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on peer review groups in second language classes have focused on various topics, including collaboration (Carr, 2008) and the effect of peer review versus teacher feedback on students' writing (Zhang, 1995). One area that has received little attention is the content of students' speech during peer review. This longitudinal case…

  16. Factors of Group Psychotherapy for Adult Alcoholics: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jonathan K.

    Research on therapeutic factors of group psychotherapy for adult alcoholics is reviewed. The research in this area has focused on determining whether or not group psychotherapy is an effective treatment modality for alcoholics. This review examines therapeutic factors in three phases of treatment: (1) preadmission, (2) primary intervention, and…

  17. Blue Dots Team Transits Working Group Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozzetti, A.; Afonso, C.; Alonso, R.; Blank, D. L.; Catala, C.; Deeg, H.; Grenfell, J. L.; Hellier, C.; Latham, D. W.; Minniti, D.; Pont, F.; Rauer, H.

    2010-10-01

    Transiting planet systems offer a unique opportunity to observationally constrain proposed models of the interiors (radius, composition) and atmospheres (chemistry, dynamics) of extrasolar planets. The spectacular successes of ground-based transit surveys (more than 60 transiting systems known to-date) and the host of multi-wavelength, spectro-photometric follow-up studies, carried out in particular by HST and Spitzer, have paved the way to the next generation of transit search projects, which are currently ongoing (CoRoT, Kepler), or planned. The possibility of detecting and characterizing transiting Earth-sized planets in the habitable zone of their parent stars appears tantalizingly close. In this contribution we briefly review the power of the transit technique for characterization of extrasolar planets, summarize the state of the art of both ground-based and space-borne transit search programs, and illustrate how the science of planetary transits fits within the Blue Dots perspective.

  18. Terrestrial Reference Systems and Frames. A review of current activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, C. C.

    2009-12-01

    Terrestrial Reference Systems (TRS) refer to an important domain of Geodesy, involving both theoretical and applied aspects, as well as deep connections with Astronomy, Earth Sciences and Geo-information. The concept of TRS implies several visions : - An astronomical vision, using TRS to study translational and rotational motion of the Earth in inertial space - An Earth Science vision, using TRS to build physical models of the Earth system, and its various components (solid earth, oceans, atmosphere, hydrosphere) - A metrological vision, using TRS together with suitable coordinate systems (geographical coordinates, map projections…) to define geographical position of objects in the Earth’s vicinity A survey of current activities in this area is presented, referring to works done by the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) and more specifically its Commission 1, GGOS and IERS. A focus is done on concepts and terminology, as well as progresses to get a wide acceptance on the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) and its system of realizations through global, regional and national frames, as well as through specific systems such as satellite navigation systems.

  19. The Organic Food Method and Movement: An Interdisciplinary Reference Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Elizabeth E.

    2011-01-01

    From popular movies to New York Times bestsellers, organic food is widely acknowledged to be of growing importance. Many community college students are asking: How is organic food different from everything else in the grocery store? What impact does farming have on the environment? How safe is our food? A survey of reference works introduces…

  20. Expanding Group Peer Review: A Proposal for Medical Education Scholarship.

    PubMed

    Dumenco, Luba; Engle, Deborah L; Goodell, Kristen; Nagler, Alisa; Ovitsh, Robin K; Whicker, Shari A

    2017-02-01

    After participating in a group peer-review exercise at a workshop presented by Academic Medicine and MedEdPORTAL editors at the 2015 Association of American Medical Colleges Medical Education Meeting, the authors realized that the way their work group reviewed a manuscript was very different from the way by which they each would have reviewed the paper as an individual. Further, the group peer-review process yielded more robust feedback for the manuscript's authors than did the traditional individual peer-review process. This realization motivated the authors to reconvene and collaborate to write this Commentary to share their experience and propose the expanded use of group peer review in medical education scholarship.The authors consider the benefits of a peer-review process for reviewers, including learning how to improve their own manuscripts. They suggest that the benefits of a team review model may be similar to those of teamwork and team-based learning in medicine and medical education. They call for research to investigate this, to provide evidence to support group review, and to determine whether specific paper types would benefit most from team review (e.g., particularly complex manuscripts, those receiving widely disparate initial individual reviews). In addition, the authors propose ways in which a team-based approach to peer review could be expanded by journals and institutions. They believe that exploring the use of group peer review potentially could create a new methodology for skill development in research and scholarly writing and could enhance the quality of medical education scholarship.

  1. [Streptococcus pyogenes or group A streptococcal infections in child: French national reference center data].

    PubMed

    Bidet, P; Plainvert, C; Doit, C; Mariani-Kurkdjian, P; Bonacorsi, S; Lepoutre, A; Bouvet, A; Poyart, C; Bingen, E

    2010-02-01

    Since the 1980s, infections due to Streptococcus pyogenes or group A streptococci (GAS) were marked by the increase in invasive infections and the emergence of clones which were resistant to macrolides. Those challenges led the French national reference center for streptococci to enhance the epidemiological survey and the characterization of GAS strains, in collaboration with the National Institute for Public Health Surveillance. Active surveillance is of major importance for implementation of therapeutic and prophylactic guidelines and for evaluation of future streptococcal vaccines.

  2. A Comparison of Referred Headstart, Non-Referred Headstart and Non-Headstart Groups of Primary Public School Children on Achievement, Language Processing and Classroom Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinkelton, Norma B. Harris

    1976-01-01

    Designed to evaluate the progress of children who had gone through the Cincinnati Public School System Head Start Program as a means of getting some feedback about the long range impact of Head Start, this study compared referred Head Start, non-referred Head Start and non-Head Start groups of third grade school children on academic and social…

  3. Genomic Characterization of Group C Orthobunyavirus Reference Strains and Recent South American Clinical Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yu; Solórzano, Víctor Fiestas; Kuschner, Robert A.; Halsey, Eric S.; Jarman, Richard G.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2014-01-01

    Group C orthobunyaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus), discovered in the 1950s, are vector-borne human pathogens in the Americas. Currently there is a gap in genomic information for group C viruses. In this study, we obtained complete coding region sequences of reference strains of Caraparu (CARV), Oriboca (ORIV), Marituba (MTBV) and Madrid (MADV) viruses, and five clinical isolates from Peru and Bolivia, using an unbiased de novo approach consisting of random reverse transcription, random anchored PCR amplification, and high throughput pyrosequencing. The small, medium, and large segments encode for a 235 amino acid nucleocapsid protein, an approximately 1430 amino acid surface glycoprotein polyprotein precursor, and a 2248 amino acid RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, respectively. Additionally, the S segment encodes for an 83 amino acid non-structural protein, although this protein is truncated or silenced in some isolates. Phylogenetically, three clinical isolates clustered with CARV, one clustered with MTBV, and one isolate appeared to be a reassortant or a genetic drift resulted from the high variability of the medium segment which was also seen in a few other orthobunyaviruses. These data represent the first complete coding region sequences for this serocomplex of pathogenic orthobunyaviruses. The genome-wide phylogeny of reference strains is consistent with the antigenic properties of the viruses reported in the original serological studies conducted in the 1960s. Comparative analysis of conserved protein regions across group C virus strains and the other orthobunyavirus groups revealed that these group C viruses contain characteristic domains of potential structural and functional significance. Our results provide the basis for the developments of diagnostics, further genetic analyses, and future epidemiologic studies of group C viruses. PMID:24633174

  4. July 2012 MOVES Model Review Work Group Meeting Materials

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Mobile Sources Technical Review Subcommittee (MSTRS) meeting on 31 July 2012 began with a summary of the work group's focus, which included the next version of MOVES (MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator), and its data sources and analysis methods.

  5. December 2016 MOVES Model Review Work Group Meeting Materials

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    MOVES Model Review Work Group meeting on December 7th, 2016 included plans for updating running exhaust criteria pollutant emission rates for heavy-duty diesel vehicles, emission rates for extended idle and auxiliary power units, onroad vehicle population.

  6. 7 CFR 3415.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3415.11 Section 3415.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review...

  7. 7 CFR 3415.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3415.11 Section 3415.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review...

  8. 7 CFR 3415.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3415.11 Section 3415.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review...

  9. 7 CFR 3415.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3415.11 Section 3415.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review...

  10. A systematic review of reference pricing: implications for US prescription drug spending.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joy Li-Yueh; Fischer, Micahel A; Shrank, William H; Polinski, Jennifer M; Choudhry, Niteesh K

    2012-11-01

    Given rising pharmaceutical expenditures and the widespread use of reference pricing as a costcontainment instrument abroad, we systematically reviewed the evidence evaluating reference pricing policies. We performed a structured electronic search of peer-reviewed journals for studies published before that reported on the effects of reference pricing policies on medication use, payer and patient spending, and resource consumption. Our search yielded 16 studies describing 9 reference-pricing policies from 6 countries. Reference-pricing policies led to decreases in drug prices and increases in utilization of targeted medications, while also reducing payer and patient expenditures. In addition, these policies did not lead to increased use of medical services, such as physician office visits and hospitalization. These results suggest that reference pricing may be an attractive policy strategy for the US healthcare system.

  11. Systematic review to support the development of nutrient reference intake values: challenges and solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Workshops sponsored by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the World Health Organization (WHO) suggested that incorporating systematic reviews into the process of updating nutrient reference values would enhance the transparency of the process. The IOM issues the Dietary Reference Intake values (DR...

  12. Constellation Mission Operation Working Group: ESMO Maneuver Planning Process Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moyer, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Earth Science Mission Operation (ESMO) Project created an Independent Review Board to review our Conjunction Risk evaluation process and Maneuver Planning Process to identify improvements that safely manages mission conjunction risks, maintains ground track science requirements, and minimizes overall hours expended on High Interest Events (HIE). The Review Board is evaluating the current maneuver process which requires support by multiple groups. In the past year, there have been several changes to the processes although many prior and new concerns exist. This presentation will discuss maneuver process reviews and Board comments, ESMO assessment and path foward, ESMO future plans, recent changes and concerns.

  13. Aggression in children with autism spectrum disorders and a clinic-referred comparison group.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Cristan; Butter, Eric; Mazurek, Micah O; Cowan, Charles; Lainhart, Janet; Cook, Edwin H; DeWitt, Mary Beth; Aman, Michael

    2015-04-01

    A gap exists in the literature regarding aggression in autism spectrum disorders and how this behavior compares to other groups. In this multisite study, the Children's Scale for Hostility and Aggression: Reactive/Proactive and the Aggression subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist were rated for 414 children with autism spectrum disorder (autistic disorder, 69%; pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, 24%; Asperger's disorder, 7%) and 243 clinic-referred children without autism spectrum disorder, aged 1-21 years (mean age about 7 years). Participants were not selected for aggressive behavior. Relative to the comparison group, children with autism spectrum disorder were reported to have less aggression and were more likely to be rated as reactive rather than proactive. Among all subjects, sex was not associated with aggression; higher IQ/adaptive behavior and older age were associated with more sophisticated types of aggression, while lower scores on IQ, adaptive behavior, and communication measures were associated with more physical aggression. The interaction between demographic variables and diagnosis was significant only for age: younger but not older children with autism spectrum disorder showed less aggression than clinic-referred controls.

  14. 42 CFR 61.15 - Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special Review Committee; review and recommendation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special Review Committee; review and recommendation. 61.15 Section 61.15 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular...

  15. 42 CFR 61.15 - Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special Review Committee; review and recommendation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special Review Committee; review and recommendation. 61.15 Section 61.15 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular...

  16. 42 CFR 61.15 - Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special Review Committee; review and recommendation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special Review Committee; review and recommendation. 61.15 Section 61.15 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular...

  17. 42 CFR 61.15 - Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special Review Committee; review and recommendation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special Review Committee; review and recommendation. 61.15 Section 61.15 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular...

  18. 42 CFR 61.15 - Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special Review Committee; review and recommendation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Moral character or loyalty; reference to Special Review Committee; review and recommendation. 61.15 Section 61.15 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular...

  19. Consensus-oriented group peer review: a new process to review radiologist work output.

    PubMed

    Alkasab, Tarik K; Harvey, H Benjamin; Gowda, Vrushab; Thrall, James H; Rosenthal, Daniel I; Gazelle, G Scott

    2014-02-01

    The Joint Commission and other regulatory bodies have mandated that health care organizations implement processes for ongoing physician performance review. Software solutions, such as RADPEER™, have been created to meet this need efficiently. However, the authors believe that available systems are not optimally designed to produce changes in practice and overlook many important aspects of quality by excessive focus on diagnosis. The authors present a new model of peer review known as consensus-oriented group review, which is based on group discussion of cases in a conference setting and places greater emphasis on feedback than traditional systems of radiology peer review. By focusing on the process of peer review, consensus-oriented group review is intended to optimize performance improvement and foster group standards of practice. The authors also describe the software tool developed to implement this process of enriched peer review.

  20. The learning experiences of international doctoral students with particular reference to nursing students: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Evans, Catrin; Stevenson, Keith

    2010-02-01

    One of the key challenges for the advancement of nursing globally is the development of doctorally prepared educators and leaders in a context where there is a shortage of provision of doctoral nursing programmes. For the short term future, many nurses wishing to undertake a doctorate will need to complete this education in the USA, the UK or Australia. Very little is known however about the nature of their learning experiences in these countries. This paper presents a literature review on the international doctoral student experience, with specific reference to nursing. A thorough review of the literature from 1990 to 2009 was undertaken which yielded only three empirical studies related to nursing. The review was then expanded to include subjects other than nursing which yielded 16 studies in total. This paper presents key themes that appear to be generic to international doctoral students, and draws out specific implications for nursing. The review found that international doctoral students' learning experiences were strongly influenced by the extent to which they could engage with three key elements of doctoral programmes: The first months represented a critical time of transition and most international students seemed to want and expect considerable support and structured in-put during this period. Most studies concluded that there was a need for greater institutional support and supervisor training. The three nursing-specific papers were entirely consistent with these themes. The existing evidence is extremely heterogeneous and of variable methodological quality. In order to ensure that doctoral nursing students are getting a high quality and appropriate PhD experience, there is a need for more research specifically with this group. There is also a need to investigate the different stages of the doctoral process in nursing, including, for example, writing up and examination processes and post-doctoral career outcomes.

  1. Strategic groups in health care: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Perryman, Martha M; Rivers, Patrick A

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the literature that discusses the relationship between strategic group membership and performance in the nursing home industry. This literature review examines the relationship between organizational structure and performance in the nursing home industry. Results from these studies suggest industry stability of segmentation; limitation of strategic choice due to high mobility barriers (as represented by facility, staffing and location variables); quality is controlled by the existing combinations of industry regulation and market competition; and the existence of performance differences among strategic groups.

  2. A review and critique of the statistical methods used to generate reference values in pediatric echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Mawad, Wadi; Drolet, Christian; Dahdah, Nagib; Dallaire, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    Several articles have proposed echocardiographic reference values in normal pediatric subjects, but adequate validation is often lacking and has not been reviewed. The aim of this study was to review published reference values in pediatric two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography with a specific focus on the adequacy of the statistical and mathematical methods used to normalize echocardiographic measurements. All articles proposing reference values for transthoracic pediatric echocardiography were reviewed. The types of measurements, the methods of normalization, the regression models used, and the methods used to detect potential bias in proposed reference values were abstracted. The detection of residual associations, residual heteroscedasticity, and departures from the normal distribution theory predictions were specifically analyzed. Fifty-two studies met the inclusion criteria. Most authors (87%) used parametric normalization to account for body size, but their approaches were very heterogeneous. Linear regression and indexing were the most common models. Heteroscedasticity was often present but was mentioned in only 27% of studies. The absence of residual heteroscedasticity and residual associations between the normalized measurements and the independent variables were mentioned in only 9% and 22% of the studies, respectively. Only 14% of studies documented that the distribution of the residual values was appropriate for Z score calculation or that the proportion of subjects falling outside the reference range was appropriate. Statistical suitability of the proposed reference ranges was often incompletely documented. This review underlines the great need for better standardization in echocardiographic measurement normalization.

  3. Business vs. Cultural Frames of Reference in Group Decision Making: Interactions among Austrian, Finnish, and Swedish Business Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auer-Rizzi, Werner; Berry Michael

    2000-01-01

    Examines ways business and cultural frames of reference affect decision making in multicultural groups. Finds students' reactions to two class activities shows how "groupthink" arose in both exercises; cultural interference paralyzed group decision making in one group; and cultural interference demonstrated the importance of a cultural…

  4. 7 CFR 3415.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Composition of peer review groups. 3415.11 Section 3415.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH...

  5. 15 CFR 2002.1 - Trade Policy Committee Review Group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade Policy Committee Review Group. 2002.1 Section 2002.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE OPERATION OF COMMITTEES § 2002.1 Trade Policy...

  6. Evolutionary dynamics of group interactions on structured populations: a review

    PubMed Central

    Perc, Matjaž; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús; Szolnoki, Attila; Floría, Luis M.; Moreno, Yamir

    2013-01-01

    Interactions among living organisms, from bacteria colonies to human societies, are inherently more complex than interactions among particles and non-living matter. Group interactions are a particularly important and widespread class, representative of which is the public goods game. In addition, methods of statistical physics have proved valuable for studying pattern formation, equilibrium selection and self-organization in evolutionary games. Here, we review recent advances in the study of evolutionary dynamics of group interactions on top of structured populations, including lattices, complex networks and coevolutionary models. We also compare these results with those obtained on well-mixed populations. The review particularly highlights that the study of the dynamics of group interactions, like several other important equilibrium and non-equilibrium dynamical processes in biological, economical and social sciences, benefits from the synergy between statistical physics, network science and evolutionary game theory. PMID:23303223

  7. A review on self-reference wavefront methods in optical testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornejo-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Granados-Agustín, Fermín. S.

    2013-11-01

    For the testing of components and optical systems, there are diverse methods with different characteristics each one; in the presentation will be done a review of some of them, that can be classified as optical testing techniques, using a self-reference wavefront. Some examples are the lateral shearing interferometers (Bates, Ronchi, Murty), point diffraction interferometer (Linnik), Burch's scattering interferometer, and the knife edge interferometer. Some advantages of such self-reference methods is the fact that are not necessary optical reference surfaces; and usually the light interfering beams have common paths, that implies that the set up is not affected by environment vibrations and other effects.

  8. Effect of support group peer facilitator training programmes on peer facilitator and support group member outcomes: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Delisle, Vanessa C; Gumuchian, Stephanie T; Kloda, Lorie A; Boruff, Jill; El-Baalbaki, Ghassan; Körner, Annett; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Thombs, Brett D

    2016-01-01

    Objective Peer facilitators play an important role in determining the success of many support groups for patients with medical illnesses. However, many facilitators do not receive training for their role and report a number of challenges in fulfilling their responsibilities. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of training and support programmes for peer facilitators of support groups for people with medical illnesses on (1) the competency and self-efficacy of group facilitators and (2) self-efficacy for disease management, health outcomes and satisfaction with support groups among group members. Methods Searches included the CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Science databases from inception through 8 April 2016; reference list reviews; citation tracking of included articles; and trial registry reviews. Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in any language that evaluated the effects of training programmes for peer facilitators compared with no training or alternative training formats on (1) competency or self-efficacy of peer facilitators, and (2) self-efficacy for disease management, health outcomes and satisfaction with groups of group members. The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used to assess risk of bias. Results There were 9757 unique titles/abstracts and 2 full-text publications reviewed. 1 RCT met inclusion criteria. The study evaluated the confidence and self-efficacy of cancer support group facilitators randomised to 4 months access to a website and discussion forum (N=23; low resource) versus website, discussion forum and 2-day training workshop (N=29). There were no significant differences in facilitator confidence (Hedges' g=0.16, 95% CI −0.39 to 0.71) or self-efficacy (Hedges' g=0.31, 95% CI −0.24 to 0.86). Risk of bias was unclear or high for 4 of 6 domains. Conclusions Well-designed and well-conducted, adequately powered trials of peer support group facilitator training

  9. Review of Federal Reference Method for Ozone: Nitric Oxide-Chemiluminescence:Supplemental Material for CASAC AMMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ApproachPer suggestion made by CASAC AMMS members during the April 3, 2014 conference call on the Review of Federal Reference Method for Ozone: Nitric Oxide-Chemiluminescence, ORD has performed additional data analysis activities to explain and mitigate scatter observed in the co...

  10. Mother Tongue Education and the Law: A Legal Review of Bilingualism with Reference to Scottish Gaelic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rhona K. M.

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the legal framework supporting the development of bilingual education. Reviews minority language issues and relevant issues from international law and regional law establish the legal parameters of its promotion. Practical ramifications of this are illustrate with reference o Scottish Gaelic. (Author/VWL)

  11. Cancer support groups: a critical review of empirical studies.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Benjamin H; Wachala, Elizabeth D

    2007-05-01

    Support groups for adults affected by cancer are widely offered by local community and national agencies in North America. This type of psychosocial intervention is defined in terms of its structure and functions, and its theoretical underpinnings and models of practice are described. Forty-four empirical studies of professionally led cancer support groups are summarized and critically reviewed. These studies include 32 outcome evaluations of randomized controlled trials, two process evaluations, and 10 consumer satisfaction studies. The findings reveal high levels of consumer satisfaction, and the outcome evaluations substantiate the morale and other quality of life benefits short of prolonging life. Discussion centers on priorities for future research and practice.

  12. The Impact of Self-Selection and Reference Group Identification in a University Living-Learning Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Ronald J.; Andrews, John J.

    1976-01-01

    A co-educational living-learning center for the arts was studied through participant observation and quantitative assessment. The results document the importance of full self-selection into a membership group and demonstrate the relationships between reference group identification, basic interests in personality, and social behavior. (Author)

  13. Prekindergarten Teachers' Verbal References to Print during Classroom-Based, Large-Group Shared Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Tricia A.; Justice, Laura M.; Piasta, Shayne B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The frequency with which adults reference print when reading with preschool-age children is associated with growth in children's print knowledge (e.g., L.M. Justice & H.K. Ezell, 2000, 2002). This study examined whether prekindergarten (pre-K) teachers naturally reference print during classroom shared reading and if verbal print…

  14. RNA-seq of human reference RNA samples using a thermostable group II intron reverse transcriptase.

    PubMed

    Nottingham, Ryan M; Wu, Douglas C; Qin, Yidan; Yao, Jun; Hunicke-Smith, Scott; Lambowitz, Alan M

    2016-04-01

    Next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has revolutionized our ability to analyze transcriptomes. Current RNA-seq methods are highly reproducible, but each has biases resulting from different modes of RNA sample preparation, reverse transcription, and adapter addition, leading to variability between methods. Moreover, the transcriptome cannot be profiled comprehensively because highly structured RNAs, such as tRNAs and snoRNAs, are refractory to conventional RNA-seq methods. Recently, we developed a new method for strand-specific RNA-seq using thermostable group II intron reverse transcriptases (TGIRTs). TGIRT enzymes have higher processivity and fidelity than conventional retroviral reverse transcriptases plus a novel template-switching activity that enables RNA-seq adapter addition during cDNA synthesis without using RNA ligase. Here, we obtained TGIRT-seq data sets for well-characterized human RNA reference samples and compared them to previous data sets obtained for these RNAs by the Illumina TruSeq v2 and v3 methods. We find that TGIRT-seq recapitulates the relative abundance of human transcripts and RNA spike-ins in ribo-depleted, fragmented RNA samples comparably to non-strand-specific TruSeq v2 and better than strand-specific TruSeq v3. Moreover, TGIRT-seq is more strand specific than TruSeq v3 and eliminates sampling biases from random hexamer priming, which are inherent to TruSeq. The TGIRT-seq data sets also show more uniform 5' to 3' gene coverage and identify more splice junctions, particularly near the 5' ends of mRNAs, than do the TruSeq data sets. Finally, TGIRT-seq enables the simultaneous profiling of mRNAs and lncRNAs in the same RNA-seq experiment as structured small ncRNAs, including tRNAs, which are essentially absent with TruSeq.

  15. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jennifer L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reviews multicultural books under the subject categories of history, biography, social sciences, reference, juvenile works, and nonprint materials, with subcategories where appropriate (for example, age-group categories for children's books). Thesaurus citations in the author index indicate relevant ethnic groups, races, religions, and geographic…

  16. Selected Bibliographies and State-of-the-Art Review for Health Manpower Planning. Volume 3: Health Manpower Planning References. International Health Planning Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White (E.H.) Co., San Francisco, CA.

    Intended as a companion piece to volume 3 in the Method Series, Health Manpower Planning (CE 024 231), this third of six volumes in the International Health Planning Reference Series is a combined literature review and annotated bibliography dealing with health manpower planning for developing countries. The review identifies literature relevant…

  17. Selected Bibliographies and State-of-the-Art Review for Environmental Health. Volume 2: Environmental Health References. International Health Planning Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Renee White; Shani, Hadasa

    Intended as a companion piece to volume 2 in the Method Series, Environmental Health Planning (CE 024 230), this second of six volumes in the International Health Planning Reference Series is a combined literature review and annotated bibliography dealing with environmental factors in health planning for developing countries. The review identifies…

  18. Self-estimates of intelligence: interaction effects of the comparison to a specific reference group and neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Bipp, T; Kleingeld, A

    2012-04-01

    An experiment that investigated the interaction effect of Neuroticism and the comparison to different reference groups on self-estimates of intelligence is reported. University students (100 men, 15 women) were randomly assigned to two experimental groups and asked to rate their own intelligence on a one-item measure, in IQ points, having been provided with reference values for either the general population or a student sample. Analysis of data confirmed that the accuracy of self-estimates of intelligence was influenced by the variation of the instruction. Participants provided more accurate estimations when confronted with comparison information about fellow students than about the general population. Persons scoring high on Neuroticism estimated their intelligence lower, but only when their estimation was based on a general reference group. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed.

  19. Genetic counselor review of genetic test orders in a reference laboratory reduces unnecessary testing.

    PubMed

    Miller, Christine E; Krautscheid, Patti; Baldwin, Erin E; Tvrdik, Tatiana; Openshaw, Amanda S; Hart, Kim; Lagrave, Danielle

    2014-05-01

    Genetic tests are routinely ordered by health care providers (HCPs) within a wide range of medical specialties. Many providers have limited knowledge or experience with ordering and interpreting genetic tests; thus, test order errors are common. Rigorous review of genetic test orders by genetic counselors (GCs) can provide a direct financial benefit to medical institutions, patients and insurers. GCs at ARUP (Associated Regional University Pathologists) Laboratories routinely perform a preanalytic assessment of complex molecular genetic test orders that includes reviewing clinical and family history information and considering the clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of ordered tests. GCs contact the ordering institution and/or HCP as needed to collect additional clinical information and confirm the test order or suggest alternative testing based on the provided information. A retrospective review of the GC-facilitated test changes over a 21-month period at ARUP laboratories was performed. Approximately 26% of all requests for complex genetic tests assessing germ line mutations were changed following GC review. Testing fees associated with canceled tests were summed to estimate the cost-savings resulting from GC-facilitated test reviews. The test review process resulted in an average reduction in charges to the referring institutions of $48,000.00 per month. GC review of genetic test orders for appropriateness and clinical utility reduces healthcare costs to hospitals, insurers, and patients.

  20. An Evaluation of a Group Treatment Program with Youth Referred to the Juvenile Probation Service because of Violent Crime

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoury-Kassabri, Mona; Sharvet, Rachel; Braver, Efi; Livneh, Chaim

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the outcomes of group intervention program with violent juveniles. The intervention is based on the ecological approach of Edleson and Tolman (1992). Forty-eight juveniles referred to the juvenile probation service because of violent crime completed the 16 sessions of the intervention. Participants completed questionnaires…

  1. Using Cochran's Z Statistic to Test the Kernel-Smoothed Item Response Function Differences between Focal and Reference Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Yinggan; Gierl, Mark J.; Cui, Ying

    2010-01-01

    This study combined the kernel smoothing procedure and a nonparametric differential item functioning statistic--Cochran's Z--to statistically test the difference between the kernel-smoothed item response functions for reference and focal groups. Simulation studies were conducted to investigate the Type I error and power of the proposed…

  2. Does whom you work with matter? Effects of referent group gender and age composition on managers' compensation.

    PubMed

    Ostroff, Cheri; Atwater, Leanne E

    2003-08-01

    Much research has examined gender and age effects on compensation, concluding that a wage gap exists favoring men and negative stereotypes against older workers persist. Although the effect of an employee's gender or age has been widely studied, little work has examined the impact of the demographic characteristics of a focal employee's immediate referent groups (e.g., subordinates, peers, or supervisors) on pay. The effect of the gender and age composition of a focal manager's subordinates, peers, and supervisor on the manager's compensation levels was investigated in a sample of 2,178 managers across a wide range of organizations and functional areas. After controlling for a number of human capital variables, results indicated that not only does a wage gap favoring men exist, but also managerial pay is lower when managers' referent groups are largely female, when subordinates are outside the prime age group, and when peers and supervisors are younger.

  3. The ABO blood group system revisited: a review and update.

    PubMed

    Storry, J R; Olsson, M L

    2009-01-01

    The antigens of the ABO system were the first to be recognized as blood groups and actually the first human genetic markers known. Their presence and the realization of naturally occurring antibodies to those antigens lacking from the cells made sense of the erratic failure of blood transfusion hitherto and opened up the possibility of a safe treatment practice in life-threatening blood loss. Although initially apparently simple, the ABO system has come to grow in complexity over the years. The mass of knowledge relating to carbohydrate chemistry, enzymology, molecular genetics, and structural and evolutionary biology is now enormous thanks to more than a century of research using ABO as a principal model. This has provided us with data to form a solid platform of evidence-based transfusion and transplantation medicine used every day in laboratories and clinics around the globe. This review aims to summarize key findings and recent progress made toward further understanding of this surprisingly polymorphic system.

  4. References that anyone can edit: review of Wikipedia citations in peer reviewed health science literature

    PubMed Central

    Hladkowicz, Emily S; Pigford, Ashlee-Ann E; Ufholz, Lee-Anne; Postonogova, Tatyana; Shin, Eunkyung; Boet, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine indexed health science journals to evaluate the prevalence of Wikipedia citations, identify the journals that publish articles with Wikipedia citations, and determine how Wikipedia is being cited. Design Bibliometric analysis. Study selection Publications in the English language that included citations to Wikipedia were retrieved using the online databases Scopus and Web of Science. Data sources To identify health science journals, results were refined using Ulrich’s database, selecting for citations from journals indexed in Medline, PubMed, or Embase. Using Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports, 2011 impact factors were collected for all journals included in the search. Data extraction Resulting citations were thematically coded, and descriptive statistics were calculated. Results 1433 full text articles from 1008 journals indexed in Medline, PubMed, or Embase with 2049 Wikipedia citations were accessed. The frequency of Wikipedia citations has increased over time; most citations occurred after December 2010. More than half of the citations were coded as definitions (n=648; 31.6%) or descriptions (n=482; 23.5%). Citations were not limited to journals with a low or no impact factor; the search found Wikipedia citations in many journals with high impact factors. Conclusions Many publications are citing information from a tertiary source that can be edited by anyone, although permanent, evidence based sources are available. We encourage journal editors and reviewers to use caution when publishing articles that cite Wikipedia. PMID:24603564

  5. One library's experience with review and selection of chat software for reference.

    PubMed

    Behm, Leslie M

    2003-01-01

    When Michigan State University (MSU) Libraries decided to make the foray into virtual reference, the first thing that needed to be done was to decide on the software to use. This article discusses the process used including the items considered essential (deal-breakers) for software to make the first cut, what other features needed to be included, and what features would be useful but were not critical. A literature review of some useful current articles on virtual reference is included. The vendor and software ultimately selected was not one of the original vendors; how MSU Libraries was able to evaluate and select Docutek is presented. A matrix for software comparison is included in the appendix.

  6. Aggression in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and a Clinic-Referred Comparison Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Cristan; Butter, Eric; Mazurek, Micah O.; Cowan, Charles; Lainhart, Janet; Cook, Edwin H.; DeWitt, Mary Beth; Aman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A gap exists in the literature regarding aggression in autism spectrum disorders and how this behavior compares to other groups. In this multisite study, the "Children's Scale for Hostility and Aggression: Reactive/Proactive" and the Aggression subscale of the "Child Behavior Checklist" were rated for 414 children with autism…

  7. International geomagnetic reference field 1980: a report by IAGA Division I working group.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peddie, N.W.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the recommendations of the working group, which suggested additions to IGRF because of the cumulative effect of the inevitable uncertainties in the secular variation models which had led to unacceptable inaccuracies in the IGRF by the late 1970's. The recommendations were accepted by the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy on August 15, 1981 at the 4th Scientific Assembly, Edinburgh. An extended table sets out spherical harmonic coefficients of the IGRF 1980.-R.House

  8. Latent class models in diagnostic studies when there is no reference standard--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Smeden, Maarten; Naaktgeboren, Christiana A; Reitsma, Johannes B; Moons, Karel G M; de Groot, Joris A H

    2014-02-15

    Latent class models (LCMs) combine the results of multiple diagnostic tests through a statistical model to obtain estimates of disease prevalence and diagnostic test accuracy in situations where there is no single, accurate reference standard. We performed a systematic review of the methodology and reporting of LCMs in diagnostic accuracy studies. This review shows that the use of LCMs in such studies increased sharply in the past decade, notably in the domain of infectious diseases (overall contribution: 59%). The 64 reviewed studies used a range of differently specified parametric latent variable models, applying Bayesian and frequentist methods. The critical assumption underlying the majority of LCM applications (61%) is that the test observations must be independent within 2 classes. Because violations of this assumption can lead to biased estimates of accuracy and prevalence, performing and reporting checks of whether assumptions are met is essential. Unfortunately, our review shows that 28% of the included studies failed to report any information that enables verification of model assumptions or performance. Because of the lack of information on model fit and adequate evidence "external" to the LCMs, it is often difficult for readers to judge the validity of LCM-based inferences and conclusions reached.

  9. Performance of Maximal Inspiratory Pressure Tests and MIP Reference Equations for Four Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Michael C.; Enright, Paul L.; Stukovsky, Karen Hinckley; Jiang, Rui; Barr, R. Graham

    2013-01-01

    Background Maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) is an important and non-invasive index of diaphragm strength and an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. The ability of adults over a wide age range and multiple ethnicities to perform MIP tests has previously not been evaluated. Methods The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) recruited white, African-American, Hispanic and Chinese-American participants ages 45–84 years and free of clinical cardiovascular disease in six US cities. MIP was measured using standard techniques among 3849 MESA participants. The MIP quality goal was 5 maneuvers, with the two largest values matching within 10 cmH2O. Correlates of MIP quality and values were assessed in logistic and linear regression models. Results The 3849 MESA-Lung participants with MIP measures were 51% female, 35% white, 26% African-American, 23% Hispanic, and 16% Chinese-American. Mean MIP±SD was 73±26 cmH2O for women and 97±29 cmH2O for men. The quality goal was achieved by 83% of the cohort and was associated with female gender, older age, race/ethnicity, study site, low FEV1/FVC ratio, and wheeze with dyspnea. The multivariate correlates of MIP were male gender, younger age, higher BMI, shorter height, higher FVC, higher systolic blood pressure (in women) and health status (in men). There were no clinically important race/ethnic differences in MIP values. Conclusion Race-specific reference equations for MIP are unnecessary in the United States. More than 80% of adults can be successfully coached for 5 maneuvers with repeatability within 10 cmH2O. PMID:19796411

  10. Effects of group housing on sow welfare: a review.

    PubMed

    Verdon, M; Hansen, C F; Rault, J-L; Jongman, E; Hansen, L U; Plush, K; Hemsworth, P H

    2015-05-01

    Factors that have been shown to impact the welfare of group-housed sows are discussed in this review. Floor space allowance markedly affects sow welfare. In addition to quantity of floor space, the quality of space is important: spatial separation between sows can be provided with visual or physical barriers and stalls. Whereas 1.4 m/sow is insufficient, further research is required to examine space effects in the range of 1.8 to 2.4 m/sow in more detail. The period immediately after mixing has the most pronounced effects on aggression and stress, and therefore, well-designed mixing pens offer the opportunity to reduce aggression, injury, and stress while allowing the social hierarchy to quickly form. Because hunger is likely to lead to competition for feed or access to feeding areas, strategies to reduce hunger between meals through higher feeding levels, dietary fiber, or foraging substrate should be examined. However, feeding systems, such as full-body feeding stalls, can also affect aggression and stress by providing protection at feeding, but deriving conclusions on this topic is difficult because research directly comparing floor feeding, feeding stalls, and electronic sow feeder systems has not been conducted. Familiar sows engage in less aggression, so mixing sows that have been housed together in the previous gestation may reduce aggression. Although there is evidence in other species that early experience may affect social skills later in life, there are few studies on the effects of early "socialization" on aggressive behavior of adult sows. Genetic selection has the potential to reduce aggression, and therefore, continued research on the opportunity to genetically select against aggressiveness and its broader implications is required. Most research to date has examined mixing sows after insemination and knowledge on grouping after weaning is limited.

  11. External Quality Assessment Scheme for reference laboratories - review of 8 years' experience.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Anja; Siekmann, Lothar; Weykamp, Cas; Geilenkeuser, Wolf Jochen; Dreazen, Orna; Middle, Jonathan; Schumann, Gerhard

    2013-05-01

    We describe an External Quality Assessment Scheme (EQAS) intended for reference (calibration) laboratories in laboratory medicine and supervised by the Scientific Division of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine and the responsible Committee on Traceability in Laboratory Medicine. The official EQAS website, RELA (www.dgkl-rfb.de:81), is open to interested parties. Information on all requirements for participation and results of surveys are published annually. As an additional feature, the identity of every participant in relation to the respective results is disclosed. The results of various groups of measurands (metabolites and substrates, enzymes, electrolytes, glycated hemoglobins, proteins, hormones, thyroid hormones, therapeutic drugs) are discussed in detail. The RELA system supports reference measurement laboratories preparing for accreditation according to ISO 17025 and ISO 15195. Participation in a scheme such as RELA is one of the requirements for listing of the services of a calibration laboratory by the Joint Committee on Traceability in Laboratory Medicine.

  12. Review and application of group theory to molecular systems biology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we provide a review of selected mathematical ideas that can help us better understand the boundary between living and non-living systems. We focus on group theory and abstract algebra applied to molecular systems biology. Throughout this paper we briefly describe possible open problems. In connection with the genetic code we propose that it may be possible to use perturbation theory to explore the adjacent possibilities in the 64-dimensional space-time manifold of the evolving genome. With regards to algebraic graph theory, there are several minor open problems we discuss. In relation to network dynamics and groupoid formalism we suggest that the network graph might not be the main focus for understanding the phenotype but rather the phase space of the network dynamics. We show a simple case of a C6 network and its phase space network. We envision that the molecular network of a cell is actually a complex network of hypercycles and feedback circuits that could be better represented in a higher-dimensional space. We conjecture that targeting nodes in the molecular network that have key roles in the phase space, as revealed by analysis of the automorphism decomposition, might be a better way to drug discovery and treatment of cancer. PMID:21696623

  13. Options for basing Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) on chronic disease endpoints: report from a joint US-/Canadian-sponsored working group.

    PubMed

    Yetley, Elizabeth A; MacFarlane, Amanda J; Greene-Finestone, Linda S; Garza, Cutberto; Ard, Jamy D; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Bier, Dennis M; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Harlan, William R; Hattis, Dale; King, Janet C; Krewski, Daniel; O'Connor, Deborah L; Prentice, Ross L; Rodricks, Joseph V; Wells, George A

    2017-01-01

    Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are used in Canada and the United States in planning and assessing diets of apparently healthy individuals and population groups. The approaches used to establish DRIs on the basis of classical nutrient deficiencies and/or toxicities have worked well. However, it has proved to be more challenging to base DRI values on chronic disease endpoints; deviations from the traditional framework were often required, and in some cases, DRI values were not established for intakes that affected chronic disease outcomes despite evidence that supported a relation. The increasing proportions of elderly citizens, the growing prevalence of chronic diseases, and the persistently high prevalence of overweight and obesity, which predispose to chronic disease, highlight the importance of understanding the impact of nutrition on chronic disease prevention and control. A multidisciplinary working group sponsored by the Canadian and US government DRI steering committees met from November 2014 to April 2016 to identify options for addressing key scientific challenges encountered in the use of chronic disease endpoints to establish reference values. The working group focused on 3 key questions: 1) What are the important evidentiary challenges for selecting and using chronic disease endpoints in future DRI reviews, 2) what intake-response models can future DRI committees consider when using chronic disease endpoints, and 3) what are the arguments for and against continuing to include chronic disease endpoints in future DRI reviews? This report outlines the range of options identified by the working group for answering these key questions, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of each option.

  14. French diagnostic reference levels in diagnostic radiology, computed tomography and nuclear medicine: 2004-2008 review.

    PubMed

    Roch, P; Aubert, B

    2013-04-01

    After 5 y of collecting data on diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection French Institute (IRSN) presents the analyses of this data. The analyses of the collected data for radiology, computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine allow IRSN to estimate the level of regulatory application by health professionals and the representativeness of current DRL in terms of relevant examinations, dosimetric quantities, numerical values and patient morphologies. Since 2004, the involvement of professionals has highly increased, especially in nuclear medicine, followed by CT and then by radiology. Analyses show some discordance between regulatory examinations and clinical practice. Some of the dosimetric quantities used for the DRL setting are insufficient or not relevant enough, and some numerical values should also be reviewed. On the basis of these findings, IRSN formulates recommendations to update regulatory DRL with current and relevant examination lists, dosimetric quantities and numerical values.

  15. Within-group behavioural consequences of between-group conflict: a prospective review

    PubMed Central

    Aureli, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Conflict is rife in group-living species and exerts a powerful selective force. Group members face a variety of threats from extra-group conspecifics, from individuals looking for reproductive opportunities to rival groups seeking resources. Theory predicts that such between-group conflict should influence within-group behaviour. However, compared with the extensive literature on the consequences of within-group conflict, relatively little research has considered the behavioural impacts of between-group conflict. We give an overview of why between-group conflict is expected to influence subsequent behaviour among group members. We then use what is known about the consequences of within-group conflict to generate testable predictions about how between-group conflict might affect within-group behaviour in the aftermath. We consider the types of behaviour that could change and how the role of different group members in the conflict can exert an influence. Furthermore, we discuss how conflict characteristics and outcome, group size, social structure and within-group relationship quality might modulate post-conflict behavioural changes. Finally, we propose the need for consistent definitions, a broader range of examined behaviours and taxa, individual-focused data collection, complementary observational and experimental approaches, and a consideration of lasting effects if we are to understand fully the significant influence of between-group conflict on social behaviour. PMID:27903869

  16. Review of Food Grouping Systems in Nutrition Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlstrom, Antti; Rasanen, Leena

    1973-01-01

    Although there are many different approaches to teaching nutrition, food grouping systems have become an almost universal tool. This article is a detailed comparison of food grouping systems in use in 47 countries. (BL)

  17. 7 CFR 3400.11 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... scientific and professional organizations outside of the Department; (4) The need of the group to include... need of the group to maintain a balanced membership, e.g., minority and female representation and...

  18. 7 CFR 3401.13 - Composition of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... scientific and professional organizations outside of the Department; (d) The need of the group to include... need of the group to maintain a balanced membership, e.g., minority and female representation and...

  19. 7 CFR 3401.12 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Applications for Funding § 3401.12 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3401.7, the Administrator will adopt procedures for...

  20. 7 CFR 3400.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3400.10 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3400.5, the Administrator will adopt procedures for...

  1. 7 CFR 3411.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... INITIATIVE COMPETITIVE GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific Peer Review of Research Grant Applications § 3411.10 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. Subject to § 3411.5, the Administrator shall adopt...

  2. 42 CFR 52h.3 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups... GRANTS SCIENTIFIC PEER REVIEW OF RESEARCH GRANT APPLICATIONS AND RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT PROJECTS § 52h.3 Establishment and operation of peer review groups. (a) To the extent applicable,...

  3. September 2012 MOVES Model Review Work Group Meeting Materials

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The agenda and focus of the Mobile Sources Technical Review Subcommittee (MSTRS) on 25 September 2012 included testing MOVES (MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator) data against actual measured emission rates, GHG rule implementation, and bus fleet emissions.

  4. September 2016 MOVES Model Review Work Group Meeting Materials

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presentations from the Mobile Sources Technical Review Subcommittee (MSTRS) meeting on Sep. 14th of 2016 include MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) updates; data regarding vehicle populations and activity, PM speciation, and hazardous air pollutants.

  5. July 2013 MOVES Model Review Work Group Meeting Materials

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Presentations from the Mobile Sources Technical Review Subcommittee (MSTRS) meeting on July 9th of 2013 include MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) updates; data regarding vehicle populations and activity, PM speciation, and hazardous air pollutants.

  6. Group methods of determining surfactants in water (review)

    SciTech Connect

    Subbotina, E.I.; Dedkov, Yu.M.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years new and promising methods for the determination of industrial surfactant waste migration and concentration in the hydrosphere have been developed. These methods include different forms of chromatography, ion selective electrode analysis, titration, and solvent extraction. This article reviews the application and usefulness of each of these methods in the analysis of various surfactants. The methods of chromatography reviewed include liquid column, thin layer, and ion exchange.

  7. How dietary intake methodology is adapted for use in European immigrant population groups - a review.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Joy; Gurinovic, Mirjana; Frost-Andersen, Lene; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2009-07-01

    Immigrants comprise a noteworthy segment of the European population whose numbers are increasing. Research on the dietary habits of immigrants is critical for correctly providing diet counselling and implementing effective interventions. The aim of the present study was to identify the presently used methods and adaptations required for measuring dietary intake in European immigrant groups. A comprehensive review strategy included a structured MEDLINE search, related references and key expert consultations. The review targeted adults from non-European union (European union-15 countries) ethnic groups having the largest populations in Europe. As studies evaluating nutrient intake were scarce, papers evaluating intake at the level of foods were included. Forty-six papers were selected. Although Eastern Europe, Turkey, Africa (North, Sub-Saharan and Afro-Caribbean), Asia and Latin America represented the most numerous immigrant groups, papers on dietary intake were not available for all populations. Interview-administered FFQ and repeated 24 hour recalls were the most frequently applied instruments. Inclusion of ethnic foods and quantification of specific portion sizes of traditional foods and dishes in assessment tools as well as food composition databases were commonly identified problems. For FFQ, food list elaboration required particular consideration to reflect key ethnic foods and relative contribution to nutrient intake. Extra efforts were observed to overcome cultural barriers to study participation. Evaluating dietary intake of immigrant populations requires special attention to various methodological aspects (sampling, recruiting, instruments used, method of administration, food composition database, acculturation, etc.) so as to adequately address the range of socio-cultural factors inherent in these nutritionally at risk target groups.

  8. Banal no more: an essay on the film Hannah Arendt, with special reference to Eichmann and the Nazi killing groups.

    PubMed

    Roth, Bennett

    2015-04-01

    This movie review and essay about the recent film Hannah Arendt by director Margarethe von Trotta seeks to examine Arendt's controversial term "banality of evil" as well as the nature of Arendt's misperception of Adolph Eichmann as thoughtless, and to situate Eichmann's personality within recent understandings of totalitarian group behavior and organizational killers. What emerges is that Arendt was unable to understand Eichmann's ruthless indifference to others as well as his attraction to being a Nazi and to organized mass killing. This paper examines Mann's (2005) formulation of different levels of functional attraction to totalitarian perpetrators, in which a racial morality is imposed and restrictions to eliminist violence are removed. Under such group conditions, violent "sleeper" needs emerge and are rationalized by political beliefs. In conclusion, the term "banality of evil" has little explanative value, while violent mass murder continues to this day as a totalitarian solution.

  9. A review on alum sludge reuse with special reference to agricultural applications and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Dassanayake, K B; Jayasinghe, G Y; Surapaneni, A; Hetherington, C

    2015-04-01

    Alum salts are commonly used in the water industry to promote coagulation in the production of clean drinking water, which results in the generation and accumulation of 'waste' by-product 'alum sludge' in large volumes. Effective and efficient management of alum sludge in an economically and environmentally sustainable manner remains a significant social and environmental concern with ever increasing demand for potable water as a result of rapidly escalating world population and urban expansion. Various intensive practices have been employed to reuse the alum sludge in an attempt to figure out how to fill the gap between successful drinking water treatment process and environmentally friendly alum sludge management for over the years. This paper primarily aimed at comprehensive review of the existing literature on alum sludge characteristics, its environmental concerns and their potential utilization, especially in agricultural and horticultural sectors leading to update our recent state of knowledge and formulate a compendium of present and past developments. Different types of alum sludge utilizations in various fields were recognized and examined. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and potential risks of alum sludge reuse options with particular reference to agriculture were highlighted and knowledge gaps were identified. Research priorities and future challenges that will support in the development of effective alumsludgemanagement practices in agriculture with multi-prong strategies were discussed.

  10. The epidemiology of infertility: a review with particular reference to sub-Saharan Africa*

    PubMed Central

    Belsey, Mark A.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of infertility, with particular reference to Africa south of the Sahara, is reviewed. In many areas, up to 40% of women are reported to have completed their reproductive years without bearing a child. The condition is widely distributed, but also often localized in pockets corresponding to geographical or tribal units. Most available demographic data provide estimates of childlessness but it is not sufficient to define the problem in terms of primary and secondary infertility, pregnancy wastage, and infant and child mortality. The major underlying cause for the high levels of infertility appears to be the sequelae of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection in both men and women, manifested as obstructive azoospermia and tubal occlusion. Other infections, such as those that may follow abortion or delivery, or systemic infections, may be important in some areas. The available data suggest that different patterns of infertility and pregnancy wastage, and different etiological agents and processes, contribute to the problem of infertility in the different areas. The need for a systematic, standardized research approach in several areas is clearly indicated. PMID:798639

  11. Report of the Event Tag Review and Recommendation Group

    SciTech Connect

    ATLAS Group; Assamagan, K.A.; Barberis, D.; Bentvelsen, S.; Brooijmans, G.; Cranmer, K.; Cranshaw, J.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Farbin, A.; Froidevaux, D.; Gianotti, F.; Hinchliffe, I.; LeCompte, T.; Maeno, T.; Malon, D.; Paige, F.; Polesello, G.; Quarrie, D.; Rousseau, D.; Schaffer, R.D.; Smizanska, M.; Unal, G.; Voss, K.; Wielers, M.

    2006-04-12

    In order to facilitate access to the large volumes of data (multiple petabytes per year) which will be produced during data taking and Monte Carlo production at ATLAS, work has proceeded on building a system of event-level metadata to allow selections of a subset of events to use as input to an analysis. This was included in the ATLAS Computing Model and was first studied and implemented by the Physics Analysis Tools group based on the decisions of the ESD/AOD Task Force. They used tools developed and supported by the CERN IT group and the ATLAS Database group. During 2005 this structure was put through various tests and evaluations. Also, work by physicists on reconstruction and analysis led to an improved understanding of the requirements on the TAG. This report addresses the effect of these new inputs on the previous work with regard to content and the infrastructure needed to support it.

