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Sample records for referral and consultation

  1. 5 CFR 1820.3 - Consultations and referrals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consultations and referrals. 1820.3 Section 1820.3 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF SPECIAL COUNSEL FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REQUESTS... that has a substantial interest in the record; or (b) Refer the responsibility for responding to the...

  2. The current state of electronic consultation and electronic referral systems in Canada: an environmental scan.

    PubMed

    Liddy, Clare; Hogel, Matthew; Blazkho, Valerie; Keely, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Access to specialist care is a point of concern for patients, primary care providers, and specialists in Canada. Innovative e-health platforms such as electronic consultation (eConsultation) and referral (eReferral) can improve access to specialist care. These systems allow physicians to communicate asynchronously and could reduce the number of unnecessary referrals that clog wait lists, provide a record of the patient's journey through the referral system, and lead to more efficient visits. Little is known about the current state of eConsultation and eReferral in Canada. The purpose of this work was to identify current systems and gain insight into the design and implementation process of existing systems. An environmental scan approach was used, consisting of a systematic and grey literature review, and targeted semi-structured key informant interviews. Only three eConsultation/eReferral systems are currently in operation in Canada. Four themes emerged from the interviews: eReferral is an end goal for those provinces without an active eReferral system, re-organization of the referral process is a necessity prior to automation, engaging the end-user is essential, and technological incompatibilities are major impediments to progress. Despite the acknowledged need to improve the referral system and increase government spending on health information technology, eConsultation and eReferral systems remain scarce as Canada lags behind the rest of the developed world.

  3. Understanding the Impact of Residents' Interpersonal Relationships During Emergency Department Referrals and Consultations

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Teresa; Sabir, Kameron; Sanhan, Sarila; Sherbino, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Background Communicating with colleagues is a key physician competency. Yet few studies have sought to uncover the complex nature of relationships between referring and consulting physicians, which may be affected by the inherent relationships between the participants. Objective Our study examines themes identified from discussions about communications and the role of relationships during the referral-consultation process. Methods From March to September 2010, 30 residents (10 emergency medicine, 10 general surgery, 10 internal medicine) were interviewed using a semistructured focus group protocol. Two investigators independently reviewed the transcripts using inductive methods and grounded theory to generate themes (using codes for ease of analysis) until saturation was reached. Disagreements were resolved by consensus, yielding an inventory of themes and subthemes. Measures for ensuring trustworthiness of the analysis included generating an audit trail and external auditing of the material by investigators not involved with the initial analysis. Results Two main relationship-related themes affected the referral-consultation process: familiarity and trust. Various subthemes were further delineated and studied in the context of pertinent literature. Conclusions Relationships between physicians have a powerful influence on the emergency department referral-consultation dynamic. The emergency department referral-consultation may be significantly altered by the familiarity and perceived trustworthiness of the referring and consulting physicians. Our proposed framework may further inform and improve instructional methods for teaching interpersonal communication. Most importantly, it may help junior learners understand inherent difficulties they may encounter during the referral process between emergency and consulting physicians. PMID:24455004

  4. Understanding the impact of residents' interpersonal relationships during emergency department referrals and consultations.

    PubMed

    Chan, Teresa; Sabir, Kameron; Sanhan, Sarila; Sherbino, Jonathan

    2013-12-01

    Communicating with colleagues is a key physician competency. Yet few studies have sought to uncover the complex nature of relationships between referring and consulting physicians, which may be affected by the inherent relationships between the participants. Our study examines themes identified from discussions about communications and the role of relationships during the referral-consultation process. From March to September 2010, 30 residents (10 emergency medicine, 10 general surgery, 10 internal medicine) were interviewed using a semistructured focus group protocol. Two investigators independently reviewed the transcripts using inductive methods and grounded theory to generate themes (using codes for ease of analysis) until saturation was reached. Disagreements were resolved by consensus, yielding an inventory of themes and subthemes. Measures for ensuring trustworthiness of the analysis included generating an audit trail and external auditing of the material by investigators not involved with the initial analysis. Two main relationship-related themes affected the referral-consultation process: familiarity and trust. Various subthemes were further delineated and studied in the context of pertinent literature. Relationships between physicians have a powerful influence on the emergency department referral-consultation dynamic. The emergency department referral-consultation may be significantly altered by the familiarity and perceived trustworthiness of the referring and consulting physicians. Our proposed framework may further inform and improve instructional methods for teaching interpersonal communication. Most importantly, it may help junior learners understand inherent difficulties they may encounter during the referral process between emergency and consulting physicians.

  5. Headache and migraine in primary care: consultation, prescription, and referral rates in a large population

    PubMed Central

    Latinovic, R; Gulliford, M; Ridsdale, L

    2006-01-01

    Background/Aims Headache is the most common new neurological symptom seen by general practitioners and neurologists. This study describes headache consultation, prescription, and referral rates in a large sample of UK general practices. Methods Analysis of data from patients ⩾15 years registered at 253 UK general practices diagnosed with headache/migraine from 1992 to 2000. Rates were age standardised using the European standard population for reference. Results There were 13.2 million patient years of observation. Headache consultation rates were 6.4/100 patients/year in women and 2.5 in men. They were highest at 15–24 years (15.8/100 in women; 5.8/100 in men), decreasing with age. Antimigraine drugs were prescribed at 36.7% of consultations for women and 26.6% for men. Among referrals to specialists, 55% were to neurology and 30% to general medicine. The neurology referral rate in patients with headache was 2.1/100, and was higher in men (2.7/100) than women (1.9/100). Conclusions These results provide precise age specific and age standardised estimates for headache consulting in general practice, in addition to prescribing and referral to specialist care. Consultation rates are highest in young women; hospital referrals peak in middle aged men. Research is needed into reasons for referral, and on better ways of delivering headache services. PMID:16484650

  6. Referral and consultation communication between primary care and specialist physicians: finding common ground.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Ann S; Reschovsky, James D

    2011-01-10

    Communication between primary care physicians (PCPs) and specialists regarding referrals and consultations is often inadequate, with negative consequences for patients. We examined PCPs' and specialists' perceptions of communication regarding referrals and consultations. We then identified practice characteristics associated with reported communication. We analyzed the nationally representative 2008 Center for Studying Health System Change Health Tracking Physician Survey of 4720 physicians providing at least 20 hours per week of direct patient care. Outcome measures were physician reports of communication regarding referrals and consultations. Perceptions of communication regarding referrals and consultations differed. For example, 69.3% of PCPs reported "always" or "most of the time" sending notification of a patient's history and reason for consultation to specialists, but only 34.8% of specialists said they "always" or "most of the time" received such notification. Similarly, 80.6% of specialists said they "always" or "most of the time" send consultation results to the referring PCP, but only 62.2% of PCPs said they received such information. Physicians who did not receive timely communication regarding referrals and consultations were more likely to report that their ability to provide high-quality care was threatened. The 3 practice characteristics associated with PCPs and specialists reporting communication regarding referrals and consultations were "adequate" visit time with patients, receipt of quality reports regarding patients with chronic conditions, and nurse support for monitoring patients with chronic conditions. These modifiable practice supports associated with communication between PCPs and specialists can help inform the ways that resources are focused to improve care coordination.

  7. Referral and consultation in asthma and COPD: an exploration of pulmonologists' views.

    PubMed

    Schermer, T; Smeenk, F; van Weel, C

    2003-03-01

    The burden of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on national healthcare systems is expected to increase substantially in future years. Referral guidelines for general practitioners (GPs) and pulmonologists may lead to more efficient use of healthcare facilities. We explored the prevailing views of pulmonologists regarding referral and once-only consultation in asthma and COPD, and compared these views with recently published transmural referral guidelines for GPs and pulmonologists. Cross-sectional multiple case study. Twenty-nine Dutch pulmonologists working at non-university hospitals or specialised chest clinics participated in group discussion sessions. The outcome of the discussions and recently published referral guidelines for GPs and pulmonologists showed considerable similarity, but also some marked discrepancies. During the discussions, the main points of disagreement among the pulmonologists were: 1) should GPs or pulmonologists add long-acting beta2-agonists to asthma treatment regimens; 2) should the current cut-off point 'predicted FEV1 <50%' for referral of COPD patients be increased to 60 or 70%; and 3) should an annual exacerbation rate of two episodes a year be used as an undifferentiated referral criterion for COPD patients? For asthma, proposed back-referral (i.e. from pulmonologist to GP) criteria rested on: required dose of inhaled steroids, persistent need for long-acting beta2-agonists, duration of clinical stability and persistence of airway obstruction. Back-referral criteria for COPD rested on age, blood-gas abnormalities and ventilatory limitations. Primary care monitoring facilities and 'shared-care' constructions were considered to be facilitating conditions for back-referral. This explorative study provided insights into how pulmonologists visualise a rational referral policy for patients with asthma or COPD. These insights can be taken into consideration in future revisions of referral and back-referral

  8. Survey of mental health consultation and referral among primary care pediatricians.

    PubMed

    Guevara, James P; Greenbaum, Paul E; Shera, David; Bauer, Laura; Schwarz, Donald F

    2009-01-01

    To determine availability of and test whether on-site mental health providers (MHP) is associated with greater odds of reported mental health consultation and referral among primary care pediatricians. Pediatricians were identified from the American Medical Association's 2004 physician directory and stratified by region. Six hundred were randomly selected to receive a mail survey. The main independent variable was on-site MHP. The dependent variable was reported frequency (4-point rating) of mental health consultation and referral. Estimates were weighted to account for survey design and nonresponse. Overall response rate was 51%. The majority of respondents were male (56%), age > or =46 years old (59%), white (68%), and practicing in suburban locations (52%). Approximately half reported consultation with (44%) or referral to (51%) MHP always or often, but a few (17%) reported on-site MHP. After adjustment for demographic and practice characteristics, pediatricians with on-site MHP were more likely to consult (odds ratio [OR] 6.58, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 3.55- 12.18) or refer (OR 4.25, 95% CI 2.19-8.22) than those without on-site MHP. Among those without on-site MHP, pediatricians with greater practice burden were less likely to consult (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.48-0.99) or refer (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.54-1.04) than those with lesser burden. Most pediatricians in the United States experienced practice-related burdens that limit mental health collaboration, but those with co-located services reported a greater likelihood of consultation and referral. Policy changes that encourage co-location of mental health services and limit practice burden may facilitate mental health consultation and referral.

  9. Pacific Island Health Care Project: early experiences with a Web-based consultation and referral network.

    PubMed

    Person, D A

    2000-09-01

    The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) has in the past provided definitive care at the Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC) for nearly 3000 patients. To contain costs, increase access, and provide consultative and referral services to physicians in the Pacific Basin, a web-based network was established in 1997. Four sites in the Western Pacific were provided with a desktop computer, digital still and video cameras, flatbed scanners, and printers. Consultations with supporting imagery are submitted to TAMC where the consults are data-based and dynamically posted on a secure web server. TAMC consultants triage and comment on the cases and the educational significance. Unnecessary or inappropriate referrals are returned with instructions for local care. Cases are formatted to allow rapid response, image review, consultant/provider interaction, and peer review. More than 180 consults have been submitted from the island nations electronically (30 September 1998) and initial experience indicates that the Internet can be easily used as an inexpensive store and forward consultation format. There has been an overwhelming enthusiasm for this project by all participants and for the first time since the inception of the PIHCP, funding was available during the entire fiscal year, with tens of thousands of dollars saved.

  10. Knowledge or noise? Making sense of General Practitioners' and Consultant use of 2-week-wait referrals for suspected cancer.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, Conan; Hart, Nigel; McCrorie, Alan David; Anderson, Lesley; Donnelly, Michael; Murchie, Peter; Gavin, Anna

    2017-08-22

    Early diagnosis and treatment of cancer is the goal of the 2-week-wait referral pathway (2WW). Variation exists between General Practice use of 2WW and rates of consultant reprioritisation of GP referral from routine to 2WW (Consultant Upgrade). We investigated variation in General Practice and Consultant Upgrade 2WW referral activity. Data from 185 000 referrals and 29 000 cancers recorded between 2011 and 2013 from the Northern Ireland Cancer Waiting Time database (CaPPS) were analysed to ascertain standardised referral rate ratios, detection rate (DR) (=sensitivity) and conversion rate (CR) (=positive predictive value) for Practice 2WW referrals and Consultant Upgrade 2WW. Metrics were compared using Spearman's rank correlation co-efficients. There was consistency in Practice and Consultant Upgrade 2WW referral rates over time, though not for annual DR (Spearman's ρ<0.37) or CR (Spearman's ρ<0.26). Practice 2WW referral rates correlated negatively with CR and positively with DR while correlations between DR and CR were restricted to single-year comparisons in Practice 2WW. In Consultant Upgrade, 2WW CR and DR were strongly correlated but only when the same cancers were included in both rates. Results suggest 'random case mix' explains previously reported associations between CR and DR with more 'hard to detect' cancers in some Practices than in others in a given year corresponding to lower DR and CR. Use of Practice and Consultant Upgrade 2WW referral metrics to gauge General Practice performance may be misleading.

  11. Evaluating the referral preferences and consultation requests of primary care physicians with otolaryngology - head and neck surgery.

    PubMed

    Scott, John R; Wong, Eric; Sowerby, Leigh J

    2015-12-29

    No literature exists which examines referral preferences to, or the consultation process with, Otolaryngology. In a recent Canadian Medical Association nation-wide survey of General Practitioners and Family Physicians, Otolaryngology was listed as the second-most problematic specialty for referrals. The purpose of this study was to learn about and improve upon the referral process between primary care physicians (PCPs) and Otolaryngology at an academic centre in Southwestern Ontario. PCPs who actively refer patients to Otolaryngology within the catchment area of Western University were asked to complete a short paper-based questionnaire. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. A total of 50 PCPs were surveyed. Subspecialty influenced 90.0% of the referrals made. Specialist wait times altered 58.0% of referrals. All PCPs preferred to communicate via fax. Half of those surveyed wanted clinical notes from every encounter. Seventy-four percent of respondents wanted inappropriate referrals forwarded to the proper specialist automatically. Twenty-two percent of those surveyed were satisfied with current wait times. A central referral system was favored by 74% of PCPs. Improvements could help streamline the referral and consultation practices with Otolaryngology in Southwestern Ontario. A central referral system and reduction in the frequency of consultative reports can be considered.

  12. Protocol-Driven Decision Support within e-Referral Systems to Streamline Patient Consultation, Triaging and Referrals from Primary Care to Specialist Clinics.

    PubMed

    Maghsoud-Lou, Ehsan; Christie, Sean; Abidi, Samina Raza; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2017-09-01

    Patient referral is a protocol where the referring primary care physician refers the patient to a specialist for further treatment. The paper-based current referral process at times lead to communication and operational issues, resulting in either an unfulfilled referral request or an unnecessary referral request. Despite the availability of standardized referral protocols they are not readily applied because they are tedious and time-consuming, thus resulting in suboptimal referral requests. We present a semantic-web based Referral Knowledge Modeling and Execution Framework to computerize referral protocols, clinical guidelines and assessment tools in order to develop a computerized e-Referral system that offers protocol-based decision support to streamline and standardize the referral process. We have developed a Spinal Problem E-Referral (SPER) system that computerizes the Spinal Condition Consultation Protocol (SCCP) mandated by the Halifax Infirmary Division of Neurosurgery (Halifax, Canada) for referrals for spine related conditions (such as back pain). The SPER system executes the ontologically modeled SCCP to determine (i) patient's triaging option as per severity assessments stipulated by SCCP; and (b) clinical recommendations as per the clinical guidelines incorporated within SCCP. In operation, the SPER system identifies the critical cases and triages them for specialist referral, whereas for non-critical cases SPER system provides clinical guideline based recommendations to help the primary care physician effectively manage the patient. The SPER system has undergone a pilot usability study and was deemed to be easy to use by physicians with potential to improve the referral process within the Division of Neurosurgery at QEII Health Science Center, Halifax, Canada.

  13. The rhetoric of patient voice: reported talk with patients in referral and consultation letters.

    PubMed

    Spafford, Marlee M; Schryer, Catherine F; Lingard, Lorelei

    2008-01-01

    Referral and consultation letters are written to enable the exchange of patient information and facilitate the trajectory of patients through the healthcare system. Yet, these letters, written about yet apart from patients, also sustain and constrain professional relationships and influence attitudes towards patients. We analysed 35 optometry referral letters and 35 corresponding ophthalmology consultation letters for reported 'patient voice' coded as 'experience' or 'agenda' and we interviewed 15 letter writers (eight optometry students, six optometrists, and one community ophthalmologist). There were 80 instances of reported 'patient voice' in 35 letters. The majority (68%) of the instances occurred in referral letters, likely due to differences in both 'letter function' and 'professional stance.' Reported 'patient voice' occurred predominantly as 'experience' (81%) rather than 'agenda' instances. Letters writers focused on their readers' needs, thus a biomedical voice dominated the letters and instances of reported 'patient voice' were recontextualized for the professional audience. While reporting 'patient voice' was not the norm in these letters, its inclusion appeared to accomplish specific work: to persuade reader action, to question patient credibility, and to highlight patient agency. These letter strategies reflect professional attitudes about patients and their care.

  14. Development and validation of a tool to improve paediatric referral/consultation communication.

    PubMed

    Stille, Christopher J; Mazor, Kathleen M; Meterko, Vanessa; Wasserman, Richard C

    2011-08-01

    To develop a template to promote brief but high-quality communication between paediatric primary care clinicians and consulting specialists. Through an iterative process with academic and community-based paediatric primary care providers and specialists, the authors identified what content elements would be of value when communicating around referrals. The authors then developed a one-page template to encourage both primary care and specialty clinicians to include these elements when communicating about referrals. Trained clinician reviewers examined a sample of 206 referrals from community primary care providers (PCPs) to specialists in five paediatric specialties at an academic medical centre, coding communication content and rating the overall value of the referral communication. The relationship between the value ratings and each content element was examined to determine which content elements contributed to perceived value. Almost all content elements were associated with increased value as rated by clinician reviewers. The most valuable communications from PCP to specialist contained specific questions for the specialist and/or physical exam features, and the most valuable from specialist to PCP contained brief education for the PCP about the condition; all three elements were found in a minority of communications reviewed. A limited set of communication elements is suitable for a brief communication template in communication from paediatric PCPs to specialists. The use of such a template may add value to interphysician communication.

  15. How clinical nurse and midwifery consultants optimise patient care in a tertiary referral hospital.

    PubMed

    Atsalos, Christine; Biggs, Karen; Boensch, Sabine; Gavegan, Fiona Lee; Heath, Susan; Payk, Marlene; Trapolini, Grace

    2014-10-01

    To develop new insights into the phenomenon of clinical nurse/midwifery consultant clinical effectiveness in a tertiary referral hospital. International studies identify the pivotal role clinical nurse/midwifery consultants play in patient outcomes. There remains, however, a significant deficit in our knowledge of how these, or other advanced practice nurses and midwives, apply their extensive experience, ontological understandings and tacit knowledge to the enhancement of patient outcomes in complex healthcare environments. This study was underpinned by the principles of Heideggerian hermeneutic phenomenology. Recruitment involved expressions of interest distributed hospital-wide to clinical nurse/midwifery consultants. Inclusion criteria specified a minimum of three years' experience. Fifteen clinical nurse/midwifery consultants, representing a broad range of specialties, were interviewed. Preliminary descriptive analysis of transcribed data was followed by in-depth hermeneutic analysis. The findings comprise four themes: walking beside the patient, anticipating the unexpected, pushing through barriers and leading within a complex system. These themes highlight how clinical nurse/midwifery consultants significantly influence pre-existing trajectories of patient care delivery through context-appropriate strategies. This study introduces new insights into the meanings advanced practice nurses and midwives develop from their engagements with patients and how these meanings inform clinical decisions. The paper accomplishes this by drawing on Heideggerian philosophical concepts such as ontological understandings, authenticity and care. It also casts light on the participants' shared understandings of how to synergise expectations within the team. The significance of this paper lies in the uncovering of ontological understandings and tacit knowledge of how consultant nurses and midwives optimise patient care delivery in challenging situations. The findings indicate

  16. Expert and trainee determinations of rhetorical relevance in referral and consultation letters.

    PubMed

    Lingard, Lorelei; Hodges, Brian; MacRae, Helen; Freeman, Risa

    2004-02-01

    Referral and consultation letters ferry patients among providers, negotiating co-operative care. Our study examined how "relevance" is signalled and decoded in these letters, from the perspective of both experts and trainees in three clinical specialties. 104 letters were collected from 16 physicians representing family medicine, psychiatry and surgery. Interviews were conducted with 14 of these physicians and 13 residents from the three specialties. All documents and transcripts were analysed for emergent themes. Six rhetorical factors influenced expert physicians' decisions about what material is relevant: educational, professional, audience, system-institutional, medical-legal, and evaluative. Each specialty placed different emphasis on these factors. Trainees reported having no instruction regarding how to construct rhetorically relevant letters, and they demonstrated awareness of only three of the factors identified by experts--professional, audience and evaluative. Experts and trainees differed in their understanding and application of these three factors. This research demonstrates that six rhetorical factors influence relevance decisions in letter writing, and that experts address these factors in tacit, dynamic and discipline-specific ways. Trainees share with experts an appreciation of the rhetorical functions of referral and consultation letters, but lack a comprehensive understanding of the influential factors and do not receive instruction in them. These findings provide a framework for instruction in this domain to equip novices to meet the expectations of their professional audiences successfully.

  17. Consultation, referral, and collaboration between midwives and obstetricians: lessons from New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Joan P; Foureur, Maralyn

    2010-01-01

    There has been substantial growth in the provision of midwifery-led models of care, yet little is known about the obstetric consultation and referral practices of these midwives or the quality of the collaboration between midwives and obstetricians. This study aimed to describe these processes as they are practised in New Zealand, where midwifery-led maternity care is the dominant model. A total population postal survey was conducted that included 649 New Zealand midwives who provided midwifery-led care in 2001. There was a 56.5% response rate, describing care for 4251 women. Within this cohort, there was a 35% consultation rate and 43% of these women had their lead carer role transferred to an obstetrician. However, the midwives continued to provide care in collaboration with obstetricians for 74% of transferred women. Seventy-two percent of midwives felt that they were well supported by the obstetricians to continue care. Midwifery-led care is reasonable for the general population of childbearing women, and a 35% consultation rate can be seen as a benchmark for this population. Midwives can, when well supported, provide continuity of care for women who experience complexity during pregnancy and/or birth. Collaboration with obstetricians is possible, but there needs to be further work to describe what successful collaboration is and how it might be fostered.

  18. Framing the consultation: the role of the referral in surgeon-patient consultations.

    PubMed

    White, Sarah J; Stubbe, Maria H; Macdonald, Lindsay M; Dowell, Anthony C; Dew, Kevin P; Gardner, Rod

    2014-01-01

    This study describes and analyzes the impact of the referral process on communication at the beginning of surgeon-patient consultations. We used conversation analysis to analyze the opening interactional activities of surgeon-patient consultations in New Zealand. This study focuses on 20 video-recorded consultations recorded between 2004 and 2006. Participants in surgeon-patient consultations began referred consultations by discussing the referral letter in what we have termed "referral recognition sequences." These sequences are coconstructed activities that can be implicit or explicit and address the minimized epistemic distance between surgeons and patients that is caused by the referral process. These sequences can be simple or complex, and this complexity may be determined by the quality of the referral letter received. Acknowledgment of the referral letter assists in achieving alignment between surgeon, patient, and referring doctor regarding the presenting problem. If this alignment is not achieved, progressivity of the consultation is affected, as there is disagreement as to why the patient is seeing the surgeon. This research shows that to assist in the progressivity of surgeon-patient consultations, referral letters should be clear and patients made aware of the reason for referral. Surgeons should also overtly address the minimized epistemic distance caused by the referral letter to ensure patients present their problems in full.

  19. Preschool Parent-Pediatrician Consultations and Predictive Referral Patterns for Problematic Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Fanton, John; MacDonald, Brittany; Harvey, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Objective The present study examined parents’ reports of the frequency, nature, and outcome of pediatrician consultation and interventions about significant preschool behavior problems. Method Parents were asked whether they consulted or not with their pediatric providers about disruptive behavioral problems during a longitudinal study of preschool children. Results Eighty 4-year-old children had parents who had consulted with their pediatricians versus 90 children whose parents did not. Children who eventually met criteria for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) or Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) two years later, received different pediatric interventions at age 4 than children who did not have a diagnosis, χ2 (2) = 9.28, based on parent-report. Eighty-nine percent of children who were referred for evaluation or treatment by pediatricians later met criteria for ADHD or ODD. However, 56% of children who later met criteria for ADHD or ODD were not referred by age 4. Conclusion Pediatricians were able to differentiate between preschool children with transient versus persistent behavioral problems significantly better than chance, though a large number of children with behavioral problems were not provided with early assistance or referrals. Additional research is needed to obtain data directly from pediatricians about their interventions and resources for this vulnerable population. PMID:18941427

  20. Psychological referral and consultation for adolescents and young adults with cancer treated at pediatric oncology unit.

    PubMed

    Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Massimino, Maura; Casanova, Michela; Cefalo, Graziella; Terenziani, Monica; Vasquez, Roberto; Meazza, Cristina; Ferrari, Andrea

    2008-07-01

    Managing older adolescents and young adults with cancer is a challenge, both medically and psychosocially: it is important to assess these patients' psychological issues and the type of services they need when deciding who should treat these patients, and where. This study describes the pattern of psychological referral and consultation for older adolescents and young adults with cancer being treated at a pediatric oncology unit, as compared with the case of younger patients. Between 1999 and 2006, 318 patients <15 (32% of the patients in this age group) and 117 >/= 15 years old (30%) were referred for psychological consultation. The number of interviews per patient was 2.8 for patients under fifteen and 7.8 for older patients. Younger patients were referred by all members of staff, while most older patients were referred by doctors, mainly because they had trouble adapting to the cancer's diagnosis and treatment. An ongoing, weekly, long-term psychotherapy was needed for 1% of patients <15 and 10% of those >/=15 years old. Adolescents and young adults with cancer have specific psychological needs. While awaiting the full development of programs dedicated to these patients, they would seem to benefit from being treated in a multidisciplinary setting of the kind usually developed at pediatric units, fully integrating the psychological operators with the other staff members. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Behavior Analytic Consultation for Academic Referral Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Zoder-Martell, Kimberly A.; Dieringe, Shannon Titus; Labrot, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis provides a technology of human behavior that demonstrates great potential for improving socially important outcomes for individuals. School-based consultation may provide a vehicle for delivering applied behavior analysis services in schools to address academic referral concerns. In this article, we propose that…

  2. Behavior Analytic Consultation for Academic Referral Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Zoder-Martell, Kimberly A.; Dieringe, Shannon Titus; Labrot, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Applied behavior analysis provides a technology of human behavior that demonstrates great potential for improving socially important outcomes for individuals. School-based consultation may provide a vehicle for delivering applied behavior analysis services in schools to address academic referral concerns. In this article, we propose that…

  3. Pre-referral general practitioner consultations and subsequent experience of cancer care: evidence from the English Cancer Patient Experience Survey.

    PubMed

    Mendonca, S C; Abel, G A; Saunders, C L; Wardle, J; Lyratzopoulos, G

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged diagnostic intervals may negatively affect the patient experience of subsequent cancer care, but evidence about this assertion is sparse. We analysed data from 73 462 respondents to two English Cancer Patient Experience Surveys to examine whether patients with three or more (3+) pre-referral consultations were more likely to report negative experiences of subsequent care compared with patients with one or two consultations in respect of 12 a priori selected survey questions. For each of 12 experience items, logistic regression models were used, adjusting for prior consultation category, cancer site, socio-demographic case-mix and response tendency (to capture potential variation in critical response tendencies between individuals). There was strong evidence (P < 0.01 for all) that patients with 3+ pre-referral consultations reported worse care experience for 10/12 questions, with adjusted odds ratios compared with patients with 1-2 consultations ranging from 1.10 (95% confidence intervals 1.03-1.17) to 1.68 (1.60-1.77), or between +1.8% and +10.6% greater percentage reporting a negative experience. Associations were stronger for processes involving primary as opposed to hospital care; and for evaluation than report items. Considering 1, 2, 3-4 and '5+' pre-referral consultations separately a 'dose-response' relationship was apparent. We conclude that there is a negative association between multiple pre-diagnostic consultations with a general practitioner and the experience of subsequent cancer care. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Cancer Care Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Prevalence and incidence of adults consulting for shoulder conditions in UK primary care; patterns of diagnosis and referral.

    PubMed

    Linsell, L; Dawson, J; Zondervan, K; Rose, P; Randall, T; Fitzpatrick, R; Carr, A

    2006-02-01

    To estimate the national prevalence and incidence of adults consulting for a shoulder condition and to investigate patterns of diagnosis, treatment, consultation and referral 3 yr after initial presentation. Prevalence and incidence rates were estimated for 658469 patients aged 18 and over in the year 2000 using a primary care database, the IMS Disease Analyzer-Mediplus UK. A cohort of 9215 incident cases was followed-up prospectively for 3 yr beyond the initial consultation. The annual prevalence and incidence of people consulting for a shoulder condition was 2.36% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.32-2.40%] and 1.47% (95% CI 1.44-1.50%), respectively. Prevalence increased linearly with age whilst incidence peaked at around 50 yr then remained static at around 2%. Around half of the incident cases consulted once only, while 13.6% were still consulting with a shoulder problem during the third year of follow-up. During the 3 yr following initial presentation, 22.4% of patients were referred to secondary care, 30.8% were prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and 10.6% were given an injection by their general practitioner (GP). GPs tended to use a limited number of generalized codes when recording a diagnosis; just five of 426 possible Read codes relating to shoulder conditions accounted for 74.6% of the diagnoses of new cases recorded by GPs. The prevalence of people consulting for shoulder problems in primary care is substantially lower than community-based estimates of shoulder pain. Most referrals occur within 3 months of initial presentation, but only a minority of patients are referred to orthopaedic specialists or rheumatologists. GPs may lack confidence in applying precise diagnoses to shoulder conditions.

  5. [Problems in the transmission of information during within-hospital medical consultations and referrals].

    PubMed

    Montero Ruiz, E; Rebollar Merino, Á; Melgar Molero, V; Barbero Allende, J M; Culebras López, A; López Álvarez, J

    2014-01-01

    Within-hospital medical consultations and referrals (MCR) have many problems, among them are those related to the oral and written transmission of information. Our aim is to analyze problems in the transmission of information related to MCR, and possible differences between medical (MS) and surgical (SS) services. A prospective, observational study was conducted on the MCR requested to Internal Medicine Service over an 8 month period. The following variables were collected: age, sex, the requester, MCR type, type of admission, comorbidity, hospital stay and mortality, length of MCR, the number of physicians responsible for the patient requesting service during the MCR, MCR repeats, information on the request, available medical records, verbal contact, conflict between doctors, and medical information in the discharge summary. Of the total 215 MCR received, 66 (30.7%) were requested by MS, and 149 (69.3%) per SS. MCR duration was 3 days (standard deviation [SD] 4.8. The number of doctors responsible was 1.7 (SD 1.1), with, Repeats 43 (20%) and Urgent 14 (6.5%). Minimum information on the request, 6 (9.1%) MS and 21 (27.5%) SS. Low availability of medical record, 2 (3%) MS and 50 (33.6%) SS. No verbal contact, 33 (15.4%). Conflict between doctors 13 (6%). Information acceptably good in MCR urgent request 100% MS, and 80% SS. Two out of three MCR were without reference to the discharge report. There are significant losses in the transmission of information during the process of the MCR, which is higher in surgical than in medical departments. Copyright © 2013 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Facilitators and barriers to implementing electronic referral and/or consultation systems: a qualitative study of 16 health organizations.

    PubMed

    Tuot, Delphine S; Leeds, Kiren; Murphy, Elizabeth J; Sarkar, Urmimala; Lyles, Courtney R; Mekonnen, Tekeshe; Chen, Alice H M

    2015-12-19

    Access to specialty care remains a challenge for primary care providers and patients. Implementation of electronic referral and/or consultation (eCR) systems provides an opportunity for innovations in the delivery of specialty care. We conducted key informant interviews to identify drivers, facilitators, barriers and evaluation metrics of diverse eCR systems to inform widespread implementation of this model of specialty care delivery. Interviews were conducted with leaders of 16 diverse health care delivery organizations between January 2013 and April 2014. A limited snowball sampling approach was used for recruitment. Content analysis was used to examine key informant interview transcripts. Electronic referral systems, which provide referral management and triage by specialists, were developed to enhance tracking and operational efficiency. Electronic consultation systems, which encourage bi-directional communication between primary care and specialist providers facilitating longitudinal virtual co-management, were developed to improve access to specialty expertise. Integrated eCR systems leverage both functionalities to enhance the delivery of coordinated, specialty care at the population level. Elements of successful eCR system implementation included executive and clinician leadership, established funding models for specialist clinician reimbursement, and a commitment to optimizing clinician workflows. eCR systems have great potential to streamline access to and enhance the coordination of specialty care delivery. While different eCR models help solve different organizational challenges, all require institutional investments for successful implementation, such as funding for program management, leadership and clinician incentives.

  7. Lung cancer physicians' referral practices for palliative care consultation.

    PubMed

    Smith, C B; Nelson, J E; Berman, A R; Powell, C A; Fleischman, J; Salazar-Schicchi, J; Wisnivesky, J P

    2012-02-01

    Integration of palliative care with standard oncologic care improves quality of life and survival of lung cancer patients. We surveyed physicians to identify factors influencing their decisions for referral to palliative care. We provided a self-administered questionnaire to physicians caring for lung cancer patients at five medical centers. The questionnaire asked about practices and views with respect to palliative care referral. We used multiple regression analysis to identify predictors of low referral rates (<25%). Of 155 physicians who returned survey responses, 75 (48%) reported referring <25% of patients for palliative care consultation. Multivariate analysis, controlling for provider characteristics, found that low referral rates were associated with physicians' concerns that palliative care referral would alarm patients and families [odds ratio (OR) 0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21-0.98], while the belief that palliative care specialists have more time to discuss complex issues (OR 3.07, 95% CI 1.56-6.02) was associated with higher rates of referral. Although palliative care consultation is increasingly available and recommended throughout the trajectory of lung cancer, our data indicate it is underutilized. Understanding factors influencing decisions to refer can be used to improve integration of palliative care as part of lung cancer management.

  8. Differences in treatment regimes, consultation frequency and referral patterns of diabetes mellitus in general practice in five European countries.

    PubMed

    Donker, Gé A; Fleming, Douglas M; Schellevis, François G; Spreeuwenberg, Peter

    2004-08-01

    In many European countries, maturity onset diabetes mellitus (DM) is to a large extent managed in general practice. Our aim was to compare management of DM in general practice in five European countries in order to contribute to international guidelines on the management of DM by GPs. Routine monitoring of patients presenting with DM was performed during a 12 month period (1999-2000) to GPs in established sentinel practice surveillance networks in five European countries (Belgium, Croatia, England, Spain and The Netherlands). Results were stratified by age and country. The proportion of patients treated by diet only varied from 13% (The Netherlands) to 25% (Spain); diet and oral antidiabetics from 51% (England) to 62% (Belgium); a combination of diet and insulin varied from 15% (Belgium and Croatia) to 26% (The Netherlands); and a combination of diet, oral antidiabetics and insulin was <10% in all countries. In the older age groups, insulin is prescribed most frequently in The Netherlands. Spain and Croatia show high consultation rates for DM; England and The Netherlands show low rates. Referral percentages vary considerably between countries (highest in Croatia). National differences found included the use of insulin in the elderly, the consultation frequency in general practice and the referral rate to ophthalmologist and diabetic specialists. Further quantitative and qualitative studies are needed to explore the needs for support in diabetes management in general practice in Europe.

  9. Increasing workload and changing referral patterns in paediatric cardiology outreach clinics: implications for consultant staffing

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, M; Rigby, M; Redington, A

    1998-01-01

    Objective—To assess the workload of, and referral patterns to, paediatric cardiology outreach clinics to provide data for future planning.
Design—Descriptive study of outpatient attendance during 1991 and 1996.
Setting—Five district general hospitals with unchanged local demographics and referral patterns during the study period.
Methods—Postal, telephone, and on site survey of clinic records and case notes.
Results—The number of outpatients increased by 61%, with a consequent increase in the number of clinics held and patients seen in each clinic. The number of patients aged between 10 and 15 years doubled.
Conclusion—These data confirm the impression that demands for paediatric cardiology services are increasing. The increased need for attendance at outreach clinics has inevitable consequences for the clinical, teaching, and research activities of specialists in tertiary centres. An increase in the number of paediatric cardiologists, or development of local expertise (general paediatricians with an interest in cardiology), will be required. Furthermore, the increasingly large cohort of older teenagers and young adults with congenital heart disease underscores the need for the development of specialist facilities.

 Keywords: paediatric clinics;  workload;  congenital heart disease PMID:9602652

  10. Referral for cancer genetics consultation: a review and compilation of risk assessment criteria

    PubMed Central

    Hampel, H; Sweet, K; Westman, J; Offit, K; Eng, C

    2004-01-01

    Methods: The criteria were based on a comprehensive review of publications describing diagnostic criteria for hereditary cancer syndromes and risk to first degree relatives of cancer patients. Priority was given to diagnostic criteria from consensus statements (for example, those from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network). Expert opinion from study personnel was then used to adopt a single set of criteria from other publications whenever guidelines differed. Results: Based on family history, a set of criteria was developed to identify patients at risk for a hereditary cancer susceptibility syndrome, patients with moderate risk who might benefit from increased cancer surveillance, and patients who are at average risk. The criteria were applied to 4360 individuals who provided their cancer family history between July 1999 and April 2002, using a touch screen computer system in the lobby of a comprehensive cancer centre. They categorised an acceptable number of users into each risk level: 14.9% high risk, 13.7% moderate risk, and 59.6% average risk; 11.8% provided insufficient information for risk assessment. Conclusions: These criteria should improve ease of referral and promote consistency across centres when evaluating patients for referral to cancer genetics specialists. PMID:14757853

  11. High referral rates to secondary care by general practitioners in Norway are associated with GPs’ gender and specialist qualifications in family medicine, a study of 4350 consultations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Referral rates of general practitioners (GPs) are an important determinant of secondary care utilization. The variation in these rates across GPs is considerable, and cannot be explained by patient morbidity alone. The main objective of this study was to assess the GPs’ referral rate to secondary care in Norway, any associations between the referral decision and patient, GP, health care characteristics and who initiated the referring issue in the consultation. Methods The probabilities of referral to secondary care and/or radiological examination were examined in 100 consecutive consultations of 44 randomly chosen Norwegian GPs. The GPs recorded whether the issue of referral was introduced, who introduced it and if the patient was referred. Multilevel and naive multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to explore associations between the probability of referral and patient, GP and health care characteristics. Results Of the 4350 consultations included, 13.7% (GP range 4.0%-28.0%) of patients were referred to secondary somatic and psychiatric care. Female GPs referred significantly more frequently than male GPs (16.0% versus 12.6%, adjusted odds ratio, AOR, 1.25), specialists in family medicine less frequently than their counterparts (12.5% versus 14.9%, AOR 0.76) and salaried GPs more frequently than private practitioners (16.2% versus 12.1%, AOR 1.36). In 4.2% (GP range 0%-12.9%) of the consultations, patients were referred to radiological examination. Specialists in family medicine, salaried GPs and GPs with a Norwegian medical degree referred significantly more frequently to radiological examination than their counterparts (AOR 1.93, 2.00 and 1.73, respectively). The issue of referral was introduced in 23% of the consultations, and in 70.6% of these cases by the GP. The high referrers introduced the referral issue significantly more frequently and also referred a significantly larger proportion when the issue was introduced

  12. Understanding the Potential for Patient Engagement in Electronic Consultation and Referral Systems: Lessons From One Safety Net System.

    PubMed

    Olayiwola, Jacqueline Nwando; Knox, Margae; Dubé, Kate; Lu, Emily Chen-Yuan; Woldeyesus, Tem; James, Iguehi E; Willard-Grace, Rachel; Tuot, Delphine

    2017-09-20

    To understand patient, primary care clinician (PCC), and subspecialist perspectives on potential, unexplored roles for patients in electronic consultation and referral (eCR) systems. Primary focus group and survey data collected April-November 2015. Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital (ZSFG) is part of an integrated public health delivery system. Its mature eCR system was first implemented in 2005. This mixed-methods study synthesizes patient, subspecialist, and PCC perspectives through two patient focus groups in English, Spanish, and Cantonese (n = 6); subspecialist focus groups (n = 2); and an electronic survey of all PCCs (n = 222/634, 35 percent response). Focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed. Two researchers coded the transcripts to identify recurrent themes. Survey data were analyzed using summary and bivariate statistics. Patients expressed minimal desire to directly engage in eCR, instead of emphasizing their PCC's role in advocating, informing, and finding health solutions. Subspecialists requested more consistent communication to patients about the electronic consultation process. Most PCCs (52 percent) supported patient engagement in the eCR process, particularly patient ability to track consult status and securely message with subspecialists. Results suggest a continuum of opportunities for patients and their caregivers to engage in eCR systems. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  13. Patients With Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Requiring Inpatient Medical Oncology Consultation: Characteristics, Referral Patterns, and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gotfrit, Joanna; Zhang, Tinghua; Zanon-Heacock, Silvia; Wheatley-Price, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) occasionally are hospitalized at the time of initial medical oncology consultation. We investigated the characteristics and outcomes of this population. With ethics approval, we performed a retrospective analysis of patients with advanced NSCLC at our institution whose initial consult occurred while hospitalized from 2007 to 2012. This was an exploratory analysis. Multivariate survival analysis was performed using Cox regression models. A total of 223 patients were included. Baseline demographics were as follows: median age, 65 years; 52% were female; median Charlson Comorbidity Index of 10; 69% performance status (PS) 3 to 4; 49% were current smokers; 90% had stage IV disease; and 52% had ≥ 5% weight loss. Only 24% received chemotherapy. Among those treated, the median time from diagnosis to chemotherapy was 43 days. Common reasons for not receiving chemotherapy included poor PS (72%) and patient choice (9%). Factors associated with receiving chemotherapy in multivariate analysis were good PS (odds ratio [OR], 9.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.55-23.26; P < .001), no leukocytosis (OR, 3.56; 95% CI, 1.35-9.35; P = .01), and age < 70 years (OR, 6.80; 95% CI, 1.78-26.32; P = .005). Factors associated with shorter overall survival in multivariate analysis were not receiving chemotherapy (hazard ratio [HR], 2.11; 95% CI, 1.28-3.48; P = .003), PS 3 to 4 (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.01-2.26; P = .045), leukocytosis (HR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.44-3.13; P < .001), and thrombocytosis (HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.03-2.09; P = .036). Patients whose first consultation with medical oncologists occurs while hospitalized are an inherently sick population. Earlier diagnosis and referral would give more patients access to treatment options before a terminal functional decline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Patients' Perspectives on Wait Times and the Referral-Consultation Process While Attending a Tertiary Diabetes and Endocrinology Centre: Is Econsultation an Acceptable Option?

    PubMed

    Keely, Erin; Traczyk, Lara; Liddy, Clare

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this study was to establish patients' perspectives on the acceptability of wait times, the impact of wait times on their health and the possibility of using electronic consultations (eConsultations) to avoid visits to specialists. A 2-stage patient survey (self-administered and with a follow-up telephone call) and a chart audit was conducted on a sequential sample of patients attending their initial consultations in a tertiary diabetes and endocrinology centre. Patients' perspectives on actual and ideal wait times, the impact of waiting for access, the effectiveness of the referral-consultation process and attitudes toward eConsultations as an alternative to traditional referral-consultations were collected. The study involved 101 patients (22% for diabetes, 78% for endocrinologic conditions), whose comments were collated and categorized. Of the 101 patients who completed the survey, 61 also completed telephone interviews. The average wait time was 19 weeks; the median 10 weeks. More than 30% of patients waited longer than 6 months and 6% waited longer than 1 year. Overall, 90% of patients thought that the maximum wait time should be less than 3 months. While waiting, 58% of patients worried about a serious undiagnosed disease, 30% found their symptoms had affected their daily activities and 24% had to miss work or school due to symptoms. Of the patients, 46% considered eConsultation a viable alternative to face-to-face visits. Excessive wait times for specialist care remain barriers and have negative impacts on patients. Wait times significantly exceeded times patients considered acceptable. eConsultations provide acceptable alternatives for many patients, and they reduced the number of patients requiring traditional consultations. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Interdisciplinary expert consultation via a teleradiology platform--influence on therapeutic decision-making and patient referral rates to an academic tertiary care center.

    PubMed

    Helck, A; Matzko, M; Trumm, C G; Grosse, C; Piltz, S; Reiser, M; Ertl-Wagner, B

    2009-12-01

    In addition to teleradiological reporting as a nighthawking or a regular service, teleradiological communication can be used for interdisciplinary expert consultation. We intended to evaluate an interdisciplinary consultation system based on a teleradiology platform with regard to its impact on therapeutic decision-making, directed patient referrals to an academic tertiary care center and the economic benefit for the hospital providing the service. Therefore, consultations from five secondary care centers and consecutive admissions to an academic tertiary care center were prospectively evaluated over a time period of six months. A total of 69 interdisciplinary expert consultations were performed. In 54 % of the cases the patients were consecutively referred to the university hospital for further treatment. In all acutely life-threatening emergencies (n = 9), fast and focused treatment by referral to the academic tertiary care center was achieved (average time to treat 130 min). The admissions to the academic tertiary care center led to improved utilization of its facilities with additional revenue of more than 1,000000 euro p. a. An interdisciplinary expert consultation via a teleradiology platform enables fast and efficient expert care with improved and accelerated patient management and improved utilization of the service providing hospital.

  16. Extramural Pilot Project: Designated On-Call Intensivist in Tertiary Care Centre Improves Access to Critical Care Consultation/Referral and Resources.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Michael D; Jeffreys, Carrie; Martin, Claudio; Barrett, Michael; Priestap, Fran; Pierce, Michelle; Kojlak, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Timely consultation with an intensivist will promote early and appropriate management of critically ill patients. We determined whether implementing a call roster of intensivists who did not have on-call responsibilities in an intensive care unit (ICU) and who received referrals from community physicians would improve access to critical care services. This program created efficiencies to critical care services by: timely access to consultation with an intensivist (<10 minutes) and/or subspecialist, timely referral to an appropriate institution (<30 minutes) and optimal resource utilization by determining the availability of ICU beds at non-tertiary care hospitals capable of providing the care needs of the patient, thus relieving pressure on the neighbouring tertiary/quaternary care centre.

  17. Common Head and Neck Cases in Our Consultation Referrals: Diagnostic Dilemmas in Inverted Papilloma

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Papillomas of the nose and paranasal sinuses comprise three morphologically distinct variants—everted papilloma, inverted papilloma and cylindric cell papilloma in descending order of frequency. Recurrence of everted papilloma is unusual and malignant change does not occur. However, inverted papilloma is associated with multiple recurrences and malignant change. The histology of low grade squamous cell carcinoma of the nose may mimic that of inverted papilloma and low grade squamous cell carcinoma may coexist with inverted papilloma and be present in the same biopsy material. There is a high index of suspicion of concomitant malignancy in the presence of severe atypia or hyperkeratosis. Columnar cell papillomas are also associated with an increased risk of malignancy but the rarity of these lesions makes accurate assessment of malignant potential difficult. The most common diagnostic dilemma for pathologists referring cases for second opinion is the recognition of low grade malignancy versus benign inverted papilloma at presentation and in lesions which recur. Recent studies have addressed the requirement for histological parameters to predict the clinical course of these lesions and new molecular markers are being applied to tissue diagnosis. The early recognition and treatment of malignancy associated with inverted papilloma is key to decreased morbidity and improved patient survival and forms the basis of this discussion. PMID:20596982

  18. School-Based Client Consultation, Referral, and Management of Care. A Technical Aid Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.

    This booklet assumes that the first question that a mental health professional asks should not be what's wrong with this person, but what's making this person function like this. The answer may be that something's wrong with the way the person's environment is functioning, and, therefore, it is the environment that really should be changed, if…

  19. Audit of an inpatient neurology consultation service in a tertiary referral centre: value of the consulting neurologist.

    PubMed

    Costello, D J; Renganathan, R; O'Hare, A; Murray, B; Lynch, T

    2005-05-01

    The Mater Misericordiae Hospital is a 575-bed tertiary referral centre with busy medical and surgical subspecialty services (including the national cardiac, cardiothoracic, spinal cord injury and pulmonary hypertension units). An audit of in-patient referrals to a neurology service was carried out over the twelve-month period of January to December 2002 inclusively. Five hundred and seventy seven inpatients were evaluated and managed in conjunction with the referring services. Consultation by the neurological service led to a significant contribution in the management of clinical cases in one of three ways: establishing a de novo diagnosis in patients admitted with active neurological symptoms where no working diagnosis exists (40.7% of referrals), significant alteration in diagnosis where the referring service have already established a specific working diagnosis (11.1% of referrals), or offering advice in the ongoing management of active neurological symptoms when the diagnosis is historically established and secure (48.2% of referrals). In order of frequency the most common reason for referral was stroke (131 cases (22.7%)), seizures unrelated to alcohol (59 cases (10.2%)), alcohol-related neurological problems (55 cases (9.5%)), movement disorders (41 cases (7.1%)), neuromuscular (40 cases (6.9%)), coma (35 cases (6%)), disorders of cognition (31 cases (5.3%)), acute headache (28 case (4.8%)) and functional neurological syndromes (26 cases (4.5%)). This audit highlights the value of a consulting neurology service in a multidisciplinary tertiary referral setting.

  20. Mild traumatic brain injury in the military: improving the referral/consultation process.

    PubMed

    Watson, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Clinical practice inconsistencies in the identification and referral of patients suspected of mild traumatic brain injury have been identified within primary care clinics in a major military medical center. To determine if the use of an overprinted communication tool would improve the referral/consultation process between identified clinics in one Army medical center. The consultation/referral process was evaluated following an educational presentation regarding the use of a situation, background, assessment, and recommendation (SBAR) communication form. Data were collected from consultation charts before and after two months of use of the SBAR communication form. The communication tool improved capture of dates of injury, prior treatment, history of testing, patient education, and request for therapy. Findings from this project demonstrated that a communication tool such as the TBI-SBAR would be beneficial for use in primary care clinics.

  1. Two years of psychogeriatric consultations in a nursing home: reasons for referral compared to psychiatrists' assessment

    PubMed Central

    Callegari, Camilla MT; Menchetti, Marco; Croci, Giovanni; Beraldo, Scilla; Costantini, Chiara; Baranzini, Federico

    2006-01-01

    Background In spite of the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders among elderly residents in nursing homes, only a small number of patients in need of specialist care are referred to a psychiatric consultant. The aim of this research was to evaluate the consultation activity and the appropriateness of referral to psychiatric assessment. Methods Data were collected and analysed on consultation carried out over a two-year period in a RSA (Residenza Socio-Assistenziale) in Northern-Italy. Data were catalogued with reference to: patients, consultation, diagnosis and recommended medications. Statistical correlation analysis by means of Spearman test and signification test was carried out. Results Residents referred to psychiatric consultation at least once were 112 (14.5% of all residents). Reason for referral were: depression (17.2%), delusions and hallucinations (14%), agitation (34.8%), aggressive behaviour (23.5%) and disturbances of sleep (6.8%). Most frequent diagnoses were organic, including symptomatic, mental disorders (33.9%), mood disorders (22.3%) and schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional syndromes (18.8%). No psychiatric diagnosis was found only in 1.8% of cases, thus confirming high sensibility of referring physicians. A statistically significant correlation was found when comparing referrals for depression or delusions and allucinations or sleep disturbances and diagnostic confirmation of such symptoms by specialistic assessment (respectively 49.8%, 52.7% and 19.6%). Correlation between psychotic symptoms and the consequent prescription of antipsychotic drugs had a significant if somewhat modest value (24%) while correlation between depression symptoms and prescription of antidepressant drugs was more noticeable (66.5%). Conclusion Main reason for referral to psychiatric consultation resulted to be the presence of agitation, a non-specific symptom often difficult to attribute. Data concerning depression confirm tendency to underestimating this

  2. Electronic consultation as an alternative to hospital referral for patients with chronic kidney disease: a novel application for networked electronic health records to improve the accessibility and efficiency of healthcare.

    PubMed

    Stoves, John; Connolly, John; Cheung, Chee Kay; Grange, Angela; Rhodes, Penny; O'Donoghue, Donal; Wright, John

    2010-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease is increasingly recognised in the UK, leading to a greater demand for specialist services. Traditional means of meeting this demand rely on GP referral of patients to see a nephrologist. Hospital assessment may be inconvenient for patients and inefficient for health services. 17 general practices and a secondary care nephrology service in Bradford, UK. A before and after evaluation comparing nephrology referrals from implementation and non-implementation practices following the introduction of electronic consultations (e-consultations) for chronic kidney disease. The number, appropriateness and quality of new referrals (paper and electronic) from primary care, the timeliness of responses and the satisfaction of patients and health professionals with the new service. Strategies for change Electronic sharing of primary care electronic health records with the nephrology service was introduced to implementation practices. Participating GPs attended education workshops and received paper and e-guidance about the new service. There was a significant reduction in paper referrals from implementation practices. E-consultation provided nephrologists with access to more clinical information. GPs reported that the service was convenient, provided timely and helpful advice, and avoided outpatient referrals. Specialist recommendations were well followed, and GPs felt more confident about managing chronic kidney disease in the community. E-consultation promotes effective management of patients with mild-to-moderate chronic kidney disease in primary care, allowing specialist resources to be directed towards supporting patients with more complex needs. There is a potential role for e-consultation in other chronic disease specialties.

  3. Potential triaging of referrals for lumbar spinal surgery consultation: a comparison of referral accuracy from pain specialists, findings from advanced imaging and a 3-item questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Simon, David; Coyle, Matt; Dagenais, Simon; O'Neil, Joseph; Wai, Eugene K

    2009-12-01

    Waiting times to see a spinal surgeon are among the highest in Canada. However, most patients who are referred would not benefit from surgical care. Effective triaging of surgical candidates may reduce morbidity related to prolonged waiting times and optimize use of limited resources. We administered a questionnaire consisting of 3 items identifying leg-dominant or back-dominant pain among 119 consecutive patients who presented at a community spinal pain centre or a spinal surgical unit for assessment of an elective lumbar problem. We analyzed the questionnaire under 2 different scenarios: 1 hypothesized to be more sensitive and 1 hypothesized to be more specific. For the "sensitive" scenario of clearly back-dominant pain, the sensitivity of the questionnaire was 100% in identifying appropriate surgical candidates. For the "specific" scenario of leg-dominant pain, the questionnaire had a sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 73% in identifying appropriate surgical candidates, which was significantly superior to findings on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (i.e., presence of neurocompressive lesions). When comparing the accuracy of the questionnaire in identifying appropriate surgical candidates to that of an assessment performed by a pain specialist at an acute spinal pain clinic, we found no statistically significant differences between the 2 methods. Use of the questionnaire when triaging patients may decrease the number of unnecessary referrals to spine surgeons. Adopting such a method of triaging could reduce waiting times for appropriate surgical candidates and potentially improve the outcomes of any resulting spinal surgery performed in a timely fashion.

