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Sample records for refined vegetable oils

  1. Optimization of Refining Craft for Vegetable Insulating Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhu-Jun; Hu, Ting; Cheng, Lin; Tian, Kai; Wang, Xuan; Yang, Jun; Kong, Hai-Yang; Fang, Fu-Xin; Qian, Hang; Fu, Guang-Pan

    2016-05-01

    Vegetable insulating oil because of its environmental friendliness are considered as ideal material instead of mineral oil used for the insulation and the cooling of the transformer. The main steps of traditional refining process included alkali refining, bleaching and distillation. This kind of refining process used in small doses of insulating oil refining can get satisfactory effect, but can't be applied to the large capacity reaction kettle. This paper using rapeseed oil as crude oil, and the refining process has been optimized for large capacity reaction kettle. The optimized refining process increases the acid degumming process. The alkali compound adds the sodium silicate composition in the alkali refining process, and the ratio of each component is optimized. Add the amount of activated clay and activated carbon according to 10:1 proportion in the de-colorization process, which can effectively reduce the oil acid value and dielectric loss. Using vacuum pumping gas instead of distillation process can further reduce the acid value. Compared some part of the performance parameters of refined oil products with mineral insulating oil, the dielectric loss of vegetable insulating oil is still high and some measures are needed to take to further optimize in the future.

  2. The effect of consecutive steps of refining on squalene content of vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Nergiz, Cevdet; Celikkale, Deniz

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of refining steps on the squalene content of some vegetable oils. A comparison has been made between the crude oils and consecutive steps of refining process (neutralization, bleaching, deodorization, winterization) in the amounts of squalene of the oil samples. Among the oils, virgin and refined olive oils contained higher amounts of squalene. A mean of 491.0 ± 15.55 mg/100 g squalene was found in virgin olive oil samples. While appreciable quantities of squalene has been reduced during refining, considerable level of squalene were still present in refined olive oils (290.0 ± 9.89 mg/100 g). The squalene content of crude seed oils varied from 13.8 ± 0.39 mg/100 g to 26.2 ± 0.08 mg/100 g as average. It has been determined that refining process reduced the level of squalene in examined oils. The highest reduction in squalene content of the oils was detected during deodorization. The effect of refining steps on the amount of squalene in vegetable oils was found to be significant (p < 0.05). Olive oil has been considered an important source of squalene, even after it has been refined, compared to seed oils.

  3. Identification of vegetable oil botanical speciation in refined vegetable oil blends using an innovative combination of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Maria Teresa; Haughey, Simon A; Elliott, Christopher T; Koidis, Anastasios

    2015-12-15

    European Regulation 1169/2011 requires producers of foods that contain refined vegetable oils to label the oil types. A novel rapid and staged methodology has been developed for the first time to identify common oil species in oil blends. The qualitative method consists of a combination of a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to profile the oils and fatty acid chromatographic analysis to confirm the composition of the oils when required. Calibration models and specific classification criteria were developed and all data were fused into a simple decision-making system. The single lab validation of the method demonstrated the very good performance (96% correct classification, 100% specificity, 4% false positive rate). Only a small fraction of the samples needed to be confirmed with the majority of oils identified rapidly using only the spectroscopic procedure. The results demonstrate the huge potential of the methodology for a wide range of oil authenticity work.

  4. Identification of vegetable oil botanical speciation in refined vegetable oil blends using an innovative combination of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Maria Teresa; Haughey, Simon A; Elliott, Christopher T; Koidis, Anastasios

    2015-12-15

    European Regulation 1169/2011 requires producers of foods that contain refined vegetable oils to label the oil types. A novel rapid and staged methodology has been developed for the first time to identify common oil species in oil blends. The qualitative method consists of a combination of a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to profile the oils and fatty acid chromatographic analysis to confirm the composition of the oils when required. Calibration models and specific classification criteria were developed and all data were fused into a simple decision-making system. The single lab validation of the method demonstrated the very good performance (96% correct classification, 100% specificity, 4% false positive rate). Only a small fraction of the samples needed to be confirmed with the majority of oils identified rapidly using only the spectroscopic procedure. The results demonstrate the huge potential of the methodology for a wide range of oil authenticity work. PMID:26190602

  5. Mechanism of formation of 3-chloropropan-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters under conditions of the vegetable oil refining.

    PubMed

    Šmidrkal, Jan; Tesařová, Markéta; Hrádková, Iveta; Berčíková, Markéta; Adamčíková, Aneta; Filip, Vladimír

    2016-11-15

    3-MCPD esters are contaminants that can form during refining of vegetable oils in the deodorization step. It was experimentally shown that their content in the vegetable oil depends on the acid value of the vegetable oil and the chloride content. 3-MCPD esters form approximately 2-5 times faster from diacylglycerols than from monoacylglycerols. It has been proved that the higher fatty acids content in the oil caused higher 3-MCPD esters content in the deodorization step. Neutralization of free fatty acids in the vegetable oil before the deodorization step by alkaline carbonates or hydrogen carbonates can completely suppress the formation of 3-MCPD esters. Potassium salts are more effective than sodium salts. PMID:27283615

  6. Mechanism of formation of 3-chloropropan-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters under conditions of the vegetable oil refining.

    PubMed

    Šmidrkal, Jan; Tesařová, Markéta; Hrádková, Iveta; Berčíková, Markéta; Adamčíková, Aneta; Filip, Vladimír

    2016-11-15

    3-MCPD esters are contaminants that can form during refining of vegetable oils in the deodorization step. It was experimentally shown that their content in the vegetable oil depends on the acid value of the vegetable oil and the chloride content. 3-MCPD esters form approximately 2-5 times faster from diacylglycerols than from monoacylglycerols. It has been proved that the higher fatty acids content in the oil caused higher 3-MCPD esters content in the deodorization step. Neutralization of free fatty acids in the vegetable oil before the deodorization step by alkaline carbonates or hydrogen carbonates can completely suppress the formation of 3-MCPD esters. Potassium salts are more effective than sodium salts.

  7. Biocatalysis in Oil Refining

    SciTech Connect

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Ramirez-Corredores, M. M.

    2007-01-01

    Biocatalysis in Oil Refining focuses on petroleum refining bioprocesses, establishing a connection between science and technology. The micro organisms and biomolecules examined for biocatalytic purposes for oil refining processes are thoroughly detailed. Terminology used by biologists, chemists and engineers is brought into a common language, aiding the understanding of complex biological-chemical-engineering issues. Problems to be addressed by the future R&D activities and by new technologies are described and summarized in the last chapter.

  8. Quantitative analysis of hydroperoxy-, keto- and hydroxy-dienes in refined vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Morales, Arturo; Marmesat, Susana; Dobarganes, M Carmen; Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria; Velasco, Joaquín

    2012-03-16

    Quantitative analysis of the main oxidation products of linoleic acid - hydroperoxy-, keto- and hydroxy-dienes - in refined oils is proposed in this study. The analytical approach consists of derivatization of TAGs into FAMEs and direct analysis by HPLC-UV. Two transmethylation methods run at room temperature were evaluated. The reactants were KOH in methanol in method 1 and sodium methoxide (NaOMe) in method 2. Method 1 was ruled out because resulted in losses of hydroperoxydienes as high as 90 wt%. Transmethylation with NaOMe resulted to be appropriate as derivatization procedure, although inevitably also gives rise to losses of hydroperoxydienes, which were lower than 10 wt%, and formation of keto- and hydroxy-dienes as a result. An amount of 0.6-2.1 wt% of hydroperoxydienes was transformed into keto- and hydroxy-dienes, being the formation of the former as much as three times higher. The method showed satisfactory sensitivity (quantification limits of 0.3 μg/mL for hydroperoxy- and keto-dienes and 0.6 μg/mL for hydroxydienes), precision (coefficients of variation ≤ 6% for hydroperoxydienes and ≤ 15% for keto- and hydroxy-dienes) and accuracy (recovery values of 85(± 4), 99(± 2) and 97.0(± 0.6) % for hydroperoxy-, keto- and hydroxy-dienes, respectively). The method was applied to samples of high-linoleic (HLSO), high-oleic (HOSO) and high-stearic high-oleic (HSHOSO) sunflower oils oxidized at 40 °C. Results showed that the higher the linoleic-to-oleic ratio, the higher were the levels of hydroperoxy-, keto- and hydroxy-dienes when tocopherols were completely depleted, i.e. at the end of the induction period (IP). Levels of 23.7, 2.7 and 1.1 mg/g oil were found for hydroperoxy-, keto- and hydroxy-dienes, respectively, in the HLSO when tocopherol was practically exhausted. It was estimated that hydroperoxydienes constituted approximately 100, 95 and 60% of total hydroperoxides in the HLSO, HOSO and HSHOSO, respectively, along the IP.

  9. Synchronous front-face fluorescence spectroscopy for authentication of the adulteration of edible vegetable oil with refined used frying oil.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jin; Li, Rong; Jiang, Zi-Tao; Tang, Shu-Hua; Wang, Ying; Shi, Meng; Xiao, Yi-Qian; Jia, Bin; Lu, Tian-Xiang; Wang, Hao

    2017-02-15

    Synchronous front-face fluorescence spectroscopy has been developed for the discrimination of used frying oil (UFO) from edible vegetable oil (EVO), the estimation of the using time of UFO, and the determination of the adulteration of EVO with UFO. Both the heating time of laboratory prepared UFO and the adulteration of EVO with UFO could be determined by partial least squares regression (PLSR). To simulate the EVO adulteration with UFO, for each kind of oil, fifty adulterated samples at the adulterant amounts range of 1-50% were prepared. PLSR was then adopted to build the model and both full (leave-one-out) cross-validation and external validation were performed to evaluate the predictive ability. Under the optimum condition, the plots of observed versus predicted values exhibited high linearity (R(2)>0.96). The root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were both lower than 3%. PMID:27664635

  10. Synchronous front-face fluorescence spectroscopy for authentication of the adulteration of edible vegetable oil with refined used frying oil.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jin; Li, Rong; Jiang, Zi-Tao; Tang, Shu-Hua; Wang, Ying; Shi, Meng; Xiao, Yi-Qian; Jia, Bin; Lu, Tian-Xiang; Wang, Hao

    2017-02-15

    Synchronous front-face fluorescence spectroscopy has been developed for the discrimination of used frying oil (UFO) from edible vegetable oil (EVO), the estimation of the using time of UFO, and the determination of the adulteration of EVO with UFO. Both the heating time of laboratory prepared UFO and the adulteration of EVO with UFO could be determined by partial least squares regression (PLSR). To simulate the EVO adulteration with UFO, for each kind of oil, fifty adulterated samples at the adulterant amounts range of 1-50% were prepared. PLSR was then adopted to build the model and both full (leave-one-out) cross-validation and external validation were performed to evaluate the predictive ability. Under the optimum condition, the plots of observed versus predicted values exhibited high linearity (R(2)>0.96). The root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) were both lower than 3%.

  11. Effect of the addition of fatty by-products from the refining of vegetable oil on methane production in co-digestion.

    PubMed

    Torrijos, M; Sousbie, P; Badey, L; Bosque, F; Steyer, J P

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the effects of the addition of by-products from the refining of vegetable oil on the behavior of co-digestion reactors treating a mixture of grass, cow dung and fruit and vegetable waste. Three by-products were used: one soapstock, one used winterization earth and one skimming of aeroflotation of the effluents. Three 15 l reactors were run in parallel and fed five times a week. In a first phase of 4 weeks, the three reactors were fed with the co-digestion substrates alone (grass, cow dung and fruit and vegetable waste) at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.5 g VS/kg d (VS: volatile solids). Then, a different by-product from the refining of oil was added to the feed of each reactor at an OLR of 0.5 g VS/kg d, generating a 33% increase in the OLR. The results show that the addition of by-products from the refining of oil is an efficient way of increasing the methane production of co-digestion reactors thanks to high methane yield of such by-products (0.69-0.77 l CH(4)/g VS loaded). In fact, in this work, it was possible to raise the methane production of the reactors by about 60% through a 33% increase in the OLR thanks to the addition of the by-products from the refining of vegetable oil.

  12. Vegetable oil fuel standards

    SciTech Connect

    Pryde, E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Suggested standards for vegetable oils and ester fuels, as well as ASTM specifications for No. 2 diesel oil are given. The following physical properties were discussed: cetane number, cloud point, distillation temperatures, flash point, pour point, turbidity, viscosity, free fatty acids, iodine value, phosphorus, and wax. It was apparent that vegetable oils and their esters cannot meet ASTM specifications D975 for No. 2 diesel oil for use in the diesel engine. Vegetable oil modification or engine design modification may make it possible eventually for vegetable oils to become suitable alternative fuels. Vegetable oils must be recognized as experimental fuels until modifications have been tested thoroughly and generally accepted. 1 table. (DP)

  13. Anaerobic digestion of residues from production and refining of vegetable oils as an alternative to conventional solutions.

    PubMed

    Torrijos, M; Thalla, Arun Kumar; Sousbie, P; Bosque, F; Delgenès, J P

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the anaerobic digestion of by-products generated during the production and refining of oil with the objective of proposing an alternative solution (methanisation) to the conventional solutions while reducing the energy consumption of fossil origin on refinery sites. The production of sunflower oil was taken as example. Glycerine from the production of biodiesel was also included in this study. The results show that glycerine has a high potential for methanisation because of its high methane potential (465 ml CH4/g VS) and high metabolization rates (0.42 g VS/g VSS.d). The use of oil cake as substrate for anaerobic digestion is not interesting because it has a low methane potential of 215 ml CH4/g VS only and because it is easily recovered in animal feed. Six residues have quite a high methane potential (465 to 850 ml CH4/g VS) indicating a good potential for anaerobic digestion. However, they contain a mixture of rapidly and slowly biodegradable organic matter and the loading rates must remain quite low (0.03 to 0.09 g VS/g VSS.d) to prevent any accumulation of slowly biodegradable solids in the digesters.

  14. Studies on acid oils and fatty acids for chickens III. Effect of chemical composition on metabolisable energy of by-products of vegetable oil refining.

    PubMed

    Vila, B; Esteve-Garcia, E

    1996-03-01

    1. Fourteen by-products of oil refining, selected for their variability in free fatty acid and unsaponifiable contents, were analysed chemically with the objective of relating the determined ME values of the products to chemical composition by means of multiple linear regression analysis. Refined sunflower oil was included as a reference fat. 2. Twenty-one 2-week-old chicks were used to determine fat digestibilities and AMEn values of diets, using the total collection method. Fats were included in a wheat-soyabean meal diet at 100 g/kg. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to express the ME values of fats as functions of the parameters measured (moisture, gross energy, impurities, unsaponifiables, non eluted material, free fatty acid content, unsaturated: saturated ratio, peroxide value, TBA test). 3. The ME of the fat products lay in the range l2.62 to 24.35 MJ/kg, and 29.26 MJ/kg for refined sunflower oil. Free fatty acid content of the fats was shown to be a poor predictor of their ME values, whereas non eluted material (NEM) of the fat products showed a good correlation with their ME. A regression equation could be derived (R2 0.6548; SEE 2.0064) with the unsaturated: saturated ratio (U:S) and NEM. An ME prediction equation based on the U:S, NEM and unsaponifiable content is also proposed (R2= 0.7l68; SEE= 1.9058). PMID:8833534

  15. Vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Fifty contributions (presentations) involving more than one hundred people worldwide were given at the International Conference on Plant and Vegetable Oils as Fuels. The proceedings were in Fargo, North Dakota, from August 2-4, 1982. The conference helped to promote renewable fuels, bio-oils, from plant and vegetable oils. Separate abstracts were prepared for 44 items for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  16. Treatment of vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Bessler, T.R.

    1986-05-13

    A process is described for preparing an injectable vegetable oil selected from the group consisting of soybean oil and sunflower oil and mixtures thereof which comprise: (a) first treating the vegetable oil at a temperature of 80/sup 0/C to about 130/sup 0/C with an acid clay; (b) deodorizing the vegetable oil with steam at a temperature of 220/sup 0/C to about 280/sup 0/C and applying a vacuum to remove volatilized components; (c) treating the deodorized vegetable oil, at a temperature of from about 10/sup 0/C to about 60/sup 0/C, with an acid clay to reduce the content of a member selected from the group consisting of diglycerides, tocopherol components, and trilinolenin and mixtures thereof, wherein the acid clay is added in a weight ratio to the deoderized vegetable oil of from about 1:99 to about 1:1; and (d) thereafter conducting a particulate filtration to remove a substantial portion of the acid clay from the vegetable oil, wherein the filtration is accomplished with filters having a pore size of from about 0.1 to 0.45 microns, thereby obtaining the injectable oil.

  17. Products from vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Bagby, M.O.

    1995-12-01

    Vegetable oils serve various industrial applications such as plasticizers, emulsifiers, surfactants, plastics and resins. Research and development approaches may take advantage of natural properties of the oils. More often it is advantageous to modify those properties for specific applications. One example is the preparation of ink vehicles using vegetable oils in the absence of petroleum. They are cost competitive with petroleum-based inks with similar quality factors. Vegetable oils have potential as renewable sources of fuels for the diesel engine. However, several characteristics can restrict their use. These include poor cold-engine startup, misfire and for selected fuels, high pour point and cloud point temperatures. Other characteristics include incomplete combustion causing carbon buildup, lube oil dilution and degradation, and elevated NO{sub x} emissions. Precombustion and fuel quality data are presented as a tool for understanding and solving these operational and durability problems.

  18. Vegetable oil as fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    A review is presented of various experiments undertaken over the past few years in the U.S. to test the performance of vegetable oils in diesel engines, mainly with a view to on-farm energy self-sufficiency. The USDA Northern Regional Research Center in Peoria, Illinois, is screening native U.S. plant species as potential fuel oil sources.

  19. Vegetable oil fuels: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.

    1999-04-01

    Using vegetable oils as fuel alternatives has economic, environmental, and energy benefits for Turkey. The present work provides insight to the status of vegetable oil fuels in Turkey. A brief historical background of the issue, as well as an up to date review of the research carried out on vegetable oil fuels, is given and the future of their production and application is discussed.

  20. Polymerization of vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Korus, R.A.; Mousetis, T.L.; Lloyd, L.

    1982-01-01

    The addition of antioxidants and dispersants is not sufficient to eliminate gum formation in vegetable oils. Even with relatively unsaturated oils like rapeseed the extent of unsaturation overwhelms these additives. Fuel deterioration during storage will be minimized in an anaerobic storage environment and, to a lesser extent, with a lower degree of oil unsaturation. Gum formation and carbon coking can also occur immediately preceding and during combustion. Thermal polymerization may be the dominant gum forming reaction under combustion conditions since thermal polymerization has a higher activation energy than oxidative polymerization and anaerobic conditions can occur within atomized fuel droplets. Carbon coking can be reduced with a lower degree of oil unsaturation and with better atomization of the fuel. 4 figures, 1 table.

  1. Preservation of micronutrients during rapeseed oil refining: a tool to optimize the health value of edible vegetable oils? Rationale and design of the Optim'Oils randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Gladine, C; Meunier, N; Blot, Adeline; Bruchet, Lucile; Pagès, X; Gaud, M; Floter, E; Metin, Z; Rossignol, A; Cano, N; Chardigny, J M

    2011-03-01

    Numerous micronutrients naturally abundant in oilseeds prevent the risk of cardiovascular diseases by reducing cholesterolemia and oxidative stress. These micronutrients include phytosterols and various antioxidants such as polyphenols, tocopherols and coenzyme Q10/Q9 but most of them are lost during the oilseed oil refining. The main objective of the Optim'Oil project was to modify the processes of oil refining in order to reduce the lost of micronutrients. Two clinical trials (cross-over, monocentric, randomized, double-blind and controlled) were designed to investigate the effect of an optimized rapeseed oil 1) on cardiovascular biomarkers (long-term study) and 2) on oxidative stress parameters (post-prandial study). For the long-term study, 59 volunteers ingested daily 20 g of oil and 22 g of margarine (optimized or standard) for 2 periods of 3 weeks separated by a 3-week wash-out period. Blood samples were collected at the beginning and at the end of each period. For the post-prandial study, a sub-group of 16 volunteers came fasted at the laboratory and took 300 mL of a test meal containing 60% of the optimized or standard oils. Blood samples were collected before and during 6h after the test meal intake. In comparison with the standard oil and margarine, the optimized oil and margarine exhibit as expected an increased content of phytosterol (+22%), polyphenols (× 11), tocopherols (+131%) and coenzyme Q10/Q9 (+165%). Overall, conditions of this study were relevant to investigate the effect of the optimized rapeseed oil and margarine on the cardiovascular risk and the oxidative stress.

  2. Vegetable-oil test

    SciTech Connect

    Suber, H.

    1983-01-01

    A diesel engine was tested using soy oil as fuel. Tests were run using 20%, 50% 75%, and 100% soy oil combined with diesel fuel. Performance dropped somewhat at 75 and 100% soy oil. After media coverage, used soy oil was difficult to obtain. Other problems mentioned are increased carbon buildup, changes in crankcase oil, and odor. (MHR)

  3. Vegetable oils for tractors

    SciTech Connect

    Moroney, M.

    1981-11-14

    Preliminary tests by the Agricultural Institute, show that tractors can be run on a 50:50 rape oil-diesel mixture or on pure rape oil. In fact, engine power actually increased slightly with the 50:50 blend but decreased fractionally with pure rape oil. Research at the North Dakota State University on using sunflower oil as an alternative to diesel fuel is also noted.

  4. A detection method of vegetable oils in edible blended oil based on three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy technique.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Liu, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yu-Tian

    2016-12-01

    Edible blended vegetable oils are made from two or more refined oils. Blended oils can provide a wider range of essential fatty acids than single vegetable oils, which helps support good nutrition. Nutritional components in blended oils are related to the type and content of vegetable oils used, and a new, more accurate, method is proposed to identify and quantify the vegetable oils present using cluster analysis and a Quasi-Monte Carlo integral. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra were obtained at 250-400nm (excitation) and 260-750nm (emission). Mixtures of sunflower, soybean and peanut oils were used as typical examples to validate the effectiveness of the method.

  5. New Sulfide Derivatives of Vegetable Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils containing sulfide group were synthesized using a UV initiated thiol-ene reaction. The reaction involved addition of butyl thiol to the double bonds of the vegetable oil without the presence of a solvent. The effects of temperature, reaction time, type of vegetable oil, thiol to veg...

  6. Diesel fuels from vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, A.W.; Bagby, M.O.; Freedman, B.

    1986-03-01

    Vegetable oils have heat contents approximately 90% that of diesel fuel and are potential alternate fuel candidates. A major obstacle deterring their use in the direct-injection diesel engine is their inherent high viscosities which are nearly 10 times that of diesel fuel. Solution to the viscosity problem has been approached in three ways: 1) microemulsification, 2) pyrolysis, and 3) transesterification. Microemulsification with short chain alcohols such as methanol and ethanol yields fuels that are clear, thermodynamically stable liquid systems with viscosities near the ASTM specified range for number2 diesel fuel. These micellar systems may be formulated ionically or nonionically. The alcohols are attractive from an economic as well as a renewable resource viewpoint. Methanol has an economic advantage over ethanol, and it can be derived from a large variety of base stocks. These include biomass, municipal waste, natural gas being flared at refineries and from coal. Pyrolysis of vegetable oils is another approach to lowering their viscosity. Soybean and safflower oils were thermally decomposed in both air and nitrogen to obtain fuels for the diesel engine. Using standard ASTM distillation conditions, yields of pyrolysis products were about 75%. GS-MS analysis of the distillates showed the presence of alkanes, alkenes, aromatics, and carboxylic acids with carbon numbers ranging from 4 to more than 20. Fuel properties of the thermal decomposition products were substantially improved as evaluated by lower viscosities and higher cetane numbers compared to the unpyrrolyzed vegetable oils. Simple esters from transesterification of vegetable oils perform well in engine tests, and thus show good promise as an alternative or emergency fuel for diesel engines.

  7. Fuel properties of eleven vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, C.E.; Schwab, A.W.; Daugherty, M.J.; Pryde, E.H.; Keakin, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Eleven vegetable oils that can be grown as domestic field crops were identified for inclusion in a comparative study. Sample lots of each oil were subjected to ASTM tests appropriate for diesel fuels. The tests identified some problem areas with vegetable oil fuels. The oil samples were also characterized chemically and certain fuel properties were correlated to chemical composition. 10 refs.

  8. Vegetable oils: a new alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper relates: (1) the use and production of methyl ester of vegetable oil, M.E.V.O., as fuel in diesel engines and the effect of the catalyst proportion, alcohol and vegetable oil V.O. on the transesterification process; (2) simple control methods during industrial preparation and the behavior of V.O. and M.E.V.O. on accelerated oxidation test to determine the maximum contration of V.O. in M.E.V.O. that do not cause problems on the injectors; and (3) the behavior of M.E.V.O. and V.O. on parafinic and naphtenic lubricants, with high T.B.N. and without organo-metallic compounds, using antioxidants as B.H.T. to reduce the oxidation effect. 9 figures, 7 tables.

  9. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II.

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state's total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation's energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska's 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources.

  10. Trends in heavy oil production and refining in California

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Pendergrass, R.A. II

    1992-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil production and is part of a study being conducted for the US Department of Energy. This report summarizes trends in oil production and refining in Canada. Heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production in California has increased from 20% of the state`s total oil production in the early 1940s to 70% in the late 1980s. In each of the three principal petroleum producing districts (Los Angeles Basin, Coastal Basin, and San Joaquin Valley) oil production has peaked then declined at different times throughout the past 30 years. Thermal production of heavy oil has contributed to making California the largest producer of oil by enhanced oil recovery processes in spite of low oil prices for heavy oil and stringent environmental regulation. Opening of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Elk Hills (CA) field in 1976, brought about a major new source of light oil at a time when light oil production had greatly declined. Although California is a major petroleum-consuming state, in 1989 the state used 13.3 billion gallons of gasoline or 11.5% of US demand but it contributed substantially to the Nation`s energy production and refining capability. California is the recipient and refines most of Alaska`s 1.7 million barrel per day oil production. With California production, Alaskan oil, and imports brought into California for refining, California has an excess of oil and refined products and is a net exporter to other states. The local surplus of oil inhibits exploitation of California heavy oil resources even though the heavy oil resources exist. Transportation, refining, and competition in the market limit full development of California heavy oil resources.

  11. Effect of refining on quality and composition of sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Pal, U S; Patra, R K; Sahoo, N R; Bakhara, C K; Panda, M K

    2015-07-01

    An experimental oil refining unit has been developed and tested for sunflower oil. Crude pressed sunflower oil obtained from a local oil mill was refined using chemical method by degumming, neutralization, bleaching and dewaxing. The quality and composition of crude and refined oil were analysed compared. Reduction in phosphorous content from 6.15 ppm to 0, FFA content from 1.1 to 0.24 % (oleic acid), peroxide value from 22.5 to 7.9 meq/kg, wax content from 1,420 to 200 ppm and colour absorbance value from 0.149 to 0.079 (in spectrophotometer at 460 nm) were observed from crude to refined oil. It was observed that refining did not have significant effect on fatty acid compositions as found in the percentage peak area in the GC-MS chromatogram. The percentage of unsaturated fatty acid in both the oils were recorded to be about 95 % containing 9-Octadecenoic acid (Oleic acid) and 11,14-Eicosadienoic acid (elongated form of linoleic acid). The research results will be useful to small entrepreneurs and farmers for refining of sunflower oil for better marketability.

  12. Effect of refining on quality and composition of sunflower oil.

    PubMed

    Pal, U S; Patra, R K; Sahoo, N R; Bakhara, C K; Panda, M K

    2015-07-01

    An experimental oil refining unit has been developed and tested for sunflower oil. Crude pressed sunflower oil obtained from a local oil mill was refined using chemical method by degumming, neutralization, bleaching and dewaxing. The quality and composition of crude and refined oil were analysed compared. Reduction in phosphorous content from 6.15 ppm to 0, FFA content from 1.1 to 0.24 % (oleic acid), peroxide value from 22.5 to 7.9 meq/kg, wax content from 1,420 to 200 ppm and colour absorbance value from 0.149 to 0.079 (in spectrophotometer at 460 nm) were observed from crude to refined oil. It was observed that refining did not have significant effect on fatty acid compositions as found in the percentage peak area in the GC-MS chromatogram. The percentage of unsaturated fatty acid in both the oils were recorded to be about 95 % containing 9-Octadecenoic acid (Oleic acid) and 11,14-Eicosadienoic acid (elongated form of linoleic acid). The research results will be useful to small entrepreneurs and farmers for refining of sunflower oil for better marketability. PMID:26139933

  13. Potential of vegetable oils for lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils offer significant advantages in terms of resource renewability, biodegradability, and comparable performance properties to petroleum-based products. The petroleum-based lubricants render unfavorable impact on the environment. With the growing environmental concerns, seed oils are find...

  14. Fuel properties of eleven vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, C.E.; Schwab, A.W.; Daugherty, M.J.; Pryde, E.H.; Heakin, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Eleven vegetable oils that can be grown as domestic field crops were identified for inclusion in a comparative study of chemical and fuel properties. Sample lots of each oil were subjected to ASTM tests appropriate for diesel fuels. The tests identified some problem areas with vegetable oil fuels. The oil samples were also characterized chemically and certain fuel properties were correlated to chemical compositions. (Refs. 11).

  15. Energy accounting for eleven vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, C.E.; Daugherty, M.J.

    1982-09-01

    Energy inputs and outputs were comparatively analyzed for 11 vegetable oil fuels. Three-year average prices and production quantities were also compared. All nonirrigated oil crops had favorable energy ratios. Soybean, peanut and sunflower oils were the most promising as domestic fuel sources. Rapeseed oil would also be promising if significant domestic production can be established.

  16. A detection method of vegetable oils in edible blended oil based on three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy technique.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Liu, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Yu-Tian

    2016-12-01

    Edible blended vegetable oils are made from two or more refined oils. Blended oils can provide a wider range of essential fatty acids than single vegetable oils, which helps support good nutrition. Nutritional components in blended oils are related to the type and content of vegetable oils used, and a new, more accurate, method is proposed to identify and quantify the vegetable oils present using cluster analysis and a Quasi-Monte Carlo integral. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra were obtained at 250-400nm (excitation) and 260-750nm (emission). Mixtures of sunflower, soybean and peanut oils were used as typical examples to validate the effectiveness of the method. PMID:27374508

  17. 1H NMR-based protocol for the detection of adulterations of refined olive oil with refined hazelnut oil.

    PubMed

    Mannina, Luisa; D'Imperio, Marco; Capitani, Donatella; Rezzi, Serge; Guillou, Claude; Mavromoustakos, Thomas; Vilchez, María Dolores Molero; Fernández, Antonio Herrera; Thomas, Freddy; Aparicio, Ramon

    2009-12-23

    A (1)H NMR analytical protocol for the detection of refined hazelnut oils in admixtures with refined olive oils is reported according to ISO format. The main purpose of this research activity is to suggest a novel analytical methodology easily usable by operators with a basic knowledge of NMR spectroscopy. The protocol, developed on 92 oil samples of different origins within the European MEDEO project, is based on (1)H NMR measurements combined with a suitable statistical analysis. It was developed using a 600 MHz instrument and was tested by two independent laboratories on 600 MHz spectrometers, allowing detection down to 10% adulteration of olive oils with refined hazelnut oils. Finally, the potential and limitations of the protocol applied on spectrometers operating at different magnetic fields, that is, at the proton frequencies of 500 and 400 MHz, were investigated.

  18. Pressure viscosity coefficient of vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The elastohydrodynamic (EHD) pressure viscosity coefficient (PVC) of ten vegetable oils from commodity and new crops, and two petroleum-based oils, polyalphaolefin (PAO) and hexadecane, were investigated. PVC was measured using three different methods: the So and Klaus (S-K) procedure from oil visco...

  19. Variables affecting the yields of fatty esters from transesterified vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, B.; Pryde, E.H.; Mounts, T.L.

    1984-10-01

    Transesterification reaction variables that affect yield and purity of the product esters from cottonseed, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils include molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil, type of catalyst (alkaline vs acidic), temperature and degree of refinement of the vegetable oil. With alkaline catalysts (either sodium hydroxide or methoxide), temperatures of 60 degrees C or higher, molar ratios of at least 6 to 1 and with fully refined oils, conversion to methyl, ethyl and butyl esters was essentially complete in 1 hr. At moderate temperatures (32 degrees C), vegetable oils were 99% transesterified in ca. 4 hr with an alkaline catalyst. Transesterification by acid catalysis was much slower than by alkali catalysis. Although the crude oils could be transesterified, ester yields were reduced because of gums and extraneous material present in the crude oils. 30 references.

  20. Petroleum mineral oil refining and evaluation of cancer hazard.

    PubMed

    Mackerer, Carl R; Griffis, Larry C; Grabowski Jr, John S; Reitman, Fred A

    2003-11-01

    Petroleum base oils (petroleum mineral oils) are manufactured from crude oils by vacuum distillation to produce several distillates and a residual oil that are then further refined. Aromatics including alkylated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) are undesirable constituents of base oils because they are deleterious to product performance and are potentially carcinogenic. In modern base oil refining, aromatics are reduced by solvent extraction, catalytic hydrotreating, or hydrocracking. Chronic exposure to poorly refined base oils has the potential to cause skin cancer. A chronic mouse dermal bioassay has been the standard test for estimating carcinogenic potential of mineral oils. The level of alkylated 3-7-ring PAC in raw streams from the vacuum tower must be greatly reduced to render the base oil noncarcinogenic. The processes that can reduce PAC levels are known, but the operating conditions for the processing units (e.g., temperature, pressure, catalyst type, residence time in the unit, unit engineering design, etc.) needed to achieve adequate PAC reduction are refinery specific. Chronic dermal bioassays provide information about whether conditions applied can make a noncarcinogenic oil, but cannot be used to monitor current production for quality control or for conducting research or developing new processes since this test takes at least 78 weeks to conduct. Three short-term, non-animal assays all involving extraction of oil with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) have been validated for predicting potential carcinogenic activity of petroleum base oils: a modified Ames assay of a DMSO extract, a gravimetric assay (IP 346) for wt. percent of oil extracted into DMSO, and a GC-FID assay measuring 3-7-ring PAC content in a DMSO extract of oil, expressed as percent of the oil. Extraction with DMSO concentrates PAC in a manner that mimics the extraction method used in the solvent refining of noncarcinogenic oils. The three assays are described, data demonstrating the

  1. Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel?

    SciTech Connect

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel, a renewable fuel produced from animal fats or vegetable oils, is popular among many vehicle owners and fleet managers seeking to reduce emissions and support U.S. energy security. Questions sometimes arise about the viability of fueling vehicles with straight vegetable oil (SVO), or waste oils from cooking and other processes, without intermediate processing. But SVO and waste oils differ from biodiesel (and conventional diesel) in some important ways and are generally not considered acceptable vehicle fuels for large-scale or long-term use.

  2. Process optimization for extraction of carotenoids from shrimp waste with vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Sachindra, N M; Mahendrakar, N S

    2005-07-01

    Shrimp waste is an important source of natural carotenoid. Studies were carried out to determine the extraction yield of shrimp waste carotenoids in different vegetable oils. Highest yield was obtained by extraction using refined sunflower oil compared to groundnut oil, gingelly oil, mustard oil, soy oil, coconut oil and rice bran oil. The extraction yield of carotenoids in sunflower oil was significantly influenced by level of oil to waste (p < 0.05), time (p < 0.01) and temperature (p < 0.001) of heating waste with oil before centrifugation to separate pigmented oil. A regression equation was derived for carotenoid yield as a function of time of heating, temperature of heating and oil level to waste. The optimized conditions for extraction of shrimp waste carotenoids in sunflower oil were determined to be oil level to waste of 2, temperature of 70 degrees C and heating time of 150 min.

  3. Organogels of vegetable oil with plant wax – trans/saturated fat replacements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This featured article reviews recent advances on the development of trans fat-free, low saturated fat food products from organogels formed by a plant wax in a vegetable oil. Plant waxes are of great interest in this research area because they are obtained as by-products during the oil refining proce...

  4. Crisis and Survival in Western European Oil Refining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinder, David A.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, oil refining in Western Europe has experienced a period of intense contraction. Discussed are the nature of the crisis, defensive strategies that have been adopted, the spatial consequences of the strategies, and how effective they have been in combatting the root causes of crises. (RM)

  5. Authentication of vegetable oils by bulk and molecular carbon isotope analyses with emphasis on olive oil and pumpkin seed oil.

    PubMed

    Spangenberg, J E; Ogrinc, N

    2001-03-01

    The authenticity of vegetable oils consumed in Slovenia and Croatia was investigated by carbon isotope analysis of the individual fatty acids by the use of gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS), and through carbon isotope analysis of the bulk oil. The fatty acids from samples of olive, pumpkin, sunflower, maize, rape, soybean, and sesame oils were separated by alkaline hydrolysis and derivatized to methyl esters for chemical characterization by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) prior to isotopic analysis. Enrichment in heavy carbon isotope ((13)C) of the bulk oil and of the individual fatty acids are related to (1) a thermally induced degradation during processing (deodorization, steam washing, or bleaching), (2) hydrolytic rancidity (lipolysis) and oxidative rancidity of the vegetable oils during storage, and (3) the potential blend with refined oil or other vegetable oils. The impurity or admixture of different oils may be assessed from the delta(13)C(16:0) vs. delta(13)C(18:1) covariations. The fatty acid compositions of Slovenian and Croatian olive oils are compared with those from the most important Mediterranean producer countries (Spain, Italy, Greece, and France).

  6. Biobased polyurethanes prepared from different vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaoqun; Madbouly, Samy A; Kessler, Michael R

    2015-01-21

    In this study, a series of biobased polyols were prepared from olive, canola, grape seed, linseed, and castor oil using a novel, solvent/catalyst-free synthetic method. The biobased triglyceride oils were first oxidized into epoxidized vegetable oils with formic acid and hydrogen peroxide, followed by ring-opening reaction with castor oil fatty acid. The molecular structures of the polyols and the resulting polyurethane were characterized. The effects of cross-linking density and the structures of polyols on the thermal, mechanical, and shape memory properties of the polyurethanes were also investigated.

  7. Biobased polyurethanes prepared from different vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaoqun; Madbouly, Samy A; Kessler, Michael R

    2015-01-21

    In this study, a series of biobased polyols were prepared from olive, canola, grape seed, linseed, and castor oil using a novel, solvent/catalyst-free synthetic method. The biobased triglyceride oils were first oxidized into epoxidized vegetable oils with formic acid and hydrogen peroxide, followed by ring-opening reaction with castor oil fatty acid. The molecular structures of the polyols and the resulting polyurethane were characterized. The effects of cross-linking density and the structures of polyols on the thermal, mechanical, and shape memory properties of the polyurethanes were also investigated. PMID:25541678

  8. 19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. 10.56 Section... Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings 1509.10.20, 1509.10.40, 1509.90.20, 1509.90.40,...

  9. 21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30... Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with... used on an interim basis as a stabilizer for flavoring oils used in fruit-flavored beverages, for...

  10. 21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30... Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with... used on an interim basis as a stabilizer for flavoring oils used in fruit-flavored beverages, for...

  11. 21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30... Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with... used on an interim basis as a stabilizer for flavoring oils used in fruit-flavored beverages, for...

  12. 19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. 10.56 Section... Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings 1509.10.20, 1509.10.40, 1509.90.20, 1509.90.40,...

  13. 21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30... Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with... used on an interim basis as a stabilizer for flavoring oils used in fruit-flavored beverages, for...

  14. 19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. 10.56 Section... Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings 1509.10.20, 1509.10.40, 1509.90.20, 1509.90.40,...

  15. 19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. 10.56 Section... Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings 1509.10.20, 1509.10.40, 1509.90.20, 1509.90.40,...

  16. 19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. 10.56 Section... Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings 1509.10.20, 1509.10.40, 1509.90.20, 1509.90.40,...

  17. Screening emissions of high oleic vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This article describes tests of a high oleic safflower oil for use as a fuel in diesel engines. Test included looking at the following: costs with reformulated diesel fuels or other benefits; reduction of particulate emissions by at least 14 percent; reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions; use without causing engine deposits and other problems. Results are given on emissions of high oleic vegetable oils, and commercial opportunities are discussed briefly.

  18. Alloy performance in high temperature oil refining environments

    SciTech Connect

    Sorell, G.; Humphries, M.J.; McLaughlin, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    The performance of steels and alloys in high temperature petroleum refining applications is strongly influenced by detrimental interactions with aggressive process environments. These are encountered in conventional refining processes and especially in processing schemes for fuels conversion and upgrading. Metal-environment interactions can shorten equipment life and cause impairment of mechanical properties, metallurgical stability and weldability. Corrosion and other high temperature attack modes discussed are sulfidation, hydrogen attack, carburization, and metal dusting. Sulfidation is characterized by bulky scales that are generally ineffective corrosion barriers. Metal loss is often accompanied by sub-surface sulfide penetration. Hydrogen attack and carburization proceed without metal loss and are detectable only by metallographic examination. In advanced stages, these deterioration modes cause severe impairment of mechanical properties. Harmful metal-environment interactions are characterized and illustrated with data drawn from test exposures and plant experience. Alloys employed for high temperature oil refining equipment are identified, including some promising newcomers.

  19. Refining and separation of crude tall-oil components

    SciTech Connect

    Nogueira, J.M.F.

    1996-10-01

    Methods for crude tall-oil refining and fractionation evolving research studies of long-chain fatty and resinic acids separation are reviewed. Although several techniques have been applied since the 1940s with industrial aims, only distillation under high vacuum is economically practicable for crude tall-oil fractionation. Techniques such as adsorption and dissociation extraction seem to be the most industrially promising for implementation in the future for the separation of long-chain fatty and resinic acids fractions with a high purity level at low cost.

  20. Properties of Canadian re-refined base oils

    SciTech Connect

    Strigner, P.L.

    1980-11-01

    The Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory of NRC (Canada) has been examining for over 10 years, as a service, the properties of base stocks made by Canadian re-refiners. Nineteen samples of acid/clay processed base stocks from six Canadian re-refiners were examined. When well re-refined, the base stocks have excellent properties including a good response to anti-oxidants and a high degree of cleanliness. Since traces of additives and/or polar compounds do remain, the quality of the base stocks is judged to be slightly inferior to that of comparable virgin refined base stocks. Some suggested specification limits for various properties and some indication of batch-to-batch consistency were obtained. Any usage of the limits should be done with caution, e.g., sulfur, bearing in mind the rapidly changing crude oil picture and engine and machine technology leading to oil products of differing compositions. Certainly modifications are in order; it may even be desirable to have grades of base stocks.

  1. [Quality of the various vegetable oils available on the Polish market].

    PubMed

    Rutkowska, Jarosława; Zbikowska, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was the examination of the quality of 17 different vegetable oils (13 refined and 4 extra virgin olive oils) available on the domestic market. The quality of oils was expressed by the following factors: conformity of fatty acid composition that as declared by manufacturer, content of oxidation products (PV, AnV, Totox), content of free fatty acids (LK) and oxidative stability. It was found that 40% of oils did not comply with the requirements concerning oxidative stability. The fatty acid composition of only 1 oil out of 17 investigated did not comply with the declaration by manufacturer. The oxidative stabilities of extra vergin olive oils: 6.44-8.24 hrs., were considerably higher that of other refined oils 2.34 to 8.24 hrs. PMID:18246656

  2. Enzymatic Biodiesel Synthesis Using a Byproduct Obtained from Palm Oil Refining

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Corrêa, Igor Nascentes; Lorena de Souza, Susana; Catran, Marly; Bernardes, Otávio Luiz; Portilho, Márcio Figueiredo; Langone, Marta Antunes Pereira

    2011-01-01

    An alternative route to produce biodiesel is based on esterification of free fatty acids present in byproducts obtained from vegetable oil refining, such as palm oil fatty acid distillate (PFAD). PFAD is a byproduct of the production of edible palm oil, which contains 96 wt.% of free fatty acids. The purpose of this work was to study biodiesel synthesis via esterification of PFAD with methanol and ethanol, catalyzed by commercial immobilized lipases (Novozym 435, Lipozyme RM-IM, and Lipozyme TL-IM), in a solvent-free system. The effects of reaction parameters such as type of lipase, enzyme amount, type of alcohol, alcohol amount, and enzyme reuse were studied. Fatty acid conversion of 93% was obtained after 2.5 h of esterification reaction between PFAD and ethanol using 1.0 wt.% of Novozym 435 at 60°C. PMID:21687622

  3. 21 CFR 180.30 - Brominated vegetable oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brominated vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30... Requirements for Certain Food Additives § 180.30 Brominated vegetable oil. The food additive brominated vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The...

  4. Vegetable Oil: Nutritional and Industrial Perspective.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Aruna; Sharma, Aarti; Upadhyaya, Kailash C

    2016-06-01

    Oils of plant origin have been predominantly used for food-based applications. Plant oils not only represent a non-polluting renewable resource but also provide a wide diversity in fatty acids (FAs) composition with diverse applications. Besides being edible, they are now increasingly being used in industrial applications such as paints, lubricants, soaps, biofuels etc. In addition, plants can be engineered to produce fatty acids which are nutritionally beneficial to human health. Thus these oils have potential to 1) substitute ever increasing demand of non -renewable petroleum sources for industrial application and 2) also spare the marine life by providing an alternative source to nutritionally and medically important long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids or 'Fish oil'. The biochemical pathways producing storage oils in plants have been extensively characterized, but the factors regulating fatty acid synthesis and controlling total oil content in oilseed crops are still poorly understood. Thus understanding of plant lipid metabolism is fundamental to its manipulation and increased production. This review on oils discusses fatty acids of nutritional and industrial importance, and approaches for achieving future designer vegetable oil for both edible and non-edible uses. The review will discuss the success and bottlenecks in efficient production of novel FAs in non-native plants using genetic engineering as a tool.

