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Sample records for reference material rm

  1. NIST bullet signature measurement system for RM (Reference Material) 8240 standard bullets.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Song, John; Whitenton, Eric; Zheng, Alan; Vorburger, Theodore; Zhou, Jack

    2004-07-01

    A bullet signature measurement system based on a stylus instrument was developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the signature measurements of NIST RM (Reference Material) 8240 standard bullets. The standard bullets are developed as a reference standard for bullet signature measurements and are aimed to support the recently established National Integrated Ballistics Information Network (NIBIN) by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). The RM bullets are designed as both a virtual and a physical bullet signature standard. The virtual standard is a set of six digitized bullet signatures originally profiled from six master bullets fired at ATF and FBI using six different guns. By using the virtual signature standard to control the tool path on a numerically controlled diamond turning machine at NIST, 40 RM bullets were produced. In this paper, a comparison parameter and an algorithm using auto-and cross-correlation functions are described for qualifying the bullet signature differences between the RM bullets and the virtual bullet signature standard. When two compared signatures are exactly the same (point by point), their cross-correlation function (CCF) value will be equal to 100%. The measurement system setup, measurement program, and initial measurement results are discussed. Initial measurement results for the 40 standard bullets, each measured at six land impressions, show that the CCF values for the 240 signature measurements are higher than 95%, with most of them even higher than 99%. These results demonstrate the high reproducibility for both the manufacturing process and the measurement system for the NIST RM 8240 standard bullets.

  2. Characterization of Chemical Properties, Unit Cell Parameters and Particle Size Distribution of Three Zeolite Reference Materials: RM 8850 - Zeolite Y, RM 8851 - Zeolite A and RM 8852 - Ammonium ZSM-5 Zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Turner,S.; Sieber, J.; Vetter, T.; Zeisler, R.; Marlow, A.; Moreno-Ramirez, M.; Davis, M.; Kennedy, G.; Borghard, W.; et al

    2008-01-01

    Zeolites have important industrial applications including use as catalysts, molecular sieves and ion exchange materials. In this study, three zeolite materials have been characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as reference materials (RMs): zeolite Y (RM 8850), zeolite A (RM 8851) and ZSM-5 zeolite (RM 8852). They have been characterized by a variety of chemical and physical measurement methods: X-ray fluorescence (XRF), gravimetry, instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), calorimetry, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, neutron diffraction, laser light extinction, laser light scattering, electric sensing zone, X-ray sedimentation, scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy. The chemical homogeneity of the materials has been characterized. Reference values are given for the major components (major elements, loss on ignition [LOI] and loss on fusion [LOF]), trace elements and Si/Al and Na/Al ratios. Information values are given for enthalpies of formation, unit cell parameters, particle size distributions, refractive indices and variation of mass with variation in relative humidity (RH). Comparisons are made to literature unit cell parameters. The RMs are expected to provide a basis for intercomparison studies of these zeolite materials.

  3. Characterization of SiGe films for use as a National Institute of Standards and Technology Microanalysis Reference Material (RM 8905).

    PubMed

    Marinenko, Ryna B; Turner, Shirley; Simons, David S; Rabb, Savelas A; Zeisler, Rolf L; Yu, Lee L; Newbury, Dale E; Paul, Rick L; Ritchie, Nicholas W M; Leigh, Stefan D; Winchester, Michael R; Richter, Lee J; Meier, Douglas C; Scott, Keana C K; Klinedinst, Donna; Small, John A

    2010-02-01

    Bulk silicon-germanium (SiGe) alloys and two SiGe thick films (4 and 5 microm) on Si wafers were tested with the electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) using wavelength dispersive spectrometers (WDS) for heterogeneity and composition for use as reference materials needed by the microelectronics industry. One alloy with a nominal composition of Si0.86Ge0.14 and the two thick films with nominal compositions of Si0.90Ge0.10 and Si0.75Ge0.25 on Si, evaluated for micro- and macroheterogeneity, will make good microanalysis reference materials with an overall expanded heterogeneity uncertainty of 1.1% relative or less for Ge. The bulk Ge composition in the Si0.86Ge0.14 alloy was determined to be 30.228% mass fraction Ge with an expanded uncertainty of the mean of 0.195% mass fraction. The thick films were quantified with WDS-EPMA using both the Si0.86Ge0.14 alloy and element wafers as reference materials. The Ge concentration was determined to be 22.80% mass fraction with an expanded uncertainty of the mean of 0.12% mass fraction for the Si0.90Ge0.10 wafer and 43.66% mass fraction for the Si0.75Ge0.25 wafer with an expanded uncertainty of the mean of 0.25% mass fraction. The two thick SiGe films will be issued as National Institute of Standards and Technology Reference Materials (RM 8905).

  4. Reference Inflow Characterization for River Resource Reference Model (RM2)

    SciTech Connect

    Neary, Vincent S

    2011-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) is leading an effort to develop reference models for marine and hydrokinetic technologies and wave and current energy resources. This effort will allow the refinement of technology design tools, accurate estimates of a baseline levelized cost of energy (LCoE), and the identification of the main cost drivers that need to be addressed to achieve a competitive LCoE. As part of this effort, Oak Ridge National Laboratory was charged with examining and reporting reference river inflow characteristics for reference model 2 (RM2). Published turbulent flow data from large rivers, a water supply canal and laboratory flumes, are reviewed to determine the range of velocities, turbulence intensities and turbulent stresses acting on hydrokinetic technologies, and also to evaluate the validity of classical models that describe the depth variation of the time-mean velocity and turbulent normal Reynolds stresses. The classical models are found to generally perform well in describing river inflow characteristics. A potential challenge in river inflow characterization, however, is the high variability of depth and flow over the design life of a hydrokinetic device. This variation can have significant effects on the inflow mean velocity and turbulence intensity experienced by stationary and bottom mounted hydrokinetic energy conversion devices, which requires further investigation, but are expected to have minimal effects on surface mounted devices like the vertical axis turbine device designed for RM2. A simple methodology for obtaining an approximate inflow characterization for surface deployed devices is developed using the relation umax=(7/6)V where V is the bulk velocity and umax is assumed to be the near-surface velocity. The application of this expression is recommended for deriving the local inflow velocity acting on the energy extraction planes of the RM2 vertical axis rotors, where V=Q/A can be calculated given a USGS gage flow time

  5. Reference materials for cellular therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Bravery, Christopher A; French, Anna

    2014-09-01

    The development of cellular therapeutics (CTP) takes place over many years, and, where successful, the developer will anticipate the product to be in clinical use for decades. Successful demonstration of manufacturing and quality consistency is dependent on the use of complex analytical methods; thus, the risk of process and method drift over time is high. The use of reference materials (RM) is an established scientific principle and as such also a regulatory requirement. The various uses of RM in the context of CTP manufacturing and quality are discussed, along with why they are needed for living cell products and the analytical methods applied to them. Relatively few consensus RM exist that are suitable for even common methods used by CTP developers, such as flow cytometry. Others have also identified this need and made proposals; however, great care will be needed to ensure any consensus RM that result are fit for purpose. Such consensus RM probably will need to be applied to specific standardized methods, and the idea that a single RM can have wide applicability is challenged. Written standards, including standardized methods, together with appropriate measurement RM are probably the most appropriate way to define specific starting cell types. The characteristics of a specific CTP will to some degree deviate from those of the starting cells; consequently, a product RM remains the best solution where feasible. Each CTP developer must consider how and what types of RM should be used to ensure the reliability of their own analytical measurements.

  6. Reference Model 6 (RM6): Oscillating Wave Energy Converter.

    SciTech Connect

    Bull, Diana L; Smith, Chris; Jenne, Dale Scott; Jacob, Paul; Copping, Andrea; Willits, Steve; Fontaine, Arnold; Brefort, Dorian; Gordon, Margaret Ellen; Copeland, Robert; Jepsen, Richard Alan

    2014-10-01

    This report is an addendum to SAND2013-9040: Methodology for Design and Economic Analysis of Marine Energy Conversion (MEC) Technologies. This report describes an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter reference model design in a complementary manner to Reference Models 1-4 contained in the above report. In this report, a conceptual design for an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter (WEC) device appropriate for the modeled reference resource site was identified, and a detailed backward bent duct buoy (BBDB) device design was developed using a combination of numerical modeling tools and scaled physical models. Our team used the methodology in SAND2013-9040 for the economic analysis that included costs for designing, manufacturing, deploying, and operating commercial-scale MEC arrays, up to 100 devices. The methodology was applied to identify key cost drivers and to estimate levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for this RM6 Oscillating Water Column device in dollars per kilowatt-hour ($/kWh). Although many costs were difficult to estimate at this time due to the lack of operational experience, the main contribution of this work was to disseminate a detailed set of methodologies and models that allow for an initial cost analysis of this emerging technology. This project is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Wind and Water Power Technologies Program Office (WWPTO), within the Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE). Sandia National Laboratories, the lead in this effort, collaborated with partners from National Laboratories, industry, and universities to design and test this reference model.

  7. Preparation of Reference Material 8504, Transformer Oil.

    PubMed

    Poster, Dianne L; Schantz, Michele M; Wise, Stephen A

    2005-01-01

    A new reference material (RM), RM 8504, has been prepared for use as a diluent oil with Aroclors in transformer oil Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) 3075 to 3080 and SRM 3090 when developing and validating methods for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as Aroclors in transformer oil or similar matrices. SRMs 3075-3080 and SRM 3090 consist of individual Aroclors in the same transformer oil that was used to prepare RM 8504. A unit of RM 8504 consists of one bottle containing approximately 100 mL of transformer oil. No additional constituents have been added to the oil.

  8. Reference Model 5 (RM5): Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Y. H.; Jenne, D. S.; Thresher, R.; Copping, A.; Geerlofs, S.; Hanna, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    This report is an addendum to SAND2013-9040: Methodology for Design and Economic Analysis of Marine Energy Conversion (MEC) Technologies. This report describes an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter (OSWEC) reference model design in a complementary manner to Reference Models 1-4 contained in the above report. A conceptual design for a taut moored oscillating surge wave energy converter was developed. The design had an annual electrical power of 108 kilowatts (kW), rated power of 360 kW, and intended deployment at water depths between 50 m and 100 m. The study includes structural analysis, power output estimation, a hydraulic power conversion chain system, and mooring designs. The results were used to estimate device capital cost and annual operation and maintenance costs. The device performance and costs were used for the economic analysis, following the methodology presented in SAND2013-9040 that included costs for designing, manufacturing, deploying, and operating commercial-scale MEC arrays up to 100 devices. The levelized cost of energy estimated for the Reference Model 5 OSWEC, presented in this report, was for a single device and arrays of 10, 50, and 100 units, and it enabled the economic analysis to account for cost reductions associated with economies of scale. The baseline commercial levelized cost of energy estimate for the Reference Model 5 device in an array comprised of 10 units is $1.44/kilowatt-hour (kWh), and the value drops to approximately $0.69/kWh for an array of 100 units.

  9. Genomic Sequence of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni HS:19 Penner Serotype Reference Strain RM3420

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Steven; Heikema, Astrid P.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni infections are a leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis and the most prevalent antecedent to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Penner serotype HS:19 is among several capsular types shown to be markers for GBS. This study describes the genome of C. jejuni subsp. jejuni HS:19 Penner reference strain RM3420. PMID:28232429

  10. Biological reference materials for extracellular vesicle studies.

    PubMed

    Valkonen, S; van der Pol, E; Böing, A; Yuana, Y; Yliperttula, M; Nieuwland, R; Laitinen, S; Siljander, P R M

    2017-02-15

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate normal physiological homeostasis and pathological processes by facilitating intercellular communication. Research of EVs in basic science and clinical settings requires both methodological standardization and development of reference materials (RM). Here, we show insights and results of biological RM development for EV studies. We used a three-step approach to find and develop a biological RM. First, a literature search was done to find candidates for biological RMs. Second, a questionnaire was sent to EV researchers querying the preferences for RM and their use. Third, a biological RM was selected, developed, characterized, and evaluated. The responses to the survey demonstrated a clear and recognized need for RM optimized for the calibration of EV measurements. Based on the literature, naturally occurring and produced biological RM, such as virus particles and liposomes, were proposed as RM. However, none of these candidate RMs have properties completely matching those of EVs, such as size and refractive index distribution. Therefore, we evaluated the use of nanoerythrosomes (NanoE), vesicles produced from erythrocytes, as a potential biological RM. The strength of NanoE is their resemblance to EVs. Compared to the erythrocyte-derived EVs (eryEVs), NanoE have similar morphology, a similar refractive index (1.37), larger diameter (70% of the NanoE are over 200nm), and increased positive staining for CD235a and lipids (Di-8-ANEPPS) (58% and 67% in NanoE vs. 21% and 45% in eryEVs, respectively). Altogether, our results highlight the general need to develop and validate new RM with similar physical and biochemical properties as EVs to standardize EV measurements between instruments and laboratories.

  11. U.S. Department of Energy Reference Model Program RM1: Experimental Results

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Craig; Neary, Vincent Sinclair; Gunawan, Budi; Guala, Michele; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2014-10-01

    The Reference Model Project (RMP), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Wind and Water Power Technologies Program within the Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), aims at expediting industry growth and efficiency by providing non-proprietary Reference Models (RM) of MHK technology designs as study objects for open-source research and development (Neary et al. 2014a,b). As part of this program, MHK turbine models were tested in a large open channel facility at the University of Minnesota’s St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (UMN-SAFL). Reference Model 1 (RM2) is a 1:40 geometric scale dual-rotor axial flow horizontal axis device with counter-rotating rotors, each with a rotor diameter dT = 0.5m. Precise blade angular position and torque measurements were synchronized with three acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs) aligned with each rotor and the midpoint for RM1. Flow conditions for each case were controlled such that depth, h = 1m, and volumetric flow rate, Qw = 2.425m3s-1, resulting in a hub height velocity of approximately Uhub = 1.05ms-1 and blade chord length Reynolds numbers of Rec ≈ 3.0x105. Vertical velocity profiles collected in the wake of each device from 1 to 10 rotor diameters are used to estimate the velocity recovery and turbulent characteristics in the wake, as well as the interaction of the counter-rotating rotor wakes. The development of this high resolution laboratory investigation provides a robust dataset that enables assessing turbulence performance models and their ability to accurately predict device performance metrics, including computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models that can be used to predict turbulent inflow environments, reproduce wake velocity deficit, recovery and higher order turbulent statistics, as well as device performance metrics.

  12. U.S. Department of Energy Reference Model Program RM2: Experimental Results

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Craig; Neary, Vincent Sinclair; Gunawan, Budi; Guala, Michele; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2014-08-01

    The Reference Model Project (RMP), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Wind and Water Power Technologies Program within the Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE), aims at expediting industry growth and efficiency by providing non-proprietary Reference Models (RM) of MHK technology designs as study objects for open-source research and development (Neary et al. 2014a,b). As part of this program, MHK turbine models were tested in a large open channel facility at the University of Minnesota’s St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (UMN - SAFL) . Reference Model 2 (RM2) is a 1:15 geometric scale dual - rotor cross flow vertical axis device with counter - rotating rotors, each with a rotor diameter dT = 0.43m and rotor height, hT = 0.323 m. RM2 is a river turbine designed for a site modeled after a reach in the lower Mississippi River near Baton Rouge, Louisiana (Barone et al. 2014) . Precise blade angular position and torque measurements were synchronized with three acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADV) aligned with each rotor and the midpoint for RM2 . Flow conditions for each case were controlled such that depth, h = 1m, and volumetric flow rate, Qw = 2. 35m3s-1 , resulting in a hub height velocity of approximately Uhub = 1. 2 ms-1 and blade chord length Reynolds numbers of Rec = 6 .1x104. Vertical velocity profiles collected in the wake of each device from 1 to 10 rotor diameters are used to estimate the velocity recovery and turbulent characteristics in the wake, as well as the interaction of the counter-rotating rotor wakes. The development of this high resolution laboratory investigation provides a robust dataset that enables assessing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models and their ability to accurately simulate turbulent inflow environments, device performance metrics, and to reproduce wake velocity deficit, recovery and higher order

  13. Isotope reference materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, Tyler B.

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of the same isotopically homogeneous sample by any laboratory worldwide should yield the same isotopic composition within analytical uncertainty. International distribution of light element isotopic reference materials by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology enable laboratories to achieve this goal.

  14. Bulk Site Reference Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Barich, J.J. III; Jones, R.R. Sr.

    1996-12-31

    The selection, manufacture and use of Bulk Site Reference Materials (BSRMs) at hazardous waste sites is discussed. BSRMs are useful in preparing stabilization/solidification (S/S) formulations for soils, ranking competing S/S processes, comparing S/S alternatives to other technologies, and in interpreting data from different test types. BSRMs are large volume samples that are representative of the physical and chemical characteristics of a site soil, and that contain contaminants at reasonably high levels. A successful BSRM is extremely homogeneous and well-characterized. While not representative of any point on the site, they contain the contaminants of the site in the matrices of the site. Design objectives for a BSRM are to produce a material that (1) maintains good fidelity to site matrices and contaminants, and (2) exhibits the lowest possible relative standard deviation.

  15. Development of a new series of agricultural/food reference materials for analytical quality control of elemental determinations.

    PubMed

    Ihnat, M

    1994-01-01

    Ten new Agricultural/Food Reference Materials--Bovine Muscle Powder (National Institute of Standards and Technology [NIST], code NIST RM 8414), Whole Egg Powder (NIST RM 8415), Microcrystalline Cellulose (NIST RM 8416), Wheat Gluten (NIST RM 8418), Corn Starch (NIST RM 8432), Corn Bran (NIST RM 8433), Whole Milk Powder (NIST RM 8435), Durum Wheat Flour (NIST RM 8436), Hard Red Spring Wheat Flour (NIST RM 8437) and Soft Winter Wheat Flour (NIST RM 8438)--were prepared by application of milling, irradiation, sieving, blending, and packaging procedures. Excellent material homogeneity was found for virtually all major, minor, and trace elements of interest. The reference materials were characterized with respect to elemental composition via an extensive international, interlaboratory characterization (certification) campaign. Chemical analyses conducted in 73 cooperating laboratories applying 13 major classes of independently different analytical methods led to 278 concentration values for 34 nutritionally, toxicologically, and environmentally pertinent elements. A total of 213 best-estimate and 65 informational concentration values are available for Al, As, B, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, F, Fe, Hg, I, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, N, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti, V, W, and Zn. These products make a substantial contribution to the existing world repertoire of biological reference materials with respect to natural matrix and elemental composition. They are expected to be useful to analysts for quality control of analytical data. Applications include evaluations of analytical methods and instruments used in nutritional, toxicological, monitory, regulatory, environmental, agricultural, and other investigations. These products are available to the analytical community from the Standard Reference Materials Program, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD.

  16. 40 CFR 1043.100 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reference materials. 1043.100 Section... § 1043.100 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have been incorporated by reference into... the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to:...

  17. 40 CFR 1042.910 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reference materials. 1042.910 Section... Other Reference Information § 1042.910 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have been... information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to:...

  18. 40 CFR 1042.910 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference materials. 1042.910 Section... Other Reference Information § 1042.910 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have been... information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to:...

  19. 40 CFR 94.5 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reference materials. 94.5 Section 94.5... Compression-Ignition Marine Engines § 94.5 Reference materials. We have incorporated by reference the... availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to:...

  20. 40 CFR 1043.100 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference materials. 1043.100 Section... § 1043.100 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have been incorporated by reference into... the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to:...

  1. 40 CFR 1043.100 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reference materials. 1043.100 Section... § 1043.100 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have been incorporated by reference into... the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to:...

  2. 40 CFR 1042.910 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reference materials. 1042.910 Section... Other Reference Information § 1042.910 Reference materials. Documents listed in this section have been... information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to:...

  3. Reference materials for new psychoactive substances.

    PubMed

    Archer, Roland P; Treble, Ric; Williams, Keith

    2011-01-01

    Historically, the appearance of new psychoactive materials (and hence the requirement for new reference standards) has been relatively slow. This position has now changed, with 101 new psychoactive substances reported to EMCDDA-Europol since 2006. The newly reported materials, and associated metabolites, require properly certified reference materials to permit reliable identification and quantification. The traditional approach and timescales of reference material production and certification are being increasingly challenged by the appearance of these new substances. Reference material suppliers have to adopt new strategies to meet the needs of laboratories. This situation is particularly challenging for toxicology standards as the metabolism of many of these substances is initially unknown. Reference material production often involves synthesis from first principles. While it is possible to synthesis these materials, there can be significant difficulties, from synthetic complexities through to the need to use controlled materials. These issues are examined through a discussion of the synthesis of cathinones. Use of alternative sources, including pharmaceutical impurity materials or internet sourced products, as starting materials for conversion into appropriately certified reference materials are also discussed. The sudden appearance and sometimes brief lifetime in the market place of many of these novel legal highs or research chemicals present commercial difficulties for reference material producers. The need for collaboration at all levels is highlighted as essential to rapid identification of requirements for new reference materials. National or international commissioning or support may also be required to permit reference material producers to recover their development costs.

  4. History of reference materials for food and nutrition metrology: As represented in the series of BERM Symposia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Establishment of a metrology-based measurement system requires the solid foundation of traceability of measurements to available, appropriate certified reference materials (CRM). In the early 1970s the first “biological” Reference Material (RM) of Bowens Kale, Orchard Leaves, and Bovine Liver from ...

  5. Reference Materials for Food and Nutrition Metrology: Past, Present and Future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Establishment of a metrology-based measurement system requires the solid foundation of traceability of measurements to available, appropriate certified reference materials (CRM). In the early 1970’s the first “biological” RM of Bowens Kale, as well as Orchard Leaves and Bovine Liver SRMs, from the ...

  6. Preparation and application of a fortified hair reference material for the determination of methamphetamine and amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sooyeun; Park, Yonghoon; Han, Eunyoung; Choe, Sanggil; Lim, Miae; Chung, Heesun

    2008-07-04

    Quality assurance is one of the major issues in forensic analytical laboratories, where the need for a reference material (RM) has rapidly increased. RMs are very useful for method development and validation, internal quality control or proficiency tests. In the present study, we prepared a RM using drug-free hair for the determination of methamphetamine (MA) and its main metabolite, amphetamine (AP) according to the recommendations of ISO Guide 35. The concentrations of MA and AP were determined using two extraction methods, agitation with 1% HCl in methanol at 38 degrees C and ultrasonication with methanol/5M HCl (20:1), followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) after derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA). The assignment of values was conducted through the homogeneity study and characterization of the material. Furthermore, an internal proficiency test was performed with the prepared RM, of which the results were compared with those of the authentic hair RM prepared in our previous study. As a result, a hair RM containing MA and AP was prepared at the level of 4.86+/-0.69 ng/mg and 4.63+/-0.44 ng/mg, respectively. Most participants showed satisfactory performances in the internal proficiency test with the both RMs. The hair RM prepared in this study demonstrated its suitability for quality assurance in forensic laboratories.

  7. Acquisition of improved reference values for cesium, iodine, strontium, thorium, and uranium in selected NIST reference materials.

    PubMed

    Parr, R M; Kawamura, H; Iyengar, G V

    1999-01-01

    As part of a study on the ingestion and organ content of some trace elements of importance in radiological protection, additional work has been undertaken to acquire improved reference values for cesium, iodine, strontium, thorium, and uranium in four selected reference materials provided by the US National Institute of Standards and Technology. The materials are SRM-1548 Total Diet, SRM-1548a Typical Diet, SRM-1486 Bone Meal, and RM-8414 Bovine Muscle. A coordinated study was undertaken with the help of seven selected laboratories in five countries. Instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry were the analytical main techniques used.

  8. Biological and environmental reference materials: Update 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelandts, Iwan

    1997-07-01

    The present column lists additional biological and environmental reference samples. Organs, tissues, body fluids, plant materials, foods, fuels, ashes, dusts, particulate matter, gas mixtures, oils, soils, sediments, sludges and waters have been considered. Three tables are included that provide an easy-to-use survey. The following information is covered: the name of the material, the sample code, the producer, the reference to certification, the names and addresses of the suppliers from whom the reference material may be obtained, and specific remarks.

  9. 40 CFR 91.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (1) ASTM material. The following table sets forth material from the American Society for Testing and... materials may be obtained from American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia, PA... forth material from the Society of Automotive Engineers which has been incorporated by reference....

  10. Developing a matrix reference material for screening of transgenic rice.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Wu, Yuhua; Li, Xiaofei; Wang, Yulei; Zhang, Li; Li, Yunjing; Wu, Gang

    2015-12-01

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) that are compatible with detection methods are needed to detect genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Screening is the first detection step in determining the possible presence of GMO ingredients in food or feed; however, screening has been hindered by the lack of GMO CRMs. In this study, transgenic rice materials were developed via the transformation of a construct harboring 11 commonly used screening elements. Digital PCR was utilized to identify a homozygous single-copy line termed SDrice. The qualitative detections of 11 elements in 21 transgenic materials demonstrated that the genomic DNA of the SDrice was suitable for use as a positive control in the screening of GMO ingredients. The suitability of SDrice as reference material was further checked by testing the sensitivity of 11 known conventional PCR assays, ranging from 10 to 50 copies of the SDrice genome. The standard curves that were created using SDrice DNA series as calibrators all exhibited good linearities in the relationships of the Ct values with the template copy numbers in these 11 real-time PCR assays. The LODs of the real-time PCR assays were estimated to be two to five copies of the SDrice genome. Comparisons of the SDrice with other GM rice revealed that significant differences existed in both the intercepts of the standard curves and the ΔCt values of the exogenous and reference genes for the P-35S, T-nos, HPT, T-35S, and Bar assays; the SDrice was not fit for quantification of other GM rice events. This study provided a matrix reference material (RM) that was suitable for screening GM rice, determination of sensitivity and a LOD of PCR assays, and overcame some of the drawbacks of plasmid DNA as reference material.

  11. 40 CFR 1066.710 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Practice for Measuring Fuel Economy and Emissions of Hybrid-Electric and Conventional Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Issued September 2002, IBR approved for § 1066.501. (c) National Institute of Standards and Technology... VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Definitions and Other Reference Material § 1066.710 Reference materials....

  12. 49 CFR 171.7 - Reference material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reference material. 171.7 Section 171.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION,...

  13. 49 CFR 171.7 - Reference material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reference material. 171.7 Section 171.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS GENERAL INFORMATION,...

  14. 49 CFR 171.7 - Reference material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Materials Standards, East Building, PHH-10, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590-0001. For... Materials Systems (BOE), Association of American Railroads, American Railroads Building, 50 F Street NW... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reference material. 171.7 Section...

  15. Development of solid thorium-232 reference materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelder, P. R.; Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R. B.

    1985-05-01

    Thorium-232 reference materials with a matrix similar to soil and uranium-mill tailings are necessary for ensuring uniform standardization among measurements performed by remedial-action contractors. Some 200 pounds each of three different concentrations of Th-232 reference material were prepared by diluting a thorium ore with soil. Target values for Th-232 content were 70, 30, and 10 pCi/q. The recommended thorium-232 concentrations for the three reference materials are 71.2 + or - 2.0 pCi/g, 30.5 + or - 0.6 pCi/g, and 10.2 + or - 0.3 pCi/g.

  16. A new river sediment standard reference material.

    PubMed

    Epstein, M S; Diamondstone, B I; Gills, T E

    1989-01-01

    The collection, processing and certification of a new sediment Standard Reference Material (SRM), SRM 2704, is described. Collected from the bottom of the Buffalo River in New York State during the fall of 1986, SRM 2704 is certified for 25 elements with information provided on another 22 elements. Improvements in analytical methods as well as the application of well-defined quality-control procedures for collection, processing and analysis have resulted in a reference material that is more completely characterized than previous NIST sediment reference materials.

  17. 40 CFR 90.7 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....116; 90.509. (2) SAE material. The following table sets forth material from the Society of Automotive...., Warrendale, PA 15096-0001. Document number and name 40 CFR part 90 reference SAE J1930 September 1991, Electrical/Electronic Systems Diagnostic Terms, Definitions, Abbreviations and Acronyms 90.114 SAE...

  18. 40 CFR 90.7 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....116; 90.509. (2) SAE material. The following table sets forth material from the Society of Automotive...., Warrendale, PA 15096-0001. Document number and name 40 CFR part 90 reference SAE J1930 September 1991, Electrical/Electronic Systems Diagnostic Terms, Definitions, Abbreviations and Acronyms 90.114 SAE...

  19. 40 CFR 89.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...” 89.120; 89.207; 89.509. (2) SAE material. The following table sets forth material from the Society of... Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, PA 15096-0001. Document number and name 40 CFR part 89 reference SAE J244 June 83: Recommended Practice for Measurement of Intake Air or Exhaust Gas Flow of Diesel Engines 89.416-96 SAE...

  20. 40 CFR 89.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...” 89.120; 89.207; 89.509. (2) SAE material. The following table sets forth material from the Society of... Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, PA 15096-0001. Document number and name 40 CFR part 89 reference SAE J244 June 83: Recommended Practice for Measurement of Intake Air or Exhaust Gas Flow of Diesel Engines 89.416-96 SAE...

  1. Polyfluorinated substances in abiotic standard reference materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a wide range of Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) which have values assigned for legacy organic pollutants and toxic elements. Existing SRMs serve as homogenous materials that can be used for method development, meth...

  2. Myths of Isotopic Reference Materials Busted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coplen, T.

    2007-12-01

    During the past several years, the determination of the isotopic abundances of elements including H, Li, B, C, N, O, Mg, Si, S, Cl, Ca, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Tl, and Se has substantially increased because of expanded use in hydrology, environmental studies, microbiology, forensic investigations, atmospheric investigations, oceanography, etc. Improvements in instrumentation enable increasingly precise isotope-amount-ratio measurements in these fields, but these improvements in precision commonly do not lead to improvements in accuracy because of the lack or improper use of isotopic reference materials. When properly used, these critically important materials enable any laboratory worldwide to measure the same homogeneous sample and report the same isotopic abundance within analytical uncertainty. For example, for stable isotopic analysis of gaseous hydrogen samples, the agreement among 36 laboratories worldwide before normalization to any hydrogen gas reference material was 11.8 per mill. After normalization to anchors (gaseous H isotopic reference materials) at each end of the delta H-2 scale, the agreement was 0.85 per mill, an improvement of more than an order of magnitude. Consistency of delta C-13 measurements often can be improved by nearly 50 percent by anchoring the delta C-13 scale with two isotopic reference materials differing substantially in C-13 mole fraction, namely NBS 19 calcite and L-SVEC lithium carbonate. Agreement of delta C-13 values of four expert laboratories analyzing USGS40 L- glutamic acid by CF-IRMS methods improved from 0.084 to 0.015 per mill with use of the two scale anchors (NBS 19 and L-SVEC). Solid oxygen isotopic reference materials (IAEA-600 caffeine, IAEA-601 and IAEA-602 benzoic acids, IAEA-NO-3, USGS32, USGS34, and USGS35 nitrates, NBS-127, IAEA-SO-5, and IAEA-SO-6 barium sulfates) are poorly calibrated. Calibrating these solids to the VSMOW-SLAP reference water scale has been very difficult because both the solids and reference

  3. Development and Characterization of Reference Materials for Genetic Testing: Focus on Public Partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Kalman, Lisa V.; Datta, Vivekananda; Williams, Mickey; Zook, Justin M.; Salit, Marc L.

    2016-01-01

    Characterized reference materials (RMs) are needed for clinical laboratory test development and validation, quality control procedures, and proficiency testing to assure their quality. In this article, we review the development and characterization of RMs for clinical molecular genetic tests. We describe various types of RMs and how to access and utilize them, especially focusing on the Genetic Testing Reference Materials Coordination Program (Get-RM) and the Genome in a Bottle (GIAB) Consortium. This review also reinforces the need for collaborative efforts in the clinical genetic testing community to develop additional RMs. PMID:27578503

  4. 40 CFR 90.7 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Engineers which has been incorporated by reference. The first column lists the number and name of the... materials may be obtained from Society of Automotive Engineers International, 400 Commonwealth Dr..., Electrical/Electronic Systems Diagnostic Terms, Definitions, Abbreviations and Acronyms 90.114 SAE...

  5. 40 CFR 91.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... forth material from the Society of Automotive Engineers which has been incorporated by reference. The... Automotive Engineers International, 400 Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, PA 15096-0001. Document number and name... Electrical/Electronic Systems Diagnostic Terms, Definitions, Abbreviations and Acronyms 91.113. SAE...

  6. 40 CFR 91.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... forth material from the Society of Automotive Engineers which has been incorporated by reference. The... Automotive Engineers International, 400 Commonwealth Dr., Warrendale, PA 15096-0001. Document number and name... Electrical/Electronic Systems Diagnostic Terms, Definitions, Abbreviations and Acronyms 91.113. SAE...

  7. 40 CFR 90.7 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Engineers which has been incorporated by reference. The first column lists the number and name of the... materials may be obtained from Society of Automotive Engineers International, 400 Commonwealth Dr..., Electrical/Electronic Systems Diagnostic Terms, Definitions, Abbreviations and Acronyms 90.114 SAE...

  8. Reference Materials on the World Wide Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, Kenji

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents information about World Wide Web resources for English language teachers and students and for communication scholars and researchers. The first Web page, "Reference Materials for Students and Researchers," offers links to resources in English. Because there are many Web sites related to dictionaries, a second page,…

  9. Development of synthetic environmental radioactivity reference materials.

    PubMed

    Harms, Arvic; Gilligan, Chris

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, a novel way of developing synthetic environmental radioactivity reference materials via the sol-gel process is described. Two solid reference materials (both having a SiO(2) matrix) were synthesised by hydrolysing a liquid mixture of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), ethanol and standardised mixed radionuclide solutions. The certified values, which were in the Bqg(-1) range, for the radionuclides in the material were determined by NPL and compared with results from measurements made by 36 organisations from 17 countries using a 'consensus' approach. The measurements were made within two wider test exercises (the NPL Environmental Radioactivity Proficiency Test Exercises 2009 and 2010). Certified activity concentration values were obtained for (60)Co, (133)Ba, (134)Cs, (137)Cs, (152)Eu, (154)Eu and (241)Am and indicative values were obtained for (55)Fe and (90)Sr.

  10. Determination of water in NIST reference material for mineral oils

    PubMed

    Cedergren; Nordmark

    2000-07-15

    The accuracy of the reference concentrations of moisture in electrical insulating oil RM 8506 and lubricating oil RM 8507 (both of mineral type) and specified by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) as containing 39.7 and 76.8 ppm (w/w) water, respectively, has recently been the subject of debate in this journal. To shed some further light on this controversy, we report in this correspondence results for these oils obtained by two additional methods, one based on specially designed reagents for diaphragm-free Karl Fischer (KF) coulometry and the other based on the concept of stripping at elevated temperature/continuous KF coulometry. A positive interference effect was shown to take place for RM 8506 when the direct coulometric method was used. If the results are corrected for this, the values including six different procedures varied in the range 13.5-15.6 ppm (w/w). For RM 8507, all values were between 42.5 and 47.2 ppm (w/w), which means that the values recommended by NIST for both reference oils using volumetric titration are about twice as high as those obtained with the other techniques. A possible explanation for this discrepancy is presented.

  11. 40 CFR 91.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Conformance with Specifications 91.207; 91.120; 91.509; 91.1307. (2) SAE material. The following table sets... 40 CFR part 91 reference SAE J1228/ISO 8665 November 1991 Small Craft-Marine Propulsion Engine and Systems-Power Measurements and Declarations 91.104, 91.115; 91.118; 91.207; 91.1307. SAE J1930 June...

  12. 40 CFR 91.6 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Conformance with Specifications 91.207; 91.120; 91.509; 91.1307. (2) SAE material. The following table sets... 40 CFR part 91 reference SAE J1228/ISO 8665 November 1991 Small Craft-Marine Propulsion Engine and Systems-Power Measurements and Declarations 91.104, 91.115; 91.118; 91.207; 91.1307. SAE J1930 June...

  13. Demonstrating the comparability of certified reference materials.

    PubMed

    Duewer, David L; Lippa, Katrice A; Long, Stephen E; Murphy, Karen E; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sniegoski, Lorna T; Welch, Michael J; Tani, Wataru; Umemoto, Masao

    2009-09-01

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) enable the meaningful comparison of measurement results over time and place. When CRMs are used to calibrate or verify the performance of a measurement system, results produced by that system can be related through the CRM to well-defined, stable, and globally accessible reference(s). Properly done, this directly establishes the metrological traceability of the results. However, achieving the meaningful comparison of results from measurement systems calibrated and/or verified with different CRMs requires that the different materials truly deliver the same measurand, that is, are "the same" within stated uncertainty except for differences in the level of the analyte of interest. We here detail experimental and data analysis techniques for establishing and demonstrating the comparability of materials. We focus on (1) establishing a uniform interpretation of the common forms of CRM uncertainty statements, (2) estimating consistent measurement system response uncertainties from sometimes inconsistent experimental designs, (3) using "errors-in-variables" analysis methods to evaluate comparability studies and novel graphical tools for communicating results of the evaluation to reviewing authorities and potential CRM customers, and (4) augmenting established comparability studies with new materials using measurements provided by the certifying institution. These experimental and data analytic tools were developed in support of the Joint Committee for Traceability in Laboratory Medicine's efforts to enhance the reliability of clinical laboratory measurements and are illustrated with potassium and cholesterol measurands of clinical relevance; however, these tools can be applied to any group of materials that deliver the same nominal measurand with stated value and uncertainty.

  14. Reference material manufacture and certification for the AVNG

    SciTech Connect

    Hauck, Danielle K; Thron, Jonathan; MacArthur, Duncan W.; Livke, Alexander; Bulatov, M; Kondratov, Sergey; Leplyavkina, M; Razinkov, Sergey; Sivachev, D; Tsybryaev, S; V'yushin, A

    2010-07-09

    Testing and demonstration of any radiation measurement system requires the use of appropriate radioactive sources. An attribute measurement system (A VNG) was developed and fabricated at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center, VNIIEF, Russia, under contract with LANL, USA. The A VNG detects neutron and gamma radiation signatures and compares the data analysis results with the specified threshold values for three unclassified attributes; plutonium is present or absent, plutonium mass is greater than or less than the specified threshold value and plutonium isotopic ratio 240Pu to 239Pu) is greater than or less then the threshold value. A set of reference materials (RMs) was specially manufactured for the A VNG with masses and isotopic ratios above and below the selected thresholds. The set of RMs was certified in compliance with the Russian metrological requirements. The RMs were used to debug and test the A VNG and to demonstrate the A VNG operation to an American delegation in June 2009. In this presentation, we will describe the various steps in the manufacture and certification of these RM sources.

  15. High Precision Isotopic Reference Material Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, J. L.; Vocke, R. D.

    2007-12-01

    Recent developments in thermal ionization and inductively coupled plasma multicollector mass spectrometers have lead to "high precision" isotope ratio measurements with uncertainties approaching a few parts in 106. These new measurement capabilities have revolutionized the study of isotopic variations in nature by increasing the number of elements showing natural variations by almost a factor of two, and new research areas are actively opening up in climate change, health, ecology, geology and forensic studies. Because the isotopic applications are impacting very diverse fields, there is at present little effective coordination between research laboratories over reference materials and the values to apply to those materials. NIST had originally developed the techniques for producing accurate isotopic characterizations, culminating in the NIST Isotopic SRM series. The values on existing materials however are insufficiently precise and, in some cases, may be isotopically heterogeneous. A new generation of isotopic standards is urgently needed and will directly affect the quality and scope of emergent applications and ensure that the results being derived from these diverse fields are comparable. A series of new isotopic reference materials similar to the NIST 3100 single element solution series is being designed for this purpose and twelve elements have been selected as having the most pressing need. In conjunction with other expert users and National Metrology Institutes, an isotopic characterization of the respective 12 selected ampoules from the NIST single element solution series is currently underway. In this presentation the preliminary results of this screening will be discussed as well as the suitability of these materials in terms of homogeneity and purity, long term stability and availability, and isotopic relevance. Approaches to value assignment will also be discussed.

  16. Thermoelectric standardisation - Reference materials and characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziolkowski, P.; Blaschkewitz, P.; Stiewe, C.; Karpinski, G.; Müller, E.

    2012-06-01

    Thermoelectric materials for working temperatures between 300 K and 1000 K become continuously more important for energy recuperation applications. The efficiency is determined by the transport properties (electrical and thermal conductivity and Seebeck coefficient), which form the known thermoelectric figure of merit ZT. The thorough determination of ZT represents the basis for the assessment of thermoelectric materials research. Due to different continuing difficulties measurement errors distinctly higher than 15% can be observed repeatedly, which is still too high for an industrial benchmark and deficient for many scientific investigations and technological developments. Against this background a project was launched in 2011 together with the Fraunhofer Institute of Physical Measurement Techniques (IPM, Freiburg), the Department Temperature of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB, Berlin) and the company Netzsch Gerätebau GbmH (Selb). The aim of the project "Thermoelectric Standardisation" (TEST) is to minimise the measurement uncertainties and to develop traceable, high-accurate thermoelectric characterisation techniques and thermoelectric reference materials for the mentioned temperature range. Here we initially present the project to the thermoelectric society and want to give a survey on the planned activities and the current status of the contributions of the German Aerospace Center (DLR, Cologne).

  17. Thermal Diffusivity of Carbon Materials as Candidate Reference Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akoshima, M.; Abe, H.; Baba, T.

    2015-11-01

    Thermal-diffusivity measurements using the laser-flash method have been investigated in order to establish a thermal diffusivity standard. In many cases, thermal-conductivity values of bulk materials are calculated from the thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, and bulk density. The thermal diffusivity is one of the transport properties. It depends on the material and is sensitive to the structure. So, it is important to measure the thermal diffusivity of each material. The laser-flash method is one of the most popular methods for thermal-diffusivity measurements of bulk materials above room temperature. Because the method realizes a short-time method and is a non-contact method, it is very suitable for practical use. And it is known as a highly reliable measurement since one-dimensional heat diffusion phenomena observed in these measurements are simple. On the other hand, more reliable values measured by the method are important in the view of thermal design. According to the background, there is a need of a standard for thermal-diffusivity measurements using the laser-flash method to obtain reliable thermal diffusivities. The National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) in AIST has established reference materials for the laser-flash method and is supplying them. However, they are not sufficient to cover the whole range of thermal-diffusivity measurements. Thus, some candidate materials have been investigated to establish another reference material. Carbon materials are considered since it is preferable for the laser-flash method that the material is optically nontransparent and dark colored (ideally black). In this study, the thermal diffusivity of a pyrolytic graphite that is expected to be a candidate reference material for the laser-flash method is investigated. It was found that the intrinsic thermal diffusivities can be determined along the in-plane and cross-plane directions. The high thermal diffusivity of the in-plane direction, 1.19 × 10^{-3} m2

  18. Homogeneity of the geochemical reference material BRP-1 (paraná basin basalt) and assessment of minimum mass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cotta, Aloisio J. B.; Enzweiler, Jacinta; Wilson, Stephen A.; Perez, Carlos A.; Nardy, Antonio J. R.; Larizzatti, Joao H.

    2007-01-01

    Reference materials (RM) are required for quantitative analyses and their successful use is associated with the degree of homogeneity, and the traceability and confidence limits of the values established by characterisation. During the production of a RM, the chemical characterisation can only commence after it has been demonstrated that the material has the required level of homogeneity. Here we describe the preparation of BRP-1, a proposed geochemical reference material, and the results of the tests to evaluate its degree of homogeneity between and within bottles. BRP-1 is the first of two geochemical RM being produced by Brazilian institutions in collaboration with the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the International Association of Geoanalysts (IAG). Two test portions of twenty bottles of BRP-1 were analysed by wavelength dispersive-XRF spectrometry and major, minor and eighteen trace elements were determined. The results show that for most of the investigated elements, the units of BRP-1 were homogeneous at conditions approximately three times more rigorous than those strived for by the test of “sufficient homogeneity”. Furthermore, the within bottle homogeneity of BRP-1 was evaluated using small beam (1 mm2) synchrotron radiation XRF spectrometry and, for comparison, the USGS reference materials BCR-2 and GSP-2 were also evaluated. From our data, it has been possible to assign representative minimum masses for some major constituents (1 mg) and for some trace elements (1-13 mg), except Zr in GSP-2, for which test portions of 74 mg are recommended.

  19. 40 CFR 90.7 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (1) ASTM material. The following table sets forth material from the American Society for Testing and... materials may be obtained from American Society for Testing and Materials, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia, PA....116; 90.509. (2) SAE material. The following table sets forth material from the Society of...

  20. Establishment of a reference material for standardization of the anti-complementary activity test in intravenous immunoglobulin products used in Japan: A collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Nojima, Kiyoko; Okuma, Kazu; Ochiai, Masaki; Kuramitsu, Madoka; Tezuka, Kenta; Ishii, Mieko; Ueda, Sadao; Miyamoto, Takashi; Kamimura, Koichiro; Kou, Enki; Uchida, Sanae; Watanabe, Yoshiharu; Okada, Yoshiaki; Hamaguchi, Isao

    2017-03-01

    Aggregates of human plasma-derived intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs) carries a risk of severe adverse events after nonspecific complement activation induced in humans administrated. Therefore, the anti-complementary activity (ACA) test is legally required in every batch of IVIGs in Japan. However, due to the intrinsic nature of this bioassay, there might be large differences in the results of ACA tests from laboratories, even when the same batch of IVIGs was measured. Our six laboratories evaluated whether there were such differences and argued for establishment of a reference material (RM) for standardization of the ACA test. Our results revealed inter-laboratory differences in ACA values, indicating a need to establish an RM. Therefore, after ACA values in candidate RMs were measured collaboratively, one RM was selected from two candidates and unit value-assigned. The RM in fact normalized the ACA test values for samples measured in parallel at almost all the laboratories, when the values were calculated relative to the assigned unit value of the RM. Thus, we established a first RM to standardize the ACA test in Japan, which enabled each laboratory to normalize ACA values constantly for IVIGs. This indicates that the establishment of an RM can contribute to quality control of IVIGs.

  1. 40 CFR 194.13 - Submission of reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Santa Fe, New Mexico. Reference materials that are widely available in standard text books or reference books need not to be submitted. Whenever possible, DOE shall submit 10 copies of reference materials in alternative format (e.g., compact disk) or other approved format, as specified by...

  2. 40 CFR 1066.710 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Practice for Measuring Fuel Economy and Emissions of Hybrid-Electric and Conventional Heavy-Duty Vehicles... Federal Register and the material must be available to the public. All approved material is available...

  3. 15 CFR 200.104 - Standard reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the NIST National Measurement Laboratory administers a program to provide many types of well... be readily referred to a common base. NIST SP 260 is a catalog of Standard Reference Materials available from NIST....

  4. 15 CFR 200.104 - Standard reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the NIST National Measurement Laboratory administers a program to provide many types of well... be readily referred to a common base. NIST SP 260 is a catalog of Standard Reference Materials available from NIST....

  5. 15 CFR 200.104 - Standard reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the NIST National Measurement Laboratory administers a program to provide many types of well... be readily referred to a common base. NIST SP 260 is a catalog of Standard Reference Materials available from NIST....

  6. Development and characterization of reference materials for MTHFR, SERPINA1, RET, BRCA1, and BRCA2 genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Barker, Shannon D; Bale, Sherri; Booker, Jessica; Buller, Arlene; Das, Soma; Friedman, Kenneth; Godwin, Andrew K; Grody, Wayne W; Highsmith, Edward; Kant, Jeffery A; Lyon, Elaine; Mao, Rong; Monaghan, Kristin G; Payne, Deborah A; Pratt, Victoria M; Schrijver, Iris; Shrimpton, Antony E; Spector, Elaine; Telatar, Milhan; Toji, Lorraine; Weck, Karen; Zehnbauer, Barbara; Kalman, Lisa V

    2009-11-01

    Well-characterized reference materials (RMs) are integral in maintaining clinical laboratory quality assurance for genetic testing. These RMs can be used for quality control, monitoring of test performance, test validation, and proficiency testing of DNA-based genetic tests. To address the need for such materials, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention established the Genetic Testing Reference Material Coordination Program (GeT-RM), which works with the genetics community to improve public availability of characterized RMs for genetic testing. To date, the GeT-RM program has coordinated the characterization of publicly available genomic DNA RMs for a number of disorders, including cystic fibrosis, Huntington disease, fragile X, and several genetic conditions with relatively high prevalence in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Genotypic information about a number of other cell lines has been collected and is also available. The present study includes the development and commutability/genotype characterization of 10 DNA samples for clinically relevant mutations or sequence variants in the following genes: MTHFR; SERPINA1; RET; BRCA1; and BRCA2. DNA samples were analyzed by 19 clinical genetic laboratories using a variety of assays and technology platforms. Concordance was 100% for all samples, with no differences observed between laboratories using different methods. All DNA samples are available from Coriell Cell Repositories and characterization information can be found on the GeT-RM website.

  7. Development of a reference material using methamphetamine abusers' hair samples for the determination of methamphetamine and amphetamine in hair.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sooyeun; Park, Yonghoon; Yang, Wonkyung; Han, Eunyoung; Choe, Sanggil; In, Sangwhan; Lim, Miae; Chung, Heesun

    2008-04-01

    In the present study, we developed a reference material (RM) using authentic hair samples for the determination of methamphetamine (MA) and its main metabolite, amphetamine (AP) in human hair. MA abusers' hair samples were collected, homogenized and finally bottled. The concentration of each bottle was determined using two extraction methods, agitation with 1% HCl in methanol at 38 degrees C and ultrasonication with methanol/5M HCl (20:1), followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA). Both analytical procedures were fully validated and their extraction efficiency was compared. The homogeneity of analytes was evaluated and their property values were determined with their uncertainties. The two methods were acceptable to analyze MA and AP in human hair through the validation and comparative studies using spiked and authentic hair samples as well as NIST SRM 2379 certified reference material. Satisfying homogeneity was reached for MA and AP in the prepared RM. Finally, a human hair RM containing MA and AP is prepared at the level of 7.64+/-1.24 and 0.54+/-0.07 ng/mg, respectively. This material can be useful in forensic laboratories for internal quality control and external quality assurance.

  8. 40 CFR 94.5 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lists material from the International Organization for Standardization that we have incorporated by... International Organization for Standardization, Case Postale 56, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland. Table 2...

  9. AOAC INTERNATIONAL's Technical Division on Reference Materials (TDRM) Reference Materials Database.

    PubMed

    Zink, Donna

    2016-09-01

    The Technical Division on Reference Materials (TDRM) of AOAC INTERNATIONAL recommends policy and criteria to facilitate the development and use of reference materials (RMs) in the validation, implementation, and routine use of AOAC INTERNATIONAL methods. To aid analysts in these areas, TDRM has developed a searchable online database to identify RMs suitable for use with AOAC Official Methods of Analysis(SM) (OMA). RMs can be queried by analyte, by analyte and matrix, or by the selection of an OMA, based on analytes and matrixes described within the scope of the selected method. Only essential information is included in the database, to maximize usefulness and minimize the effort required to keep information current. Additional information, such as measurement uncertainty and purchasing instructions, is available through a link to the producer's Web site, when that information is available online. Data sets are solicited on a voluntary basis from National Metrology Institutes and accredited producers. Consideration of ease-of-use and ease-of-operation is a guiding principle in this database, as is cost management.

  10. Corrosion reference for geothermal downhole materials selection

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, P.F. II, Smith, C.C.; Keeney, R.C.; Kirk, D.K.; Conover, M.F.

    1983-03-01

    Geothermal downhole conditions that may affect the performance and reliability of selected materials and components used in the drilling, completion, logging, and production of geothermal wells are reviewed. The results of specific research and development efforts aimed at improvement of materials and components for downhole contact with the hostile physicochemical conditions of the geothermal reservoir are discussed. Materials and components covered are tubular goods, stainless steels and non-ferrous metals for high-temperature downhole service, cements for high-temperature geothermal wells, high-temperature elastomers, drilling and completion tools, logging tools, and downhole pumps. (MHR)

  11. Homogeneity and stability of a candidate certified reference material for the determination of methamphetamine and amphetamine in hair.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sooyeun; Miyaguchi, Hajime; Han, Eunyoung; Kim, Eunmi; Park, Yonghoon; Choi, Hwakyung; Chung, Heesun; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2010-12-01

    In the preparation of a reference material (RM) for quality assurance, both homogeneity and stability studies are integral parts. In the present study, both homogeneity and stability of a candidate RM for the determination of methamphetamine and amphetamine in hair were examined by an isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method, which is not only one of the analytical methods validated in our previous study but also one of the primary methods for the preparation of a certified reference material (CRM). Additionally, homogeneity was monitored using a different method: micropulverized extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), which was fully validated in the previous study. In order to demonstrate the suitability of the method as an isotope dilution with mass spectrometry (IDMS), the extraction efficiency was also determined according to time. Our results showed that the current method, i.e., agitating hair with isotope internal standards in the extraction solvent for 20 h followed by GC-MS, was accepted as an IDMS. No significant difference was observed between bottles of the candidate CRM. The statistical results also showed no significant trends in stability for 92 days at room temperature and 4 degrees C. An inter-laboratory quality assurance program was also performed successfully using this material. The candidate CRM developed in the present study demonstrated its suitability for quality assurance in hair drug analysis. Even though a RM is necessity as a quality control tool, it is not always easy to have an authentic RM containing target drugs and metabolites. Even when an in-house quality control material is used, both homogeneity and stability should be investigated.

  12. 40 CFR 1042.910 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Definitions and.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (a) IMO material. This paragraph...

  13. 40 CFR 1043.100 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTROL OF NOX, SOX, AND PM EMISSIONS FROM MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS SUBJECT TO THE MARPOL PROTOCOL.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (a) IMO material. This paragraph...

  14. Determination of carbon-14 in environmental level, solid reference materials.

    PubMed

    Blowers, Paul; Caborn, Jane; Dell, Tony; Gingell, Terry; Harms, Arvic; Long, Stephanie; Sleep, Darren; Stewart, Charlie; Walker, Jill; Warwick, Phil E

    2011-10-01

    An intercomparison exercise to determine the (14)C activity concentrations in a range of solid, environmental level materials was conducted between laboratories in the UK. IAEA reference materials, C2, C6 and C7, and an in-house laboratory QA material were dispatched in 2006 to ten laboratories comprising of members of the Analyst Informal Working Group (AIWG) and one other invited party. The laboratories performed the determinations using a number of techniques, and using the results each one was evaluated in terms of levels of precision, sensitivity and limits of detection. The results of the study show that all techniques are capable of successfully analysing (14)C in environmental level materials, however, a shortage of certified environmental reference materials exists. The suitability of the IAEA reference materials and other material for use as reference materials was also assessed.

  15. 40 CFR 86.1 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for Determination of Solar Reflectance Near Ambient Temperature Using a Portable Solar Reflectometer...) ASTM E903-96, Standard Test Method for Solar Absorptance, Reflectance, and Transmittance of Materials..., Standard Test Method for Measuring Solar Reflectance of Horizontal and Low-Sloped Surfaces in the...

  16. Corrosion reference for geothermal downhole materials selection: Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Peter F.

    1982-10-08

    A consolidated reference of materials for downhole equipment used in geothermal energy exploitation is nearing completion. The reference is a summary of recent developments in the areas of tubular goods materials, highly alloyed metals, high temperature cements, high temperature elastomers, drilling and completion tools, logging tools, and downwell pumps. A brief overview is presented in this paper.

  17. Multi-Elemental Nuclear Analysis of soil reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metairon, S.; Zamboni, C. B.; Medeiros, I. M. M. Amaral; Menezes, M. À. B. C.

    2011-08-01

    The elements concentration in the soil reference material (IAEA/SOIL-7) was obtained using the parametric Neutron Activation Analysis technique in the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor at IPEN (CNEN-SP). The results obtained were in good agreement with the respective nominal values from this reference material suggesting the viability of using this parametric procedure for environmental investigations.

  18. Development of an orange juice in-house reference material and its application to guarantee the quality of vitamin C determination in fruits, juices and fruit pulps.

    PubMed

    Valente, A; Sanches-Silva, A; Albuquerque, T G; Costa, H S

    2014-07-01

    Reference materials are useful for the quality control of analytical procedures and to evaluate the performance of laboratories. There are few and expensive certified reference materials commercially available for vitamin C or ascorbic acid analysis in food matrices. In this study, the preparation and the suitability assessment of an orange juice in-house reference material (RM) for vitamin C analysis in fruits, juices and in fruit pulps is described. This RM was used for the development and full validation of an HPLC method. The results showed excellent linearity (r(2)=0.9995), good accuracy (96.6-97.3%) and precision, as relative standard deviation, ranged from 0.70% to 3.67%. The in-house RM was homogenous and stable at storage conditions (-80°C) during 12 months. According to our results, this in-house RM is an excellent tool to use in quality control and method verification purposes for vitamin C analysis of fruits, juices and fruit pulps matrices. Furthermore, a stabilization solution with perchloric and metaphosphoric acids was developed which prevents degradation of ascorbic acid for a period of 12 months at -80°C.