  12. Infant-Toddler Group Day Care: A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Sally

    Research conducted in the United States and Canada on the effects of group care outside of family settings for 20 or more hours per week on a regular basis shows few differences between day care and home reared children on four major variables: attachment, social interactions, cognitive development, and physical health. Of nine studies of…

  13. The Effectiveness of Nurture Groups: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Naomi Katherine; Schlösser, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Children with emotional difficulties often experience problems at school in terms of academic progress and within peer relationships. They are also more likely to continue to experience emotional problems in their adult lives. Nurture groups (NGs) were developed in the 1960s by the educational psychologist Majorie Boxall and their aim is to…

  14. Review from the Blue Dots Astrometry Working Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malbet, F.; Sozzetti, A.; Lazorenko, P.; Launhardt, R.; Ségransan, D.; Delplancke, F.; Elias, N.; Muterspaugh, M. W.; Quirrenbach, A.; Reffert, S.; van Belle, G.

    2010-10-01

    The astrometry technique is an important tool for detecting and characterizing exoplanets of different types. In this review, the different projects which are either operating, in construction or in discussion, are presented and their performance is discussed in the framework of the Blue Dots study. We investigate the sensitivity of astrometry to different sources of noise and we show that astrometry is a key technique in the path of discovering and characterizing new types of planets including the very challenging category of Earth-like planets orbiting the habitable zone of solar-type stars.

  15. Outcomes of Group Care for Youth: A Review of Comparative Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Bethany R.; Bright, Charlotte L.; Svoboda, Deborah V.; Fakunmoju, Sunday; Barth, Richard P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to review empirical evidence of the effects of placement in group care compared to other interventions. Method: Two-group empirical studies were identified and effect sizes for all reported outcomes were calculated. Results: Nineteen two-group studies were found that compared group care with family foster…

  16. A Review of the Literature concerning Grouping Plans for Elementary Reading Instruction, 1965-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flor, Romaine A.

    Twenty-one studies of the effectiveness of various grouping plans for elementary reading instruction are reviewed in this paper. Following the review, the studies are summarized according to the grade level with which they dealt, and conclusions are drawn regarding the most effective grouping plans. Among the conclusions reported are: (1) no one…

  17. Reference Reviewed and Re-Envisioned: Revamping Librarian and Desk-Centric Services with LibStARs and LibAnswers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Christy R.

    2013-01-01

    The first section of this article reviews the literature on the changing face of reference, beginning with a discussion of the national decline in reference transactions, its causes, and the likelihood that online reference services might one day halt or reverse the decline. It then analyzes definitions of the term "reference," pointing…

  18. Reference Values for the Six-Minute Walk Test in Healthy Children and Adolescents: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cacau, Lucas de Assis Pereira; de Santana-Filho, Valter Joviniano; Maynard, Luana G.; Gomes Neto, Mansueto; Fernandes, Marcelo; Carvalho, Vitor Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study is to compare the available reference values and the six-minute walk test equations in healthy children/adolescents. Our systematic review was planned and performed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. We included all studies that established reference values for the six-minute walk test in healthy children/adolescents. Methods To perform this review, a research was performed in PubMed, EMBASE (via SCOPUS) and Cochrane (LILACS), Bibliographic Index Spanish in Health Sciences, Organization Collection Pan-American Health Organization, Publications of the World Health Organization and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) via Virtual Health Library until June 2015 without language restriction. Results The initial research identified 276 abstracts. Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria and were fully reviewed and approved by both reviewers. None of the selected studies presented sample size calculation. Most of the studies recruited children and adolescents from school. Six studies reported the use of random samples. Most studies used a corridor of 30 meters. All studies followed the American Thoracic Society guidelines to perform the six-minute walk test. The walked distance ranged 159 meters among the studies. Of the 12 included studies, 7 (58%) reported descriptive data and 6 (50%) established reference equation for the walked distance in the six-minute walk test. Conclusion The reference value for the six-minute walk test in children and adolescents ranged substantially from studies in different countries. A reference equation was not provided in all studies, but the ones available took into account well established variables in the context of exercise performance, such as height, heart rate, age and weight. Countries that did not established reference values for the six-minute walk test should be encouraged to do because it would help their clinicians and researchers have a more precise interpretation of the test

  19. The impact of stigma, experience, and group referent on HIV risk assessments and HIV testing intentions in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel A; Morrison, Daniel

    2006-11-01

    People often perceive risks for others and themselves differently. This study examines whether personal beliefs about HIV and experience with those living with HIV influence personal risk assessments of contracting HIV in an interview sample of northern Namibians (N=400), but not others' assessments as explained by singular-distribution theory [Klar, Medding, & Sarel (1996). Nonunique invulnerability: Singular versus distributional probabilities and unrealistic optimism in comparative risk judgments. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 67, 229-245]. Findings indicate that personal risk perceptions decrease with more HIV stigmatizing beliefs and increase with greater experience, but that those characteristics had no impact on assessments for others' risk. The study also examines whether the size and characteristics of the referent group, peers and the general Namibian population, influence others' risk assessments. Optimistic biases for personal risk versus others' risk appear with the highest discrepancy emerging between personal and general population risk assessments. Further, we found that personal risk perceptions did not mediate the relationship between personal characteristics, beliefs and experiences, and intentions to seek HIV testing.

  20. Interpersonal Dimensions of the Reference Interview: A Historical Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Charles A.

    1984-01-01

    Provides overview of the establishment and acceptance of reference service in American library practice and outlines and documents changes in focus and emphasis by citing textbooks on reference services. Highlights include beginnings in 1876, communications and counseling, the 1970s, reconsiderations, and new emphasis and new models. Ninety-four…

  1. The Implications of Library Anxiety for Academic Reference Services: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlile, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Academic reference librarians continually observe that many students are embarrassed about not knowing how to use the library and are reluctant to approach the reference desk. The theory of library anxiety offers an explanation, proposing that a fear of being in and using libraries serves as a psychological barrier, hindering many university…

  2. A critical review of labor and birth care. Obstetrical Interest Group of the North American Primary Care Research Group.

    PubMed

    Smith, M A; Acheson, L S; Byrd, J E; Curtis, P; Day, T W; Frank, S H; Franks, P; Graham, A V; LeFevre, M; Resnick, J

    1991-09-01

    A critical review of the literature regarding important aspects of labor and delivery was conducted by members of the Obstetrical Interest Group of the North American Primary Care Research Group using computerized searches, personal communication, and literature exchange between group members. Each written topic summary was carefully reviewed by a second group member, and a consensus was reached regarding conclusions and recommendations by the group. The topics include family involvement, comfort measures, fetal heart rate monitoring, labor augmentation, birth positions, and episiotomies. Each topic summary is preceded by conclusions and recommendations given in the order of least invasive to most invasive of the woman in labor. The strength of these conclusions and recommendations is based on the amount and type of supportive data in the literature and is indicated by one to three stars preceding that statement. One-star conclusions are not well supported in the literature but reflect a family practice style and were reached through consensus from the group. Three-star conclusions are supported by data from clinical trials.

  3. Recommendation for the review of biological reference intervals in medical laboratories.

    PubMed

    Henny, Joseph; Vassault, Anne; Boursier, Guilaine; Vukasovic, Ines; Mesko Brguljan, Pika; Lohmander, Maria; Ghita, Irina; Andreu, Francisco A Bernabeu; Kroupis, Christos; Sprongl, Ludek; Thelen, Marc H M; Vanstapel, Florent J L A; Vodnik, Tatjana; Huisman, Willem; Vaubourdolle, Michel

    2016-12-01

    This document is based on the original recommendation of the Expert Panel on the Theory of Reference Values of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC), updated guidelines were recently published under the auspices of the IFCC and the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). This document summarizes proposals for recommendations on: (i) The terminology, which is often confusing, noticeably concerning the terms of reference limits and decision limits. (ii) The method for the determination of reference limits according to the original procedure and the conditions, which should be used. (iii) A simple procedure allowing the medical laboratories to fulfill the requirements of the regulation and standards. The updated document proposes to verify that published reference limits are applicable to the laboratory involved. Finally, the strengths and limits of the revised recommendations (especially the selection of the reference population, the maintenance of the analytical quality, the choice of the statistical method used…) will be briefly discussed.

  4. Monte Carlo reference data sets for imaging research: Executive summary of the report of AAPM Research Committee Task Group 195.

    PubMed

    Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Ali, Elsayed S M; Badal, Andreu; Badano, Aldo; Boone, John M; Kyprianou, Iacovos S; Mainegra-Hing, Ernesto; McMillan, Kyle L; McNitt-Gray, Michael F; Rogers, D W O; Samei, Ehsan; Turner, Adam C

    2015-10-01

    The use of Monte Carlo simulations in diagnostic medical imaging research is widespread due to its flexibility and ability to estimate quantities that are challenging to measure empirically. However, any new Monte Carlo simulation code needs to be validated before it can be used reliably. The type and degree of validation required depends on the goals of the research project, but, typically, such validation involves either comparison of simulation results to physical measurements or to previously published results obtained with established Monte Carlo codes. The former is complicated due to nuances of experimental conditions and uncertainty, while the latter is challenging due to typical graphical presentation and lack of simulation details in previous publications. In addition, entering the field of Monte Carlo simulations in general involves a steep learning curve. It is not a simple task to learn how to program and interpret a Monte Carlo simulation, even when using one of the publicly available code packages. This Task Group report provides a common reference for benchmarking Monte Carlo simulations across a range of Monte Carlo codes and simulation scenarios. In the report, all simulation conditions are provided for six different Monte Carlo simulation cases that involve common x-ray based imaging research areas. The results obtained for the six cases using four publicly available Monte Carlo software packages are included in tabular form. In addition to a full description of all simulation conditions and results, a discussion and comparison of results among the Monte Carlo packages and the lessons learned during the compilation of these results are included. This abridged version of the report includes only an introductory description of the six cases and a brief example of the results of one of the cases. This work provides an investigator the necessary information to benchmark his/her Monte Carlo simulation software against the reference cases included here

  5. A Review of the Creative Group Work Training Program for Facilitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Kevin; Blatch, Chris; Toh, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the first review of the Creative Group Work (CGW) training program for facilitators who provide group-based intervention programs to offenders in Corrective Services New South Wales, Australia. The program emphasizes the interpersonal aspects of group work and seeks to equip facilitators to engage with participants in a way…

  6. Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group F: Report of a case and review of Japanese patients.

    PubMed

    Tofuku, Yukari; Nobeyama, Yoshimasa; Kamide, Ryoichi; Moriwaki, Shinichi; Nakagawa, Hidemi

    2015-09-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder characterized by extraordinary sensitivity to sunlight, resulting in cutaneous malignant tumors. Among XP, XP-F presents relatively uniquely in Japanese. To clarify the characteristics of this group, we describe a case of XP-F and review Japanese cases previously reported. A 50-year-old Japanese woman was referred to us with multiple, variously sized, light- or dark-brown macules on the face and sunlight-exposed extremities. She had experienced bulla formation with approximately 10 min of sunlight exposure during her elementary school years. Her parents had been first cousins, and her mother and sister had photosensitivity. She showed no neurological or developmental abnormalities. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation testing revealed normal levels for minimal erythema dose with UV-A and UV-B. Sensitivity to UV-C and DNA repair ability in the patient's fibroblasts were indicated between that in normal individuals and that in an XP-A patient. Complementation assay revealed that transfection of the XPF gene led most efficient DNA repair compared with the other XP genes. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with XP-F. Twenty-three cases of Japanese patients (six males, 17 females) with XP-F have been reported, including the present case. Our review suggested a relatively high prevalence of 50% (11/22) for cutaneous malignant tumors. A significant difference was evident in the mean age at first medical consultation between patients with cutaneous malignant tumors (53.6 years) and patients without such tumors (30.8 years). This suggests that cutaneous malignant tumors could occur in the age range of 30-50 years in XP-F patients.

  7. A Selective Review of Group Selection in High-Dimensional Models.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Breheny, Patrick; Ma, Shuangge

    2012-01-01

    Grouping structures arise naturally in many statistical modeling problems. Several methods have been proposed for variable selection that respect grouping structure in variables. Examples include the group LASSO and several concave group selection methods. In this article, we give a selective review of group selection concerning methodological developments, theoretical properties and computational algorithms. We pay particular attention to group selection methods involving concave penalties. We address both group selection and bi-level selection methods. We describe several applications of these methods in nonparametric additive models, semiparametric regression, seemingly unrelated regressions, genomic data analysis and genome wide association studies. We also highlight some issues that require further study.

  8. Optimizing the Power of Genome-Wide Association Studies by Using Publicly Available Reference Samples to Expand the Control Group

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Joanna J; Zondervan, Krina; Nyberg, Fredrik; Harbron, Chris; Jawaid, Ansar; Cardon, Lon R; Barratt, Bryan J; Morris, Andrew P

    2010-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have proved extremely successful in identifying novel genetic loci contributing effects to complex human diseases. In doing so, they have highlighted the fact that many potential loci of modest effect remain undetected, partly due to the need for samples consisting of many thousands of individuals. Large-scale international initiatives, such as the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, the Genetic Association Information Network, and the database of genetic and phenotypic information, aim to facilitate discovery of modest-effect genes by making genome-wide data publicly available, allowing information to be combined for the purpose of pooled analysis. In principle, disease or control samples from these studies could be used to increase the power of any GWA study via judicious use as “genetically matched controls” for other traits. Here, we present the biological motivation for the problem and the theoretical potential for expanding the control group with publicly available disease or reference samples. We demonstrate that a naïve application of this strategy can greatly inflate the false-positive error rate in the presence of population structure. As a remedy, we make use of genome-wide data and model selection techniques to identify “axes” of genetic variation which are associated with disease. These axes are then included as covariates in association analysis to correct for population structure, which can result in increases in power over standard analysis of genetic information from the samples in the original GWA study. Genet. Epidemiol. 34: 319–326, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20088020

  9. Review of statistical methods used in enhanced-oil-recovery research and performance prediction. [131 references

    SciTech Connect

    Selvidge, J.E.

    1982-06-01

    Recent literature in the field of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) was surveyed to determine the extent to which researchers in EOR take advantage of statistical techniques in analyzing their data. In addition to determining the current level of reliance on statistical tools, another objective of this study is to promote by example the greater use of these tools. To serve this objective, the discussion of the techniques highlights the observed trend toward the use of increasingly more sophisticated methods and points out the strengths and pitfalls of different approaches. Several examples are also given of opportunities for extending EOR research findings by additional statistical manipulation. The search of the EOR literature, conducted mainly through computerized data bases, yielded nearly 200 articles containing mathematical analysis of the research. Of these, 21 were found to include examples of statistical approaches to data analysis and are discussed in detail in this review. The use of statistical techniques, as might be expected from their general purpose nature, extends across nearly all types of EOR research covering thermal methods of recovery, miscible processes, and micellar polymer floods. Data come from field tests, the laboratory, and computer simulation. The statistical methods range from simple comparisons of mean values to multiple non-linear regression equations and to probabilistic decision functions. The methods are applied to both engineering and economic data. The results of the survey are grouped by statistical technique and include brief descriptions of each of the 21 relevant papers. Complete abstracts of the papers are included in the bibliography. Brief bibliographic information (without abstracts) is also given for the articles identified in the initial search as containing mathematical analyses using other than statistical methods.

  10. Review of global menace of road accidents with special reference to malaysia- a social perspective.

    PubMed

    Kareem, Abdul

    2003-07-01

    Road accident is 'a global tragedy' with ever-rising trend. The goal of this article includes review of the causes and nature of accidents, statistical data regarding road accidents and the economical impact. 1.17 million deaths occur each year worldwide due to road accidents 70 % of which occur in developing countries. 65% of deaths involve pedestrians, 35 % of which are children. Estimates suggest that 23-34 million people are injured worldwide every year in road crashes - a value almost twice that previously estimated. It is estimated that more than 200 U.S. citizens die each year due to road accidents abroad. Every year in Europe, more than 50,000 peoples are killed in road accidents, and more than 150,000 remain disabled. It is a sad fact that the total number of road accidents in Malaysia exceeded 223,000 in 1999. On the average, 16 persons died from these road accidents, every single day in 1999. Lack of attention, reckless driving, lack of proper protection, speeding, bad personal habits, social and behavioral misconduct and inconsiderate drivers of larger vehicles are some of the problems that cause accidents. In Malaysia, motorcycle fatal accidents (60%) warrant a high degree of concern. Young children and senior citizens are found to be in the vulnerable age group. In Malaysia, in 1999 alone, general insurers paid RM1.67 billion or an average of RM4.6 million a day on motor claims. It is now recognized that road traffic accidents represent a major public health problem, because of the high number of victims involved and because of the seriousness of the consequences for themselves and for their families.

  11. Is there evidence that walking groups have health benefits? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Sarah; Jones, Andy

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the health benefits of outdoor walking groups. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of walking group interventions examining differences in commonly used physiological, psychological and well-being outcomes between baseline and intervention end. Data sources Seven electronic databases, clinical trial registers, grey literature and reference lists in English language up to November 2013. Eligibility criteria Adults, group walking outdoors with outcomes directly attributable to the walking intervention. Results Forty-two studies were identified involving 1843 participants. There is evidence that walking groups have wide-ranging health benefits. Meta-analysis showed statistically significant reductions in mean difference for systolic blood pressure −3.72 mm Hg (−5.28 to −2.17) and diastolic blood pressure −3.14 mm Hg (−4.15 to −2.13); resting heart rate −2.88 bpm (−4.13 to −1.64); body fat −1.31% (−2.10 to −0.52), body mass index −0.71 kg/m2 (−1.19 to −0.23), total cholesterol −0.11 mmol/L (−0.22 to −0.01) and statistically significant mean increases in VO2max of 2.66 mL/kg/min (1.67–3.65), the SF-36 (physical functioning) score 6.02 (0.51 to 11.53) and a 6 min walk time of 79.6 m (53.37–105.84). A standardised mean difference showed a reduction in depression scores with an effect size of −0.67 (−0.97 to −0.38). The evidence was less clear for other outcomes such as waist circumference fasting glucose, SF-36 (mental health) and serum lipids such as high-density lipids. There were no notable adverse side effects reported in any of the studies. Conclusions Walking groups are effective and safe with good adherence and wide-ranging health benefits. They could be a promising intervention as an adjunct to other healthcare or as a proactive health-promoting activity. PMID:25601182

  12. Narrowing the Gap in Outcomes for Vulnerable Groups: A Review of the Research Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Sally; Straw, Suzanne; Jones, Megan; Springate, Iain; Grayson, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    This report presents findings from a review of the best evidence on narrowing the gap in outcomes across the five Every Child Matters (ECM) areas for vulnerable groups in the context of improving outcomes for all. The review was commissioned to prepare the ground for work on "Narrowing the Gap" with participating local authorities (LAs).…

  13. A Review of the Research on Pinkston's Single-Parent Group Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Harold E.; Cox, Wendell H.; Sharkey, Caroline N.; Briggs, Adam C.; Black, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this review is to chronicle the extent to which the Pinkston and colleagues model is utilized in single-parent training group (SPG) interventions in the home environment for children aged 5 to 12 or preadolescent school-aged children. Methods: Several databases were searched electronically and independent full reviews were…

  14. Group psychotherapies for depression in persons with HIV: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Honagodu, Abhijit Ramanna; Krishna, Murali; Sundarachar, Rajesh; Lepping, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Studies investigating effectiveness of group psychotherapy intervention in depression in persons with HIV have showed varying results with differing effect sizes. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of group psychotherapy in depression in persons with HIV has been conducted to present the best available evidence in relation to its effect on depressive symptomatology. Electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials. Selected studies were quality assessed and data extracted by two reviewers. If feasible, it was planned to conduct a meta-analysis to obtain a pooled effect size of group psychotherapeutic interventions on depressive symptoms. Odds ratio for drop out from group was calculated. The studies were assessed for their quality using the Quality Rating Scale and other parameters for quality assessment set out by COCHRANE. The quality of reporting of the trials was compared against the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) checklist for non-pharmacological studies (CONSORT-NPT). Four studies met the full inclusion criteria for systematic review. The trials included in the review examined group interventions based on the Cognitive behavioral therapy model against other therapeutic interventions or waiting list controls. In all four studies, group psychotherapy was an effective intervention for reducing depressive symptoms in persons with HIV in comparison to waiting list controls. The reported benefits from the group psychotherapy in comparison to active controls were less impressive. There were no statistically significant differences in drop outs at post treatments across group psychotherapy, wait list control, and other active interventions. The methodological quality of the studies varied. The quality of reporting of the studies was sub-optimal. The results of this systematic review support that group psychological interventions for depression in persons with HIV have a significant effect on depressive

  15. The Prevalence of Only-Child Status Among Children and Adolescents Referred to a Gender Identity Service Versus a Clinical Comparison Group.

    PubMed

    Hughes, S Kathleen; VanderLaan, Doug P; Blanchard, Ray; Wood, Hayley; Wasserman, Lori; Zucker, Kenneth J

    2016-07-11

    Several studies indicate that homosexual males have a high proportion of older brothers compared to heterosexual males. Natal males with gender dysphoria who are likely to be homosexual also display this sibship pattern. Until recently, there was little evidence linking homosexuality and/or gender dysphoria in females to unique sibship characteristics. Two studies have indicated that natal female youth clinically referred for gender dysphoria are more likely to be only children (Schagen, Delemarre-van de Waal, Blanchard, & Cohen-Kettenis, 2012; VanderLaan, Blanchard, Wood, & Zucker, 2014). However, these studies did not include control groups of youth clinically referred for other reasons. Thus, it is unclear whether the increased likelihood of only-child status is specific to gender-referred natal females. This study compared only-child status among youth referred to a mental health service for gender dysphoria (778 males, 245 females) versus other reasons (783 males, 281 females). Prehomosexual gender-referred males were less likely to be only children than clinical controls. Contrary to previous findings, gender-referred females were not more likely to be only children, indicating that increased likelihood of only-child status is not specific to gender-referred females, but is characteristic of clinic-referred females more generally.

  16. A review of connected element radio interferometry directed at establishing an almost internal reference frame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    The present status of connected element radio interferometry towards establishing an accurate grid of positions of extragalactic radio sources is reviewed. Many of the problems being encountered are, in general, also faced by very long baseline interferometry.

  17. Cross--Cultural Small Group Research: A Review, an Analysis, and a Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuter, Robert

    1977-01-01

    Reviews and analyzes research on cross-national small group behavior and offers a value theory of small group development. Available from: International Journal of Intercultural Relations, Transaction Periodicals Consortium, Rutgers-The State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903. (MH)

  18. Adaptation and Flexibility When Conducting and Planning Peer Study Group Review Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendale, David R.; Hanes, Amanda R.

    2016-01-01

    Based on an evaluation of the professional literature of postsecondary learning assistance, little is known about decisions made by student leaders during their peer study group review sessions. Our research question for this study is "How did study group leaders adapt their role to better meet the needs of the students who participated in…

  19. Importance of hemodialysis-related outcomes: comparison of ratings by a self-help group, clinicians, and health technology assessment authors with those by a large reference group of patients

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Inger M; Scheibler, Fueloep; Gerhardus, Ansgar

    2016-01-01

    Background The selection of important outcomes is a crucial decision for clinical research and health technology assessment (HTA), and there is ongoing debate about which stakeholders should be involved. Hemodialysis is a complex treatment for chronic kidney disease (CKD) and affects many outcomes. Apart from obvious outcomes, such as mortality, morbidity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), others such as, concerning daily living or health care provision, may also be important. The aim of our study was to analyze to what extent the preferences for patient-relevant outcomes differed between various stakeholders. We compared preferences of stakeholders normally or occasionally involved in outcome prioritization (patients from a self-help group, clinicians and HTA authors) with those of a large reference group of patients. Participants and methods The reference group consisted of 4,518 CKD patients investigated previously. We additionally recruited CKD patients via a regional self-help group, nephrologists via an online search and HTA authors via an expert database or personal contacts. All groups assessed the relative importance of the 23 outcomes by means of a discrete visual analog scale. We used descriptive statistics to rank outcomes and compare the results between groups. Results We received completed questionnaires from 49 self-help group patients, 19 nephrologists and 18 HTA authors. Only the following 3 outcomes were ranked within the top 7 outcomes by all 4 groups: safety, HRQoL and emotional state. The ratings by the self-help group were generally more concordant with the reference group ratings than those by nephrologists, while HTA authors showed the least concordance. Conclusion Preferences of CKD patients from a self-help group, nephrologists and HTA authors differ to a varying extent from those of a large reference group of patients with CKD. The preferences of all stakeholders should form the basis of a transparent approach so as to generate a

  20. Updated method guidelines for cochrane musculoskeletal group systematic reviews and metaanalyses.

    PubMed

    Ghogomu, Elizabeth A T; Maxwell, Lara J; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Rader, Tamara; Pardo Pardo, Jordi; Johnston, Renea V; Christensen, Robin D K; Rutjes, Anne W S; Winzenberg, Tania M; Singh, Jasvinder A; Zanoli, Gustavo; Wells, George A; Tugwell, Peter

    2014-02-01

    The Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group (CMSG), one of 53 groups of the not-for-profit, international Cochrane Collaboration, prepares, maintains, and disseminates systematic reviews of treatments for musculoskeletal diseases. It is important that authors conducting CMSG reviews and the readers of our reviews be aware of and use updated, state-of-the-art systematic review methodology. One hundred sixty reviews have been published. Previous method guidelines for systematic reviews of interventions in the musculoskeletal field published in 2006 have been substantially updated to incorporate methodological advances that are mandatory or highly desirable in Cochrane reviews and knowledge translation advances. The methodological advances include new guidance on searching, new risk-of-bias assessment, grading the quality of the evidence, the new Summary of Findings table, and comparative effectiveness using network metaanalysis. Method guidelines specific to musculoskeletal disorders are provided by CMSG editors for various aspects of undertaking a systematic review. These method guidelines will help improve the quality of reporting and ensure high standards of conduct as well as consistency across CMSG reviews.

  1. Inactivation of Giardia Cysts by Iodine with Special Reference to Globaline: A Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    obtaining the destruction of a resistant waterborne protozoan Jmown as Giardia lamblia . Current procedures for treatment of field water with Globaline...current lmawledge about the efficacy of iodine for destruction of Giardia lamblia with special reference to Globaline iodine tablets in cold water. In...1986 (personal cO!lllUl!lication, Morris Rogers, Natick, mem:>randum for the record, subject: Giardia lamblia in military water supplies, 25 March

  2. Adapting Reference for a Unique Group of Distance Learners: Serving the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Maria Mathilde

    2004-01-01

    When a university acquires the library of a national institute and the institute's active and worldwide membership expects continued and uninterrupted access to services from the collection, shockwaves can reverberate throughout the university's main library and among its staff. This was especially true for the Reference Department of the…

  3. Review of wound healing with reference to an unrepairable abdominal hernia.

    PubMed

    Junge, Karsten; Klinge, Uwe; Klosterhalfen, Bernd; Rosch, Raphael; Stumpf, Michael; Schumpelick, Volker

    2002-01-01

    A 58-year-old man has been under our care with an inguinal hernia that has recurred 8 times. This stimulated us to review the biochemistry of wound repair. We studied the composition of his collagen and tried to find out whether it was intrinsically faulty or whether its fault had been caused by the medication he was taken.

  4. A Review of Motion Sickness with Special Reference to Simulator Sickness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-15

    paper reviews:’ the signs and ’ symptoms , stimuli and response characteristics, anatomical structures, and susceptibility Factors. The preva- lent...decorrelated stimulations as toxic events. This CNS interpretation of toxicity causes the constellation of symptoms aý.Fociated with motion sickness to be...14 Viscera ......................................... 14 Proprioception Afferents ........................... 15 Afferents from the

  5. CTSA Consortium Consensus Scientific Review Committee (SRC) Working Group Report on the SRC Processes

    PubMed Central

    Buse, John B.; Califf, Robert M.; Carter, Robert; Cooper, Dan M.; Davis, Jonathan; Ford, Daniel E.; Galassetti, Pietro; Guay‐Woodford, Lisa; Huggins, Gordon S.; Kasper, Amanda; Kieburtz, Karl; Kirby, Aaron; Klein, Andreas K.; Kline, Joel; O’ Neill, Robert T.; Rape, Marie; Reichgott, Douglas J.; Rojevsky, Svetlana; Rosenthal, Gary E.; Rubinstein, Eric P.; Shepherd, Amy; Stacy, Mark; Terrin, Norma; Wallace, Mark; Welch, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Human research projects must have a scientifically valid study design, analytic plan, and be operationally feasible in order to be successfully completed and thus to have translational impact. To ensure this, institutions that conduct clinical research should have a scientific review process prior to submission to the Institutional Review Committee (IRB). This paper reports the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) Consortium Scientific Review Committee (SRC) Consensus Working Group's proposed framework for a SRC process. Recommendations are provided for institutional support and roles of CTSAs, multisite research, criteria for selection of protocols that should be reviewed, roles of committee members, application process, and committee process. Additionally, to support the SCR process effectively, and to ensure efficiency, the Working Group recommends information technology infrastructures and evaluation metrics to determine outcomes are provided. PMID:26184433

  6. Radioactive waste isolation in salt: peer review of Westinghouse Electric Corporation's report on reference conceptual designs for a repository waste package

    SciTech Connect

    Rote, D.M.; Hull, A.B.; Was, G.S.; Macdonald, D.D.; Wilde, B.E.; Russell, J.E.; Kruger, J.; Harrison, W.; Hambley, D.F.

    1985-10-01

    This report documents the findings of the peer panel constituted by Argonne National Laboratory to review Region A of Westinghouse Electric Corporation's report entitled Waste Package Reference Conceptual Designs for a Repository in Salt. The panel determined that the reviewed report does not provide reasonable assurance that US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements for waste packages will be met by the proposed design. It also found that it is premature to call the design a ''reference design,'' or even a ''reference conceptual design.'' This review report provides guidance for the preparation of a more acceptable design document.

  7. Rate increase disclosure and review: definitions of "individual market" and "small group market." Final rule.

    PubMed

    2011-09-06

    This final rule amends a May 23, 2011, final rule entitled "Rate Increase Disclosure and Review". The final rule provided that, for purposes of rate review only, definitions of "individual market" and "small group market" under State rate filing laws would govern even if those definitions departed from the definitions that otherwise apply under title XXVII of the Public Health Service Act (PHS Act). The preamble to the final rule requested comments on whether this policy should apply in cases in which State rate filing law definitions of "individual market" and "small group market" exclude association insurance policies that would be included in these definitions for other purposes under the PHS Act. In response to comments, this final rule amends the definitions of "individual market" and "small group market" that apply for rate review purposes to include coverage sold to individuals and small groups through associations even if the State does not include such coverage in its definitions of individual and small group market. This final rule also updates standards for health insurance issuers regarding disclosure and review of unreasonable premium increases under section 2794 of the Public Health Service Act.

  8. A review of the ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations, using forests as a reference system.

    PubMed

    Dislich, Claudia; Keyel, Alexander C; Salecker, Jan; Kisel, Yael; Meyer, Katrin M; Auliya, Mark; Barnes, Andrew D; Corre, Marife D; Darras, Kevin; Faust, Heiko; Hess, Bastian; Klasen, Stephan; Knohl, Alexander; Kreft, Holger; Meijide, Ana; Nurdiansyah, Fuad; Otten, Fenna; Pe'er, Guy; Steinebach, Stefanie; Tarigan, Suria; Tölle, Merja H; Tscharntke, Teja; Wiegand, Kerstin

    2016-08-11

    Oil palm plantations have expanded rapidly in recent decades. This large-scale land-use change has had great ecological, economic, and social impacts on both the areas converted to oil palm and their surroundings. However, research on the impacts of oil palm cultivation is scattered and patchy, and no clear overview exists. We address this gap through a systematic and comprehensive literature review of all ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations, including several (genetic, medicinal and ornamental resources, information functions) not included in previous systematic reviews. We compare ecosystem functions in oil palm plantations to those in forests, as the conversion of forest to oil palm is prevalent in the tropics. We find that oil palm plantations generally have reduced ecosystem functioning compared to forests: 11 out of 14 ecosystem functions show a net decrease in level of function. Some functions show decreases with potentially irreversible global impacts (e.g. reductions in gas and climate regulation, habitat and nursery functions, genetic resources, medicinal resources, and information functions). The most serious impacts occur when forest is cleared to establish new plantations, and immediately afterwards, especially on peat soils. To variable degrees, specific plantation management measures can prevent or reduce losses of some ecosystem functions (e.g. avoid illegal land clearing via fire, avoid draining of peat, use of integrated pest management, use of cover crops, mulch, and compost) and we highlight synergistic mitigation measures that can improve multiple ecosystem functions simultaneously. The only ecosystem function which increases in oil palm plantations is, unsurprisingly, the production of marketable goods. Our review highlights numerous research gaps. In particular, there are significant gaps with respect to socio-cultural information functions. Further, there is a need for more empirical data on the importance of spatial and temporal

  9. Chronic shoulder pain referred from thymic carcinoma: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Dee, Shu-Wei; Kao, Mu-Jung; Hong, Chang-Zern; Chou, Li-Wei; Lew, Henry L

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of thymic carcinoma presenting as unilateral shoulder pain for 13 months. Before an accurate diagnosis was made, the patient received conservative treatment, cervical discectomies, and myofascial trigger point injection, none of which relieved his pain. When thymic carcinoma was eventually diagnosed, he received total resection of the tumor and the shoulder pain subsided completely. Thymic carcinoma is a rare carcinoma, and our review of the literature did not show shoulder pain as its initial presentation except for one case report. The purpose of this report is to document our clinical experience so that other physiatrists can include thymic carcinoma in their differential diagnosis of shoulder pain.

  10. Illumination frame of reference in the object-reviewing paradigm: A case of luminance and lightness.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, Anja; Moore, Cathleen M

    2015-12-01

    The present study combines the object-reviewing paradigm (Kahneman, Treisman, & Gibbs, 1992) with the checkershadow illusion (Adelson, 1995) to contrast the effects of objects' luminance versus lightness on the object-specific preview benefit. To this end, we manipulated objects' luminance and the amount of illumination given by an informative background scene in experiments. In line with previous studies (Moore, Stephens, & Hein, 2010), there was no object-specific preview benefit when objects were presented on a uniformly colored background and luminance switched between objects. In contrast, when objects were presented on the checkershadow illusion background which provided an explanation for the luminance switch, a reliable object-specific preview benefit was observed. This suggests that object correspondence as measured by the object-reviewing paradigm can be influenced by scene-induced, perceived lightness of objects' surfaces. We replicated this finding and moreover showed that the scene context only influences the object-specific preview benefit if the objects are perceived as part of the background scene.

  11. Predicting muscle mass from anthropometry using magnetic resonance imaging as reference: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Al-Gindan, Yasmin Y; Hankey, Catherine R; Leslie, Wilma; Govan, Lindsay; Lean, Michael E J

    2014-02-01

    Identification and management of sarcopenia are limited by lack of reliable simple approaches to assess muscle mass. The aim of this review is to identify and evaluate simple methods to quantify muscle mass/volume of adults. Using Cochrane Review methodology, Medline (1946-2012), Embase (1974-2012), Web of Science (1898-2012), PubMed, and the Cochrane Library (to 08/2012) were searched for publications that included prediction equations (from anthropometric measurements) to estimate muscle mass by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in adults. Of 257 papers identified from primary search terms, 12 studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies (n = 10) assessed only regional/limb muscle mass/volume. Many studies (n = 9) assessed limb circumference adjusted for skinfold thickness, which limits their practical applications. Only two included validation in separate subject-samples, and two reported relationships between whole-body MRI-measured muscle mass and anthropometry beyond linear correlations. In conclusion, one simple prediction equation shows promise, but it has not been validated in a separate population with different investigators. Furthermore, it did not incorporate widely available trunk/limb girths, which have offered valuable prediction of body composition in other studies.

  12. Review of bioaerosols in indoor environment with special reference to sampling, analysis and control mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Bipasha; Lal, Himanshu; Srivastava, Arun

    2015-12-01

    Several tiny organisms of various size ranges present in air are called airborne particles or bioaerosol which mainly includes live or dead fungi and bacteria, their secondary metabolites, viruses, pollens, etc. which have been related to health issues of human beings and other life stocks. Bio-terror attacks in 2001 as well as pandemic outbreak of flue due to influenza A H1N1 virus in 2009 have alarmed us about the importance of bioaerosol research. Hence characterization i.e. identification and quantification of different airborne microorganisms in various indoor environments is necessary to identify the associated risks and to establish exposure threshold. Along with the bioaerosol sampling and their analytical techniques, various literatures revealing the concentration levels of bioaerosol have been mentioned in this review thereby contributing to the knowledge of identification and quantification of bioaerosols and their different constituents in various indoor environments (both occupational and non-occupational sections). Apart from recognition of bioaerosol, developments of their control mechanisms also play an important role. Hence several control methods have also been briefly reviewed. However, several individual levels of efforts such as periodic cleaning operations, maintenance activities and proper ventilation system also serve in their best way to improve indoor air quality.

  13. Illumination Frame of Reference in the Object-Reviewing Paradigm: A Case of Luminance and Lightness

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Anja; Moore, Cathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study combines the object-reviewing paradigm (Kahneman, Treisman, & Gibbs, 1990) with the checkershadow illusion (Adelson, 1995) in order to contrast the effects of objects’ luminance versus lightness on the object-specific preview benefit. To this end, we manipulated objects’ luminance and the amount of illumination given by an informative background scene in four experiments. In line with previous studies (Moore, Stephens, & Hein, 2010), there was no object-specific preview benefit when objects were presented on a uniformly colored background and luminance switched between objects. In contrast, when objects were presented on the checkershadow illusion background which provided an explanation for the luminance switch, a reliable object-specific preview benefit was observed. This suggests that object correspondence as measured by the object-reviewing paradigm can be influenced by scene-induced, perceived lightness of objects’ surfaces. We replicated this finding and moreover showed that the scene context only influences the object-specific preview benefit if the objects are perceived as part of the background scene. PMID:26280265

  14. Comparing the role of standard references on the prevalence of Iranian children and adolescents’ overweight and obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Saeed; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a major risk factor for chronic diseases and has a role on high blood pressure, diabetes type II, etc., This review assesses the prevalence of Iranian children obesity and overweight for different age categories and compares the three standard definitions of obesity. Materials and Methods: To retrieve desirable studies concerning childhood anthropometric data from different area of Iran, the MEDLINE, Scopus, and different local databases such as Scientific Information database were used. The studies reported the prevalence of obesity or overweight of children < 6, 6–12, and 12–20 years old, despite differences between definitions of childhood obesity, were included in the study. We combined the reported prevalence of the overweight and obesity with regard to age and gender, and also by the different standard references which are the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the World Health Organization (WHO) definition, and the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) references. The analysis was carried out using STATA software. Results: Our review covered 75 articles reported the prevalence of overweight or obesity among children and adolescents for different age groups in Iran. Our meta-regression analysis showed that the prevalence of obesity and overweight did not vary significantly in gender and age categories, but different definitions provide different prevalence of overweight and obesity. Conclusion: The effective factors on obesity and overweight included administration policy and organizational, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and social factors. CDC and WHO references intended in monitoring children's growth and the IOTF cutoffs would rather provide a common set of definitions that researchers and policymakers could use for descriptive and comparative purposes.

  15. A single standardized practical training for surgical scrubbing according to EN1500: Effect Quantification, value of the standardized method and comparison with clinical reference groups

    PubMed Central

    Fichtner, Andreas; Haupt, Elke; Karwath, Tobias; Wullenk, Katharina; Pöhlmann, Christoph; Jatzwauk, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    The standardized training of practical competences in skills labs is relatively new among German Medical Faculties. The broad acceptance and outstanding evaluation results do not provide objective data on the efficiency and cost-efficiency of these trainings. This study aims on the quantification of the teaching effect of the surgical scrubbing technique EN1500 and its comparison with clinical references of OR personnel. Methods: 161 4th year medical students were randomized into intervention and control group. The intervention group received a 45 minute standardized peer-teaching training of practical competences necessary in the OR including the scrubbing according to EN1500. Fluorescence dye was mixed in the disinfectant solution. After hand disinfection, standardized fotographs and semi-automated digital processing resulted in quantification of the insufficiently covered hand area. These results were compared with the control group that received the training after the test. In order to provide information on the achieved clinical competence level, the results were compared with the two clinical reference groups. Results: The intervention group remained with 4,99% (SD 2,34) insufficiently covered hand area after the training compared to the control group 7,33% (SD 3,91), p<0,01. There was no significant difference between control group and reference groups: surgeons 9,32% (SD 4,97), scrub nurses 8,46% (SD 4,66). The student intervention group showed results that were significantly better than the clinical references. The methodic mistake remained negligible. In the sub-group analysis, the students with low or medium experience in surgical scrubbing and hand disinfection derived highest benefit from the training, whereas students with no or high experience did benefit less. All participants showed better results on hand palms compared to back of hand areas. Discussion: A single standardized peer-teaching of surgical scrubbing and hand disinfection according to EN

  16. Environmental impacts of perchlorate with special reference to fireworks--a review.

    PubMed

    Sijimol, M R; Mohan, Mahesh

    2014-11-01

    Perchlorate is an inorganic anion that is used in solid rocket propellants, fireworks, munitions, signal flares, etc. The use of fireworks is identified as one of the main contributors in the increasing environmental perchlorate contamination. Although fireworks are displayed for entertainment, its environmental costs are dire. Perchlorates are also emerging as potent thyroid disruptors, and they have an impact on the ecology too. Many studies have shown that perchlorate contaminates the groundwater and the surface water, especially in the vicinity of fireworks manufacturing sites and fireworks display sites. The health and ecological impacts of perchlorate released in fireworks are yet to be fully assessed. This paper reviews fireworks as a source of perchlorate contamination and its expected adverse impacts.

  17. Submarine canyons as important habitat for cetaceans, with special reference to the Gully: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moors-Murphy, Hilary B.

    2014-06-01

    There has been much research interest in the use of submarine canyons by cetaceans, particularly beaked whales (family Ziphiidae), which appear to be especially attracted to canyon habitats in some areas. However, not all submarine canyons are associated with large numbers of cetaceans and the mechanisms through which submarine canyons may attract cetaceans are not clearly understood. This paper reviews some of the cetacean associations with submarine canyons that have been anecdotally described or presented in scientific literature and discusses the physical, oceanographic and biological mechanisms that may lead to enhanced cetacean abundance around these canyons. Particular attention is paid to the Gully, a large submarine canyon and Marine Protected Area off eastern Canada for which there exists some of the strongest evidence available for submarine canyons as important cetacean habitat. Studies demonstrating increased cetacean abundance in the Gully and the processes that are likely to attract cetaceans to this relatively well-studied canyon are discussed. This review provides some limited evidence that cetaceans are more likely to associate with larger canyons; however, further studies are needed to fully understand the relationship between the physical characteristics of canyons and enhanced cetacean abundance. In general, toothed whales (especially beaked whales and sperm whales) appear to exhibit the strongest associations with submarine canyons, occurring in these features throughout the year and likely attracted by concentrating and aggregating processes. By contrast, baleen whales tend to occur in canyons seasonally and are most likely attracted to canyons by enrichment and concentrating processes. Existing evidence thus suggests that at least some submarine canyons are important foraging areas for cetaceans, and should be given special consideration for cetacean conservation and protection.

  18. 75 FR 19983 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Initial Review Group

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... of the aforementioned review group: Times and Date: 1 p.m.-1:10 p.m., May 3, 2010 (Open). 1:10 p.m.-2... Section 552b(c)(4) and (6), Title 5, U.S.C., and the Determination of the Director, Management Analysis... applications received from academic institutions and other public and private profit and...

  19. 7 CFR 3415.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups. 3415.10 Section 3415.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY...

  20. 7 CFR 3415.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups. 3415.10 Section 3415.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific...

  1. 7 CFR 3415.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups. 3415.10 Section 3415.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific...

  2. 7 CFR 3415.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups. 3415.10 Section 3415.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific...

  3. 7 CFR 3415.10 - Establishment and operation of peer review groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishment and operation of peer review groups. 3415.10 Section 3415.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY RISK ASSESSMENT RESEARCH GRANTS PROGRAM Scientific...

  4. Group A streptococcal brain abscess: a case report and a review of the literature since 1988.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Anri; Takano, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Atsushi; Narumiya, Seiro

    2011-07-01

    Brain abscesses caused by group A Streptococcus (GAS) are rare infectious diseases. In this report we present a case of brain abscess due to GAS infection occurring after milk tooth extraction in a healthy child. A literature review of previously reported cases is presented.

  5. Mostly Heterosexual as a Distinct Sexual Orientation Group: A Systematic Review of the Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savin-Williams, Ritch C.; Vrangalova, Zhana

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed empirical evidence regarding whether mostly heterosexual exists as a sexual orientation distinct from two adjacent groups on a sexual continuum--exclusively heterosexual and substantially bisexual. We addressed the question: Do mostly heterosexuals show a unique profile of sexual and romantic characteristics that distinguishes them as…

  6. 78 FR 56757 - Submission for Review: Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance (FEGLI)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance (FEGLI) AGENCY: Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: 30-Day Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Office of Planning and...

  7. A Systematic Evidence Review of School-Based Group Contingency Interventions for Students with Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maggin, Daniel M.; Johnson, Austin H.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Ruberto, Laura M.; Berggren, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to synthesize the research underlying group contingency interventions to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to support their use for managing the classroom behavior of students with behavioral difficulties. An application of the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) procedures for evaluating single-subject…

  8. 78 FR 28007 - Submission for Review: Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance (FEGLI) Implementation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: Federal Employees' Group Life Insurance (FEGLI) Implementation Questionnaire for Tribal Employers AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: 60-Day Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The Office of Planning and Policy Analysis, Office of Personnel...

  9. Participation, Interaction and Social Presence: An Exploratory Study of Collaboration in Online Peer Review Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Huahui; Sullivan, Kirk P. H.; Mellenius, Ingmarie

    2014-01-01

    A key reason for using asynchronous computer conferencing in instruction is its potential for supporting collaborative learning. However, few studies have examined collaboration in computer conferencing. This study examined collaboration in six peer review groups within an asynchronous computer conferencing. Eighteen tertiary students participated…

  10. A Biosocial View of Population: Fertility Behavior in Animal Groups and Early Human Societies. A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.

    The paper discusses the relationship between social structure and fertility behavior in man. Focusing upon human fertility within the context of varying social groups, the document reviews recent interdisciplinary population studies. Information and interpretations from biology, ethnology, anthropology, history, and sociology are presented in four…

  11. Review of Social Skills Training Groups for Youth with Asperger Syndrome and High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappadocia, M. Catherine; Weiss, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Although social skills deficits represent core symptoms of Asperger Syndrome and High Functioning Autism, there is limited research investigating the empirical validity of social skills interventions currently being used with these populations. This literature review compares three types of social skills training groups: traditional, cognitive…

  12. WHO's in second?: A practical review of World Health Organization group 2 pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hansdottir, Sif; Groskreutz, Dayna J; Gehlbach, Brian K

    2013-08-01

    World Health Organization (WHO) group 2 pulmonary hypertension (PH) due to left-side heart disease (ie, heart failure or left-sided valvular heart disease) is the most common form of PH in western countries. Distinguishing patients with WHO group 2 PH, particularly the subset of patients with PH due to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), from those with WHO group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is challenging. Separating the two conditions is of vital importance because treatment strategies differ completely. Furthermore, therapies that are indicated for WHO group 1 PAH may be harmful in patients with WHO group 2 PH. We review the somewhat confusing PH nomenclature and the WHO classification system and rationale behind it. We then focus on left-side heart disorders that cause PH. An aging population and advances in the medical management of common cardiovascular disorders have caused the prevalence of heart failure to rise significantly, with more than one-half of patients having HFpEF. We review contemporary studies that focus on clinical and echocardiographic findings that help to distinguish HFpEF from PAH in the patient with PH. We discuss the typical, and sometimes atypical, hemodynamic profiles that characterize these two groups, review challenges in the interpretation of data obtained by right-sided heart catheterization, and highlight special maneuvers that may be required for accurate diagnosis. Finally, we review the largely disappointing studies on the use of PAH-specific therapies in patients with WHO group 2 PH, including the use of prostacyclins, endothelin receptor antagonists, and the more promising phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors.

  13. Competitive Team-Based Learning versus Group Investigation with Reference to the Language Proficiency of Iranian EFL Intermediate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad Hassan

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a report on an experimental study which intended to look into the possible effects of Competitive Team-Based Learning (CTBL) vis-à-vis Group Investigation (GI) method of Cooperative Learning (CL) on the language proficiency of Iranian EFL intermediate students. Seventy homogeneous Iranian intermediate students were selected out of a…

  14. Review and evaluation of the effects of xenobiotic chemicals on microorganisms in soil. [139 references

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, R.J.; Van Voris, P.

    1988-02-01

    The primary objective was to review and evaluate the relevance and quality of existing xenobiotic data bases and test methods for evaluating direct and indirect effects (both adverse and beneficial) of xenobiotics on the soil microbial community; direct and indirect effects of the soil microbial community on xenobiotics; and adequacy of test methods used to evaluate these effects and interactions. Xenobiotic chemicals are defined here as those compounds, both organic and inorganic, produced by man and introduced into the environment at concentrations that cause undesirable effects. Because soil serves as the main repository for many of these chemicals, it therefore has a major role in determining their ultimate fate. Once released, the distribution of xenobiotics between environmental compartments depends on the chemodynamic properties of the compounds, the physicochemical properties of the soils, and the transfer between soil-water and soil-air interfaces and across biological membranes. Abiotic and biotic processes can transform the chemical compound, thus altering its chemical state and, subsequently, its toxicity and reactivity. Ideally, the conversion is to carbon dioxide, water, and mineral elements, or at least, to some harmless substance. However, intermediate transformation products, which can become toxic pollutants in their own right, can sometimes be formed. 139 refs., 6 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Opportunities and challenges in using studies without a control group in comparative effectiveness reviews.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Jessica K; Dahabreh, Issa J; Balk, Ethan M; Avendano, Esther E; Lau, Joseph; Ip, Stanley

    2014-06-01

    When examining the evidence on therapeutic interventions to answer a comparative effectiveness research question, one should consider all studies that are informative on the interventions' causal effects. "Single group studies" evaluate outcomes longitudinally in cohorts of subjects who are managed with a single treatment strategy. Because these studies are "missing" a direct, concurrent comparison group, they are typically deemed non-informative on comparative effectiveness. However, in principle, single group studies can provide information on causal treatment effects by extrapolating expected outcomes in the "missing" untreated arm. Single group studies rely on before-after, implicit, or historical comparisons as a proxy for an ideal comparison group. The validity of these comparisons must be carefully examined on a case-by-case basis. While in many cases, researchers will disagree on whether such extrapolations are reasonable; circumstances exist where such studies are generally acceptable as a source of evidence. This article provides an overview of issues related to the interpretation of single group studies with a focus on the assumptions required to support their consideration in comparative effectiveness reviews. We discuss the various settings in which single group studies are employed, common research designs that systematic reviewers need to interpret, and challenges associated with using these designs to inform comparative effectiveness questions.