  5. Vegetable Oil: Nutritional and Industrial Perspective.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Aruna; Sharma, Aarti; Upadhyaya, Kailash C

    2016-06-01

    Oils of plant origin have been predominantly used for food-based applications. Plant oils not only represent a non-polluting renewable resource but also provide a wide diversity in fatty acids (FAs) composition with diverse applications. Besides being edible, they are now increasingly being used in industrial applications such as paints, lubricants, soaps, biofuels etc. In addition, plants can be engineered to produce fatty acids which are nutritionally beneficial to human health. Thus these oils have potential to 1) substitute ever increasing demand of non -renewable petroleum sources for industrial application and 2) also spare the marine life by providing an alternative source to nutritionally and medically important long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids or 'Fish oil'. The biochemical pathways producing storage oils in plants have been extensively characterized, but the factors regulating fatty acid synthesis and controlling total oil content in oilseed crops are still poorly understood. Thus understanding of plant lipid metabolism is fundamental to its manipulation and increased production. This review on oils discusses fatty acids of nutritional and industrial importance, and approaches for achieving future designer vegetable oil for both edible and non-edible uses. The review will discuss the success and bottlenecks in efficient production of novel FAs in non-native plants using genetic engineering as a tool. PMID:27252590

  6. Practical aspects of analyzing vegetable oils in fire debris.

    PubMed

    Schwenk, Lisa M; Reardon, Michelle R

    2009-07-01

    Vegetable oils undergo burning, self-heating, and spontaneous ignition, resulting in their presence in fire debris. As these processes can affect the fatty acid content of vegetable oils, it is important that debris be properly handled in order to obtain reliable and informative data. This research investigated changes in vegetable oil content as a result of storage conditions and different types of burning. Material spiked with vegetable oils and burned was stored under various long-term conditions, and debris was tested by heating overnight using passive headspace concentration. Results indicated that refrigeration is ideal for fire debris samples suspected of containing vegetable oils and that including passive headspace concentration in the analytical scheme would not affect oils. Spontaneous ignition experiments were conducted to compare the effects of various burning processes on vegetable oil content. Vegetable oils that experienced nonpiloted ignition, self-heating, and spontaneous ignition produced noticeably different chromatograms from those that underwent piloted ignition.

  7. Assessment of the radiological impact of oil refining industry.

    PubMed

    Bakr, W F

    2010-03-01

    The field of radiation protection and corresponding national and international regulations has evolved to ensure safety in the use of radioactive materials. Oil and gas production processing operations have been known to cause naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) to accumulate at elevated concentrations as by-product waste streams. A comprehensive radiological study on the oil refining industry in Egypt was carried out to assess the radiological impact of this industry on the workers. Scales, sludge, water and crude oil samples were collected at each stage of the refining process. The activity concentration of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were determined using high-resolution gamma spectrometry. The average activity concentrations of the determined isotopes are lower than the IAEA exempt activity levels for NORM isotopes. Different exposure scenarios were studied. The average annual effective dose for workers due to direct exposure to gamma radiation and dust inhalation found to be 0.6 microSv and 3.2 mSv, respectively. Based on the ALARA principle, the results indicate that special care must be taken during cleaning operations in order to reduce the personnel's exposure due to maintenance as well as to avoid contamination of the environment.

  8. Vegetable oils as fuel alternatives - symposium overview

    SciTech Connect

    Pryde, E.H.

    1984-10-01

    Several encouraging statements can be made about the use of vegetable oil products as fuel as a result of the information presented in these symposium papers. Vegetable oil ester fuels have the greatest promise, but further engine endurance tests will be required. These can be carried out best by the engine manufacturers. Microemulsions appear to have promise, but more research and engine testing will be necessary before performance equivalent to the ester fuels can be developed. Such research effort can be justified because microemulsification is a rather uncomplicated physical process and might be adaptable to on-farm operations, which would be doubtful for the more involved transesterfication process. Although some answers have been provided by this symposium, others are still not available; engine testing is continuing throughout the world particularly in those countries that do not have access to petroleum. 9 references.

  9. Vegetable Oil from Leaves and Stems: Vegetative Production of Oil in a C4 Crop

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: Arcadia Biosciences, in collaboration with the University of California-Davis, is developing plants that produce vegetable oil in their leaves and stems. Ordinarily, these oils are produced in seeds, but Arcadia Biosciences is turning parts of the plant that are not usually harvested into a source of concentrated energy. Vegetable oil is a concentrated source of energy that plants naturally produce and is easily separated after harvest. Arcadia Biosciences will isolate traits that control oil production in seeds and transfer them into leaves and stems so that all parts of the plants are oil-rich at harvest time. After demonstrating these traits in a fast-growing model plant, Arcadia Biosciences will incorporate them into a variety of dedicated biofuel crops that can be grown on land not typically suited for food production

  10. Transesterification of vegetable oils for fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Kusy, P.F.

    1982-01-01

    A continuous procedure was developed and tested, in a stepwise manner, for the transesterification of soybean and sunflower oils using ethanol. Good yields of ethyl soyate and sunflowerate were achieved, and the products made agreed very closely with those made by a direct esterification of the acids of vegetable oils and ethanol. The viscosity of the esters was considerably less than that of the oils and more nearly like that of diesel fuel. Because the ethyl soyate and sunflowerate have many components which solidify at relatively high temperatures, cloud points of the fuels are about 8 to 12/sup 0/C, which indicates they would not be readily usable at or below that temperature without dilution with No. 1 or No. 2 diesel fuel and/or the addition of additives. 3 figures, 7 tables.

  11. Production and characterization of refined oils obtained from Indian oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps).

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Joseph, Deepu

    2015-01-28

    Crude Sardinella longiceps oil was refined in different stages such as degumming, neutralization, bleaching, and deodorization. The efficiency of these processes was evaluated on the basis of free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide (PV), p-anisidine (pAV), total oxidation (TOTOX), thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) values, Lovibond CIE-L*a*b* color analyses, and (1)H NMR or GC-MS experiments. The utilities of NMR-based proton signal characteristics as new analytical tools to understand the signature peaks and relative abundance of different fatty acids and monitoring the refining process of fish oil have been demonstrated. Phosphoric acid (1%) was found to be an effective degumming reagent to obtain oil with the lowest FFA, PV, pAV, TOTOX, and TBARS values and highest color reduction. Significant reduction in the contents of hydrocarbon functionalities as shown by the decrease in proton integral in the characteristic (1)H NMR region was demonstrated by using 1% H3PO4 during the course of the degumming process. A combination (1.25:3.75%) of activated charcoal and Fuller's earth at 3% concentration for a stirring time of 40 min was found to be effective in bleaching the sardine oil. This study demonstrated that unfavorable odor-causing components, particularly low molecular weight carbonyl compounds, could successfully be removed by the refining process. The alkane-dienals/alkanes, which cause unfavorable fishy odors, were successfully removed by distillation (100 °C) under vacuum with aqueous acetic acid solution (0.25 N) to obtain greater quality of refined sardine oil, a rich source of essential fatty acids and improved oxidative stability. The present study demonstrated that the four-stage refinement process of sardine oil resulted in a significant improvement in quality characteristics and nutritional values, particularly n-3 PUFAs, with improved fish oil characteristics for use in the pharmaceutical and functional food industries. PMID:25547196

  12. Thioether-functionalized vegetable oils: Metal-absorbing biobased ligands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oils containing thioether groups have been synthesized and used to effectively remove a heavy metal ion from an aqueous solution. The use of thioether-functionalized corn oil (TF-corn oil) and thioether-functionalized canola oil (TF-canola oil) were both effective in the extraction of Ag+ ...

  13. Thermal stabilized vegetable oil extended diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, W.M.; Lachowicz, D.R.

    1986-03-11

    A middle distillate fuel composition is described comprising: (a) a major portion of a middle distillate containing a hydrocarbon boiling in the middle distillate boiling range; (b) an extending portion of a vegetable oil; and (c) an effective thermal-stabilizing amount of a nitrogen-containing polymer prepared by reacting an ethylene/propylene copolymer with maleic anhydride, thereby forming a succinic anhydride, reacting the succinic anhydride, with an alcohol, thereby forming a succinate ester while leaving a portion of the succinic anhydride unreacted, and, reacting the succinate ester and the unreacted succinic anhydride with dimethylaminopropylamine, thereby forming a nitrogen-containing polymer.

  14. Novel Bioplastics and biocomposites from Vegetable Oils

    SciTech Connect

    Henna, Phillip H.

    2008-01-01

    there are three degrees of unsaturation. In addition, the double bonds are not in conjugation. Table 1 gives the fatty acid make-up of linseed oil. It can be seen that linseed oil has an average of 6.0 double bonds per triglyceride. Its fatty acid content consists of 5.4% palmitic acid (C16:0), 3.5% stearic acid (C18:0), 19% oleic acid (C18:1), 24 % linoleic acid (C18:2) and 47% linolenic (C18:3). Table 1 also gives the fatty acid composition and varying degrees of unsaturation for various other naturally-occurring natural vegetable oils. The regions of unsaturation in natural oils allow for interesting polymer chemistry to take place. Some of this interesting polymer science, however, involves chemical modification of the regions of unsaturation. Acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) is prepared by epoxidation of the double bonds, followed by ring opening with acrylic acid. The resulting oil has both acrylate groups and hydroxyl groups. Wool and colleagues have further reacted the hydroxyl groups within the oil with maleic anhydride to produce maleated acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (MAESO). The MAESO has been copolymerized with styrene free radically to produce promising thermosetting sheet molding resins. Petrovi? and co-workers have directly ring opened the epoxidized oil to produce polyols that produce promising polyurethanes through condensation polymerization with diisocyanates. Our group's work initially focused on direct cationic copolymerization of the double bonds or conjugated double bonds of natural oils with monomers, such as styrene and divinylbenzene, to produce promising thermosetting resins. The only modification of the oils that was carried out in these studies was conjugation of the double bonds to enhance the reactivity of the oil. This work has been expanded recently with the incorporation of glass fiber to produce promising composites. We have also explored thermal polymerization techniques to make novel thermosets. This dissertation is

  15. Viscosity of Common Seed and Vegetable Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wes Fountain, C.; Jennings, Jeanne; McKie, Cheryl K.; Oakman, Patrice; Fetterolf, Monty L.

    1997-02-01

    Viscosity experiments using Ostwald-type gravity flow viscometers are not new to the physical chemistry laboratory. Several physical chemistry laboratory texts (1 - 3) contain at least one experiment studying polymer solutions or other well-defined systems. Several recently published articles (4 - 8) indicated the continued interest in using viscosity measurements in the teaching lab to illustrate molecular interpretation of bulk phenomena. Most of these discussions and teaching experiments are designed around an extensive theory of viscous flow and models of molecular shape that allow a full data interpretation to be attempted. This approach to viscosity experiments may not be appropriate for all teaching situations (e.g., high schools, general chemistry labs, and nonmajor physical chemistry labs). A viscosity experiment is presented here that is designed around common seed and vegetable oils. With the importance of viscosity to foodstuffs (9) and the importance of fatty acids to nutrition (10), an experiment using these common, recognizable oils has broad appeal.

  16. Vegetable oil or diesel fuel-a flexible option

    SciTech Connect

    Suda, K.J.

    1984-01-01

    Vegetable oils provide diesel engine performance similar to that obtained with diesel fuel, and this has been documented in many prior publications. Because they are potentially interchangeable with diesel fuel, interest has focused on vegetable oils as short-range alternate fuels. However, engine durability when burning vegetable oils may be adversely affected depending on the type of combustion system employed. Laboratory and field experimental tests have identified the prechamber engine as having the greatest short-range potential for using vegetable oil fuels.

  17. Antioxidant effects of pH-regulating agents on the thermal deterioration of vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Endo, Yasushi; Yamadera, Yuki; Tsukui, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    pH-Regulating agents, such as sodium tartrate, disodium succinate, and trisodium citrate, were investigated for their antioxidant activities during the thermal deterioration of vegetable oils. Refined rapeseed and rice bran oils, supplemented with pH-regulating agents and α-tocopherol (0.1%) were heated at 180℃. After heating, acid values (AVs), carbonyl values (CVs), polar material contents, and color (absorbance at 420 nm) of each sample were measured. All pH-regulating agents gave rise to reduced AVs, CVs, and polar material contents of vegetable oils during heating relative to samples not containing a pHregulating agent. Rapeseed and rice bran oils supplemented with sodium tartrate showed the lowest AVs, CVs, polar material contents and absorbances at 420 nm after heating. Sodium tartrate not only retarded the hydrolysis, thermal oxidation, polymerization, and coloration of both oils while heating at high temperatures, but it also showed antioxidant activity at the supplementation level of 0.01%. The antioxidant activity of sodium tartrate was higher than that of α-tocopherol during the deterioration of vegetable oils. Sodium tartrate was particularly effective retarding hydrolysis while heating at high temperatures, resulting in increase of AVs of vegetable oils. Sodium tartrate is therefore expected to be an effective antioxidant for the thermal deterioration of fats and oils during deep-fat frying.

  18. Gas chromatographic characterization of vegetable oil deodorization distillate.

    PubMed

    Verleyen, T; Verhe, R; Garcia, L; Dewettinck, K; Huyghebaert, A; De Greyt, W

    2001-07-01

    Because of its complex nature, the analysis of deodorizer distillate is a challenging problem. Deodorizer distillate obtained from the deodorization process of vegetable oils consists of many components including free fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, squalene and neutral oil. A gas chromatographic method for the analysis of deodorizer distillate without saponification of the sample is described. After a concise sample preparation including derivatization and silylation, distillate samples were injected on column at 60 degrees C followed by a gradual increase of the oven temperature towards 340 degrees C. The temperature profile of the oven was optimized in order to obtain a baseline separation of the different distillate components including free fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, squalene and neutral oil. Good recoveries for delta-tocopherol, alpha-tocopherol, stigmasterol and cholesteryl palmitate of 97, 94.4, 95.6 and 92%, respectively were obtained. Repeatability of the described gas chromatographic method was evaluated by analyzing five replicates of a soybean distillate. Tocopherols and sterols had low relative standard deviations ranging between 1.67 and 2.25%. Squalene, mono- and diacylglycerides had higher relative standard deviations ranging between 3.33 and 4.12%. Several industrial deodorizer distillates obtained from chemical and physical refining of corn, canola, sunflower and soybean have been analyzed for their composition.

  19. Gas chromatographic characterization of vegetable oil deodorization distillate.

    PubMed

    Verleyen, T; Verhe, R; Garcia, L; Dewettinck, K; Huyghebaert, A; De Greyt, W

    2001-07-01

    Because of its complex nature, the analysis of deodorizer distillate is a challenging problem. Deodorizer distillate obtained from the deodorization process of vegetable oils consists of many components including free fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, squalene and neutral oil. A gas chromatographic method for the analysis of deodorizer distillate without saponification of the sample is described. After a concise sample preparation including derivatization and silylation, distillate samples were injected on column at 60 degrees C followed by a gradual increase of the oven temperature towards 340 degrees C. The temperature profile of the oven was optimized in order to obtain a baseline separation of the different distillate components including free fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, squalene and neutral oil. Good recoveries for delta-tocopherol, alpha-tocopherol, stigmasterol and cholesteryl palmitate of 97, 94.4, 95.6 and 92%, respectively were obtained. Repeatability of the described gas chromatographic method was evaluated by analyzing five replicates of a soybean distillate. Tocopherols and sterols had low relative standard deviations ranging between 1.67 and 2.25%. Squalene, mono- and diacylglycerides had higher relative standard deviations ranging between 3.33 and 4.12%. Several industrial deodorizer distillates obtained from chemical and physical refining of corn, canola, sunflower and soybean have been analyzed for their composition. PMID:11471811

  20. Green processing for commercial production of feruloylated vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Covalent incorporation of ferulic acid into vegetable oils produces a desirable product for cosmetic applications. Current practice involves the biocatalytic transesterification of ethyl ferulate with soybean oil, followed by a molecular distillation step to remove unconsumed ethyl ferulate and the...

  1. Differential scanning calorimetry study--assessing the influence of composition of vegetable oils on oxidation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Baokun; Zhang, Qiaozhi; Sui, Xiaonan; Wang, Zhongjiang; Li, Yang; Jiang, Lianzhou

    2016-03-01

    The thermal oxidation of eight different vegetable oils was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) under non-isothermal conditions at five different heating rates (5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, and 15°C/min), in a temperature range of 100-400°C. For all oils, the activation energy (Ea) values at Tp were smaller than that at Ts and Ton. Among all the oils, refined palm oil (RPO) exhibited the highest Ea values, 126.06kJ/mol at Ts, 134.7kJ/mol at Ton, and 91.88kJ/mol at Tp. The Ea and reaction rate constant (k) values at Ts, Ton, and Tp were further correlated with oil compositions (fatty acids and triacylglycerols) using Pearson correlation analysis. The rate constant (k) and Ea of all oils exhibited varying correlations with FAs and TAGs, indicating that the thermal oxidation behaviors were affected by oil compositions.

  2. Upgrading and Refining of Crude Oils and Petroleum Products by Ionizing Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zaikin, Yuriy A; Zaikina, Raissa F

    2016-06-01

    A general trend in the oil industry is a decrease in the proven reserves of light crude oils so that any increase in future oil exploration is associated with high-viscous sulfuric oils and bitumen. Although the world reserves of heavy oil are much greater than those of sweet light oils, their exploration at present is less than 12 % of the total oil recovery. One of the main constraints is very high expenses for the existing technologies of heavy oil recovery, upgrading, transportation, and refining. Heavy oil processing by conventional methods is difficult and requires high power inputs and capital investments. Effective and economic processing of high viscous oil and oil residues needs not only improvements of the existing methods, such as thermal, catalytic and hydro-cracking, but the development of new technological approaches for upgrading and refining of any type of problem oil feedstock. One of the perspective approaches to this problem is the application of ionizing irradiation for high-viscous oil processing. Radiation methods for upgrading and refining high-viscous crude oils and petroleum products in a wide temperature range, oil desulfurization, radiation technology for refining used oil products, and a perspective method for gasoline radiation isomerization are discussed in this paper. The advantages of radiation technology are simple configuration of radiation facilities, low capital and operational costs, processing at lowered temperatures and nearly atmospheric pressure without the use of any catalysts, high production rates, relatively low energy consumption, and flexibility to the type of oil feedstock.

  3. Upgrading and Refining of Crude Oils and Petroleum Products by Ionizing Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zaikin, Yuriy A; Zaikina, Raissa F

    2016-06-01

    A general trend in the oil industry is a decrease in the proven reserves of light crude oils so that any increase in future oil exploration is associated with high-viscous sulfuric oils and bitumen. Although the world reserves of heavy oil are much greater than those of sweet light oils, their exploration at present is less than 12 % of the total oil recovery. One of the main constraints is very high expenses for the existing technologies of heavy oil recovery, upgrading, transportation, and refining. Heavy oil processing by conventional methods is difficult and requires high power inputs and capital investments. Effective and economic processing of high viscous oil and oil residues needs not only improvements of the existing methods, such as thermal, catalytic and hydro-cracking, but the development of new technological approaches for upgrading and refining of any type of problem oil feedstock. One of the perspective approaches to this problem is the application of ionizing irradiation for high-viscous oil processing. Radiation methods for upgrading and refining high-viscous crude oils and petroleum products in a wide temperature range, oil desulfurization, radiation technology for refining used oil products, and a perspective method for gasoline radiation isomerization are discussed in this paper. The advantages of radiation technology are simple configuration of radiation facilities, low capital and operational costs, processing at lowered temperatures and nearly atmospheric pressure without the use of any catalysts, high production rates, relatively low energy consumption, and flexibility to the type of oil feedstock. PMID:27573274

  4. 30 CFR 1208.4 - Royalty oil sales to eligible refiners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... crude oil market conditions from time to time. The evaluation will include, among other things, the availability of crude oil and the crude oil requirements of the Federal Government, primarily those... will determine whether eligible refiners have access to adequate supplies of crude oil and whether...

  5. Detection of Adulterated Vegetable Oils Containing Waste Cooking Oils Based on the Contents and Ratios of Cholesterol, β-Sitosterol, and Campesterol by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haixiang; Wang, Yongli; Xu, Xiuli; Ren, Heling; Li, Li; Xiang, Li; Zhong, Weike

    2015-01-01

    A simple and accurate authentication method for the detection of adulterated vegetable oils that contain waste cooking oil (WCO) was developed. This method is based on the determination of cholesterol, β-sitosterol, and campesterol in vegetable oils and WCO by GC/MS without any derivatization. A total of 148 samples involving 12 types of vegetable oil and WCO were analyzed. According to the results, the contents and ratios of cholesterol, β-sitosterol, and campesterol were found to be criteria for detecting vegetable oils adulterated with WCO. This method could accurately detect adulterated vegetable oils containing 5% refined WCO. The developed method has been successfully applied to multilaboratory analysis of 81 oil samples. Seventy-five samples were analyzed correctly, and only six adulterated samples could not be detected. This method could not yet be used for detection of vegetable oils adulterated with WCO that are used for frying non-animal foods. It provides a quick method for detecting adulterated edible vegetable oils containing WCO.

  6. Detection of Adulterated Vegetable Oils Containing Waste Cooking Oils Based on the Contents and Ratios of Cholesterol, β-Sitosterol, and Campesterol by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Haixiang; Wang, Yongli; Xu, Xiuli; Ren, Heling; Li, Li; Xiang, Li; Zhong, Weike

    2015-01-01

    A simple and accurate authentication method for the detection of adulterated vegetable oils that contain waste cooking oil (WCO) was developed. This method is based on the determination of cholesterol, β-sitosterol, and campesterol in vegetable oils and WCO by GC/MS without any derivatization. A total of 148 samples involving 12 types of vegetable oil and WCO were analyzed. According to the results, the contents and ratios of cholesterol, β-sitosterol, and campesterol were found to be criteria for detecting vegetable oils adulterated with WCO. This method could accurately detect adulterated vegetable oils containing 5% refined WCO. The developed method has been successfully applied to multilaboratory analysis of 81 oil samples. Seventy-five samples were analyzed correctly, and only six adulterated samples could not be detected. This method could not yet be used for detection of vegetable oils adulterated with WCO that are used for frying non-animal foods. It provides a quick method for detecting adulterated edible vegetable oils containing WCO. PMID:26651578

  7. Sedimentation Of Oil-MIneral Aggregates For Remediation Of Vegetable Oil Spills

    EPA Science Inventory

    A response alternative for floating vegetable oil spills based on sedimentation of negatively buoyant oil-mineral aggregrates followed by anaerobic biodegradation in the sediments is under investigation. Sedimentation of floating canola oil by interaction with montmorillonite wa...

  8. The carcinogenic potential of twelve refined mineral oils following long-term topical application.

    PubMed Central

    Doak, S. M.; Brown, V. K.; Hunt, P. F.; Smith, J. D.; Roe, F. J.

    1983-01-01

    Twelve mineral oils, originating from naphthenic and paraffinic stocks and variously refined, were evaluated for their potential to induce cutaneous neoplasia in female CF1 mice. The oils were applied to the shorn dorsal skin for up to 78 weeks, using several different treatment regimes. The sole acid/earth refined naphthenic spindle oil was a moderately potent cutaneous carcinogen. By comparison, the 11 oils, processed by other refining routes, were less carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic to murine skin. Two of the 11 oils were weak cutaneous carcinogens viz, a naphthenic spindle oil refined only by mild hydrotreatment and a paraffinic spindle oil refined by mild solvent extraction and 'Ferrofining'. All 9 remaining oils had been solvent-extracted as part of the secondary refining process; none induced malignant tumours, although solitary benign tumours of the treated site were recorded after exposure to 3 oils. The cutaneous carcinogenic potential of the test oils did not correlate well with their potential to induce epidermal hyperplasia at the treated site. Consequently, hyperplasia caused after short term exposure is of little value for distinguishing between carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic oils. PMID:6615701

  9. Vegetable-oil-based polymers as future polymeric biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Miao, Shida; Wang, Ping; Su, Zhiguo; Zhang, Songping

    2014-04-01

    Vegetable oils are one of the most important classes of bio-resources for producing polymeric materials. The main components of vegetable oils are triglycerides - esters of glycerol with three fatty acids. Several highly reactive sites including double bonds, allylic positions and the ester groups are present in triglycerides from which a great variety of polymers with different structures and functionalities can be prepared. Vegetable-oil-based polyurethane, polyester, polyether and polyolefin are the four most important classes of polymers, many of which have excellent biocompatibilities and unique properties including shape memory. In view of these characteristics, vegetable-oil-based polymers play an important role in biomaterials and have attracted increasing attention from the polymer community. Here we comprehensively review recent developments in the preparation of vegetable-oil-based polyurethane, polyester, polyether and polyolefin, all of which have potential applications as biomaterials.

  10. Influence of deep frying on the unsaponifiable fraction of vegetable edible oils enriched with natural antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Mara I; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Luque de Castro, Maria D

    2011-07-13

    The influence of deep frying, mimicked by 20 heating cycles at 180 °C (each cycle from ambient temperature to 180 °C maintained for 5 min), on the unsaponifiable fraction of vegetable edible oils represented by three characteristic families of compounds (namely, phytosterols, aliphatic alcohols, and triterpenic compounds) has been studied. The target oils were extra virgin olive oil (with intrinsic content of phenolic antioxidants), refined sunflower oil enriched with antioxidant phenolic compounds isolated from olive pomace, refined sunflower oil enriched with an autoxidation inhibitor (dimethylpolysiloxane), and refined sunflower oil without enrichment. Monitoring of the target analytes as a function of both heating cycle and the presence of natural antioxidants was also evaluated by comparison of the profiles after each heating cycle. Identification and quantitation of the target compounds were performed by gas cromatography-mass spectrometry in single ion monitoring mode. Analysis of the heated oils revealed that the addition of natural antioxidants could be an excellent strategy to decrease degradation of lipidic components of the unsaponifiable fraction with the consequent improvement of stability.

  11. Re-refined lubrication oils. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning treatments and re-refining of used lubrication oils. Topics include the decontamination processes, reclamation of automobile oils, and handling and storage of waste oils. Environmental analyses of used oil recycling are included. Environmental, resource conservation, and economic aspects of recycled lubricating oils are also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. Performance of vegetable oils as a heat treat quenchant

    SciTech Connect

    Honary, L.A.T.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to establish as a reference the base line performance of several vegetable oils as a quench medium. Furthermore, the project was funded by the Iowa Soybean Promotion Board to investigate the potential use of soybean oil as a quench medium. Several commodity and genetically modified seed oils (high oleic) were first tested in a {open_quotes}quenchalizer{close_quotes}. Also, 300 pieces of SAE 1524 steel bars were heat treated and quenched in a chemically modified (partially hydrogenated) soybean oil and in a control (paraffin) oil. Results included changes in the oil in terms of viscosity and cooling rate and in the steel in terms of hardness. Vegetable oils can perform as quench media, but they would require treatment to improve oxidative stability among others. Advantages of vegetable-based quenchants include: renewability, environmental-friendliness and potential benefits in terms of human safety and higher flash point.

  13. Effect of the refining process on Moringa oleifera seed oil quality.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Núñez-Gastélum, José A; Servín de la Mora-López, Gabriela; López-Hernández, Julia; Paseiro-Losada, Perfecto

    2015-11-15

    We evaluated the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of the oil extracted from the seeds of Moringa oleifera during its refining process. Refining is accomplished in three stages: neutralization, degumming, and bleaching. Four samples were analyzed, corresponding to each step of the processed and crude oil. Increases in the density, viscosity, saponification value and oxidation of the oil were detected during the refining, while the peroxide value and carotenoid content diminished. Moreover, the refractive index and iodine content were stable throughout the refining. Nine fatty acids were detected in all four samples, and there were no significant differences in their composition. Oleic acid was found in the largest amount, followed by palmitic acid and behenic acid. The crude, neutralized, and degummed oils showed high primary oxidation stability, while the bleached oil had a low incidence of secondary oxidation.

  14. Effect of the refining process on Moringa oleifera seed oil quality.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Machado, Dalia I; López-Cervantes, Jaime; Núñez-Gastélum, José A; Servín de la Mora-López, Gabriela; López-Hernández, Julia; Paseiro-Losada, Perfecto

    2015-11-15

    We evaluated the physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of the oil extracted from the seeds of Moringa oleifera during its refining process. Refining is accomplished in three stages: neutralization, degumming, and bleaching. Four samples were analyzed, corresponding to each step of the processed and crude oil. Increases in the density, viscosity, saponification value and oxidation of the oil were detected during the refining, while the peroxide value and carotenoid content diminished. Moreover, the refractive index and iodine content were stable throughout the refining. Nine fatty acids were detected in all four samples, and there were no significant differences in their composition. Oleic acid was found in the largest amount, followed by palmitic acid and behenic acid. The crude, neutralized, and degummed oils showed high primary oxidation stability, while the bleached oil had a low incidence of secondary oxidation. PMID:25976997

  15. Implications of Increasing Light Tight Oil Production for U.S. Refining

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    EIA retained Turner, Mason & Company to provide analysis of the implications of increasing domestic light tight oil production for U.S. refining, focusing on regional crude supply/demand balances, refinery crude slates, operations, capital investment, product yields, crude oil exports/imports, petroleum product exports, infrastructure constraints and expansions, and crude oil price relationships.

  16. Carcinogenicity of petroleum lubricating oil distillates: effects of solvent refining, hydroprocessing, and blending.

    PubMed

    Halder, C A; Warne, T M; Little, R Q; Garvin, P J

    1984-01-01

    Certain refining processes were investigated to determine their influence on the dermal carcinogenic activity of petroleum-derived lubricating oil distillates. Specifically, the effects of solvent refining, hydroprocessing, a combination of both processes, and the blending of oils processed using each technique were evaluated in standard mouse skin-painting bioassays. The refining process used as well as the level or severity of treatment greatly influenced the carcinogenic outcome of processed lubricating oils. Solvent refining at severities normally used appeared to eliminate carcinogenicity. In contrast, hydroprocessing alone at mild levels of treatment was successful only in reducing the carcinogenic potency; severe hydroprocessing conditions were necessary to eliminate carcinogenic activity without the use of additional refining processes. Carcinogenic activity could also be eliminated by following moderate solvent refining with mild hydroprocessing. Blending of hydroprocessed oils with solvent-refined oils resulted in a substantial reduction or even elimination of carcinogenic activity. However, the degree of protection obtained varied with the particular distillates used and appeared largely dependent on the inherent biological activity of the hydroprocessed oil.

  17. [FREQUENTLY USED VEGETABLE OILS IN SOUTH AMERICA: FEATURES AND PROPERTIES].

    PubMed

    Durán Agüero, Samuel; Torres García, Jairo; Sanhueza Catalán, Julio

    2015-07-01

    In recent decades, the consumption of vegetable oils has increased in our society, being an important part of the diet worldwide. South America is a major producer of an important variety of vegetable oils. The composition of vegetable oils is not standard as it varies greatly in the amount of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and particularly in the amounts of omega-6 and omega-3, which are associated with the source either plant species, seed, plant or fruit, providing different nutritional benefits. The purpose of this article is to review and update the data and evidence about the consumption of oils produced and commercialized in South America, such as soybean oil, corn, palm, sunflower, canola and olive oils, and also to determine health effects from studies related with the topic.

  18. Quantum chemical study of the isomerization of 24-methylenecycloartanol, a potential marker of olive oil refining.

    PubMed

    Wedler, Henry B; Pemberton, Ryan P; Lounnas, Valère; Vriend, Gert; Tantillo, Dean J; Wang, Selina C

    2015-05-01

    Quantum chemical calculations on the isomerization of 24-methylenecycloartanol are described. An energetically viable mechanism, with a rate-determining protonation step, is proposed. This rearrangement may find applicability in tests for determining if an olive oil has been refined.

  19. Vegetable oils: liquid coolants for solar heating and cooling applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ingley, H A

    1980-02-01

    It has been proposed that vegetable oils, renewable byproducts of agriculture processes, be investigated for possible use as liquid coolants. The major thrust of the project was to investigate several thermophysical properties of the four vegetable oils selected. Vapor pressures, specific heat, viscosity, density, and thermal conductivity were determined over a range of temperatures for corn, soybean, peanut, and cottonseed oil. ASTM standard methods were used for these determinations. In addition, chemical analyses were performed on samples of each oil. The samples were collected before and after each experiment so that any changes in composition could be noted. The tests included iodine number, fatty acid, and moisture content determination. (MHR)

  20. Thermal Effusivity of Vegetable Oils Obtained by a Photothermal Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes-Espinosa, L. M.; de L. Castillo-Alvarado, F.; Lara-Hernández, G.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Domínguez-Pacheco, A.

    2014-10-01

    Thermal properties of several vegetable oils such as soy, corn, and avocado commercial oils were obtained by using a photopyroelectric technique. The inverse photopyroelectric configuration was used in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of the oil samples. The theoretical equation for the photopyroelectric signal in this configuration, as a function of the incident light modulation frequency, was fitted to the experimental data in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of these samples. The obtained results are in good agreement with the thermal effusivity reported for other vegetable oils. All measurements were done at room temperature.

  1. Photochemical behavior of sethoxydim in the presence of vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Hossein; Rashed Mohassel, Mohammad Hassan; Parsa, Mehdi; Bannayan-Aval, Mohammad; Zand, Eskandar; Hassanzadeh-Khayyat, Mohammad; Nassirli, Horiyeh

    2014-07-01

    The photodecomposition of herbicides may be affected by adding vegetable oils to the spray tank. In this study nine vegetable oils were compared to assess the photodecomposition of sethoxydim under natural light conditions. The experiment was conducted as completely randomized factorial design with three replicates at the College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013. Each herbicidal solution (with and without vegetable oil) was exposed to sunshine with time intervals of 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min. The results revealed that the half-life value was increased by adding castor bean and cottonseed oils to 1.39- and 1.18-fold, respectively, compared to nonvegetable oil. These values for turnip, olive, corn, soybean, sunflower, canola, and sesame oils were decreased down to 4.74-, 2.38-, 1.81-, 1.75-, 1.52-, 1.28-, and 1.11-fold, respectively. A positive relationship existed between the half-life of sethoxydim in the presence of vegetable oils and their viscosity. However, a negative relationship was monitored between unsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio and the monounsaturated value with half-life. A positive relationship also existed between saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, palmitic acid, and linoleic acid with half-life. This study revealed that the amount of fatty acids in vegetable oils is a determining factor in preventing or facilitating the photodecomposition of sethoxydim.

  2. Photochemical behavior of sethoxydim in the presence of vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Hammami, Hossein; Rashed Mohassel, Mohammad Hassan; Parsa, Mehdi; Bannayan-Aval, Mohammad; Zand, Eskandar; Hassanzadeh-Khayyat, Mohammad; Nassirli, Horiyeh

    2014-07-01

    The photodecomposition of herbicides may be affected by adding vegetable oils to the spray tank. In this study nine vegetable oils were compared to assess the photodecomposition of sethoxydim under natural light conditions. The experiment was conducted as completely randomized factorial design with three replicates at the College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013. Each herbicidal solution (with and without vegetable oil) was exposed to sunshine with time intervals of 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min. The results revealed that the half-life value was increased by adding castor bean and cottonseed oils to 1.39- and 1.18-fold, respectively, compared to nonvegetable oil. These values for turnip, olive, corn, soybean, sunflower, canola, and sesame oils were decreased down to 4.74-, 2.38-, 1.81-, 1.75-, 1.52-, 1.28-, and 1.11-fold, respectively. A positive relationship existed between the half-life of sethoxydim in the presence of vegetable oils and their viscosity. However, a negative relationship was monitored between unsaturated/saturated fatty acids ratio and the monounsaturated value with half-life. A positive relationship also existed between saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, palmitic acid, and linoleic acid with half-life. This study revealed that the amount of fatty acids in vegetable oils is a determining factor in preventing or facilitating the photodecomposition of sethoxydim. PMID:24932839

  3. Analysis of the Triglycerides of Some Vegetable Oils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farines, Marie; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explains that triglycerides consist of a mixture of different compounds, depending on the total number of fatty acid constituents. Details the method and instrumentation necessary for students to analyze a vegetable oil for its triglyceride content. Describes sample results. (CW)

  4. [Three-Iindex-Value Method for Rapid Screening Unqualified Vegetable Oil].

    PubMed

    He, Wen-xuan; Hong, Gui-shui; Fang, Run; Cai, Xian-chun; Huang, Sheng

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, by measuring the A3 005 (representing unsaturation), A985 (representing conjugated fatty acids), A960 + A985 (representing trans-fatty acid ) of southern common vegetable oils (peanut oil, corn oil, canola oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, tea seed oil and olive oil), "waste oil" and overdue vegetable oils, the pass-setting-range of these three index values for the vegetable oils was obtained. On this basis, a method for rapid screening unqualified vegetable oil (expired, adding low-cost oil, adding "waste oil") was established. The method effectively improved the monitoring efficiency of vegetable oil. With this method of screening a number of suspected substandard oils were proved unqualified by determination of fatty acid composition and 11, 12, 13, 17 fatty acid content. Through the combination of several detection methods, the causes for disqualification of vegetable oils can be further inferred. PMID:26197591

  5. [Three-Iindex-Value Method for Rapid Screening Unqualified Vegetable Oil].

    PubMed

    He, Wen-xuan; Hong, Gui-shui; Fang, Run; Cai, Xian-chun; Huang, Sheng

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, by measuring the A3 005 (representing unsaturation), A985 (representing conjugated fatty acids), A960 + A985 (representing trans-fatty acid ) of southern common vegetable oils (peanut oil, corn oil, canola oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, tea seed oil and olive oil), "waste oil" and overdue vegetable oils, the pass-setting-range of these three index values for the vegetable oils was obtained. On this basis, a method for rapid screening unqualified vegetable oil (expired, adding low-cost oil, adding "waste oil") was established. The method effectively improved the monitoring efficiency of vegetable oil. With this method of screening a number of suspected substandard oils were proved unqualified by determination of fatty acid composition and 11, 12, 13, 17 fatty acid content. Through the combination of several detection methods, the causes for disqualification of vegetable oils can be further inferred.

  6. Hypocholesterolemic effect of physically refined rice bran oil: studies of cholesterol metabolism and early atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Ausman, Lynne M; Rong, Ni; Nicolosi, Robert J

    2005-09-01

    Physically refined rice bran oil containing 2-4% nontriglyceride components as compared to other vegetable oils appears to be associated with lipid lowering and antiinflammatory properties in several rodent, primate and human models. These experiments were designed to investigate possible mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic effect of the physically refined rice bran oil and to examine its effect on aortic fatty streak formation. In the first experiment, 30 hamsters were fed, for 8 weeks, chow-based diets plus 0.03% added cholesterol and 5% (wt/wt) coconut, canola, or physically refined rice bran oil (COCO, CANOLA or PRBO animal groups, respectively). Both plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly reduced in PRBO but not in CANOLA relative to COCO. PRBO also showed a significant 15-17% reduction in cholesterol absorption and significant 30% increase in neutral sterol (NS) excretion with no effect on bile acid (BA) excretion. Both CANOLA and PRBO showed a significant 300-500% increase in intestinal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and significant (>25%) decrease in hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activities with respect to COCO. In a second experiment, 36 hamsters were fed chow-based diets with 0.05% added cholesterol, 10% coconut oil and 4% additional COCO, CANOLA or PRBO. Relative to COCO and CANOLA, plasma TC and LDL-C were significantly reduced in PRBO. Early atherosclerosis (fatty streak formation) was significantly reduced (48%) only in PRBO, relative to the other two. These results suggest that the lipid lowering found in PRBO is associated with decreased cholesterol absorption, but not hepatic cholesterol synthesis, and that the decrease in fatty streak formation with this oil may be associated with its nontriglyceride components not present in the other two diets.

  7. Epoxy thermoset networks derived from vegetable oils and their blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Chang; Ravalli, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    Epoxidized vegetable oils (EVOs), such as epoxidized soybean oil and linseed oils were prepared by the partial oxidation of the unsaturated double bonds in vegetable oils and used as monomers for preparing epoxy thermoset materials based on the cationic polymerization. These EVOs have been used to prepare epoxy thermosets of different network densities by cationic polymerization using onium salt catalyst. The crosslinked epoxy thermosets provide an ideal platform to study the structure-property-relationships of networked polymers. In particular, rheological studies on the epoxidized vegetable oil thermosets have been performed to measure the molecular weights between crosslinks (Mx) in the epoxy thermosets and to ultimately elucidate the role of functionality of epoxy groups in EVO on the mechanical and thermophysical properties of the epoxy thermoset materials. NSF DMR POLYMERS 1308617.

  8. Hydrocracking of vacuum gas oil-vegetable oil mixtures for biofuels production.

    PubMed

    Bezergianni, Stella; Kalogianni, Aggeliki; Vasalos, Iacovos A

    2009-06-01

    Hydrocracking of vacuum gas oil (VGO)--vegetable oil mixtures is a prominent process for the production of biofuels. In this work both pre-hydrotreated and non-hydrotreated VGO are assessed whether they are suitable fossil components in a VGO-vegetable oil mixture as feed-stocks to a hydrocracking process. This assessment indicates the necessity of a VGO pre-hydrotreated step prior to hydrocracking the VGO-vegetable oil mixture. Moreover, the comparison of two different mixing ratios suggests that higher vegetable oil content favors hydrocracking product yields and qualities. Three commercial catalysts of different activity are utilized in order to identify a range of products that can be produced via a hydrocracking route. Finally, the effect of temperature on hydrocracking VGO-vegetable oil mixtures is studied in terms of conversion and selectivity to diesel, jet/kerosene and naphtha.

  9. [Fast discrimination of edible vegetable oil based on Raman spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiu-Jun; Dai, Lian-Kui; Li, Sheng

    2012-07-01

    A novel method to fast discriminate edible vegetable oils by Raman spectroscopy is presented. The training set is composed of different edible vegetable oils with known classes. Based on their original Raman spectra, baseline correction and normalization were applied to obtain standard spectra. Two characteristic peaks describing the unsaturated degree of vegetable oil were selected as feature vectors; then the centers of all classes were calculated. For an edible vegetable oil with unknown class, the same pretreatment and feature extraction methods were used. The Euclidian distances between the feature vector of the unknown sample and the center of each class were calculated, and the class of the unknown sample was finally determined by the minimum distance. For 43 edible vegetable oil samples from seven different classes, experimental results show that the clustering effect of each class was more obvious and the class distance was much larger with the new feature extraction method compared with PCA. The above classification model can be applied to discriminate unknown edible vegetable oils rapidly and accurately.

  10. Potential of vegetable oils as a domestic heating fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, A.C.S.; Begin, E.; Palmer, C.E.

    1982-06-01

    The dependence on imported oil for domestic heating has led to the examination of other potential fuel substitutes. One potential fuel is some form of vegetable oil, which could be a yearly-renewable fuel. In Western Canada, canola has become a major oilseed crop; in Eastern Canada, sunflowers increasingly are becoming a source for a similar oil; for this reason, the Canadian Combustion Research Laboratory (CCRL) has chosen these oils for experimentation. Trials have been conducted in a conventional warm air oil furnace, fitted with a flame retention head burner. Performance has been measured with pure vegetable oils as well as a series of blends with conventional No. 2 oil. The effects of increased fuel pressure and fuel preheating are established. Emissions of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, unburned hydrocarbons and particulates are given for both steady state and cyclic operation. Canola oil cannot be fired in cyclic operation above 50:50 blends with No. 2 oil. At any level above a 10% blend, canola is difficult to burn, even with significant increased pressure and temperature. Sunflower oil is much easier to burn and can be fired as a pure fuel, but with high emissions of incomplete combustion products. An optimum blend of 50:50 sunflower in No. 2 oil yields emissions and performance similar to No. 2 oil. This blend offers potential as a means of reducing demand of imported crude oil for domestic heating systems.

  11. A New Approach to Prepare Vegetable Oil-Based Polymers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymers from vegetable oils, such as soybean oil, were prepared by cationic polymerization in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) medium. Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3.OEt2) was selected as catalyst. The resulting polymers have molecular weight ranging from 21,842 to 118,300 g/mol. Nu...

  12. Synthesis and characterization of sulfide modified vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butanethiol was used in ultraviolet-initiated thiol-ene reaction with canola and corn oils to produce sulfide-modified vegetable oils (SMVO). The crude SMVO product was successfully purified by solvent extraction, vacuum evaporation, and silica gel chromatography. The SMVO products were characterize...

  13. 30 CFR 208.4 - Royalty oil sales to eligible refiners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Royalty Oil” required by 30 CFR 208.5. (b) Sale to eligible refiners. (1) Upon a determination by the... of crude oil at equitable prices, the Secretary, at his or her discretion, may elect to take in kind... determined for that oil pursuant to 30 CFR part 206 had the royalties been paid in value rather than taken...

  14. Thermoplastic Starch Films with Vegetable Oils of Brazilian Cerrado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlemmer, D.; Sales, M. J. A.

    2008-08-01

    Biodegradable polymers are one of the most promising ways to replace non-degradable polymers. TPS films were prepared by casting from cassava starch and three different vegetable oils of Brazilian Cerrado as plasticizer: buriti, macaúba and pequi. In this preliminary work it was investigated materials thermal characteristics by TG and TMA. Thermal properties of oils depends on their chemical structures. Starch and vegetable oils are natural resources that can be used how alternative to producing materials that cause minor environmental impact.

  15. Effect of vegetable oil (Brazil nut oil) and mineral oil (liquid petrolatum) on dental biofilm control.

    PubMed

    Filogônio, Cíntia de Fátima Buldrini; Soares, Rodrigo Villamarim; Horta, Martinho Campolina Rebello; Penido, Cláudia Valéria de Sousa Resende; Cruz, Roberval de Almeida

    2011-01-01

    Dental biofilm control represents a basic procedure to prevent caries and the occurrence of periodontal diseases. Currently, toothbrushes and dentifrices are used almost universally, and the employment of good oral hygiene allows for appropriate biofilm removal by both mechanical and chemical control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of adding vegetable or mineral oil to a commercially available dentifrice in dental biofilm control. A comparison using the Oral Hygiene Index Simplified (OHI-S) was performed in 30 individuals who were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (G1) received a commercially available dentifrice; the composition of this dentifrice was modified by addition of mineral oil (Nujol®) for group 2 (G2) or a vegetable oil (Alpha Care®) for group 3 (G3) at 10% of the total volume, respectively. The two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (two-way ANOVA) was used to test the effect of group (G1, G2 and G3) or time (baseline, 45 days and 90 days) on the OHI-S index scores. Statistical analysis revealed a significant reduction in the OHI-S at day 90 in G2 (p < 0.05) and G3 (p < 0.0001) in comparison to G1. Therefore, the addition of a vegetable or a mineral oil to a commercially available dentifrice improved dental biofilm control, suggesting that these oils may aid in the prevention and/or control of caries and periodontal disease.

  16. Vegetable oil or diesel fuel-a flexible option

    SciTech Connect

    Suda, K.J.

    1984-02-01

    Vegetable oils provide diesel engine performance similar to that obtained with diesel fuel, and this has been documented in many prior publications. Because they are potentially interchangeable with diesel fuel, interest has focused on vegetable oils as short-range alternate fuels. However, engine durability when burning vegetable oils may be adversely affected depending on the type of combustion system employed. Laboratory and field experimental tests have identified the prechamber engine as having the greatest short-range potential for using vegetable oil fuels. Performance and durability at low engine ratings are essentially the same as expected for operation on diesel fuel. However, at high engine ratings piston ring and cylinder linear wear are greater than expected for operation on diesel fuel. A laboratory program was successfully completed which resulted in a combustion system that would allow the higher rated prechamber engines to achieve normal life when burning 100% soybean oil. Fluid model tests utilizing high speed photography, single-cylinder engine tests utilizing fuel tracers, and a 200-hour multicylinder durability test were included. Extended endurance tests and experience with other vegetable oils are still required.