  4. Potential triaging of referrals for lumbar spinal surgery consultation: a comparison of referral accuracy from pain specialists, findings from advanced imaging and a 3-item questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Simon, David; Coyle, Matt; Dagenais, Simon; O’Neil, Joseph; Wai, Eugene K.

    2009-01-01

    Background Waiting times to see a spinal surgeon are among the highest in Canada. However, most patients who are referred would not benefit from surgical care. Effective triaging of surgical candidates may reduce morbidity related to prolonged waiting times and optimize use of limited resources. Methods We administered a questionnaire consisting of 3 items identifying leg-dominant or back-dominant pain among 119 consecutive patients who presented at a community spinal pain centre or a spinal surgical unit for assessment of an elective lumbar problem. We analyzed the questionnaire under 2 different scenarios: 1 hypothesized to be more sensitive and 1 hypothesized to be more specific. Results For the “sensitive” scenario of clearly back-dominant pain, the sensitivity of the questionnaire was 100% in identifying appropriate surgical candidates. For the “specific” scenario of leg-dominant pain, the questionnaire had a sensitivity of 83% and specificity of 73% in identifying appropriate surgical candidates, which was significantly superior to findings on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (i.e., presence of neurocompressive lesions). When comparing the accuracy of the questionnaire in identifying appropriate surgical candidates to that of an assessment performed by a pain specialist at an acute spinal pain clinic, we found no statistically significant differences between the 2 methods. Conclusion Use of the questionnaire when triaging patients may decrease the number of unnecessary referrals to spine surgeons. Adopting such a method of triaging could reduce waiting times for appropriate surgical candidates and potentially improve the outcomes of any resulting spinal surgery performed in a timely fashion. PMID:20011183

  5. Time to first consultation, diagnosis and treatment of TB among patients attending a referral hospital in Northwest, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Yimer, Solomon A; Bjune, Gunnar A; Holm-Hansen, Carol

    2014-01-10

    Early detection and treatment of TB is essential for the success of TB control program performance. The aim of this study was to determine the length and analyze predictors of patients', health systems' and total delays among patients attending a referral hospital in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among newly diagnosed TB cases ≥ 15 years of age. Delay was analyzed at three levels: the periods between 1) onset of TB symptoms and first visit to medical provider, i.e. patients' delay, 2) the first visit to a medical provider and the initiation of treatment i.e. health systems' delay and 3) onset of TB symptoms and initiation of treatment i.e. total delay. Uni- and multi-variate logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate predictors of patients', health systems' and total delays. The median time of patients' delay was 21 days [(interquartile range (IQR) (7 days, 60 days)]. The median health systems' delay was 27 days (IQR 8 days, 60 days) and the median total delay was 60 days (IQR 30 days, 121 days). Patients residing in rural areas had a three-fold increase in patients' delay compared to those from urban areas [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 3.4; 95% (CI 1.3, 8.9)]. Extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) cases were more likely to experience delay in seeking treatment compared to pulmonary (PTB) cases [(AOR 2.6; 95% (CI 1.3, 5.4)]. Study subjects who first visited health centres [(AOR) 5.1; 95% (CI 2.1, 12.5)], private facilities [(AOR) 3.5; 95% (CI 1.3, 9.7] and health posts [(AOR) 109; 95% (CI 12, 958], were more likely to experience an increase in health systems' delay compared to those who visited hospitals. The majority of TB patients reported to medical providers within an acceptable time after the onset of symptoms. Rural residence was associated with patients' and total delays. Providing the population with information about TB symptoms and the importance of early health seeking may be an efficient way to decrease TB transmission

  6. Lack of institutional pathways for referral: results of a survey among pediatric surgeons on prenatal consultation for congenital anomalies.

    PubMed

    Aite, Lucia; Zaccara, Antonio; Cuttini, Marina; Mirante, Nadia; Nahom, Antonella; Bagolan, Pietro

    2013-09-01

    This paper aimed to assess pathways through which pediatric surgeons receive couples for prenatal consultation after prenatal diagnosis. A questionnaire was mailed to pediatric surgical centers to assess the following: (1) surgical caseload per year; (2) number of centers in which prenatal consultation is offered; (3) presence of a 'structured' prenatal consultation clinic; (4) number of consultations per year; (5) pathways for referral to the pediatric surgeon; and (6) the availability of psychological counseling. Response rate was 81%, (42/52 centers). Thirty-eight centers (93%) offered prenatal consultation. Seven centers (18%) reported to have a 'structured' clinic in terms of time and location. In 13 centers (34%), 1-9 consultations were carried out, from 10 to 19 in 18 centers (47%), from 20 to over 50 in 7 centers (18%). In 34 centers, internal referrals from the obstetric departments were counseled, and in 28 centers, there were also external referrals. Eleven centers reported that couples were self-referred. Information regarding prenatal counseling was available on the institutional website in 10/38 (26%) centers. Psychological counseling was available in 36 centers. Despite the fact that the majority of pediatric surgical centers provides prenatal consultation, caseloads are very variable as are referral modalities. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Trends of socioeconomic disparities in referral patterns for fertility preservation consultation.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Linnea R; Balthazar, Ursula; Kim, Jayeon; Mersereau, Jennifer E

    2012-07-01

    While oncologists are aware that cancer treatments may impact fertility, referral rates for fertility preservation consultation (FPC) remain poor. The goal of this study was to identify predictors associated with FPC referral. This is a retrospective, cohort study of women aged 18-42 years diagnosed with a new breast, gynecologic, hematologic or gastrointestinal cancer at our institution between January 2008 and May 2010. Exclusion criteria included history of permanent sterilization, documentation of no desire for future children, stage IV disease, short interval (<4 days) between diagnosis and treatment and treatment that posed no threat to fertility. Demographic, socioeconomic and cancer variables were evaluated with respect to FPC. Logistic regression was used to determine the odds of referral for FPC based on specified predictors. One hundred and ninety-nine patients were eligible for FPC and of those, 41 received FPC (20.6%). Women with breast cancer were 10 times more likely to receive FPC compared with other cancer diagnoses [odds ratio (OR) 10.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.8-26.8]. The odds of FPC referral were approximately two times higher for Caucasian women (OR 2.4; 95% CI 0.9-6.2), three times higher for age <35 years (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.4-7.7) and four times higher in nulliparous women (OR 4.6; 95% CI 1.9-11.3). There was no association between BMI, income, distance to our institution, being in a relationship and referral for FPC. Overall referral rates for FPC are low, and there appear to be significant discrepancies in referral based on ethnicity, age, parity and cancer type. This highlights a need for further provider education and awareness across all oncologic disciplines.

  8. Is referral to a spine surgeon a double-edged sword?: patient concerns before consultation.

    PubMed

    Kidane, Biniam; Gandhi, Rajiv; Sarro, Angela; Valiante, Taufik A; Harvey, Bart J; Rampersaud, Y Raja

    2011-07-01

    To assess the concerns of adult patients with spine-related complaints during the period between referral to and consultation with a spine surgeon. Prospective survey. Toronto, Ont. A total of 338 consecutive, nonemergent patients before consultation with a single spine surgeon over a 5-month period. Patient concerns, effect of referral to a spine surgeon, and effect of waiting to see a spine surgeon. The issues patients reported to be most concerning were ongoing pain (45.6% rated this as most concerning), loss of function (23.4%), need for surgery (12.1%), and permanence of the condition (9.6%). Regression analysis demonstrated that older age was an independent predictor of increased level of concern regarding pain (P=.01) and disability (P=.04). Forty-seven percent of all patients listed the need for surgery among their top 3 concerns. Mere referral to a spine surgeon (P=.03) was an independent predictor of increased concern regarding the need for surgery. Sex, diagnosis, surgical candidacy, and actual wait time were not predictive of increased concerns. Patients reported family physicians to be their most influential information source regarding spinal conditions. Timely provision of more specific information regarding the benign and non-surgical nature of most degenerative spinal conditions might substantially reduce patients' exaggerated concerns regarding the probability of surgery for a considerable number of patients referred to spine surgeons.

  9. Referral patterns and the referral system for oral surgery care. Part 2: The referral system and telemedicine.

    PubMed

    Coulthard, P; Kazakou, I; Koran, R; Worthington, H V

    2000-04-08

    To investigate GDP opinions of the current referral system and to investigate the need and demand for telemedicine in oral surgery referrals. Postal questionnaire. 400 GDPs in Greater Manchester. 84% participation rate. 48% were not satisfied overall with the service of their current specialist oral surgery referral site. The principal reason was the length of the waiting time for consultation and treatment. Distance for patients to travel to the specialist unit was also of concern, even though most patients (89%) travelled short distances (return journey of twelve miles or less). 23% of respondents wished to improve their ability to communicate with the oral surgeon and 70% wanted involvement in the patient consultation. Both of these requirements were more likely in younger practitioners. There is a need and demand for change in the referral system for oral surgery specialist care. Telemedicine could conceivably be one way to improve access to specialist oral surgery care.

  10. Time to Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry Service Referral as a Predictor of Length of Stay.

    PubMed

    Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Alzahrani, Ahmad; Meaney, Christopher; Styra, Rima; Tan, Adrienne; Hawa, Raed; Abbey, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the time to referral (TTR) to psychiatric consultation and the length of stay (LOS) after adjusting for medical comorbity. Using a naturalistic study design, we collected and analyzed inpatient consultation-liaison psychiatry service data over a 12-month period from 2 Canadian hospital sites. Data collected included demographic characteristics, referral characteristics, Charlson Comorbidity Index to measure medical comorbidity severity, psychiatric diagnoses, type of psychiatric intervention, and time variables, namely TTR and LOS. We modeled the relationship LOS and TTR after adjusting for Charlson Index using a 3-component finite mixture of exponential regression models. A total of 814 patients were included. The median LOS was 12 days (interquartile range : 4-28 days). Median TTR was 3 days (interquartile range: 1,9), and median Charlson Index was 5 (interquartile range 3,6). Bivariate analysis indicated a strong positive correlation among LOS and TTR (Spearman correlation: 0.77, p < 0.0001) and Charlson Index(Spearman correlation: 0.34, p < 0.0001), respectively. After controlling for Charlson Index, we observe that TTR was significantly associated with LOS in each of the 3 components of the mixture of exponential regression models. Persons with longer TTR have longer expected LOS. Graphical summaries suggest that the mixture of exponential regression model provides a good fit to these LOS response data. Patients with longer TTR had significantly longer LOS. The association between TTR and LOS holds after controlling for severity of medical comorbidity. Our results support the role of integrated and proactive consultation-liaison psychiatry programs aimed at reducing TTR to improve LOS outcomes. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute Interventions and Referral of Patients With Bipolar Disorder by the Psychiatric Consultation Liaison Service in a General Hospital in Germany: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the population of bipolar patients in a general hospital in Germany who required treatment by a consultant psychiatrist. Method: A retrospective analysis was conducted of the clinical records of 47 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (DSM-IV-TR criteria) who were treated by a consultant psychiatrist between 2009 and 2012 in one of the general hospitals of Charité Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany. We investigated the sections of the hospital that requested psychiatric consultations for bipolar patients, the status of these patients, and their primary cause of treatment, as well as the intervention (including pharmacotherapy) recommended by the consultant psychiatrist. Results: For more than half of the patients, their psychiatric illness was either directly or indirectly the reason they presented to the hospital. The remaining bipolar patients were treated for various somatic illnesses unrelated to their bipolar disorder throughout the hospital, with a relative overrepresentation of patients in the neurology department. More than half of the patients were referred to a psychiatric hospital by the consultant psychiatrist. Benzodiazepines were the most commonly administered drugs for acute pharmacologic intervention. Conclusions: Psychiatric consultations are not frequently requested for bipolar patients compared to those with other psychiatric disorders. However, more than half of the bipolar patients needed further psychiatric treatment in a psychiatric hospital. This finding emphasizes the importance of psychiatric consultations in a general hospital for bipolar patients. The administration of benzodiazepines as an acute treatment seems to be the standard pharmacologic procedure, not a specific pharmacotherapy like mood stabilizers. PMID:25133062

  12. Understanding communication between emergency and consulting physicians: a qualitative study that describes and defines the essential elements of the emergency department consultation-referral process for the junior learner.

    PubMed

    Chan, Teresa; Orlich, Donika; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan; Sherbino, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    To define the important elements of an emergency department (ED) consultation request and to develop a simple model of the process. From March to September 2010, 61 physicians (21 emergency medicine [EM], 20 general surgery [GS], 20 internal medicine [IM]; 31 residents, 30 attending staff) were questioned about how junior learners should be taught about ED consultation. Two investigators independently reviewed focus group and interview transcripts using grounded theory to generate an index of themes until saturation was reached. Disagreements were resolved by consensus, yielding an inventory of themes and subthemes. All transcripts were coded using this index of themes; 30% of transcripts were coded in duplicate to determine the agreement. A total of 245 themes and subthemes were identified. The agreement between reviewers was 77%. Important themes in the process were as follows: initial preparation and review of investigations by EM physician (overall endorsement 87% [range 70-100% in different groups]); identification of involved parties (patient and involved physicians) (100%); hypothesis of patient's diagnosis (75% [range 62-83%]) or question for the consulting physician (70% [range 55-95%]); urgency (100%) and stability (74% [range 62-80%]); questions from the consultant (100%); discussion/communication (98% [range 95-100%]); and feedback (98% [range 95-100%]). These components were reorganized into a simple framework (PIQUED). Each clinical specialty significantly contributed to the model (χ2  =  7.9; p value  =  0.019). Each group contributed uniquely to the final list of important elements (percent contributions: EM, 57%; GS, 41%; IM, 64%). We define important elements of an ED consultation with input from emergency and consulting physicians. We propose a model that organizes these elements into a simple framework (PIQUED) that may be valuable for junior learners.

  13. Patients at elevated risk of melanoma: individual predictors of non-compliance to GP referral for a dermatologist consultation.

    PubMed

    Rat, Cédric; Quereux, Gaelle; Monegier du Sorbier, Marine; Gaultier, Aurélie; Bonnaud-Antignac, Angélique; Khammari, Amir; Dreno, Brigitte; Nguyen, Jean Michel

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to assess whether patients at elevated risk of melanoma attended a dermatologist consultation after a General Practitioner referral and to determine individual predictors of non-compliance. This survey included 1506 high-risk French patients (selected using the Self-Assessment Melanoma Risk Score) referred to a dermatologist between April and October 2011. Compliance was evaluated from January to April 2012, based on attendance at a dermatologist consultation (or scheduling an appointment). Demographic data and factors mapping the Health Belief Model were tested as correlates using a multivariate logistic regression. Compliance with referral was 58.4%. The top seven factors associated with non-compliance were as follows: GP advice to consult was unclear (OR=13.22; [7.66-23.56]); no previous participation in cancer screenings, including smear tests (OR=5.03; [2.23-11.83]) and prostate screening (OR=2.04; [1.06-3.97]); lack of knowledge that melanoma was a type of cancer (OR=1.94; [1.29-2.92]); and reporting no time to make an appointment (OR=2.08; [1.82-2.38]), forgetting to make an appointment (OR=1.26; [1.08-1.46]), long delays in accessing an appointment (OR=1.25; [1.12-1.41]), not being afraid of detecting something abnormal (OR=1.54; [1.35-1.78]), no need to consult a dermatologist to feel secure (OR=1.28; [1.09-1.51]). Physicians should be aware of the factors predicting patient compliance with referrals for dermatologist consultations; better General Practitioner counseling might enhance compliance in high-risk populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A comparison of patients with major depressive disorder recruited through newspaper advertising versus consultation referrals for clinical drug trials.

    PubMed

    Miller, C A; Hooper, C L; Bakish, D

    1997-01-01

    Difficulties in recruiting patients for clinical trials have plagued investigators for many years. One concern is the generalizability of clinical trial results to community practice, that is, whether volunteers recruited through advertising are homogeneous with those seeking treatment in a clinical setting. This article retrospectively compares the baseline characteristics of patients recruited through newspaper advertisements with those recruited through consultation referrals by reviewing the charts of 54 patients enrolled in two clinical trials for major depressive disorder (MDD). We examined demographic data, background information, clinical histories, and baseline status. Results indicated homogeneity for most variables. The consultation group was significantly more likely to have had previous treatment for the current episode of depression. These results suggest that, although the advertisement and consultation groups were very similar, the drug naivety of the advertisement group may make them a preferred source in terms of generalizability to community practice.

  15. Prevalence of referral reasons and clinical symptoms for endodontic referrals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the prevalence of different primary reasons for endodontic referrals and the clinical symptoms of the referred cases. Materials and Methods Clinical data of total endodontic treatment cases (1,014 teeth) including endodontic referral cases (224 teeth) between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012, at Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, were investigated retrospectively. The one major reason for referral, the clinical symptoms, and the resulting treatment procedures of referral cases were recorded. The percentages of clinical symptoms of the endodontic referral cases and the total endodontic treatment cases were compared by χ2 test for each symptom. Results Persistent pain was the most frequent reason for endodontic referral (29.5%), followed by presence of gingival swelling and sinus tract (24.1%), and apical radiolucency (12.9%). Referrals in cases involving endodontic difficulties such as canal calcification, broken instruments, post, perforation, and resorption were less than 5.0%, respectively. The percentages of four major clinical symptoms of pain, apical radiolucency, previous endodontic treatment, and gingival swelling and sinus tract were significantly higher in the endodontic referral cases than those in the total endodontic cases (p = 0.001). Among the included referral cases, 72.8% were treated with nonsurgical endodontic treatment only. Teeth other than the referred teeth were diagnosed as the origin of the problem in 5.8% of the referrals. Conclusions The high prevalence of pain, apical radiolucency, previous treatment, and gingival swelling and sinus tract in endodontic referral cases suggest that these symptoms may be what general practitioners consider to be difficult and refer to endodontists. PMID:25110645

  16. A comparison of placebo response with major depressive disorder in patients recruited through newspaper advertising versus consultation referrals.

    PubMed

    Miller, C A; Hooper, C L; Bakish, D

    1997-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates few differences between patients recruited through advertising and by consultation referral, and there is some suggestion that those recruited through advertising are more representative of the target community population. However little has been reported on differences in placebo response and compliance in these two patient groups. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 49 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), recruited through advertising or consultation, randomized to placebo in five clinical trials. Variables included demographics, clinical history, efficacy, compliance, and completion data. Homogeneity was demonstrated for most variables. Differences in placebo groups included significantly lower Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) scores for the advertisement group throughout the trials. Advertisement patients were also more likely to be early placebo responders and in remission at Days 14 and 28. No differences were found in completion rates or reasons for early termination. Compliance was excellent for both groups. Early placebo response of the advertisement group reinforces the need for trials of at least 8 weeks. In addition, consultation patients may have a more severe illness and be treatment resistant, suggesting they are less generalizable to community practice populations.

  17. Childhood tumours with a high probability of being part of a tumour predisposition syndrome; reason for referral for genetic consultation.

    PubMed

    Postema, Floor A M; Hopman, Saskia M J; Aalfs, Cora M; Berger, Lieke P V; Bleeker, Fonnet E; Dommering, Charlotte J; Jongmans, Marjolijn C J; Letteboer, Tom G W; Olderode-Berends, Maran J W; Wagner, Anja; Hennekam, Raoul C; Merks, Johannes H M

    2017-07-01

    Recognising a tumour predisposition syndrome (TPS) in childhood cancer patients is of major clinical relevance. The presence of a TPS may be suggested by the type of tumour in the child. We present an overview of 23 childhood tumours that in themselves should be a reason to refer a child for genetic consultation. We performed a PubMed search to review the incidence of TPSs in children for 85 tumour types listed in the International Classification of Childhood Cancer third edition (ICCC-3). The results were discussed during a national consensus meeting with representative clinical geneticists from all six academic paediatric oncology centres in The Netherlands. A TPS incidence of 5% or more was considered a high probability and therefore in itself a reason for referral to a clinical geneticist. The literature search resulted in data on the incidence of a TPS in 26 tumours. For 23/26 tumour types, a TPS incidence of 5% or higher was reported. In addition, during the consensus meeting the experts agreed that children with any carcinoma should always be referred for clinical genetic consultation as well, as it may point to a TPS. We present an overview of 23 paediatric tumours with a high probability of a TPS; this will facilitate paediatric oncologists to decide which patients should be referred for genetic consultation merely based on type of tumour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Primary Cutaneous Extranodal Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma Misdiagnosed as Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma: The Importance of Consultation/Referral and Inclusion of EBV In Situ Hybridization for Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Win, Khin Than; Liau, Jau-Yu; Chen, Bo-Jung; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Chen, Chiao-Yun; Li, Chi-Cheng; Hsiao, Cheng-Hsiang; Chuang, Shih-Sung

    2016-02-01

    Primary cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) are heterogenous extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas including a few distinct and provisional entities. Compared with the West, Asian populations have a relatively higher frequency of nonmycosis fungoides CTCL. Primary cutaneous extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (PC-ENKTL) is distinct from other CTCL by the presence of EBV association. In our recent retrospective Asian study of PC-ENKTL, we identified 5 cases initially misdiagnosed as various CTCL. We fully characterized these cases with immunohistochemistry, EBV in situ hybridization, and clonality study for T-cell receptor (TCR) γ-chain gene (TRG). The 5 patients included 3 males and 2 females with a median age of 45. All tumors were positive for EBER. Two cases were clonal for TRG gene rearrangement but without expression of βF1 or TCR-γ (TCR-silent T-cell origin), 1 tumor expressed TCR-γ (γδ T-cell origin), and the remaining 2 were polyclonal for TRG and negative for TCR expression (NK-cell origin). On the basis of the initial diagnoses (2 as peripheral T-cell lymphoma, unspecified, 2 as primary cutaneous anaplastic large-cell lymphoma, and 1 as subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma), all patients received CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) chemotherapy with additional radiotherapy in 3. All patients experienced persistent disease or relapse despite treatment in a mean duration of 8.8 months (range, 1 to 12 mo). PC-ENKTL is rare and aggressive. These cases strongly demonstrate the importance of consultation/referral to experienced hematopathologists and the inclusion of EBER in the initial diagnostic work-up for patients with nonmycosis fungoides CTCL to avoid erroneous diagnosis and subsequent inadequate treatment of the patients.

  19. Efficiency Gains for Rheumatology Consultation Using a Novel Electronic Referral System in a Safety-Net Health Setting.

    PubMed

    Scheibe, Meghan M; Imboden, John B; Schmajuk, Gabriela; Margaretten, Mary; Graf, Jonathan D; Chen, Alice H; Yelin, Edward H; Yazdany, Jinoos

    2015-08-01

    Health information technology (HIT) holds promise in increasing access to rheumatologists by improving the quality and efficiency of referrals, but few studies have examined its use for this purpose. We evaluated the use and impact of a novel electronic referral (eReferral) system in rheumatology in a safety-net health system. We examined eReferrals over 4 years. Our primary outcome was use of preconsultation exchange, defined as back-and-forth communication between referring and specialty care providers, facilitating triage of referrals, requests for more information, or resolution of questions without a visit. We calculated the proportion of eReferrals that underwent preconsultation exchange, time to reviewer response, and number of visits scheduled. To increase generalizability, we selected a random sample of eReferrals to undergo additional blinded, adjudicated review to assess agreement on appropriateness for preconsultation exchange. Between 2008 and 2012, 2,383 eReferrals were reviewed and 2,105 were eligible for analysis. One-fourth of eReferrals were resolved without a clinic visit. The proportion of eReferrals undergoing preconsultation exchange increased over time (55% in 2008 versus 74% in 2011), and the volume of referrals also steadily increased over time. Reviewer response time averaged between 1 and 4 days. In the random sample of eReferrals that underwent adjudicated review, agreement between reviewers was high (κ = 0.72). HIT-enabled preconsultation exchange was used for a majority of eReferrals and facilitated communication between referring clinicians and rheumatologists. This redesigned system of care allowed for triage of a high number of referrals, with many referrals determined to be appropriate for preconsultation exchange. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  20. The role of consulting psychiatrists for obstetric and gynecologic inpatients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huang-Li; Chou, Hung-Hsueh; Liu, Chia-Yih; Hsu, Shi-Chieh; Hsiao, Mei-Chun; Juang, Yeong-Yuh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the consultation psychiatry service to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department in a general hospital, focusing on referral patterns and consultation recommendations. A retrospective review of the medical charts and consultation records of obstetric and gynecological patients referred for psychiatric consultation from Dec. 2003 to Nov. 2009 was performed. One hundred and eleven patients were referred during the 6-year period, a psychiatric referral rate of 0.11% among 99,098 obstetric and gynecologic admissions. Obstetric and gynecologic consultations comprised 0.64% of all psychiatric consultations. The most common reasons for referral were depression (52.25%), past psychiatric history (31.53%), insomnia (29.73%) and confusion (24.32%). The most common DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses were depressive disorder (37.84%), schizophrenia and other psychoses (20.72%), delirium (17.12%) and adjustment disorder (10.81%). The most frequent physical diagnoses of referred patients were neoplasms (72.97%), infectious diseases (42.34%) and complications of pregnancy and puerperium (17.12%). Recommendations included pharmacological intervention (89.19%) and psychological management (72.07%). The psychiatric referral rate of obstetric and gynecological inpatients was relatively low compared with that of other departments. More collaboration and liaison between gynecologists and consultation psychiatrists may provide better care for obstetric and gynecological inpatients.

  1. Interdepartmental Dermatology: Characteristics and Impact of Dermatology Inpatient Referrals at a Teaching Hospital in Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Satyendra Nath; Podder, Indrasish; Saha, Abanti; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata

    2017-01-01

    Background: Dermatology is primarily considered to be an outpatient-centered specialty. However, several inpatient admissions to other specialties require dermatologic consultation for optimum management. Aims: To analyze the causes of inpatient dermatology referrals, departments sending referrals, and impact of dermatology consultation on patient management. Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study by analyzing the records of 486 patient referrals over a 4-year period. The demographic details, specialties requesting consultation, cause of referral, and dermatological advice have been recorded and analyzed. Results: Dermatology consultation changed the dermatologic diagnosis and treatment of almost two-thirds of patients. General medicine requested the maximum number of referrals, “skin rash” being the most common cause for referral. Accurate diagnosis on referrals was provided by only 30.2% of nondermatologists. Common dermatological disorders were often misdiagnosed by these physicians, and dermatology referrals had significant impact on the diagnosis and subsequent management of these patients. Conclusion: While dermatologic referral leads to improved patient care, there is a need for better training of nondermatologists enabling them to recognize and treat common dermatoses. PMID:28216722

  2. Sports medicine in The Netherlands: consultation with a sports physician without referral by a general practitioner

    PubMed Central

    de Bruijn, Matthijs C; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Baarveld, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Background In The Netherlands, sports medicine physicians are involved in the care of about 8% of all sports injuries that occur each year. Some patients consult a sports physician directly, without being referred by a general practitioner. This study aims to determine how many patients consult a sports physician directly, and to explore differences in the profiles of these patients compared with those who are referred. Methods This was an exploratory cross-sectional study in which all new patients presenting with an injury to a regional sports medical center during September 2010 were identified. The characteristics of patients who self-referred and those who were referred by other medical professionals were compared. Results A total of 234 patients were included (mean age 33.7 years, 59.1% male). Most of the injuries occurred during soccer and running, particularly injuries of the knee and ankle. In this cohort, 39.3% of patients consulted a sports physician directly. These patients were significantly more often involved in individual sports, consulted a sports physician relatively rapidly after the onset of injury, and had received significantly less care before this new event from medical professionals compared with patients who were referred. Conclusion In this study, 39.3% of patients with sports injuries consulted a sports physician directly without being referred by another medical professional. The profile of this group of patients differed from that of patients who were referred. The specific roles of general practitioners and sports physicians in medical sports care in The Netherlands needs to be defined further. PMID:24379706

  3. The inpatient neurology consultation service: value and cost.

    PubMed

    Douglas, M R; Peake, D; Sturman, S G; Sivaguru, A; Clarke, C E; Nicholl, D J

    2011-06-01

    Neurological conditions comprise a significant proportion of patient admissions to hospital but, in the majority of cases, are admitted under the care of non-neurological physicians. As a consequence, neurological ward consultations are commonly requested by the admitting medical teams to review diagnoses and management plans. The outcomes of neurological ward consultations were examined and the time required for the referral process recorded by performing a detailed prospective three-month audit of inpatient referrals to the neurology service. The consultations of 120 patients were recorded, categorised and analysed. These consultations were beneficial in the vast majority of cases, with a clear impact on patient diagnoses or management plans. The consultation process was time consuming, however, both in respect of the initial review, but also with follow-up visits. This audit highlights the importance of neurological input in the diagnosis and management of hospital inpatients. The time taken for this process should be resourced appropriately.

  4. Resistance, Reactance, and Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jan N.; Falk, Robert S.

    1981-01-01

    Presents a review of techniques for dealing with consultee resistance. Suggests the social psychological theory of reactance is a useful conceptual framework for considering resistance in consultation. Discusses examples of its application, variables that predict the likely effectiveness of a reactance utilization intervention, and ethical issues.…

  5. 29 CFR 1626.9 - Referral to and from State agencies; referral States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral to and from State agencies; referral States. 1626.9 Section 1626.9 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURES-AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT § 1626.9 Referral to and from State agencies; referral States. The Commission may refer all...

  6. Eclampsia: treatment and referral.

    PubMed

    Sibai, B M; McCubbin, J H; Anderson, G D; Dilts, P V

    1982-03-01

    Although the recognition and treatment of preeclampsia theoretically should eliminate eclampsia, it has not disappeared and remains a substantial threat to maternal and fetal well-being. The therapy of choice for treatment and prevention of convulsions is magnesium sulfate (MgSO4 . 7H2O USP) and that for severe hypertension is intravenous hydralazine. Delivery of the fetus and placenta is recommended after the mother is stabilized from the effects of the convulsion(s). If the mother is to be transported before delivery, it is important that she receive an adequate dose of MgSO4.

  7. Evaluating the primary-to-specialist referral system for elective hip and knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Fyie, Ken; Frank, Cy; Noseworthy, Tom; Christiansen, Tanya; Marshall, Deborah A

    2014-02-01

    Persistently long waiting times for hip and knee total joint arthroplasty (TJA) specialist consultations have been identified as a problem. This study described referral processes and practices, and their impact on the waiting time from referral to consultation for TJA. A mixed-methods retrospective study incorporating semi-structured interviews, patient chart reviews and observational studies was conducted at three clinic sites in Alberta, Canada. A total of 218 charts were selected for analysis. Standardized definitions were applied to key event dates. Performance measures included waiting times percentage of referrals initially accepted. Voluntary (patient-related) and involuntary (health system-related) waiting times were quantified. All three clinics had defined, but differing, referral processing rules. The mean time from referral to consultation ranged from 51 to 139 business days. Choosing a specific surgeon for consultation rather than a next available surgeon lengthened waits by 10-47 business days. Involuntary waiting times accounted for at least 11% of total waiting time. Approximately 40-80% of the time patients with TJA wait for surgery was in the consultation period. Fifty-four per cent of new referrals were initially rejected, prolonging patient waits by 8-46 business days. Our results suggest that variation in referral processing led to increased waiting times for patients. The large proportion of total wait attributable to waiting for a surgical consultation makes failure to measure and evaluate this period a significant omission. Improving referral processes and decreasing variation between clinics would improve patient access to these specialist referrals in Alberta. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Consultants, Consultancy and Consultocracy in Education Policymaking in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Helen M.; Hall, David; Mills, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The role and contribution of consultants and consultancy in public services has grown rapidly and the power of consultants suggests the emergence of a "consultocracy". We draw on research evidence from the social sciences and critical education policy (CEP) studies to present an examination of the state of the field. We deploy a…

  9. Consultants, Consultancy and Consultocracy in Education Policymaking in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Helen M.; Hall, David; Mills, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The role and contribution of consultants and consultancy in public services has grown rapidly and the power of consultants suggests the emergence of a "consultocracy". We draw on research evidence from the social sciences and critical education policy (CEP) studies to present an examination of the state of the field. We deploy a…

  10. GPs' payment contracts and their referral practice.

    PubMed

    Mariñoso, Begoña Garcia; Jelovac, Izabela

    2003-07-01

    This paper compares the role of general practitioners in determining access to specialists in two types of health care systems: gate-keeping systems, where a general practitioner (GP) referral is compulsory to visit a specialist, and non-gate-keeping systems, where this referral is optional. We model the dependence between the GP's diagnosis effort and her referral behaviour, and identify the optimal contracts that induce the best behaviour from a public insurer's point of view, where there is asymmetry of information between the insurer and the GP regarding diagnosis effort and referral decisions. We show that gate keeping is superior wherever GP's incentives matter.

  11. Periodic gastroenterology and hepatology meetings with primary care. Reasons for consultation.

    PubMed

    Mata-Román, Laura; del Olmo-Martínez, Lourdes; Briso-Montiano, Raquel; García-Pascual, Agustina; Catón-Valdés, Manuela; Jiménez-Rodríguez-Vila, Manuel; Castellanos-Alonso, Maria Jose; Laso, Lucinio; Gómez-Gómez, Pilar; Otero, Antonio; Pinilla-Gimeno, Jose Ignacio; del-Río-Hortega, Juan; Pradera-Leonardo, Juan; Vallelado, Rosario; Villuela-González, Fernando; Ibañes-Jalón, Elisa; Sañudo, Soledad; Mayo, Agustin; Caro-Patón, Agustin; Almaraz-Gómez, Ana

    2013-10-01

    care overload, aging of population, and increased chronic diseases lead to increased referrals from primary care, which may sometimes overload the health system. Thus, different interventions have been carried out attempting to improve these aspects. to assess the most frequent causes of consultation of general physicians, both in joint consultations and clinical sessions held jointly with specialist consultant in primary care, in the urban and rural setting, and the influence on referrals to first consultations of gastroenterology. a mainly training type of intervention was carried out, consisting of regular meetings in both urban and rural primary care center, to perform joint consultations and clinical sessions on patients and topics related to the specialty of gastroenterology. The intervention period (divided in two subperiods) was compared with a control period. most reasons for consultation were those corresponding to lower gastrointestinal tract, followed by liver disease and upper gastrointestinal tract. Significant differences were only found in distribution of diagnoses between the two centers in joint consultations. There was a relative (percent) decrease in referrals at the global level in both subperiods, only significant in the first (51.45 %), as well as in rural setting (45.24 %). common consultations motifs were similar in urban and rural settings, with some relevance of lower gastrointestinal tract disease. Most of them can be solved at primary care, with the help of consultant specialist. There is impact on referrals to the outpatient first consultations of gastroenterology, mainly in rural setting.

  12. E-referral Solutions: Successful Experiences, Key Features and Challenges- a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Naseriasl, Mansour; Adham, Davoud; Janati, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: around the world health systems constantly face increasing pressures which arise from many factors, such as an ageing population, patients and providers demands for equipment’s and services. In order to respond these challenges and reduction of health system’s transactional costs, referral solutions are considered as a key factor. This study was carried out to identify referral solutions that have had successes. Methods: relevant studies identified using keywords of referrals, consultation, referral system, referral model, referral project, electronic referral, electronic booking, health system, healthcare, health service and medical care. These searches were conducted using PubMed, ProQuest, Google Scholar, Scopus, Emerald, Web of Knowledge, Springer, Science direct, Mosby’s index, SID, Medlib and Iran Doc data bases. 4306 initial articles were obtained and refined step by step. Finally, 27 articles met the inclusion criteria. Results: we identified seventeen e-referral systems developed in UK, Norway, Finland, Netherlands, Denmark, Scotland, New Zealand, Canada, Australia, and U.S. Implemented solutions had variant degrees of successes such as improved access to specialist care, reduced wait times, timeliness and quality of referral communication, accurate health information transfer and integration of health centers and services. Conclusion: each one of referral solutions has both positive and changeable aspects that should be addressed according to sociotechnical conditions. These solutions are mainly formed in a small and localized manner. PMID:26236167

  13. Developmental Counseling and Therapy as a Model for School Counselor Consultation with Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Elysia

    2007-01-01

    Referral requests for individual counseling pose a threat to the implementation of comprehensive school counseling programs (Jackson & White, 2000). Consulting with teachers is one way that school counselors can efficiently respond to some referrals while also providing system support. Using a developmental counseling and therapy-based…

  14. Developmental Counseling and Therapy as a Model for School Counselor Consultation with Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemens, Elysia

    2007-01-01

    Referral requests for individual counseling pose a threat to the implementation of comprehensive school counseling programs (Jackson & White, 2000). Consulting with teachers is one way that school counselors can efficiently respond to some referrals while also providing system support. Using a developmental counseling and therapy-based…

  15. Diagnostic accuracy and appropriateness of general practitioner referrals to a dermatology out-patient clinic.

    PubMed

    Basarab, T; Munn, S E; Jones, R R

    1996-07-01

    A study was undertaken of new referrals by GPs to a dermatology clinic in a district general hospital over a 6-month period. Six hundred and eighty-six consecutive referrals to one consultant were analysed for diagnostic accuracy and requirement for referral. Only 47% of referral letters contained the correct diagnosis. Viral warts and psoriasis were best diagnosed (82 and 78%, respectively), but seborrhoeic warts and dermatofibromas caused difficulty (22 and 19%, respectively). Cutaneous malignancy was correctly diagnosed in 45% of referrals, and eczema, the commonest condition referred, in 54% of cases. Sixty-eight percent of referrals required hospital-based facilities for diagnosis (31%) or treatment/management (37%). Twenty-one per cent of patients referred attended for once-only visits, requiring no specialized diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Such referrals should decrease with improved GP education. Eleven percent of referrals were for minor surgical procedures such as curettage, shave biopsy, or cryotherapy and would become unnecessary if such facilities were available in the community. Our data demonstrate the potential for management of up to one-third of current dermatological referrals within the community by improving education of GPs and providing appropriate facilities within the community. However, over two-thirds of patients required hospital facilities, a finding of considerable relevance to the future location of dermatological services.

  16. Qualitative study on maternal referrals in rural Tanzania: decision making and acceptance of referral advice.

    PubMed

    Pembe, Andrea B; Urassa, David P; Darj, Elisabeth; Carlsted, Anders; Olsson, Pia

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe perceptions of maternal referrals in a rural district in Tanzania. Focus group discussions (FGDs) with health workers and community members, stratified by age and gender, were conducted. The FGDs revealed that husbands and relatives are the decision makers in maternal referrals, whereas the women had limited influence, especially on emergency referrals. The process in deciding to seek referral care is envisaged within community perception of seriousness of the condition, difficulty to access and cost involved in transport, living expenses at the hospital, and perceived quality of care at facility level. The hospitals were seen as providing acceptable quality of care, whereas, the health centres had lower quality than expected. To improve maternal referral compliance and reduce perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality, community views of existing referral guidelines, poverty reduction, women's empowerment and male involvement in maternal care are necessary.

  17. 49 CFR 382.605 - Referral, evaluation, and treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Referral, evaluation, and treatment. 382.605..., Training, and Referral § 382.605 Referral, evaluation, and treatment. The requirements for referral, evaluation, and treatment must be performed in accordance with 49 CFR part 40, Subpart O. ...

  18. 49 CFR 382.605 - Referral, evaluation, and treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Referral, evaluation, and treatment. 382.605..., Training, and Referral § 382.605 Referral, evaluation, and treatment. The requirements for referral, evaluation, and treatment must be performed in accordance with 49 CFR part 40, Subpart O. ...

  19. Psychiatric outpatient consultation for seniors. Perspectives of family physicians, consultants, and patients / family: A descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Yaffe, Mark J; Primeau, Francois; McCusker, Jane; Cole, Martin G; Belzile, Eric; Dendukuri, Nandini; Elie, Michel; Laplante, Johanne

    2005-01-01

    Background Family practitioners take care of large numbers of seniors with increasingly complex mental health problems. Varying levels of input may be necessary from psychiatric consultants. This study examines patients'/family, family practitioners', and psychiatrists' perceptions of the bi-directional pathway between such primary care doctors and consultants. Methods An 18 month survey was conducted in an out-patient psychogeriatric clinic of a Montreal university-affiliated community hospital. Cognitively intact seniors referred by family practitioners for assessment completed a satisfaction and expectation survey following their visits with the psychiatric consultants. The latter completed a self-administered process of care questionnaire at the end of the visit, while family doctors responded to a similar survey by telephone after the consultants' reports had been received. Responses of the 3 groups were compared. Results 101 seniors, referred from 63 family practitioners, met the study entry criteria for assessment by 1 of 3 psychogeriatricians. Both psychiatrists and family doctors agreed that help with management was the most common reason for referral. Family physicians were accepting of care of elderly with mental health problems, but preferred that the psychiatrists assume the initial treatment; the consultants preferred direct return of the patient; and almost 1/2 of patients did not know what to expect from the consultation visit. The rates of discordance in expectations were high when each unique patient-family doctor-psychiatrist triad was examined. Conclusion Gaps in expectations exist amongst family doctors, psychiatrists, and patients/family in the shared mental health care of seniors. Goals and anticipated outcomes of psychogeriatric consultation require better definition. PMID:15840163

  20. The effect of waiting times from general practitioner referral to MRI or orthopaedic consultation for the knee on patient-based outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brealey, S; Andronis, L; Dale, V; Gibbon, A J; Gilbert, F J; Hendry, M; Hood, K; King, D; Wilkinson, C

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to test for the effect of waiting time from general practitioner (GP) referral to MRI or to orthopaedic consultation on outcomes of patients with knee problems, and to test whether any characteristics of trial participants predicted waiting time to MRI or orthopaedics. We undertook secondary analyses of data on 553 participants from a randomised trial who were recruited from 163 general practices during November 2002 to October 2004. Of the patients allocated to MRI, 263 (94%) had an MRI, and of those referred to orthopaedics, 236 (86%) had an orthopaedic consultation. The median (interquartile range) waiting time in days from randomisation to MRI was 41.0 (21.0-71.0) and to orthopaedic appointment was 78.5 (54.5-167.5). Waiting time was found to have no significant effect on patient outcome for both the Short Form 36-item (SF-36) physical functioning score (p=0.570) and the Knee Quality of Life 26-item (KQoL-26) physical functioning score (p=0.268). There was weak evidence that males waited less time for their MRI (p=0.049) and older patients waited longer for their orthopaedic referral (p=0.049). For patients who resided in the catchment areas of some centres there were significantly longer waiting times for both MRI and orthopaedic appointment. Where patients reside is a strong predictor of waiting time for access to services such as MRI or orthopaedics. There is no evidence to suggest, however, that this has a significant effect on physical well-being in the short term for patients with knee problems.

  1. Improving developmental screening documentation and referral completion.

    PubMed

    Talmi, Ayelet; Bunik, Maya; Asherin, Ryan; Rannie, Michael; Watlington, Tyler; Beaty, Brenda; Berman, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Screening, early identification, and referral improves outcomes for young children at risk for developmental delays. Effective developmental screening processes should include efforts to ensure referral completion and documentation of evaluation results and service eligibility in the child's medical record. Our objectives were to improve provider documentation of actions taken after an abnormal developmental screening result and increase Early Intervention (State Part C) referrals. Various strategies including an electronic medical record template, monthly clinical informatics reporting, and a phone follow-up after an abnormal screening result were implemented to enhance provider documentation of screening results and improve referral actions and outcomes. Of the children eligible for screening (n = 3023), 2610 (86%) were screened, with 382 (15%) scoring in the abnormal range. With phone follow-up, 50% of the abnormal screenings were referred to community resources, including 43% to Early Intervention (EI), in contrast to 20% community referrals and 13% EI referrals with the screening template only (P < .0001). Provider documentation of EI outcomes increased when screening templates and follow-up calls were implemented together (31%) as compared with using the screening template alone (15%). Enhanced documentation of developmental screening efforts using screening templates and clinical informatics reporting in combination with phone follow-up after an abnormal screening result improved developmental screening outcomes, including referral rates, completed evaluations, and provider documentation of EI services. Such strategies can be effectively used in pediatric primary care settings to improve screening processes and ensure that young children access appropriate services. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. What's the Right Referral Rate? Specialty Referral Patterns and Curricula Across I3 Collaborative Primary Care Residencies.

    PubMed

    Gwynne, Mark; Page, Cristen; Reid, Alfred; Donahue, Katrina; Newton, Warren

    2017-02-01

    Specialty physician visits account for a significant portion of ambulatory visits nationally, contribute significantly to cost of care, and are increasing over the past decade. Marked variability in referral rates exists among primary care practices without obvious causality. We present data describing the referral process and specialty referral curriculum within the I3 collaborative. Residency directors were surveyed about residency characteristics related to referrals. Specialty physician referral rates were obtained from each program and then correlated to program characteristics referral rates in four domains: presence and type of referral curriculum, process of referral review, faculty preceptor characteristics, and use of referral data for administrative processes. The survey response rate was 87%; 10 programs submitted complete referral data. Three programs (23%) reported a formal curriculum addressing the process of making a referral, and four programs (31%) reported a curriculum on appropriateness of subspecialty referrals. Specialty referral rates varied from 7%-31% of active residency patients, with no relationship to age, payor status, or race. Marked variability in referral rates and patterns exist within primary care residency training programs. Specialty referral practices are a key driver of total cost of care yet few curricula exist that address appropriateness, quantity, or process of specialty referrals. Practice patterns often develop during residency training, therefore an opportunity exists to improve training and practice around referrals.

  3. A randomised controlled trial of joint consultations with general practitioners and cardiologists in primary care.

    PubMed Central

    Vlek, J F; Vierhout, W P M; Knottnerus, J A; Schmitz, J J; Winter, J; Wesselingh-Megens, A M K; Crebolder, H F

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Joint consultation sessions of a small group of general practitioners (GPs) and a specialist in orthopaedics proved to be an effective way of decreasing the referral rate of orthopaedic patients. Cardiac complaints comprise an important category of health problems with high referral rates. AIMS: To study the effects of joint consultation on the quality of care and referrals for patients with cardiac complaints. DESIGN OF STUDY: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Forty-nine GPs participated in 16 consultation groups, each with one of 13 cardiologists, in monthly joint consultations over a period of about 18 months. METHOD: The GPs selected patients about whom they were uncertain, and those needing urgent referral were excluded. Patients were randomly assigned to joint consultation or to usual care. After a follow-up period all patients had a joint consultation for outcome assessment. Referral data were provided by two regional health insurance companies and questionnaires were given to the patients, GPs, and cardiologists to gauge their opinion of the trial. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-eight patients in the intervention group and 158 patients in the control group fulfilled the whole protocol. The quality of care was similar in both groups. In the intervention group, 34% of the patients were referred, compared with 55% in the control group (P = 0.001), and fewer patients underwent further diagnostic procedures (7% compared with 16%, P = 0.013). Referrals to cardiology as a proportion of all referrals decreased in the practices of the participating GPs, compared with their reference districts (P = 0.024). CONCLUSION: Joint consultation is an effective method that provides a quality of care that at least equals usual care and that contributes to a better selection of patients who need specialist care. PMID:12817355

  4. USAR Nurse Referral and Retention Program.

    PubMed

    Foley, J E; Foley, B J

    1992-09-01

    In 1987, the 804th Hospital Center made alleviating the shortfall of registered nurses in the Command a priority. The Command had only 79% of its registered nurse positions filled at the time. Using the recruitment strategies of an employee referral program and a mailing list, the Command reached 100% fill in 2 years and maintained those gains for an additional year. Retention strategies were also implemented which lowered the attrition rate. This paper describes the Army Nurse Referral and Retention Program developed and implemented at the 804th Hospital Center that relieved the shortfall of registered nurses in the United States Army Reserve in New England.

  5. [Teledermatological consultation].

    PubMed

    Knol, A; Damstra, R J; van den Akker, Th W; de Haan, J

    2004-02-14

    Teledermatological consultation can be effected in two ways. One is 'store-and-forward' which involves storing photographic digital images and sending them to a consultant dermatologist who then replies by e-mail, and the other is by videoconferencing using a real time interactive audiovisual link. In daily general practice the first method is the easiest to implement. In 76-90% of cases, a diagnosis or differential diagnosis made in this way corresponds with the diagnosis made at the more usual face-to-face examination. The advantage of teledermatological consultation is that diagnosis and therapy take place faster than after regular referral and it is better than no referral at all. The referring physician should deliver data on the patient's history and physical examination in a standardized format. The same is true for the encoded personal data, the working diagnosis, and referral request. One overview and 2 detailed photos from two angles are normally taken. The overview shows the extent and localization of the skin abnormality. The patient has to consent to a teledermatological consultation. The responsibility for the treatment lies with the doctor who sees the patient face-to-face. The data that is transmitted must be encrypted or coded in such a way that it cannot be traced back to one particular person.

  6. Communication Consulting as Persuasion: Issues and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Roseanna G.

    Focusing on the issue of the training and preparation of the communication specialist in communication consulting, an investigation of the persuasive elements in the client-consulting relationship suggests that more direct focus on consulting as persuasion can lead to more responsible and effective enactment of the role of both consultant and…

  7. Referral Finder: Saving Time and Improving The Quality of In-hospital Referrals.

    PubMed

    Cathcart, Jennifer; Cowan, Neil; Tully, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Making referrals to other hospital specialties is one of the key duties of the foundation doctor, which can be difficult and time consuming. In Ninewells hospital, Scotland, in our experience the effectiveness of referrals is limited by contact details not being readily accessible and foundation doctors not knowing what information is relevant to each specialty. We surveyed foundation doctors on their experience of the existing referral process to identify where we needed to focus to improve the process. The doctors reported significant delays in obtaining contact details from the operator, and found they did not know the specific information needed in each referral. To increase the information available to foundation doctors, we set up a page on the staff intranet called 'Referral Finder'. This page includes contact details, guidelines for referral, and links to relevant protocols for each specialty. By making this information readily accessible our objective was to increase the speed and quality of referrals. When surveyed two months after the web page was established, foundation doctors reported a reduction in calls to operator from baseline and reported achieving more effective referrals. When asked to comment, many doctors asked if the page could include details for other hospitals in our health board and provide more specialty specific information. This feedback prompted us to extend the scope of the page to include the district general hospital in our region, and update many of the existing details. Doctors were then surveyed after the updates, 100% agreed that the website saved time and there was a 49.3% reduction in doctors who reported not knowing the specific information needed for a referral. Having adequate information improved referrals and resulted in time saved. This would allow more time for patient care. The quality improvement project was praised among doctors as a useful, innovative and replicable project.

  8. Trust and the Client-Consultant Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomonson, William L.

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to improve the contributions of performance consultants, instructional design consultants, and training consultants by explaining the effect that several variables have on trust as a mediator to relationship commitment within the context of the client-consultant relationship. The participants were 228 college students from two…

  9. Trust and the Client-Consultant Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomonson, William L.

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to improve the contributions of performance consultants, instructional design consultants, and training consultants by explaining the effect that several variables have on trust as a mediator to relationship commitment within the context of the client-consultant relationship. The participants were 228 college students from two…

  10. Information and Referral Service, District Office Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health and Welfare Council of Central Maryland, Inc., Baltimore.

    Within a standard format the details of instruction and training in various areas (units) of information and referral (I and R) services are given for Social Security Administration workers. Each unit is specified by the following categories: objective, special consideration, background, presentation, participation, review, and examples. There are…

  11. Acute Care Referral Systems in Liberia: Transfer and Referral Capabilities in a Low-Income Country.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jimin; Barreix, Maria; Babcock, Christine; Bills, Corey B

    2017-07-27

    Introduction Following two decades of armed conflict in Liberia, over 95% of health care facilities were partially or completely destroyed. Although the Liberian health system has undergone significant rehabilitation, one particular weakness is the lack of organized systems for referral and prehospital care. Acute care referral systems are a critical component of effective health care delivery and have led to improved quality of care and patient outcomes. Problem This study aimed to characterize the referral and transfer systems in the largest county of Liberia. A cross-sectional, health referral survey of a representative sample of health facilities in Montserrado County, Liberia was performed. A systematic random sample of all primary health care (PHC) clinics, fraction proportional to district population size, and all secondary and tertiary health facilities were included in the study sample. Collected data included baseline information about the health facility, patient flow, and qualitative and quantitative data regarding referral practices. A total of 62 health facilities-41 PHC clinics, 11 health centers (HCs), and 10 referral hospitals (RHs)-were surveyed during the 6-week study period. In sum, three percent of patients were referred to a higher-level of care. Communication between health facilities was largely unsystematic, with lack of specific protocols (n=3; 5.0%) and standardized documentation (n=26; 44.0%) for referral. While most health facilities reported walking as the primary means by which patients presented to initial health facilities (n=50; 81.0%), private vehicles, including commercial taxis (n=37; 60.0%), were the primary transport mechanism for referral of patients between health facilities. This study identified several weaknesses in acute care referral systems in Liberia, including lack of systematic care protocols for transfer, documentation, communication, and transport. However, several informal, well-functioning mechanisms for

  12. Narrative and Structure in Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, David

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the process of consultation to professional networks, teams, groups and individuals concerned with the mental health of children and young people in the care system, and those adopted. Frequently there are significant elements of early trauma suffered by the young people and disruption in the professional organisation. The…

  13. [Structured electronic consultation letter for shoulder disorders].

    PubMed

    Paloneva, Juha; Oikari, Marjo; Ylinen, Jari; Ingalsuo, Minna; Ilkka, Kunnamo; Ilkka, Kiviranta

    2012-01-01

    Referral to a specialist has a significant influence on management of the patient and costs associated with the treatments. However, development and research of the process by which patients are referred has been almost neglected. Expectations considering the purpose, contents, and timing of the referral of the consulting physician and the consultant do not always meet. A structured, electronic consultation letter was developed to respond this need. Functionality and interactivity are the key elements of the referral, including (1) an electronic referral letter to a specialist, (2) interactive education in clinical examination and management of shoulder disorders, and (3) an instrument of clinical examination and documentation of shoulder disorders.

  14. Consultative Instructor Supervision and Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, William W.

    2010-01-01

    Organizations vary greatly in how they monitor training instructors. The methods used in monitoring vary greatly. This article presents a systematic process for improving instructor skills that result in better teaching and better learning, which results in better-prepared employees for the workforce. The consultative supervision and evaluation…

  15. 49 CFR 655.62 - Referral, evaluation, and treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Referral, evaluation, and treatment. 655.62... OPERATIONS Consequences § 655.62 Referral, evaluation, and treatment. If a covered employee has a verified... and treatment programs....

  16. 49 CFR 655.62 - Referral, evaluation, and treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Referral, evaluation, and treatment. 655.62... OPERATIONS Consequences § 655.62 Referral, evaluation, and treatment. If a covered employee has a verified... and treatment programs. ...

  17. When consultants and clients clash.

    PubMed

    Kesner, I F; Fowler, S

    1997-01-01

    This fictitious case study explores the issues that surround the relationships between consultants and their clients, as well as the dynamics of a newly merged organization. Susan Barlow, a senior consultant with the Statler Group, dreaded her upcoming status meeting. She had thought it a lucky break when she got assigned to the Kellogg-Champion project. Royce Kellogg, the CEO of the newly merged firm, had engaged the Statler Group for what seemed a simple project: to reconcile the policies and practices of the two former firms now that they had become one. But once on the job, Barlow realized that the issues were much more complex than they had seemed. The new firm needed help badly-but not the kind of help that the client had led Barlow to believe it needed. What would she and Jim Roussos, her partner on the assignment, tell Kellogg at the meeting? Kellogg, for his part, was not looking forward to the status meeting, either. From his point of view, the consultants had caused more problems than they had solved. What's more, he wasn't even dealing with the consultants he had hired. Where was George Gray, the senior partner he had met with originally? Maybe Barlow and Roussos were just too young and inexperienced. Kellogg felt he was getting a raw deal. How would he approach them in the morning? Should he fire them or make an attempt at damage control? Two experts advise the consultants and two advise the client on how to handle the status meeting.