  19. Reference Material for Radionuclides in Sediment, IAEA-384 (Fangataufa Lagoon Sediment)

    SciTech Connect

    Povinec, P; Pham, M; Barci-Funel, G; Bojanawski, R; Boshkova, T; Burnett, W; Carvalho, F; Chapeyron, B; Cunha, I; Dahlgaard, H; Galabov, N; Gastaud, J; Geering, J; Gomez, I; Green, N; Hamilton, T; Ibanez, F; Majah, M I; John, M; Kanisch, G; Kenna, T; Kloster, M; Korun, M; Wee Kwong, L L; La Rosa, J; Lee, S; Levy-Palomo, I; Malatova, M; Maruo, Y; Mitchell, P; Murciano, I; Nelson, R; Oh, J; Oregioni, B; Petit, G L; Pettersson, H; Reineking, A; Smedley, P; Suckow, A; der Struijs, T v; Voors, P; Yoshimizu, K; Wyse, E

    2005-09-23

    The IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory (IAEA-MEL) in Monaco has conducted intercomparison exercises on radionuclides in marine samples for many years as part of its contribution to the IAEA's program of Analytical Quality Control Services (AQCS). An important part of the AQCS program has been a production of Reference Materials (RMs) and their provision to radioanalytical laboratories. The RMs have been developed for different marine matrices (sediment, water, biota), with accuracy and precision required for the present state of the art of radiometrics and mass spectrometry methods. The RMs have been produced as the final products of world-wide intercomparison exercises organized during last 30 years. A total of 44 intercomparison exercises were undertaken and 39 RMs were produced for radionuclides in the marine environment. All required matrices (seawater, biota, sediment) have been covered with radionuclide concentrations ranging from typical environmental levels to elevated levels affected by discharges from nuclear reprocessing plants. The long-term availability of RMs (over 10 years) requires the use of very specific techniques to collect and pretreat large quantities of material (e.g., in excess of 100 kg) in order to ensure sample stability and homogenization of any analytes of interest. The production of a RM is therefore a long process, covering the identification of needs, sample collection, pre-treatment, homogenization, bottling, distribution to laboratories, evaluation of data, preliminary reporting, additional analyses in expert laboratories, certification of the material, and finally issuing the RM. In this paper we describe a reference material IAEA-384, Fangataufa lagoon sediment, designed for determination of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in the marine environment. This RM has been prepared with the aim of testing the performance of analytical laboratories to measure the activity of these radionuclides in a sediment sample contaminated

  20. Reference Materials and Reference Measurement Procedures: An Overview from a National Metrology Institute

    PubMed Central

    Bunk, David M

    2007-01-01

    An outline of the processes involved in both certified clinical reference material production and clinical reference measurement procedure development at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the national metrology institute of the United States, is presented. The role that NIST and other national metrology institutes play in the metrological traceability of certified reference material is discussed. Highlighted are the challenges associated with the development of reference measurement systems for complex clinical analytes, such as proteins, and examples of existing efforts in this area are given. Examples of recent international collaborations in developing certified reference materials for analytes such as cardiac troponin I, brain natriuretic peptide, and serum creatinine demonstrate the close cooperation that national metrology institutes must have with the clinical community to establish complete reference measurement systems. PMID:18392127

  1. Isolation and characterization of gluten protein types from wheat, rye, barley and oats for use as reference materials

    PubMed Central

    Schalk, Kathrin; Lexhaller, Barbara; Koehler, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Gluten proteins from wheat, rye, barley and, in rare cases, oats, are responsible for triggering hypersensitivity reactions such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy. Well-defined reference materials (RM) are essential for clinical studies, diagnostics, elucidation of disease mechanisms and food analyses to ensure the safety of gluten-free foods. Various RM are currently used, but a thorough characterization of the gluten source, content and composition is often missing. However, this characterization is essential due to the complexity and heterogeneity of gluten to avoid ambiguous results caused by differences in the RM used. A comprehensive strategy to isolate gluten protein fractions and gluten protein types (GPT) from wheat, rye, barley and oat flours was developed to obtain well-defined RM for clinical assays and gluten-free compliance testing. All isolated GPT (ω5-gliadins, ω1,2-gliadins, α-gliadins, γ-gliadins and high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits from wheat, ω-secalins, γ-75k-secalins, γ-40k-secalins and high-molecular-weight secalins from rye, C-hordeins, γ-hordeins, B-hordeins and D-hordeins from barley and avenins from oats) were fully characterized using analytical reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), N-terminal sequencing, electrospray-ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS) and untargeted LC-MS/MS of chymotryptic hydrolyzates of the single GPT. Taken together, the analytical methods confirmed that all GPT were reproducibly isolated in high purity from the flours and were suitable to be used as RM, e.g., for calibration of LC-MS/MS methods or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). PMID:28234993

  2. Isolation and characterization of gluten protein types from wheat, rye, barley and oats for use as reference materials.

    PubMed

    Schalk, Kathrin; Lexhaller, Barbara; Koehler, Peter; Scherf, Katharina Anne

    2017-01-01

    Gluten proteins from wheat, rye, barley and, in rare cases, oats, are responsible for triggering hypersensitivity reactions such as celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity and wheat allergy. Well-defined reference materials (RM) are essential for clinical studies, diagnostics, elucidation of disease mechanisms and food analyses to ensure the safety of gluten-free foods. Various RM are currently used, but a thorough characterization of the gluten source, content and composition is often missing. However, this characterization is essential due to the complexity and heterogeneity of gluten to avoid ambiguous results caused by differences in the RM used. A comprehensive strategy to isolate gluten protein fractions and gluten protein types (GPT) from wheat, rye, barley and oat flours was developed to obtain well-defined RM for clinical assays and gluten-free compliance testing. All isolated GPT (ω5-gliadins, ω1,2-gliadins, α-gliadins, γ-gliadins and high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits from wheat, ω-secalins, γ-75k-secalins, γ-40k-secalins and high-molecular-weight secalins from rye, C-hordeins, γ-hordeins, B-hordeins and D-hordeins from barley and avenins from oats) were fully characterized using analytical reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), N-terminal sequencing, electrospray-ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS) and untargeted LC-MS/MS of chymotryptic hydrolyzates of the single GPT. Taken together, the analytical methods confirmed that all GPT were reproducibly isolated in high purity from the flours and were suitable to be used as RM, e.g., for calibration of LC-MS/MS methods or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs).

  3. ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF URANIUM REFERENCE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, B; Borg, L; Williams, R; Brennecka, G; Hutcheon, I

    2009-09-03

    Uranium isotopic compositions of a variety of U standard materials were measured at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and are reported here. Both thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and multi-collector inductively couple plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) were used to determine ratios of the naturally occurring isotopes of U. Establishing an internally coherent set of isotopic values for a range of U standards is essential for inter-laboratory comparison of small differences in {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U, as well as the minor isotopes of U. Differences of {approx} 1.3{per_thousand} are now being observed in {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U in natural samples, and may play an important role in understanding U geochemistry where tracing the origin of U is aided by U isotopic compositions. The {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U ratios were measured with a TRITON TIMS using a mixed {sup 233}U-{sup 236}U isotopic tracer to correct for instrument fractionation. this tracer was extremely pure and resulted in only very minor corrections on the measured {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U ratios of {approx} 0.03. The values obtained for {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U are: IRMM184 = 137.698 {+-} 0.020 (n = 15), SRM950a = 137.870 {+-} 0.018 (n = 8), and CRM112a = 137.866 {+-} 0.030 (n = 16). Uncertainties represent 2 s.d. of the population. The measured value for IRMM184 is in near-perfect agreement with the certified value of 137.697 {+-} 0.042. However, the U isotopic compositions of SRM950a and CRM112a are not certified. Minor isotopes of U were determined with a Nu Plasma HR MC-ICPMS and mass bias was corrected by sample/standard bracketing to IRMM184, using its certified {sup 238}U/{sup 235}U ratio. Thus, the isotopic compositions determined using both instruments are compatible. The values obtained for {sup 234}U/{sup 235}U are: SRM950a = (7.437 {+-} 0.043) x 10{sup -3} (n = 18), and CRM112a = (7.281 {+-} 0.050) x 10{sup -3} (n = 16), both of which are in good agreement with published values. The value for

  4. Development of a reference material for Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A in cheese: feasibility study, processing, homogeneity and stability assessment.

    PubMed

    Zeleny, R; Emteborg, H; Charoud-Got, J; Schimmel, H; Nia, Y; Mutel, I; Ostyn, A; Herbin, S; Hennekinne, J-A

    2015-02-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning is caused by enterotoxins excreted into foods by strains of staphylococci. Commission Regulation 1441/2007 specifies thresholds for the presence of these toxins in foods. In this article we report on the progress towards reference materials (RMs) for Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) in cheese. RMs are crucial to enforce legislation and to implement and safeguard reliable measurements. First, a feasibility study revealed a suitable processing procedure for cheese powders: the blank material was prepared by cutting, grinding, freeze-drying and milling. For the spiked material, a cheese-water slurry was spiked with SEA solution, freeze-dried and diluted with blank material to the desired SEA concentration. Thereafter, batches of three materials (blank; two SEA concentrations) were processed. The materials were shown to be sufficiently homogeneous, and storage at ambient temperature for 4weeks did not indicate degradation. These results provide the basis for the development of a RM for SEA in cheese.

  5. 49 CFR 572.110 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Impact Hybrid Dummy 50th Percentile Male § 572.110 Materials incorporated by reference. (a) The following..., SID/Hybrid III part 572, subpart M, dated May 10, 1997. (2) The SID/Hybrid III Part 572 Subpart M...

  6. 49 CFR 572.110 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Impact Hybrid Dummy 50th Percentile Male § 572.110 Materials incorporated by reference. (a) The following..., SID/Hybrid III part 572, subpart M, dated May 10, 1997. (2) The SID/Hybrid III Part 572 Subpart M...

  7. 10 CFR 431.223 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... procedures incorporated by reference. (1) Environmental Protection Agency, “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements... Agency “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Traffic Signals,” Version 1.1, may be obtained from the... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.223 Section...

  8. 10 CFR 431.223 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... procedures incorporated by reference. (1) Environmental Protection Agency, “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements... Agency “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Traffic Signals,” Version 1.1, may be obtained from the... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.223 Section...

  9. Post hoc interlaboratory comparison of single particle ICP-MS size measurements of NIST gold nanoparticle reference materials.

    PubMed

    Montoro Bustos, Antonio R; Petersen, Elijah J; Possolo, Antonio; Winchester, Michael R

    2015-09-01

    Single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) is an emerging technique that enables simultaneous measurement of nanoparticle size and number quantification of metal-containing nanoparticles at realistic environmental exposure concentrations. Such measurements are needed to understand the potential environmental and human health risks of nanoparticles. Before spICP-MS can be considered a mature methodology, additional work is needed to standardize this technique including an assessment of the reliability and variability of size distribution measurements and the transferability of the technique among laboratories. This paper presents the first post hoc interlaboratory comparison study of the spICP-MS technique. Measurement results provided by six expert laboratories for two National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) gold nanoparticle reference materials (RM 8012 and RM 8013) were employed. The general agreement in particle size between spICP-MS measurements and measurements by six reference techniques demonstrates the reliability of spICP-MS and validates its sizing capability. However, the precision of the spICP-MS measurement was better for the larger 60 nm gold nanoparticles and evaluation of spICP-MS precision indicates substantial variability among laboratories, with lower variability between operators within laboratories. Global particle number concentration and Au mass concentration recovery were quantitative for RM 8013 but significantly lower and with a greater variability for RM 8012. Statistical analysis did not suggest an optimal dwell time, because this parameter did not significantly affect either the measured mean particle size or the ability to count nanoparticles. Finally, the spICP-MS data were often best fit with several single non-Gaussian distributions or mixtures of Gaussian distributions, rather than the more frequently used normal or log-normal distributions.

  10. Certified reference materials and reference methods for nuclear safeguards and security.

    PubMed

    Jakopič, R; Sturm, M; Kraiem, M; Richter, S; Aregbe, Y

    2013-11-01

    Confidence in comparability and reliability of measurement results in nuclear material and environmental sample analysis are established via certified reference materials (CRMs), reference measurements, and inter-laboratory comparisons (ILCs). Increased needs for quality control tools in proliferation resistance, environmental sample analysis, development of measurement capabilities over the years and progress in modern analytical techniques are the main reasons for the development of new reference materials and reference methods for nuclear safeguards and security. The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) prepares and certifices large quantities of the so-called "large-sized dried" (LSD) spikes for accurate measurement of the uranium and plutonium content in dissolved nuclear fuel solutions by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) and also develops particle reference materials applied for the detection of nuclear signatures in environmental samples. IRMM is currently replacing some of its exhausted stocks of CRMs with new ones whose specifications are up-to-date and tailored for the demands of modern analytical techniques. Some of the existing materials will be re-measured to improve the uncertainties associated with their certified values, and to enable laboratories to reduce their combined measurement uncertainty. Safeguards involve the quantitative verification by independent measurements so that no nuclear material is diverted from its intended peaceful use. Safeguards authorities pay particular attention to plutonium and the uranium isotope (235)U, indicating the so-called 'enrichment', in nuclear material and in environmental samples. In addition to the verification of the major ratios, n((235)U)/n((238)U) and n((240)Pu)/n((239)Pu), the minor ratios of the less abundant uranium and plutonium isotopes contain valuable information about the origin and the 'history' of material used for commercial or possibly clandestine purposes, and

  11. Instructional Materials in the Classroom; A Basic Reference Shelf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Media and Technology.

    In an attempt to pull together a basic reference shelf on the use of instructional materials in the classroom, this bibliography contains 69 selected ERIC abstracts of the most relevant and up-to-date indexes, resource guides, directories, "how-to's", and state-of-the-art reviews dealing with the use of audiovisual materials in education. Selected…

  12. 14 CFR 171.71 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Headquarters. An historical file of these materials is maintained at Headquarters, Federal Aviation... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 171.71 Section 171.71 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. A new basaltic glass microanalytical reference material for multiple techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Steve; Koenig, Alan; Lowers, Heather

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been producing reference materials since the 1950s. Over 50 materials have been developed to cover bulk rock, sediment, and soils for the geological community. These materials are used globally in geochemistry, environmental, and analytical laboratories that perform bulk chemistry and/or microanalysis for instrument calibration and quality assurance testing. To answer the growing demand for higher spatial resolution and sensitivity, there is a need to create a new generation of microanalytical reference materials suitable for a variety of techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy/X-ray spectrometry (SEM/EDS), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). As such, the microanalytical reference material (MRM) needs to be stable under the beam, be homogeneous at scales of better than 10–25 micrometers for the major to ultra-trace element level, and contain all of the analytes (elements or isotopes) of interest. Previous development of basaltic glasses intended for LA-ICP-MS has resulted in a synthetic basaltic matrix series of glasses (USGS GS-series) and a natural basalt series of glasses (BCR-1G, BHVO-2G, and NKT-1G). These materials have been useful for the LA-ICP-MS community but were not originally intended for use by the electron or ion beam community. A material developed from start to finish with intended use in multiple microanalytical instruments would be useful for inter-laboratory and inter-instrument platform comparisons. This article summarizes the experiments undertaken to produce a basalt glass reference material suitable for distribution as a multiple-technique round robin material. The goal of the analytical work presented here is to demonstrate that the elemental homogeneity of the new glass is acceptable for its use as a reference material. Because the round robin exercise is still underway, only

  14. Reconcilable differences: the use of reference material to reduce methodological artifacts in the reporting of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    de Solla, Shane R; Weseloh, D V Chip; Letcher, Robert J; Hebert, Craig E

    2010-01-01

    Numerous long-term monitoring programs have assessed spatial and temporal trends of organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Changes in analytical approaches (e.g., gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detection [GC-ECD] versus mass spectrometric detection [GC-MSD]) can reveal artifacts in the reported concentrations. In-house reference material (RM) was used to determine the analytical artifacts in the measurement of OCs and PCBs in Great Lake herring gull eggs previously analyzed from 1994 to 1996 (GC-ECD) and 1997 to 1999 (GC-MSD). Approximately 19.0% of the variability of PCB congeners in gull eggs was associated with analytical artifacts, and differences among colonies were obscured. Although the discrepancy in sum PCBs (SigmaPCBs) was fairly small (2.1%), some congeners varied considerably between methods (> 60%). After statistically removing the artifacts, only 1.4% of the variability in PCBs of herring gull eggs was associated with artifacts, and differences among gull colonies became apparent. After excluding OCs near the detection limit in the RM, statistically removing the artifacts reduced some of the differences between methods for OCs. Analytical artifacts may potentially render inferences difficult, confounded, and erroneous. When combining contaminant data obtained using different methods, the methods should be assumed to give different results unless demonstrated otherwise. Assessments of the compatibility of analytical methodologies should be made using an appropriate RM.

  15. Synthetic certified DNA reference material for analysis of human erythropoietin transgene and transcript in gene doping and gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Baoutina, A; Bhat, S; Zheng, M; Partis, L; Dobeson, M; Alexander, I E; Emslie, K R

    2016-10-01

    There is a recognised need for standardisation of protocols for vector genome analysis used in vector manufacturing, to establish dosage, in biodistribution studies and to detect gene doping in sport. Analysis of vector genomes and transgene expression is typically performed by qPCR using plasmid-based calibrants incorporating transgenic sequences. These often undergo limited characterisation and differ between manufacturers, potentially leading to inaccurate quantification, inconsistent inter-laboratory results and affecting clinical outcomes. Contamination of negative samples with such calibrants could cause false positive results. We developed a design strategy for synthetic reference materials (RMs) with modified transgenic sequences to prevent false positives due to cross-contamination. When such RM is amplified in transgene-specific assays, the amplicons are distinguishable from transgene's amplicons based on size and sequence. Using human erythropoietin as a model, we produced certified RM according to this strategy and following ISO Guide 35. Using non-viral and viral vectors, we validated the effectiveness of this RM in vector genome analysis in blood in vitro. The developed design strategy could be applied to production of RMs for other transgenes, genes or transcripts. Together with validated PCR assays, such RMs form a measurement tool that facilitates standardised, accurate and reliable genetic analysis in various applications.

  16. Genetic reference materials and their application to haematology.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, J R; Hawkins, M; Boyle, J; Gray, E; Matejtschuk, P; Metcalfe, P

    2010-07-01

    Genetic investigations are becoming increasingly useful and widespread in many areas of human health. However, there is a worldwide lack of certified reference materials for use in genetic testing, meaning that tests are being run without well validated controls and new assays are more difficult to develop and validate. We have responded to this challenge by starting a programme of developing genetic reference materials (GRMs) for international accreditation and worldwide distribution. Our approach has been to make materials for disorders where testing is commonplace and genotyping errors have been demonstrated. To ensure a continuing supply of DNA, cell lines are established from consenting, phenotypically well-characterised patients and are then grown up in bulk for genomic DNA extraction to yield up to 100 milligrams of DNA. In most cases the DNA is then formulated, freeze-dried and sealed in glass ampoules to ensure greater stability over time and obviate the need for chilled transportation. In this paper we explore the options and routes available to the production of DNA reference materials and describe the establishment of the first internationally recognised reference materials for human genomic DNA, with particular reference to some genetic tests carried out frequently within haematological and cardiovascular laboratories.

  17. Extensive sequencing of seven human genomes to characterize benchmark reference materials

    PubMed Central

    Zook, Justin M.; Catoe, David; McDaniel, Jennifer; Vang, Lindsay; Spies, Noah; Sidow, Arend; Weng, Ziming; Liu, Yuling; Mason, Christopher E.; Alexander, Noah; Henaff, Elizabeth; McIntyre, Alexa B.R.; Chandramohan, Dhruva; Chen, Feng; Jaeger, Erich; Moshrefi, Ali; Pham, Khoa; Stedman, William; Liang, Tiffany; Saghbini, Michael; Dzakula, Zeljko; Hastie, Alex; Cao, Han; Deikus, Gintaras; Schadt, Eric; Sebra, Robert; Bashir, Ali; Truty, Rebecca M.; Chang, Christopher C.; Gulbahce, Natali; Zhao, Keyan; Ghosh, Srinka; Hyland, Fiona; Fu, Yutao; Chaisson, Mark; Xiao, Chunlin; Trow, Jonathan; Sherry, Stephen T.; Zaranek, Alexander W.; Ball, Madeleine; Bobe, Jason; Estep, Preston; Church, George M.; Marks, Patrick; Kyriazopoulou-Panagiotopoulou, Sofia; Zheng, Grace X.Y.; Schnall-Levin, Michael; Ordonez, Heather S.; Mudivarti, Patrice A.; Giorda, Kristina; Sheng, Ying; Rypdal, Karoline Bjarnesdatter; Salit, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The Genome in a Bottle Consortium, hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is creating reference materials and data for human genome sequencing, as well as methods for genome comparison and benchmarking. Here, we describe a large, diverse set of sequencing data for seven human genomes; five are current or candidate NIST Reference Materials. The pilot genome, NA12878, has been released as NIST RM 8398. We also describe data from two Personal Genome Project trios, one of Ashkenazim Jewish ancestry and one of Chinese ancestry. The data come from 12 technologies: BioNano Genomics, Complete Genomics paired-end and LFR, Ion Proton exome, Oxford Nanopore, Pacific Biosciences, SOLiD, 10X Genomics GemCode WGS, and Illumina exome and WGS paired-end, mate-pair, and synthetic long reads. Cell lines, DNA, and data from these individuals are publicly available. Therefore, we expect these data to be useful for revealing novel information about the human genome and improving sequencing technologies, SNP, indel, and structural variant calling, and de novo assembly. PMID:27271295

  18. Reference materials and reference measurement systems in laboratory medicine. Harmonization of nomenclature and definitions in reference measurement systems.

    PubMed

    Dybkaer, R

    1995-12-01

    Reliability of clinical laboratory results is obtained through quality assurance in both their production and transmission. The former involves a reference measurement system of reference materials and reference measurement procedures with metrological and statistical verification of results. The latter requires that sender and receiver have access to a common terminology. Thus, two data banks are required. A plurilingual systematic vocabulary related to the reference measurement system, giving concepts with terms and definitions concerning measurement standards, reference measurement procedures, internal quality control, external quality assessment, probability and statistics-mainly based on existing authoritative publications. The material should be processed by standard scientific terminological procedure and offered to pertinent organizations and specialists for comment before finalization and authorization. A multilingual collection of systematic names for properties examined by the branches of Laboratory Medicine, such as clinical chemistry, clinical immunology, clinical microbiology, clinical pharmacology, haematology and blood banking, and histochemistry and cytology. The database should function as a reference to consultation and as a link in the transmission of data between local laboratory "dialects". This should be based on the ongoing comprehensive IUPAC/IFCC project for forming names in collaboration with relevant scientific organisations and area specialists. The relational data base including "run-time" software would be accessed by e-mail (gopher or other storage medium).

  19. [The water content reference material of water saturated octanol].

    PubMed

    Wang, Haifeng; Ma, Kang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Zhanyuan

    2011-03-01

    The national standards of biofuels specify the technique specification and analytical methods. A water content certified reference material based on the water saturated octanol was developed in order to satisfy the needs of the instrument calibration and the methods validation, assure the accuracy and consistency of results in water content measurements of biofuels. Three analytical methods based on different theories were employed to certify the water content of the reference material, including Karl Fischer coulometric titration, Karl Fischer volumetric titration and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance. The consistency of coulometric and volumetric titration was achieved through the improvement of methods. The accuracy of the certified result was improved by the introduction of the new method of quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance. Finally, the certified value of reference material is 4.76% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.09%.

  20. The use of reference materials in isotope measurements (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, R.

    2009-12-01

    Over the last few decades, mass spectrometry has emerged as one of the most important tools for chemical analysis. Isotope measurements on modern mass spectrometers have achieved unprecedented repeatability due to the semi-automated nature and stability. As a consequence of these high precisions, one of the most important factors for improving the total uncertainty of the measurement results is associated with the reference materials used for calibration. Different metrological concepts have been developed to deal with this problem. This talk will examine the impact of these concepts involving reference materials on the uncertainty budget, traceability and comparability of the results.

  1. SPOTS project and development of a standard and reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burguete, R.; Patterson, E.

    2010-06-01

    The ‘Standardization Project for Optical Techniques of Strain measurement’ (SPOTS) was focused on the development of reference materials for calibrating optical systems for static strain measurement and standardized tests for evaluating the capabilities of such systems. The reference material consists of a beam in four-point bending within a monolithic frame that ensures reproducibility of the boundary and loading conditions. A procedure for the use of the reference material has been developed and leads to the evaluation of measurement uncertainties that allow the construction of confidence limits for the data obtained with the calibrated optical system. The design and methodology have been developed into a proposed draft standard which is being endorsed by VAMAS (Versailles Agreement on Materials And Standards) for review by ISO (International Standards Organisation). An overview of philosophy underpinning the proposed draft standard is presented and serves as an introduction to the reference material and standardized test and their use in providing higher confidence in optical measurements of strain.

  2. Characterization of candidate reference materials for bone lead via interlaboratory study and double isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bellis, David J; Hetter, Katherine M; Verostek, Mary Frances; Parsons, Patrick J

    2008-01-01

    Four candidate ground bone reference materials (NYS RMs 05-01 through 04), were produced from lead-dosed bovine and caprine sources, and characterized by interlaboratory study. The consensus value ( X ) and expanded standard uncertainty (U(X) ) were determined from the robust average and standard deviation of the participants' data for each NYS RM 05-01 through 04. The values were 1.08 ±0.04, 15.3 ±0.5, 12.4 ±0.5, and 29.9 ±1.1 μg g(-1) Pb, respectively. Youden plots of z-scores showed a statistically significant correlation between the results for pairs of NYS RM 05-02 through 04, indicating common sources of between-laboratory variation affecting reproducibility. NYS RM 05-01 exhibited more random variability affecting repeatability at low concentration. Some participants using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) exhibited a negative bias compared to the all-method consensus value. Other methods used included inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), isotope dilution (ID-) ICP-MS, and ICP atomic (optical) emission spectroscopy (-OES). The NYS RMs 05-01 through 04 were subsequently re-analyzed in house using double ID-ICP-MS to assign certified reference values (C ) and expanded uncertainty (U(C) ) of 1.09 ± 0.03, 16.1 ± 0.3, 13.2 ± 0.3 and 31.5 ± 0.7, respectively, indicating a low bias in the interlaboratory data. SRM 1486 Bone Meal was analyzed for measurement quality assessment obtaining results in agreement with the certified values within the stated uncertainty. Analysis using a primary reference method based on ID-ICP-MS with full quantification of uncertainty calculated according to ISO guidelines provided traceability to SI units.

  3. Characterization of candidate reference materials for bone lead via interlaboratory study and double isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Bellis, David J.; Hetter, Katherine M.; Verostek, Mary Frances; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Four candidate ground bone reference materials (NYS RMs 05-01 through 04), were produced from lead-dosed bovine and caprine sources, and characterized by interlaboratory study. The consensus value ( X ) and expanded standard uncertainty (UX ) were determined from the robust average and standard deviation of the participants’ data for each NYS RM 05-01 through 04. The values were 1.08 ±0.04, 15.3 ±0.5, 12.4 ±0.5, and 29.9 ±1.1 μg g−1 Pb, respectively. Youden plots of z-scores showed a statistically significant correlation between the results for pairs of NYS RM 05-02 through 04, indicating common sources of between-laboratory variation affecting reproducibility. NYS RM 05-01 exhibited more random variability affecting repeatability at low concentration. Some participants using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) exhibited a negative bias compared to the all-method consensus value. Other methods used included inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), isotope dilution (ID-) ICP-MS, and ICP atomic (optical) emission spectroscopy (-OES). The NYS RMs 05-01 through 04 were subsequently re-analyzed in house using double ID-ICP-MS to assign certified reference values (C ) and expanded uncertainty (UC ) of 1.09 ± 0.03, 16.1 ± 0.3, 13.2 ± 0.3 and 31.5 ± 0.7, respectively, indicating a low bias in the interlaboratory data. SRM 1486 Bone Meal was analyzed for measurement quality assessment obtaining results in agreement with the certified values within the stated uncertainty. Analysis using a primary reference method based on ID-ICP-MS with full quantification of uncertainty calculated according to ISO guidelines provided traceability to SI units. PMID:23087531

  4. The determination of water in crude oil and transformer oil reference materials.

    PubMed

    Margolis, Sam A; Hagwood, Charles

    2003-05-01

    The measurement of the amount of water in oils is of significant economic importance to the industrial community, particularly to the electric power and crude oil industries. The amount of water in transformer oils is critical to their normal function and the amount of water in crude oils affects the cost of the crude oil at the well head, the pipeline, and the refinery. Water in oil Certified Reference Materials (CRM) are essential for the accurate calibration of instruments that are used by these industries. Three NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been prepared for this purpose. The water in these oils has been measured by both coulometric and volumetric Karl Fischer methods. The compounds (such as sulfur compounds) that interfere with the Karl Fischer reaction (interfering substances) and inflate the values for water by also reacting with iodine have been measured coulometrically. The measured water content of Reference Material (RM) 8506a Transformer Oil is 12.1+/-1.9 mg kg(-1) (plus an additional 6.2+/-0.9 mg kg(-1) of interfering substances). The measured water content of SRM 2722 Sweet Crude Oil, is 99+/-6 mg kg(-1) (plus an additional 5+/-2 mg kg(-1) of interfering substances). The measured water content of SRM 2721 Sour Crude Oil, is 134+/-18 mg kg(-1) plus an additional 807+/-43 mg kg(-1) of interfering substances. Interlaboratory studies conducted with these oil samples (using SRM 2890, water saturated 1-octanol, as a calibrant) are reported. Some of the possible sources of bias in these measurements were identified, These include: improperly calibrated instruments, inability to measure the calibrant accurately, Karl Fischer reagent selection, and volatilization of the interfering substances in SRM 2721.

  5. Production and characterization of a bovine liver candidate reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, S. R.; Peixoto, A. M. J.; Souza, G. B.; Tullio, R. R.; Nogueira, A. R. A.

    2016-07-01

    The preparation of a bovine liver candidate reference material and the steps are taken to confirm its homogeneity, long and short term stabilities, and consensus values are described. Details of the sample preparation and the final collaborative exercise are presented. The material elemental composition was characterized by 17 elements (As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mo, Mn, Na, P, Pb, Se, Sr, V, and Zn) of nutritional and toxicological significance.

  6. 10 CFR 433.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, Sixth... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.3 Materials incorporated by reference....

  7. 10 CFR 431.263 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.263 Section 431.263 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL..., Forrestal Building, Room 1J-018 (Resource Room of the Building Technologies Program), 1000...

  8. 10 CFR 433.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, Sixth... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.3 Materials incorporated by reference....

  9. 10 CFR 433.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, Sixth... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.3 Materials incorporated by reference....

  10. 10 CFR 431.263 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.263 Section 431.263 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL..., Forrestal Building, Room 1J-018 (Resource Room of the Building Technologies Program), 1000...

  11. 49 CFR 572.110 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1733 Information Report, titled “Sign Convention for Vehicle Crash Testing,” dated December 1994. (16) SAE Recommended Practice J211, “Instrumentation for Impact Tests...) The SAE materials referred to in paragraphs (a)(15) and (a)(16) of this section are available from...

  12. 49 CFR 572.110 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1733 Information Report, titled “Sign Convention for Vehicle Crash Testing,” dated December 1994. (16) SAE Recommended Practice J211, “Instrumentation for Impact Tests...) The SAE materials referred to in paragraphs (a)(15) and (a)(16) of this section are available from...

  13. 9 CFR 77.1 - Material incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.1 Material incorporated by reference. Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication. The Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication (January 22, 1999, edition)...

  14. 9 CFR 77.1 - Material incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.1 Material incorporated by reference. Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication. The Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication (January 22, 1999, edition)...

  15. 9 CFR 77.1 - Material incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.1 Material incorporated by reference. Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication. The Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication (January 22, 1999, edition)...

  16. 9 CFR 77.1 - Material incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.1 Material incorporated by reference. Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication. The Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication (January 22, 1999, edition)...

  17. 9 CFR 77.1 - Material incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS General Provisions § 77.1 Material incorporated by reference. Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication. The Uniform Methods and Rules—Bovine Tuberculosis Eradication (January 22, 1999, edition)...

  18. 10 CFR 431.223 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.223 Section 431.223 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL.... Department of Energy, Forrestal Building, Room 1J-018 (Resource Room of the Building Technologies...

  19. 10 CFR 431.293 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.293 Section 431.293 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN...

  20. 10 CFR 431.263 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.263 Section 431.263 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL... to: http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/cfr/ibr-locations.html. (ii) U.S. Department of...

  1. 10 CFR 431.85 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th Floor, 950 L'Enfant Plaza, SW... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.85 Section 431.85 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL...

  2. 10 CFR 431.105 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. (ii) U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.105 Section 431.105 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN...

  3. 10 CFR 431.323 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th Floor... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.323 Section 431.323 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN...

  4. 10 CFR 431.105 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. (ii) U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.105 Section 431.105 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN...

  5. 10 CFR 431.95 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Hearings and Dockets, “Test Procedures and Efficiency Standards... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.95 Section 431.95 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL...

  6. 10 CFR 431.85 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th Floor, 950 L'Enfant Plaza, SW... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.85 Section 431.85 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL...

  7. 10 CFR 431.105 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th Floor, 950 L'Enfant... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.105 Section 431.105 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN...

  8. 10 CFR 431.133 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... inspection at the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.133 Section 431.133 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN...

  9. 10 CFR 431.293 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.293 Section 431.293 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN...

  10. 10 CFR 431.263 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th Floor, 950 L'Enfant Plaza SW... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.263 Section 431.263 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN...

  11. 10 CFR 431.293 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Materials incorporated by reference. 431.293 Section 431.293 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN...

  12. Analysis of standard reference materials by absolute INAA

    SciTech Connect

    Heft, R.E.; Koszykowski, R.F.

    1981-07-01

    Three standard reference materials, flyash, soil, and ASI 4340 steel, were analyzed by a method of absolute instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Two different light water pool-type reactors were used to produce equivalent analytical results even though the epithermal to thermal flux ratio in one reactor was higher than that in the other by a factor of two.

  13. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Working Reference Material Production Pla

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Amy; Thronas, Denise; Marshall, Robert

    1998-11-04

    This Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Working Reference Material Production Plan was written for LLNL by the Los Alamos National Laboratory to address key elements of producing seven Pu-diatomaceous earth NDA Working Reference Materials (WRMS). These WRMS contain low burnup Pu ranging in mass from 0.1 grams to 68 grams. The composite Pu mass of the seven WRMS was designed to approximate the maximum TRU allowable loading of 200 grams Pu. This document serves two purposes: first, it defines all the operations required to meet the LLNL Statement of Work quality objectives, and second, it provides a record of the production and certification of the WRMS. Guidance provided in ASTM Standard Guide C1128-89 was used to ensure that this Plan addressed all the required elements for producing and certifying Working Reference Materials. The Production Plan was written to provide a general description of the processes, steps, files, quality control, and certification measures that were taken to produce the WRMS. The Plan identifies the files where detailed procedures, data, quality control, and certification documentation and forms are retained. The Production Plan is organized into three parts: a) an initial section describing the preparation and characterization of the Pu02 and diatomaceous earth materials, b) middle sections describing the loading, encapsulation, and measurement on the encapsulated WRMS, and c) final sections describing the calculations of the Pu, Am, and alpha activity for the WRMS and the uncertainties associated with these quantities.

  14. Nanoscale reference materials for environmental, health and safety measurements: needs, gaps and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Hackley, Vincent A; Roebben, Gert; Ehara, Kensei; Hankin, Steve; Postek, Michael T; Lynch, Iseult; Fu, Wei-En; Linsinger, Thomas P J; Thünemann, Andreas F

    2013-12-01

    The authors critically reviewed published lists of nano-objects and their physico-chemical properties deemed important for risk assessment and discussed metrological challenges associated with the development of nanoscale reference materials (RMs). Five lists were identified that contained 25 (classes of) nano-objects; only four (gold, silicon dioxide, silver, titanium dioxide) appeared on all lists. Twenty-three properties were identified for characterisation; only (specific) surface area appeared on all lists. The key themes that emerged from this review were: 1) various groups have prioritised nano-objects for development as "candidate RMs" with limited consensus; 2) a lack of harmonised terminology hinders accurate description of many nano-object properties; 3) many properties identified for characterisation are ill-defined or qualitative and hence are not metrologically traceable; 4) standardised protocols are critically needed for characterisation of nano-objects as delivered in relevant media and as administered to toxicological models; 5) the measurement processes being used to characterise a nano-object must be understood because instruments may measure a given sample in a different way; 6) appropriate RMs should be used for both accurate instrument calibration and for more general testing purposes (e.g., protocol validation); 7) there is a need to clarify that where RMs are not available, if "(representative) test materials" that lack reference or certified values may be useful for toxicology testing and 8) there is a need for consensus building within the nanotechnology and environmental, health and safety communities to prioritise RM needs and better define the required properties and (physical or chemical) forms of the candidate materials.

  15. Water as a source of errors in reference materials.

    PubMed

    Rückold, S; Grobecker, K H; Isengard, H D

    2001-06-01

    In the field of reference materials, long-term stability is of highest importance. Particularly for biological matrices, any kind of deterioration must be avoided during shelf-life. In the production precautions are taken to prevent these, but possible alterations caused by intensive drying have been underestimated until today. This presentation discusses several mechanisms of deterioration related to water activity and water content. Comparison of the results for water and moisture for six reference materials and their water sorption isotherms serve as a base to discuss the importance of accurate dry mass corrections for certified values. It is shown that the method chosen for dry mass correction influences certified contents significantly and a method description must be given. Furthermore, it is confirmed that for biological matrices optimal ranges of water activity and water content exist, where hygroscopicity is low without significant danger of product deterioration. Additionally, handling is facilitated in the optimised ranges.

  16. Primary certification of reference material for electrolytic conductivity of bioethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, L. F.; Gomes, M. R. F.; Cassini, G. C.; Faria, A. C. V.; Fraga, I. C. S.

    2016-07-01

    Nowadays the preservation of the planet is spreading into the international scene with the use of renewable energy sources such as bioethanol. The challenge is to guarantee the quality of produced bioethanol, and the electrolytic conductivity (EC) is one of the specified parameters for this purpose. However, is necessary to demonstrate the metrological traceability of the measurement results for EC in this matrix. This study presents the certification of a reference material for EC in bioethanol by using only primary measurements. The value of primary certified reference material (CRM) is (0.77 ± 0.06) µS.cm-1, and its use will provide the metrological traceability needed for measurement results in laboratories.

  17. Determination of ephedrine alkaloids in dietary supplement standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Satterfield, Mary B; Ihara, Toshihide; Phinney, Karen W; Yen, James H; Wise, Stephen A; Gay, Martha L; Lam, Joseph W; McCooeye, Margaret; Gardner, Graeme; Fraser, Catharine; Sturgeon, Ralph; Roman, Mark

    2005-05-15

    A suite of five ephedra-containing dietary supplement Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) has been issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with certified values for ephedrine alkaloids, synephrine, caffeine, and selected toxic trace elements. The materials represent a variety of natural, extracted, and processed sample matrixes that provide different analytical challenges. The constituents have been determined by multiple independent methods with measurements performed by NIST and by three collaborating laboratories. The methods utilized different sample extraction and cleanup steps in addition to different instrumental analytical techniques and approaches to quantification. In addition, food-matrix proximates were determined by National Food Processor Association laboratories for one of the ephedra-containing SRMs. The SRMs are primarily intended for method validation and for use as control materials to support the analysis of dietary supplements and related botanical materials.

  18. Development of a Thin Film Magnetic Moment Reference Material

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, D. P.; Halloran, S. T.; Owings, R. R.; da Silva, F. C. S.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present the development of a magnetic moment reference material for low moment magnetic samples. We first conducted an inter-laboratory comparison to determine the most useful sample dimensions and magnetic properties for common instruments such as vibrating sample magnetometers (VSM), SQUIDs, and alternating gradient field magnetometers. The samples were fabricated and then measured using a vibrating sample magnetometer. Their magnetic moments were calibrated by tracing back to the NIST YIG sphere, SRM 2853. PMID:27096108

  19. Aluminum analysis in biological reference material by nondestructive methods

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberger, S.; Arendt, A.; Keck, B.; Glascock, M.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, the determination of aluminum in biological materials has become the subject of many research projects. This interest stems from an increasing knowledge of the toxicity of aluminum to both aquatic and human life. Unfortunately, the detection of aluminum in biological materials has proven troublesome. The use of traditional chemical determinations has been shown to be very long and somewhat complicated. Several attempts have been made using neutron activation analysis, but an interfering reaction must be taken into account. In this experiment the rabbit irradiation facilities at the University of Missouri Research Reactor were used. The aluminum concentrations for eight certified reference materials are shown. When US National Bureau of Standards (NBS) value is given as certified or as an information value, results agree very well. The results for NBS 1572 citrus leaves agree, and NBS 1577 results agree very well with that of Glascock et al.

  20. In-house reference material characterization using nuclear methods

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.L.; Cunningham, W.C.

    1994-12-31

    Inclusion of standard reference materials (SRMs) in chemical analysis schemes is an important component of quality control (QC) programs. Effectiveness as QC materials depends on how closely SRM matrices match (in both bulk composition and analyte concentrations) those of the unknowns. For food analysis, wide ranges of matrices and compositions are encountered, and appropriate SRM availability is limited. Moreover, day-to-day use of gram quantities of SRMs during analyses of large numbers of food test samples, such as for the Food and Drug Administration`s (FDA`s) Total Diet Study Program, results in high costs and rapid depletion. To overcome these problems, FDA`s Elemental Research Branch has examined two off-the-shelf foods, soy-based powdered infant formula (SPIF), and cocoa powder, as candidates for in-house (secondary) reference materials. Both materials are relatively homogeneous in particle size and composition and have long shelf lives with no refrigeration. The SPIF is formulated to be a complete infant diet with proper fat content and is fortified with essential vitamins, minerals, and essential elements. At FDA`s Kansas City laboratory, cocoa powder was found to have enough fat to require (desirably) moderate effort for acid digestion and to have cadmium, nickel, and lead concentrations at levels appropriate for graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry QC procedures. This material also has suitable concentrations for determination of a number of other elements of interest (e.g., calcium, copper, chromium, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, and zinc). Basis weight stabilities, the number of analytes quantitatable by neutron activation methods, and homogeneities for these materials were investigated.

  1. RM2: rms error comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    The root-mean-square error performance measure is used to compare the relative performance of several widely known source coding algorithms with the RM2 image data compression system. The results demonstrate that RM2 has a uniformly significant performance advantage.

  2. Characterization of Ricin and R. communis Agglutinin Reference Materials

    PubMed Central

    Worbs, Sylvia; Skiba, Martin; Söderström, Martin; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Zeleny, Reinhard; Russmann, Heiko; Schimmel, Heinz; Vanninen, Paula; Fredriksson, Sten-Åke; Dorner, Brigitte G.

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis intoxications have been known for centuries and were attributed to the toxic protein ricin. Due to its toxicity, availability, ease of preparation, and the lack of medical countermeasures, ricin attracted interest as a potential biological warfare agent. While different technologies for ricin analysis have been established, hardly any universally agreed-upon “gold standards” are available. Expert laboratories currently use differently purified in-house materials, making any comparison of accuracy and sensitivity of different methods nearly impossible. Technically challenging is the discrimination of ricin from R. communis agglutinin (RCA120), a less toxic but highly homologous protein also contained in R. communis. Here, we established both highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials which were extensively characterized by gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight approaches as well as immunological and functional techniques. Purity reached >97% for ricin and >99% for RCA120. Different isoforms of ricin and RCA120 were identified unambiguously and distinguished by LC-ESI MS/MS. In terms of function, a real-time cytotoxicity assay showed that ricin is approximately 300-fold more toxic than RCA120. The highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials were used to conduct an international proficiency test. PMID:26703723

  3. Recent developments in food-matrix Reference Materials at NIST.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, K E; Colbert, J C; Greenberg, R R; Schantz, M M; Welch, M J

    2001-06-01

    Since 1996, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed several food-matrix Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) characterized for nutrient concentrations. These include SRM 1544 Fatty Acids and Cholesterol in a Frozen Diet Composite, SRM 1546 Meat Homogenate, SRM 1548a Typical Diet, SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue, SRM 1846 Infant Formula, and SRM 2383 Baby Food Composite. Three additional materials--SRM 1946 Lake Superior Fish Tissue, SRM 2384 Baking Chocolate, and SRM 2385 Spinach--are in preparation. NIST also recently assigned values for proximate (fat, protein, etc.), individual fatty acid, and total dietary fiber concentrations in a number of existing SRMs and reference materials (RMs) that previously had values assigned for their elemental composition. NIST has used several modes for assignment of analyte concentrations in the food-matrix RMs, including the use of data provided by collaborating laboratories, alone and in combination with NIST data. The use of data provided by collaborating food industry and contract laboratories for the analysis of food-matrix RMs has enabled NIST to provide assigned values for many analytes that NIST does not have the resources or analytical expertise to measure.

  4. Characterization of Ricin and R. communis Agglutinin Reference Materials.

    PubMed

    Worbs, Sylvia; Skiba, Martin; Söderström, Martin; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Zeleny, Reinhard; Russmann, Heiko; Schimmel, Heinz; Vanninen, Paula; Fredriksson, Sten-Åke; Dorner, Brigitte G

    2015-11-26

    Ricinus communis intoxications have been known for centuries and were attributed to the toxic protein ricin. Due to its toxicity, availability, ease of preparation, and the lack of medical countermeasures, ricin attracted interest as a potential biological warfare agent. While different technologies for ricin analysis have been established, hardly any universally agreed-upon "gold standards" are available. Expert laboratories currently use differently purified in-house materials, making any comparison of accuracy and sensitivity of different methods nearly impossible. Technically challenging is the discrimination of ricin from R. communis agglutinin (RCA120), a less toxic but highly homologous protein also contained in R. communis. Here, we established both highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials which were extensively characterized by gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight approaches as well as immunological and functional techniques. Purity reached >97% for ricin and >99% for RCA120. Different isoforms of ricin and RCA120 were identified unambiguously and distinguished by LC-ESI MS/MS. In terms of function, a real-time cytotoxicity assay showed that ricin is approximately 300-fold more toxic than RCA120. The highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials were used to conduct an international proficiency test.

  5. Agricultural biological reference materials for analytical quality control

    SciTech Connect

    Ihnat, M.

    1986-01-01

    Cooperative work is under way at Agriculture Canada, US Department of Agriculture, and US National Bureau of Standards in an attempt to fill some of the gaps in the world repertoire of reference materials and to provide much needed control materials for laboratories' day to day operations. This undertaking involves the preparation and characterization of a number of agricultural and food materials for data quality control for inorganic constituents. Parameters considered in the development of these materials were material selection based on importance in commerce and analysis; techniques of preparation, processing, and packaging; physical and chemical characterization; homogeneity testing and quantitation (certification). A large number of agricultural/food products have been selected to represent a wide range of not only levels of sought-for constituents (elements) but also a wide range of matrix components such as protein, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, fat, and ash. Elements whose concentrations are being certified cover some two dozen major, minor, and trace elements of nutritional, toxicological, and environmental significance.

  6. Determination of vitamins in food-matrix Standard Reference Materials.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, K E; Margolis, S; Thomas, J B

    2000-06-09

    In recent years, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed several food-matrix Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) characterized for vitamins and other organic nutrients. NIST uses several "modes" for assignment of analyte concentrations in SRMs, one of which includes the use of data provided by collaborating laboratories. Certification modes and liquid chromatographic methods that were used by NIST for value assignment of vitamin concentrations in recently introduced food-matrix SRMs are described in this paper. These materials and methods include vitamins D and E in coconut oil (SRM 1563) by gravimetry and multi-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC); vitamins A, E, and several B vitamins by reversed-phase LC and vitamin C by ion-exchange chromatography in infant formula (SRM 1846); and carotenoids and vitamins A and E by reversed-phase liquid chromatography in a baby food composite (SRM 2383).

  7. The new IAEA reference material: IAEA-434 technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) in phosphogypsum.

    PubMed

    Shakhashiro, A; Sansone, U; Wershofen, H; Bollhöfer, A; Kim, C K; Kim, C S; Kis-Benedek, G; Korun, M; Moune, M; Lee, S H; Tarjan, S; Al-Masri, M S

    2011-01-01

    A reliable determination of Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in phosphogypsum is necessary to comply with radiation protection and environmental regulations. In this respect, a new phosphogypsum reference material was produced and certified to assist in the validation of analytical methods and the quality assurance of produced analytical results. This paper presents the sample preparation methodology, material homogeneity assessment, characterization campaign results and assignment of property values, and associated uncertainties. The reference values and associated uncertainties for Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234 and U-238 were established based on consensus values calculated from analytical results reported by three National Metrology Institutes and five expert laboratories.

  8. Lithium isotope composition of basalt glass reference material.

    PubMed

    Kasemann, Simone A; Jeffcoate, Alistair B; Elliott, Tim

    2005-08-15

    We present data on the lithium isotope compositions of glass reference materials from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) determined by multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS), thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), and secondary ionization mass spectrometry (SIMS). Our data on the USGS basaltic glass standards agree within 2 per thousand, independent of the sample matrix or Li concentration. For SIMS analysis, we propose use of the USGS glasses GSD-1G (delta(7)Li 31.14 +/- 0.8 per thousand, 2sigma) and BCR-2G (delta(7)Li 4.08 +/- 1.0 per thousand, 2sigma) as suitable standards that cover a wide range of Li isotope compositions. Lithium isotope measurements on the silica-rich NIST 600 glass series by MC-ICPMS and TIMS agree within 0.8 per thousand, but SIMS analyses show systematic isotopic differences. Our results suggest that SIMS Li isotope analyses have a significant matrix bias in high-silica materials. Our data are intended to serve as a reference for both microanalytical and bulk analytical techniques and to improve comparisons between Li isotope data produced by different methodologies.

  9. Copper Oxide Precipitates in NBS Standard Reference Material 482

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, Eric S.; Carlton, Robert A.; Gillen, Greg; Wight, Scott A.; Bright, David S.

    2002-01-01

    Copper oxide has been detected in the copper containing alloys of NBS Standard Reference Material (SRM) 482. This occurrence is significant because it represents heterogeneity within a standard reference material that was certified to be homogeneous on a micrometer scale. Oxide occurs as elliptically to spherically shaped precipitates whose size differs with alloy composition. The largest precipitates occur in the Au20-Cu80 alloy and range in size from submicrometer up to 2 μm in diameter. Precipitates are observed using light microscopy, electron microscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). SIMS has demonstrated that the precipitates are present within all the SRM 482 wires that contain copper. Only the pure gold wire is precipitate free. Initial results from the analysis of the Au20-Cu80 alloy indicate that the percentage of precipitates is less than 1 % by area. Electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) of large (2 μm) precipitates in this same alloy indicates that precipitates are detectable by EPMA and that their composition differs significantly from the certified alloy composition. The small size and low percentage of these oxide precipitates minimizes the impact that they have upon the intended use of this standard for electron probe microanalysis. Heterogeneity caused by these oxide precipitates may however preclude the use of this standard for automated EPMA analyses and other microanalysis techniques. PMID:27446759

  10. Flouescence reference materials used for optical and biophotonic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, A.; Otterman, C.; Klahn, J.; Enseling, D.; Korb, T.; Resch-Genger, U.; Hoffmann, K.; Schweizer, S.; Selling, J.; Kynast, U.; Koberling, F.; Rupertus, V.

    2007-07-01

    Fluorescence techniques are known for their high sensitivity and are widely used as analytical tools and detection methods for product and process control, material sciences, environmental and bio-technical analysis, molecular genetics, cell biology, medical diagnostics, and drug screening. According to DIN/ISO 17025 certified standards are used for fluorescence diagnostics having the drawback of giving relative values for fluorescence intensities only. Therefore reference materials for a quantitative characterization have to be related directly to the materials under investigation. In order to evaluate these figures it is necessary to calculate absolute numbers like absorption/excitation cross sections and quantum yield. This can be done for different types of dopands in different materials like glass, glass ceramics, crystals or nano crystalline material embedded in polymer matrices. Based on the optical spectroscopy data we will discuss options for characteristic doped glasses and glass ceramics with respect to scattering and absorption regime. It has shown recently for YAG:Ce glass ceramics that for a proper determination of the quantum efficiency in these highly scattering media a reference material with similar scattering and fluorescent properties is required. This may be performed using the emission decay measurement diagnostics, where the decay time is below 100 ns. In this paper we present first results of these aspects using well performing LUMOGEN RED organic pigments for a comparison of mainly transparent glass with glass ceramics doped with various amounts of dopands e.g. ions of raw earth elements and transition metals. The LUMOGEN red is embedded in silica and polyurethane matrices. Characterisations on wavelength accuracy and lifetime for different environmental conditions (temperature, UV irradiation) have been performed. Moreover intensity patterns and results for homogeneity, isotropy, photo and thermal stability will be discussed. In a next

  11. Certification of nutrients in Standard Reference Material 1846: infant formula.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, K E; Schiller, S B; Margolis, S A; Thomas, J B; Iyengar, G V; Colbert, J C; Gills, T E; Wise, S A; Tanner, J T; Wolf, W R

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) released Standard Reference Material 1846 (Infant Formula), which can be used as a control material for assigning values to in-house control materials and for validating analytical methods for measurement of proximates, vitamins, and minerals in infant formula and similar matrixes. The SRM was manufactured by preparing a spray-dried formula base containing fat, protein, carbohydrates, and minerals and then combining that formula base with a dry-blend vitamin premix that supplied the vitamins. The Certificate of Analysis for SRM 1846 provides assigned values for concentrations of proximates (fat, protein, etc.), vitamins, and minerals for which product labeling is required by the Infant Formula Act of 1980 and by the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990. These assigned values were based on agreement of measurements by NIST and/or collaborating laboratories. Certified values are provided for vitamins A (trans), E, C, B2, and B6 and niacin. Noncertified values are provided for solids, ash, fat, nitrogen, protein, carbohydrate, calories, vitamin D, delta-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, vitamin B1, vitamin B12, folic acid, pantothenic acid, biotin, choline, inositol, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, sodium, potassium, and chloride. Information values are provided for iodine, manganese, selenium, and vitamin K.

  12. Certification of standard reference materials containing bitter orange.

    PubMed

    Sander, L C; Putzbach, K; Nelson, B C; Rimmer, C A; Bedner, M; Thomas, J Brown; Porter, B J; Wood, L J; Schantz, M M; Murphy, K E; Sharpless, K E; Wise, S A; Yen, J H; Siitonen, P H; Evans, R L; Nguyen Pho, A; Roman, M C; Betz, J M

    2008-07-01

    A suite of three dietary supplement standard reference materials (SRMs) containing bitter orange has been developed, and the levels of five alkaloids and caffeine have been measured by multiple analytical methods. Synephrine, octopamine, tyramine, N-methyltyramine, hordenine, total alkaloids, and caffeine were determined by as many as six analytical methods, with measurements performed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology and at two collaborating laboratories. The methods offer substantial independence, with two types of extractions, two separation methods, and four detection methods. Excellent agreement was obtained among the measurements, with data reproducibility for most methods and analytes better than 5% relative standard deviation. The bitter-orange-containing dietary supplement SRMs are intended primarily for use as measurement controls and for use in the development and validation of analytical methods.

  13. Transportation of reagents, reference materials and samples: the international perspective.

    PubMed

    Pearson, J E; Edwards, S

    2006-01-01

    The International Regulations for the transport of infectious substances, which could include reagents, reference material and samples, are based on the 13th revision of the United Nations Model Regulations and are the standard for transport of infectious substances by all means of transportation. The 13th revision, effective January 2005 and further amended in March and July 2005, made major improvements in these shipping regulations. They specifically exempt certain substances, including those that have been neutralized or inactivated to destroy any pathogens and samples from "normal" animals. Infectious substances are divided into Category A, which includes primarily cultures of the more pathogenic agents and Category B, which includes all other substances that do not meet the Category A criteria. Tissue specimens, submitted for diagnosis, are included in Category B. Category A shipments must have a Dangerous Goods Certificate and meet other requirements; Category B shipments do not. The National requirements, such as import permits, and certain airline restrictions must also be met.

  14. Certification of a new certified reference material of honokiol.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shiying; Yang, Dezhi; Hu, Kun; Zhou, Haohui; Guo, Yonghui; Du, Guanhua; Lu, Yang

    2015-07-01

    Honokiol is the most important active pharmaceutical ingredient in Magnolia officinalis, which is a famous traditional Chinese medicine and commonly used in clinical practice. In order to control the quality of honokiol and related pharmaceuticals, a new certified reference material (CRM) of honokiol was developed. The studies of sample preparation, homogeneity, stability, value assignment, and uncertainty evaluation were accomplished in this paper. Three different methods, including differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), mass balance method (MB), and coulometric titration (CT), were employed to determine the purity of honokiol. Specifically, the DSC and CT methods for purity determination of honokiol were established for the first time. The purity of honokiol CRM, after validation and evaluation, was found to be 99.3%, with an expanded uncertainty of 0.5% (k = 2).

  15. Bias detection and certified reference materials for random measurands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukhin, Andrew L.

    2015-12-01

    A problem that frequently occurs in metrology is the bias checking of data obtained by a laboratory against the specified value and uncertainty estimate given in the certificate of analysis. The measurand—a property of a certified reference material (CRM)—is supposed to be random with a normal distribution whose parameters are given by the certificate specifications. The laboratory’s data from subsequent measurements of the CRM (a CRM experiment) are summarized by the sample mean value and its uncertainty which is commonly based on a repeatability standard deviation. New confidence intervals for the lab’s bias are derived. Although they may lack intuitive appeal, those obtained by using higher order asymptotic methods, compared and contrasted in this paper, are recommended.

  16. New Carbonate Standard Reference Materials for Boron Isotope Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, J.; Christopher, S. J.; Day, R. D.