  17. Lubricant base stock potential of chemically modified vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Erhan, Sevim Z; Sharma, Brajendra K; Liu, Zengshe; Adhvaryu, Atanu

    2008-10-01

    The environment must be protected against pollution caused by lubricants based on petroleum oils. The pollution problem is so severe that approximately 50% of all lubricants sold worldwide end up in the environment via volatility, spills, or total loss applications. This threat to the environment can be avoided by either preventing undesirable losses, reclaiming and recycling mineral oil lubricants, or using environmentally friendly lubricants. Vegetable oils are recognized as rapidly biodegradable and are thus promising candidates as base fluids in environment friendly lubricants. Lubricants based on vegetable oils display excellent tribological properties, high viscosity indices, and flash points. To compete with mineral-oil-based lubricants, some of their inherent disadvantages, such as poor oxidation and low-temperature stability, must be corrected. One way to address these problems is chemical modification of vegetable oils at the sites of unsaturation. After a one-step chemical modification, the chemically modified soybean oil derivatives were studied for thermo-oxidative stability using pressurized differential scanning calorimetry and a thin-film micro-oxidation test, low-temperature fluid properties using pour-point measurements, and friction-wear properties using four-ball and ball-on-disk configurations. The lubricants formulated with chemically modified soybean oil derivatives exhibit superior low-temperature flow properties, improved thermo-oxidative stability, and better friction and wear properties. The chemically modified soybean oil derivatives having diester substitution at the sites of unsaturation have potential in the formulation of industrial lubricants.

  18. Modelling consumer intakes of vegetable oils and fats

    PubMed Central

    Tennant, David; Gosling, John Paul

    2015-01-01

    Vegetable oils and fats make up a significant part of the energy intake in typical European diets. However, their use as ingredients in a diverse range of different foods means that their consumption is often hidden, especially when oils and fats are used for cooking. As a result, there are no reliable estimates of the consumption of different vegetable oils and fats in the diet of European consumers for use in, for example, nutritional assessments or chemical risk assessments. We have developed an innovative model to estimate the consumption of vegetable oils and fats by European Union consumers using the European Union consumption databases and elements of probabilistic modelling. A key feature of the approach is the assessment of uncertainty in the modelling assumptions that can be used to build user confidence and to guide future development. PMID:26160467

  19. Modelling consumer intakes of vegetable oils and fats.

    PubMed

    Tennant, David; Gosling, John Paul

    2015-01-01

    Vegetable oils and fats make up a significant part of the energy intake in typical European diets. However, their use as ingredients in a diverse range of different foods means that their consumption is often hidden, especially when oils and fats are used for cooking. As a result, there are no reliable estimates of the consumption of different vegetable oils and fats in the diet of European consumers for use in, for example, nutritional assessments or chemical risk assessments. We have developed an innovative model to estimate the consumption of vegetable oils and fats by European Union consumers using the European Union consumption databases and elements of probabilistic modelling. A key feature of the approach is the assessment of uncertainty in the modelling assumptions that can be used to build user confidence and to guide future development.

  20. Floral and vegetative cues in oil-secreting and non-oil-secreting Lysimachia species

    PubMed Central

    Schäffler, I.; Balao, F.; Dötterl, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Unrelated plants pollinated by the same group or guild of animals typically evolve similar floral cues due to pollinator-mediated selection. Related plant species, however, may possess similar cues either as a result of pollinator-mediated selection or as a result of sharing a common ancestor that possessed the same cues or traits. In this study, visual and olfactory floral cues in Lysimachia species exhibiting different pollination strategies were analysed and compared, and the importance of pollinators and phylogeny on the evolution of these floral cues was determined. For comparison, cues of vegetative material were examined where pollinator selection would not be expected. Methods Floral and vegetative scents and colours in floral oil- and non-floral oil-secreting Lysimachia species were studied by chemical and spectrophotometric analyses, respectively, compared between oil- and non-oil-secreting species, and analysed by phylogenetically controlled methods. Key Results Vegetative and floral scent was species specific, and variability in floral but not vegetative scent was lower in oil compared with non-oil species. Overall, oil species did not differ in their floral or vegetative scent from non-oil species. However, a correlation was found between oil secretion and six floral scent constituents specific to oil species, whereas the presence of four other floral compounds can be explained by phylogeny. Four of the five analysed oil species had bee-green flowers and the pattern of occurrence of this colour correlated with oil secretion. Non-oil species had different floral colours. The colour of leaves was similar among all species studied. Conclusions Evidence was found for correlated evolution between secretion of floral oils and floral but not vegetative visual and olfactory cues. The cues correlating with oil secretion were probably selected by Macropis bees, the specialized pollinators of oil-secreting Lysimachia species, and may have

  1. Biocatalytic Refining of Soybean Oil into Cosmeceutical Ingredients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our mission is to develop new, value-added uses for commodity crops and their oils. We strive to fulfill this mission with the self imposed responsibility of adhering as closely as possible to the tenants of “green” chemistry. We have developed patented, all-natural oils called Feruloyl Soy Glycer...

  2. Biocatalytic Refining of Soybean Oil into Cosmeceutical Ingredients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our mission is to develop new, value-added uses for commodity crops and oils. We chose to fulfill this mission while adhering as closely as possible to the tenants of “green” chemistry. We have developed patented, all-natural oils called Feruloyl Soy Glycerols (FSG) from the biocatalytic transester...

  3. Vegetable oils: Precombustion characteristics and performance as diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Bagby, M.O.

    1986-03-01

    Vegetable oils show technical promise as alternative fuels for diesel engines and have good potential as emergency fuels. Realistically, vegetable oils cause a number of problems when used in direct-injection diesel engines, generally attributable to inefficient combustion. At least partially responsible for poor combustion of neat vegetable oils are their high viscosity and non-volatility. To improve combustion several somewhat empirical approaches involving both chemical and physical modifications have been investigated by endurance tests in a variety of engines. Using the EMA 200 h engine screening test, several fuels show technical promise. These include methyl, ethyl, and butyl esters; high-oleic oils:diesel blend (1:3); diesel:soybean oil:butanol:cetane improver (33:33:33:1); and microemulsion fuels (diesel:soybean oil:190 proff ethanol:butanol, 50:25:5:20) and (soybean oil:methanol:2-octanol:cetane improver, 53:13:33:1). Using a pressure vessel, fuel injection system, and high speed motion picture camera, fuel injection characteristics of vegetable oils, e.g., soybean, sunflower, cottonseed, and peanut, have been observed in a quiescent nitrogen atmosphere at 480/sup 0/C and 4.1MPa. Their injection and atomization characteristics are markedly different from those of petroleum derived diesel fuels. Heating the vegetable oils to lower their viscosities increased spray penetration rate, reduced spray cone angles, and resulted in spray characteristics resembling those of diesel fuel. Significant chemical changes occurred following injection. Samples collected at about 400 microseconds after the injection event consisted of appreciable quantities of C/sub 4/-C/sub 16/ hydrocarbons, and free carboxyl groups were present.

  4. Analysis of vegetable oil production in central Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Claar, P.W. II.; Colvin, T.S.; Marley, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    Vegetable oil can be used as an emergency substitute for diesel fuel for farming applications. This paper is an economic and energy analysis for vegetable oil production on a 180-ha (450-acre) central Iowa farm. The following data are presented as the basis for the economic analysis: (1) the yields of four varieties of sunflowers at three planting dates; (2) the measured sunflower harvesting losses-preharvest, header, threshing, and separating and cleaning for each variety and date of planting; and (3) the quantities of sunflower oil yielded from the pressing operation. Based on the data presented, it was concluded that even though a farmer could satisfatorily produce sunflowers, the on-farm processed sunflower oil does not compete with current diesel fuel prices. On-farm processed soybean oil has more potential as a substitute fuel from an economic standpoint in central Iowa. 8 tables.

  5. Rheological Properties of Vegetable Oil-Diesel Fuel Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Z.; Nguyen, Q. D.

    2008-07-01

    Straight vegetable oils provide cleaner burning and renewable alternatives to diesel fuels, but their inherently high viscosities compared to diesel are undesirable for diesel engines. Lowering the viscosity can be achieved by either increasing the temperature of the oil or by blending it with diesel fuel, or both. In this work the viscosity of diesel fuel and vegetable oil mixtures at differing compositions is measured as a function of temperature to determine a viscosity-temperature-composition relationship for use in design and optimization of heating and fuel injection systems. The oils used are olive, soybean, canola and peanut oils which are commercially available. All samples tested between 20°C and 80°C exhibit time-independent Newtonian behaviour. A modified Arrhenius relationship has been developed to predict the viscosity of the mixtures as functions of temperature and composition.

  6. Characterization of refined edible oils enriched with phenolic extracts from olive leaves and pomace.

    PubMed

    Sánchez de Medina, V; Priego-Capote, F; Luque de Castro, M D

    2012-06-13

    Refined edible oils (viz., oils from maize, soya, high-oleic sunflower, sunflower, olive, and rapeseed) enriched at two concentration levels (200 and 400 μg/mL total phenolic content) with phenolic extracts isolated from olive pomace and leaves have been characterized and compared with nonenriched oils and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). Enriched oils were analyzed by LC-TOF/MS to generate representative fingerprints and compared with nonenriched oils and EVOO by unsupervised principal component analysis (PCA). The two raw materials reported enriched oils with profiles which were compared with those provided by EVOOs. Correlation analysis enabled us to establish the enriched oils with a composition more similar to EVOO. Discrimination according to the enrichment level depended on the raw material for extracts, and a global discussion about the enrichment on relevant phenolic compounds present in EVOO has reported quantitative results concerning the enrichment level for those significant compounds with known nutraceutical properties.

  7. Rapid screening of biologically modified vegetable oils for fuel performance

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, D.P.; Goodrum, J.W.; Campbell, C.C.

    1999-08-01

    A process for the rapid screening of alternative diesel fuel performance was applied to analogues of genetically modified vegetable oils and a mixture with no. 2 diesel fuel. The oils examined contained 60 to 70% of low molecular weight, short-chain, saturated triglycerides compared to the 1 to 2% found in traditional vegetable oils. These oils have relatively low viscosity that is predicted to enhance their performance as alternative diesel fuels. The screening process utilizes an engine torque test sequence that accelerates the tendency of diesel fuels to coke fuel injectors, a key indicator of fuel performance. The results of the tests were evaluated using a computer vision system for the rapid quantification of injector coking. The results of the screen were compared to those using no. 2 diesel fuel as a baseline. Coke deposition from the modified vegetable oil analogues was not found to be significantly different than deposition from diesel fuel. Suggestions are made to guide further modification of vegetable oil biosynthesis for the production of alternative diesel fuel.

  8. Wet scrubbing of biomass producer gas tars using vegetable oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhoi, Prakashbhai Ramabhai

    The overall aims of this research study were to generate novel design data and to develop an equilibrium stage-based thermodynamic model of a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system for the removal of model tar compounds (benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene) found in biomass producer gas. The specific objectives were to design, fabricate and evaluate a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system and to optimize the design and operating variables; i.e., packed bed height, vegetable oil type, solvent temperature, and solvent flow rate. The experimental wet packed bed scrubbing system includes a liquid distributor specifically designed to distribute a high viscous vegetable oil uniformly and a mixing section, which was designed to generate a desired concentration of tar compounds in a simulated air stream. A method and calibration protocol of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was developed to quantify tar compounds. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Statistical analysis showed that both soybean and canola oils are potential solvents, providing comparable removal efficiency of tar compounds. The experimental height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) was determined as 0.11 m for vegetable oil based scrubbing system. Packed bed height and solvent temperature had highly significant effect (p0.05) effect on the removal of model tar compounds. The packing specific constants, Ch and CP,0, for the Billet and Schultes pressure drop correlation were determined as 2.52 and 2.93, respectively. The equilibrium stage based thermodynamic model predicted the removal efficiency of model tar compounds in the range of 1-6%, 1-4% and 1-2% of experimental data for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene, respectively, for the solvent temperature of 30° C. The NRTL-PR property model and UNIFAC for estimating binary interaction parameters are recommended for modeling absorption of tar compounds in vegetable oils. Bench scale

  9. 21 CFR 172.736 - Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... vegetable oils. 172.736 Section 172.736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... oils. The food additive glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils may be safely used... heating a mixture of hydrogenated oils of vegetable origin and polyethylene glycol in the presence of...

  10. Vegetable oil as an agricultural fuel for the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.L.; Auld, D.L.; Thomas, V.M.; Withers, R.V.; Smith, S.M.; Bettis, B.L.

    1981-02-01

    Five million barrels of liquid fuel are needed annually for the continued production of agricultural commoditiese on the 12.7 million cultivated acres in the Pacific Northwest Region. Because most energy intensive operations in the agricultural industry are done by diesel engines, the technology to produce a substitute for diesel must be developed and vegetable oil appears to hold great promise as an alternative fuel. The vegetable oils potential as an alternative liquid fuel in the region is described. Rapidly rising fuel costs could make this new fuel not only economically feasible but necessary to ensure the region's continued agriculture production.

  11. Enzymatic transesterification of waste vegetable oil to produce biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Lopresto, C G; Naccarato, S; Albo, L; De Paola, M G; Chakraborty, S; Curcio, S; Calabrò, V

    2015-11-01

    An experimental study on enzymatic transesterification was performed to produce biodiesel from waste vegetable oils. Lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia was covalently immobilized on a epoxy-acrylic resin support. The immobilized enzyme exhibited high catalytic specific surface and allowed an easy recovery, regeneration and reutilisation of biocatalyst. Waste vegetable oils - such as frying oils, considered not competitive with food applications and wastes to be treated - were used as a source of glycerides. Ethanol was used as a short chain alcohol and was added in three steps with the aim to reduce its inhibitory effect on lipase activity. The effect of biocatalyst/substrate feed mass ratios and the waste oil quality have been investigated in order to estimate the process performances. Biocatalyst recovery and reuse have been also studied with the aim to verify the stability of the biocatalyst for its application in industrial scale.

  12. Recycling and re-refining used lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Pyziak, T.; Brinkman, D.W.

    1993-05-01

    This article will point out the advantages and disadvantages of current oil and oily water disposal techniques in operation today. The emphasis will be on the environmental (long- and short-term) ramifications which may be encountered by each disposal technique.

  13. Development of mineral oil free offset printing ink using vegetable oil esters.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ananda Sankar; Bhattacharjee, Moumita; Mondal, Rabindranath; Ghosh, Santinath

    2007-01-01

    Until the middle of this century, fats and oils are the major raw material source for paints, coating and lubricating applications. These markets are completely taken over by petroleum based stocks due to their abundance and versatility. However, recent public awareness to use environmentally acceptable products that minimize pollution, are compatible to human health and readily biodegradable created opportunities for vegetable oils for application in paints and printing inks. The formulation of vegetable oil methyl ester based 'green' offset printing ink that reduces the volatile organic compounds (VOC) has been discussed in the present study. Methyl esters of rapeseed, soybean, rice bran and palm oil have been prepared and their physical properties have been measured and compared with standard petroleum feed stock. Varnishes were prepared with these esters and their properties are also compared with that of the petroleum based products. Rheological properties of the inks are also evaluated and compared with standard printing ink using petroleum based solvent. In general performance of the ester-based printing inks are comparable with that of the mineral oil based product. On the basis of tack stability and gloss, ester based inks are much superior than the mineral oil based products. In conclusion, a new non-volatile diluent for printing ink has been developed. The diluent is made from common vegetable oils like rapeseed, soybean, rice bran and palm oil, a renewable source that is environmental friendly. Vegetable oil esters offer a cost effective solution for mineral oil based printing ink to meet VOCs regulations.

  14. The efficacy of essential oils as natural preservatives in vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Kazempour, Nastaran; Mahboubi, Atefeh

    2014-12-01

    The efforts for finding the natural preservatives with nontoxicity and nonirritancy have encouraged the scientists to research among the medicinal plants. The preservative efficacy of Daucus carota, Ferula gummosa, Eugenium caryophyllata, Oliveria decumbens, Pelargonium graveolens, Ziziphora tenuir, Acorus calamus, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils on challenge test's pathogens and on pathogen's inoculated vegetable oil was evaluated by antimicrobial effectiveness test. Carotol (46%), β-pinene (62.7%), eugenol (78.4%), thymol (50.6%), cis-asarone (27.5%), thymol (50.1%), and α-terpineol (19.5%) were the primary main components of D. carota, F. gummosa, E. caryophyllata, T. ammi, A. calamus, O. decumbens, and Z. tenuir essential oils, respectively. A. niger was more sensitive microorganism to oils. The antimicrobial activity of O. decumbens oil was the highest. Different concentrations of essential oils were added to the vegetable oil. The results of test on the vegetable oil showed that the combination of O. decumbens and P. graveolens oils (0.5:0.5%) had enough efficacies as natural preservative in vegetable oil.

  15. The efficacy of essential oils as natural preservatives in vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Kazempour, Nastaran; Mahboubi, Atefeh

    2014-12-01

    The efforts for finding the natural preservatives with nontoxicity and nonirritancy have encouraged the scientists to research among the medicinal plants. The preservative efficacy of Daucus carota, Ferula gummosa, Eugenium caryophyllata, Oliveria decumbens, Pelargonium graveolens, Ziziphora tenuir, Acorus calamus, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils on challenge test's pathogens and on pathogen's inoculated vegetable oil was evaluated by antimicrobial effectiveness test. Carotol (46%), β-pinene (62.7%), eugenol (78.4%), thymol (50.6%), cis-asarone (27.5%), thymol (50.1%), and α-terpineol (19.5%) were the primary main components of D. carota, F. gummosa, E. caryophyllata, T. ammi, A. calamus, O. decumbens, and Z. tenuir essential oils, respectively. A. niger was more sensitive microorganism to oils. The antimicrobial activity of O. decumbens oil was the highest. Different concentrations of essential oils were added to the vegetable oil. The results of test on the vegetable oil showed that the combination of O. decumbens and P. graveolens oils (0.5:0.5%) had enough efficacies as natural preservative in vegetable oil. PMID:24552253

  16. Nonlinear joint dynamics between prices of crude oil and refined products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Ma, Guofeng; Liu, Guangsheng

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationships between crude oil and refined product prices. We find that nonlinear correlations are stronger in the long-term than in the short-term. Crude oil and product prices are cointegrated and financial crisis in 2007-2008 caused a structural break of the cointegrating relationship. Moreover, different from the findings in most studies, we reveal that the relationships are almost symmetric based on a threshold error correction model. The so-called 'asymmetric relationships' are caused by some outliers and financial crisis. Most of the time, crude oil prices play the major role in the adjustment process of the long-term equilibrium. However, refined product prices dominated crude oil prices during the period of financial crisis. Important policy and risk management implications can be learned from the empirical findings.

  17. Margarine from organogel of healthy vegetable oils and plant wax

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organogelator that can turn vegetable oil into a gel with a small quantity has drawn a lot of interests as a potential alternative for saturated fats and trans fat-containing solid fats in margarine and spread products. However, it is not practically used in those products yet. This research shows...

  18. Lipids for Health and Beauty: Enzymatic Modification of Vegetable Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ferulic acid has been extensively investigated for its potential as a cosmetic and pharmaceutical agent. We have prepared lipophilic derivatives of ferulic acid by a simple, enzyme-catalyzed transesterification reaction of ethyl ferulate with vegetable oils. Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B...

  19. Production and applications of ferulate-modified vegetable oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concerns have been raised about the potential adverse health and ecological effects of the commonly used sunscreen active ingredients. A sunscreen active ingredient can be derived from two natural plant components, ferulic acid and vegetable oil triglycerides. Transesterification of ferulic acid e...

  20. Heated vegetable oils and cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chun-Yi; Leong, Xin-Fang; Masbah, Norliana; Adam, Siti Khadijah; Kamisah, Yusof; Jaarin, Kamsiah

    2014-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It may result from the interactions between multiple genetic and environmental factors including sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits. The quality of dietary oils and fats has been widely recognised to be inextricably linked to the pathogenesis of CVD. Vegetable oil is one of the essential dietary components in daily food consumption. However, the benefits of vegetable oil can be deteriorated by repeated heating that leads to lipid oxidation. The practice of using repeatedly heated cooking oil is not uncommon as it will reduce the cost of food preparation. Thermal oxidation yields new functional groups which may be potentially hazardous to cardiovascular health. Prolonged consumption of the repeatedly heated oil has been shown to increase blood pressure and total cholesterol, cause vascular inflammation as well as vascular changes which predispose to atherosclerosis. The harmful effect of heated oils is attributed to products generated from lipid oxidation during heating process. In view of the potential hazard of oxidation products, therefore this review article will provide an insight and awareness to the general public on the consumption of repeatedly heated oils which is detrimental to health.

  1. Reprint of "heated vegetable oils and cardiovascular disease risk factors".

    PubMed

    Ng, Chun-Yi; Leong, Xin-Fang; Masbah, Norliana; Adam, Siti Khadijah; Kamisah, Yusof; Jaarin, Kamsiah

    2014-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It may result from the interactions between multiple genetic and environmental factors including sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits. The quality of dietary oils and fats has been widely recognised to be inextricably linked to the pathogenesis of CVD. Vegetable oil is one of the essential dietary components in daily food consumption. However, the benefits of vegetable oil can be deteriorated by repeated heating that leads to lipid oxidation. The practice of using repeatedly heated cooking oil is not uncommon as it will reduce the cost of food preparation. Thermal oxidation yields new functional groups which may be potentially hazardous to cardiovascular health. Prolonged consumption of the repeatedly heated oil has been shown to increase blood pressure and total cholesterol, cause vascular inflammation as well as vascular changes which predispose to atherosclerosis. The harmful effect of heated oils is attributed to products generated from lipid oxidation during heating process. In view of the potential hazard of oxidation products, therefore this review article will provide an insight and awareness to the general public on the consumption of repeatedly heated oils which is detrimental to health.

  2. Reprint of "heated vegetable oils and cardiovascular disease risk factors".

    PubMed

    Ng, Chun-Yi; Leong, Xin-Fang; Masbah, Norliana; Adam, Siti Khadijah; Kamisah, Yusof; Jaarin, Kamsiah

    2014-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It may result from the interactions between multiple genetic and environmental factors including sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits. The quality of dietary oils and fats has been widely recognised to be inextricably linked to the pathogenesis of CVD. Vegetable oil is one of the essential dietary components in daily food consumption. However, the benefits of vegetable oil can be deteriorated by repeated heating that leads to lipid oxidation. The practice of using repeatedly heated cooking oil is not uncommon as it will reduce the cost of food preparation. Thermal oxidation yields new functional groups which may be potentially hazardous to cardiovascular health. Prolonged consumption of the repeatedly heated oil has been shown to increase blood pressure and total cholesterol, cause vascular inflammation as well as vascular changes which predispose to atherosclerosis. The harmful effect of heated oils is attributed to products generated from lipid oxidation during heating process. In view of the potential hazard of oxidation products, therefore this review article will provide an insight and awareness to the general public on the consumption of repeatedly heated oils which is detrimental to health. PMID:24846858

  3. Heated vegetable oils and cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chun-Yi; Leong, Xin-Fang; Masbah, Norliana; Adam, Siti Khadijah; Kamisah, Yusof; Jaarin, Kamsiah

    2014-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It may result from the interactions between multiple genetic and environmental factors including sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits. The quality of dietary oils and fats has been widely recognised to be inextricably linked to the pathogenesis of CVD. Vegetable oil is one of the essential dietary components in daily food consumption. However, the benefits of vegetable oil can be deteriorated by repeated heating that leads to lipid oxidation. The practice of using repeatedly heated cooking oil is not uncommon as it will reduce the cost of food preparation. Thermal oxidation yields new functional groups which may be potentially hazardous to cardiovascular health. Prolonged consumption of the repeatedly heated oil has been shown to increase blood pressure and total cholesterol, cause vascular inflammation as well as vascular changes which predispose to atherosclerosis. The harmful effect of heated oils is attributed to products generated from lipid oxidation during heating process. In view of the potential hazard of oxidation products, therefore this review article will provide an insight and awareness to the general public on the consumption of repeatedly heated oils which is detrimental to health. PMID:24632108

  4. Elimination of pesticides in olive oil by refining using bleaching and deodorization.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Méndez, M V; de la Rosa, I Pérez; Jiménez Márquez, A; Uceda Ojeda, M

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the processing steps on some pesticides during physical refining of olive oil were determined. Oil samples were spiked with four types of pesticides, i.e. endosulfan (alpha-endosulfan, beta-endosulfan and endosulfan sulphate), simazine, oxifluorfen and diflufenican, and subjected to physical refining (bleaching and deodorization). The removal of contaminants by bleaching earths was compared using five types of commercial earths. Deodorization assays under laboratory (10 kg) and discontinuous pilot plant (200 kg) conditions at different temperatures and treatment times were carried out. Bleaching seemed effective only for the elimination of simazine. For removal of the other pesticides tested, a physical refining treatment was required at 240 degrees C in the deodorizing stage for different periods (1 h for diflufenican, oxifluorfen and alpha-endosulfan, 2 h for beta-endosulfan and 3 h for endosulfan sulphate). PMID:15895608

  5. Cleaning oiled shores: laboratory experiments testing the potential use of vegetable oil biodiesels.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M Glória; Mudge, Stephen M

    2004-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments were carried out to test the potential of vegetable oil biodiesel for the cleaning of oiled shorelines. In batch experiments, biodiesel was shown to have a considerable capacity to dissolve crude oil, which appears to be dependent on the type of biodiesel used. Pure vegetable oil biodiesels (rapeseed and soybean) were significantly more effective in the cleanup of oiled sands (up to 96%) than recycled waste cooking oil biodiesel (70%). In microcosm and mesocosm experiments, oiled sediments were sprayed with biodiesel and subjected to simulated tides. Microcosm experiments revealed that, of those tested, the highest ratio of biodiesel to crude oil, had the highest effectiveness for cleaning fine sands, with ratios of 2:1 (biodiesel:crude oil) giving the best results. In the mesocosm experiments a ratio 1:1 of soybean biodiesel to crude oil removed 80% of the oil in cobbles and fine sands, 50% in coarse sand and 30% in gravel. Most of the oil was removed with the surface water, with only a small amount being flushed through the sediments. Particle size and pore size were important determinants in the cleanup and mobility of crude oil in the sediments in these static systems. It is expected that the biodiesel effectiveness should improve in the natural environment particularly in exposed beaches with strong wave action. However, more laboratory and field trials are required to confirm the operational use of biodiesel as a shoreline cleaner.

  6. Cleaning oiled shores: laboratory experiments testing the potential use of vegetable oil biodiesels.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M Glória; Mudge, Stephen M

    2004-01-01

    A series of laboratory experiments were carried out to test the potential of vegetable oil biodiesel for the cleaning of oiled shorelines. In batch experiments, biodiesel was shown to have a considerable capacity to dissolve crude oil, which appears to be dependent on the type of biodiesel used. Pure vegetable oil biodiesels (rapeseed and soybean) were significantly more effective in the cleanup of oiled sands (up to 96%) than recycled waste cooking oil biodiesel (70%). In microcosm and mesocosm experiments, oiled sediments were sprayed with biodiesel and subjected to simulated tides. Microcosm experiments revealed that, of those tested, the highest ratio of biodiesel to crude oil, had the highest effectiveness for cleaning fine sands, with ratios of 2:1 (biodiesel:crude oil) giving the best results. In the mesocosm experiments a ratio 1:1 of soybean biodiesel to crude oil removed 80% of the oil in cobbles and fine sands, 50% in coarse sand and 30% in gravel. Most of the oil was removed with the surface water, with only a small amount being flushed through the sediments. Particle size and pore size were important determinants in the cleanup and mobility of crude oil in the sediments in these static systems. It is expected that the biodiesel effectiveness should improve in the natural environment particularly in exposed beaches with strong wave action. However, more laboratory and field trials are required to confirm the operational use of biodiesel as a shoreline cleaner. PMID:14575742

  7. Single-cylinder diesel engine study of four vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobus, M.J.; Geyer, S.M.; Lestz, S.S.; Risby, T.M.; Taylor, W.D.

    1983-10-01

    A single-cylinder, 0.36l, D.I. Diesel engine was operated on Diesel fuel, sunflowerseed oil, cottonseed oil, soybean oil, and peanut oil. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed comparison of performance and emissions data and to characterize the biological activity of the particulate soluble organic fraction for each fuel using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test. In addition, exhaust gas aldehyde samples were collected using the DNPH method. These samples were analyzed gravimetrically and separated into components from formaldehyde to heptaldehyde with a gas chromatograph. Results comparing the vegetable oils to Diesel fuel generally show slight improvements in thermal efficiency and indicated specific energy consumption; equal or higher gas-phase emissions; lower indicated specific revertant emissions; and significantly higher aldehyde emissions, including an increased percentage of formaldehyde.

  8. Authentication of vegetable oils by chromatographic techniques.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, R; Aparicio-Ruíz, R

    2000-06-01

    Food authentication has been evolving continually to situations that were basically governed by a global market trend. Analytical techniques have been developed or modified to give plausible solutions to the devious adulterations at each moment. Classical tests have largely been replaced with newer technical procedures, most of which are based on gas chromatography, with some being based on high-performance liquid chromatography. Determination of trans-fatty acid and sterolic composition, together with sterol-dehydration products, have been used most frequently used to detect contamination and adulteration. Sophisticated new adulterations, e.g., olive oil with hazelnut oil, represent a new challenge for the next millennium, although suggestive proposals for detecting these kinds of adulterations are emerging with the contribution of databases and mathematical algorithms. PMID:10905696

  9. Analysis of methylsterol fractions from twenty vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Jeong, T M; Itoh, T; Tamura, T; Matsumoto, T

    1975-10-01

    The 4-monomethylsterol and 4,4-dimethylsterol fractions were separated from the unsaponifiables of 20 vegetable oils by preparative thin layer chromatography, and their compositions were determined by gas liquid chromatography. Tentative identification of the individual components of these fractions was carried out by gas liquid chromatography and combined gas liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among 4-monomethylsterols, obtusifoliol, gramisterol, and citrostadienol occur abundantly in most of the oils. Cycloeucalenol also occurs in some of the oils as a major component of 4-monomethylsterols. Other 4-monomethylsterols tentatively identified are: lophenol, 31-norlanosterol, 31-norcycloartenol, and 31-norlanostenol and/or 4alpha-methylzymostenol. Among 4,4-dimethylsterols, cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartanol followed by beta-amyrin and cycloartanol are common to most of the oils. Butyrospermol, alpha-amyrin, lupeol, and cyclobranol together with a 4,4-dimethylsterol, presumably lanostenol, occur in some of the oils. Cyclolaudenol is present in poppy seed oil. Besides these compounds, each of the oils contains some unidentified members of 4-monomethylsterols and 4,4-dimethylsterols. The methylsterol fraction of capsicum seed oil as compared with that of the other oils is characterized by its very high content of lophenol and cycloartanol together with three other members, presumably 31-norlanostenol, 4alpha-methylzymostenol, and lanostenol.

  10. North slope oil a bargain for lower 48 refiners

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, H.M.

    1980-04-21

    A discussion on the marketing of Prudhoe Bay crude, primarily by Atlantic Richfield Co., Exxon Co. U.S.A., and Standard Oil Co. Ohio, covers the high demand for this crude, estimated at up to 100,000 bbl/day above the 1.5 million bbl/day supply, despite its 1% sulfur content and low gravity (27/sup 0/API), because of its low price, currently $21/bbl but rising to an expected $30/bbl when decontrol is complete after Oct. 1981, and assured supply; the estimated 950,000 bbl/day consumed at refineries in California and Washington; shipment of Prudhoe Bay crude through the Panama Canal, using the Northville Industries Corp.

  11. ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF VEGETABLE OIL AND ITS METABOLIC INTERMEDIATES IN OIL-ENRICHED FRESHWATER SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anaerobic biodegradation of vegetable oil in freshwater sediments is strongly inhibited by high concentrations of oil, but the presence of ferric hydroxide relieves the inhibition. The effect of ferric hydroxide is not due to physical or chemical interactions with long-chain fatt...

  12. Pyrolysis bio-oils as additives for vegetable oil based lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Softwood and hardwood lignins, along with hardwood as such, were pyrolyzed to afford bio-oil distillates in which phenols were major products. Extraction with alkali gave a range of lignin-related phenols having molecular weights (MWs) from 110 to 344. Because vegetable oil based lubricants have dra...

  13. Comparison of diesel engine performance and emissions from neat and transesterified vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, S.M.; Jacobus, M.J.; Lestz, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    A single-cylinder, 0.36 L, D1 diesel engine was operated on a certified No. 2 diesel fuel, cottonseed oil, sunflowerseed oil, methyl ester of cottonseed oil, and methyl ester of sunflowerseed oil. The purpose of this study was to provide a comparison of performance and emission data when operating on net vegetable oils, transesterified vegetable oils, and diesel fuel. Results comparing the various vegetable oil fuels with No. 2 diesel fuel generally show slight improvements in thermal efficiency and higher exhaust gas temperatures when operating on vegetable oils; equal or higher gas-phase emissions with vegetable oils; lower indicated specific revertant emissions with vegetable oils; and significantly higher aldehyde emissions, including an increased percentage of formaldehyde. (Refs. 14).

  14. 21 CFR 172.736 - Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... vegetable oils. 172.736 Section 172.736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils. The food additive glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a)...

  15. 21 CFR 172.736 - Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... vegetable oils. 172.736 Section 172.736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils. The food additive glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a)...

  16. 21 CFR 172.736 - Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... vegetable oils. 172.736 Section 172.736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils. The food additive glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a)...

  17. 21 CFR 172.736 - Glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... vegetable oils. 172.736 Section 172.736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils. The food additive glycerides and polyglycides of hydrogenated vegetable oils may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a)...

  18. Production of biodiesel fuel by transesterification of different vegetable oils with methanol using Al₂O₃ modified MgZnO catalyst.

    PubMed

    Olutoye, M A; Hameed, B H

    2013-03-01

    An active heterogeneous Al2O3 modified MgZnO (MgZnAlO) catalyst was prepared and the catalytic activity was investigated for the transesterification of different vegetable oils (refined palm oil, waste cooking palm oil, palm kernel oil and coconut oil) with methanol to produce biodiesel. The catalyst was characterized by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra, thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analysis to ascertain its versatility. Effects of important reaction parameters such as methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst dosage, reaction temperature and reaction time on oil conversion were examined. Within the range of studied variability, the suitable transesterification conditions (methanol/oil ratio 16:1, catalyst loading 3.32 wt.%, reaction time 6h, temperature 182°C), the oil conversion of 98% could be achieved with reference to coconut oil in a single stage. The catalyst can be easily recovered and reused for five cycles without significant deactivation.

  19. The extraction-flocculation re-refining lubricating oil process using ternary organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, J.P.

    1997-09-01

    The disposal of waste lubricating oils in landfills and/or city sewers can be disastrous due to the possible contamination of soils and waterways. Waste lubricating oils may be re-refined with organic solvents that dissolve base oil and segregate the additives and solid particles. The present paper emphasizes the composition effect on the efficiency of a ternary solvent composed by n-hexane/20propanol/1-butanol. Using the ternary diagram of waste oil/basic organic component/polar compound containing 3 g/L KOH where the phase envelope and the curves of constant sludge removal are plotted, it is proposed the composition of 0.25 waste oil/0.35 n-hexane/0.40 polar compound (80% 2-propanol + 20% 1-butanol, with 3 g/L KOH) for the process. A contribution for the understanding of polymethacrylate flocculation supported on infrared spectra is given.

  20. Optimization of biodiesel production process using recycled vegetable oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugo, Yarely

    Petro diesel toxic emissions and its limited resources have created an interest for the development of new energy resources, such as biodiesel. Biodiesel is traditionally produced by a transesterification reaction between vegetable oil and an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. However, this process is slow and expensive due to the high cost of raw materials. Low costs feedstock oils such as recycled and animal fats are available but they cannot be transesterified with alkaline catalysts due to high content of free fatty acids, which can lead to undesirable reactions such as saponification. In this study, we reduce free fatty acids content by using an acid pre-treatment. We compare sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid and ptoluenesulfonic acid (PTSA) to pre-treat recycled vegetable oil. PTSA removes water after 60 minutes of treatment at room temperature or within 15 minutes at 50°C. The pretreatment was followed by a transesterification reaction using alkaline catalyst. To minimize costs and accelerate reaction, the pretreatment and transesterification reaction of recycle vegetable oil was conducted at atmospheric pressure in a microwave oven. Biodiesel was characterized using a GC-MS method.

  1. Antithrombotic lipid minor constituents from vegetable oils. Comparison between olive oils and others.

    PubMed

    Karantonis, Haralabos C; Antonopoulou, Smaragdi; Demopoulos, Constantinos A

    2002-02-27

    Many epidemiological studies suggest that vegetable oils and especially olive oil present a protective effect against atherosclerosis. In this study, total lipids (TL) of Greek olive oils and seed oils of four kinds, namely, soybean, corn, sunflower, and sesame oil, were separated into total polar lipids (TPL) and total neutral lipids (TNL) via a novel extraction procedure. TPL and TNL of olive oil were fractionated by HPLC for further study. Each lipid fraction from HPLC separation along with TL, TPL, and TNL lipid samples from oils were tested in vitro for their capacity to induce or to inhibit washed rabbit platelet aggregation. Comparison between olive and seed oils supports the superiority of olive oil as high levels of platelet activating factor (PAF) antagonists have been detected, mainly in TPL. In addition, the structure of the most active fraction from olive oil was elucidated, as a glycerol-glycolipid. Because it has already been reported that PAF plays a pivotal role in atherogenesis, the existence of PAF agonists and antagonists in vegetable oils may explain their protective role against atherosclerosis.

  2. Combustion emissions from refining lower quality oil: what is the global warming potential?

    PubMed

    Karras, Greg

    2010-12-15

    The greenhouse gas emission intensity of refining lower quality petroleum was estimated from fuel combustion for energy used by operating plants to process crude oils of varying quality. Refinery crude feed, processing, yield, and fuel data from four regions accounting for 97% of U.S. refining capacity from 1999 to 2008 were compared among regions and years for effects on processing and energy consumption predicted by the processing characteristics of heavier, higher sulfur oils. Crude feed density and sulfur content could predict 94% of processing intensity, 90% of energy intensity, and 85% of carbon dioxide emission intensity differences among regions and years and drove a 39% increase in emissions across regions and years. Fuel combustion energy for processing increased by approximately 61 MJ/m(3) crude feed for each 1 kg/m(3) sulfur and 44 MJ/m(3) for each 1 kg/m(3) density of crude refined. Differences in products, capacity utilized, and fuels burned were not confounding factors. Fuel combustion increments observed predict that a switch to heavy oil and tar sands could double or triple refinery emissions and add 1.6-3.7 gigatons of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere annually from fuel combustion to process the oil.

  3. Combustion emissions from refining lower quality oil: what is the global warming potential?

    PubMed

    Karras, Greg

    2010-12-15

    The greenhouse gas emission intensity of refining lower quality petroleum was estimated from fuel combustion for energy used by operating plants to process crude oils of varying quality. Refinery crude feed, processing, yield, and fuel data from four regions accounting for 97% of U.S. refining capacity from 1999 to 2008 were compared among regions and years for effects on processing and energy consumption predicted by the processing characteristics of heavier, higher sulfur oils. Crude feed density and sulfur content could predict 94% of processing intensity, 90% of energy intensity, and 85% of carbon dioxide emission intensity differences among regions and years and drove a 39% increase in emissions across regions and years. Fuel combustion energy for processing increased by approximately 61 MJ/m(3) crude feed for each 1 kg/m(3) sulfur and 44 MJ/m(3) for each 1 kg/m(3) density of crude refined. Differences in products, capacity utilized, and fuels burned were not confounding factors. Fuel combustion increments observed predict that a switch to heavy oil and tar sands could double or triple refinery emissions and add 1.6-3.7 gigatons of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere annually from fuel combustion to process the oil. PMID:21114339

  4. Fundamental Studies on Development of Environment Friendly Vegetable Oil Filled Transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinke, Masami; Miyazato, Kenji; Tada, Toshiharu; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Nakagami, Yoshitake; Shimizu, Rumiko; Kosaka, Masaaki; Wada, Motoo

    In order to develop the environment-friendly transformer, the rapeseed ester oil which is vegetable oil was selected as the new insulating oil and various characteristics of rapeseed ester oil were investigated experimentally. These results showed that the basic characteristics of rapeseed ester oil surpasses as compared with mineral oil.

  5. Canola, corn and vegetable oils as alternative for wheat germ oil in fruit fly liquid larval diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four wheat germ oil alternatives (corn oil, vegetable oil, canola oil with 10% vitamin E, and canola oil with 20% vitamin E) purchased from a Hawaii local supermarket were added into a fruit fly liquid larval diet as a supplement for rearing fruit fly larvae and were evaluated for the possibility to...

  6. Chain Transfer of Vegetable Oil Macromonomers in Acrylic Solution Copolymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Micah; Messman, Jamie M; Rawlins, James

    2011-01-01

    Use of vegetable oil macromonomers (VOMMs) as comonomers in emulsion polymerization enables good film coalescence without the addition of solvents that constitute volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOMMs are derived from renewable resources and offer the potential of post-application crosslinking via auto-oxidation. However, chain transfer reactions of VOMMs with initiator and/or polymer radicals during emulsion polymerization reduce the amount of allylic hydrogen atoms available for primary auto-oxidation during drying. Vegetable oils and derivatives were reacted in combination with butyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate via solution polymerization. The copolymerization was monitored using in situ infrared spectroscopy to determine the extent of chain transfer. 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the loci of chain transfer and the molecular weight characteristics of the polymers were characterized by SEC. Solution polymerization was utilized to minimize temperature fluctuations and maintain polymer solubility during the initial characterization.

  7. Lack of mutagenic activity of crude and refined oils in the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Vandermeulen, J.H.; Lee, R.W.

    1986-02-01

    Over the past several years, an increasing number of studies have presented evidence for the mutagenicity and/or carcinogenic potential of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons. These most usually were obtained with individual hydrocarbons, and using either specialized bacterial strains (e.g. Ames' strains) or mammalian tissue preparations. While providing important insights into mutagenic mechanisms involving xenobiotic compounds, the relevance of these studies to the natural aquatic environment is not always evident. This applies especially to the mutagenic potential of water-soluble fractions of hydrocarbon mixtures, as in whole oils or in complex distillate fractions, and involving typical marine biota. Accordingly, the authors have examined the mutagenic potential of the water-soluble fractions of four oils (two crude oils and two refined oils) using the unicellular haploid alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  8. Gas-liquid chromatographic determination of nonpolar organochlorine pesticide residues in a crude vegetable oil and its refinery by-products.

    PubMed

    Young, S J; Kamps, L R

    1982-07-01

    A crude soybean oil, several of its refinery by-products (described as soapstock, deodorizer distillate, and clabber stock), and the completely refined oil were analyzed for pesticide residues. Fourteen organo-chlorine pesticides and pesticide metabolites were found in the deodorizer distillate; 5 of these were also found in the clabber stock. Levels in these by-products ranged from 0.3 to 8 ppm. Only endrin and dieldrin were detected in the crude oil at levels of 0.01 and 0.05 ppm, respectively. Forty to 150 times these levels were found in the deodorizer distillate and clabber stock. Pesticide residues were not detected in the refined oil or in the soapstock at limits of detection for dieldrin of about 0.01 and 0.1 ppm, respectively. The method used by the Food and Drug Administration to analyze fats and oils for multiple organohalogen pesticide residues was inadequate for the extraction of pesticide residues from vegetable oil refinery by-products. The method used to analyze the crude vegetable oil and the refinery by-products involved dissolution of the oil samples in ethyl acetate-toluene, filtration if necessary, cleanup by gel permeation chromatography, and then Florisil column chromatography. The oil was isolated from aqueous-oil mixtures by extraction with hexane before analysis. The crude soybean oil was fortified with 12 organohalogen pesticides and Aroclor 1254 at levels of 0.5-3.7 ppm. Recoveries ranged from 83 to 102%. PMID:6889594

  9. Water plasmas for the revalorisation of heavy oils and cokes from petroleum refining.

    PubMed

    Hueso, José L; Rico, Víctor J; Cotrino, José; Jiménez-Mateos, J M; González-Elipe, Agustín R

    2009-04-01

    This work investigates the possibility of using plasmas to treat high boiling point and viscous liquids (HBPVL) and cokes resulting as secondary streams from the refining of oil. For their revalorisation, the use of microwave (MW) induced plasmas of water is proposed, as an alternative to more conventional processes (i.e., catalysis, pyrolysis, combustion, etc.). As a main result, this type of energetic cold plasma facilitates the conversion at room temperature of the heavy aromatic oils and cokes into linear hydrocarbons and synthesis gas, commonly defined as syngas (CO + H2 gas mixture). The exposure of the coke to this plasma also facilitates the removal of the sulfur present in the samples and leads to the formation on their surface of a sort of carbon fibers and rods network and new porous structures. Besides, optical emission measurements have provided direct evidence of the intermediates resulting from the fragmentation of the heavy oils and cokes during their exposure to the water plasma. Furthermore, the analysis of the mass spectra patterns suggests a major easiness to break the aromatic bonds mainly contained in the heavy oils. Therefore, an innovative method for the conversion of low value residues from oil-refining processes is addressed.

  10. Refinement of the critical angle calculation for the contrast reversal of oil slicks under sunglint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yingcheng; Sun, Shaojie; Zhang, Minwei; Murch, Brock; Hu, Chuanmin

    2016-01-01

    It has long been observed that oil slicks under sunglint can reverse their optical contrast against nearby oil-free seawater. Such a phenomenon has been described through both empirical statistical analysis of the sunglint strength and modeled theoretically using a critical angle concept. The critical angle, in this model, is the angle at which the image pixels show no or negligible contrast between oiled and nonoiled seawater. Pixels away from this critical angle show either positive or negative contrast from the oil-free pixels. Although this concept has been fully demonstrated in the published literature, its calculation needs to be further refined to take into account: (1) the different refractive indices of oil slicks (from natural seeps) and seawater and (2) atmospheric effects in the sensor-measured radiance. Using measurements from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) over oil films in the Gulf of Mexico, we show improvement in the modeled and MODIS-derived reflectance over oil slicks originated from natural seeps after incorporating these two factors in the model. Specifically, agreement between modeled and measured sunglint reflectance is found for both negative and positive-contrasting oil slicks. These results indicate that surface roughness and reflectance from oil films can be estimated given any solar/viewing geometry and surface wind. Further, this model might be used to correct the sunglint effect on thick oil under similar illumination conditions. Once proven possible, it may allow existing laboratory-based models, which estimate oil thickness after such corrections, to be applied to remote sensing imagery.