  18. Depression in older adults: screening and referral.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Edgar Ramos; Brown, Ellen; Raue, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Depression is related to disability and affects rehabilitation participation, outcomes, and compliance with treatment. Improving older adult depression detection and referral requires knowledge, skills, supportive organizational policies, and access to mental health experts. This review provides a selected overview of evidence-based approaches for screening of suspected cases of depression in older adults by physical therapists and other non-mental health professionals and discusses procedures to refer suspected cases to primary care providers and/or mental health specialists for evaluation, including resources and a tool to assist in communicating depression-related information to the primary care provider or mental health specialist. We hope that this review will promote the incorporation of evidence-based screening and referral of suspected cases of depression in older adults into routine practice.

  19. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: Early detection and referral

    PubMed Central

    Oldham, Justin M.; Noth, Imre

    2016-01-01

    Summary Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a devastating progressive interstitial lung disease (ILD) with no known cause or cure, is the most common and deadly of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. With a median survival of 3–5 years following diagnosis, IPF is characterized by a progressive decline in lung function and quality of life in most patients. Vigilance among clinicians in recognizing IPF early in the disease course remains critical to properly caring for these patients, as this provides the widest range of management options. When IPF is suspected, a multidisciplinary evaluation (MDE) by a clinician, radiologist and pathologist with ILD expertise should occur, as this improves diagnostic agreement in both community and academic settings. When community MDE is not possible, or diagnostic doubt exists, referral to an ILD center should be considered. ILD center referral may also provide access specialized care, including clinical trials and lung transplantation, and should be considered for any patient with an established diagnosis of IPF. PMID:24746629

  20. Characteristics of Successful and Unsuccessful Mental Health Referrals of Refugees.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Patricia J; Vinson, Gregory A; Cook, Tonya L; Lennon, Evelyn

    2016-07-01

    In this community based participatory research study, we explored key characteristics of mental health referrals of refugees using stories of providers collected through an on-line survey. Ten coders sorted 60 stories of successful referrals and 34 stories of unsuccessful referrals into domains using the critical incident technique. Principal components analysis yielded categories of successful referrals that included: active care coordination, establishing trust, proactive resolution of barriers, and culturally responsive care. Unsuccessful referrals were characterized by cultural barriers, lack of care coordination, refusal to see refugees, and system and language barriers. Recommendations for training and policy are discussed.

  1. Observed Consultation: Confidence and Accuracy of Assessors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweed, Mike; Ingham, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Judgments made by the assessors observing consultations are widely used in the assessment of medical students. The aim of this research was to study judgment accuracy and confidence and the relationship between these. Assessors watched recordings of consultations, scoring the students on: a checklist of items; attributes of consultation; a…

  2. Observed Consultation: Confidence and Accuracy of Assessors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweed, Mike; Ingham, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Judgments made by the assessors observing consultations are widely used in the assessment of medical students. The aim of this research was to study judgment accuracy and confidence and the relationship between these. Assessors watched recordings of consultations, scoring the students on: a checklist of items; attributes of consultation; a…

  3. Monitoring the referral system through benchmarking in rural Niger: an evaluation of the functional relation between health centres and the district hospital

    PubMed Central

    Bossyns, Paul; Abache, Ranaou; Abdoulaye, Mahaman S; Miyé, Hamidou; Depoorter, Anne-Marie; Van Lerberghe, Wim

    2006-01-01

    Background The main objective of this study is to establish a benchmark for referral rates in rural Niger so as to allow interpretation of routine referral data to assess the performance of the referral system in Niger. Methods Strict and controlled application of existing clinical decision trees in a sample of rural health centres allowed the estimation of the corresponding need for and characteristics of curative referrals in rural Niger. Compliance of referral was monitored as well. Need was matched against actual referral in 11 rural districts. The referral patterns were registered so as to get an idea on the types of pathology referred. Results The referral rate benchmark was set at 2.5 % of patients consulting at the health centre for curative reasons. Niger's rural districts have a referral rate of less than half this benchmark. Acceptability of referrals is low for the population and is adding to the deficient referral system in Niger. Mortality because of under-referral is highest among young children. Conclusion Referral patterns show that the present programme approach to deliver health care leaves a large amount of unmet need for which only comprehensive first and second line health services can provide a proper answer. On the other hand, the benchmark suggests that well functioning health centres can take care of the vast majority of problems patients present with. PMID:16608534

  4. Consultation Barriers between Teachers and External Consultants: A Grounded Theory of Change Resistance in School Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study, conducted in Sweden, was to investigate the cultural barriers between school personnel (teachers and principals) and nonschool personnel (a resource team), who were external to the school system, regarding consultation about challenging or difficult-to-teach students. Focus groups with teachers, principals, and the resource…

  5. Consultation Barriers between Teachers and External Consultants: A Grounded Theory of Change Resistance in School Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study, conducted in Sweden, was to investigate the cultural barriers between school personnel (teachers and principals) and nonschool personnel (a resource team), who were external to the school system, regarding consultation about challenging or difficult-to-teach students. Focus groups with teachers, principals, and the resource…

  6. Comprehensive arthritis referral study -- phase 2: analysis of the comprehensive arthritis referral tool.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Andrew E; Haig, Sara L; LeRiche, Nicole G H; Rohekar, Gina; Rohekar, Sherry; Pope, Janet E

    2014-10-01

    Rheumatologists triage referrals to assess those patients who may benefit from early intervention. We describe a referral tool and formally evaluate its sensitivity for urgent and early inflammatory arthritis (EIA) referrals. All referrals received on a standardized referral tool were reviewed by a rheumatologist and, based on the information conferred, assigned a triage grade using a previously described triage system. Each referral was also dichotomized as suspected EIA or not. After the initial rheumatologic assessment, the diagnosis was recorded and a consultation grade, blinded to referral grade, was assigned to each case. Agreement between referral and consultation grades was assessed. A regression analysis was performed to determine factors that predicted truly urgent referrals including EIA. We evaluated 696 referrals. A total of 210 (30.2%) were categorized as urgent at the time of consultation. The referral tool was able to successfully detect 169 of these referrals (sensitivity 80.5%, specificity 79.4%). EIA occurred in 95 (13.6%); of those referrals, 86 were correctly classified as urgent at the time of triage (sensitivity 90.5%, specificity 69.6%). Items that helped correctly discriminate urgent or EIA referrals included patient age < 60, duration of disease, morning stiffness, patient-reported joint swelling, a personal or family history of psoriasis, urgency as rated by referring physician, prior assessment by a rheumatologist, elevated C-reactive protein, and a positive rheumatoid factor. A 1-page referral tool that includes parts completed by the referring physician and patient has good sensitivity to detect urgent referrals including EIA.

  7. Conscientious Objection and "Effective Referral".

    PubMed

    Trigg, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Complicity in an immoral, and even criminal, activity, such as robbery or murder, is itself regarded as involving responsibility for those acts. What should the position be of health professionals who are expected to participate in actions that they believe are morally wrong? Professional responsibilities may clash with private conscience. Even referring a patient to someone else, when what is in question may be assisted suicide, or euthanasia, seems to involve some complicity. This is a live issue in Canada, but similar dilemmas occur elsewhere. Physicians and others should not be coerced into involvement of any kind in what they regard as wrong. Such coercion goes against the very principles of liberal democracy. Conscience matters. Reasonable accommodation should be given to those whose moral judgment may be at variance with prevailing professional norms. Moral questions should still be given weight within medicine, and disagreements respected. Dedication to the promotion of human welfare should be paramount, but it should be recognized that there may be different visions of what such welfare consists of.

  8. Summary of the proceedings of the international forum 2016: "Imaging referral guidelines and clinical decision support - how can radiologists implement imaging referral guidelines in clinical routine?"

    PubMed

    2017-02-01

    The International Forum is held once a year by the ESR and its international radiological partner societies with the aim to address and discuss selected subjects of global relevance in radiology. In 2016, the issue of implementing imaging referral guidelines in clinical routine was analysed. The legal environment in the USA requires that after January 1, 2017, physicians must consult government-approved, evidence-based appropriate-use criteria through a clinical decision support system when ordering advanced diagnostic imaging exams. The ESR and the National Decision Support Company are developing "ESR iGuide", a clinical decision support system for European imaging referral guidelines using ESR imaging referral guidelines based on ACR Appropriateness Criteria. In many regions of the world, the situation is different and quite diverse, depending on the specific features of health care systems in different countries, but there are, unlike in the USA and EU, no legal obligations to implement imaging referral guidelines into the clinical practice. Imaging referral guidelines and clinical decision support implementation is a complex issue everywhere and the legal environment surrounding it even more so; how they will be implemented into the clinical practice in different areas of the world needs yet to be decided.

  9. Referral and management options for patients with chronic kidney disease: perspectives of patients, generalists and specialists.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Charlotte; Campbell, Stephen M; Luker, Karen A; Caress, Ann-Louise

    2015-06-01

    Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is increasing in prevalence and significance as a global public health issue. Appropriate management of CKD stages 3-4 in either generalist or specialist care is essential in order to slow disease progression. As various consulting options between services may be used, it is important to understand how patients and practitioners view these options. To elicit patient and practitioner views and preferences on the acceptability and appropriateness of referral practices and consulting options for CKD stage 3-4. A mixed methods approach involving a semi-structured interview and structured rating exercise administered by telephone. Adult (18+) patients with CKD stage 3-4 were recruited via their General Practitioner (GP). Practitioners were recruited from both general and specialist services. Sixteen patients and twenty-two practitioners participated in the study between July and September, 2011. Both patients and practitioners preferred 'GP with access to a specialist' and least preferred 'Specialist Review'. Computer review and telephone review were acceptable to participants under certain conditions. Practitioners favoured generalist management of patients with CKD 3. Specialists recommended active discharge of patients with stabilised stage 4 back to generalist care. Both generalists and specialists strongly supported sharing patients' medical records via electronic consultation systems. Participants tended to prefer the current model of CKD management. Suggested improvements included; increasing the involvement of patients in referral and discharge decisions; improving the adequacy of information given to specialists on referral and encouraging further use of clinical guidelines in practice. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Screening for hearing loss versus parental concern regarding hearing problems: Subsequent referral and treatment for otitis media in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Lok, Willeke; Anteunis, Lucien J. C.; Chenault, Michelene N.; Meesters, Cor; Haggard, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The present study investigates whether general practitioner (GP) consultation initiated by failing the population hearing screening at age nine months or GP consultation because of parental concern over ear/hearing problems was more important in deciding on referral and/or surgical treatment of otitis media (OM). Design A questionnaire covering the history between birth and 21 months of age was used to obtain information on referral after failing the hearing screening, GP consultations for ear/hearing problems, and subsequent referral to a specialist and possible surgical treatment at an ENT department. Setting The province of Limburg, the Netherlands. Subjects Healthy infants invited for the hearing screening at age nine months, who responded in an earlier study called PEPPER (Persistent Ear Problems, Providing Evidence for Referral, response rate 58%). Main outcome measures The odds of a child being surgically treated for OM. Results The response rate for the present questionnaire was 72%. Of all children tested, 3.9% failed the hearing screening and were referred to their GP. Of all 2619 children in this study, 18.6% visited their GP with ear/hearing problems. Children failing the hearing screening without GP consultation for ear/hearing problems were significantly more often treated surgically for OM than children passing the hearing screening but with GP consultation for ear/hearing problems. Conclusion Objectified hearing loss, i.e. failing the hearing screening, was important in the decision for surgical treatment in infants in the Netherlands. PMID:22794165

  11. Requirements and characteristics of 500 consecutive patients consulting an ophthalmic medical practitioner.

    PubMed Central

    Claoué, C M

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a prospective survey on 500 consecutive patients consulting an ophthalmic medical practitioner. The reason for consultation, and results of refraction and examination were analysed. The majority required only a refraction. One in 8 visits was for primary ophthalmic health care other than refraction. An abnormality of the visual system (other than refractive error) was present in 19% of patients. Five per cent required referral to their general practitioner. PMID:3411589

  12. Is an online skin cancer toolkit an effective way to educate primary care physicians about skin cancer diagnosis and referral?

    PubMed

    Gulati, A; Harwood, C A; Rolph, J; Pottinger, E; Mcgregor, J M; Goad, N; Proby, C M

    2015-11-01

    Skin disorders account for over 20% of GP consultations. Half of dermatology referrals to secondary care are for skin lesions, but only 12% of urgent skin cancer referrals are deemed appropriate. Suitably designed online learning resources may positively impact GP confidence in the recognition of skin cancer and improve patient outcomes. This study evaluated the impact of a national, online, skin cancer recognition toolkit on GP confidence and knowledge in diagnosing skin cancers and referral behaviour to secondary care. The toolkit, consisting of a referral decision aid, lesion recognition resource, clinical cases and a quiz, was launched in March 2012. Website usage statistics and online focus groups were used to assess the usability of the website and perceived changes in behaviour. The impact of the toolkit was assessed using national skin cancer referral data, cross-sectional questionnaires and urgent skin cancer referral data to two NHS trusts. The toolkit was accessed by 20% of GPs in England from 20th March to 31st October 2012; spending a mean of over 5 minutes each, with over 33% return users. A survey revealed that the toolkit improved perceptions of skin cancer training and self-reported knowledge about skin cancer referral pathways. Analysis of referral patterns did not identify an impact of the toolkit on number or appropriateness of urgent skin cancer referrals in the eight months following the launch of the website. Online focus groups confirmed the usefulness of the resource and suggested a positive influence on knowledge and referral behaviour. The skin cancer toolkit is an accessible online learning resource for improving confidence with skin cancer referral amongst GPs. Although we were unable to identify any immediate changes in skin cancer diagnoses or appropriate referral behaviours, research is required to evaluate its longer term effects on outcomes. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  13. Initial management of infertility: an audit of pre-referral investigations and exploration of couples' views at the interface of primary and secondary care.

    PubMed

    Morrison, C; Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Bhattacharya, S; Hamilton, M; Templeton, A; Smith, B; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2007-03-01

    This study aimed to audit pre-referral investigations in primary care, and survey patients' views on the referral process from primary to secondary care. Referral letters and case notes of 250 consecutive couples referred to the Aberdeen Fertility Centre were audited in order to establish whether mid-luteal serum progesterone, rubella status and semen analysis had been performed. Couples attending a specialist hospital clinic for the first time completed a questionnaire on their experience of the referral process and consultation. Mid-luteal progesterone was performed in 105 (51%) cases, rubella status checked in 42 (20%) cases and semen analysis arranged in 70 (34%) cases. Overall, 274 (93%) patients were satisfied or very satisfied with the hospital consultation compared to 216 (84%) who utilised the general practitioner (GP) consultation (p < or = 0.001); 79 (59%) women and 91 (68%) men wanted the current system of GP referral to continue (p < 0.001); and 74 (56%) women and 69 (52%) men (p < 0.001) favoured the option of direct self-referral. Despite high levels of satisfaction among couples, there is scope for further improvement in terms of pre-referral fertility investigations. Further evaluation of the referral process is needed, and potential changes to the existing system should be considered.

  14. Referrals and relationships: in-practice referrals meetings in a general practice.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, G; Willis, S; Singleton, A

    2001-08-01

    GP referrals to secondary care are an important factor in the cost of running the NHS. The known variation in referral rates between doctors has the potential to cause tension within primary care which will be exacerbated by the latest reorganization of primary care and the trend towards capitation-based budgets. The importance of postgraduate learning for GPs has been recognized; continuing professional development is moving towards self-directed practice-based learning programmes. Educational interventions have been shown to alter doctors' prescribing behaviour. This, together with the pressure on accounting for referral activity, makes the prospect of improving, and possibly reducing, referral activity through educational interventions very attractive. This study complemented a randomized controlled trial (RCT) which investigated whether an intervention of the type which had reduced prescribing costs would have a similar effect on referral activity. The context of the study, description of the characteristics of the practice and the issues seen as important by the doctors and practice manager were identified through preliminary semi-structured interviews. The practice then held a series of educational in-practice meetings to discuss referrals and issues arising from referrals. The audio- and videotaped transcripts were interpreted using content and group dynamic analysis. Participants commented upon our preliminary findings. In addition, we used dimensional analysis to induce a preliminary theory describing the effect of the intervention on this general practice which enabled us to review the findings of the parallel RCT. The educational value of the meetings and the learning needs of the participants were also assessed. Our complementary study showed no alteration of practice referral rates following the educational intervention. The qualitative study, unencumbered by the assumptions inherent in the development of the hypothesis tested in the RCT, highlighted

  15. Using web technology and Java mobile software agents to manage outside referrals.

    PubMed

    Murphy, S N; Ng, T; Sittig, D F; Barnett, G O

    1998-01-01

    A prototype, web-based referral application was created with the objective of providing outside primary care providers (PCP's) the means to refer patients to the Massachusetts General Hospital and the Brigham and Women's Hospital. The application was designed to achieve the two primary objectives of providing the consultant with enough data to make decisions even at the initial visit, and providing the PCP with a prompt response from the consultant. The system uses a web browser/server to initiate the referral and Java mobile software agents to support the workflow of the referral. This combination provides a light client implementation that can run on a wide variety of hardware and software platforms found in the office of the PCP. The implementation can guarantee a high degree of security for the computer of the PCP. Agents can be adapted to support the wide variety of data types that may be used in referral transactions, including reports with complex presentation needs and scanned (faxed) images Agents can be delivered to the PCP as running applications that can perform ongoing queries and alerts at the office of the PCP. Finally, the agent architecture is designed to scale in a natural and seamless manner for unforeseen future needs.

  16. Using web technology and Java mobile software agents to manage outside referrals.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, S. N.; Ng, T.; Sittig, D. F.; Barnett, G. O.

    1998-01-01

    A prototype, web-based referral application was created with the objective of providing outside primary care providers (PCP's) the means to refer patients to the Massachusetts General Hospital and the Brigham and Women's Hospital. The application was designed to achieve the two primary objectives of providing the consultant with enough data to make decisions even at the initial visit, and providing the PCP with a prompt response from the consultant. The system uses a web browser/server to initiate the referral and Java mobile software agents to support the workflow of the referral. This combination provides a light client implementation that can run on a wide variety of hardware and software platforms found in the office of the PCP. The implementation can guarantee a high degree of security for the computer of the PCP. Agents can be adapted to support the wide variety of data types that may be used in referral transactions, including reports with complex presentation needs and scanned (faxed) images Agents can be delivered to the PCP as running applications that can perform ongoing queries and alerts at the office of the PCP. Finally, the agent architecture is designed to scale in a natural and seamless manner for unforeseen future needs. PMID:9929190

  17. General Education Teachers' Knowledge and Self-Reported Use of Classroom Interventions for Working with Difficult-To-Teach Students: Implications for Consultation, Prereferral Intervention and Inclusive Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Caryll Palmer; Gutkin, Terry B.; Hagen, Kenneth M.; Oats, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    Teachers (N=20) described problems, goals, interventions, data collection, and consultation practices employed across prereferral, prereferral intervention, referral, and postreferral phases of service delivery for mildly handicapped students. Findings highlight teachers' difficulties with data collection and intervention practices. Implications…

  18. General Education Teachers' Knowledge and Self-Reported Use of Classroom Interventions for Working with Difficult-To-Teach Students: Implications for Consultation, Prereferral Intervention and Inclusive Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Caryll Palmer; Gutkin, Terry B.; Hagen, Kenneth M.; Oats, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    Teachers (N=20) described problems, goals, interventions, data collection, and consultation practices employed across prereferral, prereferral intervention, referral, and postreferral phases of service delivery for mildly handicapped students. Findings highlight teachers' difficulties with data collection and intervention practices. Implications…

  19. Outpatient clinic referrals and their outcome.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, F M; Hoare, T; Gilmour, H

    1992-03-01

    A cohort of 392 patients referred to six outpatient clinics by general practitioners during 1987 with diagnoses of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, peripheral vascular disease, psoriasis or eczema, were studied from the time of their first attendance until up to two years later. Six consultant clinics were studied in the three specialties: rheumatology, vascular surgery and dermatology. For each specialty a clinic in both a teaching hospital and a district general hospital were included. The cohort members were predominantly middle-aged or elderly people, with a greater proportion of women, except at the vascular surgery clinic where 65% of patients were men. The 392 patients made a total of 936 visits (median two, range one-eight) during the study period; 91 patients were still attending up to two years after the first visit. Patients referred by their general practitioner for therapy were less likely to be discharged than those referred for other reasons. The principal reason for continuing attendance as perceived by patients, general practitioners and hospital doctors was the necessity for consultant supervision, although agreement was far from complete in individual cases. Junior staff tended to see a higher proportion of patients at follow-up visits than did consultants, and were found to have lower discharge rates than consultants. Analyses of data showed that at the first visit, diagnosis, disease severity and the grade of doctor seeing the patient in the clinic was significantly associated with patient discharge at the P < 0.05 level of significance. Patients considered that their visits had produced improvement in their condition in 38% of cases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Web-based consultation between general practitioners and nephrologists: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    van Gelder, Vincent A; Scherpbier-de Haan, Nynke D; van Berkel, Saskia; Akkermans, Reinier P; de Grauw, Inge S; Adang, Eddy M; Assendelft, Pim J; de Grauw, Wim J C; Biermans, Marion C J; Wetzels, Jack F M

    2017-08-01

    Consultation of a nephrologist is important in aligning care for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) at the primary-secondary care interface. However, current consultation methods come with practical difficulties that can lead to postponed consultation or patient referral instead. This study aimed to investigate whether a web-based consultation platform, telenephrology, led to a lower referral rate of indicated patients. Furthermore, we assessed consultation rate, quality of care, costs and general practitioner (GPs') experiences with telenephrology. Cluster randomized controlled trial with 47 general practices in the Netherlands was randomized to access to telenephrology or to enhanced usual care. A total of 3004 CKD patients aged 18 years or older who were under primary care were included (intervention group n = 1277, control group n = 1727) and 2693 completed the trial. All practices participated in a CKD management course and were given an overview of their CKD patients. The referral rates amounted to 2.3% (n = 29) in the intervention group and 3.0% (n = 52) in the control group, which was a non-significant difference, OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.31 to 1.23. The intervention group's consultation rate was 6.3% (n = 81) against 5.0% (n = 87) (OR 2.00; 95% CI 0.75-5.33). We found no difference in quality of care or costs. The majority of GPs had a positive opinion about telenephrology. The data in our study do not allow for conclusions on the effect of telenephrology on the rate of patient referrals and provider-to-provider consultations, compared to conventional methods. It was positively evaluated by GPs and was non-inferior in terms of quality of care and costs.

  1. Reading Intervention and Special Education Referrals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polcyn, Dawn M.; Levine-Donnerstein, Deborah; Perfect, Michelle M.; Obrzut, John E.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether consistently implementing reading fluency interventions prior to referring students for a special education evaluation led to fewer overall special education referrals, as well as more accurate special education referrals. Results indicated that the implementation of a peer-mediated reading fluency intervention…

  2. ETP and Its Subcontractors and Consultants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Richard W.; Blake, Daniel R.; Anacker, Christopher; Cohen, Michael D.

    This study examined the role of subcontractors and consultants in California's Employment Training Panel (ETP) program. Methods included interviews, focus groups, a phone survey, and a survey of projects without subcontractors. Results indicated that the market in which administrative and training consultants sell their services to employers is…

  3. Quality of consultation and the project 'Support and Consultation on Euthanasia in the Netherlands' (SCEN).

    PubMed

    Jansen-van der Weide, Marijke Catharina; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje Dorien; van der Wal, Gerrit

    2007-01-01

    Consultation of another physician is one of the requirements for prudent practice. The project 'Support and Consultation on Euthanasia in the Netherlands' (SCEN) is aimed at professionalizing consultation. The objective of this study is to assess whether the quality of consultation was improved through SCEN. In four districts all general practitioners (GPs) received a pre-test questionnaire approximately six weeks before the start of the project in the period (n=1224, response 71%). In the period from April 2000 to December 2002, all GPs in districts in which SCEN had been implemented received a written post-test questionnaire one and a half years after the start of the project. This post-test questionnaire was returned by 60% of the GPs (n=3614). In SCEN consultations the attending physicians has no specific relation to the attending physician in 85% of consultations, while this is the case for 31% of other consultations. While before the start of SCEN in 71% of consultations six or seven of the seven criteria for good consultation were met, in SCEN consultations 83% of cases six or seven of these requirements were met. GPS who had consulted a SCEN physician generally were more positive about different aspects than those who consulted another consultant, such as considering the consultant to be able to make an independent judgement (totally agree 74% versus 59%). Although the quality of consultation appears to be high for both SCEN physicians and other consultants, the SCEN project further contributed to the quality of consultation. Since GPs attach importance to judgement of SCEN physician and have the intention to use it in future, and the quality of consultation stays high over time, this project is expected to maintain its value.

  4. [Systemic consultation--about possibilities and limitations].

    PubMed

    Rostworowska, Maria; Opoczyńska, Małgorzata; de Barbaro, Bogdan

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents the role of systemic consultation in the diagnostic and therapeutic process of the people hospitalised for the first time because of a psychotic episode. The following questions are going to be put: What is the role of systemic family consultation in the diagnostic and therapeutic process on the inpatient ward? What are the differences between systemic consultation and others forms of family interventions f.e. family interviews, psycho--education, systemic therapy? What are possibilities and limitations of consultation? What does it invite to? These are only some of those questions, which are typical for daily clinical practice, in which the family consultation takes an important part. In this paper according to our clinical experience, we would like to share some of our thoughts on the questions put. In spite of difficulties the family consultation confronts us with, we are deeply convinced that it has an important part in therapeutic and diagnostic process.

  5. Developmental Screening Referrals: Child and Family Factors that Predict Referral Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Danielle J.; Hanline, Mary Frances

    2013-01-01

    This study researched the predictive impact of developmental screening results and the effects of child and family characteristics on completion of referrals given for evaluation. Logistical and hierarchical logistic regression analyses were used to determine the significance of 10 independent variables on the predictor variable. The number of…

  6. Delivering palliative care in an acute hospital setting: views of referrers and specialist providers.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Gail; Farquhar, Morag; Booth, Sara

    2009-09-01

    There has been a steady expansion of hospital-based palliative care in the United Kingdom but limited published research on health professionals' views of hospital multidisciplinary specialist palliative care services (SPCS). The aim of the study was to describe referrer (SPCS user) and provider (SPCS staff) perspectives on delivery of specialist palliative care in hospital. Interviews were conducted with referrers, including five junior doctors, 13 consultants, and six clinical nurse specialists, to investigate the reasons for referral, beneficial aspects, and barriers to use. Focus groups were conducted with providers, six medical and five nursing, to identify their perspective on delivering the specialist service in hospital. Discussions were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed thematically using a framework analysis approach. The study found large areas of agreement between referrers and providers on what hospital palliative care teams should be providing for patients, that is, expertise in managing difficult symptoms and complex psychosocial problems, and this was being achieved locally. Access to the specialist team was also important: visibility on the wards, informal routes of access to advice and a timely response by specialists. However, discordance in views of providing palliative care was also identified; in particular, whether specialists should be providing generalist palliative care (such as basic psychological support) neglected by ward teams and implementation of specialist advice by referrers. Such perspectives on the interface of generalist and specialist provision provide insights into improving care for palliative patients in the acute hospital setting.

  7. Patient referral by telemedicine: effectiveness and cost analysis of an Intranet system.

    PubMed

    Harno, K; Paavola, T; Carlson, C; Viikinkoski, P

    2000-01-01

    The clinical effectiveness and costs of telemedicine in improving the referral process from primary to secondary care were examined in an eight-month prospective, comparative study with one-year follow-up. The internal-medicine outpatient clinics of two Finnish district hospitals were compared--Peijas Hospital (PH) with telemedicine and Hyvinkää Hospital (HH) without it. The three primary-care centres studied referred a total of 292 adult patients to the outpatient clinics. The population-based number of referrals to PH (7.5/1000) from primary-care centres was twice that to HH (3.8/1000). Thirty-seven per cent of referrals to PH included requests from general practitioners for on-line medical advice (teleconsultation). Forty-three per cent of the total number of intranet referrals resulted in outpatient visits at PH, compared with 79% in the outpatient clinic at HH. Only 18% of the patients receiving a teleconsultation ended up in the outpatient department of PH within one year. These visits were mainly due to progression of chronic disease. No deaths or missed diagnoses could be attributed to telemedicine, but one diagnosis was delayed. The direct costs of an outpatient clinic visit in internal medicine (EU211) were seven times greater per patient than for an e-mail consultation (EU32), with a marginal cost decrease of EU179 for every new intranet consultation. A cost-minimization analysis of the alternative interventions showed a net benefit of EU7876 in favour of the teleconsultation process. General practitioners sought an outpatient visit for 130 of their patients, and advice only for another 77. On-line advice was nonetheless given in 108 cases, and only 88 patient visits were arranged. Eleven referrals were declined. The cost difference between giving on-line medical advice for the 108 cases and a visit to the outpatient clinic for the other 88 was less costly (by EU4140) than investigating the 124 patients whose original clinic referrals to the PH were

  8. Do GP referral guidelines really work? Audit of an electronic urgent referral system for suspected head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Ann-Maree; Aziz, Abdul; Khalid, Sameena; Hurman, David

    2012-05-01

    We adapted the 2002 Scottish Referral Guidelines for suspected squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) as a set of "alarm symptoms." These were then incorporated into a new Suspected Cancer Urgent Referral Electronically (SeCURE) system enabling immediate electronic referral from primary care to the appropriate hospital-based multi-disciplinary cancer team. All referrals made via the SeCURE system during the first year of its implementation were reviewed retrospectively. One hundred and ninety patients were urgently referred, of whom 15 (8%) were ultimately diagnosed with SCCHN. This audit demonstrated overall poor compliance with the referral guidelines. Although the electronic referral system helped for speedy clinic appointments, there was a low pick up rate of positive head and neck cancer cases. Continuing education for GPs is important and following discussion with colleagues in primary care, steps have been taken to reinforce awareness and more appropriate use of the SeCURE system.

  9. Characteristics of Consultants and Consultees and Success in Mental Health Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpert, Judith L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Considered selected attitudinal and value characteristics of high and low successful consultants. Consultants (N=12) and consultees (N=15) completed six measures. Results indicated that more successful consultants have consultees who are more authoritarian and dogmatic, and are dissimilar to consultees in level of dogmatism and reported need for…

  10. Consultant/Linker Knowledge and Skills Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smink, Jay

    The Consultant/Linker Knowledge and Skills Inventory is used to assess both existing and needed levels of knowledge and skills for consulting with school staff. The inventory is self-administered, and requires 20 to 30 minutes to complete. For each item, knowledge and skill are rated low, medium, or high; and need for improvement is rated none,…

  11. Linking Knowledge and Action: PRI's Community Consultant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Gregory P.

    Within the Partnership for Rural Improvement (PRI), community consultants operate within three complex sets of relationships: client groups, the organizational structure of PRI, and the local operational base. Community consultants are responsible for developing and facilitating rural development and for providing assistance in community and…

  12. Linking Knowledge and Action: PRI's Community Consultant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Gregory P.

    Within the Partnership for Rural Improvement (PRI), community consultants operate within three complex sets of relationships: client groups, the organizational structure of PRI, and the local operational base. Community consultants are responsible for developing and facilitating rural development and for providing assistance in community and…

  13. District nurses' experiences and perceptions of cancer patient referrals.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Gretl; Pateman, Brian; Luker, Karen

    2003-02-01

    Traditionally palliative care of cancer patients has been seen as an important and defining aspect of district nursing. Care of the dying patient has been used to describe the ability and scope of the district nursing service to holistically provide for patient need. However health and social service changes in the last decade have refocused the district nurse's role away from holistic delivery to more specialized care. There is also research evidence that there are several contradictions in referral processes to the district nursing service. We conducted a study to explore district nurses' perceptions and experiences of referral of cancer patients to gain insight into these referral processes. We interviewed 20 nurses from three primary care trusts to explore the referral process of cancer patients to the district nursing service from the district nurses' point of view. The nurses expressed concerns regarding completeness, accuracy and appropriateness of referral and suggested improvements that could be made.

  14. Faculty Consulting and Supplemental Income. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Carol M.; Lewis, Darrell R.

    Although consulting has long been recognized as a legitimate faculty role in most colleges, concern has arisen about the appropriateness of "double dipping," and particularly whether consulting and other supplemental income activities result in shirking other university responsibilities. The debate centers on six basic issues: who…

  15. Factors influencing accuracy of referral and the likelihood of false positive referral by optometrists in Bradford, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Davey, Christopher James; Scally, Andrew J; Green, Clare; Mitchell, Edwin S; Elliott, David B

    2016-01-01

    Levels of false positive referral to ophthalmology departments can be high. This study aimed to evaluate commonality between false positive referrals in order to find the factors which may influence referral accuracy. In 2007/08, a sample of 431 new Ophthalmology referrals from the catchment area of Bradford Royal Infirmary were retrospectively analysed. The proportion of false positive referrals generated by optometrists decreases with experience at a rate of 6.2% per year since registration (p<0.0001). Community services which involved further investigation done by the optometrist before directly referring to the hospital were 2.7 times less likely to refer false positively than other referral formats (p=0.007). Male optometrists were about half as likely to generate a false positive referral than females (OR=0.51, p=0.008) and as multiple/corporate practices in the Bradford area employ less experienced and more female staff, independent practices generate about half the number of false positive referrals (OR=0.52, p=0.005). Clinician experience has the greatest effect on referral accuracy although there is also a significant effect of gender with women tending to refer more false positives. This may be due to a different approach to patient care and possibly a greater sensitivity to litigation. The improved accuracy of community services (which often refer directly after further investigation) supports further growth of these schemes. Copyright © 2015 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Development and implementation of a proactive geriatrics consultation model in collaboration with hospitalists.

    PubMed

    Sennour, Youcef; Counsell, Steven R; Jones, Jerrlyn; Weiner, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Acutely ill hospitalized older adults often experience a decline in function that may be preventable using a proactive, interdisciplinary, patient-centered approach. Hospitalists are treating an increasing number of these patients. A collaborative geriatrics consultation model to prevent functional decline and improve care for older patients with geriatrics syndromes was developed and implemented in partnership with a large hospitalist group in a community teaching hospital. A team of a geriatrician and a geriatrics nurse practitioner led the new consultation service. The team assisted with identifying cases, provided consultation early in the hospital stay, focused its evaluation on functional and psychosocial issues, and assisted in clinical management to optimize implementation of recommendations. In the first 4 years, the consultation service conducted 1,538 consultations in patients with a mean age of 81 (range 56-103). The most frequent geriatrics diagnoses were gait instability, delirium, and depression; recommendations usually included consulting physical therapy, increasing activity, and changing medications. The number of referrals and referring physicians grew steadily each year. Twenty-eight of 34 (82%) of the referring hospitalists completed a Web-based satisfaction questionnaire. All responding hospitalists agreed that proactive geriatrics consultation helped them provide better care; 96% rated the service as excellent. Analysis of hospital administrative data revealed a lower length of stay index and lower hospital costs in patients receiving a geriatrics consultation. The Proactive Geriatrics Consultation Service represents a promising model of collaboration between hospitalists and geriatricians for improving care of hospitalized older adults.

  17. Symptom Burden of Chronic Lung Disease Compared with Lung Cancer at Time of Referral for Palliative Care Consultation.

    PubMed

    Wysham, Nicholas G; Cox, Christopher E; Wolf, Steven P; Kamal, Arif H

    2015-09-01

    A growing evidence base supports provision of palliative care services alongside life-prolonging care. Whereas palliative care processes have been implemented widely in the care of patients with lung cancer, the same is not true for patients with chronic, progressive lung disease. To compare the symptom burden of chronic lung disease with that of lung cancer at the time of initial palliative care consultation. Data were abstracted from the Carolinas Palliative Care Consortium's Quality Data Collection Tool, an electronic database used by seven academic and community palliative care practices in multiple states for quality improvement purposes. We analyzed data derived from first palliative care encounters collected during a 2-year period, including the primary diagnosis of chronic lung disease or lung cancer, unresolved symptoms, setting of initial palliative care encounter, Palliative Performance Scale status, and on that basis we estimated prognosis for survival. We compared key clinical variables between chronic lung disease and lung cancer using Kruskal-Wallis and χ(2) tests. We identified 152 patients with lung cancer and 86 patients with chronic lung disease. Of the total sample, 53% were women and 87% were white. Patients with chronic lung disease were more likely than those with lung cancer to have the initial palliative care encounter occur in the intensive care unit (17% vs. 6%; P = 0.005) and less likely as an outpatient (20% vs. 56%; P < 0.0001). Patients with chronic lung disease were also less likely to have a high Palliative Performance Scale status (14% vs. 30%; P = 0.009) but more likely to have an estimated prognosis for survival longer than 6 months (51% vs. 28%; P = 0.002). The most prevalent symptoms were dyspnea (55% vs. 42%) and pain (40% vs. 52%), neither of which differed between groups (P = 0.08). Patients with chronic lung disease have symptom burdens similar to those of patients with lung cancer at the time of first

  18. Consulting--Part 2. The art and science of using consultants.

    PubMed

    Lister, E D; Pirrotta, S

    1996-11-01

    Part I of this series described a research project--a survey of more than 300 physician executives. Asked to share their personal experiences of unsuccessful consultations, our correspondents painted a clear picture of what can go wrong when organizational consultants enter health care systems, and described the lasting destructive sequelae to failed consultations. The two issues responsible for most failed consultations were the intrusion of internal politics into the process and the failure to clearly establish and maintain consensual goals. In Part 2, the consultation process is explored from a very different perspective. What are the issues that often trigger requests for consultation services, as well as the dynamics that can foreshadow success or failure before consultants are even engaged? What are the pitfalls and pointers for the successful use of consultation services?

  19. Developing Knowledge and Value in Management Consulting. Research in Management Consulting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buono, Anthony F., Ed.

    This document contains 11 papers that explore knowledge and value development in the field of management consulting, with particular emphasis on trends and techniques in the practice of management consulting and the current theory and dynamics of management consulting. The following papers are included: "Introduction" (Anthony F. Buono);…

  20. Developing Knowledge and Value in Management Consulting. Research in Management Consulting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buono, Anthony F., Ed.

    This document contains 11 papers that explore knowledge and value development in the field of management consulting, with particular emphasis on trends and techniques in the practice of management consulting and the current theory and dynamics of management consulting. The following papers are included: "Introduction" (Anthony F. Buono);…

  1. Competency-Based Behavior Consultation Training: An Evaluation of Consultant Outcomes, Treatment Effects, and Consumer Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepage, Kathy; Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2004-01-01

    Assessments of consultants, clients, and consumer satisfaction were used to examine the effects of a competency-based consultation training program conducted over 4 years. Using a multiple-baseline framework to assess training effects on consultants and single-case study designs to evaluate changes in client behavior, a number of significant…

  2. Finalizing the Consultant Effectiveness Scale: An Analysis and Validation of the Characteristics of Effective Consultants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoff, Howard M.; Hines, Constance V.; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.

    1995-01-01

    Proposes that as consultation becomes a larger part of the school psychologist's role and function, the need to empirically identify characteristics of effective consultants is increasingly important. Describes the Consultant Effectiveness Scale (CES) and reexamines it with a national sample of school psychologists. Evaluates discriminate validity…

  3. Competent Consultation: Developing Self-Efficacy for Process and Problem Aspects of Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiney, Meaghan C.; Zibulsky, Jamie

    2017-01-01

    Using samples of novice and advanced consultants in training (CITs), this study explored the development of consultation self-efficacy (CSE) for both process-oriented and problem-oriented aspects of consultation. Regardless of experience level, self-efficacy in both domains increased with training. However, significantly greater gains were made by…

  4. Systematic Heuristic Evaluation of Computerized Consultation Order Templates: Clinicians' and Human Factors Engineers' Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Savoy, April; Patel, Himalaya; Flanagan, Mindy E; Weiner, Michael; Russ, Alissa L

    2017-08-01

    We assessed the usability of consultation order templates and identified problems to prioritize in design efforts for improving referral communication. With a sample of 26 consultation order templates, three evaluators performed a usability heuristic evaluation. The evaluation used 14 domain-independent heuristics and the following three supplemental references: 1 new domain-specific heuristic, 6 usability goals, and coded clinicians' statements regarding ease of use for 10 sampled templates. Evaluators found 201 violations, a mean of 7.7 violations per template. Minor violations outnumbered major violations almost twofold, 115 (57%) to 62 (31%). Approximately 68% of violations were linked to 5 heuristics: aesthetic and minimalist design (17%), error prevention (16%), consistency and standards (14%), recognition rather than recall (11%), and meet referrers' information needs (10%). Severe violations were attributed mostly to meet referrers' information needs and recognition rather than recall. Recorded violations yielded potential negative consequences for efficiency, effectiveness, safety, learnability, and utility. Evaluators and clinicians demonstrated 80% agreement in usability assessment. Based on frequency and severity of usability heuristic violations, the consultation order templates reviewed may impede clinical efficiency and risk patient safety. Results support the following design considerations: communicate consultants' requirements, facilitate information seeking, and support communication. While the most frequent heuristic violations involved interaction design and presentation, the most severe violations lacked information desired by referring clinicians. Violations related to templates' inability to support referring clinicians' information needs had the greatest potential negative impact on efficiency and safety usability goals. Heuristics should be prioritized in future design efforts.

  5. Treatment referral before and after the introduction of the Liverpool Patients Concerns Inventory (PCI) into routine head and neck oncology outpatient clinics.

    PubMed

    Ghazali, Naseem; Kanatas, Anastasios; Langley, Daniel J R; Scott, Barry; Lowe, Derek; Rogers, Simon N

    2011-11-01

    Holistic needs assessment is a key recommendation in improving supportive and palliative care in adults with cancer. The Patients Concerns Inventory (PCI) is a holistic needs assessment tool designed for head and neck cancer survivors in outpatient setting. Routine screening of potential unmet needs in a clinic may result in increased onward referrals, thus placing a burden on existing healthcare services. The aim of this study was to compare the referral trends following consultation in the time periods before and after introduction of PCI in an oncology outpatient clinic. A cross-sectional cohort of disease-free survivors of oral/oropharyngeal cancers of a single consultant was prospectively exposed to PCI from July 2007 to April 2009. The PCI is a self-completed questionnaire consisting of 55 items of patient needs/concern and a list of multidisciplinary professionals, whom patients may wish to talk to or be referred to. Retrospective analysis of referral patterns from clinic letters in two periods in the pre-PCI and post-PCI exposure was performed. Prospective analysis of consultations was performed to determine the outcome of PCI-highlighted items. There was no change in the prevalence of onward referral with the introduction of PCI, i.e. 21 referrals per 100 patients seen in outpatients. However, the proportion of referrals to oral rehabilitation and psychological support increased. Referrals to certain services, e.g. speech and language and dentistry, remained consistently in demand. Many PCI-highlighted needs were dealt in a clinic with by the consultant and/or other professionals during a multidisciplinary consultation. Routine use of PCI promotes target efficiency by directing and apportioning appropriate services to meet the needs for supportive care of head and neck cancer survivors.

  6. Referral and Timing of Referral to Hospice Care in Nursing Homes: The Significant Role of Staff Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Lisa C.; Miller, Susan C.; Martin, Edward W.; Nanda, Aman

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Given concerns about end-of-life care for many nursing home (NH) residents, this study sought to understand factors influencing hospice referral or nonreferral as well as timing of referral. Design and Methods: We conducted semistructured interviews with personnel from seven participating NHs and two hospices. We interviewed NH directors…

  7. Referral and Timing of Referral to Hospice Care in Nursing Homes: The Significant Role of Staff Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Lisa C.; Miller, Susan C.; Martin, Edward W.; Nanda, Aman

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Given concerns about end-of-life care for many nursing home (NH) residents, this study sought to understand factors influencing hospice referral or nonreferral as well as timing of referral. Design and Methods: We conducted semistructured interviews with personnel from seven participating NHs and two hospices. We interviewed NH directors…

  8. Timer: a new objective measure of consultation content and its application to computer assisted consultations.

    PubMed Central

    Pringle, M; Robins, S; Brown, G

    1986-01-01

    As part of the research into the effect in the consultation of the use of a computer to prompt opportunistic preventive care a valid, objective, and practical measure of the consultation process was required. After a review of the alternative methods the Time Interval Medical Event Recorder (Timer) was developed, its reliability tested, and applied to 93 control consultations and 49 computer assisted consultations. Timer records, every five seconds, four consultation events: the problems being dealt with, the physical activity, the verbal activity, and the secondary tasks being attempted. Timer showed that control consultations lasted an average of 6 minutes 58 seconds. The doctors spent 35% of their time on administration, and patients and doctors were both conversational for just 33% of the consultation. Giving information was the most common verbal activity (48% of the duration of the consultation) with silence accounting for 21% of the time. When the computer was used the average consultation was longer, at 7 minutes and 46 seconds. The doctor's contribution to the consultation appeared to have increased. Patient centred speech fell from 36% in controls to 28% of the duration of the consultation when the computer was used, while doctor centred speech rose from 30% to 34.5%. Secondary tasks (exploring patient concepts, education, management sharing, and prevention) were attempted during 28% of the control consultations and 40% of the computer consultations. This was accounted for by the increase in prevention (p less than 0.001). Timer is a reliable and practical tool for researching the consultation, and though it has shown validity in detecting differences between consultations that use a computer and those that do not, further applications are required to establish its full value. PMID:3089391

  9. Postpartum consultation: Occurrence, requirements and expectations

    PubMed Central

    Carlgren, Ingrid; Berg, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Background As a matter of routine, midwives in Sweden have spoken with women about their experiences of labour in a so-called 'postpartum consultation'. However, the possibility of offering women this kind of consultation today is reduced due to shortage of both time and resources. The aim of this study was to explore the occurrence, women's requirements of, and experiences of a postpartum consultation, and to identify expectations from women who wanted but did not have a consultation with the midwife assisting during labour. Methods All Swedish speaking women who gave birth to a live born child at a University Hospital in western Sweden were consecutively included for a phone interview over a three-week period. An additional phone interview was conducted with the women who did not have a postpartum consultation, but who wanted to talk with the midwife assisting during labour. Data from the interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results Of the 150 interviewed women, 56% (n = 84) had a postpartum consultation of which 61.9% (n = 52) had this with the midwife assisting during labour. Twenty of the 28 women who did not have a consultation with anyone still desired to talk with the midwife assisting during labour. Of these, 19 were interviewed. The content the women wanted to talk about was summarized in four categories: to understand the course of events during labour; to put into words, feelings about undignified management; to describe own behaviour and feelings, and to describe own fear. Conclusion The survey shows that the frequency of postpartum consultation is decreasing, that the majority of women who give birth today still require it, but only about half of them receive it. It is crucial to develop a plan for these consultations that meets both the women's needs and the organization within current maternity care. PMID:18651967

  10. Evolution of primary care referrals to urology. Impact of a protocol on prostate disease and continuing education.

    PubMed

    Sopeña-Sutil, R; Tejido-Sánchez, A; Galván-Ortiz de Urbina, M; Guerrero-Ramos, F; García-Álvarez, G; Passas-Martínez, J B

    2015-06-01

    To analyze the evolution of primary care referrals to the Urology Department after the implementation of a joint protocol on prostate disease and a continuing education program in our healthcare area. In January 2011, we launched an action protocol on prostate disease, which was complemented by training sessions and an e-mail-based consultation system. We analyzed primary care referrals to the Urology Department between 2011 and 2013 and determined the reasons for the consultations and the compliance with the established criteria on prostate disease. We obtained data from the "Request for Appointment in Specialized Care" program of the Community of Madrid. We calculated the sample size with a 95% confidence level and a 50% heterogeneity. A total of 19,048 referrals were conducted. The most common reason for the referrals was lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostate hyperplasia, with a 27% reduction and a compliance that went from 46% at 67%. Although prostate-specific antigen consultations increased by 40%, they improved their appropriateness (from 55% to 72%). This was the main type of consultation for suspicion of malignancy (30%). Also worth mentioning were female incontinence, which doubled in number, and a 41% reduction in erectile dysfunction, which could be due to the primary care training. The collaboration between the Department of Urology and primary care succeeded in improving the appropriateness of prostate disease referrals and modified the tendency to refer the rest of the diseases included in the project. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Young carer awareness, identification and referral.

    PubMed

    Sprung, Sally; Laing, Michelle

    2017-08-02

    Young carers often provide care because they have always done so for the people they care about, and because they believe that the care recipient could not manage without them. For many young carers, looking after their own health, combining caring with schoolwork, getting access to training or having time off from carer duties can be a major challenge ( Department of Health [DH], 2008 ). This paper presents evidence from a literature review that builds a substantial body of knowledge to suggest that community nursing teams must develop supportive approaches towards increasing an awareness of young carers' needs. Identification of young carers by community nurses will encourage referral to appropriate services and agencies. The aim of this study was to appraise, for the Queen's Nursing Institute, the published evidence base to explore young carers' needs and how community nurses could support young carers' needs in England. Databases were systematically searched. Title and abstract reviews found 606 potential studies (see Figure 1 ), which were identified around topics corresponding to the headings of three distinct categories: mental health and wellbeing; education needs and resilience; and development of coping strategies. Full-text review resulted in 26 publications that met the study's inclusion criteria. The results of this work show that there is a scarcity of publications around the community nursing needs of young carers. However, studies consistently report young carers are hidden from view and have a significant requirement for support and information. Therefore, effective ways of delivering community nursing support and information to young carers needs to be developed by service providers as a matter of priority, and implemented to give the support that young carers need.

  12. [Analysis of a programme of direct referral between primary and specialist care in potential surgery patients].

    PubMed

    Arroyo, A; Andreu, J; García, P; Jover, S; Arroyo, M; Fernández, A; Costa, D; Oliver, I; Hernández, H; Schwartz, H; Reillo, M; Calpena, R; Arenas, C

    2001-10-15

    To describe the results of a programme of direct referral of potential surgery patients between primary and specialist care, designed to lessen waiting-times.Design. Prospective, longitudinal and descriptive study. Health Area N. masculine 19 (Valencian Health Service): Surgery Service of Elche Hospital and 6 Health Centres. Patients with pathologies that do not need special techniques for diagnosis except examination and who have a clear irrefutable indication of surgery without risk factors (ASA I-II).Intervention. The referral protocol consists of: a) diagnosis of pathology and pre-operative study in primary care (PC); b) appointment made by phone for the surgery clinic at the hospital, where diagnosis and pre-operative study are confirmed; c) referral and operation in the unit of non-hospital major surgery (UCMA); d) monitoring post-operation by the home hospitalisation unit (HHU) or preferably by the health centre, and e) check-up at the surgery clinic. Main measurements. The degree of agreement between PC and the specialist, assessment of the pre-operative study, and waiting time. 86 patients were referred (average age, 35; 76% male) by 28 doctors. The most common pathologies were hernia (36%), pilonidal sinus (23.2%) and miscellaneous (32.5%). There was general agreement in diagnosis in 90.7% of cases. 89.5% of patients brought the proper pre-operative study. Mean waiting time between the primary care consultation in the different procedures and the first hospital consultation was 19 days; with 44 more days elapsing till the surgical operation. This new programme is effective and economic, in that there is referral> of patients, waiting time is reduced by over 7 months for pilonidal sinus and by over 2 years for hernia pathology, and the procedure can be used for a large number of patients, as the pathologies involved are very common.

  13. 12 CFR 313.127 - Correcting and updating referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Tax Refund Offset § 313.127 Correcting and updating referral. If... increases to amounts owed. In the event FMS rejects an FDIC certification for failure to comply with § 323...

  14. 12 CFR 313.123 - Certification and referral of debt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Tax Refund Offset § 313.123 Certification and referral of debt. When... judgment debt or as otherwise allowed by law, the debt is referred for offset within ten years after...

  15. The impact of glaucoma referral refinement criteria on referral to, and first-visit discharge rates from, the hospital eye service: the Health Innovation & Education Cluster (HIEC) Glaucoma Pathways project.

    PubMed

    Ratnarajan, Gokulan; Newsom, Wendy; French, Karen; Kean, Jane; Chang, Lydia; Parker, Mike; Garway-Heath, David F; Bourne, Rupert R A

    2013-03-01

    To assess the impact of referral refinement criteria on the number of patients referred to, and first-visit discharges from, the Hospital Eye Service (HES) in relation to the National Institute for Health & Clinical Excellence (NICE) Glaucoma Guidelines, Joint College Group Guidance (JCG) and the NICE commissioning guidance. All low-risk (one risk factor: suspicious optic disc, abnormal visual field (VF), raised intra-ocular pressure (IOP) (22-28 mmHg) or IOP asymmetry (>5 mmHg) and high-risk (more than one risk factor, shallow anterior chamber or IOP >28 mmHg) referrals to the HES from 2006 to 2011 were analysed. Low-risk referrals were seen by Optometrists with a specialist interest in glaucoma and high-risk referrals were referred directly to the HES. Two thousand nine hundred and twelve patient records were analysed. The highest Consultant first-visit discharge rates were for referrals based on IOP alone (45% for IOP 22-28 mmHg) and IOP asymmetry (53%), VF defect alone (46%) and for abnormal IOP and VF (54%). The lowest first-visit discharge rates were for referrals for suspicious optic disc (19%) and IOP >28 mmHg (22%). 73% of patients aged 65-80 and 60% of patients aged >80 who were referred by the OSI due to an IOP between 22-28 mmHg would have satisfied the JCG criteria for non-referral. For patients referred with an IOP >28 mmHg and an otherwise normal examination, adherence to the NICE commissioning guidance would have resulted in 6% fewer referrals. In 2010 this scheme reduced the number of patients attending the HES by 15%, which resulted in a saving of £16 258 (13%). The results support that referrals for a raised IOP alone or in combination with an abnormal VF be classified as low-risk and undergo referral refinement. Adherence to the JCG and the NICE commissioning guidance as onward referral criteria for specialist optometrists in this referral refinement scheme would result in fewer referrals. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The College

  16. Trends in NHS doctor and dentist referrals to occupational health.

    PubMed

    Lalloo, D; Demou, E; Macdonald, E B

    2016-06-01

    Ill-health in doctors can affect performance and fitness to practice, and consequently patient care and safety, placing an important responsibility on National Health Service (NHS) occupational health (OH) services. Anecdotal discussions amongst NHS occupational physicians suggest an increase in the number of doctor attendances over time, with continuing focus on mental illness. To analyse OH referrals in doctors and dentists over 3 years. A retrospective evaluation of all doctor and dentist referrals to the OH service in one Scottish NHS board from April 2011 to March 2014, comparing this to management-reported sickness absence (SA) data held by the organization. We found no significant change in overall OH referrals for doctors and dentists during the evaluation period. Mental illness was the commonest referral reason in all 3 years at 32, 38 and 30%, respectively, but no significant change in mental health referrals was demonstrated within the study period. SA events significantly increased during the three study years (356, 426 and 469, respectively; P < 0.05). OH referrals for those absent from work increased significantly between Years 1 and 3 (16 and 30, respectively; P < 0.05). SA events and OH referrals for those absent from work significantly increased between April 2011 and March 2014, but there was no commensurate (statistically significant) increase in overall OH referrals. These findings do not support anecdotal suggestions of increasing OH (or mental ill-health) attendances but can be used as a benchmark for other NHS organizations and for future trend comparisons. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  17. Primary care physician referral patterns in Ontario, Canada: a descriptive analysis of self-reported referral data.