  16. The Effectiveness of Support Groups in Asian Breast Cancer Patients: An Integrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Fang-Yu; Lee-Lin, Frances; Kuang, Lily Y.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer support group has been studied as an intervention to improve patient psychosocial well-being. The effectiveness of support groups among Asian breast cancer (BC) patients has been unclear and received limited attention to the evidence of its effectiveness. The social-cognitive processing theory underlies the principles of support groups and advocates that a positive, supportive social environment can improve cognitive processing. The purpose of this paper is to present an integrative review of research evidence on the effectiveness of cancer support groups with Asian BC patients. Empirical studies related to support group among Asian and Asian American BC patients published between 1982 and April 2014 are reviewed. There are 15 studies selected (12 from the Asian-Pacific region and 3 from Western countries). The review includes 1 qualitative study, 3 descriptive studies, 1 mixed method design, and 10 experimental or quasi-experimental studies. The support group intervention activities include psycho-educational program such as health education, problem-solving, and stress management. These studies support the effectiveness of support group in alleviating psychological distress and supporting quality of life of Asian BC women. Overall, there is limited research on the use and effectiveness of support groups with Asians cancer patients in Asia and in Western countries. Without accounting for Asian immigrants overseas, the Asian population is expected to grow from 4.3 to 5.3 billion by 2050. As cancer patients become more diverse due to global emigration, more rigorous studies examining the effectiveness of psychosocial intervention among transcultural cancer patients are needed. PMID:27981154

  17. The Effectiveness of Support Groups in Asian Breast Cancer Patients: An Integrative Review.

    PubMed

    Chou, Fang-Yu; Lee-Lin, Frances; Kuang, Lily Y

    2016-01-01

    Cancer support group has been studied as an intervention to improve patient psychosocial well-being. The effectiveness of support groups among Asian breast cancer (BC) patients has been unclear and received limited attention to the evidence of its effectiveness. The social-cognitive processing theory underlies the principles of support groups and advocates that a positive, supportive social environment can improve cognitive processing. The purpose of this paper is to present an integrative review of research evidence on the effectiveness of cancer support groups with Asian BC patients. Empirical studies related to support group among Asian and Asian American BC patients published between 1982 and April 2014 are reviewed. There are 15 studies selected (12 from the Asian-Pacific region and 3 from Western countries). The review includes 1 qualitative study, 3 descriptive studies, 1 mixed method design, and 10 experimental or quasi-experimental studies. The support group intervention activities include psycho-educational program such as health education, problem-solving, and stress management. These studies support the effectiveness of support group in alleviating psychological distress and supporting quality of life of Asian BC women. Overall, there is limited research on the use and effectiveness of support groups with Asians cancer patients in Asia and in Western countries. Without accounting for Asian immigrants overseas, the Asian population is expected to grow from 4.3 to 5.3 billion by 2050. As cancer patients become more diverse due to global emigration, more rigorous studies examining the effectiveness of psychosocial intervention among transcultural cancer patients are needed.

  18. Plant functional traits with particular reference to tropical deciduous forests: a review.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, R K; Raghubanshi, A S; Singh, J S

    2011-12-01

    Functional traits (FTs) integrate the ecological and evolutionary history of a species, and can potentially be used to predict its response as well as its influence on ecosystem functioning. Study of inter-specific variation in the FTs of plants aids in classifying species into plant functional types (PFTs) and provides insights into fundamental patterns and trade-offs in plant form and functioning and the effect of changing species composition on ecosystem functions. Specifically, this paper focuses on those FTs that make a species successful in the dry tropical environment. Following a brief overview, we discuss plant FTs that may be particularly relevant to tropical deciduous forests (TDFs). We consider the traits under the following categories: leaf traits, stem and root traits, reproductive traits, and traits particularly relevant to water availability. We compile quantitative information on functional traits of dry tropical forest species. We also discuss trait-based grouping of plants into PFTs. We recognize that there is incomplete knowledge about many FTs and their effects on TDFs and point out the need for further research on PFTs of TDF species, which can enable prediction of the dynamics of these forests in the face of disturbance and global climate change. Correlations between structural and ecophysiological traits and ecosystem functioning should also be established which could make it possible to generate predictions of changes in ecosystem services from changes in functional composition.

  19. Sigmoid colon morphology in the population groups of Durban, South Africa, with special reference to sigmoid volvulus.

    PubMed

    Madiba, T E; Haffajee, M R

    2011-05-01

    Sigmoid volvulus demonstrates geographical, racial, and gender variation. This autopsy study was undertaken to establish morphological differences of the sigmoid colon and its mesocolon in which the length and other characteristics were assessed. A total of 590 cadavers were examined (403 African, 91 Indian, and 96 White). Length and height of the sigmoid colon and mesocolon were significantly longer in Africans, and mesocolon root was significantly narrower in Africans. Mesocolic ratio for Africans, Indians, and Whites was 1.1 ± 0.8, 1.8 ± 0.7, and 1.9 ± 1.0, respectively. Africans had a significantly high incidence of redundant sigmoid colon with the long-narrow type and suprapelvic position predominating (P = 0.003); the opposite applied to the classic type. There was no difference in sigmoid colon length, mesocolon height, and width between males and females in all population groups. Among Africans, the long-narrow type was more common in males, and the classic and long-broad types were more common in females. Splaying of teniae coli and thickening of the mesentery were more common in Africans. Tethering of the sigmoid colon to the posterior abdominal wall was less common in Africans compared with other population groups. In conclusion, the sigmoid colon was longer, and the sigmoid mesocolon root was narrower in Africans compared with the other population groups, and the sigmoid colon had a suprapelvic disposition among Africans. In Africans, the sigmoid colon was longer in males with a long-narrow shape. These differences may explain geographical and racial differences in sigmoid volvulus.

  20. Reference scenarios for deforestation and forest degradation in support of REDD: a review of data and methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olander, Lydia P.; Gibbs, Holly K.; Steininger, Marc; Swenson, Jennifer J.; Murray, Brian C.

    2008-04-01

    Global climate policy initiatives are now being proposed to compensate tropical forest nations for reducing carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). These proposals have the potential to include developing countries more actively in international greenhouse gas mitigation and to address a substantial share of the world's emissions which come from tropical deforestation. For such a policy to be viable it must have a credible benchmark against which emissions reduction can be calculated. This benchmark, sometimes termed a baseline or reference emissions scenario, can be based directly on historical emissions or can use historical emissions as input for business as usual projections. Here, we review existing data and methods that could be used to measure historical deforestation and forest degradation reference scenarios including FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations) national statistics and various remote sensing sources. The freely available and corrected global Landsat imagery for 1990, 2000 and soon to come for 2005 may be the best primary data source for most developing countries with other coarser resolution high frequency or radar data as a valuable complement for addressing problems with cloud cover and for distinguishing larger scale degradation. While sampling of imagery has been effectively useful for pan-tropical and continental estimates of deforestation, wall-to-wall (or full coverage) allows more detailed assessments for measuring national-level reference emissions. It is possible to measure historical deforestation with sufficient certainty for determining reference emissions, but there must be continued calls at the international level for making high-resolution imagery available, and for financial and technical assistance to help countries determine credible reference scenarios. The data available for past years may not be sufficient for assessing all forms of forest degradation, but new data sources

  1. Discrimination and divergence among Lactobacillus plantarum-group (LPG) isolates with reference to their probiotic functionalities from vegetable origin.

    PubMed

    Devi, Sundru Manjulata; Aishwarya, Subramanian; Halami, Prakash M

    2016-12-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the diversity and probiotic properties of Lactobacillus plantarum-group cultures from vegetable origin. First, genotypic diversity of L. plantarum (n=34) was achieved by PCR of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA and recA gene-specific multiplex PCR. The isolates were segregated into five groups namely, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus paraplantarum, Lactobacillus arizonensis, Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum and argentoratensis. Further discrimination was achieved by restriction fragment length polymorphism of probiotic adhesion genes viz.fbp, mub and msa gene. As determined by nucleotide sequence analysis and bioinformatics Pfam database, the putative Fbp protein had only one FBP domain, whereas Mub protein had 8-10 MUB domain repeats. However, L. pentosus (except CFR MFT9), L. plantarum subsp. argentoratensis (except CFR MFT5) and L. arizonensis (except CFR MFT2) isolates gave no amplicon for the tested marker genes. Selected cultures (n=15) showed tolerance to simulated digestive fluids (20-85%), exhibited auto-aggregation (10-77%), cellular hydrophobicity (12-78%), and broad spectrum of anti-microbial activity. Concurrently, high adherence capacity to mucin was achieved for L. plantarum subsp. plantarum (MCC 2974 and CFR MFT1) and L. paraplantarum (MTCC 9483, MCC 2977, MCC 2978), which had an additional MUB domain repeat.

  2. Selected Bibliographies and State-of the-Art Review for Socio-cultural Factors in Health. Volume 4: Socio-cultural Factors in Health References. International Health Planning Reference Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Renee White; Shani, Hadasa

    Intended as a companion picce to volume 4 in the Method Series, Sociocultural Factors in Health Planning (CE 024 232), this fourth of six volumes in the International Health Planning Reference Series is a combined literature review and annotated bibliography dealing with social, cultural, and behavioral aspects of delivering, planning, and…

  3. Trace-element concentrations in blood samples from welders of stainless steel or aluminium and a reference group.

    PubMed

    Ulfvarson, U; Wold, S

    1977-12-01

    The concentrations of 17 trace elements (e.g., copper, cobalt, iron, manganese, chromium, silicon and magnesium) were determined in whole blood samples of 81 persons working with different welding methods on stainless steel or aluminium and 68 nonwelders. Inorganic spark source mass spectrometry was used for the chemical analyses. The data were analyzed by the SIMCA method for pattern recognition (discriminant analysis). No differences were found between the five groups, either in the average levels of the trace elements or in the correlation structures between the trace elements. Thus no blood concentration data on the analyzed elements and collected from a single person contained any information with respect to exposure to the welding fumes investigated.

  4. Spectral reference line data relevant to remote sensing applications: a review and outline of the EUMETRISPEC project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werhahn, O.; Brunzendorf, J.; Nwaboh, J.; Serdyukov, A.; Werwein, Viktor; Ebert, V.

    2014-10-01

    Within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP)1 the EUMETRISPEC joint research project was focused on metrological aspects of spectral reference line data2 as presented earlier3. We review EUMETRISPEC's first funding through the EMRP and the outcome of this metrology effort to support the line data and the atmospheric remote sensing community. We describe current examples from the EMRP project to address present deficiencies of available line data. Key points of this project were the development of an open European hardware infrastructure for traceable spectral reference data and the development of standardized procedures to measure traceable molecular spectral line data. The paper describes the development of a spectroscopy infrastructure based on a Bruker IFS 125 HR high-resolution Fourier- Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, discusses the achieved results on molecular line parameters (e.g. line strengths and pressure broadening coefficients) of the greenhouse gas species CO2 and CO. Here, metrology aims to provide its additional input in terms of improved quality management, detailed uncertainty assessments and ultimately traceable spectral data linked to the SI units wherever tightened data quality objectives and improved data quality are required for certain remote sensing applications. In this paper we show how metrology efforts support this goal by means of spectroscopy infrastructure. An outline of future activities is given promoting the discussion with the remote sensing community and fostering improved links to the metrology community.

  5. Determination of the platinum - Group elements (PGE) and gold (Au) in manganese nodule reference samples by nickel sulfide fire-assay and Te coprecipitation with ICP-MS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balaram, V.; Mathur, R.; Banakar, V.K.; Hein, J.R.; Rao, C.R.M.; Gnaneswara, Rao T.; Dasaram, B.

    2006-01-01

    Platinum group elements (PGE) and Au data in polymetallic oceanic ferromanganese nodule reference samples and crust samples obtained by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), after separation and pre-concentration by nickel sulfide fire-assay and Te coprecipitation, are presented. By optimizing several critical parameters such as flux composition, matrix matching calibration, etc., best experimental conditions were established to develop a method suitable for routine analysis of manganese nodule samples for PGE and Au. Calibrations were performed using international PGE reference materials, WMG-1 and WMS-1. This improved procedure offers extremely low detection limits in the range of 0.004 to 0.016 ng/g. The results obtained in this study for the reference materials compare well with previously published data wherever available. New PGE data arc also provided on some international manganese nodule reference materials. The analytical methodology described here can be used for the routine analysis of manganese nodule and crust samples in marine geochemical studies.

  6. A systematic evidence review of school-based group contingency interventions for students with challenging behavior.

    PubMed

    Maggin, Daniel M; Johnson, Austin H; Chafouleas, Sandra M; Ruberto, Laura M; Berggren, Melissa

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this review was to synthesize the research underlying group contingency interventions to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to support their use for managing the classroom behavior of students with behavioral difficulties. An application of the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) procedures for evaluating single-subject research revealed that the research investigating group contingencies demonstrated sufficient rigor, evidence, and replication to label the intervention as evidence-based. These findings were further supported across five quantitative indices of treatment effect. The results associated with the application of the WWC procedures and quantitative evaluations were supplemented with additional systematic coding of methodological features and study characteristics to evaluate the populations and conditions under which the effects of the group contingency best generalize. Findings associated with this coding revealed that the lack of detailed reporting across studies limited our ability to determine for whom and under what conditions group contingencies are best suited.

  7. End-of-life care for people with dementia from ethnic minority groups: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Amanda; Sampson, Elizabeth L; Purandare, Nitin

    2012-02-01

    A systematic review of the literature was conducted to examine the relationship between ethnic minority status and provision of end-of-life care for people with dementia. It included all empirical research on people with dementia or severe cognitive impairment or their caregivers and with ethnic minority people as a subgroup in examining an outcome involving end-of-life care processes or attitudes toward end-of-life care. Two authors independently rated quality of included studies; 20 studies met eligibility criteria and were included in the review: 19 quantitative and one qualitative. All articles were based in the United States, with African American, Hispanic, and Asian groups being the ethnic minorities. Artificial nutrition and other life-sustaining treatments were more frequent and decisions to withhold treatment less common in African American and Asian groups. The qualitative evidence, albeit limited, found that attitudes toward end-of-life care were more similar than different between different ethnic groups. Differences in hospice usage patterns were less consistent and potentially influenced by factors such as study setting and dementia severity. Caregivers' experiences differed between ethnic groups, whereas levels of strain experienced were similar. Disparities in end-of-life care for people with dementia from ethnic minority groups appear to exist and may be due to the double disadvantage of dementia and ethnic minority status. Further research is needed in other western multicultural countries, with a focus on prospective qualitative studies to understand the underlying reasons for these differences, not just their occurrence.

  8. Clinical and research implications of the evaluation of women's group therapy for anorgasmia: a review.

    PubMed

    Kuriansky, J B; Sharpe, L

    1981-01-01

    This paper reviews some important clinical and research implications of studies which have evaluated the effectiveness of short-term behavioral group therapy for anorgasmia. Though formal research data on curative factors is very sparse, the experience of sharing within a group, and the focus on arousal seem consistent with treatment outcome; however, the emphasis on assertiveness and the woman-only approach may have countertherapeutic as well as therapeutic effects. A potentially important intervening variable is the woman's level of ego development. The use of certain assessment scales and criteria for success of treatment are critiqued, and recommendations made for further study.

  9. Dietary patterns, food groups and telomere length: a systematic review of current studies.

    PubMed

    Rafie, N; Golpour Hamedani, S; Barak, F; Safavi, S M; Miraghajani, M

    2017-02-01

    Telomere length (TL) is recognized as a biomarker of aging and shorter telomeres are linked with shorter lifespan. Inter-individual variability in telomere length is highly heritable. However, there has been a resurgence of interest in the controversial relationship between diet and TL. Evaluating the impact of diet at the food group and dietary pattern level will provide greater insight into the effect of diet on TL dynamics, which are of significant importance in health and longevity. This article reports the first systematic review of the relation between food groups, dietary patterns and TL in human populations based on PRISMA guidelines.

  10. Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) consensus review for cervical adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Hiroyuki; Yokota, Harushige; Monk, Bradley; Treilleux, Isabelle; Devouassoux-Shisheboran, Mojgan; Davis, Alison; Kim, Jae-Weon; Mahner, Sven; Stany, Michael; Pignata, Sandro; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle; Fujiwara, Keiichi

    2014-11-01

    Cervical adenocarcinoma is known to be less common than squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix comprising approximately 25% of all cervical carcinomas. Differences in associated human papillomavirus types, patterns of spread, and prognosis call for treatments that are not always like those for squamous cancers. In this review, we report a consensus developed by the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup surrounding cervical adenocarcinoma for epidemiology, pathology, treatment, and unanswered questions. Prospective clinical trials are needed to help develop treatment guidelines.

  11. Invited review: Effects of group housing of dairy calves on behavior, cognition, performance, and health.

    PubMed

    Costa, J H C; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2016-04-01

    Standard practice in the dairy industry is to separate the calf and dam immediately after birth and raise calves in individual pens during the milk-feeding period. In nature and in extensive beef systems, the young calf lives in a complex social environment. Social isolation during infancy has been associated with negative effects, including abnormal behavior and developmental problems, in a range of species. Here, we review empirical work on the social development of calves and the effects of social isolation in calves and other species; this evidence indicates that calves reared in isolation have deficient social skills, difficulties in coping with novel situations, as well as specific cognitive deficits. We also review the practices associated with group housing of dairy calves, and discuss problems and suggested solutions, especially related to cross-sucking, competition, aggression, and disease. The studies reviewed indicate that social housing improves solid feed intakes and calf weight gains before and after calves are weaned from milk to solid feed. Evidence regarding the effects of social housing on calf health is mixed, with some studies showing increased risk of disease and other studies showing no difference or even improved health outcomes for grouped calves. We conclude that there is strong and consistent evidence of behavioral and developmental harm associated with individual housing in dairy calves, that social housing improves intakes and weight gains, and that health risks associated with grouping can be mitigated with appropriate management.

  12. An International Strategy for Human Exploration of the Moon: The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) Reference Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Junichiro, Kawaguchi; Piedboeuf, Jean-Claude; Schade, Britta; Lorenzoni, Andrea; Curtis, Jeremy; Hae-Dong, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) was established in response to The Global Exploration Strategy: The Framework for Coordination developed by fourteen space agencies and released in May 2007. Several ISECG participating space agencies have been studying concepts for human exploration of the moon that allow individual and collective goals and objectives to be met. This 18 month study activity culminated with the development of the ISECG Reference Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration. The reference architecture is a series of elements delivered over time in a flexible and evolvable campaign. This paper will describe the reference architecture and how it will inform near-term and long-term programmatic planning within interested agencies. The reference architecture is intended to serve as a global point of departure conceptual architecture that enables individual agency investments in technology development and demonstration, International Space Station research and technology demonstration, terrestrial analog studies, and robotic precursor missions to contribute towards the eventual implementation of a human lunar exploration scenario which reflects the concepts and priorities established to date. It also serves to create opportunities for partnerships that will support evolution of this concept and its eventual realization. The ISECG Reference Architecture for Human Lunar Exploration (commonly referred to as the lunar gPoD) reflects the agency commitments to finding an effective balance between conducting important scientific investigations of and from the moon, as well as demonstrating and mastering the technologies and capabilities to send humans farther into the Solar System. The lunar gPoD begins with a robust robotic precursor phase that demonstrates technologies and capabilities considered important for the success of the campaign. Robotic missions will inform the human missions and buy down risks. Human exploration will start

  13. [The Goldthorpe Social Class Classification: reference framework for a proposal for the measurement of social class by the Working Group of the Spanish Society of Epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Regidor, E

    2001-01-01

    Two of the most important theory-based social class classifications are that of the neo-Weberian Goldthorpe and that of the neo-Marxist Wright. The social class classification proposal of the SES Working Group employed the Goldthorpe schema as a reference due to the empirical and mainly pragmatic aspects involved. In this article, these aspects are discussed and it is also discussed the problem of the validation of the measurements of social class and the problem of the use of the social class as an independent variable.

  14. Group versus Individual Professional Antenatal Breastfeeding Education for Extending Breastfeeding Duration and Exclusivity: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ka Lun; Tarrant, Marie; Lok, Kris Yuet Wan

    2015-08-01

    Although breastfeeding initiation rates have increased substantially in many developed countries over the past several decades, breastfeeding duration and exclusivity remain suboptimal. In the antenatal period, both group and individual education interventions have been implemented to improve breastfeeding. The purpose of this review was to compare the effectiveness of group and individual antenatal professional education on breastfeeding exclusivity and duration. A systematic search of the literature was conducted using Medline (1946-June 2014), PubMed (1883-June 2014), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (1947-June 2014), EMBASE (1947-June 2014), British Nursing Index (1994-June 2014), Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library. Included studies were limited to health care professional-conducted education delivered to pregnant women only. Only studies reporting breastfeeding duration or exclusivity were included. Nineteen studies were included, of which 13 evaluated antenatal group education, 5 evaluated individual antenatal education, and 1 evaluated both a group and an individual antenatal education. When compared with standard care, 4 out of 12 studies supported the effectiveness of antenatal group education on breastfeeding duration or exclusivity, whereas 4 out of 6 studies supported the effectiveness of antenatal individual education. Two studies compared antenatal group education with peer-led education and neither study showed a significant difference in breastfeeding outcomes. The methodological heterogeneity and the small number of high quality studies limited our ability to draw firm conclusions about the effectiveness of either mode of antenatal education.

  15. Comparison Groups in Yoga Research: A Systematic Review and Critical Evaluation of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Groessl, Erik; Maiya, Meghan; Sarkin, Andrew; Eisen, Susan V.; Riley, Kristen; Elwy, A. Rani

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Comparison groups are essential for accurate testing and interpretation of yoga intervention trials. However, selecting proper comparison groups is difficult because yoga comprises a very heterogeneous set of practices and its mechanisms of effect have not been conclusively established. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the control and comparison groups used in published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of yoga. Results We located 128 RCTs that met our inclusion criteria; of these, 65 included only a passive control and 63 included at least one active comparison group. Primary comparison groups were physical exercise (43%), relaxation/meditation (20%), and education (16%). Studies rarely provided a strong rationale for choice of comparison. Considering year of publication, the use of active controls in yoga research appears to be slowly increasing over time. Conclusions Given that yoga has been established as a potentially powerful intervention, future research should use active control groups. Further, care is needed to select comparison conditions that help to isolate the specific mechanisms of yoga’s effects. PMID:25440384

  16. Annual age-grouping and athlete development: a meta-analytical review of relative age effects in sport.

    PubMed

    Cobley, Stephen; Baker, Joseph; Wattie, Nick; McKenna, Jim

    2009-01-01

    Annual age-grouping is a common organizational strategy in sport. However, such a strategy appears to promote relative age effects (RAEs). RAEs refer both to the immediate participation and long-term attainment constraints in sport, occurring as a result of chronological age and associated physical (e.g. height) differences as well as selection practices in annual age-grouped cohorts. This article represents the first meta-analytical review of RAEs, aimed to collectively determine (i) the overall prevalence and strength of RAEs across and within sports, and (ii) identify moderator variables. A total of 38 studies, spanning 1984-2007, containing 253 independent samples across 14 sports and 16 countries were re-examined and included in a single analysis using odds ratios and random effects procedures for combining study estimates. Overall results identified consistent prevalence of RAEs, but with small effect sizes. Effect size increased linearly with relative age differences. Follow-up analyses identified age category, skill level and sport context as moderators of RAE magnitude. Sports context involving adolescent (aged 15-18 years) males, at the representative (i.e. regional and national) level in highly popular sports appear most at risk to RAE inequalities. Researchers need to understand the mechanisms by which RAEs magnify and subside, as well as confirm whether RAEs exist in female and more culturally diverse contexts. To reduce and eliminate this social inequality from influencing athletes' experiences, especially within developmental periods, direct policy, organizational and practitioner intervention is required.

  17. Theory of mind tasks and executive functions: a systematic review of group studies in neurology.

    PubMed

    Aboulafia-Brakha, T; Christe, B; Martory, M-D; Annoni, J-M

    2011-03-01

    A growing number of studies have been addressing the relationship between theory of mind (TOM) and executive functions (EF) in patients with acquired neurological pathology. In order to provide a global overview on the main findings, we conducted a systematic review on group studies where we aimed to (1) evaluate the patterns of impaired and preserved abilities of both TOM and EF in groups of patients with acquired neurological pathology and (2) investigate the existence of particular relations between different EF domains and TOM tasks. The search was conducted in Pubmed/Medline. A total of 24 articles met the inclusion criteria. We considered for analysis classical clinically accepted TOM tasks (first- and second-order false belief stories, the Faux Pas test, Happe's stories, the Mind in the Eyes task, and Cartoon's tasks) and EF domains (updating, shifting, inhibition, and access). The review suggests that (1) EF and TOM appear tightly associated. However, the few dissociations observed suggest they cannot be reduced to a single function; (2) no executive subprocess could be specifically associated with TOM performances; (3) the first-order false belief task and the Happe's story task seem to be less sensitive to neurological pathologies and less associated to EF. Even though the analysis of the reviewed studies demonstrates a close relationship between TOM and EF in patients with acquired neurological pathology, the nature of this relationship must be further investigated. Studies investigating ecological consequences of TOM and EF deficits, and intervention researches may bring further contributions to this question.

  18. Paleomagnetism, Geochronology, and Geochemistry of the Type Section of the Stanislaus Group: Reference Parameters from the Stable Sierra Nevada Microplate, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farner, M. J.; Pluhar, C. J.; Asami, R.; Putirka, K. D.; Busby, C.; Renne, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Late Miocene Stanislaus Group, of California and Nevada is composed of Table Mountain Formation, Eureka Valley Tuff, and Dardanelles Formation. This ~9.0-~10.2 million year old unit interrupted Miocene andesitic arc volcanism in the Sierra Nevada, providing a regional lithostratigraphic marker that has been used extensively to reconstruct tilt and uplift of the range, Neogene tectonics of the Walker Lane Belt, magmagenetic processes beneath the Sierra Nevada, and lithospheric evolution of the Sierra Nevada and Eastern California. A recent study (Koerner et al, 2009) produced a measured section and geologic map of the Stanislaus Group type section, but until now this locality has never seen comprehensive multidisciplinary study of the geochronology, geochemistry, and magnetostratigraphy of the site and to integrate this into the overall understanding of the Stanislaus Group. Stratigraphy, geochemistry, and paleomagnetism from the type section suggest addition of a basal trachyte lava flow member to the Eureka Valley tuff and adds an additional intermediate-polarity lava flow to Table Mountain Formation magnetostratigraphy. This study dates the youngest member of the Stanislaus Group, the Dardanelles Formation, by 40Ar/39Ar radioisotopic dating for the first time, yielding an age of 9.048 ± 0.017 Ma. Paleomagnetic results verify the previous paleomagnetic reference direction from the Sierra Nevada microplate for the Tollhouse Flat Member of the Eureka Valley Tuff (King et al., 2007). However, our work revises the By-Day Member reference direction to D = 349.6°, I = 51.9° n = 8, α95 = 3.0°, k = 346. This difference is because the prior work analyzed By-Day localities within the tectonically-active Walker Lane Belt. The revised reference direction is critical for measurements of relative vertical-axis rotation studies in the Walker Lane. Our study also demonstrates that little to no vertical-axis rotation of the Sierra Nevada microplate has occurred since

  19. Utilizing Whole Slide Images for Pathology Peer Review and Working Groups.

    PubMed

    Malarkey, David E; Willson, Gabrielle A; Willson, Cynthia J; Adams, E Terence; Olson, Greg R; Witt, William M; Elmore, Susan A; Hardisty, Jerry F; Boyle, Michael C; Crabbs, Torrie A; Miller, Rodney A

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the results of comparisons of digitally scanned whole slide images (WSIs) and glass microscope slides for diagnosis of tissues under peer review by the National Toxicology Program. Findings in this article were developed as a result of the data collected from 6 pathology working groups (PWGs), 1 pathology peer review, and survey comments from over 25 participating pathologists. For each PWG, 6-14 pathologists examined 10-143 tissues per study from 6- and 9-month perinatal studies and 2-year carcinogenicity studies. Overall it was found that evaluation of WSIs is generally equivalent to using glass slides. Concordance of PWG consensus diagnoses based upon review of WSIs versus glass slides ranged from 74% to 100% (median 86%). The intra- and interobserver diagnostic variation did not appear to influence the conclusions of any study. Based upon user opinions collected from surveys, WSIs may be less optimal than glass slides for evaluation of subtle lesions, large complex lesions, small lesions in a large section of tissue, and foci of altered hepatocytes. These results indicate that, although there may be some limitations, the use of WSIs can effectively accomplish the objectives of a conventional glass slide review and definitely serves as a useful adjunct to the conduct of PWGs.

  20. [Use of reactions with Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) to determine biological activity of lipopolysaccharides from reference and clinical strains of the Bacteroides fragilis group].

    PubMed

    Rokosz, Alicja; Fiejka, Maria; Górska, Paulina; Aleksandrowicz, Janina; Meisel-Mikołajczyk, Felicja; Łuczak, MirosŁaw

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare a biological activity of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from reference and clinical strains of strictly anaerobic bacteria belonging to the Bacteroides fragilis group (BFG) by means of quantitative, photometric BET (LAL) method with Limulus polyphemus amoebocyte lysate and chromogenic substrate S-2423. Lipopolysaccharides of five BFG species were extracted by Westphal and Jann method (1965) from eight reference and two clinical strains of B. fragilis group. Crude LPS preparations were purified according to the procedure described by Gmeiner (1975) with ultracentrifugation and nuclease treatment. Biological activities of bacterial endotoxins were determined by quantitative BET method with chromogenic substrate S-2423 (ENDOCHROME kit, Charles River Endosafe Ltd., USA). Tests were performed according to the producer's recommendations. E. coli O55:B5 LPS was applied to compare its activity in reaction with LAL reagent with activities of LPS preparations from rods of the Bacteroides genus. Among examined bacterial compounds the most active in BET method was E. coli O55:B5 LPS. Activities of lipopolysaccharides from five species of BFG rods in reaction with Limulus amoebocyte lysate were differentiated. Greater ability to activate LAL proenzyme revealed lipopolysaccharides of these species of the Bacteroides genus, which are important from the clinical point of view--B. fragilis and B. thetaiotaomicron.

  1. Central review of cytogenetics is necessary for cooperative group correlative and clinical studies of adult acute leukemia: The Cancer and Leukemia Group B experience

    PubMed Central

    Mrózek, Krzysztof; Carroll, Andrew J.; Maharry, Kati; Rao, Kathleen W.; Patil, Shivanand R.; Pettenati, Mark J.; Watson, Michael S.; Arthur, Diane C.; Tantravahi, Ramana; Heerema, Nyla A.; Koduru, Prasad R. K.; Block, AnneMarie W.; Qumsiyeh, Mazin B.; Edwards, Colin G.; Sterling, Lisa J.; Holland, Kelsi B.; Bloomfield, Clara D.

    2009-01-01

    The Cancer and Leukemia Group B has performed central review of karyotypes submitted by institutional cytogenetics laboratories from patients with acute myeloid (AML) and acute lymphoblastic (ALL) leukemia since 1986. We assessed the role of central karyotype review in maintaining accurate, high quality cytogenetic data for clinical and translational studies using two criteria: the proportion of karyotypes rejected (i.e. inadequate), and, among accepted (i.e. adequate) cases, the proportion of karyotypes whose interpretation was changed on central karyotype review. We compared the first four years during which central karyotype review was performed with a recent four-year period and found that the proportion of rejected samples decreased significantly for both AML and ALL. However, during the latter period, central karyotype reviews still found 8% of AML and 16% of ALL karyotypes inadequate. Among adequate cases, the karyotype was revised in 26% of both AML and ALL samples. Some revisions resulted in changing the patients’ assignment to particular World Health Organization diagnostic categories and/or moving patients from one prognostic group to another. Overall, when both data on rejection rates and data on karyotype revisions made in accepted cases were considered together, 32% of AML and 38% of ALL samples submitted were either rejected or revised on central karyotype review during the recent 4-year period. These data underscore the necessity of continued central karyotype review in multi-institutional cooperative group studies. PMID:18636143

  2. The Kjeldahl method as a primary reference procedure for total protein in certified reference materials used in clinical chemistry. I. A review of Kjeldahl methods adopted by laboratory medicine.

    PubMed

    Chromý, Vratislav; Vinklárková, Bára; Šprongl, Luděk; Bittová, Miroslava

    2015-01-01

    We found previously that albumin-calibrated total protein in certified reference materials causes unacceptable positive bias in analysis of human sera. The simplest way to cure this defect is the use of human-based serum/plasma standards calibrated by the Kjeldahl method. Such standards, commutative with serum samples, will compensate for bias caused by lipids and bilirubin in most human sera. To find a suitable primary reference procedure for total protein in reference materials, we reviewed Kjeldahl methods adopted by laboratory medicine. We found two methods recommended for total protein in human samples: an indirect analysis based on total Kjeldahl nitrogen corrected for its nonprotein nitrogen and a direct analysis made on isolated protein precipitates. The methods found will be assessed in a subsequent article.

  3. Review of 16S and ITS Direct Sequencing Results for Clinical Specimens Submitted to a Reference Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Michael; Azana, Robert; Hoang, Linda M. N.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of 16S and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region amplification and sequencing of rDNA from clinical specimens, for the respective detection and identification of bacterial and fungal pathogens. Direct rDNA amplification of 16S and ITS targets from clinical samples was performed over a 4-year period and reviewed. All specimens were from sterile sites and submitted to a reference laboratory for evaluation. Results of 16S and ITS were compared to histopathology, Gram and/or calcofluor stain microscopy results. A total of 277 16S tests were performed, with 64 (23%) positive for the presence of bacterial DNA. Identification of an organism was more likely in microscopy positive 16S samples 14/21 (67%), compared to 35/175 (20%) of microscopy negative samples. A total of 110 ITS tests were performed, with 14 (13%) positive. The yield of microscopy positive ITS samples, 9/44 (21%), was higher than microscopy negative samples 3/50 (6%). Given these findings, 16S and ITS are valuable options for culture negative specimens from sterile sites, particularly in the setting of positive microscopy findings. Where microscopy results are negative, the limited sensitivity of 16S and ITS in detecting and identifying an infectious agent needs to be considered. PMID:27366168

  4. True Gold or Pyrite: A Review of Reference Point Indentation for Assessing Bone Mechanical Properties In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Allen, Matthew R; McNerny, Erin Mb; Organ, Jason M; Wallace, Joseph M

    2015-09-01

    Although the gold standard for determining bones' mechanical integrity is the direct measure of mechanical properties, clinical evaluation has long relied on surrogates of mechanical properties for assessment of fracture risk. Nearly a decade ago, reference point indentation (RPI) emerged as an innovative way to potentially assess mechanical properties of bone in vivo. Beginning with the BioDent device, and then followed by the newer generation OsteoProbe, this RPI technology has been utilized in several publications. In this review we present an overview of the technology and some important details about the two devices. We also highlight select key studies, focused specifically on the in vivo application of these devices, as a way of synthesizing where the technology stands in 2015. The BioDent machine has been shown, in two clinical reports, to be able to differentiate fracture versus nonfracture patient populations and in preclinical studies to detect treatment effects that are consistent with those quantified using traditional mechanical tests. The OsteoProbe appears able to separate clinical cohorts yet there exists a lack of clarity regarding details of testing, which suggests more rigorous work needs to be undertaken with this machine. Taken together, RPI technology has shown promising results, yet much more work is needed to determine if its theoretical potential to assess mechanical properties in vivo can be realized.

  5. Review of geochemical reference sample programs since G-1 and W-1: progress to date and remaining challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    A brief history of programs to develop geochemical reference samples and certified reference samples for use in geochemical analysis is presented. While progress has been made since G-1 and W-1 were issued, many challenges remain. ?? 1991.

  6. External beam radiotherapy in thyroid carcinoma: clinical review and recommendations of the AIRO "Radioterapia Metabolica" Group.

    PubMed

    Mangoni, Monica; Gobitti, Carlo; Autorino, Rosa; Cerizza, Lorenzo; Furlan, Carlo; Mazzarotto, Renzo; Monari, Fabio; Simontacchi, Gabriele; Vianello, Federica; Basso, Michela; Zanirato Rambaldi, Giuseppe; Russi, Elvio; Tagliaferri, Luca

    2017-03-24

    The therapeutic approach to thyroid carcinoma usually involves surgery as initial treatment. The use of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) is limited to high-risk patients and depends on clinical stage and histologic type. Different behavior patterns and degrees of aggressiveness of thyroid carcinomas require different management for differentiated, medullary, and anaplastic carcinoma. However, the role of EBRT is an issue of debate. Most clinical studies are retrospective and based on single-institution experiences. In this article, we review the main literature and give recommendations for the use of EBRT in thyroid carcinoma on behalf of the "Radioterapia Metabolica" Group of the Italian Radiation Oncology Association.

  7. Tibialis posterior in health and disease: a review of structure and function with specific reference to electromyographic studies

    PubMed Central

    Semple, Ruth; Murley, George S; Woodburn, James; Turner, Deborah E

    2009-01-01

    Tibialis posterior has a vital role during gait as the primary dynamic stabiliser of the medial longitudinal arch; however, the muscle and tendon are prone to dysfunction with several conditions. We present an overview of tibialis posterior muscle and tendon anatomy with images from cadaveric work on fresh frozen limbs and a review of current evidence that define normal and abnormal tibialis posterior muscle activation during gait. A video is available that demonstrates ultrasound guided intra-muscular insertion techniques for tibialis posterior electromyography. Current electromyography literature indicates tibialis posterior intensity and timing during walking is variable in healthy adults and has a disease-specific activation profile among different pathologies. Flat-arched foot posture and tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction are associated with greater tibialis posterior muscle activity during stance phase, compared to normal or healthy participants, respectively. Cerebral palsy is associated with four potentially abnormal profiles during the entire gait cycle; however it is unclear how these profiles are defined as these studies lack control groups that characterise electromyographic activity from developmentally normal children. Intervention studies show antipronation taping to significantly decrease tibialis posterior muscle activation during walking compared to barefoot, although this research is based on only four participants. However, other interventions such as foot orthoses and footwear do not appear to systematically effect muscle activation during walking or running, respectively. This review highlights deficits in current evidence and provides suggestions for the future research agenda. PMID:19691828

  8. A meta-analytic review of exposure in group cognitive behavioral therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Barrera, T L; Mott, J M; Hofstein, R F; Teng, E J

    2013-02-01

    Although the efficacy of exposure is well established in individual cognitive behavioral treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), some clinicians and researchers have expressed concerns regarding the use of in-session disclosure of trauma details through imaginal exposure in group cognitive behavioral therapy (GCBT) for PTSD. Thus, the aim of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of the empirical support for GCBT in the treatment of PTSD and to compare GCBT protocols that encourage the disclosure of trauma details via in-session exposure to GCBT protocols that do not include in-session exposure. Randomized controlled trials that assessed the efficacy of GCBT for PTSD were included in the meta-analysis. A total of 651 participants with PTSD were included in the 12 eligible GCBT treatment conditions (5 conditions included in-group exposure, 7 conditions did not include in-group exposure). The overall pre-post effect size of GCBT for PTSD (ES=1.13 [SE=0.22, 95% CI: 0.69 to 1.56, p<.001]). suggests that GCBT is an effective intervention for individuals with PTSD. No significant differences in effect sizes were found between GCBT treatments that included in-group exposure and those that did not. Although the attrition rate was higher in treatments that included exposure in-group, this rate is comparable to attrition rates in individual CBT treatments and pharmacotherapy for PTSD. The results from this meta-analysis suggest that concerns about the potentially negative impact of group exposure may be unwarranted, and support the use of exposure-based GCBT as a promising treatment option for PTSD.

  9. Does Quality of Radiation Therapy Predict Outcomes of Multicenter Cooperative Group Trials? A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, Alysa; Straube, William; Laurie, Fran; Followill, David

    2013-10-01

    Central review of radiation therapy (RT) delivery within multicenter clinical trials was initiated in the early 1970s in the United States. Early quality assurance publications often focused on metrics related to process, logistics, and timing. Our objective was to review the available evidence supporting correlation of RT quality with clinical outcomes within cooperative group trials. A MEDLINE search was performed to identify multicenter studies that described central subjective assessment of RT protocol compliance (quality). Data abstracted included method of central review, definition of deviations, and clinical outcomes. Seventeen multicenter studies (1980-2012) were identified, plus one Patterns of Care Study. Disease sites were hematologic, head and neck, lung, breast, and pancreas. Between 0 and 97% of treatment plans received an overall grade of acceptable. In 7 trials, failure rates were significantly higher after inadequate versus adequate RT. Five of 9 and 2 of 5 trials reported significantly worse overall and progression-free survival after poor-quality RT, respectively. One reported a significant correlation, and 2 reported nonsignificant trends toward increased toxicity with noncompliant RT. Although more data are required, protocol-compliant RT may decrease failure rates and increase overall survival and likely contributes to the ability of collected data to answer the central trial question.

  10. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB): a scoping review of pharmacology, toxicology, motives for use, and user groups.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Rebekah; Van Hout, Marie Claire

    2014-01-01

    Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a central nervous system depressant with euphoric and relaxant effects. Documentation of GHB prevalence and the underreporting of abuse remains problematic, given the availability of GHB and its precursors γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) and the ease of synthesis from kits available on the Internet. The continued abuse of and dependence on GHB, and associated fatalities, present an on-going public health problem. As the drug GHB remains an underresearched topic, a scoping review was chosen as a technique to map the available literature into a descriptive summarized account. PRISMA was used to assist in data retrieval, with subsequent data charting into three key themes (pharmacology and toxicology, outcomes, and user groups). Administered orally, GHB is dose-dependent and popular for certain uses (therapeutic, body enhancement, sexual assault) and amongst user sub groups (recreational party drug users, homosexual men). Despite the low prevalence of use in comparison to other club drugs, rising abuse of the drug is associated with dependence, withdrawal, acute toxicity, and fatal overdose. Clinical diagnosis and treatment is complicated by the co-ingestion of alcohol and other drugs. Limitations of the scoping review and potential for further research and harm reduction initiatives are discussed.

  11. A sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) reference FISH karyotype for chromosome and chromosome-arm identification, integration of genetic linkage groups and analysis of major repeat family distribution.

    PubMed

    Paesold, Susanne; Borchardt, Dietrich; Schmidt, Thomas; Dechyeva, Daryna

    2012-11-01

    We developed a reference karyotype for B. vulgaris which is applicable to all beet cultivars and provides a consistent numbering of chromosomes and genetic linkage groups. Linkage groups of sugar beet were assigned to physical chromosome arms by FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) using a set of 18 genetically anchored BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) markers. Genetic maps of sugar beet were correlated to chromosome arms, and North-South orientation of linkage groups was established. The FISH karyotype provides a technical platform for genome studies and can be applied for numbering and identification of chromosomes in related wild beet species. The discrimination of all nine chromosomes by BAC probes enabled the study of chromosome-specific distribution of the major repetitive components of sugar beet genome comprising pericentromeric, intercalary and subtelomeric satellites and 18S-5.8S-25S and 5S rRNA gene arrays. We developed a multicolor FISH procedure allowing the identification of all nine sugar beet chromosome pairs in a single hybridization using a pool of satellite DNA probes. Fiber-FISH was applied to analyse five chromosome arms in which the furthermost genetic marker of the linkage group was mapped adjacently to terminal repetitive sequences on pachytene chromosomes. Only on two arms telomere arrays and the markers are physically linked, hence these linkage groups can be considered as terminally closed making the further identification of distal informative markers difficult. The results support genetic mapping by marker localization, the anchoring of contigs and scaffolds for the annotation of the sugar beet genome sequence and the analysis of the chromosomal distribution patterns of major families of repetitive DNA.

  12. Analysis of latent tuberculosis infection treatment adherence among refugees and other patient groups referred to the Baltimore City Health Department TB clinic, February 2009-March 2011.

    PubMed

    Nuzzo, Jennifer B; Golub, Jonathan E; Chaulk, Patrick; Shah, Maunank

    2015-02-01

    We sought to determine the proportion of refugee patients at the Baltimore City Health Department Tuberculosis program (BCHD-TB) successfully completing latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) treatment, as compared to other referral groups, and to identify factors associated with treatment completion. We completed a retrospective cohort analysis of individuals referred to BCHD-TB program for LTBI care between February 1, 2009 and March 31, 2011. Among 841 patients evaluated by BCHD-TB and diagnosed with LTBI, 81% of refugees, 50% of non-refugee foreign-born, and 35% of US-born patients completed LTBI treatment. In multivariate analysis, refugees had greater odds of LTBI treatment completion (Adjusted Odds Ratio 7.2; 95% CI 4.2-12.4, p < 0.001) compared to US-born individuals adjusting for age, gender, and treatment regimen. Overall, LTBI treatment completion remains suboptimal. At BCHD-TB, LTBI treatment completion was significantly higher among refugees than other referral groups. Additional efforts are needed to optimize LTBI care, and future efforts may need to be tailored for different risk groups.

  13. "Reference values" of trace elements in the hair of a sample group of Spanish children (aged 6-9 years) - are urban topsoils a source of contamination?

    PubMed

    Peña-Fernández, A; González-Muñoz, M J; Lobo-Bedmar, M C

    2014-07-01

    Human hair is used as a biomonitor to evaluate the environmental exposure to contaminants in the individual. However, the use of human hair is controversial, mainly because reference levels for pollutants in hair have not yet been set. In the case of Spain, few biomonitoring studies have involved infants and children. A biomonitoring study was conducted to investigate the possible normal values of trace elements of toxicological concern in children aged 6-9 years from the city of Alcalá de Henares, Community of Madrid (Spain), following the methodology and strict inclusion criteria previously developed by our group. Levels of Al, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, Ti, Tl, V and Zn were monitored in scalp-hair from 117 healthy children (47 boys and 70 girls) between April and May of 2001. The levels of trace elements here described could be considered as possible "reference values" for children aged 6-9 years resident in the Community of Madrid. These values might also be selected as a preliminary screening tool to evaluate if a Spanish child has been exposed to any of the contaminants studied here. This study also investigated whether local urban topsoils were a source of metals for this population.

  14. Pharmacological review of Caralluma R.Br. with special reference to appetite suppression and anti-obesity.

    PubMed

    Dutt, Harish Chander; Singh, Surjeet; Avula, Bharathi; Khan, Ikhlas A; Bedi, Yashbir S

    2012-02-01

    Caralluma fimbriata extract has received Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) status for use as a nutraceutical to combat the most serious public health concern (i.e., obesity). More than 260 species grouped under the genus Caralluma (Family Apocynaceae) are distributed in tropical Asia and Mediterranean regions of the globe. Ethnobotanically, some species have been used as traditional and modern dietary ingredients to suppress appetite. Many species of Caralluma are commonly used as traditional medicine for the treatment of rheumatism, diabetes, leprosy, paralysis, and inflammation and have antimalarial, antitrypanosomal, anti-ulcer, antioxidant, antinociceptive, and antiproliferative activities. The genus is known for compounds like pregnane glycosides, flavonoid glycoside, flavones, magastigmane glycosides, pregnane steroids, steroidal glycosides, saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, aromatic and nonaromatic volatile compounds, and β-sitosterol. An extract of C. fimbriata (Slimaluna(®), Gencor Nutrients, Anaheim, CA, USA) is used as an anti-obesity agent and appetite suppressor. It is also seen that the pregnane glycosides isolated and identified from African Hoodia are reported as anti-obesity and appetite-suppressant compounds. On reviewing the studies undertaken on the chemistry, pharmacology, and therapeutic potential of Caralluma, it is concluded that the genus is also composed of pregnane glycosides as one of the major constituents. Availability of pregnane glycosides in Caralluma is an indication of the appetite-suppressant property of this genus. This coupled with the GRAS status of the extract of C. fimbriata has opened the possibility of developing an anti-obesity/appetite-suppressant product from other species of Caralluma. The main objective of this article is to review the studies undertaken on the plant in light of further research for anti-obesity drugs and nutraceuticals from species of Caralluma.

  15. Opportunities and challenges in conducting systematic reviews to support development of nutrient reference values: vitamin A as an example

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient reference values have significant public health and policy implications. Given the importance of defining reliable nutrient reference values, there is a need for an explicit, objective, and transparent process to set these values. The Tufts Medical Center Evidence-based Practice Center asse...

  16. Joint Funding Councils' Libraries Review Group (the "Follett") Report: The Contribution of the Information Technology Sub-Committee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brindley, Lynne J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to look into a review of library provision in higher education, which was originally set up in 1992 by The Funding Councils of England, Scotland and Wales, and the Department of Education for Northern Ireland. Design/methodology/approach: The review group was structured into three sub-committees, under the umbrella of…

  17. 75 FR 63532 - In the Matter of the Review of the Designation of the Armed Islamic Group and All Associated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Review of the Designation of the Armed Islamic Group and All Associated Aliases as Foreign Terrorist Organizations Pursuant to Section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended Based upon a review of the...

  18. Narrowing the Gap in Outcomes for Vulnerable Groups. A Review of the Research Evidence: Summary of Key Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Sally; Straw, Suzanne; Jones, Megan; Springate, Iain; Lord, Pippa; Stoney, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    In 2007, the Local Government Association (LGA) commissioned the NFER to review the best evidence on what works in narrowing the gap in outcomes for vulnerable groups across the five Every Child Matters areas. The review aimed to underpin the Narrowing the Gap Programme, a major development programme being implemented by the LGA and the DCSF. …

  19. Group social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Spain, Debbie; Blainey, Sarah H

    2015-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by impairments in communication and social interaction. Social skills interventions have been found to ameliorate socio-communication deficits in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Little is known about the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (hf-ASD) - a clinical population who can present with more subtle core deficits, but comparable levels of impairment and secondary difficulties. A systematic review was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Five studies met the pre-specified review inclusion criteria: two quasi-experimental comparative trials and three single-arm interventions. There was a degree of variation in the structure, duration and content of the social skills interventions delivered, as well as several methodological limitations associated with included studies. Nevertheless, narrative analysis tentatively indicates that group social skills interventions may be effective for enhancing social knowledge and understanding, improving social functioning, reducing loneliness and potentially alleviating co-morbid psychiatric symptoms.