  11. Comparison of oil refining and biodiesel production process between screw press and n-hexane techniques from beauty leaf feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuiya, M. M. K.; Rasul, M. G.; Khan, M. M. K.; Ashwath, N.

    2016-07-01

    The Beauty Leaf Tree (Callophylum inophyllum) is regarded as an alternative source of energy to produce 2nd generation biodiesel due to its potentiality as well as high oil yield content in the seed kernels. The treating process is indispensable during the biodiesel production process because it can augment the yield as well as quality of the product. Oil extracted from both mechanical screw press and solvent extraction using n-hexane was refined. Five replications each of 25 gm of crude oil for screw press and five replications each of 25 gm of crude oil for n-hexane were selected for refining as well as biodiesel conversion processes. The oil refining processes consists of degumming, neutralization as well as dewaxing. The degumming, neutralization and dewaxing processes were performed to remove all the gums (phosphorous-based compounds), free fatty acids, and waxes from the fresh crude oil before the biodiesel conversion process carried out, respectively. The results indicated that up to 73% and 81% of mass conversion efficiency of the refined oil in the screw press and n-hexane refining processes were obtained, respectively. It was also found that up to 88% and 90% of biodiesel were yielded in terms of mass conversion efficiency in the transesterification process for the screw press and n-hexane techniques, respectively. While the entire processes (refining and transesterification) were considered, the conversion of beauty leaf tree (BLT) refined oil into biodiesel was yielded up to 65% and 73% of mass conversion efficiency for the screw press and n-hexane techniques, respectively. Physico-chemical properties of crude and refined oil, and biodiesel were characterized according to the ASTM standards. Overall, BLT has the potential to contribute as an alternative energy source because of high mass conversion efficiency.

  12. Correlation of basic oil quality indices and electrical properties of model vegetable oil systems.

    PubMed

    Prevc, Tjaša; Cigić, Blaž; Vidrih, Rajko; Poklar Ulrih, Nataša; Šegatin, Nataša

    2013-11-27

    Model vegetable oil mixtures with significantly different basic oil quality indices (free fatty acid, iodine, and Totox values) were prepared by adding oleic acids, synthetic saturated triglycerides, or oxidized safflower oil ( Carthamus tinctorius ) to the oleic type of sunflower oil. Dielectric constants, dielectric loss factors, quality factors, and electrical conductivities of model lipids were determined at frequencies from 50 Hz to 2 MHz and at temperatures from 293.15 to 323.15 K. The dependence of these dielectric parameters on basic oil quality indices was investigated. Adding oleic acids to sunflower oil resulted in lower dielectric constants and conductivities and higher quality factors. Reduced iodine values resulted in increased dielectric constants and quality factors and decreased conductivities. Higher Totox values resulted in higher dielectric constants and conductivities at high frequencies and lower quality factors. Dielectric constants decreased linearly with temperature, whereas conductivities followed the Arrhenius law.

  13. Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils significantly lower triglycerides and moderately affect cholesterol metabolism in male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Ash, Mark M; Wolford, Kate A; Carden, Trevor J; Hwang, Keum Taek; Carr, Timothy P

    2011-09-01

    Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils (RSOs) were examined for their lipid-modulating effects in male Syrian hamsters fed high-cholesterol (0.12% g/g), high-fat (9% g/g) diets. Hamsters fed the refined and the unrefined RSO diets had equivalently lower plasma total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in comparison with the atherogenic coconut oil diet. The unrefined RSO treatment group did not differ in liver total and esterified cholesterol from the coconut oil-fed control animals, but the refined RSO resulted in significantly elevated liver total and esterified cholesterol concentrations. The unrefined RSO diets significantly lowered plasma triglycerides (46%; P=.0126) in comparison with the coconut oil diet, whereas the refined RSO only tended to lower plasma triglyceride (29%; P=.1630). Liver triglyceride concentrations were lower in the unrefined (46%; P=.0002) and refined (36%; P=.0005) RSO-fed animals than the coconut oil group, with the unrefined RSO diet eliciting a lower concentration than the soybean oil diet. Both RSOs demonstrated a null or moderate effect on cholesterol metabolism despite enrichment in linoleic acid, significantly lowering HDL cholesterol but not non-HDL cholesterol. Dramatically, both RSOs significantly reduced hypertriglyceridemia, most likely due to enrichment in α-linolenic acid. As a terrestrial source of α-linolenic acid, black RSOs, both refined and unrefined, provide a promising alternative to fish oil supplementation in management of hypertriglyceridemia, as demonstrated in hamsters fed high levels of dietary triglyceride and cholesterol.

  14. Vegetable Oil-Based Hyperbranched Thermosetting Polyurethane/Clay Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, Harekrishna; Karak, Niranjan

    2009-07-01

    The highly branched polyurethanes and vegetable oil-based polymer nanocomposites have been showing fruitful advantages across a spectrum of potential field of applications. Mesua ferrea L. seed oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane (HBPU)/clay nanocomposites were prepared at different dose levels by in situ polymerization technique. The performances of epoxy-cured thermosetting nanocomposites are reported for the first time. The partially exfoliated structure of clay layers was confirmed by XRD and TEM. FTIR spectra indicate the presence of H bonding between nanoclay and the polymer matrix. The present investigation outlines the significant improvement of tensile strength, scratch hardness, thermostability, water vapor permeability, and adhesive strength without much influencing impact resistance, bending, and elongation at break of the nanocomposites compared to pristine HBPU thermoset. An increment of two times the tensile strength, 6 °C of melting point, and 111 °C of thermo-stability were achieved by the formation of nanocomposites. An excellent shape recovery of about 96-99% was observed for the nanocomposites. Thus, the formation of partially exfoliated clay/vegetable oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane nanocomposites significantly improved the performance.

  15. Comparative Study on Accelerated Thermal Ageing of Vegetable Insulating Oil-paperboard and Mineral Oil-paperboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhu-Jun; Hu, Ting; Cheng, Lin; Tian, Kai; Yang, Jun; Wang, Xuan; Fang, Fu-Xin; Kong, Hai-Yang; Qian, Hang

    2016-05-01

    To comparatively study the insulation ageing life of vegetable insulating oil-paperboard and mineral oil-paperboard, we conducted accelerated thermal ageing experiments at 170°C. Then according to the temperature rise of vegetable insulating oil transformer, we conducted accelerated thermal ageing experiments at 150°C for vegetable insulating oil-paperboard and at 140°C for mineral oil-paperboard. The appearance, polymerization degree, and SEM microstructure of the paperboard after different ageing experiments were comparative analyzed. The results show that after the oil-paperboard system is accelerated ageing for 1 000 h at 170°C, that is equivalent to 20 years natural ageing, the structure of paperboard in vegetable insulating oil is damaged severely, which indicates that the lifetime of transformer are in the late stage; while the structure of paperboard in mineral oil maintain complete, and the polymerization degree is still above 500, which indicate that the lifetime of transformer are in the middle stage. The accelerated ageing rate of the vegetable insulating oil-paperboard system at 150°C is slower than that of the mineral oil-paperboard system, which indicates that the lifetime of the vegetable insulating oil-paperboard is longer than that of the mineral oil-paperboard.

  16. [Variations in fatty acids, tocopherol and other quality parameters of virgin olive oil subjected to refining process].

    PubMed

    Bonilla Polo, A; Murillo Ramos, J J; González Bonillo, J; Sanz Pérez, B

    1997-01-01

    In the refining process of the oil, this is subjected to extreme conditions, and there is an interest in knowing the comparative variation in the contents of fatty acids, alpha tocopherol and other quality indicating parameters during the refining process carried out under the same conditions as in industry, but in the laboratory. Refined oil is a product which meets the characteristics of the food regulations, but which, due to the decrease in the alpha tocopherol content and in polyunsaturated fatty acids, has decreased some of its excellent nutritional properties. The process with the greatest influence is saponification.

  17. [Variations in fatty acids, tocopherol and other quality parameters of virgin olive oil subjected to refining process].

    PubMed

    Bonilla Polo, A; Murillo Ramos, J J; González Bonillo, J; Sanz Pérez, B

    1997-01-01

    In the refining process of the oil, this is subjected to extreme conditions, and there is an interest in knowing the comparative variation in the contents of fatty acids, alpha tocopherol and other quality indicating parameters during the refining process carried out under the same conditions as in industry, but in the laboratory. Refined oil is a product which meets the characteristics of the food regulations, but which, due to the decrease in the alpha tocopherol content and in polyunsaturated fatty acids, has decreased some of its excellent nutritional properties. The process with the greatest influence is saponification. PMID:9477657

  18. Total antioxidant activity of selected vegetable oils and their influence on total antioxidant values in vivo: a photochemiluminescence based analysis.

    PubMed

    Dhavamani, Sugasini; Poorna Chandra Rao, Yalagala; Lokesh, Belur R

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the antioxidant activity of vegetable oils using photochemiluminescence based assay. The following oils were selected for the study - palm oil (PO); olive oil (OLO); sunflower oil (SNO); rice bran oil (RBO); sesame oil (SESO) and linseed oil (LSO). The antioxidant activity of oils was reduced significantly when unsaponifiable matter was removed from the oils. The rats fed unsaponifiable matter removed vegetable oils showed significantly reduced antioxidant activity but no change in overall fatty acid composition in serum lipids. Therefore the minor constituents in unsaponifiable matter influences antioxidant activity exhibited by vegetable oils.

  19. Natural (Mineral, Vegetable, Coconut, Essential) Oils and Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Verallo-Rowell, Vermén M; Katalbas, Stephanie S; Pangasinan, Julia P

    2016-07-01

    Natural oils include mineral oil with emollient, occlusive, and humectant properties and the plant-derived essential, coconut, and other vegetable oils, composed of triglycerides that microbiota lipases hydrolyze into glycerin, a potent humectant, and fatty acids (FAs) with varying physico-chemical properties. Unsaturated FAs have high linoleic acid used for synthesis of ceramide-I linoleate, a barrier lipid, but more pro-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratios above 10:1, and their double bonds form less occlusive palisades. VCO FAs have a low linoleic acid content but shorter and saturated FAs that form a more compact palisade, more anti-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratio of 2:1, close to 7:1 of olive oil, which disrupts the skin barrier, otherwise useful as a penetration enhancer. Updates on the stratum corneum illustrate how this review on the contrasting actions of NOs provide information on which to avoid and which to select for barrier repair and to lower inflammation in contact dermatitis genesis.

  20. Natural (Mineral, Vegetable, Coconut, Essential) Oils and Contact Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Verallo-Rowell, Vermén M; Katalbas, Stephanie S; Pangasinan, Julia P

    2016-07-01

    Natural oils include mineral oil with emollient, occlusive, and humectant properties and the plant-derived essential, coconut, and other vegetable oils, composed of triglycerides that microbiota lipases hydrolyze into glycerin, a potent humectant, and fatty acids (FAs) with varying physico-chemical properties. Unsaturated FAs have high linoleic acid used for synthesis of ceramide-I linoleate, a barrier lipid, but more pro-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratios above 10:1, and their double bonds form less occlusive palisades. VCO FAs have a low linoleic acid content but shorter and saturated FAs that form a more compact palisade, more anti-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratio of 2:1, close to 7:1 of olive oil, which disrupts the skin barrier, otherwise useful as a penetration enhancer. Updates on the stratum corneum illustrate how this review on the contrasting actions of NOs provide information on which to avoid and which to select for barrier repair and to lower inflammation in contact dermatitis genesis. PMID:27373890

  1. A review of the analysis of vegetable oil residues from fire debris samples: spontaneous ignition, vegetable oils, and the forensic approach.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Eric

    2005-09-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the analysis of vegetable (and animal) oil residues from fire debris samples. The process of self-heating and spontaneous ignition is well-known by fire investigators and causes many fires. Vegetable oils are often the chemicals that originate such phenomenon. Vegetable oils are composed of lipids, which contain fatty acids. The autooxidation of the double bonds present in unsaturated fatty acids is the exothermic reaction at the origin of the self-heating process. The degree of unsaturation of fatty acids directly influences the propensity of an oil to undergo self-heating and, eventually, spontaneous ignition. When fire debris samples are collected, it is possible to examine them at the laboratory to extract and identify vegetable oil residues. This is typically performed by solvent extraction, followed by gas chromatographic(-mass spectrometric) analysis of the extract. Such analyses differ from ignitable liquid residue analyses, so a different forensic approach is necessary.

  2. [Effect of five kinds of vegetable seed oil on serum lipid and lipid peroxidation in rats].

    PubMed

    Guo, Y; Cai, X; Zhao, X; Shi, R

    2001-01-01

    The effects of vegetable seed oil on hyperlipidemia induced by high lipid diet in rats. Male adult Wistar rats were fed on the test diet containing 94% high lipid diet and 6% lard pinon seed oil, perilla seed oil, blackcurrent seed oil, borage seed oil and evening primrose seed oil respectively for 3 weeks. The results showed that the vale of trilyceride(TG), total cholesterol(TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), LDL-C/HDL-C(high density lipoprotein cholesterol) ratio increased and the vale of HDL-C/TC ratio and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase(LCAT) activity decreased in the groups with vegetable seed oil were less than that of the control group. The results suggested that all the five kinds of vegetable seed oil had the effect of regulating lipid metabolism of hyperlipidemia rats to some extent. Pinon seed oil and borage seed oil may be well suited for the prevention of atherosclerosis. PMID:11255765

  3. Oil Secretory System in Vegetative Organs of Three Arnica Taxa: Essential Oil Synthesis, Distribution and Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Kromer, Krystyna; Kreitschitz, Agnieszka; Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N; Szumny, Antoni

    2016-05-01

    Arnica, a genus including the medicinal species A. montana, in its Arbo variety, and A. chamissonis, is among the plants richest in essential oils used as pharmaceutical materials. Despite its extensive use, the role of anatomy and histochemistry in the internal secretory system producing the essential oil is poorly understood. Anatomical sections allowed differentiation between two forms of secretory structures which differ according to their distribution in plants. The first axial type is connected to the vascular system of all vegetative organs and forms canals lined with epithelial cells. The second cortical type is represented by elongated intercellular spaces filled with oil formed only between the cortex cells of roots and rhizomes at maturity, with canals lacking an epithelial layer.Only in A. montana rhizomes do secretory structures form huge characteristic reservoirs. Computed tomography illustrates their spatial distribution and fusiform shape. The axial type of root secretory canals is formed at the interface between the endodermis and cortex parenchyma, while, in the stem, they are located in direct contact with veinal parenchyma. The peripheral phloem parenchyma cells are arranged in strands around sieve tube elements which possess a unique ability to accumulate large amounts of oil bodies. The cells of phloem parenchyma give rise to the aforementioned secretory structures while the lipid components (triacylglycerols) stored there support the biosynthesis of essential oils by later becoming a medium in which these oils are dissolved. The results indicate the integrity of axial secretory structures forming a continuous system in vegetative plant organs. PMID:26936790

  4. Oil Secretory System in Vegetative Organs of Three Arnica Taxa: Essential Oil Synthesis, Distribution and Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Kromer, Krystyna; Kreitschitz, Agnieszka; Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N; Szumny, Antoni

    2016-05-01

    Arnica, a genus including the medicinal species A. montana, in its Arbo variety, and A. chamissonis, is among the plants richest in essential oils used as pharmaceutical materials. Despite its extensive use, the role of anatomy and histochemistry in the internal secretory system producing the essential oil is poorly understood. Anatomical sections allowed differentiation between two forms of secretory structures which differ according to their distribution in plants. The first axial type is connected to the vascular system of all vegetative organs and forms canals lined with epithelial cells. The second cortical type is represented by elongated intercellular spaces filled with oil formed only between the cortex cells of roots and rhizomes at maturity, with canals lacking an epithelial layer.Only in A. montana rhizomes do secretory structures form huge characteristic reservoirs. Computed tomography illustrates their spatial distribution and fusiform shape. The axial type of root secretory canals is formed at the interface between the endodermis and cortex parenchyma, while, in the stem, they are located in direct contact with veinal parenchyma. The peripheral phloem parenchyma cells are arranged in strands around sieve tube elements which possess a unique ability to accumulate large amounts of oil bodies. The cells of phloem parenchyma give rise to the aforementioned secretory structures while the lipid components (triacylglycerols) stored there support the biosynthesis of essential oils by later becoming a medium in which these oils are dissolved. The results indicate the integrity of axial secretory structures forming a continuous system in vegetative plant organs.

  5. Delivery of Vegetable Oil Suspensions in a Shear Thinning Fluid for Enhanced Bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Lirong; Truex, Michael J.; Kananizadeh, Negin; Li, Yusong; Lea, Alan S.; Yan, Xiulan

    2015-04-01

    In situ anaerobic biological processes are widely applied for dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. A wide range of organic substrates have been tested and applied to support the dechlorination processes. Vegetable oils are a promising substrate and have been shown to induce effective dechlorination, have limited geochemical impacts, and good longevity. Distribution of vegetable oil in the subsurface, because it is a non-aqueous phase material, has typically been addressed by creating emulsified oil solutions. In this study, inexpensive waste vegetable oils were suspended in a xanthan gum solution, a shear-thinning fluid, as an alternative oil delivery mechanism. The stability, oil droplet size and distribution, and rheological behavior of the oil suspensions that are created in the xanthan solutions were studied in batch experiments. The injectability of the suspensions and oil distribution in porous medium were evaluated in column tests. Numerical modeling of the oil droplet transport and distribution in porous media was conducted to help interpret the column-test data. Batch studies showed that simple mixing of vegetable oil and xanthan solution produced stable suspensions of the oil as micron-size droplets. The mixture rheology retains shear-thinning properties that facilitate improved uniformity of substrate distribution in heterogeneous aquifers. Column tests demonstrated successful injection of the vegetable oil suspension into porous medium. This study provided evidence that vegetable oil suspensions in xanthan are a potential substrate to support in situ anaerobic bioremediation with favorable injection properties.

  6. Method for determination of organohalogen pesticide residues in vegetable oil refinery by-products.

    PubMed

    Young, S; Clower, M; Roach, J A

    1984-01-01

    A method using gel permeation and Florisil column chromatographic cleanup techniques is described for determination of residues of nonpolar organohalogen pesticides and pesticide alteration products in vegetable oils and their refinery by-products. Supplemental Florisil separation and alkali cleanup techniques are used to facilitate determinations. Residues are determined with a 63Ni electron capture gas chromatographic detection system used in conjunction with 3 different gas chromatographic columns. Residue identities are confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Recoveries of 7 organohalogen pesticides, ranging from 90 to 103%, were determined by the supplemental Florisil separation technique to augment previously reported recovery data determined for initial GPC and Florisil cleanup steps. Soybean, peanut, and cottonseed deodorizer distillates and crude and refined oil, as well as additional refinery by-products, were analyzed. Nine to 13 organohalogen residues ranging from 0.5 to 6.3 ppm were determined in the 2 soybean deodorizer distillate samples used to develop and test the method. Identities of residues present at greater than or equal to 0.3 ppm were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. An intralaboratory trial of the method provided additional recovery and residue determination data as follows: Recoveries ranging from 102 to 116% were obtained for 4 pesticides added to peanut oil deodorizer distillate. Residues determined in 1 soybean deodorizer distillate sample supported previously obtained data for this sample. PMID:6698936

  7. Application of vegetable oils in the treatment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Yap, C L; Gan, S; Ng, H K

    2010-05-15

    A brief review is conducted on the application of vegetable oils in the treatment of PAH-contaminated soils. Three main scopes of treatment strategies are discussed in this work including soil washing by oil, integrated oil-biological treatment and integrated oil-non-biological treatment. For each of these, the arguments supporting vegetable oil application, the applied treatment techniques and their efficiencies, associated factors, as well as the feasibility of the techniques are detailed. Additionally, oil regeneration, the environmental impacts of oil residues in soil and comparison with other commonly employed techniques are also discussed.

  8. On the Mineral and Vegetal Oils Used as Electroinsulation in Transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şerban, Mariana; Sângeorzan, Livia; Helerea, Elena

    Due to the relatively large availability and reduced price, the mineral transformer oils are widely used as electrical insulating liquids. However, mineral oil drastically degrades over time in service. New efforts were made to improve mineral oils characteristics, and other types of liquids like vegetal oils are proposed. This paper deals with new comparative tests on mineral and vegetal oils using as indicator the electric strength. The samples of non-additive mineral oil type TR 30 and vegetal oils of rape, sunflower and corn have been tested with increasing voltage of 60 Hz using different electrodes. The obtained data have been statistical processed. The analyze shows different average values of electrical strength for the different type of sample. New method of testing through electrical breakdown is proposed. Experimental data confirms that it is possible to use as electroinsulation organic vegetal oils in power transformers.

  9. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Snead, Thomas E; Cohen, Steven A; Gildon, Demond L

    2015-04-07

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  10. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-03-15

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  11. Complex role of monoacylglycerols in the oxidation of vegetable oils: different behaviors of soybean monoacylglycerols in different oils.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Vito Michele; Caponio, Francesco; Bruno, Giuseppina; Pasqualone, Antonella; Summo, Carmine; Gomes, Tommaso

    2014-11-01

    The relationship between fatty acid composition of oils and their oxidative stability in the presence of monoacylglycerols was investigated. Purified vegetable oils were added at increasing amounts (0.5, 1, 2, and 3%) of monoacylglycerols obtained from purified soybean oil and submitted to an oven test (60 °C for 18 days). The obtained results showed a generally antioxidant effect of monoacylglycerols, with remarkable differences among oils. The antioxidant effect was significantly higher in less unsaturated oils, such as palm and olive oils. Among the more unsaturated vegetable oils, peanut and sunflower oils showed an almost linear slowdown of oxidation, slightly less pronounced in sunflower oil, which was the most susceptible to oxidation due to its high content of linoleic acid. A peculiar trend was highlighted for soybean oil, where the antioxidant effect of high amounts of monoacylglycerols was opposed to a pro-oxidant effect observed up to 1%.

  12. Detection and quantification of adulteration of sesame oils with vegetable oils using gas chromatography and multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dan; Bi, Yanlan; Ren, Xiaona; Yang, Guolong; Sun, Shangde; Wang, Xuede

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to develop a hierarchical approach for detection and quantification of adulteration of sesame oil with vegetable oils using gas chromatography (GC). At first, a model was constructed to discriminate the difference between authentic sesame oils and adulterated sesame oils using support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. Then, another SVM-based model is developed to identify the type of adulterant in the mixed oil. At last, prediction models for sesame oil were built for each kind of oil using partial least square method. To validate this approach, 746 samples were prepared by mixing authentic sesame oils with five types of vegetable oil. The prediction results show that the detection limit for authentication is as low as 5% in mixing ratio and the root-mean-square errors for prediction range from 1.19% to 4.29%, meaning that this approach is a valuable tool to detect and quantify the adulteration of sesame oil.

  13. Detection and quantification of adulteration of sesame oils with vegetable oils using gas chromatography and multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dan; Bi, Yanlan; Ren, Xiaona; Yang, Guolong; Sun, Shangde; Wang, Xuede

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to develop a hierarchical approach for detection and quantification of adulteration of sesame oil with vegetable oils using gas chromatography (GC). At first, a model was constructed to discriminate the difference between authentic sesame oils and adulterated sesame oils using support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. Then, another SVM-based model is developed to identify the type of adulterant in the mixed oil. At last, prediction models for sesame oil were built for each kind of oil using partial least square method. To validate this approach, 746 samples were prepared by mixing authentic sesame oils with five types of vegetable oil. The prediction results show that the detection limit for authentication is as low as 5% in mixing ratio and the root-mean-square errors for prediction range from 1.19% to 4.29%, meaning that this approach is a valuable tool to detect and quantify the adulteration of sesame oil. PMID:26041212

  14. Acute toxicity of selected crude and refined shale oil derived and petroleum-derived substances

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.H.; Haschek, W.M.; Witschi, H.

    1980-01-01

    General information was obtained on the toxicity of selected samples of crude Paraho shale oil and some of its derivatives, some crude petroleums, and 3 refined petroleum products. Five tests were used to determine the acute toxicity of these substances: acute lethality in mice following oral or intraperitoneal administration of a single dose; acute dermal toxicity of a single dose in rats; delayed-type allergic contact hypersensitivity in guinea pigs; primary eye irritation and primary skin irritation of a single dose in rabbits. Histopathologic changes induced in mice following intraperitoneal injection of a single large dose of crude shale oil and two of its hydrotreated derivatives were examined. Studies also have been initiated to examine the tumor inducing potential of selected samples. The test system used was the mouse lung adenoma bioassay. The present report describes our findings and shows that all compounds tested have very low or no acute toxic effects in laboratory animals.

  15. Methods of refining natural oils and methods of producing fuel compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Firth, Bruce E; Kirk, Sharon E; Gavaskar, Vasudeo S

    2015-11-04

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent selected from the group consisting of phosphorous acid, phosphinic acid, and a combination thereof; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  16. Methods of refining natural oils, and methods of producing fuel compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Firth, Bruce E.; Kirk, Sharon E.

    2015-10-27

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent that comprises nitric acid; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  17. Physicochemical and sensory characterization of refined and deodorized tuna (Thunnus albacares) by-product oil obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Dayse A S B; Minozzo, Marcelo G; Licodiedoff, Silvana; Waszczynskyj, Nina

    2016-09-15

    In this study, the effects of chemical refining and deodorization on fatty acid profiles and physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the tuna by-product oil obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis were evaluated. Enzymatic extraction was conducted for 120 min at 60 °C and pH 6.5 using Alcalase at an enzyme-substrate ratio of 1:200 w/w. The chemical refining of crude oil consisted of degumming, neutralization, washing, drying, bleaching, and deodorization; deodorization was conducted at different temperatures and processing times. Although chemical refining was successful, temperature and chemical reagents favored the removal of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from the oil. Aroma attributes of fishy odor, frying odor, and rancid odor predominantly contributed to the sensory evaluation of the product. Deodorization conditions of 160 °C for 1h and 200 °C for 1h were recommended for the tuna by-product oil, which is rich in PUFA. PMID:27080896

  18. Fuel and lubricant additives from acid treated mixtures of vegetable oil derived amides and esters

    SciTech Connect

    Bonazza, B.R.; Devault, A.N.

    1981-05-26

    Vegetable oils such as corn oil, peanut oil, and soy oil are reacted with polyamines to form a mixture containing amides, imides, half esters, and glycerol with subsequent treatment with a strong acid such as sulfonic acid to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels and lubricants.

  19. [Effect of partially refined palm oil in lipid profile in rats].

    PubMed

    Salinas, Nancy; Márquez, Mercedes; Sutil, Rosalía; Pacheco, Emperatriz; Muñoz, Marielena; Gómez, Maria Esther

    2008-03-01

    Palm oil is rich in carotenoids, tocopherols and tocotrienols. This oil is refined for its human consumption bringing as a consequence an alteration of their properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the partially refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBD red) on the lipid profile and levels of vitamin A (retinol) and E (alpha tocopherol) in 4 groups of rats: B (commercial food Protinal for laboratory animals: ST + 5% egg yolk powder); C (ST + 5% egg yolk powder + 14 RBD red) both groups with induced hyperlipidemia; and D (ST + 14% RBD red), as compared with a control A (ST) during 35 days. The results were: the RBD red induced significative decreases of TC (total cholesterol) in groups C and D (81 +/- 11 mg/dL and 77 + 7 mg/dL), respectively, when compared with the control group (99 +/- 11 mg/dL) for 35 days experimentation. Additionally, an increment of the HDL-C (53 +/- 4 mg/dL) in the C group and in the D group (53 +/- 5 mg/dL) were observed when compared with group B (44 +/- 3 mg/dL), resulting in a lower ratio of TC/HDL-C (1.5 +/- 0.1). In the groups C and D, there were significant increases (p < 0.05) in the serum concentrations of retinol (26 +/- 5 microg/dL and 58 +/- 18 microg/dL) and a tocopherol (165 +/- 58 microg/dL) and 445 +/- 65 microg/dL). These results allow to conclude that the supplementation with RBD red diminishes the TC, improving the ratio TC/HDL-C. The presence of a monosaturated fatty acid (oleic acid) and the high concentrations of micronutrients (a tocopherol and retinol) in RBD red palm oil, influence favorably the lipid profile of rats with induced hyperlipidemia.

  20. Preventive effect of cinnamon essential oil on lipid oxidation of vegetable oil

    PubMed Central

    Keshvari, Mahtab; Asgary, Sedigheh; Jafarian-dehkordi, Abbas; Najafi, Somayeh; Ghoreyshi-Yazdi, Seyed Mojtaba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lipid oxidation is the main deterioration process that occurs in vegetable oils. This process was effectively prevented by natural antioxidants. Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon) is rich with antioxidants. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cinnamon on malondialdehyde (MDA) rate production in two high consumption oils in Iranian market. METHODS Chemical composition of cinnamon essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). 200 µl each oil, 50 µl tween 20, and 2 ml of 40 Mm AAPH solutions were mixed and the prepared solution was divided into four glass vials. Respectively, 50 µl of 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm of cinnamon essential oil were added to three glass vials separately and one of the glass vials was used as the control. All of the glass vials were incubated at 37° C water bath. Rate of MDA production was measured by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test at the baseline and after the 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 5 hours. RESULTS Compounds of cinnamon essential oil by GC-MS analysis such as cinnamaldehyde (96.8%), alpha-capaene (0.2%), alpha-murolene (0.11%), para-methoxycinnamaldehyde (0.6%) and delta-cadinen (0.4%) were found to be the major compounds. For both oils, maximum rate of MDA production was achieved in 5th hours of heating. Every three concentrations of cinnamon essential oil significantly decreased MDA production (P < 0.05) in comparison with the control. CONCLUSION Essential oil of cinnamon considerably inhibited MDA production in studied oils and can be used with fresh and heated oils for reduction of lipid peroxidation and adverse free radicals effects on body. PMID:24302936

  1. Biodegradation and toxicity of vegetable oils in contaminated aquatic environments: Effect of antioxidants and oil composition.

    PubMed

    Salam, Darine A; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

    2016-03-15

    Antioxidants may affect the oxidative rate of vegetable oils determining their fate and impact in contaminated aquatic media. In previous studies, we demonstrated the effectiveness of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), one of the most used antioxidants in edible oils, in enhancing the biodegradation of glyceryl trilinoleate, a pure triacylglycerol of cis,cis-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (C18:2 delta), through retarding its oxidative polymerization relatively to the oil with no added antioxidant. In this study, the effect of BHT on the biodegradation and toxicity of purified canola oil, a mixed-acid triacylglycerol with high C18:1 content, was investigated in respirometric microcosms and by use of the Microtox® assay. Investigations were carried out in the absence and presence (200 mg kg(-1)) of the antioxidant, and at an oil loading of 0.31 L m(-2) (333 gal acre(-1)). Substantial oil mineralization was achieved after 16 weeks of incubation (>77%) and was not significantly different (p>0.05) between the two BHT treatments, demonstrating an important role of the oil fatty acid composition in determining the potency of antioxidants and, consequently, the fate of spilled vegetable oils. Furthermore, for both treatments, toxicity was measured at early stages of the experiments and disappeared at a later stage of incubation. The observed transient toxicity was associated with the combined effect of toxic biodegradation intermediates and autoxidation products. These results were supported by the gradual disappearance of BHT in the microcosms initially supplemented with the antioxidant, reaching negligible amounts after only 2 weeks of incubation.

  2. Biodegradation and toxicity of vegetable oils in contaminated aquatic environments: Effect of antioxidants and oil composition.

    PubMed

    Salam, Darine A; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

    2016-03-15

    Antioxidants may affect the oxidative rate of vegetable oils determining their fate and impact in contaminated aquatic media. In previous studies, we demonstrated the effectiveness of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), one of the most used antioxidants in edible oils, in enhancing the biodegradation of glyceryl trilinoleate, a pure triacylglycerol of cis,cis-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (C18:2 delta), through retarding its oxidative polymerization relatively to the oil with no added antioxidant. In this study, the effect of BHT on the biodegradation and toxicity of purified canola oil, a mixed-acid triacylglycerol with high C18:1 content, was investigated in respirometric microcosms and by use of the Microtox® assay. Investigations were carried out in the absence and presence (200 mg kg(-1)) of the antioxidant, and at an oil loading of 0.31 L m(-2) (333 gal acre(-1)). Substantial oil mineralization was achieved after 16 weeks of incubation (>77%) and was not significantly different (p>0.05) between the two BHT treatments, demonstrating an important role of the oil fatty acid composition in determining the potency of antioxidants and, consequently, the fate of spilled vegetable oils. Furthermore, for both treatments, toxicity was measured at early stages of the experiments and disappeared at a later stage of incubation. The observed transient toxicity was associated with the combined effect of toxic biodegradation intermediates and autoxidation products. These results were supported by the gradual disappearance of BHT in the microcosms initially supplemented with the antioxidant, reaching negligible amounts after only 2 weeks of incubation. PMID:26780134

  3. The effect of pan frying on thermooxidative stability of refined rapeseed oil and professional blend.

    PubMed

    Aniołowska, Magda; Zahran, Hamdy; Kita, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    The pan fryings of frozen pre-fried French fries in refined rapeseed oil (RO) and professional blend (PB) were of 8 h duration. Initially, while fresh, and after every 1 h of frying, the oils were analyzed for acid and anisidine values, colour, refractive index, fatty acid composition (by GC), polar fraction content and composition (by high pressure size exclusion chromatography). Additionally the fat content and fatty acid composition of French fries were determined. Hydrolytic and oxidative changes in the frying media varied with oil composition and increased with frying time. The pace of oxidation in RO was three times higher than in PB. The loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids (sum of C18:2 and C18:3) after 8 h of frying was 7 % in PB and 20 % in RO. The polar fraction content was two times lower in PB, but did not exceed 25 % in either of the frying media. The predominant fraction in RO was oxidized triacylglycerols, while in PB - diacylglycerols. During frying the proportions of triacylglycerol polymers and dimers increased in both oils, reaching 32 % in RO and 23 % in PB.

  4. The effect of pan frying on thermooxidative stability of refined rapeseed oil and professional blend.

    PubMed

    Aniołowska, Magda; Zahran, Hamdy; Kita, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    The pan fryings of frozen pre-fried French fries in refined rapeseed oil (RO) and professional blend (PB) were of 8 h duration. Initially, while fresh, and after every 1 h of frying, the oils were analyzed for acid and anisidine values, colour, refractive index, fatty acid composition (by GC), polar fraction content and composition (by high pressure size exclusion chromatography). Additionally the fat content and fatty acid composition of French fries were determined. Hydrolytic and oxidative changes in the frying media varied with oil composition and increased with frying time. The pace of oxidation in RO was three times higher than in PB. The loss of polyunsaturated fatty acids (sum of C18:2 and C18:3) after 8 h of frying was 7 % in PB and 20 % in RO. The polar fraction content was two times lower in PB, but did not exceed 25 % in either of the frying media. The predominant fraction in RO was oxidized triacylglycerols, while in PB - diacylglycerols. During frying the proportions of triacylglycerol polymers and dimers increased in both oils, reaching 32 % in RO and 23 % in PB. PMID:26787991

  5. Activated carbon adsorption of PAHs from vegetable oil used in soil remediation.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zongqiang; Alef, Kassem; Wilke, Berndt-Michael; Li, Peijun

    2007-05-01

    Vegetable oil has been proven to be advantageous as a non-toxic, cost-effective and biodegradable solvent to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soils for remediation purposes. The resulting vegetable oil contained PAHs and therefore required a method for subsequent removal of extracted PAHs and reuse of the oil in remediation processes. In this paper, activated carbon adsorption of PAHs from vegetable oil used in soil remediation was assessed to ascertain PAH contaminated oil regeneration. Vegetable oils, originating from lab scale remediation, with different PAH concentrations were examined to study the adsorption of PAHs on activated carbon. Batch adsorption tests were performed by shaking oil-activated carbon mixtures in flasks. Equilibrium data were fitted with the Langmuir and Freundlich isothermal models. Studies were also carried out using columns packed with activated carbon. In addition, the effects of initial PAH concentration and activated carbon dosage on sorption capacities were investigated. Results clearly revealed the effectiveness of using activated carbon as an adsorbent to remove PAHs from the vegetable oil. Adsorption equilibrium of PAHs on activated carbon from the vegetable oil was successfully evaluated by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The initial PAH concentrations and carbon dosage affected adsorption significantly. The results indicate that the reuse of vegetable oil was feasible.

  6. [Application of fluorescence spectra and parallel factor analysis in the classification of edible vegetable oils].

    PubMed

    Wu, Xi-jun; Pan, Zhao; Zhao, Yan-peng; Liu, Hai-long; Zheng, Long-jiang

    2014-08-01

    The fluorescence spectra of 22 samples of 8 kinds of edible vegetable oils (soybean oil, maize oil, olive oil, rice oil, peanut oil, walnut oil, sunflower oil and sesame oil) were measured with FS920 fluorescence spectrometer and the fluorescence matrixs (EEMs) were analyzed with parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis model. To synthesize the capabilities of material characterization and component identification, fluorescence spectra combined with PARAFAC fulfill the classification of vegetable oils. The map feature (peak position, peak value and peak number) was obtained by analyzing three dimensional spectra and con tour maps in the range of emission wavelength from 260 to 750 nm, and excitation wavelengths from 250 to 550 nm. The fluorescent substances (unsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E and its derivatives, chlorophyll and carotenoid) corresponding to spectrum peaks were determined. The factor-number was selected and the components (vitamin E and its derivatives, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, fatty acid oxidation products, vegetable oil oxidation products) corresponding to each factor were ascertained. The four-factor excitation and emission profiles and projection score plots of PARAFAC model were plotted. Different vegetable oils can be characterized and distinguished with the map features of fluorescence spectra and sample projection plots of PARAFAC model. The results demonstrate the capability of the combination of fluorescence spectra technology and four-factor PARAFAC model for differentiating and characterizing vegetable oils.

  7. Effects of vegetable oils on biochemical and biophysical properties of membrane retinal pigment epithelium cells.

    PubMed

    Said, Toihiri; Tremblay-Mercier, Jennifer; Berrougui, Hicham; Rat, Patrice; Khalil, Abdelouahed

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vegetable oil enrichment of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells on their biochemical and biophysical properties. For this, RPE cells were incubated with 4 different vegetables oils (olive oil, corn oil, argan oil, and camelina oil). The cytotoxicity of these vegetable oils was assessed in vivo on 8-week-old mice and in vitro by using the neutral red and YO-PRO-1 tests. Membrane fluidity was evaluated by fluorescence anisotropy using the fluorescent probe diphenylhexatriene, and membrane fatty acid composition was assessed by gas chromatography. None of the oils tested displayed cytotoxic effects. In vitro, omega-3 rich oils improved membrane fluidity by 47% compared with the control cells. The omega-3 PUFA content within membranes decreased by 38% to 55% when cells were incubated separately with olive oil, corn oil, or argan oil, and increased when cells were incubated with a mixture of those oils, or with camelina oil alone (50% and 103% increase, respectively). Our results show that the fatty acids in vegetable oil incorporate into retinal cells and increase the plasma membrane fluidity.

  8. Heat Transfer Properties of a Series of Oxidized and Unoxidized Vegetable Oils in Comparison with Petroleum Oil-Based Quenchants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Ester Carvalho; Canale, Lauralice C. F.; Sarmiento, G. Sánchez; Agaliotis, Eliana; Carrara, Juan C.; Schicchi, Diego S.; Totten, George E.

    2013-07-01

    Vegetable oils, especially soybean oil, exhibit substantially poorer thermal-oxidative stability than commercially available petroleum oil quenchant formulations. Therefore, to achieve any commercially interesting performance, vegetable oils must be stabilized by the addition of antioxidant inhibitors. This work describes the ability of two commercially available antioxidants, Irganox L 57 and Irganox L 109, to stabilize soybean oil against thermal-oxidative degradation. In addition, the effect of antioxidant stabilization on quenching performance was evaluated by determining the profile of heat transfer coefficient variation throughout the quenching process at different times after being subjected to an accelerated thermal-oxidation aging test. The results of this work are discussed here.

  9. Dangerous and cancer-causing properties of products and chemicals in the oil refining and petrochemical industry: Part V--Asbestos-caused cancers and exposure of workers in the oil refining industry.

    PubMed

    Mehlman, M A

    1991-01-01

    In the oil refining and petrochemical industries exposure to cancer-causing asbestos particles, especially during equipment repair and maintenance, is very high. Up to 90% of workers in the oil refining industry had direct and/or indirect contact with asbestos, and more than half of this contact occurred without the use of any kind of precaution, thus these workers are in high risk of developing lung cancer and mesothelioma, both fatal diseases. The hazards include: inadequate health and safety training for both company personnel and workers, failure to inform about the dangers and diseases (cancers) resulting from exposure to asbestos; excessive use of large numbers of untrained and uninformed contract workers; lack of use of protective equipment; and archaeological approaches and responses to repairing asbestos breaks and replacement of asbestos in oil refining facilities. For a better understanding of practices and policies in the oil refining industry, refer to Rachel Scott's Muscle and Blood, in particular the chapter "Oil" (E.P. Dutton, New York, 1974), as well as to an editorial which appeared in the Oil and Gas Journal, April, 1968.

  10. A Fully Data-Constrained Benchmark Global Vegetation Model for Identifying Priority Sources of Uncertainty and Facilitating Rapid Model Refinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. J.; Purves, D.; Lyutsarev, V.; Vanderwel, M.; Emmott, S.

    2011-12-01

    Human societies urgently need more accurate predictions of how the biosphere is going to change under plausible future scenarios. The current major source of uncertainty in these predictions is how the biotic components will interact with a changing climate. Unfortunately, models of the terrestrial carbon-climate feedback make widely diverging predictions even under the same or similar climate change scenarios. The reasons for these different predictions have never been fully understood because of the technical and computational obstacles preventing the intercomparison of model components and structures. We therefore developed a new global vegetation model with the objective of establishing it as a benchmark on which to justify further refinements. We coupled every component process in our vegetation model with global datasets and used Bayesian inference to find the probability distributions for all model parameters. Using various experiments we identified model components and datasets responsible for the major sources of uncertainty. We then simulated our model whilst accounting for full parameter and structural uncertainty to quantify the importance of such uncertainty for climate change predictions. Finally we have wrapped up our study within a computational methodology designed to facilitate objective model intercomparison and rapid model refinement for use by the wider scientific community.

  11. A novel quantitative analysis method of three-dimensional fluorescence spectra for vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jing; Wang, Yu-Tian; Liu, Xiao-Fei

    2015-04-01

    Edible blend oil is a mixture of vegetable oils. Eligible blend oil can meet the daily need of two essential fatty acids for human to achieve the balanced nutrition. Each vegetable oil has its different composition, so vegetable oils contents in edible blend oil determine nutritional components in blend oil. A high-precision quantitative analysis method to detect the vegetable oils contents in blend oil is necessary to ensure balanced nutrition for human being. Three-dimensional fluorescence technique is high selectivity, high sensitivity, and high-efficiency. Efficiency extraction and full use of information in tree-dimensional fluorescence spectra will improve the accuracy of the measurement. A novel quantitative analysis is proposed based on Quasi-Monte-Carlo integral to improve the measurement sensitivity and reduce the random error. Partial least squares method is used to solve nonlinear equations to avoid the effect of multicollinearity. The recovery rates of blend oil mixed by peanut oil, soybean oil and sunflower are calculated to verify the accuracy of the method, which are increased, compared the linear method used commonly for component concentration measurement.

  12. Vegetable oils as an on the farm diesel fuel substitute: the North Carolina situation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harwood, H.J.

    1981-06-01

    The state-of-the-art of using vegetable oil as a diesel fuel alternative is reviewed. Particular emphasis has been placed on using vegetable oil in farm vehicles as an emergency fuel which may be produced on-farm. The following are reviewed: the mechanical feasibility, on-farm fuel production, and economic analysis.

  13. Properties of cookies made with natural wax-vegetable oil organogels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organogels prepared with a natural wax and a vegetable oil were examined as alternatives to a commercial margarine in cookie. To investigate effects of wax and vegetable oil on properties of cookie dough and cookies, organogels prepared from four different waxes including sunflower wax, rice bran wa...

  14. Electrocoagulation of vegetable oil refinery wastewater using aluminum electrodes.

    PubMed

    Tezcan Un, Umran; Koparal, A Savas; Bakir Ogutveren, Ulker

    2009-01-01

    Electrocoagulation with aluminum electrodes was used to treat the vegetable oil refinery wastewater (VORW) in a batch reactor. The effects of operating parameters such as pH, current density, PAC (poly aluminum chloride) dosage and Na(2)SO(4) dosage on the removal of organics and COD removal efficiency have been investigated. It has been shown that the removal efficiency of COD increased with the increasing applied current density and increasing PAC and Na(2)SO(4) dosage and the most effective removal capacity was achieved at the pH 7. The results indicate that electrocoagulation is very efficient and able to achieve 98.9% COD removal in 90 min at 35 mAcm(-2) with a specific electrical energy consumption of 42 kWh(kgCOD(removed))(-1). The effluent was very clear and its quality exceeded the direct discharge standard.

  15. Protective effects of hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oil in animal models of acute inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Silva, S; Sepodes, B; Rocha, J; Direito, R; Fernandes, A; Brites, D; Freitas, M; Fernandes, E; Bronze, M R; Figueira, M E

    2015-04-01

    Virgin olive oil is the primary source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, and its beneficial health effects have been related with oleic acid and phenolic compounds content. Hydroxytyrosol, a typical virgin olive oil phenolic compound, has beneficial antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as previously reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oil at 0.5 and 5 mg/kg in a rodent model of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis was induced by intradermic administration, in male Wistar rats, of Freund's adjuvant with collagen type II on days 1 and 21. Hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oils were administrated by gavage from day 23 until day 35. The treatment at 5-mg/kg dose significantly decreased paw edema (P<.01), histological damage, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and markedly reduced the degree of bone resorption, soft tissue swelling and osteophyte formation, improving articular function in treated animals. Acute inflammation, induced by carrageenan, was also evaluated for hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oils at 0.5 and 5 mg/kg. Both doses significantly reduced paw edema (P<.001). Our results suggest that the supplementation of refined olive oil with hydroxytyrosol may be advantageous in rheumatoid arthritis with significant impact not only on chronic inflammation but also on acute inflammatory processes.