    PubMed

    Liddy, Clare; Arbab-Tafti, Sadaf; Moroz, Isabella; Keely, Erin

    2017-08-22

    In many countries, the referral-consultation process faces a number of challenges from inefficiencies and rising demand, resulting in excessive wait times for many specialties. We collected referral data from a sample of family doctors across the province of Ontario, Canada as part of a larger program of research. The purpose of this study is to describe referral patterns from primary care to specialist and allied health services from the primary care perspective. We conducted a prospective study of patient referral data submitted by primary care providers (PCP) from 20 clinics across Ontario between June 2014 and January 2016. Monthly referral volumes expressed as a total number of referrals to all medical and allied health professionals per month. For each referral, we also collected data on the specialty type, reason for referral, and whether the referral was for a procedure. PCPs submitted a median of 26 referrals per month (interquartile range 11.5 to 31.8). Of 9509 referrals eligible for analysis, 97.8% were directed to medical professionals and 2.2% to allied health professionals. 55% of medical referrals were directed to non-surgical specialties and 44.8% to surgical specialties. Medical referrals were for procedures in 30.8% of cases and non-procedural in 40.9%. Gastroenterology received the largest share (11.2%) of medical referrals, of which 62.3% were for colonoscopies. Psychology received the largest share (28.3%) of referrals to allied health professionals. We described patterns of patient referral from primary care to specialist and allied health services for 30 PCPs in 20 clinics across Ontario. Gastroenterology received the largest share of referrals, nearly two-thirds of which were for colonoscopies. Future studies should explore the use of virtual care to help manage non-procedural referrals and examine the impact that procedural referrals have on wait times for gastroenterology.

  18. Variation in practice: a questionnaire survey of how congruence in attitudes between doctors and patients influences referral decisions.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, Benedicte; Aakvik, Arild; Norheim, Ole F

    2008-01-01

    There is a well-known and partly unexplained variation in referral rates among general practitioners (GPs). GPs who are positive toward shared decision making refer less to secondary care, but how congruence in attitudes between doctors and patients influences referral rates has not been investigated. In this study, the authors analyze whether congruence in attitudes between the GP and patients toward shared decision making affects the GP's referral rate. Questionnaire survey was distributed by 56 Norwegian GPs, each to 50 consulting patients. The level of congruence in attitudes toward shared decision making of GPs and corresponding patients was measured by the Patient-Practitioner Orientation Scale. The survey also included self-reported referral rates. In total, 1268 patients (45%) returned the questionnaires. Respondents were eliminated if they did not fully answer the questionnaire, resulting in a working sample of 835 patients. The authors found that congruence of attitudes toward shared decision making between the GP and patients had a negative effect on referral rate. In this study, congruence of attitudes toward shared decision making between GPs and patients influences referral decisions, indicating that matching attitudes may enhance the effort to solve the medical problem within the GPs' practice (i.e., doctor-patient interaction explains some of the variation in practice). The study supports the policy argument that, if possible, health authorities should enhance the possibilities for patients to choose a GP of matching attitudes.

  19. Patterns of preoperative consultation and surgical specialty in an integrated healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Thilen, Stephan R; Bryson, Christopher L; Reid, Robert J; Wijeysundera, Duminda N; Weaver, Edward M; Treggiari, Miriam M

    2013-05-01

    Many patients scheduled for elective surgery are referred for a preoperative medical consultation. Only limited data are available on factors associated with preoperative consultations. The authors hypothesized that surgical specialty contributes to variation in referrals for preoperative consultations. This is a cohort study using data from Group Health Cooperative, an integrated healthcare system. The authors included 13,673 patients undergoing a variety of common procedures-primarily low-risk surgeries-representing six surgical specialties, in 2005-2006. The authors identified consultations by family physicians, general internists, pulmonologists, or cardiologists in the 42 days preceding surgery. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the association between surgical specialty and consultation, adjusting for potential confounders including the revised cardiac risk index, age, gender, Deyo comorbidity index, number of prescription medications, and 11 medication classes. The authors found that 3,063 (22%) of all patients had preoperative consultations, with significant variation by surgical specialty. Patients having ophthalmologic, orthopedic, or urologic surgery were more likely to have consultations compared with those having general surgery-adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) of 3.8 (3.3-4.2), 1.5 (1.3-1.7), and 2.3 (1.8-2.8), respectively. Preoperative consultations were more common in patients with lower revised cardiac risk scores. There is substantial practice variation among surgical specialties with regard to the use of preoperative consultations in this integrated healthcare system. Given the large number of consultations provided for patients with low cardiac risk and for patients presenting for low-risk surgeries, their indications, the financial burden, and cost-effectiveness of consultations deserve further study.

  20. Effect of timing of psychiatry consultation on length of pediatric hospitalization and hospital charges.

    PubMed

    Bujoreanu, Simona; White, Matthew T; Gerber, Bradley; Ibeziako, Patricia

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of timing of a psychiatry consultation during pediatric hospitalization on length of hospital stay and total hospitalization charges. The charts of 279 pediatric patients (totaling 308 consultations) referred to the psychiatry consultation liaison service at a freestanding tertiary pediatric hospital between January 1, 2010, and June 30, 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The variables analyzed included the following: patient demographic characteristics; dates of admission, psychiatric consultation, and discharge; psychiatric diagnoses based on the psychiatric diagnostic evaluation; psychiatric treatment disposition; and illness severity and total charges associated with the medical stay. Earlier psychiatry consultation was associated with shorter length of stay and lower hospitalization charges after adjusting for psychiatric functioning, physical illness severity, and psychiatric disposition. Poorer psychiatric functioning and milder physical illness were associated with shorter referral time. Timely involvement of psychiatry consultation services during a medical or surgical hospitalization was associated with reductions in length of stay and total hospital charges in pediatric settings. These findings have important effects on quality of care via decreasing burden on the patient and family and on the medical system resources. Educating pediatric health care providers about the importance of early psychiatry consultation regardless of physical illness severity or psychiatric acuity will likely improve resource management for patients and hospitals. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. The association between general practitioner participation in joint teleconsultations and rates of referral: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Cravo Oliveira, Tiago; Barlow, James; Bayer, Steffen

    2015-04-21

    Joint consultations - such as teleconsultations - provide opportunities for continuing education of general practitioners (GPs). It has been reported this form of interactive case-based learning may lead to fewer GP referrals, yet these studies have relied on expert opinion and simple frequencies, without accounting for other factors known to influence referrals. We use a survey-based discrete choice experiment of GPs' referral preferences to estimate how referral rates are associated with participation in joint teleconsultations, explicitly controlling for a number of potentially confounding variables. We distributed questionnaires at two meetings of the Portuguese Association of General Practice. GPs were presented with descriptions of patients with dermatological lesions and asked whether they would refer based on the waiting time, the distance to appointment, and pressure from patients for a referral. We analysed GPs' responses to multiple combinations of these factors, coupled with information on GP and practice characteristics, using a binary logit model. We estimated the probabilities of referral of different lesions using marginal effects. Questionnaires were returned by 44 GPs, giving a total of 721 referral choices. The average referral rate for the 11 GPs (25%) who had participated in teleconsultations was 68.1% (range 53-88%), compared to 74.4% (range 47-100%) for the remaining physicians. Participation in teleconsultations was associated with reductions in the probabilities of referral of 17.6% for patients presenting with keratosis (p = 0.02), 42.3% for psoriasis (p < 0.001), 8.4% for melanoma (p = 0.14), and 5.4% for naevus (p = 0.19). The results indicate that GP participation in teleconsultations is associated with overall reductions in referral rates and in variation across GPs, and that these effects are robust to the inclusion of other factors known to influence referrals. The reduction in range, coupled with different effects for different

  2. Language in Consultation: The Effect of Affect and Verb Tense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Daniel S.; Guiney, Meaghan C.; Barrett, Courtenay A.

    2017-01-01

    This study was an exploration of school consultation interactions between instructional consultants and consultees. Of specific interest was how consultants (n = 18) and consultees (n = 18) used verb tense and emotion words during the problem identification and analysis instructional consultation stage, similarities and differences in…

  3. Republished: Daily consultant gastroenterologist ward rounds: reduced length of stay and improved inpatient mortality.

    PubMed

    Singh, Salil; Lipscomb, George; Padmakumar, Kadukkavil; Ramamoorthy, Radha; Ryan, Shirley; Bates, Vivien; Crompton, Sandra; Dermody, Emma; Moriarty, Kieran

    2012-10-01

    For gastroenterology, The Royal College of Physicians reiterates the common practice of two to three consultant ward rounds per week. The Royal Bolton Hospital NHS Foundation Trust operated a 26-bed gastroenterology ward, covered by two consultants at any one time. A traditional system of two ward rounds per consultant per week operated, but as is commonplace, discharges peaked on ward round days. To determine whether daily consultant ward rounds would improve patient care, shorten length of stay and reduce inpatient mortality. A new way of working was implemented in December 2009 with a single consultant taking responsibility for all ward inpatients. Freed from all other direct clinical care commitments for their 2 weeks of ward cover, they conducted ward rounds each morning. A multidisciplinary team (MDT) meeting followed immediately. The afternoon was allocated to gastroenterology referrals and reviewing patients on the medical admissions unit. The changes had an immediate and dramatic effect on average length of stay, which was reduced from 11.5 to 8.9 days. The number of patients treated over 12 months increased by 37% from 739 to 1010. Moreover, the number of deaths decreased from 88 to 62, a reduction in percentage mortality from 11.2% to 6%. However, these major quality outcomes involved a reduction in consultant-delivered outpatient and endoscopy activity. This new method of working has both advantages and disadvantages. However, it has had a major impact on inpatient care and provides a compelling case for consultant gastroenterology expansion in the UK.

  4. Social position and referral to rehabilitation among cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Moustsen, Ida R; Larsen, Signe B; Vibe-Petersen, Jette; Trier, Karen; Bidstrup, Pernille E; Andersen, Klaus K; Johansen, Christoffer; Dalton, Susanne O

    2015-05-01

    In Denmark, most healthcare services, including cancer treatment and rehabilitation, are offered free of charge by referral from a treating physician; thus, social equality should be expected. In a population-based cohort study of registry-based data, we examined the association between socioeconomic position, measured as educational level, and referral to rehabilitation services among cancer patients. Through the Danish Cancer Registry, we identified all people resident in the Municipality of Copenhagen with cancer diagnosed in 2007-2012. Information on all rehabilitation referrals was retrieved from the Municipal Centre for Cancer Rehabilitation for 2009-2012. Information on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics was obtained from national Danish registers. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate associations between educational level and referral to rehabilitation with adjustment for sex, age, diagnosis, disposable income, cohabitation status and number of children living at home at the time of diagnosis. A primary cancer was diagnosed in 13 840 people, of whom 2148 (16%) were referred to rehabilitation services during follow-up. In the fully adjusted model, we found education to be a predictor of referral, with a hazard ratio of 1.33 (95% CI 1.19-1.49) for patients with long education and a hazard ratio of 1.15 (95% CI 1.03-1.29) for patients with medium education as compared with patients with short education. Our findings suggest that, even after differences in demographics and cancer characteristics are accounted for, referral to rehabilitation services is not equally distributed by social group. Higher educational level is associated with a higher probability of referral to rehabilitation services.

  5. Managing Consultants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malinconico, S. Michael

    1983-01-01

    Guidelines for managing library consulting engagements effectively cover the decision to use a consultant, definition of the problem area, finding the consultant, interviewing and evaluating the consultant, the psychological contract, the formal contract, and abdication of responsibility for the consulting project by the client. Seventeen sources…

  6. Consultation: Enhancing Leisure Service Delivery to Handicapped Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Judith E., Ed.

    The document provides guidelines for consultants in the area of consultation in delivery of leisure services for handicapped children and youth. Included are chapters with the following titles and authors: "The Consultant-Consultee Relationship" (G. O'Morrow), "A Special Education Viewpoint: Consultation in the Public Schools" (S. Brannan),…

  7. Childhood adversity and frequent medical consultations.

    PubMed

    Fiddler, Maggie; Jackson, Judy; Kapur, Navneet; Wells, Adrian; Creed, Francis

    2004-01-01

    We assessed possible psychological mediators of the relationship between childhood adversity and frequent medical consultations among new outpatients at neurology, cardiology, and gastroenterology clinics. We assessed whether these differed in patients with and without organic disease that explained their symptoms. At first clinic visit we recorded Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS--anxiety and depression subscale scores), Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ--four subscales: consequences, cure, identity, timeline), Health Anxiety Questionnaire (total score), and Symptom Amplification Scale (total score). Subjects were divided into two groups according to whether they had experienced any type of childhood adversity using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Schedule. Outcome was the (log) number of medical consultations for 12 months before and 6 months after the index clinic visits. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine mediators; this was performed separately for patients with symptoms explained and not explained by organic disease. One-hundred and twenty-nine patients (61% response) were interviewed. Fifty-two (40.3%) had experienced childhood adversity; they made a median of 16 doctor visits compared with 10 for those without adversity (adjusted P=.026). IPQ identity score (number of symptoms attributed to the illness) and HAD depression scores were significantly associated with both childhood adversity and number of medical consultations and these variables acted as mediators between childhood adversity and frequency of consultation in the multiple regression analyses. This association was limited to patients with medically unexplained symptoms and was mediated by IPQ Identity Score (number of symptoms attributed to the patient's illness) and HAD depression score. Sexual abuse and overt neglect were the adversities most closely associated with frequent consultations. In patients with medically unexplained symptoms the association

  8. School Consultation Research: Methodological Critique and Future Research Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.; Kendell, Ginger K.

    1987-01-01

    This article reviews the current status of school consultation research and critiques the research methodologies used in consultation research. Major theoretical models in which consultation research has been conducted are briefly described. Consultation research is reviewed in three primary areas of investigation: (1) outcome research; (2)…

  9. How to Find and Use a Good Consultant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Dennis E.

    Guidelines which explain five phases of the consulting process are offered to educators contemplating the employment of consultants. Discussion of the first phase, "contact/entry," contains seven tips to consider before hiring a consultant and six tips on forming the base of the working relationship with the consultant. The second phase,…

  10. Guidelines for Education and Training at the Doctoral and Postdoctoral Levels in Consulting Psychology/Organizational Consulting Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of these "Guidelines for Education and Training at the Doctoral and Postdoctoral Levels in Consulting Psychology/Organizational Consulting Psychology" is to provide a common framework for use in the development, evaluation, and review of education and training in consulting psychology/organizational consulting psychology (CP/OCP). The…

  11. Practices and attitudes of doctors and patients to downward referral in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wenya; Li, Meina; Nong, Xin; Ding, Tao; Ye, Feng; Liu, Jiazhen; Dai, Zhixing; Zhang, Lulu

    2017-01-01

    Objectives In China, the rate of downward referral is relatively low, as most people are unwilling to be referred from hospitals to community health systems (CHSs). The aim of this study was to explore the effect of doctors' and patients' practices and attitudes on their willingness for downward referral and the relationship between downward referral and sociodemographic characteristics. Methods Doctors and patients of 13 tertiary hospitals in Shanghai were stratified through random sampling. The questionnaire surveyed their sociodemographic characteristics, attitudes towards CHSs and hospitals, understanding of downward referral, recognition of the community first treatment system, and downward referral practices and willingness. Descriptive statistics, χ2 test and stepwise logistic regression analysis were employed for statistical analysis. Results Only 20.8% (161/773) of doctors were willing to accept downward referrals, although this proportion was higher among patients (37.6%, 326/866). Doctors' willingness was influenced by education, understanding of downward referral, and perception of health resources in hospitals. Patients' willingness was influenced by marital status, economic factors and recognition of the community first treatment system. Well-educated doctors who do not consider downward referral would increase their workloads and those with a more comprehensive understanding of hospitals and downward referral process were more likely to make a downward referral decision. Single-injury patients fully recognising the community first treatment system were more willing to accept downward referral. Patients' willingness was significantly increased if downward referral was cost-saving. A better medical insurance system was another key factor for patients to accept downward referral decisions, especially for the floating population. Conclusions To increase the rate of downward referral, the Chinese government should optimise the current referral system and

  12. Pediatric neurocritical care: a neurology consultation model and implication for education and training.

    PubMed

    LaRovere, Kerri L; Graham, Robert J; Tasker, Robert C

    2013-03-01

    Pediatric neurocritical care is developing specialization within pediatric intensive care and pediatric neurology practice, and the evolving clinical expertise has relevance to training and education in both fields. We describe a model of service using a Neurology Consulting Team in the intensive care unit setting. Medical records were reviewed from a 32-month cohort of Neurology Consulting Team referrals. Six hundred eighty-nine (19%) of 3719 patients admitted to the intensive care unit were assessed by the team. The most common diagnostic categories were seizures, neurosurgical, cerebrovascular, or central nervous system infection. Fifty-seven percent (350 of 615 patients) required mechanical ventilation. Cohort mortality was 7% vs 2% for the general intensive care population (P < 0.01). The team provided 4592 initial and subsequent consultations; on average there were five to six new consultations per week. Each patient had a median of two (interquartile range, 1 to 6) consultations during admission. Three quarters of the cohort required neurodiagnostic investigation (1625 tests), with each patient undergoing a median of two (range, 0 to 3) studies. Taken together, the subset of pediatric intensive care unit patients undergoing neurology consultation, investigation, and management represents a significant practice experience for trainees, which has implications for future curriculum development in both pediatric critical care medicine and pediatric neurology.

  13. Longer-term impact of cardiology e-consults.

    PubMed

    Wasfy, Jason H; Rao, Sandhya K; Kalwani, Neil; Chittle, Melissa D; Richardson, Calvin A; Gallen, Kathleen M; Isselbacher, Eric M; Kimball, Alexandra B; Ferris, Timothy G

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac e-consults may be an effective way to deliver value-oriented outpatient cardiology care in an accountable care organization. Initial results of cardiac e-consults have demonstrated high satisfaction among both patients and referring providers, no known adverse events, and low rates of diagnostic testing. Nevertheless, differences between e-consults and traditional consults, effects of e-consults on traditional consult volume, and whether patients seek traditional consults after e-consults are unknown. We established a cardiac e-consult program on January 13, 2014. We then conducted detailed medical record reviews of all patients with e-consults to detect any adverse clinical events and detect subsequent traditional visits to cardiologists. We also performed 2 comparisons. First, we compared age, gender, and referral reason for e-consults vs traditional consults. Second, we compared changes in volume of referrals to cardiology vs other medical specialties that did not have e-consults. From January 13 to December 31, 2014, 1,642 traditional referrals and 165 e-consults were requested. The proportion of e-consults of all evaluations requested over that period was 9.1%. Gender balance was similar among traditional consults and e-consults (44.8% male for e-consults vs 45.0% for traditional consults, P = .981). E-consult patients were younger than traditional consult patients (55.3 vs 60.4 years, P < .001). After the introduction of cardiac e-consults, the increase in traditional cardiac visit requests was less than the increase in traditional visit requests for control specialties (4.5% vs 10.1%, P < .001). For e-consults with at least 6 months of follow-up, 75.6% patients did not have any type of traditional cardiology visit during the follow-up period. E-consults are an effective and safe mechanism to enhance value in outpatient cardiology care, with low rates of bounceback to traditional consults. E-consults can account for nearly one-tenth of total

  14. Organization of the referral and counter-referral system in a speech-language pathology and audiology clinic-school.

    PubMed

    Molini-Avejonas, Daniela Regina; Estevam, Stephanie Falarara; Couto, Maria Inês Vieira

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the effectiveness of the referral and counter-referral flow in a speech-language pathology and audiology clinic-school and to characterize the patients' profiles. Evaluation, retrospective, and prospective study, in which 503 patient records, without age restriction, were selected from a clinic-school and the following variables were analyzed: demographic information, speech and hearing diagnosis, and references. Patients were distributed into two groups according to the referrals made: internal (G1, n=341) and external (G2, n=162) to the clinic-school. A prevalence of male subjects under 12 years of age and with diagnosis of language disorders (primary and secondary) was found. It was observed that 83% patients in G1 were recalled for evaluation and speech therapy after an average of 7 months of waiting; and from the patients in G2 that were contacted (n=101), 13.9% were summoned and are satisfied with the place indicated for therapy after an average of 4 months of waiting. From those who did not receive care, 46% sought another service, and of these, 72.5% were successful. The data show the effectiveness and appropriateness of referrals made internally, suggesting that, when the team works together, the network operates more adequately. However, in relation to external referrals, they did not reach the proposed goals, indicating a lack of speech-language pathologists in public services and the low interest of patients in looking for other places of care.

  15. Assessment of Consultation and Intervention Implementation: A Review of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier-Meek, Melissa A.; Sanetti, Lisa M. H.

    2014-01-01

    Reviews of treatment outcome literature indicate treatment integrity is not regularly assessed. In consultation, two levels of treatment integrity (i.e., consultant procedural integrity [CPI] and intervention treatment integrity [ITI]) provide relevant implementation data. Specifically, assessment of CPI and ITI are necessary to conclude (a)…

  16. Assessment of Consultation and Intervention Implementation: A Review of Conjoint Behavioral Consultation Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier-Meek, Melissa A.; Sanetti, Lisa M. H.

    2014-01-01

    Reviews of treatment outcome literature indicate treatment integrity is not regularly assessed. In consultation, two levels of treatment integrity (i.e., consultant procedural integrity [CPI] and intervention treatment integrity [ITI]) provide relevant implementation data. Specifically, assessment of CPI and ITI are necessary to conclude (a)…

  17. [Feasibility of consultation - liaison psychiatry in a large general hospital: quantitative description of services and personnel expenditure].

    PubMed

    Windhager, Elmar; Thaler, Katharina; Selberis-Vahl, Wilia Vasiliki; Friedl-Wörgetter, Petra; Windhager, Isabella; Zauner, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    The integration of psychiatric departments in general hospitals lead to an increasing demand of psychiatric consultation, which often overstrains personnel resources of short staffed psychiatric services. To provide consulting service, as it is demanded by guidelines, a multidisciplinary consulting team could be a possible solution. A retrospective descriptive analysis of all consultations made by the psychosocial consultation and liaison service at the general hospital Wels-Grieskirchen in the years 2012 and 2013. There was an increase in referrals overall of 22 % from 2012 to 2013. The largest increase was observed in the group of psychiatrists, who carried out 33.1 % of all consultations. Most consultations, 39.5 %, were done by the group of clinical psychologists, partly substituting medical attendance. Taking together both occupational groups, the expected number of consultations of at least 3 % of all admissions could be achieved. A multidisciplinary consulting team consisting of psychiatrists, psychologists, psychosomatic physicians and social workers staffed with 5.11-6.79 full-time personnel is able to provide psychosocial consultation service at a quantitative level required by international guidelines.

  18. Developing Material and Organizational Resources: The Resource and Referral Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, William L.

    The Resource and Referral Service (RRS), is a central services contractor to the Research and Development Exchange (RDx), which facilitates the flow of outputs from Research and Development (R&D) based organizations, specializing in fast responses to questions from states transmitted by the Regional Exchanges on R&D in education, testing,…

  19. The Relationship between Gender of Consultant and Social Power Perceptions within School Consultation. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erchul, William P.; Raven, Bertram H.; Wilson, Kristen E.

    2004-01-01

    This study's focus was on school psychologists' perceived effectiveness of 11 social power bases (Raven, 1993) that may be drawn upon when consulting with initially resistant teachers. Specifically, the relationship between consultant gender and perceptions of power base effectiveness was examined. The Interpersonal Power Inventory-Form CT…

  20. Accompanied consultations in occupational health.

    PubMed

    Hobson, J; Hobson, H; Sharp, R

    2016-04-01

    Accompanied consultations are often reported as difficult by occupational physicians but have not been studied in the occupational health setting. To collect information about accompanied consultations and the impact of the companion on the consultation. We collected data on all accompanied consultations by two occupational physicians working in a private sector occupational health service over the course of 16 months. Accompanied consultations were matched to non-accompanied consultations for comparison. We collected data on 108 accompanied consultations. Accompanied consultations were more likely to be connected with ill health retirement (P < 0.01), have a neurological diagnosis or multiple diagnoses (P < 0.01), be rated as complex (P < 0.01) and take longer than 30 minutes (P < 0.01) than non-accompanied consultations. Over half of the companions (54%) were a spouse or partner. An impact by the companion was recorded in 81% of consultations but this was most frequently that they had provided information (56%) and in over a quarter the impact was recorded as helpful. Interruptions were recorded in 28% of accompanied consultations but only 6% of consultations had free text suggesting that the consultation or companion was difficult. Accompanied consultations are likely to be more challenging in terms of the reason for referral, the presenting medical problems, the complexity of the case and the duration of the consultation. However, the companion is more likely to be of benefit than cause difficulty. Occupational health practitioners may benefit from better understanding of accompanied consultations and guidance on their management. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Initiating a Standardized Regional Referral and Counter-Referral System in Guatemala: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Rupa; Avendaño, Leslie; Sandoval, Maria Antonieta; Cruz, Andrea T.; Sampayo, Esther M.; Soto, Miguel A.; Camp, Elizabeth A.; Crouse, Heather L.

    2017-01-01

    Background:Few data exist for referral processes in resource-limited settings. We utilized mixed-methods to evaluate the impact of a standardized algorithm and training module developed for locally identified needs in referral/counter-referral procedures between primary health centers (PHCs) and a Guatemalan referral hospital. Methods: PHC personnel and hospital physicians participated in surveys and focus groups pre-implementation and 3, 6, and 12 months post-implementation to evaluate providers’ experience with the system. Referred patient records were reviewed to evaluate system effectiveness. Results: A total of 111 initial focus group participants included 96 (86.5%) from PHCs and 15 from the hospital. Of these participants, 53 PHC physicians and nurses and 15 hospital physicians initially completed written surveys. Convenience samples participated in follow-up. Eighteen focus groups achieved thematic saturation. Four themes emerged: effective communication; provision of timely, quality patient care with adequate resources; educational opportunities; and development of empowerment and relationships. Pre- and post-implementation surveys demonstrated significant improvement at the PHCs (P < .001) and the hospital (P = .02). Chart review included 435 referrals, 98 (22.5%) pre-implementation and 337 (77.5%) post-implementation. There was a trend toward an increased percentage of appropriately referred patients requiring medical intervention (30% vs 40%, P = .08) and of patients requiring intervention who received it prior to transport (55% vs 73%, P = .06). Conclusions: Standardizing a referral/counter-referral system improved communication, education, and trust across different levels of pediatric health care delivery. This model may be used for extension throughout Guatemala or be modified for use in other countries. Mixed-methods research design can evaluate complex systems in resource-limited settings. PMID:28812056

  2. Science Consultants, Fictional Films, and Scientific Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Proposes films to be successful communicative devices within the scientific community by showing that other scientists respond to depictions in films and how they respond. Demonstrates that science consultants use fictional films as promotional devices for their research fields. (Author/NB)

  3. An Evaluation of the Accuracy and Necessity of Fracture Clinic Referrals in a Busy Pediatric Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Ramasubbu, Benjamin; McNamara, Roisin; Deiratany, Samir; Okafor, Ike

    2016-02-01

    Injuries account for approximately 18% of all pediatric emergency department presentations. Of these, a significant amount will have fractures that will require orthopedic management usually in the orthopedic fracture clinic. Our aim was to assess the accuracy and necessity of fracture clinic referrals from our emergency department and to suggest an approach that might safely reduce the referral numbers. All fracture clinic referrals from Temple Street Emergency Department in August 2013 were retrospectively audited. There were 339 fracture clinic referrals in August 2013. Of these, 213 (63%) had fractures as reported by a consultant radiologist. One hundred twenty-six (37%) had no fracture confirmed, and of these, 24 (19%) had no fracture seen in the emergency department but were referred as clinically fractured. Thirty-three (10%) of the 339 were buckle fractures of the wrist. There were 21 (6.2%) finger injuries referred. Of ankle injuries referred to fracture clinic (n = 43), 14 (33%) were confirmed Salter-Harris 1 or 2 or avulsion fractures of the lateral malleolus and 16 (37%) were suspected Salter-Harris 1 or 2 fractures of the lateral malleolus. Through education and policy change such as the establishment of an Advanced Nurse Practioner (ANP)-led clinic or a virtual clinic within our emergency department, we could safely and efficiently reduce orthopedic fracture clinic referrals by more than 30%.

  4. Improving Appropriate Access to Care With Central Referral and Triage in Rheumatology.

    PubMed

    Hazlewood, Glen S; Barr, Susan G; Lopatina, Elena; Marshall, Deborah A; Lupton, Terri L; Fritzler, Marvin J; Mosher, Dianne P; Steber, Whitney A; Martin, Liam

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the short-term and long-term impact of a centralized system for the intake and triage of rheumatology referrals on access to care and referral quality. An innovative central referral process, the Central Referral and Triage in Rheumatology (CReATe Rheum) program, was implemented in 2006, serving a referral base of 2 million people. Referrals are received in a central office, triaged by trained nurses, and assigned to the next available appointment on a prioritized basis. To evaluate the short-term impact, we compared wait times, duplicate referrals, and no-shows from a pre-implementation practice audit to a 2-year post-implementation evaluation (January 2007 to December 2008). Rheumatologists also assessed the quality and completeness of the referral information and accuracy of the urgency category assigned during triage. We evaluated the long-term impact by tracking referral volume, wait times, and rheumatologist manpower each year until December, 2013. During the first 2 years, wait-time variability between rheumatologists decreased, and wait times were reduced for moderate and urgent referrals. CReATe Rheum improved the quality of referral information and eliminated duplicate referrals. The urgency of the referral was assigned correctly in 90% of referrals. Over the long term, CReATe Rheum maintained short wait times for more urgent patients despite a growing number of referrals and a stable number of rheumatologists. A centralized system for the intake and triage of rheumatology referrals improved referral quality, reduced system inefficiencies, and effectively managed wait times on a prioritized basis for a large referral population. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  5. Challenges in referral communication between VHA primary care and specialty care.

    PubMed

    Zuchowski, Jessica L; Rose, Danielle E; Hamilton, Alison B; Stockdale, Susan E; Meredith, Lisa S; Yano, Elizabeth M; Rubenstein, Lisa V; Cordasco, Kristina M

    2015-03-01

    Poor communication between primary care providers (PCPs) and specialists is a significant problem and a detriment to effective care coordination. Inconsistency in the quality of primary-specialty communication persists even in environments with integrated delivery systems and electronic medical records (EMRs), such as the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The purpose of this study was to measure ease of communication and to characterize communication challenges perceived by PCPs and primary care personnel in the VHA, with a particular focus on challenges associated with referral communication. The study utilized a convergent mixed-methods design: online cross-sectional survey measuring PCP-reported ease of communication with specialists, and semi-structured interviews characterizing primary-specialty communication challenges. 191 VHA PCPs from one regional network were surveyed (54% response rate), and 41 VHA PCPs and primary care staff were interviewed. PCP-reported ease of communication mean score (survey) and recurring themes in participant descriptions of primary-specialty referral communication (interviews) were analyzed. Among PCPs, ease-of-communication ratings were highest for women's health and mental health (mean score of 2.3 on a scale of 1-3 in both), and lowest for cardiothoracic surgery and neurology (mean scores of 1.3 and 1.6, respectively). Primary care personnel experienced challenges communicating with specialists via the EMR system, including difficulty in communicating special requests for appointments within a certain time frame and frequent rejection of referral requests due to rigid informational requirements. When faced with these challenges, PCPs reported using strategies such as telephone and e-mail contact with specialists with whom they had established relationships, as well as the use of an EMR-based referral innovation called "eConsults" as an alternative to a traditional referral. Primary-specialty communication is a continuing

  6. 24 CFR 3282.403 - Consumer complaint and information referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Consumer complaint and information... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME PROCEDURAL AND ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Consumer Complaint Handling and Remedial Actions § 3282.403 Consumer complaint and information referral. When a...

  7. 24 CFR 3282.403 - Consumer complaint and information referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Consumer complaint and information... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME PROCEDURAL AND ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Consumer Complaint Handling and Remedial Actions § 3282.403 Consumer complaint and information referral. (a) Retailer...

  8. 24 CFR 3282.403 - Consumer complaint and information referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Consumer complaint and information... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME PROCEDURAL AND ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Consumer Complaint Handling and Remedial Actions § 3282.403 Consumer complaint and information referral. When a consumer...

  9. 24 CFR 3282.403 - Consumer complaint and information referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Consumer complaint and information... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME PROCEDURAL AND ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Consumer Complaint Handling and Remedial Actions § 3282.403 Consumer complaint and information referral. When a consumer...

  10. 24 CFR 3282.403 - Consumer complaint and information referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consumer complaint and information... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME PROCEDURAL AND ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS Consumer Complaint Handling and Remedial Actions § 3282.403 Consumer complaint and information referral. When a...

  11. Patient and professional delay in the referral trajectory of patients with diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Antal P; Stoeldraaijers, Lian G M C; Pero, Mieke W M; Hermkes, Patty J; Carolina, René C A; Elders, Petra J M

    2013-11-01

    A cohort study investigated referral and treatment trajectories of patients with diabetic foot ulceration consulting podiatrists. The study aims were to quantify patient, professional and treatment (=total) delay and to identify relationships between patient- or professional-related characteristics, delays or ulcer healing time. Ten podiatrists specialising in diabetes care included 54 consecutive adults with diabetic foot ulceration. Assessments were performed retrospectively (e.g. delays) and prospectively (12 weeks). Median (SD; range) patient delay was 3.0 days (50.6; 0-243), professional delay 7.0 days (63.4; 0-279) and treatment delay 20.5 days (97.3; 0-522). 57% of patients took >2 weeks before visiting a podiatrist. Ulcers healed in 67% of patients in 49.0 days (90.2; 4-408). The number of health care professionals in the referral trajectory was positively related to treatment delay (p<0.01) and to ulcer healing time (p<0.01). Professional delay and treatment delay was positively correlated with the duration of the podiatric treatment (p<0.05). Patient awareness of ulceration risk tended to decrease the healing time. Patients with diabetic foot ulcers presented small median delays in the referral trajectory to podiatrists specialising in diabetes. The study results suggest that reducing the number of health care professionals in the referral trajectory might decrease treatment delay and ulcer healing time. Also improving patient awareness of ulceration risk might be beneficial for the healing time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Consultation and Decision Processes in a Research and Development Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Clagett G.

    1970-01-01

    Study of relationship between consultation and decision processes in an industrial research laboratory showed the efficacy of multidirectional consultation coupled with a pattern of shared, decentralized decision making. (Author/KJ)

  13. Academic Performance Difficulties: Age and Grade at First Referral

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harman, Marsha J.; Kordinak, S. Thomas; Bruce, A. Jerry

    2008-01-01

    Archival records of 43 children referred for diagnosis and treatment for academic difficulties were examined. Results revealed a significant difference for age at first referral and diagnoses. Those with disorders such as learning disability and severe emotional disturbance tended to be older, while the ADHD and dysthymic disorders tended to be…

  14. 49 CFR 199.243 - Referral, evaluation, and treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.243 Referral, evaluation, and treatment. (a) Each... associated with the misuse of alcohol, including the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of substance...

  15. Public Library Information and Referral Project, Phase II. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Thomas; Krauser, Cheri

    This study is the second of a two-phase survey of public library information and referral (I&R) service. In this phase, seven public libraries offering I&R services were studied in depth to provide descriptions of their operations, organizational factors, and the reactions of their users. Organizational factors and operations were studied through…

  16. Implementation of ‘matrix support’ (collaborative care) to reduce asthma and COPD referrals and improve primary care management in Brazil: a pilot observational study

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Sonia Maria; Salibe-Filho, William; Tonioli, Luís Paulo; Pfingesten, Luís Eduardo; Braz, Patrícia Dias; McDonnell, Juliet; Williams, Siân; do Carmo, Débora; de Sousa, Jaime Correia; Pinnock, Hilary; Stelmach, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are leading causes of hospitalisation and death in the city of Sao Bernardo do Campo. The municipality had difficulties in sustaining a pulmonology specialist team. Local policy has strengthened the knowledge of the primary care teams to improve the management of these diseases. Our aim is to pilot the implementation of an educational intervention based on collaborative care focused on reducing respiratory-related referrals. We implemented ‘matrix support’: a Brazilian collaborative educational intervention promoting specialist training and support for primary care physicians in three health territories with the highest number of referrals. Clinicians and nurses from primary care attended an 8-h workshop. The backlog of respiratory referrals was prioritised, where Asthma and COPD represented 70% of referral reasons. Initially, pulmonologists held joint consultations with physicians and nurses; as confidence grew, these were replaced by round-table note-based case discussions. The primary outcome was the number of asthma and COPD referrals. Almost all primary healthcare professionals in the three areas (132 of 157–87%) were trained; 360 patients were discussed, including 220 joint consultations. The number of respiratory referrals dropped from 290 (the year before matrix support) to 134 (the year after) (P<0.05). Referrals for asthma/COPD decreased from 13.4 to 5.4 cases per month (P=0.09) and for other lung diseases from 10.8 to 5.3 cases per month (P<0.05). Knowledge scores showed a significant improvement (P<0.001). Matrix-support collaborative care was well-accepted by primary care professionals associated with improved knowledge and reduced respiratory referrals. The initiative attracted specialists to the region overcoming historical recruitment problems. PMID:27536853

  17. 49 CFR 199.243 - Referral, evaluation, and treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.243 Referral, evaluation, and treatment. (a) Each... associated with the misuse of alcohol, including the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of substance... alcohol misuse. (c)(1) Before a covered employee returns to duty requiring the performance of a...

  18. 49 CFR 199.243 - Referral, evaluation, and treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL TESTING Alcohol Misuse Prevention Program § 199.243 Referral, evaluation, and treatment. (a) Each... associated with the misuse of alcohol, including the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of substance... alcohol misuse. (c)(1) Before a covered employee returns to duty requiring the performance of a...

  19. Evaluation and Referral for Child Maltreatment in Pediatric Poisoning Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Joanne N.; Pecker, Lydia H.; Russo, Michael E.; Henretig, Fred; Christian, Cindy W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although the majority of poisonings in young children are due to exploratory ingestions and might be prevented through improved caregiver supervision, the circumstances that warrant evaluation for suspected maltreatment and referral to Child Protective Services (CPS) are unclear. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine…

  20. Evaluation and Referral for Child Maltreatment in Pediatric Poisoning Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Joanne N.; Pecker, Lydia H.; Russo, Michael E.; Henretig, Fred; Christian, Cindy W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although the majority of poisonings in young children are due to exploratory ingestions and might be prevented through improved caregiver supervision, the circumstances that warrant evaluation for suspected maltreatment and referral to Child Protective Services (CPS) are unclear. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine…

  1. 29 CFR 1603.201 - Referral and scheduling for hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral and scheduling for hearing. 1603.201 Section 1603.201 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURES... scheduling for hearing. (a) Upon request by the complainant under paragraph (b) of this section or if the...

  2. 29 CFR 1603.201 - Referral and scheduling for hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Referral and scheduling for hearing. 1603.201 Section 1603.201 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURES... scheduling for hearing. (a) Upon request by the complainant under paragraph (b) of this section or if the...

  3. Underdiagnosis and Referral Bias of Autism in Ethnic Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begeer, Sander; El Bouk, Saloua; Boussaid, Wafaa; Terwogt, Mark Meerum; Koot, Hans M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined (1) the distribution of ethnic minorities among children referred to autism institutions and (2) referral bias in pediatric assessment of autism in ethnic minorities. It showed that compared to the known community prevalence, ethnic minorities were under-represented among 712 children referred to autism institutions. In…

  4. Safety Tips: The ACS Chemical Health and Safety Referral Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Barbara

    1984-01-01

    Describes an American Chemical Society (ACS) service which helps individuals not familiar with the resources of safety information. The service, which provides referrals to literature, films, educational courses, or organizations that can provide answers, exists to help in complying with legislation and dealing with all aspects of chemical health…

  5. Prevalence of Liver Disease and Utilization of a Hepatology Consultation Service at an Urban Tertiary Care Hospital.

    PubMed

    Wong, Stephen G; Pollock, Richard; Minuk, Gerald Y

    2015-12-04

    The prevalence of liver disease and frequency of consultations to a Hepatology Consultation service for patients with liver enzyme/function abnormalities admitted to a clinical teaching unit at an urban tertiary care hospital have not been previously described. To document these data, a retrospective chart review of adult patients admitted for non-hepatobiliary problems to a general Internal Medicine clinical teaching unit at an urban, tertiary care hospital during a three month period was performed. Laboratory test results were reviewed to determine if liver enzymes and function tests had been ordered during the first five days of admission and, in those with abnormal results, whether referrals had been sent to the hospital's Hepatology Consultation service for further investigations and/or management. A total of 506 admissions occurred during the study period. Of these, 452 (89%) were for patients with no known liver disease. Liver biochemistry testing was obtained in 218 (48.2%) of these individuals. In 192 (88.1%), liver enzyme or function tests were abnormal and in 91 (41.7%), both enzymes and function tests were abnormal (suggesting more advanced disease). Referrals to the Hepatology Consultation service were requested for 5/91 (5.5%) patients with more advanced disease and none with only liver enzyme or function tests abnormalities. Although liver enzymes and/or function test abnormalities are common in this patient population, screening for liver disease is relatively uncommon and consultation to a Hepatology Consultation service occurs in less than 10% of cases.

  6. Developing satisfied and talented consultants

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, Sarah; Higgs, Helen

    2007-07-01

    It has been well documented that the ageing, male dominated profile of the workforce in the UK nuclear industry will not support the forecasted nuclear renaissance. Based upon the aspects of age, gender and level of education, there is an existing shortfall in available knowledgeable resource to undertake and manage the extensive new build, operational and decommissioning programmes. The 2005 Nuclear Employers Survey advised the industry to recruit and train more: - young and qualified people. - experienced and qualified people from outside the industry. The future for the UK nuclear industry lies with people in their 20's and 30's. It is essential that not just technical talent but also managerial talent be identified early and that they are nourished and allowed to flourish. (authors)

  7. Rhinoplasty: initial consultation and examination.

    PubMed

    Khan, Husain Ali

    2012-02-01

    Many cosmetic surgeons consider rhinoplasty to be the most complex surgical and artistically challenging of all aesthetic surgery today. It is the most common facial procedure performed for women and the second most common for men. The art and science of cosmetic rhinoplasty begins with the initial examination. The surgeon must visualize and predict like Leonardo Da Vinci, be a sculptor like Michelangelo, and be an analyzer like Einstein. This article describes the components and complexities of the initial examination in cosmetic rhinoplasty. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Consulting and Communication in Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, John P.

    This paper describes a recent program of organizational awareness and development (OAD) initiated for a university program council. It describes the nature, purposes, and objectives of OAD and its role as a third party. It also provides an example of applied communication research, divided into four phases: (1) diagnostic, (2) feedback, (3)…

  9. Impact of Question Content on e-Consultation Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tran, Christopher; Liddy, Clare; Pinto, Nicole; Keely, Erin

    2016-03-01

    By facilitating direct communication of primary care providers (PCPs) with specialists for advice, electronic consult (e-consult) services can reduce the need for patients to wait for and travel to face-to-face consultations with specialists. An association between avoiding face-to-face referrals using an e-consult service and specific content within each e-consult has not been rigorously explored. Cases submitted to the Champlain Building Access to Specialists through eConsultation service between April 2011 to May 2013 were evaluated. Factors analyzed include question type (e.g., diagnosis or management), formulation (if interventions or outcomes were specified), and the addressed specialty. An avoided referral was present if the PCP indicated so in a mandatory close-out survey. A discrepancy was present if the PCP made a referral when the specialist did not indicate one was necessary, or if the PCP did not request a referral despite the specialist recommending one. There were 426 (40%) avoided referrals among 1,055 cases analyzed. Questions associated with the highest avoided referral rates included ones pertaining to diagnosis (44%), nonspecific requests for direction (44%), questions without specified interventions or outcomes (47%), and dermatology cases (49.5%). Specialists agreed on the need for a referral in 82% of cases, with most discrepancies due to the PCP making a referral without the specialist recommending one. Referral outcomes are associated with the type of question being asked, the formulation of each question, and the specialty being addressed. Discrepancies among PCPs and specialists regarding which patients require face-to-face referrals may help identify knowledge gaps and guide professional development.

  10. NICU consultants and support staff

    MedlinePlus

    ... nurses with extra experience in the care of newborn infants in addition to completing master's or doctoral level ... doctor with special training in the care of infants and children. This type ... for a healthy newborn. A pediatrician also provides primary care for most ...

  11. Business Communication Consulting and Research in Multinational Companies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrandt, Herbert W.

    1978-01-01

    Describes three issues involved in communication research and consulting for multinational companies, particularly those in Germany: qualifications for doing international consulting and research, problems of American scholar-researchers in those firms, and suggestions for dealing with those issues. (JMF)

  12. Understanding the Process of Medical Referral

    PubMed Central

    Muzzin, Linda

    1991-01-01

    Fifty referrals from family physicians in Ontario were examined by interviewing the patients, referring physicians, consultants, and others involved at various points in the process. This, the second in a series of six articles, introduces the participants and describes how grounded theory methodology was used to analyze the approximately 3000 pages of field notes. PMID:21229052

  13. Referral Patterns and Treatment Choices for Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A United States Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Hyder, Omar; Dodson, Rebecca M; Nathan, Hari; Herman, Joseph M; Cosgrove, David; Kamel, Ihab; Geschwind, Jean-Francois H; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Patterns of care of physician specialists may differ for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Reasons underlying variations are poorly understood. One source of variation may be disparate referral rates to specialists, leading to differences in cancer-directed treatments. STUDY DESIGN Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-linked Medicare database was queried for patients with HCC, diagnosed between 1998 and 2007, who consulted 1 or more physicians after diagnosis. Visit and procedure records were abstracted from Medicare billing records. Factors associated with specialist consult and subsequent treatment were examined. RESULTS There were 6,752 patients with HCC identified; 1,379 (20%) patients had early-stage disease. Median age was 73 years; the majority were male (66%), white (60%), and from the West region (56%). After diagnosis, referral to a specialist varied considerably (hepatology/ gastroenterology, 60%; medical oncology, 62%; surgery, 56%; interventional radiology [IR], 33%; radiation oncology, 9%). Twenty-two percent of patients saw 1 specialist; 39% saw 3 or more specialists. Time between diagnosis and visitation with a specialist varied (surgery, 37 days vs IR, 55 days; p = 0.04). Factors associated with referral to a specialist included younger age (odds ratio [OR] 2.16), Asian race (OR 1.49), geographic region (Northeast OR 2.10), and presence of early-stage disease (OR 2.21) (all p < 0.05). Among patients with early-stage disease, 77% saw a surgeon, while 50% had a consultation with medical oncologist. Receipt of therapy among patients with early-stage disease varied (no therapy, 30%; surgery, 39%; IR, 9%; chemotherapy, 23%). Factors associated with receipt of therapy included younger age (OR 2.48) and early-stage disease (OR 2.20). CONCLUSIONS After HCC diagnosis, referral to a specialist varied considerably. Both clinical and nonclinical factors were associated with consultation. Disparities in referral to a

  14. Negotiating Post-Consultation "Homework" Tasks between Counselors and Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Tom; Massfeller, Helen F.

    2010-01-01

    Counselors frequently conclude consultations with clients with suggestions or prescriptions for clients to follow up on, post-consultation. In this paper, we conceptualize the discussion regarding such post-consultation tasks as negotiations between counselor and client, focusing in particular on what observably occurs and is "talked into being"…

  15. 29 CFR 1912.31 - Experts and consultants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Experts and consultants. 1912.31 Section 1912.31 Labor... consultants. At the request of an advisory committee or the person calling a meeting of an advisory committee, the Assistant Secretary may make available to the committee any experts or consultants in the field...

  16. 29 CFR 1912.31 - Experts and consultants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Experts and consultants. 1912.31 Section 1912.31 Labor... consultants. At the request of an advisory committee or the person calling a meeting of an advisory committee, the Assistant Secretary may make available to the committee any experts or consultants in the field...

  17. 29 CFR 1912.31 - Experts and consultants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Experts and consultants. 1912.31 Section 1912.31 Labor... consultants. At the request of an advisory committee or the person calling a meeting of an advisory committee, the Assistant Secretary may make available to the committee any experts or consultants in the field...

  18. 29 CFR 1912.31 - Experts and consultants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Experts and consultants. 1912.31 Section 1912.31 Labor... consultants. At the request of an advisory committee or the person calling a meeting of an advisory committee, the Assistant Secretary may make available to the committee any experts or consultants in the field...

  19. 29 CFR 1912.31 - Experts and consultants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Experts and consultants. 1912.31 Section 1912.31 Labor... consultants. At the request of an advisory committee or the person calling a meeting of an advisory committee, the Assistant Secretary may make available to the committee any experts or consultants in the field...

  20. Quantum Leap--A Teacher and a Consultant Exchange Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lier, Jacquie; Bufe, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    To gain appreciation for each others' perspectives, a Mississippi language arts consultant and a third-grade teacher from Iowa traded jobs for a year. As a consultant, the teacher found that classroom teachers were more interested in whole-language instruction practicalities than in theory. As a teacher, the consultant learned that classroom…

  1. Referral rates and waiting lists: some empirical evidence.

    PubMed

    Goddard, J A; Tavakoli, M

    1998-09-01

    This paper provides some empirical evidence on topics discussed at greater length in a recent paper in Health Economics (Goddard, J.A., Malek, M. and Tavakoli, M. Health Economics 1995; 4: 41-55), which modelled the relationship between referral rates and waiting lists for hospital treatment for non-urgent conditions within a queuing theory framework. Here, we estimate a version of the demand function used in this model, with panel data for Scottish Health Board Areas during the period 1990-1992. Separate models are estimated for each of six broadly defined 'waiting list' specialisms, for which we have data on referral rates and waiting times. The six specialisms are General Surgery, Ear Nose and Throat Surgery, Gynaecology, Ophthalmology, Orthopaedics and Urology.

  2. Oncology social workers' attitudes toward hospice care and referral behavior.

    PubMed

    Becker, Janet E

    2004-02-01

    Members of the Association of Oncology Social Workers completed a survey, which included the Hospice Philosophy Scale (HPS) assessing the likelihood of the worker referring a terminally ill patient to hospice, background and experience, and demographics. The respondents held overwhelmingly favorable attitudes toward hospice philosophy and care, yet the average proportion of terminally ill patients whom they referred to hospice was only 49.5 percent. The worker's HPS score was related significantly, although weakly, to the likelihood of referral. A follow-up study was undertaken to determine the reasons for the discrepancy between the workers' self-reported favorable attitudes toward hospice and their relatively low rate of patient referral. The factor identified most frequently was resistance from families because of the requirement that hospice patients discontinue active treatment.

  3. Telephone consultation and triage: effects on health care use and patient satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Bunn, F; Byrne, G; Kendall, S

    2004-10-18

    Telephone consultation is the process where calls are received, assessed and managed by giving advice or by referral to a more appropriate service. In recent years there has been a growth in telephone consultation developed, in part, as a response to increased demand for General Practitioner (GP) and Accident and Emergency (A&E) department care. To assess the effects of telephone consultation on safety, service usage and patient satisfaction and to compare telephone consultation by different health care professionals. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the specialised register of the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) group, Pubmed, EMBASE, CINAHL, SIGLE, and the National Research Register. We checked reference lists of identified studies and review articles and contacted experts in the field. The search was not restricted by language or publication status. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled studies, controlled before/after studies (CBAs) and interrupted time series (ITSs) of telephone consultation or triage in a general health care setting. Disease specific phone lines were excluded. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion in the review, extracted data and assessed study quality. Data were collected on adverse events, service usage, cost and patient satisfaction. Due to heterogeneity we did not pool studies in a meta-analysis and instead present a narrative summary of the findings. Nine studies met our inclusion criteria, five RCTs, one CCT and three ITSs. Six studies compared telephone consultation versus normal care; four by a doctor, one by a nurse and one by a clinic clerk. Three studies compared telephone consultation by different types of health care workers; two compared nurses with doctors and one compared health assistants with doctors or nurses. Three of five studies found a decrease in visits to GP's but two found a significant increase in return consultations. In

  4. [Correct and timely referral of patients to centers of reference].

    PubMed

    Costa, Joana; Valença-Filipe, Rita; Rodrigues, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The correct and timely referral of patients, from peripheral hospitals, without specialized surgical care, namely in hand surgery, like Plastic Surgery or Orthopedics is of crucial importance. The authors report the case of a patient that presents in the Plastic Surgery Department with a chronic infection of the hypothenar eminence of the right hand. The clinical history suggests the persistence of a foreign body, despite two previous surgical procedures for removal, performed in the residence hospital. Surgical exploration was performed and the foreign body was removed without complications. The intent of this presentation is to alert for the importance of the timely referral of patients that can benefit of specialized care, namely of plastic surgery, when this is no possible in the residence hospital, in view of better health care and better patient treatment.

  5. Attitudes Associated With Alcohol and Marijuana Referral Actions by Resident Assistants

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, Cynthia J.; Rossheim, Matthew E.; Suzuki, Sumihiro

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study examined associations between resident assistant (RA) attitudes and referral actions to identify training strategies for strengthening the ability of these paraprofessionals to recognize and refer college students in their living units who misuse alcohol and marijuana. The study’s hypotheses were that (1) referral self-efficacy and perceived referral norms would be positively associated with RA referral actions and (2) perceived referral barriers and referral anticipatory anxiety would be negatively associated with RAs’ referral actions. A total of 317 RAs at eight residential campuses in different regions of the U.S. took part in the study. All participating RAs had at least one semester of work experience. Just prior to the Fall semester of 2012, RA’s responded to an online survey that assessed their alcohol and marijuana referral attitudes and referral actions. Overall, RAs reported considerable anxiety about approaching and referring students who may have an alcohol and/or marijuana problem. Perceived referral norms among RAs indicated substantial variability in perceptions about others’ expectations of them for referring students who may have alcohol and marijuana problems. Results from two multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that referral self-efficacy distinguished RAs who took alcohol referral actions and marijuana referral actions from those who did not do so. Neither length of RA service nor time spent on campus was associated with referral actions. RA training programs could give attention to strengthening referral self-efficacy through a series of increasingly difficult skill-building activities during pre- and in-service training. In addition, senior residence life and housing professional staff may consider assessing the extent to which RAs under their supervision follow established protocols for assisting students with possible alcohol and marijuana problems. The development of evidence-based RA training

  6. Assessment and Policy for Commercial Driver License Referrals

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Christopher M.; Khanna, Amit; Strohl, Kingman P.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes experiences, subsequent action, and policy recommendations regarding sleep disorders assessment of veterans in relation to a commercial driver medical examiner referral. A series of 6 veterans were seen in our sleep clinic, presenting with an order from a commercial driver medical examiner (CDME) for polysomnography and/or Multiple Sleep Latency Testing (PSG/MSLT). We searched the literature for an evidence-based justification for handling this referral, and we concluded that there is neither federal policy nor current evidence to suggest that any current diagnostic test, including PSG/MSLT and/or MWT, is capable of predicting which individual drivers are at risk for fall-asleep crashes. The best indicator of risk is self-reported sleepiness, regardless of cause. Thus, we concluded that an administrative request for a “PSG/MSLT” is not a rational use of VA resources. Procedures and a policy for the Cleveland VA system were developed to respond to the request for evaluation, recognizing that sleep problems and disorders other than sleep apnea may be present in this population. An educational component was an important feature of this response. We suspect that this approach may be appropriate for managed care systems in general. Citation: Miller CM; Khanna A; Strohl KP. Assessment and policy for commercial driver license referrals. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(4):417-423. PMID:17694732

  7. 20 CFR 416.919g - Who we will select to perform a consultative examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who we will select to perform a consultative... Type of Referral and for Report Content § 416.919g Who we will select to perform a consultative... support staff to help perform the consultative examination. Any such support staff (e.g., X-ray...