  20. Review of tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration in the South African paediatric age group

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Tamer Ali

    2016-01-01

    Children, and in particular young children under the age of three, are the most vulnerable for aspiration and ingestion of foreign bodies (FBs). The Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital in Cape Town is the only children’s hospital in South Africa and is unique in having a dedicated trauma unit for children under the age of 13 as part of its institution. Core activities of Childsafe South Africa (CSA), located at the hospital, are data accumulation and interpretation, development of educational programmes, health inculcation and advising in legislation involving child health. To achieve this task, CSA works in close co-operation with government, industry, non-governmental and community predicated organisations, community groups and individuals. A database of all children treated for trauma at CSA has been maintained since 1991; it currently contains detailed information of over 170,000 injuries in children under the age of 13. This review consists of a literature review combined with data from our database and aims to provide information on our experiences with tracheobronchial aspiration of FBs in children. PMID:28149578

  1. Appraisal of literature reviews on end-of-life care for minority ethnic groups in the UK and a critical comparison with policy recommendations from the UK end-of-life care strategy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence of low end-of-life (EoL) care service use by minority ethnic groups in the UK has given rise to a body of research and a number of reviews of the literature. This article aims to review and evaluate literature reviews on minority ethnic groups and EoL care in the UK and assess their suitability as an evidence base for policy. Methods Systematic review. Searches were carried out in thirteen electronic databases, eight journals, reference lists, and grey literature. Reviews were included if they concerned minority ethnic groups and EoL care in the UK. Reviews were graded for quality and key themes identified. Results Thirteen reviews (2001-2009) met inclusion criteria. Seven took a systematic approach, of which four scored highly for methodological quality (a mean score of six, median seven). The majority of systematic reviews were therefore of a reasonable methodological quality. Most reviews were restricted by ethnic group, aspect of EoL care, or were broader reviews which reported relevant findings. Six key themes were identified. Conclusions A number of reviews were systematic and scored highly for methodological quality. These reviews provide a good reflection of the primary evidence and could be used to inform policy. The complexity and inter-relatedness of factors leading to low service use was recognised and reflected in reviews' recommendations for service improvement. Recommendations made in the UK End-of-Life Care Strategy were limited in comparison, and the Strategy's evidence base concerning minority ethnic groups was found to be narrow. Future policy should be embedded strongly in the evidence base to reflect the current literature and minimise bias. PMID:21635738

  2. Prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal infections: a review with an Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Narava, S; Rajaram, G; Ramadevi, A; Prakash, G V; Mackenzie, S

    2014-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an important cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in many parts of the world. Asymptomatic colonisation of the vagina and rectum with Group B streptococci is common in pregnancy. Maternal colonisation of GBS can vary depending on ethnicity and geographical distribution. Vertical transmission of this organism from mother to foetus may lead to neonatal GBS disease. Intra-partum use of antibiotics in these women has led to a decrease in the rate of early onset but not late onset GBS disease. Identification of women with GBS is the key factor in the prevention of perinatal GBS disease. There are different screening strategies available to identify women at risk of perinatal GBS disease. Clinicians continue to face the challenge of choosing between preventive strategies to reduce the impact of perinatal GBS disease. Controversy exists regarding the ideal preventive strategy. In India, the mortality and morbidity associated with the GBS disease remains largely a under-recognised problem. This comprehensive review summarises the salient features of GBS disease and discusses the epidemiology, risk factors, screening strategies, intra-partum antibiotic prophylaxis with an Indian perspective and how it compares with the Western nations.

  3. A systematic review of peer-support programs for smoking cessation in disadvantaged groups.

    PubMed

    Ford, Pauline; Clifford, Anton; Gussy, Kim; Gartner, Coral

    2013-10-28

    The burden of smoking is borne most by those who are socially disadvantaged and the social gradient in smoking contributes substantially to the health gap between the rich and poor. A number of factors contribute to higher tobacco use among socially disadvantaged populations including social (e.g., low social support for quitting), psychological (e.g., low self-efficacy) and physical factors (e.g., greater nicotine dependence). Current evidence for the effectiveness of peer or partner support interventions in enhancing the success of quit attempts in the general population is equivocal, largely due to study design and lack of a theoretical framework in this research. We conducted a systematic review of peer support interventions for smoking cessation in disadvantaged groups. The eight studies which met the inclusion criteria showed that interventions that improve social support for smoking cessation may be of greater importance to disadvantaged groups who experience fewer opportunities to access such support informally. Peer-support programs are emerging as highly effective and empowering ways for people to manage health issues in a socially supportive context. We discuss the potential for peer-support programs to address the high prevalence of smoking in vulnerable populations and also to build capacity in their communities.

  4. Herbal reference standards.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Michael; Klier, Bernhard; Sievers, Hartwig

    2009-06-01

    This review describes the current definitions and regulatory requirements that apply to reference standards that are used to analyse herbal products. It also describes and discusses the current use of reference substances and reference extracts in the European and United States pharmacopoeias.

  5. WWC Quick Review of the Article "Culture and the Interaction of Student Ethnicity with Reward Structure in Group Learning" Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an updated WWC (What Works Clearinghouse) Review of the Article "Culture and the Interaction of Student Ethnicity with Reward Structure in Group Learning". The study examined the effects of different reward systems used in group learning situations on the math skills of African-American and White students. The…

  6. The expression of genes PKM2 and CAST in the muscle tissue of pigs differentiated by glycolytic potential and drip loss, with reference to the genetic group.

    PubMed

    Sieczkowska, H; Zybert, A; Krzecio, E; Antosik, K; Koćwin-Podsiadła, M; Pierzchała, M; Urbański, P

    2010-01-01

    The present studies aimed at an analysis of the expression level of genes PKM2 and CAST in Longissimus lumborum [LL] muscle tissue of pigs differing as regards the glycolytic potential [GP] and drip loss [DL] from the LL muscle, with reference to the genetic group. The studies covered a total of 65 pigs: 20 purebred Landrace [L], 22 crossbreeds of Landrace with the Yorkshire [L x Y] and 23 three-breed crosses (Landrace x Yorkshire) x Duroc [(L x Y) x D]. In the case of gene PKM2 one may observe in (L x Y) x D crossbreds, compared to L x Y crossbreds, an increased expression, closely related with the increase in dry matter content, including intramuscular fat, as well as a more favourable progress of glycolytic and energy metabolism during the early time post mortem (pH(45) and R(1)). Compared with Landrace animals, the lower expression of the CAST gene observed in (L x Y) x D pigs is manifested by a marked improvement of meat quality (R(1) pH(45) pH(24), pH(48)), arising from the rate of glycolytic and energy metabolism, typical for normal meat, that in effect results in its higher culinary and technological value.

  7. A review of the sarawakensis species group of the ground beetle genus Orthogonius MacLeay, 1825 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Orthogoniini)

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Mingyi; Deuve, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The sarawakensis species group of the termitophilous carabid genus Orthogonius MacLeay, 1825 is defined and reviewed. Members of this species group are distributed in Southeast Asia and represented by four species, including two new species: Orthogonius sabahicus sp. n. (Sabah, northern Borneo, Malaysia) and Orthogonius morvanianus sp. n. (southern Thailand). A key to all species of the species group is also provided. PMID:27408560

  8. Renormalization group invariance and optimal QCD renormalization scale-setting: a key issues review.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xing-Gang; Ma, Yang; Wang, Sheng-Quan; Fu, Hai-Bing; Ma, Hong-Hao; Brodsky, Stanley J; Mojaza, Matin

    2015-12-01

    A valid prediction for a physical observable from quantum field theory should be independent of the choice of renormalization scheme--this is the primary requirement of renormalization group invariance (RGI). Satisfying scheme invariance is a challenging problem for perturbative QCD (pQCD), since a truncated perturbation series does not automatically satisfy the requirements of the renormalization group. In a previous review, we provided a general introduction to the various scale setting approaches suggested in the literature. As a step forward, in the present review, we present a discussion in depth of two well-established scale-setting methods based on RGI. One is the 'principle of maximum conformality' (PMC) in which the terms associated with the β-function are absorbed into the scale of the running coupling at each perturbative order; its predictions are scheme and scale independent at every finite order. The other approach is the 'principle of minimum sensitivity' (PMS), which is based on local RGI; the PMS approach determines the optimal renormalization scale by requiring the slope of the approximant of an observable to vanish. In this paper, we present a detailed comparison of the PMC and PMS procedures by analyzing two physical observables R(e+e-) and [Formula: see text] up to four-loop order in pQCD. At the four-loop level, the PMC and PMS predictions for both observables agree within small errors with those of conventional scale setting assuming a physically-motivated scale, and each prediction shows small scale dependences. However, the convergence of the pQCD series at high orders, behaves quite differently: the PMC displays the best pQCD convergence since it eliminates divergent renormalon terms; in contrast, the convergence of the PMS prediction is questionable, often even worse than the conventional prediction based on an arbitrary guess for the renormalization scale. PMC predictions also have the property that any residual dependence on the choice

  9. A review of US anthropometric reference data (1971 2000) with comparisons to both stylized and tomographic anatomic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, C.; Bolch, W. E.

    2003-10-01

    Two classes of anatomic models currently exist for use in both radiation protection and radiation dose reconstruction: stylized mathematical models and tomographic voxel models. The former utilize 3D surface equations to represent internal organ structure and external body shape, while the latter are based on segmented CT or MR images of a single individual. While tomographic models are clearly more anthropomorphic than stylized models, a given model's characterization as being anthropometric is dependent upon the reference human to which the model is compared. In the present study, data on total body mass, standing/sitting heights and body mass index are collected and reviewed for the US population covering the time interval from 1971 to 2000. These same anthropometric parameters are then assembled for the ORNL series of stylized models, the GSF series of tomographic models (Golem, Helga, Donna, etc), the adult male Zubal tomographic model and the UF newborn tomographic model. The stylized ORNL models of the adult male and female are found to be fairly representative of present-day average US males and females, respectively, in terms of both standing and sitting heights for ages between 20 and 60-80 years. While the ORNL adult male model provides a reasonably close match to the total body mass of the average US 21-year-old male (within ~5%), present-day 40-year-old males have an average total body mass that is ~16% higher. For radiation protection purposes, the use of the larger 73.7 kg adult ORNL stylized hermaphrodite model provides a much closer representation of average present-day US females at ages ranging from 20 to 70 years. In terms of the adult tomographic models from the GSF series, only Donna (40-year-old F) closely matches her age-matched US counterpart in terms of average body mass. Regarding standing heights, the better matches to US age-correlated averages belong to Irene (32-year-old F) for the females and Golem (38-year-old M) for the males. Both

  10. Associations between food and beverage groups and major diet-related chronic diseases: an exhaustive review of pooled/meta-analyses and systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Fardet, Anthony; Boirie, Yves

    2014-12-01

    Associations between food and beverage groups and the risk of diet-related chronic disease (DRCD) have been the subject of intensive research in preventive nutrition. Pooled/meta-analyses and systematic reviews (PMASRs) aim to better characterize these associations. To date, however, there has been no attempt to synthesize all PMASRs that have assessed the relationship between food and beverage groups and DRCDs. The objectives of this review were to aggregate PMASRs to obtain an overview of the associations between food and beverage groups (n = 17) and DRCDs (n = 10) and to establish new directions for future research needs. The present review of 304 PMASRs published between 1950 and 2013 confirmed that plant food groups are more protective than animal food groups against DRCDs. Within plant food groups, grain products are more protective than fruits and vegetables. Among animal food groups, dairy/milk products have a neutral effect on the risk of DRCDs, while red/processed meats tend to increase the risk. Among beverages, tea was the most protective and soft drinks the least protective against DRCDs. For two of the DRCDs examined, sarcopenia and kidney disease, no PMASR was found. Overweight/obesity, type 2 diabetes, and various types of cardiovascular disease and cancer accounted for 289 of the PMASRs. There is a crucial need to further study the associations between food and beverage groups and mental health, skeletal health, digestive diseases, liver diseases, kidney diseases, obesity, and type 2 diabetes.

  11. Improving Scientific Research and Writing Skills through Peer Review and Empirical Group Learning.

    PubMed

    Senkevitch, Emilee; Smith, Ann C; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Song, Wenxia

    2011-01-01

    Here we describe a semester-long, multipart activity called "Read and wRite to reveal the Research process" (R(3)) that was designed to teach students the elements of a scientific research paper. We implemented R(3) in an advanced immunology course. In R(3), we paralleled the activities of reading, discussion, and presentation of relevant immunology work from primary research papers with student writing, discussion, and presentation of their own lab findings. We used reading, discussing, and writing activities to introduce students to the rationale for basic components of a scientific research paper, the method of composing a scientific paper, and the applications of course content to scientific research. As a final part of R(3), students worked collaboratively to construct a Group Research Paper that reported on a hypothesis-driven research project, followed by a peer review activity that mimicked the last stage of the scientific publishing process. Assessment of student learning revealed a statistically significant gain in student performance on writing in the style of a research paper from the start of the semester to the end of the semester.

  12. Functional group analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.T. Jr.; Patterson, J.M.

    1986-04-01

    Analytical methods for functional group analysis are reviewed. Literature reviewed is from the period of December 1983 through November 1985 and presents methods for determining the following compounds: acids, acid halides, active hydrogen, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, amides, amines, amino acids, anhydrides, aromatic hydrocarbons, azo compounds, carbohydrates, chloramines, esters, ethers, halogen compounds, hydrazines, isothiocyanates, nitro compounds, nitroso compounds, organometallic compounds, oxiranes, peroxides, phenols, phosphorus compounds, quinones, silicon compounds, sulfates, sulfonyl chlorides, thioamides, thiols, and thiosemicarbazones. 150 references.

  13. Predictors of the accuracy of quotation of references in peer-reviewed orthopaedic literature in relation to publications on the scaphoid.

    PubMed

    Buijze, G A; Weening, A A; Poolman, R W; Bhandari, M; Ring, D

    2012-02-01

    Using inaccurate quotations can propagate misleading information, which might affect the management of patients. The aim of this study was to determine the predictors of quotation inaccuracy in the peer-reviewed orthopaedic literature related to the scaphoid. We randomly selected 100 papers from ten orthopaedic journals. All references were retrieved in full text when available or otherwise excluded. Two observers independently rated all quotations from the selected papers by comparing the claims made by the authors with the data and expressed opinions of the reference source. A statistical analysis determined which article-related factors were predictors of quotation inaccuracy. The mean total inaccuracy rate of the 3840 verified quotes was 7.6%. There was no correlation between the rate of inaccuracy and the impact factor of the journal. Multivariable analysis identified the journal and the type of study (clinical, biomechanical, methodological, case report or review) as important predictors of the total quotation inaccuracy rate. We concluded that inaccurate quotations in the peer-reviewed orthopaedic literature related to the scaphoid were common and slightly more so for certain journals and certain study types. Authors, reviewers and editorial staff play an important role in reducing this inaccuracy.

  14. A phase III randomised, double-blind, parallel-group study comparing SB4 with etanercept reference product in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis despite methotrexate therapy

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Paul; Vencovský, Jiří; Sylwestrzak, Anna; Leszczyński, Piotr; Porawska, Wieslawa; Baranauskaite, Asta; Tseluyko, Vira; Zhdan, Vyacheslav M; Stasiuk, Barbara; Milasiene, Roma; Barrera Rodriguez, Aaron Alejandro; Cheong, Soo Yeon; Ghil, Jeehoon

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To compare the efficacy and safety of SB4 (an etanercept biosimilar) with reference product etanercept (ETN) in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) despite methotrexate (MTX) therapy. Methods This is a phase III, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group, multicentre study with a 24-week primary endpoint. Patients with moderate to severe RA despite MTX treatment were randomised to receive weekly dose of 50 mg of subcutaneous SB4 or ETN. The primary endpoint was the American College of Rheumatology 20% (ACR20) response at week 24. Other efficacy endpoints as well as safety, immunogenicity and pharmacokinetic parameters were also measured. Results 596 patients were randomised to either SB4 (N=299) or ETN (N=297). The ACR20 response rate at week 24 in the per-protocol set was 78.1% for SB4 and 80.3% for ETN. The 95% CI of the adjusted treatment difference was −9.41% to 4.98%, which is completely contained within the predefined equivalence margin of −15% to 15%, indicating therapeutic equivalence between SB4 and ETN. Other efficacy endpoints and pharmacokinetic endpoints were comparable. The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was comparable (55.2% vs 58.2%), and the incidence of antidrug antibody development up to week 24 was lower in SB4 compared with ETN (0.7% vs 13.1%). Conclusions SB4 was shown to be equivalent with ETN in terms of efficacy at week 24. SB4 was well tolerated with a lower immunogenicity profile. The safety profile of SB4 was comparable with that of ETN. Trial registration numbers NCT01895309, EudraCT 2012-005026-30. PMID:26150601

  15. Systematic Review of Cerebral Palsy Registries/Surveillance Groups: Relationships between Registry Characteristics and Knowledge Dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Donna S; Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Krosschell, Kristin J; Pavone, Larissa; Mutlu, Akmer; Dewald, Julius PA; Msall, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to provide a comprehensive summary of the body of research disseminated by Cerebral Palsy (CP) registries and surveillance programs from January 2009 through May 2014 in order to describe the influence their results have on our overall understanding of CP. Secondly, registries/surveillance programs and the work they produced were evaluated and grouped using standardized definitions and classification systems. Method A systematic review search in PubMed, CINAH and Embase for original articles published from 1 January 2009 to 20 May 2014 originating from or supported by population based CP registries and surveillance programs or population based national registries including CP were included. Articles were grouped by 2009 World CP Registry Congress aim, registry/surveillance program classification, geographical region, and the International Classification of Function, Disability and Health (ICF) domain. Registry variables were assessed using the ICF-CY classification. Results Literature searches returned 177 articles meeting inclusion criteria. The majority (69%) of registry/surveillance program productivity was related to contributions as a Resource for CP Research. Prevention (23%) and Surveillance (22%) articles were other areas of achievement, but fewer articles were published in the areas of Planning (17%) and Raising the Profile of CP (2%). There was a range of registry/surveillance program classifications contributing to this productivity, and representation from multiple areas of the globe, although most of the articles originated in Europe, Australia, and Canada. The domains of the ICF that were primarily covered included body structures and function at the early stages of life. Encouragingly, a variety of CP registry/surveillance program initiatives included additional ICF domains of participation and environmental and personal factors. Interpretation CP registries and surveillance programs, including novel non-traditional ones

  16. Perceived barriers to smoking cessation in selected vulnerable groups: a systematic review of the qualitative and quantitative literature

    PubMed Central

    Twyman, Laura; Bonevski, Billie; Paul, Christine; Bryant, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify barriers that are common and unique to six selected vulnerable groups: low socioeconomic status; Indigenous; mental illness and substance abuse; homeless; prisoners; and at-risk youth. Design A systematic review was carried out to identify the perceived barriers to smoking cessation within six vulnerable groups. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycInfo were searched using keywords and MeSH terms from each database's inception published prior to March 2014. Study selection Studies that provided either qualitative or quantitative (ie, longitudinal, cross-sectional or cohort surveys) descriptions of self-reported perceived barriers to quitting smoking in one of the six aforementioned vulnerable groups were included. Data extraction Two authors independently assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. Results 65 eligible papers were identified: 24 with low socioeconomic groups, 16 with Indigenous groups, 18 involving people with a mental illness, 3 with homeless groups, 2 involving prisoners and 1 involving at-risk youth. One study identified was carried out with participants who were homeless and addicted to alcohol and/or other drugs. Barriers common to all vulnerable groups included: smoking for stress management, lack of support from health and other service providers, and the high prevalence and acceptability of smoking in vulnerable communities. Unique barriers were identified for people with a mental illness (eg, maintenance of mental health), Indigenous groups (eg, cultural and historical norms), prisoners (eg, living conditions), people who are homeless (eg, competing priorities) and at-risk youth (eg, high accessibility of tobacco). Conclusions Vulnerable groups experience common barriers to smoking cessation, in addition to barriers that are unique to specific vulnerable groups. Individual-level, community-level and social network-level interventions are priority areas for future smoking cessation interventions within

  17. Anti-choice group seeks Supreme Court review of federal clinic access law; Congress holds hearings.

    PubMed

    1995-05-19

    The Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act (FACE) is a federal statute which was signed into law May 1994 prohibiting the use of force, threat of force, or physical obstruction to intentionally injure, intimidate, or interfere with anyone providing reproductive health services. Since FACE was enacted, seven federal district courts and one federal appellate court have found the measure constitutional, although one federal district court in Wisconsin did rule against FACE. Anti-choice activists have argued that neither the Commerce Clause nor the Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution empower Congress to enact FACE. Congress relied upon both constitutional provisions when it enacted the statute, recognizing that illegal, violent acts against abortion providers and their patients threaten to disrupt medical care nationwide and eliminate the right to choose abortion. The US Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit on February 13, 1995, however, unanimously upheld a lower court's dismissal of the case, finding that FACE does not violate the US Constitution. Relying upon an April 26 Supreme Court decision in United States vs. Lopez, which held that Congress did not have the power under the Commerce Clause to enact a federal statute prohibiting the possession of a firearm within 100 feet of a school zone, an anti-choice group and several individuals petitioned the US Supreme Court in a May 12 filing to review the appellate court ruling in American Life League vs. Reno. The petitioners also challenge the broad powers of Congress under the Fourteenth Amendment to remedy infringements upon constitutional rights and assert FACE violates the First Amendment and the Religious Freedom Restoration Act.

  18. Review of the Eisenia muganiensis (Michaelsen, 1910) species group with description of two new species (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae).

    PubMed

    Szederjesi, Tímea; Pavlíček, Tomás; Latif, Robabeh; Csuzdi, Csaba

    2014-11-14

    The Eisenia muganiensis species group is established, consisting of a set of Asian earthworm species characterized by elongate, backward placed clitellum and tubercles: Eisenia malevici Perel, 1962; Eisenia muganiensis (Michaelsen, 1910); Eisenia patriciae Szederjesi, Pavlíček, Coşkun & Csuzdi, 2014 and Eisenia transcaucasica (Perel, 1967). The species are shortly reviewed and furthermore, two new species of the E. muganiensis group are described, E. kontschani sp. nov. from Turkey and E. malekae sp. nov. from Iran. 

  19. Review of Recent Applied Linguistics Research in Finland and Sweden, with Specific Reference to Foreign Language Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringbom, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    This review covers recent applied linguistic research in Finland and Sweden during the years 2006-2011, with particular emphasis on foreign language learning and teaching. Its primary aim is to inform the international research community on the type of research that is going on in these countries. Special attention is given to topics which have…

  20. Formulation and implementation of a unitary group adapted state universal multi-reference coupled cluster (UGA-SUMRCC) theory: excited and ionized state energies.

    PubMed

    Sen, Sangita; Shee, Avijit; Mukherjee, Debashis

    2012-08-21

    The traditional state universal multi-reference coupled cluster (SUMRCC) theory uses the Jeziorski-Monkhorst (JM) based Ansatz of the wave operator: Ω = Σ(μ)Ω(μ)|φ(μ)><φ(μ)|, where Ω(μ) = exp(T(μ)) is the cluster representation of the component of Ω inducing virtual excitations from the model function φ(μ). In the first formulations, φ(μ)s were chosen to be single determinants and T(μ)s were defined in terms of spinorbitals. This leads to spin-contamination for the non-singlet cases. In this paper, we propose and implement an explicitly spin-free realization of the SUMRCC theory. This method uses spin-free unitary generators in defining the cluster operators, {T(μ)}, which even at singles-doubles truncation, generates non-commuting cluster operators. We propose the use of normal-ordered exponential parameterization for Ω:Σ(μ){exp(T(μ))}|φ(μ)><φ(μ)|, where {} denotes the normal ordering with respect to a common closed shell vacuum which makes the "direct term" of the SUMRCC equations terminate at the quartic power. We choose our model functions {φ(μ)} as unitary group adapted (UGA) Gel'fand states which is why we call our theory UGA-SUMRCC. In the spirit of the original SUMRCC, we choose exactly the right number of linearly independent cluster operators in {T(μ)} such that no redundancies in the virtual functions {χ(μ)(l)} are involved. Using example applications for electron detached/attached and h-p excited states relative to a closed shell ground state we discuss how to choose the most compact and non-redundant cluster operators. Although there exists a more elaborate spin-adapted JM-like ansatz of Datta and Mukherjee (known as combinatoric open-shell CC (COS-CC), its working equations are more complex. Results are compared with those from COS-CC, equation of motion coupled cluster methods, restricted open-shell Hartree-Fock coupled cluster, and full configuration interaction. We observe that our results are more accurate with

  1. 75 FR 7281 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... following meeting of the aforementioned review group: Time and Date: 12:30 p.m.-4 p.m., March 3, 2010..., Management Analysis and Services Office, CDC, pursuant to Section 10(d) of Public Law 92-463. Purpose: This... agreement applications received from academic institutions and other public and private profit and...

  2. 75 FR 7284 - National Center for Injury Prevention and Control/Initial Review Group, (NCIPC/IRG)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... following meeting of the aforementioned review group: Times and Dates: 8 a.m.-5 p.m., March 11, 2010 (Closed... Director, Management Analysis and Services Office, CDC, pursuant to Section 10(d) of Public Law 92-463... cooperative agreement applications received from academic institutions and other public and private profit...

  3. Parasite infection and host group size: a meta-analytical review.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jesse E H; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have identified various host behavioural and ecological traits that are associated with parasite infection, including host gregariousness. By use of meta-analyses, we investigated to what degree parasite prevalence, intensity and species richness are correlated with group size in gregarious species. We predicted that larger groups would have more parasites and higher parasite species richness. We analysed a total of 70 correlations on parasite prevalence, intensity and species richness across different host group sizes. Parasite intensity and prevalence both increased positively with group size, as expected. No significant relationships were found between host group size and parasite species richness, suggesting that larger groups do not harbour more rare or novel parasite species than smaller groups. We further predicted that the mobility of the host (mobile, sedentary) and the mode of parasite transmission (direct, indirect, mobile) would be important predictors of the effects of group sizes on parasite infection. It was found that group size was positively correlated with the prevalence and intensity of directly and indirectly transmitted parasites. However, a negative relationship was observed between group size and mobile parasite intensity, with larger groups having lower parasite intensities. Further, intensities of parasites did not increase with group size of mobile hosts, suggesting that host mobility may negate parasite infection risk. The implications for the evolution and maintenance of sociality in host species are discussed, and future research directions are highlighted.

  4. The Use of Small Groups in Computer-Based Training: A Review of Recent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Stanley D.

    1994-01-01

    Recent work in small-group computer-based training (CBT) reveals that the approach does not necessarily lead to higher achievement. Many of the studies, however, have methodological weaknesses. If proper guidance and structure can be provided to group members, using small group CBT should lead to higher achievement than individual CBT. (Contains…

  5. Father/son relationship during the preschool years. An integrative review with special reference to recent Swedish findings.

    PubMed

    Nettelbladt, P

    1983-12-01

    This review is an attempt to integrate Anglo-American and Swedish studies on father/son relationships. The puerperal period, infancy and early childhood are surveyed. Swedish studies do not support specific stereotyped bonding in the puerperal period. The review confirms the bidirectional nature of the father/son relationship. Thus, counteridentification, i.e. the father's identification with his son, and identification during the oedipal phase, i.e. the son's identification with his father, seem to be essential components in the father/son relationship. However, studies on parent-infant behaviour indicate that different parental roles exist early in infancy. Also, attachment studies point to the specificity of the father/son relationship before the oedipal phase. It is concluded that the major importance of the father/son relationship during the preschool years is to facilitate the son's masculine identification.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: nephronophthisis

    MedlinePlus

    ... these are often referred to as nephronophthisis -associated ciliopathies. For example, Senior-Løken syndrome is characterized by ... Nephronophthisis Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (2 links) Ciliopathy Alliance National Kidney Foundation GeneReviews (1 link) Nephronophthisis ...

  7. Marketing Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, O. Gene

    1995-01-01

    Relates the marketing concept to library reference services. Highlights include a review of the literature and an overview of marketing, including research, the marketing mix, strategic plan, marketing plan, and marketing audit. Marketing principles are applied to reference services through the marketing mix elements of product, price, place, and…

  8. Effects of Coaching on Educators' and Preschoolers' Use of References to Print and Phonological Awareness during a Small-Group Craft/Writing Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Trelani F.; Hipfner-Boucher, Kathleen; Weitzman, Elaine; Greenberg, Janice; Pelletier, Janette; Girolametto, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The current study investigated the effects of coaching as part of an emergent literacy professional development program to increase early childhood educators' use of verbal references to print and phonological awareness during interactions with children. Method: Thirty-one educators and 4 children from each of their classrooms (N = 121)…

  9. Maximizing the Reliability of Genomic Selection by Optimizing the Calibration Set of Reference Individuals: Comparison of Methods in Two Diverse Groups of Maize Inbreds (Zea mays L.)

    PubMed Central

    Rincent, R.; Laloë, D.; Nicolas, S.; Altmann, T.; Brunel, D.; Revilla, P.; Rodríguez, V.M.; Moreno-Gonzalez, J.; Melchinger, A.; Bauer, E.; Schoen, C-C.; Meyer, N.; Giauffret, C.; Bauland, C.; Jamin, P.; Laborde, J.; Monod, H.; Flament, P.; Charcosset, A.; Moreau, L.

    2012-01-01

    Genomic selection refers to the use of genotypic information for predicting breeding values of selection candidates. A prediction formula is calibrated with the genotypes and phenotypes of reference individuals constituting the calibration set. The size and the composition of this set are essential parameters affecting the prediction reliabilities. The objective of this study was to maximize reliabilities by optimizing the calibration set. Different criteria based on the diversity or on the prediction error variance (PEV) derived from the realized additive relationship matrix–best linear unbiased predictions model (RA–BLUP) were used to select the reference individuals. For the latter, we considered the mean of the PEV of the contrasts between each selection candidate and the mean of the population (PEVmean) and the mean of the expected reliabilities of the same contrasts (CDmean). These criteria were tested with phenotypic data collected on two diversity panels of maize (Zea mays L.) genotyped with a 50k SNPs array. In the two panels, samples chosen based on CDmean gave higher reliabilities than random samples for various calibration set sizes. CDmean also appeared superior to PEVmean, which can be explained by the fact that it takes into account the reduction of variance due to the relatedness between individuals. Selected samples were close to optimality for a wide range of trait heritabilities, which suggests that the strategy presented here can efficiently sample subsets in panels of inbred lines. A script to optimize reference samples based on CDmean is available on request. PMID:22865733

  10. Comparing different approaches - data mining, geostatistic, and deterministic pedology - to assess the frequency of WRB Reference Soil Groups in the Italian soil regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzetti, Romina; Barbetti, Roberto; L'Abate, Giovanni; Fantappiè, Maria; Costantini, Edoardo A. C.

    2013-04-01

    Estimating frequency of soil classes in map unit is always affected by some degree of uncertainty, especially at small scales, with a larger generalization. The aim of this study was to compare different possible approaches - data mining, geostatistic, deterministic pedology - to assess the frequency of WRB Reference Soil Groups (RSG) in the major Italian soil regions. In the soil map of Italy (Costantini et al., 2012), a list of the first five RSG was reported in each major 10 soil regions. The soil map was produced using the national soil geodatabase, which stored 22,015 analyzed and classified pedons, 1,413 soil typological unit (STU) and a set of auxiliary variables (lithology, land-use, DEM). Other variables were added, to better consider the influence of soil forming factors (slope, soil aridity index, carbon stock, soil inorganic carbon content, clay, sand, geography of soil regions and soil systems) and a grid at 1 km mesh was set up. The traditional deterministic pedology assessed the STU frequency according to the expert judgment presence in every elementary landscape which formed the mapping unit. Different data mining techniques were firstly compared in their ability to predict RSG through auxiliary variables (neural networks, random forests, boosted tree, supported vector machine (SVM)). We selected SVM according to the result of a testing set. A SVM model is a representation of the examples as points in space, mapped so that examples of separate categories are divided by a clear gap that is as wide as possible. The geostatistic algorithm we used was an indicator collocated cokriging. The class values of the auxiliary variables, available at all the points of the grid, were transformed in indicator variables (values 0, 1). A principal component analysis allowed us to select the variables that were able to explain the largest variability, and to correlate each RSG with the first principal component, which explained the 51% of the total variability. The

  11. Review of lattice results concerning low-energy particle physics. Flavour Lattice Averaging Group (FLAG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, S.; Aoki, Y.; Bečirević, D.; Bernard, C.; Blum, T.; Colangelo, G.; Della Morte, M.; Dimopoulos, P.; Dürr, S.; Fukaya, H.; Golterman, M.; Gottlieb, Steven; Hashimoto, S.; Heller, U. M.; Horsley, R.; Jüttner, A.; Kaneko, T.; Lellouch, L.; Leutwyler, H.; Lin, C.-J. D.; Lubicz, V.; Lunghi, E.; Mawhinney, R.; Onogi, T.; Pena, C.; Sachrajda, C. T.; Sharpe, S. R.; Simula, S.; Sommer, R.; Vladikas, A.; Wenger, U.; Wittig, H.

    2017-02-01

    We review lattice results related to pion, kaon, D- and B-meson physics with the aim of making them easily accessible to the particle-physics community. More specifically, we report on the determination of the light-quark masses, the form factor f_+(0), arising in the semileptonic K → π transition at zero momentum transfer, as well as the decay constant ratio f_K/f_π and its consequences for the CKM matrix elements V_{us} and V_{ud}. Furthermore, we describe the results obtained on the lattice for some of the low-energy constants of SU(2)_L× SU(2)_R and SU(3)_L× SU(3)_R Chiral Perturbation Theory. We review the determination of the B_K parameter of neutral kaon mixing as well as the additional four B parameters that arise in theories of physics beyond the Standard Model. The latter quantities are an addition compared to the previous review. For the heavy-quark sector, we provide results for m_c and m_b (also new compared to the previous review), as well as those for D- and B-meson-decay constants, form factors, and mixing parameters. These are the heavy-quark quantities most relevant for the determination of CKM matrix elements and the global CKM unitarity-triangle fit. Finally, we review the status of lattice determinations of the strong coupling constant α _s.

  12. Long-term survivability of riprap for armoring uranium-mill tailings and covers: a literature review. [203 references

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, C.G.; Long, L.W.; Begej, C.W.

    1982-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is investigating the use of a rock armoring blanket (riprap) to mitigate wind and water erosion of an earthen radon suppression cover applied to uranium mill tailings. Because the radon suppression cover and the tailings must remain intact for up to 1000 years or longer, the riprap must withstand natural weathering forces. This report is a review of information on rock weathering and riprap durability. Chemical and physical weathering processes, rock characteristics related to durability, climatic conditions affecting the degree and rate of weathering, and testing procedures used to measure weathering susceptibilities have been reviewed. Sampling and testing techniques, as well as analyses of physical and chemical weathering susceptibilities, are necessary to evaluate rock durability. Many potential riprap materials may not be able to survive 1000 years of weathering. Available techniques for durability testing cannot adequately predict rock durability for the 1000-year period because they do not consider the issue of time (i.e., how long must riprap remain stable). This report includes an Appendix, which discusses rock weathering, written by Dr. Richard Jahns of Stanford University.

  13. ABO blood group system and the coronary artery disease: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuo; Yang, Sheng-Hua; Xu, Hao; Li, Jian-Jun

    2016-03-18

    ABO blood group system, a well-known genetic risk factor, has clinically been demonstrated to be linked with thrombotic vascular diseases. However, the relationship between ABO blood group and coronary artery disease (CAD) is still controversial. We here performed an updated meta-analysis of the related studies and tried to elucidate the potential role of ABO blood group as a risk factor for CAD. All detectable case-control and cohort studies comparing the risk of CAD in different ABO blood groups were collected for this analysis through searching PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Ultimately, 17 studies covering 225,810 participants were included. The combined results showed that the risk of CAD was significantly higher in blood group A (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.26, p = 0.01) and lower in blood group O (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.78 to 0.94, p = 0.0008). Even when studies merely about myocardial infarction (MI) were removed, the risk of CAD was still significantly higher in blood group A (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.10, p = 0.03) and lower in blood group O (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.85 to 0.93, p < 0.00001). This updated systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that both blood group A and non-O were the risk factors of CAD.

  14. Cross-group friendships and intergroup attitudes: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kristin; Tropp, Linda R; Aron, Arthur; Pettigrew, Thomas F; Wright, Stephen C

    2011-11-01

    This work identifies how cross-group friendships are conceptualized and measured in intergroup research, investigates which operationalizations yield the strongest effects on intergroup attitudes, explores potential moderators, and discusses the theoretical importance of the findings. Prior meta-analyses have provided initial evidence that cross-group friendships are especially powerful forms of intergroup contact. Although studies of cross-group friendship have grown considerably in recent years, varied assessments leave us without a clear understanding of how different operationalizations affect relationships between friendship and attitudes. With a greatly expanded database of relevant studies, the authors compared friendship-attitude associations across a wide range of specific conceptualizations. Time spent and self-disclosure with outgroup friends yielded significantly greater associations with attitudes than other friendship measures, suggesting that attitudes are most likely to improve when cross-group friendships involve behavioral engagement. Processes underlying cross-group friendships are discussed, as are implications for future research and application.

  15. Causes of dysphagia among different age groups: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Roden, Dylan F; Altman, Kenneth W

    2013-12-01

    Dysphagia is a common problem that has the potential to result in severe complications such as malnutrition and aspiration pneumonia. Based on the complexity of swallowing, there may be many different causes. This article presents a systematic literature review to assess different comorbid disease associations with dysphagia based on age. The causes of dysphagia are different depending on age, affecting between 1.7% and 11.3% of the general population. Dysphagia can be a symptom representing disorders pertinent to any specialty of medicine. This review can be used to aid in the diagnosis of patients presenting with the complaint of dysphagia.

  16. Oral lichen planus and epithelial dysplasia with lichenoid features: a review and discussion with special reference to diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Sanketh, D SharathKumar; Patil, Shankargouda; Swetha, Balamukundan

    2016-07-21

    Despite guidelines for the diagnosis of oral lichen planus (OLP), there has been much difficulty and ambiguity in rendering a straightforward diagnosis. The root of the problem might arise in not following universal guidelines and being too rigid and unilateral in making a diagnosis. Because of its autoimmune pathogenesis, the dynamic nature of OLP has further fueled confusions. This has had repercussions in the form of controversies in its diagnosis, treatment protocols, research, and most importantly, its potentially malignant nature. Oral lichenoid dysplasia (OLD), an enigmatic entity, proposed by Krutchkoff and Eisenberg, has not found universal acceptance by the pathology community. The objective of the present review was to outline these debates and discuss ongoing controversies regarding OLD and uncertainties in the diagnostic criteria of OLP.

  17. Some topics in English newsmagazines in autumn to winter, 2010, with special reference to the mining redevelopment of Afghanistan, review of rare earth elements mineral resources and current geological mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yuhei

    Some topics in English newsmagazines in autumn to winter, 2010, with special reference to the mining redevelopment of Afghanistan, review of rare earth elements mineral resources and current geological mapping

  18. Opinion Spirals, Silent and Otherwise: Applying Small-Group Research to Public Opinion Phenomena (Review Essay).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Vincent; Allen, Scott

    1990-01-01

    Reviews E. Noelle-Neumann's "spiral of silence" theory, which holds that, when a person learns through the mass media that public opinion has shifted away from the person's views, that person withdraws from expressing those views. Points to conflicting empirical evidence on Neumann's theory. Summarizes criticisms advanced against the…

  19. Treatment of Childhood and Adolescent Obesity: An Integrative Review of Recent Recommendations from Five Expert Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschenbaum, Daniel S.; Gierut, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To compare and contrast 5 sets of expert recommendations about the treatment of childhood and adolescent obesity. Method: We reviewed 5 sets of recent expert recommendations: 2007 health care organizations' four stage model, 2007 Canadian clinical practice guidelines, 2008 Endocrine Society recommendations, 2009 seven step model, and…

  20. Dyads versus Groups: Using Different Social Structures in Peer Review to Enhance Online Collaborative Learning Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pozzi, Francesca; Ceregini, Andrea; Ferlino, Lucia; Persico, Donatella

    2016-01-01

    The Peer Review (PR) is a very popular technique to support socio-constructivist and connectivist learning processes, online or face-to-face, at all educational levels, in both formal and informal contexts. The idea behind this technique is that sharing views and opinions with others by discussing with peers and receiving and providing formative…

  1. Review of ride quality technology needs of industry and user groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, J. R.; Brumaghim, S. H.

    1975-01-01

    A broad survey of ride quality technology state-of-the-art and a review of user evaluation of this technology were conducted. During the study 17 users of ride quality technology in 10 organizations representing land, marine and air passenger transportation modes were interviewed. Interim results and conclusions of this effort are reported.

  2. A review of the Canthyporus exilis group, with the description of two new species (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae).

    PubMed

    Bilton, David T

    2015-05-18

    Canthyporus namaqualacrimus sp. nov. and Canthyporus pallidus sp. nov. are described from the Namaqualand region of South Africa, both members of the exilis group. A revised key to species of the group is provided, together with details of the external and spermathecal tract morphology of the female of Canthyporus aenigmaticus Biström & Nilsson, 2006, a species previously known only from the male holotype. The opportunity is also taken to present new ecological and distributional data on members of the exilis group, most of which are primarily associated with springs and seepage habitats.

  3. 76 FR 33029 - Agency Information Collection (Disability Benefits Questionnaires-Group 1) Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    .... 2900-New (DBQs--Group 1).'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Titles: a. Hematologic and Lymphatic Conditions... Reproductive System Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form 21-0960J-2. h. Prostate...

  4. Taxonomic review of the Dichotomius (Luederwaldtinia) assifer (Eschscholtz) species-group (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    PubMed

    Nunes, Rafael V; Carvalho, Marcela S G; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z

    2016-02-09

    The Dichotomius assifer species-group, a component of Dichotomius (Luederwaldtinia) is taxonomically revised. The group now contains five species: D. angeloi sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in CEMT: BRAZIL, Minas Gerais State, Vargem Bonita, Parque Nacional Serra da Canastra. Mata de Galeria, 28º18'39"S, 46º31'30"W. 865 m a.s.l., 02.XI.2011, MF Souza leg.), and D. louzadai sp. nov. (Holotype male deposited in CEMT: BRAZIL, Minas Gerais State, Lima Duarte, Parque Estadual Ibitipoca, VI.2001, FZ Vaz-de-Mello leg.) are described; D. assifer and D. affinis are redescribed and lectotypes are designated. D. machadoi is diagnosed. Illustrations, distributional records, diagnosis and a key for identification of the species in the group are provided. Some aspects of the natural history and biogeography of species in the assifer group are also discussed.

  5. The reported views and experiences of cancer service users from minority ethnic groups: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Elkan, R; Avis, M; Cox, K; Wilson, E; Patel, S; Miller, S; Deepak, N; Edwards, C; Staniszewska, S; Kai, J

    2007-03-01

    There is growing evidence of inequalities in access to high-quality cancer services between minority and majority ethnic groups. However, little research has been carried out from the perspective of users from minority ethnic groups themselves. This paper reports a review of the British literature exploring the views and experiences of cancer service users from minority ethnic groups. We reviewed 25 qualitative studies that reported the experiences of people from minority ethnic groups. The studies highlighted significant issues and challenges, including comprehension and communication barriers, a lack of awareness of the existence of services and a perceived failure by providers to accommodate religious and cultural diversity. This paper critically discusses some of the explanations commonly invoked for ethnic inequalities in access to high-quality care, such as the belief that the lack of use of services reflects a lack of need. Despite positive initiatives to respond better to the needs of minority groups, we suggest the impact of these remains highly variable. Institutional racism within services is still much in evidence.

  6. A Critical Review of Environmental Impact Statements in Sri Lanka with Particular Reference to Ecological Impact Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samarakoon, Miriya; Rowan, John S.

    2008-03-01

    This article critically reviews environmental assessment (EA) practices in Sri Lanka, with a particular focus on ecology. An overview is provided of the domestic and international influences which have shaped the administrative process which is currently a two-tiered scheme. An Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) provides a preliminary screening tool, prior to the requirement for a full Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). A comprehensive survey of Sri Lankan national archives showed that 463 EAs were completed in the period 1981 2005, with the bulk of these in the more populated Western and North Western Provinces. Two-thirds were IEE surveys, while the remaining third advanced to full EIA. A representative sample of 130 EAs (both IEEs and full EIAs) spanning a broad range of project types, scales, and environmental settings was selected to evaluate the quality of the ecological investigations within the published environmental impact statements (EISs). These were assigned into five classes of “explanatory power”, on the basis of their scientific content in relation to survey, analysis, and reporting of ecological interests. Within most EISs, the ecological impact assessment (EcIA) was restricted to the lowest two categories of ecological assessment, i.e., tokenistic presentation of reconnaissance-level species lists without further analysis of the development implications for individual organisms or communities. None of the assessments reviewed provided statistically rigorous analysis, which would be required if ecological impact studies are to include quantitative and testable predictions of impact, which could then be followed up by appropriate post-impact monitoring programs. Attention to key local issues such as biodiversity or ecosystem services, which also have strong social dimensions in the developing world, was also notably underrepresented. It was thus concluded that despite the existence of a sound legislative framework in Sri Lanka, the

  7. Group B streptococcus mycotic aneurysm of the abdominal aorta: report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Thawait, Shrey K; Akay, Aylin; Jhirad, Ronen H; El-Daher, Nayef

    2012-03-01

    Mycotic aneurysm of the aorta is an uncommon condition, and Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is exceedingly rare in this setting. We present the first reported case of a GBS-infected abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in North America. Key clinical and imaging findings and pathologic correlation are highlighted. A relevant review of the literature is discussed, which will bring the reader up to date with this specific disease entity.

  8. A review of trend models applied to sea level data with reference to the "acceleration-deceleration debate"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visser, Hans; Dangendorf, Sönke; Petersen, Arthur C.

    2015-06-01

    Global sea levels have been rising through the past century and are projected to rise at an accelerated rate throughout the 21st century. This has motivated a number of authors to search for already existing accelerations in observations, which would be, if present, vital for coastal protection planning purposes. No scientific consensus has been reached yet as to how a possible acceleration could be separated from intrinsic climate variability in sea level records. This has led to an intensive debate on its existence and, if absent, also on the general validity of current future projections. Here we shed light on the controversial discussion from a methodological point of view. To do so, we provide a comprehensive review of trend methods used in the community so far. This resulted in an overview of 30 methods, each having its individual mathematical formulation, flexibilities, and characteristics. We illustrate that varying trend approaches may lead to contradictory acceleration-deceleration inferences. As for statistics-oriented trend methods, we argue that checks on model assumptions and model selection techniques yield a way out. However, since these selection methods all have implicit assumptions, we show that good modeling practices are of importance too. We conclude at this point that (i) several differently characterized methods should be applied and discussed simultaneously, (ii) uncertainties should be taken into account to prevent biased or wrong conclusions, and (iii) removing internally generated climate variability by incorporating atmospheric or oceanographic information helps to uncover externally forced climate change signals.

  9. Emerging role of bacteria in oral carcinogenesis: a review with special reference to perio-pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Manosha; Al-hebshi, Nezar Noor; Speicher, David J.; Perera, Irosha; Johnson, Newell W.

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer, primarily oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), continues to be a major global health problem with high incidence and low survival rates. While the major risk factors for this malignancy, mostly lifestyle related, have been identified, around 15% of oral cancer cases remain unexplained. In light of evidence implicating bacteria in the aetiology of some cancer types, several epidemiological studies have been conducted in the last decade, employing methodologies ranging from traditional culture techniques to 16S rRNA metagenomics, to assess the possible role of bacteria in OSCC. While these studies have demonstrated differences in microbial composition between cancerous and healthy tissues, they have failed to agree on specific bacteria or patterns of oral microbial dysbiosis to implicate in OSCC. On the contrary, some oral taxa, particularly Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum, show strong oral carcinogenic potential in vitro and in animal studies. Bacteria are thought to contribute to oral carcinogenesis via inhibition of apoptosis, activation of cell proliferation, promotion of cellular invasion, induction of chronic inflammation, and production of carcinogens. This narrative review provides a critical analysis of and an update on the association between bacteria and oral carcinogenesis and the possible mechanisms underlying it. PMID:27677454

  10. Mobility control in oil recovery by chemical flooding: State-of-the-art review: Topical report. [177 references

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, H.W.

    1987-01-01

    Mobility control in oil recovery by chemical flooding (polymer, micellar-polymer, and alkaline-polymer) can be achieved through the use of low-concentration water-soluble polymers in water or in chemical slugs. Since the late 1950's, water-soluble polymers have been studied extensively in laboratories by many researchers and widely used in many chemical flooding projects to improve sweep efficiency and increase ultimate oil recovery. Effective use of polymers as mobility control agents requires the understanding of the stability of polymers and their rheological behavior in reservoirs. An overview of the scientific literature on the application of water-soluble polymers in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is presented. The processes, factors, and mechanisms that influence the stability of polymers and those that cause a reduction in water mobility are discussed. Existing knowledge of polymer flow behavior in porous media, and of surfactant-polymer interactions is reviewed. Also discussed are the case histories of 23 chemical flooding field projects. 177 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Change over time in alcohol consumption in control groups in brief intervention studies: systematic review and meta-regression study.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Richard J; McAlaney, John; McCambridge, Jim

    2009-02-01

    Reactivity to assessment has attracted recent attention in the brief alcohol intervention literature. This systematic review sought to examine the nature of change in alcohol consumption over time in control groups in brief intervention studies. Primary studies were identified from existing reviews published in English language, peer-reviewed journals between 1995 and 2005. Change in alcohol consumption and selected study-level characteristics for each primary study were extracted. Consumption change data were pooled in random effects models and meta-regression was used to explore predictors of change. Eleven review papers reported the results of 44 individual studies. Twenty-six of these studies provided data suitable for quantitative study. Extreme heterogeneity was identified and the extent of observed reduction in consumption over time was greater in studies undertaken in Anglophone countries, with single gender study participants, and without special targeting by age. Heterogeneity was reduced but was still substantial in a sub-set of 15 general population studies undertaken in English language countries. The actual content of the control group procedure itself was not predictive of reduction in drinking, nor were a range of other candidate variables including setting, the exclusion of dependent drinkers, the collection of a biological sample at follow-up, and duration of study. Further investigations may yield novel insights into the nature of behaviour change with potential to inform brief interventions design.

  12. [Influenza virus epidemiology and ecology, with special reference to bird species associated with water. Literature review and observations].

    PubMed

    van Tongeren, H A; Voous, K H

    1987-12-01

    Only a limited number of A-subtypes of influenza virus so far caused disease in human subjects, pigs and horses; this occurred in more or less defined areas which occasionally showed epidemic aggravations, becoming apparent as rapidly spreading epidemics or otherwise in even the form of pandemics. However this number of antigenic subtypes was found to be fairly constant and host-specific. Earlier studies were done in domesticated fowl and birds, though particularly in water birds in recent years, and numerous subtypes were detected, only a small number of these subtypes also being found to occur in man, pigs and horses. It became increasingly apparent that particularly mallards, but also other water birds play an extremely important role in the maintenance as well as in the distribution and circulation of these orthomyxoviruses in nature. These infections in water birds were not merely caused by a single subtype but occasionally by two or more antigenically different subtypes. This could be conducive to the appearance of recombinants as a result of genetic rearrangement in the cells lining the alimentary tracts of birds. Occasionally, subtypes observed in man were also found to occur in birds, which gave rise to the question of the extent to which birds are the origin or sources of infections of human epidemics caused by these subtypes. This also holds good for the subtypes in pigs. In addition to a number of oecological and ornithological considerations, reference was also made to systematic facts and routes along which further investigations on the presence of influenza viruses in the world of birds could be taken up, particular attention being paid to migratory birds. As birds of passage pass over and find their way into isolated areas as well as human population centres, these birds play a role which is yet unknown both in the distribution and in the overwintering of influenza viruses. Conditions in which wild and domesticated (water) birds, pigs, horses and

  13. Intraoperative cholangiography. A review of indications and analysis of age-sex groups.

    PubMed Central

    Levine, S B; Lerner, H J; Leifer, E D; Lindheim, S R

    1983-01-01

    A retrospective review was performed of patients who had biliary tract stone formation as the primary diagnosis for hospitalization and indication for surgery. Five hundred and eighty-nine consecutive charts were reviewed of patients admitted between 1975 and 1979. Intraoperative cholangiography was performed in 166 patients of whom 22 had common duct exploration. Choledochotomy in this series was performed in 63 cases without utilizing pre-exploratory cholangiography. A normal intraoperative cholangiogram was found to be 100% accurate; however, an abnormal cholangiogram was associated with a 16% false positive rate of exploration of the common duct. The incidence of unsuspected common duct stones detected only by intraoperative cholangiography was 2.3%. Age-sex analysis confirms a 10-year mean age difference between men and women within the population of this study (p less than 0.001). This age-sex difference is maintained in patients without common duct pathology as well as in patients with sterile bile. However, the mean age difference between male and female patients with either demonstrable common duct obstruction by stones or infected bile as determined by routine intraoperative culture is not statistically significant. A review of the role of intraoperative cholangiography, and the experience at Northeastern Hospital is discussed. PMID:6639173

  14. Ecological restoration of mineland with particular reference to the metalliferous mine wasteland in China: A review of research and practice.