    2015-12-01

    The isotopic composition of boron (δ11B) in marine carbonates is well established as a proxy for past ocean pH. Yet, before palaeoceanographic interpretation can be made, rigorous assessment of analytical uncertainty of δ11B data is required; particularly in light of recent interlaboratory comparison studies that reported significant measurement disagreement between laboratories [1]. Well characterised boron standard reference materials (SRMs) in a carbonate matrix are needed to assess the accuracy and precision of carbonate δ11B measurements throughout the entire procedural chemistry; from sample cleaning, to ionic separation of boron from the carbonate matrix, and final δ11B measurement by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. To date only two carbonate reference materials exist that have been value-assigned by the boron isotope measurement community [2]; JCp-1 (porites coral) and JCt-1 (Giant Clam) [3]. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) will supplement these existing standards with new solution based inorganic carbonate boron SRMs that replicate typical foraminiferal and coral B/Ca ratios and δ11B values. These new SRMs will not only ensure quality control of full procedural chemistry between laboratories, but have the added benefits of being both in abundant supply and free from any restrictions associated with shipment of biogenic samples derived from protected species. Here we present in-house δ11B measurements of these new boron carbonate SRM solutions. These preliminary data will feed into an interlaboratory comparison study to establish certified values for these new NIST SRMs. 1. Foster, G.L., et al., Chemical Geology, 2013. 358(0): p. 1-14. 2. Gutjahr, M., et al., Boron Isotope Intercomparison Project (BIIP): Development of a new carbonate standard for stable isotopic analyses. Geophysical Research Abstracts, EGU General Assembly 2014, 2014. 16(EGU2014-5028-1). 3. Inoue, M., et al., Geostandards and

  17. Production of Working Reference Materials for the Capability Evaluation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Phillip D. Noll, Jr.; Robert S. Marshall

    1999-03-01

    Nondestructive waste assay (NDA) methods are employed to determine the mass and activity of waste-entrained radionuclides as part of the National TRU (Trans-Uranic) Waste Characterization Program. In support of this program the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Mixed Waste Focus Area developed a plan to acquire capability/performance data on systems proposed for NDA purposes. The Capability Evaluation Project (CEP) was designed to evaluate the NDA systems of commercial contractors by subjecting all participants to identical tests involving 55 gallon drum surrogates containing known quantities and distributions of radioactive materials in the form of sealed-source standards, referred to as working reference materials (WRMs). Although numerous Pu WRMs already exist, the CEP WRM set allows for the evaluation of the capability and performance of systems with respect to waste types/configurations which contain increased amounts of {sup 241}Am relative to weapons grade Pu, waste that is dominantly {sup 241}Am, as well as wastes containing various proportions of depleted uranium. The CEP WRMs consist of a special mixture of PuO{sub 2}/AmO{sub 2} (IAP) and diatomaceous earth (DE) or depleted uranium (DU) oxide and DE and were fabricated at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The IAP WRMS are contained inside a pair of welded inner and outer stainless steel containers. The DU WRMs are singly contained within a stainless steel container equivalent to the outer container of the IAP standards. This report gives a general overview and discussion relating to the production and certification of the CEP WRMs.

  18. Anorganic fluorescence reference materials for decay time of fluorescence emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, A.; Ottermann, C.; Klahn, J.; Korb, T.; Resch-Genger, U.; Hoffmann, K.; Kynast, U.; Rupertus, V.

    2008-02-01

    Fluorescence techniques are known for their high sensitivity and are widely used as analytical tools, detection methods and imaging applications for product and process control, material sciences, environmental and bio-technical analysis, molecular genetics, cell biology, medical diagnostics, and drug screening. According to DIN/ISO 17025 certified standards are used for steady state fluorescence diagnostics, a method having the drawback of giving relative values for fluorescence intensities only. Therefore reference materials for a quantitative characterization have to be related directly to the materials under investigation. In order to evaluate these figures it is necessary to calculate absolute numbers such as absorption/excitation cross sections and quantum yield. This has been done for different types of dopands in different materials such as glass, glass ceramics, crystals or nano crystalline material embedded in polymer matrices. Samples doped with several fluophores of different emission wavelengths and decay times are required for fluorescent multiplexing applications. Decay times shorter than 100 ns are of special interest. In addition, a proper knowledge is necessary of quantum efficiency in highly scattering media. Recently, quantum efficiency in YAG:Ce glass ceramics has been successfully investigated. Glass and glass ceramics doped with threefold charged rare earth elements are available. However, these samples have the disadvantage of emission decay times much longer than 1 microsecond, due to the excitation and emission of their optical forbidden electronic transitions. Therefore first attempts have been made to produce decay-time standards based on organic and inorganic fluophores. Stable LUMOGEN RED pigments and YAG:Ce phosphors are diluted simultaneously in silicone matrices using a wide range of concentrations between 0.0001 and 2 wt%. Organic LUMOGEN RED has decay times in the lower nanosecond range with a slight dependency on concentration

  19. Primary and secondary reference materials for procedures to test the quality of medicines and foods.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Walter W

    2012-04-01

    At present a complex global patchwork of private and public monographs and reference materials is variously available to help ensure the quality of medicines and foods. The relationship of these monographs and reference materials, one to another, frequently is inconsistently understood and documented.This article considers the complexity of monographs and reference materials with a focus on qualifying one reference material relative to another.

  20. Laboratory Reference Spectroscopy of Icy Satellite Candidate Surface Materials (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, J. B.; Jamieson, C. S.; Shirley, J. H.; Pitman, K. M.; Kariya, M.; Crandall, P.

    2013-12-01

    The bulk of our knowledge of icy satellite composition continues to be derived from ultraviolet, visible and infrared remote sensing observations. Interpretation of remote sensing observations relies on availability of laboratory reference spectra of candidate surface materials. These are compared directly to observations, or incorporated into models to generate synthetic spectra representing mixtures of the candidate materials. Spectral measurements for the study of icy satellites must be taken under appropriate conditions (cf. Dalton, 2010; also http://mos.seti.org/icyworldspectra.html for a database of compounds) of temperature (typically 50 to 150 K), pressure (from 10-9 to 10-3 Torr), viewing geometry, (i.e., reflectance), and optical depth (must manifest near infrared bands but avoid saturation in the mid-infrared fundamentals). The Planetary Ice Characterization Laboratory (PICL) is being developed at JPL to provide robust reference spectra for icy satellite surface materials. These include sulfate hydrates, hydrated and hydroxylated minerals, and both organic and inorganic volatile ices. Spectral measurements are performed using an Analytical Spectral Devices FR3 portable grating spectrometer from .35 to 2.5 microns, and a Thermo-Nicolet 6500 Fourier-Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometer from 1.25 to 20 microns. These are interfaced with the Basic Extraterrestrial Environment Simulation Testbed (BEEST), a vacuum chamber capable of pressures below 10-9 Torr with a closed loop liquid helium cryostat with custom heating element capable of temperatures from 30-800 Kelvins. To generate optical constants (real and imaginary index of refraction) for use in nonlinear mixing models (i.e., Hapke, 1981 and Shkuratov, 1999), samples are ground and sieved to six different size fractions or deposited at varying rates to provide a range of grain sizes for optical constants calculations based on subtractive Kramers-Kronig combined with Hapke forward modeling (Dalton and

  1. Development of working reference materials for clinical virology.

    PubMed

    Fryer, Jacqueline F; Baylis, Sally A; Gottlieb, Anna L; Ferguson, Morag; Vincini, Giuseppe A; Bevan, Valerie M; Carman, William F; Minor, Philip D

    2008-12-01

    Nucleic acid amplification technique (NAT)-based assays are replacing traditional diagnostic methods in clinical laboratories. However, many of these assays are developed in-house and the lack of standardised reference materials has hindered assay implementation and control. Consequently, in the UK, the Clinical Virology Network (CVN), the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control (NIBSC), and the Health Protection Agency (HPA), are working in collaboration to develop working standards or 'run controls' for diagnostic NAT-based assays, particularly real-time PCR. These run controls are intended for use in microbiology laboratories and are designed to be extracted and amplified in the same way as clinical samples and included in each assay run. The aim is to enable clinical laboratories to continuously monitor the performance of their diagnostic NAT assays on a run-by-run basis allowing inter-laboratory comparisons, and ultimately improving the consistency of results. At present, eight candidate run controls representing clinically relevant viral targets have been prepared for evaluation by CVN laboratories. Data have been returned on the performance of each run control in routine diagnostic assays. Preliminary results presented here indicate a high level of variability in intra- and inter-assay detection of these targets, highlighting the need for standardisation of assays within molecular diagnostics.

  2. LA-ICP-MS of magnetite: Methods and reference materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nadoll, P.; Koenig, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) is a common accessory mineral in many geologic settings. Its variable geochemistry makes it a powerful petrogenetic indicator. Electron microprobe (EMPA) analyses are commonly used to examine major and minor element contents in magnetite. Laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) is applicable to trace element analyses of magnetite but has not been widely employed to examine compositional variations. We tested the applicability of the NIST SRM 610, the USGS GSE-1G, and the NIST SRM 2782 reference materials (RMs) as external standards and developed a reliable method for LA-ICP-MS analysis of magnetite. LA-ICP-MS analyses were carried out on well characterized magnetite samples with a 193 nm, Excimer, ArF LA system. Although matrix-matched RMs are sometimes important for calibration and normalization of LA-ICP-MS data, we demonstrate that glass RMs can produce accurate results for LA-ICP-MS analyses of magnetite. Cross-comparison between the NIST SRM 610 and USGS GSE-1G indicates good agreement for magnetite minor and trace element data calibrated with either of these RMs. Many elements show a sufficiently good match between the LA-ICP-MS and the EMPA data; for example, Ti and V show a close to linear relationship with correlation coefficients, R2 of 0.79 and 0.85 respectively. ?? 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Standard Reference Materials for dioxins and other environmental pollutants.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, R

    1991-05-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology issues approximately 1100 Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) certified for chemical composition or physical properties. A number of these SRMs has been developed to assist chemists in analyzing environmental samples more reliably for chlorinated dioxins and other organic pollutants. Certification of the pollutant concentration in a natural matrix SRM is based on concordant analyses by the NIST Organic Analytical Research Division using at least two independent methods. For a calibration solution, such as SRM 1614, Dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) in Isooctane, certification is based on agreement of the calculated concentration based on the gravimetric preparation and the concentration as determined experimentally. SRM 1614 also includes a 13C-labeled 2,3,7,8-TCDD for use as an internal standard in methods based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The certified concentrations (ng g-1) are 98.3 +/- 3.3 for the unlabeled dioxin and 95.6 +/- 1.5 for the labeled dioxin. The certificates for SRM 1588, Organics in Cod Liver Oil, and SRM 1589, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (as Aroclor 1260) in Human Serum, provide noncertified concentrations of dioxins. Concentrations of chlorinated dioxins in two urban particulate SRMs have been reported in the literature.

  4. Development of a southern oceanic air standard reference material.

    PubMed

    Rhoderick, George C; Kelley, Michael E; Miller, Walter R; Brailsford, Gordon; Possolo, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    In 2009, the United States Congress charged the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) with supporting climate change research. As part of this effort, the Gas Sensing Metrology Group at NIST began developing new gas standard mixtures for greenhouse gas mixtures relevant to atmospheric measurements. Suites of gravimetrically prepared primary standard mixtures (PSMs) were prepared at ambient concentration levels for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) in a dry-air balance. In parallel, 30 gas cylinders were filled, by the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) in Wellington, New Zealand, to high pressure from pristine southern oceanic air at Baring Head, New Zealand, and shipped to NIST. Using spectroscopic instrumentation, NIST analyzed the 30 cylinder samples for mole fractions of CO2, CH4, and N2O. Certified values were assigned to these mixtures by calibrating the instrumentation with the PSM suites that were recently developed at NIST. These mixtures became NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1721 Southern Oceanic Air and are certified for ambient mole fraction, the first of their kind for NIST. The relative expanded uncertainties corresponding to coverage intervals with 95% probability are no larger than 0.06% of the certified values, representing the smallest uncertainties to date ever assigned to an NIST gas SRM.

  5. Iron Disilicide as High-Temperature Reference Material for Traceable Measurements of Seebeck Coefficient Between 300 K and 800 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziolkowski, Pawel; Stiewe, Christian; de Boor, Johannes; Druschke, Ines; Zabrocki, Knud; Edler, Frank; Haupt, Sebastian; König, Jan; Mueller, Eckhard

    2017-01-01

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) convert heat to electrical energy by means of the Seebeck effect. The Seebeck coefficient is a central thermoelectric material property, measuring the magnitude of the thermovoltage generated in response to a temperature difference across a thermoelectric material. Precise determination of the Seebeck coefficient provides the basis for reliable performance assessment in materials development in the field of thermoelectrics. For several reasons, measurement uncertainties of up to 14% can often be observed in interlaboratory comparisons of temperature-dependent Seebeck coefficient or in error analyses on currently employed instruments. This is still too high for an industrial benchmark and insufficient for many scientific investigations and technological developments. The TESt (thermoelectric standardization) project was launched in 2011, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), to reduce measurement uncertainties, engineer traceable and precise thermoelectric measurement techniques for materials and TEGs, and develop reference materials (RMs) for temperature-dependent determination of the Seebeck coefficient. We report herein the successful development and qualification of cobalt-doped β-iron disilicide ( β-Fe0.95Co0.05Si2) as a RM for high-temperature thermoelectric metrology. A brief survey on technological processes for manufacturing and machining of samples is presented. Focus is placed on metrological qualification of the iron disilicide, results of an international round-robin test, and final certification as a reference material in accordance with ISO-Guide 35 and the "Guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement" by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, the national metrology institute of Germany.

  6. Development of a multi-VOC reference material for quality assurance in materials emission testing.

    PubMed

    Nohr, Michael; Horn, Wolfgang; Jann, Oliver; Richter, Matthias; Lorenz, Wilhelm

    2015-04-01

    Emission test chamber measurement is necessary to proof building materials as sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The results of such measurements are used to evaluate materials and label them according to their potential to emit harmful substances, polluting indoor air. If only labelled materials were installed indoors, this would improve indoor air quality and prevent negative impacts on human health. Because of the complex testing procedure, reference materials for the quality assurance are mandatory. Currently, there is a lack of such materials because most building products show a broad variation of emissions even within one batch. A previous study indicates lacquers, mixed with volatile organic pollutants, as reproducible emission source for a wide range of substances. In the present study, the curing of the lacquer-VOC mixture inside micro-chambers was optimised. Therefore, the humidity and the chamber flow were varied. Typical indoor air pollutants with a wide range of volatilities, for example, styrene, n-hexadecane, dimethyl and dibutyl phthalate were selected. It turned out that, under optimised curing parameters inside the micro-chamber, their emission can be reproduced with variations of less than 10 %. With this, a next important step towards a reference material for emission testing was achieved.

  7. Standard Reference Material (SRM 1990) For Single Crystal Diffractometer Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Wong-Ng, W.; Siegrist, T.; DeTitta, G. T.; Finger, L. W.; Evans, H. T.; Gabe, E. J.; Enright, G. D.; Armstrong, J. T.; Levenson, M.; Cook, L. P.; Hubbard, C. R.

    2001-01-01

    An international project was successfully completed which involved two major undertakings: (1) a round-robin to demonstrate the viability of the selected standard and (2) the certification of the lattice parameters of the SRM 1990, a Standard Reference Material® for single crystal diffractometer alignment. This SRM is a set of ≈3500 units of Cr-doped Al2O3, or ruby spheres [(0.420.011 mole fraction % Cr (expanded uncertainty)]. The round-robin consisted of determination of lattice parameters of a pair of crystals: the ruby sphere as a standard, and a zeolite reference to serve as an unknown. Fifty pairs of crystals were dispatched from Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute to volunteers in x-ray laboratories world-wide. A total of 45 sets of data was received from 32 laboratories. The mean unit cell parameters of the ruby spheres was found to be a=4.7608 ű0.0062 Å, and c=12.9979 ű0.020 Å (95 % intervals of the laboratory means). The source of errors of outlier data was identified. The SRM project involved the certification of lattice parameters using four well-aligned single crystal diffractometers at (Bell Laboratories) Lucent Technologies and at NRC of Canada (39 ruby spheres), the quantification of the Cr content using a combined microprobe and SEM/EDS technique, and the evaluation of the mosaicity of the ruby spheres using a double-crystal spectrometry method. A confirmation of the lattice parameters was also conducted using a Guinier-Hägg camera. Systematic corrections of thermal expansion and refraction corrections were applied. These rubies– are rhombohedral, with space group R3¯c. The certified mean unit cell parameters are a=4.76080±0.00029 Å, and c=12.99568 ű0.00087 Å (expanded uncertainty). These certified lattice parameters fall well within the results of those obtained from the international round-robin study. The Guinier-Hägg transmission measurements on five samples of powdered rubies (a=4.7610 ű0.0013 Å, and c = 12

  8. Standard Reference Material (SRM 1990) For Single Crystal Diffractometer Alignment.

    PubMed

    Wong-Ng, W; Siegrist, T; DeTitta, G T; Finger, L W; Evans, H T; Gabe, E J; Enright, G D; Armstrong, J T; Levenson, M; Cook, L P; Hubbard, C R

    2001-01-01

    An international project was successfully completed which involved two major undertakings: (1) a round-robin to demonstrate the viability of the selected standard and (2) the certification of the lattice parameters of the SRM 1990, a Standard Reference Material(®) for single crystal diffractometer alignment. This SRM is a set of ≈3500 units of Cr-doped Al2O3, or ruby spheres [(0.420.011 mole fraction % Cr (expanded uncertainty)]. The round-robin consisted of determination of lattice parameters of a pair of crystals: the ruby sphere as a standard, and a zeolite reference to serve as an unknown. Fifty pairs of crystals were dispatched from Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute to volunteers in x-ray laboratories world-wide. A total of 45 sets of data was received from 32 laboratories. The mean unit cell parameters of the ruby spheres was found to be a=4.7608 ű0.0062 Å, and c=12.9979 ű0.020 Å (95 % intervals of the laboratory means). The source of errors of outlier data was identified. The SRM project involved the certification of lattice parameters using four well-aligned single crystal diffractometers at (Bell Laboratories) Lucent Technologies and at NRC of Canada (39 ruby spheres), the quantification of the Cr content using a combined microprobe and SEM/EDS technique, and the evaluation of the mosaicity of the ruby spheres using a double-crystal spectrometry method. A confirmation of the lattice parameters was also conducted using a Guinier-Hägg camera. Systematic corrections of thermal expansion and refraction corrections were applied. These rubies- are rhombohedral, with space group [Formula: see text]. The certified mean unit cell parameters are a=4.76080±0.00029 Å, and c=12.99568 ű0.00087 Å (expanded uncertainty). These certified lattice parameters fall well within the results of those obtained from the international round-robin study. The Guinier-Hägg transmission measurements on five samples of powdered rubies (a=4.7610 ű0.0013

  9. Standard Reference Material (SRM 1990) for Single Crystal Diffractometer Alignment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong-Ng, W.; Siegrist, T.; DeTitta, G.T.; Finger, L.W.; Evans, H.T.; Gabe, E.J.; Enright, G.D.; Armstrong, J.T.; Levenson, M.; Cook, L.P.; Hubbard, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    An international project was successfully completed which involved two major undertakings: (1) a round-robin to demonstrate the viability of the selected standard and (2) the certification of the lattice parameters of the SRM 1990, a Standard Reference Material?? for single crystal diffractometer alignment. This SRM is a set of ???3500 units of Cr-doped Al2O3, or ruby spheres [(0 420.011 mole fraction % Cr (expanded uncertainty)]. The round-robin consisted of determination of lattice parameters of a pair of crystals' the ruby sphere as a standard, and a zeolite reference to serve as an unknown. Fifty pairs of crystals were dispatched from Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute to volunteers in x-ray laboratories world-wide. A total of 45 sets of data was received from 32 laboratories. The mean unit cell parameters of the ruby spheres was found to be a=4.7608 A?? ?? 0.0062 A??, and c=12.9979 A?? ?? 0.020 A?? (95 % intervals of the laboratory means). The source of errors of outlier data was identified. The SRM project involved the certification of lattice parameters using four well-aligned single crystal diffractometers at (Bell Laboratories) Lucent Technologies and at NRC of Canada (39 ruby spheres), the quantification of the Cr content using a combined microprobe and SEM/EDS technique, and the evaluation of the mosaicity of the ruby spheres using a double-crystal spectrometry method. A confirmation of the lattice parameters was also conducted using a Guinier-Ha??gg camera. Systematic corrections of thermal expansion and refraction corrections were applied. These rubies_ are rhombohedral, with space group R3c. The certified mean unit cell parameters are a=4.76080 ?? 0.00029 A??, and c=12 99568 A?? ?? 0.00087 A?? (expanded uncertainty). These certified lattice parameters fall well within the results of those obtained from the international round-robin study. The Guinier-Ha??gg transmission measurements on five samples of powdered rubies (a=4.7610 A?? ?? 0

  10. Certification of the chlorine content of the isotopic reference materials IRMM-641 and IRMM-642.

    PubMed

    Ostermann, M; Berglund, M; Taylor, P D; Máriássy, M

    2001-11-01

    The Slovak Institute of Metrology and the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements have collaborated in the certification of the two chlorine reference materials IRMM-641 and IRMM-642. Until now no isotopically enriched chlorine isotopic reference material certified for isotopic composition and content has been available commercially. The isotopic reference materials IRMM-641 and IRMM-642 described herein are certified for isotopic composition and for chlorine content. The chlorine content of the reference material IRMM-641 was certified by use of high-precision argentometric coulometric titration at the Slovak Institute of Metrology. The base material used for IRMM-641 is NIST Standard Reference Material 975. The chlorine content of the reference material IRMM-642 was measured by isotope dilution, using negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements. Both standard reference materials were prepared by dissolving NaCl in water. The reference material IRMM-641 contains 0.025022 +/- 0.00011 mol kg(-1) chlorine of natural isotopic composition with an n(37Cl)/n(35Cl) ratio of 0.31977 +/- 0.00082. The reference material IRMM-642 contains 0.004458 +/- 0.000028 mol kg(-1) chlorine with an n(37Cl)/n(35Cl) ratio of 0.01914 +/- 0.00088.

  11. CORBA and RM-ODP: parallel or divergent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, N.; Indulska, J.; Raymond, K. A.

    1999-06-01

    Modern architectures for distributed object environments (or distributed `middleware') are revealing an increasing trend towards standardization. The recent emergence of a standard for open distributed processing, the ISO/IEC Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP) (ITU-T Recommendation X.901) and the coincidence of the development of the Object Management Group's Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA), has prompted us to explore the relationship between these architectures. This paper analyses the CORBA architecture as a support environment for open distributed processing by comparing the business requirements for ODP, RM-ODP viewpoints, functions and distribution transparencies as specified in RM-ODP (ITU-T Recommendations X.901-4) with the CORBA architecture. Through this examination it is evident that despite distinctly divergent terminology, there exist significant parallels between CORBA and RM-ODP.

  12. Development of clenbuterol reference materials: lyophilized bovine eye samples free of clenbuterol (CRM 673) and containing clenbuterol (CRM 674). Part 1. Preparation, homogeneity and stability.

    PubMed

    Pfaffl, M W; van Ginkel, L A; McEvoy, J D; Maghuin-Rogister, G; Meyer, H H

    2001-12-01

    Within the EU Standards, Measurement and Testing Program (SMT) two clenbuterol reference materials (RMs) were developed. Since clenbuterol readily accumulates and is slowly depleted from pigmented tissues such as the retina, homogenized eye liquid content is the most sensitive tissue for the detection of clenbuterol misuse. Therefore, both of the RMs were produced from bovine eye matrix: a negative control--RM 673 eye reference material, clenbuterol free (<0.50 microg/kg eye matrix) and a positive--RM 674 eye reference material containing clenbuterol (approximately 10 microg/kg eye matrix). Eyes were sampled from 103 German Simmental cattle and the inner liquid content was homogenized to a wet homogenized liquid content (HLC). This clenbuterol negative pool was divided into two sub-pools, one of which was spiked with clenbuterol to a final concentration of 10 microg clenbuterol/kg HLC. Of each pool exactly 2.0 +/- 0.01 g (+/- 0.5%) portions were weighed into 790 containers. Lyophilization of the 1,580 containers was performed in one batch. Parameters for the filling of containers, dry matter content, and residual moisture were in accordance with EU requirements. A three-year stability study and two homogeneity studies at various storage temperatures (-60 degrees C, -20 degrees C, +4 degrees C, +20 degrees C, and +37 degrees C) were performed. Low variation was observed within all of the homogeneity studies, proving that each of the RMs were homogeneous and that this was independent of storage temperature and storage time. In the stability studies, measured clenbuterol concentrations remained constant for RM 673 under the detection limit at 0.15 +/- 0.01 microg clenbuterol equivalent/kg HLC (n = 110) and were also constant for RM 674 at 11.21 +/- 0.15 microg clenbuterol/kg HLC (n=150; measured as duplicates). These studies demonstrate that clenbuterol-containing and clenbuterol-free RMs in bovine eye matrix can be successfully produced. Based on the results

  13. Development of a Northern Continental Air Standard Reference Material.

    PubMed

    Rhoderick, George C; Kitzis, Duane R; Kelley, Michael E; Miller, Walter R; Hall, Bradley D; Dlugokencky, Edward J; Tans, Pieter P; Possolo, Antonio; Carney, Jennifer

    2016-03-15

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) recently began to develop standard mixtures of greenhouse gases as part of a broad program mandated by the 2009 United States Congress to support research in climate change. To this end, NIST developed suites of gravimetrically assigned primary standard mixtures (PSMs) comprising carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) in a dry-natural air balance at ambient mole fraction levels. In parallel, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in Boulder, Colorado, charged 30 aluminum gas cylinders with northern hemisphere air at Niwot Ridge, Colorado. These mixtures, which constitute NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1720 Northern Continental Air, were certified by NIST for ambient mole fractions of CO2, CH4, and N2O relative to NIST PSMs. NOAA-assigned values are also provided as information in support of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Program for CO2, CH4, and N2O, since NOAA serves as the WMO Central Calibration Laboratory (CCL) for CO2, CH4, and N2O. Relative expanded uncertainties at the 95% confidence interval are <±0.06% of the certified values for CO2 and N2O and <0.2% for CH4, which represents the smallest relative uncertainties specified to date for a gaseous SRM produced by NIST. Agreement between the NOAA (WMO/GAW) and NIST values based on their respective calibration standards suites is within 0.05%, 0.13%, and 0.06% for CO2, CH4, and N2O, respectively. This collaborative development effort also represents the first of its kind for a gaseous SRM developed by NIST.

  14. 46 CFR 164.008-1 - Applicable specification and reference material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicable specification and reference material. 164.008-1 Section 164.008-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Bulkhead Panels § 164.008-1 Applicable specification and reference material....

  15. Reference Materials in LIS Instruction: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabina, Debbie

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a Delphi study conducted over a two-month period in 2011. The purpose of the study was to identify reference sources that should be covered in basic reference courses taught in LIS programs in the United States. The Delphi method was selected for its appropriateness in soliciting expert opinions and assessing the…

  16. New Organic Stable Isotope Reference Materials for Distribution through the USGS and the IAEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimmelmann, Arndt; Qi, Haiping

    2014-05-01

    the 10 laboratories. Successfully calibrated organic RMs could become available as early as 2015. - n-Hexadecane (C16 n-alkane), three H, C-isotopic varieties; - Glycine (amino acid), three H, C, N-isotopic varieties; - L-valine (amino acid), three H, C, N-isotopic varieties; - Methyl n-heptadecanoate (methyl ester of C17 n-alkanoic fatty acid); - Methyl icosanoate (methyl ester of C20 n-alkanoic fatty acid), three H, C-isotopic varieties; - Caffeine, three H, C, N-isotopic varieties; - Hydrocarbon vacuum pump oils, two H-isotopic varieties; - Polyethylene powder, and possibly a 2H and 13C-enriched polyethylene string. [1] Qi H., Coplen T.B., Geilmann H., Brand W.A., Böhlke J.K. (2003) Two new organic reference materials for δ13C and δ15N measurements and a new value for the δ13C of NBS 22 oil. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 17, 2483-2487. [2] Coplen T.B. (1996) New guidelines for reporting stable hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen isotope-ratio data. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 60, 3359-3360. [3] Coplen T.B., Brand W.A., Gehre M., Gröning M., Meijer H.A.J., Toman B., Verkouteren R.M. (2006) New guidelines for δ13C measurements. Analytical Chemistry 78 (7), 2439-2441. [4] Werner R.A., Brand W.A. (2001) Referencing strategies and techniques in stable isotope ratio analysis. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 15, 501-519.

  17. 10 CFR 431.223 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... procedures incorporated by reference. (1) Environmental Protection Agency, “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements... Agency “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Traffic Signals,” Version 1.1, may be obtained from...

  18. 10 CFR 431.223 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... procedures incorporated by reference. (1) Environmental Protection Agency, “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements... Agency “ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Traffic Signals,” Version 1.1, may be obtained from...

  19. 10 CFR 431.15 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Electric Motors Test Procedures, Materials Incorporated and Methods of Determining... following test procedures into subpart B of part 431. The material listed in paragraph (b) of this section... organization will not affect the DOE test procedures unless and until amended by DOE. Material is...

  20. 10 CFR 431.15 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Electric Motors Test Procedures, Materials Incorporated and Methods of Determining... following test procedures into Subpart B of Part 431. The material listed in paragraph (b) of this section... organization will not affect the DOE test procedures unless and until amended by DOE. Material is...

  1. Development of Certified Reference Materials for Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins, Part 2: Shellfish Matrix Materials.

    PubMed

    McCarron, Pearse; Reeves, Kelley L; Giddings, Sabrina D; Beach, Daniel G; Quilliam, Michael A

    2016-09-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) and its analogs, dinophysistoxins-1 (DTX1) and -2 (DTX2) are lipophilic biotoxins produced by marine algae that can accumulate in shellfish and cause the human illness known as diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP). Regulatory testing of shellfish is required to protect consumers and the seafood industry. Certified reference materials (CRMs) are essential for the development, validation, and quality control of analytical methods, and thus play an important role in toxin monitoring. This paper summarizes work on research and development of shellfish tissue reference materials for OA and DTXs. Preliminary work established the appropriate conditions for production of shellfish tissue CRMs for OA and DTXs. Source materials, including naturally incurred shellfish tissue and cultured algae, were screened for their DSP toxins. This preliminary work informed planning and production of a wet mussel (Mytilus edulis) tissue homogenate matrix CRM. The homogeneity and stability of the CRM were evaluated and found to be fit-for-purpose. Extraction and LC-tandem MS methods were developed to accurately certify the concentrations of OA, DTX1, and DTX2 using a combination of standard addition and matrix-matched calibration to compensate for matrix effects in electrospray ionization. The concentration of domoic acid was also certified. Uncertainties were assigned following standards and guidelines from the International Organization for Standardization. The presence of other toxins in the CRM was also assessed and information values are reported for OA and DTX acyl esters.

  2. Empirical Approach for Estimating Reference Material Heterogeneity and Sample Minimum Test Portion Mass for "Nuggety" Precious Metals (Au, Pd, Ir, Pt, Ru).

    PubMed

    Bédard, L Paul; Esbensen, Kim H; Barnes, Sarah-Jane

    2016-04-05

    Quantification of precious metal content is important for studies of ore deposits, basalt petrogenesis, and precious metal geology, mineralization, mining, and processing. However, accurate determination of metal concentrations can be compromised by microheterogeneity commonly referred to as the "nugget effect", i.e., spatially significant variations in the distribution of precious metal minerals at the scale of instrumental analytical beam footprints. There are few studies focused on the spatial distribution of such minerals and its detrimental effects on quantification of the existing suite of relevant reference materials (RM). In order to assess the nugget effect in RM, pressed powder pellets of MASS-1, MASS-3, WMS-1a, WMS-1, and KPT-1 (dominantly sulfides) as well as CHR-Pt+ and CHR-Bkg (chromite-bearing) were mapped with micro-XRF. The number of verified nuggets observed was used to recalculate an effective concentration of precious metals for the analytical aliquot, allowing for an empirical estimate of a minimum mass test portion. MASS-1, MASS-3, and WMS-1a did not contain any nuggets; therefore, a convenient small test portion could be used here (<0.1 g), while CHR-Pt+ would require 0.125 g and WMS-1 would need 23 g to be representative. For CHR-Bkg and KPT-1, the minimum test portion mass would have to be ∼80 and ∼342 g, respectively. Minimum test portions masses may have to be greater still in order to provide detectable analytical signals. Procedures for counteracting the detrimental manifestations of microheterogeneity are presented. It is imperative that both RM and pristine samples are treated in exactly the same way in the laboratory, lest powders having an unknown nugget status (in effect all field samples for analysis) can not be documented to be representing a safe minimum mass basis.

  3. 10 CFR 431.95 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... reference. (1) Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) Standard 210/240-2003 published in 2003, “Unitary Air-Conditioning and Air-Source Heat Pump Equipment,” IBR approved for § 431.96. (2) ARI Standard 340/360-2004, “Performance Rating of Commercial and Industrial Unitary Air-Conditioning and Heat...

  4. A Bibliography of Reference Materials for Evaluating Foreign Student Credentials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hefling, Robert, Ed.

    The Academic Advisory Staff (AAS) of the Office of International Training (OIT), Agency for International Development (AID) analyzes and interprets the academic credentials of AID participants from cooperating countries in terms of the educational system of the U. S. To carry out this service the AAS has developed a library of reference materials…

  5. USGS Reference Materials Program: Serving the Needs of the Global Analytical Community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, Ruth E.; Wilson, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    Every year in the United States, millions of measurements are made on the chemical composition of items that affect us on a daily basis. The accuracy of these measurements is routinely determined by the analysis of appropriate reference materials. In the field of earth science, reference materials are particularly important because they help us develop a better understanding of the processes that have shaped, and continue to shape the world around us. USGS reference materials are distributed internationally to organizations involved in geochemical and environmental analysis, instrumentation and methods development, and industrial research and quality assurance. Reference materials are widely used in the development and validation of geochemical models used by the USGS.

  6. 10 CFR 431.303 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... by DOE. Material is incorporated as it exists on the date of the approval and a notice of any change...) NFRC. National Fenestration Rating Council, 6305 Ivy Lane, Ste. 140, Greenbelt, MD 20770, (301)...

  7. 10 CFR 431.443 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the date of the approval and a notice of any change in the material will be published in the Federal.... Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 445 Hoes Lane, P.O. Box 1331, Piscataway, NJ...

  8. 10 CFR 431.303 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... by DOE. Material is incorporated as it exists on the date of the approval and a notice of any change...) NFRC. National Fenestration Rating Council, 6305 Ivy Lane, Ste. 140, Greenbelt, MD 20770, (301)...

  9. ECUT energy data reference series: lightweight materials for ground transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Abarcar, R.B.; Hane, G.J.; Johnson, D.R.

    1984-07-01

    This report summarizes information that describes the use of lightweight materials in automobiles. The information on this mode of transportation represents the largest potential energy savings for substitution of lightweight materials in the transportation sector. Included are data on energy conversion efficiency of the engine and its relationship to vehicle weight, the capital stock, the amount of energy used, and the service activity level as measured in ton-miles.

  10. delta 15N and non-carbonate delta 13C values for two petroleum source rock reference materials and a marine sediment reference material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dennen, Kristin O.; Johnson, Craig A.; Otter, Marshall L.; Silva, Steven R.; Wandless, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    Samples of United States Geological Survey (USGS) Certified Reference Materials USGS Devonian Ohio Shale (SDO-1), and USGS Eocene Green River Shale (SGR-1), and National Research Council Canada (NRCC) Certified Marine Sediment Reference Material (PACS-2), were sent for analysis to four separate analytical laboratories as blind controls for organic rich sedimentary rock samples being analyzed from the Red Dog mine area in Alaska. The samples were analyzed for stable isotopes of carbon (delta13Cncc) and nitrogen (delta15N), percent non-carbonate carbon (Wt % Cncc) and percent nitrogen (Wt % N). SDO-1, collected from the Huron Member of the Ohio Shale, near Morehead, Kentucky, and SGR-1, collected from the Mahogany zone of the Green River Formation are petroleum source rocks used as reference materials for chemical analyses of sedimentary rocks. PACS-2 is modern marine sediment collected from the Esquimalt, British Columbia harbor. The results presented in this study are, with the exceptions noted below, the first published for these reference materials. There are published information values for the elemental concentrations of 'organic' carbon (Wt % Corg measured range is 8.98 - 10.4) and nitrogen (Wt % Ntot 0.347 with SD 0.043) only for SDO-1. The suggested values presented here should be considered 'information values' as defined by the NRCC Institute for National Measurement Reference Materials and should be useful for the analysis of 13C, 15N, C and N in organic material in sedimentary rocks.

  11. Reference data for thermocouple materials below the ice point.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, L. L.; Powell, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Standard thermoelectric data have been determined for four thermocouple combinations used below the ice point: commercial types E, K, and T and the special combination of KP vs Au-0.07 at.% Fe. Power series coefficients necessary to generate E = f(T) data for these combinations are given. In addition, extensive tests were carried out to ascertain the variability between materials from different manufacturers. Typical wires processed for low-temperature usage often have slightly thermoelectric properties (up to 1%) from those, nominally identical, wires made for high-temperature applications. Generally, type E is the most satisfactory standardized commercial combination. The Au-0.07 at.% Fe material has been examined in particular detail, because it is not yet an ISA standard material. It has excellent sensitivity in the liquid helium/liquid hydrogen temperature range and a nearly linear thermovoltage at higher temperatures.

  12. USGS46 Greenland ice core water – A new isotopic reference material for δ2H and δ18O measurements of water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Qi, Haiping; Tarbox, Lauren V.; Lorenz, Jennifer M.; Buck, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Ice core from Greenland was melted, filtered, homogenised, loaded into glass ampoules, sealed, autoclaved to eliminate biological activity, and calibrated by dual-inlet isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. This isotopic reference material (RM), USGS46, is intended as one of two secondary isotopic reference waters for daily normalisation of stable hydrogen (δ2H) and stable oxygen (δ18O) isotopic analysis of water with a mass spectrometer or a laser absorption spectrometer. The measured δ2H and δ18O values of this reference water were −235.8 ± 0.7‰ and −29.80 ± 0.03‰, respectively, relative to VSMOW on scales normalised such that the δ2H and δ18O values of SLAP reference water are, respectively, −428 and −55.5‰. Each uncertainty is an estimated expanded uncertainty (U = 2uc) about the reference value that provides an interval that has about a 95-percent probability of encompassing the true value. This reference water is available in cases containing 144 glass ampoules that are filled with either 4 ml or 5 ml of water per ampoule.

  13. 10 CFR 431.133 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... inspection at the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building....133 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL...://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/. Also, this material is available for inspection...

  14. 10 CFR 435.3 - Material incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435... this material by the standard-setting organization will not affect the DOE building energy...

  15. 10 CFR 435.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435... material is available for inspection at the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency...

  16. 10 CFR 431.95 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND..., this material is available for inspection at U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th Floor, 950 L'Enfant Plaza SW., Washington, DC...

  17. 10 CFR 433.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.3 Materials... organization will not affect the DOE building energy performance standard unless and until DOE amends...

  18. 10 CFR 435.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435... material is available for inspection at the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency...

  19. 10 CFR 431.443 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....443 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL... material is available for inspection at U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, Sixth Floor, 950 L'Enfant Plaza, SW., Washington, DC...

  20. 10 CFR 433.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS § 433.3 Materials... organization will not affect the DOE building energy performance standard unless and until DOE amends...

  1. 10 CFR 431.443 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....443 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL... material is available for inspection at U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, Sixth Floor, 950 L'Enfant Plaza, SW., Washington, DC...

  2. 10 CFR 435.3 - Material incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435... this material by the standard-setting organization will not affect the DOE building energy...

  3. 10 CFR 435.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential Buildings. § 435... material is available for inspection at the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency...

  4. 10 CFR 430.3 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Energy, Building Technologies Program, 6th Floor, 950 L'Enfant Plaza, SW., Washington, DC 20024, (202... 51”), Food equipment materials, revised and adopted April 2007, IBR approved for § 430.2. (2) (o... Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Resource Room of the Building...

  5. 40 CFR 600.011-93 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Natural Gas By Gas Chromatography, IBR approved for §§ 600.113-93, 600.113-08. (c) SAE Material. The... at http://www.sae.org. (1) Motor Vehicle Dimensions—Recommended Practice SAE 1100a (Report of...

  6. 10 CFR 431.443 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the date of the approval and a notice of any change in the material will be published in the Federal... §§ 431.444; 431.447. (c) IEEE. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 445 Hoes Lane,...

  7. 15 CFR 200.104 - Standard reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MEASUREMENT SERVICES POLICIES, SERVICES... the NIST National Measurement Laboratory administers a program to provide many types of well-characterized materials that are needed to calibrate a measurement system or to produce scientific data that...

  8. 10 CFR 431.75 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.75 Materials incorporated by..., “Gas-Fired Central Furnaces,” IBR approved for § 431.76. (2) Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Standard 727-1994, “Standard for Safety Oil-Fired Central Furnaces,” IBR approved for § 431.76. (3) Sections...

  9. 10 CFR 431.75 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.75 Materials incorporated by..., “Gas-Fired Central Furnaces,” IBR approved for § 431.76. (2) Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Standard 727-1994, “Standard for Safety Oil-Fired Central Furnaces,” IBR approved for § 431.76. (3) Sections...

  10. 10 CFR 431.75 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.75 Materials incorporated by..., “Gas-Fired Central Furnaces,” IBR approved for § 431.76. (2) Underwriters Laboratories (UL) Standard 727-1994, “Standard for Safety Oil-Fired Central Furnaces,” IBR approved for § 431.76. (3) Sections...

  11. Household Hazardous Materials and Their Labels: A Reference for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Lillian F.

    Household hazardous materials are products or wastes which are toxic, corrosive, reactive, and/or ignitable. Although common products such as pesticides, oils, gasoline, solvents, cleaners, and polishes are hazardous, students and adults are not always aware of potential dangers. This sourcebook contains definitions and examples of household…

  12. 40 CFR 600.011-93 - Reference materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... ASTM D 1945-91 Standard Test Method for Analysis of Natural Gas By Gas Chromatography. 600.113-93, 600... Natural Gas By Gas Chromatography, IBR approved for §§ 600.113-93, 600.113-08. (c) SAE Material....

  13. 10 CFR 431.15 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Part 12, Tests and Performance—AC and DC Motors: (A) Paragraphs 12.35.1, 12.35.2, 12.38.1, 12.38.2, 12... INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Electric Motors Test Procedures, Materials Incorporated and Methods of Determining... Floor, 950 L'Enfant Plaza SW., Washington, DC 20024, (202) 586-2945, or go to...

  14. Reference Materials--So Many Choices, So Little Money: Librarians and Publishers Speak Out!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Frances C.

    1997-01-01

    Differing perspectives of reference collection development librarians and publishers are presented for the following topics: fairness of pricing trends; best/worst ways to communicate about new reference titles; deciding which sources should be published; impact of electronic materials on reference services; deciding on/selecting formats; and…

  15. 10 CFR 431.75 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.75 Materials incorporated by... Z21.47-1998”), “Gas-Fired Central Furnaces,” approved by ANSI on June 9, 1998, IBR approved for § 431.76. (2) ANSI Z21.47-2006, (“ANSI Z21.47-2006”), “Gas-Fired Central Furnaces,” approved on July...

  16. 10 CFR 431.75 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces Test Procedures § 431.75 Materials incorporated by... Z21.47-1998”), “Gas-Fired Central Furnaces,” approved by ANSI on June 9, 1998, IBR approved for § 431.76. (2) ANSI Z21.47-2006, (“ANSI Z21.47-2006”), “Gas-Fired Central Furnaces,” approved on July...

  17. 10 CFR 431.15 - Materials incorporated by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Performance—AC and DC Motors: (A) Paragraphs 12.35.1, 12.35.2, 12.38.1, 12.38.2, 12.39.1, 12.39.2, and 12.40.1... INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Electric Motors Test Procedures, Materials Incorporated and Methods of Determining..., DC 20024, (202) 586-2945, or go to http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/....

  18. [Latin American regional reference materials for porcine heparin and bovine heparin].

    PubMed

    Albertengo, M E; Cinto, R O; Araldi, H T; Vernengo, M J

    1990-02-01

    In agreement with the Regional Programme of Reference Materials of the Panamerican Health Organization the Instituto Nacional de Farmacología y Bromatología of Buenos Aires designed a study for the calibration of a Reference Material for Heparin, porcine, mucosal and a Reference Material for Heparin, bovine, mucosal. The assay methods used in this study were those described in the United States Pharmacopeia XXI Ed and British Pharmacopoeia 1980, Addendum 1983. The overall combined potency estimates of both heparin in preparations relative to 4th Int.St. was 1633.83 UI/ampoule (95% confidence limits 1609.70-1657.96 UI/ampoule) for porcine heparin and 1332.31 UI/ampoule (95% confidence limits, 1302.31-1361.77 UI/ampoule) for bovine heparin. The assigned unitage was 1630 UI/ampoule for the porcine Reference Material and 1330 UI/ampoule for the bovine Reference Material.

  19. Development of reference materials for SNF NDA systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klann, R. T.

    2000-02-29

    The Department of Energy has over 200 different fuel types which will be placed in a geologic repository for ultimate disposal. At the present time, DOE EM is responsible for assuring safe existing conditions, achieving interim storage, and preparing for final disposition. Each task is governed by regulations which dictate a certain degree of knowledge regarding the contents and condition of the fuel. This knowledge and other associated characteristics are referred to as data needs. It is the stance of DOE EM, that personnel and economic resources are not available to obtain the necessary data to characterize such individual fuel type for final disposal documentation purposes. In addition, it is beyond the need of DOE to do so. This report describes the effort to classify the 200+ fuel types into a subset of fuel types for the purpose of non-destructive analysis (NDA) measurement system development and demonstration testing in support of the DOE National Spent Nuclear Fuel (NSNFP) Program. The fuel types have been grouped into 37 groups based on fuel composition, fuel form, assembly size, enrichment, and other characteristics which affect NDA measurements (e.g., neutron poisons).

  20. Satellite Contamination and Materials Outgassing Knowledgebase - An Interactive Database Reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, D. B.; Burns, Dewitt (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this program is to collect at one site much of the knowledge accumulated about the outgassing properties of aerospace materials based on ground testing, the effects of this outgassing observed on spacecraft in flight, and the broader contamination environment measured by instruments on-orbit. We believe that this Web site will help move contamination a step forward, away from anecdotal folklore toward engineering discipline. Our hope is that once operational, this site will form a nucleus for information exchange, that users will not only take information from our knowledge base, but also provide new information from ground testing and space missions, expanding and increasing the value of this site to all. We urge Government and industry users to endorse this approach that will reduce redundant testing, reduce unnecessary delays, permit uniform comparisons, and permit informed decisions.

  1. New biological reference materials - in vivo incorporated toxic metals in water hyacinth tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, J.R.; Simon, S.J.; Williams, L.R.; Beckert, W.F.

    1985-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that high-quality reference materials, containing high levels of multiple toxic elements, can be produced with in vivo incorporation procedures. The approach taken was to produce water hyacinth tissue materials - leaves and stems containing high levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury - as follows: apply a hydroponic feeding procedure for the in vivo incorporation of toxic elements into water hyacinths; dry, blend, and homogenize the plant materials and determine the levels of the incorporated elements and the homogeneity of the generated plant material; demonstrate that low-level control materials can be successfully blended with high-level materials to yield a homogeneous material with intermediate toxicant levels; evaluate the precision of the analytical methods used to determine toxic element levels in the materials; and evaluate the stability of the resulting materials. Sufficient quantities of the parent materials were produced so that characterized reference materials can now be made available on request. Levels of the toxic elements incorporated in water hyacinth leaves were 100, 300, 60, and 27 times the levels present in the control leaves for arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury, respectively. Overall precision of sampling, subsampling, and digestion, and chemical analysis of the treated materials, ranged from 3 to 10% relative standard deviation and was generally comparable to that of three NBS biological reference materials tested. 3 references, 1 figure, 4 tables.

  2. Certification of the reference material of water content in water saturated 1-octanol by Karl Fischer coulometry, Karl Fischer volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haifeng; Ma, Kang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jia; Sun, Guohua; Li, Hongmei

    2012-10-15

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) of water content are widely used in the calibration and validation of Karl Fischer coulometry and volumetry. In this study, the water content of the water saturated 1-octanol (WSO) CRM was certified by Karl Fischer coulometry, volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (Q NMR). The water content recovery by coulometry was 99.76% with a diaphragm-less electrode and Coulomat AG anolyte. The relative bias between the coulometry and volumetry results was 0.06%. In Q NMR, the water content of WSO is traceable to the International System (SI) of units through the purity of internal standard. The relative bias of water content in WSO between Q NMR and volumetry was 0.50%. The consistency of results for these three independent methods improves the accuracy of the certification of the RM. The certified water content of the WSO CRM was 4.76% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.09%.

  3. Embrapa's experience in the production and development of agriculture reference materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, A. R. A.; Souza, G. B.; Bossu, C. M.; Bianchi, S. R.; Verhalen, T. R.; Silva, P. T.; Peixoto, A. A. J.; Silva, C. S.

    2016-07-01

    The main challenge of Embrapa is to develop a model of genuine Brazilian tropical agriculture and livestock. To get this task, the quality of laboratories results is mandatory, increasing the demand for reference materials. Projects were proposed to produce reference materials to support the national agriculture laboratories and consolidate a network able to perform reliable and reproducible analytical testing laboratory within the internationally standards required. Reference materials were produced and available to interested laboratories and collaborative tests were conducted to obtain consensus values. The results and statistical evaluations were performed with the use of software developed by Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste.

  4. Reference Materials for Secondary School Library Media Centers. Library Resources #2 [and] Selected Bibliography of Elementary Reference Materials. Library Resources #25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Bettie

    These two annotated bibliographies list reference materials for the secondary school and elementary school levels. Each bibliography contains entries arranged alphabetically by title under Dewey Decimal Classification headings, i.e., 000s through 900s. Entries consist of the title, author/published, publication date, and cost; elementary-level…

  5. REFERENCE MATERIALS AND QUALITY ASSURANCE FOR THE CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the first environmental matrix Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for determination of organic species was SRM 1649 Urban Dust, ambient total suspended particulate matter (PM) collected in Washington D...

  6. 43 CFR 10010.33 - Incorporation by reference of material into NEPA documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.33 Incorporation by reference of material into NEPA documents. Citations of specific topics will include the pertinent...

  7. 43 CFR 10010.33 - Incorporation by reference of material into NEPA documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.33 Incorporation by reference of material into NEPA documents. Citations of specific topics will include the pertinent...

  8. 43 CFR 10010.33 - Incorporation by reference of material into NEPA documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.33 Incorporation by reference of material into NEPA documents. Citations of specific topics will include the pertinent...

  9. 43 CFR 10010.33 - Incorporation by reference of material into NEPA documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Environmental Impact Statements § 10010.33 Incorporation by reference of material into NEPA documents. Citations of specific topics will include the pertinent...

  10. Certification of elements in and use of standard reference material 3280 multivitamin/multielement tablets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3280 Multivitamin/Multielement Tablets was issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2009 and has certified and reference mass fraction values for 13 vitamins, 26 elements, and 2 carotenoids. Elements were measured using two or more ana...

  11. Sixth IASLIC Seminar Papers. Part I: Reference Service-in-Action. Part II: Processing & Servicing of Special Materials in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian Association of Special Libraries & Information Centres, Calcutta (India).

    Part I contains 22 papers covering all aspects of the library reference services including sources of reference materials, an evaluation of reference sources, building a reference collection, training a reference librarian, and the needs of the industrial and medical communities for reference services. All the papers are slanted toward the special…

  12. Requirements for the Development of Bacillus Anthracis Spore Reference Materials Used to Test Detection Systems

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Jamie L.; Wang, Lili; Morrow, Jayne B.; Cole, Kenneth D.

    2006-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis spores have been used as biological weapons and the possibility of their further use requires surveillance systems that can accurately and reliably detect their presence in the environment. These systems must collect samples from a variety of matrices, process the samples, and detect the spores. The processing of the sample may include removal of inhibitors, concentration of the target, and extraction of the target in a form suitable for detection. Suitable reference materials will allow the testing of each of these steps to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the detection systems. The development of uniform and well-characterized reference materials will allow the comparison of different devices and technologies as well as assure the continued performance of detection systems. This paper discusses the special requirements of reference materials for Bacillus anthracis spores that could be used for testing detection systems. The detection of Bacillus anthracis spores is based on recognition of specific characteristics (markers) on either the spore surface or in the nucleic acids (DNA). We have reviewed the specific markers and their relevance to characterization of reference materials. We have also included the approach for the characterization of candidate reference materials that we are developing at the NIST laboratories. Additional applications of spore reference materials would include testing sporicidal treatments, techniques for sampling the environment, and remediation of spore-contaminated environments. PMID:27274929

  13. Methods for TEM analysis of NIST's single-walled carbon nanotube Standard Reference Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, Elisabeth; Geiss, Roy; Fagan, Jeffrey A.

    2009-08-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) will soon release a series of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) reference materials (RMs) to provide users with a well-characterized material for their applications. The SWCNT reference material will be introduced as a series of three types of material: (1) raw soot characterized for composition, which will be certified as a Standard Reference Material, (2) purified (greater than 90 % SWCNT by weight) bucky paper and (3) dispersed, length-sorted populations characterized by length. The instrumental characterization of NIST's SWCNT reference materials is extensive, and this paper aims to provide researchers with dispersion preparation methods for TEM (transmission electron microscopy) analysis of the SWCNT raw soot. A selection of dispersing solvents, including organic solvents, aqueous surfactants and DNA dispersions, were prepared and examined by TEM. Recommendations for sample preparation of the SWCNT SRM 2483 to yield images similar to those presented here are given. Examples of images of the length-sorted SWCNT reference material are also shown. These results illustrate the importance of optimal dispersion to enable imaging of SWCNT characteristics.

  14. Certification of elements in and use of standard reference material 3280 multivitamin/multielement tablets.

    PubMed

    Turk, Gregory C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Cleveland, Danielle; Jongsma, Candice; Mackey, Elizabeth A; Marlow, Anthony F; Oflaz, Rabia; Paul, Rick L; Sieber, John R; Thompson, Robert Q; Wood, Laura J; Yu, Lee L; Zeisler, Rolf; Wise, Stephen A; Yen, James H; Christopher, Steven J; Day, Russell D; Long, Stephen E; Greene, Ella; Harnly, James; Ho, I-Pin; Betz, Joseph M

    2013-01-01

    Standard Reference Material 3280 Multivitamin/ Multielement Tablets was issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology in 2009, and has certified and reference mass fraction values for 13 vitamins, 26 elements, and two carotenoids. Elements were measured using two or more analytical methods at NIST with additional data contributed by collaborating laboratories. This reference material is expected to serve a dual purpose: to provide quality assurance in support of a database of dietary supplement products and to provide a means for analysts, dietary supplement manufacturers, and researchers to assess the appropriateness and validity of their analytical methods and the accuracy of their results.

  15. Von Kármán between Aachen and Pasadena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Egon; Kalkmann, Ulrich

    2013-05-01

    In the Introduction the reader is referred back to the academic ceremonials held after Theodore von Kármán's death in Aachen in May 1963. His work as the first director of the Aerodynamisches Institut (Institute of Aerodynamics) of the RWTH Aachen University of Technology from 1913 on and his initiative to re-establish international cooperation after World War I, resulting in the International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (IUTAM), are commented on. The following chapter describes von Kármán's relation to his former teacher Ludwig Prandtl. Some of von Kármán's scientific contributions during his time in Aachen are briefly reviewed. Thereafter, his first contacts to the California Institute of Technology are covered. Finally, the scientific and political circumstances, which led to von Kármán's decision to leave Germany in the early thirties, are elucidated in some detail. The English translation of the titles of the Aachen papers is given in Appendix I.

  16. Certificate of Analysis, Standard Reference Material® 1849, Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standard Reference material (SRM) 1849 is intended primarily for validation of methods for determining proximates, fatty acids, vitamins, elements and nucleotides in infant and adult nutritional formulas and similar materials. This SRM can also be used for quality assurance when assigning values to ...

  17. 40 CFR 1068.95 - What materials does this part reference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .../code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (a) SAE material. Table 1 to this section lists... Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096 or http://www.sae.org. Table 1 follows: Table 1 to § 1068.95—SAE Materials Document number and name Part 1068reference SAE J1930, Electrical/Electronic Systems...

  18. 40 CFR 1068.95 - What materials does this part reference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .../code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (a) SAE material. Table 1 to this section lists... Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096 or http://www.sae.org. Table 1 follows: Table 1 to § 1068.95—SAE Materials Document number and name Part 1068reference SAE J1930, Electrical/Electronic Systems...

  19. Determination of Perfluorinated Alkyl Acid Concentrations in Biological Standard Reference Materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Standard reference materials (SRMs) are homogeneous, well-characterized materials used to validate measurements and improve the quality of analytical data. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a wide range of SRMs that have mass fraction values assigned ...

  20. Analysis of biological reference materials, prepared by microwave dissolution, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Friel, J K; Skinner, C S; Jackson, S E; Longerich, H P

    1990-03-01

    A procedure has been developed for the analysis of biological materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Fast, efficient and complete sample digestion is achieved by a combined microwave-nitric acid/open beaker-nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide procedure. The ICP-MS analysis is performed with an on-line five-element internal standard to correct for matrix and instrumental drift effects. Results are presented for 24 elements in three biological reference materials (National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Materials 5277a Liver and 1566 Oyster and International Atomic Energy Agency Certified Reference Material H4 Animal Muscle). For all elements significantly above the detection limit and reagent blank concentrations, good agreement exists between ICP-MS and certified values.