  8. Palliative treatment alternatives and euthanasia consultations: a qualitative interview study.

    PubMed

    Buiting, Hilde M; Willems, Dick L; Pasman, H Roeline W; Rurup, Mette L; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2011-07-01

    There is much debate about euthanasia within the context of palliative care. The six criteria of careful practice for lawful euthanasia in The Netherlands aim to safeguard the euthanasia practice against abuse and a disregard of palliative treatment alternatives. Those criteria need to be evaluated by the treating physician as well as an independent euthanasia consultant. To investigate 1) whether and how palliative treatment alternatives come up during or preceding euthanasia consultations and 2) how the availability of possible palliative treatment alternatives are assessed by the independent consultant. We interviewed 14 euthanasia consultants and 12 physicians who had requested a euthanasia consultation. We transcribed and analyzed the interviews and held consensus meetings about the interpretation. Treating physicians generally discuss the whole range of treatment options with the patient before the euthanasia consultation. Consultants actively start thinking about and proposing palliative treatment alternatives after consultations, when they have concluded that the criteria for careful practice have not been met. During the consultation, they take into account various aspects while assessing the criterion concerning the availability of reasonable alternatives, and they clearly distinguish between euthanasia and continuous deep sedation. Most consultants said that it was necessary to verify which forms of palliative care had previously been discussed. Advice concerning palliative care seemed to be related to the timing of the consultation ("early" or "late"). Euthanasia consultants were sometimes unsure whether or not to advise about palliative care, considering it not their task or inappropriate in view of the previous discussions. Two different roles of a euthanasia consultant were identified: a limited one, restricted to the evaluation of the criteria for careful practice, and a broad one, extended to actively providing advice about palliative care. Further

  9. Service referral for juvenile justice youths: associations with psychiatric disorder and recidivism.

    PubMed

    Hoeve, Machteld; McReynolds, Larkin S; Wasserman, Gail A

    2014-05-01

    Secondary multiple regression analyses related disorder profile, probation officers' mental health/substance use service referrals, and recidivism in 361 juvenile justice youths. Those with externalizing (disruptive behavior or substance use) disorder or substance offenses were most likely to receive service referrals. Substance disordered youths with service referrals had lower recidivism risk compared to counterparts without referrals; referral lowered the recidivism odds to approximately that for youths without a substance use disorder. Providing juvenile justice youths with systematic mental health assessment and linking those with substance use disorder to mental health and substance use services likely reduces recidivism risk.

  10. Issues arising following a referral and subsequent wait for extraction under general anaesthetic: impact on children.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Michaela; Sanders, Caroline; Davies, Gill; Walsh, Tanya; Pretty, Iain A

    2015-01-17

    Untreated caries in young children can result in a referral for extraction in hospital under general anaesthetic (GA). This study aims to explore the impact of caries during the ensuing wait for GA on children resident in the North West of England. The study involved 456 respondents referred to six hospitals in the Northwest of England. Over a two-month period each of these children/ families completed a questionnaire and gave permission to access their referral and consultation notes. Children (6.78 years old: 1.50 to 16.42) had on average five teeth extracted (ranging from one to a full clearance, with all teeth removed). Sixty seven per cent of parents reported their child had been in pain, 26% reported schools days being missed and 38% having sleepless nights. The average time from referral to operation was 137 days. Results indicated that children could be in discomfort during their wait, as pain was experienced, on average, 14 days before the operation. Wait time significantly predicated the number of sleepless nights b = .004, t(340) = 2.276, p = .023. It is clear that pain, sleepless nights and missed school are a feature during a wait for dental GA and can be exacerbated by an extended wait. These data support the need for not only effective prevention of caries within primary care to reduce wait times and experience of GA but also effective management of pain and infection during a prolonged wait for treatment.

  11. A model for assessment and referral of clients with bowel symptoms in community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Sriram, Deepa; McManus, Alexandra; Emmerton, Lynne M; Parsons, Richard W; Jiwa, Moyez

    2016-01-01

    To expedite diagnosis of serious bowel disease, efforts are required to signpost patients with high-risk symptoms to appropriate care. Community pharmacies are a recognized source of health advice regarding bowel symptoms. This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of a validated self-administered questionnaire, Jodi Lee Test (JLT), for detection, triage, and referral of bowel symptoms suggestive of carcinoma, in pharmacies. 'Usual Practice' was monitored for 12 weeks in 21 pharmacies in Western Australia, documenting outcomes for 84 clients presenting with bowel symptoms. Outcome measures were: acceptance of verbal advice from the pharmacist; general practitioner consultation; and diagnosis. Trial of the JLT involved staff training in the research protocol and monitoring of outcomes for 80 recruited clients over 20 weeks. Utility of the JLT was assessed by post-trial survey of pharmacy staff. Significantly more referrals were made by staff using the JLT than during Usual Practice: 30 (38%) vs 17 (20%). Clients' acceptance of referrals was also higher for the intervention group (40% vs 6%). Two-thirds of pharmacy staff agreed that the JLT could be incorporated into pharmacy practice, and 70% indicated they would use the JLT in the future. A pre-post design was considered more appropriate than a randomized control trial due to an inability to match pharmacies. Limitations of this study were: lack of control over adherence to the study protocol by pharmacy staff; no direct measure of client feedback on the JLT; and loss to follow-up. The JLT was effective in prompting decision-making by pharmacy staff and inter-professional care between pharmacies and general practice, in triage of clients at risk of bowel cancer.

  12. Preconsultation exchange for ambulatory hepatology consultations

    PubMed Central

    Sewell, Justin L.; Guy, Jennifer; Kwon, Annette; Hm Chen, Alice; Yee, Hal F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Preconsultation exchange is an emerging model of specialty care proposed by the American College of Physicians that seeks to answer a clinical question without a formal patient visit to the specialty clinic. This form of specialty care has been little studied. We sought to determine the appropriateness of preconsultation exchange for ambulatory hepatology consultations within our urban healthcare system. Methods Retrospective study of referrals for ambulatory hepatology consultation in the safety net healthcare system of San Francisco, CA from January 2007 through April 2010. Results Of the 500 referrals reviewed, 87 were excluded as repeat requests. The most common reasons for referral were hepatitis B (34.9%) and hepatitis C (32.0%). 56 referrals (13.6%) were appropriate for preconsultation exchange, and 190 (46.0%) were inappropriate for preconsultation exchange. 167 (40.4%) referrals did not include enough information to determine appropriateness for preconsultation exchange. Most of these (83.8%) were made for hepatitis B or hepatitis C, despite the presence of explicit referral guidelines. Midlevel providers were more likely than physicians to provide enough information to determine appropriateness for preconsultation exchange. Conclusion In our urban healthcare system, preconsultation exchange appears to be an appropriate form of specialty care for some ambulatory hepatology consultations. Communication between primary care provider and specialist appears to be an important barrier to broader implementation of preconsultation exchange. Optimizing the preconsultation exchange is critical to improve the primary-specialty care interface, and to build a true Patient Centered Medical Home Neighborhood. PMID:23597797

  13. A multifaceted intervention to improve primary care radiology referral quality and value in Canterbury.

    PubMed

    Holland, Kieran; McGeoch, Graham; Gullery, Carolyn

    2017-04-28

    This article describes a seven-year multifaceted intervention leading to sustained improvement in primary care radiology referral quality and value in Canterbury, New Zealand, and discusses the transferability to other health systems. Access criteria were developed with input from general practitioners and hospital-based specialists, and embedded in locally developed clinical pathways. A referral management service was created to streamline referral processes. Systems were developed to enable electronic referral and triage, and to provide visibility of prior imaging. A team of general practitioners was formed to continually review referrals relative to agreed criteria and to provide advice to referrers. Referring general practitioners were provided data and education about their referral patterns relative to their peers. A clinical audit programme was introduced to ensure quality and safety of care. The service achieved sustained improvements in referral quality (referral acceptance rates increased from 78% to 88%, urgent referrals reduced from 59% to 22%) and value (plain film volumes reduced by 40%). Sustained improvement to primary care radiology referral quality and value is achievable at scale using a multifaceted intervention. The transferability of this outcome is likely to be connected to supporting factors present in the Canterbury health system.

  14. Topic analysis: an objective measure of the consultation and its application to computer assisted consultations.

    PubMed

    Pringle, M; Robins, S; Brown, G

    1985-06-15

    A simple method has been developed to classify the verbal interaction during medical consultations in terms of the relative proportions of medical and social content and the initiator of conversational topics discussed. The method has been applied to video tape recordings of three doctors' consultations with and without a computer present to classify and compare the items discussed. Actual computer use has been shown to have a medical effect on the consultations (p less than 0.05) and to increase the proportion of topics initiated by the doctor (p less than 0.001). Although this was largely accounted for by the massive increase in doctor initiated medical items resulting directly from computer use, there was evidence that, for two of the doctors, these topics were replacing some of the normal social and patient initiated medical exchanges.

  15. Diabetic nephropathy. Prevention and early referral.

    PubMed Central

    Pylypchuk, G.; Beaubien, E.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical and pathophysiologic features of diabetic nephropathy and to examine evidence supporting primary, secondary, and tertiary treatment strategies. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The medical literature provides both level 1 and level 2 evidence on treatment of diabetic nephropathy, including randomized controlled trials, well-designed clinical trials without randomization, consensus papers, and cohort and case-control analytic studies. MAIN MESSAGE: Diabetes is the most common cause of end-stage renal failure in Canada and the United States, and both diabetes and its renal complications are increasing. Diabetic nephropathy, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, usually progresses through five stages. Treatment and prevention strategies depend on stage of disease. Primary prevention includes addressing hyperglycemia, hypertension, and smoking. Secondary prevention adds angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, cholesterol lowering, and perhaps restrictions on dietary protein. Tertiary care, including dialysis or transplantation, is generally managed by nephrologists, but family physicians continue to play an important role in the care of these patients. CONCLUSIONS: Diabetic nephropathy is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality for patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. To reduce end-stage diabetic nephropathy and its complications, both specialists and family physicians need to focus efforts on primary and secondary prevention strategies. PMID:10752002

  16. TCARE: Tailored Caregiver Assessment and Referral

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Rhonda; Kwak, Jung

    2008-01-01

    Care managers, including nurses and social workers, often lack information that would help them more effectively target services to caregivers' needs. Useful information includes the type of services that will be most helpful for caregivers and the best time to start using these services. Generally, caregivers are simply told what services they…

  17. TCARE: Tailored Caregiver Assessment and Referral

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Rhonda; Kwak, Jung

    2008-01-01

    Care managers, including nurses and social workers, often lack information that would help them more effectively target services to caregivers' needs. Useful information includes the type of services that will be most helpful for caregivers and the best time to start using these services. Generally, caregivers are simply told what services they…

  18. Free Universities and Learning Referral Centers, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Robert, Jr.; Draves, William A.

    Data on free universities and learning centers (including the addresses of the institutions) are presented. In a survey developed by the Free University Network for the National Center for Education Statistics, statistics on the free universities and learning centers are provided in the following areas: numbers of institutions, enrollment data,…

  19. [Teacher Referral Information and Statistical Information Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, N. J.

    This rating information form used to refer children to the PIC program, elicits information concerning the child's emotional, cognitive, and personality development. See TM 001 111 for details of the program in which it is used. (DLG)

  20. Exploring New Ways to Deliver Value to Healthcare Organizations: Algorithmic Testing, Data Integration, and Diagnostic E-consult Service.

    PubMed

    Risin, Semyon A; Chang, Brian N; Welsh, Kerry J; Kidd, Laura R; Moreno, Vanessa; Chen, Lei; Tholpady, Ashok; Wahed, Amer; Nguyen, Nghia; Kott, Marylee; Hunter, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    As the USA Health Care System undergoes transformation and transitions to value-based models it is critical for laboratory medicine/clinical pathology physicians to explore opportunities and find new ways to deliver value, become an integral part of the healthcare team. This is also essential for ensuring financial health and stability of the profession when the payment paradigm changes from fee-for-service to fee-for-performance. About 5 years ago we started searching for ways to achieve this goal. Among other approaches, the search included addressing the laboratory work-ups for specialists' referrals in the HarrisHealth System, a major safety net health care organization serving mostly indigent and underserved population of Harris County, TX. We present here our experience in improving the efficiency of laboratory testing for the referral process and in building a prototype of a diagnostic e-consult service using rheumatologic diseases as a starting point. The service incorporates algorithmic testing, integration of clinical, laboratory and imaging data, issuing structured comprehensive consultation reports, incorporating all the relevant information, and maintaining personal contacts and an e-line of communications with the primary providers and referral center personnel. Ongoing survey of providers affords testimony of service value in terms of facilitating their work and increasing productivity. Analysis of the cost effectiveness and of other value indicators is currently underway. We also discuss our pioneering experience in building pathology residents and fellows training in integrated diagnostic consulting service.

  1. Early referral makes the decision-making about fertility preservation easier: a pilot survey study of young female cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jayeon; Mersereau, Jennifer E

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the association between patients' decision-making about fertility preservation (FP) and time between cancer diagnosis and FP consultation in young female cancer survivors. This is a pilot survey study of women aged 18-43 years seen for FP consultation between April 2009 and December 2010. Among 52 women who completed the survey, 15 (29 %) had their FP consultation more than 2 weeks after their cancer diagnosis (late referral group) and 37 (71 %) were within 2 weeks of their cancer diagnosis (early referral group). In univariate analysis, the only difference between the late referral and early referral groups was a higher decisional conflict scale (DCS) in late referral group (p = 0.04). In multivariable analysis, late referral group was more likely to have high DCS (>35) compared to early referral group (odds ratio 4.8, 95 % confidence interval 1.5, 21.6) after adjusting for age, center, and type of cancer. Early referral to a fertility specialist can help patients make better decision about FP. This is the first study to suggest that early referral is important in patients' decision-making process about FP treatment. Our finding supports the benefit of early referral in patients who are interested in FP which is consistent with prior studies about FP referral patterns.

  2. State of the Science in the Assessment and Management of Severe Behavior Problems in School Settings: Behavior Analytic Consultation to Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Michael M.; Nkosi, Ajamu

    2007-01-01

    In school settings, behavior analysts are often called in to consult on severe behavioral issues that surpass the knowledge, experience, and training of local school personnel. Severe behavior such as aggression to staff, SIB, and property destruction are common severe behavior referrals. The benefits of functional assessments, functional…

  3. The ethics consultation and the pediatric surgeon.

    PubMed

    Statter, Mindy B

    2013-08-01

    The cultural, ethnic, religious, socioeconomic, and educational diversity of the patient population and the expanded surgical options provided by innovation and technology can pose significant ethical challenges. The questions confronting pediatric surgeons and their patients' families have greater complexity, and both the pediatric surgeon and the family perceive increasing vulnerability and uncertainty. The analysis and management of ethical issues in pediatric surgery cannot simply be extrapolated from the approach applied to adult cases. By reviewing the history of the events that contributed to the creation and utilization of hospital ethics committees and examining the role of the ethics consultant in the context of pediatric surgical care, practitioners and trainees will be better able to address these multifaceted situations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Critical consulting

    SciTech Connect

    Hocker, C.

    1993-02-01

    With increasing complexity in the power industry, consultants have become an indispensible element of any project development team. Top engineers and consultants today bring added value to their clients' projects.

  5. Child care health consultants' roles and responsibilities: focus group findings.

    PubMed

    Alkon, Abbey; Farrer, Joanna; Bernzweig, Jane

    2004-01-01

    To describe the roles and responsibilities of newly trained health professionals, primarily nurses called Child Care Health Consultants. Health professionals hired by county agencies to become Child Care Health Consultants enrolled in the California Training Institute (CTI) for Child Care Health Consultants, a 9-day educational training program divided into three modules. They participated in one focus group during each module. Research staff led the focus groups and the participants were asked, "What are your roles and responsibilities?" Qualitative analyses were conducted and common themes were identified. The nine focus groups included 44 participants, 95% were nurses with an average of 20 years of work experience. The roles and responsibilities of the Child Care Health Consultants were described by five themes: network, education, sustainability, on-site service, and administration. These findings contribute to the new field of child care health consultation by defining the common roles and responsibilities of Consultants.

  6. Radiology Consultation in the Era of Precision Oncology: A Review of Consultation Models and Services in the Tertiary Setting.

    PubMed

    DiPiro, Pamela J; Krajewski, Katherine M; Giardino, Angela A; Braschi-Amirfarzan, Marta; Ramaiya, Nikhil H

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to describe the various radiology consultation models in the Era of Precision Medicine. Since the inception of our specialty, radiologists have served as consultants to physicians of various disciplines. A variety of radiology consultation services have been described in the literature, including clinical decision support, patient-centric, subspecialty interpretation, and/or some combination of these. In oncology care in particular, case complexity often merits open dialogue with clinical providers. To explore the utility and impact of radiology consultation services in the academic setting, this article will further describe existing consultation models and the circumstances that precipitated their development. The hybrid model successful at our tertiary cancer center is discussed. In addition, the contributions of a consultant radiologist in breast cancer care are reviewed as the archetype of radiology consultation services provided to oncology practitioners.

  7. Radiology Consultation in the Era of Precision Oncology: A Review of Consultation Models and Services in the Tertiary Setting

    PubMed Central

    Krajewski, Katherine M.; Giardino, Angela A.; Braschi-Amirfarzan, Marta; Ramaiya, Nikhil H.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to describe the various radiology consultation models in the Era of Precision Medicine. Since the inception of our specialty, radiologists have served as consultants to physicians of various disciplines. A variety of radiology consultation services have been described in the literature, including clinical decision support, patient-centric, subspecialty interpretation, and/or some combination of these. In oncology care in particular, case complexity often merits open dialogue with clinical providers. To explore the utility and impact of radiology consultation services in the academic setting, this article will further describe existing consultation models and the circumstances that precipitated their development. The hybrid model successful at our tertiary cancer center is discussed. In addition, the contributions of a consultant radiologist in breast cancer care are reviewed as the archetype of radiology consultation services provided to oncology practitioners. PMID:28096715

  8. Nurses' and Patients' Experiences of Tele-Consultations.

    PubMed

    Dichmann Sorknaes, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The study focused on real-time video consultations (tele-consultations) as experienced by Danish hospital-based, respiratory nurses (tele-nurses) and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD, discharged after hospitalization with acute exacerbation (tele-patients). Tele-patients and tele-nurses consider tele-consultations as distinct, but qualified care, enabling close relationships between patient and nurse. The nurses' performance and their professional identity changed. The patients become active, participants in their treatment and care.

  9. Bell's palsy: a summary of current evidence and referral algorithm.

    PubMed

    Glass, Graeme E; Tzafetta, Kallirroi

    2014-12-01

    Spontaneous idiopathic facial nerve (Bell's) palsy leaves residual hemifacial weakness in 29% which is severe and disfiguring in over half of these cases. Acute medical management remains the best way to improve outcomes. Reconstructive surgery can improve long term disfigurement. However, acute and surgical options are time-dependent. As family practitioners see, on average, one case every 2 years, a summary of this condition based on common clinical questions may improve acute management and guide referral for those who need specialist input. We formulated a series of clinical questions likely to be of use to family practitioners on encountering this condition and sought evidence from the literature to answer them. The lifetime risk is 1 in 60, and is more common in pregnancy and diabetes mellitus. Patients often present with facial pain or paraesthesia, altered taste and intolerance to loud noise in addition to facial droop. It is probably caused by ischaemic compression of the facial nerve within the meatal segment of the facial canal probably as a result of viral inflammation. When given early, high dose corticosteroids can improve outcomes. Neither antiviral therapy nor other adjuvant therapies are supported by evidence. As the facial muscles remain viable re-innervation targets for up to 2 years, late referrals require more complex reconstructions. Early recognition, steroid therapy and early referral for facial reanimation (when the diagnosis is secure) are important features of good management when encountering these complex cases. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Neglected ends: clinical ethics consultation and the prospects for closure.

    PubMed

    Fiester, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    Clinical ethics consultations (CECs) are sometimes deemed complete at the moment when the consultants make a recommendation. In CECs that involve actual ethical conflict, this view of a consult's endpoint runs the risk of overemphasizing the conflict's resolution at the expense of the consult's process, which can have deleterious effects on the various parties in the conflict. This overly narrow focus on reaching a decision or recommendation in consults that involve profound moral disagreement can result in two types of adverse, lingering sequelae: moral distress or negative moral emotions. The problem, succinctly named, is that such consults have insufficient "closure" for patients, families, and providers. To promote closure, and avoid the ills of moral distress and the moral emotions, I argue that CECs need to prioritize assisted conversation between the different stakeholders in these conflicts, what is often referred to as "bioethics mediation."

  11. Communication Training and Consulting in Business, Industry, and Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchholz, William J., Ed.

    Intended as a reference for training and consulting in the field of business communication, this book presents research, implements theory, and explores communication practices vital to all organizations. The titles of the essays and their authors are as follows: (1) "Communication Consulting--The State of the Art" (William J. Buchholz); (2) "The…

  12. Communication Training and Consulting in Business, Industry, and Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchholz, William J., Ed.

    Intended as a reference for training and consulting in the field of business communication, this book presents research, implements theory, and explores communication practices vital to all organizations. The titles of the essays and their authors are as follows: (1) "Communication Consulting--The State of the Art" (William J. Buchholz); (2) "The…

  13. Population-Based Analysis of Hematologic Malignancy Referrals to a Comprehensive Cancer Center, Referrals for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, and Participation in Clinical Trial, Survey, and Biospecimen Research by Race.

    PubMed

    Clay, Alyssa; Peoples, Brittany; Zhang, Yali; Moysich, Kirsten; Ross, Levi; McCarthy, Philip; Hahn, Theresa

    2015-08-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities have been reported in clinical trial/research participation, utilization of autologous and allogeneic blood and marrow transplantation (BMT), and availability of allogeneic donors. We performed a population-based cohort study to investigate adult hematologic malignancy referrals to a US tertiary cancer center, utilization of BMT, and participation in clinical trial, survey, and biospecimen research by race. US Census Data and the New York State Public Access Cancer Epidemiology Database identified the racial distribution of the general population and new hematologic malignancy cases in the primary catchment area. From 2005 to 2011, 1106 patients aged 18 to 75 years were referred for BMT consultation; although the rate of BMT among hematologic malignancy referrals did not differ by race, the reasons for not receiving a BMT did. Participation in biospecimen research did not vary by race; however, African Americans and other minorities were significantly less likely to participate in survey research than European Americans. Although rates of hematologic malignancy referrals and use of BMT for minorities appear to be low (<10%), they closely reflect the race distribution of all hematologic malignancy cases and the western New York population. African Americans are equally likely as other races to participate in biospecimen banking, but further study is needed to understand reasons for lower participation in survey research. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Why are hospital doctors not referring to Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry? - a systemic review.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kai Yang; Evans, Rebecca; Larkins, Sarah

    2016-11-09

    Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry (CLP) is a subspecialty of psychiatry that provides care to inpatients under non-psychiatric care. Despite evidence of benefits of CLP for inpatients with psychiatric comorbidities, referral rates from hospital doctors remain low. This review aims to understand barriers to CLP inpatient referral as described in the literature. We searched on Medline, PsychINFO, CINAHL and SCOPUS, using MESH and the following keywords: 1) Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry, Consultation Liaison Psychiatry, Consultation Psychiatry, Liaison Psychiatry, Hospital Psychiatry, Psychosomatic Medicine, the 2) Referral, Consultation, Consultancy and 3) Inpatient, Hospitalized patient, Hospitalized patient. We considered papers published between 1 Jan 1965 and 30 Sep 2015 and all articles written in English that contribute to understanding of barriers to CLP referral were included. Thirty-five eligible articles were found and they were grouped thematically into three categories: (1) Systemic factors; (2) Referrer factors; (3) Patient factors. Systemic factors that improves referrals include a dedicated CLP service, active CLP consultant and collaborative screening of patients. Referrer factors that increases referrals include doctors of internal medicine specialty and comfortable with CLP. Patients more likely to be referred tend to be young, has psychiatric history, live in an urban setting or has functional psychosis. This is the first systematic review that examines factors that influence CLP inpatient referrals. Although there is research in this area, it is of limited quality. Education could be provided to hospital doctors to better recognise mental illness. Collaborative screening of vulnerable groups could prevent inpatients from missing out on psychiatric care. CLP clinicians should use the knowledge gained in this review to provide quality engagement with referrers.

  15. Nurse-led telephone consultation and outpatient local anaesthetic abortion: a pilot project.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sandeep; Guthrie, Kate

    2006-01-01

    The study objectives were to improve access to earlier and safer abortion and to offer women a wider choice of method of termination of pregnancy (TOP). The study comprised two pilot projects conducted in a teaching hospital to assess the feasibility of (1) a telephone booking clinic and (2) a local anaesthetic outpatient surgical termination of pregnancy (LA-STOP) service. The main outcome measures were the uptake of services by referrers and patients, staff acceptability and cost. Demand from referrers for the telephone booking clinic was greater than could be accommodated by the service. Telephone consultation was popular with patients as it was carried out at their convenience in their homes, and with staff as it reduced clinic assessment time. Some staff members felt that consulting over the telephone affected their assessment of the patient's emotional status. Outpatient LA-STOP seemed well accepted by both staff and patients as it offered patients a convenient and safe method of early abortion. A preliminary costing indicated a net saving plus increased service capacity. The pilots suggest that the introduction of a telephone booking clinic and LA-STOP service into existing hospital services is feasible and cost effective. Further research is required to evaluate the potential for reducing waiting times and the gestations at which terminations are carried out.

  16. Surgical consultation and intervention during pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Madenci, Arin L; Lehmann, Leslie E; Weldon, Christopher B

    2014-12-01

    Children undergoing HSCT are at risk for complications due to immune system impairment, toxicity from prior therapies and conditioning regimens, and long-term use of indwelling catheters. These problems may require assessment by the surgical team. We sought to characterize the role of surgical consultation during primary hospital stay for HSCT. We retrospectively reviewed the records of consecutive patients undergoing HSCT between September 2010 and September 2012. One hundred and seventy-three patients underwent 189 HSCTs. General surgery consultations occurred during 33% (n = 62) of primary hospitalizations for HSCT, with a total of 85 consults. Sixty-three (73%) consults resulted in an intervention in the operating room or at the bedside. The majority of consults were for CVL issues (59%, n = 50), followed by abdominal complaints (16%, n = 14). Patients requiring surgical consultation had significantly higher in-hospital mortality (16% vs. 2%, p < 0.01) and 100-day TRM (10% vs. 2%, p < 0.01), compared with those not requiring consultation. Patients undergoing HSCT often require surgical consultation, most commonly for line-related issues. Surgical consultation heralded an increased risk of in-hospital and 100-day TRM. Issues among this high-risk cohort of children who have undergone HSCT must be familiar to the general surgeon and oncologist alike. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Ethics consultation and empathy : finding the balance in clinical settings.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Florian; Frewer, Andreas

    2011-12-01

    There is no doubt that emotions have an important effect on practices of moral reasoning such as clinical ethics consultation. Empathy is not only a basic human emotion but also an important and learnable skill for health care professionals. A basic amount of empathy is essential both in patient care and in clinical ethics consultation. This article debates the "adequate dose" of empathy in ethics consultations in clinical settings and tries to identify possible situations within the process of consultation in which this crucial feeling is at risk.

  18. Community nurses and their collaboration with clinical nurse consultants.

    PubMed

    Jannings, W; Maynard, C

    A survey was undertaken of 129 community nurses who had chosen to utilise a clinical nurse consultant for education and/or patient care at home. Accessibility, efficiency, usefulness of the consultation and the educative role of the clinical nurse consultant were examined. The responses indicated that the community nurses had positive perceptions regarding their collaboration with the clinical nurse consultants. It is recommended that an objective tool be developed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the collaboration, for data collection purposes, when measuring patient outcomes and evaluating specialist resources.

  19. The preoperative cardiology consultation: goal settings and great expectations.

    PubMed

    Aslanger, Emre; Altun, Ibrahim; Guz, Goksel; Kiraslan, Omer; Polat, Nihat; Golcuk, Ebru; Oflaz, Huseyin

    2011-08-01

    Despite the availability of guidelines for preoperative cardiology consultations, their efficacy in real clinical practice remains unknown. Furthermore, there are concerns that overused cardiology consultations can lead to unnecessary investigations, prolonged hospital stays, and even cancellation of necessary surgery. In this retrospective study, we investigated: (i) the potential impact of the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology algorithm and (ii) the potential of this algorithm for preventing unnecessary evaluation. We examined the cardiology consultation requests for 712 patients scheduled for elective surgery. Our analysis included: (i) patient characteristics, (ii) abnormalities revealed by the consultant, (iii) impact of these abnormalities on clinical decision making and therapy modification. The most common reason for consultation was 'pre-operative evaluation' (80.9%). Although our cardiologists revealed an abnormality in 67.8% and recommended further work up in 58.7% of our patients, they contributed to the clinical course in only 36.9%. Moreover, when the algorithm was applied to 'routine pre-operative evaluation' requests lacking a specific question, only 7.6% of these consultation requests required further investigation. Preoperative cardiology consultation seems to be overused. Although the fear of missing important issues leads surgeons to use a decreased threshold for pre-operative consultation requests, such a non-specific manner of pre-operative consultation request causes unnecessary investigations and decreased cost-effectiveness. Furthermore, the detection of any clinical abnormality by cardiologists surprisingly adds little to clinical decision making.

  20. Frequent consulting and multiple morbidity: a qualitative comparison of ‘high’ and ‘low’ consulters of GPs

    PubMed Central

    Wyke, Sally; Hunt, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Background. Frequent consulting is associated with multiple and complex social and health conditions. It is not known how the impact of multiple conditions, the ability to self-manage and patient perception of the GP consultation combines to influence consulting frequency. Objective. To investigate reasons for frequent consultation among people with multiple morbidity but contrasting consulting rates. Methods. Qualitative study with in-depth interviews in the west of Scotland. Participants were 23 men and women aged about 50 years with four or more chronic illnesses; 11 reported consulting seven or more times in the last year [the frequent consulters (FCs)] and 12, three or fewer times [the less frequent consulters (LFCs)]. The main outcome measures were the participants’ accounts of their symptoms, self-management strategies and reasons for consulting a GP. Results. All participants used multiple self-management strategies. FCs described: more disruptive symptoms, which were resistant to self-management strategies; less access to fewer treatments and resources and more medical monitoring, for unstable conditions and drug regimens. The LFCs reported: less severe and more containable symptoms; accessing more efficacious self-management strategies and infrequent GP monitoring for stable conditions and routine drug regimens. All participants conveyed consulting as a ‘last resort’. However, the GP was seen as ‘ally’, for the FCs, and as ‘innocent bystander’, for the LFCs. Conclusions. This qualitative investigation into the combined significance of multiple morbidities and self-management on the GP consultation suggests that current models of self-management might have limited potential to reduce utilization rates among this vulnerable group. Severity of symptoms, stability of condition and complexity of drug regimens combine to influence the availability of effective resources and influence frequency of GP consultations. PMID:18448858

  1. Community resources for psychiatric and psychosocial problems. Family physicians' referral patterns in urban Ontario.

    PubMed Central

    Craven, M. A.; Allen, C. J.; Kates, N.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To document the number and pattern of psychiatric and psychosocial referrals to community resources by family physicians (FPs) and to determine whether referral practices correlate with physician variables. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of referrals by FPs to 34 key psychiatric and psychosocial community resources identified by a panel of FPs, psychiatric social workers, psychiatric nurses, public health nurses, and the local community information service. SETTING: Regional municipality of 434,000 persons in Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-seven of 34 (79%) community agencies identified 261 FPs who made 4487 referrals to participating agencies (range 0 to 65, median 15, mean 17.19 +/- 13.42). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of referrals to all agencies; variables, such as physician sex, school of graduation, year of graduation, and certificate status in the College of Family Physicians of Canada, related to referral patterns. RESULTS: Referrals to outpatient psychiatric clinics, support services, and general counseling services accounted for 96% of all referrals. Physicians' average annual referral profile was as follows: 8.6 patients to a support service, 6.3 to an outpatient psychiatric service, 1.6 to a counseling service, and 0.46 to a substance abuse service. Referral profiles of individual physicians varied greatly. Female FPs made fewer referrals than male FPs to support services, but both made similar numbers of referrals to psychiatric, counseling, and substance abuse services. The more recent the year of graduation, the greater the number of referrals to psychiatric (r = 0.158, P = 0.0107) and counseling services (r = 0.137, P = 0.0272) and the higher the fraction of referrals to psychiatric services (r = 0.286, P = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Family physicians in Hamilton-Wentworth made few referrals to psychiatric and psychosocial services. Only physician sex and year of graduation correlated significantly with numbers of referrals made. Recent

  2. Adolescents consulting a GP accompanied by a third party: comparative analysis of representations and how they evolve through consultation.

    PubMed

    Binder, Philippe; Caron, Carine; Jouhet, Vianney; Marcelli, Daniel; Ingrand, Pierre

    2010-10-01

    Adolescents are frequently accompanied by a third party in consultation. Their stated reason for consulting is rarely psychological. However, many adolescents experience distress or impaired well-being that practitioners fail to detect. To study the ability of adolescents to express personal concerns in general medicine consultations depending on if an accompanier is present and to explore perceptions of participants and how they evolved. Six hundred and seventy-four adolescent consultations with 53 GPs were studied. The adolescents and any persons accompanying completed self-administered questionnaires before and after the consultation, the GPs only afterwards. Analyses compared responses before and after consultation and between participants. Six per cent of the adolescents were consulting for a psychological reason, but, among the others, 17% reported having personal concerns they would like to talk about. Among adolescents aged 14-17 years, those consulting alone more frequently reported personal worries but were more satisfied with the consultation than the others. A third party's presence did not appear to hinder expression for those that consulted accompanied. The representations of the third party and practitioner concerning the adolescent differed, although they tended to converge following the consultation: accompaniers overestimated the adolescents' well-being and freedom to talk, while GPs underestimated their well-being, readiness to confide and feelings of being understood. GPs could be more optimistic about adolescent consultations: their role is viewed more positively than they think, especially by adolescents consulting alone. The majority of adolescents wishing to say something do so, even when an accompanier is present.

  3. Emergency room (ER) referrals and health insurance in the United States.

    PubMed

    Amini, Reza; Swan, James; Yang, Philip; Ingman, Stanley Rusk; Turner, Keith; Sahaf, Robab

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to determine how various health insurance policies affect the rate of emergency room (ER) referrals in the United States. The secondary data, gathered in National Health Measurement Study (NHMS) in 2008 and 2010, was used. The authors identify the relationships between health insurance and ER referrals by using zero-inflated binomial and zero-inflated Poisson regression. About 17% (2008) and 20% (2010) of the respondents had one or more ER referrals in the 2 years; those who were under coverage of governmental health insurance are more likely to refer ER than uninsured group. The differences in ER referrals that ended with hospital admission across different insurance policies are not significant. Health insurance is a remarkable factor in ER referrals; the coverage of health insurance plans can affect consuming the services provided in ER. Governmental insurance plans can increase ER referrals.

  4. Red eyes and red-flags: improving ophthalmic assessment and referral in primary care.

    PubMed

    Kilduff, Caroline; Lois, Charis

    2016-01-01

    Up to five percent of primary care consultations are eye-related, yet 96% of General Practitioners (GPs) do not undergo postgraduate ophthalmology training. Most do not feel assured performing eye assessments. Some red eye conditions can become sight threatening, and often exhibit red-flag features. These features include moderate pain, photophobia, reduced visual acuity (VA), eye-trauma, or unilateral marked redness. The aim of this project was to improve primary care assessment and referral of patients presenting with red-flag features based on the NICE 'Red Eye' Clinical Knowledge Summary recommendations. Data was collected retrospectively from 139 red eye consultations. A practice meeting highlighted poor awareness of red-flag features, low confidence levels in eye assessments, and time-constraints during appointments. Interventions were based on feedback from staff. These included a primary care teaching session on red-flag features, a VA measurement tutorial, and provision of a red eye toolkit, including VA equipment, to each consultation room. At baseline, each patient had on average 0.9 red-flag features assessed. Only 36.0% (9/25) of patients with red-flag features were appropriately referred to same-day ophthalmology services. Following two improvement cycles, a significant improvement was seen in almost every parameter. On average, each patient had 2.7 red-flag features assessed (vs 0.9, p<0.001). VA was assessed in 55.6% of consultations (vs 7.9%, p<0.001), pain was quantified in 81.5% (vs 20.9%, p=0.005), eye-trauma or foreign-body (51.8% vs 8.6%, p<0.001), extent of redness was documented in 66.7% (vs 14.4%, p<0.001). Only photophobia remained poorly assessed (18.5% vs 14.4%, p=0.75). Following this, 75.0% (6/8) of patients were appropriately referred. This project reflected the literature regarding low confidence and inexperience amongst GPs when faced with ophthalmic conditions. Improvements in education are required to ensure accurate assessments

  5. Red eyes and red-flags: improving ophthalmic assessment and referral in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Kilduff, Caroline; Lois, Charis

    2016-01-01

    Up to five percent of primary care consultations are eye-related, yet 96% of General Practitioners (GPs) do not undergo postgraduate ophthalmology training. Most do not feel assured performing eye assessments. Some red eye conditions can become sight threatening, and often exhibit red-flag features. These features include moderate pain, photophobia, reduced visual acuity (VA), eye-trauma, or unilateral marked redness. The aim of this project was to improve primary care assessment and referral of patients presenting with red-flag features based on the NICE ‘Red Eye’ Clinical Knowledge Summary recommendations. Data was collected retrospectively from 139 red eye consultations. A practice meeting highlighted poor awareness of red-flag features, low confidence levels in eye assessments, and time-constraints during appointments. Interventions were based on feedback from staff. These included a primary care teaching session on red-flag features, a VA measurement tutorial, and provision of a red eye toolkit, including VA equipment, to each consultation room. At baseline, each patient had on average 0.9 red-flag features assessed. Only 36.0% (9/25) of patients with red-flag features were appropriately referred to same-day ophthalmology services. Following two improvement cycles, a significant improvement was seen in almost every parameter. On average, each patient had 2.7 red-flag features assessed (vs 0.9, p<0.001). VA was assessed in 55.6% of consultations (vs 7.9%, p<0.001), pain was quantified in 81.5% (vs 20.9%, p=0.005), eye-trauma or foreign-body (51.8% vs 8.6%, p<0.001), extent of redness was documented in 66.7% (vs 14.4%, p<0.001). Only photophobia remained poorly assessed (18.5% vs 14.4%, p=0.75). Following this, 75.0% (6/8) of patients were appropriately referred. This project reflected the literature regarding low confidence and inexperience amongst GPs when faced with ophthalmic conditions. Improvements in education are required to ensure accurate

  6. Critical care outreach referrals: a mixed-method investigative study of outcomes and experiences.

    PubMed

    Pattison, Natalie; Eastham, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    To explore referrals to a critical care outreach team (CCOT), associated factors around patient management and survival to discharge, and the qualitative exploration of referral characteristics (identifying any areas for service improvement around CCOT). A single-centre mixed method study in a specialist hospital was undertaken, using an explanatory design: participant selection model. In this model, quantitative results (prospective and retrospective episode of care review, including modified early warning system (MEWS), time and delay of referral and patient outcomes for admission and survival) are further explained by qualitative (interview) data with doctors and nurses referring to outreach. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS +17 and 19, and qualitative data were analysed using grounded theory principles. A large proportion of referrals (124/407 = 30·5%) were made by medical staff. For 97 (97/407 = 23·8%) referrals, there was a delay between the point at which patients deteriorated (as verified by retrospective record review and MEWS score triggers) and the time at when patients were referred. The average delay was 2·96 h (95% CI 1·97-3·95; SD 9·56). Timely referrals were associated with improved outcomes; however, no causal attribution can be made from the circumstances around CCOT referral. Qualitative themes included indications for referral, facilitating factors for referral, barriers to referral and consequences of referral, with an overarching core theory of reassurance. Outreach was seen as back-up and this core theory demonstrates the important, and somewhat less tangible, role outreach has in supporting ward staff to care for at-risk patients. Mapping outreach episodes of care and patient outcomes can help highlight areas for improvement. This study outlines reasons for referral and how outreach can facilitate patient pathways in critical illness. © 2011 The Authors. Nursing in Critical Care © 2011 British Association of Critical Care

  7. Embedding nursing and therapy consultantship: the case of stroke consultants.

    PubMed

    Burton, Christopher R; Bennett, Bev; Gibbon, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    As the basis for the design of career development opportunities for current and aspiring nursing and therapy consultants, we aimed to explore the factors that shape how these roles have embedded in UK stroke services. The non-medical consultant role has been introduced into UK health care services to provide opportunities for experienced practitioners to progress their careers in clinical practice. Whilst there have been evaluations of the impact of the role on service delivery, little attention has been paid to the pathways towards consultantship. An exploratory design, incorporating focus group discussions, was used to address the research questions. Participating consultants, both nurses and allied health professionals, worked in stroke services, although it is anticipated that the results will have wider application. Two focus groups were held with non-medical consultants in stroke from across the UK. Participants had the opportunity to comment on an interim paper prior to publication of the results. Thirteen consultants took part in the study. A lack of consensus about the nature of clinical expertise and a diverse range of pathways towards consultantship were identified. Health care policy had presented the opportunity for consultants to be entrepreneurial in the development of stroke services, although this had limited the scope for the development of professional knowledge. Inflexible programmes to support aspiring consultants may limit the opportunities to develop these entrepreneurial skills. This study challenges health care organizations and the education and research departments that support them to think creatively in the way that the non-medical consultant role is embedded, and that this should draw on the commitment of existing consultants to support succession planning. The identification of those aspects of career pathways that current consultants have found to be helpful will be useful in designing opportunities for aspiring consultants.

  8. Surgical Pathology and Intraoperative Consultation: An Audit

    PubMed Central

    GOLAM, Mostafa; QUEEN, Zarat

    2015-01-01

    Background: While intraoperative consultation has been used in Bangladesh for a long period of time, to date, there has been no published reporting on the performance of frozen sections. The current audit evaluates the performance of frozen sections in a well reputed medical center in Bangladesh, Anowara Medical Services. Objective: This retrospective study has been designed to measure the accuracy of frozen section diagnosis in a medical center in a third-world country, where many surgical procedures rely on intraoperative consultation. Methods: A series of 1379 intra- and peri-operative frozen section cases, from 2007 to 2014, was reviewed. Intraoperative tissue specimens received at Anowara Medical Services were processed for frozen sections. After examination of the frozen section that yielded the initial frozen section diagnoses, the frozen tissues were reprocessed for regular paraffin sectioning. These paraffin sections were examined by a second pathologist, and a final diagnosis was issued. The frozen section diagnosis and final diagnoses of all cases were retrospectively analysed to determine the accuracy of frozen section examination. Results: Overall, accurate diagnosis was made on frozen sections in 98.2% of the cases. The discrepant diagnoses were all clinically significant, i.e., there were discrepancies between benign and malignant diagnoses on frozen and paraffin sections. In 1% of the cases, diagnosis was deferred. Fifty percent of the deferred cases were benign. Two cases, received in formalin, were excluded. In both cases, the diagnosis was positive for malignancy. The number of false negative results (4 false negatives) was slightly lower than that of false positives (5 false positives). Specificity and sensitivity of 99.3% and 99.4% were achieved, respectively. In this study, the positive predictive value was 99.2% and the negative predictive value was 99.5%. Over the years, the number of discrepant diagnoses remained fairly constant. Conclusion

  9. Nurse's Desk: food bank-based outreach and screening to decrease unmet referral needs.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Laura S; Kuster, Emilie

    2013-01-01

    The Nurse's Desk health screening project used the Intervention Wheel model to conduct outreach, screening, education, and referral for food bank clients (n = 506). Blood glucose, blood pressure, health care utilization, and unmet referral needs were assessed. Screening results identified 318 clients (62.8%) with 1 or more unmet referral needs, including 6 clients (3.16%) with capillary blood glucose more than 199 mg/dL and 132 (31.9%) with hypertension. Clients had higher-than-average systolic and diastolic blood pressures and undiagnosed diabetes than in the general population. A client-approved method for tracking completed referrals is needed for this potentially high-risk population.

  10. Frequency, cost and impact of inter-island referrals in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Negin, Joel; Martiniuk, Alexandra L C; Farrell, Penny; Dalipanda, Tenneth

    2012-01-01

    Providing quality health services to people living in remote areas is central to global efforts to achieve universal access to health care. Effective referral systems are especially critical in resource-limited countries where small populations are separated by considerable distances, geographic challenges and the limitations of human resources for health. This study aimed to build an evidence base on inter-island referrals in the Solomon Islands, in particular regarding the number of referrals, reasons for referrals, and cost, to ultimately provide recommendations regarding referral practice effectiveness and efficiency. Data were taken from the referral database collected and maintained by the National Referral Hospital (NRH) in the capital, Honiara. Data included age, sex, ward or department visited, date of travel back to home port, home port and province. Data were available and included for 2008, 6 months of 2009, all of 2010 and 1 month of 2011; a total of 31 months. Travel costs were taken from NRH administrative information and included in the analysis. In addition, 10 qualitative interviews were conducted with clinicians and policy-makers in the tertiary hospital and one provincial hospital to gather information regarding inter-island referrals, their appropriateness and challenges faced. In the Solomon Islands, referrals from outer islands to the NRH are substantial and are gradually increasing over time. The two most populous provinces outside of the capital, Western and Malaita, represented 51% of all referrals in the study period. Of those referred, 21% were less than 15 years of age - even though 40% of the country's population is under 15 - with 30% being young adults of 15-24 years. Orthopaedic conditions comprised the largest number of referrals, with obstetric and gynaecological conditions a close second. The cost of referrals is rapidly increasing and was almost US$350,000 per year for the NRH alone. The amount budgeted for patient travel from

  11. Breast and ovarian cancer referrals to the ACT Genetic Service: are we meeting guidelines?

    PubMed

    Aitken, Lucy; Warwick, Linda; Davis, Alison

    2017-03-01

    The ACT Genetic Service at The Canberra Hospital evaluates the genetic risk of individuals for inherited diseases, and provides counselling and genetic testing where appropriate. To evaluate the current referral practice for patients with a personal and/or family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer, and to assess whether these referrals are made according to eviQ cancer referral guidelines. A retrospective clinical audit of patients seen by the ACT Genetic Service for evaluation of genetic risk of breast and/or ovarian cancer between 1 January 2013 and 30 June 2015. Statistical analysis included Chi-squared and Poisson distribution tests. Of the 711 patients referred during the 30-month period, 671 were seen by the service. The number of patients seen increased steadily over the time period, as did waiting times. The majority of referrals were made by general practitioners (403/711; 57%) and oncologists (172/711; 24%). Of note, 300 of 711 (42%) of all referrals made to the service during this time period did not meet eviQ referral guidelines. Patients who met guidelines for referral were more likely both to be offered genetic testing and to have a positive result. Demand on the ACT Genetic Service increased over the time period assessed. As a significant proportion of patients did not meet eviQ cancer referral guidelines, it is worth reviewing the referral process in order to optimise utility of this limited resource. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  12. International Consultation and Training on Group Work in South Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Farah A.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a consultation and training for faculty and graduate students in South Asia under the auspices of the United Nations' Transfer of Knowledge Through Expatriate Nationals (TOKTEN) Program. It describes the development of a consultation relationship and training on group work. Needs assessments focusing on both cultural…

  13. International Consultation and Training on Group Work in South Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Farah A.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a consultation and training for faculty and graduate students in South Asia under the auspices of the United Nations' Transfer of Knowledge Through Expatriate Nationals (TOKTEN) Program. It describes the development of a consultation relationship and training on group work. Needs assessments focusing on both cultural…

  14. Handbook of Consultation: An Intervention for Advocacy and Outreach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurpius, DeWayne J., Ed.; Brown, Duane, Ed.

    This handbook is one of four handbooks developed for preservice and inservice counselor preparation and professional development. It was developed as a practical guide for practicing professionals and as a textbook or supplementary material for use in courses or workshops on consultation. It consists of six chapters. "Introduction to Consultation:…

  15. School Counselor Consultation: A Pathway to Advocacy, Collaboration, and Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Stanley B.; Robichaud, Tracie A.; Dietrich, Victoria C. Westforth; Wells, Stacy C.; Schreck, Rachel E.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, four vignettes are presented and deconstructed in order to demonstrate that school counselors are advocates, collaborators, and leaders when engaged as consultants. School counselor consultation appears to be a complex process based on a student advocacy disposition shared by consultees, and the process is a collaborative one…

  16. Consultation and the TADS Experience. Occasional Paper Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trohanis, Pascal L.; And Others

    During the past 10 years, the Technical Assistance Development System's (TADS) staff and advisory board members along with 500 other people have provided consultation services to model demonstration programs and state education agencies that help young handicapped children and their families. Consultants are usually located through a sponsor or…

  17. Consultation as a Technology and the Politics of School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    This paper proposes that consultation meets the definition of an educational technology and examines reasons why it has not been utilized more frequently by practitioners. First, it defines an educational technology and compares consultation to exemplars of educational technologies (such as classwide peer tutoring) and to non-exemplars (such as…

  18. A Family Counseling and Consultation Model for School Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicoll, William G.

    1992-01-01

    Presents school counselors with a brief intervention model for conducting family (and classroom) assessment and consultation that can be used within the framework of a parent-teacher conference setting. The family counseling-consultation model described provides school counselors with practical, step-by-step format for assessment and intervention…

  19. Perspectives of Champlain BASE Specialist Physicians: Their Motivation, Experiences and Recommendations for Providing eConsultations to Primary Care Providers.

    PubMed

    Keely, Erin; Drosinis, Paul; Afkham, Amir; Liddy, Clare

    2015-01-01

    Electronic consultation can improve access to specialist care. However, specialists have been identified as less likely to adopt electronic solutions in clinical settings. We conducted an online survey to explore the perspectives of specialists who use the Champlain BASE eConsult service in Eastern Ontario, Canada. Specialists were asked their opinions on experience with the service, their current consult/referral practices, recommendations for change and expansion of the service, and compensation models. We tabulated descriptive statistics from the multiple choice and Likert scale responses and performed a content analysis with an emergent code strategy for open-text responses. Specialists (n=34, 77% response rate) agreed that the Champlain BASE eConsult service is a feasible way to improve access to specialist care (94%), improves communication between specialists and primary care providers (PCPs) (94%), has educational value for PCPs (91%), and is user friendly (82%). A majority of specialists (88%) felt the service should be expanded provincially and 67% felt it should allow specialist-to-specialist consultation. 88% of specialists agreed that the current compensation process is best. This study provides an in-depth look at the perspective of the specialist physicians who use the Champlain BASE eConsult service. Specialists stated specific recommendations for change that will allow us to ensure the service remains sustainable.

  20. Patterns in Office Referral Data by Grade, Race/Ethnicity and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Joy S.; Jaser, Sarah S.; Vaughan, Ellen L.; Reynolds, Jesse S.; Di Donato, John; Bernard, Stanley N.; Hernandez-Brereton, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Research supports that office referral data is useful in informing programmatic decisions and in planning interventions such as Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (PBIS). Knowledge of the different patterns of office referrals may facilitate the development of interventions that are targeted to specific groups of students. This study examines patterns in office referrals within an urban district by gender, race/ethnicity and grade. Findings reveal that there are clear differences by grade that appear to be related to developmental level, with greater numbers of referrals for aggression in younger students (grades K-8), greater numbers of referrals for disrespectful behavior in middle school students (grades 7–8), and greater numbers of referrals for attendance problems in high school students. There were also gender differences in the rate and type of referrals, with significantly more referrals for boys’ delinquent and aggressive behavior than girls, which may relate to how schools define unacceptable behavior and the method used to collect this data. Finally, there were differences by race/ethnicity, in that there were significantly more referrals for African American/black students than Hispanic students, which suggest that schools need to consider students’ racial/ethnic background in the development of behavioral expectations. PMID:25580076

  1. Playing with Mirrors: Narrative Inquiry and Congregational Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yust, Karen Marie

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes that narrative inquiry methods fruitfully shape the role and strategies of persons who consult with religious communities. It suggests that the composition of field texts and transition from research notes to narratives enables consultants to mirror the stories of congregations so congregants can recognize, claim, and…

  2. Power: its use and potential for misuse by nurse consultants.

    PubMed

    Sneed, N V

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the concept of power as it relates to human relationships, and the consultant-client relationship as a power relationship, which may be inherently one of unequal power. The types of power available to the consultant are examined, as well as how to get power, how to use it, and the potential for its misuse.

  3. Intellectual Humility and Morality as Consultee-Centered Consultation Epistemologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscott, Stephen D.; Kearney, Moriah A.; Davis, Don E.; Roach, Andrew T.

    2017-01-01

    Little research examines how epistemological constructs affect the consultation process in schools. We consider how the epistemological constructs of (a) intellectual humility and (b) moral foundations may moderate the effectiveness of consultee-centered consultation. We define the constructs and provide examples of their potential influences on…

  4. Playing with Mirrors: Narrative Inquiry and Congregational Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yust, Karen Marie

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes that narrative inquiry methods fruitfully shape the role and strategies of persons who consult with religious communities. It suggests that the composition of field texts and transition from research notes to narratives enables consultants to mirror the stories of congregations so congregants can recognize, claim, and…

  5. Federal Consulting: Strategies and Tools for the Career Development Professional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahnweiler, Jennifer B.; Pressman, Sue

    The Federal Government is America's largest employer and is expanding consulting opportunities for career development professionals. Increased Federal mandates for outsourcing have opened wide doors for the entrepreneurial-spirited career counselors and created new challenges for traditional methods of offering career services. As consultants who…

  6. Starting a nursing consultation practice.

    PubMed

    Schulmeister, L

    1999-03-01

    Because the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) role has been changed or eliminated in many hospital organizations, many CNSs in career transition are considering establishing collaborative or independent nursing consultation practices. Opportunities for consultants exist in diverse practice settings and specialties. Before starting a consultation practice, the CNS should carefully examine goals, identify resources, and begin contacting potential referral sources. He or she must also decide what form of business organization to establish and write a business plan to solidify ideas and prepare for the unexpected. Most CNS consultants rely on personal savings to cover initial business and personal expenses, and many continue working as a CNS until the consultation practice is established. Fees can be set based on community standards, what the market will bear, desired projected income, or a third-party payor's fee schedule. The consultation practice can be marketed by word of mouth, inexpensive advertising techniques such as distributing flyers and business cards, direct mall, and media advertising. In today's healthcare marketplace, opportunities abound for the CNS risk-taker interested in starting a nursing consultation practice.