    PubMed

    Li, M S

    2006-03-15

    Despite a principal contributor to the rapid economic growth, the mining industry in China produced a large amount of wasteland and caused water pollution and soil erosion as well as other environmental damages. In 2002, this industry generated 265.4 Mt tailings, 130.4 Mt gangue and 107.8 Mt smelting slags. The degraded land associated with mining is estimated to be 3.2 Mha by the end of 2004, deteriorating the land shortage of China. Restoration of mine wasteland began in late 1970s but the restoration process was sluggish. The overall restoration rate (the ratio of reclaimed land area to the total degraded land area) of mine wasteland was some 10-12% with a higher rate for coal mine spoils but a lower rate for metal-mined derelict land. From 1994 to 2004, 149 research papers were published about the restoration of China's mining wasteland, of which 70 were on metal-mined land and 61 on the non-metal-mined land. Although 37 institutions in China were involved in the restoration research, only a few remained active and productive. Metal-mined derelict land is often more metal toxic and deficient of macronutrients and is tougher for revegetation. Many substrate amelioration techniques were proposed and tolerant plant species were tested for use of reclamation of the metal-mined tailings. Five hyperaccumulator species have been reported in China for the potential use in phytoremediation. However, these accomplishments were all at laboratory or small-scale field demonstration stage and still far from the practical use in reality. To accelerate the restoration and utilization of mine wasteland, several recommendations are put forward in this review. Above these suggestions, the commitment and efficiency of the government at all levels are vital.

  15. Digital communication between clinician and patient and the impact on marginalised groups: a realist review in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Huxley, Caroline J; Atherton, Helen; Watkins, Jocelyn Anstey; Griffiths, Frances

    2015-01-01

    Background Increasingly, the NHS is embracing the use of digital communication technology for communication between clinicians and patients. Policymakers deem digital clinical communication as presenting a solution to the capacity issues currently faced by general practice. There is some concern that these technologies may exacerbate existing inequalities in accessing health care. It is not known what impact they may have on groups who are already marginalised in their ability to access general practice. Aim To assess the potential impact of the availability of digital clinician–patient communication on marginalised groups’ access to general practice in the UK. Design and setting Realist review in general practice. Method A four-step realist review process was used: to define the scope of the review; to search for and scrutinise evidence; to extract and synthesise evidence; and to develop a narrative, including hypotheses. Results Digital communication has the potential to overcome the following barriers for marginalised groups: practical access issues, previous negative experiences with healthcare service/staff, and stigmatising reactions from staff and other patients. It may reduce patient-related barriers by offering anonymity and offers advantages to patients who require an interpreter. It does not impact on inability to communicate with healthcare professionals or on a lack of candidacy. It is likely to work best in the context of a pre-existing clinician–patient relationship. Conclusion Digital communication technology offers increased opportunities for marginalised groups to access health care. However, it cannot remove all barriers to care for these groups. It is likely that they will remain disadvantaged relative to other population groups after their introduction. PMID:26622034

  16. A review of the activities of the IAG working group on geomorphosites over the last ten years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynard, Emmanuel; Coratza, Paola

    2013-04-01

    During the last two decades a renewed interest emerged in the scientific community for geoheritage, geoconservation and geotourism research. This was the reason for the International Association of Geomorphologists (IAG) for creating a specific working group on geomorphosites in 2001, with the aim to improve knowledge and scientific research on the definition, assessment, cartography, promotion and conservation of geomorphological heritage. The working group is chaired by the two authors, experiences were shared during several workshops and international conferences, and results were collected in several special publications (http://www.geomorph.org/wg/wggs.html). Several intensive courses for Master and PhD students were also organized and a book was published, dedicated particularly to Master and PhD students working on geomorphosite issues (Reynard et al., 2009). This contribution proposes a review of the working group activities since 2001 that focused on four main domains: (1) Definition and conceptualization. Geomorphosites are a type of geosite that is portions of the geosphere that present a particular importance for the comprehension of the Earth's history. Geomorphosites have to be considered as the result of human valuation. Conceptualization related to the value of geomorphosites is still in course. Nevertheless, three groups of values can be demonstrated: the scientific value (that is the interest of sites for Earth history and for the history and epistemology of geomorphology), several additional values (aesthetic, ecological, and cultural in a broad sense), and use and management values, that can be divided in three groups (educational value, economic value, including the tourist value, and protection). The scientific and additional value can be considered as intrinsic values, whereas the management and use value are to be related to extrinsic or societal values. (2) Assessment. Several methods, based on the measurement of specific features of

  17. The Iterative Decision Method (IDM): Academy of Health Sciences Reports, Small Group Decision-Making and Problem-Solving Bibliography, and Statistical References.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    IDM Bibliography ..L 1 Group decision making has long been a practice of military management . Generally group decisions tend to be more accurate...efficient decision-making management tool by the Office of The Surgeon General (see pages 2 and 3), and continues to be a productive means of providing...Behavior and Human Perform ), many other sources were obtained from the literature of education, sociology, educa- tional technology, and the management

  18. TOPICAL REVIEW: Group theory and biomolecular conformation: I. Mathematical and computational models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirikjian, Gregory S.

    2010-08-01

    Biological macromolecules, and the complexes that they form, can be described in a variety of ways ranging from quantum mechanical and atomic chemical models, to coarser grained models of secondary structure and domains, to continuum models. At each of these levels, group theory can be used to describe both geometric symmetries and conformational motion. In this survey, a detailed account is provided of how group theory has been applied across computational structural biology to analyze the conformational shape and motion of macromolecules and complexes.

  19. Reference Readiness for AV Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drolet, Leon L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews 50 reference tools which librarians can use to answer almost any audiovisual question including queries on trivia, equipment selection, biographical information, and motion picture ratings. (LLS)

  20. Sources, fate, and effects of PAHs in shallow water environments: a review with special reference to small watercraft

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Kennish, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are aromatic hydrocarbons with two to seven fused carbon (benzene) rings that can have substituted groups attached. Shallow coastal, estuarine, lake, and river environments receive PAHs from treated wastewater, stormwater runoff, petroleum spills and natural seeps, recreational and commercial boats, natural fires, volcanoes, and atmospheric deposition of combustion products. Abiotic degradation of PAHs is caused by photooxidation, photolysis in water, and chemical oxidation. Many aquatic microbes, plants, and animals can metabolize and excrete ingested PAHs; accumulation is associated with poor metabolic capabilities, high lipid content, and activity patterns or distributions that coincide with high concentrations of PAHs. Resistance to biological transformation increases with increasing number of carbon rings. Four- to seven-ring PAHs are the most difficult to metabolize and the most likely to accumulate in sediments. Disturbance by boating activity of sediments, shorelines, and the surface microlayer of water causes water column re-entry of recently deposited or concentrated PAHs. Residence time for PAHs in undisturbed sediment exceeds several decades. Toxicity of PAHs causes lethal and sublethal effects in plants and animals, whereas some substituted PAHs and metabolites of some PAHs cause mutations, developmental malformations, tumors, and cancer. Environmental concentrations of PAHs in water are usually several orders of magnitude below levels that are acutely toxic, but concentrations can be much higher in sediment. The best evidence for a link between environmental PAHs and induction of cancerous neoplasms is for demersal fish in areas with high concentrations of PAHs in the sediment.

  1. Association between B-group vitamins and venous thrombosis: systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kuangguo; Zhao, Ruizhi; Geng, Zhe; Jiang, Lijun; Cao, Yang; Xu, Danmei; Liu, Yin; Huang, Liang; Zhou, Jianfeng

    2012-11-01

    A homocysteine-independent role for B-group vitamins on venous thrombosis (VT) development has been reported. However, related research findings remain inconsistent. PUBMED, EMBASE, and COCHRANE databases were searched to collect information on all eligible studies to make a meta-analysis about the relationship between B-group vitamins and VT. Literature search results did not suggest a correlation between thiamin, pantothenic acid, niacin, or riboflavin with VT. Based on their correlations in the literature, folic acid, vitamin B12, B6 were considered in the meta-analysis and systematic review. Significant standardized mean differences were obtained for plasma folic acid (-0.55; 95% CI, -0.75 to -0.36) and vitamin B12 (-0.34; 95% CI, -0.55 to -0.13). Reduced levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 may be independent risk factors of VT. Moreover, a qualitative systematic review indicated that low level of vitamin B6 was an independent risk factor of VT. Randomized clinical studies of B-group vitamins supplementation showed varying results on VT prevention. Multivitamin supplementation for VT prevention, regardless of homocysteine level, would be of interest. Further prospective clinical studies are needed to provide additional evidence on the clinical benefits of B-group vitamin supplementation for VT.

  2. A Review of the Use of Group Contingencies in Preschool Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokorski, Elizabeth A.; Barton, Erin E.; Ledford, Jennifer R.

    2017-01-01

    Individual contingency management systems have been used successfully to improve behaviors in school settings--including preschools--but often come with associated challenges in time and personnel management. Group contingencies, in the form of independent, interdependent, and dependent contingencies, have been used in preschools to address these…

  3. Lao People's Democratic Republic--Skills Development for Disadvantaged Groups: Review, Issues and Prospects. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In order to achieve the EFA (Education For All) goal agreed by participating nations at the Dakar World Education Forum 2000, The Lao government has undertaken various studies for its "National Plan of Action for Education for All." Lao is an inland mountainous nation with 49 ethnic groups. Such diversity makes the provision of social…

  4. Opportunities and Challenges in Using Studies without a Control Group in Comparative Effectiveness Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulus, Jessica K.; Dahabreh, Issa J.; Balk, Ethan M.; Avendano, Esther E.; Lau, Joseph; Ip, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    When examining the evidence on therapeutic interventions to answer a comparative effectiveness research question, one should consider all studies that are informative on the interventions' causal effects. "Single group studies" evaluate outcomes longitudinally in cohorts of subjects who are managed with a single treatment strategy.…

  5. "Chemistry Is in the News": Assessing Intra-Group Peer Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Kathleen M.; Glaser, Rainer E.

    2010-01-01

    Interdisciplinarity is rapidly becoming a norm within both the professional and academic worlds, and the ability to collaborate is becoming an essential skill for all graduates. "Chemistry Is in the News" ("CIITN") is a curriculum that aims to teach students this skill by engaging student collaborative groups in a project that…

  6. One Year Term Review as a Participating Guest in the Detonator and Detonation Physics Group

    SciTech Connect

    Lefrancois, A; Roeske, F; Tran, T; Lee, R S

    2006-02-06

    The one year stay was possible after a long administrative process, because of the fact that this was the first participating guest of B division as a foreign national in HEAF (High Explosives Application Facility) with the Detonator/Detonation Physics Group.

  7. Group Formation in Mobile Computer Supported Collaborative Learning Contexts: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amara, Sofiane; Macedo, Joaquim; Bendella, Fatima; Santos, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Learners are becoming increasingly divers. They may have much personal, social, cultural, psychological, and cognitive diversity. Forming suitable learning groups represents, therefore, a hard and time-consuming task. In Mobile Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (MCSCL) environments, this task is more difficult. Instructors need to consider…

  8. References for marine science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-06-01

    Standard and Reference Materials for Marine Science, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Technical Memo OMA-51 (2nd edition, 434 pp.), by A. Y. Cantillo, is now available. This compilation of reference materials was prepared at the request of the Group of Experts on Standards and Reference Materials and was printed by NOAA. GESREM is sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, and the United Nations Program.Reference materials are included on ashes, gases, instrument performance materials, oils, physical properties, rocks, sediments, sludges, tissues and waters. For each reference material, source, description and preparation, analyses and values, cost, references, and comments are given. Indices are included for elements, isotopes and organic compounds. Cross references to Chemical Abstracts Service registry numbers and alternate names and chemical structures of organic compounds are also provided.

  9. Muscle Strength and Fitness in Pediatric Obesity: a Systematic Review from the European Childhood Obesity Group.

    PubMed

    Thivel, David; Ring-Dimitriou, Susanne; Weghuber, Daniel; Frelut, Marie-Laure; O'Malley, Grace

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of paediatric obesity and related metabolic complications has been mainly associated with lower aerobic fitness while less is known regarding potential musculoskeletal impairments. The purpose of the present systematic review was to report the evidence regarding muscular fitness in children and adolescents with obesity. A systematic article search was conducted between November 2014 and June 2015 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL psycINFO, SPORTDiscus and SocINDEX. Articles published in English and reporting results on muscle strength and muscular fitness in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years were eligible. Of 548 identified titles, 36 studies were included for analyses. While laboratory-based studies described higher absolute muscular fitness in youth with obesity compared with their lean peers, these differences are negated when corrected for body weight and lean mass, then supporting field-based investigations. All interventional studies reviewed led to improved muscular fitness in youth with obesity. Children and adolescents with obesity display impaired muscular fitness compared to healthy-weight peers, which seems mainly due to factors such as excessive body weight and increased inertia of the body. Our analysis also points out the lack of information regarding the role of age, maturation or sex in the current literature and reveals that routinely used field tests analysing overall daily muscular fitness in children with obesity provide satisfactory results when compared to laboratory-based data.

  10. ABO blood group system and the coronary artery disease: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhuo; Yang, Sheng-Hua; Xu, Hao; Li, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    ABO blood group system, a well-known genetic risk factor, has clinically been demonstrated to be linked with thrombotic vascular diseases. However, the relationship between ABO blood group and coronary artery disease (CAD) is still controversial. We here performed an updated meta-analysis of the related studies and tried to elucidate the potential role of ABO blood group as a risk factor for CAD. All detectable case-control and cohort studies comparing the risk of CAD in different ABO blood groups were collected for this analysis through searching PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Ultimately, 17 studies covering 225,810 participants were included. The combined results showed that the risk of CAD was significantly higher in blood group A (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.26, p = 0.01) and lower in blood group O (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.78 to 0.94, p = 0.0008). Even when studies merely about myocardial infarction (MI) were removed, the risk of CAD was still significantly higher in blood group A (OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.00 to 1.10, p = 0.03) and lower in blood group O (OR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.85 to 0.93, p < 0.00001). This updated systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that both blood group A and non-O were the risk factors of CAD. PMID:26988722

  11. A taxonomic review of the Neoserica (sensu lato) septemlamellata group (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Sericini)

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens, Dirk; Liu, Wan-Gang; Fabrizi, Silvia; Bai, Ming; Yang, Xing-Ke

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In the present paper the species belonging to the Neoserica (sensu lato) septemlamellata group, that included so far only four known species, are revised. Here we describe eleven new species originating mainly from Indochina and Southern China: N. daweishanica sp. n., N. gaoligongshanica sp. n., N. guangpingensis sp. n., N. igori sp. n., N. jiulongensis sp. n., N. plurilamellata sp. n., N. weishanica sp. n., N. yanzigouensis sp. n. (China) N. sapaensis sp. n. (China, Vietnam), N. bansongchana sp. n., N. takakuwai sp. n. (Laos). The lectotypes of Neoserica septemlamellata Brenske, 1898 and N. septemfoliata Moser, 1915 are designated. Keys to the species and species groups are given, the genitalia of all species and their habitus are illustrated and distribution maps are included. PMID:24843263

  12. Systematic Review of Cerebral Palsy Registries/Surveillance Groups: Relationships between Registry Characteristics and Knowledge Dissemination.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Donna S; Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Krosschell, Kristin J; Pavone, Larissa; Mutlu, Akmer; Dewald, Julius Pa; Msall, Michael E

    2015-04-01

    The aims of this study were to provide a comprehensive summary of the body of research disseminated by Cerebral Palsy (CP) registries and surveillance programs from January 2009 through May 2014 in order to describe the influence their results have on our overall understanding of CP. Secondly, registries/surveillance programs and the work they produced were evaluated and grouped using standardized definitions and classification systems.

  13. Posterior scleritis in pediatric age group: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Radha; Suryawanshi, Milind; Isaac, Roshini; Philip, Santhosh K.

    2016-01-01

    Posterior scleritis is rare in both the adult and pediatric age groups. Increased awareness and availability of advanced diagnostic facilities aid in early diagnosis and management. Visual recovery is possible with systemic steroids and immunosuppression. We report the case of a 12-year-old male child who presented with poor vision in his right eye and was found to have retinal striae and disc edema due to posterior scleritis. PMID:27013832

  14. Differences in health behaviours between immigrant and non-immigrant groups: a protocol for a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health behaviours are important determinants of health and adoption of unhealthy behaviour is considered as one of the mechanisms through which immigrants’ health changes over time in the host country. The change in health behaviours over time can contribute either to improving or worsening the overall health status of immigrants. Despite being the important mediators for the change in overall health status and chronic health conditions, no previous review (either general or systematic) has examined differences in key health behaviours simultaneously between immigrants and non-immigrants. This study aims to provide a systematic overview of the current global literature on differences in key health behaviours (that is, tobacco smoking, physical activity and alcohol drinking) between immigrant and non-immigrant groups. Methods/Design Empirical studies in English language reporting quantitative data simultaneously on both immigrant and non-immigrant groups will be considered for this systematic review. Electronic scientific searches will be conducted on seven databases to identify relevant studies of interests: MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Global Health, SocINDEX and ProQuest. In addition, Google/Google Scholar will be used to find the relevant studies and personal contact with experts will also be undertaken. Titles, abstracts and keywords of studies identified in the search strategies will be screened for inclusion criteria. The authors will select the studies following the PRISMA guidelines. The quality of included studies will be appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklists. A descriptive summary statistics of included studies will describe the study designs, socio-demographic characteristics, and the exposure (immigrant and non-immigrant groups) and outcome (key health behaviours) measures. P-values and confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations between exposure and key health behaviours will also be reported

  15. Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses library reference services. Topics include the historical development of reference services; instruction in library use, particularly in college and university libraries; guidance; information and referral services and how they differ from traditional question-answering service; and future concerns, including user fees and the planning…

  16. Reference Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

  17. Reference Revolutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    1998-01-01

    Describes developments in Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) electronic reference services. Presents a background on networked cataloging and the initial implementation of reference services by OCLC. Discusses the introduction of OCLC FirstSearch service, which today offers access to over 65 databases, future developments in integrated…

  18. Group-based microfinance for collective empowerment: a systematic review of health impacts

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, Andy; Nayak, Shilpa; Sowden, Amanda; White, Martin; Whitehead, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the impact on health-related outcomes, of group microfinance schemes based on collective empowerment. Methods We searched the databases Social Sciences Citation Index, Embase, MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, PsycINFO, Social Policy & Practice and Conference Proceedings Citation Index for articles published between 1 January 1980 and 29 February 2016. Articles reporting on health impacts associated with group-based microfinance were included in a narrative synthesis. Findings We identified one cluster-randomized control trial and 22 quasi-experimental studies. All of the included interventions targeted poor women living in low- or middle-income countries. Some included a health-promotion component. The results of the higher quality studies indicated an association between membership of a microfinance scheme and improvements in the health of women and their children. The observed improvements included reduced maternal and infant mortality, better sexual health and, in some cases, lower levels of interpersonal violence. According to the results of the few studies in which changes in empowerment were measured, membership of the relatively large and well-established microfinance schemes generally led to increased empowerment but this did not necessarily translate into improved health outcomes. Qualitative evidence suggested that increased empowerment may have contributed to observed improvements in contraceptive use and mental well-being and reductions in the risk of violence from an intimate partner. Conclusion Membership of the larger, well-established group-based microfinance schemes is associated with improvements in some health outcomes. Future studies need to be designed to cope better with bias and to assess negative as well as positive social and health impacts. PMID:27708475

  19. A review on grain and nut deterioration and design of the dryers for safe storage with special reference to Turkish hazelnuts.

    PubMed

    Ozilgen, M; Ozdemir, M

    2001-01-01

    Turkey produces about 80% of the total hazelnut crop of the world. About 75% of the production are exported. In Turkey hazelnuts are traditionally sun dried, and may be subject to mold growth and subsequent mycotoxin formation due to prolonged drying time under humid and rainy weather conditions. Drying hazelnuts in a reasonable time after harvest is necessary for mycotoxin-free, high-quality products. In general, nuts and cereals contaminated by the toxins pose a potential hazard not only to the people of the producer countries, but also to people of the importing countries, if they should be regarded as safe by inefficient sampling plans, therefore preventing toxin formation actually benefits very large populations. Deterioration and health hazards associated with toxin contaminated hazelnuts and other nuts and cereals have similar causes and consequences; therefore, deterioration of the nuts and cereals in storage has been reviewed by considering as many grains and nuts as possible, then special reference was made to hazelnuts. Proper preharvest practices followed by proper drying and safe storage reduces the hazards associated with contamination by the toxins. This article reviews the pre- and post-harvest practices, and the grain- and nut-drying systems required for toxin-free products. Because drying is the major unit operation involving this process, the drying systems and the mathematical models required for their design is also discussed.

  20. Reach for Reference: Elementary-Middle School Science Reference Collections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a brief review of some new school science reference works. Two of the sources are traditional, while one is considered experimental. The two traditional reference works reviewed are "The American Heritage Children's Science Dictionary" for upper elementary grades, and "The American Heritage Student Science Dictionary" for…

  1. A Review of the Urban Development and Transport Impacts on Public Health with Particular Reference to Australia: Trans-Disciplinary Research Teams and Some Research Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Black, Deborah; Black, John

    2009-01-01

    Urbanization and transport have a direct effect on public health. A transdisciplinary approach is proposed and illustrated to tackle the general problem of these environmental stressors and public health. Processes driving urban development and environmental stressors are identified. Urbanization, transport and public health literature is reviewed and environmental stressors are classified into their impacts and which group is affected, the geographical scale and potential inventions. Climate change and health impacts are identified as a research theme. From an Australian perspective, further areas for research are identified. PMID:19543407

  2. Reference Range of Platelet Delta Granules in the Pediatric Age Group: An Ultrastructural Study of Platelet Whole Mount Preparations from Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Sorokin, Victoria; Alkhoury, Razan; Al-Rawabdeh, Sura; Houston, Ronald H; Thornton, David; Kerlin, Bryce; O'Brien, Sarah; Baker, Peter; Boesel, Carl; Uddin, Minhaj; Yin, Han; Kahwash, Samir

    This study sought to determine delta granule normal ranges for children and to validate methodology for the appropriate diagnosis of delta granule deficiency (storage pool disease) by using the whole-mount technique in electron microscopy. Specimens obtained from 40 healthy volunteers (2 months of age through 21 years old, 21 females and 19 males) were tested. Results showed dense granules/platelet (DG/Plt) ranged from 1.78 to 5.25. The 5th percentile was 1.96 DG/Plt with an overall mean ± SEM 3.07 ± 0.12 DG/Plt. In comparison, a previously published lower cutoff value, 3.68 DG/Plt, was significantly higher than the mean from our volunteers (P < 0.0001). We found no variability in dense granules/platelet based on race or sex and no significant variation by age subgroup. Pending wider studies, the value of 2 DG/Plt is a more appropriate lower limit of normal. In the absence of wider studies (in healthy volunteers and patients), laboratories should consider establishing their own reference ranges.

  3. Pulmonary hypertension in valvular disease: a comprehensive review on pathophysiology to therapy from the HAVEC Group.

    PubMed

    Magne, Julien; Pibarot, Philippe; Sengupta, Partho P; Donal, Erwan; Rosenhek, Raphael; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a classic pathophysiological consequence of left-sided valvular heart disease (VHD). However, as opposed to other forms of PH, there are relatively few published data on the prevalence, impact on outcome, and management of PH with VHD. The objective of this paper is to present a systematic review of PH in patients with VHD. PH is found in 15% to 60% of patients with VHD and is more frequent among symptomatic patients. PH is associated with higher risk of cardiac events under conservative management, during valve replacement or repair procedures, and even following successful corrective procedures. In addition to its usefulness in assessing the presence and severity of VHD, Doppler echocardiography is a key tool in diagnosis of PH and assessment of its repercussion on right ventricular function. Assessment of pulmonary arterial pressure during exercise stress echocardiography may provide additional prognostic information beyond resting evaluation. Cardiac magnetic resonance is also useful for assessing right ventricular geometry and function, which provide additional prognostic information in patients with VHD and PH.

  4. Review of group A rotavirus strains reported in swine and cattle.

    PubMed

    Papp, Hajnalka; László, Brigitta; Jakab, Ferenc; Ganesh, Balasubramanian; De Grazia, Simona; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Ciarlet, Max; Martella, Vito; Bányai, Krisztián

    2013-08-30

    Group A rotavirus (RVA) infections cause severe economic losses in intensively reared livestock animals, particularly in herds of swine and cattle. RVA strains are antigenically heterogeneous, and are classified in multiple G and P types defined by the two outer capsid proteins, VP7 and VP4, respectively. This study summarizes published literature on the genetic and antigenic diversity of porcine and bovine RVA strains published over the last 3 decades. The single most prevalent genotype combination among porcine RVA strains was G5P[7], whereas the predominant genotype combination among bovine RVA strains was G6P[5], although spatiotemporal differences in RVA strain distribution were observed. These data provide important baseline data on epidemiologically important RVA strains in swine and cattle and may guide the development of more effective vaccines for veterinary use.

  5. A systematic review and meta-analysis on screening lipid disorders in the pediatric age group

    PubMed Central

    Kelishadi, Roya; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Keikha, Mojtaba; Aliramezany, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Different viewpoints exist about lipid screening in all children or only in children with positive family history (FH) of premature cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) or hypercholesterolemia. This systematic review and meta-analysis aim to assess the effectiveness of lipid screening in children and adolescents according to the existence of positive FH of CVD risk factors. Materials and Methods: PubMed, Scopus, and Google scholar were searched to identify relevant papers that were published from November 1980 until 30 November 2013. Irrelevant studies were set aside after studying their title, abstract, and full text. Then, the relevant studies were assessed by using a quality appraisal checklist. We used random effect model for meta-analysis and calculating the total estimation of sensitivity, specificity, and the positive predictive value (PPV) of FH in predicting dyslipidemia among children and adolescents. Results: Overall, 17,214 studies were identified in the primary search, out of which 19 primary studies were qualified for study entry. The sensitivity of positive FH of premature CVD or dyslipidemia for predicting dyslipidemia among children varied between 15 and 93. Moreover, the effectiveness of screening children for dyslipidemia according to premature CVD or dyslipidemia in their relatives was low in 86.9% of the primary studies. The total estimation of sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value was 42.6, 59, and 20.7, respectively, according to the meta-analysis results. Conclusion: The present meta-analysis indicated that selecting target population for screening children and adolescents for dyslipidemia according to their FH has low sensitivity. PMID:26958056

  6. Ready Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    1999-01-01

    Includes the following ready reference information: "Publishers' Toll-Free Telephone Numbers"; "How to Obtain an ISBN (International Standard Book Number)"; "How to Obtain an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number)"; and "How to Obtain an SAN (Standard Address Number)". (AEF)

  7. Outcomes of hepatitis C screening programs targeted at risk groups hidden in the general population: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective screening programs are urgently needed to provide undiagnosed hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected individuals with therapy. This systematic review of characteristics and outcomes of screening programs for HCV focuses on strategies to identify HCV risk groups hidden in the general population. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for articles published between 1991–2010, including studies that screened the general population using either a newly developed (nonintegrated) screening program or one integrated in existing health care facilities. Look-back studies, prevalence studies, and programs targeting high-risk groups in care (e.g., current drug users) were excluded. Results After reviewing 7052 studies, we identified 67 screening programs: 24 nonintegrated; 41 programs integrated in a variety of health care facilities (e.g., general practitioner); and 2 programs with both integrated and nonintegrated strategies. Together, these programs identified approximately 25,700 HCV-infected individuals. In general, higher HCV prevalence was found in programs in countries with intermediate to high HCV prevalence, in psychiatric clinics, and in programs that used a prescreening selection based on HCV risk factors. Only 6 programs used a comparison group for evaluation purposes, and 1 program used theory about effective promotion for screening. Comparison of the programs and their effectiveness was hampered by lack of reported data on program characteristics, clinical follow-up, and type of diagnostic test. Conclusions A prescreening selection based on risk factors can increase the efficiency of screening in low-prevalence populations, and we need programs with comparison groups to evaluate effectiveness. Also, program characteristics such as type of diagnostic test, screening uptake, and clinical outcomes should be reported systematically. PMID:24450797

  8. Principles and practice in ethical review of animal experiments across Europe: summary of the report of a FELASA working group on ethical evaluation of animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Smith, J A; van den Broek, F A R; Martorell, J Cantó; Hackbarth, H; Ruksenas, O; Zeller, W

    2007-04-01

    This paper summarizes a more detailed report produced by the Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations (FELASA 2005), which describes and explores a set of principles for the conduct of ethical review of laboratory animal use. It presents a synopsis of results from a questionnaire that elicited information on how each of 20 countries represented in FELASA currently approaches such ethical review. This information suggests that, although local practices differ, there is an emerging consensus on the key elements that any ethical review process should involve. Drawing on the questionnaire findings, this summary also includes a brief discussion to support and amplify a series of recommendations, covering the objectives of ethical review; legal requirements; the scope of work reviewed and the 'level' at which review is approached; general principles for the organization of ethical review processes; the factors considered in the review; needs for ongoing review after initial authorization; participants in the review process; wider impacts of the review process; and strategies that can help to ensure quality and consistency of review outcomes. For further information and examples of current practice, as well as more detailed discussion to support the recommendations, readers are urged to refer to the complete report, available at http://www.lal.org.uk/pdffiles/FELASA_ethics_FULL_Report. pdf or via: http://www.felasa.eu/recommendations.htm.

  9. {A Review of Working Group 2 (Advanced Terrestrial Systems) of the COST 296 Action}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warrington, E. M.; Tulunay, E.

    2009-04-01

    E.M. Warrington, E. Tulunay, N.M. Abbasi, J. Azevedo, L. Bertel, A. Bourdillon, E. Benito, C. Bianchi, A. Casimiro, L. Economou, Y. Erhel, S.M. Feeney, S.D. Gunashekar, H. Haralambous, D. Lemur, F. Marie, J.P. Monilie, M. Muriuki, M. Oger M. Pietrella, V. Rannou, H. Rothkaehl, S. Saillant, S. Salous, O. Sari, A.J. Stocker, H.J. Strangeways, Y. Tulunay and N.Y. Zaalov This paper deals with the research undertaken during the COST 296 Action in Working Group 2 on Advanced Terrestrial Systems. The Working Group comprised three work packages covering various topics: Radar and Radiolocation, HF/MF Communications, and Spectrum Management. Results from this Working Group are presented in this paper, and may be summarised as follows. Aspects of HF propagation The propagation characteristics of radio signals are important parameters to consider when designing and operating radio systems. From the point of view Working Group 2 of the COST-296 Action, interest lies with effects associated with propagation via the ionosphere of signals within the HF band. Several aspects were covered: The directions of arrival and times of flight of signals received over a path oriented along the trough have been examined and several types of propagation effects identified. Of particular note, combining the HF observations with satellite measurements has identified the presence of irregularities within the floor of the trough that result in propagation displaced from the great circle direction. An understanding of the propagation effects that result in deviations of the signal path from the great circle direction are of particular relevance to the operation of HF radiolocation systems. Inclusion of the results from the above mentioned measurements into a propagation model of the northerly ionosphere (i.e. those regions of the ionosphere located poleward of, and including, the mid-latitude trough) and the use of this model to predict the coverage expected from transmitters where the signals

  10. The lanthanides and yttrium in minerals of the apatite group; a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleischer, Michael; Altschuler, Z.S.

    1982-01-01

    More than 1000 analyses have been tabulated of the distribution of the lanthanides and yttrium in minerals of the apatite group, recalculated to atomic percentages. Average compositions have been calculated for apatites from 14 types of rocks. These show a progressive change of composition from apatites of granitic pegmatites, highest in the heavy lanthanides and yttrium, to those from alkalic pegmatites, highest in the light lanthanides and lowest in yttrium. This progression is clearly shown in plots of S (= at % La+Ce+Pr) vs the ratio La/Nd and of S vs the ratio 100Y/(Y+Ln), where Ln is the sum of the lanthanides. Apatites of sedimentary phosphorites occupy a special position, being relatively depleted in Ce and relatively enriched in yttrium and the heavy lanthanides, consequences of deposition from sea water. Apatites associated with iron ores are close in composition to apatites of carbonatites, alkalic ultramafic, and ultramafic rocks, being enriched in the light lanthanides and depleted in the heavy lanthanides. Their compositions do not support the hypothesis of Parak that the Kiruna-type ores are of sedimentary origin. Table 9 and Figures 1-3 show the dependence of lanthanide distribution on the nature of the host rock. Although a given analysis of the lanthanides does not unequivocally permit certain identification of the host rock, it can indicate a choice of highly probable host rocks.

  11. Knowledge Management and Reference Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandhi, Smiti

    2004-01-01

    Many corporations are embracing knowledge management (KM) to capture the intellectual capital of their employees. This article focuses on KM applications for reference work in libraries. It defines key concepts of KM, establishes a need for KM for reference services, and reviews various KM initiatives for reference services.

  12. Review of secondary metabolites and mycotoxins from the Aspergillus niger group.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Mogensen, Jesper Mølgaard; Johansen, Maria; Larsen, Thomas O; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2009-11-01

    Filamentous fungi in the Aspergillus section Nigri (the black aspergilli) represent some of the most widespread food and feed contaminants known but they are also some of the most important workhorses used by the biotechnological industry. The Nigri section consists of six commonly found species (excluding A. aculeatus and its close relatives) from which currently 145 different secondary metabolites have been isolated and/or detected. From a human and animal safety point of view, the mycotoxins ochratoxin A (from A. carbonarius and less frequently A. niger) and fumonisin B(2) (from A. niger) are currently the most problematic compounds. Especially in foods and feeds such as coffee, nuts, dried fruits, and grape-based products where fumonisin-producing fusaria are not a problem, fumonisins pose a risk. Moreover, compounds such as malformins, naptho-gamma-pyrones, and bicoumarins (kotanins) call for monitoring in food, feed, and biotechnology products as well as for a better toxicological evaluation, since they are often produced in large amounts by the black aspergilli. For chemical differentiation/identification of the less toxic species the diketopiperazine asperazine can be used as a positive marker since it is consistently produced by A. tubingensis (177 of 177 strains tested) and A. acidus (47 of 47 strains tested) but never by A. niger (140 strains tested). Naptho-gamma-pyrones are the compounds produced in the highest quantities and are produced by all six common species in the group (A. niger 134 of 140; A. tubingensis 169 of 177; A. acidus 44 of 47; A. carbonarius 40 of 40, A. brasiliensis 18 of 18; and A. ibericus three of three).

  13. [Migration and transformation of anthropogenic platinum group elements in environment: a review].

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-Miao; Gao, Xue-Lu

    2012-12-01

    Anthropogenic platinum group elements (PGEs) are widely applied in vehicle exhaust catalytic converters (VECs), industrial catalysts, and pharmaceutics, making the PGEs, especially Pt, Pd, and Rh, become the newly environmental pollutants in some fields. Given the positive correlations between the Pt/Pd and Pt/Rh ratios in various environmental samples and the active components of VECs, the VECs containing PGEs as catalysts are regarded as the primary source of PGEs pollution. Sufficient reports indicated that in the past three decades, there was a significant increase of PGEs concentrations in diverse environmental matrices like airborne particulate matters, aquatic ecosystem components (e.g., river water, rain water, groundwater, seawater, and sediments), soils, road dusts, and organisms. It was generally assumed that anthropogenic PGEs behave in inert manner, and the health risks associated with the environmental exposures to PGEs are minimal. However, the recent studies on PGEs toxicity and environmental bioavailability indicated that once entering environment, anthropogenic PGEs might easily be mobilized and transformed into more toxic forms under the actions of various biogeochemical processes, and thereby, enhanced their bioavailability and posed potential health risks to human beings through food chain. This paper summarized the research results about the sources, distribution, and biogeochemical behaviors of PGEs in various environmental media, and it was considered that to establish the standards of PGEs for human health risks, to develop standard substances of PGEs for environmental measurements, to study the PGEs in the sediments of marginal seas, and to assess the toxicity of PGEs to marine mollusks, the present contamination status of PGEs in foods, and the risks of PGEs to human health would be the hot research topics in the future.

  14. International Myeloma Working Group molecular classification of multiple myeloma: spotlight review.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, R; Bergsagel, P L; Drach, J; Shaughnessy, J; Gutierrez, N; Stewart, A K; Morgan, G; Van Ness, B; Chesi, M; Minvielle, S; Neri, A; Barlogie, B; Kuehl, W M; Liebisch, P; Davies, F; Chen-Kiang, S; Durie, B G M; Carrasco, R; Sezer, Orhan; Reiman, Tony; Pilarski, Linda; Avet-Loiseau, H

    2009-12-01

    Myeloma is a malignant proliferation of monoclonal plasma cells. Although morphologically similar, several subtypes of the disease have been identified at the genetic and molecular level. These genetic subtypes are associated with unique clinicopathological features and dissimilar outcome. At the top hierarchical level, myeloma can be divided into hyperdiploid and non-hyperdiploid subtypes. The latter is mainly composed of cases harboring IgH translocations, generally associated with more aggressive clinical features and shorter survival. The three main IgH translocations in myeloma are the t(11;14)(q13;q32), t(4;14)(p16;q32) and t(14;16)(q32;q23). Trisomies and a more indolent form of the disease characterize hyperdiploid myeloma. A number of genetic progression factors have been identified including deletions of chromosomes 13 and 17 and abnormalities of chromosome 1 (1p deletion and 1q amplification). Other key drivers of cell survival and proliferation have also been identified such as nuclear factor- B-activating mutations and other deregulation factors for the cyclin-dependent pathways regulators. Further understanding of the biological subtypes of the disease has come from the application of novel techniques such as gene expression profiling and array-based comparative genomic hybridization. The combination of data arising from these studies and that previously elucidated through other mechanisms allows for most myeloma cases to be classified under one of several genetic subtypes. This paper proposes a framework for the classification of myeloma subtypes and provides recommendations for genetic testing. This group proposes that genetic testing needs to be incorporated into daily clinical practice and also as an essential component of all ongoing and future clinical trials.

  15. International Myeloma Working Group molecular classification of multiple myeloma: spotlight review

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, R; Bergsagel, PL; Drach, J; Shaughnessy, J.; Gutierrez, N; Stewart, AK; Morgan, G; Van Ness, B; Chesi, M; Minvielle, S; Neri, A; Barlogie, B; Kuehl, WM; Liebisch, P; Davies, F; Chen-Kiang, S; Durie, BGM; Carrasco, R; Sezer, Orhan; Reiman, Tony; Pilarski, Linda; Avet-Loiseau, H

    2010-01-01

    Myeloma is a malignant proliferation of monoclonal plasma cells. Although morphologically similar, several subtypes of the disease have been identified at the genetic and molecular level. These genetic subtypes are associated with unique clinico-pathological features and dissimilar outcome. At the top hierarchical level, myeloma can be divided into hyperdiploid and non-hyperdiploid subtypes. The latter is mainly composed of cases harboring IgH translocations, generally associated with more aggressive clinical features and shorter survival. The three main IgH translocations in myeloma are the t(11;14)(q13;q32), t(4;14)(p16;q32) and t(14;16)(q32;q23). Trisomies and a more indolent form of the disease characterize hyperdiploid myeloma. A number of genetic progression factors have been identified including deletions of chromosomes 13 and 17 and abnormalities of chromosome 1 (1p deletion and 1q amplification). Other key drivers of cell survival and proliferation have also been identified such as nuclear factor- B-activating mutations and other deregulation factors for the cyclin-dependent pathways regulators. Further understanding of the biological subtypes of the disease has come from the application of novel techniques such as gene expression profiling and array-based comparative genomic hybridization. The combination of data arising from these studies and that previously elucidated through other mechanisms allows for most myeloma cases to be classified under one of several genetic subtypes. This paper proposes a framework for the classification of myeloma subtypes and provides recommendations for genetic testing. This group proposes that genetic testing needs to be incorporated into daily clinical practice and also as an essential component of all ongoing and future clinical trials. PMID:19798094

  16. Adalimumab for Treating Moderate-to-Severe Hidradenitis Suppurativa: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    PubMed

    Tappenden, Paul; Carroll, Christopher; Stevens, John W; Rawdin, Andrew; Grimm, Sabine; Clowes, Mark; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Ingram, John R; Collier, Fiona; Ghazavi, Mohammad

    2017-02-07

    As part of its single technology appraisal (STA) process, the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer of adalimumab (AbbVie) to submit evidence on the clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of adalimumab for the treatment of moderate-to-severe hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). The appraisal assessed adalimumab as monotherapy in adult patients with an inadequate response to conventional systemic HS therapy. The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG). The ERG produced a critical review of the evidence for the clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of the technology based on the company's submission to NICE. The evidence was mainly derived from three randomised controlled trials comparing adalimumab with placebo in adults with moderate-to-severe HS. The clinical-effectiveness review found that significantly more patients achieved a clinical response in the adalimumab groups than in the control groups but that the treatment effect varied between trials and there was uncertainty regarding its impact on a range of other relevant outcomes as well as long-term efficacy. The company's submitted Markov model assessed the incremental cost effectiveness of adalimumab versus standard care for the treatment of HS from the perspective of the UK NHS and Personal Social Services (PSS) over a lifetime horizon. The original submitted model, including a patient access scheme (PAS), suggested that the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for adalimumab versus standard care was expected to be £16,162 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Following a critique of the model, the ERG's preferred base case, which corrected programming errors and structural problems surrounding discontinuation rules and incorporated a lower unit cost for HS surgery, resulted in a probabilistic ICER of £29,725 per QALY gained. Based on

  17. The Art of Collection Development: Reference Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, John P.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses selecting for a reference collection, creative budgeting, cutting a deal, collection awareness (strengths/needs), Web site reviews, R-Net (reviews from diverse areas and institutions), and print vs. electronic reference products. Reference librarian adhere to high standards for reference book and Web sites, teach assessment techniques,…

  18. DIFFERENTIATION OF GROUP A STREPTOCOCCI WITH A COMMON R ANTIGEN INTO THREE SEROLOGICAL TYPES, WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE BACTERICIDAL TEST

    PubMed Central

    Lancefield, Rebecca C.

    1957-01-01

    In further study of streptococci having the R antigen, the bactericidal test has been used instead of the mouse protection test in investigating the type-specific M antigens of these organisms. The results have been confirmed by M anti-M precipitin tests, and a correlation between the M and T antigens of the strains has been shown. On the basis of a specific M antigen, type 28 has been shown to comprise Griffith's strain Small and four other R-containing strains. A number of other strains previously thought to belong to type 28 on the basis of R antigen reactions have now been identified as belonging either to type 2 or to a new type, designated 48, which shows a one-way cross-relationship to type 13. The bactericidal test is suggested as a useful method for assessing M antigen in group A streptococci and for establishing type-specificity by means of a biological test which is more widely applicable than the standard mouse protection test. PMID:13475611

  19. Accuracy of Patient Self-Report of Stroke: A Systematic Review from the UK Biobank Stroke Outcomes Group

    PubMed Central

    Woodfield, Rebecca; Sudlow, Cathie L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We performed a systematic review of the accuracy of patient self-report of stroke to inform approaches to ascertaining and confirming stroke cases in large prospective studies. Methods We sought studies comparing patient self-report against a reference standard for stroke. We extracted data on survey method(s), response rates, participant characteristics, the reference standard used, and the positive predictive value (PPV) of self-report. Where possible we also calculated sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), and stroke prevalence. Study-level risk of bias was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Studies tool (QUADAS-2). Results From >1500 identified articles, we included 17 studies. Most asked patients to report a lifetime history of stroke but a few limited recall time to ≤5 years. Some included questions for transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or stroke synonyms. No study was free of risk of bias in the QUADAS-2 assessment, the most frequent causes of bias being incomplete reference standard data, absence of blinding of adjudicators to self-report status, and participant response rates (<80%). PPV of self-report ranged from 22–87% (17 studies), sensitivity from 36–98% (10 studies), specificity from 96–99.6% (10 studies), and NPV from 88.2–99.9% (10 studies). PPV increased with stroke prevalence as expected. Among six studies with available relevant data, if confirmed TIAs were considered to be true rather than false positive strokes, PPV of self-report was >75% in all but one study. It was not possible to assess the influence of recall time or of the question(s) asked on PPV or sensitivity. Conclusions Characteristics of the study population strongly influence self-report accuracy. In population-based studies with low stroke prevalence, a large proportion of self-reported strokes may be false positives. Self-report is therefore unlikely to be helpful for identifying cases without subsequent confirmation, but

  20. Compared with what? An analysis of control-group types in Cochrane and Campbell reviews of psychosocial treatment efficacy with substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Patrik; Bergmark, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims A crucial, but under-appreciated, aspect in experimental research on psychosocial treatments of substance use disorders concerns what kinds of control groups are used. This paper examines how the distinction between different control-group designs have been handled by the Cochrane and the Campbell Collaborations in their systematic reviews of psychosocial treatments of substance abuse disorders. Methods We assessed Cochrane and Campbell reviews (n = 8) that were devoted to psychosocial treatments of substance use disorders. We noted what control groups were considered and analysed the extent to which the reviews provided a rationale for chosen comparison conditions. We also analysed whether type of control group in the primary studies influenced how the reviews framed the effects discussed and whether this was related to conclusions drawn. Results The reviews covered studies involving widely different control conditions. Overall, little attention was paid to the use of different control groups (e.g. head-to-head comparisons versus untreated controls) and what this implies when interpreting effect sizes. Seven of eight reviews did not provide a rationale for the choice of comparison conditions. Conclusions Cochrane and Campbell reviews of the efficacy of psychosocial interventions with substance use disorders seem to underappreciate that the use of different control-group types yields different effect estimates. Most reviews have not distinguished between different control-group designs and therefore have provided a confused picture regarding absolute and relative treatment efficacy. A systematic approach to treating different control-group designs in research reviews is necessary for meaningful estimates of treatment efficacy. PMID:25393504

  1. Creating Social Spaces to Tackle AIDS-Related Stigma: Reviewing the Role of Church Groups in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Skovdal, M.; Gibbs, A.

    2012-01-01

    An expanding body of literature explores the role of African church groups in facilitating or hindering the support of people living with AIDS and challenging or contributing to HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Treating church groups as social spaces in which HIV/AIDS-related stigma may potentially be challenged, we systematically review this literature, identifying five themes that highlight the complex and contradictory role of the church as a potential agent of health-enhancing social change. In many ways the church perpetuates HIV/AIDS-related stigma through (i) moralistic attitudes and (ii) its reinforcement of conservative gender ideologies. However some churches have managed move towards action that makes a more positive contribution to HIV/AIDS management through (iii) promoting various forms of social control for HIV prevention, (iv) contributing to the care and support of the AIDS-affected and (v) providing social spaces for challenging stigmatising ideas and practices. We conclude that church groups, including church leadership, can play a key role in facilitating or hindering the creation of supportive social spaces to challenge stigma. Much work remains to be done in developing deeper understandings of the multi-layered factors that enable some churches, but not others, to respond effectively to HIV/AIDS. PMID:20668927

  2. Reference Collections and Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Lois

    1999-01-01

    Reviews six reference materials for young people: "The New York Public Library Kid's Guide to Research"; "National Audubon Society First Field Guide. Mammals"; "Star Wars: The Visual Dictionary"; "Encarta Africana"; "World Fact Book, 1998"; and "Factastic Book of 1001 Lists". Includes ordering information.(AEF)

  3. Reference Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jepsen, Richard

    2011-11-02

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review in which principal investigator discusses project progress to develop a representative set of Reference Models (RM) for the MHK industry to develop baseline cost of energy (COE) and evaluate key cost component/system reduction pathways.

  4. Poroelastic references

    SciTech Connect

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on the Biot theory (forward and inverse approaches), the double-porosity and dual-permeability theory, and seismic wave propagation in fracture porous media, in RIS format, to approach seismic monitoring in a complex fractured porous medium such as Brady?s Geothermal Field.

  5. Ready Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    2001-01-01

    Includes four articles that relate to ready reference, including a list of publishers' toll-free telephone numbers and Web sites; how to obtain an ISBN (International Standard Book Number) and an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number); and how to obtain an SAN (Standard Address Number), for organizations that are involved in the book…

  6. Disparities in type 2 diabetes prevalence among ethnic minority groups resident in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Meeks, Karlijn A C; Freitas-Da-Silva, Deivisson; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Beune, Erik J A J; Modesti, Pietro A; Stronks, Karien; Zafarmand, Mohammad H; Agyemang, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Many ethnic minorities in Europe have a higher type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevalence than their host European populations. The risk size differs between ethnic groups, but the extent of the differences in the various ethnic minority groups has not yet been systematically quantified. We conducted a meta-analysis of published data on T2D in various ethnic minority populations resident in Europe compared to their host European populations. We systematically searched MEDLINE (using PUBMED) and EMBASE for papers on T2D prevalence in ethnic minorities in Europe published between 1994 and 2014. The ethnic minority groups were classified into five population groups by geographical origin: South Asian (SA), Sub-Saharan African (SSA), Middle Eastern and North African (MENA), South and Central American (SCA), and Western Pacific (WP). Pooled odds ratios with corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated using Review Manager 5.3. Twenty articles were included in the analysis. Compared with the host populations, SA origin populations had the highest odds for T2D (3.7, 95 % CI 2.7-5.1), followed by MENA (2.7, 95 % CI 1.8-3.9), SSA (2.6, 95 % CI 2.0-3.5), WP (2.3, 95 % CI 1.2-4.1), and lastly SCA (1.3, 95 % CI 1.1-1.6). Odds ratios were in all ethnic minority populations higher for women than for men except for SCA. Among SA subgroups, compared with Europeans, Bangladeshi had the highest odds ratio of 6.2 (95 % CI 3.9-9.8), followed by Pakistani (5.4, 95 % CI 3.2-9.3) and Indians (4.1, 95 % CI 3.0-5.7). The risk of T2D among ethnic minority groups living in Europe compared to Europeans varies by geographical origin of the group: three to five times higher among SA, two to four times higher among MENA, and two to three times higher among SSA origin. Future research and policy initiatives on T2D among ethnic minority groups should take the interethnic differences into account.

  7. A review of the Palaearctic Heliocheilus translucens Felder & Rogenhofer, 1874 species-group with description of a new species from West Mongolia
    (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Heliothinae).

    PubMed

    Volynkin, Anton V; Stüning, Dieter; Matov, Alexej Yu

    2015-02-03

    Three Palaearctic species of the Heliocheilus translucens species-group are reviewed. One new species, H. tengri Volynkin & Matov, sp. n. is described from West Mongolia, southwestern part of Mongolian Altai Mts. The adults, male and female genitalia are illustrated.