  1. IAEA-447: a new certified reference material for environmental radioactivity measurements.

    PubMed

    Shakhashiro, A; Tarjan, S; Ceccatelli, A; Kis-Benedek, G; Betti, M

    2012-08-01

    The environment program of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) includes activities to produce and certify reference materials for environmental radioactivity measurements. This paper describes methodologies applied in preparation and certification of the new IAEA-447 moss-soil certified reference material. In this work, the massic activities and associated standard uncertainties of (40)K, (90)Sr, (137)Cs, (208)Tl, (210)Pb, (210)Po, (212)Pb, (214)Pb, (214)Bi, (226)Ra, (228)Ac, (234)Th, (234)U, (238)U, (238)Pu, (239+240)Pu, (241)Pu and (241)Am were established. Details of the analytical methods including radiochemical procedures were reported. Analytical challenges and lessons learned from the reported results in the worldwide IAEA proficiency test using this material was summarized and best analytical practices to improve the performance for environmental radioactivity determinations were recommended. IAEA-447 is an important reference material for quality control and method validation of gamma-ray spectrometry and radiochemical analytical procedures.

  2. A study of production of radioactive environmental reference materials used for proficiency testing program in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Peng, En-Chi; Wang, Jeng-Jong

    2013-11-01

    To realise radioactive environmental reference materials in Taiwan, seven environmental materials of soil, water, vegetation, meat, airborne particles (filter paper), milk and mushroom samples that are frequently encountered were used to establish the preparation of the reference materials. These seven environmental materials were collected, checked for freedom from radioactivity and prepared according to their properties. The preparation was carried out by using activity about 10-100 times that of the minimum detectable activity (MDA) in routine measurements in the radioactive standard used to spike the inactive material and this standard is traceable to national ionising radioactivity standards (TAF, 2004). To demonstrate sample traceability to the added standard, each sample was carefully measured and its uncertainty evaluated. Based on the recommendations of ISO Guide 35 for evaluation of reference materials and with the above assessment and verification procedures, the uncertainties (k=1) of the spike activity used in making reference materials were: (60)Co≤4.6%, (134)Cs≤4.7%, (137)Cs≤5.0%, total β≤0.6% and (3)H≤1.3%.

  3. Fit-for-purpose shellfish reference materials for internal and external quality control in the analysis of phycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Hess, Philipp; McCarron, Pearse; Quilliam, Michael A

    2007-04-01

    The need for reference materials for quality control of analysis of foodstuffs has been stressed frequently. This has been particularly true in the phycotoxins field, where there is a great shortage of both pure calibration standards and reference materials. Worldwide there are very few independent bodies that produce certified reference materials for phycotoxins, the main producers currently being the National Research Council Canada and the Japanese Food Research Laboratory. Limited availability of contaminated shellfish and algae, as well as the time and knowledge necessary for the production of adequate reference materials, continuously lead to limited editions of certified reference materials and even more limited production of in-house reference materials. The restricted availability of in-house quality control materials promotes the rapid use of the limited certified reference materials, which in turn hampers the production of the suite of materials required globally for complete protection of public health. This paper outlines the various options that analysts can pursue in the use of reference materials for internal and external quality control, with a view to optimising the efforts of both reference materials users and reference materials producers. For this purpose, the logical sequence is reviewed from the discovery of a new bioactive compound in shellfish, through initial method development up to regulation for food safety purposes including accepted reference methods. Subsequently, the requirements for and efforts typically spent in the production and characterisation of laboratory reference materials, certified reference materials and other test materials used in inter-laboratory studies or proficiency testing, in the area of marine biotoxins are evaluated. Particular emphasis is put on practical advice for the preparation of in-house reference materials. The intricate link between reference material characterisation and method performance is

  4. Production of certified reference materials for the detection of genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Trapmann, Stefanie; Schimmel, Heinz; Kramer, Gerard Nico; Van den Eede, Guy; Pauwels, Jean

    2002-01-01

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) are an essenIial tool in the quality assurance of analytical measurements. They are produced, certified, and used in accordance with relevant ISO (International Organization for Standardization) and BCR (Community Bureau of Reference) guidelines. The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM; Geel, Belgium) has produced the first powdery genetically modified organism (GMO) CRMs in cooperation with the Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (Ispra, Italy). Until now, different weight percentages in the range of 0-5% for 4 GMOs in Europe were produced and certified: Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis)-11 and Bt-176 maize, Roundup Ready soybean, and MON810 maize. Bt-11 and Bt-176 maize and Roundup Ready soybean were produced by IRMM on behalf of Fluka Chemie AG (Buchs, Switzerland). Characterization of used base material is the first step in production and is especially important for GMO CRMs. The production of powdery GMO CRMs and methods used for production control are described. Thorough control of homogeneity and stability are essential for certification of reference materials and ensure validity of the certificate for each bottle of a batch throughout a defined shelf-life. Because production of reference materials and their maintenance are very labor- and cost-intensive tasks, the usefulness of new types of GMO CRMs must be estimated carefully.

  5. The calibration of XRF polyethylene reference materials with k0-NAA and ICP-AES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swagten, Josefien; Bossus, Daniël; Vanwersch, Hanny

    2006-08-01

    Due to the lack of commercially available polyethylene reference materials for the calibration of X-ray fluorescence spectrometers (XRF), DSM Resolve, in cooperation with PANalytical, prepared and calibrated such a set of standards in 2005. The reference materials were prepared based on the addition of additives to virgin polyethylene. The mentioned additives are added to improve the performance of the polymers. The elements present in additives are tracers for the used additives. The reference materials contain the following elements: F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Ca, Ti and Zn in the concentration range of 5 mg/kg for Ti, up to 600 mg/kg for Mg. The calibration of the reference materials, including a blank, was performed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and Neutron Activation Analysis ( k0-NAA). ICP-AES was used to determine the elements Na, Mg, Al, P, Ca, Ti and Zn whereas k0-NAA was used for F, Na, Mg, Al, Ca, Ti and Zn. Over the complete concentration range, a good agreement of the results was found between the both techniques. This project has shown that within DSM Resolve, it is possible to develop and to calibrate homogenous reference materials for XRF.

  6. Microhomogeneity in reference materials for microanalytical methods - a possible recourse from a blind alley?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renno, A. D.; Michalak, P. P.; Munnik, F.; Tolosana-Delgado, R.; van den Boogaart, G. K.

    2013-12-01

    It is assumed that reference materials for microanalytical methods must be homogeneous, i.e. have the same concentration of the relevant element(s) overall, to ensure that they can be used reliably to get comparison values during the analysis with non absolute methods. With increasing resolution it becomes more and more difficult to ensure such homogeneity, up to the point that it is not possible for several microanalytical methods. Painstaking search for homogeneous natural minerals in gem quality or elaborate expensive methods to produce synthetic minerals provide as obvious solutions to the problem. We propose a way to get reliable reference values with some types of inhomogeneous material, based on multiple probing the reference material. Consider a reference material, which average concentration on the relevant element and its microscale variability has been adequately characterized by a destructive method at a series of grid spots. The minimal number of probing spots required for a certain precision level can be derived from the variance calculations. This procedure is always valid, whenever the heterogeneity value distribution of the reference material has a variance, but at the price that the number of spots will be huge if it is large. However, using adequate models of local heterogeneity can greatly reduce that number. Geostatistics can be used in random, systematic and periodic heterogeneities, while robust methods are useful in cases of nugget heterogeneities. Typical examples of natural and synthetic minerals, analysed by electron microprobe and micro-PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) for microhomogeneity/microheterogeneity are shown. The distinctions between the two strategies of using these materials as a potential reference material are demonstrated.

  7. The development and role of international biological reference materials in the diagnosis of anaemia.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Susan J

    2010-07-01

    Anaemia is a major global health problem. Although the main cause is iron deficiency, anaemia also results from other nutritional deficiencies (folate and vitamin B12), haemolytic disorders including haemoglobinopathies, and bone marrow disorders. Accurate diagnosis of anaemia is dependent on reliable diagnostic tests and reference ranges, which in turn are dependent on effective standardisation. Standardisation is achieved through the availability of reference materials and reference measurement procedures. International biological reference materials have therefore been developed to standardise and control diagnostic tests for anaemia for a diverse range of analytes including total haemoglobin and haemoglobin types, ferritin, the serum transferrin receptor, serum vitamin B12 and folate, whole blood folate, and alloantibodies which mediate immune haemolytic anaemia.

  8. A Family of Reference Hugoniots for Two-phase Porous Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED A Family of Reference Hugoniots for Two-phase Porous Materials A.D. Resnyansky Weapons and Combat...of Australia 2015 AR-016-394 June 2015 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED A Family of Reference Hugoniots for...EOS [4] is based on a constitutive consideration. The latter approach specifies Hugoniot states from a family of non-equilibrium Hugoniot for a

  9. High-precision isotopic characterization of USGS reference materials by TIMS and MC-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, Dominique; Kieffer, Bruno; Maerschalk, Claude; Barling, Jane; de Jong, Jeroen; Williams, Gwen A.; Hanano, Diane; Pretorius, Wilma; Mattielli, Nadine; Scoates, James S.; Goolaerts, Arnaud; Friedman, Richard M.; Mahoney, J. Brian

    2006-08-01

    The Pacific Centre for Isotopic and Geochemical Research (PCIGR) at the University of British Columbia has undertaken a systematic analysis of the isotopic (Sr, Nd, and Pb) compositions and concentrations of a broad compositional range of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reference materials, including basalt (BCR-1, 2; BHVO-1, 2), andesite (AGV-1, 2), rhyolite (RGM-1, 2), syenite (STM-1, 2), granodiorite (GSP-2), and granite (G-2, 3). USGS rock reference materials are geochemically well characterized, but there is neither a systematic methodology nor a database for radiogenic isotopic compositions, even for the widely used BCR-1. This investigation represents the first comprehensive, systematic analysis of the isotopic composition and concentration of USGS reference materials and provides an important database for the isotopic community. In addition, the range of equipment at the PCIGR, including a Nu Instruments Plasma MC-ICP-MS, a Thermo Finnigan Triton TIMS, and a Thermo Finnigan Element2 HR-ICP-MS, permits an assessment and comparison of the precision and accuracy of isotopic analyses determined by both the TIMS and MC-ICP-MS methods (e.g., Nd isotopic compositions). For each of the reference materials, 5 to 10 complete replicate analyses provide coherent isotopic results, all with external precision below 30 ppm (2 SD) for Sr and Nd isotopic compositions (27 and 24 ppm for TIMS and MC-ICP-MS, respectively). Our results also show that the first- and second-generation USGS reference materials have homogeneous Sr and Nd isotopic compositions. Nd isotopic compositions by MC-ICP-MS and TIMS agree to within 15 ppm for all reference materials. Interlaboratory MC-ICP-MS comparisons show excellent agreement for Pb isotopic compositions; however, the reproducibility is not as good as for Sr and Nd. A careful, sequential leaching experiment of three first- and second-generation reference materials (BCR, BHVO, AGV) indicates that the heterogeneity in Pb isotopic compositions

  10. Selected Bibliography on Culture and Cultural Materials, Preliminary Edition. Series A: Reference Materials, Human Relations in Cultural Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, E. C.; And Others

    Included in this bibliography are references to resources and materials available to the teacher and educator on human relations and cultural education. The bibliography is divided into three sections on culture, specific culture, and adult bilingual-bicultural education. The section on culture presents background information on the relation of…

  11. Development of reference materials to detect 15 different human papillomavirus genotypes.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Jee Eun; Kang, Young Soon; Seo, Hyun Hee; Choi, Ju-yeon; Kee, Mee-Kyung; Kim, Tae-Jin; Hong, Sung Ran; Kim, Sung Soon

    2014-06-10

    Accurate human papillomavirus (HPV) typing is essential for evaluating and monitoring HPV vaccines in cervical cancer screening and in epidemiological surveys. In our country, different HPV DNA detection and genotyping methodologies have been established for diagnosing and monitoring HPV-related disease in clinical practice and for research. However, there is a lack of reference materials to standardize the methods for HPV detection and genotyping. In this study, we constructed candidate reference materials comprising 15 targets (13 types of high-risk HPV, two types of low-risk HPV). We evaluated whether the candidate reference materials could be used as the reference for HPV detection and genotyping using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Standard curves for the wide linear range (10(1)-10(6)copies/μL) produced high correlation regression coefficient R(2) of 0.99. The reaction efficiencies were 96.3% to 101.2% for the standard curves, indicating highly efficient reactions. Specific genotypes were detected in single or multiple mixed samples. Our results suggest that these reference materials may provide useful standards for standardizing quality assurance for different HPV-typing assays and for proficiency testing in diagnostic laboratories.

  12. Evaluation of homogeneity of a certified reference material by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kratochvil, B.; Duke, M.J.M.; Ng, D.

    1986-01-01

    The homogeneity of the marine reference material TORT-1, a spray-dried and acetone-extracted hepatopancreatic material from the lobster, was tested for 26 elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Through a one-way analysis of variance based on six analyses on each of six bottles of TORT-1, it was concluded that the between-bottle heterogeneity is no greater than the within-bottle heterogeneity. The analytical results for those elements for which values were provided by NRC agree with the NRC values within 95% confidence limits. 8 references, 6 tables.

  13. Molecular diagnostics: harmonization through reference materials, documentary standards and proficiency testing.

    PubMed

    Holden, Marcia J; Madej, Roberta M; Minor, Philip; Kalman, Lisa V

    2011-09-01

    There is a great need for harmonization in nucleic acid testing for infectious disease and clinical genetics. The proliferation of assay methods, the number of targets for molecular diagnostics and the absence of standard reference materials contribute to variability in test results among laboratories. This article provides a comprehensive overview of reference materials, related documentary standards and proficiency testing programs. The article explores the relationships among these resources and provides necessary information for people practicing in this area that is not taught in formal courses and frequently is obtained on an ad hoc basis. The aim of this article is to provide helpful tools for molecular diagnostic laboratories.

  14. Reference materials produced for a European metrological research project focussing on measurements of NORM.

    PubMed

    Larijani, C; Pearce, A K; Regan, P H; Russell, B C; Jerome, S M; Crespo, M T; de Felice, P; Lutter, G; Maringer, F; Mazánová, M

    2017-02-08

    Reliable measurement of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials is of significance in order to comply with environmental regulations and for radiological protection purposes. This paper discusses the standardisation of three reference materials, namely sand, tuff and TiO2 to serve as quality control materials for traceability, method validation and instrument calibration. The sample preparation, material characterization via γ, α and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and the assignment of values for both the 4n (Thorium) and 4n+2 (Uranium) decay series are described.

  15. Assessment of international reference materials for isotope-ratio analysis (IUPAC Technical Report)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brand, Willi A.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Vogl, Jochen; Rosner, Martin; Prohaska, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Since the early 1950s, the number of international measurement standards for anchoring stable isotope delta scales has mushroomed from 3 to more than 30, expanding to more than 25 chemical elements. With the development of new instrumentation, along with new and improved measurement procedures for studying naturally occurring isotopic abundance variations in natural and technical samples, the number of internationally distributed, secondary isotopic reference materials with a specified delta value has blossomed in the last six decades to more than 150 materials. More than half of these isotopic reference materials were produced for isotope-delta measurements of seven elements: H, Li, B, C, N, O, and S. The number of isotopic reference materials for other, heavier elements has grown considerably over the last decade. Nevertheless, even primary international measurement standards for isotope-delta measurements are still needed for some elements, including Mg, Fe, Te, Sb, Mo, and Ge. It is recommended that authors publish the delta values of internationally distributed, secondary isotopic reference materials that were used for anchoring their measurement results to the respective primary stable isotope scale.

  16. Recent issues on development of reference materials and standardized tests of optical methods of strain measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burguete, Richard; Hack, Erwin; Kujawinska, Malgorzata; Patterson, Eann; Salbut, Leszek; Saleem, Quasim; Siebert, Thorsten; Whelan, Maurice

    2005-06-01

    The need for standards in optical methods of strain measurement has been discussed previously and attention has switched to the creation of reference materials and standardised tests. Reference materials provide a means of calibrating a measurement system by comparison to a standard that is traceable to an international standard. In this way an unbroken chain of comparisons between the measurement system and the international standard with defined uncertainties in each comparison is created. A standardised test allows the performance of the measurement system to be assessed against a number of known quantities and such tests should be as challenging as the applications for which the measurement system has been designed. The preliminary design of a reference material for optical techniques of strain measurement are presented. Results obtained from the tests of these physical reference materials using digital image correlation, ESPI, grating (moire) interferometry, photoelasticity, strain gauges and thermoelasticity support the design hypothesis and have aided the refinement of the design. The first set of results produced with the new design showed remarkable correlation despite being obtained independently in four different laboratories in four different countries using six different techniques. Initial designs for a set of standard tests have also been created and some preliminary results will be presented. The concept of virtual standardised test materials has been introduced to allow the performance of the algorithms within a measurement system to be assessed so that a standard and comprehensive diagnostic and evaluation framework will be available to system designers, manufacturers and end-users.

  17. Reference materials and representative test materials to develop nanoparticle characterization methods: the NanoChOp project case.

    PubMed

    Roebben, Gert; Kestens, Vikram; Varga, Zoltan; Charoud-Got, Jean; Ramaye, Yannic; Gollwitzer, Christian; Bartczak, Dorota; Geißler, Daniel; Noble, James; Mazoua, Stephane; Meeus, Nele; Corbisier, Philippe; Palmai, Marcell; Mihály, Judith; Krumrey, Michael; Davies, Julie; Resch-Genger, Ute; Kumarswami, Neelam; Minelli, Caterina; Sikora, Aneta; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the production and characteristics of the nanoparticle test materials prepared for common use in the collaborative research project NanoChOp (Chemical and optical characterization of nanomaterials in biological systems), in casu suspensions of silica nanoparticles and CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs). This paper is the first to illustrate how to assess whether nanoparticle test materials meet the requirements of a "reference material" (ISO Guide 30, 2015) or rather those of the recently defined category of "representative test material (RTM)" (ISO/TS 16195, 2013). The NanoChOp test materials were investigated with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and centrifugal liquid sedimentation (CLS) to establish whether they complied with the required monomodal particle size distribution. The presence of impurities, aggregates, agglomerates, and viable microorganisms in the suspensions was investigated with DLS, CLS, optical and electron microscopy and via plating on nutrient agar. Suitability of surface functionalization was investigated with attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR) and via the capacity of the nanoparticles to be fluorescently labeled or to bind antibodies. Between-unit homogeneity and stability were investigated in terms of particle size and zeta potential. This paper shows that only based on the outcome of a detailed characterization process one can raise the status of a test material to RTM or reference material, and how this status depends on its intended use.

  18. Freeze-drying for the stabilisation of shellfish toxins in mussel tissue (Mytilus edulis) reference materials.

    PubMed

    McCarron, Pearse; Emteborg, Håkan; Hess, Philipp

    2007-04-01

    Two samples of mussels (Mytilus edulis) were collected from the southwest of Ireland. One sample contained domoic acid, the other sample contained okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-2 and azaspiracid-1, -2 and -3. Wet and freeze-dried reference materials were prepared from each of the two samples to test for differences in homogeneity, stability and extractability of the analytes in either condition. Wet materials were homogenised, aliquoted and hermetically sealed under argon and subsequently frozen at -80 degrees C. Dry materials were similarly homogenised but frozen in flat cakes prior to freeze-drying. After grinding, sieving and further homogenisation, the resulting powder was aliquoted and hermetically sealed. Domoic acid materials were characterised using HPLC-UV, while LC-MS was used for the determination of lipophilic toxins. The extractabilities of all phycotoxins studied were comparable for wet and freeze-dried materials once a sonication step had been carried out for reconstitution of the freeze-dried materials prior to extraction. Homogeneity was assessed through replicate analysis of the phycotoxins (n = 10), and was found to be similar for wet and freeze-dried materials, for both hydrophilic and lipophilic toxins. Water contents were determined for both wet and freeze-dried materials, and particle size was determined for the freeze-dried materials. Stability was evaluated isochronously over eight months at four temperatures (-20, +4, +20 and +40 degrees C). The freeze-dried material containing domoic acid was stable over the whole duration at all temperatures, while in the wet material domoic acid degraded to some extent at all temperatures except -20 degrees C. In freeze-dried and wet materials containing lipophilic toxins, okadaic acid, dinophysistoxin-2, azaspiracid-1 and azaspiracid-2 were stable over the whole duration at all conditions, while concentrations of azaspiracid-3 changed significantly in both materials at some storage temperatures. Figure

  19. Development and certification of green tea-containing standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Sander, L C; Bedner, M; Tims, M C; Yen, J H; Duewer, D L; Porter, B; Christopher, S J; Day, R D; Long, S E; Molloy, J L; Murphy, K E; Lang, B E; Lieberman, R; Wood, L J; Payne, M J; Roman, M C; Betz, J M; NguyenPho, A; Sharpless, K E; Wise, S A

    2012-01-01

    A suite of three green tea-containing Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) has been issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST): SRM 3254 Camellia sinensis (Green Tea) Leaves, SRM 3255 Camellia sinensis (Green Tea) Extract, and SRM 3256 Green Tea-Containing Solid Oral Dosage Form. The materials are characterized for catechins, xanthine alkaloids, theanine, and toxic elements. As many as five methods were used in assigning certified and reference values to the constituents, with measurements carried out at NIST and at collaborating laboratories. The materials are intended for use in the development and validation of new analytical methods, and for use as control materials as a component in the support of claims of metrological traceability.

  20. Characterizing a full spectrum of physico-chemical properties of ginsenosides rb1 and rg1 to be proposed as standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Woung; Hong, Hee-Do; Choi, Sang Yoon; Hwang, Da-Hye; Her, Youl; Kim, Si-Kwan

    2011-11-01

    Good manufacturing practice (GMP)-based quality control is an integral component of the common technical document, a formal documentation process for applying a marketing authorization holder to those countries where ginseng is classified as a medicine. In addition, authentication of the physico-chemical properties of ginsenoside reference materials, and qualitative and quantitative batch analytical data based on validated analytical procedures are prerequisites for certifying GMP. Therefore, the aim of this study was to propose an authentication process for isolated ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 as reference materials (RM) and for these compounds to be designated as RMs for ginseng preparations throughout the world. Ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1 were isolated by Diaion HP-20 adsorption chromatography, silica gel flash chromatography, recrystallization, and preparative HPLC. HPLC fractions corresponding to those two ginsenosides were recrystallized in appropriate solvents for the analysis of physico-chemical properties. Documentation of the isolated ginsenosides was made according to the method proposed by Gaedcke and Steinhoff. The ginsenosides were subjected to analyses of their general characteristics, identification, purity, content quantitation, and mass balance tests. The isolated ginsenosides were proven to be a single compound when analyzed by three different HPLC systems. Also, the water content was found to be 0.940% for Rb1 and 0.485% for Rg1, meaning that the net mass balance for ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1 were 99.060% and 99.515%, respectively. From these results, we could assess and propose a full spectrum of physicochemical properties for the ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 as standard reference materials for GMP-based quality control.

  1. Polychloroprene flexible foam as a reference material. [for fire toxicity tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Morford, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Polychloroprene flexible foam was evaluated as a reference material for fire toxicity tests. A commercial sample was evaluated using nine different test conditions of the USF methodology. The material exhibited a wide range of relative toxicity depending on the test conditions. Times to incapacitation and times to death were shortest at 16 ml/sec (1 l/min) air flow, at any fixed heating rate and upper limit temperature.

  2. Preparation of spiked grass for use as an environmental radioactivity reference material.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, V; Ferreux, L; Lacour, D; Le Garrérès, I; Morelli, S

    2014-05-01

    Measurement of radionuclides from environmental samples includes a wide variety of matrix compositions and densities. To improve the traceability of environmental monitoring, LNE-LNHB intends to produce mixed γ-ray reference materials with a known mass activity and a composition as representative as possible of real environmental samples. This paper describes the preparation and characterization of a low density treated grass matrix spiked with mixed γ-emitters. This material was used in a proficiency test exercise whose results are presented.

  3. Using Photon Activation Analysis To Determine Concentrations Of Unknown Components In Reference Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Jaromy; Sun, Zaijing; Wells, Doug; Maschner, Herb

    2011-06-01

    Using certified multi-element reference materials for instrumental analyses one frequently is confronted with the embarrassing fact that the concentration of some desired elements are not given in the respective certificate, nonetheless are detectable, e.g. by photon activation analysis (PAA). However, these elements might be determinable with sufficient quality of the results using scaling parameters and the well-known quantities of a reference element within the reference material itself. Scaling parameters include: activation threshold energy, Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) peak and endpoint energy of the bremsstrahlung continuum; integrated photo-nuclear cross sections for the isotopes of the reference element; bremsstrahlung continuum integral; target thickness; photon flux density. Photo-nuclear cross sections from the unreferenced elements must be known, too. With these quantities, the integral was obtained for both the known and unknown elements resulting in an inference of the concentration of the unreported element based upon the reported value, thus also the concentration of the unreferenced element in the reference material. A similar method to determine elements using the basic nuclear and experimental data has been developed for thermal neutron activation analysis some time ago (k{sub 0} Method).

  4. Homogeneity study of a corn flour laboratory reference material candidate for inorganic analysis.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Ana Maria Pinto; Dos Santos, Liz Oliveira; Brandao, Geovani Cardoso; Leao, Danilo Junqueira; Bernedo, Alfredo Victor Bellido; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Lemos, Valfredo Azevedo

    2015-07-01

    In this work, a homogeneity study of a corn flour reference material candidate for inorganic analysis is presented. Seven kilograms of corn flour were used to prepare the material, which was distributed among 100 bottles. The elements Ca, K, Mg, P, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn and Mo were quantified by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) after acid digestion procedure. The method accuracy was confirmed by analyzing the rice flour certified reference material, NIST 1568a. All results were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA). In the study, a sample mass of 400mg was established as the minimum mass required for analysis, according to the PCA. The between-bottle test was performed by analyzing 9 bottles of the material. Subsamples of a single bottle were analyzed for the within-bottle test. No significant differences were observed for the results obtained through the application of both statistical methods. This fact demonstrates that the material is homogeneous for use as a laboratory reference material.

  5. Advances in the Metrology of Absolute Value Assignments to Isotopic Reference Materials: Consequences from the Avogadro Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vocke, Robert; Rabb, Savelas

    2015-04-01

    All isotope amount ratios (hereafter referred to as isotope ratios) produced and measured on any mass spectrometer are biased. This unfortunate situation results mainly from the physical processes in the source area where ions are produced. Because the ionized atoms in poly-isotopic elements have different masses, such processes are typically mass dependent and lead to what is commonly referred to as mass fractionation (for thermal ionization and electron impact sources) and mass bias (for inductively coupled plasma sources.) This biasing process produces a measured isotope ratio that is either larger or smaller than the "true" ratio in the sample. This has led to the development of numerous fractionation "laws" that seek to correct for these effects, many of which are not based on the physical processes giving rise to the biases. The search for tighter and reproducible precisions has led to two isotope ratio measurement systems that exist side-by-side. One still seeks to measure "absolute" isotope ratios while the other utilizes an artifact based measurement system called a delta-scale. The common element between these two measurement systems is the utilization of isotope reference materials (iRMs). These iRMs are used to validate a fractionation "law" in the former case and function as a scale anchor in the latter. Many value assignments of iRMs are based on "best measurements" by the original groups producing the reference material, a not entirely satisfactory approach. Other iRMs, with absolute isotope ratio values, have been produced by calibrated measurements following the Atomic Weight approach (AW) pioneered by NBS nearly 50 years ago. Unfortunately, the AW is not capable of calibrating the new generation of iRMs to sufficient precision. So how do we get iRMs with isotope ratios of sufficient precision and without bias? Such a focus is not to denigrate the extremely precise delta-scale measurements presently being made on non-traditional and tradition

  6. Development of a mushroom powder Certified Reference Material for calcium, arsenic, cadmium and lead measurements.

    PubMed

    Chew, Gina; Sim, Lay Peng; Ng, Sin Yee; Ding, Yi; Shin, Richard Y C; Lee, Tong Kooi

    2016-01-01

    Isotope dilution mass spectrometry and standard addition techniques were developed for the analysis of four elements (Ca, As, Cd and Pb) in a mushroom powder material. Results from the validated methods were compared to those of other national metrology institutes in the CCQM-K89 intercomparisons and the results were in excellent agreement with the reference values. The same methods were then used for the assignment of reference values to a mushroom powder Certified Reference Material (CRM). The certified values obtained for Ca, As, Cd and Pb were 1.444 ± 0.099 mg/g, 5.61 ± 0.59 mg/kg, 1.191 ± 0.079 mg/kg and 5.23 ± 0.94 mg/kg, respectively. The expanded measurement uncertainties were obtained by combining the uncertainty contributions from characterization (uchar) and between-bottle homogeneity (ubb).

  7. Specific Heat Capacity Measurement of Single-Crystalline Silicon as New Reference Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Haruka; Kato, Hideyuki; Baba, Tetsuya

    2011-11-01

    We started to develop a new certified reference material for specific heat capacity measurement using a new type of cryogenic adiabatic calorimeter, applying a pulse-tube cryocooler in the temperature range from 50 to 350 K. A candidate certified reference material is single-crystalline silicon. To check the performance of the equipment, we measured the specific heat capacity of NIST SRM720, a type of synthetic sapphire. The relative expanded uncertainty of the measurement was estimated to be 0.65% at 350 K and 8.2% at 50 K, and the certified value of SRM720 was within the limits of uncertainty. In the next step, we measured the temperature dependence of the specific heat capacity of single-crystalline silicon. The result was compared with some reference data, and good agreement within 0.6% residual was found.

  8. Analysis of marine sediment and lobster hepatopancreas reference materials by instrumental photon activation

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberger, S.; Davidson, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    By use of instrumental photon activation analysis, twelve trace (As, Ba, Cr, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr, U, Zn, and Zr) and eight minor (C, Na, Mg, Co, K, Ca, Tl, and Fe) elements were determined in a certified marine sediment standard reference material as well as eight trace (Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cd, and Pb) and four minor (Na, Mg, Cl, and Ca) elements in a certified marine tissue (lobster hepatopancreas) standard reference material. The precision and accuracy of the present results when compared to the accepted values clearly demonstrate the reliability of this nondestructive technique and its applicability to marine environmental or marine geochemical studies. 24 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  9. Sources of Braille Reading Materials. Reference Circular No. 86-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redmond, Linda, Comp.

    This reference circular lists sources of braille books available for loan, purchase, rental, or free (give-away) distribution. Divided into four sections, it includes general sources of braille books, sources of specialized braille materials, the major braille presses, and resources for further information about braille books and magazines.…

  10. Field-Tested Reference Materials: A Survey of What Has Worked Best.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Brenda; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 33 reference items--including several CD-ROM products--published during 1991-92 that were recommended by librarians. Materials are listed in the following areas: general works; business, science, and technology; fine arts; history and genealogy; medicine and health; and social sciences and humanities. A…

  11. Doorways III: Teacher Reference Materials. On School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). This booklet, "Doorways III: Teacher Reference Materials on School-Related…

  12. 40 CFR 1048.810 - What materials does this part reference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAE J2260, Nonmetallic Fuel System Tubing with One or More Layers, November 2004 1048.105 (b) ISO..., Switzerland or http://www.iso.org. Table 2 follows: Table 2 of § 1048.810—ISO Materials Document number and name Part 1048reference ISO 9141-2 Road vehicles—Diagnostic systems—Part 2: CARB requirements...

  13. 40 CFR 1048.810 - What materials does this part reference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SAE J2260, Nonmetallic Fuel System Tubing with One or More Layers, November 2004 1048.105 (b) ISO..., Switzerland or http://www.iso.org. Table 2 follows: Table 2 of § 1048.810—ISO Materials Document number and name Part 1048reference ISO 9141-2 Road vehicles—Diagnostic systems—Part 2: CARB requirements...

  14. 41 CFR 102-117.170 - What reference materials are available to ship freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.170 What reference materials are...: (1) U.S. Government Freight Transportation Handbook; (2) Limited Authority to Use Commercial Forms... are available to ship freight? 102-117.170 Section 102-117.170 Public Contracts and...

  15. 41 CFR 102-117.170 - What reference materials are available to ship freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.170 What reference materials are...: (1) U.S. Government Freight Transportation Handbook; (2) Limited Authority to Use Commercial Forms... are available to ship freight? 102-117.170 Section 102-117.170 Public Contracts and...

  16. Reference materials and representative test materials to develop nanoparticle characterization methods: the NanoChOp project case

    PubMed Central

    Roebben, Gert; Kestens, Vikram; Varga, Zoltan; Charoud-Got, Jean; Ramaye, Yannic; Gollwitzer, Christian; Bartczak, Dorota; Geißler, Daniel; Noble, James; Mazoua, Stephane; Meeus, Nele; Corbisier, Philippe; Palmai, Marcell; Mihály, Judith; Krumrey, Michael; Davies, Julie; Resch-Genger, Ute; Kumarswami, Neelam; Minelli, Caterina; Sikora, Aneta; Goenaga-Infante, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the production and characteristics of the nanoparticle test materials prepared for common use in the collaborative research project NanoChOp (Chemical and optical characterization of nanomaterials in biological systems), in casu suspensions of silica nanoparticles and CdSe/CdS/ZnS quantum dots (QDs). This paper is the first to illustrate how to assess whether nanoparticle test materials meet the requirements of a “reference material” (ISO Guide 30, 2015) or rather those of the recently defined category of “representative test material (RTM)” (ISO/TS 16195, 2013). The NanoChOp test materials were investigated with small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and centrifugal liquid sedimentation (CLS) to establish whether they complied with the required monomodal particle size distribution. The presence of impurities, aggregates, agglomerates, and viable microorganisms in the suspensions was investigated with DLS, CLS, optical and electron microscopy and via plating on nutrient agar. Suitability of surface functionalization was investigated with attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (ATR-FTIR) and via the capacity of the nanoparticles to be fluorescently labeled or to bind antibodies. Between-unit homogeneity and stability were investigated in terms of particle size and zeta potential. This paper shows that only based on the outcome of a detailed characterization process one can raise the status of a test material to RTM or reference material, and how this status depends on its intended use. PMID:26539428

  17. A natural matrix (pureed tomato) candidate reference material containing residue concentrations of pesticide chemicals.

    PubMed

    Armishaw, P; Millar, R

    2001-06-01

    NARL (the Australian National Analytical Reference Laboratory) is preparing a pureed tomato reference material spiked with residue concentrations of a range of pesticide chemicals relevant to the Australian horticultural industry. Traceable certified pesticide concentration values will be established using both isotope dilution mass spectrometry primary methods (developed within NARL) and measurements carried out by a number of experienced laboratories. As far as we are aware, there is no other similar CRM available anywhere in the world. The need for such a material is evident from the results of interlaboratory proficiency studies conducted by NARL among Australian and Asia-Pacific residue testing laboratories. Many participants are experiencing difficulties with the analysis of pesticide residues in fruit and vegetables at concentrations of regulatory significance. Chemicals such as methamidophos (an organophosphorus pesticide widely used on tomato crops) are causing particular problems. In a pilot study, a number of units of control (unspiked tomato) and the candidate reference material were prepared and packaged into lacquered steel cans which were sealed and sterilised by immersion in boiling water. Accelerated stability testing of the packaged material was conducted using isochronous measurement. All of the pesticides showed some degree of degradation after 4 weeks of storage at 50 degrees C, and after 168 days of storage at room temperature. However, all appeared to be stable after 168 days of freezer storage. Homogeneity testing involved duplicate test portions taken from every 50th unit of reference material. An experimental protocol was devised with the aim of minimising the analytical variability and assuring the quality of the data generated. There is some degree of inhomogeneity in the prepared material and a small fill trend is also indicated. Potential improvements to the spiking and preparation procedure have been identified and it is planned to

  18. An Annotated Bibliography of Reference Materials for Use in a Junior-Senior High School Library Media Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitely, Faye McConnell

    Designed to assist the librarian and/or teacher by serving as a checklist for a basic collection of reference materials, this annotated bibliography presents a list of reference sources that are appropriate for Alabama students in grades 7 through 12. The reference materials are intended to support the curriculum of a comprehensive public…

  19. Standards-Based Automated Remediation: A Remediation Manager Reference Implementation, 2011 Update

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    requirement DR7 and store this data. User Scenario 2 RM Reference Implementation Increment 1 RM 2.6 The RM database schema shall be compatible with...the ARCAT database schema. RM Reference Implementation Increment 4 (TBR) RM 2.7 The RM shall accept policy changes made locally from an RT...employs the ARCAT8 database schema for relevant remediation data store items. Note: Yellow-shaded components were initially implemented in 2010 and

  20. Evaluation of New Geological Reference Materials for U-Series Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, J. S.; Goldstein, S. J.; Nunn, A. J.; Ui Chearnaigh, K.; Amato, R.; Murrell, M. T.

    2012-12-01

    Uranium-series analytical measurements are widely used in geochemistry, geochronology, paleoclimatology, volcanology, environmental risk assessment and other fields. Recent advances in high-resolution, rapid, in situ microanalytical techniques e.g. LA-ICP-MS and SIMS present numerous opportunities for the geoanalytical community. As with other analytical techniques, the quality of the elemental concentration and isotopic data obtained through microanalytical techniques is dependent on the accurate characterization of suitable reference materials. Even for the case of fs-laser ablation applications, a range of well-characterized standards are required for high precision U-series work. Advances have been made in evaluating existing standard reference materials for U-series isotopic analysis, but this work is ongoing as more reference materials become available. In this study we present MC-TIMS and MC-ICP-MS results for uranium and thorium isotopic ratios and elemental concentrations measured in a suite of newly available Chinese Geological Standard Glasses (CGSG) designed for microanalysis. These glasses exhibit a range of chemical compositions including basalt, syenite, andesite and a soil. U concentrations for these glasses range from ≈2 to 14 μg/g and [Th]/[U] ratios range from ≈4 to 6. Uranium and thorium concentration and isotopic data will also be presented for rhyolitic obsidian from Macusani, SE Peru, which can be used as a rhyolitic reference material. These high-precision and high-accuracy ratios, from a suite of standards that exhibit a range of natural, non-basaltic compositions, will complement data from existing standards and expand the catalogue of reference materials that are appropriate for in situ U-series work. These results can be used to assess the performance of microanalytical techniques and will facilitate inter-laboratory comparison of data within the broader geoscience community.

  1. Measurements of plutonium, 237Np, and 137Cs in the BCR 482 lichen reference material

    DOE PAGES

    Lavelle, Kevin B.; Miller, Jeffrey L.; Hanson, Susan K.; ...

    2015-10-01

    Select anthropogenic radionuclides were measured in lichen reference material, BCR 482. This material was originally collected in Axalp, Switzerland in 1991 and is composed of the epiphytic lichen Pseudevernia furfuracea. Samples from three separate bottles of BCR 482 were analyzed for uranium, neptunium, and plutonium isotopes by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and analyzed for cesium-137 by gamma-ray spectrometry. The isotopic composition of the radionuclides measured in BCR 482 suggests contributions from both global fallout resulting from historical nuclear weapons testing and more volatile materials released following the Chernobyl accident.

  2. A mussel tissue certified reference material for multiple phycotoxins. Part 1: design and preparation.

    PubMed

    McCarron, Pearse; Emteborg, Håkan; Nulty, Cíara; Rundberget, Thomas; Loader, Jared I; Teipel, Katharina; Miles, Christopher O; Quilliam, Michael A; Hess, Philipp

    2011-05-01

    The development of multi-analyte methods for lipophilic shellfish toxins based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry permits rapid screening and analysis of samples for a wide variety of toxins in a single run. Validated methods and appropriate certified reference materials (CRMs) are required to ensure accuracy of results. CRMs are essential for accurate instrument calibration, for assessing the complete analytical method from sample extraction to data analysis and for verifying trueness. However, CRMs have hitherto only been available for single toxin groups. Production of a CRM containing six major toxin groups was achieved through an international collaboration. Preparation of this material, CRM-FDMT1, drew on information from earlier studies as well as improved methods for isolation of toxins, handling bulk tissues and production of reference materials. Previous investigations of stabilisation techniques indicated freeze-drying to be a suitable procedure for preparation of shellfish toxin reference materials and applicable to a wide range of toxins. CRM-FDMT1 was initially prepared as a bulk wet tissue homogenate containing domoic acid, okadaic acid, dinophysistoxins, azaspiracids, pectenotoxin-2, yessotoxin and 13-desmethylspirolide C. The homogenate was then freeze-dried, milled and bottled in aliquots suitable for distribution and analysis. The moisture content and particle size distribution were measured, and determined to be appropriate. A preliminary toxin analysis of the final material showed a comprehensive toxin profile.

  3. Constraints on transportation of reagents, reference materials and samples, difficulties and possible solutions: a user's perspective.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, P C

    2006-01-01

    The air transportation of infectious materials is regulated by international air transport associations and based on United Nations Model regulations which have become more practical in addressing animal disease agents. However, individual countries' import and interstate requirements determine what materials can be imported and transported, and this approval process can be long, resulting in delays in organism confirmation, use of international OIE and other reference laboratories, and acquisition of reference materials, proficiency test panels, and reagents for performing necessary testing. Delays can be prevented for permits that are required for the routine work performed by a laboratory through the use of comprehensive and annually renewed permits. This process, however, does not address new and exotic agents where time is critical to an effective emergency response. This paper suggests actions by both the OIE and regulatory authorities which can assist in streamlining and expediting the permit process.

  4. Development of a Certified Reference Material for myeloperoxidase-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (MPO-ANCA).

    PubMed

    Monogioudi, Evanthia; Hutu, Dana Petronela; Martos, Gustavo; Sheldon, Joanna; Schimmel, Heinz; Meroni, Pier Luigi; Zegers, Ingrid

    2016-06-01

    A serum Certified Reference Material (CRM) for supporting reliable autoimmune diagnostics was recently released by the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission. It was produced in collaboration with a Working Group on the Harmonisation of Autoimmune Tests of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC WG-HAT). This material is aimed at facilitating the standardisation of measurements of anti-myeloperoxidase immunoglobulin G antibodies. The CRM could be used as a common calibrant by clinicians and manufacturers thereby significantly improving the comparability of results from commercial immunoassays used for IgG anti-MPO measurements. This paper provides information on the new CRM and its intended use.

  5. Characterization and uncertainty evaluation of a new certified reference material of baicalein.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ningbo; Wang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Baoxi; Gao, Zhaolin; Du, Guanhua; Lv, Yang

    2014-02-01

    A new certified reference material (CRM) of baicalein was developed aiming to control the quality of baicalein and relative pharmaceuticals. Sample preparation, homogeneity, stability, value assignment, and uncertainty of a new certified reference material (CRM) of baicalein were presented in this paper. Characterization of the material relied on three different methods, which were differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), coulometric titration method (CT) and mass balance method. DSC and CT were used for purity determination of baicalein firstly. The certified value of baicalein CRM is 99.72% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.25% (k=2). The new CRM of baicalein can be used to validate analytical methods, improve the accuracy of measurement data as well as establish meteorological traceability of analytical results.

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), chlorinated pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in environmental standard reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Poster, D.L.; Schantz, M.M.; Parris, R.M.; Benner, B.A. Jr.; Wise, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    Standard reference materials (SRMs) are certified reference materials issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Natural matrix environmental sample SRMs have been developed the Analytical Chemistry Division to assist in validating measurements for organic contaminants in the environment. Many of these are well characterized for contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). SRM 1649, Organics in Urban Dust, is currently available with certified concentrations for 5 PAHs but because of the widespread use of this material in air pollution monitoring programs and to expand the usefulness of this material, the authors are further characterizing the material for a larger number of PAHs as well as PCBs and chlorinated pesticides. They will also soon issue a diesel particulate extract (SRM 1975) that is well characterized for PAHS, including many nitrogen substituted compounds. In addition to natural matrix materials, solutions useful for calibrating chromatographic detector response factors and retention times, and spiking sample blanks for determination of analyte recoveries, are also available. Solution SRMs currently available contain PCS congeners, chlorinated pesticides, and PAHs. New solution SRMs in preparation will contain additional chlorinated pesticides, PCB congeners (e.g., non-ortho substituted chlorobiphenyls), and perdeuterated PAHs. Recent SRM work will be presented with particular attention on the methods used for determining organic contaminant concentrations in the urban dust material and in the diesel particulate extract.

  7. Fate of Alpha Dynamos at Large Rm.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Alexandre; Alexakis, Alexandros

    2016-11-11

    At the heart of today's solar magnetic field evolution models lies the alpha dynamo description. In this work, we investigate the fate of alpha dynamos as the magnetic Reynolds number Rm is increased. Using Floquet theory, we are able to precisely quantify mean-field effects like the alpha and beta effect (i) by rigorously distinguishing dynamo modes that involve large-scale components from the ones that only involve small scales, and by (ii) providing a way to investigate arbitrary large-scale separations with minimal computational cost. We apply this framework to helical and nonhelical flows as well as to random flows with short correlation time. Our results determine that the alpha description is valid for Rm smaller than a critical value Rm_{c} at which small-scale dynamo instability starts. When Rm is above Rm_{c}, the dynamo ceases to follow the mean-field description and the growth rate of the large-scale modes becomes independent of the scale separation, while the energy in the large-scale modes is inversely proportional to the square of the scale separation. The results in this second regime do not depend on the presence of helicity. Thus, alpha-type modeling for solar and stellar models needs to be reevaluated and new directions for mean-field modeling are proposed.

  8. Comparative physicochemical and biological characterization of NIST Interim Reference Material PM2.5 and SRM 1648 in human A549 and mouse RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Mitkus, Robert J; Powell, Jan L; Zeisler, Rolf; Squibb, Katherine S

    2013-12-01

    The epidemiological association between exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and adverse health effects is well-known. Here we report the size distribution, metals content, endotoxin content, and biological activity of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Interim Reference Material (RM) PM2.5. Biological activity was measured in vitro by effects on cell viability and the release of four inflammatory immune mediators, from human A549 alveolar epithelial cells or murine RAW264.7 monocytes. A dose range covering three orders of magnitude (1-1000μg/mL) was tested, and biological activity was compared to an existing Standard Reference Material (SRM) for urban PM (NIST SRM 1648). Robust release of IL-8 and MCP-1 from A549 cells was observed in response to IRM PM2.5 exposures. Significant TNF-α, but not IL-6, secretion from RAW264.7 cells was observed in response to both IRM PM2.5 and SRM 1648 particle types. Cytokine or chemokine release at high doses often occurred in the presence of cytotoxicity, likely as a result of externalization of preformed mediator. Our results are consistent with a local cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory mechanism of response to exposure to inhaled ambient PM2.5 and reinforce the continued relevance of in vitro assays for mechanistic research in PM toxicology. Our study furthers the goal of developing reference samples of environmentally relevant particulate matter of various sizes that can be used for hypothesis testing by multiple investigators.

  9. Development of NIST standard reference material 2373: Genomic DNA standards for HER2 measurements.

    PubMed

    He, Hua-Jun; Almeida, Jamie L; Lund, Steve P; Steffen, Carolyn R; Choquette, Steve; Cole, Kenneth D

    2016-06-01

    NIST standard reference material (SRM) 2373 was developed to improve the measurements of the HER2 gene amplification in DNA samples. SRM 2373 consists of genomic DNA extracted from five breast cancer cell lines with different amounts of amplification of the HER2 gene. The five components are derived from the human cell lines SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-361, MDA-MB-453, and BT-474. The certified values are the ratios of the HER2 gene copy numbers to the copy numbers of selected reference genes DCK, EIF5B, RPS27A, and PMM1. The ratios were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and digital PCR, methods that gave similar ratios. The five components of SRM 2373 have certified HER2 amplification ratios that range from 1.3 to 17.7. The stability and homogeneity of the reference materials were shown by repeated measurements over a period of several years. SRM 2373 is a well characterized genomic DNA reference material that can be used to improve the confidence of the measurements of HER2 gene copy number.

  10. Development of candidate reference materials for the measurement of lead in bone

    PubMed Central

    Hetter, Katherine M.; Bellis, David J.; Geraghty, Ciaran; Todd, Andrew C.; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    The production of modest quantities of candidate bone lead (Pb) reference materials is described, and an optimized production procedure is presented. The reference materials were developed to enable an assessment of the interlaboratory agreement of laboratories measuring Pb in bone; method validation; and for calibration of solid sampling techniques such as laser ablation ICP-MS. Long bones obtained from Pb-dosed and undosed animals were selected to produce four different pools of a candidate powdered bone reference material. The Pb concentrations of these pools reflect both environmental and occupational exposure levels in humans. The animal bones were harvested post mortem, cleaned, defatted, and broken into pieces using the brittle fracture technique at liquid nitrogen temperature. The bone pieces were then ground in a knife mill to produce fragments of 2-mm size. These were further ground in an ultra-centrifugal mill, resulting in finely powdered bone material that was homogenized and then sampled-scooped into vials. Testing for contamination and homogeneity was performed via instrumental methods of analysis. PMID:18421443

  11. Present status and strategic plan for the stable isotope reference materials at the IAEA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assonov, Sergey; Groening, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    The presentation will give the overview of the stable isotope reference materials (SI-RMs) under distribution by the IAEA, its stable isotope laboratory and capacities related to material testing & production as well as future plans. Historically, most of the IAEA reference materials were produced and made available via collaborations with expert stable isotope laboratories worldwide. The IAEA plans include several directions as follows: • Maintaining the scale-defining SI-RMs at the highest level and introducing adequate replacements when needed; • Monitoring existing SI-RMs for any potential alteration(s) and of isotopic values assigned; • Identifying and then addressing the needs for new SI-RMs, with the priority to address the most critical applications (environmental and climate related applications, human health, food safety studies) and newly emerging analytical isotope techniques; • Performing all measurements aimed for characterisation of new SI-RMs and the corresponding uncertainty evaluation in accordance to the latest metrological concepts; • Promoting metrological approaches on traceability and uncertainty evaluation in every day practice of stable isotope measurements; • Expanding the IAEA capacities for SI-RMs by (i) planning a renewed laboratory at IAEA; (ii) enlarging collaboration with expert laboratories aimed to help IAEA in production and characterisation of new SI-RMs. These major directions will help to address the increasing demand for Stable Isotope Reference Materials.

  12. Preparation and evaluation of candidate certified reference materials (CRMs) for nutrients in seawater.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kerry M; Wells, David E

    2007-07-01

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) are an essential part of the quality assurance (QA) necessary for the reliable analytical measurement of nutrients in seawater. The CRMs currently available for these analyses are not matrix matched to marine samples. QUASIMEME routinely produces test materials for the nutrients in seawater and nutrients in estuarine water and low-salinity open water Laboratory Performance Studies (LPS) that are both homogeneous and stable. QUASIMEME, in conjunction with Eurofins Scientific, Denmark have produced two reference materials (RMs). The homogeneity testing and preliminary stability studies were carried out by QUASIMEME, and the results are presented in this article. Participants of the QUASIMEME LPS who demonstrated satisfactory long-term performance for the analysis of nutrients in seawater and nutrients in estuarine water and low-salinity open water were invited to take part in the certification exercise. Twenty laboratories returned data, a summary of which is also presented. The certification and long-term stability testing and additional data analysis were carried out by Eurofins Scientific, Denmark, and are outwith the scope of this article and not reported here. Eurofins Scientific, Denmark have marketed these RMs as part of their range of VKI Reference Materials (further information is available from eurofins@eurofins.dk).

  13. Statistical Analysis of a Round-Robin Measurement Survey of Two Candidate Materials for a Seebeck Coefficient Standard Reference Material.

    PubMed

    Lu, Z Q J; Lowhorn, N D; Wong-Ng, W; Zhang, W; Thomas, E L; Otani, M; Green, M L; Tran, T N; Caylor, C; Dilley, N R; Downey, A; Edwards, B; Elsner, N; Ghamaty, S; Hogan, T; Jie, Q; Li, Q; Martin, J; Nolas, G; Obara, H; Sharp, J; Venkatasubramanian, R; Willigan, R; Yang, J; Tritt, T

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to develop a Standard Reference Material (SRM™) for Seebeck coefficient, we have conducted a round-robin measurement survey of two candidate materials-undoped Bi2Te3 and Constantan (55 % Cu and 45 % Ni alloy). Measurements were performed in two rounds by twelve laboratories involved in active thermoelectric research using a number of different commercial and custom-built measurement systems and techniques. In this paper we report the detailed statistical analyses on the interlaboratory measurement results and the statistical methodology for analysis of irregularly sampled measurement curves in the interlaboratory study setting. Based on these results, we have selected Bi2Te3 as the prototype standard material. Once available, this SRM will be useful for future interlaboratory data comparison and instrument calibrations.

  14. Characterization of brown rice as a certified reference material for Fukushima accident-related radioactivity measurements.

    PubMed

    Unno, Yasuhiro; Hachinohe, Mayumi; Hamamatsu, Shioka; Todoriki, Setsuko; Yunoki, Akira; Miura, Tsutomu

    2014-05-01

    We developed a certified reference material of brown rice to measure radioactivity from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The rice was planted in the spring of 2011, just after the Fukushima accident occurred, and it was harvested in the autumn of 2011. The certified value of radioactivity concentration in the rice was 33.6 Bq kg(-1) of Cs-134 and 51.8 Bq kg(-1) of Cs-137 on August 1, 2012. The reference material is being widely distributed by the National Metrology Institute of Japan. To determine the radioactivity and its uncertainties in the brown rice, we employed gamma-ray spectrometry with a high-purity germanium detector and Monte Carlo simulation.

  15. Standard reference materials (SRMs) for determination of organic contaminants in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Wise, Stephen A; Poster, Dianne L; Kucklick, John R; Keller, Jennifer M; Vanderpol, Stacy S; Sander, Lane C; Schantz, Michele M

    2006-10-01

    For the past 25 years the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed certified reference materials (CRMs), known as standard reference materials (SRMs), for determination of organic contaminants in environmental matrices. Assignment of certified concentrations has usually been based on combining results from two or more independent analytical methods. The first-generation environmental-matrix SRMs were issued with certified concentrations for a limited number (5 to 10) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Improvements in the analytical certification approach significantly expanded the number and classes of contaminants determined. Environmental-matrix SRMs currently available include air and diesel particulate matter, coal tar, marine and river sediment, mussel tissue, fish oil and tissue, and human serum, with concentrations typically assigned for 50 to 90 organic contaminants, for example PAHs, nitro-substituted PAHs, PCBs, chlorinated pesticides, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs).

  16. The production and certification of a plutonium equal-atom reference material: NBL CRM 128

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, D.W. . Office of Safeguards and Security); Gradle, C.G.; Soriano, M.D. )

    1990-07-01

    This report describes the design, production, and certification of the New Brunswick Laboratory plutonium equal-atom certified reference material (CRM), NBL CRM 128. The primary use of this CRM is for the determination of bias corrections encountered in the operation of a mass spectrometer. This reference material is available to the US Department of Energy contractor-operated and government-operated laboratories, as well as to the international nuclear safeguards community. The absolute, or unbiased, certified value for the CRM's Pu-242/Pu-239 ratio is 1.00063 {plus minus} 0.00026 (95% confidence interval) as of October 1, 1984. This value was obtained through the quantitative blending of high-purity, chemically and isotopically characterized separated isotopes, as well as through intercomparisons of CRM samples with calibration mixtures using thermal ionization mass spectrometry. 32 tabs.

  17. Expanded polystyrene board as a standard reference material for thermal resistance measurement systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zarr, R.R.

    1997-11-01

    Thermal conductivity measurements at room temperature are presented as the basis for certified values of Standard Reference Material 1453, Expanded Polystyrene Board. The measurements have been conducted in accordance with a randomized full factorial experimental design of two variables, bulk density and temperature, using the National Institute of Standards and Technology one-meter line-heat-source guarded hot plate. Uncertainties of the measurements, consistent with current international guidelines, have been prepared. The thermal conductivity measurements were conducted over a range of bulk density of 37.4 to 45.8 kg/m{sup 3} and mean temperature of 281 to 313 K. Statistical analyses of the physical properties of Standard Reference Material 1453 are presented and include variations between boards, as well as within board.

  18. Laser ablation of advanced ceramics and glass-ceramic materials: Reference position dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sola, D.; Escartín, A.; Cases, R.; Peña, J. I.

    2011-04-01

    In this work, we present the effect produced by modifying the reference position as well as the method of machining on the results obtained when advanced ceramics and glass-ceramic materials are machined by laser ablation. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at its fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm with pulsewidths in the nanosecond range has been used. Morphology, depth and volume obtained by means of pulse bursts and grooves have been studied. Working within the same laser conditions, it has been shown that these values depend on the thermal, optical and mechanical features of the material processed. We have also studied the variation in the ablation yield when the position of the surface to be machined is modified. Material properties and work conditions are related to the results obtained. We have described and discussed the morphology, composition, microstructure and hardness of the materials processed.

  19. Metrological approaches to organic chemical purity: primary reference materials for vitamin D metabolites.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michael A; Bedner, Mary; Lang, Brian E; Toman, Blaza; Lippa, Katrice A

    2015-11-01

    Given the critical role of pure, organic compound primary reference standards used to characterize and certify chemical Certified Reference Materials (CRMs), it is essential that associated mass purity assessments be fit-for-purpose, represented by an appropriate uncertainty interval, and metrologically sound. The mass fraction purities (% g/g) of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) reference standards used to produce and certify values for clinical vitamin D metabolite CRMs were investigated by multiple orthogonal quantitative measurement techniques. Quantitative (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (qNMR) was performed to establish traceability of these materials to the International System of Units (SI) and to directly assess the principal analyte species. The 25(OH)D standards contained volatile and water impurities, as well as structurally-related impurities that are difficult to observe by chromatographic methods or to distinguish from the principal 25(OH)D species by one-dimensional NMR. These impurities have the potential to introduce significant biases to purity investigations in which a limited number of measurands are quantified. Combining complementary information from multiple analytical methods, using both direct and indirect measurement techniques, enabled mitigation of these biases. Purities of 25(OH)D reference standards and associated uncertainties were determined using frequentist and Bayesian statistical models to combine data acquired via qNMR, liquid chromatography with UV absorbance and atmospheric pressure-chemical ionization mass spectrometric detection (LC-UV, LC-ACPI-MS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Karl Fischer (KF) titration.