  7. Overcoming Barriers to Palliative Care Consultation.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Kathleen Ouimet; Kazanowski, Mary

    2015-10-01

    Palliative care consultations for patients with life-threatening illnesses provide benefits for the patients and their families as well as for the health care team. Patients have better quality of life and live longer but cost the health care system less. Still, many patients are not offered the opportunity to receive a palliative care consultation. Barriers to palliative care consultation for patients in critical care units include misunderstandings about palliative care and not having agreed upon criteria for referral. Critical care nurses can assist in overcoming these barriers.

  8. The Feasibility and Acceptability of Google Glass for Teletoxicology Consults.

    PubMed

    Chai, Peter R; Babu, Kavita M; Boyer, Edward W

    2015-09-01

    Teletoxicology offers the potential for toxicologists to assist in providing medical care at remote locations, via remote, interactive augmented audiovisual technology. This study examined the feasibility of using Google Glass, a head-mounted device that incorporates a webcam, viewing prism, and wireless connectivity, to assess the poisoned patient by a medical toxicology consult staff. Emergency medicine residents (resident toxicology consultants) rotating on the toxicology service wore Glass during bedside evaluation of poisoned patients; Glass transmitted real-time video of patients' physical examination findings to toxicology fellows and attendings (supervisory consultants), who reviewed these findings. We evaluated the usability (e.g., quality of connectivity and video feeds) of Glass by supervisory consultants, as well as attitudes towards use of Glass. Resident toxicology consultants and supervisory consultants completed 18 consults through Glass. Toxicologists viewing the video stream found the quality of audio and visual transmission usable in 89 % of cases. Toxicologists reported their management of the patient changed after viewing the patient through Glass in 56 % of cases. Based on findings obtained through Glass, toxicologists recommended specific antidotes in six cases. Head-mounted devices like Google Glass may be effective tools for real-time teletoxicology consultation.

  9. Timing of referral to inpatient palliative care services for advanced cancer patients and earlier referral predictors in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaoli; Cheng, Wenwu; Chen, Menglei; Liu, Minghui; Zhang, Zhe

    2016-10-01

    Routine early integration of palliative care with advanced cancer management is not yet a part of standard practice in many countries, including mainland China. Whether patients in China suffering from advanced cancer are referred to palliative care services in a timely manner remains unclear. We sought to investigate the timing of palliative care referral of Chinese cancer patients at our center and its predictors. Retrospective medical data including demographic characteristics and referral information were collected for analysis. A total of 759 patients referred to our palliative care unit (PCU) from January of 2007 to December of 2013 were included in the final analysis. The mean age of the 759 patients included in the study was 62.89 years (range 61.95-63.82). Some 369 patients (48.6%) were male and 559 (73.6%) Shanghainese (indigenous). Lung cancer (17.9%) was the most common diagnosis. The time interval since enrollment into the PCU until a patient's death (length of stay, LOS) was calculated. A longer LOS indicated earlier referral to inpatient PC services. The median LOS was 21 days (CI 95% = 19.79-22.21). Multivariate analysis showed that whether or not the patient was indigenous (p = 0.002) and younger than 65 (p = 0.031) were independent factors for a longer LOS. Such other characteristics as gender and primary cancer type bore no relationship to LOS. Our findings demonstrate that Chinese cancer patients are referred relatively late in the course of their disease to inpatient palliative care services. To overcome the barriers to early integration of palliative care into a patient's treatment plan, accurate information about palliative care must be provided to both oncologists and patients via comprehensive and systematic educational programs.

  10. How head and neck consultants manage patients' emotional distress during cancer follow-up consultations: a multilevel study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuefang; Humphris, Gerry; Ghazali, Naseem; Friderichs, Simon; Grosset, David; Rogers, Simon N

    2015-09-01

    Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients suffer substantial emotional problems. This study aimed to explore how utterance-level variables (source, type and timing of emotional cues) and patient-level variables (e.g. age, gender and emotional well-being) relate to consultants' responses (i.e. reducing or providing space) to patient expressions of emotional distress. Forty-three HNC outpatient follow-up consultations were audio recorded and coded, for patients' expressions of emotional distress and consultants' responses, using the Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequence. Multilevel logistic regression modelled the probability of the occurrence of consultant-reduced space response as a function of patient distress cue expression, controlling for consultation and patient-related variables. An average of 3.5 cues/concerns (range 1-20) was identified per consultation where 84 out of 152 total cues/concerns were responded by reducing space. Cue type did not impact on response; likewise for the quality of patient emotional well-being. However, consultants were more likely to reduce space to cues elicited by patients, as opposed to those initiated by themselves. This reduced space response was more pronounced as the consultation continued. However, about 6 min into the consultation, this effect (i.e. tendency to block patients) started to weaken. Head and neck consultants' responses to negative emotions depended on source and timing of patient emotional expressions. The findings are useful for training programme development to encourage consultants to be more flexible and open in the early stages of the consultation.

  11. Structural Damage Prediction and Analysis for Hypervelocity Impact: Consulting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A portion of the contract NAS8-38856, 'Structural Damage Prediction and Analysis for Hypervelocity Impacts,' from NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), included consulting which was to be documented in the final report. This attachment to the final report contains memos produced as part of that consulting.

  12. Consultants and Cooperative Education: The Northeastern English Department Business Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Michael B.

    The advantages of cooperative education for English departments and the role of the faculty member as a consultant for the program are discussed, based on the experience of Northeastern University. Attention is directed to starting this type of program in the English department, the consultant's role as a catalyst, placing English majors, and…

  13. Referral Pattern and Special Interests in Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome: A Turkish Referred Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanidir, Canan; Mukaddes, Nahit M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the most frequent reasons for referral, the most common special interests, age at first referral to a mental health service, and the age of diagnosis in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome living in Turkey. Methods: This study includes 61 children and adolescents diagnosed with Asperger syndrome using…

  14. Referral Pattern and Special Interests in Children and Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome: A Turkish Referred Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanidir, Canan; Mukaddes, Nahit M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the most frequent reasons for referral, the most common special interests, age at first referral to a mental health service, and the age of diagnosis in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome living in Turkey. Methods: This study includes 61 children and adolescents diagnosed with Asperger syndrome using…

  15. Factors associated with in-hospital death by site of consultation among elderly inpatients receiving pain and palliative care consultations.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Kenji; Bell, Christina L; Masaki, Kamal H; Fischberg, Daniel J

    2014-12-01

    Despite palliative care implementation, most deaths still occur in hospitals. To identify factors associated with in-hospital death among elderly patients receiving palliative care, by site of consultation. Prospective observational study. All inpatients aged 65 years and older receiving pain and palliative care consultations in a 533-bed acute tertiary care hospital in Honolulu, Hawaii, from January 2005 through December 2009. During consultation, demographics, diagnoses, consultation site (intensive care unit [ICU], non-ICU medical, non-ICU surgical, and rehabilitation floors), consultation indication (assistance with establishing goals of care versus pain and/or symptom management), Karnofsky scores, length of stay (LOS), discharge disposition, and in-hospital death were collected. Multiple logistic regression analyses examined factors associated with in-hospital death. Of 1630 elderly inpatients receiving palliative care, 305 (19%) died in-hospital. In-hospital death among non-ICU medical patients was associated with needing consultation to assist with plan of care (odds ratio [OR]=1.89, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.27-2.80). Likelihood of in-hospital death increased 2% for each additional hospital day before consultation (OR=1.02, 95% CI=1.01-1.03). Among elderly ICU patients, likelihood of in-hospital death increased 8% for each additional hospital day before consultation (OR=1.08, 95% CI=1.01-1.16). Among elderly non-ICU medical patients receiving palliative care consultations, the need for a consultation to assist with plan of care was associated with in-hospital death, while length of stay prior to consultation was important among both elderly ICU and non-ICU medical patients. Elderly hospitalized patients may benefit from earlier identification and palliative care consultation for assistance with plan of care to avoid in-hospital death.

  16. Factors that Affect Consultation and Screening for Fecal Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Kunduru, Lalitha; Kim, Sung Min; Heymen, Steve; Whitehead, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Fecal incontinence (FI) affects 15% of people age 70 years and older, but only 10%–30% discuss FI with their physicians. We aimed to identify barriers that prevent people from consulting with their physicians, and physicians from screening for FI. Methods We performed structured interviews of 124 individuals with FI (mean 56 years old, 87.9% women) recruited from 6 medical offices at the University of North Carolina Hospitals from June 2012 through March 2013. The subjects completed the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index and Fecal Incontinence Quality of Life Scale questionnaires. Interview questions aimed to determine which patients had consulted physicians for FI. Eleven of the 56 physicians with patients included in the study responded to the survey. Results Eighty-eight of the 124 participants consulted with their physicians about FI (consulters). These individuals had a higher incidence of depression than the 36 subjects who did not consult with their physicians about FI (non-consulters; P=.04), but similar Fecal Incontinence Severity Index scores. A smaller proportion of non-consulters were aware of available treatments than consulters (P<.01). Fifty-six percent of non-consulters said their FI was not serious enough to consult a physician. There was no difference between consulters and non-consulters in embarrassment in talking about FI. Among consulters, 88% initiated the conversation about FI with their physician. Seven of the 11 responding physicians screened for FI, and only screened high-risk patients. The 4 physicians who did not screen for FI were unaware of its prevalence, viewed FI as a low priority, or stated that patients were responsible for reporting their own symptoms. Conclusions Based on surveys of physicians and patients, many patients have insufficient knowledge about the availability and effectiveness of treatments for FI. Some people with FI do not discuss it with their physician because their symptoms are mild, and most

  17. Increasing Referrals to a YMCA-Based Diabetes Prevention Program: Effects of Electronic Referral System Modification and Provider Education in Federally Qualified Health Centers

    PubMed Central

    Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Blank, Arthur E.; Ouziel, Judy; Hollingsworth, Nicole; Riley, Rachael W.; Selwyn, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Diabetes Prevention Program has been translated to community settings with varying success. Although primary care referrals are used for identifying and enrolling eligible patients in the Diabetes Prevention Program, little is known about the effects of strategies to facilitate and sustain eligible patient referrals using electronic health record systems. Methods To facilitate and sustain patient referrals, a modification to the electronic health record system was made and combined with provider education in 6 federally qualified health centers in the Bronx, New York. Referral data from April 2012 through November 2014 were analyzed using segmented regression analysis. Results Patient referrals increased significantly after the modification of the electronic health record system and implementation of the provider education intervention. Before the electronic system modification, 0 to 2 patients were referred per month. During the following year (September 2013 through August 2014), which included the provider education intervention, referrals increased to 1 to 9 per month and continued to increase to 5 to 11 per month from September through November 2014. Conclusions Modification of an electronic health record system coupled with a provider education intervention shows promise as a strategy to identify and refer eligible patients to community-based Diabetes Prevention Programs. Further refinement of the electronic system for facilitating referrals and follow-up of eligible patients should be explored. PMID:26542141

  18. [Differences between patients in consultation psychiatry and psychiatric inpatients].

    PubMed

    Unterecker, Stefan; Maloney, Julia; Pfuhlmann, Bruno; Deckert, Jürgen; Warrings, Bodo

    2014-05-01

    To optimize psychiatric consultation service epidemiological information is needed. We compared data on gender, age and diagnoses of patients in the consultation service to psychiatric inpatients. In psychiatric consultation service patients are older (56.6 vs. 44.9 years, p < 0.05) and males are older than females (58.8 vs. 54.4 years, p < 0.05). For male patients, the psychiatric consultation service is contacted more often in cases of organic disorders, for females in adjustment disorders (p < 0.05). The diagnostic spectrum in psychiatric consultation service is different for males and females with relevance for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Remote consulting based on ultrasonic digital immages and dynamic ultrasonic sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margan, Anamarija; Rustemović, Nadan

    2006-03-01

    Telematic ultrasonic diagnostics is a relatively new tool in providing health care to patients in remote, islolated communities. Our project facility, "The Virtual Polyclinic - A Specialists' Consulting Network for the Islands", is located on the island of Cres in the Adriatic Sea in Croatia and has been extending telemedical services to the archipelago population since 2000. Telemedicine applications include consulting services by specialists at the University Clinical Hospital Center Rebro in Zagreb and at "Magdalena", a leading cardiology clinic in Croatia. After several years of experience with static high resolution ultrasonic digital immages for referral consulting diagnostics purposes, we now also use dynamic ultrasonic sequences in a project with the Department of Emmergency Gastroenterology at Rebro in Zagreb. The aim of the ongoing project is to compare the advantages and shortcomings in transmitting static ultrasonic digital immages and live sequences of ultrasonic examination in telematic diagnostics. Ultrasonic examination is a dynamic process in which the diagnostic accuracy is highly dependent on the dynamic moment of an ultrasound probe and signal. Our first results indicate that in diffuse parenchymal organ pathology the progression and the follow up of a disease is better presented to a remote consulting specialist by dynamic ultrasound sequences. However, the changes that involve only one part of a parenchymal organ can be suitably presented by static ultrasonic digital images alone. Furthermore, we need less time for digital imaging and such tele-consultations overall are more economical. Our previous telemedicine research and practice proved that we can greatly improve the level of medical care in remote healthcare facilities and cut healthcare costs considerably. The experience in the ongoing project points to a conclusion that we can further optimize remote diagnostics benefits by a right choice of telematic application thus reaching a

  20. Mental Health and Substance Use: A Qualitative Study of Resident Assistants' Attitudes and Referral Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reingle, Jennifer; Thombs, Dennis; Osborn, Cynthia; Saffian, Steven; Oltersdorf, Dan

    2010-01-01

    This study described mental health and substance use referral practices of resident assistants (RAs). Interviews were conducted with 48 RAs at three campuses. RAs generally had positive attitudes toward helping residents, and believed that existing norms supported their referral actions. However, many perceived referring residents to be…

  1. Guidelines for neurological consultation.

    PubMed

    Whitney, F W

    1982-01-01

    Referral to specialists for care which requires expert knowledge is a common occurrence in primary care. The role of the nurse practitioners is often to make judgments about the need for such referrals, seek appropriate specialists, prepare records and the patient for the referral and maintain contact with patient once expert advice and diagnosis is complete. This article specifically addresses the referral of patients with neurologic problems. Emphasis is placed upon general rules relating to how to refer and how to determine the need for referral. Some common complaints of ambulatory proteins which may need referral such as headache, dizziness the difference between those complaints which need referral and those that do not.

  2. A technician-delivered 'virtual clinic' for triaging low-risk glaucoma referrals.

    PubMed

    Kotecha, A; Brookes, J; Foster, P J

    2017-02-17

    PurposeThe purpose of this study is to describe the outcomes of a technician-delivered glaucoma referral triaging service with 'virtual review' of resultant data by a consultant ophthalmologist.Patients and methodsThe Glaucoma Screening Clinic reviewed new optometrist or GP-initiated glaucoma suspect referrals into a specialist ophthalmic hospital. Patients underwent testing by three ophthalmic technicians in a dedicated clinical facility. Data were reviewed at a different time and date by a consultant glaucoma ophthalmologist. Approximately 10% of discharged patients were reviewed in a face-to-face consultant-led clinic to examine the false-negative rate of the service.ResultsBetween 1 March 2014 and 31 March 2016, 1380 patients were seen in the clinic. The number of patients discharged following consultant virtual review was 855 (62%). The positive predictive value of onward referrals was 84%. Three of the 82 patients brought back for face-to-face review were deemed to require treatment, equating to negative predictive value of 96%.ConclusionsOur technician-delivered glaucoma referral triaging clinic incorporates consultant 'virtual review' to provide a service model that significantly reduces the number of onward referrals into the glaucoma outpatient department. This model may be an alternative to departments where there are difficulties in implementing optometrist-led community-based referral refinement schemes.Eye advance online publication, 17 February 2017; doi:10.1038/eye.2017.9.

  3. SCREENING, ASSESSMENT, AND REFERRAL PRACTICES IN ADULT CORRECTIONAL SETTINGS

    PubMed Central

    TAXMAN, FAYE S.; CROPSEY, KAREN L.; YOUNG, DOUGLAS W.; WEXLER, HARRY

    2008-01-01

    The use of screening and assessment tools to gauge substance abuse disorders and the risk for recidivism are two widely recommended practices. A national survey of adult prisons, jails, and community correctional agencies was conducted to examine the practices used to place offenders in appropriate treatment services. Study findings indicate that 58.2% of the surveyed respondents report the use of a standardized substance abuse-screening tool, and that 34.2% use an actuarial risk tool. The provision of higher intensity treatment programs, the use of standardized risk tools, and the provision of more community referral services were all independently associated with the use of a standardized substance abuse-screening tool. Because practices vary considerably, agencies desiring to improve correctional programming should consider different dissemination, implementation, and technology transfer strategies. PMID:18458758

  4. [The Interdiscipilinary Orofacial Pain Consulting Service at the Center for Dental and Oral Medicine and Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Zurich, Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Ettlin, Dominik; Galli, Ursula; Palla, Sandro

    2007-01-01

    At the Center for Dental and Oral Medicine and Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery of the University of Zurich, a new interdisciplinary pain consulting service was established in early 2005 due to the increasing number of referrals of orofacial pain patients to the center. This unit comprises specialists of various dental and medical disciplines as well as psychologists and physical therapists. This article highlights the most common clinical pictures of chronic orofacial pain patients and describes the organizational mechanisms associated with referrals to our interdisciplinary pain service.

  5. Delay to orthopedic consultation for isolated limb injury

    PubMed Central

    Rouleau, Dominique M.; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann; Parent, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe referral mechanisms for referral to orthopedic surgery for isolated limb injuries in a public health care system and to identify factors affecting access. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SETTING Orthopedic surgery service in a level 1 trauma centre in Montreal, Que. PARTICIPANTS We conducted a prospective study of 166 consecutive adults (mean age 48 years) referred to orthopedic surgery for isolated limb injuries during a 4-month period. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Self-reported data on the nature of the trauma, the elapsed time between injury and orthopedic consultation, the number and type of previous primary care consultations, sociodemographic characteristics, and the level of satisfaction with care. RESULTS Average time between the injury and orthopedic consultation was 89 hours (range 3 to 642), with an average of 68 hours (range 0 to 642) for delay between primary care consultation and orthopedic consultation. A total of 36% of patients with time-sensitive diagnoses had unacceptable delays to orthopedic consultation according to the Quebec Orthopaedic Association guidelines. Lower limb injury, consulting first at another hospital, living far from the trauma centre, patient perception of low severity, and having a soft tissue injury were associated with longer delays. CONCLUSION Identifying gaps and risk factors for slower access might help improve referral mechanisms for orthopedic consultation. PMID:19826162

  6. [Consultation liaison during the peripartum: Network care between liaison and mobile unit].

    PubMed

    Garez, V; Devouche, E; Bobin-Bègue, A; Alecian, M; Minjollet, P; Vallerent, A; Poget, M; Oguibenine, H; Héroux, C; Medjkane, F; Apter, G

    2017-04-26

    The pregnancy periods of peripartum and immediate postpartum represent moments of opportunity to access care. Both prevention and therapeutic management can be offered with a better chance of success during these periods. Our specific Consultation Liaison (CL) team PPUMMA was created in order to respond to the need for early detection of psychopathology and rapid implementation of therapeutic management and preventive measure for mother and child. The importance of urgently intervening "on site" seemed a necessity since duration of hospitalization in maternity wards is very short. Women might not know or understand their symptoms or be ready to ask for a referral for themselves but could be ready to respond positively to a team approach where the psychiatrist is part of the Ob-Gyn department. Working with an interdisciplinary approach tends to lower stress linked to the psychiatric side of the consultation and stigma related to psychological or psychiatric issues; therefore, PPUMMA intervenes within 48 to 72hours of birth. It deals with assessment and diagnosis during the peripartum period and orientation and referral for both mother and infant when necessary after birth. The Perinatal Psychiatry emergency mobile unit PPUMMA was created in order to address these issues. From 2008 to 2015, 1907 patients were assessed but data were missing for 90 patients. We therefore analyzed 1817 patient files looking at age, diagnosis origin of referral, time of referral (pre or postpartum) and delay from referral to assessment. Most patients were between 20 and 40 (81.5 %). One hundred and eighteen patients were under 20 years of age, of whom 64 were minors (3.5 %), and 218 were 40 or more (12 %). These two groups were over-represented close to threefold when comparing with national birth data records. A psychologist had first seen three out of four women. Midwives and Ob-Gyn referred 9 % and 8 % of patients while Social workers sent in 4 %. Two thirds of the

  7. Consultation on AIDS and the workplace.

    PubMed

    1988-12-01

    The 1988 Consultation on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the Workplace, organized by the World Health Organization (WHO), addressed 3 issues: 1) risk factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the workplace, 2) the response of businesses and workers to the AIDS epidemic, and 3) use of the workplace for AIDS education. There is no evidence to suggest that HIV can be transmitted by casual, person-to-person contact in the workplace. The central policy issue for businesses concerns protection of the human rights of workers with HIV infection. Most workers with HIV/AIDS want to continue working as long as they are able to, and they should be enabled to contribute their creativity and productivity in a supportive occupational setting. Consistent policies and procedures should be developed at national and enterprise levels before HIV-related questions arise in the workplace. Such policies should be communicated to all concerned, continually reviewed in the light of scientific and epidemiologic evidence, monitored for their successful implementation, and evaluated for their effectiveness. Pre-employment HIV/AIDS screening, whether for assessment of fitness to work or for insurance purposes, should not be required and raises serious concerns about discrimination. Moreover, there should be no obligation on the worker's part to inform his or her employer if HIV infection develops. Information and educational activities at the workplace are essential to create the climate of collective responsibility and mutual understanding required to protect individuals with HIV or AIDS from stigmatization and discrimination by co-workers, employers or clients, and unions.

  8. How emotions emerge and are dealt with in first diagnostic consultations in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Del Piccolo, Lidia; Mazzi, Maria Angela; Goss, Claudia; Rimondini, Michela; Zimmermann, Christa

    2012-07-01

    To illustrate how patients introduce cues and concerns during clinical consultations and how psychiatrists respond to them. Sixteen psychiatrists recorded 104 first diagnostic consultations, coded with the Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequences (VR-CoDES). Cues, concerns and responses were analyzed in relation to patient gender and ICD-10 diagnosis, and psychiatrists' age, gender, clinical experience and consultation process. Cues were more frequent among female patients and were equally distributed among diagnostic categories. Concerns were more frequent among patients with "Mood" or "Neurotic" disorders. Psychiatrists' responses to cues tended to "provide space" without being explicit. Referral to the affective part was restricted to concerns which had been solicited by the psychiatrist. Empathic responses were infrequent. Cues and concerns received more attention by female psychiatrists. The study confirms gender differences in expressing and dealing with emotions both by patients and psychiatrists. Females tend to give more space to this topic. Psychiatrists 'responses differed according to cues, concerns, gender, diagnosis and to who prompted the cue/concern, showing a preference for topics introduced by themselves. The VR-CoDES is a useful tool to define the strategies psychiatrists adopt when handling patients' emotions in terms of cues and concern. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Psychiatric referrals during peace and wartimes: a Nigerian experience.

    PubMed

    Okulate, Gbenga T

    2005-07-01

    Using a questionnaire administered by us, we sought to investigate the differences between patients referred to the psychiatric department of a Nigerian military general hospital during peacetime and those referred during the civil war in Liberia in which Nigerian soldiers were involved as peacekeepers. Referrals to psychiatry in peacetime were quite few but increased considerably during the period of combat in direct relation to the increase in the number of surgical wounded in action cases. Organic mental disorders and anxiety disorders were more frequently referred in peacetime than in war, whereas substance abuse disorders were more frequent during the combat period. Non-psychotic psychiatric conditions were less referred in the wartime group, partly because of nonrecognition at the mission areas and also because of recovery in front-line areas or consideration of their evacuation as a nonpriority. Mental health workers engaged at the mission areas require more training in the identification of such cases.

  10. New York state ear, nose, and throat specialists' views on pre-sinus lift referral.

    PubMed

    Cote, Michael T; Segelnick, Stuart L; Rastogi, Amita; Schoor, Robert

    2011-02-01

    Dental implant surgery in the posterior maxilla often involves the maxillary sinuses. Sinus surgery for dental implants is highly successful, but the preoperative risk is difficult to assess because a routine preoperative evaluation does not include an intranasal examination by an otolaryngologist. The purpose of the present study is to obtain the opinions of ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialists located within New York state in an effort to establish a referral protocol before performing a maxillary sinus elevation. This study assesses the need to consult an ENT specialist for evaluation and treatment recommendations in the pretreatment workup. A questionnaire and a stamped, return envelope with an identification number was mailed to 302 physicians who maintained a current ENT-specialty practice or practiced that specialty in a hospital or clinic setting in New York state. The requirement criteria included a valid address and specialty designation. Up to two follow-up phone calls were made, and another questionnaire was mailed 30 days after the initial mailing. The questionnaire included eight computerized tomography (CT)?scan images that represented different sinus configurations. Answers to the five questions were statistically evaluated and analyzed. A total of 63 recipients returned the questionnaire and were included in the study. A majority of 58.7% (95% confidence interval: 46.9% to 71.1%) of respondents recommended that a maxillary sinus CT scan should be routinely prescribed before a sinus-lift surgery. Patient symptoms that ENT specialists suggested indicated referral included nose complications/problems (40.1%) and sinus issues (23.6%). Of the eight CT-scan images, referral suggestions were >50% for the following: an occluded sinus with septum, inflammation at the base of the sinus only, a sinus with a generalized thickened membrane, an oroantral fistula, a thickened sinus membrane in association with teeth that had endodontic and/or periodontic

  11. Pediatric Chiropractic Care: The Subluxation Question And Referral Risk.

    PubMed

    Homola, Samuel

    2016-02-01

    Chiropractors commonly treat children for a variety of ailments by manipulating the spine to correct a 'vertebral subluxation' or a 'vertebral subluxation complex' alleged to be a cause of disease. Such treatment might begin soon after a child is born. Both major American chiropractic associations - the International Chiropractic Association and the American Chiropractic Association - support chiropractic care for children, which includes subluxation correction as a treatment or preventive measure. I do not know of any credible evidence to support chiropractic subluxation theory. Any attempt to manipulate the immature, cartilaginous spine of a neonate or a small child to correct a putative chiropractic subluxation should be regarded as dangerous and unnecessary. Referral of a child to a chiropractor for such treatment should not be considered lest a bad outcome harms the child or leads to a charge of negligence or malpractice.

  12. 34 CFR 365.30 - What are the standards for processing referrals and applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true What are the standards for processing referrals and... processing referrals and applications? The DSU shall develop, establish, and maintain written standards and... Management and Budget under control number 1820-0527) (Authority: 29 U.S.C. 711(c) and 796e) ...

  13. 34 CFR 365.30 - What are the standards for processing referrals and applications?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the standards for processing referrals and... processing referrals and applications? The DSU shall develop, establish, and maintain written standards and... Management and Budget under control number 1820-0527) (Authority: 29 U.S.C. 711(c) and 796e) ...

  14. Canine behaviour problems: discussions between veterinarians and dog owners during annual booster consultations

    PubMed Central

    Roshier, A. L.; McBride, E. A.

    2013-01-01

    The veterinary profession recently acknowledged its responsibility to provide behaviour support, following criticism for focussing on the physiological aspects of welfare and overlooking the psychological. To further understand the practising of behavioural medicine, a ‘fly-on-the-wall’ approach was used to investigate welfare discussions during dog booster vaccinations. Seventeen consultations involving six veterinarians in two UK small-animal practices were videoed. Qualitative methods were used to analyse themes discussed and questionnaires completed to obtain participant information and perceptions. Five main topics of discussion were identified: navigation, medical, husbandry, behaviour and cost. Veterinarians led the discussion of all topics except behaviour which was instigated approximately equally by veterinarian and client. All clients reported one or more behaviours that were a concern to them, totalling 58 across the sample. Disconcertingly, only 10 were discussed during consultations and none fully explored nor managed beyond the consultation. Behaviour discussion varies between veterinarians; this may reflect their experience, confidence or clients' requests. Owners access welfare information from a variety of sources, not always from veterinarians. Where sources are not knowledgeable, both human and animal welfare can be seriously compromised. Veterinarians need to ensure that clients are enabled to discuss behaviour issues and are provided with appropriate support, be that in-house or via referral. PMID:23457279

  15. Canine behaviour problems: discussions between veterinarians and dog owners during annual booster consultations.

    PubMed

    Roshier, A L; McBride, E A

    2013-03-02

    The veterinary profession recently acknowledged its responsibility to provide behaviour support, following criticism for focussing on the physiological aspects of welfare and overlooking the psychological. To further understand the practising of behavioural medicine, a 'fly-on-the-wall' approach was used to investigate welfare discussions during dog booster vaccinations. Seventeen consultations involving six veterinarians in two UK small-animal practices were videoed. Qualitative methods were used to analyse themes discussed and questionnaires completed to obtain participant information and perceptions. Five main topics of discussion were identified: navigation, medical, husbandry, behaviour and cost. Veterinarians led the discussion of all topics except behaviour which was instigated approximately equally by veterinarian and client. All clients reported one or more behaviours that were a concern to them, totalling 58 across the sample. Disconcertingly, only 10 were discussed during consultations and none fully explored nor managed beyond the consultation. Behaviour discussion varies between veterinarians; this may reflect their experience, confidence or clients' requests. Owners access welfare information from a variety of sources, not always from veterinarians. Where sources are not knowledgeable, both human and animal welfare can be seriously compromised. Veterinarians need to ensure that clients are enabled to discuss behaviour issues and are provided with appropriate support, be that in-house or via referral.

  16. Who is not adhering to physical activity referrals, and why?

    PubMed

    Leijon, Matti E; Faskunger, Johan; Bendtsen, Preben; Festin, Karin; Nilsen, Per

    2011-12-01

    To analyse patients' self-reported reasons for not adhering to physical activity referrals (PARs). Data on 1358 patients who did not adhere to PARs were collected at 38 primary health care (PHC) centres in Sweden. PHC providers issued formal physical activity prescriptions for home-based activities or referrals for facility-based activities. Ordinary PHC patients whom regular staff believed would benefit from increased physical activity. Reasons for non-adherence to PARs: "sickness", "pain", "low motivation", "no time", "economic factors", and "other". Sickness and pain were the most common motives for non-adherence among older patients. The youngest patients blamed economic factors and lack of time more frequently than those in the oldest age group. Economic factors was a more common reason for non-adherence among those referred for facility-based activities compared with those prescribed home-based activities. Low motivation was a more frequent cause of non-adherence among those prescribed home-based activities compared with those referred for facility-based activities. Furthermore, lack of time was a more common reason for non-adherence among patients issued with PARs due to high blood pressure than other patients, while low motivation was a more common reason among patients issued with PARs because of a BMI of > 25. The reasons for non-adherence differ between patients prescribed home-based activities and referred for facility-based activities, as well as between patients with different specific characteristics. The information obtained may be valuable not only for the professionals working in PHC, but also for those who work to develop PARs for use in different contexts.

  17. Narrative Evaluation Report on the Information and Referral Services Traineeship at the University of Toledo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBeth, Ray

    This document explains and evaluates the Information and Referral Services Traineeship program, which was designed to take information professionals who work in information and referral centers and provide them with information training to better meet the needs of the constituent groups they serve. Trainees, who were recruited and selected…

  18. 31 CFR 16.11 - Referral of complaint and answer to the ALJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral of complaint and answer to the ALJ. 16.11 Section 16.11 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTING THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 16.11 Referral of complaint and...

  19. 14 CFR § 1264.110 - Referral of complaint and answer to the presiding officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Referral of complaint and answer to the presiding officer. § 1264.110 Section § 1264.110 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL PENALTIES ACT OF 1986 § 1264.110 Referral of...

  20. 14 CFR 1264.110 - Referral of complaint and answer to the presiding officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral of complaint and answer to the presiding officer. 1264.110 Section 1264.110 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL PENALTIES ACT OF 1986 § 1264.110 Referral of...

  1. Community Information in the 80s: Towards the Automation of Information and Referral Files.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shroder, Emelie J.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Four papers describe systems adopted by public libraries in the United States for computerizing community information services and information and referral programs. Word processing at the Fresno County Information and Referral Network and the automation of library processes in the Pikes Peak Library District are among the topics discussed. (JL)

  2. An Information and Referral Model for Improving Self-Help Group Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollert, Richard

    This paper describes the Self-Help Information Service (SIS), and summarizes data evaluating the program. Associated with a generally focused information and referral service (I&R), SIS was designed to facilitate research on self-help groups. Its specific goals were to develop and maintain a telephone referral service disseminating self-help…

  3. 22 CFR 35.11 - Referral of complaint and answer to the ALJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Referral of complaint and answer to the ALJ. 35.11 Section 35.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CLAIMS AND STOLEN PROPERTY PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 35.11 Referral of complaint and answer to the ALJ. Upon receipt of an answer, the...

  4. Service Coordinators' Perceptions of Autism-Specific Screening and Referral Practices in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Muusz, Marta; McKenna, Catherine; O'Connor, Emily; Cutler, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Service coordinators in a statewide early intervention program were surveyed to develop an understanding of screening and referral practices to identify children on the autism spectrum. Quantitative and qualitative data summarizing autism-specific screening and referral practices are reported. More than 50% of the respondents reported that they…

  5. Applying research to practice: generalist and specialist (visual ergonomics) consultancy.

    PubMed

    Long, Jennifer; Long, Airdrie

    2012-01-01

    Ergonomics is a holistic discipline encompassing a wide range of special interest groups. The role of an ergonomics consultant is to provide integrated solutions to improve comfort, safety and productivity. In Australia, there are two types of consultants--generalists and specialists. Both have training in ergonomics but specialist knowledge may be the result of previous education or work experience. This paper presents three projects illustrating generalist and specialist (visual ergonomics) consultancy: development of a vision screening protocol, solving visual discomfort in an office environment and solving postural discomfort in heavy industry. These case studies demonstrate how multiple ergonomics consultants may work together to solve ergonomics problems. It also describes some of the challenges for consultants, for those engaging their services and for the ergonomics profession, e.g. recognizing the boundaries of expertise, sharing information with business competitors, the costs-benefits of engaging multiple consultants and the risk of fragmentation of ergonomics knowledge and solutions. Since ergonomics problems are often multifaceted, ergonomics consultants should have a solid grounding in all domains of ergonomics, even if they ultimately only practice in one specialty or domain. This will benefit the profession and ensure that ergonomics remains a holistic discipline.

  6. 40 CFR 1504.3 - Procedure for referrals and response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Contain a finding by the agency whether the issue raised is of national importance because of the threat... be determined on the record after opportunity for agency hearing, the referral shall be conducted in...

  7. Blurred lines: Performance Enhancement, Common Mental Disorders and Referral in the U.K. Athletic Population

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Claire-Marie; Faull, Andrea L.; Tod, David

    2016-01-01

    Through the awareness-raising efforts of several high-profile current and former athletes, the issue of common mental disorders (CMD) in this population is gaining increasing attention from researchers and practitioners alike. Yet the prevalence is unclear and most likely, under-reported. Whilst the characteristics of the sporting environment may generate CMD within the athletic population, it also may exacerbate pre-existing conditions, and hence it is not surprising that sport psychology and sport science practitioners are anecdotally reporting increased incidences of athletes seeking support for CMD. In a population where there are many barriers to reporting and seeking help for CMD, due in part to the culture of the high performance sporting environment, anecdotal reports suggest that those athletes asking for help are approaching personnel who they are most comfortable talking to. In some cases, this may be a sport scientist, the sport psychologist or sport psychology consultant. Among personnel in the sporting domain, there is a perception that the sport psychologist or sport psychology consultant is best placed to assist athletes seeking assistance for CMD. However, sport psychology as a profession is split by two competing philosophical perspectives; one of which suggests that sport psychologists should work exclusively with athletes on performance enhancement, and the other views the athlete more holistically and accepts that their welfare may directly impact on their performance. To add further complication, the development of the profession of sport psychology varies widely between countries, meaning that practice in this field is not always clearly defined. This article examines case studies that illustrate the blurred lines in applied sport psychology practice, highlighting challenges with the process of referral in the U.K. athletic population. The article concludes with suggestions for ensuring the field of applied sport psychology is continually

  8. Errors in Completion of Referrals among Urban Older Adults in Ambulatory Care

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Michael; Perkins, Anthony J.; Callahan, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES Clinical care often requires referrals, but many referrals never result in completed evaluations. We determined the extent to which referral-based consultations were completed in a U.S. medical institution. Factors associated with completion were identified. METHOD In cross-sectional analysis, we analyzed billing records and electronic and paper-based medical records, for patients 65 or more years of age receiving healthcare between July 2000 and June 2002 in an integrated, urban, tax-supported medical institution on an academic campus. All referrals in ambulatory care, scheduling of consultation within 180 days, and completion were assessed. We conducted multivariate survival analysis to identify factors associated with completion. RESULTS We identified 6,785 patients with encounters. Mean age was 72 years, with 66% women, 55% African-American, and 32% Medicaid-eligible. Of 81% with at least one primary-care visit in ambulatory care, 63% had at least one referral. About 8% of referrals required multiple orders before an appointment was scheduled. Among 7,819 orders for specialty consultation in ambulatory care, 71% led to appointments, and 70% of appointments were kept (completed = 0.71*0.70 or 50%). Scheduling of consultations varied (12% to 90%) by specialty. Medicare, singular orders, location of referral, and lack of hospitalization were independently significantly associated scheduling of appointments. CONCLUSIONS Among older adults studied, half of medical specialty referrals were not completed. Multiple process errors likely contribute to these results, including missing information, misguided referrals, and faulty communications. Information systems offer important opportunities to improve the referrals process. PMID:20367818

  9. 10 CFR 13.11 - Referral of complaint and answer to the ALJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Referral of complaint and answer to the ALJ. 13.11 Section 13.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.11 Referral of complaint and answer to the ALJ. Upon receipt of an answer, the reviewing official shall file the complaint...

  10. Neighborhood Communications Centers: Planning Information and Referral Services in The Urban Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; And Others

    The potential development of information and referral (I&R) services in branch libraries was explored by examining five cases where such services have been initiated. The extent to which the public library system is appropriate for information and referral services was carefully examined in the light of its ability to carry on seven functions: (1)…

  11. 22 CFR 224.11 - Referral of complaint and answer to the ALJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Referral of complaint and answer to the ALJ. 224.11 Section 224.11 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 224.11 Referral of complaint and answer to the ALJ. Upon receipt of...

  12. The weakest link: competence and prestige as constraints to referral by isolated nurses in rural Niger

    PubMed Central

    Bossyns, Paul; Van Lerberghe, Wim

    2004-01-01

    Background For a health district to function referral from health centres to district hospitals is critical. In many developing countries referral systems perform well below expectations. Niger is not an exception in this matter. Beyond obvious problems of cost and access this study shows to what extent the behaviour of the health worker in its interaction with the patient can be a barrier of its own. Methods Information was triangulated from three sources in two rural districts in Niger: first, 46 semi-structured interviews with health centre nurses; second, 42 focus group discussions with an average of 12 participants – patients, relatives of patients and others; third, 231 semi-structured interviews with referred patients. Results Passive patients without 'voice' reinforce authoritarian attitudes of health centre staff. The latter appear reluctant to refer because they see little added value in referral and fear loss of power and prestige. As a result staff communicates poorly and show little eagerness to convince reluctant patients and families to accept referral proposals. Conclusions Diminishing referral costs and distance barriers is not enough to correct failing referral systems. There is also a need for investment in district hospitals to make referrals visibly worthwhile and for professional upgrading of the human resources at the first contact level, so as to allow for more effective referral patterns. PMID:15059284

  13. 29 CFR 22.11 - Referral of complaint and answer to the ALJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Referral of complaint and answer to the ALJ. 22.11 Section 22.11 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 22.11 Referral of complaint and answer to the ALJ. Upon receipt of an answer, the reviewing official shall...

  14. 42 CFR 455.13 - Methods for identification, investigation, and referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... referral. 455.13 Section 455.13 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PROGRAM INTEGRITY: MEDICAID Medicaid... referral. The Medicaid agency must have— (a) Methods and criteria for identifying suspected fraud cases; (b...

  15. 42 CFR 455.13 - Methods for identification, investigation, and referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... referral. 455.13 Section 455.13 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PROGRAM INTEGRITY: MEDICAID Medicaid... referral. The Medicaid agency must have— (a) Methods and criteria for identifying suspected fraud cases; (b...

  16. 42 CFR 455.13 - Methods for identification, investigation, and referral.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... referral. 455.13 Section 455.13 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS PROGRAM INTEGRITY: MEDICAID Medicaid... referral. The Medicaid agency must have— (a) Methods and criteria for identifying suspected fraud cases; (b...

  17. Examining Teachers' Perceptions of Social-Emotional and Behavioral Referral Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briesch, Amy M.; Ferguson, Tyler D.; Volpe, Robert J.; Briesch, Jacquelyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Although a number of empirical studies have investigated the nature of school-based referrals, predominant focus has been on referrals for psychoeducational evaluation, and social-emotional and behavioral concerns have typically been too broadly defined to provide insight into the specific problems encountered. This study aimed to identify the…

  18. 10 CFR 13.11 - Referral of complaint and answer to the ALJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral of complaint and answer to the ALJ. 13.11 Section 13.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 13.11 Referral of complaint and answer to the ALJ. Upon receipt of an answer, the reviewing official shall file the complaint...

  19. The Microeconomics of Referral and Reintegration: A Paradigm for Evaluation of Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerber, Michael M.; Semmel, Melvyn I.

    1985-01-01

    A microeconomic paradigm is proposed for the evaluation of special education in schools. The special education process is described in three phases: referral to special education by the classroom teacher; special classroom program; and mainstreaming. The relationship between referral by teachers, classroom resources, and students' desirable…

  20. Neighborhood Communications Centers: Planning Information and Referral Services in The Urban Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Robert K.; And Others

    The potential development of information and referral (I&R) services in branch libraries was explored by examining five cases where such services have been initiated. The extent to which the public library system is appropriate for information and referral services was carefully examined in the light of its ability to carry on seven functions: (1)…

  1. Using Consultation to Support English Learners: The Experiences of Bilingual School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Bryon, Elisabeth C.; Rogers, Margaret R.

    2016-01-01

    Through semi-structured interviews, this study explored 11 bilingual school psychologists' (BSPs) consultation experiences with teachers of English learners (EL) to determine referral concerns, recommendations made, challenges encountered, preparation experiences, and skills most needed. The most common referral issue concerned students' academic…

  2. Parents with Learning Disabilities and Speech and Language Therapy. A Service Evaluation of Referrals and Episodes of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, Jois

    2012-01-01

    The speech and language therapy (SLT) service in an area of northern England receives referrals of parents who have learning disabilities. The aim of this study was to identify current referral patterns and quantify the level of demand upon the SLT service from this relatively new referral population to enable to service to meet the needs of these…

  3. Evaluating racial disparity in referral source and successful completion of substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Sahker, Ethan; Toussaint, Maisha N; Ramirez, Marizen; Ali, Saba R; Arndt, Stephan

    2015-09-01

    Health disparity is a significant problem in the United States, and particularly for substance abuse treatment programs. A better understanding of racial differences in treatment pathways associated with successful treatment completion is needed to reduce the existing health disparities. Referral source is a strong predictor of treatment success and most research on health disparities has focused on the criminal justice referrals. However, little research has examined other types of referral sources, and the interaction with race. The current study sought to compare the effect of referral sources on national substance abuse successful treatment completion rates between Black clients (n=324,625) and White clients (n=1,060,444) by examining the interaction of race on referral source and successful treatment completion. Race significantly moderated the difference between referral source and successful treatment completion (Wald χ(2)=1477.73, df=6, p<0.0001). Employment referral was associated with the greatest percentage of successful treatment completion for Black clients. Criminal justice referral was associated with the greatest percentage of successful treatment completion for White clients. Results from the present study support a reevaluation of incentives leading to successful treatment completion with a multicultural perspective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The School Unit as a Changing Teaching-Learning Environment; Joint Consultation by a Mental Health Consultant and Curriculum Specialists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yandell, Wilson; And Others

    In order to promote change in teaching about conflict and war, a Mt. Diablo California Unified School District elementary school established an ongoing consultation program for considering teacher values and curriculum content. The plan called for a collaborative effort in combining the methodology of mental health consultation with resource…

  5. 20 CFR 702.505 - Vocational rehabilitation; referrals to other public and private agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vocational rehabilitation; referrals to other... ADMINISTRATION AND PROCEDURE Vocational Rehabilitation § 702.505 Vocational rehabilitation; referrals to other... made by the vocational rehabilitation adviser, where appropriate, on an individual basis when requested...

  6. 42 CFR 486.106 - Condition for coverage: Referral for service and preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SPECIALIZED SERVICES FURNISHED BY SUPPLIERS Conditions for Coverage: Portable X-Ray Services § 486.106 Condition for coverage: Referral for service and preservation of records. All portable X-ray services... are properly preserved. (a) Standard—referral by a physician. Portable X-ray examinations...

  7. 42 CFR 486.106 - Condition for coverage: Referral for service and preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SPECIALIZED SERVICES FURNISHED BY SUPPLIERS Conditions for Coverage: Portable X-Ray Services § 486.106 Condition for coverage: Referral for service and preservation of records. All portable X-ray services... are properly preserved. (a) Standard—referral by a physician. Portable X-ray examinations...

  8. 42 CFR 486.106 - Condition for coverage: Referral for service and preservation of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SPECIALIZED SERVICES FURNISHED BY SUPPLIERS Conditions for Coverage: Portable X-Ray Services § 486.106 Condition for coverage: Referral for service and preservation of records. All portable X-ray services... are properly preserved. (a) Standard—referral by a physician. Portable X-ray examinations are...

  9. 7 CFR 1.311 - Referral of complaint and answer to the ALJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Referral of complaint and answer to the ALJ. 1.311 Section 1.311 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Procedures Related to Administrative Hearings Under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1986 § 1.311 Referral...

  10. Early Referral and Other Factors Affecting Vocational Rehabilitation Outcome for the Workers' Compensation Client.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John A.

    1991-01-01

    Estimated benefits from systematic early referral of injured workers for vocational rehabilitation services. Used data from Florida workers' compensation cases closed in 1985 to estimate gains from referral for evaluation not later than six months from injury date. Concludes that social benefits could be nearly $10 million annually and that…

  11. 7 CFR 1.311 - Referral of complaint and answer to the ALJ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral of complaint and answer to the ALJ. 1.311 Section 1.311 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Procedures Related to Administrative Hearings Under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1986 § 1.311 Referral...

  12. Comparison of referral and non-referral hypertensive disorders during pregnancy: an analysis of 271 consecutive cases at a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ching-Ming; Chang, Shuenn-Dyh; Cheng, Po-Jen

    2005-05-01

    This retrospective cohort study analyzed the clinical manifestations in patients with preeclampsia and eclampsia, assessed the risk factors compared to the severity of hypertensive disorders on maternal and perinatal morbidity, and mortality between the referral and non-referral patients. 271 pregnant women with preeclampsia and eclampsia were assessed (1993 to 1997). Chi-square analysis was used for the comparison of categorical variables, and the comparison of the two independent variables of proportions in estimation of confidence intervals and calculated odds ratio of the referral and non-referral groups. Multivariate logistic regression was used for adjusting potential confounding risk factors. Of the 271 patients included in this study, 71 (26.2%) patients were referrals from other hospitals. Most of the 62 (87.3%) referral patients were transferred during the period 21 and 37 weeks of gestation. Univariate analysis revealed that referral patients with hypertensive disorder were significantly associated with SBP > or =180, DBP > or =105, severe preclampsia, haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets (HELLP), emergency C/S, maternal complications, and low birth weight babies, as well as poor Apgar score. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the risk factors identified to be significantly associated with increased risk of referral patients included: diastolic blood pressure above 105 mmHg (adjusted odds ratio, 2.09; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.06 to 4.13; P = 0.034), severe preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio, 3.46; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.76 to 6.81; P < 0.001), eclampsia (adjusted odds ratio, 2.77; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.92 to 8.35; P = 0.071), HELLP syndrome (adjusted odds ratio, 18.81; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.14 to 164.99; P = 0.008). The significant factors associated with the referral patients with hypertensive disorders were severe preeclampsia, HELLP, and eclampsia. Lack of prenatal care was

  13. Cardiac EASE (Ensuring Access and Speedy Evaluation) – the impact of a single-point-of-entry multidisciplinary outpatient cardiology consultation program on wait times in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Bungard, Tammy J; Smigorowsky, Marcie J; Lalonde, Lucille D; Hogan, Terry; Doliszny, Katharine M; Gebreyesus, Ghirmay; Garg, Sipi; Archer, Stephen L

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Universal access to health care is valued in Canada but increasing wait times for services (eg, cardiology consultation) raise safety questions. Observations suggest that deficiencies in the process of care contribute to wait times. Consequently, an outpatient clinic was designed for Ensuring Access and Speedy Evaluation (Cardiac EASE) in a university group practice, providing cardiac consultative services for northern Alberta. Cardiac EASE has two components: a single-point-of-entry intake service (prospective testing using physician-approved algorithms and previsit triage) and a multidisciplinary clinic (staffed by cardiologists, nurse practitioners and doctoral-trained pharmacists). OBJECTIVES: It was hypothesized that Cardiac EASE would reduce the time to initial consultation and a definitive diagnosis, and also increase the referral capacity. METHODS: The primary and secondary outcomes were time from referral to initial consultation, and time to achieve a definitive diagnosis and management plan, respectively. A conventionally managed historical control group (three-month pre-EASE period in 2003) was compared with the EASE group (2004 to 2006). The conventional referral mechanism continued concurrently with EASE. RESULTS: A comparison between pre-EASE (n=311) and EASE (n=3096) revealed no difference in the mean (± SD) age (60±16 years), sex (55% and 52% men, respectively) or reason for referral, including chest pain (31% and 40%, respectively) and arrhythmia (27% and 29%, respectively). Cardiac EASE reduced the time to initial cardiac consultation (from 71±45 days to 33±19 days) and time to a definitive diagnosis (from 120±86 days to 51±58 days) (P<0.0001). The annual number of new referrals increased from 1512 in 2002 to 2574 in 2006 due to growth in the Cardiac EASE clinic. The number of patients seen through the conventional referral mechanism and their wait times remained constant during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac EASE reduced

  14. Exploring accountability of clinical ethics consultants: practice and training implications.

    PubMed

    Weise, Kathryn L; Daly, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    Clinical ethics consultants represent a multidisciplinary group of scholars and practitioners with varied training backgrounds, who are integrated into a medical environment to assist in the provision of ethically supportable care. Little has been written about the degree to which such consultants are accountable for the patient care outcome of the advice given. We propose a model for examining degrees of internally motivated accountability that range from restricted to unbounded accountability, and support balanced accountability as a goal for practice. Finally, we explore implications of this model for training of clinical ethics consultants from diverse academic backgrounds, including those disciplines that do not have a formal code of ethics relating to clinical practice.

  15. Dropping the Baton: Specialty Referrals in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Mehrotra, Ateev; Forrest, Christopher B; Lin, Caroline Y

    2011-01-01

    Context: In the United States, more than a third of patients are referred to a specialist each year, and specialist visits constitute more than half of outpatient visits. Despite the frequency of referrals and the importance of the specialty-referral process, the process itself has been a long-standing source of frustration among both primary care physicians (PCPs) and specialists. These frustrations, along with a desire to lower costs, have led to numerous strategies to improve the specialty-referral process, such as using gatekeepers and referral guidelines. Methods: This article reviews the literature on the specialty-referral process in order to better understand what is known about current problems with the referral process and what solutions have been proposed. The article first provides a conceptual framework and then reviews prior literature on the referral decision, care coordination including information transfer, and access to specialty care. Findings: PCPs vary in their threshold for referring a patient, which results in both the underuse and the overuse of specialists. Many referrals do not include a transfer of information, either to or from the specialist; and when they do, it often contains insufficient data for medical decision making. Care across the primary-specialty interface is poorly integrated; PCPs often do not know whether a patient actually went to the specialist, or what the specialist recommended. PCPs and specialists also frequently disagree on the specialist's role during the referral episode (e.g., single consultation or continuing co-management). Conclusions: There are breakdowns and inefficiencies in all components of the specialty-referral process. Despite many promising mechanisms to improve the referral process, rigorous evaluations of these improvements are needed. PMID:21418312

  16. SBIRT as a Vital Sign for Behavioral Health Identification, Diagnosis, and Referral in Community Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Dwinnells, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental design study was to examine the effectiveness of the behavioral health Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) program at a community health center. The study group was twice as likely (25.3%) to have depression and substance abuse diagnosed compared with the control group (11.4%) (P <.001). Referral rates for the study group were more likely to occur (12.4%) compared with referral rates for the control group (1.0%) (P <.001); however, the kept appointment rates by patients for behavioral health problems referrals remained low for both groups. SBIRT was effectively utilized in a community health center, resulting in increased rates for diagnosis of behavioral health problems and referrals of patients. PMID:25964405

  17. SBIRT as a Vital Sign for Behavioral Health Identification, Diagnosis, and Referral in Community Health Care.

    PubMed

    Dwinnells, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental design study was to examine the effectiveness of the behavioral health Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) program at a community health center. The study group was twice as likely (25.3%) to have depression and substance abuse diagnosed compared with the control group (11.4%) (P <.001). Referral rates for the study group were more likely to occur (12.4%) compared with referral rates for the control group (1.0%) (P <.001); however, the kept appointment rates by patients for behavioral health problems referrals remained low for both groups. SBIRT was effectively utilized in a community health center, resulting in increased rates for diagnosis of behavioral health problems and referrals of patients. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  18. Barriers to specialty care and specialty referral completion in the community health center setting.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, Katharine E; Perrin, James M; Hobrecker, Karin; Donelan, Karen

    2013-02-01

    To assess the frequency of barriers to specialty care and to assess which barriers are associated with an incomplete specialty referral (not attending a specialty visit when referred by a primary care provider) among children seen in community health centers. Two months after their child's specialty referral, 341 parents completed telephone surveys assessing whether a specialty visit was completed and whether they experienced any of 10 barriers to care. Family/community barriers included difficulty leaving work, obtaining childcare, obtaining transportation, and inadequate insurance. Health care system barriers included getting appointments quickly, understanding doctors and nurses, communicating with doctors' offices, locating offices, accessing interpreters, and inconvenient office hours. We calculated barrier frequency and total barriers experienced. Using logistic regression, we assessed which barriers were associated with incomplete referral, and whether experiencing ≥ 4 barriers was associated with incomplete referral. A total of 22.9% of families experienced incomplete referral. 42.0% of families encountered 1 or more barriers. The most frequent barriers were difficulty leaving work, obtaining childcare, and obtaining transportation. On multivariate analysis, difficulty getting appointments quickly, difficulty finding doctors' offices, and inconvenient office hours were associated with incomplete referral. Families experiencing ≥ 4 barriers were more likely than those experiencing ≤ 3 barriers to have incomplete referral. Barriers to specialty care were common and associated with incomplete referral. Families experiencing many barriers had greater risk of incomplete referral. Improving family/community factors may increase satisfaction with specialty care; however, improving health system factors may be the best way to reduce incomplete referrals. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment and referral patterns for psoriasis in United Kingdom primary care: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the UK, referrals to specialists are initiated by general practitioners (GPs). Study objectives were to estimate the incidence of diagnosed psoriasis in the UK and identify factors associated with GP referrals to dermatologists. Methods Newly diagnosed patients with psoriasis were identified in The Health Improvement Network (THIN) database between 01 July 2007-31 Oct 2009. Incidence of diagnosed psoriasis was calculated using the number of new psoriasis patients in 2008 and the mid-year total patient count for THIN in 2008. A nested case–control design and conditional logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with referral. Results Incidence rate of diagnosed adult psoriasis in 2008 was 28/10,000 person-years. Referral rate to dermatologists was 18.1 (17.3-18.9) per 100 person-years. In the referred cohort (N=1,950), 61% were referred within 30 days of diagnosis and their median time to referral was 0 days from diagnosis. For those referred after 30 days (39%, median time to referral: 5.6 months), an increase in the number of GP visits prior to referral increased the likelihood of referral (OR=1.87 95% CI:1.73-2.01). A prescription of topical agents such as vitamin D3 analogues 30 days before referral increased the likelihood of being referred (OR=4.67 95% CI: 2.78-7.84), as did corticosteroids (OR=2.45 95% CI: 1.45-4.07) and tar products (OR=1.95 95% CI: 1.02-3.75). Conclusions Estimates of the incidence of diagnosed adult psoriasis, referral rates to dermatologists, and characteristics of referred patients may assist in understanding the burden on the UK healthcare system and managing this population in primary and secondary care. PMID:23957883

  20. What percentage of patients presenting for routine eye examinations require referral for secondary care? A study of referrals from optometrists to ophthalmologists.