  8. Molecular mechanism and therapeutic modulation of high mobility group box 1 release and action: an updated review.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ben; Wang, Ce; Wang, Mao; Li, Wei; Chen, Fangping; Tracey, Kevin J; Wang, Haichao

    2014-06-01

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is an evolutionarily conserved protein, and is constitutively expressed in virtually all types of cells. Infection and injury converge on common inflammatory responses that are mediated by HMGB1 secreted from immunologically activated immune cells or passively released from pathologically damaged cells. Herein we review the emerging molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)-induced HMGB1 secretion, and summarize many HMGB1-targeting therapeutic strategies for the treatment of infection- and injury-elicited inflammatory diseases. It may well be possible to develop strategies that specifically attenuate damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)-mediated inflammatory responses without compromising the PAMPs-mediated innate immunity for the clinical management of infection- and injury-elicited inflammatory diseases.

  9. Improving pathways into mental health care for black and ethnic minority groups: a systematic review of the grey literature.

    PubMed

    Moffat, Joanne; Sass, Bernd; McKenzie, Kwame; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2009-01-01

    Black and ethnic minorities show different pathways to care services and different routes out of care. These often involve non-statutory sector services. In order to improve access to services, and to develop appropriate and effective interventions, many innovations are described but the knowledge about how to improve pathways to recovery has not been synthesized. Much of this work is not formally published. Hence, this paper addresses this oversight and undertakes a review of the grey literature. The key components of effective pathway interventions include specialist services for ethnic minority groups, collaboration between sectors, facilitating referral routes between services, outreach and facilitating access into care, and supporting access to rehabilitation and moving out of care. Services that support collaboration, referral between services, and improve access seem effective, but warrant further evaluation. Innovative services must ensure that their evaluation frameworks meet minimum quality standards if the knowledge gained from the service is to be generalized, and if it is to inform policy.

  10. Using Nominal Group Technique to Develop a Consensus Derived Model for Peer Review of Teaching across a Multi-School Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Tracy; Findlay, Naomi; Killen, Chloe; Dempsey, Shane E.; Hunter, Sharyn; Chiarelli, Pauline; Snodgrass, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a peer review of teaching model for the Faculty of Health at the University of Newcastle, Australia. The process involved using the nominal group technique to engage Faculty academic staff to consider seven key decision points that informed the development of the peer review of teaching model. Use of the…

  11. 78 FR 24463 - In the Matter of the Review of the Designation of the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) (and Other Aliases...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE In the Matter of the Review of the Designation of the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) (and Other Aliases) as a Foreign Terrorist Organization Pursuant to Section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as Amended Based upon a review of the Administrative...

  12. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral and Supportive-Expressive Group Therapy for Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutin, Daniel L.

    2007-01-01

    A review of the literature revealed 20 studies that examined the extent to which cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), supportive-expressive group therapy (SEGT), and a combination of these two treatments impact women with breast cancer. Based on this review, it is determined that CBT and SEGT have repeated experimental support for positively…

  13. The Comprehensive Review Working Group and Don't Ask, Don't Tell repeal at the Department of Defense.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonathan L

    2013-01-01

    In February 2010, Secretary of Defense Robert Gates and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Adm. Michael Mullen established the Comprehensive Review Working Group (CRWG) to conduct a comprehensive review of the issues associated with a repeal of Don't Ask, Don't Tell (DADT). Over the next 10 months, the CRWG undertook one of the most extensive studies of a personnel issue in the history of the U.S. military. This article describes the work and the findings of the CRWG (on which the author served) in the context of the activities within the Department of Defense (DoD) following President Obama's call for DADT repeal in his January 2010 State of the Union Address and leading up to the passage of the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act in December 2010. It argues that the CRWG served a number of important functions in the DADT repeal process, particularly that it a) provided a rigorous, fact-based assessment of the impacts of repeal from which DoD senior leaders and Congress could base their views; b) developed a road map for a smooth and orderly implementation of repeal; and c) opened a conversation among military service members about what repeal would really mean to them. In doing so, the CRWG contributed to what has been a largely incident-free and successful transition to a post-DADT military.

  14. Degarelix for Treating Advanced Hormone-Dependent Prostate Cancer: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    PubMed

    Uttley, Lesley; Whyte, Sophie; Gomersall, Timothy; Ren, Shijie; Wong, Ruth; Chambers, Duncan; Tappenden, Paul

    2016-12-10

    As part of its Single Technology Appraisal Process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer of degarelix (Ferring Pharmaceuticals) to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of degarelix for the treatment of advanced hormone-dependent prostate cancer. The School of Health and Related Research Technology Appraisal Group at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the independent Evidence Review Group (ERG). The ERG produced a critical review of the evidence contained within the company's submission to NICE. The evidence, which included a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of degarelix versus leuprorelin, found that degarelix was non-inferior to leuprorelin for reduction of testosterone levels and that degarelix achieved a more rapid suppression of prostate-specific antigen levels and subsequently decreased incidences of testosterone flare associated with luteinising hormone releasing-hormone (LHRH) agonists. However, protection against testosterone flare for the comparators in the clinical trials was not employed in line with UK clinical practice. Further claims surrounding overall survival, cardiovascular adverse events and clinical equivalence of the comparator drugs from six RCTs of degarelix should be regarded with caution because of flaws and inconsistencies in the pooling of trial data to draw conclusions. The cost-effectiveness evidence included a de novo economic model. Based on the ERG's preferred base case, the deterministic incremental cost-effectiveness analysis (ICER) for degarelix versus 3-monthly triptorelin was £14,798 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. Additional scenario analyses undertaken by the ERG resulted in ICERs for degarelix versus 3-monthly triptorelin ranging from £17,067 to £35,589 per QALY gained. Subgroup analyses undertaken using the Appraisal Committee's preferred assumptions suggested that degarelix was not cost effective for the subgroup with

  15. A systematic review of training interventions addressing sexual violence against marginalized at-risk groups of women.

    PubMed

    Kouta, Christiana; Pithara, Christalla; Zobnina, Anna; Apostolidou, Zoe; Christodoulou, Josie; Papadakaki, Maria; Chliaoutakis, Joannes

    2015-12-01

    Women from marginalized groups working in occupations such as domestic work are at increased risk for sexual violence. Scarce evidence exists about training interventions targeting such groups. The article aims to identify community and workplace-based training interventions aiming to increase capacity among marginalized at-risk women to deal with sexual violence. A systematic review was applied. Inclusion criteria were English language published between 2003 and 2013; reporting on delivery and/or evaluation; focusing on any form of sexual violence; delivered to professionals, affected or at-risk women; targeting migrant, at-risk women or domestic workers. Data were extracted on the setting, content, evaluation process and target population. Four studies which focused on prevention or responding to sexual violence were included. One study provided sexual violence training to vulnerable female and one provided a HIV prevention intervention to marginalized women. Learning objectives included increasing knowledge around issues of sexual violence and/or gender and human rights, prevention and response strategies. Two studies aimed to train trainers. All studies conducted an outcome evaluation and two a process evaluation. It seems there is a gap on participatory empowerment training for marginalized women. Community train-the-trainer interventions are imperative to protect themselves and deal with the risk of sexual violence.

  16. Reference Ranges of Left Ventricular Strain Measures by Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Philip T.; Machefsky, Aliza; Sanchez, Aura A.; Patel, Meghna D.; Rogal, Sarah; Fowler, Susan; Yaeger, Lauren; Hardi, Angela; Holland, Mark R.; Hamvas, Aaron; Singh, Gautam K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The establishment of the range of reference values and associated variations of two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) derived left ventricular (LV) strain is a prerequisite for its routine clinical adoption in pediatrics. The aims were to perform a meta-analysis of normal ranges of LV global longitudinal, circumferential, and radial strain (GLS, GCS, and GRS) measurements derived by 2DSTE in children and identify confounding factors that may contribute to variances in reported measures. Methods A systematic review was launched in Medline, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL, and Cochrane. Search hedges were created to cover the concepts of pediatrics, speckle-tracking echocardiography, and left heart ventricle. Two investigators independently identified and included studies if they reported the 2DSTE derived LV GLS, GCS or GRS. The weighted mean was estimated by using random-effects with 95% confidence interval (CI), heterogeneity was assessed by the Cochran's Q statistic and the inconsistency index (I2) and publication was evaluated using the Egger test. Effects of demographic (age), clinical, and vendor variables were assessed in a meta-regression. Results The search identified 2325 children from 43 data sets. The reported normal mean values of GLS among the studies varied from -16.7% to -23.6% (mean -20.2%, 95% CI -19.5% to -20.8%), GCS varied from -12.9% to -31.4% (mean -22.3%, 95% CI -19.9% to -24.6%) and GRS, varied from 33.9% to 54.5 % (mean 45.2 95% CI 38.3 to 51.7). 26 studies reported LS only from the apical 4-chamber view with a mean of -20.4%, (95% CI -19.8% to -21.7%). 23 studies reported CS (mean, -20.3%, 95% CI -19.4% to -21.2%) and RS (mean, 46.7%, 95% CI 42.3% to 51.1%) from the short axis view at the mid-ventricular level. A significant apex-to-base segmental longitudinal strain (SLS) gradient (P < .01) was observed in the LV free wall. There was significant between- study heterogeneity and inconsistency (I2 > 94% and P < .001

  17. Reference aircraft for ICAO Working Group E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The results of an advanced supersonic transport aircraft/engine integration study to be used as a detail preliminary design case to assist in the assessment of noise standards applicable to future supersonic transports are summarized. The design considered reflects the application of the advanced technologies which are projected to be available for program initiation in the 1980-1985 time period. Suppression characteristics included were obtained in simulated forward flight in the Rolls-Royce spin rig using a small scale model. The engine size selected produces a noise no greater than 108 EPNdB at any of the three Far Part 36 (Stage 2) defined measuring points and is sized slightly larger than the optimum cruise size to meet this noise constraint condition.

  18. 78 FR 8145 - Sequence 24 Findings of the EISA 436(h) Ad-Hoc Review Group on Green Building Certification Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION Sequence 24 Findings of the EISA 436(h) Ad-Hoc Review Group on Green Building Certification... partners in the EISA 436(h) Ad-Hoc Discussion Group are seeking public input regarding possible approaches... certification of green Federal buildings. GSA is using the deliberations from the EISA 436(h) Ad-hoc...

  19. Evaluating Reference Services and Reference Personnel: Questions and Answers from the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Charles A.

    1994-01-01

    This bibliographic essay discusses a variety of items from the literature on the evaluation of reference services and reference personnel. A model for the evaluation process is presented on which the literature review is based. (Contains 48 references.) (LRW)

  20. Group X

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  1. Between-group behaviour in health care: gaps, edges, boundaries, disconnections, weak ties, spaces and holes. A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Gaps are typically regarded as a problem to be solved. People are stimulated to close or plug them. Researchers are moved to fill deficits in the literature in order to realise a more complete knowledge base, health authorities want to bridge policy-practice disconnections, managers to secure resources to remedy shortfalls between poor and idealised care, and clinicians to provide services to patients across the divides of organisational silos. Despite practical and policy work in many health systems to bridge gaps, it is valuable to study research examining them for the insights provided. Structural holes, spaces between social clusters and weak or absent ties represent fissures in networks, located in less densely populated parts of otherwise closely connected social structures. Such gaps are useful as they illustrate how communication potentially breaks down or interactivity fails. This paper discusses empirical and theoretical work on this phenomenon with the aim of analysing a specific exemplar, the structures of silos within health care organisations. Methods The research literature on social spaces, holes, gaps, boundaries and edges was searched systematically, and separated into health [n = 13] and non-health [n = 55] samples. The health literature was reviewed and synthesised in order to understand the circumstances between stakeholders and stakeholder groups that both provide threats to networked interactions and opportunities to strengthen the fabric of organisational and institutional inter-relationships. Results The research examples illuminate various network structure characteristics and group interactions. They explicate a range of opportunities for improved social and professional relations that understanding structural holes, social spaces and absent ties affords. A principal finding is that these kinds of gaps illustrate the conditions under which connections are strained or have been severed, where the limits of integration between

  2. Iatrogenic Effects of Group Treatment on Adolescents with Conduct and Substance Use Problems: A Review of the Literature and a Presentation of a Model

    PubMed Central

    Macgowan, Mark J.; Wagner, Eric F.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Group therapy is the most popular approach in the treatment of adolescent substance use problems. Recently, concerns have mounted about possible iatrogenic effects of group therapy based on studies on adolescents with conduct disorder. This paper reviews three possible contributors to response to group treatment among adolescents, and proposes a model of the relations among these variables, specifically in regard to how they independently and interactively contribute to outcomes among youth with conduct and substance use problems. PMID:20396587

  3. Renormalization Group (RG) in Turbulence: Historical and Comparative Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Ye; McComb, W. David; Vahala, George

    1997-01-01

    The term renormalization and renormalization group are explained by reference to various physical systems. The extension of renormalization group to turbulence is then discussed; first as a comprehensive review and second concentrating on the technical details of a few selected approaches. We conclude with a discussion of the relevance and application of renormalization group to turbulence modelling.

  4. A review of vacuum insulation research and development in the Building Materials Group of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Kollie, T.G.; McElroy, D.L.; Fine, H.A.; Childs, K.W.; Graves, R.S.; Weaver, F.J.

    1991-09-01

    This report is a summary of the development work on flat-vacuum insulation performed by the Building Materials Group (BMG) in the Metals and Ceramics Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the last two years. A historical review of the technology of vacuum insulation is presented, and the role that ORNL played in this development is documented. The ORNL work in vacuum insulation has been concentrated in Powder-filled Evacuated Panels (PEPs) that have a thermal resistivity over 2.5 times that of insulating foams and seven times that of many batt-type insulations, such as fiberglass. Experimental results of substituting PEPs for chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) foal insulation in Igloo Corporation ice coolers are summarized. This work demonstrated that one-dimensional (1D) heat flow models overestimated the increase in thermal insulation of a foam/PEP-composite insulation, but three-dimensional (3D) models provided by a finite-difference, heat-transfer code (HEATING-7) accurately predicted the resistance of the composites. Edges and corners of the ice coolers were shown to cause the errors in the 1D models as well as shunting of the heat through the foam and around the PEPs. The area of coverage of a PEP in a foam/PEP composite is established as an important parameter in maximizing the resistance of such composites. 50 refs., 27 figs,. 22 tabs.

  5. Talimogene Laherparepvec for Treating Metastatic Melanoma: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    PubMed

    Fleeman, Nigel; Bagust, Adrian; Boland, Angela; Beale, Sophie; Richardson, Marty; Krishan, Ashma; Stainthorpe, Angela; Abdulla, Ahmed; Kotas, Eleanor; Banks, Lindsay; Payne, Miranda

    2017-03-18

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer (Amgen) of talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) to submit clinical and cost-effectiveness evidence for previously untreated advanced (unresectable or metastatic) melanoma as part of the Institute's Single Technology Appraisal process. The Liverpool Reviews and Implementation Group (LRiG) at the University of Liverpool was commissioned to act as the Evidence Review Group (ERG). This article presents a summary of the company's submission of T-VEC, the ERG review and the resulting NICE guidance (TA410), issued in September 2016. T-VEC is an oncolytic virus therapy granted a marketing authorisation by the European Commission for the treatment of adults with unresectable melanoma that is regionally or distantly metastatic (stage IIIB, IIIC and IVM1a) with no bone, brain, lung or other visceral disease. Clinical evidence for T-VEC versus granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was derived from the multinational, open-label randomised controlled OPTiM trial [Oncovex (GM-CSF) Pivotal Trial in Melanoma]. In accordance with T-VEC's marketing authorisation, the company's submission focused primarily on 249 patients with stage IIIB to stage IV/M1a disease who constituted 57% of the overall trial population (T-VEC, n = 163 and GM-CSF, n = 86). Results from analyses of durable response rate, objective response rate, time to treatment failure and overall survival all showed marked and statistically significant improvements for patients treated with T-VEC compared with those treated with GM-CSF. However, GM-CSF is not used to treat melanoma in clinical practice. It was not possible to compare treatment with T-VEC with an appropriate comparator using conventionally accepted methods due to the absence of comparative head-to-head data or trials with sufficient common comparators. Therefore, the company compared T-VEC with ipilimumab using what it described as modified Korn and two

  6. Executive summary of major NuMI lessons learned: a review of relevant meetings of Fermilab's DUSEL Beamline Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, Mike; Appel, Jeffrey A.; Bogert, Dixon; Childress, Sam; Cossairt, Don; Griffing, William; Grossman, Nancy; Harding, David; Hylen, Jim; Kuchler, Vic; Laughton, Chris; /Fermilab /Argonne /Brookhaven /LBL, Berkeley

    2009-05-01

    We have gained tremendous experience with the NuMI Project on what was a new level of neutrino beams from a high power proton source. We expect to build on that experience for any new long baseline neutrino beam. In particular, we have learned about some things which have worked well and/or where the experience is fairly directly applicable to the next project (e.g., similar civil construction issues including: tunneling, service buildings, outfitting, and potential claims/legal issues). Some things might be done very differently (e.g., decay pipe, windows, target, beam dump, and precision of power supply control/monitoring). The NuMI experience does lead to identification of critical items for any future such project, and what issues it will be important to address. The DUSEL Beamline Working Group established at Fermilab has been meeting weekly to collect and discuss information from that NuMI experience. This document attempts to assemble much of that information in one place. In this Executive Summary, we group relevant discussion of some of the major issues and lessons learned under seven categories: (1) Differences Between the NuMI Project and Any Next Project; (2) The Process of Starting Up the Project; (3) Decision and Review Processes; (4) ES&H: Environment, Safety, and Health; (5) Local Community Buy-In; (6) Transition from Project Status to Operation; and (7) Some Lessons on Technical Elements. We concentrate here on internal project management issues, including technical areas that require special attention. We cannot ignore, however, two major external management problems that plagued the NuMI project. The first problem was the top-down imposition of an unrealistic combination of scope, cost, and schedule. This situation was partially corrected by a rebaselining. However, the full, desirable scope was never achievable. The second problem was a crippling shortage of resources. Critical early design work could not be done in a timely fashion, leading to

  7. Comment on the International Atomic Energy Agency Report on the Advisory Group Meeting on Stable Isotope Reference Samples for Geochemical and Hydrological Investigation, Vienna, Austria, September 19-21, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, T.B.; Friedman, Irving; O'Neil, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    According to U.S. Geological Survey records, a report prepared by R. Gonfiantini summarizing the findings and recommendations of the 1983 Advisory Group Meeting on Stable Isotope Reference Samples for Geochemical and Hydrologic Investigations held in Vienna does not accurately represent the consultants ' consensus on three important points. The consultants (1) recommended no value for the C02-H20 oxygen isotope fractionation factor, not the cited value of 1.04115, (2) adopted a value of 1.0309 rather than 1.03086 to relate the PDB and SMOW scales, and (3) adopted a firm 180 value of -2.20% for NBS-19 on the PDB scale rather than agreeing that this would be a tentative value subject to modification when more measurements in selected laboratories are available. (USGS)

  8. Reference Man anatomical model

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, M.

    1994-10-01

    The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

  9. Study of the distribution by age group of serum cross-linked C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen and procollagen type I N-propeptide in healthy Japanese women to establish reference values.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Yoshiyuki; Yoshizaki, Atsuo; Yoshikata, Hiromi; Kikuchi, Ritsuko; Sakakibara, Hideya; Chaki, Osamu; Fukunaga, Masao; Hirahara, Fumiki

    2013-11-01

    Osteoporosis prevention is an important public health goal. Bone turnover markers are clinically measured to assess bone strength. C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) is released when collagens degrade and serves as an indicator of bone resorption. Simple CTX immunoassays are now available. However, serum CTX (sCTX) reference ranges for Japanese women are lacking. Procollagen type I N-propeptide (intact P1NP) reflects osteoblast activity, serving as a marker of bone formation. Because sCTX and intact P1NP are clinically applied as bone turnover markers, we determined reference ranges for both sCTX and intact P1NP in healthy Japanese women. We collected 228 blood samples from healthy Japanese women aged 19-83 years, grouped by age and menopausal status. We measured sCTX and intact P1NP and examined their correlation. sCTX values differed significantly between the two consecutive decade groups encompassing 19-39 years of age, intact P1NP values between 20 and 30 s, between post-menopausal 50 and 60 s, and between pre-and post-menopausal women in their 50 s. The mean sCTX of 91 healthy pre-menopausal women was 0.255 (0.100-0.653) ng/mL, the intact P1NP in 90 women 33.2 (17.1-64.7) μg/L. Corresponding values for post-menopausal women were 0.345 (0.115-1.030) ng/mL and 41.6 (21.9-79.1) μg/L. sCTX correlated with intact P1NP. Bone resorption markers are measured to assess anti-resorption agents, bone formation markers to assess the effects of bone-forming agents. The sCTX and intact P1NP reference values determined herein, in healthy Japanese women, are expected to be useful for osteoporosis treatment, assessment of fracture risk, and other clinical applications.

  10. Virtual Reference for a Real Public.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Irene E.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews World Wide Web sites useful as alternative resources for reference librarians. Sites described are: general reference; reference for kids and teens; regional interest for Southern California, including local foreign-language resources and local history sites; and interactive reference. (JAK)

  11. Special Technology Area Review on Displays. Report of Department of Defense Advisory Group on Electron Devices Working Group C (Electro-Optics)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-01

    added to that for the commercial world, except the requirements may differ widely based on the aircraft platform. Vehicle development simulators require...discussed special considerations that are not issues in the consumer world. No one except DoD is interested in HMD simulation systems. Everyone else...and Dr. Robert Pinnel , CTO of USDC) Mr. Liss of Rockwell Collins is presently the Chairman, USDC Military & Avionics Users Group (MAUG). The USDC

  12. A review of nickel toxicity to marine and estuarine tropical biota with particular reference to the South East Asian and Melanesian region.

    PubMed

    Gissi, Francesca; Stauber, Jennifer L; Binet, Monique T; Golding, Lisa A; Adams, Merrin S; Schlekat, Christian E; Garman, Emily R; Jolley, Dianne F

    2016-11-01

    The South East Asian Melanesian (SEAM) region contains the world's largest deposits of nickel lateritic ores. Environmental impacts may occur if mining operations are not adequately managed. Effects data for tropical ecosystems are required to assess risks of contaminant exposure and to derive water quality guidelines (WQG) to manage these risks. Currently, risk assessment tools and WQGs for the tropics are limited due to the sparse research on how contaminants impact tropical biota. As part of a larger project to develop appropriate risk assessment tools to ensure sustainable nickel production in SEAM, nickel effects data were required. The aim of this review was to compile data on the effects of nickel on tropical marine, estuarine, pelagic and benthic species, with a particular focus on SEAM. There were limited high quality chronic nickel toxicity data for tropical marine species, and even fewer for those relevant to SEAM. Of the data available, the most sensitive SEAM species to nickel were a sea urchin, copepod and anemone. There is a significant lack of high quality chronic data for several ecologically important taxonomic groups including cnidarians, molluscs, crustaceans, echinoderms, macroalgae and fish. No high quality chronic nickel toxicity data were available for estuarine waters or marine and estuarine sediments. The very sparse toxicity data for tropical species limits our ability to conduct robust ecological risk assessment and may require additional data generation or read-across from similar species in other databases (e.g. temperate) to fill data gaps. Recommendations on testing priorities to fill these data gaps are presented.

  13. Results of the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG) Gap Review: Specific Action Team (SAT), Examination of Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) for Human Exploration of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, C. K.; Eppler, D.; Farrell, W.; Gruener, J.; Lawrence, S.; Pellis, N.; Spudis, P. D.; Stopar, J.; Zeigler, R.; Neal, C; Bussey, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG) was tasked by the Human Exploration Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) to establish a Specific Action Team (SAT) to review lunar Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) within the context of new lunar data and some specific human mission scenarios. Within this review, the SAT was to identify the SKGs that have been fully or partially retired, identify new SKGs resulting from new data and observations, and review quantitative descriptions of measurements that are required to fill knowledge gaps, the fidelity of the measurements needed, and if relevant, provide examples of existing instruments or potential missions capable of filling the SKGs.

  14. A review of the multiwell experiment in tight gas sandstones of the Mesaverde Group, Piceance Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, P.H.

    2002-01-01

    The Cretaceous Iles and Williams Fork Formations of the Mesaverde Group contain important reservoir and source rocks for basin-centered gas accumulations in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado. The sandstones in these formations have very low permeability, so low that successful production of gas requires the presence of fractures. To increase gas production, the natural fracture system of these "tight gas sandstones" must be augmented by inducing artificial fractures, while minimizing the amount of formation damage due to introduced fluids. The Multiwell Experiment was undertaken to provide geological characterization, obtain physical property data, and perform stimulation experiments in the Iles and Williams Fork Formations. Three vertical wells and one follow-up slant well were drilled, logged, partially cored, tested for gas production, stimulated in various manners, and tested again. Drawing from published reports and papers, this review paper presents well log, core, and test data from the Multiwell Experiment while emphasizing the geological controls on gas production at the site. Gas production is controlled primarily by a set of regional fractures trending west-northwest. The fractures are vertical, terminating at lithologic boundaries within and at the upper and lower boundaries of sandstone beds. Fractures formed preferentially in sandstones where in situ stress and fracture gradients are lower than in shales and mudstones. The fractures cannot be identified adequately in vertical wellbores; horizontal wells are required. Because present-day maximum horizontal stress is aligned with the regional fractures, artificial fractures induced by pressuring the wellbore form parallel to the regional fractures rather than linking them, with consequent limitations upon enhancement of gas production.

  15. Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-07-01

    CD REVIEWS (346) Spectrum 7 Physics - Waves SOFTWARE REVIEW (347) Sound Packages BOOK REVIEW (350) Measured Tones, 2nd edition WEB WATCH (351) What’s the frequency, Kenneth? BOOK REVIEW (354) We know what you did last summer ... now do something better this summer

  16. Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    A-LEVEL RESOURCES REVIEWS SPECIAL AS and A2 books and resources: deciding what to buy? SUMMARY Exam boards, specifications and support materials OCR (Oxford Cambridge and RSA Examinations) CORRECTION BOOK REVIEW Good Practice in Science Teaching WEB WATCH Astronomy and cosmology DVD REVIEW The Video Encyclopedia of Physics Demonstrations SOFTWARE REVIEW Graph Paper Printer

  17. Enterprise Reference Library

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickham, Grandin; Saile, Lynn; Havelka, Jacque; Fitts, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Johnson Space Center (JSC) offers two extensive libraries that contain journals, research literature and electronic resources. Searching capabilities are available to those individuals residing onsite or through a librarian s search. Many individuals have rich collections of references, but no mechanisms to share reference libraries across researchers, projects, or directorates exist. Likewise, information regarding which references are provided to which individuals is not available, resulting in duplicate requests, redundant labor costs and associated copying fees. In addition, this tends to limit collaboration between colleagues and promotes the establishment of individual, unshared silos of information The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) team has utilized a centralized reference management tool during the development, test, and operational phases of this project. The Enterprise Reference Library project expands the capabilities developed for IMM to address the above issues and enhance collaboration across JSC. Method: After significant market analysis for a multi-user reference management tool, no available commercial tool was found to meet this need, so a software program was built around a commercial tool, Reference Manager 12 by The Thomson Corporation. A use case approach guided the requirements development phase. The premise of the design is that individuals use their own reference management software and export to SharePoint when their library is incorporated into the Enterprise Reference Library. This results in a searchable user-specific library application. An accompanying share folder will warehouse the electronic full-text articles, which allows the global user community to access full -text articles. Discussion: An enterprise reference library solution can provide a multidisciplinary collection of full text articles. This approach improves efficiency in obtaining and storing reference material while greatly reducing labor, purchasing and

  18. A Review of Recent Research (2000-2008) on Applied Linguistics and Language Teaching with Specific Reference to L2 Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Marta

    2011-01-01

    This review presents a broad picture of recent work on L2 Spanish in educational contexts. The thematic and geographic scope of the review is wide, in order to capture the diversity of learners and learning contexts of L2 Spanish, just two decades after teaching and learning the language gained impetus worldwide. Traditional second or foreign…

  19. Vedolizumab for the Treatment of Adults with Moderate-to-Severe Active Ulcerative Colitis: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    PubMed

    Essat, Munira; Tappenden, Paul; Ren, Shijie; Bessey, Alice; Archer, Rachel; Wong, Ruth; Lobo, Alan; Hoque, Sami

    2016-03-01

    As part of its single technology appraisal (STA) process, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer of vedolizumab (Takeda UK) to submit evidence of the clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of vedolizumab for the treatment of patients with moderate-to-severe active ulcerative colitis (UC). The Evidence Review Group (ERG) produced a critical review of the evidence for the clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of the technology, based upon the company's submission to NICE. The evidence was derived mainly from GEMINI 1, a Phase 3, multicentre, randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study of the induction and maintenance of clinical response and remission by vedolizumab (MLN0002) in patients with moderate-to-severe active UC with an inadequate response to, loss of response to or intolerance of conventional therapy or anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. The clinical evidence showed that vedolizumab performed significantly better than placebo in both the induction and maintenance phases. In the post hoc subgroup analyses in patients with or without prior anti-TNF-α therapy, vedolizumab performed better then placebo (p value not reported). In addition, a greater improvement in health-related quality of life was observed in patients treated with vedolizumab, and the frequency and types of adverse events were similar in the vedolizumab and placebo groups, but the evidence was limited to short-term follow-up. There were a number of limitations and uncertainties in the clinical evidence base, which warrants caution in its interpretation--in particular, the post hoc subgroup analyses and high dropout rates in the maintenance phase of GEMINI 1. The company also presented a network meta-analysis of vedolizumab versus other biologic therapies indicated for moderate-to-severe UC. However, the ERG considered that the results presented may have underestimated the uncertainty in treatment effects, since fixed

  20. Factors that Promote High Post-16 Participation of Some Minority Ethnic Groups in England: A Systematic Review of the UK-Based Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    See, Beng Huat; Torgerson, Carole; Gorard, Stephen; Ainsworth, Hannah; Low, Graham; Wright, Kath

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the article is to identify those factors that drive the high participation in immediate post-16 and higher education of some minority ethnic groups in the UK. What could we learn from these examples to encourage higher aspirations more generally? The article reports a summary of a formal and systematic review of 1678 studies dated 1997…

  1. A review of the Japanese species of the choragella-group of the genus Morophaga Herrich-Schäffer (Lepidoptera: Tineidae), with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Osada, Yohei; Hirowatari, Toshiya

    2016-06-22

    The taxonomy of the Japanese species of the choragella-group of the genus Morophaga is reviewed. Previously, one species, Morophaga fasciculata Robinson, 1986, was recorded from Japan. In the present study, a second species, Morophaga plana, sp. nov., is described based on adult morphological characters.

  2. Reaching the hard-to-reach: a systematic review of strategies for improving health and medical research with socially disadvantaged groups

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aims to review the literature regarding the barriers to sampling, recruitment, participation, and retention of members of socioeconomically disadvantaged groups in health research and strategies for increasing the amount of health research conducted with socially disadvantaged groups. Methods A systematic review with narrative synthesis was conducted. Searches of electronic databases Medline, PsychInfo, EMBASE, Social Science Index via Web of Knowledge and CINHAL were conducted for English language articles published up to May 2013. Qualitative and quantitative studies as well as literature reviews were included. Articles were included if they reported attempts to increase disadvantaged group participation in research, or the barriers to research with disadvantaged groups. Groups of interest were those described as socially, culturally or financially disadvantaged compared to the majority of society. Eligible articles were categorised according to five phases of research: 1) sampling, 2) recruitment and gaining consent, 3) data collection and measurement, 4) intervention delivery and uptake, and 5) retention and attrition. Results In total, 116 papers from 115 studies met inclusion criteria and 31 previous literature reviews were included. A comprehensive summation of the major barriers to working with various disadvantaged groups is provided, along with proposed strategies for addressing each of the identified types of barriers. Most studies of strategies to address the barriers were of a descriptive nature and only nine studies reported the results of randomised trials. Conclusions To tackle the challenges of research with socially disadvantaged groups, and increase their representation in health and medical research, researchers and research institutions need to acknowledge extended timeframes, plan for higher resourcing costs and operate via community partnerships. PMID:24669751

  3. Review of Education in Mathematics, Data Science and Quantitative Disciplines: Report to the Group of Eight Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gavin

    2009-01-01

    The Reference Committee firmly shares the view that the state of the mathematical sciences and related quantitative disciplines in Australia has deteriorated to a dangerous level, and continues to deteriorate. Accordingly the author decided to structure this Report around a small number of recommendations, some long term and others to address…

  4. Review of the Southeast Asian species of the Aenictus javanus and Aenictus philippinensis species groups (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Aenictinae)

    PubMed Central

    Jaitrong, Weeyawat; Yamane, Seiki

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The Southeast Asian species of the Aenictus javanus and Aenictus philippinensis groups are revised. Six species (four named and two new species) of the Aenictus javanus group occurring in this area are: Aenictus doydeei Jaitrong & Yamane, 2011, Aenictus duengkaei Jaitrong & Yamane, sp. n., Aenictus javanus Emery, 1896, Aenictus longinodus Jaitrong & Yamane, sp. n., Aenictus nishimurai Terayama & Kubota, 1993, and Aenictus piercei Wheeler & Chapman, 1930. Four species (three named and one new species) are recognized in the Aenictus philippinensis group: Aenictus pangantihoni Zettel & Sorger, 2010, Aenictus philippinensis Chapman, 1963, Aenictus punctatus Jaitrong & Yamane, sp. n., and Aenictus rabori Chapman, 1963. Aenictus piercei is removed from the members of the Aenictus piercei group sensu Jaitrong and Yamane (2011) and transferred to the Aenictus javanus group. Lectotypes and paralectotypes are designated for Aenictus piercei and Aenictus rabori. Size variation occurs among individuals from single colonies of the Aenictus javanus group, while the workers in the Aenictus philippinensis group are clearly monomorphic. PMID:22679379

  5. Clinical Value of High Mobility Group Box 1 and the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products in Head and Neck Cancer: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Austin; Bhavsar, Sheila; Riley, Erinn; Caponetti, Gabriel; Agrawal, Devendra

    2016-10-01

    Introduction High mobility group box 1 is a versatile protein involved in gene transcription, extracellular signaling, and response to inflammation. Extracellularly, high mobility group box 1 binds to several receptors, notably the receptor for advanced glycation end-products. Expression of high mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products has been described in many cancers. Objectives To systematically review the available literature using PubMed and Web of Science to evaluate the clinical value of high mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Data synthesis A total of eleven studies were included in this review. High mobility group box 1 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis and many clinical and pathological characteristics of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas patients. Additionally, the receptor for advanced glycation end-products demonstrates potential value as a clinical indicator of tumor angiogenesis and advanced staging. In diagnosis, high mobility group box 1 demonstrates low sensitivity. Conclusion High mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products are associated with clinical and pathological characteristics of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Further investigation of the prognostic and diagnostic value of these molecules is warranted.

  6. 32 CFR 865.101 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PERSONNEL REVIEW BOARDS Air Force Discharge Review Board § 865.101 References. (a) Title 10 U.S.C., section...-0684 (D.D.C.) (Order, December 3, 1981). (k) Urban Law Institute of Antioch College, Inc. v....

  7. 32 CFR 865.101 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PERSONNEL REVIEW BOARDS Air Force Discharge Review Board § 865.101 References. (a) Title 10 U.S.C., section...-0684 (D.D.C.) (Order, December 3, 1981). (k) Urban Law Institute of Antioch College, Inc. v....

  8. Macrobenthic community for assessment of estuarine health in tropical areas (Northeast, Brazil): review of macrofauna classification in ecological groups and application of AZTI Marine Biotic Index.

    PubMed

    Valença, Ana Paula M C; Santos, Paulo J P

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the ecological quality of tropical estuaries on the northeastern coast of Brazil using the AMBI. Macrofauna classification based on ecological groups was reviewed using the Indicator Value (IndVal) coefficient. The results indicate that the ecosystems exhibit some level of disturbance. Most sites are situated between slightly-moderately disturbed boundaries due to the higher proportion of Nematoda (assigned here as Ecological Group I) and of Oligochaeta and Tubificidae (both classified as Ecological Group V). The AMBI proved efficient in evaluating environmental status, although the applicability of this index requires adjustments regarding some species in ecological groups. The present study also highlights the merits of the IndVal method for examining the assignments of species/taxa to an ecological group and demonstrates the validity of this coefficient is an assessment tool. Moreover, the complementary use of different methods is recommended for the assessment of ecosystem quality.

  9. Neurodevelopmental outcome of fetuses referred for ventriculomegaly

    PubMed Central

    Beeghly, M.; Ware, J.; Soul, J.; Plessis, A. Du; Khwaja, O.; Senapati, G. M.; Robson, C. D.; Robertson, R. L.; Poussaint, T. Y.; Barnewolt, C. E.; Feldman, H. A.; Estroff, J. A.; Levine, D.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To characterize the delivery and postnatal neurodevelopmental outcomes of fetuses referred for ventriculomegaly (VM). Methods Under an internal review board-approved protocol, pregnant women were referred for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after sonographic diagnosis of VM and classified into one of four diagnostic groups: Group 1, normal central nervous system (CNS); Group 2, isolated mild VM (10–12 mm); Group 3, isolated VM > 12 mm; and Group 4, other CNS findings. Pregnancy outcome was obtained. Follow-up visits were offered with assessment of neurodevelopmental, adaptive and neurological functioning at 6 months and 1 year and/or 2 years of age. Atrial diameter and VM group differences in developmental outcomes were evaluated using repeated measures logistic regression and Fishers exact test, respectively. Results Of 314 fetuses, 253 (81%) were liveborn and survived the neonatal period. Fetuses in Groups 4 and 3 were less likely to progress to live delivery and to survive the neonatal period (60% and 84%, respectively) than were those in Groups 2 or 1 (93% and 100%, respectively, P < 0.001). Of the 143 fetuses followed postnatally, between 41% and 61% had a Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-II) psychomotor developmental index score in the delayed range (< 85) at the follow-up visits, whereas the BSID-II mental developmental index and Vineland Adaptive Behavior composite scores were generally in line with normative expectations. Among those that were liveborn, neither VM group nor prenatal atrial diameter was related to postnatal developmental outcome. Conclusions Diagnostic category and degree of fetal VM based on ultrasound and MRI measurements are associated with the incidence of live births and thus abnormal outcome. Among those undergoing formal postnatal testing, VM grade is not associated with postnatal developmental outcome, but motor functioning is more delayed than is cognitive or adaptive functioning. PMID:20069560

  10. Theoretical Foundations and Empirical Arguments for Group Work in Computer Learning Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valcke, Martin

    1988-01-01

    Reviews research that deals with group work in the field of educational computing. Topics discussed include sex differences; the influence of ability on group interaction; social class; group size; the internal dynamics of group work; achievement; the acquisition of programing skills; metacognition; and social-affective objectives. (25 references)…

  11. Eternal Triangulation: Case Studies in the Evaluation of Educational Software by Classroom-Based Teacher Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David; Keep, Ros

    1988-01-01

    Reviews some of the problems involved in the evaluation of educational software, and describes a classroom-based case study approach to software evaluation intended for application by autonomous self-programming groups of teachers. (20 references) (Author/CLB)

  12. "Natural" antibodies and histo-blood groups in biological development with respect to histo-blood group A. A perspective review.

    PubMed

    Arend, Peter

    2011-12-01

    The "inappropriate" A-specific ovarian glycosphingolipids discovered in unfertilized C57BL/10J female mice reflect growth processes, which suggest the activity of embryonic stem cells undergoing genetic polymorphism. And the responding anti-GalNAc antibody represents the first classical "natural" antibody, which was unmasked as a highly specific autoantibody. This murine anti-A is subspecifically distinct from the human antibody, discovering by a broader reactivity growth-dependent, xenoreactive A-specific structures also in non-reproductive murine tissues, where an equivalent of the human AB gene family as a cis AB-gene encodes A-and B glycotransferases. Expression of antigen is known to need always more than its encoded enzyme, and the special mechanism which in the C57BL/10J murine ovarian glycospingolipids blocks the expression of "B" still remains still unknown. A herewith arising postulation of a growth-predominating common biological activity may be supported by findings in rats. The number of A-genes here significantly exceeds those of B and in the Wistar rat the A-antigen is only expressed in the wild type, while B-expression requires the transfer of human B. Nevertheless in transgenic rats, the appearance of "A" still remains more pronounced. The observations lead to reports on animals, which do not show AB transferase production or a respective antigen expression in their normal tissues, but inconcistently display A activity in malignant tumors. And respective examples are delivered by phenotype independent neo expressions of "inappropriate" A-specific structures in human cancer. Although in comparison with epitope deletions they are rare, the ubiquitous "natural" (IgM and IgG) anti-A and anti-B levels, against self and not self, irrespective of the blood group in any normal human sera, may reflect invisible "inappropriate" A-specific growth. The role of the associated (auto) anti-B might be different, because B-neo expressions obviously not occur in

  13. Peer review of validation studies: an assessment of the role of the OECD by reference to the validation of the uterotrophic assay for endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Combes, Robert D

    2004-06-01

    The involvement of the OECD in managing the validation of the rat uterotrophic assay for endocrine disruptors, and in organising the peer review of the results of this study, has been assessed and compared with the many conclusions and recommendations in several published reports of international workshops on validation, and information in guidance documents, produced by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), the US Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and the OECD itself. It is concluded that the OECD has not followed the recommendations for full transparency and independence of the peer-review process. This is based on the fact that it has published a draft guidance document that differs from the report of a recent OECD workshop on validation, in such a way as to give the OECD the flexibility to fully control the peer-review process and, in so doing, to avoid full transparency. Comparison of the timing of the organisation of workshops by the OECD and the progression of the validation study, together with the fact that a draft test guideline for the assay was written before completion of the peer review, suggest that the OECD has given a higher priority to the expedition of the validation and regulatory acceptance of the uterotrophic assay than it has to good scientific and logistical practice. This severely undermines its credibility in the validation process, so, in order for the OECD to be rightly perceived as an honest broker, it is recommended that the OECD should play no role in the validation of new or revised tests, until after they have been successfully validated, peer reviewed, and endorsed by the appropriate authorities, and are ready for test guideline development. With regard to the on-going OECD validation studies of other in vivo assays for endocrine disruptors, the OECD should take immediate steps to ensure full independence and transparency of their peer review.

  14. The effect of group training on pregnancy-induced lumbopelvic pain: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized control trials.

    PubMed

    Fisseha, Berihu; Mishra, Prakash Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Since there is lack of up to date consensus exists as to whether group training is effective in improving lumbopelvic pain (LPP) after pregnancy, a review of the recent evidences is needed. To determine the effect of group exercise training for the management of LPP among pregnant women compared with usual antenatal care. An electronic database search for relevant randomized control trials published in English from 2006 to 2015 was conducted. Articles with outcome measures of self-reported LPP, visual analogue scale and sick leave due to LPP after pregnancy were included. Quality of the included articles was rated using Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale and the pooled effect of self-reported LPP was obtained by Review Manager (RevMan 5) software. Significant effect of group training was detected over usual antenatal care or no treatment with P=0.0035 (95% confidence interval, -0.2348 to -0.0044). The results of this systematic review proposed that group training reduces LPP significantly better than routine antenatal care for pregnant women suffered from LPP.

  15. Ethnic minority groups in regional and local labour markets in Britain: a review of data sources and associated issues.

    PubMed

    Green, A E; Owen, D W

    1995-12-01

    "This paper outlines the context of, and discusses the need for, local information on the demographic patterns and labour market experience of ethnic minority groups in many parts of Britain. The specific focus is on the identification and assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of particular data sources providing spatially disaggregated information on the economic position of ethnic minority groups."

  16. A Systematic Review of Training Interventions Addressing Sexual Violence against Marginalized At-Risk Groups of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouta, Christiana; Pithara, Christalla; Zobnina, Anna; Apostolidou, Zoe; Christodoulou, Josie; Papadakaki, Maria; Chliaoutakis, Joannes

    2015-01-01

    Women from marginalized groups working in occupations such as domestic work are at increased risk for sexual violence. Scarce evidence exists about training interventions targeting such groups. The article aims to identify community and workplace-based training interventions aiming to increase capacity among marginalized at-risk women to deal with…

  17. A Historical Review of the Representation of the Visual Field in Primary Visual Cortex with Special Reference to the Neural Mechanisms Underlying Macular Sparing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leff, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    This article comprises a historical review of the literature pertaining to the representation of the visual field in human primary visual cortex. A brief survey of the anatomy of the visual system is followed by a critical evaluation of the key studies that have informed both the issue of the disproportionate representation of central vision…

  18. Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schodde, P.; Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Reviews 17 books and curriculum materials of interest to secondary science teachers. Topics include plant science, pollution, fishes, science investigations, general zoology, neurobiology, electronics, and the environment. (MLH)

  19. 76 FR 54969 - Rate Increase Disclosure and Review: Definitions of “Individual Market” and “Small Group Market”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 154 RIN 0938-AR26 Rate Increase Disclosure and Review: Definitions of... definitions that otherwise apply under title XXVII of the Public Health Service Act (PHS Act). The preamble to... Oversight, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final...

  20. Facilities removal working group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This working group`s first objective is to identify major economic, technical, and regulatory constraints on operator practices and decisions relevant to offshore facilities removal. Then, the group will try to make recommendations as to regulatory and policy adjustments, additional research, or process improvements and/or technological advances, that may be needed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the removal process. The working group will focus primarily on issues dealing with Gulf of Mexico platform abandonments. In order to make the working group sessions as productive as possible, the Facilities Removal Working Group will focus on three topics that address a majority of the concerns and/or constraints relevant to facilities removal. The three areas are: (1) Explosive Severing and its Impact on Marine Life, (2) Pile and Conductor Severing, and (3) Deep Water Abandonments This paper will outline the current state of practice in the offshore industry, identifying current regulations and specific issues encountered when addressing each of the three main topics above. The intent of the paper is to highlight potential issues for panel discussion, not to provide a detailed review of all data relevant to the topic. Before each panel discussion, key speakers will review data and information to facilitate development and discussion of the main issues of each topic. Please refer to the attached agenda for the workshop format, key speakers, presentation topics, and panel participants. The goal of the panel discussions is to identify key issues for each of the three topics above. The working group will also make recommendations on how to proceed on these key issues.

  1. The effectiveness of group reminiscence therapy for loneliness, anxiety and depression in older adults in long-term care: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Syed Elias, Sharifah Munirah; Neville, Christine; Scott, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Loneliness, anxiety and depression are common problems for older adults in long-term care. Reminiscence therapy is a non-pharmacological intervention that may be of some benefit. In comparison to individual reminiscence therapy, group reminiscence therapy is a preferred option when dealing with the resource constraints of long-term care. The aim of this paper was to systematically review the literature in order to explore the effectiveness of group reminiscence therapy for older adults with loneliness, anxiety and depression in long-term care. Results indicated that group reminiscence therapy is an effective treatment for depression in older adults, however to date, there is limited research support for its effectiveness to treat loneliness and anxiety. Further research and an improvement in methodological quality, such as using qualitative and mixed methods approaches, is recommended to help establish an evidence base and provide better understanding of the effectiveness of group reminiscence therapy.

  2. Fifty years of Brazilian Dental Materials Group: scientific contributions of dental materials field evaluated by systematic review

    PubMed Central

    ROSA, Wellington Luiz de Oliveira; SILVA, Tiago Machado; LIMA, Giana da Silveira; SILVA, Adriana Fernandes; PIVA, Evandro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective A systematic review was conducted to analyze Brazilian scientific and technological production related to the dental materials field over the past 50 years. Material and Methods This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (Prisma) statement. Searches were performed until December 2014 in six databases: MedLine (PubMed), Scopus, LILACS, IBECS, BBO, and the Cochrane Library. Additionally, the Brazilian patent database (INPI - Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial) was screened in order to get an overview of Brazilian technological development in the dental materials field. Two reviewers independently analyzed the documents. Only studies and patents related to dental materials were included in this review. Data regarding the material category, dental specialty, number of documents and patents, filiation countries, and the number of citations were tabulated and analyzed in Microsoft Office Excel (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington, United States). Results A total of 115,806 studies and 53 patents were related to dental materials and were included in this review. Brazil had 8% affiliation in studies related to dental materials, and the majority of the papers published were related to dental implants (1,137 papers), synthetic resins (681 papers), dental cements (440 papers), dental alloys (392 papers) and dental adhesives (361 papers). The Brazilian technological development with patented dental materials was smaller than the scientific production. The most patented type of material was dental alloys (11 patents), followed by dental implants (8 patents) and composite resins (7 patents). Conclusions Dental materials science has had a substantial number of records, demonstrating an important presence in scientific and technological development of dentistry. In addition, it is important to approximate the relationship between academia and industry to expand the technological development in

  3. Celestial Reference Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.

    2013-03-01

    Concepts and Background: This paper gives an overview of modern celestial reference frames as realized at radio frequencies using the Very Long baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique. We discuss basic celestial reference frame concepts, desired properties, and uses. We review the networks of antennas used for this work. We briefly discuss the history of the science of astrometry touching upon the discovery of precession, proper motion, nutation, and parallax, and the field of radio astronomy. Building Celestial Frames: Next, we discuss the multi-step process of building a celestial frame: First candidate sources are identified based on point-like properties from single dish radio telescopes surveys. Second, positions are refined using connected element interferometers such as the Very Large Array, and the ATCA. Third, positions of approximately milli-arcsecond (mas) accuracy are determined using intercontinental VLBI surveys. Fourth, sub-mas positions are determined by multiyear programs using intercontinental VLBI. These sub-mas sets of positions are then verified by multiple teams in preparation for release to non-specialists in the form of an official IAU International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The process described above has until recently been largely restricted to work at S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz). However, in the last decade sub-mas work has expanded to include celestial frames at K-band (24 GHz), Ka-band (32 GHz), and Q-band (43 GHz). While these frames currently have the disadvantage of far smaller data sets, the astrophysical quality of the sources themselves improves at these higher frequencies and thus make these frequencies attractive for realizations of celestial reference frames. Accordingly, we review progress at these higher frequency bands. Path to the Future: We discuss prospects for celestial reference frames over the next decade. We present an example of an error budget for astrometric VLBI and discuss the budget's use as a tool for

  4. Celestial Reference Frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Christopher S.

    2013-09-01

    Concepts and Background: This paper gives an overview of modern celestial reference frames as realized at radio frequencies using the Very Long baseline Interferometry (VLBI) technique. We discuss basic celestial reference frame concepts, desired properties, and uses. We review the networks of antennas used for this work. We briefly discuss the history of the science of astrometry touching upon the discovery of precession, proper motion, nutation, and parallax, and the field of radio astronomy. Building Celestial Frames: Next, we discuss the multi-step process of building a celestial frame: First candidate sources are identified based on point-like properties from single dish radio telescopes surveys. Second, positions are refined using connected element interferometers such as the Very Large Array, and the ATCA. Third, positions of approximately milli-arcsecond (mas) accuracy are determined using intercontinental VLBI surveys. Fourth, sub-mas positions are determined by multiyear programs using intercontinental VLBI. These sub-mas sets of positions are then verified by multiple teams in preparation for release to non-specialists in the form of an official IAU International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF). The process described above has until recently been largely restricted to work at S/X-band (2.3/8.4 GHz). However, in the last decade sub-mas work has expanded to include celestial frames at K-band (24 GHz), Ka-band (32 GHz), and Q-band (43 GHz). While these frames currently have the disadvantage of far smaller data sets, the astrophysical quality of the sources themselves improves at these higher frequencies and thus make these frequencies attractive for realizations of celestial reference frames. Accordingly, we review progress at these higher frequency bands. Path to the Future: We discuss prospects for celestial reference frames over the next decade. We present an example of an error budget for astrometric VLBI and discuss the budget's use as a tool for

  5. Reference Frames and Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Clifford

    1989-01-01

    Stresses the importance of a reference frame in mechanics. Shows the Galilean transformation in terms of relativity theory. Discusses accelerated reference frames and noninertial reference frames. Provides examples of reference frames with diagrams. (YP)

  6. A review of the work of the EU Reference Laboratory supporting the authorisation process of feed additives in the EU. [corrected].