  20. Determination of trace metals in marine biological reference materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchemin, D.; McLaren, J.W.; Willie, S.N.; Berman, S.S.

    1988-04-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of two marine biological reference materials (dogfish liver tissue (DOLT-1) and dogfish muscle tissue (DORM-1)). The materials were put into solution by digestion in a nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture. Thirteen elements (Na, Mg, Cr, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) were then determined. Accurate results were obtained by standard additions or isotope dilution techniques for all of these elements in DORM-1 and for all but Cr in DOLT-1.

  1. Determination of elements in National Bureau of Standards' geological Standard Reference Materials by neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, C.C.; Glascock, M.D.; Carni, J.J.; Vogt, J.R.; Spalding, T.G.

    1982-08-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) have been used to determine elemental concentrations in two recently issued National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Standard Reference Materials (SRM's). The results obtained are in good agreement with the certified and information values reported by NBS for those elements in each material for which comparisons are available. Average concentrations of 35 elements in SRM 278 obsidian rock and 32 elements in SRM 688 basalt rock are reported for comparison with results that may be obtained by other laboratories.

  2. Long-term stability of cellulose acetate butyrate thin films for nuclear certified reference materials.

    PubMed

    Buják, Renáta; Delva, Laurens; Erkoç, Mustafa; Bauwens, Jeroen; Jakopič, Rožle; Vincze, Laszlo; Aregbe, Yetunde; Cardon, Ludwig

    2017-01-01

    Characterization of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) thin films with 17, 35 and 52 wt% butyryl is carried out to select the most suitable matrix material for the U and Pu containing large-sized dried spike reference material. The virgin CAB samples were aged by vibrations, heat, humidity, UV light and X-rays. Characterization was done by thermo-analytical techniques, gel permeation chromatography, mechanical tests and via Rayleigh and Compton scattering. The results show that CAB with lower butyryl content can withstand higher operational temperatures and has greater mechanical strength while CAB with higher butyryl content seems to be more resistant to radiation.

  3. Compositional Analysis of Biomass Reference Materials: Results from an Interlaboratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Wolfrum, Edward J.; Yen, James H.; Sharpless, Katherine E.

    2016-01-01

    Biomass compositional methods are used to compare different lignocellulosic feedstocks, to measure component balances around unit operations and to determine process yields and therefore the economic viability of biomass-to-biofuel processes. Four biomass reference materials (RMs NIST 8491–8494) were prepared and characterized, via an interlaboratory comparison exercise in the early 1990s to evaluate biomass summative compositional methods, analysts, and laboratories. Having common, uniform, and stable biomass reference materials gives the opportunity to assess compositional data compared to other analysts, to other labs, and to a known compositional value. The expiration date for the original characterization of these RMs was reached and an effort to assess their stability and recharacterize the reference values for the remaining material using more current methods of analysis was initiated. We sent samples of the four biomass RMs to 11 academic, industrial, and government laboratories, familiar with sulfuric acid compositional methods, for recharacterization of the component reference values. In this work, we have used an expanded suite of analytical methods that are more appropriate for herbaceous feedstocks, to recharacterize the RMs’ compositions. We report the median values and the expanded uncertainty values for the four RMs on a dry-mass, whole-biomass basis. The original characterization data has been recalculated using median statistics to facilitate comparisons with this data. We found improved total component closures for three out of the four RMs compared to the original characterization, and the total component closures were near 100 %, which suggests that most components were accurately measured and little double counting occurred. The major components were not statistically different in the recharacterization which suggests that the biomass materials are stable during storage and that additional components, not seen in the original

  4. The role of adequate reference materials in density measurements in hemodialysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furtado, A.; Moutinho, J.; Moura, S.; Oliveira, F.; Filipe, E.

    2015-02-01

    In hemodialysis, oscillation-type density meters are used to measure the density of the acid component of the dialysate solutions used in the treatment of kidney patients. An incorrect density determination of this solution used in hemodialysis treatments can cause several and adverse events to patients. Therefore, despite the Fresenius Medical Care (FME) tight control of the density meters calibration results, this study shows the benefits of mimic the matrix usually measured to produce suitable reference materials for the density meter calibrations.

  5. Compositional analysis of biomass reference materials: Results from an interlaboratory study

    SciTech Connect

    Templeton, David W.; Wolfrum, Edward J.; Yen, James H.; Sharpless, Katherine E.

    2015-10-29

    Biomass compositional methods are used to compare different lignocellulosic feedstocks, to measure component balances around unit operations and to determine process yields and therefore the economic viability of biomass-to-biofuel processes. Four biomass reference materials (RMs NIST 8491–8494) were prepared and characterized, via an interlaboratory comparison exercise in the early 1990s to evaluate biomass summative compositional methods, analysts, and laboratories. Having common, uniform, and stable biomass reference materials gives the opportunity to assess compositional data compared to other analysts, to other labs, and to a known compositional value. The expiration date for the original characterization of these RMs was reached and an effort to assess their stability and recharacterize the reference values for the remaining material using more current methods of analysis was initiated. We sent samples of the four biomass RMs to 11 academic, industrial, and government laboratories, familiar with sulfuric acid compositional methods, for recharacterization of the component reference values. In this work, we have used an expanded suite of analytical methods that are more appropriate for herbaceous feedstocks, to recharacterize the RMs’ compositions. We report the median values and the expanded uncertainty values for the four RMs on a dry-mass, whole-biomass basis. The original characterization data has been recalculated using median statistics to facilitate comparisons with this data. We found improved total component closures for three out of the four RMs compared to the original characterization, and the total component closures were near 100 %, which suggests that most components were accurately measured and little double counting occurred. Here, the major components were not statistically different in the recharacterization which suggests that the biomass materials are stable during storage and that additional components, not seen in the original

  6. Certified reference materials (GBW09170 and 09171) of creatinine in human serum.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xinhua; Fang, Xiang; Shao, Mingwu; Li, Ming; Huang, Zejian; Li, Hongmei; Jiang, You; Song, Dewei; He, Yajuan

    2011-02-15

    Creatinine is the most widely used clinical marker for assessing renal function. Concentrations of creatinine in human serum need to be carefully checked in order to ensure accurate diagnosis of renal function. Therefore, development of certified reference materials (CRMs) of creatinine in serum is of increasing importance. In this study, two new CRMs (Nos. GBW09170 and 09171) for creatinine in human serum have been developed. They were prepared with mixtures of several dozens of healthy people's and kidney disease patient's serum, respectively. The certified values of 8.10, 34.1 mg/kg for these two CRMs have been assigned by liquid chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (LC-IDMS) method which was validated by using standard reference material (SRM) of SRM909b (a reference material obtained from National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST). The expanded uncertainties of certified values for low and high concentrations were estimated to be 1.2 and 1.1%, respectively. The certified values were further confirmed by an international intercomparison for the determination of creatinine in human serum (Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance, CCQM) of K80 (CCQM-K80). These new CRMs of creatinine in human serum pool are totally native without additional creatinine spiked for enrichment. These new CRMs are capable of validating routine clinical methods for ensuring accuracy, reliability and comparability of analytical results from different clinical laboratories. They can also be used for instrument validation, development of secondary reference materials, and evaluating the accuracy of high order clinical methods for the determination of creatinine in human serum.

  7. Software Management Environment (SME) release 9.4 user reference material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrick, R.; Kistler, D.; Manter, K.

    1992-01-01

    This document contains user reference material for the Software Management Environment (SME) prototype, developed for the Systems Development Branch (Code 552) of the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) of Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The SME provides an integrated set of management tools that can be used by software development managers in their day-to-day management and planning activities. This document provides an overview of the SME, a description of all functions, and detailed instructions concerning the software's installation and use.

  8. Determination of Cd and Cr in an ABS candidate reference material by instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Kwangwon; Kang, Namgoo; Cho, Kyunghaeng; Lee, Jounghae

    2008-12-01

    In order to practically better cope with technical barriers to trade (TBT) of a great number of resin goods, our research presents first-ever results for the determination of Cd and Cr in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) candidate reference material using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) recently recognized as a candidate primary ratio method with a particular attention to the estimation of involved measurement uncertainties.

  9. Compositional analysis of biomass reference materials: Results from an interlaboratory study

    DOE PAGES

    Templeton, David W.; Wolfrum, Edward J.; Yen, James H.; ...

    2015-10-29

    Biomass compositional methods are used to compare different lignocellulosic feedstocks, to measure component balances around unit operations and to determine process yields and therefore the economic viability of biomass-to-biofuel processes. Four biomass reference materials (RMs NIST 8491–8494) were prepared and characterized, via an interlaboratory comparison exercise in the early 1990s to evaluate biomass summative compositional methods, analysts, and laboratories. Having common, uniform, and stable biomass reference materials gives the opportunity to assess compositional data compared to other analysts, to other labs, and to a known compositional value. The expiration date for the original characterization of these RMs was reached andmore » an effort to assess their stability and recharacterize the reference values for the remaining material using more current methods of analysis was initiated. We sent samples of the four biomass RMs to 11 academic, industrial, and government laboratories, familiar with sulfuric acid compositional methods, for recharacterization of the component reference values. In this work, we have used an expanded suite of analytical methods that are more appropriate for herbaceous feedstocks, to recharacterize the RMs’ compositions. We report the median values and the expanded uncertainty values for the four RMs on a dry-mass, whole-biomass basis. The original characterization data has been recalculated using median statistics to facilitate comparisons with this data. We found improved total component closures for three out of the four RMs compared to the original characterization, and the total component closures were near 100 %, which suggests that most components were accurately measured and little double counting occurred. Here, the major components were not statistically different in the recharacterization which suggests that the biomass materials are stable during storage and that additional components, not seen in the original

  10. Systematic comparison of δ13C measurements of testosterone and derivative steroids in a freeze-dried urine candidate reference material for sports drug testing by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry and uncertainty evaluation using four different metrological approaches.

    PubMed

    Munton, Ellaine; Murby, John; Hibbert, D Brynn; Santamaria-Fernandez, Rebeca

    2011-06-15

    An alternative calibration procedure for use when performing carbon isotope ratio measurements by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) has been developed. This calibration procedure does not rely on the corrections in-built in the instrument software, as the carbon isotope ratios of a sample are calculated from the measured raw peak areas. The method was developed for the certification of a urine reference material for sports drug testing, as the estimation of measurement uncertainty is greatly simplified. To ensure that the method is free from bias arising from the choice of calibration material and instrument, the carbon isotope ratios of steroids in urine extracts were measured using two different instruments in different laboratories, and three different reference materials (CU/USADA steroid standards from Brenna Laboratory, Cornell University; NIST RM8539 mineral oil; methane calibrated against NIST RM8560 natural gas). The measurements were performed at LGC and the Australian National Measurement Institute (NMI). It was found that there was no significant difference in measurement results when different instruments and reference materials were used to measure the carbon isotope ratio of the major testosterone metabolites androsterone and etiocholanolone, or the endogenous reference compounds pregnanediol, 11- ketoetiocholanolone and 11β-hydroxyandrosterone. Expanded measurement uncertainties at the 95% coverage probability ranged from 0.21‰ to 1.4‰, depending on analyte, instrument and reference material. The measurement results of this comparison were used to estimate a measurement uncertainty of δ(13)C for the certification of the urine reference material being performed on a single instrument using a single reference material at NMI.

  11. Small-Angle Neutron Scattering study of the NIST mAb reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, Maria Monica; Liu, Yun; Krueger, Susan; Curtis, Joseph

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are of great interest to the biopharmaceutical industry because they can be engineered to target specific antigens. Due to their importance, the biomanufacturing initiative at NIST is developing an IgG1 mAb reference material `NIST mAb', which can be used by industry, academia, and regulatory authorities. As part of this collaborative effort, we aim at characterizing the reference material using neutron scattering techniques. We have studied the small-angle scattering profile of the NIST mAb in a histidine buffer at 0 and 150 mM NaCl. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we generate an ensemble of structures and calculate their theoretical scattering profile, which can be directly compared with experimental data. Moreover, we analyze the structure factor to understand the effect of solution conditions on the protein-protein interactions. Finally, we have measured the solution scattering of the NIST mAb, while simultaneously performing freeze/thaw cycles, in order to investigate if the solution structure was affected upon freezing. The results from neutron scattering not only support the development of the reference material, but also provide insights on its stability and guide efforts for its development under different formulations.

  12. NIST gold nanoparticle reference materials do not induce oxidative DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Bryant C; Petersen, Elijah J; Marquis, Bryce J; Atha, Donald H; Elliott, John T; Cleveland, Danielle; Watson, Stephanie S; Tseng, I-Hsiang; Dillon, Andrew; Theodore, Mellisa; Jackman, Joany

    2013-02-01

    One primary challenge in nanotoxicology studies is the lack of well-characterised nanoparticle reference materials which could be used as positive or negative nanoparticle controls. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed three gold nanoparticle (AuNP) reference materials (10, 30 and 60 nm). The genotoxicity of these nanoparticles was tested using HepG2 cells and calf-thymus DNA. DNA damage was assessed based on the specific and sensitive measurement of four oxidatively-modified DNA lesions (8-hydroxy-2´-deoxyguanosine, 8-hydroxy-2´-deoxyadenosine, (5´S)-8,5´-cyclo-2´-deoxyadenosine and (5´R)-8,5´-cyclo-2´-deoxyadenosine) using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Significantly elevated, dose-dependent DNA damage was not detected at concentrations up to 0.2 μg/ml, and free radicals were not detected using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. These data suggest that the NIST AuNPs could potentially serve as suitable negative-control nanoparticle reference materials for in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity studies. NIST AuNPs thus hold substantial promise for improving the reproducibility and reliability of nanoparticle genotoxicity studies.

  13. Reference materials (RMs) for analysis of the human factor II (prothrombin) gene G20210A mutation.

    PubMed

    Klein, Christoph L; Márki-Zay, János; Corbisier, Philippe; Gancberg, David; Cooper, Susan; Gemmati, Donato; Halbmayer, Walter-Michael; Kitchen, Steve; Melegh, Béla; Neumaier, Michael; Oldenburg, Johannes; Leibundgut, Elisabeth Oppliger; Reitsma, Pieter H; Rieger, Sandra; Schimmel, Heinz G; Spannagl, Michael; Tordai, Attilia; Tosetto, Alberto; Visvikis, Sophie; Zadro, Renata; Mannhalter, Christine

    2005-01-01

    The Scientific Committee of Molecular Biology Techniques (C-MBT) in Clinical Chemistry of the IFCC has initiated a joint project in co-operation with the European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute of Reference Materials and Measurements to develop and produce plasmid-type reference materials (RMs) for the analysis of the human prothrombin gene G20210A mutation. Although DNA tests have a high impact on clinical decision-making and the number of tests performed in diagnostic laboratories is high, issues of quality and quality assurance exist, and currently only a few RMs for clinical genetic testing are available. A gene fragment chosen was produced that spans all primer annealing sites published to date. Both the wild-type and mutant alleles of this gene fragment were cloned into a pUC18 plasmid and two plasmid RMs were produced. In addition, a mixture of both plasmids was produced to mimic the heterozygous genotype. The present study describes the performance of these reference materials in a commutability study, in which they were tested by nine different methods in 13 expert laboratories. This series of plasmid RMs are, to the best of our knowledge, the first plasmid-type clinical genetic RMs introduced worldwide.

  14. Characterization of Pu concentration and its isotopic composition in a reference fallout material.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongsan; Zheng, Jian; Yamada, Masatoshi; Wu, Fengchang; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Hirose, Katsumi

    2010-02-01

    Because there is no reference material for fallout plutonium isotope monitoring, preparation of such a material is necessary for quality control of fallout radionuclides analysis for atmospheric environmental studies. In this work, we report the characterization of Pu activity and its isotopic composition in a reference fallout material prepared by the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI), Japan. This material was prepared from samples collected at 14 stations throughout Japan in 1963-1979, with reference values of (137)Cs, (90)Sr and (239)(+)(240)Pu activities. We analyzed the activities of (239)(+)(240)Pu and (241)Pu, and the atom ratios of (240)Pu/(239)Pu and (241)Pu/(239)Pu using an isotope dilution sector-field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS). The (239)(+)(240)Pu activities in this fallout material using acid leaching and total digestion were 6.56+/-0.20 mBq/g and 6.79+/-0.16 mBq/g, respectively. Atom ratios of (240)Pu/(239)Pu were 0.1915+/-0.0030 and 0.1922+/-0.0044, respectively. Both (240)Pu/(239)Pu and (241)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were slightly higher than those of global fallout, which could be attributed to the deposition of fallout radionuclides resulting from the Chinese nuclear weapons tests conducted in the 1970s. The dominant host phases of (239)(+)(240)Pu were found to be organic matter-sulfides (70%) with a relative high (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio, and Fe-Mn oxides (19%) using a sequential extraction method.

  15. Advances in Quantitative Analyses and Reference Materials Related to Laser Ablation ICP-MS: A Look at Methods and New Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, A. E.; Ridley, W. I.

    2009-12-01

    The role of laser ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS) continues to expand both in geological sciences and other fields. As the technique continues to gain popularity, so too does the need for good reference materials and methods development and validation. Matrix matched reference materials (RMs) are required for calibration and quality control of LA-ICP-MS analyses. New advances in technology such as <200nm lasers and femtosecond lasers have reduced the dependence on matrix matching to some degree, but general matrix matching is still preferred. Much work has revolved around the available RMs such as the NIST 61x silicate glasses and several series of basaltic composition glasses such as the USGS natural basaltic glasses BCR-2g and synthetic basaltic glasses, the GS series (e.g. GSD-1g). While many quantitative hurdles have been recognized by analogous techniques such as EPMA and SIMS, some of these hurdles have not been fully addressed or validated for some cases of LA-ICP-MS. Trace element mapping by LA-ICP-MS is rapidly becoming more widespread for samples. Here relative differences in raw signal can be easily and rapidly obtained. However as too often is the case the magnitude of the relative differences in raw intensity are a function of different ablation yields, sample density or other factors. Methods of quantification for trace element mapping will be presented. The USGS has been developing microanalytical RMs intended for LA-ICP-MS for several years. The widely popular basaltic rock powders BCR-2, BIR-1 and BHVO-2 have all been successfully converted to homogeneous glasses suitable for LA-ICP-MS and have been in use by many workers. The newer synthetic basaltic glass GS series consists of 4 glasses of basaltic composition artificially doped at nominal concentrations of almost of trace elements at 400, 40, 4 and < 1 ppm. Additional developments in non-silcate or basaltic materials include the previously released MASS-1 Cu, Fe, Zn sulfide calibration RM (Wilson et

  16. Consensus evaluation of radioactivity-in-soil reference materials in the context of an NPL Environmental Radioactivity Proficiency Test Exercise.

    PubMed

    Dean, Julian; Collins, Sean; Garcia Miranda, Maria; Ivanov, Peter; Larijani, Cyrus; Woods, Selina

    2017-01-25

    The development of two radioactivity-in-soil reference materials is described - one for peat and one for soil with high sand content. Each bulk material was processed, subdivided and measured before being sent to participants in an NPL Environmental Radioactivity Proficiency Test Exercise. Activity concentrations of radionuclides in each material were determined by 'consensus' evaluations of participants' results using two weighted mean methods. The project demonstrated the use of such exercises in delivering reference materials to the user community.

  17. 230Th-234U Model-Ages of Some Uranium Standard Reference Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R W; Gaffney, A M; Kristo, M J; Hutcheon, I D

    2009-05-28

    The 'age' of a sample of uranium is an important aspect of a nuclear forensic investigation and of the attribution of the material to its source. To the extent that the sample obeys the standard rules of radiochronometry, then the production ages of even very recent material can be determined using the {sup 230}Th-{sup 234}U chronometer. These standard rules may be summarized as (a) the daughter/parent ratio at time=zero must be known, and (b) there has been no daughter/parent fractionation since production. For most samples of uranium, the 'ages' determined using this chronometer are semantically 'model-ages' because (a) some assumption of the initial {sup 230}Th content in the sample is required and (b) closed-system behavior is assumed. The uranium standard reference materials originally prepared and distributed by the former US National Bureau of Standards and now distributed by New Brunswick Laboratory as certified reference materials (NBS SRM = NBL CRM) are good candidates for samples where both rules are met. The U isotopic standards have known purification and production dates, and closed-system behavior in the solid form (U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) may be assumed with confidence. We present here {sup 230}Th-{sup 234}U model-ages for several of these standards, determined by isotope dilution mass spectrometry using a multicollector ICP-MS, and compare these ages with their known production history.

  18. Developing a reference material for diffusion-controlled formaldehyde emissions testing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhe; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Xiaomin; Cox, Steven S; Little, John C

    2013-11-19

    Formaldehyde, a known human carcinogen and mucous membrane irritant, is emitted from a variety of building materials and indoor furnishings. The drive to improve building energy efficiency by decreasing ventilation rates increases the need to better understand emissions from indoor products and to identify and develop lower emitting materials. To help meet this need, formaldehyde emissions from indoor materials are typically measured using environmental chambers. However, chamber testing results are frequently inconsistent and provide little insight into the mechanisms governing emissions. This research addresses these problems by (1) developing a reference formaldehyde emissions source that can be used to validate chamber testing methods for characterization of dynamic sources of formaldehyde emissions and (2) demonstrating that emissions from finite formaldehyde sources can be predicted using a fundamental mass-transfer model. Formaldehyde mass-transfer mechanisms are elucidated, providing practical approaches for developing diffusion-controlled reference materials that mimic actual sources. The fundamental understanding of emissions mechanisms can be used to improve emissions testing and guide future risk reduction actions.

  19. Development of a certified reference material for genetically modified potato with altered starch composition.

    PubMed

    Broothaerts, Wim; Corbisier, Philippe; Emons, Hendrik; Emteborg, Håkan; Linsinger, Thomas P J; Trapmann, Stefanie

    2007-06-13

    The presence of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food and feed products is subject to regulation in the European Union (EU) and elsewhere. As part of the EU authorization procedure for GMOs intended for food and feed use, reference materials must be produced for the quality control of measurements to quantify the GMOs. Certified reference materials (CRMs) are available for a range of herbicide- and insect-resistant genetically modified crops such as corn, soybean, and cotton. Here the development of the first CRM for a GMO that differs from its non-GMO counterpart in a major compositional constituent, that is, starch, is described. It is shown that the modification of the starch composition of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers, together with other characteristics of the delivered materials, have important consequences for the certification strategy. Moreover, the processing and characterization of the EH92-527-1 potato material required both new and modified procedures, different from those used routinely for CRMs produced from genetically modified seeds.

  20. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and chlorinated pesticides in a fish tissue standard reference material.

    PubMed

    Poster, Dianne L; Kucklick, John R; Schantz, Michele M; Porter, Barbara J; Leigh, Stefan D; Wise, Stephen A

    2003-01-01

    The concentrations of a wide range of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides in a fish tissue Standard Reference Material (SRM) have been determined using multiple methods of analysis. This material, SRM 1946, Lake Superior Fish Tissue, was recently issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and complements a suite of marine environmental natural-matrix SRMs that are currently available from NIST for the determination of organic contaminants such as aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PCBs, and chlorinated pesticides. SRM 1946 is a fresh tissue homogenate (frozen) prepared from filleted adult lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush namaycush) collected from the Apostle Islands region of Lake Superior. SRM 1946 has certified and reference concentrations for PCB congeners, including the three non- ortho PCB congeners, and chlorinated pesticides. Certified concentrations are available for 30 PCB congeners and 15 chlorinated pesticides. Reference concentrations are available for 12 PCB congeners and 2 chlorinated pesticides. In addition, SRM 1946 is characterized for additional chemical constituents and properties: fatty acids, extractable fat, methylmercury, total mercury, selected trace elements, proximates, and caloric content. The characterization of chlorinated compounds is described in this paper with an emphasis on the approach used for the certification of the concentrations of PCB congeners and chlorinated pesticides. The PCB congener and chlorinated pesticide data are also compared to concentrations in other marine natural-matrix reference materials available from NIST (fish oil, mussel tissue, whale blubber, and a second fresh frozen fish tissue homogenate prepared from filleted adult lake trout collected from Lake Michigan) and from other organizations such as the National Research Council Canada (ground whole carp), the International Atomic Energy Agency (fish homogenate), and the

  1. Hf isotope compositions of U.S. Geological Survey reference materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, Dominique; Kieffer, Bruno; Hanano, Diane; Nobre Silva, Inês; Barling, Jane; Pretorius, Wilma; Maerschalk, Claude; Mattielli, Nadine

    2007-06-01

    A systematic multi-isotopic and trace element characterization of U.S. Geological Survey reference materials has been carried out at the Pacific Centre for Isotopic and Geochemical Research, University of British Columbia. Values of 176Hf/177Hf are recommended for the following reference materials (mean ±2 SD): G-2: 0.282523 ± 6; G-3: 0.282518 ± 1; GSP-2: 0.281949 ± 8; RGM-1: 0.283017 ± 13; STM-1: 0.283019 ± 12; STM-2: 0.283021 ± 5; BCR-1: 0.282875 ± 8; BCR-2: 0.282870 ± 8; BHVO-1: 0.283106 ± 12; BHVO-2: 0.283105 ± 11; AGV-1: 0.282979 ± 6; and AGV-2: 0.282984 ± 9. Reproducibility is better than 50 ppm for the granitoid compositions and better than 40 ppm for the basaltic/andesitic compositions. For the isotopic analyses acquired early in this project on glass columns, Hf isotopic analyses from several of the reference materials were significantly less reproducible than Nd and Sr isotopic analyses determined from the same sample dissolution. The 176Hf/177Hf ratios for relatively radiogenic compositions (BCR-1, 2; BHVO-1, 2; RGM-1) were shifted systematically toward lower values by 100-150 ppm when a borosilicate primary column was used. Although systematic, the shift for felsic compositions was generally within analytical error, except for GSP-2, which has a very low Hf isotopic ratio, where the shift was to higher 176Hf/177Hf. Trace element and isotopic characterization of the borosilicate glass column, borosilicate frits, and quartz columns reveals extremely variable levels of trace elements. The 176Hf/177Hf ratios for these materials are very unradiogenic (borosilicate glass <0.28220 frit = 0.28193 ± 4). The borosilicate frit material appears to be the most variable in elemental concentration and isotopic composition. The quartz material has very low levels (material (22 ppm) indicate that only small amounts of such unradiogenic

  2. Hf Isotope Geochemistry of USGS Reference Materials and Various Labware: Insight into Potential Contaminant Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, D.; Nobre Silva, I.; Kieffer, B.; Barling, J.; Pretorius, W.; Maerschalk, C.

    2005-12-01

    We have undertaken a high-precision geochemical and isotopic study of USGS reference materials by HR-ICP-MS, TIMS and MC-ICP-MS, including basalt (BCR-1,2; BHVO-1,2), andesite (AGV-1,2), rhyolite (RGM-1), syenite (STM-1,2), granodiorite (GSP-2), and granite (G-2,3). Only a few 176Hf/177Hf results are published on these materials and with the increased use of MC-ICP-MS it is critical to build a solid reference database. Standard hotplate dissolution was used, except for granitoid compositions where it involved a high-pressure bomb procedure. The reproducibility of 176Hf/177Hf is better than 100 ppm for granitoid compositions (G-2: 0.282523±8; G-3: 0.282505±20; GSP-2: 0.282059±27) and better than 65 ppm for basaltic/andesitic compositions in glassware and better than 30 ppm in teflon (BCR-2: 0.282872±9; BHVO-2: 0.283103±6). Overall, our results agree with the rare published data (BCR-1&2, BHVO-1 and RGM-1). Slight differences appear depending on the chemical procedure used to separate Hf and the type of labware used. There are systematic shifts in 176Hf/177Hf for basaltic compositions towards lower values (by 100-150 ppm) when non-teflon material is used. As a result, we then carried out a systematic trace element and isotopic study of various labware, including borosilicate glass and quartz columns and frits. Maximum concentrations (in ppm) of these materials (in the order listed above) are: Hf=16-0.3-22, Nd=0.8-0.1-23, Sr=8-0.08-16, Pb=1.4-0.5-14. The frit material appears the most variable in elemental concentration and isotopic composition, which might reflect various accumulations resulting from column chemistry. 176Hf/177Hf is 0.282198±4 in borosilicate glass and even lower in some of the frit material (<0.28195). Only a small amount of such unradiogenic material can account for the shifts observed in basaltic rocks. Our systematic study shows that careful analyses of rock reference materials with different compositional matrices are necessary, in

  3. Reference Material Kydex(registered trademark)-100 Test Data Message for Flammability Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engel, Carl D.; Richardson, Erin; Davis, Eddie

    2003-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Materials and Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS) database contains, as an engineering resource, a large amount of material test data carefully obtained and recorded over a number of years. Flammability test data obtained using Test 1 of NASA-STD-6001 is a significant component of this database. NASA-STD-6001 recommends that Kydex 100 be used as a reference material for testing certification and for comparison between test facilities in the round-robin certification testing that occurs every 2 years. As a result of these regular activities, a large volume of test data is recorded within the MAPTIS database. The activity described in this technical report was undertaken to mine the database, recover flammability (Test 1) Kydex 100 data, and review the lessons learned from analysis of these data.

  4. On the status of IAEA delta-13C stable isotope reference materials.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assonov, Sergey; Groening, Manfred; Fajgelj, Ales

    2016-04-01

    For practical reasons all isotope measurements are performed on relative scales realized through the use of international, scale-defining primary standards. In fact these standards were materials (artefacts, similar to prototypes of meter and kg) selected based on their properties. The VPDB delta-13C scale is realised via two highest-level reference materials NBS19 and LSVEC, the first defining the scale and the second aimed to normalise lab-to-lab calibrations. These two reference materials (RMs) have been maintained and distributed by IAEA and NIST. The priority task is to maintain these primary RMs at the required uncertainty level, thus ensuring the long-term scale consistency. The second task is to introduce replacements when needed (currently for exhausted NBS19, work in progress). The next is to produce a family of lower level RMs (secondary, tertiary) addressing needs of various applications (with different delta values, in different physical-chemical forms) and their needs for the uncertainty; these RMs should be traceable to the highest level RMs. Presently three is a need for a range of RMs addressing existing and newly emerging analytical techniques (e.g. optical isotopic analysers) in form of calibrated CO2 gases with different delta-13C values. All that implies creating a family of delta-13C stable isotope reference materials. Presently IAEA works on replacement for NBS19 and planning new RMs. Besides, we found that LSVEC (introduced as second anchor for the VPDB scale in 2006) demonstrate a considerable scatter of its delta-13C value which implies a potential bias of the property value and increased value uncertainty which may conflict with uncertainty requirements for atmospheric monitoring. That is not compatible with the status of LSVEC, and therefore it should be replaced as soon as possible. The presentation will give an overview of the current status, the strategic plan of developments and the near future steps.

  5. An international evaluation of holmium oxide solution reference materials for wavelength calibration in molecular absorption spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Travis, John C; Zwinkels, Joanne C; Mercader, Flora; Ruíz, Arquímedes; Early, Edward A; Smith, Melody V; Noël, Mario; Maley, Marissa; Kramer, Gary W; Eckerle, Kenneth L; Duewer, David L

    2002-07-15

    Commercial spectrophotometers typically use absorption-based wavelength calibration reference materials to provide wavelength accuracy for their applications. Low-mass fractions of holmium oxide (Ho2O3) in dilute acidic aqueous solution and in glass matrixes have been favored for use as wavelength calibration materials on the basis of spectral coverage and absorption band shape. Both aqueous and glass Ho2O3 reference materials are available commercially and through various National Metrology Institutes (NMIs). Three NMIs of the North American Cooperation in Metrology (NORAMET) have evaluated the performance of Ho3-(aq)-based Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) under "routine" operating conditions using commercial instrumentation. The study was not intended to intercompare national wavelength scales but to demonstrate comparability of wavelength measurements among the participants and between two versions of the CRMs. It was also designed to acquire data from a variety of spectrophotometers for use in a NIST study of wavelength assignment algorithms and to provide a basis for a possible reassessment of NIST-certified Ho3+(aq) band locations. The resulting data show a substantial level of agreement among laboratories, instruments, CRM preparations, and peak-location algorithms. At the same time, it is demonstrated that the wavelength comparability of the five participating instruments can actually be improved by calibrating all of the instruments to the consensus Ho3+(aq) band locations. This finding supports the value of absorption-based wavelength standards for calibrating absorption spectrophotometers. Coupled with the demonstrated robustness of the band position values with respect to preparation and measurement conditions, it also supports the concept of extending the present approach to additional NMIs in order to certify properly prepared dilute acidic Ho2O3 solution as an intrinsic wavelength standard.

  6. Characterization of a Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus Type 2 Reference Standard Material

    PubMed Central

    Lock, Martin; McGorray, Susan; Auricchio, Alberto; Ayuso, Eduard; Beecham, E. Jeffrey; Blouin-Tavel, Véronique; Bosch, Fatima; Bose, Mahuya; Byrne, Barry J.; Caton, Tina; Chiorini, John A.; Chtarto, Abdelwahed; Clark, K. Reed; Conlon, Thomas; Darmon, Christophe; Doria, Monica; Douar, Anne; Flotte, Terence R.; Francis, Joyce D.; Francois, Achille; Giacca, Mauro; Korn, Michael T.; Korytov, Irina; Leon, Xavier; Leuchs, Barbara; Lux, Gabriele; Melas, Catherine; Mizukami, Hiroaki; Moullier, Philippe; Müller, Marcus; Ozawa, Keiya; Philipsberg, Tina; Poulard, Karine; Raupp, Christina; Rivière, Christel; Roosendaal, Sigrid D.; Samulski, R. Jude; Soltys, Steven M.; Surosky, Richard; Tenenbaum, Liliane; Thomas, Darby L.; van Montfort, Bart; Veres, Gabor; Wright, J. Fraser; Xu, Yili; Zelenaia, Olga; Zentilin, Lorena

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 Reference Standard Material (rAAV2 RSM) has been produced and characterized with the purpose of providing a reference standard for particle titer, vector genome titer, and infectious titer for AAV2 gene transfer vectors. Production and purification of the reference material were carried out by helper virus–free transient transfection and chromatographic purification. The purified bulk material was vialed, confirmed negative for microbial contamination, and then distributed for characterization along with standard assay protocols and assay reagents to 16 laboratories worldwide. Using statistical transformation and modeling of the raw data, mean titers and confidence intervals were determined for capsid particles ({X}, 9.18 × 1011 particles/ml; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.89 × 1011 to 1.05 × 1012 particles/ml), vector genomes ({X}, 3.28 × 1010 vector genomes/ml; 95% CI, 2.70 × 1010 to 4.75 × 1010 vector genomes/ml), transducing units ({X}, 5.09 × 108 transducing units/ml; 95% CI, 2.00 × 108 to 9.60 × 108 transducing units/ml), and infectious units ({X}, 4.37 × 109 TCID50 IU/ml; 95% CI, 2.06 × 109 to 9.26 × 109 TCID50 IU/ml). Further analysis confirmed the identity of the reference material as AAV2 and the purity relative to nonvector proteins as greater than 94%. One obvious trend in the quantitative data was the degree of variation between institutions for each assay despite the relatively tight correlation of assay results within an institution. This relatively poor degree of interlaboratory precision and accuracy was apparent even though attempts were made to standardize the assays by providing detailed protocols and common reagents. This is the first time that such variation between laboratories has been thoroughly documented and the findings emphasize the need in the field for universal reference standards. The rAAV2 RSM has been deposited

  7. Thermocyclic stability of candidate Seebeck coefficient standard reference materials at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Joshua; Wong-Ng, Winnie; Caillat, Thierry; Yonenaga, I.; Green, Martin L.

    2014-05-01

    The Seebeck coefficient is the most widely measured property specific to thermoelectric materials. There is currently no consensus on measurement protocols, and researchers employ a variety of techniques to measure the Seebeck coefficient. The implementation of standardized measurement protocols and the use of reliable Seebeck Coefficient Standard Reference Materials (SRMs®) will allow the accurate interlaboratory comparison and validation of materials data, thereby accelerating the development and commercialization of more efficient thermoelectric materials and devices. To enable members of the thermoelectric materials community the means to calibrate Seebeck coefficient measurement equipment, NIST certified SRM® 3451 "Low Temperature Seebeck Coefficient Standard (10 K to 390 K)". Due to different practical requirements in instrumentation, sample contact methodology, and thermal stability, a complementary SRM® is required for the high temperature regime (300 K to 900 K). The principal requirement of a SRM® for the Seebeck coefficient at high temperature is thermocyclic stability. We therefore characterized the thermocyclic behavior of the Seebeck coefficient for a series of candidate materials: constantan, p-type single crystal SiGe, and p-type polycrystalline SiGe, by measuring the temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient as a function of 10 sequential thermal cycles, between 300 K and 900 K. We employed multiple regression analysis to interpolate and analyze the thermocyclic variability in the measurement curves.

  8. Development and certification of a standard reference material for vitamin D metabolites in human serum.

    PubMed

    Phinney, Karen W; Bedner, Mary; Tai, Susan S-C; Vamathevan, Veronica V; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Wise, Stephen A; Yen, James H; Schleicher, Rosemary L; Chaudhary-Webb, Madhulika; Pfeiffer, Christine M; Betz, Joseph M; Coates, Paul M; Picciano, Mary Frances

    2012-01-17

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health's Office of Dietary Supplements (NIH-ODS), has developed a Standard Reference Material (SRM) for the determination of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in serum. SRM 972 Vitamin D in Human Serum consists of four serum pools with different levels of vitamin D metabolites and has certified and reference values for 25(OH)D(2), 25(OH)D(3), and 3-epi-25(OH)D(3). Value assignment of this SRM was accomplished using a combination of three isotope-dilution mass spectrometry approaches, with measurements performed at NIST and at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Chromatographic resolution of the 3-epimer of 25(OH)D(3) proved to be essential for accurate determination of the metabolites.

  9. Challenges in the size analysis of a silica nanoparticle mixture as candidate certified reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kestens, Vikram; Roebben, Gert; Herrmann, Jan; Jämting, Åsa; Coleman, Victoria; Minelli, Caterina; Clifford, Charles; De Temmerman, Pieter-Jan; Mast, Jan; Junjie, Liu; Babick, Frank; Cölfen, Helmut; Emons, Hendrik

    2016-06-01

    A new certified reference material for quality control of nanoparticle size analysis methods has been developed and produced by the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre. The material, ERM-FD102, consists of an aqueous suspension of a mixture of silica nanoparticle populations of distinct particle size and origin. The characterisation relied on an interlaboratory comparison study in which 30 laboratories of demonstrated competence participated with a variety of techniques for particle size analysis. After scrutinising the received datasets, certified and indicative values for different method-defined equivalent diameters that are specific for dynamic light scattering (DLS), centrifugal liquid sedimentation (CLS), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), particle tracking analysis (PTA) and asymmetrical-flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) were assigned. The value assignment was a particular challenge because metrological concepts were not always interpreted uniformly across all participating laboratories. This paper presents the main elements and results of the ERM-FD102 characterisation study and discusses in particular the key issues of measurand definition and the estimation of measurement uncertainty.

  10. Human urine certified reference material CZ 6009: creatinine, styrene metabolites (mandelic acid and phenylglyoxylic acid).

    PubMed

    Sperlingová, I; Dabrowská, L; Stránský, V; Kucera, J; Tichý, M

    2004-03-01

    The reference material was prepared by freeze-drying pooled urine samples obtained from healthy persons occupationally exposed to styrene. The concentrations of mandelic acid (MA), phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA), and hippuric acid (HA) in urine were determined by three modes of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). For isochronous stability testing the urinary mandelic acid and phenylglyoxylic acid concentrations were followed over a 24-month period for a preliminary batch by use of HPLC. No changes of the concentration values were found. The creatinine concentration was stable for more than five years. Standard Reference Material NIST 914a Creatinine was used for traceability purposes for creatinine. Pure chemicals MA and PGA were used for traceability purposes. Control material ClinChek-Urine Control (Recipe) was analyzed simultaneously. The mean values of MA and PGA compare well with the means and fall within the control range of control samples. Results from homogeneity, stability, and traceability testing were evaluated using the statistical program ANOVA. The certified values and their uncertainties were evaluated from the results of interlaboratory comparisons, and homogeneity and stability tests. The values are unweighed arithmetical averages of accepted results and their uncertainties are combined uncertainties (coverage factor=1).

  11. Challenges in the size analysis of a silica nanoparticle mixture as candidate certified reference material.

    PubMed

    Kestens, Vikram; Roebben, Gert; Herrmann, Jan; Jämting, Åsa; Coleman, Victoria; Minelli, Caterina; Clifford, Charles; De Temmerman, Pieter-Jan; Mast, Jan; Junjie, Liu; Babick, Frank; Cölfen, Helmut; Emons, Hendrik

    A new certified reference material for quality control of nanoparticle size analysis methods has been developed and produced by the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre. The material, ERM-FD102, consists of an aqueous suspension of a mixture of silica nanoparticle populations of distinct particle size and origin. The characterisation relied on an interlaboratory comparison study in which 30 laboratories of demonstrated competence participated with a variety of techniques for particle size analysis. After scrutinising the received datasets, certified and indicative values for different method-defined equivalent diameters that are specific for dynamic light scattering (DLS), centrifugal liquid sedimentation (CLS), scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), particle tracking analysis (PTA) and asymmetrical-flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) were assigned. The value assignment was a particular challenge because metrological concepts were not always interpreted uniformly across all participating laboratories. This paper presents the main elements and results of the ERM-FD102 characterisation study and discusses in particular the key issues of measurand definition and the estimation of measurement uncertainty.

  12. Evaluation of a fungal collection as certified reference material producer and as a biological resource center.

    PubMed

    Forti, Tatiana; Souto, Aline da S S; do Nascimento, Carlos Roberto S; Nishikawa, Marilia M; Hubner, Marise T W; Sabagh, Fernanda P; Temporal, Rosane Maria; Rodrigues, Janaína M; da Silva, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Considering the absence of standards for culture collections and more specifically for biological resource centers in the world, in addition to the absence of certified biological material in Brazil, this study aimed to evaluate a Fungal Collection from Fiocruz, as a producer of certified reference material and as Biological Resource Center (BRC). For this evaluation, a checklist based on the requirements of ABNT ISO GUIA34:2012 correlated with the ABNT NBR ISO/IEC17025:2005, was designed and applied. Complementing the implementation of the checklist, an internal audit was performed. An evaluation of this Collection as a BRC was also conducted following the requirements of the NIT-DICLA-061, the Brazilian internal standard from Inmetro, based on ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025:2005, ABNT ISO GUIA 34:2012 and OECD Best Practice Guidelines for BRCs. This was the first time that the NIT DICLA-061 was applied in a culture collection during an internal audit. The assessments enabled the proposal for the adequacy of this Collection to assure the implementation of the management system for their future accreditation by Inmetro as a certified reference material producer as well as its future accreditation as a Biological Resource Center according to the NIT-DICLA-061.

  13. A comprehensive multiscale moisture transport analysis: From porous reference silicates to cement-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemmi, H.; Petit, D.; Tariel, V.; Korb, J.-P.; Denoyel, R.; Bouchet, R.; Levitz, P.

    2015-07-01

    Natural and manufactured disordered systems are ubiquitous and often involve hierarchical structures. This structural organization optimizes defined physical properties at several scales from molecular to representative volumes where the usual homogenization approach becomes efficient. For studying a particular physical property on these systems it is thus required to use a general method of analysis based on the joint application of complementary techniques covering the whole set of time-and length-scales. Here we review a comprehensive multiscale method presented for analyzing the three-dimensional moisture transport in hierarchical porous media such as synthesized reference silicates and cement-based materials. Several techniques (NMR spectroscopy, relaxometry, diffusometry, X-ray micro-tomography, conductivity…) have been used to evidence the interplay between the different scales involved in this transport process. This method allows answering the general opened questions concerning the scale dependence of such a moisture transport in cement-based materials. We outline the main results of the multiscale techniques applied on reference porous silicates allowing separating the impact of geometry, hydric state and wettability on the moisture transport. Based on this approach, we prove that this transport at micro- and meso-scale is determinant to modify the moisture at macro-scale during setting or for hardened cement-based materials.

  14. Development of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) fruit and extract standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; Bedner, Mary; Long, Stephen E; Molloy, John L; Murphy, Karen E; Porter, Barbara J; Putzbach, Karsten; Rimmer, Catherine A; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Thomas, Jeanice B; Wise, Stephen A; Wood, Laura J; Yen, James H; Yarita, Takashi; NguyenPho, Agnes; Sorenson, Wendy R; Betz, Joseph M

    2008-10-01

    As part of a collaboration with the National Institutes of Health's Office of Dietary Supplements and the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed two standard reference materials (SRMs) representing different forms of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens), SRM 3250 Serenoa repens fruit and SRM 3251 Serenoa repens extract. Both of these SRMs have been characterized for their fatty acid and phytosterol content. The fatty acid concentration values are based on results from gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis while the sterol concentration values are based on results from GC-FID and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry analysis. In addition, SRM 3250 has been characterized for lead content, and SRM 3251 has been characterized for the content of beta-carotene and tocopherols. SRM 3250 (fruit) has certified concentration values for three phytosterols, 14 fatty acids as triglycerides, and lead along with reference concentration values for four fatty acids as triglycerides and 16 free fatty acids. SRM 3251 (extract) has certified concentration values for three phytosterols, 17 fatty acids as triglycerides, beta-carotene, and gamma-tocopherol along with reference concentration values for three fatty acids as triglycerides, 17 fatty acids as free fatty acids, beta-carotene isomers, and delta-tocopherol and information values for two phytosterols. These SRMs will complement other reference materials currently available with concentrations for similar analytes and are part of a series of SRMs being developed for dietary supplements.

  15. Nanomaterials for environmental studies: classification, reference material issues, and strategies for physico-chemical characterisation.

    PubMed

    Stone, Vicki; Nowack, Bernd; Baun, Anders; van den Brink, Nico; Kammer, Frank von der; Dusinska, Maria; Handy, Richard; Hankin, Steven; Hassellöv, Martin; Joner, Erik; Fernandes, Teresa F

    2010-03-01

    NanoImpactNet is a European Commission Framework Programme 7 (FP7) funded project that provides a forum for the discussion of current opinions on nanomaterials in relation to human and environmental issues. In September 2008, in Zurich, a NanoImpactNet environmental workshop focused on three key questions: 1. What properties should be characterised for nanomaterials used in environmental and ecotoxicology studies? 2. What reference materials should be developed for use in environmental and ecotoxicological studies? 3. Is it possible to group different nanomaterials into categories for consideration in environmental studies? Such questions have been, at least partially, addressed by other projects/workshops especially in relation to human health effects. Such projects provide a useful basis on which this workshop was based, but in this particular case these questions were reformulated in order to focus specifically on environmental studies. The workshop participants, through a series of discussion and reflection sessions, generated the conclusions listed below. The physicochemical characterisation information identified as important for environmental studies included measures of aggregation/agglomeration/dispersability, size, dissolution (solubility), surface area, surface charge, surface chemistry/composition, with the assumption that chemical composition would already be known. There is a need to have test materials for ecotoxicology, and several substances are potentially useful, including TiO(2) nanoparticles, polystyrene beads labelled with fluorescent dyes, and silver nanoparticles. Some of these test materials could then be developed into certified reference materials over time. No clear consensus was reached regarding the classification of nanomaterials into categories to aid environmental studies, except that a chemistry-based classification system was a reasonable starting point, with some modifications. It was suggested, that additional work may be

  16. Preparation and certification of Re-Os dating reference materials: Molybdenites HLP and JDC

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Du, A.; Wu, S.; Sun, D.; Wang, Shaoming; Qu, W.; Markey, R.; Stain, H.; Morgan, J.; Malinovskiy, D.

    2004-01-01

    Two Re-Os dating reference material molybdenites were prepared. Molybdenite JDC and molybdenite HLP are from a carbonate vein-type molybdenum-(lead)- uranium deposit in the Jinduicheng-Huanglongpu area of Shaanxi province, China. The samples proved to be homogeneous, based on the coefficient of variation of analytical results and an analysis of variance test. The sampling weight was 0.1 g for JDC and 0.025 g for HLP. An isotope dilution method was used for the determination of Re and Os. Sample decomposition and preconcentration of Re and Os prior to measurement were accomplished using a variety of methods: acid digestion, alkali fusion, ion exchange and solvent extraction. Negative thermal ionisation mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry were used for the determination of Re and 187Os concentration and isotope ratios. The certified values include the contents of Re and Os and the model ages. For HLP, the Re content was 283.8 ?? 6.2 ??g g-1, 187Os was 659 ?? 14 ng g-1 and the Re-Os model age was 221.4 ?? 5.6 Ma. For JDC, the Re content was 17.39 ?? 0.32 ng g-1, 187Os was 25.46 ?? 0.60 ng g-1 and the Re-Os model age was 139.6 ?? 3.8 Ma. Uncertainties for both certified reference materials are stated at the 95% level of confidence. Three laboratories (from three countries: P.R. China, USA, Sweden) joined in the certification programme. These certified reference materials are primarily useful for Re-Os dating of molybdenite, sulfides, black shale, etc.

  17. Development of a standard reference material for Cr(vi) in contaminated soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nagourney, S.J.; Wilson, S.A.; Buckley, B.; Kingston, H.M.S.; Yang, S.-Y.; Long, S.E.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last several decades, considerable contamination by hexavalent chromium has resulted from the land disposal of Chromite Ore Processing Residue (COPR). COPR contains a number of hexavalent chromium-bearing compounds that were produced in high temperature industrial processes. Concern over the carcinogenic potential of this chromium species, and its environmental mobility, has resulted in efforts to remediate these waste sites. To provide support to analytical measurements of hexavalent chromium, a candidate National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material?? (SRM 2701), having a hexavalent chromium content of approximately 500 mg kg -1, has been developed using material collected from a waste site in Hudson County, New Jersey, USA. The collection, processing, preparation and preliminary physico-chemical characterization of the material are discussed. A two-phase multi-laboratory testing study was carried out to provide data on material homogeneity and to assess the stability of the material over the duration of the study. The study was designed to incorporate several United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) determinative methods for hexavalent chromium, including Method 6800 which is based on speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS), an approach which can account for chromium species inter-conversion during the extraction and measurement sequence. This journal is ?? The Royal Society of Chemistry 2008.

  18. Identification and quantitation of arsenic species in a dogfish muscle reference material for trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchemin, D.; Bednas, M.E.; Berman, S.S.; McLaren, J.W.; Siu, K.W.M.; Sturgeon, R.E.

    1988-10-15

    The arsenic species present in a dogfish muscle reference material (DORM-1) have been identified by using high-performance liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC/ICP-MS), thin-layer chromatography, and electron impact mass spectrometry and quantified by using HPLC/ICP-MS and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The major species is arsenobetaine (15.7 +/- 0.8 ..mu..g of As/g of DORM-1), constituting about 84% of the total arsenic. For this species, the HPLC/ICP-MS detection limit was 0.3 ng of As.

  19. International Standards and Reference Materials for Quantitative Molecular Infectious Disease Testing

    PubMed Central

    Madej, Roberta M.; Davis, Jack; Holden, Marcia J.; Kwang, Stan; Labourier, Emmanuel; Schneider, George J.

    2010-01-01

    The utility of quantitative molecular diagnostics for patient management depends on the ability to relate patient results to prior results or to absolute values in clinical practice guidelines. To do this, those results need to be comparable across time and methods, either by producing the same value across methods and test versions or by using reliable and stable conversions. Universally available standards and reference materials specific to quantitative molecular technologies are critical to this process but are few in number. This review describes recent history in the establishment of international standards for nucleic acid test development, organizations involved in current efforts, and future issues and initiatives. PMID:20075208

  20. International standards and reference materials for quantitative molecular infectious disease testing.

    PubMed

    Madej, Roberta M; Davis, Jack; Holden, Marcia J; Kwang, Stan; Labourier, Emmanuel; Schneider, George J

    2010-03-01

    The utility of quantitative molecular diagnostics for patient management depends on the ability to relate patient results to prior results or to absolute values in clinical practice guidelines. To do this, those results need to be comparable across time and methods, either by producing the same value across methods and test versions or by using reliable and stable conversions. Universally available standards and reference materials specific to quantitative molecular technologies are critical to this process but are few in number. This review describes recent history in the establishment of international standards for nucleic acid test development, organizations involved in current efforts, and future issues and initiatives.

  1. Standard wool fabric as a reference material. [for fire toxicity tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Standard wool fabric is investigated as a potential reference material. A screening test method for relative toxicity exposes four albino male rats enclosed in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber to pyrolysis effluents produced by pyrolyzing a 1.00 g sample under a variety of test conditions (200-800 C with a 40 C/min heating rate). It is found that for fabrics containing 86-100% wool, animal response remains virtually unchanged, although a 100% wool fabric is preferred as it eliminates local composition differences as a source of variation.

  2. Certified Reference Material IAEA-446 for radionuclides in Baltic Sea seaweed.

    PubMed

    Pham, M K; Benmansour, M; Carvalho, F P; Chamizo, E; Degering, D; Engeler, C; Gascó, C; Gwynn, J P; Harms, A V; Hrnecek, E; Ibanez, F L; Ilchmann, C; Ikaheimonen, T; Kanisch, G; Kloster, M; Llaurado, M; Mauring, A; Møller, B; Morimoto, T; Nielsen, S P; Nies, H; Norrlid, L D R; Pettersson, H B L; Povinec, P P; Rieth, U; Samuelsson, C; Schikowski, J; Silobritiene, B V; Smedley, P A; Suplinska, M; Vartti, V-P; Vasileva, E; Wong, J; Zalewska, T; Zhou, W

    2014-05-01

    A Certified Reference Material (CRM) for radionuclides in seaweed (Fucus vesiculosus) from the Baltic Sea (IAEA-446) is described and the results of the certification process are presented. The (40)K, (137)Cs, (234)U and (239+240)Pu radionuclides were certified for this material, and information values for 12 other radionuclides ((90)Sr, (99)Tc, (210)Pb ((210)Po), (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th, (230)Th, (232)Th, (235)U, (238)U, (239)Pu and (240)Pu) are presented. The CRM can be used for Quality Assurance/Quality Control of analysis of radionuclides in seaweed and other biota samples, as well as for development and validation of analytical methods, and for training purposes.

  3. The certification of cocaine and benzoylecgonine in a human urine standard reference material.

    PubMed

    Ellerbe, P; Tai, S S; Christensen, R G; Espinosa-Leniz, R; Paule, R C; Sander, L C; Sniegoski, L T; Welch, M J; White, E

    1992-01-01

    The concentrations of cocaine and benzoylecgonine (BE) in Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1508, cocaine and metabolites in freeze-dried human urine, were determined at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly NBS) by two independent methods. For cocaine, one method was based on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS); the other was based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). For BE, one method was based on GC/MS; the other was based on flow injection analysis/thermospray mass spectrometry (FIA/MS). The results for each pair of methods were statistically evaluated. Concentrations were determined in the SRM for three levels of cocaine and three levels of benzoylecgonine. Methylecgonine, although present in the material, was not determined. For cocaine, the concentrations were 90, 263, and 429 ng/mL of human urine. For BE, the concentrations were 103, 259, and 510 ng/mL of human urine.

  4. Role of chromatography in the development of Standard Reference Materials for organic analysis.

    PubMed

    Wise, Stephen A; Phinney, Karen W; Sander, Lane C; Schantz, Michele M

    2012-10-26

    The certification of chemical constituents in natural-matrix Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) can require the use of two or more independent analytical methods. The independence among the methods is generally achieved by taking advantage of differences in extraction, separation, and detection selectivity. This review describes the development of the independent analytical methods approach at NIST, and its implementation in the measurement of organic constituents such as contaminants in environmental materials, nutrients and marker compounds in food and dietary supplement matrices, and health diagnostic and nutritional assessment markers in human serum. The focus of this review is the important and critical role that separation science techniques play in achieving the necessary independence of the analytical steps in the measurement of trace-level organic constituents in natural matrix SRMs.

  5. The certification of morphine and codeine in a human urine standard reference material.

    PubMed

    Tai, S S; Christensen, R G; Paule, R C; Sander, L C; Welch, M J

    1994-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly the National Bureau of Standards) has developed and certified a Standard Reference Material, SRM 2381, for use in testing for bias in determinations of morphine and codeine in human urine. Each unit of this SRM consists of three vials with different levels of morphine and codeine in lyophilized urine. Three different analytical methods, employing GC/MS, LC/MS, and MS/MS, were used to certify the concentrations of each analyte. Results from the three methods were in good agreement and, therefore, were statistically combined to yield certified values of 138, 293, and 578 ng/mL for morphine and 134, 283, and 591 for codeine. A round-robin study on this material among nine military laboratories demonstrated the suitability of the SRM for its intended purpose.

  6. Fundamental studies to develop certified reference material to calibrate spectrophotometer in the ultraviolet region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Conceição, F. C.; Borges, P. P.; Gomes, J. F. S.

    2016-07-01

    Spectrophotometry is the technique used in a great number of laboratories around the world. Quantitative determination of a high number of inorganic, organic and biological species can be made by spectrophotometry using calibrated spectrophotometers. International standards require the use of optical filters to perform the calibration of spectrophotometers. One of the recommended materials is the crystalline potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7), which is used to prepare solutions in specific concentrations for calibration or verification of spectrophotometers in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral regions. This paper presents the results concerning the fundamental studies for developing a certified reference material (CRM) of crystalline potassium dichromate to be used as standard of spectrophotometers in order to contribute to reliable quantitative analyses.