  16. Protective effects of hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oil in animal models of acute inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Silva, S; Sepodes, B; Rocha, J; Direito, R; Fernandes, A; Brites, D; Freitas, M; Fernandes, E; Bronze, M R; Figueira, M E

    2015-04-01

    Virgin olive oil is the primary source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, and its beneficial health effects have been related with oleic acid and phenolic compounds content. Hydroxytyrosol, a typical virgin olive oil phenolic compound, has beneficial antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as previously reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oil at 0.5 and 5 mg/kg in a rodent model of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis was induced by intradermic administration, in male Wistar rats, of Freund's adjuvant with collagen type II on days 1 and 21. Hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oils were administrated by gavage from day 23 until day 35. The treatment at 5-mg/kg dose significantly decreased paw edema (P<.01), histological damage, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and markedly reduced the degree of bone resorption, soft tissue swelling and osteophyte formation, improving articular function in treated animals. Acute inflammation, induced by carrageenan, was also evaluated for hydroxytyrosol-supplemented refined olive oils at 0.5 and 5 mg/kg. Both doses significantly reduced paw edema (P<.001). Our results suggest that the supplementation of refined olive oil with hydroxytyrosol may be advantageous in rheumatoid arthritis with significant impact not only on chronic inflammation but also on acute inflammatory processes. PMID:25620693

  17. Comprehension of direct extraction of hydrophilic antioxidants using vegetable oils by polar paradox theory and small angle X-ray scattering analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne Sylvie; Ruiz, Karine; Rossignol Castera, Anne; Bauduin, Pierre; Diat, Olivier; Chemat, Farid

    2015-04-15

    Since the polar paradox theory rationalised the fact that polar antioxidants are more effective in nonpolar media, extractions of phenolic compounds in vegetable oils were inspired and achieved in this study for obtaining oils enriched in phenolic compounds. Moreover, the influence of surfactants on the extractability of phenolic compounds was experimentally studied first, followed by the small angle X-ray scattering analysis for the oil structural observation before and after extraction so as to better understand the dissolving mechanism underpinning the extraction. The results showed a significant difference on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds among oils, which was mainly dependent on their composition instead of the unsaturation of fatty acids. Appropriate surfactant additions could significantly improve extraction yield for refined sunflower oils, which 1% w/w addition of glyceryl oleate was determined as the optimal. Besides, 5% w/w addition of lecithin performed the best in oil enrichments compared with mono- and di-glycerides. PMID:25466101

  18. Comprehension of direct extraction of hydrophilic antioxidants using vegetable oils by polar paradox theory and small angle X-ray scattering analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne Sylvie; Ruiz, Karine; Rossignol Castera, Anne; Bauduin, Pierre; Diat, Olivier; Chemat, Farid

    2015-04-15

    Since the polar paradox theory rationalised the fact that polar antioxidants are more effective in nonpolar media, extractions of phenolic compounds in vegetable oils were inspired and achieved in this study for obtaining oils enriched in phenolic compounds. Moreover, the influence of surfactants on the extractability of phenolic compounds was experimentally studied first, followed by the small angle X-ray scattering analysis for the oil structural observation before and after extraction so as to better understand the dissolving mechanism underpinning the extraction. The results showed a significant difference on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds among oils, which was mainly dependent on their composition instead of the unsaturation of fatty acids. Appropriate surfactant additions could significantly improve extraction yield for refined sunflower oils, which 1% w/w addition of glyceryl oleate was determined as the optimal. Besides, 5% w/w addition of lecithin performed the best in oil enrichments compared with mono- and di-glycerides.

  19. Evaluation of Palm Oil as a Suitable Vegetable Oil for Vitamin A Fortification Programs.

    PubMed

    Pignitter, Marc; Hernler, Natalie; Zaunschirm, Mathias; Kienesberger, Julia; Somoza, Mark Manuel; Kraemer, Klaus; Somoza, Veronika

    2016-06-21

    Fortification programs are considered to be an effective strategy to mitigate vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk. Fortified vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids were shown to be prone to oxidation, leading to limited vitamin A stability. Thus, it was hypothesized that fortified oils consisting of mainly saturated fatty acids might enhance the stability of vitamin A. Mildly (peroxide value: 1.0 meq O₂/kg) and highly (peroxide value: 7.5 meq O₂/kg) oxidized palm oil was stored, after fortification with 60 International Units/g retinyl palmitate, in 0.5 L transparent polyethylene terephthalate bottles under cold fluorescent lighting (12 h/day) at 32 °C for 57 days. An increase of the peroxide value by 15 meq O₂/kg, which was also reflected by a decrease of α-tocopherol congener by 15%-18%, was determined independent of the initial rancidity. The oxidative deterioration of the highly oxidized palm oil during storage was correlated with a significant 46% decline of the vitamin A content. However, household storage of mildly oxidized palm oil for two months did not induce any losses of vitamin A. Thus, mildly oxidized palm oil may be recommended for vitamin A fortification programs, when other sources of essential fatty acids are available.

  20. Evaluation of Palm Oil as a Suitable Vegetable Oil for Vitamin A Fortification Programs.

    PubMed

    Pignitter, Marc; Hernler, Natalie; Zaunschirm, Mathias; Kienesberger, Julia; Somoza, Mark Manuel; Kraemer, Klaus; Somoza, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Fortification programs are considered to be an effective strategy to mitigate vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk. Fortified vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids were shown to be prone to oxidation, leading to limited vitamin A stability. Thus, it was hypothesized that fortified oils consisting of mainly saturated fatty acids might enhance the stability of vitamin A. Mildly (peroxide value: 1.0 meq O₂/kg) and highly (peroxide value: 7.5 meq O₂/kg) oxidized palm oil was stored, after fortification with 60 International Units/g retinyl palmitate, in 0.5 L transparent polyethylene terephthalate bottles under cold fluorescent lighting (12 h/day) at 32 °C for 57 days. An increase of the peroxide value by 15 meq O₂/kg, which was also reflected by a decrease of α-tocopherol congener by 15%-18%, was determined independent of the initial rancidity. The oxidative deterioration of the highly oxidized palm oil during storage was correlated with a significant 46% decline of the vitamin A content. However, household storage of mildly oxidized palm oil for two months did not induce any losses of vitamin A. Thus, mildly oxidized palm oil may be recommended for vitamin A fortification programs, when other sources of essential fatty acids are available. PMID:27338464

  1. Evaluation of Palm Oil as a Suitable Vegetable Oil for Vitamin A Fortification Programs

    PubMed Central

    Pignitter, Marc; Hernler, Natalie; Zaunschirm, Mathias; Kienesberger, Julia; Somoza, Mark Manuel; Kraemer, Klaus; Somoza, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Fortification programs are considered to be an effective strategy to mitigate vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk. Fortified vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids were shown to be prone to oxidation, leading to limited vitamin A stability. Thus, it was hypothesized that fortified oils consisting of mainly saturated fatty acids might enhance the stability of vitamin A. Mildly (peroxide value: 1.0 meq O2/kg) and highly (peroxide value: 7.5 meq O2/kg) oxidized palm oil was stored, after fortification with 60 International Units/g retinyl palmitate, in 0.5 L transparent polyethylene terephthalate bottles under cold fluorescent lighting (12 h/day) at 32 °C for 57 days. An increase of the peroxide value by 15 meq O2/kg, which was also reflected by a decrease of α-tocopherol congener by 15%–18%, was determined independent of the initial rancidity. The oxidative deterioration of the highly oxidized palm oil during storage was correlated with a significant 46% decline of the vitamin A content. However, household storage of mildly oxidized palm oil for two months did not induce any losses of vitamin A. Thus, mildly oxidized palm oil may be recommended for vitamin A fortification programs, when other sources of essential fatty acids are available. PMID:27338464

  2. Determination of lipid oxidation products in vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements

    PubMed Central

    Halvorsen, Bente Lise; Blomhoff, Rune

    2011-01-01

    Background There is convincing evidence that replacing dietary saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) decreases risk of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, PUFA rich foods such as vegetable oils, fatty fish, and marine omega-3 supplements are recommended. However, PUFA are easily oxidizable and there is concern about possible negative health effects from intake of oxidized lipids. Little is known about the degree of lipid oxidation in such products. Objective To assess the content of lipid oxidation products in a large selection of vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements available in Norway. Both fresh and heated vegetable oils were studied. Design A large selection of commercially available vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements was purchased from grocery stores, pharmacies, and health food stores in Norway. The content of lipid oxidation products were measured as peroxide value and alkenal concentration. Twelve different vegetable oils were heated for a temperature (225°C) and time (25 minutes) resembling conditions typically used during cooking. Results The peroxide values were in the range 1.04–10.38 meq/kg for omega-3 supplements and in the range 0.60–5.33 meq/kg for fresh vegetable oils. The concentration range of alkenals was 158.23–932.19 nmol/mL for omega-3 supplements and 33.24–119.04 nmol/mL for vegetable oils. After heating, a 2.9–11.2 fold increase in alkenal concentration was observed for vegetable oils. Conclusions The contents of hydroperoxides and alkenals in omega-3 supplements are higher than in vegetable oils. After heating vegetable oils, a large increase in alkenal concentration was observed. PMID:21691461

  3. Toothbrushing with vegetable oil: a clinical and laboratorial analysis.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Alciara Alice de Almeida; Saliba, Nemre Adas

    2004-01-01

    The dentifrices currently available in the marketplace contain many anticariogenic substances, fluoride and abrasives aimed to better clean the dental surface, remove dental plaque, improve salivary flow and its buffer capacity and reduce colonies of bacteria such as S. mutans, the causative agent of dental caries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of adequately removing dental plaque using an experimental almond oil dentifrice (Titoil) with no abrasives or antiplaque agents. This study was carried out with 80 volunteers, all of them 18-year-old recruits from the military training school of Araçatuba -- SP. Saliva sampling and dental plaque disclosing were undertaken both before and after 28 days of toothbrushing with a low abrasive dentifrice (Group 1: 40 volunteers) or with Titoil (Group 2: 40 volunteers). Statistical analysis of the results revealed that the experimental dentifrice (Titoil) did not interfere with salivary flow and reduced dental plaque more than the low abrasive dentifrice, improved the salivary buffer capacity and decreased salivary S. mutans (Caritest-SM) as much as regular dentifrices. It was concluded that if the dental industry replaces abrasive by vegetable oil in dentifrices, these will be more effective in maintaining oral health and will cause less dental abrasion.

  4. Economic implications for the potential development of a vegetable oil fuel industry

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, J.R.; Schneeberger, K.C.

    1982-01-01

    The purposes in this paper were to (1) summarize the domestic and international oilseed situation with emphasis on trends which will affect the long-run supply and demand for oilseeds; (2) describe the existing oilseeds processing sector so as to focus on the existing linkage between food and potential fuel markets for vegetable oils; and (3) present a basic framework for analyzing the supply, demand, and price effects of significant use of vegetable oil as a fuel. The major determinants of demand worldwide for vegetable oils are price, incomes, and population. Government programs of taxes, quotas, or subsidies could affect vegetable oil supply and/or demand. International trade practices could change; altering the flow of oils between markets. The likely impact of a developing vegetable oils fuel market would be to increase vegetable oil prices. The size of the increase will depend on how large the fuel market demand ultimately becomes, and thus on the price of diesel fuel. It will also depend on how well oilseed production can be adapted, technologically, and in acreage, to meet the needs of a large fuels market while maintaining its critical role in the foods sector. There are many uncertainties in assessing the economic picture for vegetable oil use as a diesel fuel substitute. 1 figure, 3 tables. (DP)

  5. Vegetable oils and animal fats for diesel fuels: a systems study

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinsky, E.S.; Kresovich, S.; Wagner, C.K.; Appelbaum, H.R.; McClure, T.A.; Otis, J.L.; Trayser, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper provided some information on the possible use of vegetable oils and animal fats as substitute fuels and as emergency diesel fuels in the United States. This paper is confined to using triglyceride fuels in agricultural, automotive, and highway transportation applications. Satisfactory substitution of petroleum-based diesel fuels with triglyceride-based fuels requires the development of an integrated system for the production, processing, and end use of the new fuels on a basis that is both technically attractive and economically rewarding to all of the elements of the system. The three subsystems, the farms that produce oilseed crops, the production of triglycerides and protein, and the manufacturers of the diesel engines and the owners of the present stock of auto-ignition engines, are discussed. It was concluded that vegetable oils and animal fats have substantial prospects as long-term substitutes for diesel fuels. If special auto-ignition engines were developed to handle vegetable oils, on-farm production and use might succeed. In the absence of such engine development, it is likely that large, centralized facilities to manufacture vegetable oils and their methylesters will be the successful processing route. Vegetable oils are likely to succeed first in geographical areas with benign climates. Vegetable oils and animal fats have limited prospects as diesel fuels for acute emergencies. The high viscosity of vegetable oils and the necessity to make substantial capital investments to obtain oils from oilseeds render the system relatively inflexible. 4 tables. (DP)

  6. Physicochemical properties and potential food applications of Moringa oleifera seed oil blended with other vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Dollah, Sarafhana; Abdulkarim, Sabo Muhammad; Ahmad, Siti Hajar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Blends (30:70, 50:50 and 70:30 w/w) of Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) with palm olein (PO), palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) were prepared. To determine the physicochemical properties of the blends, the iodine value (IV), saponication value (SV), fatty acid (FA) composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour (DSC) and solid fat content (SFC) tests were analysed. The incorporation of high oleic acid (81.73%) MoO into the blends resulted in the reduction of palmitic acid content of PO and PS from 36.38% to 17.17% and 54.66% to 14.39% and lauric acid content of PKO and VCO from 50.63% to 17.70% and 51.26% to 26.05% respectively while oleic acid and degree of unsaturation were increased in all blends. Changes in the FA composition and TAG profile have significantly affected the thermal behavior and solid fat content of the oil blends. In MoO/PO blends the melting temperature of MoO decreased while, in MoO/PS, MoO/PKO and MoO/VCO blends, it increased indicating produce of zero-trans harder oil blends without use of partial hydrogenation. The spreadability of PS, PKO and VCO in low temperatures was also increased due to incorporation of MoO. The melting point of PS significantly decreased in MoO/PS blends which proved to be suitable for high oleic bakery shortening and confectionary shortening formulation. The finding appears that blending of MoO with other vegetable oils would enable the initial properties of the oils to be modified or altered and provide functional and nutritional attributes for usage in various food applications, increasing the possibilities for the commercial use of these oils.

  7. Physicochemical properties and potential food applications of Moringa oleifera seed oil blended with other vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Dollah, Sarafhana; Abdulkarim, Sabo Muhammad; Ahmad, Siti Hajar; Khoramnia, Anahita; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Blends (30:70, 50:50 and 70:30 w/w) of Moringa oleifera seed oil (MoO) with palm olein (PO), palm stearin (PS), palm kernel oil (PKO) and virgin coconut oil (VCO) were prepared. To determine the physicochemical properties of the blends, the iodine value (IV), saponication value (SV), fatty acid (FA) composition, triacylglycerol (TAG) composition, thermal behaviour (DSC) and solid fat content (SFC) tests were analysed. The incorporation of high oleic acid (81.73%) MoO into the blends resulted in the reduction of palmitic acid content of PO and PS from 36.38% to 17.17% and 54.66% to 14.39% and lauric acid content of PKO and VCO from 50.63% to 17.70% and 51.26% to 26.05% respectively while oleic acid and degree of unsaturation were increased in all blends. Changes in the FA composition and TAG profile have significantly affected the thermal behavior and solid fat content of the oil blends. In MoO/PO blends the melting temperature of MoO decreased while, in MoO/PS, MoO/PKO and MoO/VCO blends, it increased indicating produce of zero-trans harder oil blends without use of partial hydrogenation. The spreadability of PS, PKO and VCO in low temperatures was also increased due to incorporation of MoO. The melting point of PS significantly decreased in MoO/PS blends which proved to be suitable for high oleic bakery shortening and confectionary shortening formulation. The finding appears that blending of MoO with other vegetable oils would enable the initial properties of the oils to be modified or altered and provide functional and nutritional attributes for usage in various food applications, increasing the possibilities for the commercial use of these oils. PMID:25007749

  8. Delivery of vegetable oil suspensions in a shear thinning fluid for enhanced bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, L; Truex, M J; Kananizadeh, N; Li, Y; Lea, A S; Yan, X

    2015-01-01

    In situ anaerobic biological processes are widely applied for dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. A wide range of organic substrates have been tested and applied to support the dechlorination processes. Vegetable oils are a promising type of substrate and have been shown to induce effective dechlorination, have limited geochemical impacts, and maintain good longevity. Because they are non-aqueous phase liquids, distribution of vegetable oils in the subsurface has typically been approached by creating emulsified oil solutions for injection into the aquifer. In this study, inexpensive waste vegetable oils were suspended in a shear-thinning xanthan gum solution as an alternative approach for delivery of vegetable oil to the subsurface. The stability, oil droplet size distribution, and rheological behavior of the oil suspensions that are created in the xanthan solutions were studied in batch experiments. The injectability of the suspensions and the oil distribution in a porous medium were evaluated in column tests. Numerical modeling of oil droplet transport and distribution in porous media was conducted to help interpret the column-test data. Batch studies showed that simple mixing of vegetable oil with xanthan solution produced stable suspensions of the oil as micron-size droplets. The mixture rheology retains shear-thinning properties that facilitate improved uniformity of substrate distribution in heterogeneous aquifers. Column tests demonstrated successful injection of the vegetable oil suspension into a porous medium. This study provides evidence that vegetable oil suspensions in xanthan gum solutions have favorable injection properties and are a potential substrate for in situ anaerobic bioremediation.

  9. Delivery of vegetable oil suspensions in a shear thinning fluid for enhanced bioremediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, L.; Truex, M. J.; Kananizadeh, N.; Li, Y.; Lea, A. S.; Yan, X.

    2015-04-01

    In situ anaerobic biological processes are widely applied for dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. A wide range of organic substrates have been tested and applied to support the dechlorination processes. Vegetable oils are a promising type of substrate and have been shown to induce effective dechlorination, have limited geochemical impacts, and maintain good longevity. Because they are non-aqueous phase liquids, distribution of vegetable oils in the subsurface has typically been approached by creating emulsified oil solutions for injection into the aquifer. In this study, inexpensive waste vegetable oils were suspended in a shear-thinning xanthan gum solution as an alternative approach for delivery of vegetable oil to the subsurface. The stability, oil droplet size distribution, and rheological behavior of the oil suspensions that are created in the xanthan solutions were studied in batch experiments. The injectability of the suspensions and the oil distribution in a porous medium were evaluated in column tests. Numerical modeling of oil droplet transport and distribution in porous media was conducted to help interpret the column-test data. Batch studies showed that simple mixing of vegetable oil with xanthan solution produced stable suspensions of the oil as micron-size droplets. The mixture rheology retains shear-thinning properties that facilitate improved uniformity of substrate distribution in heterogeneous aquifers. Column tests demonstrated successful injection of the vegetable oil suspension into a porous medium. This study provides evidence that vegetable oil suspensions in xanthan gum solutions have favorable injection properties and are a potential substrate for in situ anaerobic bioremediation.

  10. Lipase pre-hydrolysis enhance anaerobic biodigestion of soap stock from an oil refining industry.

    PubMed

    Cherif, Slim; Aloui, Fathi; Carrière, Frédéric; Sayadi, Sami

    2014-01-01

    A novel alcalophilic Staphylococcus haemolyticus strain with the lipolytic activity was used to perform enzymatic hydrolysis pretreatment of soap stock: a lipid rich solid waste from an oil refining industry. The culture liquid of the selected bacteria and an enzymatic preparation obtained by precipitation with ammonium sulphate from a filtrate of the same culture liquid were used for enzymatic pretreatment. The hydrolysis was carried with different incubation concentrations (10, 20 and 30%) of soap stock and the pretreatment efficiency was verified by running comparative biodegradability tests (crude and treated lipid waste). All pretreated assays showed higher reaction rate compared to crude lipid waste, which was confirmed by the increased levels of biogas production. The pretreatment of solutions containing 10% emulsified soap stock was optimized for 24 h hydrolysis time, enabling high-biogaz formation (800 ml). The use of enzymatic pre-treatment seemed to be a very promising alternative for treating soap stock having high fat contents. PMID:24500101

  11. Methods of refining and producing isomerized fatty acid esters and fatty acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.; Beltran, Leslie V.; Kunz, Linda A.; Pals, Tessa M.; Quinn, Jordan R; Behrends, Jr., Raymond T.; Bernhardt, Randal J.

    2016-07-05

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing isomerized esters and acids. The methods comprise providing a C4-C18 unsaturated fatty ester or acid, and isomerizing the fatty acid ester or acid in the presence of heat or an isomerization catalyst to form an isomerized fatty ester or acid. In some embodiments, the methods comprise forming a dibasic ester or dibasic acid prior to the isomerizing step. In certain embodiments, the methods further comprise hydrolyzing the dibasic ester to form a dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin is formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having unsaturated esters.

  12. Lipase pre-hydrolysis enhance anaerobic biodigestion of soap stock from an oil refining industry.

    PubMed

    Cherif, Slim; Aloui, Fathi; Carrière, Frédéric; Sayadi, Sami

    2014-01-01

    A novel alcalophilic Staphylococcus haemolyticus strain with the lipolytic activity was used to perform enzymatic hydrolysis pretreatment of soap stock: a lipid rich solid waste from an oil refining industry. The culture liquid of the selected bacteria and an enzymatic preparation obtained by precipitation with ammonium sulphate from a filtrate of the same culture liquid were used for enzymatic pretreatment. The hydrolysis was carried with different incubation concentrations (10, 20 and 30%) of soap stock and the pretreatment efficiency was verified by running comparative biodegradability tests (crude and treated lipid waste). All pretreated assays showed higher reaction rate compared to crude lipid waste, which was confirmed by the increased levels of biogas production. The pretreatment of solutions containing 10% emulsified soap stock was optimized for 24 h hydrolysis time, enabling high-biogaz formation (800 ml). The use of enzymatic pre-treatment seemed to be a very promising alternative for treating soap stock having high fat contents.

  13. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analyses of samples from oil refining and chemical industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilhunen, J. K.; von Bohlen, A.; Schmeling, M.; Klockenkämper, R.; Klockow, D.

    1997-07-01

    The applicability and performance of the TXRF method for the analysis of sample materials from the oil refining and chemical industries were studied. One objective of the study was to develop rapid analytical procedures for the determination of elements present as traces in size fractionated diesel emission particles, in raw materials of resin production (ureas and phenols) and in trouble-shooting samples. Another goal was to determine the real, rather than the ideal, detection limits for the various applications. Absolute detection limits for most elements found in size fractionated diesel emission particles were below 1 ng. Relative detection limits determined for trace elements in ureas were between 5 and 30 μg kg -1. Only the values for P, S and Ca exceeded this range. Additionally, remarkable differences in trace elements below 1 mg kg -1 could be detected between five commercial ureas.

  14. The use of sesame oil and other vegetable oils in the inhibition of human colon cancer growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Salerno, J W; Smith, D E

    1991-01-01

    Sesame contains large quantities of the essential polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), linoleic acid, in the form triglycerides. The antineoplastic properties of many PUFAs such as linoleic acid and their metabolites are known. We tested the hypothesis that natural vegetable oils, such as sesame oil and its component linoleic acid, when added to human colon adenocarcinoma cells growing in tissue culture would inhibit their growth and that normal colon cells would not be similarly affected. Three human colon cancer cell lines and one normal human colon cell line were exposed to the following: (1) pure linoleic acid; (2) lipase-digested sesame oil; (3) undigested sesame oil; (4) five additional common vegetable oils; (5) mineral oil. Linoleic acid inhibited the in vitro growth of all three malignant human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. The normal colon cell line showed dramatically less inhibition of growth. Lipase-digested sesame oil (LDSO) and undigested sesame oil (UDSO) produced greater inhibition of growth of all three malignant colon cell lines than of the normal colon cells. Five other common vegetable oils containing various amounts of PUFAs such as corn, soybean, safflower, olive and coconut oils, all in their lipase-digested form, were found to dramatically inhibit the growth of the HT-29 malignant human colon cell line. Undigested olive and safflower oils also inhibited the HT-29 cells although not as markedly as the lipase-digested oils. Mineral oil did not inhibit the growth of HT-29 cells. Both lauric and palmitic acid, which are saturated fatty acids found in abundance in coconut oil inhibits the HT-29 cells more strongly than linoleic acid, while oleic acid did not inhibit. We conclude that many vegetable oils including sesame contain in vitro antineoplastic properties and that this finding warrants further investigation both in vitro and in vivo to assess their possible chemotherapeutic potential.

  15. Value-added potential of expeller-pressed canola oil refining: characterization of sinapic acid derivatives and tocopherols from byproducts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yougui; Thiyam-Hollander, Usha; Barthet, Veronique J; Aachary, Ayyappan A

    2014-10-01

    Valuable phenolic antioxidants are lost during oil refining, but evaluation of their occurrence in refining byproducts is lacking. Rapeseed and canola oil are both rich sources of sinapic acid derivatives and tocopherols. The retention and loss of sinapic acid derivatives and tocopherols in commercially produced expeller-pressed canola oils subjected to various refining steps and the respective byproducts were investigated. Loss of canolol (3) and tocopherols were observed during bleaching (84.9%) and deodorization (37.6%), respectively. Sinapic acid (2) (42.9 μg/g), sinapine (1) (199 μg/g), and canolol (344 μg/g) were found in the refining byproducts, namely, soap stock, spent bleaching clay, and wash water, for the first time. Tocopherols (3.75 mg/g) and other nonidentified phenolic compounds (2.7 mg sinapic acid equivalent/g) were found in deodistillates, a byproduct of deodorization. DPPH radical scavenging confirmed the antioxidant potential of the byproducts. This study confirms the value-added potential of byproducts of refining as sources of endogenous phenolics.

  16. Polysulfide and bio-based EP additive performance in vegetable vs. paraffinic base oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twist compression test (TCT) and 4-ball extreme pressure (EP) methods were used to investigate commercial polysulfide (PS) and bio-based polyester (PE) EP additives in paraffinic (150N) and refined soybean (SOY) base oils of similar viscosity. Binary blends of EP additive and base oil were investiga...

  17. Fatty acid esters of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) and glycidol in refined edible oils.

    PubMed

    Craft, B D; Chiodini, A; Garst, J; Granvogl, M

    2013-01-01

    Recently, fatty acid esters of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) and that of glycidol have been reported in refined edible oils. Since then a wealth of research has been published on the factors influencing the formation of these contaminants in foods. It can be noted that the predominant precursors in a given matrix will not necessarily be the same as in other matrices. Further, proven relationships in the past between precursors responsible for free MCPD or free glycidol formation will not necessarily be valid for their fatty acid-esterified counterparts. This review attempts to summarise the current status of the literature as it pertains to the reasons surrounding the manifestation of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in oils and fats. Recent efforts to mitigate the levels of these contaminants were highlighted and put into the context of their respective reaction matrices. As more accurate occurrence data for MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in other foods are collected, more targeted mitigation experiments can be formulated with respect to the reaction matrices under investigation.

  18. Fatty acid esters of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) and glycidol in refined edible oils.

    PubMed

    Craft, B D; Chiodini, A; Garst, J; Granvogl, M

    2013-01-01

    Recently, fatty acid esters of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) and that of glycidol have been reported in refined edible oils. Since then a wealth of research has been published on the factors influencing the formation of these contaminants in foods. It can be noted that the predominant precursors in a given matrix will not necessarily be the same as in other matrices. Further, proven relationships in the past between precursors responsible for free MCPD or free glycidol formation will not necessarily be valid for their fatty acid-esterified counterparts. This review attempts to summarise the current status of the literature as it pertains to the reasons surrounding the manifestation of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in oils and fats. Recent efforts to mitigate the levels of these contaminants were highlighted and put into the context of their respective reaction matrices. As more accurate occurrence data for MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in other foods are collected, more targeted mitigation experiments can be formulated with respect to the reaction matrices under investigation. PMID:23020600

  19. Refining Field Measurements of Methane Flux Rates from Abandoned Oil and Gas Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagron, C. S.; Kang, M.; Riqueros, N. S.; Jackson, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies in Pennsylvania demonstrate the potential for significant methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells. A subset of tested wells was high emitting, with methane flux rates up to seven orders of magnitude greater than natural fluxes (up to 105 mg CH4/hour, or about 2.5LPM). These wells contribute disproportionately to the total methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells. The principles guiding the chamber design have been developed for lower flux rates, typically found in natural environments, and chamber design modifications may reduce uncertainty in flux rates associated with high-emitting wells. Kang et al. estimate errors of a factor of two in measured values based on previous studies. We conduct controlled releases of methane to refine error estimates and improve chamber design with a focus on high-emitters. Controlled releases of methane are conducted at 0.05 LPM, 0.50 LPM, 1.0 LPM, 2.0 LPM, 3.0 LPM, and 5.0 LPM, and at two chamber dimensions typically used in field measurements studies of abandoned wells. As most sources of error tabulated by Kang et al. tend to bias the results toward underreporting of methane emissions, a flux-targeted chamber design modification can reduce error margins and/or provide grounds for a potential upward revision of emission estimates.

  20. Bioefficacy of essential and vegetable oils of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides seeds against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Fogang, Hervet Paulain Dongmo; Womeni, Hilaire Macaire; Piombo, Georges; Barouh, Nathalie; Tapondjou, Léon Azefack

    2012-03-01

    Experiments were conducted in the laboratory to evaluate the bioefficacy of essential and vegetable oils of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides (Rutaceae) against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the essential oil and the fatty acid composition of the vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of Z. xanthoxyloides were determined. The insecticidal activities of these oils and the associated aromatized clay powder were evaluated against A. obtectus. Both oils were strongly repellent (100% repellency at 0.501 μl/cm² essential oil and 3.144 μl/cm² vegetable oil) and highly toxic (LC₅₀ = 0.118 μl/cm² for essential oil) to this beetle after contact on filter paper. The vapors of the essential oil were highly toxic to adult insects (LC₅₀ = 0.044 μl/cm³), and the aromatized powder made from clay and essential oil was more toxic (LD₅₀ = 0.137 μl/g) than the essential oil alone (LD₅₀ = 0.193 μl/g) after 2 days of exposure on a common bean. Both oils greatly reduced the F₁ insect production and bean weight loss and did not adversely affect the bean seed viability. In general, the results obtained indicate that these plant oils can be used for control of A. obtectus in stored beans.

  1. Synthesis and applications of vegetable oil-based fluorocarbon water repellent agents on cotton fabrics.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tao; Zheng, Junzhi; Sun, Gang

    2012-06-01

    Vegetable oil-based fluorocarbon water repellent agents were prepared by chemical modifications of different vegetable oils - soybean and linseed oils through several reactions, including saponification, acidification, acylation of vegetable oil and trans-esterification with 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol and 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropanol. The resulted fluorocarbon agents were then copolymerized with styrene. The structures of the vegetable oil based agents were characterized by FT-IR and NMR. By evaluating water contact angle and time of water disappearance on cotton fabrics, as well as whiteness and breaking strength of cotton fabrics that were treated by these agents, optimum fabric finishing conditions were explored. The cotton fabrics finished with the vegetable oil-based fluorocarbon agents showed excellent water repellency, while other properties of the cotton fabrics declined to certain level. The linseed oil-based tetrafluoropropanol water repellent agent displayed the highest water repellency among all modified oils. All the treated fabrics exhibited good durability of water repellency. The linseed oil-based tetrafluoropropanol water repellent agent demonstrated the best durability among all repellent agents. PMID:24750623

  2. Experimental study on the performance characteristics and emission analysis of a diesel engine using vegetable oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Anup; Ehite, Ekramul Haque; Alam, M. M.

    2016-07-01

    In this research, Vegetable oils derived from Sesame Seed and Rice Bran were used and experimented upon. Using Kerosene as the solvent in varying proportions (30%, 50%, 70% by volume) with the vegetables oils, different blends of Sesame and Rice Bran Oils were produced. The important characteristic properties were found by experimentation and compared with those of Straight Run Diesel. Subsequently, Straight Run Diesel, vegetable oils and their blends were used to run a diesel engine one-by-one and the performance analysis was conducted, followed by an investigation of the exhaust emissions. From the comparative performance analysis, it was found that Rice Bran oil showed better performance as a fuel than Sesame with regards to power production and specific fuel consumption and also resulted in less Carbon Monoxide (CO) emission than Sesame oil blends.

  3. Silicone/vegetable oil Janus emulsion: topological stability versus interfacial tensions and relative oil volumes.

    PubMed

    Leonardi, G R; Perrechil, F A; Silveira, L P; Brunca, H O; Friberg, S E

    2015-07-01

    Several aspects were studied of the formation and destabilization in bulk of silicone/vegetable oil, SO/VO, Janus emulsions, stabilized by Tween 80. In the formation of the emulsions, it was unexpectedly found that the dispersions tended to contain both single and flocculated drops irrespective of the emulsification intensity. Microscopy of the emulsions with no cover glass revealed flocculated drops of a large (200-500 μm) central SO drop with many small VO drops attached. Applying a cover glass did not significantly change the drop size; instead two-oil Janus drops of well-defined contact angle were found. The emulsions showed rapid creaming irrespective of the preparation method, but a few days storage did not significantly change the drop size in the creamed layer, nor was separation of the oils detected. The total interfacial free energy of the Janus drops at equilibrium was compared to the two relevant alternatives; engulfed and separate drops. The Janus drop free energies were found less for all volume ratios of the oils, when the surfactant concentrations in the aqueous phase was sufficient to prevent spreading of VO on SO. Changing the surfactant concentration to bring the interfacial tensions closer to the critical value for spreading gave declining interfacial free energy difference to that of engulfed drops.

  4. Wetland Vegetation Monitoring within Barataria Basin, Louisiana Following Exposure to Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steyer, G.; Piazza, S.; Kokaly, R. F.; Patton, B.; Heckman, D.

    2011-12-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon explosion and subsequent oil spill in April 2010 coastal wetlands in Louisiana were directly oiled, exposing vegetation and marsh soils to petroleum hydrocarbons. Oiling was observed at the marsh/water interface as well as within coastal marshes. The physical and chemical effects of oil spills can have both short and long term effects on wetland vegetation. These effects can include reductions in primary productivity and direct plant mortality. Even in the absence of this oiling event, the coastal landscape of Louisiana experiences high rates of land loss resulting from natural and anthropogenic causes. This additional stress has the potential to further reduce the extent and health of coastal marshes in this fragile ecosystem. We conducted a field study to document the impact of oiling on above and belowground vegetation biomass, plant species composition, and vegetation cover at sites within Barataria Basin, Louisiana. Six sampling sites were established, three within obviously oiled marshes and three where oiling was not readily apparent. Four sampling events occurred between October 2010 and October 2011. The preliminary results of the field study will be presented along with how these data helped validate remotely sensed data observations (AVIRIS) and calibrate ground reflectance in oiled and non-oiled marshes.

  5. Species-specific identification of seven vegetable oils based on suspension bead array.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Wu, Yajun; Han, Jianxun; Wang, Bin; Ge, Yiqiang; Chen, Ying

    2012-03-01

    Species adulteration of vegetable oils has become a main form of adulteration in vegetable oils, severely violating consumer rights and causing disorder in the market. A reliable method of species authentication of vegetable oils is desirable. This paper reports a novel method for identification of seven species of vegetable oils based on suspension bead array. One pair of universal primers and seven species-specific probes were designed targeting rbcl gene of the chloroplast. Each probe was coupled to a unique color-coded microsphere. Biotinylated PCR amplicons of seven oils were hybridized to the complementary probes on microsphere sets. Bound amplicons were detected fluorometrically using a reporter dye, streptavidin-R-phycoeryt hrin (SA-PE). A sample could be analyzed less than 1 h after PCR amplification. With the exception of olive probe, all probes showed no cross-reactivity with other species. Absolute detection limit of the seven probes ranged from 0.01 ng/μL to 0.0001 ng/μL. Detection limit in DNA mixture was from 10% to 5%. Detection of vegetable oils validated the effectiveness of the method. The suspension bead array as a rapid, sensitive, and high-throughput technology has potential to identify more species of vegetable oils with increased species of probes.

  6. Mixtures of Vegetable Oil and Xanthan as a Substrate for Biological Dechlorination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, L.; Macbeth, T.; Truex, M. J.; Yan, X.

    2012-12-01

    In situ anaerobic biological processes are widely applied for dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. A wide range of organic substrates have been tested and applied to support the dechlorination processes. Key factors considered in substrate selection are the induced dechlorination kinetics, geochemical impacts such as pH decreases, longevity of the substrate, and ability to distribute the substrate in the subsurface. Vegetable oils are a promising substrate and have been shown to induce effective dechlorination, have limited geochemical impacts, and good longevity. Distribution of vegetable oil in the subsurface, because it is a non-aqueous phase material, has typically been addressed by creating emulsified oil solutions. In this study, inexpensive waste vegetable oils were tested in laboratory microcosm experiments and induced dechlorination reactions with minor geochemical impacts and good longevity. Additional testing showed that mixtures of waste vegetable oil and Xanthan, a biopolymer with shear-thinning properties, produced stable suspensions of the oil as micron-scale droplets. The mixture rheology retains shear-thinning properties that would facilitate improved uniformity of substrate distribution in heterogeneous aquifers. Soil column tests were conducted as a first step in quantifying the transport of the oil droplets in the mixture through porous media. Results show that the mixture of vegetable oil and Xanthan is a potential substrate for supporting in situ anaerobic bioremediation for some subsurface settings.

  7. Remediation of trichloroethylene-contaminated soils by star technology using vegetable oil smoldering.

    PubMed

    Salman, Madiha; Gerhard, Jason I; Major, David W; Pironi, Paolo; Hadden, Rory

    2015-03-21

    Self-sustaining treatment for active remediation (STAR) is an innovative soil remediation approach based on smoldering combustion that has been demonstrated to effectively destroy complex hydrocarbon nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) with minimal energy input. This is the first study to explore the smoldering remediation of sand contaminated by a volatile NAPL (trichloroethylene, TCE) and the first to consider utilizing vegetable oil as supplemental fuel for STAR. Thirty laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the relationship between key outcomes (TCE destruction, rate of remediation) to initial conditions (vegetable oil type, oil: TCE mass ratio, neat versus emulsified oils). Several vegetable oils and emulsified vegetable oil formulations were shown to support remediation of TCE via self-sustaining smoldering. A minimum concentration of 14,000 mg/kg canola oil was found to treat sand exhibiting up to 80,000 mg/kg TCE. On average, 75% of the TCE mass was removed due to volatilization. This proof-of-concept study suggests that injection and smoldering of vegetable oil may provide a new alternative for driving volatile contaminants to traditional vapour extraction systems without supplying substantial external energy.

  8. Photolysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans dissolved in vegetable oils: influence of oil quality.

    PubMed

    Isosaari, Pirjo; Laine, Olli; Tuhkanen, Tuula; Vartiainen, Terttu

    2005-03-20

    Sunlight or ultraviolet light irradiation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the presence of vegetable oil offers a potential method for the cleanup of contaminated soil. In this study, the effects of different types of vegetable oils on the photochemical degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzofuran and heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF/HpCDD) were investigated in the laboratory. Using a blacklight lamp as a source of ultraviolet light, 93-100% of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF degraded in 60 min in rapeseed oil, extra virgin olive oil and olive oil. Less degradation occurred in palm oil (59%), toluene (39%) and hexane (20%). The better degradation in vegetable oils in comparison with organic solvents was attributed to the photooxidation of lipids producing hydrogen for PCDD/F dechlorination. In addition to the hydrogen donor capacity, permeability of ultraviolet light was involved in the differences between vegetable oils. alpha-Tocopherol and chlorophyll did not influence the performance of oil at concentrations normally present in vegetable oils, whereas beta-carotene had an inhibitory effect on the degradation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF. Up to 28% of the degradation products of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF were formed via the dechlorination pathway. Products included both toxic (2,3,7,8-chlorinated) and non-toxic PCDD/Fs, the toxic PCDD/Fs being more stable. Irradiation of 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD yielded only non-toxic dechlorination products. Polychlorinated hydroxybiphenyls (OH-PCBs), polychlorinated dihydroxybiphenyls (DOH-PCBs) and polychlorinated hydroxydiphenylethers (OH-PCDEs) containing one to seven chlorine atoms were not detected in irradiated HpCDF/HpCDD samples.

  9. Vegetable oils affect the composition of lipoproteins in sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Caballero, Maria José; Torstensen, Bente E; Robaina, Lidia; Montero, Daniel; Izquierdo, Marisol

    2006-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of the dietary fatty acid profile on the lipoprotein composition in sea bream fed different vegetable oils. Six experimental diets were formulated combining fish oil with three vegetable oils (soybean, rapeseed, linseed) in order to obtain 60-80 % (w/w) fish-oil replacement. VLDL, LDL and HDL in plasma samples were obtained by sequential centrifugal flotation. The lipid class, protein content and fatty acid composition of each lipoprotein fraction were analysed. HDL was the predominant lipoprotein in sea bream plasma containing the highest proportion of protein (34 %) and phosphatidylcholine. LDL presented a high content of cholesterol, whereas triacylglycerol comprised a larger proportion of VLDL. The lipid class of the lipoprotein fractions was affected by the dietary vegetable oils. Thus, a high dietary inclusion of soyabean and linseed oil (80 %) increased the cholesterol in HDL and LDL in comparison to fish oil. Similarly, the triacylglycerol concentration of VLDL was increased in fish fed 80 % soyabean and linseed oils owing to the low n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid content of these diets. Lipoprotein fatty acid composition easily responded to dietary fatty acid composition. VLDL was the fraction more affected by dietary fatty acid, followed by LDL and HDL. The n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid content increased in the order VLDL less than LDL and less than HDL, regardless of dietary vegetable oils.

  10. Projections of the impact of expansion of domestic heavy oil production on the U.S. refining industry from 1990 to 2010. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.; Strycker, A.R.; Guariguata, G.; Salmen, F.G.

    1994-12-01

    This report is one of a series of publications assessing the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil (10{degrees} to 20{degrees} API gravity) production. This report provides a compendium of the United States refining industry and analyzes the industry by Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) and by ten smaller refining areas. The refining capacity, oil source and oil quality are analyzed, and projections are made for the U.S. refining industry for the years 1990 to 2010. The study used publicly available data as background. A linear program model of the U.S. refining industry was constructed and validated using 1990 U.S. refinery performance. Projections of domestic oil production (decline) and import of crude oil (increases) were balanced to meet anticipated demand to establish a base case for years 1990 through 2010. The impact of additional domestic heavy oil production, (300 MB/D to 900 MB/D, originating in select areas of the U.S.) on the U.S. refining complex was evaluated. This heavy oil could reduce the import rate and the balance of payments by displacing some imported, principally Mid-east, medium crude. The construction cost for refining units to accommodate this additional domestic heavy oil production in both the low and high volume scenarios is about 7 billion dollars for bottoms conversion capacity (delayed coking) with about 50% of the cost attributed to compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990.

  11. First results with Mercedes-Benz DI diesel engines running on monoesters of vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Ventura, L.M.; Nascimento, A.C.; Bandel, W.

    1982-01-01

    In their pure form the vegetable oils are not suitable for the use in modern DI diesel engines, due to the excessive carbon deposit on the injection nozzles and in the combustion chamber. Nevertheless, these oils are promising candidates as raw materials for alternative diesel fuels. Processes are being developed to transform the long vegetable oil molecules into smaller molecules in order to fulfill the fuel requirements of DI diesel engines. Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids e.g. obtained by transesterification of vegetable oils through their catalytic reaction with methanol and ethanol, have shown a typical diesel fuel behaviour in conventional DI engines without excessive deposit formation. Problems concerning lubricating oil contamiation, and possibile remedial measures to avoid it, are being examined. There are also problems to be solved in relation to white smoke formation and the odor of exhaust gases. 10 figures.

  12. Rapid determination of saponification value and polymer content of vegetable and fish oils by terahertz spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Feng Ling; Ikeda, Ikuo; Ogawa, Yuichi; Endo, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    A rapid method for determining the saponification value (SV) and polymer content of vegetable and fish oils using the terahertz (THz) spectroscopy was developed. When the THz absorption spectra for vegetable and fish oils were measured in the range of 20 to 400 cm⁻¹, two peaks were seen at 77 and 328 cm⁻¹. The level of absorbance at 77 cm⁻¹ correlated well with the SV. When the THz absorption spectra of thermally treated high-oleic safflower oils were measured, the absorbance increased with heating time. The polymer content in thermally treated oil correlated with the absorbance at 77 cm⁻¹. These results demonstrate that the THz spectrometry is a suitable non-destructive technique for the rapid determination of the SV and polymer content of vegetable and fish oils.

  13. Rapid determination of saponification value and polymer content of vegetable and fish oils by terahertz spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Feng Ling; Ikeda, Ikuo; Ogawa, Yuichi; Endo, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    A rapid method for determining the saponification value (SV) and polymer content of vegetable and fish oils using the terahertz (THz) spectroscopy was developed. When the THz absorption spectra for vegetable and fish oils were measured in the range of 20 to 400 cm⁻¹, two peaks were seen at 77 and 328 cm⁻¹. The level of absorbance at 77 cm⁻¹ correlated well with the SV. When the THz absorption spectra of thermally treated high-oleic safflower oils were measured, the absorbance increased with heating time. The polymer content in thermally treated oil correlated with the absorbance at 77 cm⁻¹. These results demonstrate that the THz spectrometry is a suitable non-destructive technique for the rapid determination of the SV and polymer content of vegetable and fish oils. PMID:23018850

  14. Novel polymeric materials from vegetable oils and vinyl monomers: preparation, properties, and applications.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yongshang; Larock, Richard C

    2009-01-01

    Veggie-based products: Vegetable-oil-based polymeric materials, prepared by free radical, cationic, and olefin metathesis polymerizations, range from soft rubbers to ductile or rigid plastics, and to high-performance biocomposites and nanocomposites. They display a wide range of thermophysical and mechanical properties and may find promising applications as alternatives to petroleum-based polymers.Vegetable oils are considered to be among the most promising renewable raw materials for polymers, because of their ready availability, inherent biodegradability, and their many versatile applications. Research on and development of vegetable oil based polymeric materials, including thermosetting resins, biocomposites, and nanocomposites, have attracted increasing attention in recent years. This Minireview focuses on the latest developments in the preparation, properties, and applications of vegetable oil based polymeric materials obtained by free radical, cationic, and olefin metathesis polymerizations. The novel vegetable oil based polymeric materials obtained range from soft rubbery materials to ductile or rigid plastics and to high-performance biocomposites and nanocomposites. These vegetable oil based polymeric materials display a wide range of thermophysical and mechanical properties and should find useful applications as alternatives to their petroleum-based counterparts. PMID:19180601

  15. Production of biodiesel fuel by transesterification of different vegetable oils with methanol using Al₂O₃ modified MgZnO catalyst.