    PubMed

    Dobbelsteyn, David; McKee, Katherine; Bearnes, Reece D; Jayanetti, Sujani N; Persaud, David D; Cruess, Alan F

    2015-05-01

    The aim was to investigate the percentage of asymptomatic patients presenting for routine optometric eye examinations that have pathology or pathology-related risk factors warranting referral for ophthalmological consultation. This was a retrospective, cohort case study and the inclusion criteria for participants included: (i) the patient presented for routine optometric eye care during a specified period of time; (ii) the patient was found to have pathology (or showed enough risk of pathology) resulting in referral to an ophthalmologist; and (iii) a referral report was received from the consulting ophthalmologist stating the diagnosis and the treatment plan. The data set was further reviewed to indicate presenting symptoms and patient age. Adult patients, ages 20 to 64 years, were reviewed separately; this age group is not covered by provincial health services for routine eye care in Nova Scotia. Files were obtained from two clinics through an electronic charting program. A database was created that included date of referral, clinical reasons for the referral, diagnosis and treatment plan. Clinical reasons for referral were extracted from the referral letters and reports and sorted into six disease categories: age-related macular degeneration, cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy and 'other'. The overall referral rate for the combined data set was nine per cent for all ages; 2.4 per cent of the overall patients were asymptomatic. There was a similar number of asymptomatic patients referred in the adult (20 to 64 years) age group compared to all ages (2.5 per cent). A significant number of patients that present for routine eye examinations without any symptoms indicative of ocular disease are subsequently found to have a degree of pathology or risk thereof requiring referral for ophthalmological consultation. These referrals occur for adults under 64 years as much as for all patients of all ages. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental

  1. Electrical innovations, authority and consulting expertise in late Victorian Britain

    PubMed Central

    Arapostathis, Stathis

    2013-01-01

    In this article I examine the practices of electrical engineering experts, with special reference to their role in the implementation of innovations in late Victorian electrical networks. I focus on the consulting work of two leading figures in the scientific and engineering world of the period, Alexander Kennedy and William Preece. Both were Fellows of the Royal Society and both developed large-scale consulting activities in the emerging electrical industry of light and power. At the core of the study I place the issues of trust and authority, and the bearing of these on the engineering expertise of consultants in late Victorian Britain. I argue that the ascription of expertise to these engineers and the trust placed in their advice were products of power relations on the local scale. The study seeks to unravel both the technical and the social reasons for authoritative patterns of consulting expertise. PMID:24686584

  2. Electrical innovations, authority and consulting expertise in late Victorian Britain.

    PubMed

    Arapostathis, Stathis

    2013-03-20

    In this article I examine the practices of electrical engineering experts, with special reference to their role in the implementation of innovations in late Victorian electrical networks. I focus on the consulting work of two leading figures in the scientific and engineering world of the period, Alexander Kennedy and William Preece. Both were Fellows of the Royal Society and both developed large-scale consulting activities in the emerging electrical industry of light and power. At the core of the study I place the issues of trust and authority, and the bearing of these on the engineering expertise of consultants in late Victorian Britain. I argue that the ascription of expertise to these engineers and the trust placed in their advice were products of power relations on the local scale. The study seeks to unravel both the technical and the social reasons for authoritative patterns of consulting expertise.

  3. Relationship between the Social and Demographic Characteristics of Post-Sentence Offenders and the Outcomes of Forensic Psychiatric Referrals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prandoni, Jogues R.

    1984-01-01

    Examined differences between offenders (N=240) by referral source, completion of referral, and recommendation for further services. The most substantial relationship was between source and outcome of referral, with probationers referred by probation officers more likely to be recommended for mental health services. (JAC)

  4. US-USSR telemedicine consultation spacebridge to Armenia and Ufa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Final Report on the U.S.-U.S.S.R. Telemedicine Consultation Spacebride to Armenia and Ufa is presented. The goal of this activity was to provide expert medical consultation to the Armenian medical personnel in the areas of plastic and reconstructive surgery, physical and psychological rehabilitation, public health, and epidemiology following the devastating earthquake in Dec. 1988. The U.S. and U.S.S.R. implementation teams developed new standards for medical information transmittal as well as protocols and schedules on how to conduct medical consultations. The consultations were provided to the Republic Diagnostic Center in Yerevan, U.S.S.R. by four U.S. medical centers: University of Utah/LDS Hospital, University of Texas, Maryland Institute for Emergency Medical Service Systems, and Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences.

  5. A Collaborative Approach to Implement Positive Behavior Support Plans for Children with Problem Behaviors: A Comparison of Consultation versus Consultation and Feedback Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erbas, Dilek

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of consultation alone and consultation plus feedback on the proper use of positive behavior support strategies (PBS) on behaviors of three mothers with children with developmental disabilities. Results indicated that consultation plus feedback was more effective than consultation alone…

  6. Gender and variation in activity rates of hospital consultants

    PubMed Central

    Bloor, Karen; Freemantle, Nick; Maynard, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore whether or not gender predicts consultant activity rates. Design Using data from the Hospital Episode Statistics for England 2004/2005, we explored inpatient activity rates of male and female hospital consultants, with and without adjustment for case-mix differences. As a sensitivity analysis we also explored outpatient attendances for male and female hospital consultants. Setting Data from the Hospital Episode Statistics for England. Main outcome measures Finished consultant episodes per year, with and without adjustment for case-mix differences, age and gender of consultant, contract held, hospital trust, specialty of practice, and clinical excellence awards, discretionary points and distinction awards. Results Including only consultants on full-time or maximum part-time contracts, men have significantly higher activity rates than women, after accounting for age, specialty and hospital trust. Conclusions The reasons for the different activity rates of male and female consultatns are unclear, but the implications of these results for the planning of the medical workforce are important. PMID:18263911

  7. Prenatal diagnosis and telemedicine consultation of fetal urologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Rabie, Nader Z; Canon, Stephen; Patel, Ashay; Zamilpa, Ismael; Magann, Everett F; Higley, Jared

    2016-06-01

    In Arkansas, telemedicine is used commonly in obstetrics through Antenatal and Neonatal Guidelines, Education and Learning System (ANGELS), the existing statewide telemedicine network. This network is used primarily for tele-ultrasound and maternal-fetal medicine consultation. This study is a retrospective case series, describing all the patients who had a prenatally diagnosed urologic anomaly that required prenatal urologic consultation. From 2009-2013, approximately 1300 anomalies were recorded in the Arkansas Fetal Diagnosis and Management (AFDM) database, 14% of which were urologic anomalies. Twenty-six cases required prenatal urologic consultation, 25 of which were conducted via telemedicine. Teleconsultation allowed patients to combine maternal-fetal medicine and urologic consultations in one visit, saving time and effort and ultimately, for most patients, providing reassurance that delivery could be accomplished locally with postnatal follow-up already arranged. While there are several studies reporting the use of telemedicine for various subspecialty consultations, to our knowledge, this is the first to describe the use of telemedicine for prenatal urology consultation. Future research could randomize patients prospectively to allow comparison of both the outcomes as well as the patient experience.

  8. Consultation behaviour of doctor-shopping patients and factors that reduce shopping.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Yoshiyuki; Ikusaka, Masatomi; Noda, Kazutaka; Tsukamoto, Tomoko; Takada, Toshihiko; Miyahara, Masahito; Funakoshi, Hiraku; Basugi, Ayako; Keira, Katsunori; Uehara, Takanori

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the subsequent behaviour of doctor-shopping patients (defined as those attending multiple hospitals for the same complaint) who consulted our department and factors related to cessation of doctor shopping. Patients who presented without referral to the Department of General Medicine at Chiba University Hospital in Japan (our department) completed a questionnaire at their first visit. A follow-up questionnaire was also sent to them in order to assess doctor shopping after 3 months. Then items in the questionnaires were investigated for significant differences between patients who continued or stopped doctor shopping. Logistic regression analysis was performed with items showing a significant difference between patients who stopped doctor shopping and those who continued it, in order to identify independent determinants of the cessation of shopping. A total of 978 patients who presented spontaneously to our department consented to this study, and 929 patients (95.0%) completed questionnaires correctly. Among them, 203 patients (21.9%) were identified as doctor shoppers. The follow-up survey was completed correctly by 138 patients (68.0%). Among them, 25 patients (18.1%) were found to have continued doctor shopping, which was a significantly lower rate than before (P < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis selected the following factors as independent determinants of the cessation of doctor shopping: 'confirmation of the diagnosis' (odds ratio: 8.12, 95% confidence interval: 1.46-45.26), and 'satisfaction with consultation' (odds ratio: 2.07, 95% confidence interval: 1.42-3.01). Doctor shopping decreased significantly after patients consulted our department, with 'confirmation of the diagnosis' and 'satisfaction with consultation' being identified as contributing factors. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Guidelines for education and training at the doctoral and postdoctoral levels in consulting psychology/organizational consulting psychology.

    PubMed

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of these "Guidelines for Education and Training at the Doctoral and Postdoctoral Levels in Consulting Psychology/Organizational Consulting Psychology" is to provide a common framework for use in the development, evaluation, and review of education and training in consulting psychology/organizational consulting psychology (CP/OCP). The intent of these guidelines is to improve the quality of teaching and learning in the area of the practice of CP, especially OCP, within the scientific discipline and profession of psychology. Towards these ends, this document is intended as guidance for psychologists who teach or plan curricula for teaching CP/OCP at doctoral or postdoctoral levels of professional education and training in psychology. The guidelines are structured in the form of overarching principles, general competencies, and domain-specific competencies that are ideally obtained by persons receiving training at the doctoral or postdoctoral level in CP/OCP. (Copyright) 2007 APA.

  10. Depression in general practice -- consultation duration and problem solving therapy.

    PubMed

    Pierce, David; Gunn, Jane

    2011-05-01

    General practitioners have expressed concern that consultations offering psychological therapy approaches will take up too much time. However, problem solving therapy (PST) for depression may be able to be used within the time constraints of general practice. This study investigates whether GPs' concerns that PST would result in unacceptably long consultations are justified. general practitioners were observed providing PST in simulated consultations before and after PST training - PST skill and duration of consultations were measured. Twenty-four GPs participated. Problem solving therapy skill increased markedly, but mean consultation duration changed minimally: 17.3 minutes and 17.9 minutes. This research suggests that GPs can provide an evidence supported psychological treatment for depression within the time constraints of routine practice. The structured nature of PST may allow GPs to provide additional mental healthcare for depression, without significantly increasing consultation duration. It suggests GPs' concerns about the time PST may take up in practice may be unjustified and that further research into the use of PST in routine general practice should be undertaken.

  11. Patient pressure for referral for headache: a qualitative study of GPs'referral behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Myfanwy; Jenkins, Linda; Ridsdale, Leone

    2007-01-01

    Background Headache accounts for up to a third of new specialist neurology appointments, although brain lesions are extremely rare and there is little difference in clinical severity of referred patients and those managed in primary care. This study examines influences on GPs' referral for headache in the absence of clinical indicators. Design of study Qualitative interview study. Setting Eighteen urban and suburban general practices in the South Thames area, London. Method Purposive sample comprising GPs with varying numbers of referrals for headache over a 12-month period. Semi-structured interviews with 20 GPs were audio taped. Transcripts were analysed thematically using a framework approach. Results All GPs reported observing patient anxiety and experiencing pressure for referral. Readiness to refer in response to pressure was influenced by characteristics of the consultation, including frequent attendance, communication problems and time constraints. GPs' accounts showed variations in individual's willingness or ‘resistance’ to refer, reflecting differences in clinical confidence in identifying risks of brain tumour, personal tolerance of uncertainty, views of patients' ‘right’ to referral and perceptions of the therapeutic value of referral. A further source of variation was the local availability of services, including GPs with a specialist interest and charitably-funded clinics. Conclusion Referral for headache is often the outcome of patient pressure interacting with GP characteristics, organisational factors and service availability. Reducing specialist neurological referrals requires further training and support for some GPs in the diagnosis and management of headache. To reduce clinical uncertainty, good clinical prediction rules for headache and alternative referral pathways are required. PMID:17244421

  12. Conducting an audit to improve the facilitation of emergency maternal and newborn referral in northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Awoonor-Williams, John Koku; Bailey, Patricia E; Yeji, Francis; Adongo, Ayire Emmanuel; Baffoe, Peter; Williams, Afua; Mercer, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Ghana Health Service conducted an audit to strengthen the referral system for pregnant or recently pregnant women and newborns in northern Ghana. The audit took place in 16 facilities with two 3-month cycles of data collection in 2011. Midwife-led teams tracked 446 referred women until they received definitive treatment. Between the two audit cycles, teams identified and implemented interventions to address gaps in referral services. During this time period, we observed important increases in facilitating referral mechanisms, including a decrease in the dependence on taxis in favour of national or facility ambulances/vehicles; an increase in health workers escorting referrals to the appropriate receiving facility; greater use of referral slips and calling ahead to alert receiving facilities and higher feedback rates. As referral systems require attention from multiple levels of engagement, on the provider end we found that regional managers increasingly resolved staffing shortages; district management addressed the costliness and lack of transport and increased midwives' ability to communicate with pregnant women and drivers; and that facility staff increasingly adhered to guidelines and facilitating mechanisms. By conducting an audit of maternal and newborn referrals, the Ghana Health Service identified areas for improvement that service providers and management at multiple levels addressed, demonstrating a platform for problem solving that could be a model elsewhere.

  13. The Theory and Application of Information and Referral Systems in the University of Maryland Residence Halls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoman, Cherie; Moore, Jerry E.

    1977-01-01

    This resource system consists of eight information and referral centers each housing a resource instrument (binders and flip chart), an operator, outreach staff, one mobile instrument, a systematic updating system and an evaluation system. (Author/DOW)

  14. The Theory and Application of Information and Referral Systems in the University of Maryland Residence Halls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoman, Cherie; Moore, Jerry E.

    1977-01-01

    This resource system consists of eight information and referral centers each housing a resource instrument (binders and flip chart), an operator, outreach staff, one mobile instrument, a systematic updating system and an evaluation system. (Author/DOW)

  15. Blending Administrative and Clinical Needs: The Development of a Referring Physician Database and Automatic Referral Letter

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Mark S.; Dreese, Elizabeth M.; Hurley, Noreen; Zullo, Nan; Peterson, Mark

    1991-01-01

    The development of a system to collect and verify the name of a patient's referring physician and link that to the automatic production of a referral letter and discharge summary is described. PMID:1807664

  16. [The practice guideline 'Consultation psychiatry' of the Dutch Psychiatric Association for psychiatric consultations in primary care and the hospital].

    PubMed

    Leentjens, A F G; van der Feltz-Cornelis, C M; Boenink, A D; van Everdingen, J J E

    2008-08-30

    Psychiatric consultation in primary care as well as in the hospital is both effective and cost-effective if certain procedures are followed. With the professional guideline 'Consultation psychiatry', the Dutch Psychiatric Association aims at setting a standard for psychiatric consultations in non-psychiatric settings. In general practice, the psychiatric consultation is preferably embedded in 'collaborative care', an integrated care model including the general practitioner and a case manager (usually a nurse), with the consultant psychiatrist being regularly available for clearly defined indications. The psychiatrist should see the patient himself or herself, establish a diagnosis and treatment plan, and provide the general practitioner and the patient with a so-called 'consultation letter', which is then discussed with both. In a general hospital, systematic screening of patients at risk of psychiatric comorbidity can be organised. Early detection of complex patients can further improve the effectiveness of psychiatric consultation. Follow-up contacts and investing in liaison contacts improve adherence to the advice provided.

  17. Racial and ethnic differences in reported criminal justice referral at treatment admission.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Cynthia L; Said, Manal; Owens, Darlene

    2012-01-01

    In the U.S. and elsewhere, the criminal justice system is a frequent referral source for substance abuse treatment admission. To expand and improve pathways to treatment, outreach efforts need additional information about different demographic groups. Locally, clinicians observed racial and ethnic differences between minority groups in self-identifying criminal justice as the referral sources for admission. To test this clinical observation, reported criminal justice referral was examined by race/ethnicity and gender in multiple years of both national and local treatment admissions. Confirming the clinical observations, racial/ethnic referral source by gender systematically differed across years nationally (p < .001) and in an examination of verbatim recorded presenting problems locally (p < .001). African Americans and Puerto Ricans were less likely to have criminal justice referral sources than the White reference group, whereas American Indians, Arab Americans, Asian Americans, and other Hispanic ethnicities were more likely to have criminal justice referral sources. Racial/ethnic groups systematically differed in reported criminal justice involvement, suggesting hypotheses potentially impacting clinical treatment and outreach. Published primary referral sources may underestimate criminal justice involvement in treatment admissions.

  18. A practice guideline from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the National Society of Genetic Counselors: referral indications for cancer predisposition assessment.

    PubMed

    Hampel, Heather; Bennett, Robin L; Buchanan, Adam; Pearlman, Rachel; Wiesner, Georgia L

    2015-01-01

    referral. Thus, the purpose of this practice guideline is to present a single set of comprehensive personal and family history criteria to facilitate identification and maximize appropriate referral of at-risk individuals for cancer genetic consultation. To develop this guideline, a literature search for hereditary cancer susceptibility syndromes was conducted using PubMed. In addition, GeneReviews and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines were reviewed when applicable. When conflicting guidelines were identified, the evidence was ranked as follows: position papers from national and professional organizations ranked highest, followed by consortium guidelines, and then peer-reviewed publications from single institutions. The criteria for cancer genetic consultation referral are provided in two formats: (i) tables that list the tumor type along with the criteria that, if met, would warrant a referral for a cancer genetic consultation and (ii) an alphabetical list of the syndromes, including a brief summary of each and the rationale for the referral criteria that were selected. Consider referral for a cancer genetic consultation if your patient or any of their first-degree relatives meet any of these referral criteria.

  19. Cardiac rehabilitation referral and enrolment across an academic health sciences centre with eReferral and peer navigation: a randomised controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Ali-Faisal, Sobia F; Benz Scott, Lisa; Johnston, Lauren; Grace, Sherry L

    2016-03-21

    To describe (1) cardiac rehabilitation (CR) referral across cardiac units in a tertiary centre with eReferral; (2) characteristics associated with CR referral and enrolment and (3) the effects of peer navigation (PN) on referral and enrolment. This pilot was a 2 parallel-arm, randomised, single-blind trial with allocation concealment. 3 cardiac units (ie, interventional, general cardiology, and cardiac surgery) in 1 of 2 hospitals of a tertiary centre. CR-eligible adult cardiac inpatients were randomised to PN or usual care. 94 (54.7%) patients consented, of which 46 (48.9%) were randomised to PN. Outcomes were ascertained in 76 (80.9%) participants. The PN (1) visited participant at the bedside, (2) mailed a card to participant's home reminding about CR and (3) called participant 2 weeks postdischarge to discuss CR barriers. The primary outcome of enrolment was defined as participant attendance at a scheduled CR intake appointment (yes/no). The secondary outcome was referral. Blinded outcome assessment was conducted 12 weeks postdischarge, via CR chart extraction. Those who received care on the cardiac surgery unit (77.9%) were more likely to be referred than those treated on the general cardiology (61.1%) or interventional unit (33.3%; p=0.04). Patients who had cardiac surgery, hypertension and hyperlipidaemia were significantly more likely, and those with congenital heart disease, cancer and a previous cardiac diagnosis were less likely to be referred. Participants referred to a site closer to home (76.2% of those referred) were more likely to enrol than those not (23.7%, p<0.05). PN had no effect on referral (77.6%, p=0.45) or enrolment (46.0%, p=0.24). There is wide variability in CR referral, even within academic centres, and despite eReferral. Referral was quite high, and thus, PN did not improve CR utilisation. Results support triaging patients to the CR programme closest to their home. NCT02204449; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  20. The development and validation of a multivariable model to predict whether patients referred for total knee replacement are suitable surgical candidates at the time of initial consultation.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Laura; Malian, Samuel J; Chesworth, Bert M; Bryant, Dianne; MacDonald, Steven J; Marsh, Jacquelyn D; Giffin, J Robert

    2016-12-01

    In previous studies, 50%-70% of patients referred to orthopedic surgeons for total knee replacement (TKR) were not surgical candidates at the time of initial assessment. The purpose of our study was to identify and cross-validate patient self-reported predictors of suitability for TKR and to determine the clinical utility of a predictive model to guide the timing and appropriateness of referral to a surgeon. We assessed pre-consultation patient data as well as the surgeon's findings and post-consultation recommendations. We used multivariate logistic regression to detect self-reported items that could identify suitable surgical candidates. Patients' willingness to undergo surgery, higher rating of pain, greater physical function, previous intra-articular injections and patient age were the factors predictive of patients being offered and electing to undergo TKR. The application of the model developed in our study would effectively reduce the proportion of nonsurgical referrals by 25%, while identifying the vast majority of surgical candidates (> 90%). Using patient-reported information, we can correctly predict the outcome of specialist consultation for TKR in 70% of cases. To reduce long waits for first consultation with a surgeon, it may be possible to use these items to educate and guide referring clinicians and patients to understand when specialist consultation is the next step in managing the patient with severe osteoarthritis of the knee.

  1. The development and validation of a multivariable model to predict whether patients referred for total knee replacement are suitable surgical candidates at the time of initial consultation

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, Laura; Malian, Samuel J.; Chesworth, Bert M.; Bryant, Dianne; MacDonald, Steven J.; Marsh, Jacquelyn D.; Giffin, J. Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background In previous studies, 50%–70% of patients referred to orthopedic surgeons for total knee replacement (TKR) were not surgical candidates at the time of initial assessment. The purpose of our study was to identify and cross-validate patient self-reported predictors of suitability for TKR and to determine the clinical utility of a predictive model to guide the timing and appropriateness of referral to a surgeon. Methods We assessed pre-consultation patient data as well as the surgeon’s findings and post-consultation recommendations. We used multivariate logistic regression to detect self-reported items that could identify suitable surgical candidates. Results Patients’ willingness to undergo surgery, higher rating of pain, greater physical function, previous intra-articular injections and patient age were the factors predictive of patients being offered and electing to undergo TKR. Conclusion The application of the model developed in our study would effectively reduce the proportion of nonsurgical referrals by 25%, while identifying the vast majority of surgical candidates (> 90%). Using patient-reported information, we can correctly predict the outcome of specialist consultation for TKR in 70% of cases. To reduce long waits for first consultation with a surgeon, it may be possible to use these items to educate and guide referring clinicians and patients to understand when specialist consultation is the next step in managing the patient with severe osteoarthritis of the knee. PMID:28234616

  2. Referral decisions of teachers and school psychologists for twice-exceptional students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Jennifer Marie

    The accurate and timely referral and identification of twice-exceptional students remains a challenge. In a statewide study, the referral decisions for both special education and gifted programming evaluations made by four participant groups (i.e., general education teachers, special education teachers, gifted education teachers, and school psychologists) were compared. Participants were randomly assigned to read one of three identically described students in a vignette that differed only in the presence of a diagnostic label--- autism spectrum disorder (ASD), specific learning disability (SLD), or no diagnostic label. In all, special education teachers made the most special education referrals, while gifted education teachers made the most gifted programming referrals, both regardless of the diagnostic label present. The students with diagnostic labels were recommended for special education referrals significantly more than for gifted programming, while this difference was not evident in the no diagnostic label condition. Moreover, the student with the ASD label was the most likely to be referred for evaluations for both special education and gifted programming out of all three vignette conditions. Overall findings indicated the importance of considering the referral source as well as how the presence of a diagnostic label might influence educational referral decisions, particularly in how this might influence overall multidisciplinary team decisions for these unique learners.

  3. Situational Consultation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimehaug, Tormod; Helmersberg, Ingunn

    2010-01-01

    Situational Consultation (SC) is presented as a framework for flexible integration of several models and methodologies in consultation practice by choosing an approach adapted to the specific situation. In SC, models and their characteristic role positions are considered interchangeable tools with qualitative differences in strengths and…

  4. Quality of Radiation Therapy Referral and Utilisation Post-prostatectomy: A Population-based Study of Time Trends.

    PubMed

    Jin, C J; Brundage, M D; Cook, E F; Miao, Q; Hanna, T P

    2016-12-01

    Adjuvant radiotherapy post-prostatectomy has been shown to benefit patients with adverse pathology. It remains unclear whether salvage radiotherapy confers equivalent outcomes. Practice guidelines recommend referral to radiation oncology within 6 months after prostatectomy to discuss adjuvant and salvage radiotherapy. The study objectives were to assess, at a population level: (i) post-prostatectomy referral patterns for radiotherapy; (ii) adjuvant and salvage radiotherapy utilisation; and (iii) time trends in relation to clinical trials and guidelines. These findings provide indications of access to quality care. This was a retrospective cohort study. Electronic radiotherapy consultation and treatment records were linked to the population-based Ontario Cancer Registry. The population included prostate cancer cases treated with prostatectomy in Ontario between 2003 and 2012. Radiotherapy referral and treatment rates over time were analysed using the chi-squared trend test. Over the study period, 30 447 prostate cancer patients received prostatectomy. The proportion seen by radiation oncology within 6 months after prostatectomy doubled from 10.7% in 2003-2004 to 21.7% in 2011-2012 (P < 0.0001 for trend), with the largest annual percentage difference in 2009-2011 (3.4%). Among 4641 patients seen within 6 months, adjuvant radiotherapy rates remained at 51.0% ± 3.0%. Contemporaneous with radiation oncology referral trends, overall adjuvant radiotherapy use increased from 6.2% in 2003-2004 to 11.0% in 2011-2012 (P < 0.001), while salvage radiotherapy remained at 8.4% ± 0.4%. Consequently, the total proportion receiving radiotherapy within 24 months increased from 14.1% in 2003-2004 to 17.7% in 2009-2010 (P < 0.0001). There was an increase in access to early radiation oncology referral post-prostatectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy in Ontario between 2003 and 2012, following guideline publication. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published

  5. A regional health network supported by organisational change. Cross sectorial electronic referral and confirmation of booking.

    PubMed

    Kaae, T

    2000-01-01

    The goal of the Funen Health Care Network is to ensure a fast correct communication between the Health Care professionals. Since 1993 electronic links have been established from all clinical hospital departments, radiology departments, laboratories, the clinical microbiology department and the pathology department to the general practitioners. Recently, the electronic referral and a confirmation of the booking has been implemented, and this will be followed by structured clinical e-mail service. Due to directed organisational changes, the introduction of electronic referral has resulted in a faster and more logical workflow in the hospitals when dealing with referrals. The primary sector is kept updated on the patient throughout the period of care.

  6. Virtual online consultations: advantages and limitations (VOCAL) study

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Vijayaraghavan, Shanti; Wherton, Joe; Shaw, Sara; Byrne, Emma; Campbell-Richards, Desirée; Bhattacharya, Satya; Hanson, Philippa; Ramoutar, Seendy; Gutteridge, Charles; Hodkinson, Isabel; Collard, Anna; Morris, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Remote video consultations between clinician and patient are technically possible and increasingly acceptable. They are being introduced in some settings alongside (and occasionally replacing) face-to-face or telephone consultations. Methods To explore the advantages and limitations of video consultations, we will conduct in-depth qualitative studies of real consultations (microlevel) embedded in an organisational case study (mesolevel), taking account of national context (macrolevel). The study is based in 2 contrasting clinical settings (diabetes and cancer) in a National Health Service (NHS) acute trust in London, UK. Main data sources are: microlevel—audio, video and screen capture to produce rich multimodal data on 45 remote consultations; mesolevel—interviews, ethnographic observations and analysis of documents within the trust; macrolevel—key informant interviews of national-level stakeholders and document analysis. Data will be analysed and synthesised using a sociotechnical framework developed from structuration theory. Ethics approval City Road and Hampstead NHS Research Ethics Committee, 9 December 2014, reference 14/LO/1883. Planned outputs We plan outputs for 5 main audiences: (1) academics: research publications and conference presentations; (2) service providers: standard operating procedures, provisional operational guidance and key safety issues; (3) professional bodies and defence societies: summary of relevant findings to inform guidance to members; (4) policymakers: summary of key findings; (5) patients and carers: ‘what to expect in your virtual consultation’. Discussion The research literature on video consultations is sparse. Such consultations offer potential advantages to patients (who are spared the cost and inconvenience of travel) and the healthcare system (eg, they may be more cost-effective), but fears have been expressed that they may be clinically risky and/or less acceptable to patients or staff, and they

  7. 40 CFR 1504.3 - Procedure for referrals and response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 1504.3 Section 1504.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY PREDECISION REFERRALS... the draft environmental impact statement, except when the statement does not contain adequate information to permit an assessment of the matter's environmental acceptability. (3) Identify any essential...

  8. 40 CFR 1504.3 - Procedure for referrals and response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 1504.3 Section 1504.3 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY PREDECISION REFERRALS... the draft environmental impact statement, except when the statement does not contain adequate information to permit an assessment of the matter's environmental acceptability. (3) Identify any essential...

  9. Identification and Referral for Mental Health Services in Juvenile Detention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Kenneth M.; Pumariega, Andres J.; Cuffe, Steven P.

    This report discusses the outcomes of a study that examined the mental health referral patterns of youth referred to a public sector mental health system as the result of a judicial consent decree. The study included two samples of youth ages 13-17 from the entire state of South Carolina. The first group included incarcerated youth recruited from…

  10. 20 CFR 404.1519g - Who we will select to perform a consultative examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who we will select to perform a consultative... Referral and for Report Content § 404.1519g Who we will select to perform a consultative examination. (a... level of severity of your alleged impairments. (c) The medical source we choose may use support staff...

  11. Can we Rely on a General Practitioner's Referral Letter to a Skin Lesion Clinic to Prioritise Appointments and Does it Make a Difference to the Patient's Prognosis?

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Jill B; Khanna, A

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study was designed to: (i) determine if the priority of referral letters by general practitioners to a plastic surgery skin lesion clinic adhered to the national guidelines, what happened to these patients, and what was the histological diagnosis; and (ii) analyse whether the prognosis at diagnosis of malignant melanoma had improved since the introduction of the 2-week wait for patients with suspected cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study involved a prospective audit questionnaire, retrospective note review and histology report review in the Plastic Surgery Department in a district general hospital and their ‘bespoke’ out-patient clinics. RESULTS Of 202 referral letters, 58 (29%) were referred as 2-week cancer referrals of which 13 (22%) suggested diagnoses that did not fall within the guidelines, and 11 gave no diagnosis. In addition, 84 (42%) had no indication of priority, though the text may suggest the need for it, either explicitly or implied. The prognostic indices for malignant melanoma have not altered since the 2-week wait rule has been implemented. CONCLUSIONS The guidelines are not being adhered to, thus patients with benign lesions are being given undue priority. The history and examination of skin lesions given in the referral letters is insufficient to allow the consultant to prioritise. Since the 2-week rule has be implemented, malignant melanomas have not been diagnosed at an earlier stage. PMID:16460639

  12. Referral pattern and special interests in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome: a Turkish referred sample.

    PubMed

    Tanidir, Canan; Mukaddes, Nahit M

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the most frequent reasons for referral, the most common special interests, age at first referral to a mental health service, and the age of diagnosis in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome living in Turkey. This study includes 61 children and adolescents diagnosed with Asperger syndrome using strict DSM-IV criteria. The mean age at first referral was 7.9 whereas the mean age when Asperger syndrome was diagnosed was 9.9, which is compatible with other studies. The most frequent reasons for the first referral were attention deficits, hyperactivity, and academic failure, and the most common special interest area was "electronic devices, computer, and technical interests". The types of special interests and referral reasons in our Asperger syndrome sample are very similar to the interest areas and referral reasons of individuals with Asperger syndrome from developed western countries indicating the universality of symptoms. It could be concluded that children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome may refer to mental health services with a variety of symptoms; therefore, it is important to make a detailed assessment of social difficulties especially in school-age children and adolescents for the differential diagnosis of Asperger syndrome.

  13. Mergers and acquisitions: director and consultant liability exposure.

    PubMed

    Waxman, J M

    1995-02-01

    Corporate directors and their consultants must make decisions in an uncertain and changing health care environment. The losses each may face as a result of an incomplete analysis of the true value of the entities involved in mergers or acquisitions may extend beyond the failure of the transaction to the creation of personal liability as well. Accordingly, objective, careful, detailed, and fair decision-making based upon adequate information is more critical than ever for directors if they are to be able to take advantage of the business judgment rule, and also for consultants to avoid their own liability when transactions fail to deliver the values they have estimated.

  14. A Home-Based Palliative Care Consult Service for Veterans.

    PubMed

    Golden, Adam G; Antoni, Charles; Gammonley, Denise

    2016-11-01

    We describe the development and implementation of a home-based palliative care consult service for Veterans with advanced illness. A retrospective chart review was performed on 73 Veterans who received a home-based palliative care consult. Nearly one-third were 80 years of age or older, and nearly one-third had a palliative diagnosis of cancer. The most common interventions of the consult team included discussion of advance directives, completion of a "do not resuscitate" form, reduction/stoppage of at least 1 medication, explanation of diagnosis, referral to home-based primary care program, referral to hospice, and assessment/support for caregiver stress. The home-based consult service was therefore able to address clinical and psychosocial issues that can demonstrate a direct benefit to Veterans, families, and referring clinicians.

  15. A comparison of general medical and clinical ethics consultations: what can we learn from each other?

    PubMed

    Geppert, Cynthia M A; Shelton, Wayne N

    2012-04-01

    Despite the emergence of clinical ethics consultation as a clinical service in recent years, little is known about how clinical ethics consultation differs from, or is the same as, other medical consultations. A critical assessment of the similarities and differences between these 2 types of consultations is important to help the medical community appreciate ethics consultation as a vital service in today's health care setting. Therefore, this Special Article presents a comparison of medical and clinical ethics consultations in terms of fundamental goals of consultation, roles of consultants, and methodologic approaches to consultation, concluding with reflections on important lessons about the physician-patient relationship and medical education that may benefit practicing internists. Our aim is to examine ethics consultation as a clinical service integral to the medical care of patients. Studies for this analysis were obtained through the PubMed database using the keywords ethics consultation, medical consultation, ethics consults, medical consults, ethics consultants, and medical consultants. All English-language articles published from 1970 through August 2011 that pertained to the structure and process of medical and ethics consultation were reviewed. Copyright © 2012 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship between practice counselling and referral to outpatient psychiatry and clinical psychology.

    PubMed

    Cape, J; Parham, A

    1998-08-01

    Although reduction in the use of secondary care mental health services is a suggested benefit of counselling in general practice, there has been little empirical investigation of this relationship. To investigate the relationship between the provision of counselling in general practice and the use of outpatient psychiatry and clinical psychology services across a geographical area. Information on referrals to outpatient psychiatry and clinical psychology from all general practices in the London Borough of Islington over one year (October 1993 to September 1994) was collected from the routine information systems of the main hospital departments serving this area. Referral rates per 1000 practice population were compared for practices with and without a practice-based counsellor. Fifteen (35%) of the 43 practices had a counsellor based in the practice. The median referral rate to clinical psychology was higher in practices with a counsellor (4.1 per 1000) than in practices without a counsellor (0.8 per 1000). There was no relationship between the provision of practice counselling and median referral rates to outpatient psychiatry (1.8 per 1000 with a counsellor, 1.7 per 1000 without a counsellor). Provision of practice counselling in the study was associated with higher referral rates to clinical psychology and no difference in referral rates to outpatient psychiatry. This is in contrast to the hypothesis that counselling reduces the use of secondary care mental health services.

  17. A Comparison of General Medical and Clinical Ethics Consultations: What Can We Learn From Each Other?

    PubMed Central

    Geppert, Cynthia M.A.; Shelton, Wayne N.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the emergence of clinical ethics consultation as a clinical service in recent years, little is known about how clinical ethics consultation differs from, or is the same as, other medical consultations. A critical assessment of the similarities and differences between these 2 types of consultations is important to help the medical community appreciate ethics consultation as a vital service in today's health care setting. Therefore, this Special Article presents a comparison of medical and clinical ethics consultations in terms of fundamental goals of consultation, roles of consultants, and methodologic approaches to consultation, concluding with reflections on important lessons about the physician-patient relationship and medical education that may benefit practicing internists. Our aim is to examine ethics consultation as a clinical service integral to the medical care of patients. Studies for this analysis were obtained through the PubMed database using the keywords ethics consultation, medical consultation, ethics consults, medical consults, ethics consultants, and medical consultants. All English-language articles published from 1970 through August 2011 that pertained to the structure and process of medical and ethics consultation were reviewed. PMID:22469350

  18. Examining the variation in GPs’ referral practice: a cross-sectional study of GPs’ reasons for referral

    PubMed Central

    Ringberg, Unni; Fleten, Nils; Førde, Olav Helge

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a large variation in referral rates to secondary care among GPs, which is partly unexplained. Aim To explore associations between reasons for referral to secondary care and patient, GP, and healthcare characteristics. Design and setting A cross-sectional study in Northern Norway. Method Data were derived from 44 (42%) of 104 randomly selected GPs between 2008 and 2010. GPs scored the relevance of nine predefined reasons for 595 referrals from 4350 consecutive consultations on a four-level categorical scale. Associations were examined by multivariable ordered and multivariable multilevel logistic regression analyses. Results Medical necessity was assessed as a relevant reason in 93% of the referrals, 43.7% by patient preference, 27.5% to avoid overlooking anything, and 14.6% to reassure the patient. The higher the referral rates, the more frequently the GPs referred to avoid overlooking anything. Female GPs referred to reassure the patient and due to perceived deficient medical knowledge significantly more often than male GPs. However, perceived easy accessibility of specialists was significantly less frequently given as a reason for referral by female GPs compared with male GPs. When the GPs scored the referrals to be of lesser medical necessity, male GPs referred significantly more frequently than female GPs to reassure the patient due to patient preference and perceived deficient medical knowledge. Conclusion There are striking differences in reasons for referral between Norwegian male and female GPs and between GPs with high and low referral rates, which reflects difficulties in handling professional uncertainty. Referring to reassure the patients, especially when referrals are less medically necessary, may reflect consideration and acquiescence towards the patients. PMID:24982495

  19. [Rapid headache guidelines. Neurology consensus between Neurology (SAN) and Primary Care (SEMERGEN Andalucía). Referral criteria].

    PubMed

    Gil Campoy, J A; González Oria, C; Fernández Recio, M; Gómez Aranda, F; Jurado Cobo, C M; Heras Pérez, J A

    2012-01-01

    Headache is one of the most frequent reasons for consultation in our health centers, something which should not be surprising if we consider that is one of the most common symptoms experienced by the population. The main concern of the family physician and emergency physician is to reach a correct diagnosis by clinical history and a basic neurological examination and adapted to the time and means at its disposal. In case of diagnostic doubts or suspected secondary headache, the primary care physician or emergency medical have to refer the patient to be studied and/or treated for Neurology services, such referral shall be made with varying degrees of urgency depending on the presence, or not, of symptoms or signs of alarm. A working group consisting of Neurologists of Sociedad Andaluza de Neurología (SAN) to provide services in different hospitals in Andalucía and Family Physicians representatives of the Sociedad Andaluza de Medicina Familiar y Comunitaria (SAMFyC) and the Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN Andalucía), has developed a Quick Guide headache, which addresses the more practical aspects for the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of patients with headache. We show you in this paper, the chapter that deals the alarm criteria and referral. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  20. The role of oak pollen in hay fever consultations in general practice and the factors influencing patients' decisions to consult.

    PubMed

    Ross, A M; Corden, J M; Fleming, D M

    1996-08-01

    Patients often consult for hay fever before significant counts of grass pollen are recorded, and this has prompted the question, 'Are symptoms already present or are patients consulting to obtain medication in anticipation?' The study is concerned with the relationship between hay fever symptoms and pollens, and also with the impact of the media on patient consulting behaviour. Symptom questionnaires were presented to patients consulting with hay fever for the first time that year in 1994 in four Birmingham practices. The questionnaire concerned the nature and duration of symptoms and the influence of the media on their decision to consult. Incidence data collected over the spring and summer periods (1989-1995) in the Weekly Returns Service (WRS) were examined in relation to pollen counts reported by the Midlands Asthma and Allergy Research Association at Derby. Data are presented for oak, birch and grass pollen, but other pollen data including rape, nettle and other trees were also examined. Questionnaire data from 1994 were analysed in two periods starting from 4 April: early (day 1-60) and late (day 61-124). Out of the 364 subjects, 38% consulted in the early period and 62% in the late period. Altogether, 41% developed symptoms before the start of the grass pollen season. Overall, 91% of patients first consulting in the early period had already experienced symptoms compared with 99% late period and were not simply collecting prescriptions in anticipation. The influence of the media on consultation behaviour was very small, except in children, 23% of whom (or their parents) were reported to be influenced. The new episode data from the WRS examined over 7 years showed an early peak that was coterminous with oak pollen, and a later and higher peak with grass pollen. The consistency of the relationship between oak pollen and the early peak of hay fever over the years examined suggests that oak pollen is a major cause of hay fever symptoms.

  1. Incidence and outcomes of intraoperative vascular surgery consultations.

    PubMed

    Danczyk, Rachel C; Coleman, Jake; Allensworth, Jordan; Azarbal, Amir F; Mitchell, Erica L; Liem, Timothy K; Landry, Gregory J; Moneta, Gregory L

    2015-07-01

    Vascular surgeons may aid in primarily nonvascular procedures. Such activity has not been quantified, and hospital administrators may be unaware of the importance of vascular surgeons to support other hospital-based surgical programs. This study reviewed intraoperative consultations by vascular surgeons to support other surgical services. Intraoperative vascular consultations were reviewed from January 2006 to January 2014 for consulting service, indication, and whether consultation occurred with advanced notice. Patient demographics, operative times, estimated blood loss, length of stay, and relative value units (RVUs) assigned for each consultation were also assessed. Consultations for trauma and iatrogenic injuries occurring outside the operating theater were excluded. Vascular surgeons performed 225 intraoperative consultations in support of procedures by nonvascular surgeons. Requesting services were surgical oncology (46%), orthopedics (17%), urology (11%), otolaryngology (7%), and others (19%). Reasons for consultation overlapped and included vascular reconstruction (53%), control of hemorrhage (39%), and assistance with difficult dissections (43%). Seventy-four percent were for intra-abdominal procedures, and venous (53%) and arterial (50%) problems were encountered equally with some overlap. Most patients were male (59%), overweight (56%; body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2)), had previous surgery (72%) and were undergoing elective procedures (89%). Mean total procedural anesthesia time was 9.4 hours, mean procedural operating time was 7.9 hours, and mean total and vascular-related estimated blood loss was 1702 mL and 327 mL, respectively. Mean length of stay was 14.7 days, mean intensive care unit stay was 2.9 days, and 30-day mortality was 6.2%. Mean nonvascular RVUs per operation were 46.0, and mean vascular RVUs per operation were 30.9. Unexpected intraoperative need for vascular surgical expertise occurs often enough that vascular surgeons should be regarded

  2. Pulmonary rehabilitation and interstitial lung disease: aiding the referral decision.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Warrington, Vicki; Williams, Johanna; Bankart, John; Steiner, Michael; Morgan, Mike; Singh, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Limited evidence exists regarding the effectiveness of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) within interstitial lung disease (ILD). Oxygen is frequently prescribed for these patients but has not been explored in the context of PR. The aim of this study was to compare short-term outcomes of PR and 2-year mortality in patients with ILD, who use home oxygen against those without oxygen. Using an observational cohort design and principles of comparative effectiveness research, data were collected from patients with ILD referred for a 7-week outpatient PR program. Hospital notes were reviewed, oxygen use was documented, and survival status was recorded at 2 years. Exercise capacity and quality of life were measured at baseline and discharge from PR. One hundred fifteen patients were identified (96 with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis); 43 used oxygen and 72 were nonoxygen users. Nonoxygen users improved their Incremental Shuttle Walk Test more than oxygen users (P < .05). Significant improvements were found after PR for nonoxygen users (Incremental Shuttle Walk Test 39.0 ± 54.3 m, Endurance Shuttle Walk Test 319 ± 359 seconds, Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ)-Dyspnea 0.74 ± 0.94, CRQ-Fatigue 0.73 ± 1.15, CRQ-Emotion 0.61 ± 0.98, CRQ-Mastery 0.55 ± 1.01), whereas only Endurance Shuttle Walk Test (197 ± 287 seconds) improved for oxygen users (P < .05). Significant differences were found in survival rates between the 2 groups, 2 years after initial PR assessment (hazard ratio, oxygen users vs nonoxygen users: 2.7 [95% CI = 1.41 - 4.98], P = .002). Oxygen users gain less from PR and have a higher mortality rate than nonoxygen users. These results should be used to aid discussion between patients and clinicians regarding referral to PR and the anticipated benefits.

  3. The patient and the computer in the primary care consultation

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Michael; Phillips, Christine; Trumble, Stephen; Dwan, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Objective Studies of the doctor–patient relationship have focused on the elaboration of power and/or authority using a range of techniques to study the encounter between doctor and patient. The widespread adoption of computers by doctors brings a third party into the consultation. While there has been some research into the way doctors view and manage this new relationship, the behavior of patients in response to the computer is rarely studied. In this paper, the authors use Goffman's dramaturgy to explore patients' approaches to the doctor's computer in the consultation, and its influence on the patient–doctor relationship. Design Observational study of Australian general practice. 141 consultations from 20 general practitioners were videotaped and analyzed using a hermeneutic framework. Results Patients negotiated the relationship between themselves, the doctor, and the computer demonstrating two themes: dyadic (dealing primarily with the doctor) or triadic (dealing with both computer and doctor). Patients used three signaling behaviors in relation to the computer on the doctor's desk (screen watching, screen ignoring, and screen excluding) to influence the behavior of the doctor. Patients were able to draw the doctor to the computer, and used the computer to challenge doctor's statements. Conclusion This study demonstrates that in consultations where doctors use computers, the computer can legitimately be regarded as part of a triadic relationship. Routine use of computers in the consultation changes the doctor–patient relationship, and is altering the distribution of power and authority between doctor and patient. PMID:21262923

  4. The patient and the computer in the primary care consultation.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Christopher; Arnold, Michael; Phillips, Christine; Trumble, Stephen; Dwan, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the doctor-patient relationship have focused on the elaboration of power and/or authority using a range of techniques to study the encounter between doctor and patient. The widespread adoption of computers by doctors brings a third party into the consultation. While there has been some research into the way doctors view and manage this new relationship, the behavior of patients in response to the computer is rarely studied. In this paper, the authors use Goffman's dramaturgy to explore patients' approaches to the doctor's computer in the consultation, and its influence on the patient-doctor relationship. Observational study of Australian general practice. 141 consultations from 20 general practitioners were videotaped and analyzed using a hermeneutic framework. Patients negotiated the relationship between themselves, the doctor, and the computer demonstrating two themes: dyadic (dealing primarily with the doctor) or triadic (dealing with both computer and doctor). Patients used three signaling behaviors in relation to the computer on the doctor's desk (screen watching, screen ignoring, and screen excluding) to influence the behavior of the doctor. Patients were able to draw the doctor to the computer, and used the computer to challenge doctor's statements. This study demonstrates that in consultations where doctors use computers, the computer can legitimately be regarded as part of a triadic relationship. Routine use of computers in the consultation changes the doctor-patient relationship, and is altering the distribution of power and authority between doctor and patient.

  5. Patterns of disease presentation and management in Egyptian primary care: findings from a survey of 2458 primary care patient consultations.

    PubMed

    Aboulghate, Ahmed; Abel, Gary; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Abdelmohsen, Aida; Hamed, Ahmed R; Roland, Martin

    2013-10-22

    The Egyptian government is considering embarking on a new wave of health sector reform. Although primary care is seen as central to the anticipated reforms, little is known about the current morbidity and utilization patterns in Egyptian publicly funded primary care. We conducted this survey study of patient encounters to describe the demographic characteristics of patients attending publicly-funded primary care practices, the relative frequency of conditions encountered in these practices, and the rates of drug prescription, investigation and referral. Cross-sectional survey of twelve primary care practices and 2458 patient consultations. Additional secondary data were collected from five of the twelve practices for preventive services provided at these practices i.e. immunizations, family planning and ante-natal care. 54% of the attendances were for people below the age of twenty, of which 54% were females. In patients above the age of twenty, women accounted for 73% of consultations. Upper respiratory tract infection was the most common reason for encounter, accounting for 24% of the presentations, followed by gastroenteritis (10%), intestinal parasites (5%), and lower respiratory tract infections (5%). Over 97% of patients were prescribed at least one drug, whereas investigation and referral rates were low (15% and 5% respectively). When the analysis was repeated for practices where data on both curative and preventive services were available (5 practices and 2146 consultations), substantial proportions of patients were found to seek care for immunizations (25%), family planning (12%), and ante-natal care (11%). Most patients utilizing primary care practices in Egypt seek care for minor and preventive services with relatively few consultations for more serious conditions. There is also a pattern of prescribing drugs to most primary care patients which may reflect over-prescribing by primary care doctors.

  6. Patterns of disease presentation and management in Egyptian primary care: findings from a survey of 2458 primary care patient consultations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Egyptian government is considering embarking on a new wave of health sector reform. Although primary care is seen as central to the anticipated reforms, little is known about the current morbidity and utilization patterns in Egyptian publicly funded primary care. We conducted this survey study of patient encounters to describe the demographic characteristics of patients attending publicly-funded primary care practices, the relative frequency of conditions encountered in these practices, and the rates of drug prescription, investigation and referral. Method Cross-sectional survey of twelve primary care practices and 2458 patient consultations. Additional secondary data were collected from five of the twelve practices for preventive services provided at these practices i.e. immunizations, family planning and ante-natal care. Results 54% of the attendances were for people below the age of twenty, of which 54% were females. In patients above the age of twenty, women accounted for 73% of consultations. Upper respiratory tract infection was the most common reason for encounter, accounting for 24% of the presentations, followed by gastroenteritis (10%), intestinal parasites (5%), and lower respiratory tract infections (5%). Over 97% of patients were prescribed at least one drug, whereas investigation and referral rates were low (15% and 5% respectively). When the analysis was repeated for practices where data on both curative and preventive services were available (5 practices and 2146 consultations), substantial proportions of patients were found to seek care for immunizations (25%), family planning (12%), and ante-natal care (11%). Conclusion Most patients utilizing primary care practices in Egypt seek care for minor and preventive services with relatively few consultations for more serious conditions. There is also a pattern of prescribing drugs to most primary care patients which may reflect over-prescribing by primary care doctors. PMID:24148873

  7. Consultants' conflicts: a case discussion of differences and their resolution.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Jason P; Epstein, Lucy A; Stern, Theodore A

    2008-01-01

    Conflicts among consultants are frequent in general hospitals. Unfortunately, such disputes are rarely resolved to the satisfaction of all concerned. The authors discuss the conflicts that may arise among consultants and review techniques that can lead to more effective collaboration. Authors review the literature on consultants' conflicts and discuss strategies for their resolution. They present the case of a man with neuropsychiatric symptoms and discuss how practitioners of psychiatry and neurology often approach differential diagnosis, work-up, and treatment of challenging cases. The consultants were able to find several points of agreement and generated a workable plan that led to improvement in the patient's symptoms. Conflict among medical consultants is poorly described in the literature. However, an understanding of conflict and strategies for its resolution can lead to improved patient care. Conflict is a common and virtually unavoidable aspect of multidisciplinary care. However, effective tools exist that can help physicians embrace, rather than avoid, conflict, and lead to more effective collaboration. Effective management of interdisciplinary conflict improves communication, assists in medical decision-making, and, most importantly, improves the delivery of patient care.

  8. Triage and Referrals for Child Sexual Abuse Medical Examinations from the Sociolegal System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hibbard, Roberta A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines issues concerning triage and referrals for medical child-sexual-abuse examinations from the sociolegal system. Research recommendations are offered in the areas of structure of care, process of care, and outcomes for evaluation. (DB)

  9. Survey of perceived stress and work demands of consultant doctors.

    PubMed Central

    Agius, R M; Blenkin, H; Deary, I J; Zealley, H E; Wood, R A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to assess the work demands as potential stressors of health service consultants, and to describe the development of tools for measuring stress experiences of consultants. METHODS: A stratified random sample of 500 NHS consultants in Scotland was targeted by a postal questionnaire and 375 (75%) returned a valid response. They completed questionnaires, including information on demographic factors, work demands, occupational stressors, and burnout. RESULTS: Principal components analysis showed that professional work demands of consultants fell into three categories: clinical, academic, and administrative. Their perceived stressors separated into four main factors: clinical responsibility, demands on time, organisational constraints, and personal confidence. These were assessed by 25 questions in the specialist doctors' stress inventory. Specific questions about perceived stressors which resulted in a high positive response included questions about demands on time, and organisational change in the NHS. CONCLUSION: These self reported data characterise and measure the consultants' work demands and their role as potential stressors. These measurements could form the basis for strategies to reduce occupational stress in these workers. PMID:8664957

  10. Differentiating between a consultant nurse and a clinical nurse specialist.

    PubMed

    Maylor, Miles

    With the introduction of nurse consultants, and regulation of the use of the designation 'specialist nurse', experienced practitioners such as clinical nurse specialists have seen their position eroded. Nurse consultants are a new NHS-employment category, and are expected to be at the top rank of the profession both in status and in salary. However, this article argues that nurses at various levels have the same core functions, and that these do not differ for nurse consultants. Distinguishing between practitioners that might have the same job description could be better done by measuring outcomes. More care needs to be taken over the use of words such as 'expert', which is used differently in different contexts, and it is suggested that competencies be developed by which to measure the effects of expertise. Although nurse consultant appointments are often driven by various political directives and they are employed to meet local and national priorities, difficult issues need to be faced. First, if nurse consultant jobs are the top of the clinical career ladder, will clinical nurse specialists (CNSs) need to accept a lower rung on it? Further, perhaps the title CNS should become obsolete or be regulated? Can CNSs claim parity of pay using the 'Agenda for Change' framework?