  7. Mica Mountain Muscovite: A New Silicate Hydrogen Isotope Standard Reference Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonero, A.; Larson, P. B.; Neill, O. K.

    2015-12-01

    A new standard reference material consisting of finely ground muscovite flakes has been developed and utilized at Washington State University to calibrate hydrogen isotope ratio (D/H) measurements to the VSMOW scale. This standard was prepared from a single crystal 'book' of a muscovite-bearing pegmatite near Deary, ID. The value we obtained for this muscovite standard (MMM) is: δD VSMOW = -79.1 ± 2.0‰ relative to NBS-30 biotite at -65.7‰ compared to a VSMOW value of 0.00‰. This mean value was determined for the muscovite and has been used as our working standard. There have been many recent geological applications to continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectroscopy. When hydrogen isotope ratios are of interest, a suitable standard for hydrogen in silicate systems often is not available. With supplies of the older NBS-30 biotite standard exhausted, much D/H data measured on silicate minerals have been linked to the VSMOW scale via non-silicate reference materials which may not behave similarly to minerals under study. Some recent studies have shown the NBS-30 standard to have poor intra-laboratory agreement with that material's measured and accepted isotopic values (Qi et al., 2014). Many laboratories which would measure D/H in silicate minerals would benefit from using a silicate-based standard for hydrogen. With further characterization, this muscovite may also be useful as a standard for silicate oxygen ratios as well as for some major element cations. This muscovite standard gives consistent values and it is easy to work with and does not leave much combustion residue. Also, because muscovite contains little iron, metal-hydride formation and associated fractionation factors is greatly reduced during the sample combustion. A new silicate-hydrogen standard is needed by the community, and this work represents an example of what a replacement standard material could look like.

  8. Production and certification of NIST Standard Reference Material 2372 Human DNA Quantitation Standard.

    PubMed

    Kline, Margaret C; Duewer, David L; Travis, John C; Smith, Melody V; Redman, Janette W; Vallone, Peter M; Decker, Amy E; Butler, John M

    2009-06-01

    Modern highly multiplexed short tandem repeat (STR) assays used by the forensic human-identity community require tight control of the initial amount of sample DNA amplified in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process. This, in turn, requires the ability to reproducibly measure the concentration of human DNA, [DNA], in a sample extract. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) techniques can determine the number of intact stretches of DNA of specified nucleotide sequence in an extremely small sample; however, these assays must be calibrated with DNA extracts of well-characterized and stable composition. By 2004, studies coordinated by or reported to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) indicated that a well-characterized, stable human DNA quantitation certified reference material (CRM) could help the forensic community reduce within- and among-laboratory quantitation variability. To ensure that the stability of such a quantitation standard can be monitored and that, if and when required, equivalent replacement materials can be prepared, a measurement of some stable quantity directly related to [DNA] is required. Using a long-established conventional relationship linking optical density (properly designated as decadic attenuance) at 260 nm with [DNA] in aqueous solution, NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2372 Human DNA Quantitation Standard was issued in October 2007. This SRM consists of three quite different DNA extracts: a single-source male, a multiple-source female, and a mixture of male and female sources. All three SRM components have very similar optical densities, and thus very similar conventional [DNA]. The materials perform very similarly in several widely used gender-neutral assays, demonstrating that the combination of appropriate preparation methods and metrologically sound spectrophotometric measurements enables the preparation and certification of quantitation [DNA] standards that are both maintainable and of practical utility.

  9. Band edge modulation and interband optical transition in AlN:Mg_{{\\rm{Al}}}-O_{{\\rm{N}}} nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Pu; Shi, Jun-jie; Zhang, Min; Jiang, Xin-he; Zhong, Hong-xia; Ding, Yi-min; Lu, Jing; Wang, Xihua

    2014-04-01

    AlN nanotubes (NTs) have many novel characteristics and great potential applications in electronic and optoelectronic nanodevices. However, little is known about the influence of Mg_{{\\rm{Al}}}-O_{{\\rm{N}}} co-doping effects on their optical properties. Here, we focus on investigating the electronic structures, clarify the interband optical transition mechanism and give a clear atomic picture for the important electron/hole localization centre in AlN:Mg_{{\\rm{Al}}}-O_{{\\rm{N}}} NTs using the GGA-1/2 method. We find that the Mg_{{\\rm{Al}}} doping efficiency can be improved effectively due to O_{{\\rm{N}}} doping in AlN NTs. The Mg_{{\\rm{Al}}} and O_{{\\rm{N}}} form Mg_{{\\rm{Al}}}-O_{{\\rm{N}}} defect complex easily along the AlN NT axis (C-axis). The Mg_{{\\rm{Al}}}-O_{{\\rm{N}}} defect complex can result in a remarkable charge transfer around it and modify the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum significantly. Meanwhile, the Mg_{{\\rm{Al}}}-O_{{\\rm{N}}} defect complex also forms the important exciton localization centre and effectively enhances the interband radiative recombination rate. Moreover, the light emission/absorption sensitively depends on its polarization. The parallel polarized light ({\\mathbf{E}}\\shortparallel {\\rm{C}}) is much stronger than the perpendicular one ({\\mathbf{E}}\\bot {\\rm{C}}). The Mg_{{\\rm{Al}}}-O_{{\\rm{N}}} co-doping thus paves a new way for improving the performance of electronic and optoelectronic nanodevices based on AlN NTs.

  10. Certified DNA Reference Materials to Compare HER2 Gene Amplification Measurements Using Next-Generation Sequencing Methods.

    PubMed

    Lih, Chih-Jian; Si, Han; Das, Biswajit; Harrington, Robin D; Harper, Kneshay N; Sims, David J; McGregor, Paul M; Camalier, Corinne E; Kayserian, Andrew Y; Williams, P Mickey; He, Hua-Jun; Almeida, Jamie L; Lund, Steve P; Choquette, Steve; Cole, Kenneth D

    2016-09-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Materials 2373 is a set of genomic DNA samples prepared from five breast cancer cell lines with certified values for the ratio of the HER2 gene copy number to the copy numbers of reference genes determined by real-time quantitative PCR and digital PCR. Targeted-amplicon, whole-exome, and whole-genome sequencing measurements were used with the reference material to compare the performance of both the laboratory steps and the bioinformatic approaches of the different methods using a range of amplification ratios. Although good reproducibility was observed in each next-generation sequencing method, slightly different HER2 copy numbers associated with platform-specific biases were obtained. This study clearly demonstrates the value of Standard Reference Materials 2373 as reference material and as a calibrator for evaluating assay performance as well as for increasing confidence in reporting HER2 amplification for clinical applications.

  11. NIST High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction Standard Reference Material: SRM 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windover, Donald; Gil, David L.; Henins, Albert; Cline, James P.

    2009-09-01

    NIST recently released a standard reference material (SRM) for the calibration of high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) instruments. HRXRD is extensively used in the characterization of lattice distortion in thin single, epitaxial crystal layers on single-crystal wafer substrates. Currently, there is a great need for improved accuracy and transferability for the measurement of strain fields in these epitaxial thin films. This implies an essential need for the calibration of HRXRD instruments to allow measurement intercomparison for both research and manufacturing communities. This first HRXRD SRM release provides certified measurements of diffraction features for a silicon reference substrate, Si (220) in transmission and Si (004) in reflection, allowing for calibration of either monochromator wavelength or goniometer angles. The SRM also provides information on the surface-to-crystal-plane misalignment, which allows calibration of sample holders and sample alignment hardware. This calibration should reduce the uncertainties when comparing, for instance, reciprocal space maps. Here we present a detailed description of these measured values and provide methods for using these to calibrate HRXRD instrumentation. SRM 2000 provides the semiconductor and the larger nanoscience community with the first nanometer length-scale reference standard with femtometer accuracy; the Si (220) transmission-feature-derived silicon lattice spacing, dSRM, has a value of 0.1920161 nm with an expanded uncertainty, U (dSRM), of 0.87 fm.

  12. Utilizing a reference material for assessing absolute tumor mechanical properties in modality independent elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Kyu; Weis, Jared A.; Yankeelov, Thomas E.; Miga, Michael I.

    2014-03-01

    There is currently no reliable method for early characterization of breast cancer response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) [1,2]. Given that disruption of normal structural architecture occurs in cancer-bearing tissue, we hypothesize that further structural changes occur in response to NAC. Consequently, we are investigating the use of modalityindependent elastography (MIE) [3-8] as a method for monitoring mechanical integrity to predict long term outcomes in NAC. Recently, we have utilized a Demons non-rigid image registration method that allows 3D elasticity reconstruction in abnormal tissue geometries, making it particularly amenable to the evaluation of breast cancer mechanical properties. While past work has reflected relative elasticity contrast ratios [3], this study improves upon that work by utilizing a known stiffness reference material within the reconstruction framework such that a stiffness map becomes an absolute measure. To test, a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) cryogel phantom and a silicone rubber mock mouse tumor phantom were constructed with varying mechanical stiffness. Results showed that an absolute measure of stiffness could be obtained based on a reference value. This reference technique demonstrates the ability to generate accurate measurements of absolute stiffness to characterize response to NAC. These results support that `referenced MIE' has the potential to reliably differentiate absolute tumor stiffness with significant contrast from that of surrounding tissue. The use of referenced MIE to obtain absolute quantification of biomarkers is also translatable across length scales such that the characterization method is mechanics-consistent at the small animal and human application.

  13. Development and application of a general plasmid reference material for GMO screening.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuhua; Li, Jun; Wang, Yulei; Li, Xiaofei; Li, Yunjing; Zhu, Li; Li, Jun; Wu, Gang

    The use of analytical controls is essential when performing GMO detection through screening tests. Additionally, the presence of taxon-specific sequences is analyzed mostly for quality control during GMO detection. In this study, 11 commonly used genetic elements involving three promoters (P-35S, P-FMV35S and P-NOS), four marker genes (Bar, NPTII, HPT and Pmi), and four terminators (T-NOS, T-35S, T-g7 and T-e9), together with the reference gene fragments from six major crops of maize, soybean, rapeseed, rice, cotton and wheat, were co-integrated into the same single plasmid to construct a general reference plasmid pBI121-Screening. The suitability test of pBI121-Screening plasmid as reference material indicated that the non-target sequence on the pBI121-Screening plasmid did not affect the PCR amplification efficiencies of screening methods and taxon-specific methods. The sensitivity of screening and taxon-specific assays ranged from 5 to 10 copies of pBI121-Screening plasmid, meeting the sensitivity requirement of GMO detection. The construction of pBI121-Screening solves the lack of a general positive control for screening tests, thereby reducing the workload and cost of preparing a plurality of the positive control.

  14. Determination of plutonium isotopes in seawater reference materials using isotope-dilution ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2012-09-01

    We analyzed the activities of (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (239+240)Pu, (241)Pu, the ratio of number of atoms (atom ratio) for (240)Pu/(239)Pu, and the activity ratio of (241)Pu/(239+240)Pu in seawater reference materials, IAEA-443 and IAEA-381, using a highly sensitive isotope dilution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method. With a mean chemical yield of 65% determined with (242)Pu as a tracer, we found that the experimentally established values in IAEA-443 for (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu and (239+240)Pu activities are almost the same as those in IAEA-381. Regarding the (239+240)Pu activity, we provided the most precise and accurate result among the twelve laboratories, which participated in the interlaboratory comparison. In addition, for the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio, our results for IAEA-381 (0.2315±0.0008) and IAEA-443 (0.2325±0.0008) are in good agreement with the IAEA information value (0.229±0.006), but have much smaller uncertainty. Since the new seawater reference material, IAEA-443, is commercially available, it can be used not only for method validation for seawater plutonium isotope ratio and activity analysis, but also for more general use as a plutonium isotope standard for mass discrimination correction for other environmental samples.

  15. Characterization of perchlorate in a new frozen human urine standard reference material.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lee L; Jarrett, Jeffery M; Davis, W Clay; Kilpatrick, Eric L; Oflaz, Rabia; Turk, Gregory C; Leber, Dennis D; Valentin, Liza; Morel-Espinosa, Maria; Blount, Benjamin C

    2012-10-01

    Perchlorate, an inorganic anion, has recently been recognized as an environmental contaminant by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Urine is the preferred matrix for assessment of human exposure to perchlorate. Although the measurement technique for perchlorate in urine was developed in 2005, the calibration and quality assurance aspects of the metrology infrastructure for perchlorate are still lacking in that there is no certified reference material (CRM) traceable to the International System of Units. To meet the quality assurance needs in biomonitoring measurements of perchlorate and the related anions that affect thyroid health, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), developed Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3668 Mercury, Perchlorate, and Iodide in Frozen Human Urine. SRM 3668 consists of perchlorate, nitrate, thiocyanate, iodine, and mercury in urine at two levels that represent the 50th and 95th percentiles, respectively, of the concentrations (with some adjustments) in the US population. It is the first CRM being certified for perchlorate. Measurements leading to the certification of perchlorate were made collaboratively at NIST and CDC using three methods based on liquid or ion chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Potential sources of bias were analyzed, and results were compared for the three methods. Perchlorate in SRM 3668 Level I urine was certified to be 2.70 ± 0.21 μg L(-1), and for SRM 3668 Level II urine, the certified value is 13.47 ± 0.96 μg L(-1).

  16. Accuracy of ELISA detection methods for gluten and reference materials: a realistic assessment.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Amigo, Carmen; Popping, Bert

    2013-06-19

    The determination of prolamins by ELISA and subsequent conversion of the resulting concentration to gluten content in food appears to be a comparatively simple and straightforward process with which many laboratories have years-long experience. At the end of the process, a value of gluten, expressed in mg/kg or ppm, is obtained. This value often is the basis for the decision if a product can be labeled gluten-free or not. On the basis of currently available scientific information, the accuracy of the obtained values with commonly used commercial ELISA kits has to be questioned. Although recently several multilaboratory studies have been conducted in an attempt to emphasize and ensure the accuracy of the results, data suggest that it was the precision of these assays, not the accuracy, that was confirmed because some of the underlying assumptions for calculating the gluten content lack scientific data support as well as appropriate reference materials for comparison. This paper discusses the issues of gluten determination and quantification with respect to antibody specificity, extraction procedures, reference materials, and their commutability.

  17. Conservation of phage reference materials and water samples containing bacteriophages of enteric bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mendez, J; Jofre, J; Lucena, F; Contreras, N; Mooijman, K; Araujo, R

    2002-12-01

    The survival was determined in different conservation conditions of: somatic coliphages, F-specific RNA bacteriophages and phages infecting Bacteroides fragilis proposed as model micro-organisms for water quality control. Titres of phages of all groups either in pure culture phage suspensions or in naturally occurring phage suspensions were stable at (-70+/-10) degrees C and at (-20+/-5) degrees C when protected with glycerol. Moreover, phage analysis of stored suspensions demonstrated that their numbers were homogeneous, both between vials and within vials, and consequently they can be used as reference materials. Furthermore, changes in the storage temperature of the vials cause unpredictable changes in the numbers of bacteriophages. Consequently, phage reference materials and samples containing a quantitative number of phages must be maintained and dispatched at a constant temperature. Consequently, the results indicate that bacteriophages should be packed in dry ice during transport and storage. Finally, the number of phages in water samples stored at (5+/-3) degrees C in the dark does not decrease significantly during the first 72 h of storage. In addition, phage concentrates from natural samples obtained by adsorption-elution to cellulose nitrate filters and mixed with 10% glycerol were stable at least for 2 months at (-70+/-10) degrees C and at (-20+/-5) degrees C.

  18. In Vitro Investigations of Human Bioaccessibility from Reference Materials Using Simulated Lung Fluids

    PubMed Central

    Pelfrêne, Aurélie; Cave, Mark R.; Wragg, Joanna; Douay, Francis

    2017-01-01

    An investigation for assessing pulmonary bioaccessibility of metals from reference materials is presented using simulated lung fluids. The objective of this paper was to contribute to an enhanced understanding of airborne particulate matter and its toxic potential following inhalation. A large set of metallic elements (Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn) was investigated using three lung fluids (phosphate-buffered saline, Gamble’s solution and artificial lysosomal fluid) on three standard reference materials representing different types of particle sources. Composition of the leaching solution and four solid-to-liquid (S/L) ratios were tested. The results showed that bioaccessibility was speciation- (i.e., distribution) and element-dependent, with percentages varying from 0.04% for Pb to 86.0% for Cd. The higher extraction of metallic elements was obtained with the artificial lysosomal fluid, in which a relative stability of bioaccessibility was observed in a large range of S/L ratios from 1/1000 to 1/10,000. For further investigations, it is suggested that this method be used to assess lung bioaccessibility of metals from smelter-impacted dusts. PMID:28125027

  19. Development of a matrix-based candidate reference material of total homocysteine in human serum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Song, Dewei; Xu, Bei; Li, Hongmei; Dai, Xinhua; Chen, Baorong

    2017-03-07

    We developed and evaluated a candidate serum reference material to help improve clinical routine measurement, and to provide traceability of the measurement results. D8-Homocystine, dithiothreitol, and acetonitrile were used as an internal standard, the reducing agent, and the protein precipitating agent, respectively. A triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with an electrospray ionization source was used for monitoring the transitions (m/z 140.0 → 94.0, 136.0 → 90.0) in multiple-reaction-monitoring mode. We used a calibration model relying on bracketing and gravimetric measurements to give SI-traceability and higher accuracy to serum value assignments. The method was evaluated for accuracy using NIST Standard Reference Material SRM1955. The results of the three concentrations (1, 2, and 3) of total homocysteine in human serum samples were determined by an isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method; tHcy 1 is 28.8 ± 1.1 μmol/L, tHcy 2 is 17.93 ± 0.57 μmol/L, and tHcy 3 is 14.38 ± 0.46 μmol/L. Graphical abstract The workflow diagram.

  20. Palm-based standard reference materials for iodine value and slip melting point.

    PubMed

    Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam Ahmad; Lin, Siew Wai; Kuntom, Ainie

    2008-09-22

    This work described study protocols on the production of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for iodine value and slip melting point. Thirty-three laboratories collaborated in the inter-laboratory proficiency tests for characterization of iodine value, while thirty-two laboratories for characterization of slip melting point. The iodine value and slip melting point of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin were determined in accordance to MPOB Test Methods p3.2:2004 and p4.2:2004, respectively. The consensus values and their uncertainties were based on the acceptability of statistical agreement of results obtained from collaborating laboratories. The consensus values and uncertainties for iodine values were 52.63 +/- 0.14 Wijs in palm oil, 56.77 +/- 0.12 Wijs in palm olein and 33.76 +/- 0.18 Wijs in palm stearin. For the slip melting points, the consensus values and uncertainties were 35.6 +/- 0.3 degrees C in palm oil, 22.7 +/- 0.4 degrees C in palm olein and 53.4 +/- 0.2 degrees C in palm stearin. Repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviations were found to be good and acceptable, with values much lower than that of 10%. Stability of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials remained stable at temperatures of -20 degrees C, 0 degrees C, 6 degrees C and 24 degrees C upon storage for one year.

  1. Soot Reference Materials for instrument calibration and intercomparisons: a workshop summary with recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgardner, D.; Popovicheva, O.; Allan, J.; Bernardoni, V.; Cao, J.; Cavalli, F.; Cozic, J.; Diapouli, E.; Eleftheriadis, K.; Genberg, P. J.; Gonzalez, C.; Gysel, M.; John, A.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Kuhlbusch, T. A. J.; Laborde, M.; Lack, D.; Müller, T.; Niessner, R.; Petzold, A.; Piazzalunga, A.; Putaud, J. P.; Schwarz, J.; Sheridan, P.; Subramanian, R.; Swietlicki, E.; Valli, G.; Vecchi, R.; Viana, M.

    2012-03-01

    Soot, which is produced from biomass burning and the incomplete combustion of fossil and biomass fuels, has been linked to regional and global climate change and to negative health problems. Scientists measure soot using a variety of methods in order to quantify source emissions and understand its atmospheric chemistry, reactivity under emission conditions, interaction with solar radiation, influence on clouds, and health impacts. A major obstacle currently limiting progress is the absence of established standards or reference materials for calibrating the many instruments used to measure the various properties of soot. The current state of availability and practicability of soot standard reference materials (SRMs) was reviewed by a group of 50 international experts during a workshop in June of 2011. The workshop was convened to summarize the current knowledge on soot measurement techniques, identify the measurement uncertainties and limitations related to the lack of SRMs, and identify attributes of SRMs that, if developed, would reduce measurement uncertainties. The workshop established that suitable SRMs are available for calibrating some, but not all, measurement methods. The community of single-particle sootphotometer (SP2) users identified a suitable SRM, fullerene soot, but users of instruments that measure light absorption by soot collected on filters did not. Similarly, those who use thermal optical analysis (TOA) to analyze the organic and elemental carbon components of soot were not satisfied with current SRMs. The workshop produced recommendations for the development of new SRMs that would be suitable for the different soot measurement methods.

  2. Preparation and certification of arsenate [As(V)] reference material, NMIJ CRM 7912-a.

    PubMed

    Narukawa, Tomohiro; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Narushima, Izumi; Jimbo, Yasujiro; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Chiba, Koichi

    2010-05-01

    Arsenate [As(V)] solution reference material, National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ) certified reference material (CRM) 7912-a, for speciation of arsenic species was developed and certified by NMIJ, the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology. High-purity As(2)O(3) reagent powder was dissolved in 0.8 M HNO(3) solution and As(III) was oxidized to As(V) with HNO(3) to prepare 100 mg kg(-1) of As(V) candidate CRM solution. The solution was bottled in 400 bottles (50 mL each). The concentration of As(V) was determined by four independent analytical techniques-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, and liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry-according to As(V) calibration solutions, which were prepared from the arsenic standard of the Japan Calibration Service system and whose species was guaranteed to be As(V) by NMIJ. The uncertainties of all the measurements and preparation procedures were evaluated. The certified value of As(V) in the CRM is (99.53 +/- 1.67) mg kg(-1) (k = 2).

  3. Applications of a New Handheld Reference Point Indentation Instrument Measuring Bone Material Strength.

    PubMed

    Randall, Connor; Bridges, Daniel; Guerri, Roberto; Nogues, Xavier; Puig, Lluis; Torres, Elisa; Mellibovsky, Leonardo; Hoffseth, Kevin; Stalbaum, Tyler; Srikanth, Ananya; Weaver, James C; Rosen, Sasha; Barnard, Heather; Brimer, Davis; Proctor, Alex; Candy, James; Saldana, Christopher; Chandrasekar, Srinivasan; Lescun, Timothy; Nielson, Carrie M; Orwoll, Eric; Herthel, Doug; Kopeikin, Hal; Yang, Henry T Y; Farr, Joshua N; McCready, Louise; Khosla, Sundeep; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Hansma, Paul K

    2013-12-01

    A novel, hand-held Reference Point Indentation (RPI) instrument, measures how well the bone of living patients and large animals resists indentation. The results presented here are reported in terms of Bone Material Strength, which is a normalized measure of how well the bone resists indentation, and is inversely related to the indentation distance into the bone. We present examples of the instrument's use in: (1) laboratory experiments on bone, including experiments through a layer of soft tissue, (2) three human clinical trials, two ongoing in Barcelona and at the Mayo Clinic, and one completed in Portland, OR, and (3) two ongoing horse clinical trials, one at Purdue University and another at Alamo Pintado Stables in California. The instrument is capable of measuring consistent values when testing through soft tissue such as skin and periosteum, and does so handheld, an improvement over previous Reference Point Indentation instruments. Measurements conducted on horses showed reproducible results when testing the horse through tissue or on bare bone. In the human clinical trials, reasonable and consistent values were obtained, suggesting the Osteoprobe(®) is capable of measuring Bone Material Strength in vivo, but larger studies are needed to determine the efficacy of the instrument's use in medical diagnosis.

  4. Periodic reference tracking control approach for smart material actuators with complex hysteretic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhiyong; Hao, Lina; Song, Bo; Yang, Ruiguo; Cao, Ruimin; Cheng, Yu

    2016-10-01

    Micro/nano positioning technologies have been attractive for decades for their various applications in both industrial and scientific fields. The actuators employed in these technologies are typically smart material actuators, which possess inherent hysteresis that may cause systems behave unexpectedly. Periodic reference tracking capability is fundamental for apparatuses such as scanning probe microscope, which employs smart material actuators to generate periodic scanning motion. However, traditional controller such as PID method cannot guarantee accurate fast periodic scanning motion. To tackle this problem and to conduct practical implementation in digital devices, this paper proposes a novel control method named discrete extended unparallel Prandtl-Ishlinskii model based internal model (d-EUPI-IM) control approach. To tackle modeling uncertainties, the robust d-EUPI-IM control approach is investigated, and the associated sufficient stabilizing conditions are derived. The advantages of the proposed controller are: it is designed and represented in discrete form, thus practical for digital devices implementation; the extended unparallel Prandtl-Ishlinskii model can precisely represent forward/inverse complex hysteretic characteristics, thus can reduce modeling uncertainties and benefits controllers design; in addition, the internal model principle based control module can be utilized as a natural oscillator for tackling periodic references tracking problem. The proposed controller was verified through comparative experiments on a piezoelectric actuator platform, and convincing results have been achieved.

  5. Production of NDA Working Reference Materials for the Capability Evaluation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Noll, P.D. Jr.; Marshall, R.S.

    1998-11-17

    The production of Non Destructive Assay (NDA) Working Reference Materials (WRMs) that are traceable to nationally recognized standards was undertaken to support implementation of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Nondestructive Waste Assay Capability Evaluation Project (CEP). The WRMs produced for the CEP project consist of Increased Am/Pu mass ration (IAP) and depleted Uranium (DU) WRMs. The CEP IAP/DU WRM set provides radioactive material standards for use in combination with 55 gallon drum waste matrix surrogates for the assessment of waste NDA assay system performance. The Production of WRMs is a meticulous process that is not without certain trials and tribulations. Problems may arise at any of the various stages of WRM production which include, but are not limited to; material characterization (physical, chemical, and isotopic), material blend parameters, personnel radiation exposure, gas generation phenomenon, traceability to national standards, encapsulation, statistical evaluation of the data, and others. Presented here is an overall description of the process by which the CEP WRMs were produced and certified as well as discussions pertaining to some of the problems encountered and how they were solved.

  6. A reference material with close to Lambertian reflectance and fluorescence emission profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaanson, P.; Pulli, T.; Manoocheri, F.; Ikonen, E.

    2016-12-01

    Fluorescent brightening agents are widely used in various industries to enhance the appearance of materials. The angular profiles of emission and reflectance of fluorescent surfaces have been shown to deviate from Lambertian behaviour, however, in industry and calibration facilities single geometry measurements are often used, which requires assumptions to be made on the angular distributions. In addition, the angular distribution of reflectance has been shown to deviate from that of fluorescence. In this work, it is shown that the angular distribution of reflectance is dependent on the excitation wavelength and the effect is explained by qualitative and quantitative models. These angular and spectral effects may cause measurement errors when single geometry bidirectional measurements are carried out. The angular distributions can be taken into account by using goniometrical measurements, which however, result in increased calibration time and cost. Alternatively, a reference material could be used where the angular dependencies are minimised. In this work, a novel material is presented which demonstrates more Lambertian emission and reflectance profiles than conventional polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) based materials and a smaller dependence of angular reflectance on the absorbance of the sample.

  7. Characterization of NIST food-matrix Standard Reference Materials for their vitamin C content.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jeanice B; Yen, James H; Sharpless, Katherine E

    2013-05-01

    The vitamin C concentrations in three food-matrix Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have been determined by liquid chromatography (LC) with absorbance detection. These materials (SRM 1549a Whole Milk Powder, SRM 1849a Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula, and SRM 3233 Fortified Breakfast Cereal) have been characterized to support analytical measurements made by food processors that are required to provide information about their products' vitamin C content on the labels of products distributed in the United States. The SRMs are primarily intended for use in validating analytical methods for the determination of selected vitamins, elements, fatty acids, and other nutrients in these materials and in similar matrixes. They can also be used for quality assurance in the characterization of test samples or in-house control materials, and for establishing measurement traceability. Within-day precision of the LC method used to measure vitamin C in the food-matrix SRMs characterized in this study ranged from 2.7% to 6.5%.

  8. Platinum stable isotope analysis of geological standard reference materials by double-spike MC-ICPMS

    PubMed Central

    Creech, J.B.; Baker, J.A.; Handler, M.R.; Bizzarro, M.

    2015-01-01

    We report a method for the chemical purification of Pt from geological materials by ion-exchange chromatography for subsequent Pt stable isotope analysis by multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) using a 196Pt-198Pt double-spike to correct for instrumental mass bias. Double-spiking of samples was carried out prior to digestion and chemical separation to correct for any mass-dependent fractionation that may occur due to incomplete recovery of Pt. Samples were digested using a NiS fire assay method, which pre-concentrates Pt into a metallic bead that is readily dissolved in acid in preparation for anion-exchange chemistry. Pt was recovered from anion-exchange resin in concentrated HNO3 acid after elution of matrix elements, including the other platinum group elements (PGE), in dilute HCl and HNO3 acids. The separation method has been calibrated using a precious metal standard solution doped with a range of synthetic matrices and results in Pt yields of ≥90% with purity of ≥95%. Using this chemical separation technique, we have separated Pt from 11 international geological standard reference materials comprising of PGE ores, mantle rocks, igneous rocks and one sample from the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary layer. Pt concentrations in these samples range from ca. 5 ng g−1 to 4 μg g−1. This analytical method has been shown to have an external reproducibility on δ198Pt (permil difference in the 198Pt/194Pt ratio from the IRMM-010 standard) of ±0.040 (2 sd) on Pt solution standards (Creech et al., 2013, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 28, 853-865). The reproducibility in natural samples is evaluated by processing multiple replicates of four standard reference materials, and is conservatively taken to be ca. ±0.088 (2 sd). Pt stable isotope data for the full set of reference materials have a range of δ198Pt values with offsets of up to 0.4‰ from the IRMM-010 standard, which are readily resolved with this technique. These results

  9. Platinum stable isotope analysis of geological standard reference materials by double-spike MC-ICPMS.

    PubMed

    Creech, J B; Baker, J A; Handler, M R; Bizzarro, M

    2014-01-10

    We report a method for the chemical purification of Pt from geological materials by ion-exchange chromatography for subsequent Pt stable isotope analysis by multiple-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) using a (196)Pt-(198)Pt double-spike to correct for instrumental mass bias. Double-spiking of samples was carried out prior to digestion and chemical separation to correct for any mass-dependent fractionation that may occur due to incomplete recovery of Pt. Samples were digested using a NiS fire assay method, which pre-concentrates Pt into a metallic bead that is readily dissolved in acid in preparation for anion-exchange chemistry. Pt was recovered from anion-exchange resin in concentrated HNO3 acid after elution of matrix elements, including the other platinum group elements (PGE), in dilute HCl and HNO3 acids. The separation method has been calibrated using a precious metal standard solution doped with a range of synthetic matrices and results in Pt yields of ≥90% with purity of ≥95%. Using this chemical separation technique, we have separated Pt from 11 international geological standard reference materials comprising of PGE ores, mantle rocks, igneous rocks and one sample from the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary layer. Pt concentrations in these samples range from ca. 5 ng g(-1) to 4 μg g(-1). This analytical method has been shown to have an external reproducibility on δ(198)Pt (permil difference in the (198)Pt/(194)Pt ratio from the IRMM-010 standard) of ±0.040 (2 sd) on Pt solution standards (Creech et al., 2013, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 28, 853-865). The reproducibility in natural samples is evaluated by processing multiple replicates of four standard reference materials, and is conservatively taken to be ca. ±0.088 (2 sd). Pt stable isotope data for the full set of reference materials have a range of δ(198)Pt values with offsets of up to 0.4‰ from the IRMM-010 standard, which are readily resolved with this technique. These

  10. Characterizing Vaccinium berry Standard Reference Materials by GC-MS using NIST spectral libraries.

    PubMed

    Lowenthal, Mark S; Andriamaharavo, Nirina R; Stein, Stephen E; Phinney, Karen W

    2013-05-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based method was developed for qualitative characterization of metabolites found in Vaccinium fruit (berry) dietary supplement Standard Reference Materials (SRMs). Definitive identifications are provided for 98 unique metabolites determined among six Vaccinium-related SRMs. Metabolites were enriched using an organic liquid/liquid extraction, and derivatized prior to GC-MS analysis. Electron ionization (EI) fragmentation spectra were searched against EI spectra of authentic standards compiled in the National Institute of Standards and Technology's mass spectral libraries, as well as spectra selected from the literature. Metabolite identifications were further validated using a retention index match along with prior probabilities and were compared with results obtained in a previous effort using collision-induced dissociation (CID) MS/MS datasets from liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry experiments. This manuscript describes a nontargeted metabolite profile of Vaccinium materials, compares results among related materials and from orthogonal experimental platforms, and discusses the feasibility and development of using mass spectral library matching for nontargeted metabolite identification.

  11. Building a Library Collection on Blindness and Physical Disabilities: Basic Materials and Resources. Reference Circular No. 90-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    The materials listed in this reference circular are recommended to libraries and organizations as basic resources for providing a current information service on visual impairments and physical disabilities. The selections, which are based on the holdings of the Reference Section of the National Library Service (NLS) for the Blind and Physically…

  12. Building a Library Collection on Visual and Physical Disabilities: Basic Materials and Resources. Reference Circular No. 99-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    The materials included in this reference circular are recommended as basic resources for providing current information on general aspects of visual impairments and physical disabilities. The selections, based on the holdings of the Reference Section, National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped (NLS), were chosen for their…

  13. Well GeHP detector calibration for environmental measurements using reference materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedjani, A.; Mavon, C.; Belafrites, A.; Degrelle, D.; Boumala, D.; Rius, D.; Groetz, J.-E.

    2016-12-01

    A well-type detector installed in the Modane underground Laboratory (LSM) can combine both low background and high detection efficiency and it is well suited for the analysis of small amounts of environmental samples. Reference materials such as IAEA-447 (moss-soil), IAEA-RG-Th1 and IAEA-RG-U1 were used for the detector calibration, owing to a chemical composition close to those of the environmental samples. Nevertheless, the matrix effects and the true coincidence summing effects must be corrected from the full energy peak efficiency (FEPE). The FEPE was performed for a wide range of energy by a semi-empirical method using Monte Carlo simulation (MCNP6), intended for environmental measurements such as lake sediments dating. In the well geometry, the true coincidence summing effects could be very important and correction factors have been computed in three different ways.

  14. Preparation and certification of arsenobetaine reference material NMIJ CRM 7901-a.

    PubMed

    Narukawa, Tomohiro; Chiba, Koichi; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Yarita, Takashi; Takatsu, Akiko

    2007-09-01

    An arsenobetaine [(CH(3))(3)As(+)CH(2)COO(-)] solution reference material, NMIJ CRM 7901-a, intended for use in the speciation of arsenic compounds, was developed and certified by the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), part of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST). The high-purity arsenobetaine powder was synthesized from trimethylarsine [(CH(3))(3)As], and it was dissolved in water in order to prepare 20 mg kg(-1) of arsenobetaine standard solution. The solution was bottled in 500 bottles (each containing 10 ml). Certification of the CRM for arsenobetaine was conducted by NMIJ. The concentration of As was determined by four independent analytical techniques (ICP-MS, ICP-OES, GFAAS and LC-ICP-MS), and each result was converted to the arsenobetaine concentration by applying an appropriate factor. The arsenobetaine concentration in the CRM was thus certified.

  15. Estimation of uncertainty of a reference material for proficiency testing for the determination of total mercury in fish in nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, L. V.; Sarkis, J. E. S.; Ulrich, J. C.; Hortellani, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    We provide an uncertainty estimates for homogeneity and stability studies of reference material used in proficiency test for determination of total mercury in fish fresh muscle tissue. Stability was estimated by linear regression and homogeneity by ANOVA. The results indicate that the reference material is both homogeneous and chemically stable over the short term. Total mercury concentration of the muscle tissue, with expanded uncertainty, was 0.294 ± 0.089 μg g-1.

  16. Stability of ethyl glucuronide in hair reference materials after accelerated aging.

    PubMed

    Ammann, D; Becker, R; Nehls, I

    2015-12-01

    Two different hair reference materials, one produced from authentic hair displaying an ethyl glucuronide (EtG) content of about 25 pg/mg and one obtained by fortification of blank hair to an EtG level of 85 pg/mg were submitted to accelerated aging between 4 °C and 60 °C for periods between one and 24 months. Subsequently, the EtG content was determined in the aged samples and untreated reference samples stored at -22 °C under repeatability conditions following the so-called isochronous approach. The EtG content remained stable even at 40 °C for 24 months and at 60 °C over six months. This is in contrast to many organic analytes contained in trace concentrations in diverse matrices. A slight but significant increase of the recovered EtG in case of authentic hair samples having been exposed for 24 months between 4 °C and 60 °C may be due to a temperature-driven process that allows increased recoveries of the physiologically embedded EtG.

  17. Interference removals on Pd, Ru and Au with ICP-QQQ-MS in PGE RM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem Hussain Bokhari, Syed; Meisel, Thomas; Walkner, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Gold and platinum group elements (PGE) are essential industrial precious metals with high world demand due to their unique properties. Struggle for natural exploration of PGE is on great pace and recycling from industrial wastes, electronics and catalytic convertor is on the rise for PGE supply chain. Along with these developments it is becoming more challenging for analytical chemists to determine gold and PGE out of complex matrix which causes severe interferences. The current state of art is online analysis coupled with chromatographic separation of interferences. The ICP-QQQ-MS Agilent 8800 has the capability of using multi tunes and mass shifts. We aim to remove interferences on Pd+ (for direct and isotope dilution analysis) Au+ and Ru+ in lieu of chemical separations. YO+, SrOH+, ZnAr+, NiAr+, ZrO+, CuAr+, MoO+ , Ru+and Cd+ are expected interferences on Pd+ while Au+ is interfered by TaO+, HfOH+, GdAr+ and 102Ru+ ,104Ru+ by 102Pd+ ,104Pd+ etc. Initial test were performed on pure solutions of 1mg/l (interfering elements): 1 ng/l (Pd, Ru & Au) respectively. The outcomes of initial tests were applied on PGE reference material (RM) WMG-1 and SARM-7 (digested with Na2O2 sintering). The results obtained show that YO+, SrOH+ interfere (104Pd,105Pd), 104 Ru+ on (104Pd), ZnAr+ has slight interference on (104Pd and106Pd), ZrO+, NiAr+, CuAr+ interferences are negligible, MoO+ has severe interference on (108Pd, 110Pd) and that Cd+ has severe isobaric interference on (106Pd,108Pd, 110Pd). These interference have been removed by formation of Pd(NH3)3+complex. The TaO+, HfOH+ and GdAr+ interferences on Au+ are best removed by formation of Au(NH3)+ and Au(NH3)2+ complexes. 102Pd+,104Pd+interference on 102Ru+ ,104Ru+ can be removed by formation of Ru(NH3)4+ and RuO+ compounds. The results obtained comply with certified values of RM. The developed method is being tested on low concentration PGE reference materials. References: Sugiyama, N. " Removal of complex spectral

  18. First certified reference materials for molecular fingerprinting of two approved probiotic Bacillus strains.

    PubMed

    De Baets, L; Van Iwaarden, P; Meeus, N; Schimmel, H; Philipp, W; Emons, H

    2009-01-31

    At present probiotic bacteria are widely used in human and animal nutrition because they beneficially influence the balance of the intestinal flora of the host. Positive effects related to probiotics are various and include enhancement of digestion, strengthening of the immune system and stimulation of vitamin production. Moreover, implementation of probiotics is intended to reduce the use of antibiotics and improve animal growth and feed conversion. To protect human and animal health and to improve consumer confidence, a strict legislation on the use of probiotics exists within the European Union (EU). Official controls by national authorities are performed to ensure verification of compliance with feed and food law. Apart from the risk of using unauthorized strains, mislabelling is a known problem, partly because of the use of phenotyping or genotyping methods with a lack of discriminative power. In addition to official controls, private controls by food and feed producing companies are important in the frame of protection of patented strains and industrial property rights. To support these applications, IRMM has developed certified reference materials (CRMs) consisting of genomic DNA inserts of B. subtilis DSM 5749 and B. licheniformis DSM 5750, two strains that received EU approval. In this study we investigated the use of these CRMs, IRMM-311 and IRMM-312, for the detection and unambiguous discrimination of Bacillus strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Identical fingerprints were obtained for the CRMs and control strains isolated from the feed additive Bioplus 2B. On the other hand a distinction could be made from other not approved B. licheniformis and B. subtilis strains. The reference materials discussed in this study are the first CRMs based on a whole bacterial genome and suitable for PFGE. They offer perspectives for applications in other domains such as analysis of foodborne pathogens in outbreaks or routine analysis.

  19. Characterization of 137 Genomic DNA Reference Materials for 28 Pharmacogenetic Genes

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Victoria M.; Everts, Robin E.; Aggarwal, Praful; Beyer, Brittany N.; Broeckel, Ulrich; Epstein-Baak, Ruth; Hujsak, Paul; Kornreich, Ruth; Liao, Jun; Lorier, Rachel; Scott, Stuart A.; Smith, Chingying Huang; Toji, Lorraine H.; Turner, Amy; Kalman, Lisa V.

    2017-01-01

    Pharmacogenetic testing is increasingly available from clinical laboratories. However, only a limited number of quality control and other reference materials are currently available to support clinical testing. To address this need, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention–based Genetic Testing Reference Material Coordination Program, in collaboration with members of the pharmacogenetic testing community and the Coriell Cell Repositories, has characterized 137 genomic DNA samples for 28 genes commonly genotyped by pharmacogenetic testing assays (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP4F2, DPYD, GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, NAT1, NAT2, SLC15A2, SLC22A2, SLCO1B1, SLCO2B1, TPMT, UGT1A1, UGT2B7, UGT2B15, UGT2B17, and VKORC1). One hundred thirty-seven Coriell cell lines were selected based on ethnic diversity and partial genotype characterization from earlier testing. DNA samples were coded and distributed to volunteer testing laboratories for targeted genotyping using a number of commercially available and laboratory developed tests. Through consensus verification, we confirmed the presence of at least 108 variant pharmacogenetic alleles. These samples are also being characterized by other pharmacogenetic assays, including next-generation sequencing, which will be reported separately. Genotyping results were consistent among laboratories, with most differences in allele assignments attributed to assay design and variability in reported allele nomenclature, particularly for CYP2D6, UGT1A1, and VKORC1. These publicly available samples will help ensure the accuracy of pharmacogenetic testing. PMID:26621101

  20. Characterization of Perchlorate in a New Frozen Human Urine Standard Reference Material

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lee L.; Jarrett, Jeffery M.; Davis, W. Clay; Kilpatrick, Eric L.; Oflaz, Rabia; Turk, Gregory C.; Leber, Dennis D.; Valentin, Liza; Morel-Espinosa, Maria; Blount, Benjamin C.

    2015-01-01

    Perchlorate, an inorganic anion, has recently been recognized as an environmental contaminant by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Urine is the preferred matrix for assessment of human exposure to perchlorate. Although the measurement technique for perchlorate in urine was developed in 2005, the calibration and quality assurance aspects of the metrology infrastructure for perchlorate are still lacking in that there is no certified reference material (CRM) traceable to the International System of Units (SI). To meet the quality assurance needs in biomonitoring measurements of perchlorate and the related anions that affect thyroid health, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3668 Mercury, Perchlorate, and Iodide in Frozen Human Urine. SRM 3668 consists of perchlorate, nitrate, thiocyanate, iodine, and mercury in urine at two levels that represent the 50th and 95th percentiles, respectively, of the concentrations (with some adjustments) in the U.S. population. It is the first CRM being certified for perchlorate. Measurements leading to the certification of perchlorate were made collaboratively at NIST and CDC using three methods based on liquid or ion chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS or IC-MS/MS). Potential sources of bias were analyzed and results were compared for the three methods. Perchlorate in SRM 3668 Level I urine was certified to be 2.70 μg L−1 ± 0.21 μg L−1, and for SRM 3668 Level II urine, the certified value is 13.47 μg L−1 ± 0.96 μg L−1. PMID:22850897

  1. Soot reference materials for instrument calibration and intercomparisons: a workshop summary with recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgardner, D.; Popovicheva, O.; Allan, J.; Bernardoni, V.; Cao, J.; Cavalli, F.; Cozic, J.; Diapouli, E.; Eleftheriadis, K.; Genberg, P. J.; Gonzalez, C.; Gysel, M.; John, A.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Kuhlbusch, T. A. J.; Laborde, M.; Lack, D.; Müller, T.; Niessner, R.; Petzold, A.; Piazzalunga, A.; Putaud, J. P.; Schwarz, J.; Sheridan, P.; Subramanian, R.; Swietlicki, E.; Valli, G.; Vecchi, R.; Viana, M.

    2012-08-01

    Soot, which is produced from biomass burning and the incomplete combustion of fossil and biomass fuels, has been linked to regional and global climate change and to negative health problems. Scientists measure the properties of soot using a variety of methods in order to quantify source emissions and understand its atmospheric chemistry, reactivity under emission conditions, interaction with solar radiation, influence on clouds, and health impacts. A major obstacle currently limiting progress is the absence of established standards or reference materials for calibrating the many instruments used to measure the various properties of soot. The current state of availability and practicability of soot standard reference materials (SRMs) was reviewed by a group of 50 international experts during a workshop in June of 2011. The workshop was convened to summarize the current knowledge on soot measurement techniques, identify the measurement uncertainties and limitations related to the lack of soot SRMs, and identify attributes of SRMs that, if developed, would reduce measurement uncertainties. The workshop established that suitable SRMs are available for calibrating some, but not all, measurement methods. The community of users of the single-particle soot-photometer (SP2), an instrument using laser-induced incandescence, identified a suitable SRM, fullerene soot, but users of instruments that measure light absorption by soot collected on filters did not. Similarly, those who use thermal optical analysis (TOA) to analyze the organic and elemental carbon components of soot were not satisfied with current SRMs. The workshop, and subsequent, interactive discussions, produced a number of recommendations for the development of new SRMs, and their implementation, that would be suitable for the different soot measurement methods.

  2. An alternative method for the certification of the sulfur mass fraction in coal Standard Reference Materials.

    PubMed

    Winchester, M R; Kelly, W R; Mann, J L; Guthrie, W F; MacDonald, B S; Turk, G C

    2001-06-01

    The S mass fractions of coal SRMs 2682b, 2684b, and 2685b are certified by direct comparison with coal SRMs 2682a, 2684a, and 2685a, respectively, using high-temperature combustion analysis with infrared (IR) absorption detection. The S mass fractions of the "a" materials used for calibration were previously determined by means of isotope-dilution thermal-ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS). Therefore, the comparisons performed with the combustion-IR absorption method establish direct traceability links to accurate and precise ID-TIMS measurements. The expanded uncertainties associated with the certified S mass fractions are of approximately the same magnitude as would be expected for the ID-TIMS methodology. An important aspect of these certifications is that each "b" material is essentially identical with the corresponding "a" material, because both were produced from the same bulk, homogenized coal. As a test of the efficacy of the new certification approach when calibrant and unknown are not identical, the S mass fraction of coal SRM 2683b has been determined by direct comparison to coal SRM 2683a. These two coals, which have both previously been analyzed with ID-TIMS, are different in terms of S content and other properties. Whereas the S mass fraction for SRM 2683b determined with the new methodology agrees statistically with the ID-TIMS value, there is reason for caution in such cases. In addition to the usefulness of the alternative approach for certification activities within NIST, this approach might also be an excellent way of establishing NIST traceability during the value assignment process for reference materials not issued by NIST. Further research is needed, however, to understand better the scope of applicability.

  3. RM-10A robotic manipulator system

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.R.; Coughlan, J.B.; Harvey, H.W.; Upton, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The REMOTE RM-10A is a man-replacement manipulator system that has been developed specifically for use in radioactive and other hazardous environments. It can be teleoperated, with man-in-the-loop, for unstructured tasks or programmed to perform routine tasks automatically much like robots in the automated manufacturing industry. The RM-10A is a servomanipulator utilizing a closed-loop, microprocessor-based control system. The system consists of a slave assembly, master control station, and interconnecting cabling. The slave assembly is the part of the system that enters the hostile environment. It is man-like is size and configuration with two identical arms attached to a torso structure. Each arm attaches to the torso using two captive screws and two guide pins. The guide pins position and stabilize an arm during removal and reinstallation and also align the two electrical connectors located in the arm support plate and torso. These features allow easy remote replacement of an arm, and commonality of the arms allow interchangeability. The water-resistant slave assembly is equipped with gaskets and O-ring seals in the torso and arm and camera assemblies. In addition, each slave arm's elbow, wrist, and tong are protected by replaceable polyurethane boots. An upper camera assembly, consisting of a color television (TV) camera, 6:1 zoom lens, and a pan/tilt unit, mount to the torso to provide remote viewing capability.

  4. Milk and serum standard reference materials for monitoring organic contaminants in human samples.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; Eppe, Gauthier; Focant, Jean-François; Hamilton, Coreen; Heckert, N Alan; Heltsley, Rebecca M; Hoover, Dale; Keller, Jennifer M; Leigh, Stefan D; Patterson, Donald G; Pintar, Adam L; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sjödin, Andreas; Turner, Wayman E; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Wise, Stephen A

    2013-02-01

    Four new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been developed to assist in the quality assurance of chemical contaminant measurements required for human biomonitoring studies, SRM 1953 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1954 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1957 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Serum, and SRM 1958 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Serum. These materials were developed as part of a collaboration between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with both agencies contributing data used in the certification of mass fraction values for a wide range of organic contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, chlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners. The certified mass fractions of the organic contaminants in unfortified samples, SRM 1953 and SRM 1957, ranged from 12 ng/kg to 2200 ng/kg with the exception of 4,4'-DDE in SRM 1953 at 7400 ng/kg with expanded uncertainties generally <14 %. This agreement suggests that there were no significant biases existing among the multiple methods used for analysis.

  5. Two new standard reference materials for the determination of drugs of abuse in human hair.

    PubMed

    Welch, Michael J; Sniegoski, Lorna T; Tai, Susan

    2003-08-01

    Two new standard reference materials (SRM) for drugs of abuse in human hair have been developed. SRM 2379 consists of hair spiked with cocaine, benzoylecgonine, cocaethylene, phencyclidine, amphetamine, and methamphetamine. SRM 2380 consists of hair spiked with codeine, morphine, monoacetylmorphine, and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The SRMs were prepared by soaking the hair in a solution of the target analytes in water-dimethylsulfoxide. The concentration of each analyte was determined using two methods, one based upon gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and one based upon liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Both methods used 0.1 M HCl for extraction of all the analytes from the hair, except for THC, which was extracted with 1 M NaOH. For isolation of the analytes from the extracts, the GC/MS-based methods used different clean-up procedures from those used for the LC/MS-based methods. The results from the two methods were in good agreement with mean differences for the analytes ranging from 4% to 16%. These materials will enable laboratories performing analyses of hair for drugs of abuse to test the accuracy of their methods.

  6. Applications of New Synthetic Uranium Reference Materials for Geochemistry Research (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, S.; Weyer, S.; Alonso, A.; Aregbe, Y.; Kuehn, H.; Eykens, R.; Verbruggen, A.; Wellum, R.

    2009-12-01

    For many applications in geochemistry research isotope ratio measurements play a significant role. In geochronology isotope abundances of uranium and its daughter products thorium and lead are being used to determine the age and history of various samples of geological interest. For measuring the isotopic compositions of these elements by mass spectrometry, suitable isotope reference materials are needed to validate measurement procedures and to calibrate multi-collector and ion counting detector systems. IRMM is a recognized provider for nuclear isotope reference materials to the nuclear industry and nuclear safeguards authorities, which are also being applied widely for geochemical applications. The preparation of several new synthetic uranium reference materials at IRMM during the recent five years has provided significant impacts on geochemical research. As an example, the IRMM-074 series of gravimetrically prepared uranium mixtures for linearity testing of secondary electron multipliers (SEMs) has been applied for the redetermination of the secular equilibrium 234U/238U value and the 234U half-life by Cheng et al (2009). Due to the use of IRMM-074, results with smaller uncertainties were obtained, which are shifted by about 0.04% compared to the commonly used values published earlier by Cheng et al. in 2000. This has a significant impact for U isotope measurements in geochemistry.. As a further example, the new double spike IRMM-3636 with a 233U/236U ratio of 1:1 and an expanded uncertainty as low as 0.016% (coverage factor k=2, 95% confidence level) was prepared gravimetrically. This double spike allows internal mass fractionation correction for high precision 235U/238U ratio measurements of close to natural samples. Using the new double spike IRMM-3636, the 235U/238U ratios for several commonly used natural U standard materials from NIST/NBL and IRMM, such as e.g. NBS960 (=NBL CRM-112a), NBS950a,b and IRMM-184, have been re-measured with improved precision

  7. Certification of drugs of abuse in a human serum standard reference material: SRM 1959.

    PubMed

    Tai, Susan S-C; Prendergast, Jocelyn L; Sniegoski, Lorna T; Welch, Michael J; Phinney, Karen W; Zhang, Nien Fan

    2010-05-01

    A new standard reference material (SRM) for drugs of abuse in human serum (SRM 1959) has been developed. This SRM is intended to be used as a control material for laboratories performing analysis of drugs of abuse in blood to evaluate the accuracy of their methods. SRM 1959 is a frozen human serum material fortified with seven compounds for which analyses are performed to determine evidence of illegal drug use: benzoylecgonine (BZE), methadone (METH), methamphetamine (MAMP), morphine (MOR), nordiazepam (NOR), phencyclidine (PCP), and 11-nor-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (THC-9-COOH). Two independent methods involving isotope dilution (ID)-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and ID-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) were used for the value assignment. For THC-9-COOH, an additional measurement using LC/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was also included. All methods used isotopically labeled compounds as internal standards and solid-phase extractions to isolate the analytes from the serum. The GC/MS methods used different clean-up procedures from those used for the LC/MS-based methods. Repeatability with within-set coefficients of variation (CVs) ranged from 0.5% to 4.3% for the GC/MS methods and from 0.2% to 1.2% for the LC/MS-based methods. Intermediate precision with between-set CVs for all the methods ranged from 0.1% to 1.1%. Agreement between the GC/MS and LC/MS methods ranged from 0.8% to 8.8%. The results from the methods were combined to obtain the certified concentrations and their expanded uncertainties.

  8. Applications of New Synthetic Uranium Reference Materials for Research in Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Stephan; Alonso, Adolfo; Aregbe, Yetunde; Eykens, Roger; Jacobsson, Ulf; Kuehn, Heinz; Verbruggen, Andre; Weyer, Stefan

    2010-05-01

    For many applications in geochemistry research isotope ratio measurements play a significant role. In geochronology isotope abundances of uranium and its daughter products thorium and lead are being used to determine the age and history of various samples of geological interest. For measuring the isotopic compositions of these elements by mass spectrometry, suitable isotope reference materials are needed to validate measurement procedures and to calibrate multi-collector and ion counting detector systems. IRMM is a recognized provider for nuclear isotope reference materials to the nuclear industry and nuclear safeguards authorities, which are also being applied widely for geochemical applications. Firstly, the double spike IRMM-3636 with a 233U/236U ratio of 1:1 was prepared which allows internal mass fractionation correction for high precision 235U/238U ratio measurements. The 234U abundance of this double spike material is low enough to allow an accurate and precise correction of 234U/238U ratios, even for measurements of close to equilibrium uranium samples. The double spike IRMM-3636 is offered in 3 concentrations: 1mg/g, 0.1mg/g and 0.005mg/g. Secondly, the 236U single spike IRMM-3660 was prepared and is offered in 3 concentrations: 1mg/g, 0.1mg/g and 0.01mg/g. Thirdly, a "Quad"-isotope reference material, IRMM-3101, has been prepared which is characterized by 233U/235U/236U/238U=1/1/1/1. This material is useful for checking Faraday cup efficiencies and inter-calibration of MIC (multiple ion counting) detectors. The quad-IRM is offered in 3 concentrations: 1mg/g, 0.1mg/g and 0.01mg/g. As one example for the significant influence of synthetic reference materials for geochemical research, the IRMM-074 series of gravimetrically prepared uranium mixtures for linearity testing of secondary electron multipliers (SEMs) has been applied for the redetermination of the secular equilibrium 234U/238U value and the 234U half-life by Cheng et al (2009). Due to the use of

  9. [Report of the NEDO project "Research and development to promote the creation and utilization of an intellectual infrastructure: development of reference materials for laboratory medicine" "Development of pure substance-type certified reference materials"].

    PubMed

    Takatsu, Akiko

    2009-06-01

    There is an increasing demand to establish a metrological traceability system for in vitro diagnostics and medical devices. Pure substance-type reference materials are playing key roles in metrological traceability, because they form the basis for many traceability chains in chemistry. The National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ), in the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), has been developing purity-certified reference materials (CRMs) in this field, such as cholesterol, creatinine, and urea. In the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) project, entitled: "Research and Development to Promote the Creation and Utilization of an Intellectual Infrastructure: Development of Reference Materials for Laboratory Medicine", several pure substance-type CRMs were developed. For a pure protein solution CRM, amino acid analysis and nitrogen determination were chosen as the certification methods. The development and certification processes for the C-reactive protein (CRP) solution CRM were completed, with the recombinant human CRP solution as a candidate material. This CRP solution CRM is now available as NMIJ CRM. For cortisol CRM, a purified candidate material and highly pure primary reference material were prepared. Each impure compound in the materials was identified and quantified. The pure cortisol CRM will be available in 2009. These two CRMs provide a traceability link between routine clinical methods and the SI unit.