    PubMed

    Olutoye, M A; Hameed, B H

    2013-03-01

    An active heterogeneous Al2O3 modified MgZnO (MgZnAlO) catalyst was prepared and the catalytic activity was investigated for the transesterification of different vegetable oils (refined palm oil, waste cooking palm oil, palm kernel oil and coconut oil) with methanol to produce biodiesel. The catalyst was characterized by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra, thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analysis to ascertain its versatility. Effects of important reaction parameters such as methanol to oil molar ratio, catalyst dosage, reaction temperature and reaction time on oil conversion were examined. Within the range of studied variability, the suitable transesterification conditions (methanol/oil ratio 16:1, catalyst loading 3.32 wt.%, reaction time 6h, temperature 182°C), the oil conversion of 98% could be achieved with reference to coconut oil in a single stage. The catalyst can be easily recovered and reused for five cycles without significant deactivation. PMID:23395762

  16. Water and sediment quality in a tropical swamp used for agricultural and oil refining activities.

    PubMed

    Norville, Wendy; Banjoo, Darryl

    2011-01-01

    The Godineau Swamp in Trinidad receives anthropogenic input from agricultural and oil refining activities, sewage and domestic waste. This study was conducted in order to provide a comprehensive baseline dataset for the swamp, to assess water and sediment quality in the swamp, and to identify hotspots and possible sources of pollutants to the swamp. Ten sampling stations were established in the swamp during April/May and July 2002. Water quality parameters monitored included physicochemical measurements (pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen and salinity), total suspended solids, and nutrients (ammonia, nitrites, nitrates and total phosphorus). Sediments were analyzed for hydrocarbons, heavy metals and total organic carbon. Temperatures and pH of water in the swamp were ambient; dissolved oxygen was low in many instances (<3 mg/L). In the dry season, there was saltwater intrusion along the Oropuche River up to the most easterly station. Levels of ammonia and phosphorus concentrations were suggestive of periodic inputs of agricultural and domestic wastes. Hydrocarbons concentrations in sediment were above ambient levels and suggestive of contamination from industrial activities. Sediments from the Godineau River contained elevated nutrients, hydrocarbons, metals and TOC compared with other stations. The results of this study indicate some degree of pollution of the Godineau swamp, which prompts the need for the implementation of measures beneficial for wise use of the swamp.

  17. New frontiers in oilseed biotechnology: meeting the global demand for vegetable oils for food, feed, biofuel, and industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chaofu; Napier, Johnathan A; Clemente, Thomas E; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2011-04-01

    Vegetable oils have historically been a valued commodity for food use and to a lesser extent for non-edible applications such as detergents and lubricants. The increasing reliance on biodiesel as a transportation fuel has contributed to rising demand and higher prices for vegetable oils. Biotechnology offers a number of solutions to meet the growing need for affordable vegetable oils and vegetable oils with improved fatty acid compositions for food and industrial uses. New insights into oilseed metabolism and its transcriptional control are enabling biotechnological enhancement of oil content and quality. Alternative crop platforms and emerging technologies for metabolic engineering also hold promise for meeting global demand for vegetable oils and for enhancing nutritional, industrial, and biofuel properties of vegetable oils.

  18. Rapid detection of copper chlorophyll in vegetable oils based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lian, Wei-Nan; Shiue, Jessie; Wang, Huai-Hsien; Hong, Wei-Chen; Shih, Po-Han; Hsu, Chao-Kai; Huang, Ching-Yi; Hsing, Cheng-Rong; Wei, Ching-Ming; Wang, Juen-Kai; Wang, Yuh-Lin

    2015-01-01

    The addition of copper chlorophyll and its derivatives (Cu-Chl) to vegetable oils to disguise them as more expensive oils, such as virgin olive oils, would not only create public confusion, but also disturb the olive oil market. Given that existing detection methods of Ch-Chl in oils, such as LC-MS are costly and time consuming, it is imperative to develop economical and fast analytical techniques to provide information quickly. This paper demonstrates a rapid analytical method based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to detect Cu-Chl in vegetable oils; the spectroscopic markers of Cu-Chl are presented and a detection limit of 5 mg kg(-1) is demonstrated. The analysis of a series of commercial vegetable oils is undertaken with this method and the results verified by a government agency. This study shows that a SERS-based assessment method holds high potential for quickly pinpointing the addition of minute amounts of Cu-Chl in vegetable oils.

  19. Vegetable Oil-based Diesel Fuels From 1900 to the Present

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The diesel engine, invented and developed by Rudolf Diesel in the 1890's, was displayed at the Paris World Exposition in 1900. At that occasion, one of the displayed diesel engines ran on peanut oil. This event marks the beginning of the use of vegetable oils and, later, derivatives thereof as die...

  20. A technical evaluation of biodiesel from vegetable oils vs. algae. Will algae-derived biodiesel perform?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel, one of the most prominent renewable alternative fuels, can be derived from a variety of sources including vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils as well as alternative sources such as algae. While issues such as land-use change, food vs. fuel, feedstock availability, and produc...

  1. Is it true that polymerization of vegetable oil occurs through Diels-Alder reaction?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diels-Alder reaction mechanism is known to be one of the major reaction mechanisms to produce dimers and polymers during heating process of vegetable oil. However, our NMR study showed no evidence for Diels-Alder products. Soybean oil oxidized at 180 °C for 24 hrs with 1.45 surface area-to-volume ...

  2. Vegetable oil extraction using liquid CO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    SC-CO/sub 2/ extraction of oil from peanuts is an alternative to hexane extraction or the mechanical oil press. Oil was successfully extracted using SC-CO/sub 2/ at temperatures of 25-120/sup 0/C and pressures of 140 -690 Bar. Pressure, temperature and particle size affected the extraction of oil. In the range studied, the highest values of temperature and pressure gave highest solubilities.

  3. 33 CFR 154.1240 - Specific requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be expected to cause substantial harm to the... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Response Plans for Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1240 Specific requirements for animal fats and...

  4. 33 CFR 154.1240 - Specific requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be expected to cause substantial harm to the... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Response Plans for Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1240 Specific requirements for animal fats and...

  5. 33 CFR 154.1240 - Specific requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be expected to cause substantial harm to the... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Response Plans for Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1240 Specific requirements for animal fats and...

  6. 33 CFR 154.1240 - Specific requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be expected to cause substantial harm to the... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Response Plans for Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1240 Specific requirements for animal fats and...

  7. 33 CFR 154.1240 - Specific requirements for animal fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... fats and vegetable oils facilities that could reasonably be expected to cause substantial harm to the... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Response Plans for Animal Fats and Vegetable Oils Facilities § 154.1240 Specific requirements for animal fats and...

  8. Low carbon flower buildup, low smoke, and efficient diesel operation with vegetable oils by conversion to mono-esters and blending with diesel oil or alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Nobukazu, T.; Itow, K.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the feasibility of rapeseed oil and palm oil for diesel fuel substitution in a naturally aspirated DI Diesel engine is evaluated. Means to reduce the carbon deposit buildup in vegetable oil combustion is found. In the experiments, the engine performance, exhaust gas emissions, and carbon deposits are measured for a number of fuels: rapeseed oil, palm oil, methylester of rapeseed oil, and these fuels blended with ethanol or diesel fuel with different fuel temperatures. Both of the vegetable oil fuels generate an acceptable engine performance and exhaust gas emission levels for short term operation, but they cause carbon deposit buildups and sticking of piston rings after extended operation. Practical solutions to overcome the problems are: increasing the fuel temperature to over 200/sup 0/C, blending 25 vol % diesel fuel in the vegetable oil, blending 20 vol % ethanol in the fuel, or converting the vegetable oils into methylesters.

  9. Direct oxidation of waste vegetable oil in solid-oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z. F.; Kumar, R.; Thakur, S. T.; Rudnick, L. R.; Schobert, H.; Lvov, S. N.

    Solid-oxide fuel cells with ceria, ceria-Cu, and ceria-Rh anode were demonstrated to generate stable electric power with waste vegetable oil through direct oxidation of the fuel. The only pre-treatment to the fuel was a filtration to remove particulates. The performance of the fuel cell was stable over 100 h for the waste vegetable oil without dilution. The generated power was up to 0.25 W cm -2 for ceria-Rh fuel cell. This compares favorably with previously studied hydrocarbon fuels including jet fuels and Pennsylvania crude oil.

  10. Alternative diesel fuel study on four different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin

    SciTech Connect

    Oezaktas, T.; Cigizoglu, K.B.; Karaosmanoglu, F.

    1997-02-01

    Four different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin (sunflower, corn, soybean, and olive oil) were blended with grade 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20/80 (v/v). Blends were investigated in a diesel engine with a precombustion chamber at speeds between 1,200 and 2,100 rpm. Vegetable oils, diesel fuel, and fuel blends were characterized according to standard test methods. It was found that for short-term use, the fuel blends have engine characteristics similar to the baseline diesel fuel. Fuel blends also display less smoke emissions than diesel fuel.

  11. [Effects of oil-refining microbes (genus Acinetobacter) on cytogenetical structures of human lymphocytes in cell cultures].

    PubMed

    Il'inskikh, N N; Il'inskikh, E N; Il'inskikh, I N

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess ability of oil-refining bacteria Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and A. valentis to induce karyopathological abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocyte cultures. It was found that the cultures infected with A. calcoaceticus showed significantly high frequencies of cytogenetical effects and chromosomal aberrant cells as compared to the intact cultures and cultures infected with A. valentis. The most of chromosomal aberrations, mainly chromatid aberrations, were located in 1 and 2 chromosomes. Moreover, the aberrations were detected in some specific chromosome areas. Abnormalities of mitotic cell division and nucleus morphology were determined in lymphocyte cultures infected with A. calcoaceticus. There were found significantly high frequencies of cells with micronuclei, nucleus protrusions, anaphase or metaphase chromosome and chromosomal fragments lagging as well as multipolar and C-mitoses. Thus, the oil-refining bacteria A. calcoaceticus in contrast to A. valentis demonstrated strong genotoxic effects in human lymphocyte cultures in vitro.

  12. Quantification of blending of olive oils and edible vegetable oils by triacylglycerol fingerprint gas chromatography and chemometric tools.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Samblás, Cristina; Marini, Federico; Cuadros-Rodríguez, Luis; González-Casado, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    A reliable procedure for the identification and quantification of the adulteration of olive oils in terms of blending with other vegetable oils (sunflower, corn, seeds, sesame and soya) has been developed. From the analytical viewpoint, the whole procedure relies only on the results of the determination of the triacylglycerol profile of the oils by high temperature gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The chromatographic profiles were pre-treated (baseline correction, peak alignment using iCoshift algorithm and mean centering) before building the models. At first, a class-modeling approach, Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) was used to identify the vegetable oil used blending. Successively, a separate calibration model for each kind of blending was built using Partial Least Square (PLS). The correlation coefficients of actual versus predicted concentrations resulting from multivariate calibration models were between 0.95 and 0.99. In addition, Genetic algorithms (GA-PLS), were used, as variable selection method, to improve the models which yielded R(2) values higher than 0.90 for calibration set. This model had a better predictive ability than the PLS without feature selection. The results obtained showed the potential of this method and allowed quantification of blends of olive oil in the vegetable oils tested containing at least 10% of olive oil.

  13. A rapid method to authenticate vegetable oils through surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Ming Yang; Zhang, Xin; Ren, Hai Rui; Liu, Luo; Zhao, Yong Mei; Wang, Zheng; Wu, Zheng Long; Liu, Li Min; Xu, Hai Jun

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oils are essential in our daily diet. Among various vegetable oils, the major difference lies in the composition of fatty acids, including unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA). USFA include oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid (LA), and α-linolenic acid (ALA), while SFA are mainly palmitic acid (PA). In this study, the most typical and abundant USFA present with PA in vegetable oils were quantified. More importantly, certain proportional relationships between the integrated intensities of peaks centered at 1656 cm−1 (S1656) in the surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of different USFA were confirmed. Therefore, the LA or ALA content could be converted into an equivalent virtual OA content enabling the characterization of the USFA content in vegetable oils using the equivalent total OA content. In combination with the S1656 of pure OA and using peanut, sesame, and soybean oils as examples, the ranges of S1656 corresponding to the National Standards of China were established to allow the rapid authentication of vegetable oils. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analyses verified the accuracy of the method, with relative errors of less than 5%. Moreover, this method can be extended to other detection fields, such as diseases. PMID:26987802

  14. A rapid method to authenticate vegetable oils through surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ming Yang; Zhang, Xin; Ren, Hai Rui; Liu, Luo; Zhao, Yong Mei; Wang, Zheng; Wu, Zheng Long; Liu, Li Min; Xu, Hai Jun

    2016-03-18

    Vegetable oils are essential in our daily diet. Among various vegetable oils, the major difference lies in the composition of fatty acids, including unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA). USFA include oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid (LA), and α-linolenic acid (ALA), while SFA are mainly palmitic acid (PA). In this study, the most typical and abundant USFA present with PA in vegetable oils were quantified. More importantly, certain proportional relationships between the integrated intensities of peaks centered at 1656 cm(-1) (S1656) in the surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of different USFA were confirmed. Therefore, the LA or ALA content could be converted into an equivalent virtual OA content enabling the characterization of the USFA content in vegetable oils using the equivalent total OA content. In combination with the S1656 of pure OA and using peanut, sesame, and soybean oils as examples, the ranges of S1656 corresponding to the National Standards of China were established to allow the rapid authentication of vegetable oils. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analyses verified the accuracy of the method, with relative errors of less than 5%. Moreover, this method can be extended to other detection fields, such as diseases.

  15. A rapid method to authenticate vegetable oils through surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Ming Yang; Zhang, Xin; Ren, Hai Rui; Liu, Luo; Zhao, Yong Mei; Wang, Zheng; Wu, Zheng Long; Liu, Li Min; Xu, Hai Jun

    2016-03-01

    Vegetable oils are essential in our daily diet. Among various vegetable oils, the major difference lies in the composition of fatty acids, including unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA). USFA include oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid (LA), and α-linolenic acid (ALA), while SFA are mainly palmitic acid (PA). In this study, the most typical and abundant USFA present with PA in vegetable oils were quantified. More importantly, certain proportional relationships between the integrated intensities of peaks centered at 1656 cm‑1 (S1656) in the surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of different USFA were confirmed. Therefore, the LA or ALA content could be converted into an equivalent virtual OA content enabling the characterization of the USFA content in vegetable oils using the equivalent total OA content. In combination with the S1656 of pure OA and using peanut, sesame, and soybean oils as examples, the ranges of S1656 corresponding to the National Standards of China were established to allow the rapid authentication of vegetable oils. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analyses verified the accuracy of the method, with relative errors of less than 5%. Moreover, this method can be extended to other detection fields, such as diseases.

  16. A rapid method to authenticate vegetable oils through surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ming Yang; Zhang, Xin; Ren, Hai Rui; Liu, Luo; Zhao, Yong Mei; Wang, Zheng; Wu, Zheng Long; Liu, Li Min; Xu, Hai Jun

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable oils are essential in our daily diet. Among various vegetable oils, the major difference lies in the composition of fatty acids, including unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA). USFA include oleic acid (OA), linoleic acid (LA), and α-linolenic acid (ALA), while SFA are mainly palmitic acid (PA). In this study, the most typical and abundant USFA present with PA in vegetable oils were quantified. More importantly, certain proportional relationships between the integrated intensities of peaks centered at 1656 cm(-1) (S1656) in the surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectra of different USFA were confirmed. Therefore, the LA or ALA content could be converted into an equivalent virtual OA content enabling the characterization of the USFA content in vegetable oils using the equivalent total OA content. In combination with the S1656 of pure OA and using peanut, sesame, and soybean oils as examples, the ranges of S1656 corresponding to the National Standards of China were established to allow the rapid authentication of vegetable oils. Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer analyses verified the accuracy of the method, with relative errors of less than 5%. Moreover, this method can be extended to other detection fields, such as diseases. PMID:26987802

  17. Evaluating and predicting the oxidative stability of vegetable oils with different fatty acid compositions.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyan; Fan, Ya-wei; Li, Jing; Tang, Liang; Hu, Jiang-ning; Deng, Ze-yuan

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the oxidative stabilities and qualities of different vegetable oils (almond, blend 1-8, camellia, corn, palm, peanut, rapeseed, sesame, soybean, sunflower, and zanthoxylum oil) based on peroxide value (PV), vitamin E content, free fatty acid, and fatty acid composition. The vegetable oils with different initial fatty acid compositions were studied under accelerated oxidation condition. It showed that PV and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) changed significantly during 21 d accelerated oxidation storage. Based on the changes of PV and fatty acid composition during the oxidation process, mathematical models were hypothesized and the models were simulated by Matlab to generate the proposed equations. These equations were established on the basis of the different PUFA contents as 10% to 28%, 28% to 46%, and 46% to 64%, respectively. The simulated models were proven to be validated and valuable for assessing the degree of oxidation and predicting the shelf life of vegetable oils.

  18. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production using waste vegetable oil by Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2.

    PubMed

    Song, Jin Hwan; Jeon, Che Ok; Choi, Mun Hwan; Yoon, Sung Chul; Park, Woojun

    2008-08-01

    To produce polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) from inexpensive substrates by bacteria, vegetable-oil-degrading bacteria were isolated from a rice field using enrichment cultivation. The isolated Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 showed clear orange or red spots of accumulated PHA granules when grown on phosphate and nitrogen limited medium containing vegetable oil as the sole carbon source and stained with Nile blue A. Up to 37.34% (w/w) of intracellular PHA was produced from corn oil, which consisted of three major 3-hydroxyalkanoates; octanoic (C8:0, 37.75% of the total 3-hydroxyalkanoate content of PHA), decanoic (C10:0, 36.74%), and dodecanoic (C12:0, 11.36%). Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 accumulated up to 23.52% (w/w) of PHAMCL from waste vegetable oil. The proportion of 3- hydroxyalkanoate of the waste vegetable-oil-derived PHA [hexanoic (5.86%), octanoic (45.67%), decanoic (34.88%), tetradecanoic (8.35%), and hexadecanoic (5.24%)] showed a composition ratio different from that of the corn-oil-derived PHA. Strain DR2 used three major fatty acids in the same ratio, and linoleic acid was the major source of PHA production. Interestingly, the production of PHA in Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 could not occur in either acetate- or butyrate-amended media. Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 accumulated a greater amount of PHA than other well-studied strains (Chromobacterium violaceum and Ralstonia eutropha H16) when grown on vegetable oil. The data showed that Pseudomonas sp. strain DR2 was capable of producing PHA from waste vegetable oil.

  19. Determination of vegetable oils and fats adulterants in diesel oil by high performance liquid chromatography and multivariate methods.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Luiz Filipe Paiva; Braga, Jez Willian Batista; Suarez, Paulo Anselmo Ziani

    2012-02-17

    The current legislation requires the mandatory addition of biodiesel to all Brazilian road diesel oil A (pure diesel) marketed in the country and bans the addition of vegetable oils for this type of diesel. However, cases of irregular addition of vegetable oils directly to the diesel oil may occur, mainly due to the lower cost of these raw materials compared to the final product, biodiesel. In Brazil, the situation is even more critical once the country is one of the largest producers of oleaginous products in the world, especially soybean, and also it has an extensive road network dependent on diesel. Therefore, alternatives to control the quality of diesel have become increasingly necessary. This study proposes an analytical methodology for quality control of diesel with intention to identify and determine adulterations of oils and even fats of vegetable origin. This methodology is based on detection, identification and quantification of triacylglycerols on diesel (main constituents of vegetable oils and fats) by high performance liquid chromatography in reversed phase with UV detection at 205nm associated with multivariate methods. Six different types of oils and fats were studied (soybean, frying oil, corn, cotton, palm oil and babassu) and two methods were developed for data analysis. The first one, based on principal component analysis (PCA), nearest neighbor classification (KNN) and univariate regression, was used for samples adulterated with a single type of oil or fat. In the second method, partial least square regression (PLS) was used for the cases where the adulterants were mixtures of up to three types of oils or fats. In the first method, the techniques of PCA and KNN were correctly classified as 17 out of 18 validation samples on the type of oil or fat present. The concentrations estimated for adulterants showed good agreement with the reference values, with mean errors of prediction (RMSEP) ranging between 0.10 and 0.22% (v/v). The PLS method was

  20. Effects of Oil-Contaminated Sediments on Submerged Vegetation: An Experimental Assessment of Ruppia maritima.

    PubMed

    Martin, Charles W; Hollis, Lauris O; Turner, R Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Oil spills threaten the productivity of ecosystems through the degradation of coastal flora and the ecosystem services these plants provide. While lab and field investigations have quantified the response of numerous species of emergent vegetation to oil, the effects on submerged vegetation remain uncertain. Here, we discuss the implications of oil exposure for Ruppia maritima, one of the most common species of submerged vegetation found in the region affected by the recent Deepwater Horizon oil spill. We grew R. maritima in a range of manipulated sediment oil concentrations: 0, 0.26, 0.53, and 1.05 mL oil /L tank volume, and tracked changes in growth (wet weight and shoot density/length), reproductive activity (inflorescence and seed production), root characteristics (mass, length, diameter, and area), and uprooting force of plants. While no statistical differences were detected in growth, plants exhibited significant changes to reproductive output, root morphology, and uprooting force. We found significant reductions in inflorescences and fruiting bodies at higher oil concentrations. In addition, the roots growing in the high oil were shorter and wider. Plants in medium and high oil required less force to uproot. A second experiment was performed to separate the effects of root morphology and oiled sediment properties and indicated that there were also changes to sediment cohesion that contributed to a reduction in uprooting forces in medium and high oil. Given the importance of sexual reproduction for these plants, oil contamination may have substantial population-level effects. Moreover, areas containing buried oil may be more susceptible to high energy storm events due to the reduction in uprooting force of foundation species such as R. maritima. PMID:26430971

  1. Effects of Oil-Contaminated Sediments on Submerged Vegetation: An Experimental Assessment of Ruppia maritima.

    PubMed

    Martin, Charles W; Hollis, Lauris O; Turner, R Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Oil spills threaten the productivity of ecosystems through the degradation of coastal flora and the ecosystem services these plants provide. While lab and field investigations have quantified the response of numerous species of emergent vegetation to oil, the effects on submerged vegetation remain uncertain. Here, we discuss the implications of oil exposure for Ruppia maritima, one of the most common species of submerged vegetation found in the region affected by the recent Deepwater Horizon oil spill. We grew R. maritima in a range of manipulated sediment oil concentrations: 0, 0.26, 0.53, and 1.05 mL oil /L tank volume, and tracked changes in growth (wet weight and shoot density/length), reproductive activity (inflorescence and seed production), root characteristics (mass, length, diameter, and area), and uprooting force of plants. While no statistical differences were detected in growth, plants exhibited significant changes to reproductive output, root morphology, and uprooting force. We found significant reductions in inflorescences and fruiting bodies at higher oil concentrations. In addition, the roots growing in the high oil were shorter and wider. Plants in medium and high oil required less force to uproot. A second experiment was performed to separate the effects of root morphology and oiled sediment properties and indicated that there were also changes to sediment cohesion that contributed to a reduction in uprooting forces in medium and high oil. Given the importance of sexual reproduction for these plants, oil contamination may have substantial population-level effects. Moreover, areas containing buried oil may be more susceptible to high energy storm events due to the reduction in uprooting force of foundation species such as R. maritima.

  2. Effects of Oil-Contaminated Sediments on Submerged Vegetation: An Experimental Assessment of Ruppia maritima

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Charles W.; Hollis, Lauris O.; Turner, R. Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Oil spills threaten the productivity of ecosystems through the degradation of coastal flora and the ecosystem services these plants provide. While lab and field investigations have quantified the response of numerous species of emergent vegetation to oil, the effects on submerged vegetation remain uncertain. Here, we discuss the implications of oil exposure for Ruppia maritima, one of the most common species of submerged vegetation found in the region affected by the recent Deepwater Horizon oil spill. We grew R. maritima in a range of manipulated sediment oil concentrations: 0, 0.26, 0.53, and 1.05 mL oil /L tank volume, and tracked changes in growth (wet weight and shoot density/length), reproductive activity (inflorescence and seed production), root characteristics (mass, length, diameter, and area), and uprooting force of plants. While no statistical differences were detected in growth, plants exhibited significant changes to reproductive output, root morphology, and uprooting force. We found significant reductions in inflorescences and fruiting bodies at higher oil concentrations. In addition, the roots growing in the high oil were shorter and wider. Plants in medium and high oil required less force to uproot. A second experiment was performed to separate the effects of root morphology and oiled sediment properties and indicated that there were also changes to sediment cohesion that contributed to a reduction in uprooting forces in medium and high oil. Given the importance of sexual reproduction for these plants, oil contamination may have substantial population-level effects. Moreover, areas containing buried oil may be more susceptible to high energy storm events due to the reduction in uprooting force of foundation species such as R. maritima. PMID:26430971

  3. Detection of argan oil adulteration with vegetable oils by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection.

    PubMed

    Salghi, Rachid; Armbruster, Wolfgang; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2014-06-15

    Triacylglycerol profiles were selected as indicator of adulteration of argan oils to carry out a rapid screening of samples for the evaluation of authenticity. Triacylglycerols were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection. Different peak area ratios were defined to sensitively detect adulteration of argan oil with vegetable oils such as sunflower, soy bean, and olive oil up to the level of 5%. Based on four reference argan oils, mean limits of detection and quantitation were calculated to approximately 0.4% and 1.3%, respectively. Additionally, 19 more argan oil reference samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detection, resulting in highly comparative results. The overall strategy demonstrated a good applicability in practise, and hence a high potential to be transferred to routine laboratories.

  4. Production and characterization of crude and refined oils obtained from the co-products of Nile tilapia and hybrid sorubim processing.

    PubMed

    Menegazzo, Mariana Lara; Petenuci, Maria Eugenia; Fonseca, Gustavo Graciano

    2014-08-15

    In this study, crude oil was extracted by heating and filtering of the residual fat obtained from the processing of mechanically separated meats of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and hybrid sorubim (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans×P. fasciatum) for protein concentrate obtaining. The crude oil was refined by the following steps: degumming with 85% phosphoric acid, neutralization with 20% NaOH, washing with hot water at 85 °C, drying at 90 °C, clarification with activated charcoal and filtration with diatomaceous earth and anhydrous sodium sulfate. The quality of crude and refined oils was verified by acidity, peroxide, iodine, refractive, and saponification indexes, beyond moisture, lipid and free fatty acids contents, and density. The results show that the refining reduced the acidity index of the crude oil, however, favored the oil oxidation, as demonstrated by the increase in peroxide index. In most of the cases there was no change in the identity of the fish oils.

  5. Production and characterization of crude and refined oils obtained from the co-products of Nile tilapia and hybrid sorubim processing.

    PubMed

    Menegazzo, Mariana Lara; Petenuci, Maria Eugenia; Fonseca, Gustavo Graciano

    2014-08-15

    In this study, crude oil was extracted by heating and filtering of the residual fat obtained from the processing of mechanically separated meats of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and hybrid sorubim (Pseudoplatystoma corruscans×P. fasciatum) for protein concentrate obtaining. The crude oil was refined by the following steps: degumming with 85% phosphoric acid, neutralization with 20% NaOH, washing with hot water at 85 °C, drying at 90 °C, clarification with activated charcoal and filtration with diatomaceous earth and anhydrous sodium sulfate. The quality of crude and refined oils was verified by acidity, peroxide, iodine, refractive, and saponification indexes, beyond moisture, lipid and free fatty acids contents, and density. The results show that the refining reduced the acidity index of the crude oil, however, favored the oil oxidation, as demonstrated by the increase in peroxide index. In most of the cases there was no change in the identity of the fish oils. PMID:24679757

  6. Application of data mining methods for classification and prediction of olive oil blends with other vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Samblás, Cristina; Cadenas, José M; Pelta, David A; Cuadros-Rodríguez, Luis

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this article is to study tree-based ensemble methods, new emerging modelling techniques, for authentication of samples of olive oil blends to check their suitability for classifying the samples according to the type of oil used for the blend as well as for predicting the amount of olive oil in the blend. The performance of these methods has been investigated in chromatographic fingerprint data of olive oil blends with other vegetable oils without needing either to identify or to quantify the chromatographic peaks. Different data mining methods-classification and regression trees, random forest and M5 rules-were tested for classification and prediction. In addition, these classification and regression tree approaches were also used for feature selection prior to modelling in order to reduce the number of attributes in the chromatogram. The good outcomes have shown that these methods allow one to obtain interpretable models with much more information than the traditional chemometric methods and provide valuable information for detecting which vegetable oil is mixed with olive oil and the percentage of oil used, with a single chromatogram.

  7. Effects of mixing energy on the sedimentation of vegetable oil spills by clay.

    PubMed

    Wrenn, B A; Downer, R J; Venosa, A D

    2010-11-01

    The effects of clay dose and mixing energy on the efficiency of vegetable oil sedimentation by clay are investigated. The sedimentation efficiency increased with increasing clay dose to a maximum of about 80% of added oil. The maximum sedimentation efficiency was achieved at a lower clay dose, and the sedimentation efficiency was greater for a given clay dose when the oil was present as a thick oil film rather than as a thinner film. Sedimentation efficiency was relatively constant for mixing energies less than about 0.01 m2 s(-3) (0.01 W kg(-1)) but decreased dramatically at higher energy dissipation rates. Mixing energy may not be an important factor in determining the effectiveness of this response alternative because energy dissipation rates in natural surface water bodies under most typical conditions are less than 0.01 m2 s(-3). The effects of oil film thickness and mixing energy on the efficiency of vegetable oil sedimentation suggests that vegetable oil-mineral aggregates (VOMA) form through a different mechanism to that of petroleum oil-mineral aggregates (OMA). One consequence of the different formation mechanisms is that VOMA are much larger than petroleum OMA.

  8. Extraction of tocopherolquinone from commercially produced vegetable oil waste and its regeneration back to vitamin E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayala, Isso

    Vegetable oils are the most important natural source of vitamin E in the human diet. These oils are refined in order to eliminate impurities and undesirable substances that may affect the taste or cause health risks. While the goal of the refinery is to improve the quality of certain organoleptic parameters such as odors, it also has some negative impacts on the content and stability of the micronutrients such as tocopherols and tocotrienols. Synthetic vitamin E now manufactured as all-racemic alpha tocopheryl acetate is usually marked as d, l-tocopherol or d, l-tocopheryl acetate with no known side effects, but has been proven to be less active than its natural form. Naturopathic and orthomolecular medicine advocates consider the synthetic vitamin E forms to offer little or no benefit for cancer, circulatory and heart diseases. The market for vitamin E has been growing since the year 2000 causing a gradual rise in pricing because of the shortage in supplies. On a geographical basis North America constitutes the largest consumer on the planet with 50 % of the synthetic vitamin E world market followed by Europe with 25 % and Latin America and Asia Pacific sharing equally the remaining balance. In response to the shortfall, several companies are modifying their operations by rationalizing their older facilities while upgrading technology and adding capacity to meet the demand. But this response has also its downside with companies obligated to meet tough environmental regulations. The purpose of the present dissertation was to develop a method that can help industries involved in vitamin E production maximize their productivity by transforming some of the waste products to vitamin E. To that end, a cost effective simple method was developed in chapter II using tin (II) to regenerate tocopherolquinone back to vitamin E. Chapter II also concerns a method developed to reduce tocopherolquinone back to vitamin E but this time using the chemical species chromium (III

  9. Reaction pathways for the deoxygenation of vegetable oils and related model compounds.

    PubMed

    Gosselink, Robert W; Hollak, Stefan A W; Chang, Shu-Wei; van Haveren, Jacco; de Jong, Krijn P; Bitter, Johannes H; van Es, Daan S

    2013-09-01

    Vegetable oil-based feeds are regarded as an alternative source for the production of fuels and chemicals. Paraffins and olefins can be produced from these feeds through catalytic deoxygenation. The fundamentals of this process are mostly studied by using model compounds such as fatty acids, fatty acid esters, and specific triglycerides because of their structural similarity to vegetable oils. In this Review we discuss the impact of feedstock, reaction conditions, and nature of the catalyst on the reaction pathways of the deoxygenation of vegetable oils and its derivatives. As such, we conclude on the suitability of model compounds for this reaction. It is shown that the type of catalyst has a significant effect on the deoxygenation pathway, that is, group 10 metal catalysts are active in decarbonylation/decarboxylation whereas metal sulfide catalysts are more selective to hydrodeoxygenation. Deoxygenation studies performed under H2 showed similar pathways for fatty acids, fatty acid esters, triglycerides, and vegetable oils, as mostly deoxygenation occurs indirectly via the formation of fatty acids. Deoxygenation in the absence of H2 results in significant differences in reaction pathways and selectivities depending on the feedstock. Additionally, using unsaturated feedstocks under inert gas results in a high selectivity to undesired reactions such as cracking and the formation of heavies. Therefore, addition of H2 is proposed to be essential for the catalytic deoxygenation of vegetable oil feeds.

  10. Classification and adulteration detection of vegetable oils based on fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangxiao; Li, Peiwu; Sun, Xiaoman; Wang, Xuefang; Xu, Baocheng; Wang, Xiupin; Ma, Fei; Zhang, Qi; Ding, Xiaoxia

    2014-08-27

    The detection of adulteration of high priced oils is a particular concern in food quality and safety. Therefore, it is necessary to develop authenticity detection method for protecting the health of customers. In this study, fatty acid profiles of five edible oils were established by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in selected ion monitoring mode. Using mass spectral characteristics of selected ions and equivalent chain length (ECL), 28 fatty acids were identified and employed to classify five kinds of edible oils by using unsupervised (principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis), supervised (random forests) multivariate statistical methods. The results indicated that fatty acid profiles of these edible oils could classify five kinds of edible vegetable oils into five groups and are therefore employed to authenticity assessment. Moreover, adulterated oils were simulated by Monte Carlo method to establish simultaneous adulteration detection model for five kinds of edible oils by random forests. As a result, this model could identify five kinds of edible oils and sensitively detect adulteration of edible oil with other vegetable oils about the level of 10%.

  11. The use of saponified vegetable oil distillates/ethanol microcellular solution as a diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, L.D.; Birell, S.; Goering, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    Vegetable oils are considered possible replacement fuels for diesel engines; however, past research has shown that long term engine durability is adversely affected by the use of these fuels. Most researchers have attempted to reduce the problems associated with vegetable oil fuels either by the formation of vegetable oil/diesel blends or the esterfication of the vegetable oils. In this investigation of an alternative approach, the performance of saponified soybean oil/aqueous ethanol microcellular solutions were tested in a single-cylinder, direct injection, air-cooled diesel engine. The products of the pyrolytic distillation of crude soybean oil were mixed with 150 proof ethanol in the ratio of 4:1 by volume and saponified with anhydrous ammonia gas. This ''parent fuel'' was then diluted with 150 proof ethanol to obtain two test fuels, one with 30 percent ethanol concentration and the other with 40 percent ethanol concentration. The fuels were used in the engine under various loads at two speeds, and the performance was compared to the performance using No. 2-D commercial diesel fuel.

  12. Functionalized Vegetable Oils for Utilization as Polymer Building Blocks: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Agriculture Project Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Carde, T.

    2001-09-12

    Vegetable oils such as soybean oil will be converted to novel polymers using hydroformylation and other catalytic processes. These polymers can be used in the construction, automotive, packaging, and electronic sectors.

  13. Soil TPH concentration estimation using vegetation indices in an oil polluted area of eastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linhai; Zhao, Xuechun; Lai, Liming; Wang, Jianjian; Jiang, Lianhe; Ding, Jinzhi; Liu, Nanxi; Yu, Yunjiang; Li, Junsheng; Xiao, Nengwen; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M

    2013-01-01

    Assessing oil pollution using traditional field-based methods over large areas is difficult and expensive. Remote sensing technologies with good spatial and temporal coverage might provide an alternative for monitoring oil pollution by recording the spectral signals of plants growing in polluted soils. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of soils and the hyperspectral canopy reflectance were measured in wetlands dominated by reeds (Phragmites australis) around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution. The detrimental effect of oil pollution on reed communities was confirmed by the evidence that the aboveground biomass decreased from 1076.5 g m(-2) to 5.3 g m(-2) with increasing total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranging from 9.45 mg kg(-1) to 652 mg kg(-1). The modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI) best estimated soil TPH concentration among 20 vegetation indices. The linear model involving MCARI had the highest coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.73) and accuracy of prediction (RMSE = 104.2 mg kg(-1)). For other vegetation indices and red edge parameters, the R(2) and RMSE values ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 and from 120.2 mg kg(-1) to 106.8 mg kg(-1) respectively. The traditional broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), one of the broadband multispectral vegetation indices (BMVIs), produced a prediction (R(2) = 0.70 and RMSE = 110.1 mg kg(-1)) similar to that of MCARI. These results corroborated the potential of remote sensing for assessing soil oil pollution in large areas. Traditional BMVIs are still of great value in monitoring soil oil pollution when hyperspectral data are unavailable.

  14. Soil TPH concentration estimation using vegetation indices in an oil polluted area of eastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linhai; Zhao, Xuechun; Lai, Liming; Wang, Jianjian; Jiang, Lianhe; Ding, Jinzhi; Liu, Nanxi; Yu, Yunjiang; Li, Junsheng; Xiao, Nengwen; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M

    2013-01-01

    Assessing oil pollution using traditional field-based methods over large areas is difficult and expensive. Remote sensing technologies with good spatial and temporal coverage might provide an alternative for monitoring oil pollution by recording the spectral signals of plants growing in polluted soils. Total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations of soils and the hyperspectral canopy reflectance were measured in wetlands dominated by reeds (Phragmites australis) around oil wells that have been producing oil for approximately 10 years in the Yellow River Delta, eastern China to evaluate the potential of vegetation indices and red edge parameters to estimate soil oil pollution. The detrimental effect of oil pollution on reed communities was confirmed by the evidence that the aboveground biomass decreased from 1076.5 g m(-2) to 5.3 g m(-2) with increasing total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations ranging from 9.45 mg kg(-1) to 652 mg kg(-1). The modified chlorophyll absorption ratio index (MCARI) best estimated soil TPH concentration among 20 vegetation indices. The linear model involving MCARI had the highest coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.73) and accuracy of prediction (RMSE = 104.2 mg kg(-1)). For other vegetation indices and red edge parameters, the R(2) and RMSE values ranged from 0.64 to 0.71 and from 120.2 mg kg(-1) to 106.8 mg kg(-1) respectively. The traditional broadband normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), one of the broadband multispectral vegetation indices (BMVIs), produced a prediction (R(2) = 0.70 and RMSE = 110.1 mg kg(-1)) similar to that of MCARI. These results corroborated the potential of remote sensing for assessing soil oil pollution in large areas. Traditional BMVIs are still of great value in monitoring soil oil pollution when hyperspectral data are unavailable. PMID:23342066

  15. Melt crystallization for refinement of triolein and palmitic acid mixture as a model waste oil for biodiesel fuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukui, Keisuke; Maeda, Kouji; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi

    2013-06-01

    Melt crystallization using an annular vessel with two circular cylinders was applied to produce high-quality vegetable oil from waste oil. The inner cylinder was cooled at a constant rate and rotated, and the outer cylinder was heated at a constant temperature. The melt was solidified on the inner cylinder surface. The binary system of triolein and palmitic acid was used as the model waste oil. We measured the distribution coefficient of triolein. Suitable operation conditions were proposed to attain a high yield and a high purity of triolein from waste oil. The distribution coefficient correlated well with the theoretical equation derived on the basis of the "local lever rule" at the interface of the crystal layer and melt [1].

  16. Effect of oil type and fatty acid composition on dynamic and steady shear rheology of vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Hasan; Toker, Omer Said; Dogan, Mahmut

    2012-01-01

    In this study, effect of fatty acid composition on dynamic and steady shear rheology of oils was studied. For this aim, different types of vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower, olive, hazelnut, cottonseed and canola), were used. Rheological properties of oil samples were identified by rheometer (Thermo-Haake) at 25°C and fatty acid composition of oils was determined by GC (Agilent 6890). Steady shear rheological properties of oil samples were measured at shear rate range of 0.1-100 s⁻¹. Viscosity of olive, hazelnut, cottonseed, canola, soybean and sunflower was 61.2 mPa.s, 59.7 mPa.s, 57.3 mPa.s, 53.5 mPa.s, 48.7 mPa.s and 48.2 mPa.s, respectively. There was a significant difference between viscosity of oils except soybean and sunflower. As a result it was seen that there was a correlation between viscosity and monounsaturated (R=0.89), polyunsaturated (R=-0.97) fatty acid composition of oils, separately. Equation was found to predict viscosity of the oils based on mono and polyunsaturation composition of oils. In addition the dynamic rheological properties of oils were also examined. G', G'' and tan δ (G''/G') values were measured at 0.3 Pa (in viscoelastic region) and 0.1-1 Hz. As a result of multiple regression analysis another equations were found between tan δ, viscosity and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  17. Vegetable oil spills on salt marsh sediments; comparison between sunflower and linseed oils.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M Glória; Mudge, Stephen M; Latchford, John

    2003-09-01

    The effects of a simulated spill of sunflower oil in salt marsh sediments were compared with an experiment with linseed oil. Sunflower and linseed oil penetrated the sediments at the same rates but different adsorption of the oils onto sediment particles resulted in the establishment of anaerobic conditions at shallower depths in sediments contaminated with linseed oil than with sunflower oil. The total lipid content of sunflower oil contaminated sediments remained almost stable for 6 months, whilst only 40% of linseed oil remained in the sediment after 2 months. Numbers of culturable heterotrophic bacteria and aerobic oil degrading bacteria in muddy sediment increased rapidly in response to the presence of the oils but bacterial numbers in sandy sediments increased more slowly for sunflower oil. Changes in fatty acid composition indicate similar degradation pathways for both oils but sunflower oil degraded more slowly than linseed oil and thus has the potential for longer lasting effects in marine environments.

  18. Unusual effects of some vegetable oils on the survival time of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, M Z; Watanabe, S; Kobayashi, T; Nagatsu, A; Sakakibara, J; Okuyama, H

    1997-07-01

    Preliminary experiments have shown that a diet containing 10% rapeseed oil (low-erucic acid) markedly shortens the survival time of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rats under 1% NaCl loading as compared with diets containing perilla oil or soybean oil. High-oleate safflower oil and high-oleate sunflower oil were found to have survival time-shortening activities comparable to that of rapeseed oil; olive oil had slightly less activity. A mixture was made of soybean oil, perilla oil, and triolein partially purified from high-oleate sunflower oil to adjust the fatty acid composition to that of rapeseed oil. The survival time of this triolein/mixed oil group was between those of the rapeseed oil and soybean oil groups. When 1% NaCl was replaced with tap water, the survival time was prolonged by approximately 80%. Under these conditions, the rapeseed oil and evening primrose oil shortened the survival time by approximately 40% as compared with n-3 fatty acid-rich perilla and fish oil; lard, soybean oil, and safflower oil with relatively high n-6/n-3 ratios shortened the survival time by roughly 10%. The observed unusual survival time-shortening activities of some vegetable oils (rapeseed, high-oleate safflower, high-oleate sunflower, olive, and evening primrose oil) may not be due to their unique fatty acid compositions, but these results suggest that these vegetable oils contain factor(s) which are detrimental to SHRSP rats.

  19. Thermal Properties of Biodiesel and Their Corresponding Precursor Vegetable Oils Obtained by Photopyroelectric Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, F. A. L.; Zanelato, E. B.; Guimarães, A. O.; da Silva, E. C.; Mansanares, A. M.

    2012-11-01

    The photopyroelectric technique (PPE) was used for thermal characterization of biodiesel and their corresponding precursor vegetable oils. Different configurations of PPE were applied in these studies. The standard and inverse configurations allowed the determination of the thermal diffusivity ( α) and thermal effusivity ( e), respectively. From these two parameters the thermal conductivity was calculated. Measurements were performed for reference samples (water and ethylene glycol), biodiesel, and some corresponding precursor vegetable oils. The experiments showed good reproducibility, with uncertainties around 1 % to 2 % for all the samples. Lower values for both α and e of the biodiesel when compared to their corresponding precursor vegetable oils were observed, indicating that these thermophysical properties were sensitive to structural changes during the transesterification process.

  20. Mechanical properties of photo-polymerized sustainable epoxy materials from vegetable oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Chang; Ravalli, Matthew; Yang, Zheqin; Crivello, James

    2014-03-01

    Our research program aimed at advancing our ability to tailor the photocationic polymerization and physical properties of sustainable epoxy materials derived from crosslinked epoxidized vegetable oils using onium salt photoinitiators. Specifically, we developed solventless, photopolymerizable epoxy monomer and oligomer systems derived from sustainable biorenewable sources as alternatives to existing highly polluting and energy-intensive thermal curing of epoxy resin chemistry. Two sustainable epoxy network polymer systems will be presented to investigate how the network formation can be controlled. The first system is a series of epoxidized vegetable oils that offer various degrees of crosslinking densities, and the second system represents the blends of epoxidized vegetable oils with epoxidized terpenes to tailor their photocuring and mechanical properties for the potential usage in ``green'' coating, adhesive, 3D printing, and composite applications. NSF DMR POLYMERS 1308617.

  1. Experimental investigation of electro-rheological properties of modeled vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Valantina, S Rubalya; Susan, D; Bavasri, S; Priyadarshini, V; Saraswathi, R Ramya; Suriya, M

    2016-02-01

    Vegetable oil becomes polarized on oxidation and polymerization resulting in the formation of peroxide, triglycerides, etc. The quality and reusable state were investigated for sunflower, sesame, rice bran oil and model oil with the addition of oleic acid (2, 4 and 6 %) and antioxidants (citric and tert-Butyl hydroquinone-TBHQ). Excessive reclaims of cooking oil produce toxic by-products due to chemical breakdown that induce the production of polar compounds in oil. To determine the consumable fitness, variations of dielectric constant are observed at different temperatures (29 to 70 °C) and frequencies (1 to 10(7)Hz) for the cooking oil. Physical parameters, such as viscosity and density associated with the saturated and unsaturated fatty acid, are also measured at different temperatures to determine the quality of oil. Dielectric constant and viscosity are correlated and analyzed using a newly developed equation with high correlation constant (R (2)  = 0.998) for oil added with citric acid. Oil added with 2-4 % of oleic acid is observed to have high determination coefficient (R (2)  > 0.92). A lowest correlation (R (2)  = 0.6-0.7) was observed for the oil added with TBHQ. The present study also states that addition of TBHQ to oil does not impede oxidation reaction. Besides, even the shelf life of the oil could not be enhanced and may produce adverse effects in human health.