    PubMed

    von Holst, Christoph; Robouch, Piotr; Bellorini, Stefano; González de la Huebra, María José; Ezerskis, Zigmas

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the operation of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Feed Additives (EURL) and its role in the authorisation procedure of feed additives in the European Union. Feed additives are authorised according to Regulation (EC) No. 1831/2003, which introduced a completely revised authorisation procedure and also established the EURL. The regulations authorising feed additives contain conditions of use such as legal limits of the feed additives, which require the availability of a suitable method of analysis for official control purposes under real world conditions. It is the task of the EURL to evaluate the suitability of analytical methods as proposed by the industry for this purpose. Moreover, the paper shows that one of the major challenges is the huge variety of the methodology applied in feed additive analysis, thus requiring expertise in quite different analytical areas. In order to cope with this challenge, the EURL is supported by a network of national reference laboratories (NRLs) and only the merged knowledge of all NRLs allows for a scientifically sound assessment of the analytical methods.

  7. The work of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Food Additives (EURL) and its support for the authorisation process of feed additives in the European Union: a review

    PubMed Central

    von Holst, Christoph; Robouch, Piotr; Bellorini, Stefano; de la Huebra, María José González; Ezerskis, Zigmas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper describes the operation of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Feed Additives (EURL) and its role in the authorisation procedure of feed additives in the European Union. Feed additives are authorised according to Regulation (EC) No. 1831/2003, which introduced a completely revised authorisation procedure and also established the EURL. The regulations authorising feed additives contain conditions of use such as legal limits of the feed additives, which require the availability of a suitable method of analysis for official control purposes under real world conditions. It is the task of the EURL to evaluate the suitability of analytical methods as proposed by the industry for this purpose. Moreover, the paper shows that one of the major challenges is the huge variety of the methodology applied in feed additive analysis, thus requiring expertise in quite different analytical areas. In order to cope with this challenge, the EURL is supported by a network of national reference laboratories (NRLs) and only the merged knowledge of all NRLs allows for a scientifically sound assessment of the analytical methods. PMID:26540604

  8. Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-09-01

    CD-ROM REVIEWS (449) It's Physics Furry Elephant: Electricity Explained BOOK REVIEWS (450) What Are the Chances? Voodoo Deaths, Office Gossip and Other Adventures in Probability Dictionary of Mechanics: A handbook for teachers and students Intermediate 2 Physics PLACES TO VISIT (452) Spaceguard Centre WEB WATCH (455) Risk

  9. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviews three computer software packages for Apple II computers. Includes "Simulation of Hemoglobin Function,""Solution Equilibrium Problems," and "Thin-Layer Chromatography." Contains ratings of ease of use, subject matter content, pedagogic value, and student reaction according to two separate reviewers for each…

  10. Is Early Experience Destiny? Review of Research on Long-Term Outcomes following International Adoption with Special Reference to the British Chinese Adoption Study

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Margaret; Rushton, Alan; Simmonds, John

    2016-01-01

    The pathway from adverse early experience to adulthood for internationally adopted children is complex in identifying key influences, impacts, and outcomes. This review arose from the authors' involvement in the British Chinese Adoption Study, a recent outcomes study that explored the links between early orphanage care, adoptive experiences, and midadulthood. It differs from previous reviews in focusing on a greater length of time since adoption. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were included to allow for examination of a fuller range of adult-related outcomes rather than mental health scores alone. The sampling, methods, and results of reviewed articles are summarised and a critical commentary is provided. Despite methodological differences and identified strengths and weaknesses, conclusions are drawn on the basis of the evidence available. Special attention is paid to the interpretation of negative outcomes. Findings identify areas that should be explored further in order to gain a fuller understanding of midlife outcomes of people who experienced a poor start in life followed by international adoption. Such studies help in refining lifespan developmental theories. PMID:27247964

  11. Aging, Depression, and Wisdom: A Pilot Study of Life-Review Intervention and PTSD Treatment With Two Groups of Vietnam Veterans.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Lori R; Boehnlein, James; McCallion, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Vietnam War veterans are a sometimes overlooked subgroup of the aging baby boomer generation. Forty years after the war ended, war veterans still seek out VA or Vet Center counselors to assist with traumatic stress symptoms. However, there currently are no specific age-related protocols for treating older war veterans suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), nor have established PTSD interventions incorporated gerontology content for these older trauma survivors. This pilot study juxtaposed life review within regular PTSD group counseling for 12 Vietnam veterans at a community-based Vet Center using a partial crossover design. The Life Review and Experiencing Form (LREF) structured the delivery of the life review component. T-tests and repeated measures ANOVA were used to examine depression and self-assessed wisdom outcomes using measures previously tested with older adults. Findings suggest that life review prior to PTSD group therapy has clinical benefits for reducing symptoms of depression and increasing self-assessed wisdom. The study illuminates the possible relationship of traumatic stress symptom effects on the natural reminiscing process for older veterans and provides insights into methods for more age-appropriate treatment for trauma survivors participating in Vet Center and VA programs nationwide.

  12. Imaging surveillance programs for women at high breast cancer risk in Europe: Are women from ethnic minority groups adequately included? (Review).

    PubMed

    Belkić, Karen; Cohen, Miri; Wilczek, Brigitte; Andersson, Sonia; Berman, Anne H; Márquez, Marcela; Vukojević, Vladana; Mints, Miriam

    2015-09-01

    Women from ethnic minority groups, including immigrants and refugees are reported to have low breast cancer (BC) screening rates. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is vital for increasing participation of these women in BC screening programs. Women at high BC risk and who belong to an ethnic minority group are of special concern. Such women could benefit from ongoing trials aimed at optimizing screening strategies for early BC detection among those at increased BC risk. Considering the marked disparities in BC survival in Europe and its enormous and dynamic ethnic diversity, these issues are extremely timely for Europe. We systematically reviewed the literature concerning European surveillance studies that had imaging in the protocol and that targeted women at high BC risk. The aim of the present review was thereby to assess the likelihood that women at high BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. Twenty-seven research groups in Europe reported on their imaging surveillance programs for women at increased BC risk. The benefit of strategies such as inclusion of magnetic resonance imaging and/or more intensive screening was clearly documented for the participating women at increased BC risk. However, none of the reports indicated that sufficient outreach was performed to ensure that women at increased BC risk from minority ethnic groups were adequately included in these surveillance programs. On the basis of this systematic review, we conclude that the specific screening needs of ethnic minority women at increased BC risk have not yet been met in Europe. Active, culturally-sensitive outreach is needed to identify minority women at increased BC risk and to facilitate their inclusion in on-going surveillance programs. It is anticipated that these efforts would be most effective if coordinated with the development of European-wide, population-based approaches to BC screening.

  13. Joint Working Group-39, Manufacturing Technology Subworking Group-F, remote handling and automation

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    The terms of reference were reviewed and continue to encompass the scope of activities of the SUBWOG. No revisions to the terms of reference were proposed. The list of site contacts who should receive copies of SUBWOG correspondence and meeting minutes was reviewed and updated. Documents exchanged related to the meeting include: Minutes of the sixth SUBOG 39F meeting; transactions of the fifth topical meeting on robotics and remote handling; data on manipulators was forwarded to LLNL from the robotics group at AEA Harwell; and the specifications of the duct remediation robot from the Rocky Flats Plant.

  14. Review and redescription of species in the Oecetis avara group, with the description of 15 new species (Trichoptera, Leptoceridae)

    PubMed Central

    Blahnik, Roger J.; Holzenthal, Ralph W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The O. avara group of Oecetis is formally defined to include 4 described species, O. avara (Banks), O. disjuncta (Banks), O. elata Denning & Sykora, and O. metlacenis Bueno-Soria, and 15 new species. Oecetis marquesi Bueno-Soria, previously considered a member of the O. avara group, is treated as incertae sedis to species group, but is also redescribed and treated in the current work. New species described here (with their respective distributions) include: O. acciptrina (Costa Rica, Panama, Ecuador), O. agosta (Mexico), O. angularis (Guatemala to Ecuador), O. apache (SW USA), O. campana (Ecuador), O. constricta (Mexico to Ecuador, Venezuela, and Trinidad), O. houghtoni (North America), O. maritza (Costa Rica), O. mexicana (Mexico to Ecuador), O. patula (Guatemala, Nicaragua), O. protrusa (Mexico to Ecuador), O. sordida (Mexico, USA, Canada), O. tumida (Costa Rica), O. uncata (Costa Rica), and O. verrucula (Mexico to Costa Rica). A key to the species is also provided. PMID:24574849

  15. A review of the zumpti species group of the genus Harpyrhynchoides (Acariformes: Harpirhynchidae)--ectoparasites of passerines.

    PubMed

    Bochkov, Andre V; Klompen, Hans

    2014-11-18

    The zumpti species group of the genus Harpyrhynchoides (Harpirhynchidae), parasites of passerines, is revised. A key to the species of this group is provided and data on host associations and geographic distribution of its constituent species are summarized. This group includes six previously recognized species: Harpyrhynchoides alaudinus Bochkov, 2000, H. brevis (Ewing, 1911) comb. nov., H. heatherae Bochkov and Galloway, 2013, H. rubeculinus (Cherny and Sixl, 1971), H. vulgaris Bochkov and Galloway, 2004, and H. zumpti (Fain, 1972). Three species from North American passerines are described as new: H. setophaga sp. nov. from Setophaga ruticilla (Parulidae), H. xanthocephalus sp. nov. from Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus (Icteridae), and H. spizella sp. nov. from Spizella passerina (Emberizidae). Additionally, H. brevis is redescribed based on samples from Coccothraustes vespertinus (type host) and Loxia curvirostra (Passeriformes: Fringillidae) from North America. Harpyrhynchoides kirgizorum Fain et al. 1999 syn. nov. is synonymized with H. zumpti. 

  16. The Impact of Antenatal Psychological Group Interventions on Psychological Well-Being: A Systematic Review of the Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Wadephul, Franziska; Jones, Catriona; Jomeen, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Depression, anxiety and stress in the perinatal period can have serious, long-term consequences for women, their babies and their families. Over the last two decades, an increasing number of group interventions with a psychological approach have been developed to improve the psychological well-being of pregnant women. This systematic review examines interventions targeting women with elevated symptoms of, or at risk of developing, perinatal mental health problems, with the aim of understanding the successful and unsuccessful features of these interventions. We systematically searched online databases to retrieve qualitative and quantitative studies on psychological antenatal group interventions. A total number of 19 papers describing 15 studies were identified; these included interventions based on cognitive behavioural therapy, interpersonal therapy and mindfulness. Quantitative findings suggested beneficial effects in some studies, particularly for women with high baseline symptoms. However, overall there is insufficient quantitative evidence to make a general recommendation for antenatal group interventions. Qualitative findings suggest that women and their partners experience these interventions positively in terms of psychological wellbeing and providing reassurance of their ‘normality’. This review suggests that there are some benefits to attending group interventions, but further research is required to fully understand their successful and unsuccessful features. PMID:27417620

  17. Quantifying greenhouse gas mitigation potential of cropland management practices: A review of the GRA croplands research group greenhouse gas network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multi-national greenhouse gas (GHG) flux networks play a central role facilitating model development and verification while concurrently identifying critical research needs. In 2012, a network was established within Component 1 of the Global Research Alliance (GRA) Croplands Research Group. The ne...

  18. A Meta-Analytic Review of Studies of the Effectiveness of Small-Group Learning Methods on Statistics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalaian, Sema A.; Kasim, Rafa M.

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analytic study focused on the quantitative integration and synthesis of the accumulated pedagogical research in undergraduate statistics education literature. These accumulated research studies compared the academic achievement of students who had been instructed using one of the various forms of small-group learning methods to those who…

  19. A Review of European Arms Collaboration and Prospects for Its Expansion under the Independent European Program Group.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    consisting of Domier and Siebel (FRG); Association Belge pour l’Avion Patrouilleur ( ABAP ), a Belgian group including Fairey, SABCA, and Fabrique...Agency DTIA (France) .,- ,- Industry [ r ut • ""[ SECBAT Technica Insta Financial Commercial . tlSeeflug ABAP .. Fairey Breguet SFebel Fke ’. S F

  20. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviews four software packages available for IBM PC or Apple II. Includes "Graphical Analysis III"; "Space Max: Space Station Construction Simulation"; "Guesstimation"; and "Genetic Engineering Toolbox." Focuses on each packages' strengths in a high school context. (CW)

  1. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenleaf, Floyd; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reviews eight textbooks, readers, and books. Topics include Latin America, colonial America, the Carolinians, women in French textbooks, the Vikings, the Soviet Union, nineteenth-century Black America, and Ernest Rutherford. (TRS)

  2. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are two computer software packages: "Introduction to Spectroscopy, IR, NMR & CMR," and "ASYSTANT" (a mathematical and statistical analysis software tool). Discussed are the functions, strengths, weaknesses, hardware requirements, components, level, and cost for each package. (CW)

  3. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radcliffe, George; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews three software packages: 1) a package containing 68 programs covering general topics in chemistry; 2) a package dealing with acid-base titration curves and allows for variables to be changed; 3) a chemistry tutorial and drill package. (MVL)

  4. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides a review of both the Apple and IBM versions of ENZPACK, a software package which is designed to assist in the teaching of enzyme kinetics in courses where this topic is treated in some depth. (TW)

  5. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides reviews of four computer software packages designed for use in science education. Describes courseware dealing with a variety of tips for teaching physics concepts, chemical reactions in an aqueous solution, mitosis and meiosis, and photosynthesis. (TW)

  6. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Reviews seven software programs: (1) "Science Baseball: Biology" (testing a variety of topics); (2) "Wildways: Understanding Wildlife Conservation"; (3) "Earth Science Computer Test Bank"; (4) "Biology Computer Test Bank"; (5) "Computer Play & Learn Series" (a series of drill and test…

  7. Taxonomic review of catsharks of the Scyliorhinus haeckelii group, with the description of a new species (Chondrichthyes: Carcharhiniformes: Scyliorhinidae).

    PubMed

    Soares, Karla D A; Gomes, Ulisses L; Carvalho, Marcelo R De

    2016-01-19

    Sharks of the genus Scyliorhinus from the southwestern Atlantic are reviewed; identification problems and taxonomic misinformation given in the literature are rectified. After extensive examination of the external and internal morphology of specimens collected mostly off southeastern and southern Brazil, Scyliorhinus besnardi Springer & Sadowsky, 1970 is placed in the synonymy of S. haeckelii (Miranda Ribeiro, 1907), which is thoroughly redescribed. Additionally, a new species, Scyliorhinus cabofriensis, sp. nov., is described from the state of Rio de Janeiro, distinguished from all southwestern Atlantic congeners by its color pattern, clasper and neurocranial morphology, and proportional measurements. A key to Scyliorhinus species occurring in the southwestern Atlantic is also provided.

  8. Effects of group sports on health-related physical fitness of overweight youth: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana; Monteiro, Ângela; Jácome, Cristina; Afreixo, Vera; Marques, Alda

    2016-10-07

    Group sports interventions have been developed to improve health-related physical fitness of overweight/obese youth. However, its benefits are not systematically documented. This study synthesizes the evidence about the effects of group sports on health-related physical fitness of overweight/obese youth. Pubmed, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Medline, CINAHL, SportDiscus, and Academic Search Complete were searched in February 2016. Studies assessing the effects of group sports on body composition, cardiorespiratory endurance, muscle strength, flexibility, and neuromotor fitness of overweight/obese youth (aged <18 years) were included. Effect sizes (ES) were calculated with Cohen's d and its 95% confidence intervals (CI). Improvements were found in (i) body composition - percentage of fat body mass (pooled ES = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.24-1.10) and waist circumference (ES = 0.69; P = 0.004); (ii) cardiorespiratory endurance - peak oxygen consumption (pooled ES = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.13-0.92) and (iii) muscle strength - hand grip strength (ES = 0.72; P = 0.003). No significant effects were found for body mass index (pooled ES = 0.27; 95% CI = -0.14 to 0.69), percentage of lean body mass (ES = 0.01; P > 0.05), maximal power output (ES from 0 to 0.06; P > 0.05), sit-and-reach test (pooled ES = 0.26; 95% CI = -0.16 to 0.68) and agility test (ES = 0; P = 0.48). Group sports improve body composition, cardiorespiratory endurance, and hand grip strength of overweight/obese youth. Flexibility and neuromotor fitness do not seem to change following group sports.

  9. A Systematic Review of Community-Based Participatory Research to Enhance Clinical Trials in Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups

    PubMed Central

    De Las Nueces, Denise; Hacker, Karen; DiGirolamo, Ann; Hicks, LeRoi S

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the effectiveness of current community-based participatory research (CBPR) clinical trials involving racial and ethnic minorities. Data Source All published peer-reviewed CBPR intervention articles in PubMed and CINAHL databases from January 2003 to May 2010. Study Design We performed a systematic literature review. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Data were extracted on each study's characteristics, community involvement in research, subject recruitment and retention, and intervention effects. Principle Findings We found 19 articles meeting inclusion criteria. Of these, 14 were published from 2007 to 2010. Articles described some measures of community participation in research with great variability. Although CBPR trials examined a wide range of behavioral and clinical outcomes, such trials had very high success rates in recruiting and retaining minority participants and achieving significant intervention effects. Conclusions Significant publication gaps remain between CBPR and other interventional research methods. CBPR may be effective in increasing participation of racial and ethnic minority subjects in research and may be a powerful tool in testing the generalizability of effective interventions among these populations. CBPR holds promise as an approach that may contribute greatly to the study of health care delivery to disadvantaged populations. PMID:22353031

  10. A critical review of the research literature on Six Sigma, Lean and StuderGroup's Hardwiring Excellence in the United States: the need to demonstrate and communicate the effectiveness of transformation strategies in healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Vest, Joshua R; Gamm, Larry D

    2009-01-01

    Background U.S. healthcare organizations are confronted with numerous and varied transformational strategies promising improvements along all dimensions of quality and performance. This article examines the peer-reviewed literature from the U.S. for evidence of effectiveness among three current popular transformational strategies: Six Sigma, Lean/Toyota Production System, and Studer's Hardwiring Excellence. Methods The English language health, healthcare management, and organizational science literature (up to December 2007) indexed in Medline, Web of Science, ABI/Inform, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and ERIC was reviewed for studies on the aforementioned transformation strategies in healthcare settings. Articles were included if they: appeared in a peer-reviewed journal; described a specific intervention; were not classified as a pilot study; provided quantitative data; and were not review articles. Nine references on Six Sigma, nine on Lean/Toyota Production System, and one on StuderGroup meet the study's eligibility criteria. Results The reviewed studies universally concluded the implementations of these transformation strategies were successful in improving a variety of healthcare related processes and outcomes. Additionally, the existing literature reflects a wide application of these transformation strategies in terms of both settings and problems. However, despite these positive features, the vast majority had methodological limitations that might undermine the validity of the results. Common features included: weak study designs, inappropriate analyses, and failures to rule out alternative hypotheses. Furthermore, frequently absent was any attention to changes in organizational culture or substantial evidence of lasting effects from these efforts. Conclusion Despite the current popularity of these strategies, few studies meet the inclusion criteria for this review. Furthermore, each could have been improved substantially in order to ensure the validity of the

  11. Selected Reference Books of 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIlvaine, Eileen

    1999-01-01

    Reviews a selection of recent scholarly and general reference works under the categories of Periodicals and Newspapers, Philosophy, Literature, Film and Radio, Art and Architecture, Music, Political Science, Women's Studies, and History. A brief summary of new editions of standard works is provided at the end of the articles. (AEF)

  12. [Developmental Placement.] Collected Research References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklund, Gail

    Drawing on information and references in the ERIC system, this literature review describes research related to a child's developmental placement. The issues examined include school entrance age; predictive validity, reliability, and features of Gesell School Readiness Assessment; retention; and the effectiveness of developmental placement. A…

  13. Does Engaging in a Group-Based Intervention Increase Parental Self-efficacy in Parents of Preschool Children? A Systematic Review of the Current Literature.

    PubMed

    Wittkowski, Anja; Dowling, Hannah; Smith, Debbie M

    2016-01-01

    As the preschool years are a formative period for long-term physical and mental health, this period is recognised as an important window for early effective intervention. Parenting behaviour is a key factor to target in order to optimise child development. Group-based interventions for parents are considered efficient and cost effective methods of early intervention and have been found to improve child behaviour and adjustment. Self-efficacy is key to behaviour change and as such parental self-efficacy should be a consideration in interventions aimed at influencing parenting behaviour. Therefore, the purpose of this systematic review was to examine the impact of group-based early interventions for parents of preschool children on parental self-efficacy. Nine databases were searched (ASSIA, CINAHL, EMBASE, Maternity and Infant Care, Ovid Medline, PsycINFO, Pubmed, Science Direct and Web of Science). Studies were included if they were a randomised controlled trial of a group-based intervention for parents of preschool children and measured change in parental self-efficacy. Fifteen studies were identified. Although changes in parental self-efficacy following a group-based intervention were noted in the majority of studies reviewed, the methodological quality of the studies included in the review means these findings have to be interpreted with caution; only seven studies were rated to be methodologically adequate. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms by which these interventions may improve parental self-efficacy. Studies specifically examining the impact of such interventions on paternal self-efficacy are also warranted.

  14. [Disturbance of the health--an attempt at interpreting the term. Part I--appraisal of the language propriety, semantic reference, a review of judicial decisions].

    PubMed

    Jurek, Tomasz; Swiatek, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The term "disturbance of the health" is present in many legal acts. It is employed to describe the detriment to the health in penal proceedings of offences against life and health. In civil procedures, it is a ground for the obligation to redress the damage. The authors present an analysis of the semantic sense of the term based on its linguistic and logical sense and the system context, in which it appears in legal regulations. The language propriety of the expression is assessed. The above deliberations are confronted with judicial decisions that interpret the term in pronounced sentences. The result is the determination of the semantic reference of the term as used in judicial practice. The semantic criteria used by the authors are "multisignificance", "clarity", "sharpness" and "instability". The analysis of the system context has demonstrated that the legislators are inconsistent and use the term together with "anatomical terms". In judicial decisions, "disturbance of the health" is defined as a functional, as well as mental detriment to the health that exceeds the individual's adaptative abilities.

  15. Review: Groundwater flow and transport modeling of karst aquifers, with particular reference to the North Coast Limestone aquifer system of Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemizadeh, Reza; Hellweger, Ferdinand; Butscher, Christoph; Padilla, Ingrid; Vesper, Dorothy; Field, Malcolm; Alshawabkeh, Akram

    2013-01-01

    Karst systems have a high degree of heterogeneity and anisotropy, which makes them behave very differently from other aquifers. Slow seepage through the rock matrix and fast flow through conduits and fractures result in a high variation in spring response to precipitation events. Contaminant storage occurs in the rock matrix and epikarst, but contaminant transport occurs mostly along preferential pathways that are typically inaccessible locations, which makes modeling of karst systems challenging. Computer models for understanding and predicting hydraulics and contaminant transport in aquifers make assumptions about the distribution and hydraulic properties of geologic features that may not always apply to karst aquifers. This paper reviews the basic concepts, mathematical descriptions, and modeling approaches for karst systems. The North Coast Limestone aquifer system of Puerto Rico (USA) is introduced as a case study to illustrate and discuss the application of groundwater models in karst aquifer systems to evaluate aquifer contamination. PMID:23645996

  16. Review: Groundwater flow and transport modeling of karst aquifers, with particular reference to the North Coast Limestone aquifer system of Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Ghasemizadeh, Reza; Hellweger, Ferdinand; Butscher, Christoph; Padilla, Ingrid; Vesper, Dorothy; Field, Malcolm; Alshawabkeh, Akram

    2012-12-01

    Karst systems have a high degree of heterogeneity and anisotropy, which makes them behave very differently from other aquifers. Slow seepage through the rock matrix and fast flow through conduits and fractures result in a high variation in spring response to precipitation events. Contaminant storage occurs in the rock matrix and epikarst, but contaminant transport occurs mostly along preferential pathways that are typically inaccessible locations, which makes modeling of karst systems challenging. Computer models for understanding and predicting hydraulics and contaminant transport in aquifers make assumptions about the distribution and hydraulic properties of geologic features that may not always apply to karst aquifers. This paper reviews the basic concepts, mathematical descriptions, and modeling approaches for karst systems. The North Coast Limestone aquifer system of Puerto Rico (USA) is introduced as a case study to illustrate and discuss the application of groundwater models in karst aquifer systems to evaluate aquifer contamination.

  17. Parabens can enable hallmarks and characteristics of cancer in human breast epithelial cells: a review of the literature with reference to new exposure data and regulatory status.

    PubMed

    Darbre, Philippa D; Harvey, Philip W

    2014-09-01

    A framework for understanding the complexity of cancer development was established by Hanahan and Weinberg in their definition of the hallmarks of cancer. In this review, we consider the evidence that parabens can enable development in human breast epithelial cells of four of six of the basic hallmarks, one of two of the emerging hallmarks and one of two of the enabling characteristics. In Hallmark 1, parabens have been measured as present in 99% of human breast tissue samples, possess oestrogenic activity and can stimulate sustained proliferation of human breast cancer cells at concentrations measurable in the breast. In Hallmark 2, parabens can inhibit the suppression of breast cancer cell growth by hydroxytamoxifen, and through binding to the oestrogen-related receptor gamma may prevent its deactivation by growth inhibitors. In Hallmark 3, in the 10 nm-1 μm range, parabens give a dose-dependent evasion of apoptosis in high-risk donor breast epithelial cells. In Hallmark 4, long-term exposure (>20 weeks) to parabens leads to increased migratory and invasive activity in human breast cancer cells, properties that are linked to the metastatic process. As an emerging hallmark methylparaben has been shown in human breast epithelial cells to increase mTOR, a key regulator of energy metabolism. As an enabling characteristic parabens can cause DNA damage at high concentrations in the short term but more work is needed to investigate long-term, low-dose mixtures. The ability of parabens to enable multiple cancer hallmarks in human breast epithelial cells provides grounds for regulatory review of the implications of the presence of parabens in human breast tissue.

  18. The International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW TBE): Review of 17 years of activity and commitment.

    PubMed

    Kunze, Ursula

    2016-04-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) has been a growing public health problem in Europe and other parts of the world for the past 20 years. In 1999, in order to encourage the control of TBE, international experts created a new body: The International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW-TBE). This Working Group has been composed of internationally recognized scientific experts from tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEv)-endemic and non-endemic regions with extensive personal expertise in the field and a high level of commitment to improve the knowledge of TBE and to increase the public awareness of TBE. Since the foundation of the Working Group, ISW-TBE members meet annually. Every meeting is dedicated to a specific topic, and since 2004 a yearly conference report has been published to inform the scientific community about the latest developments. Among the specific issues that have been extensively discussed over the years were the following: clinical aspects of the disease, TBE in children and golden agers, epidemiology, possible causes for the increase in TBE incidence in Europe, TBE and awareness, TBE and travel, (low) vaccination rates, and the cooperation with the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). This paper gives an overview of the most important activities and achievements of the ISW-TBE over the past 17 years.

  19. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Occupational Exposure to Agricultural Pesticide Chemical Groups and Active Ingredients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schinasi, Leah; Leon, Maria E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes results from a systematic review and a series of meta-analyses of nearly three decades worth of epidemiologic research on the relationship between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and occupational exposure to agricultural pesticide active ingredients and chemical groups. Estimates of associations of NHL with 21 pesticide chemical groups and 80 active ingredients were extracted from 44 papers, all of which reported results from analyses of studies conducted in high-income countries. Random effects meta-analyses showed that phenoxy herbicides, carbamate insecticides, organophosphorus insecticides and the active ingredient lindane, an organochlorine insecticide, were positively associated with NHL. In a handful of papers, associations between pesticides and NHL subtypes were reported; B cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicides and the organophosphorus herbicide glyphosate. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicide exposure. Despite compelling evidence that NHL is associated with certain chemicals, this review indicates the need for investigations of a larger variety of pesticides in more geographic areas, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which, despite producing a large portion of the world’s agriculture, were missing in the literature that were reviewed. PMID:24762670

  20. A Systematic Review of Therapeutic Alliance, Group Cohesion, Empathy, and Goal Consensus/Collaboration in Psychotherapeutic Interventions in Cancer: Uncommon Factors?

    PubMed Central

    Schnur, Julie B.; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of four empirically supported therapeutic relationship factors (therapeutic alliance, empathy, goal consensus/collaboration, and group cohesion) on the outcome of psychotherapeutic interventions conducted with individuals living with cancer were systematically reviewed. PubMed, PsycINFO, and CINAHL were searched from their inception through November 13, 2008. Studies of psychotherapeutic interventions targeted to individuals living with cancer, which also empirically assessed the association between any of these therapeutic relationship factors and psychotherapy outcome were included in the review (8 of 742 papers initially reviewed). Information on study methodology and results were abstracted independently by the authors using a standardized form. Results indicated that therapist-rated rapport and group cohesion were significantly related to positive psychotherapeutic outcomes. No studies examined empathy. The literature on collaboration was mixed, but showed some support for increased collaboration being related to positive therapeutic outcomes. Overall the current literature on the role of therapeutic relationship factors in the context of individuals living with cancer is scant, and much more research is needed to determine the overall contribution of these four relationship elements to the outcomes of psychotherapeutic interventions for individuals living with cancer. Results of such studies could have important clinical and research implications. PMID:20006414

  1. FIFA 11+: an effective programme to prevent football injuries in various player groups worldwide—a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Bizzini, Mario; Dvorak, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    In 2009, FIFA promoted and disseminated the FIFA 11+ injury prevention programme worldwide. Developed and studied by the FIFA Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC), the programme was based on a randomised controlled study and one countrywide campaign in amateur football that significantly reduced injuries and healthcare costs. Since the FIFA 11+ launch, key publications have confirmed the preventive effects of the programme and have evaluated its performance effects in female as well as male amateur football players. Furthermore, implementation strategies of this prevention programme have also been studied. The goal of this narrative review was to summarise the available scientific evidence about the FIFA 11+ programme. While FIFA continues to disseminate and implement FIFA 11+ among its Member Associations, adaptations of the injury prevention programme for children and referees have been developed and are currently being evaluated. PMID:25878073

  2. Reference Service Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, William F.

    This reference service policy manual provides general guidelines to encourage reference service of the highest possible quality and to insure uniform practice. The policy refers only to reference service in the University Libraries and is intended for use in conjunction with other policies and procedures issued by the Reference Services Division.…

  3. Breakthrough pain and its treatment: critical review and recommendations of IOPS (Italian Oncologic Pain Survey) expert group.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Marchetti, Paolo; Cuomo, Arturo; Mammucari, Massimo; Caraceni, Augusto

    2016-02-01

    Controversies exist about the definition and epidemiology of breakthrough cancer pain (BTcP), the pharmacological treatment options, drug dosing, and how to select the medications for BTcP among the new fentanyl products. Existing data were critically evaluated to provide recommendations by an expert group. An algorithm to diagnose BTcP should be used followed by a careful assessment. Fentanyl products provide efficacy and rapidity of action to counteract the temporal pattern of BTcP. The doses of opioids used for background pain should guide the choice of the doses of fentanyl products. The choice of fentanyl products should be based on individual clinical conditions.

  4. Coal data: A reference

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  5. Genetics Home Reference: biotinidase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... links) Children Living With Inherited Metabolic Diseases (CLIMB) (UK): Biotinidase Deficiency (PDF) Disease InfoSearch: Biotinidase Deficiency Illinois ... Group Children Living with Inherited Metabolic Diseases (CLIMB) (UK) National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) GeneReviews (1 ...

  6. Hormonal aspects in the causation of human breast cancer: epidemiological hypotheses reviewed, with special reference to nutritional status and first pregnancy.

    PubMed

    de Waard, F; Thijssen, J H H

    2005-12-01

    Epidemiology of breast cancer has identified early age at menarche, late first pregnancy, low parity and late menopause as risk factors, but in addition genetic factors, height, weight and living in western countries play a significant role. The international variation in incidence is almost exclusively due to non-genetic factors. Hypotheses in prevention-oriented research are reviewed: 1. obesity-related oestrogen production as a stimulus of the tumour in postmenopausal women; 2. nutritional status and energy expenditure during puberty and adolescence, developed for fertility and fecundity and extended later to breast cancer; 3. reproductive life during early adulthood, age at first pregnancy and its specific effects on breast tissues. The message of preventability of breast cancer is that mammary epithelial differentiation should come early. Our insight concerning events in puberty and early adulthood can be consolidated in one concept on the risk of extended proliferation of breast epithelium during early adulthood in the absence of full differentiation induced by pregnancy. The combined effects of Western-type nutrition, lack of exercise and Western-type women's emancipation sets the stage for breast cancer already at a young age. Since it is unlikely that emancipated women in affluent societies will return to the original life-style of getting pregnant as soon as it is biologically possible, a novel daring way of protection has to be considered. Could a "Breast Differentiation Pill" be developed to offer protection?

  7. Sniffing around oxytocin: review and meta-analyses of trials in healthy and clinical groups with implications for pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bakermans-Kranenburg, M J; van IJzendoorn, M H

    2013-01-01

    The popularity of oxytocin (OT) has grown exponentially during the past decade, and so has the number of OT trials in healthy and clinical groups. We take stock of the evidence from these studies to explore potentials and limitations of pharmacotherapeutic applications. In healthy participants, intranasally administered OT leads to better emotion recognition and more trust in conspecifics, but the effects appear to be moderated by context (perceived threat of the ‘out-group'), personality and childhood experiences. In individuals with untoward childhood experiences, positive behavioral or neurobiological effects seem lowered or absent. In 19 clinical trials, covering autism, social anxiety, postnatal depression, obsessive-compulsive problems, schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder and post-traumatic stress, the effects of OT administration were tested, with doses ranging from 15 IU to more than 7000 IU. The combined effect size was d=0.32 (N=304; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18–0.47; P<0.01). However, of all disorders, only studies on autism spectrum disorder showed a significant combined effect size (d=0.57; N=68; 95% CI: 0.15–0.99; P<0.01). We hypothesize that for some of the other disorders, etiological factors rooted in negative childhood experiences may also have a role in the diminished effectiveness of treatment with OT. PMID:23695233

  8. A systematic review of CPAP adherence across age groups: clinical and empiric insights for developing CPAP adherence interventions.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Amy M; Gooneratne, Nalaka S; Marcus, Carole L; Ofer, Dafna; Richards, Kathy C; Weaver, Terri E

    2011-12-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a highly efficacious treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) but adherence to the treatment limits its overall effectiveness across all age groups of patients. Factors that influence adherence to CPAP include disease and patient characteristics, treatment titration procedures, technological device factors and side effects, and psychological and social factors. These influential factors have guided the development of interventions to promote CPAP adherence. Various intervention strategies have been described and include educational, technological, psychosocial, pharmacological, and multi-dimensional approaches. Though evidence to date has led to innovative strategies that address adherence in CPAP-treated children, adults, and older adults, significant opportunities exist to develop and test interventions that are clinically applicable, specific to sub-groups of patients likely to demonstrate poor adherence, and address the multi-factorial nature of CPAP adherence. The translation of CPAP adherence promotion interventions to clinical practice is imperative to improve health and functional outcomes in all persons with CPAP-treated OSA.

  9. Joint Launch + One Year Science Review of USML-1 and USMP-1 with the Microgravity Measurement Group. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, N. (Editor); Frazier, D. O. (Editor); Lehoczky, S. L. (Editor); Baugher, C. R. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    On September 22-24, 1993, investigators from the First United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) and the First United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-1) Missions met with the Microgravity Measurement Group (MGMG) in Huntsville, Alabama, to discuss science results and the microgravity environments from the respective missions. USML-1 was launched June 1992, and USMP-1 was launched October 1992. This document summarizes from the various investigations, the comprehensive results and highlights, and also serves as a combined mission report for the two missions. USML-1 was the first totally U.S.-sponsored mission dedicated to microgravity research and included 31 investigations in fluid dynamics, crystal growth, combustion, biotechnology, and technology demonstrations supported by 11 facilities. The papers in these proceedings attest to the wealth of information gleaned from the highly successful mission. On the USMP-1 mission, both the MEPHISTO and the Lambda Point experiments exceeded by over 100% their planned science objectives. The mission also marked the first time that acceleration data were down-linked and analyzed in real-time. The meeting, which concentrated on flight results, brought low-gravity investigators, accelerometer designers, and acceleration data analysis experts together. This format facilitated a tremendous amount of information exchange between these varied groups. Several of the experimenters showed results, sane for the very first time, of the effects of residual accelerations on their experiment. The proceedings which are published in two volumes also contain transcriptions of the discussion periods following talks and also submittals from a simultaneous poster session.

  10. Review of the largest species group of the New World seed beetle genus Sennius Bridwell (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), with host plant associations.

    PubMed

    Viana, Jéssica Herzog; Ribeiro-Costa, Cibele Stramare

    2013-11-15

    Sennius Bridwell is a New World genus of Bruchinae. Most species are placed in eight groups. In this study the species of the S. abbreviatus group are reviewed based on characters of the external morphology and the male genitalia. The group includes 14 species, two of which are new: Sennius abbreviatus (Say, 1824), S. bondari (Pic, 1929), S. durangensis Johnson & Kingsolver, 1973, S. lawrencei Johnson, 1977, S. lebasi (Fåhraeus, 1839), S. leucostauros Johnson & Kingsolver, 1973, S. lojaensis (Pic, 1933), S. medialis (Sharp, 1885), S. nappi Ribeiro-Costa & Reynaud, 1998, S. rufomaculatus (Motschulsky, 1874), S. transversesignatus (Fåhraeus, 1839), S. trinotaticollis (Pic, 1930), S. vivi sp. nov. and S. flinte sp. nov. The S. abbreviatus group differs from other groups by the pattern of sclerites and the shape of the internal sac of the male genitalia, and has three subgroups, defined here. The lectotype of S. lebasi is designated. New host plant records are presented for S. lojaensis and S. transversesignatus, and new distribution records for S. lawrencei, S. lojaensis and S. trinotaticollis. 

  11. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repak, Arthur J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Computer software, audiovisuals, and books are reviewed. Includes topics on interfacing, ionic equilibrium, space, the classification system, Acquired Immune Disease Syndrome, evolution, human body processes, energy, pesticides, teaching school, cells, and geological aspects. Availability, price, and a description of each are provided. (RT)

  12. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviews two computer programs: "Molecular Graphics," which allows molecule manipulation in three-dimensional space (requiring IBM PC with 512K, EGA monitor, and math coprocessor); and "Periodic Law," a database which contains up to 20 items of information on each of the first 103 elements (Apple II or IBM PC). (MVL)

  13. Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    DISTANCE-LEARNING COURSES (263) Planetary Science and Astronomy BOOK REVIEWS (263) A New Kind of Science Planetary Science: The Science of Planets Around Stars EQUIPMENT (265) The Science Enhancement Program (SEP) Geiger Counter WEB WATCH (265) Revision sites SOFTWARE (267) Exploration of Physics Volume 1

  14. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newland, Robert J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews four organic chemistry computer programs and three books. Software includes: (1) NMR Simulator 7--for IBM or Macintosh, (2) Nucleic Acid Structure and Synthesis--for IBM, (3) Molecular Design Editor--for Apple II, and (4) Synthetic Adventure--for Apple II and IBM. Book topics include physical chemistry, polymer pioneers, and the basics of…

  15. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Reviews a software planetarium package called "Sky Travel." Includes two audiovisuals: "Conquest of Space" and "Windows on Science: Earth Science"; and four books: "Small Energy Sources: Choices that Work,""Stonehenge Complete,""Uneasy Careers and Intimate Lives: Women in Science…

  16. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Reviews three computer software packages for chemistry education including "Osmosis and Diffusion" and "E.M.E. Titration Lab" for Apple II and "Simplex-V: An Interactive Computer Program for Experimental Optimization" for IBM PC. Summary ratings include ease of use, content, pedagogic value, student reaction, and…

  17. Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Presents information and concerns regarding computer courseware, books, and audiovisual materials reviewed by teachers. Covers a variety of topics including dissection of common classroom specimens, medicine, acid rain projects, molecules, the water cycle, erosion, plankton, and evolution. Notes on availability, price, and needed equipment, where…

  18. The differentiation syndrome in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia: experience of the pethema group and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Montesinos, Pau; Sanz, Miguel A

    2011-01-01

    Differentiation syndrome (DS), formerly known as retinoic acid syndrome, is the main life-threatening complication of therapy with differentiating agents (all-trans retinoic acid [ATRA] or arsenic trioxide [ATO]) in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). The differentiation of leukemic blasts and promyelocytes induced by ATRA and/or ATO may lead to cellular migration, endothelial activation, and release of interleukins and vascular factors responsible of tissue damage. Roughly one quarter of patients with APL undergoing induction therapy will develop the DS, characterized by unexplained fever, acute respiratory distress with interstitial pulmonary infiltrates, and/or a vascular capillary leak syndrome leading to acute renal failure. Although the development of the DS, particularly of the severe form, is still associated with a significant increase in morbidity and mortality during induction, the early administration of high-dose dexamethasone at the onset of the first symptoms seems likely to have dramatically reduced the mortality rate of this complication. In this article, we will review the clinical features, incidence, prognostic factors, management, and outcome of the DS reported in the scientific literature. We will make focus in the experience of the three consecutive Programa Español de Tratamientos en Hematología trials (PETHEMA LPA96, LPA99, and LPA2005), in which more than one thousand patients were treated with ATRA plus idarubicin for induction.

  19. Water-Related Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Subsequently on Public Health: A Review for Generalists with Particular Reference to Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Toqeer; Scholz, Miklas; Al-Faraj, Furat; Niaz, Wajeeha

    2016-10-27

    Water-related impacts due to change in climatic conditions ranging from water scarcity to intense floods and storms are increasing in developing countries like Pakistan. Water quality and waterborne diseases like hepatitis, cholera, typhoid, malaria and dengue fever are increasing due to chaotic urbanization, industrialization, poor hygienic conditions, and inappropriate water management. The morbidity rate is high due to lack of health care facilities, especially in developing countries. Organizations linked to the Government of Pakistan (e.g., Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Climate Change, Planning and Development, Ministry of Forest, Irrigation and Public Health, Pakistan Meteorological Department, National Disaster Management, Pakistan Agricultural Research Centre, Pakistan Council for Research in Water Resources, and Global Change Impact Study Centre), United Nation organizations, provincial government departments, non-governmental organizations (e.g., Global Facility and Disaster Reduction), research centers linked to universities, and international organizations (International Institute for Sustainable Development, Food and Agriculture, Global Climate Fund and World Bank) are trying to reduce the water-related impacts of climate change, but due to lack of public awareness and health care infrastructure, the death rate is steadily increasing. This paper critically reviews the scientific studies and reports both at national and at international level benefiting generalists concerned with environmental and public health challenges. The article underlines the urgent need for water conservation, risk management, and the development of mitigation measures to cope with the water-related impacts of climate change on agriculture and subsequently on public health. Novel solutions and bioremediation methods have been presented to control environmental pollution and to promote awareness among the scientific community. The focus is on diverse strategies to handle

  20. Water-Related Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Subsequently on Public Health: A Review for Generalists with Particular Reference to Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Toqeer; Scholz, Miklas; Al-Faraj, Furat; Niaz, Wajeeha

    2016-01-01

    Water-related impacts due to change in climatic conditions ranging from water scarcity to intense floods and storms are increasing in developing countries like Pakistan. Water quality and waterborne diseases like hepatitis, cholera, typhoid, malaria and dengue fever are increasing due to chaotic urbanization, industrialization, poor hygienic conditions, and inappropriate water management. The morbidity rate is high due to lack of health care facilities, especially in developing countries. Organizations linked to the Government of Pakistan (e.g., Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Climate Change, Planning and Development, Ministry of Forest, Irrigation and Public Health, Pakistan Meteorological Department, National Disaster Management, Pakistan Agricultural Research Centre, Pakistan Council for Research in Water Resources, and Global Change Impact Study Centre), United Nation organizations, provincial government departments, non-governmental organizations (e.g., Global Facility and Disaster Reduction), research centers linked to universities, and international organizations (International Institute for Sustainable Development, Food and Agriculture, Global Climate Fund and World Bank) are trying to reduce the water-related impacts of climate change, but due to lack of public awareness and health care infrastructure, the death rate is steadily increasing. This paper critically reviews the scientific studies and reports both at national and at international level benefiting generalists concerned with environmental and public health challenges. The article underlines the urgent need for water conservation, risk management, and the development of mitigation measures to cope with the water-related impacts of climate change on agriculture and subsequently on public health. Novel solutions and bioremediation methods have been presented to control environmental pollution and to promote awareness among the scientific community. The focus is on diverse strategies to handle

  1. Could the 2012 Drought in Central U.S. Have Been Anticipated? A Review of NASA Working Group Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, S.-Y. Simon; Barandiaran, Danny; Hilburn, Kyle; Houser, Paul; Oglesby, Bob; Pan, Ming; Pinker, Rachel; Santanello, Joe; Schubert, Siegfried; Wang, Hailan; Gillies, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes research related to the 2012 record drought in the central United States conducted by members of the NASA Energy and Water cycle Study (NEWS) Working Group. Past drought patterns were analyzed for signal coherency with latest drought and the contribution of long-term trends in the Great Plains low-level jet, an important regional circulation feature of the spring rainy season in the Great Palins. Long-term changes in the seasonal transition from rainy spring into dry summer were also examined. Potential external forcing from radiative processes, soil-air interactions, and ocean teleconnections were assessed as contributors to the intensity of the drought. The atmospheric Rossby wave activity was found to be a potential source of predictability for the onset of drought. A probabilistic model was introduced and evaluated for its performance in predicting drought recovery in the Great Plains.

  2. Pathology Working Group review and evaluation of proliferative lesions of mammary gland tissues in female rats fed ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO) in the diet for 2 years.

    PubMed

    Hardisty, Jerry F; Willson, Gabrielle A; Brown, W Ray; McConnell, Ernest E; Frame, Steven R; Gaylor, David W; Kennedy, Gerald L; Butenhoff, John L

    2010-04-01

    Perfluorooctanoate (PFO) is a perfluorinated carboxylate that is widely distributed in the environment. A 2-year chronic study was conducted in rats fed either 30 or 300 ppm of ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO). To investigate the possible relationship of APFO exposure to proliferative mammary lesions, a Pathology Working Group (PWG) review of the original slides was performed. The consensus reached by the PWG was that the incidence of mammary-gland neoplasms was not affected by chronic dietary administration of APFO. Therefore, feeding female rats up to 300 ppm of APFO resulted in no increase in proliferative lesions of the mammary tissue.

  3. Review of experimental studies in social psychology of small groups when an optimal choice exists and application to operating room management decision-making.

    PubMed

    Prahl, Andrew; Dexter, Franklin; Braun, Michael T; Van Swol, Lyn

    2013-11-01

    Because operating room (OR) management decisions with optimal choices are made with ubiquitous biases, decisions are improved with decision-support systems. We reviewed experimental social-psychology studies to explore what an OR leader can do when working with stakeholders lacking interest in learning the OR management science but expressing opinions about decisions, nonetheless. We considered shared information to include the rules-of-thumb (heuristics) that make intuitive sense and often seem "close enough" (e.g., staffing is planned based on the average workload). We considered unshared information to include the relevant mathematics (e.g., staffing calculations). Multiple studies have shown that group discussions focus more on shared than unshared information. Quality decisions are more likely when all group participants share knowledge (e.g., have taken a course in OR management science). Several biases in OR management are caused by humans' limited abilities to estimate tails of probability distributions in their heads. Groups are more susceptible to analogous biases than are educated individuals. Since optimal solutions are not demonstrable without groups sharing common language, only with education of most group members can a knowledgeable individual influence the group. The appropriate model of decision-making is autocratic, with information obtained from stakeholders. Although such decisions are good quality, the leaders often are disliked and the decisions considered unjust. In conclusion, leaders will find the most success if they do not bring OR management operational decisions to groups, but instead act autocratically while obtaining necessary information in 1:1 conversations. The only known route for the leader making such decisions to be considered likable and for the decisions to be considered fair is through colleagues and subordinates learning the management science.

  4. Environmental Sciences Reference Sources. An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMartin, Mary I., Comp.