  10. Development of a new certified reference material of diosgenin using mass balance approach and Coulometric titration method.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ningbo; Zhang, Baoxi; Hu, Fan; Du, Hui; Du, Guanhua; Gao, Zhaolin; Lu, Yang

    2014-12-01

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) can be used as a valuable tool to validate the trueness of measurement methods and to establish metrological traceability of analytical results. Diosgenin has been selected as a candidate reference material. Characterization of the material relied on two different methods, mass balance method and Coulometric titration method (CT). The certified value of diosgenin CRM is 99.80% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.37% (k=2). The new CRM of diosgenin can be used to validate analytical methods, improve the accuracy of measurement data and control the quality of diosgenin in relevant pharmaceutical formulations.

  11. Development of palm-based reference materials for the quantification of fatty acids composition.

    PubMed

    Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam Ahmad; Lin, Siew Wai; Kuntom, Ainie

    2008-01-01

    Characterisation of fatty acids composition of three palm-based reference materials was carried out through inter-laboratory proficiency tests. Twelve laboratories collaborated in these tests and the fatty acids compositions of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin were determined by applying the MPOB Test Methods p3.4:2004 and p3.5:2004. Determination of consensus values and their uncertainties were based on the acceptable statistical agreement of results obtained from the collaborating laboratories. The consensus values and uncertainties (%) for each palm oil reference material produced are listed as follows : 0.20% (C12:0), 1.66+/-0.05% (C14:0), 43.39+/-0.39% (C16:0), 0.14+/-0.06% (C16:1), 3.90+/-0.11% (C18:0), 40.95+/-0.23% (C18:1), 9.68+/-0.21% (C18:2), 0.16+/-0.07% (C18:3) and 0.31+/-0.08% (C20:0) for fatty acids composition of palm oil; 0.23+/-0.04% (C12:0), 1.02+/-0.04% (C14:0), 39.66+/-0.19% (C16:0), 0.18+/-0.07% (C16:1), 3.81+/-0.04% (C18:0), 44.01+/-0.08% (C18:1), 10.73+/-0.08% (C18:2), 0.20+/-0.06% (C18:3) and 0.34+/-0.04% (C20:0) for fatty acids composition of palm olein; and 0.20% (C12:0), 1.14+/-0.05% (C14:0), 49.42+/-0.25% (C16:0), 0.16+/-0.08% (C16:1), 4.15+/-0.10% (C18:0), 36.14+/-0.77% (C18:1), 7.95+/-0.29% (C18:2), 0.11+/-0.07% (C18:3) and 0.30+/-0.08% (C20:0) for fatty acids composition of palm stearin.

  12. Polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners and toxaphene in selected marine standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Kucklick, John R; Tuerk, Karen J S; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Schantz, Michele M; Wise, Stephen A

    2004-03-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and components of the complex mixture toxaphene are stable in the environment and readily bioaccumulated into wildlife and human tissues. PBDEs are presently used in large quantities worldwide as flame retardants in textiles, furniture, computer equipment, and cables. Toxaphene is a complex mixture of chlorinated bornanes and bornenes that was the most heavily used pesticide in the United States until it was banned in 1982; however, some countries continue to use toxaphene. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has quantified PBDE congeners and toxaphene in several available Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) using methods of gas chromatography with electron impact mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS) and GC negative chemical ionization (NCI) MS, respectively. SRM 1588a Organics in Cod Liver Oil and SRM 1945 Organics in Whale Blubber were examined for PBDE congeners 47, 99, 100, 153, and 154, total toxaphene, and toxaphene congeners 26, 50, and 62. SRM 1946 Lake Superior Fish Tissue was also examined for total toxaphene and toxaphene congeners. The sum of the PBDE congeners (mean, (1 SD) wet basis) for SRM 1945 was 150 ng g(-1) (7 ng g(-1)). The concentration of PBDE 47 in SRM 1588a was 82.7 ng g(-1) (2.8 ng g(-1)). Other PBDEs were detected in SRM 1588a but were not quantified due their low levels. The total toxaphene (wet mass basis) was 1,210 ng g(-1) (127 ng g(-1)), 1,960 ng g(-1) (133 ng g(-1)), and 3,980 ng g(-1) (248 ng g(-1)) in SRMs 1945, 1946, and 1588a, respectively. The values for PBDEs and toxaphene determined in the SRMs, while not certified, indicate that the SRMs will be suitable control materials for PBDE and toxaphene analyses.

  13. Effects of native organic material and water on sorption properties of reference diesel soot.

    PubMed

    Endo, Satoshi; Grathwohl, Peter; Haderlein, Stefan B; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2009-05-01

    Soot has been considered as a potentially important sorbent for organic contaminants in soils, sediments, and aerosols. This paper demonstrates that native (authigenic) extractable organic material (EOM) and surface-covering water on soot may have a substantial influence on sorption properties of the soot. Sorption isotherms were determined for apolar and weakly polar sorbates (n-octane, cyclooctane, n-propylbenzene, naphthalene) from an aqueous solution to a standard reference material of diesel soot (SRM 2975) in the original state and after extraction with methanol. For all sorbates tested, removal of EOM from soot by methanol caused the sorption isotherms to be more nonlinear (decrease of Freundlich exponents by 0.19-0.25) compared to the untreated soot. The changes in the isotherms depend on both sorbate structure and sorbate concentration and can be accounted for by two opposing roles that EOM could have on the sorption properties of soot (i) enhancing the overall sorption by absorbing the sorbate into the EOM phase, and (ii) attenuating the sorbate adsorption to the soot carbon surface through sorption competition or site blockage. The n-alkane-to-cycloalkane sorption coefficient ratios (Kn/Kc) indicated that the removal of EOM altered the sorption mode for alkanes from absorption to adsorption. A comparison of the sorption isotherms measured in aqueous suspensions with the soot-air sorption coefficients reported for SRM 2975 in the literature showed that sorption to "soot in water" is significantly weaker than sorption to "soot in air", indicating that complete surface coverage with water suppresses the sorption by soot.

  14. Retrospective Analysis of NIST Standard Reference Material 1450, Fibrous Glass Board, for Thermal Insulation Measurements.

    PubMed

    Zarr, Robert R; Heckert, N Alan; Leigh, Stefan D

    2014-01-01

    Thermal conductivity data acquired previously for the establishment of Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1450, Fibrous Glass Board, as well as subsequent renewals 1450a, 1450b, 1450c, and 1450d, are re-analyzed collectively and as individual data sets. Additional data sets for proto-1450 material lots are also included in the analysis. The data cover 36 years of activity by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in developing and providing thermal insulation SRMs, specifically high-density molded fibrous-glass board, to the public. Collectively, the data sets cover two nominal thicknesses of 13 mm and 25 mm, bulk densities from 60 kg·m(-3) to 180 kg·m(-3), and mean temperatures from 100 K to 340 K. The analysis repetitively fits six models to the individual data sets. The most general form of the nested set of multilinear models used is given in the following equation: [Formula: see text]where λ(ρ,T) is the predicted thermal conductivity (W·m(-1)·K(-1)), ρ is the bulk density (kg·m(-3)), T is the mean temperature (K) and ai (for i = 1, 2, … 6) are the regression coefficients. The least squares fit results for each model across all data sets are analyzed using both graphical and analytic techniques. The prevailing generic model for the majority of data sets is the bilinear model in ρ and T. [Formula: see text] One data set supports the inclusion of a cubic temperature term and two data sets with low-temperature data support the inclusion of an exponential term in T to improve the model predictions. Physical interpretations of the model function terms are described. Recommendations for future renewals of SRM 1450 are provided. An Addendum provides historical background on the origin of this SRM and the influence of the SRM on external measurement programs.

  15. Reference Materials and Services for a Small Hospital Library. 5th Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesti, Julie, Comp.; Graham, Elaine, Comp.

    This manual suggests and describes recommended reference services and sources for a small hospital library. Focusing on reference services, the first section includes information on ready-reference services; bibliographic search services, including taking and processing a request for a bibliography, National Library of Medicine literature…

  16. 40 CFR 1060.810 - What materials does this part reference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (a) ASTM material. Table 1 to this section lists material from the American Society for Testing and... these materials from the American Society for Testing and Materials, 100 Barr Harbor Dr., P.O. Box C700... material. Table 2 to this section lists material from the Society of Automotive Engineers that we...

  17. Development of the NBS /sup 10/Be//sup 9/Be isotopic standard reference material

    SciTech Connect

    Inn, K.G.W.; Raman, S.; Coursey, B.M.; Fassett, J.D.; Walker, R.L.

    1987-04-01

    The National Bureau of Standards (NBS), in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) community, is in the process of developing a /sup 10/Be//sup 9/Be isotopic solution Standard Reference Material (SRM). The starting /sup 10/Be//sup 9/Be solution was provided by the ORNL after Secondary Ionization Mass Spectrometric characterization for isotopic concentration. The radioactivity purity of the ORNL Master solution was confirmed by gamma-ray spectrometry, then diluted at NBS with solutions made from zone-refined single-crystal beryllium metal and sub-boiling double-distilled hydrochloric acid. Four serial dilutions were necessary to achieve a final /sup 10/Be//sup 9/Be isotopic composition of approximately 3 x 10/sup -11/ (g/g). The accuracy of the dilutions was confirmed by liquid scintillation and AMS measurements. The isotopic composition of the ORNL Master solution was also confirmed at NBS by Resonant Ionization Mass Spectrometry. The isotopic composition of the final solution is being affirmed at the present time through international laboratory AMS measurements.

  18. Determination of total chromium in Marine Sediment Reference Material BCSS-1.

    PubMed

    Liu>, J.; Sturgeon, R. E.; Boyko, V. J.; Willie, S. N.

    1996-12-01

    The determination of Cr in National Research Council of Canada Marine Sediment Reference Material BCSS-1 is addressed. Mixed acid digestions utilizing HF, HClO(4) and HNO(3) were investigated. Single microwave assisted digestions in closed vessels at medium pressures (8 bar) were inappropriate (80% recovery). Double digestion at moderate pressure and digestions at high pressure (70 bar) or lengthy open-beaker hot plate dissolutions resulted in 93+/-5% recovery of certified Cr content. Flame atomic absorption and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry were used for quantitation. In all cases, the method of standard additions was necessary to eliminate the approximately 10% enhancement in re- sponce relative to unmatched standards. Compared to a certified content of 123+/-7 microg/g (mean and standard deviation), values of 116+/-6 were obtained using an open beaker digestion; 114+/-5 using a double microwave digestion at 8 bar; 113+/-2 for microwave digestion at high pressure and 111+/-4 at high pressure (81 bar) with triple microwave digestion in a Parr bomb. No acid dissolution procedure is adequate for Cr in this sample although recovery of total Cr is complete from National Institute of Standards and Technology Buffalo River Sediment (SRM 2704).

  19. Certified reference material of bioethanol for metrological traceability in electrochemical parameters analyses.

    PubMed

    Serta Fraga, Isabel Cristina; Ribeiro, Carla Matos; Sobral, Sidney Pereira; Dias, Júlio Cesar; Gonçalves, Mary Ane; Borges, Paulo Paschoal; Gonzaga, Fabiano Barbieri

    2012-09-15

    Bioethanol has become an important biofuel because it is a source of renewable energy and can help to decrease global warming. However, the quality of bioethanol needs to be guaranteed so that it can be trusted and accepted in international trade. The Brazilian Metrology Institute (Inmetro) has been developing a certified reference material (CRM) for bioethanol to ensure quality control for measurement in the bioethanol matrix. Inmetro has certified 11 quality parameters. Using these, the CRM of bioethanol will contribute to guaranteeing metrological traceability and reliable measurement results. These factors can be used to compare different bioethanols produced to comply with legislation in different countries in order to avoid technical barriers and thus increase the international trade in Brazilian bioethanol. The aim of this paper is to present the results of certification studies using three important electrochemical quality parameters in the CRM of bioethanol-total acid number, pHe and electrolytic conductivity-which are crucial in protecting the metallic parts of a vehicle from corrosion. The certified results obtained for total acid number, pHe and electrolytic conductivity parameters were (16.2±1.7)mg L(-1), 6.07±0.30, and (1.03±0.11)μS cm(-1), respectively. The uncertainties for all parameters were the expanded uncertainty obtained by multiplying the combined standard uncertainty by a coverage factor of k=2, which represents an approximately 95% confidence level.

  20. Long-term stability of hydrocarbons in NIST gas standard reference material (SRM) 1800.

    PubMed

    Rhoderick, George C

    2005-09-01

    A gas standard reference material (SRM) containing fifteen hydrocarbons in nitrogen at a nominal 5 nmol mol(-1) was issued in 1993. The certification period for SRM 1800 was assigned as 2 years, because of limited stability data. Over a period of 10 years reanalysis of the lot standard (a sample chosen from the SRM lot to which all other lot samples are compared), SRM samples remaining in stock for sale, and SRMs returned to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for recertification, were compared with primary standards to assess the stability of the hydrocarbons. New primary standards were periodically introduced into the original primary standard suite to assess the stability and consistency of the primary standards. Over this ten-year period 11 SRM 1800 samples were reanalyzed, resulting in 210 amount-of-substance fraction (concentration) determinations performed for quality-assurance purposes. Of these measurements 209 (99.5%) agreed within the original 95% confidence interval of the +/-4% expanded uncertainty, demonstrating the stability of the standards. There was also agreement to within +/-2% of the original concentration for 204 (97%) of the measurements. This is well within the original +/-4% expanded uncertainty assigned to the hydrocarbon concentrations at the approximate 95% confidence interval demonstrating stability. These results will enable the expiry date to be increased for future restock issues of SRM 1800.

  1. Application of Uranium Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry in the preparation of New Certified Reference Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasözbek, A.; Mathew, K. J.; Orlowicz, G.; Srinivasan, B.; Narayanan, U.

    2012-04-01

    Proven measurement techniques play a critical role in the preparation of Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) - those requiring high accuracy and precision in the measurement results. Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS) is one such measurement method commonly used in the quantitative analysis of uranium in nuclear safeguards and isotope geology applications. In this project, we evaluated the possibility of using some of the uranium isotopic and assay CRMs made earlier by the New Brunswick laboratory as IDMS spikes to define the uranium mass fraction in future preparations of CRMs. Uranium solutions prepared from CRM 112-A (a highly pure uranium metal assay standard) and CRM 115 (a highly pure uranium oxide isotopic and assay standard) were used as spikes in the determination of uranium. Two different thermal ionization mass spectrometer instruments (MAT 261 and TRITON) were used for the isotopic measurements. Standard IDMS equation was used for data reduction to yield results for uranium mass fraction along with uncertainties, the latter calculated according to GUM. The results show that uranium mass fraction measurements can be made with the required accuracy and precision for defining the uranium concentration in new CRMs as well as in routine samples analyses.

  2. Uranium Isotopic Ratio Measurements of U3O8 Reference Materials by Atom Probe Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Fahey, Albert J.; Perea, Daniel E.; Bartrand, Jonah AG; Arey, Bruce W.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2016-01-01

    We report results of measurements of isotopic ratios obtained with atom probe tomography on U3O8 reference materials certified for their isotopic abundances of uranium. The results show good agreement with the certified values. High backgrounds due to tails from adjacent peaks complicate the measurement of the integrated peak areas as well as the fact that only oxides of uranium appear in the spectrum, the most intense of which is doubly charged. In addition, lack of knowledge of other instrumental parameters, such as the dead time, may bias the results. Isotopic ratio measurements can be performed at the nanometer-scale with the expectation of sensible results. The abundance sensitivity and mass resolving power of the mass spectrometer are not sufficient to compete with magnetic-sector instruments but are not far from measurements made by ToF-SIMS of other isotopic systems. The agreement of the major isotope ratios is more than sufficient to distinguish most anthropogenic compositions from natural.

  3. Proposal for C-Hordein as Reference Material in Gluten Quantification.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Kanerva, Päivi; Salovaara, Hannu; Stoddard, Frederick L; Sontag-Strohm, Tuula

    2017-03-15

    The concentration of residual barley prolamin (hordein) in gluten-free products is overestimated by the R5 ELISA method when calibrated against the wheat gliadin standard. The reason for this may be that the composition of the gliadin standard is different from the composition of hordeins. This study showed that the recognition of whole hordein by R5 antibody mainly came from C-hordein, which is more reactive than the other hordeins. The proportion of C-hordein in total hordein ranged from 16 to 33% of common Finnish barley cultivars used in this study and was always higher than that of ω-gliadin, the homologous protein class in the gliadin standard, which may account for the overestimation. Thus, a hordein standard is needed for barley prolamin quantification instead of the gliadin standard. When gluten-free oat flour was spiked with barley flour, the prolamin concentration was overestimated 1.8-2.5 times with the gliadin standard, whereas estimates in the correct range were obtained when the standard was 40% C-hordein mixed with an inert protein. A preparative-scale method was developed to isolate and purify C-hordein, and C-hordein is proposed as a reference material to calibrate barley prolamin quantification in R5-based assays.

  4. Neutron-activation analysis of several US Geological Survey and National Bureau of Standards reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, A.T.

    1981-01-01

    In this work, several US Geological Survey (U.S.G.S.) and National Bureau of Standards (N.B.S.) reference samples have been analyzed in an effort to improve the quality of elemental concentration data available on these materials, so they can be used in a program of verification of factor analysis source resolution procedures. The analyses of these samples were performed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The samples analyzed were: U.S.G.S. Green River Shale, N.B.S. 45b Homogeneous River Sediment, U.S.G.S. Analyzed Peridotite N.B.S. 1579 Powdered Lead-based Paint, U.S.G.S. Hawaian Basalt U.S.G.S. Marine Mud, U.S.G.S. Analyzed Cody Shale U.S.G.S. Glass Mountain Rhyolite, N.B.S. Argillaceous Limestone No. 1, and a sample of Spex ultrapure graphite. Neutron activation analysis was employed because of the high sensitivity that can be attained in determining elemental concentrations. Although INAA is a relatively simple method and the reproducibility of the data is good, the method shows some inaccuracies. The basic theory and technique are reviewed in an attempt to show where problems can arise and how they can be dealt with.

  5. Development of Certified Reference Materials for Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins, Part 1: Calibration Solutions.

    PubMed

    Beach, Daniel G; Crain, Sheila; Lewis, Nancy; LeBlanc, Patricia; Hardstaff, William R; Perez, Ruth A; Giddings, Sabrina D; Martinez-Farina, Camilo F; Stefanova, Roumiana; Burton, Ian W; Kilcoyne, Jane; Melanson, Jeremy E; Quilliam, Michael A; McCarron, Pearse

    2016-09-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) and its analogs dinophysistoxins-1 (DTX1) and -2 (DTX2) are lipophilic polyethers produced by marine dinoflagellates. These toxins accumulate in shellfish and cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in humans. Regulatory testing of shellfish is essential to safeguard public health and for international trade. Certified reference materials (CRMs) play a key role in analytical monitoring programs. This paper presents an overview of the interdisciplinary work that went into the planning, production, and certification of calibration-solution CRMs for OA, DTX1, and DTX2. OA and DTX1 were isolated from large-scale algal cultures and DTX2 from naturally contaminated mussels. Toxins were isolated by a combination of extraction and chromatographic steps with processes adapted to suit the source and concentration of each toxin. New 19-epi-DSP toxin analogs were identified as minor impurities. Once OA, DTX1, and DTX2 were established to be of suitable purity, solutions were prepared and dispensed into flame-sealed glass ampoules. Certification measurements were carried out using quantitative NMR spectroscopy and LC-tandem MS. Traceability of measurements was established through certified external standards of established purity. Uncertainties were assigned following standards and guidelines from the International Organization for Standardization, with components from the measurement, stability, and homogeneity studies being propagated into final combined uncertainties.

  6. Earth's earliest biosphere-a proposal to develop a collection of curated archean geologic reference materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, John F.; McKay, David S.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of evidence indicative of life in a Martian meteorite has led to an increase in interest in astrobiology. As a result of this discovery, and the ensuing controversy, it has become apparent that our knowledge of the early development of life on Earth is limited. Archean stratigraphic successions containing evidence of Earth's early biosphere are well preserved in the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia. The craton includes part of a protocontinent consisting of granitoid complexes that were emplaced into, and overlain by, a 3.51-2.94 Ga volcanigenic carapace - the Pilbara Supergroup. The craton is overlain by younger supracrustal basins that form a time series recording Earth history from approximately 2.8 Ga to approximately 1.9 Ga. It is proposed that a well-documented suite of these ancient rocks be collected as reference material for Archean and astrobiological research. All samples would be collected in a well-defined geological context in order to build a framework to test models for the early evolution of life on Earth and to develop protocols for the search for life on other planets.

  7. Development of hemoglobin A1c certified reference material by liquid chromatography isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bi, Jiaming; Wu, Liqing; Yang, Bin; Yang, Yi; Wang, Jing

    2012-04-01

    We report the development of a National Institute of Metrology (NIM) hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) certified reference material (CRM). Each CRM unit contains about 10 μL of hemoglobin. Both hemoglobin and glycated hemoglobin were quantitatively determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) with synthesized VHLTPE and glycated VHLTPE as standards. The mass fraction of synthesized VHLTPE or glycated VHLTPE was also quantitatively determined by HPLC-IDMS with NIM amino acid CRMs as standards. The homogeneity and stability of the CRMs were examined with a commercial HbA(1c) analyzer based on the HPLC principle. Fifteen units were randomly selected for homogeneity examination, and statistical analysis showed there was no inhomogeneity. Examination of the stability showed that the CRM was stable for at least 6 months at -80 °C. Uncertainty components of the balance, amino acid purity, hydrolysis and proteolysis efficiency, method reproducibility, homogeneity, and stability were taken into consideration for uncertainty evaluation. The certified value of NIM HbA(1c) CRM was expressed as the ratio of HbA(1c) to total hemoglobin in moles, and was (9.6 ± 1.9)%. The CRM can be used as a calibration or validation standard for clinical diagnostics. It is expected to improve the comparability for HbA(1c) measurement in China.

  8. Earth's earliest biosphere-a proposal to develop a collection of curated archean geologic reference materials.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, John F; McKay, David S; Allen, Carlton C

    2003-01-01

    The discovery of evidence indicative of life in a Martian meteorite has led to an increase in interest in astrobiology. As a result of this discovery, and the ensuing controversy, it has become apparent that our knowledge of the early development of life on Earth is limited. Archean stratigraphic successions containing evidence of Earth's early biosphere are well preserved in the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia. The craton includes part of a protocontinent consisting of granitoid complexes that were emplaced into, and overlain by, a 3.51-2.94 Ga volcanigenic carapace - the Pilbara Supergroup. The craton is overlain by younger supracrustal basins that form a time series recording Earth history from approximately 2.8 Ga to approximately 1.9 Ga. It is proposed that a well-documented suite of these ancient rocks be collected as reference material for Archean and astrobiological research. All samples would be collected in a well-defined geological context in order to build a framework to test models for the early evolution of life on Earth and to develop protocols for the search for life on other planets.

  9. Development of a Certified Reference Material (NMIJ CRM 7203-a) for Elemental Analysis of Tap Water.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanbei; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Inagaki, Kazumi; Miyashita, Shin-Ichi; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Ariga, Tomoko; Kudo, Izumi; Koguchi, Masae; Heo, Sung Woo; Suh, Jung Ki; Lee, Kyoung-Seok; Yim, Yong-Hyeon; Lim, Youngran

    2017-01-01

    A certified reference material (CRM), NMIJ CRM 7203-a, was developed for the elemental analysis of tap water. At least two independent analytical methods were applied to characterize the certified value of each element. The elements certified in the present CRM were as follows: Al, As, B, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, Sr, and Zn. The certified value for each element was given as the (property value ± expanded uncertainty), with a coverage factor of 2 for the expanded uncertainty. The expanded uncertainties were estimated while considering the contribution of the analytical methods, the method-to-method variance, the sample homogeneity, the long-term stability, and the concentrations of the standard solutions for calibration. The concentration of Hg (0.39 μg kg(-1)) was given as the information value, since loss of Hg was observed when the sample was stored at room temperature and exposed to light. The certified values of selected elements were confirmed by a co-analysis carried out independently by the NMIJ (Japan) and the KRISS (Korea).

  10. [From the Point of View of the Production of Reference Material].

    PubMed

    Kuwa, Katsuhiko

    2014-09-01

    In the international standardization of lipid measurement for TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, and TG in serum, the establishment of a measurement system and certified serum reference materials (CRM) are the most important fundamental factor. They have been fully established. Routine measurement procedures using manufacturers' reagent kits must be calibrated with the CRM and are standardized to maintain the commutability of measured values. In TC and HDL-C measurements, the commutability of measured values from reagent kits has been maintained by calibration with the CRM. However, it is likely that different values will be obtained due to the reactivity with abnormal specimens based on measurement principles and performance of the reagent kits. This different reactivity is a typical phenomenon in abnormal specimens on conducting lipid measurements. This phenomenon cannot be avoided using the CRM. On selection of the reagent kit, it is necessary to perform evaluation studies using abnormal specimens based on the comparison method. Direct methods standardized for LDL-C measurement are selected based on evaluation studies. In TG measurements for international standardization, it is necessary to change the procedure to measure the total glycerides instead of the elimination of free glycerol by the JSCC method. This is done to avoid the influence of LPL activity on heparin treatment for cardiovascular disease patients.

  11. Development of Lentivirus-Based Reference Materials for Ebola Virus Nucleic Acid Amplification Technology-Based Assays.

    PubMed

    Mattiuzzo, Giada; Ashall, James; Doris, Kathryn S; MacLellan-Gibson, Kirsty; Nicolson, Carolyn; Wilkinson, Dianna E; Harvey, Ruth; Almond, Neil; Anderson, Robert; Efstathiou, Stacey; Minor, Philip D; Page, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The 2013-present Ebola virus outbreak in Western Africa has prompted the production of many diagnostic assays, mostly based on nucleic acid amplification technologies (NAT). The calibration and performance assessment of established assays and those under evaluation requires reference materials that can be used in parallel with the clinical sample to standardise or control for every step of the procedure, from extraction to the final qualitative/quantitative result. We have developed safe and stable Ebola virus RNA reference materials by encapsidating anti sense viral RNA into HIV-1-like particles. The lentiviral particles are replication-deficient and non-infectious due to the lack of HIV-1 genes and Envelope protein. Ebola virus genes were subcloned for encapsidation into two lentiviral preparations, one containing NP-VP35-GP and the other VP40 and L RNA. Each reference material was formulated as a high-titre standard for use as a calibrator for secondary or internal standards, and a 10,000-fold lower titre preparation to serve as an in-run control. The preparations have been freeze-dried to maximise stability. These HIV-Ebola virus RNA reference materials were suitable for use with in-house and commercial quantitative RT-PCR assays and with digital RT-PCR. The HIV-Ebola virus RNA reference materials are stable at up to 37°C for two weeks, allowing the shipment of the material worldwide at ambient temperature. These results support further evaluation of the HIV-Ebola virus RNA reference materials as part of an International collaborative study for the establishment of the 1st International Standard for Ebola virus RNA.

  12. Sampling and analyses report for postburn sampling at the RM-1 UCG Site, Hanna, WY

    SciTech Connect

    Crader, S.E.

    1989-03-01

    Between March 3, 1989 and March 9, 1989, Western Research Institute (WRI) completed the first quarterly Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) groundwater monitoring for the year 1989. This quarterly sample outing represents the second sampling since the completion of the RM1 groundwater restoration in September, 1988. Background material and the sampling and analytical procedures associated with the sampling task are described in the {open_quotes}Rocky Mountain 1 Postburn Groundwater Monitoring Quality Assurance Plan,{close_quotes} prepared by Western Research Institute for the Gas Research Institute and the U.S. Department of Energy.

  13. Confidence Interval Methodology for Ratio Means (CIM4RM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    RDECOIW 40 Years of SAA Excellence in Analysis AMSAA TECHNICAL REPORT NO. TR-2010-35 CONFIDENCE INTERVAL METHODOLOGY FOR RATIO MEANS (CIM4RM...COVERED Technical Report 4 TITLE AND SUBTITLE Confidence Interval Methodology for Ratio Means (CIM4RM) 5 FUNDING NUMBERS 6 AUTHOR!SI John Nierwinski...LIST OF ACRONYMS CIM4RM - Confidence Interval Methodology for Ratio Means MH - Man-Hours MR - Maintenance Ratio PCM - Parts Cost per Mile CI

  14. Retrospective Analysis of NIST Standard Reference Material 1450, Fibrous Glass Board, for Thermal Insulation Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Zarr, Robert R; Heckert, N Alan; Leigh, Stefan D

    2014-01-01

    Thermal conductivity data acquired previously for the establishment of Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1450, Fibrous Glass Board, as well as subsequent renewals 1450a, 1450b, 1450c, and 1450d, are re-analyzed collectively and as individual data sets. Additional data sets for proto-1450 material lots are also included in the analysis. The data cover 36 years of activity by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in developing and providing thermal insulation SRMs, specifically high-density molded fibrous-glass board, to the public. Collectively, the data sets cover two nominal thicknesses of 13 mm and 25 mm, bulk densities from 60 kg·m−3 to 180 kg·m−3, and mean temperatures from 100 K to 340 K. The analysis repetitively fits six models to the individual data sets. The most general form of the nested set of multilinear models used is given in the following equation: λ(ρ,T)=a0+a1ρ+a2T+a3T3+a4e−(T−a5a6)2where λ(ρ,T) is the predicted thermal conductivity (W·m−1·K−1), ρ is the bulk density (kg·m−3), T is the mean temperature (K) and ai (for i = 1, 2, … 6) are the regression coefficients. The least squares fit results for each model across all data sets are analyzed using both graphical and analytic techniques. The prevailing generic model for the majority of data sets is the bilinear model in ρ and T. λ(ρ,T)=a0+a1ρ+a2T One data set supports the inclusion of a cubic temperature term and two data sets with low-temperature data support the inclusion of an exponential term in T to improve the model predictions. Physical interpretations of the model function terms are described. Recommendations for future renewals of SRM 1450 are provided. An Addendum provides historical background on the origin of this SRM and the influence of the SRM on external measurement programs. PMID:26601034

  15. Zearalenone in maize: stability testing and matrix characterisation of a certified reference material.

    PubMed

    Krska, R; Pettersson, H; Josephs, R D; Lemmens, M; Mac Donald, S; Welzig, E

    2003-12-01

    Within the certification process of a reference material for the determination of the mycotoxin zearalenone (ZON) in maize, short- and long-time stability tests of naturally contaminated maize have been performed. The short-term stability of ZON in the maize was evaluated under four different conditions (4, 25, 40 and 70 degrees C) in preliminary studies. Four storage times of 0, 1, 2 and 4 weeks were investigated using HPLC. The long-term stability study was conducted with measurements after 0, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months under three storage conditions (4, 25 and 40 degrees C) in preliminary studies using HPLC. Stability data gained under two different conditions (4 and 25 degrees C) with five storage times of 0, 1, 6, 12 and 18 months were further evaluated for the contaminated maize in the certification process. Before the certification, the maize matrix had been characterized with respect to dry residue, ash content, fat content, protein content, ergosterol content and total dietary fibre, and the efficiency of gamma-irradiation on the fungal flora was investigated. The stability of the maize matrix was evaluated by monitoring UV absorption and ergosterol content under four different storage conditions (4, 25, 35 and 70 degrees C) with five storage times of 0, 1, 6, 12 and 24 months. Other possibly occurring mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, 3-acetyl deoxynivalenol, 15-acetyl deoxynivalenol, fusarenon X and moniliformin) have been quantified. On the basis of the stability measurements, which showed no significant trends for both short- and long-term stabilities, it can be recommended to store the samples at temperatures < 4 degrees C and ship the samples at ambient temperatures.

  16. Comprehensive Chemical Characterization of Hydrocarbons in NIST Standard Reference Material 2779 Gulf of Mexico Crude Oil.

    PubMed

    Worton, David R; Zhang, Haofei; Isaacman-VanWertz, Gabriel; Chan, Arthur W H; Wilson, Kevin R; Goldstein, Allen H

    2015-11-17

    Comprehensive chemical information is needed to understand the environmental fate and impact of hydrocarbons released during oil spills. However, chemical information remains incomplete because of the limitations of current analytical techniques and the inherent chemical complexity of crude oils. In this work, gas chromatography (GC)-amenable C9-C33 hydrocarbons were comprehensively characterized from the National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Material (NIST SRM) 2779 Gulf of Mexico crude oil by GC coupled to vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectrometry (GC/VUV-MS), with a mass balance of 68 ± 22%. This technique overcomes one important limitation faced by traditional GC and even comprehensive 2D gas chromatography (GC×GC): the necessity for individual compounds to be chromatographically resolved from one another in order to be characterized. VUV photoionization minimizes fragmentation of the molecular ions, facilitating the characterization of the observed hydrocarbons as a function of molecular weight (carbon number, NC), structure (number of double bond equivalents, NDBE), and mass fraction (mg kg(-1)), which represent important metrics for understanding their fate and environmental impacts. Linear alkanes (8 ± 1%), branched alkanes (11 ± 2%), and cycloalkanes (37 ± 12%) dominated the mass with the largest contribution from cycloalkanes containing one or two rings and one or more alkyl side chains (27 ± 9%). Linearity and good agreement with previous work for a subset of >100 components and for the sum of compound classes provided confidence in our measurements and represents the first independent assessment of our analytical approach and calibration methodology. Another crude oil collected from the Marlin platform (35 km northeast of the Macondo well) was shown to be chemically identical within experimental errors to NIST SRM 2779, demonstrating that Marlin crude is an appropriate surrogate oil for researchers conducting

  17. Variability of bioaccessibility results using seventeen different methods on a standard reference material, NIST 2710.

    PubMed

    Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J; Bakker, Martine I; Basta, Nicholas T; Cave, Mark R; Denys, Sébastien; Dodd, Matt; Hale, Beverly A; Irwin, Rob; Lowney, Yvette W; Moore, Margo M; Paquin, Viviane; Rasmussen, Pat E; Repaso-Subang, Theresa; Stephenson, Gladys L; Siciliano, Steven D; Wragg, Joanna; Zagury, Gerald J

    2013-01-01

    Bioaccessibility is a measurement of a substance's solubility in the human gastro-intestinal system, and is often used in the risk assessment of soils. The present study was designed to determine the variability among laboratories using different methods to measure the bioaccessibility of 24 inorganic contaminants in one standardized soil sample, the standard reference material NIST 2710. Fourteen laboratories used a total of 17 bioaccessibility extraction methods. The variability between methods was assessed by calculating the reproducibility relative standard deviations (RSDs), where reproducibility is the sum of within-laboratory and between-laboratory variability. Whereas within-laboratory repeatability was usually better than (<) 15% for most elements, reproducibility RSDs were much higher, indicating more variability, although for many elements they were comparable to typical uncertainties (e.g., 30% in commercial laboratories). For five trace elements of interest, reproducibility RSDs were: arsenic (As), 22-44%; cadmium (Cd), 11-41%; Cu, 15-30%; lead (Pb), 45-83%; and Zn, 18-56%. Only one method variable, pH, was found to correlate significantly with bioaccessibility for aluminum (Al), Cd, copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), Pb and zinc (Zn) but other method variables could not be examined systematically because of the study design. When bioaccessibility results were directly compared with bioavailability results for As (swine and mouse) and Pb (swine), four methods returned results within uncertainty ranges for both elements: two that were defined as simpler (gastric phase only, limited chemicals) and two were more complex (gastric + intestinal phases, with a mixture of chemicals).

  18. Integrating Local Databases with Remote Files, Print Materials and Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Nolan F.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the impact of local online databases on library reference services, including their integration with remote files such as Dialog, Orbit, and the Information Bank. Online catalog databases, multiple local databases (analytics for journal articles, indexes), and batch processing of data are noted. Six references are cited. (EJS)

  19. Reading Materials in Large Type. Reference Circular No. 87-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    This circular provides information about reading materials in large type, i.e., materials set in type that is a minimum size of 14-point and, most commonly, 16- to 18-point size. Most of the materials listed are typeset, but a few are photographically enlarged conventionally printed books or typewritten materials prepared using a large-print…

  20. Simultaneous Direct Determinations of Na, Mg, K, Ca, P, and S in Biodiesel Fuel by ICP-QMS/QMS after Xylene Dilution: Development and Application of a High-throughput Method for a Homogeneity Assessment of a Candidate Reference Material.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanbei; Kitamaki, Yuko; Numata, Masahiko

    2017-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS/QMS) measurements after xylene dilution were investigated as a method for determining the elements (Na, Mg, K, Ca, P, and S) in a biodiesel fuel (BDF) candidate reference material (RM). Optimizations were respectively carried out for the following parameters to obtain the best performance for measurements: O2 flow rate (additional gas to the carrier gas) to ensure complete combustion of the xylene solvent in the plasma, plasma power to obtain lower background signal intensities for Na and K, O2 flow rate (reaction cell gas) to remove any spectral interference with the S, H2 flow rate so as to remove spectral interference with Ca. After optimization, the lower detection limits of Na, Mg, K, Ca, P, and S were 0.0004, 0.00004, 0.0003, 0.00012, 0.00005, and 0.002 mg kg(-1), respectively. Typical relative standard deviations were 2.1, 2.0, 1.7, 1.1, 2.5, and 2.5% for Na, Mg, K, Ca, P, and S, respectively, where the elemental concentrations in the BDF sample were, respectively, ca. 1 mg kg(-1) each for Na, Mg, K and Ca, ca. 2 mg kg(-1) for P, and ca. 6 mg kg(-1) for S. The established method was applied to the homogeneity assessment of a candidate RM of BDF made from palm oil. The relative uncertainties of the homogeneity were 0.3, 0.4, 0.6, 0.3, 1.6, and 0.6% for Na, Mg, K, Ca, P, and S, respectively.

  1. Feasibility study for producing a carrot/potato matrix reference material for 11 selected pesticides at EU MRL level: material processing, homogeneity and stability assessment.

    PubMed

    Saldanha, Helena; Sejerøe-Olsen, Berit; Ulberth, Franz; Emons, Hendrik; Zeleny, Reinhard

    2012-05-01

    The feasibility for producing a matrix reference material for selected pesticides in a carrot/potato matrix was investigated. A commercially available baby food (carrot/potato-based mash) was spiked with 11 pesticides at the respective EU maximum residue limits (MRLs), and further processed by either freezing or freeze-drying. Batches of some 150 units were produced per material type. First, the materials were assessed for the relative amount of pesticide recovered after processing (ratio of pesticide concentration in the processed material to the initially spiked pesticide concentration). In addition, the materials' homogeneity (bottle-to-bottle variation), and the short-term (1 month) and mid-term (5 months) stability at different temperatures were assessed. For this, an in-house validated GC-EI-MS method operated in the SIM mode with a sample preparation procedure based on the QuEChERS ("quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe") principle was applied. Measurements on the frozen material provided the most promising results (smallest analyte losses during production), and also freeze-drying proved to be a suitable alternative processing technique for most of the investigated pesticides. Both the frozen and the freeze-dried material showed to be sufficiently homogeneous for the intended use, and storage at -20°C for 5 months did not reveal any detectable material degradation. The results constitute an important step towards the development of a pesticide matrix reference material.

  2. Preparation and characterisation of in-house reference material of tylosin in honey and results of a proficiency test.

    PubMed

    Bohm, Detlef A; Stachel, Carolin S; Hackenberg, Rudolf; Gowik, Petra

    2011-08-26

    The analysis of incurred material from animals treated with pharmacologically active substances is an efficient way to check the accuracy of a method. Tylosin A was chosen for the preparation of that material because it is highly effective in controlling active infections of American Foulbrood (AFB), a global threat to apiculture, but residues in honey are not allowed according to European legislation. For this reason an in-house reference material of honey containing the macrolide tylosin A and its degradation product desmycosin (tylosin B) was prepared. After the treatment of a beehive with the appropriate macrolide tylosin A, the honey samples were collected. The incurred honey material was diluted by mixing with blank honey. Concentrations of 25.81 μg kg(-1) for tylosin A and of 19.28 μg kg(-1) for its degradation product desmycosin (tylosin B) were reached. The homogeneity was checked by analysing 12 bottles in duplicate. The stability was tested at different defined temperatures and storage conditions. The reference material described above was homogeneous and stable. Samples of this in-house reference material were used for the realisation of a proficiency test with international participation. All participants accomplished satisfying results with the exception of one laboratory.

  3. Development of a Genomic DNA Reference Material Panel for Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 (DM1) Genetic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Kalman, Lisa; Tarleton, Jack; Hitch, Monica; Hegde, Madhuri; Hjelm, Nick; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Zhou, Lili; Hilbert, James E.; Luebbe, Elizabeth A.; Moxley, Richard T.; Toji, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by expansion of a CTG triplet repeat in the 3′ untranslated region of the DMPK gene that encodes a serine-threonine kinase. Patients with larger repeats tend to have a more severe phenotype. Clinical laboratories require reference and quality control materials for DM1 diagnostic and carrier genetic testing. Well-characterized reference materials are not available. To address this need, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-based Genetic Testing Reference Material Coordination Program, in collaboration with members of the genetic testing community, the National Registry of Myotonic Dystrophy and Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy Patients and Family Members, and the Coriell Cell Repositories, has established and characterized cell lines from patients with DM1 to create a reference material panel. The CTG repeats in genomic DNA samples from 10 DM1 cell lines were characterized in three clinical genetic testing laboratories using PCR and Southern blot analysis. DMPK alleles in the samples cover four of five DM1 clinical categories: normal (5 to 34 repeats), mild (50 to 100 repeats), classical (101 to 1000 repeats), and congenital (>1000 repeats). We did not identify or establish Coriell cell lines in the premutation range (35 to 49 repeats). These samples are publicly available for quality control, proficiency testing, test development, and research and should help improve the accuracy of DM1 testing. PMID:23680132

  4. Development of a genomic DNA reference material panel for myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Kalman, Lisa; Tarleton, Jack; Hitch, Monica; Hegde, Madhuri; Hjelm, Nick; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Zhou, Lili; Hilbert, James E; Luebbe, Elizabeth A; Moxley, Richard T; Toji, Lorraine

    2013-07-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by expansion of a CTG triplet repeat in the 3' untranslated region of the DMPK gene that encodes a serine-threonine kinase. Patients with larger repeats tend to have a more severe phenotype. Clinical laboratories require reference and quality control materials for DM1 diagnostic and carrier genetic testing. Well-characterized reference materials are not available. To address this need, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-based Genetic Testing Reference Material Coordination Program, in collaboration with members of the genetic testing community, the National Registry of Myotonic Dystrophy and Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy Patients and Family Members, and the Coriell Cell Repositories, has established and characterized cell lines from patients with DM1 to create a reference material panel. The CTG repeats in genomic DNA samples from 10 DM1 cell lines were characterized in three clinical genetic testing laboratories using PCR and Southern blot analysis. DMPK alleles in the samples cover four of five DM1 clinical categories: normal (5 to 34 repeats), mild (50 to 100 repeats), classical (101 to 1000 repeats), and congenital (>1000 repeats). We did not identify or establish Coriell cell lines in the premutation range (35 to 49 repeats). These samples are publicly available for quality control, proficiency testing, test development, and research and should help improve the accuracy of DM1 testing.

  5. Doorways II: Community Counselor Reference Materials. On School-Related Gender-Based Violence Prevention and Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Agency for International Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). This booklet, "Doorways II: Community Counselor Reference Materials on…

  6. Quantification of the predominant monomeric catechins in baking chocolate standard reference material by LC/APCI-MS.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Bryant C; Sharpless, Katherine E

    2003-01-29

    Catechins are polyphenolic plant compounds (flavonoids) that may offer significant health benefits to humans. These benefits stem largely from their anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, and antimutagenic properties. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that the consumption of flavonoid-containing foods is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Chocolate is a natural cocoa bean-based product that reportedly contains high levels of monomeric, oligomeric, and polymeric catechins. We have applied solid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry to the identification and determination of the predominant monomeric catechins, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, in a baking chocolate Standard Reference Material (NIST Standard Reference Material 2384). (+)-Catechin and (-)-epicatechin are detected and quantified in chocolate extracts on the basis of selected-ion monitoring of their protonated [M + H](+) molecular ions. Tryptophan methyl ester is used as an internal standard. The developed method has the capacity to accurately quantify as little as 0.1 microg/mL (0.01 mg of catechin/g of chocolate) of either catechin in chocolate extracts, and the method has additionally been used to certify (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin levels in the baking chocolate Standard Reference Material. This is the first reported use of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for the quantitative determination of monomeric catechins in chocolate and the only report certifying monomeric catechin levels in a food-based Standard Reference Material.

  7. COMPARISON OF PULMONARY RESPONSES TO AUTOMOBILE-GENERATED AND NIST STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMPARISON OF PULMONARY RESPONSES TO AUTOMOBILE-GENERATED AND NIST STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIAL DIESEL PARTICULATE EMISSIONS IN MICE. P. Singh1, C.A.J. Dick2, J. Richards3, M.J. Daniels3, and M.I. Gilmour3. 1NCSU, Raleigh, NC, 2UNC, Chapel Hill, NC and 3 USEPA, ORD, NHEERL, (ETD,...

  8. Reference Materials for Determination of the Nutrient Composition of Foods: Results from USDA's National Food and Nutrient Analysis Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) play a critical role in validating the accuracy of nutrient data for food samples. A number of available food CRMs of differing matrix composition have assigned concentrations for various nutrients, along with associated uncertainty intervals (UIs) for those valu...

  9. Reference Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Jepsen, Richard

    2011-11-02

    Presentation from the 2011 Water Peer Review in which principal investigator discusses project progress to develop a representative set of Reference Models (RM) for the MHK industry to develop baseline cost of energy (COE) and evaluate key cost component/system reduction pathways.

  10. Improving stable carbon and oxygen isotope geochemical measurements in dolomite: reference material and acid fractionation factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandeginste, V.; John, C. M.; Jourdan, A.; Davis, S.

    2010-12-01

    The analysis of stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition is one of the most commonly used techniques in stratigraphic and diagenetic research of carbonate rocks. The wide-spread use and easy access of this long-established method has the side effect that little attention is paid to fundamental calibrations. Dolomite is often measured against a calcite standard (NBS19), and the acid fractionation factor used to calibrate is based on the one for calcite. To date, no reference material exists for dolomite. In this study, which is part of dolomite research in the Qatar Carbonates and Carbon Storage Research Centre project, we focus on two main goals. First, we characterize a current standard of dolomite used for major and minor elemental geochemistry, and assess its suitability as a new dolomite standard for δ18O and δ13C. Second, we attempt to better constrain the acid fractionation factor for dolomite and assess the influence of different dolomite types on this fractionation factor. As only two third of the total oxygen in the carbonate is released in the form of CO2 during acid reaction, a fractionation between the reacting carbonate and the resulting gas will occur. A recent study by Kim et al. (2007) improved on the acid fractionation factors for calcite and aragonite. Often, the acid fractionation factor for dolomite is used to calculate δ18O and δ13C from the values obtained by calibration with the calcite standard. Only two studies (from the 1980’s) have attempted to constrain the acid fractionation factor for dolomite, of which only Rosenbaum and Sheppard (1986) did experiments not only at 25°C, but also at 50 and 100°C. The dataset of the latter authors is, however, very limited and contains only two dolomite samples. We aim at improving the constraints on the acid fractionation factor of dolomite by reacting a wide range of different types of dolomite at a wide range of acid temperature, and compare this to the absolute isotopic composition of

  11. Global nutrients data synthesis based on Reference Material of Nutrients of Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Michio; Murata, Akihiko; Nishino, Shigeto

    2013-04-01

    Realistic distributions of nitrate, phosphate and silicate and inventories of them in the world's ocean are basic issues of geochemical study of nitrogen, phosphorous and silicon cycles as well as tracer use of nutrients for deep ocean circulation. WOA09 and WGHC were global hydrographic datasets created by objective analysis and offset correction/objective analysis, respectively. However synthesis using mathematics methods and experience could get apparent global comparability but does not have a firm foundation, therefore accuracy is unknown for nutrients data in WOA05/09 and WGHC. Recently hydrographic dataset such as CARINA and PACIFICA were also created by synthesis. We did global synthesis work based on Reference Material of Nutrients in Seawater (RMNS) for WOCE/CLIVAR cruises datasets, WGHC datasets and some new hydrographic cruises which cover the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean and the Arctic Ocean. Among 69982 profiles in 5174 cruises, we could put correction factors of nutrients concentration for 14491 profiles in 268 cruises for nitrate, 18378 profiles in 412 cruises for phosphate and 15825 profiles in 268 cruises for silicate. Global Nutrients Dataset 2010, GND10, is newly created as 0.5 deg. × 0.5 deg. and 50 m interval of 138 levels gridded dataset based on corrected nutrients profiles described above. One feature of GND10 is that nitrate vs. phosphate ratio in deep waters in WOA dataset showed a peak at 14.6 while nitrate vs. phosphate ratio in GND10 showed a peak at 14.3 and kurtosis of frequency distribution of nitrate vs. phosphate ratio is larger in GND10 dataset rather than that in WOA dataset. A reason of larger kurtosis of distribution of nitrate vs. phosphate ratio might be that comparability of nitrate and phosphate concentration data was improved. Newly created GND10 can provide more realistic distribution of nutrients in the world ocean because comparability of nutrients concentration in GND10 is

  12. What information do Kármán streets offer to flow sensing?

    PubMed

    Akanyeti, Otar; Venturelli, Roberto; Visentin, Francesco; Chambers, Lily; Megill, William M; Fiorini, Paolo

    2011-09-01

    In this work, we focus on biomimetic lateral line sensing in Kármán vortex streets. After generating a Kármán street in a controlled environment, we examine the hydrodynamic images obtained with digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). On the grounds that positioning in the flow and interaction with the vortices govern bio-inspired underwater locomotion, we inspect the fluid in the swimming robot frame of reference. We spatially subsample the flow field obtained using DPIV to emulate the local flow around the body. In particular, we look at various sensor configurations in order to reliably identify the vortex shedding frequency, wake wavelength and downstream flow speed. Moreover, we propose methods that differentiate between being in and out of the Kármán street with >70% accuracy, distinguish right from left with respect to Kármán vortex street centreline (>80%) and highlight when the sensor system enters the vortex formation zone (>75%). Finally, we present a method that estimates the relative position of a sensor array with respect to the vortex formation point within 15% error margin.

  13. Measurement of the high-temperature Seebeck coefficient of thin films by means of an epitaxially regrown thermometric reference material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramu, Ashok T.; Mages, Phillip; Zhang, Chong; Imamura, Jeffrey T.; Bowers, John E.

    2012-09-01

    The Seebeck coefficient of a typical thermoelectric material, silicon-doped InGaAs lattice-matched to InP, is measured over a temperature range from 300 K to 550 K. By depositing and patterning a thermometric reference bar of silicon-doped InP adjacent to a bar of the material under test, temperature differences are measured directly. This is in contrast to conventional two-thermocouple techniques that subtract two large temperatures to yield a small temperature difference, a procedure prone to errors. The proposed technique retains the simple instrumentation of two-thermocouple techniques while eliminating the critical dependence of the latter on good thermal contact. The repeatability of the proposed technique is demonstrated to be ±2.6% over three temperature sweeps, while the repeatability of two-thermocouple measurements is about ±5%. The improved repeatability is significant for reliable reporting of the ZT figure of merit, which is proportional to the square of the Seebeck coefficient. The accuracy of the proposed technique depends on the accuracy with which the high-temperature Seebeck coefficient of the reference material may be computed or measured. In this work, the Seebeck coefficient of the reference material, n+ InP, is computed by rigorous solution of the Boltzmann transport equation. The accuracy and repeatability of the proposed technique can be systematically improved by scaling, and the method is easily extensible to other material systems currently being investigated for high thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency.

  14. The development and certification of Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) to assess and ensure accurate measurement of Pb in the environment.

    PubMed

    Fassett, J D; MacDonald, B S

    2001-08-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has had a major quality-assurance role in the federal effort to reduce lead poisoning of children in the United States through its mission of ensuring the accuracy of chemical measurements. NIST certifies reference materials (standard reference materials--SRMs) that are used to benchmark measurements by secondary and field methods of analysis--to ensure that decisions of great health and economic impact are soundly based on good measurement science. Over the past 10 years, in cooperation with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS), NIST has prepared and certified SRMs for lead content in soil, indoor dust, and paint. The role of these materials in meeting regulatory and abatement needs is described and their certified values are summarized.

  15. Observation of anomalous behavior in the thermal and electrical conductivity of a standard reference material SRM-735

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldratt, E.; Greenfield, A. J.

    1982-07-01

    Measurements have been carried out over the temperature range 360-480 K of both the thermal conductivity κ(T) and the electrical resistivity ρ(T) for the austenitic stainless steel material chosen by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards as the Standard Reference Material for these two properties in the temperature range 4-1200 K. These measurements show a ripple in κ(T) vs. T centered at 410 K. The amplitude of the observed ripple is within the ±5% experimental scatter of previous data. Measurements of κ(T) for ordinary 304 stainless steel over the same temperature range show no sign of such a ripple. Measurements of the electrical resistivity of the Standard Reference Material also show an unusual structure centered at 410 K.

  16. Monazite RW-1: a homogenous natural reference material for SIMS U-Pb and Th-Pb isotopic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Xiao-Xiao; Huyskens, Magdalena H.; Li, Qiu-Li; Yin, Qin-Zhu; Werner, Ronald; Liu, Yu; Tang, Guo-Qiang; Yang, Ya-Nan; Li, Xian-Hua

    2016-10-01

    Well-characterized matrix-matched natural mineral references of known age are an important prerequisite for SIMS (secondary ion mass spectrometry) U-Th-Pb dating. We have characterized RW-1, a 44 g yellowish-brown single monazite specimen from a Norwegian pegmatite as an excellent hi-Th reference material for secondary ion mass spectrometric U-Th-Pb dating. A total of 206 secondary ion mass spectrometric analyses over six analytical sessions were performed on different monazite fragments of RW-1. The analyses resulted in 207Pb-based common lead corrected 206Pb/238U ages and Th-Pb ages with overall 2 % (2 SD = standard deviation) variations, indicating the good U-Th-Pb system homogeneity. The homogeneity of Th content of 11.8 ± 1.0 wt% (2 SD) and Th/U of 42 ± 3 (2 SD) make this crystal also a good compositional reference material. We used the combined ID-TIMS(Pb)/ID-MC-ICP-MS(U) technique (i.e. isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry for Pb, and isotope dilution multi-collector inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry for U) to determine U-Pb ages of the monazite samples studied. The mean 207Pb/235U age of 904.15 ± 0.26 Ma (95 % confidence level) is recommended as the best estimate crystallization age for RW-1 monazite. Considering that the most commonly distributed U-Pb monazite reference materials have rather low ThO2, we suggest that this RW-1 monazite with its ThO2 of 13.5 wt% is a suitable reference material providing investigators more confidence when dating high-Th monazite unknowns.

  17. New Ca-Tims and La-Icp Analyses of GJ-1, Plesovice, and FC1 Reference Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, J. D.; Möller, A.; Walker, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb zircon geochronology relies on external reference standards to monitor and correct for different mass fractionation effects and instrument drift. Common zircon reference materials used within the community, including the KU Isotope Geochemistry Laboratory, are GJ-1 (207Pb/206Pb age: 608.53 +/- 0.37Ma; Jackson et al., 2004), Plesovice (337.13 +/- 0.37 Ma; Slama et al., 2008), and FC-1 (1099.0 +/-0.6 Ma; Paces and Miller, 1993). The age distribution of zircon reference material varies slightly from sample fraction to sample fraction, and the published results for GJ-1 are slightly discordant. As a result, using the published data for the distributed standard splits can lead to small systematic variations when comparing datasets from different labs, and more high precision data are needed to evaluate potential inhomogeneity of sample splits used in different laboratories. Here we characterize these reference materials with cathodoluminescence, LA-ICP-MS traverses across grains, and high precision CA-TIMS to better constrain the ages and assess zoning of these standards, and present the data for comparison with other laboratories. Reducing systematic error by dating our own reference material lends confidence to our analyses and allows for inter-laboratory age reproducibility of unknowns. Additionally, the reduction in propagated uncertainties (especially in GJ-1, for which both the red and yellow variety will be analyzed) will be used to improve long-term reproducibility, comparisons between samples of similar age, detrital populations and composite pluton zircons. Jackson, S.E., et al., 2004, Chemical Geology, v. 211, p. 47-69. Paces, J.B. & Miller, J.D., 1993, Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 80, p. 13997-14013. Slama, J., et al., 2008, Chemical Geology, v. 249. p. 1-35.

  18. New reference and test materials for the characterization of energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers at scanning electron microscopes.

    PubMed

    Rackwitz, Vanessa; Krumrey, Michael; Laubis, Christian; Scholze, Frank; Hodoroaba, Vasile-Dan

    2015-04-01

    Checking the performance of energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers as well as validation of the results obtained with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) at a scanning electron microscope (SEM) involve the use of (certified) reference and dedicated test materials. This paper gives an overview on the test materials mostly employed by SEM/EDX users and accredited laboratories as well as on those recommended in international standards. The new BAM reference material EDS-CRM, which is currently in the process of certification, is specifically designed for the characterization of EDS systems at a SEM through calibration of the spectrometer efficiency in analytical laboratories in a simple manner. The certification of the spectra by means of a reference EDS is described. The focus is on the traceability of EDS efficiency which is ensured by measurements of the absolute detection efficiency of silicon drift detectors (SDD) and Si(Li) detectors at the laboratory of the PTB using the electron storage ring BESSY II as a primary X-ray source standard. A new test material in development at BAM for testing the performance of an EDS in the energy range below 1 keV is also briefly presented.

  19. Review of Federal Reference Method for Ozone: Nitric Oxide-Chemiluminescence:Supplemental Material for CASAC AMMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ApproachPer suggestion made by CASAC AMMS members during the April 3, 2014 conference call on the Review of Federal Reference Method for Ozone: Nitric Oxide-Chemiluminescence, ORD has performed additional data analysis activities to explain and mitigate scatter observed in the co...