  2. Experimental investigation of electro-rheological properties of modeled vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Valantina, S Rubalya; Susan, D; Bavasri, S; Priyadarshini, V; Saraswathi, R Ramya; Suriya, M

    2016-02-01

    Vegetable oil becomes polarized on oxidation and polymerization resulting in the formation of peroxide, triglycerides, etc. The quality and reusable state were investigated for sunflower, sesame, rice bran oil and model oil with the addition of oleic acid (2, 4 and 6 %) and antioxidants (citric and tert-Butyl hydroquinone-TBHQ). Excessive reclaims of cooking oil produce toxic by-products due to chemical breakdown that induce the production of polar compounds in oil. To determine the consumable fitness, variations of dielectric constant are observed at different temperatures (29 to 70 °C) and frequencies (1 to 10(7)Hz) for the cooking oil. Physical parameters, such as viscosity and density associated with the saturated and unsaturated fatty acid, are also measured at different temperatures to determine the quality of oil. Dielectric constant and viscosity are correlated and analyzed using a newly developed equation with high correlation constant (R (2)  = 0.998) for oil added with citric acid. Oil added with 2-4 % of oleic acid is observed to have high determination coefficient (R (2)  > 0.92). A lowest correlation (R (2)  = 0.6-0.7) was observed for the oil added with TBHQ. The present study also states that addition of TBHQ to oil does not impede oxidation reaction. Besides, even the shelf life of the oil could not be enhanced and may produce adverse effects in human health. PMID:27162414

  3. Saturated fatty acids in vegetable oils. Council on Scientific Affairs.

    PubMed

    1990-02-01

    Concern has been expressed about the "atherogenicity" of coconut and/or palm oil in food products. Saturated fatty acids are found primarily in animal products and in "tropical oils" (coconut, palm, and palm kernel oils). Composition of the total diet over an extended period determines nutritional status and contribution to health. Specific foods and/or food ingredients need to be evaluated within the context of a person's total dietary pattern over time. Persons attempting to limit saturated fatty acid intake should be aware of the high content of saturated fatty acids in tropical oils. The American Medical Association is on record as supporting fatty acid labeling when cholesterol content is declared and cholesterol labeling when fatty acid content is declared. The American Medical Association has supported, and continues to support, voluntary efforts to increase public awareness of the composition and nutritional value of foods. PMID:2296125

  4. Production of alkyl-aromatics from light oxygenates over zeolite catalysts for bio-oil refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Trung Q.

    in aromatic yield. Further improvement of aromatization and catalyst lifetime was also found with ZnHZSM-5 wherein the Zn evidently modifies the acidity. These model compound results show that the optimized use of zeolites for production of alkyl aromatics from light oxygenates at mild conditions may be effective for bio-oil refining.

  5. Replacement of Dietary Saturated Fat by PUFA-Rich Pumpkin Seed Oil Attenuates Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Atherosclerosis Development, with Additional Health Effects of Virgin over Refined Oil

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Martine C.; Mulder, Petra; Stavro, P. Mark; Suárez, Manuel; Arola-Arnal, Anna; van Duyvenvoorde, Wim; Kooistra, Teake; Wielinga, Peter Y.; Kleemann, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims As dietary saturated fatty acids are associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disease, a potentially interesting strategy to reduce disease risk is modification of the quality of fat consumed. Vegetable oils represent an attractive target for intervention, as they largely determine the intake of dietary fats. Furthermore, besides potential health effects conferred by the type of fatty acids in a vegetable oil, other minor components (e.g. phytochemicals) may also have health benefits. Here, we investigated the potential long-term health effects of isocaloric substitution of dietary fat (i.e. partial replacement of saturated by unsaturated fats), as well as putative additional effects of phytochemicals present in unrefined (virgin) oil on development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated atherosclerosis. For this, we used pumpkin seed oil, because it is high in unsaturated fatty acids and a rich source of phytochemicals. Methods ApoE*3Leiden mice were fed a Western-type diet (CON) containing cocoa butter (15% w/w) and cholesterol (1% w/w) for 20 weeks to induce risk factors and disease endpoints. In separate groups, cocoa butter was replaced by refined (REF) or virgin (VIR) pumpkin seed oil (comparable in fatty acid composition, but different in phytochemical content). Results Both oils improved dyslipidaemia, with decreased (V)LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels in comparison with CON, and additional cholesterol-lowering effects of VIR over REF. While REF did not affect plasma inflammatory markers, VIR reduced circulating serum amyloid A and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1. NAFLD and atherosclerosis development was modestly reduced in REF, and VIR strongly decreased liver steatosis and inflammation as well as atherosclerotic lesion area and severity. Conclusions Overall, we show that an isocaloric switch from a diet rich in saturated fat to a diet rich in unsaturated fat can attenuate NAFLD and atherosclerosis

  6. Production of lipases by solid state fermentation using vegetable oil-refining wastes.

    PubMed

    Santis-Navarro, Angélica; Gea, Teresa; Barrena, Raquel; Sánchez, Antoni

    2011-11-01

    Lipases were produced by a microbial consortium derived from a mixture of wastewater sludges in a medium containing solid industrial wastes rich in fats, under thermophilic conditions (temperature higher than 45°C for 20 days) in 4.5-L reactors. The lipases were extracted from the solid medium using 100mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0 and a cationic surfactant agent (cetyltrimethylammonium chloride). Different doses of surfactant and buffer were tested according to a full factorial experimental design. The extracted lipases were most active at 61-65°C and at pH 7.7-9. For the solid samples, the lipolytic activity reached up to 120,000 UA/g of dry matter. These values are considerably higher than those previously reported in literature for solid-state fermentation and highlight the possibility to work with the solid wastes as effective biocatalysts.

  7. Fuels Coming from Locals Vegetables Oils for Operating of Thermals Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agboue, Akichi; Yobou, Bokra

    The energy crisis born from the oil problem determined a renewal of attention on the possible possibilities of production of substitute fuels for the operation of the machines and the thermal engines. The fuel`s production based on vegetable oils require a renewal attention about the research of replacement fuel for the opeating of machines and thermal engines. Actually, the scientific world takes an interest in the research of others liquids fuel obtained with renewables energy sources whose vegetables have a good place. So, for helping to solve the fuel problem and particularly in third world countries without petroleum resources but producing fruits and oils seed, this research was about search of fuel from vegetables oils. Extraction and physico-chemical analysis performed on various vegetables plants show an interesting energy aspect. Evaluation of actually energy parameters will permit to do a comparison with classics fuel like gas-oil and petrol. Finally, analysis of thermal engines show that fuels coming from biomass like jatropha, ricinodendron and pistacia can to use for operating of those thermal engines.

  8. Ultrasound assisted PTC catalyzed saponification of vegetable oils using aqueous alkali.

    PubMed

    Bhatkhande, B S; Samant, S D

    1998-03-01

    A few vegetable oils were saponified using aqueous KOH and different PTCs at room temperature in the presence of ultrasound. The extent of saponification was studied using the saponification value as a reference. Optimizations of various parameters such as time, selection of PTC, quantity of PTC, quantity of KOH and quantity of water were carried out using soyabean oil as a sample oil under sonication with stirring. To study the effect of ultrasound, the saponification was also carried out at 35 +/- 2 degrees C under different conditions, namely stirring, sonication, stirring and sonication, and heating at 100 degrees C. It was found that the heterogeneous liquid-liquid phase saponification of different vegetable oils using aq. KOH/CTAB was remarkably accelerated at 35 +/- 2 degrees C in the presence of ultrasound along with stirring.

  9. Economics of on-farm production and use of vegetable oils for fuel

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, C.S.; Withers, R.V.; Smith, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    The technology of oilseed processing, on a small scale, is much simpler than that for ethanol production. This, coupled with the fact that most energy intensive farm operations use diesel powered equipment, has created substantial interest in vegetable oils as an alternative source of liquid fuel for agriculture. The purpose of this study was to estimate the impact on gross margins resulting from vegetable oil production and utilization in two case study areas, Latah and Power Counties, in Iadho. The results indicate that winter rape oil became a feasible alternative to diesel when the price of diesel reached $0.84 per liter in the Latah County model. A diesel price of $0.85 per liter was required in the Power County model before it became feasible to produce sunflower oil for fuel. 5 tables.

  10. Properties and performance testing with blends of biomass alcohols, vegetable oils and diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Vinyard, S.; Hawkins, L.; Renoll, E.S.; Bunt, R.C.; Goodling, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is a presentation of results from three related efforts to determine the technical feasibility of using alcohols and vegetable oils blended with Diesel oil as fuel for unmodified compression ignition engines. Several different vegetable oils were successfully tested in a single cylinder engine. Sunflower oil was blended from 50% to 80% by volume with Diesel fuel and used in a multicylinder engine. Thermophysical property data were gathered on pure and blended fuels and are reported. A spray parameter, epsilon, was found which would predict the necessary change in valve opening pressure to render the atomization of the new fuel similar to that for which the injection system was designed. Engine testing showed that fuel consumption was substantially reduced upon setting the injectors at the new VOP. 2 figures, 1 table.

  11. Self-consistent photothermal techniques: Application for measuring thermal diffusivity in vegetable oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balderas-López, J. A.; Mandelis, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    The thermal wave resonator cavity (TWRC) was used to measure the thermal properties of vegetable oils. The thermal diffusivity of six commercial vegetable oils (olive, corn, soybean, canola, peanut, and sunflower) was measured by means of this device. A linear relation between both the amplitude and phase as functions of the cavity length for the TWRC was observed and used for the measurements. Three significant figure precisions were obtained. A clear distinction between extra virgin olive oil and other oils in terms of thermal diffusivity was shown. The high measurement precision of the TWRC highlights the potential of this relatively new technique for assessing the quality of this kind of fluids in terms of their thermophysical properties.

  12. The effect of nanoparticle surfactant polarization on trapping depth of vegetable insulating oil-based nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Du, Bin; Wang, Feipeng; Yao, Wei; Yao, Shuhan

    2016-02-01

    Nanoparticles can generate charge carrier trapping and reduce the velocity of streamer development in insulating oils ultimately leading to an enhancement of the breakdown voltage of insulating oils. Vegetable insulating oil-based nanofluids with three sizes of monodispersed Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared and their trapping depths were measured by thermally stimulated method (TSC). It is found that the nanoparticle surfactant polarization can significantly influence the trapping depth of vegetable insulating oil-based nanofluids. A nanoparticle polarization model considering surfactant polarization was proposed to calculate the trapping depth of the nanofluids at different nanoparticle sizes and surfactant thicknesses. The results show the calculated values of the model are in a fairly good agreement with the experimental values.

  13. Characterisation of minor components in vegetable oil by comprehensive gas chromatography with dual detection.

    PubMed

    Purcaro, Giorgia; Barp, Laura; Beccaria, Marco; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2016-12-01

    The profile of minor compounds, such as alcohols, sterols, free and alkyl fatty acids, waxes, etc., was investigated in different vegetable oils by a comprehensive gas chromatographic system, coupled with a simultaneous dual detection (flame ionisation detector and mass spectrometer) for quantitative and qualitative purposes. Such a system generated a unique two-dimensional chromatogram to be used as a chemical fingerprint. Multi-level information, due not only to a more "comprehensive" preparation technique, but also thanks to the exploitation of a more powerful and sensitive analytical determination allowed the extrapolation of diagnostic information from the minor components profile of different vegetable oils, along with their characteristic profile. Furthermore, an admixture of an extra virgin olive oil with a low amount of sunflower and palm oils was evaluated, attesting to the powerful diagnostic information provided by the proposed approach. PMID:27374590

  14. Characterisation of minor components in vegetable oil by comprehensive gas chromatography with dual detection.

    PubMed

    Purcaro, Giorgia; Barp, Laura; Beccaria, Marco; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2016-12-01

    The profile of minor compounds, such as alcohols, sterols, free and alkyl fatty acids, waxes, etc., was investigated in different vegetable oils by a comprehensive gas chromatographic system, coupled with a simultaneous dual detection (flame ionisation detector and mass spectrometer) for quantitative and qualitative purposes. Such a system generated a unique two-dimensional chromatogram to be used as a chemical fingerprint. Multi-level information, due not only to a more "comprehensive" preparation technique, but also thanks to the exploitation of a more powerful and sensitive analytical determination allowed the extrapolation of diagnostic information from the minor components profile of different vegetable oils, along with their characteristic profile. Furthermore, an admixture of an extra virgin olive oil with a low amount of sunflower and palm oils was evaluated, attesting to the powerful diagnostic information provided by the proposed approach.

  15. Effects of Vegetable Oil Type and Lipophilic Emulsifiers on the Induction Period of Fat Crystallization.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Yayoi; Ogawa, Takenobu; Nakagawa, Kyuya; Adachi, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    The induction period of crystallization, which is defined as the time required for oil to start to crystallize, is useful indicator of the freeze-thaw stability of food emulsions such as mayonnaise. We investigated the induction period of vegetable oils with low melting points, such as rapeseed and soybean oils, which are commonly employed for mayonnaise production. The induction period was measured by monitoring the temperature of a specimen during storage at low temperature. The induction period depended on the type of oil and lipophilic emulsifier, emulsifier concentration, and storage temperature. The effect of the oil type on the induction period depended on the composition of the oil. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses of the lipophilic emulsifiers suggested that the melting trend of the emulsifier is strongly related to the induction period.

  16. Novel biobased photo-crosslinked polymer networks prepared from vegetable oil and 2,5-furan diacrylate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel biobased crosslinked polymer networks were prepared from vegetable oil with 2,5-furan diacrylate as a difunctional stiffener through UV photopolymerization, and the mechanical properties of the resulting films were evaluated. The vegetable oil raw materials used were acrylated epoxidized soybe...

  17. Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Yang-Ii

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12% olive oil + 4% canola oil). Proximate analysis showed significant (p<0.05) differences in the moisture, protein, and fat content among the emulsion-type pork sausages. Furthermore, replacement with vegetable oil mixtures significantly decreased the ash content (p<0.05), increased water-holding capacity in emulsion-type pork sausages. Also, cholesterol content in T6 was significantly lower than T2 (p<0.05). In the texture profile analysis, hardness and chewiness of emulsion-type pork sausages were significantly (p<0.05) decreased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. On the contrary, cohesiveness and springiness in the T4 group were similar to those of group T1. The unsaturated fatty acid content in emulsion-type pork sausages was increased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. Replacement of pork fat with mixed vegetable oils had no negative effects on the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages, and due to its reduced saturated fatty acid composition, the product had the quality characteristics of the healthy meat products desired by consumers.

  18. Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Yang-II

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12% olive oil + 4% canola oil). Proximate analysis showed significant (p<0.05) differences in the moisture, protein, and fat content among the emulsion-type pork sausages. Furthermore, replacement with vegetable oil mixtures significantly decreased the ash content (p<0.05), increased water-holding capacity in emulsion-type pork sausages. Also, cholesterol content in T6 was significantly lower than T2 (p<0.05). In the texture profile analysis, hardness and chewiness of emulsion-type pork sausages were significantly (p<0.05) decreased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. On the contrary, cohesiveness and springiness in the T4 group were similar to those of group T1. The unsaturated fatty acid content in emulsion-type pork sausages was increased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. Replacement of pork fat with mixed vegetable oils had no negative effects on the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages, and due to its reduced saturated fatty acid composition, the product had the quality characteristics of the healthy meat products desired by consumers. PMID:26761810

  19. Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Yang-Ii

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12% olive oil + 4% canola oil). Proximate analysis showed significant (p<0.05) differences in the moisture, protein, and fat content among the emulsion-type pork sausages. Furthermore, replacement with vegetable oil mixtures significantly decreased the ash content (p<0.05), increased water-holding capacity in emulsion-type pork sausages. Also, cholesterol content in T6 was significantly lower than T2 (p<0.05). In the texture profile analysis, hardness and chewiness of emulsion-type pork sausages were significantly (p<0.05) decreased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. On the contrary, cohesiveness and springiness in the T4 group were similar to those of group T1. The unsaturated fatty acid content in emulsion-type pork sausages was increased by vegetable oil mixtures replacement. Replacement of pork fat with mixed vegetable oils had no negative effects on the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages, and due to its reduced saturated fatty acid composition, the product had the quality characteristics of the healthy meat products desired by consumers. PMID:26761810

  20. Replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils improves the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Qingyuan; Mai, Kangsen; Shentu, Jikang; Ai, Qinghui; Zhong, Huiying; Jiang, Yujian; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Chunxiao; Guo, Sitong

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effect of the replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils on the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea). The basal diet (FO) was formulated to contain 66.5% fish meal and 6.4% menhaden fish oil; whereas the other 3 experimental diets were formulated by replacing the fish oil with 50% soybean oil (SO50), 100% soybean oil (SO100) and 100% palm oil (PO100), respectively. The 4 diets were randomly assigned to 4 floating sea cages (3.0 m × 3.0 m × 3.0 m), and each was stocked with 250 fish individuals with an initial average weight of 245.29 g ± 7.45 g. The fish were fed to apparent satiation twice a day at 5:00 and 17:00, respectively, for 12 weeks. Experimental analysis showed that the specific growth rate of fish fed SO50 or PO100 were significantly higher than that of fish fed FO or SO100 ( P<0.05), and crude lipid contents of ventral muscle and viscera were significantly lower in fish fed FO than in those fed the other 3 diets ( P<0.05). No significant differences in condition factor, viscerosomatic index, hepatosomatic index, gutted yield and colorimetric values of fish among the dietary treatments were observed ( P>0.05). Compared to FO diet, SO50, SO100 and PO100 diets led to substantial decreases in the liquid loss and water loss from fresh fillets (1 d, 4°C) ( P<0.05). Similarly, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of fillets under different storage conditions (1 d, 4°C; 7 d, 4°C; 4 weeks, -20°C; 8 weeks, -20°C) decreased significantly after partial or complete replacement of fish oil with vegetable oils. These findings indicated that the growth performance and selected flesh quality properties (liquid holding capacity and TBARS value) of large yellow croaker were substantially improved by replacing dietary fish oil with vegetable oils.

  1. Silver-nanoparticle-embedded antimicrobial paints based on vegetable oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashavani; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; John, George

    2008-03-01

    Developing bactericidal coatings using simple green chemical methods could be a promising route to potential environmentally friendly applications. Here, we describe an environmentally friendly chemistry approach to synthesize metal-nanoparticle (MNP)-embedded paint, in a single step, from common household paint. The naturally occurring oxidative drying process in oils, involving free-radical exchange, was used as the fundamental mechanism for reducing metal salts and dispersing MNPs in the oil media, without the use of any external reducing or stabilizing agents. These well-dispersed MNP-in-oil dispersions can be used directly, akin to commercially available paints, on nearly all kinds of surface such as wood, glass, steel and different polymers. The surfaces coated with silver-nanoparticle paint showed excellent antimicrobial properties by killing both Gram-positive human pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli). The process we have developed here is quite general and can be applied in the synthesis of a variety of MNP-in-oil systems.

  2. Separation of steroids using vegetable oils in microemulsion electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    PubMed

    Sirén, Heli; Vesanen, Sari; Suomi, Johanna

    2014-01-15

    The steroids, hydrocortisone, androstenedione, 17-α-hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone, 17-α-methyltestosterone, and progesterone were separated with microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) and detected with UV absorption. The microemulsion phases were prepared from both artificial and vegetable oils, from them the first was made of alkane and alcohol and the latter from colza, olive, linseed, and walnut oils. The electrolyte solutions were made to emulsions using sodium dodecyl sulfate and alkaline tetraborate. The solution mixtures made from ethyl acetate, sodium dodecyl sulfate, 1-butanol, acetonitrile, and sodium tetraborate were used as the reference solutions to evaluate the performance of the vegetable oil emulsions. Our study showed that the lipophilic organic phase in the microemulsion did provide resolution improvements but not selectivity changes. The results also correlate with real interactions of the steroids with the lipophilic organic microemulsion phase. The quality of the oils between the manufacturers did not have importance, which was noticed from the equal behavior of the steroids in the vegetable oil emulsions. Detection limits of the steroids in vegetable oil emulsions were at the level of 0.20-0.43μg/L. Thus, they were 2-10 times higher than the concentrations in the partial filling micellar electrokinetic chromatography (PF-MEKC), which we have obtained earlier. The repeatability (RSD%) of the electrophoretic mobilities of the steroids was between 0.50 and 3.70. The RSD% values between the inter-day separations were below 1%, but when walnut and olive oils were used the values exceeded even 10%.

  3. Evaluation of the thermal diffusivity of vegetable oils during frying by Thermal Lens Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, S. M.; Bannwart, E. S.; Oliveira, R. G.; Andrade, L. H. C.; Del Ré, P. V.; Jorge, N.; Pedrochi, F.; Constantini, R.; Medina, A. N.; Baesso, M. L.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we report on the use of the Thermal Lens method to verify the evolution of the thermal diffusivity of sunflower and soybean vegetable oils utilized in preparation of twenty five snacks portions. Our results show that the thermal diffusivity for sunflower oil does not change between 1 and 25 portions of fried snacks. By another hand, the soybean thermal diffusivity exhibits a little decrease for higher portion of fried snacks, indicating that for this oil the triglyceride level is reduced as a degradation process.

  4. The use of isotope ratios (13C/12C) for vegetable oils authentication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristea, G.; Magdas, D. A.; Mirel, V.

    2012-02-01

    Stable isotopes are now increasingly used for the control of the geographical origin or authenticity of food products. The falsification may be more or less sophisticated and its sophistication as well as its costs increases with the improvement of analytical methods. In this study 22 vegetable oils (olive, sunflower, palm, maize) commercialized on Romanian market were investigated by mean of δ13C in bulk oil and the obtained results were compared with those reported in literature in order to check the labeling of these natural products. The obtained results were in the range of the mean values found in the literature for these types of oils, thus providing their accurate labeling.

  5. Soy Sauce Residue Oil Extracted by a Novel Continuous Phase Transition Extraction under Low Temperature and Its Refining Process.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lichao; Zhang, Yong; He, Liping; Dai, Weijie; Lai, Yingyi; Yao, Xueyi; Cao, Yong

    2014-03-28

    On the basis of previous single-factor experiments, extraction parameters of soy sauce residue (SSR) oil extracted using a self-developed continuous phase transition extraction method at low temperature was optimized using the response surface methodology. The established optimal conditions for maximum oil yield were n-butane solvent, 0.5 MPa extraction pressure, 45 °C temperature, 62 min extraction time, and 45 mesh raw material granularity. Under these conditions, the actual yield was 28.43% ± 0.17%, which is relatively close to the predicted yield. Meanwhile, isoflavone was extracted from defatted SSR using the same method, but the parameters and solvent used were altered. The new solvent was 95% (v/v) ethanol, and extraction was performed under 1.0 MPa at 60 °C for 90 min. The extracted isoflavones, with 0.18% ± 0.012% yield, mainly comprised daidzein and genistein, two kinds of aglycones. The novel continuous phase transition extraction under low temperature could provide favorable conditions for the extraction of nonpolar or strongly polar substances. The oil physicochemical properties and fatty acids compositions were analyzed. Results showed that the main drawback of the crude oil was the excess of acid value (AV, 63.9 ± 0.1 mg KOH/g) and peroxide value (POV, 9.05 ± 0.3 mmol/kg), compared with that of normal soybean oil. However, through molecular distillation, AV and POV dropped to 1.78 ± 0.12 mg KOH/g and 5.9 ± 0.08 mmol/kg, respectively. This refined oil may be used as feedstuff oil. PMID:24650165

  6. PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs and Pesticides in Cold-Pressed Vegetable Oils.

    PubMed

    Roszko, M; Szterk, A; Szymczyk, K; Waszkiewicz-Robak, B

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (marker and dioxin-like congeners), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (EPA 15 + 1), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (14 predominant congeners) and pesticides (74 compounds) in various cold-pressed vegetable oils. Poppy seed oil, rapeseed oil, sesame seed oil, pumpkinseed oil, hempseed oil, linaire oil, borage oil and evening star oil were investigated. Results of this study revealed that concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs and PAHs were low in majority of the investigated samples. However, high concentrations of organophosphorus insecticides were found. Chlorpyrifos methyl and pirimiphos methyl were the pesticide residues most commonly found in the studied oils. Concentration of 15 + 1 EPA PAHs was within the 17.85-37.16 μg kg(-1) range, concentration of (marker) PCBs varied from 127 to 24,882 pg g(-1), dioxin-like TEQ values were below 0.1 pg TEQ g(-1). Concentration of PBDEs was below LOQ in most cases. PMID:22389518

  7. Desulfurization of coal with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. [Quarterly] report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, Ruozhi; Cheng, Jianjun

    1994-12-31

    This project proposes a new method for removing organic sulfur from Illinois coals using readily available farm products. It proposes to use air and vegetable oils to disrupt the coal matrix, oxidize sulfur forms, increase volatiles, and desulfurize coal. This will be accomplished by impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover, the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of the solid products. Preliminary experiments showed that EBC 104 coal catalyzes the formation of hydroperoxides in safflower oil and that more sulfur is extracted from the treated than untreated coal. During this first quarter the requirement of an added photosensitizer has been eliminated, the catalytic effect of coal has been confirmed, and the existence of a complex set of reactions revealed. These reactions between the oxygen, oil, hydroperoxides, and coal are hydroperoxide formation, which is catalyzed by the coal surface and by heat, an unknown coal-hydroperoxide reaction, and oil polymerization. Additionally, diffusion phenomena must be playing a role because oil polymerization occurs, but the importance of diffusion is difficult to assess because less polymerization occurs when coal is present. The first task has been completed and we are now ready to determine the ability of linseed oil hydroperoxides to oxidize organic sulfur in EBC 108 coal.

  8. Third-Party Evaluation of Petro Tex Hydrocarbons, LLC, ReGen Lubricating Oil Re-refining Process

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A L; Griffith, William {Bill} L

    2009-04-01

    This report presents an assessment of market, energy impact, and utility of the PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., ReGen process for re-refining used lubricating oil to produce Group I, II, and III base oils, diesel fuel, and asphalt. PetroTex Hydrocarbons, LLC., has performed extensive pilot scale evaluations, computer simulations, and market studies of this process and is presently evaluating construction of a 23 million gallon per year industrial-scale plant. PetroTex has obtained a 30 acre site in the Texas Industries RailPark in Midlothian Texas. The environmental and civil engineering assessments of the site are completed, and the company has been granted a special use permit from the City of Midlothian and air emissions permits for the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality.

  9. A novel cardanol-based antioxidant and its application in vegetable oils and biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel antioxidant, epoxidized cardanol (ECD), derived from cardanol has been synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Oxidative stability of ECD in vegetable oils and biodiesel was evaluated by the pressurized differential scanning calorimetry and Rancimat methods, respectively....

  10. Synthesis of epoxidized cardanol and its antioxidative properties for vegetable oils and biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel antioxidant epoxidized cardanol (ECD), derived from cardanol, was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Oxidative stability of ECD used in vegetable oils and biodiesel was evaluated by pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC) and the Rancimat method, respect...

  11. [Determination of gossypol in edible vegetable oil with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenhua; Huang, Chaoqun; Xie, Wen; Shen, Li

    2014-06-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the determination of gossypol in edible vegetable oil. The sample was extracted with ethyl alcohol by vortex-excited oscillation. The extract was cleaned up by 0.22 microm filter membrane and centrifuged for 5 min at 4 000 r/min after standing in a fridge at 4 degrees C for 30 min. The compound was separated on a C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 3.5 microm) with acetonitrile and 1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution as mobile phase. The detection of gossypol was carried out by LC-MS/MS with positive electrospray ionization under multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using external standard method. The limits of quantification (S/N > 10) of gossypol in edible vegetable oil was 1 mg/kg. The recoveries were from 87.4% to 100% at the spiked levels of 1, 2, 200 mg/kg of gossypol in edible vegetable oil with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) between 3.9% and 12.2%. The method, with high sensitivity, good precision and high recovery, was suitable for the confirmation and quantification of gossypol residue in edible vegetable oil.

  12. Hydrogenated soy ethyl ester (HySEE) from ethanol and waste vegetable oil

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.; Reece, D.; Thompson, J.

    1995-11-01

    Biodiesel is gaining recognition in the United States as a renewable fuel which may be used as an alternative to diesel fuel without any modifications to the engine. Currently the cost of this fuel is the factor that limits its use. One way to reduce the cost of biodiesel is to use a less expensive form of vegetable oil such as waste oil from a processing plant. These operations use mainly hydrogenated soybean oil, some tallow and some Canola as their frying oils. It is estimated that there are several million pounds of waste vegetable oil from these operations. Additional waste frying oil is available from smaller processors, off-grade oil seeds and restaurants. This paper reports on developing a process to produce the first 945 liters (250 gallons) of HySEE using recipes developed at the University of Idaho; fuel characterization tests on the HySEE according to the ASAE proposed Engineering Practice for Testing of Fuels from Biological Materials, X552; short term injector coking tests and performance tests in a turbocharged, DI, CI engine; and a 300 hour screening test in a single cylinder, IDI, CI engine.

  13. Sensor and Methodology for Dielectric Analysis of Vegetal Oils Submitted to Thermal Stress

    PubMed Central

    Stevan, Sergio Luiz; Paiter, Leandro; Ricardo Galvão, José; Vieira Roque, Daniely; Sidinei Chaves, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Vegetable oils used in frying food represent a social problem as its destination. The residual oil can be recycled and returned to the production line, as biodiesel, as soap, or as putty. The state of the residual oil is determined according to their physicochemical characteristics whose values define its economically viable destination. However, the physicochemical analysis requires high costs, time and general cost of transporting. This study presents the use of a capacitive sensor and a quick and inexpensive method to correlate the physicochemical variables to the dielectric constant of the material undergoing oil samples to thermal cycling. The proposed method allows reducing costs in the characterization of residual oil and the reduction in analysis time. In addition, the method allows an assessment of the quality of the vegetable oil during use. The experimental results show the increasing of the dielectric constant with the temperature, which facilitates measurement and classification of the dielectric constant at considerably higher temperatures. The results also confirm a definitive degradation in used oil and a correlation between the dielectric constant of the sample with the results of the physicochemical analysis (iodine value, acid value, viscosity and refractive index). PMID:26501293

  14. Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on the salt marsh vegetation of Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Hester, Mark W; Willis, Jonathan M; Rouhani, Shahrokh; Steinhoff, Marla A; Baker, Mary C

    2016-09-01

    The coastal wetland vegetation component of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill Natural Resource Damage Assessment documented significant injury to the plant production and health of Louisiana salt marshes exposed to oiling. Specifically, marsh sites experiencing trace or greater vertical oiling of plant tissues displayed reductions in cover and peak standing crop relative to reference (no oiling), particularly in the marsh edge zone, for the majority of this four year study. Similarly, elevated chlorosis of plant tissue, as estimated by a vegetation health index, was detected for marsh sites with trace or greater vertical oiling in the first two years of the study. Key environmental factors, such as hydrologic regime, elevation, and soil characteristics, were generally similar across plant oiling classes (including reference), indicating that the observed injury to plant production and health was the result of plant oiling and not potential differences in environmental setting. Although fewer significant impacts to plant production and health were detected in the latter years of the study, this is due in part to decreased sample size occurring as a result of erosion (shoreline retreat) and resultant loss of plots, and should not be misconstrued as indicating full recovery of the ecosystem. PMID:27299994

  15. Sensor and methodology for dielectric analysis of vegetal oils submitted to thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Stevan, Sergio Luiz; Paiter, Leandro; Galvão, José Ricardo; Roque, Daniely Vieira; Chaves, Eduardo Sidinei

    2015-10-16

    Vegetable oils used in frying food represent a social problem as its destination. The residual oil can be recycled and returned to the production line, as biodiesel, as soap, or as putty. The state of the residual oil is determined according to their physicochemical characteristics whose values define its economically viable destination. However, the physicochemical analysis requires high costs, time and general cost of transporting. This study presents the use of a capacitive sensor and a quick and inexpensive method to correlate the physicochemical variables to the dielectric constant of the material undergoing oil samples to thermal cycling. The proposed method allows reducing costs in the characterization of residual oil and the reduction in analysis time. In addition, the method allows an assessment of the quality of the vegetable oil during use. The experimental results show the increasing of the dielectric constant with the temperature, which facilitates measurement and classification of the dielectric constant at considerably higher temperatures. The results also confirm a definitive degradation in used oil and a correlation between the dielectric constant of the sample with the results of the physicochemical analysis (iodine value, acid value, viscosity and refractive index).

  16. Sensor and methodology for dielectric analysis of vegetal oils submitted to thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Stevan, Sergio Luiz; Paiter, Leandro; Galvão, José Ricardo; Roque, Daniely Vieira; Chaves, Eduardo Sidinei

    2015-01-01

    Vegetable oils used in frying food represent a social problem as its destination. The residual oil can be recycled and returned to the production line, as biodiesel, as soap, or as putty. The state of the residual oil is determined according to their physicochemical characteristics whose values define its economically viable destination. However, the physicochemical analysis requires high costs, time and general cost of transporting. This study presents the use of a capacitive sensor and a quick and inexpensive method to correlate the physicochemical variables to the dielectric constant of the material undergoing oil samples to thermal cycling. The proposed method allows reducing costs in the characterization of residual oil and the reduction in analysis time. In addition, the method allows an assessment of the quality of the vegetable oil during use. The experimental results show the increasing of the dielectric constant with the temperature, which facilitates measurement and classification of the dielectric constant at considerably higher temperatures. The results also confirm a definitive degradation in used oil and a correlation between the dielectric constant of the sample with the results of the physicochemical analysis (iodine value, acid value, viscosity and refractive index). PMID:26501293

  17. Anicteric hepatoxicity: a potential health risk of occupational exposures in Nigerian petroleum oil refining and distribution industry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Literature abounds linking one’s job to certain unpalatable health outcomes. Since exposures to hazardous conditions in industrial environments often results in sundry health effects among workers, we embarked on this study to investigate the hepatic health effects of occupational activities in the petroleum refining and distribution industry. Method Biochemical markers of liver functions were assayed in plasma, using Reflotron dry chemistry spectrophotometric system. The study was conducted on randomly selected workers of Port Harcourt Refining Company (PHRC) and Pipelines and Petroleum Product Marketing Company (PPMC) both in Alesa-Eleme near Port Harcourt, Nigeria, as well as non-oil work civil servants serving as control subjects. Result and conclusion Results showed that, bilirubin ranged 0.3-1.6 mg/dl with a mean of 0.66±0.20mg/dl among the oil workers as against 0.5-1.00mg/dl with a mean of 0.58±0.13mg/dl in non-oil workers, Alkaline phosphatase ranged 50.00-296.00u/l (mean: 126.21±39.49u/l) in oil workers as against 40.20-111u/l (mean: 66.83±18.54u/l) for non-oil workers, Aspartic transaminases (AST) ranged 5.80-140.20u/l (mean: 21.81±11.49u/l) in oil workers against 18.00-44.00u/l (mean: 26.89±6.99u/l) for non-oil workers, while Alanine transaminases (ALT) ranged 4.90-86.00u/l (mean: 22.14±11.28u/l) in oil workers as against 10.00-86.60u/l (mean: 22.30±10.22u/l) for the non-oil workers. A close study of the results revealed that although the mean values for all the studied parameters were still within the parametric reference ranges, however, relative to the referents, there were significant increases (P<0.05) in plasma bilirubin (though anicteric) and alkaline phosphatase that was not matched with a corresponding increase in the plasma transaminases, suggesting a possibility that toxic anicteric hepatoxicity is part of the potential health effects of sundry exposures in the Nigeria petroleum oil refining and distribution industry

  18. The comparative reductions of the plasma lipids and lipoproteins by dietary polyunsaturated fats: salmon oil versus vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Harris, W S; Connor, W E; McMurry, M P

    1983-02-01

    The lower plasma lipid levels and lower incidence of atherosclerotic diseases in Greenland Eskimos suggested that the unusual fatty acids present in their diet of seal and fish may be anti-atherogenic. These fatty acids are eicosapentaenoic (C20:5) and docosahexaenoic (C22:6) acids and are of the omega-3 fatty acid family. We have compared a salmon oil diet containing high levels of these unique fatty acids to a control diet high in saturated fat and to a vegetable oil diet high in linoleic acid (C18:2). All diets contained 40% of the total calories as fat and 500 mg of cholesterol; they differed only in fatty acid composition. In 4 wk the salmon oil diet reduced plasma cholesterol levels from 188 to 162 mg/dl (p less than 0.001) and triglyceride levels from 77 to 48 mg/dl (p less than 0.005). LDL and VLDL cholesterol levels changed from 128 to 108 and 13 to 8 mg/dl (p less than 0.005), respectively. HDL cholesterol levels did not change. The vegetable oil diet caused similar decreases in cholesterol levels but did not lower triglyceride levels. The omega-3 fatty acids comprised up to 30% of the total fatty acids in each plasma lipid class after the salmon diet. Fish oils contain fatty acids which may be metabolically unique and potentially useful in the control of both hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia.

  19. Medium-chain sugar amphiphiles: a new family of healthy vegetable oil structuring agents.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Swapnil R; Hwang, Hyeondo; Huang, Qingrong; John, George

    2013-12-11

    Vegetable oils are frequently structured to enhance their organoleptic and mechanical properties. This is usually achieved by increasing the net amount of saturated and/or trans fatty acids in the oil. With the risk of coronary heart diseases associated with these fatty acids, the food industry is looking for better alternatives. In this context, the medium-chain dialkanoates of low-calorie sugars (sugar alcohol dioctanoates) are investigated as a healthy alternative structuring agent. Precursors of sugar amphiphiles, being FDA-approved GRAS materials, exhibited high cell viability at a concentration ~50 μg/mL. They readily formed nanoscale multilayered structures in an oil matrix to form a coherent network at low concentrations (1-3 wt %/v), which immobilized a wide range of oils (canola, soybean, and grapeseed oils). The structuring efficiency of sugar amphiphiles was computed in terms of mechanical, thermal, and structural properties and found to be a function of its type and concentration.

  20. Characteristics of Palm Fatty Acid Ester (PFAE), a New Vegetable Based Insulating Oil for Transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Kanoh, Takaaki; Koide, Hidenobu; Hikosaka, Tomoyuki

    We have developed new vegetable based insulating oil for transformers called PFAE (Palm Fatty Acid Ester). PFAE has 0.6 times less viscosity and 1.3 times higher dielectric constant compared to mineral oil. The oxidative stability, biodegradability and acute toxicity to fish of PFAE has also been determined to be superior to mineral oil. In this paper, in order to optimize the characteristics of fatty acid esters originating from palm oil, several kinds of fatty acid alkyl esters were first synthesized in the laboratory by the molecular design technique and the transesterification from fatty acid methyl esters and alkyl alcohols. Next the electro-chemical characteristics of the fatty acid alkyl esters as insulating oil were analyzed.

  1. Possible adverse effects of frying with vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Dobarganes, Carmen; Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria

    2015-04-01

    The question of whether heated fats in the diet may be detrimental to health is nowadays of the upmost concern, but finding an answer is not easy and requires careful consideration of different aspects of lipid oxidation. This review is divided into two sections. The first part deals with the nature of the new compounds formed at high temperature in the frying process as well as their occurrence in the diet while the second part focuses on their possible nutritional and physiological effects. Oxidation products present in abused frying fats and oils are the compounds most suspected of impairing the nutritional properties of the oils or involving adverse physiological effects. The recent studies on their health implications include those related to their fate and those focused on their effects in metabolic pathways and the most prevalent diseases.

  2. Hydrolysis of vegetable oils in sub- and supercritical water

    SciTech Connect

    Holliday, R.L.; King, J.W.; List, G.R.

    1997-03-01

    Water, in its subcritical state, can be used as both a solvent and reactant for the hydrolysis of triglycerides. In this study, soybean, linseed, and coconut oils were successfully and reproducibly hydrolyzed to free fatty acids with water at a density of 0.7 g/mL and temperatures of 260--280 C. Under these conditions the reaction proceeds quickly, with conversion of greater than 97% after 15--20 min. Some geometric isomerization of the linolenic acids was observed at reaction temperatures as low as 250 C. Reactions carried out at higher temperatures and pressures, up to the critical point of water, produced either/or degradation, pyrolysis, and polymerization, of the oils and resultant fatty acids.

  3. 76 FR 5107 - Regulation of Oil-Bearing Hazardous Secondary Materials From the Petroleum Refining Industry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... Produce Synthesis Gas,'' 67 FR 13684 (March 25, 2002). The ``critical areas'' to which you refer are noted... From the Petroleum Refining Industry Processed in a Gasification System To Produce Synthesis Gas... Gasification System to Produce Synthesis Gas,'' published in the Federal Register on January 2, 2008. The...

  4. Effects of fats and oils on the bioaccessibility of carotenoids and vitamin E in vegetables.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Akihiko; Kotake-Nara, Eiichi; Hase, Megumi

    2013-01-01

    The low bioavailability of lipophilic micronutrients is mainly caused by their limited solubilization to an aqueous micelle, which hinders their ability to be taken up by the intestines. Bioaccessibility is the ratio of the solubilized portion to the whole amount ingested. We evaluated in this study the effects of individual fats and oils and their constituents on the bioaccessibility of carotenoids and vitamin E in vegetables by simulated digestion. Various fats and oils and long-chain triacylglycerols enhanced the bioaccessibility of β-carotene present in spinach, but not of lutein and α-tocopherol, which are less hydrophobic than β-carotene. Free fatty acid, monoacylglycerol, and diacylglycerol also enhanced the bioaccessibility of β-carotene present in spinach. In addition to the long-chain triacylglycerols, their hydrolyzates formed during digestion would facilitate the dispersion and solubilization of β-carotene into mixed micelles. Dietary fats and oils would therefore enhance the bioaccessibility of hydrophobic carotenes present in vegetables.

  5. Recovery of different waste vegetable oils for biodiesel production: a pilot experience in Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres, Ednildo Andrade; Cerqueira, Gilberto S; Tiago, M Ferrer; Quintella, Cristina M; Raboni, Massimo; Torretta, Vincenzo; Urbini, Giordano

    2013-12-01

    In Brazil, and mainly in the State of Bahia, crude vegetable oils are widely used in the preparation of food. Street stalls, restaurants and canteens make a great use of palm oil and soybean oil. There is also some use of castor oil, which is widely cultivated in the Sertão Region (within the State of Bahia), and widely applied in industry. This massive use in food preparation leads to a huge amount of waste oil of different types, which needs either to be properly disposed of, or recovered. At the Laboratorio Energia e Gas-LEN (Energy & Gas lab.) of the Universidade Federal da Bahia, a cycle of experiments were carried out to evaluate the recovery of waste oils for biodiesel production. The experiences were carried out on a laboratory scale and, in a semi-industrial pilot plant using waste oils of different qualities. In the transesterification process, applied waste vegetable oils were reacted with methanol with the support of a basic catalyst, such as NaOH or KOH. The conversion rate settled at between 81% and 85% (in weight). The most suitable molar ratio of waste oils to alcohol was 1:6, and the amount of catalyst required was 0.5% (of the weight of the incoming oil), in the case of NaOH, and 1%, in case of KOH. The quality of the biodiesel produced was tested to determine the final product quality. The parameters analyzed were the acid value, kinematic viscosity, monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, free glycerine, total glycerine, clearness; the conversion yield of the process was also evaluated.

  6. Fuel additives from SO/sub 2/ treated mixtures of amides and esters derived from vegetable oil, tall oil acid, or aralkyl acid

    SciTech Connect

    Efner, H. F.; Schiff, S.

    1985-03-12

    Vegetable oils, particularly soybean oil, tall oil acid, or aralkyl acids, particularly phenylstearic acid, are reacted with multiamines, particularly tetraethylenepentamine, to form a product mixture for subsequent reaction with SO/sub 2/ to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels.

  7. Biosynthesis of medium chain length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHAs) by Comamonas testosteroni during cultivation on vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Thakor, Nehal; Trivedi, Ujjval; Patel, K C

    2005-11-01

    Comamonas testosteroni has been studied for its ability to synthesize and accumulate medium chain length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHAs) during cultivation on vegetable oils available in the local market. Castor seed oil, coconut oil, mustard oil, cotton seed oil, groundnut oil, olive oil and sesame oil were supplemented in the mineral medium as a sole source of carbon for growth and PHAs accumulation. The composition of PHAs was analysed by a coupled gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). PHAs contained C6 to C14 3-hydroxy acids, with a strong presence of 3-hydroxyoctanoate when coconut oil, mustard oil, cotton seed oil and groundnut oil were supplied. 3-hydroxydecanoate was incorporated at higher concentrations when castor seed oil, olive oil and sesame oil were the substrates. Purified PHAs samples were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and 13C NMR analysis. During cultivation on various vegetable oils, C. testosteroni accumulated PHAs up to 78.5-87.5% of the cellular dry material (CDM). The efficiency of the culture to convert oil to PHAs ranged from 53.1% to 58.3% for different vegetable oils. Further more, the composition of the PHAs formed was not found to be substrate dependent as PHAs obtained from C. testosteroni during growth on variety of vegetable oils showed similar compositions; 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid and/or 3-hydroxydecanoic acid being always predominant. The polymerizing system of C. testosteroni showed higher preference for C8 and C10 monomers as longer and smaller monomers were incorporated less efficiently. PMID:16084364

  8. Biosynthesis of medium chain length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHAs) by Comamonas testosteroni during cultivation on vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Thakor, Nehal; Trivedi, Ujjval; Patel, K C

    2005-11-01

    Comamonas testosteroni has been studied for its ability to synthesize and accumulate medium chain length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHAs) during cultivation on vegetable oils available in the local market. Castor seed oil, coconut oil, mustard oil, cotton seed oil, groundnut oil, olive oil and sesame oil were supplemented in the mineral medium as a sole source of carbon for growth and PHAs accumulation. The composition of PHAs was analysed by a coupled gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). PHAs contained C6 to C14 3-hydroxy acids, with a strong presence of 3-hydroxyoctanoate when coconut oil, mustard oil, cotton seed oil and groundnut oil were supplied. 3-hydroxydecanoate was incorporated at higher concentrations when castor seed oil, olive oil and sesame oil were the substrates. Purified PHAs samples were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and 13C NMR analysis. During cultivation on various vegetable oils, C. testosteroni accumulated PHAs up to 78.5-87.5% of the cellular dry material (CDM). The efficiency of the culture to convert oil to PHAs ranged from 53.1% to 58.3% for different vegetable oils. Further more, the composition of the PHAs formed was not found to be substrate dependent as PHAs obtained from C. testosteroni during growth on variety of vegetable oils showed similar compositions; 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid and/or 3-hydroxydecanoic acid being always predominant. The polymerizing system of C. testosteroni showed higher preference for C8 and C10 monomers as longer and smaller monomers were incorporated less efficiently.