    This list of Environmental Sciences References Sources is intended to give undergraduate and graduate students a starting point when searching for information in the library. Entries are grouped according to type of reference material and then are listed in alphabetical order. The types of reference material included are guides to dictionaries,…

  5. Functional feeding groups of aquatic insect families in Latin America: a critical analysis and review of existing literature.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Alonso; Gutiérrez-Fonseca, Pablo E

    2014-04-01

    Aquatic macroinvertebrates are involved in numerous processes within aquatic ecosystems. They often have important effects on ecosystem processes such as primary production (via grazing), detritus breakdown, and nutrient mineralization and downstream spiraling. The functional feeding groups (FFG) classification was developed as a tool to facilitate the incorporation of macroinvertebrates in studies of aquatic ecosystems. This classification has the advantage of combining morphological characteristics (e.g., mouth part specialization) and behavioral mechanisms (e.g., way of feeding) used by macroinvertebrates when consuming resources. Although recent efforts have greatly advanced our ability to identify aquatic macroinvertebrates, there is limited information on FFG assignment. Furthermore, there has been some variation in the use of the FFG classification, in part due to an emphasis on using gut content analysis to assign FFG, which is more appropriate for assigning trophic guilds. Thus, the main goals of this study are to (1) provide an overview of the value of using the FFG classification, (2) make an initial attempt to summarize available information on FFG for aquatic insects in Latin America, and (3) provide general guidelines on how to assign organisms to their FFGs. FFGs are intended to reflect the potential effects of organisms in their ecosystems and the way they consume resources. Groups include scrapers that consume resources that grow attached to the substrate by removing them with their mouth parts; shredders that cut or chew pieces of living or dead plant material, including all plant parts like leaves and wood; collectors-gatherers that use modified mouth parts to sieve or collect small particles (< 1 mm) accumulated on the stream bottom; filterers that have special adaptations to remove particles directly from the water column; and predators that consume other organisms using different strategies to capture them. In addition, we provide details on

  6. Bridging gaps to promote networked care between teams and groups in health delivery systems: a systematic review of non-health literature

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess non-health literature, identify key strategies in promoting more networked teams and groups, apply external ideas to healthcare, and build a model based on these strategies. Design A systematic review of the literature outside of healthcare. Method Searches guided by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) of ABI/INFORM Global, CINAHL, IBSS, MEDLINE and Psychinfo databases following a mind-mapping exercise generating key terms centred on the core construct of gaps across organisational social structures that uncovered 842 empirical articles of which 116 met the inclusion criteria. Data extraction and content analysis via data mining techniques were performed on these articles. Results The research involved subjects in 40 countries, with 32 studies enrolling participants in multiple countries. There were 40 studies conducted wholly or partly in the USA, 46 wholly or partly in continental Europe, 29 wholly or partly in Asia and 12 wholly or partly in Russia or Russian federated countries. Methods employed included 30 mixed or triangulated social science study designs, 39 qualitative studies, 13 experimental studies and 34 questionnaire-based studies, where the latter was mostly to gather data for social network analyses. Four recurring factors underpin a model for promoting networked behaviours and fortifying cross-group cooperation: appreciating the characteristics and nature of gaps between groups; using the leverage of boundary-spanners to bridge two or more groups; applying various mechanisms to stimulate interactive relationships; and mobilising those who can exert positive external influences to promote connections while minimising the impact of those who exacerbate divides. Conclusions The literature assessed is rich and varied. An evidence-oriented model and strategies for promoting more networked systems are now available for application to healthcare. While caution needs to be exercised in translating

  7. Efficacy of group social skills interventions for youth with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gates, Jacquelyn A; Kang, Erin; Lerner, Matthew D

    2017-03-01

    Group-based social skills interventions (GSSIs) are widely used for treating social competence among youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but their efficacy is unclear. Previous meta-analysis of the literature on well-designed trials of GSSIs is limited in size and scope, collapsing across highly heterogeneous sources (parents; youths; teachers; observers; behavioral tasks). The current meta-analysis of randomized control trials (RCTs) was conducted to ascertain overall effectiveness of GSSIs and differences by reporting sources. Nineteen RCTs met inclusion criteria. Results show that overall positive aggregate effects were medium (g=0.51, p<0.001). Effects were large for self-report (g=0.92, p<0.001), medium for task-based measures (g=0.58, p<0.001), small for parent- and observer-report (g=0.47 and 0.40, respectively, p<0.001), and nonsignificant for teacher-report (p=0.11). Moderation analyses of self-report revealed the effect was wholly attributable to youth reporting that they learned about skilled social behaviors (social knowledge; g=1.15, p<0.01), but not that they enacted them (social performance; g=0.28, p=0.31). Social skills interventions presently appear modestly effective for youth with ASD, but may not generalize to school settings or self-reported social behavior.

  8. Constituents and Pharmacological Activities of Myrcia (Myrtaceae): A Review of an Aromatic and Medicinal Group of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Cascaes, Márcia Moraes; Guilhon, Giselle Maria Skelding Pinheiro; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Zoghbi, Maria das Graças Bichara; Santos, Lourivaldo da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Myrcia is one of the largest genera of the economically important family Myrtaceae. Some of the species are used in folk medicine, such as a group known as “pedra-hume-caá” or “pedra-ume-caá” or “insulina vegetal” (insulin plant) that it is used for the treatment of diabetes. The species are an important source of essential oils, and most of the chemical studies on Myrcia describe the chemical composition of the essential oils, in which mono- and sesquiterpenes are predominant. The non-volatile compounds isolated from Myrcia are usually flavonoids, tannins, acetophenone derivatives and triterpenes. Anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antioxidant, antimicrobial activities have been described to Myrcia essential oils, while hypoglycemic, anti-hemorrhagic and antioxidant activities were attributed to the extracts. Flavonoid glucosides and acetophenone derivatives showed aldose reductase and α-glucosidase inhibition, and could explain the traditional use of Myrcia species to treat diabetes. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory are some of the activities observed for other isolated compounds from Myrcia. PMID:26473832

  9. A Systematic Review of CPAP Adherence Across Age Groups: Clinical and Empiric Insights for Developing CPAP Adherence Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, A.M.; Gooneratne, N.; Marcus, C.L.; Ofer, D.; Richards, K.C.; Weaver, T.E.

    2011-01-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a highly efficacious treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) but adherence to the treatment limits its overall effectiveness across all age groups of patients. Factors that influence adherence to CPAP include disease and patient characteristics, treatment titration procedures, technological device factors and side effects, and psychological and social factors. These influential factors have guided the development of interventions to promote CPAP adherence. Various intervention strategies have been described and include educational, technological, psychosocial, pharmacological, and multi-dimensional approaches. Though evidence to date has led to innovative strategies that address adherence in CPAP-treated children, adults, and older adults, significant opportunities exist to develop and test interventions that are clinically applicable, specific to subgroups of patients likely to demonstrate poor adherence, and address the multifactorial nature of CPAP adherence. The translation of CPAP adherence promotion interventions to clinical practice is imperative to improve health and functional outcomes in all persons with CPAP-treated OSA. PMID:21652236

  10. A review and assessment of non-governmental organization-based STD/AIDS education and prevention projects for marginalized groups.

    PubMed

    Crane, S F; Carswell, J W

    1992-06-01

    A review of projects run by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in primarily developing countries, which have aimed to provide STD/AIDS education and prevention skills to various marginalized groups, reveals that past quantitative and formative research has failed to identify key programmatic factors which lead to more successful project implementation and sustainability. In observations, interviews with field staff, visits to program sites and information drawn from the literature, a variety of methods to reach a wide range of groups such as men who have sex with men, prostitutes, clients of prostitutes, prisoners, street children, migrant workers and refugees are explored. Factors found to facilitate project success include the following: at least one full-time committed staff member; respectful treatment and appropriate motivation of the target group; suitable and sufficient equipment and supplies (particularly condoms); planning ahead for the participation of HIV-positive individuals and ways to meet their needs; focusing on qualitative rather than quantitative evaluation; planning in advance beyond a 9 or 12 month 'model'. Despite some evidence that marginalized groups can be successfully motivated to practise safer sex through prevention education, long-term behaviour change still presents major challenges--even when specific conditions are met.

  11. Reach for Reference. Four Recent Reference Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2004-01-01

    This article provides descriptions of four new science and technology encyclopedias that are appropriate for inclusion in upper elementary and/or middle school reference collections. "The Macmillan Encyclopedia of Weather" (Stern, Macmillan Reference/Gale), a one-volume encyclopedia for upper elementary and middle level students, is a…

  12. [Ecology of flea groups of the species conformis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae: Xenopsylla) of the fauna of Russia and adjacent countries (review)].

    PubMed

    Vashchenok, V S

    1997-01-01

    Within the boundaries of the former USSR, the northern part of the conformis group distribution is located. It spreads over the arid regions of the Trans-Cacucasus, Pricaspijckaja lowland, Kazakhstan and Middle Asia. In this area 10 species and subspecies occur. They are mainly parasites of gerbillins. Unlike many other Siphonaptera the conformis fleas, when in the host's home, do not concentrate in the nest but inhabit the passages of burrow and food chambers throughout the year. On this reason the preimaginal development and existence of the adults take place not at the temperature of the habitable nest, which is heated by the host body, but at the temperature of the soil at a depth of burrow. The temperature threshold for preimaginal development of conformis fleas is reported to be 10-12 degrees. Temperature below the threshold is fatal for all immature instars. On the contrary the imago can survive at freezing temperature. The annual cycle of the conformis fleas is characterized by the presence of adults throughout the year. They breed in the warmer season and overwinter in the state of reproductive diapause. In this state the fleas are able to attack the host and to feed but do not deposit eggs. In the north deserts the reproduction begins at the early April and terminates at the early September. Southern, the reproductive period is longer. Furthermore, the complete interruption of the reproduction in the autumn-winter time may be absent as it was observed in X. gerbilli gerbilli and X. hirtipes in the south of the Middle Asia. On the other hand it is noted that in southern deserts the rate of oviposition falls in the most hot time. The number of generation per year in the conformis fleas varies from 2-3 in north deserts to 6-7 in south ones. The flea populations peak in late autumn when the insects cease to bread. The high abundance is maintained until springtime. After the diapause is ceased and the fleas begin breeding their abundance declines. In the late

  13. JPRS Report, West Europe, Reference Aid, Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations of Denmark

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    a - FOREWORD This reference aid is a new work in the JPRS series . Updates will be produced periodically as more material becomes available...afternoon, P.M. European championship electromagnetic unit electromotive power [use emf] Esbjerg Milling and Machinery Factory Inc Research Group and...Frimodt Pedersen A/S rk. raekke(r) RKS review, auditor revised, reviewed The Single-Tax Party R. Frimodt Pedersen, Inc. row, series R0de Kors

  14. Fundamentals of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulac, Carolyn M.

    2012-01-01

    The all-in-one "Reference reference" you've been waiting for, this invaluable book offers a concise introduction to reference sources and services for a variety of readers, from library staff members who are asked to work in the reference department to managers and others who wish to familiarize themselves with this important area of…

  15. Live, Digital Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Discusses digital reference services, also known as virtual reference, chat reference, or online reference, based on a round table discussion at the 2002 American Library Association annual conference in Atlanta. Topics include numbers and marketing; sustainability; competition and models; evaluation methods; outsourcing; staffing and training;…

  16. Statistical Reference Datasets

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    Statistical Reference Datasets (Web, free access)   The Statistical Reference Datasets is also supported by the Standard Reference Data Program. The purpose of this project is to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing reference datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software.

  17. Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    WE RECOMMEND The Cloudspotter's Guide Not a reference book, but well written and pleasing to read. The Virtual Physical Laboratory This free CD contains useful simulations for the classroom. The Science of Ice Cream A comprehensive text suitable for A-level students. Singapore Science Centre A must-see centre for physics enthusiasts in Singapore. Weatherbytes A DVD containing five programmes explaining the weather. WORTH A LOOK How Teachers Learn Best, An Ongoing Professional Development Model A book to help you spot a school with good CPD opportunities. Fifex LED Array An expensive but well-made LED array. School Stop-Clock A sturdy clock suitable for a variety of timing experiments. WEB WATCH A collection of websites related to light.

  18. Evaluation of normalization reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of spo0A and four sporulation sigma factor genes in Clostridium botulinum Group I strain ATCC 3502.

    PubMed

    Kirk, David G; Palonen, Eveliina; Korkeala, Hannu; Lindström, Miia

    2014-04-01

    Heat-resistant spores of Clostridium botulinum can withstand the pasteurization processes in modern food processing. This poses a risk to food safety as spores may germinate into botulinum neurotoxin-producing vegetative cells. Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis, the model organism for sporulation, is regulated by the transcription factor Spo0A and four alternative sigma factors, SigF, SigE, SigG, and SigK. While the corresponding regulators are found in available genomes of C. botulinum, little is known about their expression. To accurately measure the expression of these genes using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) during the exponential and stationary growth phases, a suitable normalization reference gene is required. 16S rrn, adK, alaS, era, gluD, gyrA, rpoC, and rpsJ were selected as the candidate reference genes. The most stable candidate reference gene was 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rrn), based on its low coefficient of variation (1.81%) measured during the 18-h study time. Using 16S rrn as the normalization reference gene, the relative expression levels of spo0A, sigF, sigE, sigG, and sigK were measured over 18h. The pattern of expression showed spo0A expression during the logarithmic growth phase, followed by a drop in expression upon entry to the stationary phase. Expression levels of sigF, sigE, and sigG peaked simultaneously at the end of the exponential growth phase. Peak expression of sigK occurred at 18h, however low levels of expression were detected during the exponential phase. These findings suggest these sigma factors play a role in C. botulinum sporulation that is similar, but not equal, to their role in the B. subtilis model.

  19. How effective are brief interventions in reducing alcohol consumption: do the setting, practitioner group and content matter? Findings from a systematic review and metaregression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Platt, Lucy; Melendez-Torres, G J; O'Donnell, Amy; Bradley, Jennifer; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Kaner, Eileen; Ashton, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Background While the efficacy and effectiveness of brief interventions for alcohol (ABI) have been demonstrated in primary care, there is weaker evidence in other settings and reviews do not consider differences in content. We conducted a systematic review to measure the effect of ABIs on alcohol consumption and how it differs by the setting, practitioner group and content of intervention. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO; CINAHL, Social Science Citation Index, Cochrane Library and Global Health up to January 2015 for randomised controlled trials that measured effectiveness of ABIs on alcohol consumption. We grouped outcomes into measures of quantity and frequency indices. We used multilevel meta-analysis to estimate pooled effect sizes and tested for the effect of moderators through a multiparameter Wald test. Stratified analysis of a subset of quantity and frequency outcomes was conducted as a sensitivity check. Results 52 trials were included contributing data on 29 891 individuals. ABIs reduced the quantity of alcohol consumed by 0.15 SDs. While neither the setting nor content appeared to significantly moderate intervention effectiveness, the provider did in some analyses. Interventions delivered by nurses had the most effect in reducing quantity (d=−0.23, 95% CI (−0.33 to −0.13)) but not frequency of alcohol consumption. All content groups had statistically significant mean effects, brief advice was the most effective in reducing quantity consumed (d=−0.20, 95% CI (−0.30 to −0.09)). Effects were maintained in the stratified sensitivity analysis at the first and last assessment time. Conclusions ABIs play a small but significant role in reducing alcohol consumption. Findings show the positive role of nurses in delivering interventions. The lack of evidence on the impact of content of intervention reinforces advice that services should select the ABI tool that best suits their needs. PMID:27515753

  20. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in medical practice: a critical review of the concept and new diagnostic procedure. Report of the MCI Working Group of the European Consortium on Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Portet, F; Ousset, P J; Visser, P J; Frisoni, G B; Nobili, F; Scheltens, Ph; Vellas, B; Touchon, J

    2006-06-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) was proposed as a nosological entity referring to elderly people with mild cognitive deficit but no dementia. MCI is a heterogeneous clinical entity with multiple sources of heterogeneity. The concept of MCI was reviewed and a diagnostic procedure with three different stages was proposed by the European Consortium on Alzheimer's Disease Working Group on MCI. Firstly, MCI should correspond to cognitive complaints coming from the patients or their families; the reporting of a relative decline in cognitive functioning during the past year by a patient or informant; cognitive disorders as evidenced by clinical evaluation; absence of major repercussions on daily life; and absence of dementia. These criteria, similar to those defined during an international workshop in Stockholm, make it possible to identify an MCI syndrome, which is the first stage of the diagnostic procedure. Secondly, subtypes of MCI had to be recognised. Finally, the aetiopathogenic subtype could be identified. Identifying patients at a high risk for progression to dementia and establishing more specific and adapted therapeutic strategies at an early stage, together with more structured overall management, is made possible by the diagnostic procedure proposed.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: fish-eye disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... levels of HDL cholesterol and atherosclerosis, a variable relationship--a review of LCAT deficiency. Vasc Health Risk ... healthcare professional . About Genetics Home Reference Site Map Customer Support Selection Criteria for Links USA.gov Copyright ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: complete LCAT deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... levels of HDL cholesterol and atherosclerosis, a variable relationship--a review of LCAT deficiency. Vasc Health Risk ... healthcare professional . About Genetics Home Reference Site Map Customer Support Selection Criteria for Links USA.gov Copyright ...

  3. WWW Search Tools in Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Stacey

    1997-01-01

    Provides an introduction to World Wide Web search tools for reference services. Discusses characteristics of search services and types of tools available, including search engines/robot-generated databases, directories, metasearch engines, and review/rating sites. (AEF)

  4. Group theoretic approaches to nuclear and hadronic collective motion

    SciTech Connect

    Biedenharn, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Three approaches to nuclear and hadronic collective motion are reviewed, compared and contrasted: the standard symmetry approach as typified by the Interacting Boson Model, the kinematic symmetry group approach of Gell-Mann and Tomonaga, and the recent direct construction by Buck. 50 references.

  5. Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-01-01

    WE RECOMMEND GLX Xplorer Datalogger This hand-held device offers great portability and robustness. Theoretical Concepts in Physics A first-rate reference tool for physics teachers. Do Your Ears Pop in Space? This little gem gives a personal insight into space travel. Full Moon A collection of high-quality photographs from the Apollo missions. The Genius of Science A collection of memories from leading 20th-century physicists. The Simple Science of Flight An excellent source of facts and figures about flight. SUREHigherPhysics This simulation-based software complies with Higher physics. Interactive Physics A programme that makes building simulations quick and easy. WORTH A LOOK Astronomical Enigmas This guide to enigmas could be a little shorter. HANDLE WITH CARE Standing-wave machine This is basically a standing-wave generator with a built-in strobe. WEB WATCH Sounds Amazing is a fantastic site, aimed at Key Stage 4 pupils, for learning about sound and waves.

  6. HANFORD WASTE MINEROLOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2010-06-18

    This report lists the observed mineral phase phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports using experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases present observed in Hanford waste.

  7. HANFORD WASTE MINERALOGY REFERENCE REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    DISSELKAMP RS

    2010-06-29

    This report lists the observed mineral phases present in the Hanford tanks. This task was accomplished by performing a review of numerous reports that used experimental techniques including, but not limited to: x-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy, and particle size distribution analyses. This report contains tables that can be used as a quick reference to identify the crystal phases observed in Hanford waste.

  8. Reference. Advisory List of Instructional Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Education, Raleigh.

    The reference books featured in this annotated bibliography were selected from those titles that publishers submitted to the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction for review. As such, it is not a comprehensive list of all reference titles in print. This guide organizes the 33 titles into major subject categories: (1) Arts…

  9. Writing references and using citation management software.

    PubMed

    Sungur, Mukadder Orhan; Seyhan, Tülay Özkan

    2013-09-01

    The correct citation of references is obligatory to gain scientific credibility, to honor the original ideas of previous authors and to avoid plagiarism. Currently, researchers can easily find, cite and store references using citation management software. In this review, two popular citation management software programs (EndNote and Mendeley) are summarized.

  10. American Reference Books Annual 1974. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynar, Bohdan S., Ed.; And Others

    The fifth edition of American Reference Books Annual (ARBA 74) provides a comprehensive listing of reference books published or distributed in the United States with 1973 imprints, plus those published too late in 1972 to be included in the fourth edition. Like other editions of ARBA, ARBA 74 reviews library science publications, reprints, and…

  11. NHS Regional Librarians Group evidence to the Functions and Manpower Review 1993-94. Management of library services in the proposed new structure.

    PubMed

    1996-12-01

    The mission of the library and information service is to ensure that the knowledge base of health care is available and accessible to all providers, purchasers and consumers, and to promote and encourage its effective use. Access should be free at the point of use. Library services should be a national and regional responsibility. The close association with Postgraduate and Continuing Medical and Dental Education should continue. Clear terms of reference for library and information services should guarantee access to these services for all National Health Service (NHS) staff. There should be greater emphasis on quality aspects of information. Information Management and Technology (IM & T) strategy should take full account of the needs of library and information services so that the NHS investment in information networks can be fully realized. Good practice in library and information services should be identified, promoted and disseminated. National Health Service Management Executive (NHS-ME) initiatives which affect the library services of the NHS should be co-ordinated. A working party of users and librarians, working within the Functions and Manpower Review implementation process, should define a structure for the management and provision of NHS library services which gives the most value for money.

  12. Selective testing strategies for diagnosing group A streptococcal infection in children with pharyngitis: a systematic review and prospective multicentre external validation study

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jérémie F.; Cohen, Robert; Levy, Corinne; Thollot, Franck; Benani, Mohamed; Bidet, Philippe; Chalumeau, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several clinical prediction rules for diagnosing group A streptococcal infection in children with pharyngitis are available. We aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of rules-based selective testing strategies in a prospective cohort of children with pharyngitis. Methods: We identified clinical prediction rules through a systematic search of MEDLINE and Embase (1975–2014), which we then validated in a prospective cohort involving French children who presented with pharyngitis during a 1-year period (2010–2011). We diagnosed infection with group A streptococcus using two throat swabs: one obtained for a rapid antigen detection test (StreptAtest, Dectrapharm) and one obtained for culture (reference standard). We validated rules-based selective testing strategies as follows: low risk of group A streptococcal infection, no further testing or antibiotic therapy needed; intermediate risk of infection, rapid antigen detection for all patients and antibiotic therapy for those with a positive test result; and high risk of infection, empiric antibiotic treatment. Results: We identified 8 clinical prediction rules, 6 of which could be prospectively validated. Sensitivity and specificity of rules-based selective testing strategies ranged from 66% (95% confidence interval [CI] 61–72) to 94% (95% CI 92–97) and from 40% (95% CI 35–45) to 88% (95% CI 85–91), respectively. Use of rapid antigen detection testing following the clinical prediction rule ranged from 24% (95% CI 21–27) to 86% (95% CI 84–89). None of the rules-based selective testing strategies achieved our diagnostic accuracy target (sensitivity and specificity > 85%). Interpretation: Rules-based selective testing strategies did not show sufficient diagnostic accuracy in this study population. The relevance of clinical prediction rules for determining which children with pharyngitis should undergo a rapid antigen detection test remains questionable. PMID:25487666

  13. Review of the paper wasps of the Parapolybia indica species-group (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Polistinae) in eastern parts of Asia.

    PubMed

    Saito-Morooka, Fuki; Nguyen, Lien T P; Kojima, Jun-Ichi

    2015-04-15

    Nine species of the Parapolybia indica species-group in eastern parts of Asia are reviewed. Four new species are described: P. flava sp. nov. (Vietnam), P. crocea sp. nov. (Japan), P. nana sp. nov. (Vietnam), and P. albida sp. nov. (Vietnam). Parapolybia indica (de Saussure, 1854), P. bioculata van der Vecht, 1966 and P. tinctipennis (Cameron, 1900) are redescribed. The status is reinstanted for P. fulvinerva (Cameron, 1900), stat. resurr. and P. tinctipennis (Cameron, 1900), stat. resurr. and new status is proposed for P. bioculata van der Vecht, 1966, stat. nov. Parapolybia tinctipennis (Cameron, 1900) is newly recorded from China, Vietnam and Laos. The key to species is given. The nests of P. indica, P. bioculata, P. tinctipennis, P. flava and P. crocea are remarked.

  14. Genetics Home Reference

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Genetics Home Reference Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of ... of this page please turn Javascript on. The Genetics Home Reference (GHR) Web site — ghr.nlm.nih. ...

  15. What Makes Groups Tick.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allcorn, Seth

    1985-01-01

    By reviewing this analysis of the behavior of both groups and individuals in groups, human resources managers can learn to tell whether committees, task forces, and departments may be encouraging or inhibiting the work they set out to do. (Author)

  16. Drell-Yan Cross Sections: Data from DOE laboratory experiments as compiled in data reviews by the Durham High Energy Physics Database Group

    DOE Data Explorer

    Stirling, W. J.; Whalley, M. R.

    A compilation of data on Drell-Yan cross sections above a lepton-pair mass of 4 GeV/c2 is presented. The relevant experiments at Fermilab and CERN are included dating from approximately 1977 to the present day, covering p, p and pi +or- beams on a variety of nuclear and hydrogen targets, with centre-of-mass energies from 8.6 GeV to 630 GeV. The type of data presented include d sigma /dm, d2 sigma /dm dx and d2 sigma /dm dy distributions as well as other variations of these, and also transverse momentum distributions. The data are compared with a standard theoretical model, and a phenomenological 'K-factor' for each set is calculated. (Taken from the abstract of A Compilation of Drell-Yan Cross sections, W.J. Stirling and M.R. Whalley, Journal of Physics G (Nuclear and Particle Physics), Volume 19, Data Review, 1993.) The Durham High Energy Physics (HEP) Database Group makes these data, extracted from papers and data reviews, available in one place in an easy-to-access format. These data are also included in the Durham HEP Reaction Data Database which can be searched at http://hepdata.cedar.ac.uk/reaction

  17. Academic Library Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batt, Fred

    This examination of the philosophy and objectives of academic library reference services provides an overview of the major reference approaches to fulfilling the following primary objectives of reference services: (1) providing accurate answers to patrons' questions and/or helping patrons find sources to pursue their research needs; (2) building…

  18. The geospace response to variable inputs from the lower atmosphere: a review of the progress made by Task Group 4 of CAWSES-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberheide, Jens; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Gurubaran, Subramanian; Ward, William E.; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Kosch, Michael J.; Makela, Jonathan J.; Takahashi, Hisao

    2015-12-01

    The advent of new satellite missions, ground-based instrumentation networks, and the development of whole atmosphere models over the past decade resulted in a paradigm shift in understanding the variability of geospace, that is, the region of the atmosphere between the stratosphere and several thousand kilometers above ground where atmosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions occur. It has now been realized that conditions in geospace are linked strongly to terrestrial weather and climate below, contradicting previous textbook knowledge that the space weather of Earth's near space environment is driven by energy injections at high latitudes connected with magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and solar radiation variation at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths alone. The primary mechanism through which energy and momentum are transferred from the lower atmosphere is through the generation, propagation, and dissipation of atmospheric waves over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales including electrodynamic coupling through dynamo processes and plasma bubble seeding. The main task of Task Group 4 of SCOSTEP's CAWSES-II program, 2009 to 2013, was to study the geospace response to waves generated by meteorological events, their interaction with the mean flow, and their impact on the ionosphere and their relation to competing thermospheric disturbances generated by energy inputs from above, such as auroral processes at high latitudes. This paper reviews the progress made during the CAWSES-II time period, emphasizing the role of gravity waves, planetary waves and tides, and their ionospheric impacts. Specific campaign contributions from Task Group 4 are highlighted, and future research directions are discussed.

  19. Managing the Quality of Reference/Information Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Thomas

    1972-01-01

    A brief review of measurements of reference/information service in libraries leads to the observation that few measures have dealt with the service product from the user's point of view. (9 references) (Author/NH)

  20. Functional Group Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Walter T., Jr.; Patterson, John M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses analytical methods selected from current research articles. Groups information by topics of general interest, including acids, aldehydes and ketones, nitro compounds, phenols, and thiols. Cites 97 references. (CS)

  1. Reviews

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-09-01

    WE RECOMMEND Education Using PowerPoint Fun animated slides for 11-14 and 14-16 age groups. Antarctica CD-ROM The Royal Institution Christmas Lectures deliver a great resource. Making Modern Science: A Historical Survey This book tackles the social context of scientific developments. Teaching Science in the Primary Classroom: A Practical Guide Comprehensive guidebook for new primary teachers. Physics for Phun A video featuring 29 simple but effective physics demos. Material Selection and Processing A comprehensive resource pack on the topic of materials. WORTH A LOOK Quantum Generations: A History of Physics in the Twentieth Century A study of 100 years of developing physics knowledge. Test tube, rainbow and glow-in-the-dark ooze; Stretchy animals and space men These could make useful additions to a collection of physics toys. Electronic hanging balance A decent balance that can be a little hard to handle. PLACES TO VISIT Join the Einstein Trail in Bern and Berlin. WEB WATCH Materials science abounds on the Internet, with topics from Hooke’s law to bungee jumping.

  2. Group based diabetes self-management education compared to routine treatment for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A systematic review with meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes self-management education (DSME) can be delivered in many forms. Group based DSME is widespread due to being a cheaper method and the added advantages of having patient meet and discuss with each other. assess effects of group-based DSME compared to routine treatment on clinical, lifestyle and psychosocial outcomes in type-2 diabetes patients. Methods A systematic review with meta-analysis. Computerised bibliographic database were searched up to January 2008 for randomised controlled trials evaluating group-based DSME for adult type-2 diabetics versus routine treatment where the intervention had at least one session and =/>6 months follow-up. At least two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Results In total 21 studies (26 publications, 2833 participants) were included. Of all the participants 4 out of 10 were male, baseline age was 60 years, BMI 31.6, HbA1c 8.23%, diabetes duration 8 years and 82% used medication. For the main clinical outcomes, HbA1c was significantly reduced at 6 months (0.44% points; P = 0.0006, 13 studies, 1883 participants), 12 months (0.46% points; P = 0.001, 11 studies, 1503 participants) and 2 years (0.87% points; P < 0.00001, 3 studies, 397 participants) and fasting blood glucose levels were also significantly reduced at 12 months (1.26 mmol/l; P < 0.00001, 5 studies, 690 participants) but not at 6 months. For the main lifestyle outcomes, diabetes knowledge was improved significantly at 6 months (SMD 0.83; P = 0.00001, 6 studies, 768 participants), 12 months (SMD 0.85; P < 0.00001, 5 studies, 955 participants) and 2 years (SMD 1.59; P = 0.03, 2 studies, 355 participants) and self-management skills also improved significantly at 6 months (SMD 0.55; P = 0.01, 4 studies, 534 participants). For the main psychosocial outcomes, there were significant improvement for empowerment/self-efficacy (SMD 0.28, P = 0.01, 2 studies, 326

  3. The integripennis species group of Geocharidius Jeannel, 1963 (Carabidae, Bembidiini, Anillina) from Nuclear Central America: a taxonomic review with notes about biogeography and speciation.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Igor M; Kavanaugh, David H

    2014-01-01

    Our review recognizes 15 species of the integripennis species group of Geocharidius from Nuclear Central America, include three species previously described (Geocharidiusgimlii Erwin, Geocharidiusintegripennis (Bates) and Geocharidiuszullinii Vigna Taglianti) and 12 described here as new. They are: Geocharidiusandersoni sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Chiapas Highlands, Cerro Huitepec) and Geocharidiusvignatagliantii sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Motozintla, Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Benito Juárez) from Mexico; Geocharidiusantigua sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez, 5 km SE of Antigua), Geocharidiusbalini sp. n. (type locality: Suchitepéquez, 4 km S of Volcan Atitlán), Geocharidiuserwini sp. n. (type locality: Quiché Department, 7 km NE of Los Encuentros), Geocharidiusjalapensis sp. n. (type locality: Jalapa Department, 4 km E of Mataquescuintla), Geocharidiuslonginoi, sp. n. (type locality: El Progreso Department, Cerro Pinalón), and Geocharidiusminimus sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez Department, 5 km SE of Antigua) from Guatemala; and Geocharidiuscelaquensis sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park), Geocharidiuscomayaguanus sp. n. (type locality: Comayagua Department, 18 km ENE of Comayagua), Geocharidiusdisjunctus sp. n. (type locality: Francisco Morazán, La Tigra National Park), and Geocharidiuslencanus sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park) from Honduras. For all members of the group, adult structural characters, including male and female genitalia, are described, and a taxonomic key for all members of the integripennis species group is presented based on these characters. Behavioral and biogeographical aspects of speciation in the group are discussed, based on the morphological analysis. In all cases of sympatry, pairs of closely related species show greater differences in sizes than pairs of more remotely related species. Integripennis group species occupy six different montane areas at

  4. The integripennis species group of Geocharidius Jeannel, 1963 (Carabidae, Bembidiini, Anillina) from Nuclear Central America: a taxonomic review with notes about biogeography and speciation

    PubMed Central

    Sokolov, Igor M.; Kavanaugh, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Our review recognizes 15 species of the integripennis species group of Geocharidius from Nuclear Central America, include three species previously described (Geocharidius gimlii Erwin, Geocharidius integripennis (Bates) and Geocharidius zullinii Vigna Taglianti) and 12 described here as new. They are: Geocharidius andersoni sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Chiapas Highlands, Cerro Huitepec) and Geocharidius vignatagliantii sp. n. (type locality: Chiapas, Motozintla, Sierra Madre de Chiapas, Benito Juárez) from Mexico; Geocharidius antigua sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez, 5 km SE of Antigua), Geocharidius balini sp. n. (type locality: Suchitepéquez, 4 km S of Volcan Atitlán), Geocharidius erwini sp. n. (type locality: Quiché Department, 7 km NE of Los Encuentros), Geocharidius jalapensis sp. n. (type locality: Jalapa Department, 4 km E of Mataquescuintla), Geocharidius longinoi, sp. n. (type locality: El Progreso Department, Cerro Pinalón), and Geocharidius minimus sp. n. (type locality: Sacatepéquez Department, 5 km SE of Antigua) from Guatemala; and Geocharidius celaquensis sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park), Geocharidius comayaguanus sp. n. (type locality: Comayagua Department, 18 km ENE of Comayagua), Geocharidius disjunctus sp. n. (type locality: Francisco Morazán, La Tigra National Park), and Geocharidius lencanus sp. n. (type locality: Lempira Department, Celaque National Park) from Honduras. For all members of the group, adult structural characters, including male and female genitalia, are described, and a taxonomic key for all members of the integripennis species group is presented based on these characters. Behavioral and biogeographical aspects of speciation in the group are discussed, based on the morphological analysis. In all cases of sympatry, pairs of closely related species show greater differences in sizes than pairs of more remotely related species. Integripennis group species occupy six different

  5. Sipuleucel-T for the Treatment of Metastatic Hormone-Relapsed Prostate Cancer: A NICE Single Technology Appraisal; An Evidence Review Group Perspective.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Emma L; Davis, Sarah; Thokala, Praveen; Breeze, Penny R; Bryden, Peter; Wong, Ruth

    2015-11-01

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited Dendreon, the company manufacturing sipuleucel-T, to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of sipuleucel-T for asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic, metastatic, non-visceral hormone-relapsed prostate cancer patients in whom chemotherapy is not yet clinically indicated, as part of NICE's single technology appraisal process. The comparator was abiraterone acetate (AA) or best supportive care (BSC). The School of Health and Related Research at the University of Sheffield was commissioned to act as the Evidence Review Group (ERG). This paper describes the company submission (CS), ERG review, and subsequent decision of the NICE Appraisal Committee (AC). The ERG produced a critical review of the clinical and cost-effectiveness evidence of sipuleucel-T based upon the CS. Clinical-effectiveness data relevant to the decision problem were taken from three randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of sipuleucel-T and a placebo (PBO) comparator of antigen-presenting cells (APC) being re-infused (APC-PBO) (D9901, D9902A and D9902B), and one RCT (COU-AA-302) of AA plus prednisone vs. PBO plus prednisone. Two trials reported a significant advantage for sipuleucel-T in median overall survival compared with APC-PBO: for trial D9901, an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.47; (95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.29, 0.76) p < 0.002; for D9902B, adjusted HR 0.78 (95 % CI 0.61, 0.98) p = 0.03. There was no significant difference between groups in D9902A, unadjusted HR 0.79 (95 % CI 0.48, 1.28) p = 0.331. Sipuleucel-T and APC-PBO groups did not differ significantly in time to disease progression, in any of the three RCTs. Most adverse events developed within 1 day of the infusion, and resolved within 2 days. The CS included an indirect comparison of sipuleucel-T (D9902B) and AA plus prednisone (COU-AA-302). As trials differed in prior use of chemotherapy, an analysis of only chemotherapy-naïve patients was included

  6. Abiraterone Acetate for the Treatment of Chemotherapy-Naïve Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of an NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    PubMed

    Ramaekers, Bram L T; Riemsma, Rob; Tomini, Florian; van Asselt, Thea; Deshpande, Sohan; Duffy, Steven; Armstrong, Nigel; Severens, Johan L; Kleijnen, Jos; Joore, Manuela A

    2017-02-01

    The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) invited Janssen, the company manufacturing abiraterone acetate (AA; tradename Zytiga(®)), to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of AA in combination with prednisone/prednisolone (AAP) compared with watchful waiting (i.e. best supportive care [BSC]) for chemotherapy-naïve patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Kleijnen Systematic Reviews Ltd (KSR), in collaboration with Maastricht University Medical Center, was commissioned as the Evidence Review Group (ERG). This paper presents a summary of the company submission (CS), the ERG report, subsequent addenda, and the development of the NICE guidance for the use of this drug in England and Wales by the Appraisal Committee (AC). The ERG produced a critical review of the clinical and cost effectiveness of AAP based on the CS. An important question in this appraisal was, according to the ERG, whether AAP followed by docetaxel is more effective than BSC followed by docetaxel. In the COU-AA-302 trial, 239 of 546 (43.8 %) AAP patients and 304 of 542 (56.1 %) BSC patients received docetaxel as subsequent therapy, following AA or placebo. The results for this specific group of patients were not presented in the CS; therefore, the ERG asked the company to provide these data in the clarification letter; however, these data were presented as commercial-in-confidence and cannot therefore be reported here. The ERG's critical assessment of the company's economic evaluation highlighted a number of concerns, including (a) not using the intention-to-treat (ITT) population; (b) inconsistencies in estimating prediction equations; (c) not fully incorporating the impact of adverse events; (d) incorrectly incorporating the new patient access scheme (PAS); and (e) the assumption that AA non-compliance leads to recoverable drug costs. Although some of these issues were adjusted in the ERG base case, the ERG could not estimate

  7. Multifidus and Paraspinal Muscle Group Cross-Sectional Areas of Patients With Low Back Pain and Control Patients: A Systematic Review With a Focus on Blinding

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, Luciana Gazzi

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have investigated differences in paraspinal muscle morphology between patients with low back pain (LBP) and control patients. However, inconsistencies in the results of some of these studies may limit generalizations. Objective The purpose of this study was to systematically review studies evaluating paraspinal muscle morphology in patients with LBP and control patients, with a focus on the effects of blinding. Data Sources An electronic search was performed with the use of relevant databases. Study quality was evaluated by means of the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Study Selection Case-control studies investigating paraspinal muscle size between patients with LBP and control patients who were healthy were included. Studies that compared paraspinal muscle size between symptomatic and asymptomatic sides of patients with unilateral LBP also were included. Data Extraction Studies investigating the same outcome—at the same spinal level and for the same muscle and population—were pooled. Mean differences with 95% confidence interval were calculated for each study. Data Synthesis Eleven studies were included. With 1 exception, all pooled results were significantly different statistically between groups, suggesting that paraspinal muscles are smaller in patients with chronic LBP than in control patients and on the symptomatic side of patients with chronic unilateral LBP. In patients with acute unilateral LBP, there was no significant difference between sides. A qualitative examination demonstrated a trend toward an increased effect size when outcome assessors were unblinded. Limitations Limitations of this review include the small number of studies included and their small sample size. Misclassification of blinding status may have occurred when the study did not report blinding status. Conclusions Evidence suggests that paraspinal muscles are significantly smaller in patients with chronic LBP than in control patients. Although

  8. Group interventions to promote mental health in health professional education: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kristin; Waterland, Jamie; Todd, Paula; Gupta, Tanvi; Bearman, Margaret; Hassed, Craig; Keating, Jennifer L

    2017-03-15

    Effects of interventions for improving mental health of health professional students has not been established. This review analysed interventions to support mental health of health professional students and their effects. The full holdings of Medline, PsycINFO, EBM Reviews, Cinahl Plus, ERIC and EMBASE were searched until 15th April 2016. Inclusion criteria were randomised controlled trials of undergraduate and post graduate health professional students, group interventions to support mental health compared to alternative education, usual curriculum or no intervention; and post-intervention measurements for intervention and control participants of mindfulness, anxiety, depression, stress/distress or burnout. Studies were limited to English and short term effects. Studies were appraised using the PEDro scale. Data were synthesised using meta-analysis. Four comparisons were identified: psychoeducation or cognitive-behavioural interventions compared to alternative education, and mindfulness or relaxation compared to control conditions. Cognitive-behavioural interventions reduced anxiety (-0.26; -0.5 to -0.02), depression (-0.29; -0.52 to -0.05) and stress (0.37; -0.61 to -0.13). Mindfulness strategies reduced stress (-0.60; -0.97 to -0.22) but not anxiety (95% CI -0.21 to 0.18), depression (95% CI -0.36 to 0.03) or burnout (95% CI -0.36 to 0.10). Relaxation strategies reduced anxiety (SMD -0.80; 95% CI -1.03 to -0.58), depression (-0.49; -0.88 to -0.11) and stress (-0.34; -0.67 to -0.01). Method quality was generally poor. Evidence suggests that cognitive-behavioural, relaxation and mindfulness interventions may support health professional student mental health. Further high quality research is warranted.

  9. Standardization of Observatories, Instruments and Reference Frames for Planetary Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecconi, Baptiste; Erard, Stéphane; Le Sidaner, Pierre

    2015-08-01

    The recent developments on planetary science interoperability showed that a standardization of naming conventions was required for observatories (including ground based facilities and space mission), instruments (types and names) as well as reference frames used to describe planetary observations. A review of existing catalogs and naming for those entities is presented. We also report on the discussions that occurred within the IVOA (International Virtual Observatory Alliance), IPDA (International Planetary Data Alliance) and VESPA (Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access) working groups. A proposal for standard lists, possibly to be endorsed by IAU, is presented and discussed.

  10. Standardization of Observatories, Instruments and Reference Frames for Planetary Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecconi, B.; Erard, S.; Le Sidaner, P.

    2015-10-01

    The recent developments on planetary science interoperability showed that a standardization of naming conventions was required for observatories (including ground based facilities and space mission), instruments (types and names) as well as reference frames used to describe planetary observations. A review of existing catalogs and naming for those entities is presented. We also report on the discussions that occurred within the IVOA (International Virtual Observatory Alliance), IPDA (International Planetary Data Alliance) and VESPA (Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access) working groups. A proposal for standard lists, possibly to be endorsed by IAU, is presented and discussed.

  11. Demonstrating the comparability of certified reference materials.

    PubMed

    Duewer, David L; Lippa, Katrice A; Long, Stephen E; Murphy, Karen E; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sniegoski, Lorna T; Welch, Michael J; Tani, Wataru; Umemoto, Masao

    2009-09-01

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) enable the meaningful comparison of measurement results over time and place. When CRMs are used to calibrate or verify the performance of a measurement system, results produced by that system can be related through the CRM to well-defined, stable, and globally accessible reference(s). Properly done, this directly establishes the metrological traceability of the results. However, achieving the meaningful comparison of results from measurement systems calibrated and/or verified with different CRMs requires that the different materials truly deliver the same measurand, that is, are "the same" within stated uncertainty except for differences in the level of the analyte of interest. We here detail experimental and data analysis techniques for establishing and demonstrating the comparability of materials. We focus on (1) establishing a uniform interpretation of the common forms of CRM uncertainty statements, (2) estimating consistent measurement system response uncertainties from sometimes inconsistent experimental designs, (3) using "errors-in-variables" analysis methods to evaluate comparability studies and novel graphical tools for communicating results of the evaluation to reviewing authorities and potential CRM customers, and (4) augmenting established comparability studies with new materials using measurements provided by the certifying institution. These experimental and data analytic tools were developed in support of the Joint Committee for Traceability in Laboratory Medicine's efforts to enhance the reliability of clinical laboratory measurements and are illustrated with potassium and cholesterol measurands of clinical relevance; however, these tools can be applied to any group of materials that deliver the same nominal measurand with stated value and uncertainty.

  12. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

  13. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

  14. Preparing the references.

    PubMed

    Peh, W C G; Ng, K H

    2009-07-01

    In a scientific paper, the references serve to provide background information and allow the researcher to compare and contrast the work of others in relation to his own study. Authors are responsible for the accuracy of all references cited. The references quoted should be easily accessible and retrievable by anyone wishing to obtain further information. There is a strong preference for citing journal articles listed in PubMed. The two major reference format systems are the Vancouver and Harvard systems, with increasing preference for the Vancouver system. Authors should adhere exactly to the instructions to authors of the target journal.

  15. Species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) from Groupers (Mycteroperca spp., Epinephelidae) in the Mediterranean and Eastern Atlantic Ocean, with Special Reference to the 'Beverleyburtonae Group' and Description of Two New Species.

    PubMed

    Chaabane, Amira; Neifar, Lassad; Gey, Delphine; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2016-01-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 is a species-rich diplectanid genus, mainly restricted to the gills of groupers (Epinephelidae) and especially abundant in warm seas. Species from the Mediterranean are not fully documented. Two new and two previously known species from the gills of Mycteroperca spp. (M. costae, M. rubra, and M. marginata) in the Mediterranean and Eastern Atlantic Ocean are described here from new material and slides kept in collections. Identifications of newly collected fish were ascertained by barcoding of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences. Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae (Oliver, 1984) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 and P. sosia Neifar & Euzet 2007 are redescribed from type-specimens and new specimens collected off Tunisia and Libya from M. marginata and M. costae, respectively. Pseudorhabdosynochus oliveri n. sp., from M. marginata (type-host) off the Mediterranean coast of France (type-locality), is described from specimens found among voucher specimens of P. beverleyburtonae deposited by Guy Oliver in the collection of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. Pseudorhabdosynochus oliveri is distinguished by the shape of its sclerotised vagina; it was not found in the other localities investigated. Pseudorhabdosynochus hayet n. sp. is described from M. rubra (type host) off Senegal (type-locality) and Tunisia. Pseudorhabdosynochus hayet is morphologically similar to P. sosia (type-host: M. costae) but was distinguished by differences in measurements of the vagina and male copulatory organ, different host, and divergent COI sequences. The four species (P. beverleyburtonae, P. sosia, P. oliveri, and P. hayet) share common characteristics such as squamodiscs with 2 innermost circular rows of rodlets and a similar general structure of the sclerotised vagina; we propose to group them into a 'beverleyburtonae group' within Pseudorhabdosynochus.

  16. Systematic review using meta-analyses to estimate dose-response relationships between iodine intake and biomarkers of iodine status in different population groups.

    PubMed

    Ristić-Medić, Danijela; Dullemeijer, Carla; Tepsić, Jasna; Petrović-Oggiano, Gordana; Popović, Tamara; Arsić, Aleksandra; Glibetić, Marija; Souverein, Olga W; Collings, Rachel; Cavelaars, Adriënne; de Groot, Lisette; van't Veer, Pieter; Gurinović, Mirjana

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to identify studies investigating iodine intake and biomarkers of iodine status, to assess the data of the selected studies, and to estimate dose-response relationships using meta-analysis. All randomized controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, nested case-control studies, and cross-sectional studies that supplied or measured dietary iodine and measured iodine biomarkers were included. The overall pooled regression coefficient (β) and the standard error of β were calculated by random-effects meta-analysis on a double-log scale, using the calculated intake-status regression coefficient (β) for each individual study. The results of pooled randomized controlled trials indicated that the doubling of dietary iodine intake increased urinary iodine concentrations by 14% in children and adolescents, by 57% in adults and the elderly, and by 81% in pregnant women. The dose-response relationship between iodine intake and biomarkers of iodine status indicated a 12% decrease in thyroid-stimulating hormone and a 31% decrease in thyroglobulin in pregnant women. The model of dose-response quantification used to describe the relationship between iodine intake and biomarkers of iodine status may be useful for providing complementary evidence to support recommendations for iodine intake in different population groups.

  17. Clinical Implications of High-mobility Group Box-1 (HMGB1) and the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products (RAGE) in Cutaneous Malignancy: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Austin Huy; Detty, Shannon Q; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation and the immune system play a role in the development and progression of melanoma, basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The pro-inflammatory and tumor-promoting effects of the high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) have been investigated in these cutaneous malignancies. The clinical implication of these molecules is not fully described. The National Library of Medicine database was searched for articles addressing the clinical relevance of HMGB1 and RAGE in melanoma, BCC, and SCC. This systematic review includes nine articles, with six summarizing RAGE in cutaneous malignancies and three involving HMGB1. RAGE has been found to be up-regulated in SCC lesions, as well as melanoma. Levels of RAGE were highest in stage IV melanomas. Lower levels of soluble RAGE have been associated with poor overall survival in melanoma. Sporadic extracellular expression of HMGB1 was evident in BCC and SCC lesions, which could be released by necrotic tumor cells. HMGB1 was found to be a prognostic marker in melanoma, and HMGB1 levels were elevated in patients who were non-responders to ipilimumab treatment. HMGB1 and RAGE could serve as potential prognostic markers or therapeutic targets in treating melanoma, BCC, and SCC, but further research regarding the clinical utility of the HMGB1-RAGE axis in cutaneous malignancies is warranted.

  18. Increased Risk of Group B Streptococcus Invasive Infection in HIV-Exposed but Uninfected Infants: A Review of the Evidence and Possible Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Dauby, Nicolas; Chamekh, Mustapha; Melin, Pierrette; Slogrove, Amy L.; Goetghebuer, Tessa

    2016-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of neonatal sepsis and mortality worldwide. Studies from both developed and developing countries have shown that HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants are at increased risk of infectious morbidity, as compared to HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (HUU). A higher susceptibility to GBS infections has been reported in HEU infants, particularly late-onset diseases and more severe manifestations of GBS diseases. We review here the possible explanations for increased susceptibility to GBS infection. Maternal GBS colonization during pregnancy is a major risk factor for early-onset GBS invasive disease, but colonization rates are not higher in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected pregnant women, while selective colonization with more virulent strains in HIV-infected women is suggested in some studies. Lower serotype-specific GBS maternal antibody transfer and quantitative and qualitative defects of innate immune responses in HEU infants may play a role in the increased risk of GBS invasive disease. The impact of maternal antiretroviral treatment and its consequences on immune activation in HEU newborns are important to study. Maternal immunization presents a promising intervention to reduce GBS burden in the growing HEU population. PMID:27899925

  19. Clinical use of high mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end products in the prognosis and risk stratification of heart failure: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Amanda M; Nguyen, Austin Huy; Parker, Taylor M; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2017-03-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome that represents the end stage of heart disease and remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. As heart failure mortality rates remain elevated, additional biomarkers that facilitate early detection or risk stratification in HF is of particularly great interest. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) cause the activation of intracellular signaling, gene expression, and production of inflammatory cytokines and have been linked to many inflammatory disease states such as diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Few studies have investigated their role in the pathophysiology of HF and any significant correlation remains uncertain. Review of the available literature discussing HMGB1 and RAGE clinical values as independent prognostic variables in HF resulted in the inclusion of 11 studies, which enrolled a total of 2025 heart failure patients. Overall, the data suggests a statistically significant positive correlation between RAGE and HF, with increasing RAGE levels associated with increasing New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class of heart failure. HMGB1 correlations were not as extensively studied, but there is evidence that both HMGB1 and RAGE have a definite potential as biomarkers for the prognosis and risk stratification of HF patients.

  20. Group-based social skills interventions for adolescents with higher-functioning autism spectrum disorder: a review and looking to the future

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Camilla M; Lerner, Matthew D; Britton, Noah

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we synthesize the current literature on group-based social skills interventions (GSSIs) for adolescents (ages 10–20 years) with higher-functioning autism spectrum disorder and identify key concepts that should be addressed in future research on GSSIs. We consider the research participants, the intervention, the assessment of the intervention, and the research methodology and results to be integral and interconnected components of the GSSI literature, and we review each of these components respectively. Participant characteristics (eg, age, IQ, sex) and intervention characteristics (eg, targeted social skills, teaching strategies, duration and intensity) vary considerably across GSSIs; future research should evaluate whether participant and intervention characteristics mediate/moderate intervention efficacy. Multiple assessments (eg, parent-report, child-report, social cognitive assessments) are used to evaluate the efficacy of GSSIs; future research should be aware of the limitations of current measurement approaches and employ more accurate, sensitive, and comprehensive measurement approaches. Results of GSSIs are largely inconclusive, with few consistent findings across studies (eg, high parent and child satisfaction with the intervention); future research should employ more rigorous methodological standards for evaluating efficacy. A better understanding of these components in the current GSSI literature and a more sophisticated and rigorous analysis of these components in future research will lend clarity to key questions regarding the efficacy of GSSIs for individuals with autism spectrum disorder. PMID:23956616