  20. German Reference Sources: A Guide to Materials in the University of Cincinnati Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolzmann, Don H., Comp.

    This guide for the student of Germanic languages and literatures provides an introductory selection to reference sources in the field of German literature. It also includes a selection of sources from the humanities and social sciences. The guide is divided into five sections: (1) general works, including bibliographical guides, encyclopedias,…

  1. Guide to Reference Materials for School Library Media Centers. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    This publication lists current reference sources that serve the information needs of school library users, including books, CD-ROMs, and World Wide Web sources in all curricular and some extracurricular areas. Criteria for selection include usefulness for curricular applications by elementary and secondary students and teachers, interest for…

  2. 40 CFR 1068.95 - What materials does this part reference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... material. Table 1 to this section lists material from the Society of Automotive Engineers that we have... the Society of Automotive Engineers, 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096 or http://www.sae... SAE J1930, Electrical/Electronic Systems Diagnostic Terms, Definitions, Abbreviations, and...

  3. 40 CFR 1068.95 - What materials does this part reference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... material. Table 1 to this section lists material from the Society of Automotive Engineers that we have... the Society of Automotive Engineers, 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096 or http://www.sae... SAE J1930, Electrical/Electronic Systems Diagnostic Terms, Definitions, Abbreviations, and...

  4. Child Care and Children with Special Health Needs: Materials from the NCEMCH Reference Collection, September 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Arlington, VA.

    Materials included in this annotated bibliography cover topics related to child care and children with special health needs. Included are 68 resources that address: (1) the Americans with Disabilities Act and implications for child care; (2) nutrition of children with special health needs specific to the child care setting; (3) materials for…

  5. Developing a Reference Material for Diffusion-Controlled Formaldehyde Emissions Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of formaldehyde from building materials can contaminate indoor air and create significant risks to human health. The need to control formaldehyde emissions from indoor materials is made more urgent by the prevailing drive to improve building energy by decreasing ventil...

  6. Thermal desorption GC-MS as a tool to provide PAH certified standard reference material on particulate matter quartz filters.

    PubMed

    Grandesso, Emanuela; Pérez Ballesta, Pascual; Kowalewski, Konrad

    2013-02-15

    Reference materials for particulate matter (PM) on filter media are not available for the quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air. This is due to the difficulty of obtaining reference material that has a homogeneous distribution on a filter surface that is large enough for characterization and distribution. High volume sample filters from different locations and seasons were considered to validate the feasibility of the use of quartz filters as reference material for PAH concentrations. A rapid thermal desorption (TD) technique coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was applied to characterise the material for the content of fifteen different PAHs. TD technique allowed for rapid and accurate analysis of small sections of filter (5mm diameter), leaving enough material for the production of twenty sub-filter cuts (42 mm diameter) that could be used for distribution and control. Stability and homogeneity tests required for material certification were performed as indicated by the ISO guide 34:2009 and ISO 35:2006. The contribution of the heterogeneous distribution of PAHs on the filter surface resulted generally lower than 10% and higher for more volatile PAHs. One year of storage at -18°C indicated no significant variation in PAH concentrations. Nevertheless, a methodology for shipping and storing of the filter material at ambient temperature in especially designed plastic envelopes, was also shown to allow for stabile concentrations within twenty days. The method accuracy was confirmed by the analysis of NIST SRM 1649a (urban dust) and PAH concentrations were validated against the reference values obtained from an inter-laboratory exercise. In the case of benzo[a]pyrene for masses quantified between 100 pg and 10 ng the TD method provided expanded uncertainties of circa 10%, while the inter-laboratory reference value uncertainties ranged between 15 and 20%. The evaluation of these results supports the use of the presented

  7. Determination of Pu isotopes and 241Am in a reference fallout material using SF-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian; Zhang, Yongsan; Yamada, Masatoshi; Wu, Fengchang; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Hirose, Katsumi

    2011-07-01

    This paper reports on the characterisation of activities of Pu and (241)Am, and Pu isotopic composition in a reference fallout material prepared by the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI), Japan, from samples collected at 14 stations throughout Japan in 1963-1979. The acid leaching and total digestion were used to compare whether there is difference in Pu and (241)Am activities and Pu isotopic composition between these two methods. The results of activities of (239+240)Pu and (241)Pu, and Pu isotopic composition have been reported in the previous work (Sci. Total Environ. 2010, 408, 1139-1144). In this study, the (241)Am activity and (241)Am/(239+240)Pu activity ratio in the reference fallout material are reported, and the usefulness of Pu atom ratios and (241)Am/(239+240)Pu activity ratio for source identification is discussed.

  8. The certification of SRM 1546--Meat Homogenate, a new reference material for nutrients in a high protein, high fat matrix.

    PubMed

    Welch, M J; Colbert, J C; Gill, L M; Phinney, C S; Sharpless, K E; Sniegoski, L T; Wood, L J

    2001-05-01

    In response to reference material needs expressed by the food industry and government regulators, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has developed a new Standard Reference Material (SRM) consisting of a canned meat product with certified and reference values for a large number of constituents. SRM 1546 Meat Homogenate consists of a mixture of finely ground pork and chicken prepared and canned by a commercial process. NIST determined the concentration levels of cholesterol, sodium, calcium, iron, and seven fatty acids in this SRM using well defined methods and procedures. These analytes as well as 34 other constituents or properties were determined in an interlaboratory comparison exercise involving 21 laboratories, most of which are associated with the National Food Processors Association (NFPA) Food Industry Analytical Chemists Subcommittee (FIACS). From statistical analysis of the data, NIST assigned certified concentrations for the eleven analytes measured at NIST and reference concentrations for the proximates, six additional fatty acids, seven minerals, and seven water-soluble vitamins. Information values without uncertainties are provided for the concentrations of six additional constituents for which the uncertainties could not adequately be assessed. SRM 1546 will provide laboratories with a means to evaluate the accuracy of the methods they use to assign nutrient levels to processed meats and similar products.

  9. Comprehensive Pb-Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic, trace element, and mineralogical characterization of mafic to ultramafic rock reference materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourny, Anaïs.; Weis, Dominique; Scoates, James S.

    2016-03-01

    Controlling the accuracy and precision of geochemical analyses requires the use of characterized reference materials with matrices similar to those of the unknown samples being analyzed. We report a comprehensive Pb-Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic and trace element concentration data set, combined with quantitative phase analysis by XRD Rietveld refinement, for a wide range of mafic to ultramafic rock reference materials analyzed at the Pacific Centre for Isotopic and Geochemical Research, University of British Columbia. The samples include a pyroxenite (NIM-P), five basalts (BHVO-2, BIR-1a, JB-3, BE-N, GSR-3), a diabase (W-2), a dolerite (DNC-1), a norite (NIM-N), and an anorthosite (AN-G); results from a leucogabbro (Stillwater) are also reported. Individual isotopic ratios determined by MC-ICP-MS and TIMS, and multielement analyses by HR-ICP-MS are reported with 4-12 complete analytical duplicates for each sample. The basaltic reference materials have coherent Sr and Nd isotopic ratios with external precision below 50 ppm (2SD) and below 100 ppm for Hf isotopes (except BIR-1a). For Pb isotopic reproducibility, several of the basalts (JB-3, BHVO-2) require acid leaching prior to dissolution. The plutonic reference materials also have coherent Sr and Nd isotopic ratios (<50 ppm), however, obtaining good reproducibility for Pb and Hf isotopic ratios is more challenging for NIM-P, NIM-N, and AN-G due to a variety of factors, including postcrystallization Pb mobility and the presence of accessory zircon. Collectively, these results form a comprehensive new database that can be used by the geochemical community for evaluating the radiogenic isotope and trace element compositions of volcanic and plutonic mafic-ultramafic rocks.

  10. Use of standards and reference materials in the measurement of chlorinated hydrocarbon residues: Chemistry workbook. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, T.L.; Cantillo, A.Y.

    1994-03-01

    The document is a workbook on the use of standards and reference materials for a quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program for marine pollution studies of chlorinated hydrocarbons. The first sections of this workbook give details of sample collection, archival, extraction, instrumental analyses, and data reduction under proper QA/QC procedures. The last sections give examples of how the calculations and procedures are actually applied in a laboratory.

  11. The Kjeldahl method as a primary reference procedure for total protein in certified reference materials used in clinical chemistry. II. Selection of direct Kjeldahl analysis and its preliminary performance parameters.

    PubMed

    Vinklárková, Bára; Chromý, Vratislav; Šprongl, Luděk; Bittová, Miroslava; Rikanová, Milena; Ohnútková, Ivana; Žaludová, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    To select a Kjeldahl procedure suitable for the determination of total protein in reference materials used in laboratory medicine, we reviewed in our previous article Kjeldahl methods adopted by clinical chemistry and found an indirect two-step analysis by total Kjeldahl nitrogen corrected for its nonprotein nitrogen and a direct analysis made on isolated protein precipitates. In this article, we compare both procedures on various reference materials. An indirect Kjeldahl method gave falsely lower results than a direct analysis. Preliminary performance parameters qualify the direct Kjeldahl analysis as a suitable primary reference procedure for the certification of total protein in reference laboratories.

  12. A feasibility study into the production of a freeze-dried oyster reference material for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Lewis, Adam M; Hatfield, Robert G; Higman, Wendy A; Burrell, Stephen

    2013-10-01

    Matrix reference materials are an essential component for the validation and quality control of analytical methodologies for the quantitation of marine biotoxins in shellfish. Given the potential advantages of reference materials in powder form, a study was conducted to assess the feasibility for the production of a freeze-dried oyster tissue reference material containing a range of important paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins. One bulk sample of a wet oyster tissue homogenate was generated following mass culturing of toxic Alexandrium and oyster feeding experiments. The bulk tissue was used to prepare untreated wet frozen aliquots with the remainder being freeze-dried and processed into appropriately-sized powder samples. A pre-column oxidation LC-FLD analysis was used to confirm the absence of any chromatographic artefacts resulting from the processing and to confirm acceptable homogeneity of the tissues. Excellent stability over both the short-term (1 month) and long-term (1 year) of the freeze-dried material was demonstrated as compared with the stability of the untreated wet tissue. A post-column oxidation LC-FLD method was used to confirm the absence of toxin epimerisation in freeze-dried tissues which were observed in the wet tissues. Overall the work showed the feasibility of an approach to produce a homogenous freeze-dried oyster matrix material with enhanced stability in comparison to the untreated wet tissue. The potential for use of the process for preparation of large scale production batches of a freeze-dried CRM for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins has therefore been demonstrated.

  13. A Bayesian approach to the evaluation of comparisons of individually value-assigned reference materials.

    PubMed

    Toman, Blaza; Duewer, David L; Aragon, Hugo Gasca; Guenther, Franklin R; Rhoderick, George C

    2012-04-01

    Several recent international comparison studies used a relatively novel experimental design to evaluate the measurement capabilities of participating organizations. These studies compared the values assigned by each participant to one or more qualitatively similar materials with measurements made on all of the materials by one laboratory under repeatability conditions. A statistical model was then established relating the values to the repeatability measurements; the extent of agreement between the assigned value(s) and the consensus model reflected the participants' measurement capabilities. Since each participant used their own supplies, equipment, and methods to produce and value-assign their material(s), the agreement between the assigned value(s) and the model was a fairer reflection of their intrinsic capabilities than provided by studies that directly compared time- and material-constrained measurements on unknown samples prepared elsewhere. A new statistical procedure is presented for the analysis of such data. The procedure incorporates several novel concepts, most importantly a leave-one-out strategy for the estimation of the consensus value of the measurand, model fitting via Bayesian posterior probabilities, and posterior coverage probability calculation for the assigned 95% uncertainty intervals. The benefits of the new procedure are illustrated using data from the CCQM-K54 comparison of eight cylinders of n-hexane in methane.

  14. Yersinia ruckeri sp. nov., the redmouth (RM) bacterium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ewing, W.H.; Ross, A.J.; Brenner, Don J.; Fanning, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    Cultures of the redmouth (RM) bacterium, one of the etiological agents of redmouth disease in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and certain other fishes, were characterized by means of their biochemical reactions, by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hybridization, and by determination of guanine-plus-cytosine (G+C) ratios in DNA. The DNA relatedness studies confirmed the fact that the RM bacteria are members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and that they comprise a single species that is not closely related to any other species of Enterobacteriaceae. They are about 30% related to species of both Serratia and Yersinia. A comparison of the biochemical reactions of RM bacteria and serratiae indicated that there are many differences between these organisms and that biochemically the RM bacteria are most closely related to yersiniae. The G+C ratios of RM bacteria were approximated to be between 47.5 and 48.5% These values are similar to those of yersiniae but markedly different from those of serratiae. On the basis of their biochemical reactions and their G+C ratios, the RM bacteria are considered to be a new species of Yersinia, for which the name Yersinia ruckeri is proposed. Strain 2396-61 (= ATCC 29473) is designated the type strain of the species.

  15. Generation and Characterization of Six Recombinant Botulinum Neurotoxins as Reference Material to Serve in an International Proficiency Test.

    PubMed

    Weisemann, Jasmin; Krez, Nadja; Fiebig, Uwe; Worbs, Sylvia; Skiba, Martin; Endermann, Tanja; Dorner, Martin B; Bergström, Tomas; Muñoz, Amalia; Zegers, Ingrid; Müller, Christian; Jenkinson, Stephen P; Avondet, Marc-Andre; Delbrassinne, Laurence; Denayer, Sarah; Zeleny, Reinhard; Schimmel, Heinz; Åstot, Crister; Dorner, Brigitte G; Rummel, Andreas

    2015-11-26

    The detection and identification of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) is complex due to the existence of seven serotypes, derived mosaic toxins and more than 40 subtypes. Expert laboratories currently use different technical approaches to detect, identify and quantify BoNT, but due to the lack of (certified) reference materials, analytical results can hardly be compared. In this study, the six BoNT/A1-F1 prototypes were successfully produced by recombinant techniques, facilitating handling, as well as improving purity, yield, reproducibility and biosafety. All six BoNTs were quantitatively nicked into active di-chain toxins linked by a disulfide bridge. The materials were thoroughly characterized with respect to purity, identity, protein concentration, catalytic and biological activities. For BoNT/A₁, B₁ and E₁, serotypes pathogenic to humans, the catalytic activity and the precise protein concentration were determined by Endopep-mass spectrometry and validated amino acid analysis, respectively. In addition, BoNT/A₁, B₁, E₁ and F₁ were successfully detected by immunological assays, unambiguously identified by mass spectrometric-based methods, and their specific activities were assigned by the mouse LD50 bioassay. The potencies of all six BoNT/A1-F1 were quantified by the ex vivo mouse phrenic nerve hemidiaphragm assay, allowing a direct comparison. In conclusion, highly pure recombinant BoNT reference materials were produced, thoroughly characterized and employed as spiking material in a worldwide BoNT proficiency test organized by the EQuATox consortium.

  16. Preparation and value assignment of standard reference material 968e fat-soluble vitamins, carotenoids, and cholesterol in human serum.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jeanice B; Duewer, David L; Mugenya, Isaac O; Phinney, Karen W; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sniegoski, Lorna T; Tai, Susan S; Welch, Michael J; Yen, James H

    2012-01-01

    Standard Reference Material 968e Fat-Soluble Vitamins, Carotenoids, and Cholesterol in Human Serum provides certified values for total retinol, γ- and α-tocopherol, total lutein, total zeaxanthin, total β-cryptoxanthin, total β-carotene, 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3), and cholesterol. Reference and information values are also reported for nine additional compounds including total α-cryptoxanthin, trans- and total lycopene, total α-carotene, trans-β-carotene, and coenzyme Q(10). The certified values for the fat-soluble vitamins and carotenoids in SRM 968e were based on the agreement of results from the means of two liquid chromatographic methods used at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and from the median of results of an interlaboratory comparison exercise among institutions that participate in the NIST Micronutrients Measurement Quality Assurance Program. The assigned values for cholesterol and 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) in the SRM are the means of results obtained using the NIST reference method based upon gas chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. SRM 968e is currently one of two available health-related NIST reference materials with concentration values assigned for selected fat-soluble vitamins, carotenoids, and cholesterol in human serum matrix. This SRM is used extensively by laboratories worldwide primarily to validate methods for determining these analytes in human serum and plasma and for assigning values to in-house control materials. The value assignment of the analytes in this SRM will help support measurement accuracy and traceability for laboratories performing health-related measurements in the clinical and nutritional communities.

  17. [Participant research in reference to historical and dialectical materialism: a contribution to nursing research].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M A

    1991-07-01

    Based upon the studies of Castellanos e Salum (1988) and Egry et al (1991), the author makes a theoretical approach of the participant research as an strategy related to the dialectical and historical materialism, emphasizing its in two main lines: - the dialectical method of exposition and the process of becoming aware.

  18. Adolescent Mental Health: Selected Materials from the NCEMCH Reference Collection, April 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Arlington, VA.

    Items in this annotated bibliography deal with the mental health of adolescents and include materials for adolescents, parents, health educators, and health professionals. Resources cited include 11 videotapes and 64 publications dealing with the following topics: (1) teenage suicide; (2) mental illness in the family; (3) coping; (4) teenage…

  19. 40 CFR 1045.810 - What materials does this part reference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (a) SAE... the Society of Automotive Engineers, 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096 or http://www.sae.org. Table 1 follows: Table 1 to § 1045.810—SAE Materials Document number and name Part 1045...

  20. 40 CFR 1045.810 - What materials does this part reference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (a) SAE... the Society of Automotive Engineers, 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096 or http://www.sae.org. Table 1 follows: Table 1 to § 1045.810—SAE Materials Document number and name Part 1045...

  1. 40 CFR 1060.810 - What materials does this part reference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Method for Determination of Butane Working Capacity of Activated Carbon (“ASTM D5228”) 1060.801 (b) SAE... the Society of Automotive Engineers, 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096 or http://www.sae.org. Table 2 follows: Table 2 to § 1060.810—SAE Materials Document number and name Part...

  2. 40 CFR 1048.810 - What materials does this part reference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (a) SAE... the Society of Automotive Engineers, 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096 or http://www.sae.org. Table 1 follows: Table 1 of § 1048.810—SAE Materials Document number and name Part...

  3. 40 CFR 1060.810 - What materials does this part reference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Method for Determination of Butane Working Capacity of Activated Carbon (“ASTM D5228”) 1060.801 (b) SAE... the Society of Automotive Engineers, 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096 or http://www.sae.org. Table 2 follows: Table 2 to § 1060.810—SAE Materials Document number and name Part...

  4. Allergy to dental materials with special reference to the use of amalgam and polymethylmethacrylate.

    PubMed

    Kaaber, S

    1990-12-01

    The increase in new clinical materials with questionable biological properties and the corresponding increase in awareness in patients to health hazards from dental materials are two important problems of modern clinical dentistry. Based upon evidence from clinical research the hypersensitivity problems related to the use of silver amalgam and acrylic denture base materials are reviewed to define possible risk groups among dental patients. In silver amalgam therapy the main risk group is patients with contact lesions in the oral mucosa adjacent to the restorations, as this group exhibits a high frequency of skin sensitivity to mercury and other base materials in dental amalgam. Among denture wearers a corresponding risk group has been observed among patients with previous allergic diseases and burning mouth syndrome. In these cases a high incidence of skin sensitivity reactions to denture allergens has been observed, usually to methylmethacrylate monomer and formaldehyde. Some possible pathogenic mechanisms leading to a contact allergy of the oral mucosa in these patient groups are discussed.

  5. Development of a certified reference material for the content of nitroimidazole parent drugs and hydroxy metabolites in pork meat.

    PubMed

    Zeleny, R; Schimmel, H; Ulberth, F; Emons, H

    2009-02-23

    Nitroimidazoles have been applied in the past to poultry and pigs to treat protozoan diseases and to combat bacterial infections, but due to adverse health effects their use in food-producing animals has meanwhile been banned in the EU. The request for a certified reference material in a representative matrix was stipulated by the responsible Community Reference Laboratory and is underpinned by the need to improve the accuracy and comparability of measurement data and to establish metrological traceability of analytical results. The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) has responded to this demand by developing and producing a new certified matrix reference material, ERM-BB124. This incurred lyophilised pork meat material was certified according to ISO guides 34 and 35 for the mass fractions of six nitroimidazole compounds. Processing of the frozen muscle tissue to the final material was accomplished by application of cutting, freeze-drying, mixing and milling techniques. Homogeneity and stability measurements were performed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The relative standard uncertainty due to possible heterogeneity showed to be below 1.8% for all analytes. Potential degradation during transport and storage was assessed by isochronous stability studies. No significant instability was detected at a storage temperature of -20 degrees C for a shelf-life of 2 years. The certified mass fraction values were assigned upon evaluation of the data acquired in an international laboratory inter-comparison involving 12 expert laboratories using different sample preparation procedures, but exclusively LC-MS/MS methods. Relative standard uncertainty contributions for the characterisation (between-lab variation of mean values) were found to be between 1.6 and 4.8%. Certified values for five analytes were in the range of 0.7 to 6.2 microg kg(-1), with expanded relative uncertainties ranging between 7 and 14%. Dimetridazole could be

  6. Two new reference materials based on tobacco leaves: certification for over a dozen of toxic and essential elements.

    PubMed

    Samczyński, Zbigniew; Dybczyński, Rajmund S; Polkowska-Motrenko, Halina; Chajduk, Ewelina; Pyszynska, Marta; Danko, Bożena; Czerska, Elżbieta; Kulisa, Krzysztof; Doner, Katarzyna; Kalbarczyk, Paweł

    2012-01-01

    The preparation, certification, and characterization of two new biological certified reference materials for inorganic trace analysis have been presented. They are based on two different varieties of tobacco leaves, namely, Oriental Basma Tobacco Leaves (INCT-OBTL-5), grown in Greece, and Polish Virginia Tobacco Leaves (INCT-PVTL-6), grown in Poland. Certification of the materials was based on the statistical evaluation of results obtained in a worldwide interlaboratory comparison, in which 87 laboratories from 18 countries participated, providing 2568 laboratory averages on nearly 80 elements. It was possible to establish the certified values of concentration for many elements in the new materials, that is, 37 in INCT-OBTL-5 and 36 in INCT-PVTL-6, including several toxic ones like As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and so forth. The share and the role of instrumental analytical techniques used in the process of certification of the new CRMs are discussed.

  7. Two New Reference Materials Based on Tobacco Leaves: Certification for over a Dozen of Toxic and Essential Elements

    PubMed Central

    Samczyński, Zbigniew; Dybczyński, Rajmund S.; Polkowska-Motrenko, Halina; Chajduk, Ewelina; Pyszynska, Marta; Danko, Bożena; Czerska, Elżbieta; Kulisa, Krzysztof; Doner, Katarzyna; Kalbarczyk, Paweł

    2012-01-01

    The preparation, certification, and characterization of two new biological certified reference materials for inorganic trace analysis have been presented. They are based on two different varieties of tobacco leaves, namely, Oriental Basma Tobacco Leaves (INCT-OBTL-5), grown in Greece, and Polish Virginia Tobacco Leaves (INCT-PVTL-6), grown in Poland. Certification of the materials was based on the statistical evaluation of results obtained in a worldwide interlaboratory comparison, in which 87 laboratories from 18 countries participated, providing 2568 laboratory averages on nearly 80 elements. It was possible to establish the certified values of concentration for many elements in the new materials, that is, 37 in INCT-OBTL-5 and 36 in INCT-PVTL-6, including several toxic ones like As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and so forth. The share and the role of instrumental analytical techniques used in the process of certification of the new CRMs are discussed. PMID:22536124

  8. Powder x ray diffraction patterns of energetic materials for use as reference standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullenger, D. B.; Cantrell, J. S.; Beiter, T. A.

    1993-03-01

    This report lists eighteen quality powder x-ray diffraction patterns produced at Mound for various explosives of recent and current interest. In each case the best possible experimental pattern, obtained from the substance in question via automated diffractometric step-scans, was compared with the corresponding pattern, calculated from the lattice and atomic positional parameters of the crystal structure, if known, and a reconciliation sought between the two was sought. In order to make these patterns more useful to various types of practitioners, previously published patterns for these substances have been included, together with a brief description of their crystallographies, some Chemical Abstracts reference information about them, and an evaluation of their quality via accepted powder diffraction criteria. Most of these patterns have been accepted by the International Center for Diffraction Data for inclusion in their Powder Data File; the others will be submitted in due course.

  9. ECUT energy data reference series: high-temperature materials for advanced heat engines

    SciTech Connect

    Abarcar, R.B.; Hane, G.J.; Johnson, D.R.

    1984-07-01

    Information that describes the use of high-temperature materials in advanced heat engines for ground transportation applications is summarized. Applications discussed are: automobiles, light trucks, and medium and heavy trucks. The information provided on each of these modes includes descriptions of the average conversion efficiency of the engine, the capital stock, the amount of energy used, and the activity level as measured in ton-miles.

  10. Determination of total fluorine in five coal reference materials by proton-induced gamma-ray emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Roelandts, I; Robaye, G; Delbrouck-Habaru, J M; Weber, G

    1996-03-01

    The direct non-destructive proton-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) technique with a germanium detector was applied to the determination of total fluorine concentration in five coal reference materials (BCR 40, NIST 1632b, NIST 1635, SARM 20 and USGS CLB-1). Duplicate analyses were made from five randomly selected bottles of each coal. Individual data are presented and some problems (calibration, proton stopping power, effects of sample heating by the proton beam, background estimation) which were encountered during this study are discussed. Sensitivity and reproducibility of the determinations, and homogeneity of the coal samples with respect to fluorine contents by analysis of variance were investigated. The present data are also compared with the few published values for these reference samples, including other PIGE data. The use of synthetic standards and spiked samples in the present study suggested that the PIGE method was more accurate than other techniques.

  11. Production of highly-enriched 134Ba for a reference material for isotope dilution mass spectrometry measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Horkley, J. J.; Carney, K. P.; Gantz, E. M.; ...

    2015-03-17

    Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) is an analytical technique capable of providing accurate and precise quantitation of trace isotope abundance and assay providing measurement uncertainties below 1 %. To achieve these low uncertainties, the IDMS method ideally utilizes chemically pure “spike” solutions that consist of a single highly enriched isotope that is well-characterized relating to the abundance of companion isotopes and concentration in solution. To address a current demand for accurate 137Cs/137Ba ratio measurements for “age” determination of radioactive 137Cs sources, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is producing enriched 134Ba isotopes that are tobe used for IDMS spikes to accurately determinemore » 137Ba accumulation from the decay of 137Cs. The final objective of this work it to provide a homogenous set of reference materials that the National Institute of Standards and Technology can certify as standard reference materials used for IDMS. The process that was developed at INL for the separation and isolation of Ba isotopes, chemical purification of the isotopes in solution, and the encapsulation of the materials will be described.« less

  12. Characterization of the Aerosol-based Synthesis of Uranium Particles as a Potential Reference Material for Micro Analytical Methods.

    PubMed

    Middendorp, Ronald; Dürr, Martin; Knott, Alexander; Pointurier, Fabien; Ferreira Sanchez, Dario; Samson, Valerie Ann; Grolimund, Daniel

    2017-03-27

    A process for production of micrometer-sized particles composed of uranium oxide using aerosol spray pyrolysis is characterized with respect to the various production parameters. The aerosol is generated using a vibrating orifice aerosol generator providing monodisperse droplets, which are oxidized in a subsequent heat treatment. The final particles are characterized with micro analytical methods to determine size, shape, internal morphology, chemical and structural properties in order to assess the suitability of the produced particles as a reference material for micro analytical methods, in particular for mass-spectrometry. It is demonstrated that physico-chemical processes during particle formation and the heat treatment to chemically transform particles into an oxide strongly influence the particle shape and the internal morphology. Synchrotron μ-X-ray based techniques combined with μ-Raman spectroscopy have been applied to demonstrate that the obtained micro particles consist of a triuranium octoxide phase. Our studies demonstrate that the process is capable of delivering spherical particles with determined uniform size and ele-mental as well as chemical composition. The particles therefore represent a suitable base material to fulfill the homogeneity and stability requirements of a reference material for micro analytical methods applied in, for example, international safeguards or nuclear forensics.

  13. A new certified reference material for benzene measurement in air on a sorbent tube: development and proficiency testing.

    PubMed

    Caurant, A; Lalère, B; Schbath, M-C; Stumpf, C; Sutour, C; Mace, T; Quisefit, J-P; Doussin, J-F; Vaslin-Reimann, S

    2010-11-01

    A certified matrix reference material (CRM) for the measurement of benzene in ambient air has been developed at Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d'Essais. The production of these CRMs was conducted using a gravimetric method fully traceable to the International System of Units. The CRMs were prepared by sampling an accurate mass of a gaseous primary reference material of benzene, using a high-precision laminar flowmeter and a mass flow controller, with a PerkinElmer sampler filled with Carbopack™ X sorbent. The relative standard deviations obtained for the preparation of a batch of 20 tubes loaded with 500 ng of benzene were below 0.2%. Each CRM is considered independent from the others and with its own certified value and an expanded uncertainty estimated to be within 0.5%, lower than the uncertainties of benzene CRMs already available worldwide. The stability of these materials was also established up to 12 months. These CRMs were implemented during proficiency testing, to evaluate the analytical performances of seven French laboratories involved in benzene air monitoring.

  14. Production of highly-enriched 134Ba for a reference material for isotope dilution mass spectrometry measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Horkley, J. J.; Carney, K. P.; Gantz, E. M.; Davies, J. E.; Lewis, R. R.; Crow, J. P.; Poole, C. A.; Grimes, T. S.; Giglio, J. J.

    2015-03-17

    Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) is an analytical technique capable of providing accurate and precise quantitation of trace isotope abundance and assay providing measurement uncertainties below 1 %. To achieve these low uncertainties, the IDMS method ideally utilizes chemically pure “spike” solutions that consist of a single highly enriched isotope that is well-characterized relating to the abundance of companion isotopes and concentration in solution. To address a current demand for accurate 137Cs/137Ba ratio measurements for “age” determination of radioactive 137Cs sources, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is producing enriched 134Ba isotopes that are tobe used for IDMS spikes to accurately determine 137Ba accumulation from the decay of 137Cs. The final objective of this work it to provide a homogenous set of reference materials that the National Institute of Standards and Technology can certify as standard reference materials used for IDMS. The process that was developed at INL for the separation and isolation of Ba isotopes, chemical purification of the isotopes in solution, and the encapsulation of the materials will be described.

  15. Materials processing in space: A survey of referred open literature publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pentecost, E. (Compiler)

    1981-01-01

    Over 190 reports published in the open literature by workers in the materials processing in space program are listed according to year as well as alphabetically by author. Thirty five reports submitted for publication are also cited. Supported either directly or indirectly by NASA, the research generally pertains to the influence (or lack of influence) of gravity on processes involved in crystal growth, solidification, fluid transport, containerless phenomena, and various separation techniques of interest to the biomedical community. Studies of the possibilities of using the high vacuum in the wake of orbiting vehicles for performing processes involving large heat loads and evolution of gases are also included.

  16. Examples of reference material data needed for LBB analysis derived from WGCS-EC-DGXI studies

    SciTech Connect

    Petrequin, P.; Houssin, B.; Guinovart, J.

    1997-04-01

    Mechanical data collected through the sponsorship of the Activity Group 3 <<Materials>> of the Working Group Codes and Standards of DG XI European Commission are pointed out to illustrate their potential use for Leak Before Break analyses. Most of the tensile, fatigue, creep and fracture toughness data have been generated for stainless steels, mainly on modified type 316 L (N), selected for the Super Phoenix LMFBR. Trends for ongoing programs and future works on C-Mn and MnNiMo low alloy steels are provided.

  17. Reference earth orbital research and applications investigations (blue book). Volume 6: Materials sciences and manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The development of commercial manufacturing and research activities in space is discussed. The capability is to be installed in space stations in order to exploit the extended free fall which makes many novel manipulations of materials possible and alters the behavior of certain chemical and physical processes. The broad objectives are: (1) to develop technical basis required for commercial use of manned space facilities, (2) to provide indirect economic benefits by exploiting advantages of space laboratory facilities to solve critical experimental problems, and (3) to initiate manufacturing operations in space by private enterprise for commercial purposes and by agencies of the Government for public purposes.

  18. Development of a new ferulic acid certified reference material for use in clinical chemistry and pharmaceutical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dezhi; Wang, Fengfeng; Zhang, Li; Gong, Ningbo; Lv, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the results of three certified methods, namely differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the mass balance (MB) method and coulometric titrimetry (CT), in the purity assessment of ferulic acid certified reference material (CRM). Purity and expanded uncertainty as determined by the three methods were respectively 99.81%, 0.16%; 99.79%, 0.16%; and 99.81%, 0.26% with, in all cases, a coverage factor (k) of 2 (P=95%). The purity results are consistent indicating that the combination of DSC, the MB method and CT provides a confident assessment of the purity of suitable CRMs like ferulic acid. PMID:26579451

  19. Development of a new ferulic acid certified reference material for use in clinical chemistry and pharmaceutical analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dezhi; Wang, Fengfeng; Zhang, Li; Gong, Ningbo; Lv, Yang

    2015-05-01

    This study compares the results of three certified methods, namely differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the mass balance (MB) method and coulometric titrimetry (CT), in the purity assessment of ferulic acid certified reference material (CRM). Purity and expanded uncertainty as determined by the three methods were respectively 99.81%, 0.16%; 99.79%, 0.16%; and 99.81%, 0.26% with, in all cases, a coverage factor (k) of 2 (P=95%). The purity results are consistent indicating that the combination of DSC, the MB method and CT provides a confident assessment of the purity of suitable CRMs like ferulic acid.

  20. Creep of oxide dispersion strengthened materials (with special reference to TD nichrome)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, J.; Sherby, O. D.

    1978-01-01

    It was shown that the creep behavior of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys is controlled principally by the creep properties of the matrix of the alloy devoid of particles. Thus, diffusion controlled slip process determine the rate controlling step in such materials. The role of the particles is to stabilize a fine substructure which is invariant with the creep stress over a wide range of stress. This characteristic leads to negligible strain hardening during creep and suggests that creep relations developed for pure metals and many solid solution alloys at constant structure should be used to describe the creep of ODS alloys. A second characteristics of the ODS alloys is that a stress may exist below which creep will not occur (threshold stress).

  1. Bioleaching of rare earth and radioactive elements from red mud using Penicillium tricolor RM-10.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yang; Lian, Bin

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate biological leaching of rare earth elements (REEs) and radioactive elements from red mud, and to evaluate the radioactivity of the bioleached red mud used for construction materials. A filamentous, acid-producing fungi named RM-10, identified as Penicillium tricolor, is isolated from red mud. In our bioleaching experiments by using RM-10, a total concentration of 2% (w/v) red mud under one-step bioleaching process was generally found to give the maximum leaching ratios of the REEs and radioactive elements. However, the highest extraction yields are achieved under two-step bioleaching process at 10% (w/v) pulp density. At pulp densities of 2% and 5% (w/v), red mud processed under both one- and two-step bioleaching can meet the radioactivity regulations in China.

  2. Certification of fat-soluble vitamins, carotenoids, and cholesterol in human serum: Standard Reference Material 968b.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J B; Kline, M C; Schiller, S B; Ellerbe, P M; Sniegoski, L T; Duewer, D L; Sharpless, K E

    1996-08-01

    In Standard Reference Material 968b, fat-soluble vitamins and cholesterol in human serum, certified values are provided for cholesterol, retinol, retinyl palmitate, alpha-tocopherol, trans-beta-carotene, total beta-carotene ( trans plus cis isomers), total alpha-carotene, and lutein. Non-certified values are also reported for gamma-tocopherol (includes beta-tocopherol), delta-tocopherol, zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, trans-lycopene, trans-lycopene, trans-alpha-carotene, total lycopene, 9- cis-betacarotene, 13- plus 15- cis-beta-carotene, and 15- cis-beta-carotene. Both certified and non-certified values are based on the agreement among results from three different liquid chromatographic analytical procedures developed at NIST and from an interlaboratory comparison exercise among institutions that participate in a NIST-managed Micronutrients Measurement Quality Assurance Program. Cholesterol is certified in this material using the NIST isotope dilution/mass spectrometric definitive method.

  3. Determination of organomercury in biological reference materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using flow injection analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Beauchemin, D.; Siu, K.W.; Berman, S.S.

    1988-12-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used for the determination of organomercury in two marine biological standard reference materials for trace metals (dogfish muscle tissue DORM-1 and lobster hepatopancreas TORT-1). In most parts of this study, the organomercury was extracted as the chloride from the material with toluene and back extracted into an aqueous medium of cysteine acetate. Since the final extracts contained more than 4% sodium, isotope dilution and flow injection analysis were used to respectively counter the effect of concomitant elements and avoid clogging the interface. Comparison of results with gas chromatography shows that the only significant organomercury is methyl-mercury. At least 93% of mercury in DORM-1 and 39% of mercury in TORT-1 exist as methylmercury.

  4. Development of liquid chromatographic methods for the determination of phytosterols in Standard Reference Materials containing saw palmetto.

    PubMed

    Bedner, Mary; Schantz, Michele M; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E

    2008-05-23

    Liquid chromatographic (LC) methods using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/mass spectrometric (APCI-MS) detection were developed for the separation and analysis of the phytosterols campesterol, cycloartenol, lupenone, lupeol, beta-sitosterol, and stigmasterol. Brassicasterol and cholesterol were also included for investigation as internal standards. The methods were used to identify and quantify the phytosterols in each of two Serenoa repens (saw palmetto) Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Values obtained by LC-MS were compared to those obtained using the more traditional approach of gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. This is the first reported use of LC-MS to determine phytosterols in saw palmetto dietary supplement materials.

  5. Mineral oil content in sediments and soils: comparability, traceability and a certified reference material for quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Becker, Roland; Buge, Hans-Gerhard; Bremser, Wolfram; Nehls, Irene

    2006-06-01

    The performance of twelve laboratories with previously established proficiency in the determination of the mineral oil content in a fresh water sediment is described. The summation parameter total petrol hydrocarbon (TPH) is defined according to ISO 16703:2004 with regard to the sample preparation to be applied, the flame ionisation detection (FID) and the boiling range of C10-C40 to be integrated. Comprehensive tests of homogeneity and stability have been carried out on the candidate material using appropriate models. The outcome of the study served as the basis for the certification of the candidate reference material as ERM-CC015a. The certified mass fraction is 1,820+/-130 mg kg(-1) and traceability was established by using an appropriate calibration standard certified for the mass fraction of C10-C40. The interlaboratory scatter of measurement results in this exercise can largely be explained by the variability of the individual calibrations based on this common calibration standard.

  6. Generation and Characterization of Six Recombinant Botulinum Neurotoxins as Reference Material to Serve in an International Proficiency Test

    PubMed Central

    Weisemann, Jasmin; Krez, Nadja; Fiebig, Uwe; Worbs, Sylvia; Skiba, Martin; Endermann, Tanja; Dorner, Martin B.; Bergström, Tomas; Muñoz, Amalia; Zegers, Ingrid; Müller, Christian; Jenkinson, Stephen P.; Avondet, Marc-Andre; Delbrassinne, Laurence; Denayer, Sarah; Zeleny, Reinhard; Schimmel, Heinz; Åstot, Crister; Dorner, Brigitte G.; Rummel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The detection and identification of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) is complex due to the existence of seven serotypes, derived mosaic toxins and more than 40 subtypes. Expert laboratories currently use different technical approaches to detect, identify and quantify BoNT, but due to the lack of (certified) reference materials, analytical results can hardly be compared. In this study, the six BoNT/A1–F1 prototypes were successfully produced by recombinant techniques, facilitating handling, as well as improving purity, yield, reproducibility and biosafety. All six BoNTs were quantitatively nicked into active di-chain toxins linked by a disulfide bridge. The materials were thoroughly characterized with respect to purity, identity, protein concentration, catalytic and biological activities. For BoNT/A1, B1 and E1, serotypes pathogenic to humans, the catalytic activity and the precise protein concentration were determined by Endopep-mass spectrometry and validated amino acid analysis, respectively. In addition, BoNT/A1, B1, E1 and F1 were successfully detected by immunological assays, unambiguously identified by mass spectrometric-based methods, and their specific activities were assigned by the mouse LD50 bioassay. The potencies of all six BoNT/A1–F1 were quantified by the ex vivo mouse phrenic nerve hemidiaphragm assay, allowing a direct comparison. In conclusion, highly pure recombinant BoNT reference materials were produced, thoroughly characterized and employed as spiking material in a worldwide BoNT proficiency test organized by the EQuATox consortium. PMID:26703728

  7. Development of Standard Reference Materials to support assessment of iodine status for nutritional and public health purposes.

    PubMed

    Long, Stephen E; Catron, Brittany L; Boggs, Ashley Sp; Tai, Susan Sc; Wise, Stephen A

    2016-09-01

    The use of urinary iodine as an indicator of iodine status relies in part on the accuracy of the analytical measurement of iodine in urine. Likewise, the use of dietary iodine intake as an indicator of iodine status relies in part on the accuracy of the analytical measurement of iodine in dietary sources, including foods and dietary supplements. Similarly, the use of specific serum biomarkers of thyroid function to screen for both iodine deficiency and iodine excess relies in part on the accuracy of the analytical measurement of those biomarkers. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has been working with the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements for several years to develop higher-order reference measurement procedures and Standard Reference Materials to support the validation of new routine analytical methods for iodine in foods and dietary supplements, for urinary iodine, and for several serum biomarkers of thyroid function including thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroglobulin, total and free thyroxine, and total and free triiodothyronine. These materials and methods have the potential to improve the assessment of iodine status and thyroid function in observational studies and clinical trials, thereby promoting public health efforts related to iodine nutrition.

  8. Production of highly-enriched 134Ba for a reference material for isotope dilution mass spectrometry measurements

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. Horkley; K.P E.M. Gantz; J.E. Davis; R.R. Lewis; J.P. Crow; C.A. Poole; T.S. Grimes; J.J. Giglio

    2015-03-01

    t Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) is an analytical technique capable of providing accurate and precise quantitation of trace isotope abundance and assay providing measurement uncertainties below 1 %. To achieve these low uncertainties, the IDMS method ideally utilizes chemically pure ‘‘spike’’ solutions that consist of a single highly enriched isotope that is well-characterized relating to the abundance of companion isotopes and concentration in solution. To address a current demand for accurate 137Cs/137Ba ratio measurements for ‘‘age’’ determination of radioactive 137Cs sources, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is producing enriched 134Ba isotopes that are tobe used for IDMS spikes to accurately determine 137Ba accumulation from the decay of 137Cs. The final objective of this work it to provide a homogenous set of reference materials that the National Institute of Standards and Technology can certify as standard reference materials used for IDMS. The process that was developed at INL for the separation and isolation of Ba isotopes, chemical purification of the isotopes in solution,

  9. NIST Standard Reference Material 3600: Absolute Intensity Calibration Standard for Small-Angle X-ray Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Kline, R. Joseph; Guthrie, William F.; Ilavsky, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The certification of a new standard reference material for small-angle scattering [NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 3600: Absolute Intensity Calibration Standard for Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS)], based on glassy carbon, is presented. Creation of this SRM relies on the intrinsic primary calibration capabilities of the ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering technique. This article describes how the intensity calibration has been achieved and validated in the certified Q range, Q = 0.008–0.25 Å−1, together with the purpose, use and availability of the SRM. The intensity calibration afforded by this robust and stable SRM should be applicable universally to all SAXS instruments that employ a transmission measurement geometry, working with a wide range of X-ray energies or wavelengths. The validation of the SRM SAXS intensity calibration using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is discussed, together with the prospects for including SANS in a future renewal certification. PMID:28381972

  10. Development of High-purity Certified Reference Materials for 17 Proteinogenic Amino Acids by Traceable Titration Methods.

    PubMed

    Kato, Megumi; Yamazaki, Taichi; Kato, Hisashi; Eyama, Sakae; Goto, Mari; Yoshioka, Mariko; Takatsu, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    To ensure the reliability of amino acid analyses, the National Metrology Institute of Japan of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST) has developed high-purity certified reference materials (CRMs) for 17 proteinogenic amino acids. These CRMs are intended for use as primary reference materials to enable the traceable quantification of amino acids. The purity of the present CRMs was determined based on two traceable methods: nonaqueous acidimetric titration and nitrogen determination by the Kjeldahl method. Since neither method could distinguish compounds with similar structures, such as amino acid-related impurities, impurities were thoroughly quantified by combining several HPLC methods, and subtracted from the obtained purity of each method. The property value of each amino acid was calculated as a weighted mean of the corrected purities by the two methods. The uncertainty of the property value was obtained by combining measurement uncertainties of the two methods, a difference between the two methods, the uncertainty from the contribution of impurities, and the uncertainty derived from inhomogeneity. The uncertainty derived from instability was considered to be negligible based on stability monitoring of some CRMs. The certified value of each amino acid, property value with uncertainty, was given for both with or without enantiomeric separation.

  11. Ultra-high sensitive PAH analysis of certified reference materials and environmental samples by GC-APLI-MS.

    PubMed

    Große Brinkhaus, Sigrid; Thiäner, Jan B; Achten, Christine

    2017-04-01

    Due to several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) being highly carcinogenic and at the same time occurring at very low environmental concentrations up to the microgram per kilogram range, highly sensitive chemical analysis in various matrices is needed. Here, for the first time, a method using gas chromatography (GC) and atmospheric pressure laser ionization-mass spectrometry (APLI-MS), which is much more sensitive compared to common GC-MS, proved to produce reliable (certified reference materials) and comparable (GC-MS) results. PAHs and selected isomers of alkyl-PAHs were targeted, whereby 53 analytes could be quantified individually; for one pair, the sum had to be calculated. In combination with the selective and sensitive (1+1)-REMPI process of the APLI, limits of detection (LODs) between 5 and 50 fg/μL could be obtained. To prove the reliability of this method, four certified reference materials (SRM1649b urban dust, SRM 1941b organics in marine sediment, BCR 535 fresh water harbor sediment, and ERM CC013a contaminated soil from a former gas plant site) were analyzed. The results were in good accordance with the certified values. In addition, analytical results of three different environmental matrices (bituminous coal, suspended particulate matter from river and pine needles) were compared to values obtained with well-established GC-EI-MS. The results show that this method presents an excellent tool ready-to-use for the analysis of environmental samples with very low PAH content or very low sample amount.

  12. Standard reference material for Her2 testing: report of a National Institute of Standards and Technology-sponsored Consensus Workshop.

    PubMed

    Hammond, M Elizabeth H; Barker, Peter; Taube, Sheila; Gutman, Steven

    2003-06-01

    A workshop was sponsored by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Cancer Diagnosis Program of the National Cancer Institute, the Food and Drug Administration, and the College of American Pathologists to address the need for a reference material for Her2 gene protein testing. It was agreed that such a standard was desirable and necessary to ensure the reliability of Her2 testing to qualify patients for trastuzumab therapy. Two standards consisting of well characterized cell lines will be produced, 1 that will be a National Institute of Standards and Technology-certifiable standard, and 1 that will be a commercially developed standard for use in all Her2 testing. It was also agreed that all Her2 testing must be performed on samples fixed only in 10% buffered formalin, as specified in the Food and Drug Administration-approved testing methods. Participants agreed to plan strategies to educate pathologists, clinicians, and laboratories about the need and use of such a standard. A National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards guideline for the use of the standard reference material will be created to facilitate this process.

  13. Development of a genomic DNA reference material panel for Rett syndrome (MECP2-related disorders) genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Kalman, Lisa V; Tarleton, Jack C; Percy, Alan K; Aradhya, Swaroop; Bale, Sherri; Barker, Shannon D; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar; Bridges, Christina; Buller-Burckle, Arlene M; Das, Soma; Iyer, Ramaswamy K; Vo, Timothy D; Zvereff, Val V; Toji, Lorraine H

    2014-03-01

    Rett syndrome is a dominant X-linked disorder caused by point mutations (approximately 80%) or by deletions or insertions (approximately 15% to 18%) in the MECP2 gene. It is most common in females but lethal in males, with a distinctly different phenotype. Rett syndrome patients have severe neurological and behavioral problems. Clinical genetic testing laboratories commonly use characterized genomic DNA reference materials to assure the quality of the testing process; however, none are commercially available for MECP2 genetic testing. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Genetic Testing Reference Material Coordination Program, in collaboration with the genetic testing community and the Coriell Cell Repositories, established 27 new cell lines and characterized the MECP2 mutations in these and in 8 previously available cell lines. DNA samples from the 35 cell lines were tested by eight clinical genetic testing laboratories using DNA sequence analysis and methods to assess copy number (multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, semiquantitative PCR, or array-based comparative genomic hybridization). The eight common point mutations known to cause approximately 60% of Rett syndrome cases were identified, as were other MECP2 variants, including deletions, duplications, and frame shift and splice-site mutations. Two of the 35 samples were from males with MECP2 duplications. These MECP2 and other characterized genomic DNA samples are publicly available from the NIGMS Repository at the Coriell Cell Repositories.

  14. Determination of fortified and endogenous folates in food-based Standard Reference Materials by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Camara, Johanna E; Lowenthal, Mark S; Phinney, Karen W

    2013-05-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is developing a wide variety of Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) to support measurements of vitamins and other nutrients in foods. Previously, NIST has provided SRMs with values assigned for the folate vitamer, folic acid (pteroylglutamic acid), which is fortified in several foods due to its role in prevention of neural tube defects. In order to expand the number of food-based SRMs with values assigned for folic acid, as well as additional endogenous folates, NIST has developed methods that include trienzyme digestion and isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Sample preparation was optimized for each individual food type, but all samples were analyzed under the same LC-MS/MS conditions. The application of these methods resulted in folic acid values for SRM 1849a Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula and SRM 3233 Fortified Breakfast Cereal of (2.33 ± 0.06) μg/g and (16.0 ± 0.7) μg/g, respectively. In addition, the endogenous folate vitamer 5-methlytetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) was detected and quantified in SRM 1849a Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula, candidate SRM 1549a Whole Milk Powder, and candidate SRM 1845a Whole Egg Powder, resulting in values of (0.0839 ± 0.0071) μg/g, (0.211 ± 0.014) μg/g, and (0.838 ± 0.044) μg/g, respectively. SRM 1849a Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula is the first food-based NIST SRM to possess a reference value for 5-MTHF and the first certified reference material to have an assigned 5-MTHF value based on LC-MS/MS. The values obtained for folic acid and 5-MTHF by LC-MS/MS will be incorporated into the final value assignments for all these food-based SRMs.

  15. Evaluation of new geological reference materials for uranium-series measurements: Chinese Geological Standard Glasses (CGSG) and macusanite obsidian.

    PubMed

    Denton, J S; Murrell, M T; Goldstein, S J; Nunn, A J; Amato, R S; Hinrichs, K A

    2013-10-15

    Recent advances in high-resolution, rapid, in situ microanalytical techniques present numerous opportunities for the analytical community, provided accurately characterized reference materials are available. Here, we present multicollector thermal ionization mass spectrometry (MC-TIMS) and multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) uranium and thorium concentration and isotopic data obtained by isotope dilution for a suite of newly available Chinese Geological Standard Glasses (CGSG) designed for microanalysis. These glasses exhibit a range of compositions including basalt, syenite, andesite, and a soil. Uranium concentrations for these glasses range from ∼2 to 14 μg g(-1), Th/U weight ratios range from ∼4 to 6, (234)U/(238)U activity ratios range from 0.93 to 1.02, and (230)Th/(238)U activity ratios range from 0.98 to 1.12. Uranium and thorium concentration and isotopic data are also presented for a rhyolitic obsidian from Macusani, SE Peru (macusanite). This glass can also be used as a rhyolitic reference material, has a very low Th/U weight ratio (around 0.077), and is approximately in (238)U-(234)U-(230)Th secular equilibrium. The U-Th concentration data agree with but are significantly more precise than those previously measured. U-Th concentration and isotopic data agree within estimated errors for the two measurement techniques, providing validation of the two methods. The large (238)U-(234)U-(230)Th disequilibria for some of the glasses, along with the wide range in their chemical compositions and Th/U ratios should provide useful reference points for the U-series analytical community.

  16. Sampling and analyses report for the September 1989 postburn sampling at the RM1 UCG Site, Hanna, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Crader, S.E.

    1989-09-01

    Between September 14, 1989 and September 19, 1989, Western Research Institute (WRI) completed the third quarterly Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) groundwater monitoring for the year 1989. This quarterly sample outing represents the first sampling since the completion of the second RM1 groundwater restoration in August 1989. Background material and the sampling and analytical procedures associated with this task are described in the Rocky Mountain 1 Postburn Groundwater Monitoring Quality Assurance Plan, prepared by Western Research Institute for the Gas Research Institute and the US Department of Energy.

  17. Determination of tungsten in geochemical reference material basalt Columbia River 2 by radiochemical neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, Samuel S.; Beck, Chelsie L.; Bowen, James M.; Eggemeyer, Tere A.; Hines, C. Corey; Leizers, Martin; Metz, Lori A.; Morley, Shannon M.; Restis, Kaitlyn R.; Snow, Mathew S.; Wall, Donald E.; Clark, Sue B.; Seiner, Brienne N.

    2016-10-06

    Environmental tungsten (W) analyses are inhibited by a lack of reference materials and practical methods to remove isobaric and radiometric interferences. We present a method that evaluates the potential use of commercially available sediment, Basalt Columbia River-2 (BCR-2), as a reference material using neutron activation analysis (NAA) and mass spectrometry. Tungsten concentrations using both methods are in statistical agreement at the 95% confidence interval (92 ± 4 ng/g for NAA and 100 ±7 ng/g for mass spectrometry) with recoveries greater than 95%. These results indicate that BCR-2 may be suitable as a reference material for future studies.

  18. Biscayne aquifer drinking water (USGS45): a new isotopic reference material for δ2H and δ18O measurements of water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenz, Jennifer M.; Tarbox, Lauren V.; Buck, Bryan; Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B.

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE As a result of the scarcity of isotopic reference waters for daily use, a new secondary isotopic reference material for international distribution has been prepared from drinking water collected from the Biscayne aquifer in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida. METHODS This isotopic reference water was filtered, homogenized, loaded into glass ampoules, sealed with a torch, autoclaved to eliminate biological activity, and measured by dual-inlet isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. This reference material is available by the case of 144 glass ampoules containing either 4 mL or 5 mL of water in each ampoule. RESULTS The δ2H and δ18O values of this reference material are –10.3 ± 0.4 ‰ and –2.238 ± 0.011 ‰, respectively, relative to VSMOW, on scales normalized such that the δ2H and δ18O values of SLAP reference water are, respectively, –428 and –55.5 ‰. Each uncertainty is an estimated expanded uncertainty (U = 2uc) about the reference value that provides an interval that has about a 95 % probability of encompassing the true value. CONCLUSIONS This isotopic reference material, designated as USGS45, is intended as one of two isotopic reference waters for daily normalization of stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic analysis of water with an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer or a laser absorption spectrometer. 

  19. Uranium isotopic composition and uranium concentration in special reference material SRM A (uranium in KCl/LiCl salt matrix)

    SciTech Connect

    Graczyk, D.G.; Essling, A.M.; Sabau, C.S.; Smith, F.P.; Bowers, D.L.; Ackerman, J.P.

    1997-07-01

    To help assure that analysis data of known quality will be produced in support of demonstration programs at the Fuel Conditioning Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West (Idaho Falls, ID), a special reference material has been prepared and characterized. Designated SRM A, the material consists of individual units of LiCl/KCl eutectic salt containing a nominal concentration of 2.5 wt. % enriched uranium. Analyses were performed at Argonne National Laboratory-East (Argonne, IL) to determine the uniformity of the material and to establish reference values for the uranium concentration and uranium isotopic composition. Ten units from a batch of approximately 190 units were analyzed by the mass spectrometric isotope dilution technique to determine their uranium concentration. These measurements provided a mean value of 2.5058 {+-} 0.0052 wt. % U, where the uncertainty includes estimated limits to both random and systematic errors that might have affected the measurements. Evidence was found of a small, apparently random, non-uniformity in uranium content of the individual SRM A units, which exhibits a standard deviation of 0.078% of the mean uranium concentration. Isotopic analysis of the uranium from three units, by means of thermal ionization mass spectrometry with a special, internal-standard procedure, indicated that the uranium isotopy is uniform among the pellets with a composition corresponding to 0.1115 {+-} 0.0006 wt. % {sup 234}U, 19.8336 {+-} 0.0059 wt. % {sup 235}U, 0.1337 {+-} 0.0006 wt. % {sup 236}U, and 79.9171 {+-} 0.0057 wt. % {sup 238}U.

  20. Long-term stability and temporal trends of organic contaminants in four collections of mussel tissue frozen standard reference materials.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; Pugh, Rebecca S; Pol, Stacy S Vander; Wise, Stephen A

    2015-04-01

    The stability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorinated pesticides in frozen mussel tissue Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) stored at -80 °C was assessed by analyzing samples of SRM 1974, SRM 1974a, and SRM 1974b Organics in Mussel Tissue (Mytilus edulis) periodically over 25 y, 20 y, and 12 y, respectively. The most recent analyses were performed during the certification of the fourth release of this material, SRM 1974c. Results indicate the concentrations of these persistent organic pollutants have not changed during storage at -80 °C. In addition, brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) were quantified in each of the materials during this study. The stability information is important for on-going monitoring studies collecting large quantities of samples for future analyses (i.e., formally established specimen banking programs). Since all four mussel tissue SRMs were prepared from mussels collected at the same site in Dorchester Bay, MA, USA, the results provide a temporal trend study for these contaminants over a 17 year period (1987 to 2004).