  11. Referrals and Treatment Completion for Prescription Opioid Admissions: Five Years of National Data

    PubMed Central

    St Marie, Barbara; Sahker, Ethan; Arndt, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    This study examines sources of referral for prescription opioid admission to substance use disorder treatment facilities and their relative completion success rates using secondary analysis of an existing data set (Treatment Episode Datasets – Discharge). Five years of data from public and private treatment facilities were extracted for client discharges with no prior treatment (N = 2,909,884). Healthcare professionals account for very few referrals to treatment (<10%). Prescription opioid clients referred into treatment had lower treatment success compared to other substance clients and when referred by healthcare providers had lower success rates (OR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.70 – 0.75) than clients from other referral sources. Fewer treatment referrals for prescription opioid misuse by healthcare providers and lower success rates are significant and timely findings due to the prevalence of prescription opioid misuse. Healthcare providers are well positioned to refer early for prescription opioid misuse and continue support of their patients during treatment. PMID:26362002

  12. Teachers and Consultation: Applying Research and Development in Organisations (RADIO)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmins, Paul; Bham, Mohammed; McFadyen, Jane; Ward, Joanna

    2006-01-01

    In this article we describe how the RADIO process enabled EPiTs to negotiate research with an EPS around its desire to evaluate and develop its consultation work with schools. Findings of the evaluation and their implications for the Service are described and the potential of RADIO as a tool for providing external research support from HEIs for…

  13. Teachers and Consultation: Applying Research and Development in Organisations (RADIO)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmins, Paul; Bham, Mohammed; McFadyen, Jane; Ward, Joanna

    2006-01-01

    In this article we describe how the RADIO process enabled EPiTs to negotiate research with an EPS around its desire to evaluate and develop its consultation work with schools. Findings of the evaluation and their implications for the Service are described and the potential of RADIO as a tool for providing external research support from HEIs for…

  14. 25 CFR 170.105 - Are funds available for consultation, collaboration, and coordination activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are funds available for consultation, collaboration, and... Consultation, Collaboration, Coordination § 170.105 Are funds available for consultation, collaboration, and coordination activities? To fund consultation, collaboration, and coordination of IRR Program...

  15. 25 CFR 170.101 - What is the IRR Program consultation and coordination policy?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is the IRR Program consultation and coordination... Consultation, Collaboration, Coordination § 170.101 What is the IRR Program consultation and coordination policy? (a) The IRR Program's government-to-government consultation and coordination policy is to...

  16. Domestic violence: a review for case managers of regulations, women's center services, and referral questions.

    PubMed

    Zeman, Laura Dreuth

    2004-01-01

    The need for knowledge about domestic violence is woven into the case management's aim to strike a balance between quality and cost and its goal to coordinate care with community providers. The purpose of this article is to provide information for case managers on the current regulations that influence service delivery to victims of domestic battery, to provide an understanding of services provided by women's centers, and to understand referral questions that may support referrals to domestic violence services.

  17. Consulting in Collection Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ash, Lee

    1980-01-01

    Considers the role of the consultant in the areas of library collection development and weeding, and offers suggestions on determining the need for a consultant, obtaining one, and what to do when the consultant arrives. (FM)

  18. Skills for Effective Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dustin, Dick; Ehly, Stewart

    1984-01-01

    Discusses counselor skills that promote effective consultation. Reviews research on effective school consultation and presents a five-stage model which involves phasing in, problem identification, implementation, evaluation, and termination. Provides recommendations for the process and products of consultation. (JAC)

  19. Skills for Effective Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dustin, Dick; Ehly, Stewart

    1984-01-01

    Discusses counselor skills that promote effective consultation. Reviews research on effective school consultation and presents a five-stage model which involves phasing in, problem identification, implementation, evaluation, and termination. Provides recommendations for the process and products of consultation. (JAC)

  20. Meeting the challenge of consultation and collaboration: developing interactive teams.

    PubMed

    Coben, S S; Thomas, C C; Sattler, R O; Morsink, C V

    1997-01-01

    The roles of special educators as consultants and collaborators have long been established and supported. The rationale for these roles is also well documented. Many models--consultative, collaborative, and teaming--have been suggested in the literature; sometimes, these models exhibit similar goals, competencies, and processes. Because of intensified pressures to collaborate, successful implementation of collaborative and team efforts requires that special educators expand their roles as interactive professionals. The purpose of this article is to define and describe the consultation, collaboration, and teaming models that have been implemented, discuss their strengths and limitations, delineate how these models contribute to interactive teaming, outline key features of the interactive team, and provide some guiding principles for successful implementation.

  1. "Care and feeding": the Asian environmental tobacco smoke consultants programme.

    PubMed

    Assunta, M; Fields, N; Knight, J; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To review the tobacco industry's Asian environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) consultants programme, focusing on three key nations: China, Hong Kong, and Malaysia. Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private internal industry documents. The release of the 1986 US Surgeon General's report on second hand smoke provoked tobacco companies to prepare for a major threat to their industry. Asian programme activities included conducting national/international symposiums, consultant "road shows" and extensive lobbying and media activities. The industry exploited confounding factors said to be unique to Asian societies such as diet, culture and urban pollution to downplay the health risks of ETS. The industry consultants were said to be "..prepared to do the kinds of things they were recruited to do". The programme was successful in blurring the science on ETS and keeping the controversy alive both nationally and internationally. For the duration of the project, it also successfully dissuaded national policy makers from instituting comprehensive bans on smoking in public places.

  2. Email triage is an effective, efficient and safe way of managing new referrals to a neurologist.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Victor; Humphreys, Jenny; Henderson, Mark; Crealey, Grainne

    2010-10-01

    Patients referred to secondary care in the UK often wait many months to be seen, and the UK government has announced various initiatives to address this issue. Since 2002, we have developed an email referral system which allows some neurological referrals to be managed by advice and investigations rather than by a conventional hospital clinic appointment. This system has previously been shown to reduce clinic attendances and to be acceptable to patients and their general practitioners (GPs). To analyse the effects of an email triage system on waiting times, cost of care and safety over 5 years. Referral numbers and waiting times for clinics using this system were analysed. Cost was determined by comparing detailed costs with those of conventional care. Safety was analysed by examining the GP records of all patients referred from a single practice who had been dealt with by advice or investigation, noting deaths, re-referrals and changes in diagnosis. Waiting times fell from 72 to 4 weeks, despite an increase in referrals. The cost per patient of email referral was about £100, compared with £152 for conventional care, a 35% reduction. Safety data on 120 individuals showed a minor change in diagnosis in three. This system is safe, effective (in reducing waiting times) and efficient. It enables neurologists to focus on patients with significant neurological disease and, if applied more widely, could reduce costs and waiting times for neurology services in the UK.

  3. Towards a consensus definition of maternal sepsis: results of a systematic review and expert consultation.

    PubMed

    Bonet, Mercedes; Nogueira Pileggi, Vicky; Rijken, Marcus J; Coomarasamy, Arri; Lissauer, David; Souza, João Paulo; Gülmezoglu, Ahmet Metin

    2017-05-30

    There is a need for a clear and actionable definition of maternal sepsis, in order to better assess the burden of this condition, trigger timely and effective treatment and allow comparisons across facilities and countries. The objective of this study was to review maternal sepsis definitions and identification criteria and to report on the results of an expert consultation to develop a new international definition of maternal sepsis. All original and review articles and WHO documents, as well as clinical guidelines providing definitions and/or identification criteria of maternal sepsis were included. A multidisciplinary international panel of experts was surveyed through an online consultation in March-April 2016 on their opinion on the existing sepsis definitions, including new definition of sepsis proposed for the adult population (2016 Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock) and importance of different criteria for identification of maternal sepsis. The definition was agreed using an iterative process in an expert face-to-face consensus development meeting convened by WHO and Jhpiego. Standardizing the definition of maternal sepsis and aligning it with the current understanding of sepsis in the adult population was considered a mandatory step to improve the assessment of the burden of maternal sepsis by the expert panel. The literature review and expert consultation resulted in a new WHO consensus definition "Maternal sepsis is a life-threatening condition defined as organ dysfunction resulting from infection during pregnancy, child-birth, post-abortion, or post-partum period". Plans are in progress to validate the new WHO definition of maternal sepsis in a large international population. The operationalization of the new maternal sepsis definition requires generation of a set of practical criteria to identify women with sepsis. These criteria should enable clinicians to focus on the timely initiation of actionable elements of

  4. Distributed Detection With Consulting Sensors And Communication Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.; Okello, Nickens N.

    1988-08-01

    The problem of distributed detection with consulting sensors is formulated and solved when there is a communication cost associated with any exchange of information (consultation) between the sesnors. We consider a system of two sensors, S1 and S2, in which S1 is the primary sensor responsible for the final decision u0, while S2 is a consulting sensor capable of relaying its decision u2 to S1 when requested by Si. In the scenario that is considered, the final decicion uo is based either on the raw data available to S1 only, or, it may, under certain request conditions, also take into account the decision u2 of sensor S2. Random and non-random request schemes have been analysed and numerical results for both request schemes are presented for a slowly fading Rayleigh channel.

  5. Effects of School Counselors' Cognitive Behavioral Consultation on Irrational and Efficacy Beliefs of Elementary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Jeffrey M.; Gerler, Edwin R., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Consultation is an indirect service frequently offered as part of comprehensive school counseling programs. This study explored the efficacy of a specific model of consultation, rational emotive-social behavior consultation (RE-SBC). Elementary school teachers participated in face-to-face and online consultation groups aimed at influencing…

  6. Reflecting on the Role of Competence and Culture in Consultation at the International Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfield, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    International educational consultation is challenging work that requires not only attention to best practices in consultation but also additional focus on cultural norms and regularities. In the three articles of this special issue, the consultation competencies of consultants play a critical role, as exemplified by entry issues, problem-solving…

  7. Virtual online consultations: advantages and limitations (VOCAL) study.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Vijayaraghavan, Shanti; Wherton, Joe; Shaw, Sara; Byrne, Emma; Campbell-Richards, Desirée; Bhattacharya, Satya; Hanson, Philippa; Ramoutar, Seendy; Gutteridge, Charles; Hodkinson, Isabel; Collard, Anna; Morris, Joanne

    2016-01-29

    Remote video consultations between clinician and patient are technically possible and increasingly acceptable. They are being introduced in some settings alongside (and occasionally replacing) face-to-face or telephone consultations. To explore the advantages and limitations of video consultations, we will conduct in-depth qualitative studies of real consultations (microlevel) embedded in an organisational case study (mesolevel), taking account of national context (macrolevel). The study is based in 2 contrasting clinical settings (diabetes and cancer) in a National Health Service (NHS) acute trust in London, UK. Main data sources are: microlevel--audio, video and screen capture to produce rich multimodal data on 45 remote consultations; mesolevel--interviews, ethnographic observations and analysis of documents within the trust; macrolevel--key informant interviews of national-level stakeholders and document analysis. Data will be analysed and synthesised using a sociotechnical framework developed from structuration theory. City Road and Hampstead NHS Research Ethics Committee, 9 December 2014, reference 14/LO/1883. We plan outputs for 5 main audiences: (1) academics: research publications and conference presentations; (2) service providers: standard operating procedures, provisional operational guidance and key safety issues; (3) professional bodies and defence societies: summary of relevant findings to inform guidance to members; (4) policymakers: summary of key findings; (5) patients and carers: 'what to expect in your virtual consultation'. The research literature on video consultations is sparse. Such consultations offer potential advantages to patients (who are spared the cost and inconvenience of travel) and the healthcare system (eg, they may be more cost-effective), but fears have been expressed that they may be clinically risky and/or less acceptable to patients or staff, and they bring significant technical, logistical and regulatory challenges. We

  8. Perceptions of psychological content in the GP consultation--the role of practice, personal and prescribing attributes.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, Mark; Godfrey, Emma; Harvey, Kate; Darbishire, Lucy

    2003-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between the characteristics of general practices and the perceptions of the psychological content of consultations by GPs in those practices. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of all GPs (22 GPs based in nine practices) serving a discrete inner city community of 41 000 residents. GPs were asked to complete a log-diary over a period of five working days, rating their perception of the psychological content of each consultation on a 4-point Likert scale, ranging from 0 (no psychological content) to 3 (entirely psychological in content). The influence of GP and practice characteristics on psychological content scores was examined. Data were available for every surgery-based consultation (n = 2206) conducted by all 22 participating GPs over the study period. The mean psychological content score was 0.58 (SD 0.33). Sixty-four percent of consultations were recorded as being without any psychological content; 6% were entirely psychological in content. Higher psychological content scores were significantly associated with younger GPs, training practices (n = 3), group practices (n = 4), the presence of on-site mental health workers (n = 5), higher antidepressant prescribing volumes and the achievement of vaccine and smear targets. Training status had the greatest predictive power, explaining 51% of the variation in psychological content. Neither practice consultation rates, GP list size, annual psychiatric referral rates nor volumes of benzodiazepine prescribing were related to psychological content scores. Increased awareness by GPs of the psychological dimension within a consultation may be a feature of the educational environment of training practices.

  9. Lactation Consultant

    MedlinePlus

    ... human lactation. Job description Lactation consultants educate women, families, health professionals, and the community about breast feeding and human lactation; facilitate the development of policies which protect, promote, and support breastfeeding; ...

  10. Multiple Behavior Change Intervention to Improve Detection of Unmet Social Needs and Resulting Resource Referrals.

    PubMed

    Colvin, Jeffrey D; Bettenhausen, Jessica L; Anderson-Carpenter, Kaston D; Collie-Akers, Vicki; Plencner, Laura; Krager, Molly; Nelson, Brooke; Donnelly, Sara; Simmons, Julia; Higinio, Valeria; Chung, Paul J

    2016-03-01

    It is critical that pediatric residents learn to effectively screen families for active and addressable social needs (ie, negative social determinants of health). We sought to determine 1) whether a brief intervention teaching residents about IHELP, a social needs screening tool, could improve resident screening, and 2) how accurately IHELP could detect needs in the inpatient setting. During an 18-month period, interns rotating on 1 of 2 otherwise identical inpatient general pediatrics teams were trained in IHELP. Interns on the other team served as the comparison group. Every admission history and physical examination (H&P) was reviewed for IHELP screening. Social work evaluations were used to establish the sensitivity and specificity of IHELP and document resources provided to families with active needs. During a 21-month postintervention period, every third H&P was reviewed to determine median duration of continued IHELP use. A total of 619 admissions met inclusion criteria. Over 80% of intervention team H&Ps documented use of IHELP. The percentage of social work consults was nearly 3 times greater on the intervention team than on the comparison team (P < .001). Among H&Ps with documented use of IHELP, specificity was 0.96 (95% confidence interval 0.87-0.99) and sensitivity was 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.50-0.73). Social work provided resources for 78% of positively screened families. The median duration of screening use by residents after the intervention was 8.1 months (interquartile range 1-10 months). A brief intervention increased resident screening and detection of social needs, leading to important referrals to address those needs. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Multiple Behavior Change Intervention to Improve Detection of Unmet Social Needs and Resulting Resource Referrals

    PubMed Central

    Colvin, Jeffrey D.; Bettenhausen, Jessica L.; Anderson-Carpenter, Kaston D.; Collie-Akers, Vicki; Plencner, Laura; Krager, Molly; Nelson, Brooke; Donnelly, Sara; Simmons, Julia; Higinio, Valeria; Chung, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective It is critical that pediatric residents learn to effectively screen families for active and addressable social needs (i.e., negative social determinants of health.) We sought to determine 1) whether a brief intervention teaching residents about IHELP, a social needs screening tool, could improve resident screening, and 2) how accurately IHELP could detect needs in the inpatient setting. Methods During an 18-month period, interns rotating on one of two otherwise identical inpatient general pediatrics teams were trained in IHELP. Interns on the other team served as the comparison group. Every admission history and physical (H&P) was reviewed for IHELP screening. Social work evaluations were used to establish the sensitivity and specificity of IHELP and document resources provided to families with active needs. During a 21-month post-intervention period, every third H&P was reviewed to determine median duration of continued IHELP use. Results 619 admissions met inclusion criteria. Over 80% of intervention team H&Ps documented use of IHELP. The percentage of social work consults was nearly 3 times greater on the intervention team than on the comparison team (P<0.001). Among H&Ps with documented use of IHELP, specificity was 0.96 (95% CI 0.87–0.99) and sensitivity was 0.63 (95% CI 0.50–0.73). Social work provided resources for 78% of positively screened families. The median duration of screening use by residents after the intervention was 8.1 months (IQR 1–10 months) Conclusions A brief intervention increased resident screening and detection of social needs, leading to important referrals to address those needs. PMID:26183003

  12. Transaction cost analysis of in-clinic versus telehealth consultations for chronic pain: preliminary evidence for rapid and affordable access to interdisciplinary collaborative consultation.

    PubMed

    Theodore, Brian R; Whittington, Jan; Towle, Cara; Tauben, David J; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara; Cahana, Alex; Doorenbos, Ardith Z

    2015-06-01

    With ever increasing mandates to reduce costs and increase the quality of pain management, health care institutions are faced with the challenge of adopting innovative technologies and shifting workflows to provide value-based care. Transaction cost economic analysis can provide comparative evaluation of the consequences of these changes in the delivery of care. The aim of this study was to establish proof-of-concept using transaction cost analysis to examine chronic pain management in-clinic and through telehealth. Participating health care providers were asked to identify and describe two comparable completed transactions for patients with chronic pain: one consultation between patient and specialist in-clinic and the other a telehealth presentation of a patient's case by the primary care provider to a team of pain medicine specialists. Each provider completed two on-site interviews. Focus was on the time, value of time, and labor costs per transaction. Number of steps, time, and costs for providers and patients were identified. Forty-six discrete steps were taken for the in-clinic transaction, and 27 steps were taken for the telehealth transaction. Although similar in costs per patient ($332.89 in-clinic vs. $376.48 telehealth), the costs accrued over 153 business days in-clinic and 4 business days for telehealth. Time elapsed between referral and completion of initial consultation was 72 days in-clinic, 4 days for telehealth. U.S. health care is moving toward the use of more technologies and practices, and the information provided by transaction cost analyses of care delivery for pain management will be important to determine actual cost savings and benefits. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Transaction Cost Analysis of In-Clinic Versus Telehealth Consultations for Chronic Pain: Preliminary Evidence for Rapid and Affordable Access to Interdisciplinary Collaborative Consultation

    PubMed Central

    Theodore, Brian R.; Whittington, Jan; Towle, Cara; Tauben, David J.; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara; Cahana, Alex; Doorenbos, Ardith Z.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives With ever increasing mandates to reduce costs and increase the quality of pain management, health care institutions are faced with the challenge of adopting innovative technologies and shifting workflows to provide value-based care. Transaction cost economic analysis can provide comparative evaluation of the consequences of these changes in the delivery of care. The aim of this study was to establish proof-of-concept using transaction cost analysis to examine chronic pain management in-clinic and through telehealth. Methods Participating health care providers were asked to identify and describe two comparable completed transactions for patients with chronic pain: one consultation between patient and specialist in-clinic and the other a telehealth presentation of a patient’s case by the primary care provider to a team of pain medicine specialists. Each provider completed two on-site interviews. Focus was on the time, value of time, and labor costs per transaction. Number of steps, time, and costs for providers and patients were identified. Results Forty-six discrete steps were taken for the in-clinic transaction, and 27 steps were taken for the telehealth transaction. Although similar in costs per patient ($332.89 in-clinic vs. $376.48 telehealth), the costs accrued over 153 business days in-clinic and 4 business days for telehealth. Time elapsed between referral and completion of initial consultation was 72 days in-clinic, 4 days for telehealth. Conclusions U.S. health care is moving toward the use of more technologies and practices, and the information provided by transaction cost analyses of care delivery for pain management will be important to determine actual cost savings and benefits. PMID:25616057

  14. A protocol for consultation of another physician in cases of euthanasia and assisted suicide

    PubMed Central

    van der

    2001-01-01

    Objective—Consultation of another physician is an important method of review of the practice of euthanasia. For the project "support and consultation in euthanasia in Amsterdam" which is aimed at professionalising consultation, a protocol for consultation was developed to support the general practitioners who were going to work as consultants and to ensure uniformity. Participants—Ten experts (including general practitioners who were experienced in euthanasia and consultation, a psychiatrist, a social geriatrician, a professor in health law and a public prosecutor) and the general practitioners who were going to use the protocol. Evidence—There is limited literature on consultation: discursive articles and empirical studies describing the practice of euthanasia. Consensus—An initial draft on the basis of the literature was commented on by the experts and general practitioners in two rounds. Finally, the protocol was amended after it had been used during the training of consultants. Conclusions—The protocol differentiates between steps that are necessary in a consultation and steps that are recommended. Guidelines about four important aspects of consultation were given: independence, expertise, tasks and judgment of the consultant. In 97% of 109 consultations in which the protocol was used the consultant considered the protocol to be useful to a greater or lesser extent. Although this protocol was developed locally, it also employs universal principles. Therefore it can be of use in the development of consultation elsewhere. Key Words: Euthanasia • assisted suicide • consultation • quality assurance • protocol PMID:11579191

  15. Expanded civil judicial referral procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-08-28

    The directive provides guidance on procedures for civil judicial referrals to the Department of Justice. The memorandum expands the current direct referral program, indicates that Headquarters should not establish mandatory requirements for pre-referral negotiations, mandates use of hold action cases only for strategic or tactical reasons and offers guidance on the preparation of bankruptcy cases.

  16. 15 CFR 200.103 - Consulting and advisory services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consulting and advisory services. 200.103 Section 200.103 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MEASUREMENT SERVICES...

  17. 10 CFR 903.14 - Consultation and comment period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consultation and comment period. 903.14 Section 903.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY POWER AND TRANSMISSION RATES Procedures for Public Participation in Power and Transmission Rate Adjustments and Extensions for the Alaska, Southeastern, Southwestern, and Western Area...

  18. 10 CFR 903.14 - Consultation and comment period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Consultation and comment period. 903.14 Section 903.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY POWER AND TRANSMISSION RATES Procedures for Public Participation in Power and Transmission Rate Adjustments and Extensions for the Alaska, Southeastern, Southwestern, and Western Area...

  19. 10 CFR 903.14 - Consultation and comment period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Consultation and comment period. 903.14 Section 903.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY POWER AND TRANSMISSION RATES Procedures for Public Participation in Power and Transmission Rate Adjustments and Extensions for the Alaska, Southeastern, Southwestern, and Western Area...

  20. 10 CFR 903.14 - Consultation and comment period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Consultation and comment period. 903.14 Section 903.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY POWER AND TRANSMISSION RATES Procedures for Public Participation in Power and Transmission Rate Adjustments and Extensions for the Alaska, Southeastern, Southwestern, and Western Area...

  1. 43 CFR 10010.36 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) UTAH RECLAMATION MITIGATION AND CONSERVATION COMMISSION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE... consultation requirements pursuant to other federal or state laws and regulations and will make this available... comply with the requirements of other federal or state laws and regulations, the associated...

  2. 10 CFR 903.14 - Consultation and comment period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consultation and comment period. 903.14 Section 903.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY POWER AND TRANSMISSION RATES Procedures for Public Participation in Power and Transmission Rate Adjustments and Extensions for the Alaska, Southeastern, Southwestern, and Western Area...

  3. Straight-to-test colonoscopy for 2-week-wait referrals improves time to diagnosis of colorectal cancer and is feasible in a high-volume unit.

    PubMed

    Banerjea, A; Voll, J; Chowdhury, A; Siddika, A; Thomson, S; Briggs, R; Humes, D J

    2017-09-01

    We have introduced 'straight-to-test' (STT) colonoscopy as part of our 2-week-wait (2WW) pathway to address increasing numbers of urgent referrals for colorectal cancer (CRC) within the National Health Service. In this study we evaluated the ability of this initiative to shorten the time to diagnosis of CRC. We amended our 2WW referral form to include performance status and comorbidities. General practitioners were asked to provide data on estimated glomerular filtration rate and full blood count/ferritin. Our 2WW referrals were screened by a colorectal consultant and a nurse specialist. Those deemed unsuitable for STT were offered outpatient assessment (OPA). Of 553 2WW referrals screened, 352 were considered suitable, 65 of whom failed a telephone assessment or were uncontactable, and accordingly 287 were offered the STT pathway. The STT group was significantly younger than the OPA group (median 65.9 years vs 78.7 years; P < 0.0001). STT colonoscopy significantly reduced the time to first test (13 days vs 22 days; P < 0.0001) and tissue diagnosis from the referral date (17 days vs 24.5 days; P < 0.0001). Thirty-seven (6.8%) CRCs were detected. Proportionately fewer patients in the STT pathway were managed with 'best supportive care only' compared with patients attending OPA (one of 15 vs six of 22, respectively). STT colonoscopy obviated the need for clinic attendance before testing in 287 patients, representing a potential net cost benefit of at least £48 500 in 4 months. STT colonoscopy was safe and effective for selecting out a group of symptomatic patients who could proceed straight to endoscopic examination and receive a diagnosis more rapidly. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  4. Smart phones make smart referrals: The use of mobile phone technology in burn care - A retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    den Hollander, Daan; Mars, Maurice

    2017-02-01

    Telemedicine using cellular phones allows for real-time consultation of burn patients seen at distant hospitals. Telephonic consultations to our unit have required completion of a proforma, to ensure collection of the following information: demographics, mechanism of injury, vital signs, relevant laboratory data, management at the referring hospital and advice given by the burn team. Since December 2014 we have required referring doctors to send photographs of the burn wounds to the burns specialist before making a decision on acceptance of the referral or providing management advice. The photographs are taken and sent by smartphone using MMS or WhatsApp. The cases, with photographs, are entered into a database of telemedicine consultations which we have retrospectively reviewed. During the study period (December 2014-July 2015) we were consulted about 119 patients, in 100 of whom the telemedicine consultation was completed. Inappropriate transfer to the burns centre was avoided in 38% of cases, and in 28% a period of treatment in the referral hospital was advised before transfer. For a total of 66% of patients the telemedicine consultation changed, and either avoided an inappropriate admission, or delayed admission in late referrals until the patient was ready for definitive treatment. We conclude that telemedicine consultations using a cellular phone significantly change referral pathways in burns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Telephone referral education, and evidence of retention and transfer after six-months.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Stuart D; Harrison, Julia C; Flanagan, Brendan

    2012-06-07

    Effective communication between clinicians is essential for safe, efficient healthcare. We undertook a study to determine the longer-term effectiveness of an education session employing a structured method to teach referral-making skills to medical students. All final year medical students received a forty-five minute education intervention consisting: discussion of effective telephone referrals; video viewing and critique; explanation, demonstration and practice using ISBAR; provision of a memory aid for use in their clinical work. Audio recordings were taken during a subsequent standardised simulation scenario and blindly assessed using a validated scoring system. Recordings were taken immediately before (control), several hours after (intervention), and at approximately six months after the education. Retention of the acronym and self-reports of transfer to the clinical environment were measured with a questionnaire at eight months. Referral clarity at six months was significantly improved from pre-intervention, and referral content showed a trend towards improvement. Both measures were lower than the immediate post-education test. The ISBAR acronym was remembered by 59.4% (n = 95/160) and used by the vast majority of the respondents who had made a clinical telephone referral (n = 135/143; 94.4%). A brief education session improved telephone communication in a simulated environment above baseline for over six months, achieved functional retention of the acronym over a seven to eight month period and resulted in self reports of transfer of the learning into practice.

  6. Telephone referral education, and evidence of retention and transfer after six-months

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Effective communication between clinicians is essential for safe, efficient healthcare. We undertook a study to determine the longer-term effectiveness of an education session employing a structured method to teach referral-making skills to medical students. Methods All final year medical students received a forty-five minute education intervention consisting: discussion of effective telephone referrals; video viewing and critique; explanation, demonstration and practice using ISBAR; provision of a memory aid for use in their clinical work. Audio recordings were taken during a subsequent standardised simulation scenario and blindly assessed using a validated scoring system. Recordings were taken immediately before (control), several hours after (intervention), and at approximately six months after the education. Retention of the acronym and self-reports of transfer to the clinical environment were measured with a questionnaire at eight months. Results Referral clarity at six months was significantly improved from pre-intervention, and referral content showed a trend towards improvement. Both measures were lower than the immediate post-education test. The ISBAR acronym was remembered by 59.4% (n = 95/160) and used by the vast majority of the respondents who had made a clinical telephone referral (n = 135/143; 94.4%). Conclusions A brief education session improved telephone communication in a simulated environment above baseline for over six months, achieved functional retention of the acronym over a seven to eight month period and resulted in self reports of transfer of the learning into practice. PMID:22676409

  7. Design and Implementation of a Physician Coaching Pilot to Promote Value-Based Referrals to Specialty Care

    PubMed Central

    Tuzzio, Leah; Ludman, Evette J; Chang, Eva; Palazzo, Lorella; Abbott, Travis; Wagner, Edward H; Reid, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Referral rates to specialty care from primary care physicians vary widely. To address this variability, we developed and pilot tested a peer-to-peer coaching program for primary care physicians. Objectives To assess the feasibility and acceptability of the coaching program, which gave physicians access to their individual-level referral data, strategies, and a forum to discuss referral decisions. Methods The team designed the program using physician input and a synthesis of the literature on the determinants of referral. We conducted a single-arm observational pilot with eight physicians which made up four dyads, and conducted a qualitative evaluation. Results Primary reasons for making referrals were clinical uncertainty and patient request. Physicians perceived doctor-to-doctor dialogue enabled mutual learning and a pathway to return joy to the practice of primary care medicine. The program helped physicians become aware of their own referral data, reasons for making referrals, and new strategies to use in their practice. Time constraints caused by large workloads were cited as a barrier both to participating in the pilot and to practicing in ways that optimize referrals. Physicians reported that the program could be sustained and spread if time for mentoring conversations was provided and/or nonfinancial incentives or compensation was offered. Conclusion This physician mentoring program aimed at reducing specialty referral rates is feasible and acceptable in primary care settings. Increasing the appropriateness of referrals has the potential to provide patient-centered care, reduce costs for the system, and improve physician satisfaction. PMID:28368789

  8. Design and Implementation of a Physician Coaching Pilot to Promote Value-Based Referrals to Specialty Care.

    PubMed

    Tuzzio, Leah; Ludman, Evette J; Chang, Eva; Palazzo, Lorella; Abbott, Travis; Wagner, Edward H; Reid, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    Referral rates to specialty care from primary care physicians vary widely. To address this variability, we developed and pilot tested a peer-to-peer coaching program for primary care physicians. To assess the feasibility and acceptability of the coaching program, which gave physicians access to their individual-level referral data, strategies, and a forum to discuss referral decisions. The team designed the program using physician input and a synthesis of the literature on the determinants of referral. We conducted a single-arm observational pilot with eight physicians which made up four dyads, and conducted a qualitative evaluation. Primary reasons for making referrals were clinical uncertainty and patient request. Physicians perceived doctor-to-doctor dialogue enabled mutual learning and a pathway to return joy to the practice of primary care medicine. The program helped physicians become aware of their own referral data, reasons for making referrals, and new strategies to use in their practice. Time constraints caused by large workloads were cited as a barrier both to participating in the pilot and to practicing in ways that optimize referrals. Physicians reported that the program could be sustained and spread if time for mentoring conversations was provided and/or nonfinancial incentives or compensation was offered. This physician mentoring program aimed at reducing specialty referral rates is feasible and acceptable in primary care settings. Increasing the appropriateness of referrals has the potential to provide patient-centered care, reduce costs for the system, and improve physician satisfaction.

  9. 45 CFR 98.12 - Coordination and consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coordination and consultation. 98.12 Section 98.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT... local government during the development of the Plan; and (c) Coordinate, to the maximum extent...

  10. 45 CFR 98.12 - Coordination and consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coordination and consultation. 98.12 Section 98.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT... local government during the development of the Plan; and (c) Coordinate, to the maximum extent...

  11. 45 CFR 98.12 - Coordination and consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coordination and consultation. 98.12 Section 98.12 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT... local government during the development of the Plan; and (c) Coordinate, to the maximum extent...

  12. 45 CFR 98.12 - Coordination and consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coordination and consultation. 98.12 Section 98.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT... local government during the development of the Plan; and (c) Coordinate, to the maximum extent...

  13. 45 CFR 98.12 - Coordination and consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coordination and consultation. 98.12 Section 98.12 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT... local government during the development of the Plan; and (c) Coordinate, to the maximum extent...

  14. 23 CFR 450.316 - Interested parties, participation, and consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Interested parties, participation, and consultation. 450.316 Section 450.316 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming § 450.316...

  15. 23 CFR 450.316 - Interested parties, participation, and consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Interested parties, participation, and consultation. 450.316 Section 450.316 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming § 450.316...

  16. 23 CFR 450.316 - Interested parties, participation, and consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interested parties, participation, and consultation. 450.316 Section 450.316 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming § 450.316...

  17. 23 CFR 450.316 - Interested parties, participation, and consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Interested parties, participation, and consultation. 450.316 Section 450.316 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming § 450.316...

  18. 23 CFR 450.316 - Interested parties, participation, and consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Interested parties, participation, and consultation. 450.316 Section 450.316 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming § 450.316...

  19. Consulting Young Children about Barriers and Supports to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgeson, Jan; Porter, Jill; Daniels, Harry; Feiler, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    From consideration of children's rights in general and equal opportunities for disabled children in particular, it is important to consult children about barriers and supports to learning and participation. Finding appropriate and feasible ways, however, to incorporate this into educational programmes for younger children can present challenges.…

  20. [The diagnostic nurse consultation in head and neck oncology].

    PubMed

    Cambreleng, Christine; Goujon, Géraldine

    2015-09-01

    The diagnosis announcement nurse consultation is carried out with the patient and/or their family. It is a time of exchange, listening and sharing of information. The diagnosis announcement nurse is available to answer questions from the patient and their family about the disease, the treatments and the follow-up care.

  1. Consulting Young Children about Barriers and Supports to Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgeson, Jan; Porter, Jill; Daniels, Harry; Feiler, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    From consideration of children's rights in general and equal opportunities for disabled children in particular, it is important to consult children about barriers and supports to learning and participation. Finding appropriate and feasible ways, however, to incorporate this into educational programmes for younger children can present challenges.…

  2. Profiling for primary-care presentation, investigation and referral for liver cancers: evidence from a national audit.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Daniel L; Neal, Richard D; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Rubin, Greg

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of liver cancer across Europe is increasing. There is a lack of evidence within the current literature on the identification and investigation of liver cancer within primary care. We aimed to profile liver cancer recognition and assessment as well as the timeliness of liver cancer diagnosis from within the primary-care setting in the UK. Data were obtained from the National Audit of Cancer Diagnosis in Primary Care 2009-2010 and analysed. We calculated the patient interval, the primary-care interval and the number of prereferral consultations for liver cancer. We then compared these data with prior data on the respective indicators for other common cancers. The median patient interval was 9 days (interquartile range 0-31 days), and the median primary-care interval for liver cancer was 11 days (interquartile range 0-40 days). Of the 90 patients, 21 (23.3%) had three or more consultations with their general practitioner before specialist referral. For the three metrics (patient interval, primary-care interval and number of prereferral consultations), liver cancer has average or longer intervals when compared with other cancers. The most common symptomatic presentation of liver cancer within the primary-care setting was right upper quadrant pain (11%), followed by decompensated liver failure (9%). Of the patients, 12% were diagnosed with liver cancer on the basis of an incidental finding of an abnormal liver function test. This study provides a detailed and thorough overview of the recognition of liver cancer and the promptness of liver cancer identification in an English context, and should inform strategies for improving the timeliness of diagnosis.

  3. Portland Identification and Early Referral: A Community-Based System for Identifying and Treating Youths at High Risk of Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    McFarlane, William R.; Cook, William L.; Downing, Donna; Verdi, Mary B.; Woodberry, Kristen A.; Ruff, Anita

    2010-01-01

    Objective The Portland [Maine] Identification and Early Referral (PIER) Program was established in 2001 as a prevention system for identifying and treating youths at high risk of an initial psychotic episode. Methods During six years, 7,270 professionals from the educational, general medical, and mental health sectors were provided information on prodromal symptoms and means for rapid referral of at-risk youth, which resulted in referral of 780 youths who met eligibility criteria. Results After screening, 37% of the community referrals were found to be at high risk of psychosis, and another 20% had untreated psychosis, yielding an efficiency ratio of 57%. Prodromal cases identified were 46% of the expected incidence of psychosis in the catchment area. Community educational presentations were significantly associated with referrals six months later; half of referrals were from outside the mental health system. Conclusions Community-based identification is an efficient public health strategy, offering the opportunity for preventive intervention. PMID:20439374

  4. Public consultation. Up and ATAM (aims, timing, audience, method).

    PubMed

    Khan, U

    1998-04-30

    Although the NHS has some shining examples of public and user involvement, many still view it as an optional extra. Policy makers need to adopt a broader strategy for involving users, carers, staff and the wider public. Badly done public consultation will cause problems for policy makers, alienate participants and fuel public cynicism.

  5. 45 CFR 400.57 - Planning and consultation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 400.57 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Cash Assistance § 400.57 Planning and consultation process. A State that wishes to establish...

  6. 45 CFR 400.57 - Planning and consultation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 400.57 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Cash Assistance § 400.57 Planning and consultation process. A State that wishes to establish...

  7. 45 CFR 400.57 - Planning and consultation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 400.57 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Cash Assistance § 400.57 Planning and consultation process. A State that wishes to establish...

  8. 45 CFR 400.57 - Planning and consultation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 400.57 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Cash Assistance § 400.57 Planning and consultation process. A State that wishes to establish...

  9. 45 CFR 400.57 - Planning and consultation process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 400.57 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Refugee Cash Assistance § 400.57 Planning and consultation process. A State that wishes to establish a...

  10. Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation: Common Questions and Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Mary-alayne; Spence, Christine M.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2015-01-01

    As the field of early childhood mental health continues to expand and evolve, the evidence base is growing, and early childhood mental health consultation is viewed as a promising practice. However, there continues to be a need for further research, with particular attention given to the utility and effectiveness of this approach with infants and…

  11. Parent Education and Consultation Activities of School Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Martin H.; Partin, Ronald L.

    1994-01-01

    Assessed extent and nature of involvement of school counselors in parenting skills training and parent consultation. Findings from 213 elementary and secondary school counselors revealed that school counselors on all levels recognized importance of working with parents for benefit of students, yet many had little contact with parents. Many…

  12. 10 CFR 61.71 - State and Tribal government consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and Tribal government consultation. 61.71 Section 61.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Participation by State Governments and Indian Tribes § 61.71 State and Tribal government...

  13. How to Select a Planning and Design Consultant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalina, Dave

    2006-01-01

    This article offer guidance for selecting and hiring an architect or planner, as well as insight regarding consultant fees and what can be expected for the money. This article is dedicated to planning--specifically, what to look for and how to find a planning professional. Furthermore, it is stated that in the qualifications-based process,…

  14. Early Childhood Mental Health Consultation: Common Questions and Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Mary-alayne; Spence, Christine M.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2015-01-01

    As the field of early childhood mental health continues to expand and evolve, the evidence base is growing, and early childhood mental health consultation is viewed as a promising practice. However, there continues to be a need for further research, with particular attention given to the utility and effectiveness of this approach with infants and…

  15. 40 CFR 25.4 - Information, notification, and consultation responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... consultation responsibilities. 25.4 Section 25.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY..., consistent with applicable statutory requirements, the social, economic, and environmental consequences of... uses. Fact sheets, news releases, newsletters, and other similar publications may be used to provide...

  16. School Evaluation and Consultancy in Italy. Sliding Doors towards Privatisation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serpieri, Roberto; Grimaldi, Emiliano; Vatrella, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the increasing centrality assumed by non-educational consultants in the processes of policy design and knowledge production about education in Italy. We identify the recent establishment of the National School Evaluation System as a key policy trajectory and we focus on the case of the last policies to evaluate Italian…

  17. Networking: A Key to Career Communication and Management Consulting Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Now that job security with one organization is a relic of the past and companies are outsourcing training and other "nonessential" functions, the author suggests in his career communication classes that students develop the same inventive strategies to plan their employment futures that management consultants use to market themselves in the 21st…

  18. 14 CFR 1216.320 - Environmental review and consultation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... consultation on aspects of the NASA action that may affect listed species or their habitat. A written request... Region where the action will be carried out. (3) Executive Order 11988 (Floodplains Management) and... Wetlands Management, prescribe procedures to avoid adverse impacts associated with the occupancy and...

  19. 15 CFR 200.103 - Consulting and advisory services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MEASUREMENT SERVICES POLICIES... competence, NIST offers consulting and advisory services on various problems related to measurement, e.g... enhance the competence of standards laboratory personnel, NIST conducts at irregular intervals several...

  20. School Evaluation and Consultancy in Italy. Sliding Doors towards Privatisation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serpieri, Roberto; Grimaldi, Emiliano; Vatrella, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the increasing centrality assumed by non-educational consultants in the processes of policy design and knowledge production about education in Italy. We identify the recent establishment of the National School Evaluation System as a key policy trajectory and we focus on the case of the last policies to evaluate Italian…

  1. Networking: A Key to Career Communication and Management Consulting Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Now that job security with one organization is a relic of the past and companies are outsourcing training and other "nonessential" functions, the author suggests in his career communication classes that students develop the same inventive strategies to plan their employment futures that management consultants use to market themselves in the 21st…

  2. 40 CFR 93.112 - Criteria and procedures: Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Criteria and procedures: Consultation. 93.112 Section 93.112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR..., Funded or Approved Under Title 23 U.S.C. or the Federal Transit Laws § 93.112 Criteria and...

  3. 40 CFR 93.112 - Criteria and procedures: Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria and procedures: Consultation. 93.112 Section 93.112 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR..., Funded or Approved Under Title 23 U.S.C. or the Federal Transit Laws § 93.112 Criteria and...

  4. Directed Consultation, the SEALS Model, and Teachers' Classroom Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motoca, Luci M.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Hamm, Jill V.; Byun, Soo-yong; Lee, David L.; Brooks, Debbie S.; Rucker, Nkecha; Moohr, Michele M.

    2014-01-01

    Directed consultation is presented as a professional development framework to guide and support teachers in the implementation of evidence-based interventions that involve contextual and process-oriented approaches designed to be incorporated into daily classroom management. This approach consists of four components: pre-intervention observations…

  5. Directed Consultation, the SEALS Model, and Teachers' Classroom Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motoca, Luci M.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Hamm, Jill V.; Byun, Soo-yong; Lee, David L.; Brooks, Debbie S.; Rucker, Nkecha; Moohr, Michele M.

    2014-01-01

    Directed consultation is presented as a professional development framework to guide and support teachers in the implementation of evidence-based interventions that involve contextual and process-oriented approaches designed to be incorporated into daily classroom management. This approach consists of four components: pre-intervention observations…

  6. 43 CFR 3582.3 - Consent and consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the area, to preserve their use for public recreation and subject to the condition that site specific... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) SPECIAL LEASING AREAS National Park Service Areas § 3582.3 Consent and consultation. Any mineral lease or permit shall be issued or renewed only...

  7. 5 CFR 2640.303 - Consultation and notification regarding waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consultation and notification regarding waivers. 2640.303 Section 2640.303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS INTERPRETATION, EXEMPTIONS AND WAIVER GUIDANCE CONCERNING 18 U.S.C. 208 (ACTS AFFECTING A PERSONAL...

  8. 5 CFR 2640.303 - Consultation and notification regarding waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Consultation and notification regarding waivers. 2640.303 Section 2640.303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS INTERPRETATION, EXEMPTIONS AND WAIVER GUIDANCE CONCERNING 18 U.S.C. 208 (ACTS AFFECTING A PERSONAL...

  9. 5 CFR 2640.303 - Consultation and notification regarding waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Consultation and notification regarding waivers. 2640.303 Section 2640.303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS INTERPRETATION, EXEMPTIONS AND WAIVER GUIDANCE CONCERNING 18 U.S.C. 208 (ACTS AFFECTING A PERSONAL...

  10. 5 CFR 2640.303 - Consultation and notification regarding waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Consultation and notification regarding waivers. 2640.303 Section 2640.303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS INTERPRETATION, EXEMPTIONS AND WAIVER GUIDANCE CONCERNING 18 U.S.C. 208 (ACTS AFFECTING A PERSONAL...

  11. 5 CFR 2640.303 - Consultation and notification regarding waivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consultation and notification regarding waivers. 2640.303 Section 2640.303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS INTERPRETATION, EXEMPTIONS AND WAIVER GUIDANCE CONCERNING 18 U.S.C. 208 (ACTS AFFECTING A PERSONAL...

  12. Referrals to dietitians/nutritionists: A cross-sectional analysis of Australian GP registrars' clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Mulquiney, Katie J; Tapley, Amanda; van Driel, Mieke L; Morgan, Simon; Davey, Andrew R; Henderson, Kim M; Spike, Neil A; Kerr, Rohan H; Watson, Jane F; Catzikiris, Nigel F; Magin, Parker J

    2017-09-14

    The present study aimed to describe referral patterns of general practitioner (GP) registrars to dietitians/nutritionists. There is a paucity of research regarding GP referral patterns to dietitians/nutritionists. Limited data show increasing referrals from established GPs to dietitians/nutritionists. There are no data on GP registrar (trainee) referrals. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training (ReCEnT) study. ReCEnT is an ongoing, multicentre, prospective cohort study of registrars, which documents 60 consecutive consultations of each registrar in each of the three six-month GP training terms. The outcome factor in this analysis was a problem/diagnosis resulting in dietitian/nutritionist referral (2010-2015). Independent variables were related to registrar, patient, practice and consultation. A total of 1124 registrars contributed data from 145 708 consultations. Of 227 190 problems/diagnoses, 587 (0.26% (confidence interval: 0.23-0.29)) resulted in dietitian/nutritionist referral. The most common problems/diagnoses referred related to overweight/obesity (27.1%) and type 2 diabetes (21.1%). Of referrals to a dietitian/nutritionist, 60.8% were for a chronic disease, and 38.8% were related to a Chronic Disease Management plan. Dietitian/nutritionist referral was significantly associated with a number of independent variables reflecting continuity of care, patient complexity, chronic disease, health equity and registrar engagement. Established patients with chronic disease and complex care needs are more likely than other patients to be referred by registrars to dietitians/nutritionists. Nutrition behaviours are a major risk factor in chronic disease, and we have found evidence for dietitian/nutritionist referrals representing one facet of engagement by registrars with patients' complex care needs. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  13. Microcomputers and consultation psychiatry in the general hospital.

    PubMed

    Hammer, J S; Hammond, D; Strain, J J; Lyons, J S

    1985-04-01

    The microcomputer allows for the design of a system that functions integrally with both the day-to-day and long-term needs of a consultation-liaison psychiatric service. This article describes a microcomputer system and data structure that can accomplish many of the same research tasks as a minicomputer system. In addition, the same data item inputs can be used to develop management reports that can facilitate the administrative as well as the pedagogic needs of a consultation-liaison service. Because of the daily availability and review of output reports, supervisors' corrections are made that enhance the reliability of the data. The program format provides 1) an intake form with pertinent identifying demographic data; 2) an activity file that contains every encounter between the consultant and the patient as well as research, supervisory, and liaison activities (which permit cost-effectiveness analysis); 3) a master clinical data base containing 255 variables for each case seen; 4) a computer-generated chart note; 5) letters to referring physicians; 6) clinical activity descriptions for billing; and 7) a file for pertinent literature searches. Since certain analyses may be limited in the microsystem, its interactive capacity with mainframe computers allows for complex functions. The microsystem described presently emphasizes flexibility, accessibility, and step-by-step development of files as needed by a particular consultation-liaison service. Finally, microcomputers are available at a fraction of the cost of the minicomputer or mainframe systems.

  14. Health Professionals' Perspectives on Exercise Referral and Physical Activity Promotion in Primary Care: Findings from a Process Evaluation of the National Exercise Referral Scheme in Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Din, Nafees U.; Moore, Graham F.; Murphy, Simon; Wilkinson, Clare; Williams, Nefyn H.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: Referring clinicians' experiences of exercise referral schemes (ERS) can provide valuable insights into their uptake. However, most qualitative studies focus on patient views only. This paper explores health professionals' perceptions of their role in promoting physical activity and experiences of a National Exercise…

  15. Health Professionals' Perspectives on Exercise Referral and Physical Activity Promotion in Primary Care: Findings from a Process Evaluation of the National Exercise Referral Scheme in Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Din, Nafees U.; Moore, Graham F.; Murphy, Simon; Wilkinson, Clare; Williams, Nefyn H.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: Referring clinicians' experiences of exercise referral schemes (ERS) can provide valuable insights into their uptake. However, most qualitative studies focus on patient views only. This paper explores health professionals' perceptions of their role in promoting physical activity and experiences of a National Exercise…

  16. Communication during haematological consultations; patients' preferences and professionals' performances.

    PubMed

    van Bruinessen, Inge R; van der Hout, Lotte E; van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn M; Gouw, Hans; Zijlstra, Josée M; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    Many patients with haematological malignancies experience barriers in clinical communication. Reaching effective communication is of great importance as it has been linked to a range of improved patient outcomes such as satisfaction, compliance to treatment, perceived quality of life and physical and mental health. To get a better understanding how communication in haematological consultations can be improved, the current study focussed on patients' preferences and perceived performances regarding the communicative behaviour of their health care professional. Secondly, the mediation of an online communication tool for patients was analysed. Within a controlled pre- post-test design, 78 datasets of clinical consultations could be analysed. Patients considered both affective and instrumental communication aspects important. The affective communication behaviour of the health care professional met the patients' pre-visit preferences well. In the information exchange, more variability and discrepancies were found. Overall, the online intervention did not seem to influence the patients' perceived communication performance of their health care professional much. To further improve the communication during clinical consultations, health care professionals should inquire about patients' expectations, especially during the exchange of information and advices. At the same time, patients should be supported to express their preferences at the start of the consultation. The study was registered in the Netherlands Trial Register, number 3779.

  17. Expertise, Ethics Expertise, and Clinical Ethics Consultation: Achieving Terminological Clarity

    PubMed Central

    Iltis, Ana S.; Sheehan, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The language of ethics expertise has become particularly important in bioethics in light of efforts to establish the value of the clinical ethics consultation (CEC), to specify who is qualified to function as a clinical ethics consultant, and to characterize how one should evaluate whether or not a person is so qualified. Supporters and skeptics about the possibility of ethics expertise use the language of ethics expertise in ways that reflect competing views about what ethics expertise entails. We argue for clarity in understanding the nature of expertise and ethics expertise. To be an ethics expert, we argue, is to be an expert in knowing what ought to be done. Any attempt to articulate expertise with respect to knowing what ought to be done must include an account of ethics that specifies the nature of moral truth and the means by which we access this truth or a theoretical account of ethics such that expertise in another domain is linked to knowing or being better at judging what ought to be done and the standards by which this “knowing” or “being better at judging” is determined. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our analysis for the literature on ethics expertise in CEC. We do think that there are clear domains in which a clinical ethics consultant might be expert but we are skeptical about the possibility that this includes ethics expertise. Clinical ethics consultants should not be referred to as ethics experts. PMID:27256848

  18. Promoting effective teaching and learning: hospital consultants identify their needs.

    PubMed

    Gibson, D R; Campbell, R M

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this study was to help hospital consultants identify their needs in relation to teaching skills, leading to the development of a teacher training programme. The study was directed at all 869 consultants in the region and initially involved a postal questionnaire which had a 60.5% response rate. Hospitals throughout Northern Ireland. Hospital consultants. Results from this questionnaire indicated that while the majority of respondents were interested teachers, only 34% had received any teacher training. The questionnaire was followed by a focus group study involving three groups of consultants drawn randomly from those who had responded to the questionnaire. Participants in these groups identified the following key areas of hospital education: qualities of hospital teachers; selection procedures; problems of teaching in hospitals; the need for teacher training and how it should be provided. The study highlighted that hospital teachers need to acquire and update their teaching skills through attending courses that should include basic teaching and assessment/appraisal skills. These courses should last 1 or 2 days and be provided at a regional or subregional level. As a result of this study, teacher training courses have been developed in this region.

  19. Expertise, Ethics Expertise, and Clinical Ethics Consultation: Achieving Terminological Clarity.

    PubMed

    Iltis, Ana S; Sheehan, Mark

    2016-08-01

    The language of ethics expertise has become particularly important in bioethics in light of efforts to establish the value of the clinical ethics consultation (CEC), to specify who is qualified to function as a clinical ethics consultant, and to characterize how one should evaluate whether or not a person is so qualified. Supporters and skeptics about the possibility of ethics expertise use the language of ethics expertise in ways that reflect competing views about what ethics expertise entails. We argue for clarity in understanding the nature of expertise and ethics expertise. To be an ethics expert, we argue, is to be an expert in knowing what ought to be done. Any attempt to articulate expertise with respect to knowing what ought to be done must include an account of ethics that specifies the nature of moral truth and the means by which we access this truth or a theoretical account of ethics such that expertise in another domain is linked to knowing or being better at judging what ought to be done and the standards by which this "knowing" or "being better at judging" is determined. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our analysis for the literature on ethics expertise in CEC. We do think that there are clear domains in which a clinical ethics consultant might be expert but we are skeptical about the possibility that this includes ethics expertise. Clinical ethics consultants should not be referred to as ethics experts.

  20. Evaluation of medical consultation letters at King Fahd Hospital, Al Hufuf, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Wadaani, Hamed Abd Allah Al; Hassan Balaha, Magdy

    2012-01-01

    Background In surgical wards, it is of paramount importance to communicate with other health care providers, mostly physicians, referring patients to them for their consultation on any health conditions that affect pre-operative, operative and post-operative patient care. The purposes of this investigation were to assess the appropriateness of physician responses in medical consultation reports and compare physician responses when using these reports from different levels of health care providers. Methods This study was conducted in Al-Hufuf, Saudi Arabia. The researchers evaluated all the surgical consultation letters in the files during the period between March 2010 and March 2011. From the explored 234 files, only 200 consultation letters were chosen as there was a referral data plus consultation data in the same file. We evaluated the quality of consultation report included the ethical concerns towards colleagues and patient, consideration of patient safety in all opinions, comprehensive pertinent scientific information, addressing the patient's medical condition with putting possible differential diagnosis, conclusion and precise management plans suggested. Results The results showed that the specialists' consultation letters had the highest percentage of fulfillment of all the six items in the consultation report. There is no uniform existing consultation report form. Conclusion Specialist form showed the highest number of mentioning the diagnosis. Consultant form showed the highest number of mentioning the concise aim of referral. The highest percentage of all categories mentioned all items in consultation report with a good level were the specialists. PMID:22937194