  9. Comparison and analysis of fatty acids, sterols, and tocopherols in eight vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Li, Changmo; Yao, Yunping; Zhao, Guozhong; Cheng, Wen; Liu, Huilin; Liu, Chunyang; Shi, Zhen; Chen, Yao; Wang, Shuo

    2011-12-14

    The similarities and differences of eight vegetable oils produced in China were investigated in terms of their fatty acid, sterol, and tocopherol compositions and subsequent data processing by hierarchical clustering analysis and principal component analysis. The lipid profiles, acquired by analytical techniques tailored to each lipid class, revealed great similarities among the fatty acid profiles of corn and sesame oil as well as few differences in their sterol profiles. It turns out that not only was there great similarity between the fatty acid profiles of corn oil and sesame oil but also there were not too many differences for the sterol profiles. Sunflower and tea-seed oil showed similar sterol compositions, while the tea-seed oil tocopherol was very similar to palm oil. The results demonstrated that the use of only one of these profiles was unreliable for indentifying oil origin and authenticity. In contrast, the use of the sterol or tocopherol profile together with the fatty acid profile more accurately discriminates these oils.

  10. Effect Of Iron On The Sensitivity Of Hydrogen, Acetate, And Butyrate Metabolism To Inhibition By Long-Chain Fatty Acids In Vegetable-Oil-Enriched Freshwater Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Freshwater sediment microbial communities enriched by growth on vegetable oil in the presence of a substoichiometric amount of ferric hydroxide (sufficient to accept about 12% of the vegetable-oil-derived electrons) degrade vegetable oil to methane faster than similar microbial c...

  11. The influence of vegetable oils on biosurfactant production by Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Cristina; De Araújo, Alvaro A; Pastore, Glaucia M

    2002-01-01

    The production of biosurfactant, a surface-active compound, by two Serratia marcescensstrains was tested on minimal culture medium supplemented with vegetable oils, considering that it is well known that these compounds stimulate biosurfactant production. The vegetable oils tested included soybean, olive, castor, sunflower, and coconut fat. The results showed a decrease in surface tension of the culture medium without oil from 64.54 to 29.57, with a critical micelle dilution (CMD(-1)) and CMD(-2) of 41.77 and 68.92 mN/m, respectively. Sunflower oil gave the best results (29.75 mN/m) with a CMD(-1) and CMD-2 of 36.69 and 51.41 mN/m, respectively. Sunflower oil contains about 60% of linoleic acid. The addition of linoleic acid decreased the surface tension from 53.70 to 28.39, with a CMD(-1) of 29.72 and CMD(-2) of 37.97, suggesting that this fatty acid stimulates the biosurfactant production by the LB006 strain. In addition, the crude precipitate surfactant reduced the surface tension of water from 72.00 to 28.70 mN/m. These results suggest that the sunflower oil's linoleic acid was responsible for the increase in biosurfactant production by the LB006 strain. PMID:12018306

  12. The influence of vegetable oils on biosurfactant production by Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, Cristina; De Araújo, Alvaro A; Pastore, Glaucia M

    2002-01-01

    The production of biosurfactant, a surface-active compound, by two Serratia marcescensstrains was tested on minimal culture medium supplemented with vegetable oils, considering that it is well known that these compounds stimulate biosurfactant production. The vegetable oils tested included soybean, olive, castor, sunflower, and coconut fat. The results showed a decrease in surface tension of the culture medium without oil from 64.54 to 29.57, with a critical micelle dilution (CMD(-1)) and CMD(-2) of 41.77 and 68.92 mN/m, respectively. Sunflower oil gave the best results (29.75 mN/m) with a CMD(-1) and CMD-2 of 36.69 and 51.41 mN/m, respectively. Sunflower oil contains about 60% of linoleic acid. The addition of linoleic acid decreased the surface tension from 53.70 to 28.39, with a CMD(-1) of 29.72 and CMD(-2) of 37.97, suggesting that this fatty acid stimulates the biosurfactant production by the LB006 strain. In addition, the crude precipitate surfactant reduced the surface tension of water from 72.00 to 28.70 mN/m. These results suggest that the sunflower oil's linoleic acid was responsible for the increase in biosurfactant production by the LB006 strain.

  13. Reduction of epoxidized vegetable oils: a novel method to prepare bio-based polyols for polyurethanes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chaoqun; Ding, Rui; Kessler, Michael R

    2014-06-01

    A novel method, epoxidation/reduction of vegetable oils, is developed to prepare bio-based polyols for the manufacture of polyurethanes (PUs). These polyols are synthesized from castor oil (CO), epoxidized soybean oil, and epoxidized linseed oil and their molecular structures are characterized. They are used to prepare a variety of PUs, and their thermomechanical properties are compared to those of PU made with petroleum-based polyol (P-450). It is shown that PUs made with polyols from soybean and linseed oil exhibit higher glass transition temperatures, tensile strength, and Young's modulus and PU made with polyol from CO exhibits higher elongation at break and toughness than PU made with P-450. However, PU made with P-450 displays better thermal resistance because of tri-ester structure and terminal functional groups. The method provides a versatile way to prepare bio-polyols from vegetable oils, and it is expected to partially or completely replace petroleum-based polyols in PUs manufacture.

  14. Production and fuel characteristics of vegetable oil from oilseed crops in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Auld, D.L.; Bettis, B.L.; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the potential yield and fuel quality of various oilseed crops adapted to the Pacific Northwest as a source of liquid fuel for diesel engines. The seed yield and oil production of three cultivars of winter rape (Brassica napus L.), two cultivars of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and two cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were evaluated in replicated plots at Moscow. Additional trials were conducted at several locations in Idaho, Oregon and Washington. Sunflower, oleic and linoleic safflower, and low and high erucic acid rapeseed were evaluated for fatty acid composition, energy content, viscosity and engine performance in short term tests. During 20 minute engine tests power output, fuel economy and thermal efficiency were compared to diesel fuel. Winter rape produced over twice as much farm extractable oil as either safflower or sunflower. The winter rape cultivars, Norde and Jet Neuf had oil yields which averaged 1740 and 1540 L/ha, respectively. Vegetable oils contained 94 to 95% of the KJ/L of diesel fuel, but were 11.1 to 17.6 times more viscous. Viscosity of the vegetable oils was closely related to fatty acid chain length and number of unsaturated bonds (R/sup 2/=.99). During short term engine tests all vegetable oils produced power outputs equivalent to diesel, and had thermal efficiencies 1.8 to 2.8% higher than diesel. Based on these results it appears that species and cultivars of oilseed crops to be utilized as a source of fuel should be selected on the basis of oil yield. 1 figure, 5 tables.

  15. Does cooking with vegetable oils increase the risk of chronic diseases?: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sayon-Orea, Carmen; Carlos, Silvia; Martínez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2015-04-01

    Overweight/obesity, CVD and type 2 diabetes are strongly associated with nutritional habits. High consumption of fried foods might increase the risk of these disorders. However, it is not clear whether the use of vegetables oils for cooking increases the risk of chronic diseases. We systematically searched for published studies that assessed the association between vegetable oil consumption including fried food consumption and the risk of overweight/obesity or weight gain, T2DM or the metabolic syndrome, and CVD or hypertension in the following databases: PubMed; Web of Science; Google Scholar. Keywords such as 'fried food' or 'vegetable oil' or 'frying' or 'frying oils' or 'dietary fats' and 'weight gain' or 'overweight' or 'obesity' or 'CHD' or 'CVD' or 'type 2 diabetes' or 'metabolic syndrome' were used in the primary search. Additional published reports were obtained through other sources. A total of twenty-three publications were included based on specific selection criteria. Based on the results of the studies included in the present systematic review, we conclude that (1) the myth that frying foods is generally associated with a higher risk of CVD is not supported by the available evidence; (2) virgin olive oil significantly reduces the risk of CVD clinical events, based on the results of a large randomised trial that included as part of the intervention the recommendation to use high amounts of virgin olive oil, also for frying foods; and (3) high consumption of fried foods is probably related to a higher risk of weight gain, though the type of oil may perhaps modify this association.

  16. Transesterification of waste vegetable oil under pulse sonication using ethanol, methanol and ethanol–methanol mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Pulse sonication effect on transesterification of waste vegetable oil was studied. • Effects of ethanol, methanol, and alcohol mixtures on FAMEs yield were evaluated. • Effect of ultrasonic intensity, power density, and its output rates were evaluated. • Alcohol mixtures resulted in higher biodiesel yields due to better solubility. - Abstract: This study reports on the effects of direct pulse sonication and the type of alcohol (methanol and ethanol) on the transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil without any external heating or mechanical mixing. Biodiesel yields and optimum process conditions for the transesterification reaction involving ethanol, methanol, and ethanol–methanol mixtures were evaluated. The effects of ultrasonic power densities (by varying sample volumes), power output rates (in W), and ultrasonic intensities (by varying the reactor size) were studied for transesterification reaction with ethanol, methanol and ethanol–methanol (50%-50%) mixtures. The optimum process conditions for ethanol or methanol based transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil were determined as: 9:1 alcohol to oil ratio, 1% wt. catalyst amount, 1–2 min reaction time at a power output rate between 75 and 150 W. It was shown that the transesterification reactions using ethanol–methanol mixtures resulted in biodiesel yields as high as >99% at lower power density and ultrasound intensity when compared to ethanol or methanol based transesterification reactions.

  17. A systematic review of high-oleic vegetable oil substitutions for other fats and oils on cardiovascular disease risk factors: implications for novel high-oleic soybean oils.

    PubMed

    Huth, Peter J; Fulgoni, Victor L; Larson, Brian T

    2015-11-01

    High-oleic acid soybean oil (H-OSBO) is a trait-enhanced vegetable oil containing >70% oleic acid. Developed as an alternative for trans-FA (TFA)-containing vegetable oils, H-OSBO is predicted to replace large amounts of soybean oil in the US diet. However, there is little evidence concerning the effects of H-OSBO on coronary heart disease (CHD)(6) risk factors and CHD risk. We examined and quantified the effects of substituting high-oleic acid (HO) oils for fats and oils rich in saturated FAs (SFAs), TFAs, or n-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) on blood lipids in controlled clinical trials. Searches of online databases through June 2014 were used to select studies that defined subject characteristics; described control and intervention diets; substituted HO oils compositionally similar to H-OSBO (i.e., ≥70% oleic acid) for equivalent amounts of oils high in SFAs, TFAs, or n-6 PUFAs for ≥3 wk; and reported changes in blood lipids. Studies that replaced saturated fats or oils with HO oils showed significant reductions in total cholesterol (TC), LDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (apoB) (P < 0.05; mean percentage of change: -8.0%, -10.9%, -7.9%, respectively), whereas most showed no changes in HDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), the ratio of TC to HDL cholesterol (TC:HDL cholesterol), and apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1). Replacing TFA-containing oil sources with HO oils showed significant reductions in TC, LDL cholesterol, apoB, TGs, TC:HDL cholesterol and increased HDL cholesterol and apoA-1 (mean percentage of change: -5.7%, -9.2%, -7.3%, -11.7%, -12.1%, 5.6%, 3.7%, respectively; P < 0.05). In most studies that replaced oils high in n-6 PUFAs with equivalent amounts of HO oils, TC, LDL cholesterol, TGs, HDL cholesterol, apoA-1, and TC:HDL cholesterol did not change. These findings suggest that replacing fats and oils high in SFAs or TFAs with either H-OSBO or oils high in n-6 PUFAs would have favorable and comparable effects on plasma lipid risk factors and

  18. Effect of four different vegetable oils (red palm olein, palm olein, corn oil, coconut oil) on antioxidant enzymes activity of rat liver.

    PubMed

    Dauqan, Eqbal; Sani, Halimah Abdullah; Abdullah, Aminah; Kasim, Zalifah Mohd

    2011-03-15

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of four different vegetable oils [red palm olein (RPO), palm olein (PO), corn oil (CO), coconut oil (COC)] on antioxidant enzymes activity of rat liver. Sixty six Sprague Dawley male rats which were randomly divided into eleven groups of 6 rats per group and were treated with 15% of RPO, PO, CO and COC for 4 and 8 weeks. Rats in the control group were given normal rat pellet only while in treated groups, 15% of additional different vegetable oils were given. After 4 weeks of treatment the catalase (CAT) activity results showed that there was no significance difference (p > or = 0.05) between the control group and treated groups while after 8 weeks of treatment showed that there was no significant different (p > or = 0.05) between control group and RPO group but the treated rat liver with PO, CO and COC groups were the lowest and it were significantly lower (> or = 0.05) than control group. For superoxide dismutase (SOD) there was no significance difference (p > or = 0.05) between the control group and treated groups of vegetable oils after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment. Thus the study indicated that there was no significant (p > or = 0.05) effect on antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase) but there was significant effect (p > or = 0.05) on catalase in rat liver. PMID:21902064

  19. Deep drawing of 304 L Steel Sheet using Vegetable oils as Forming Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shashidhara, Y. M.; Jayaram, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    The study involves the evaluation of deep drawing process using two non edible oils, Pongam (Pongammia pinnata) and Jatropha (Jatropha carcass) as metal forming lubricants. Experiments are conducted on 304L steel sheets under the raw and modified oils with suitable punch and die on a hydraulic press of 200 ton capacity. The punch load, draw-in-length and wall thickness distribution for deep drawn cups are observed. The drawn cups are scanned using laser scanning technique and 3D models are generated using modeling package. The wall thickness profiles of cups at different sections (or height) are measured using CAD package. Among the two raw oils, the drawn cups under Jatropha oil, have uniform wall thickness profile compared to Pongam oil. Uneven flow of material and cup rupturing is observed under methyl esters of Pongam and Jatropha oil lubricated conditions. However, the results are observed under epoxidised Jatropha oil with uniform metal flow and wall thicknesses compared to mineral and other versions of vegetable oils.

  20. Enzymatic interesterification of tripalmitin with vegetable oil blends for formulation of caprine milk infant formula analogs.

    PubMed

    Maduko, C O; Akoh, C C; Park, Y W

    2007-02-01

    The structure of triacylglycerols in vegetable oil blends was enzymatically modified, and the blends were incorporated into skim caprine milk to produce goat milk-based infant formula analogs, homologous to human milk. A modified lipid containing palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids, resembling the composition of human milk fat, was synthesized by enzymatic interesterification reactions between tripalmitin and a vegetable oil blend containing a 2.5:1.1:0.8 ratio of coconut, safflower, and soybean oils. A commercial sn-1,3-specific lipase obtained from Rhyzomucor miehei, Lipozyme RM IM, was used as the biocatalyst. The effects of substrate molar ratio and reaction time on the incorporation of palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acids at the sn-2 position of the triacylglycerols were investigated. The fatty acid composition and sn-2 position of the experimental formulas were analyzed using gas chromatography. Results showed that the highest incorporation of palmitic acid was obtained at 12 h of incubation at 55 degrees C with a substrate molar ratio of 1:0.4 of tripalmitin to vegetable oil blend. However, the modified milk interesterified for 12 h at a 1:1 molar ratio had a greater resemblance to human milk compared with the other formulas. The level of oleic acid incorporation at the sn-2 position increased with the molar ratio of tripalmitin to vegetable oil blend. It was concluded that, unlike the original goat milk and other formulas, the formulated caprine milk with a molar ratio of 1:1 and a 12-h incubation was similar to the fatty acid composition of human milk. PMID:17235135

  1. [Rapid discriminating hogwash oil and edible vegetable oil using near infrared optical fiber spectrometer technique].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing-Fang; Yuan, Li-Bo; Kong, Qing-Ming; Shen, Wei-Zheng; Zhang, Bing-Xiu; Liu, Cheng-Hai

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, a new method using near infrared spectroscopy combined with optical fiber sensing technology was applied to the analysis of hogwash oil in blended oil. The 50 samples were a blend of frying oil and "nine three" soybean oil according to a certain volume ratio. The near infrared transmission spectroscopies were collected and the quantitative analysis model of frying oil was established by partial least squares (PLS) and BP artificial neural network The coefficients of determina- tion of calibration sets were 0.908 and 0.934 respectively. The coefficients of determination of validation sets were 0.961 and 0.952, the root mean square error of calibrations (RMSEC) was 0.184 and 0.136, and the root mean square error of predictions (RMSEP) was all 0.111 6. They conform to the model application requirement. At the same time, frying oil and qualified edible oil were identified with the principal component analysis (PCA), and the accurate rate was 100%. The experiment proved that near infrared spectral technology not only can quickly and accurately identify hogwash oil, but also can quantitatively detect hog- wash oil. This method has a wide application prospect in the detection of oil.

  2. Plasticizer contamination in edible vegetable oil in a U.S. retail market.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xiaolong; Pan, Xiaojun; Yuan, Shoujun; Wang, Qiquan

    2013-10-01

    With the wide application of plastics, the contamination of plasticizers migrating from plastic materials in the environment is becoming ubiquitous. The presence of phthalates, the major group of plasticizers, in edible items has gained increasingly more concern due to their endocrine disrupting property. In this study, 15 plasticizers in 21 edible vegetable oils purchased from a U.S. retail market were analyzed using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were detected in all oil samples. Benzylbutyl phthalate (BzBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and diethyl phthalate (DEP) were detected at a rate of 95.2, 90.5, and 90.5%, respectively. The detection rates for all other plasticizers ranged from 0 to 57.1%. The content of total plasticizers in oil samples was determined to be 210-7558 μg/kg, which was comparable to the content range in oil marketed in Italy. Although no significant difference (p = 0.05) in the total content of plasticizer was observed among oil species (soybean, canola, corn, and olive), the wider range and higher average of total content of plasticizers in olive oil than other oil species indicated the inconsistence of plasticizer contamination in olive oil and a possible priority for quality monitoring. No significant difference (p = 0.05) in the total content of plasticizers was found among glass-bottle (n = 4), plastic-bottle (n = 14), and metal-can (n = 3) packaging, implying that oil packaging is not the major cause of plasticizer contamination. The daily intake amount of plasticizers contained in edible oil on this U.S. retail market constituted only a minimum percentage of reference dose established by US EPA, thus no obvious toxicological effect might be caused. However, the fact that DEHP content in two olive oils exceeded relevant special migration limits (SMLs) of Europe and China might need attention. PMID:24016262

  3. Plasticizer contamination in edible vegetable oil in a U.S. retail market.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xiaolong; Pan, Xiaojun; Yuan, Shoujun; Wang, Qiquan

    2013-10-01

    With the wide application of plastics, the contamination of plasticizers migrating from plastic materials in the environment is becoming ubiquitous. The presence of phthalates, the major group of plasticizers, in edible items has gained increasingly more concern due to their endocrine disrupting property. In this study, 15 plasticizers in 21 edible vegetable oils purchased from a U.S. retail market were analyzed using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were detected in all oil samples. Benzylbutyl phthalate (BzBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and diethyl phthalate (DEP) were detected at a rate of 95.2, 90.5, and 90.5%, respectively. The detection rates for all other plasticizers ranged from 0 to 57.1%. The content of total plasticizers in oil samples was determined to be 210-7558 μg/kg, which was comparable to the content range in oil marketed in Italy. Although no significant difference (p = 0.05) in the total content of plasticizer was observed among oil species (soybean, canola, corn, and olive), the wider range and higher average of total content of plasticizers in olive oil than other oil species indicated the inconsistence of plasticizer contamination in olive oil and a possible priority for quality monitoring. No significant difference (p = 0.05) in the total content of plasticizers was found among glass-bottle (n = 4), plastic-bottle (n = 14), and metal-can (n = 3) packaging, implying that oil packaging is not the major cause of plasticizer contamination. The daily intake amount of plasticizers contained in edible oil on this U.S. retail market constituted only a minimum percentage of reference dose established by US EPA, thus no obvious toxicological effect might be caused. However, the fact that DEHP content in two olive oils exceeded relevant special migration limits (SMLs) of Europe and China might need attention.

  4. [Determination of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls in vegetable oils by double clean-up-gas chromatography].

    PubMed

    Ding, Liping; Cai, Chunping; Wang, Danhong

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the residues of seven indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in vegetable oils, a method was established for the determination of trace PCBs in vegetable oils by double clean-up coupled with gas chromatography (GC). After extracted with acetonitrile, the sample extract was concentrated to dryness followed by re-dissolving with hexane. And the solution was pretreated by adding concentrated sulfuric acid followed cleaned-up with silica gel in dispersive solid-phase extraction protocol, then analyzed by GC with external standard meth- od. Under the optimized chromatographic conditions, the analysis was carried out with a capillary column (HP-5, 30 m x 0.32 mm x 0.25 μm) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min, and the sample volume was 1.00 μL. Monitoring with an electron-capture detector, all the target analytes were separated by temperature-programming of the column. Good linearities were obtained in the range of 10-500 μg/L for the seven indicator PCBs with the correlation coefficients greater than 0. 999. For different matrices, the limits of detection (S/N = 3) and limits of quantitation (S/N = 10) were in the range of 1.8-8.9 pg/kg and 5.9-29.8 μg/kg, respectively. At three spiked levels of 10, 20 and 100 μg/kg of the seven indicator PCBs in olive oil, palm oil and peanut oil blank samples, the average recoveries ranged from 71.0% to 105.5% with the RSDs of 4.0%-11.3%. The method is simple, rapid and accurate, and can be used for the routine analysis of the indicator PCBs in vegetable oils.

  5. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.

    2016-06-14

    Methods and systems for making dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids using metathesis are generally disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin ester with an internal olefin ester in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In some embodiments, the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester are derived from a renewable feedstock, such as a natural oil feedstock. In some such embodiments, the natural oil feedstock, or a transesterified derivative thereof, is metathesized to make the terminal olefin ester or the internal olefin ester.

  6. The use of waterworks sludge for the treatment of vegetable oil refinery industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Basibuyuk, M; Kalat, D G

    2004-03-01

    Water treatment works using coagulation/flocculation in the process stream will generate a waste sludge. This sludge is termed as ferric, alum, or lime sludge based on which coagulant was primarily used. The works in Adana, Turkey uses ferric chloride. The potential for using this sludge for the treatment of vegetable oil refinery industry wastewater by coagulation has been investigated. The sludge acted as a coagulant and excellent oil and grease, COD and TSS removal efficiencies were obtained. The optimum conditions were a pH of 6 and a sludge dose of 1100 mg SS l(-1). The efficiency of sludge was also compared with alum and ferric chloride for the vegetable oil refinery wastewater. At doses of 1300-1900 mg SS l(-1), the sludge was as effective as ferric chloride and alum at removing oil and grease, COD, and TSS. In addition, various combinations of ferric chloride and waterworks sludge were also examined. Under the condition of 12.5 mg l(-1) fresh ferric chloride and 1000 mg SS l(-1) sludge dose, 99% oil and grease 99% TSS and 83% COD removal efficiencies were obtained. PMID:15176752

  7. Characterization of vegetable oils for use as fuels in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T.W. III.; Callahan, T.J.; Dodge, L.G.

    1982-01-01

    The current specifications for petroleum fuels have evolved over the history of the petroleum industry and the development of the internal combustion engine. Present day fuel specifications are based on a wealth of empirical data and practical experience. A similar data base is only now being developed for the specification of vegetable oil fuels for diesel engines. Four different types of vegetable oil (soy, sunflower, cottonseed and peanut) have been obtained, each in at least three different stages of processing. All of the oils (14) have been characterized with respect to their physical and chemical properties. The spray characteristics of five of the oils have been determined at a variety of fuel temperatures using a high-pressure, high-temperature injection bomb and high-speed motion picture camera. These same oils have been tested in a direct injection farm tractor engine. The engine data consists of the normal performance measurements as well as the determination of heat release rates from cylinder pressure data. 3 figures, 7 tables.

  8. Conversion of vegetable oils and animal fats into paraffinic cetane enhancers for diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, A.; Feng, Y.; Hogan, E.

    1995-11-01

    The two principal methods of producing biodiesel fuels are (a) transesterification of vegetable oils and animal fats with a monohydric alcohol, and (b) direct hydrotreating of tree oils, vegetable oils and animal fats. The patented hydrotreating technology is based on the catalytic processing of biomass oils and fats with hydrogen, under elevated temperature and pressure conditions. The typical mix of hydrotreated products is as follows: 5-15% light distillate (naphta), 40-60% middle distillate (cetane), 5-15% heavy distillate and 5-10% burner gas. The naptha fraction may be used as a gasoline supplement. The middle distillate is designed for use as a cetane booster for diesel fuels. Both heavy distillate and light hydrocarbon gases are usable as power boiler fuels. Typically, the cetane enhancer would be admixed with diesel fuel in the range of 5 to 30% by volume. This new diesel blend meets the essential quality characteristics of the basic diesel fuel, for direct use in diesel engines without any modifications. The basic hydrotreatment technology has been evaluated further in the laboratory on degummed soya oil, yellow grease and animal tallow. The preliminary findings suggest that the technology can provide efficient conversion of these materials into cetane enhancers for diesel fuels.

  9. The use of waterworks sludge for the treatment of vegetable oil refinery industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Basibuyuk, M; Kalat, D G

    2004-03-01

    Water treatment works using coagulation/flocculation in the process stream will generate a waste sludge. This sludge is termed as ferric, alum, or lime sludge based on which coagulant was primarily used. The works in Adana, Turkey uses ferric chloride. The potential for using this sludge for the treatment of vegetable oil refinery industry wastewater by coagulation has been investigated. The sludge acted as a coagulant and excellent oil and grease, COD and TSS removal efficiencies were obtained. The optimum conditions were a pH of 6 and a sludge dose of 1100 mg SS l(-1). The efficiency of sludge was also compared with alum and ferric chloride for the vegetable oil refinery wastewater. At doses of 1300-1900 mg SS l(-1), the sludge was as effective as ferric chloride and alum at removing oil and grease, COD, and TSS. In addition, various combinations of ferric chloride and waterworks sludge were also examined. Under the condition of 12.5 mg l(-1) fresh ferric chloride and 1000 mg SS l(-1) sludge dose, 99% oil and grease 99% TSS and 83% COD removal efficiencies were obtained.

  10. Biodiesel: The use of vegetable oils and their derivatives as alternative diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Knothe, G.; Bagby, M.O.

    1996-10-01

    Vegetable oils and their derivatives (especially methyl esters), commonly referred to as {open_quotes}biodiesel{close_quotes}, are prominent candidates as alternative diesel fuels. They have advanced from being purely experimental fuels to initial stages of commercialization. They are technically competitive with or offer technical advantages compared to conventional diesel fuel. Besides being a renewable resource, biodiesel reduces most emissions while engine performance and fuel economy are nearly identical compared to conventional fuels. Several problems, however, remain, which include economics, combustion, some emissions, lube oil contamination, and low-temperature properties. An overview on all the mentioned aspects of biodiesel will be presented.

  11. Effect of some Turkish vegetable oil-diesel fuel blends on exhaust emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Ergeneman, M.; Oezaktas, T.; Cigizoglu, K.B.; Karaosmanoglu, F.; Arslan, E.

    1997-10-01

    For different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin (sunflower, corn, soybean, and olive oil) were blended with grade No. 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20/80 (v/v). The effect of the compression ratio on exhaust emissions is investigated in an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine working with the mentioned fuel blends and a baseline diesel fuel. A decrease in soot, CO, CO{sub 2}, and HC emissions and an increase in NO{sub x} emissions have been observed for fuel blends compared to diesel fuel.

  12. A vegetable oil-based organogel for use in pH-mediated drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Khuphe, Mthulisi; Mukonoweshuro, Blessing; Kazlauciunas, Algy; Thornton, Paul D

    2015-12-21

    Organogels prepared with vegetable oils as the liquid organic phase present an excellent platform for the controlled delivery of hydrophobic guest molecules. We disclose a graft copolymer comprised of a poly(L-serine) backbone linked to alkane side-chains by hydrolytically susceptible ester bonds, that is capable of gelating edible safflower oil. The thermoresponsive organogel formed, which is non-cytotoxic, is capable of withholding guest molecules before undergoing targeted disassembly upon incubation in solutions of acidic pH, permitting the directed release of payload molecules. The presented material offers an extremely promising candidate for the controlled delivery of hydrophobic agents within acidic environments, such as cancer tumour sites.

  13. A novel approach to the rapid assignment of (13)C NMR spectra of major components of vegetable oils such as avocado, mango kernel and macadamia nut oils.

    PubMed

    Retief, Liezel; McKenzie, Jean M; Koch, Klaus R

    2009-09-01

    Assignment of (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of major fatty acid components of South African produced vegetable oils was attempted using a method in which the vegetable oil was spiked with a standard triacylglycerol. This proved to be inadequate and therefore a new rapid and potentially generic graphical linear correlation method is proposed for assignment of the (13)C NMR spectra of major fatty acid components of apricot kernel, avocado pear, grapeseed, macadamia nut, mango kernel and marula vegetable oils. In this graphical correlation method, chemical shifts of fatty acids present in a known standard triacylglycerol is plotted against the corresponding chemical shifts of fatty acids present in the vegetable oils. This new approach (under carefully defined conditions and concentrations) was found especially useful for spectrally crowded regions where significant peak overlap occurs and was validated with the well-known (13)C NMR spectrum of olive oil which has been extensively reported in the literature. In this way, a full assignment of the (13)C{1H} NMR spectra of the vegetable oils, as well as tripalmitolein was readily achieved and the resonances belonging to the palmitoleic acid component of the triacylglycerols in the case of macadamia nut and avocado pear oil resonances were also assigned for the first time in the (13)C NMR spectra of these oils.

  14. A novel approach to the rapid assignment of (13)C NMR spectra of major components of vegetable oils such as avocado, mango kernel and macadamia nut oils.

    PubMed

    Retief, Liezel; McKenzie, Jean M; Koch, Klaus R

    2009-09-01

    Assignment of (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of major fatty acid components of South African produced vegetable oils was attempted using a method in which the vegetable oil was spiked with a standard triacylglycerol. This proved to be inadequate and therefore a new rapid and potentially generic graphical linear correlation method is proposed for assignment of the (13)C NMR spectra of major fatty acid components of apricot kernel, avocado pear, grapeseed, macadamia nut, mango kernel and marula vegetable oils. In this graphical correlation method, chemical shifts of fatty acids present in a known standard triacylglycerol is plotted against the corresponding chemical shifts of fatty acids present in the vegetable oils. This new approach (under carefully defined conditions and concentrations) was found especially useful for spectrally crowded regions where significant peak overlap occurs and was validated with the well-known (13)C NMR spectrum of olive oil which has been extensively reported in the literature. In this way, a full assignment of the (13)C{1H} NMR spectra of the vegetable oils, as well as tripalmitolein was readily achieved and the resonances belonging to the palmitoleic acid component of the triacylglycerols in the case of macadamia nut and avocado pear oil resonances were also assigned for the first time in the (13)C NMR spectra of these oils. PMID:19544589

  15. Phase-transfer catalysis and ultrasonic waves II: saponification of vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Entezari, M H; Keshavarzi, A

    2001-07-01

    Saponification of oils which is a commercially important heterogeneous reaction, can be speeded up by the application of ultrasound in the presence of phase-transfer catalyst (PTC). This paper focuses on the ability of ultrasound to cause efficient mixing of this liquid-liquid heterogeneous reaction. Castor oil was taken as a model oil and the kinetic of the reaction was followed by the extent of saponification. The hydrolysis of castor oil was carried out with different PTC such as cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), benzyl triethyl ammonium chloride (BTAC) and tetrabutyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) in aqueous alkaline solution. As hydroxyl anion moves very slowly from aqueous to oil phase, the presence of a PTC is of prime importance. For this purpose, cationic surfactants are selected. The sonication of biphasic system were performed by 20 kHz (simple horn and cup horn) and 900 kHz. It was found that CTAB was better than the two others and this could be related to the molecular structure of the PTCs. The effect of temperature was also studied on the saponification process. By increasing the temperature, the yield was also increased and this could be explained by intermolecular forces, interfacial tension and mass transfer. Saponification of three different vegetable oils shows that the almond oil is saponified easier than the two others and this could be related to their properties such as surface tension, viscosity and density.

  16. Volatile Organic Compound Observations near Oil Sands Mining, Upgrading and Refining Facilities in Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, I. J.; Marrero, J.; Meinardi, S.; Barletta, B.; Krogh, E.; Blake, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    The oil sands of Alberta are the world's third-largest proven oil reserve. Even though the expansion of the oil sands industry has led to concerns about its impact on air quality, water quality and human health, emissions from the oil sands industry are very poorly characterized in the literature. During 2008-2012 our group collected 398 whole air samples downwind of (1) oil sands surface mining and upgrading facilities north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, and (2) chemical, petrochemical, and oil and gas facilities in the "Industrial Heartland" region of Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta. These high-precision measurements were made primarily in July 2008, August 2010, and July 2012 using canister sampling followed by multi-column gas chromatography analysis for 80 speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), with ppt-level detection limits. Strong VOC enhancements were measured downwind of upgrading operations near Fort McMurray, especially alkanes, aromatics and solvents. For example, maximum concentrations of 2,3-dimethylbutane, p-xylene and n-octane were 800-2400× the local background value (LBV), and the industrial solvent trichloroethene was up to 260× the LBV. We measured only small VOC enhancements at sites of naturally exposed oil sands, confirming that degraded air quality results from industrial activity rather than emission from natural sources. Remarkably strong VOC enhancements were detected in the Industrial Heartland, which is the largest hydrocarbon processing region in Canada. Some of the largest VOC excesses were measured in samples designated as "no smell", showing that absence of odor is not necessarily an indicator of good air quality. The maximum concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether and ethylbenzene were 6200× the LBV, and concentrations of 1,3-butadiene, a known carcinogen, were 2400× the LBV. Thirty VOCs were present at levels above 1 ppbv, and maximum propene and i-pentane levels exceeded 100 ppbv. Remarkably, the maximum propene

  17. Biodiesel and electrical power production through vegetable oil extraction and byproducts gasification: modeling of the system.

    PubMed

    Allesina, Giulio; Pedrazzi, Simone; Tebianian, Sina; Tartarini, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    Aim of this work is to introduce an alternative to the standard biodiesel production chain, presenting an innovative in situ system. It is based on the chemical conversion of vegetable oil from oleaginous crops in synergy with the gasification of the protein cake disposed by the seed press. The syngas from the gasifier is here used to produce electrical power while part of it is converted into methanol. The methanol is finally used to transform the vegetable oil into biodiesel. Through a coupled use of ASPEN PLUS(TM) and MATLAB(TM) codes, a rapeseed, soy and sunflower rotation, with a duration of three year, was simulated considering 15ha of soil. This surface resulted sufficient to feed a 7kWel power plant. Simulation outputs proven the system to be self-sustainable. In addition, economical NPV of the investment is presented. Finally the environmental, economical and social advantages related to this approach are discussed.

  18. Application of metal-organic frameworks for purification of vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Vlasova, E A; Yakimov, S A; Naidenko, E V; Kudrik, E V; Makarov, S V

    2016-01-01

    Reported here is the synthesis of aluminum-, zinc- and titanium-containing metal-organic frameworks based on terephthalic acid and an investigation on the possibility of using these compounds as adsorbents for the purification of unrefined vegetable oils. It is found that aluminum-, zinc- and titanium-containing metal-organic frameworks improve the physicochemical properties of unrefined vegetable oils (more pleasant taste and odor) due to the binding of free fatty acids and peroxide compounds. It is established that the synthesized materials are more effective in these respects as compared with traditional adsorbents. An adsorption mechanism of free fatty acids and peroxides is proposed. Last but not least, the used MOF can be easily recycled at least five times, via solvent washing.

  19. Prediction of liquid-liquid equilibrium for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Batista, E.; Monnerat, S.; Stragevitch, L.; Pina, C.G.; Goncalves, C.B.; Meirelles, A.J.A.

    1999-12-01

    Group interaction parameters for the UNIFAC and ASOG models were specially adjusted for predicting liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol at temperatures ranging from 20 to 45 C. Experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium data for systems of triolein, oleic acid, and ethanol and of triolein, stearic acid, and ethanol were measured and utilized in the adjustment. The average percent deviation between experimental and calculated compositions was 0.79% and 0.52% for the UNIFAC and ASOG models, respectively. The prediction of liquid-liquid equilibrium for systems of vegetable oils, fatty acids, and ethanol was quite successful, with an average deviation of 1.31% and 1.32% for the UNIFAC and ASOG models, respectively.

  20. Biodiesel and electrical power production through vegetable oil extraction and byproducts gasification: modeling of the system.

    PubMed

    Allesina, Giulio; Pedrazzi, Simone; Tebianian, Sina; Tartarini, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    Aim of this work is to introduce an alternative to the standard biodiesel production chain, presenting an innovative in situ system. It is based on the chemical conversion of vegetable oil from oleaginous crops in synergy with the gasification of the protein cake disposed by the seed press. The syngas from the gasifier is here used to produce electrical power while part of it is converted into methanol. The methanol is finally used to transform the vegetable oil into biodiesel. Through a coupled use of ASPEN PLUS(TM) and MATLAB(TM) codes, a rapeseed, soy and sunflower rotation, with a duration of three year, was simulated considering 15ha of soil. This surface resulted sufficient to feed a 7kWel power plant. Simulation outputs proven the system to be self-sustainable. In addition, economical NPV of the investment is presented. Finally the environmental, economical and social advantages related to this approach are discussed. PMID:25151071

  1. Desulfurization of coal with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. Technical progress report, March 1--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, R.; Cheng, J.; Shi, Feng; Gholson, K.L.

    1995-12-31

    This project proposes a new method for removing organic sulfur from Illinois coals using readily available farm products. It proposes to use air and vegetable oils to disrupt the coal matrix, oxidize sulfur forms, increase volatiles, and desulfurize coal. This will be accomplished by impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover, the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of solid products. Preliminary experiments showed that IBC 104 coal catalyzes the formation of hydroperoxides in safflower oil and that more sulfur is extracted from the treated than untreated coal. During the first quarter the requirement of an added photosensitizer was eliminated, the catalytic effect of coal was confirmed, and the existence of a complex set of reactions was revealed. During the second quarter, working with IBC-108 coal (2.3% organic S, 0.4% pyrite S), the effects of different extraction solvents were examined. A new pretreatment which combines alkali with linseed oil was discovered. Best organic sulfur removal is approximately 26% using alkali pretreatment combined with linseed oil at 100[degrees]C. BTU loses can be kept to a minimum of 3% with proper use of solvents. During this third quarter the effects of different ratios of oil:coal, different temperatures, and different reaction times were completely examined. The effects of alkali on sulfur removal were further investigated. Best organic sulfur removal reaches 34% using ammonia pretreatment, then oil and finally aqNA2CO3 extraction.

  2. Effect of amount and source of supplemental dietary vegetable oil on broiler chickens exposed to aflatoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Raju, M V L N; Rama Rao, S V; Radhika, K; Panda, A K

    2005-10-01

    1. Addition of sunflower oil (SFO) at 30 or 60 g/kg or three vegetable oils, namely SFO, soybean (SBO) or groundnut (GNO), at 30 g/kg to isocaloric and isonitrogenous broiler chicken diets were evaluated for possible counteractive effects against aflatoxin (AF) (0.3 microg B1/g diet) from 0 to 42 d of age. 2. Body weight, food intake and serum concentration of protein were lower in the AF group than in the control, whereas in the SFO and SBO supplemented groups they were comparable with those of the control. Sunflower oil at both concentrations exerted similar effects on growth. Groundnut oil did not improve growth or food intake in AF-fed birds. 3. The serum concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides decreased with AF feeding and was increased by supplementation of any of the three oils both in the control and in AF-fed groups. 4. Liver and giblet weight and liver fat content were increased by AF; these effects were countered by dietary oil inclusion, except for liver weight at 60 g/kg SFO. Weights of pancreas and gall bladder were increased by AF. Oil supplementation reduced the weight of pancreas in chickens given AF. 5. Humoral immune response was depressed by AF and dietary oil supplementation (particularly SFO or SBO) countered this effect. Other variables, namely, serum gamma glutamyl transferase activity, bone mineralisation, weights of lymphoid organs, kidney and adrenals, ready-to-cook yields and fat content in muscle and skin showed little or no effect of dietary oil supplementation. 6. It is concluded that dietary inclusion of SFO or SBO at 30 g/kg may alleviate the adverse effects of 0.3 microg/g of AF B1 in commercial broiler chickens. Groundnut oil, although showing beneficial effects on some biochemical variables, failed to improve growth performance.

  3. Technological Aspects of Chemoenzymatic Epoxidation of Fatty Acids, Fatty Acid Esters and Vegetable Oils: A Review.

    PubMed

    Milchert, Eugeniusz; Malarczyk, Kornelia; Kłos, Marlena

    2015-12-02

    The general subject of the review is analysis of the effect of technological parameters on the chemoenzymatic epoxidation processes of vegetable oils, fatty acids and alkyl esters of fatty acids. The technological parameters considered include temperature, concentration, amount of hydrogen peroxide relative to the number of unsaturated bonds, the amounts of enzyme catalysts, presence of solvent and amount of free fatty acids. Also chemical reactions accompanying the technological processes are discussed together with different technological options and significance of the products obtained.

  4. Microemulsions from vegetable oil and aqueous alcohol with trialkylamine surfactant as alternative fuel for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, A.W.; Pryde, E.H.

    1984-05-29

    Hybrid fuel microemulsions are prepared from vegetable oil, a C/sub 1/-C/sub 3/ alcohol, water, and a surfactant comprising a lower trialkylamine. For enhanced water tolerance by the fuel, the amine is reacted with a longchain fatty acid for conversion to the corresponding trialkylammonium soap. Optionally, 1-butanol is incorporated into the system as a cosurfactant for the purpose of lowering both the viscosity and the solidification temperature.

  5. Estimates of future regional heavy oil production at three production rates--background information for assessing effects in the US refining industry

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.

    1993-07-01

    This report is one of a series of publications from a project considering the feasibility of increasing domestic heavy oil (10{degree} to 20{degree} API gravity inclusive) production being conducted for the US Department of Energy. The report includes projections of future heavy oil production at three production levels: 900,000; 500,000; and 300,000 BOPD above the current 1992 heavy oil production level of 750,000 BOPD. These free market scenario projections include time frames and locations. Production projections through a second scenario were developed to examine which heavy oil areas would be developed if significant changes in the US petroleum industry occurred. The production data helps to define the possible constraints (impact) of increased heavy oil production on the US refining industry (the subject of a future report). Constraints include a low oil price and low rate of return. Heavy oil has high production, transportation, and refining cost per barrel as compared to light oil. The resource is known, but the right mix of technology and investment is required to bring about significant expansion of heavy oil production in the US.

  6. Acrylate ester-based monolithic columns for capillary electrochromatography separation of triacylglycerols in vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Lerma-García, M J; Vergara-Barberán, M; Herrero-Martínez, J M; Simó-Alfonso, E F

    2011-10-21

    A simple and reliable method for the evaluation of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in vegetable oils by capillary electrochromatography (CEC) with UV-Vis detection, using octadecyl acrylate (ODA) ester-based monolithic columns, has been developed. The percentages of the porogenic solvents in the polymerization mixture, and the mobile phase composition, were optimized. The optimum monolith was obtained at the following ratios: 40:60% (wt/wt) monomers/porogens, 60:40% (wt/wt) ODA/1,3-butanediol diacrylate and 23:77% (wt/wt) 1,4-butanediol/1-propanol (14 wt% 1,4-butanediol in the polymerization mixture). A satisfactory resolution between TAGs was achieved in less than 12 min with a 65:35 (v/v) acetonitrile/2-propanol mixture containing 5 mM ammonium acetate. The method was applied to the analysis of TAGs of vegetable oil samples. Using linear discriminant analysis of the CEC TAG profiles, the vegetable oils belonging to six different botanical origins (corn, extra virgin olive, hazelnut, peanut, soybean and sunflower) were correctly classified with an excellent resolution among all the categories.

  7. Vegetable Oil-Loaded Nanocapsules: Innovative Alternative for Incorporating Drugs for Parenteral Administration.

    PubMed

    Venturinil, C G; Bruinsmann, A; Oliveira, C P; Contri, R V; Pohlmann, A R; Guterres, S S

    2016-02-01

    An innovative nanocapsule formulation for parenteral administration using selected vegetable oils (mango, jojoba, pequi, oat, annatto, calendula, and chamomile) was developed that has the potential to encapsulate various drugs. The vegetable oil-loaded nanocapsules were prepared by interfacial deposition and compared with capric/caprylic triglyceride-loaded lipid core nanocapsules. The major objective was to investigate the effect of vegetable oils on particle size distribution and physical stability and to determine the hemolytic potential of the nanocapsules, considering their applicability for intravenous administration. Taking into account the importance of accurately determining particle size for the selected route of administration, different size characterization techniques were employed, such as Laser Diffraction, Dynamic Light Scattering, Multiple Light Scattering, Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, and Transmission Electronic Microscopy. Laser diffraction studies indicated that the mean particle size of all nanocapsules was below 300 nm. For smaller particles, the laser diffraction and multiple light scattering data were in agreement (D[3,2]-130 nm). Dynamic light scattering and nanoparticle tracking analysis, two powerful techniques that complement each other, exhibited size values between 180 and 259 nm for all nanoparticles. Stability studies demonstrated a tendency of particle creaming for jojoba-nanocapsules and sedimentation for the other nanoparticles; however, no size variation occurred over 30 days. The hemolysis test proved the hemocompatibility of all nanosystems, irrespective of the type of oil. Although all developed nanocapsules presented the potential for parenteral administration, jojoba oil-loaded nanocapsules were selected as the most promising nanoformulation due to their low average size and high particle size homogeneity.

  8. Vegetable Oil-Loaded Nanocapsules: Innovative Alternative for Incorporating Drugs for Parenteral Administration.

    PubMed

    Venturinil, C G; Bruinsmann, A; Oliveira, C P; Contri, R V; Pohlmann, A R; Guterres, S S

    2016-02-01

    An innovative nanocapsule formulation for parenteral administration using selected vegetable oils (mango, jojoba, pequi, oat, annatto, calendula, and chamomile) was developed that has the potential to encapsulate various drugs. The vegetable oil-loaded nanocapsules were prepared by interfacial deposition and compared with capric/caprylic triglyceride-loaded lipid core nanocapsules. The major objective was to investigate the effect of vegetable oils on particle size distribution and physical stability and to determine the hemolytic potential of the nanocapsules, considering their applicability for intravenous administration. Taking into account the importance of accurately determining particle size for the selected route of administration, different size characterization techniques were employed, such as Laser Diffraction, Dynamic Light Scattering, Multiple Light Scattering, Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, and Transmission Electronic Microscopy. Laser diffraction studies indicated that the mean particle size of all nanocapsules was below 300 nm. For smaller particles, the laser diffraction and multiple light scattering data were in agreement (D[3,2]-130 nm). Dynamic light scattering and nanoparticle tracking analysis, two powerful techniques that complement each other, exhibited size values between 180 and 259 nm for all nanoparticles. Stability studies demonstrated a tendency of particle creaming for jojoba-nanocapsules and sedimentation for the other nanoparticles; however, no size variation occurred over 30 days. The hemolysis test proved the hemocompatibility of all nanosystems, irrespective of the type of oil. Although all developed nanocapsules presented the potential for parenteral administration, jojoba oil-loaded nanocapsules were selected as the most promising nanoformulation due to their low average size and high particle size homogeneity. PMID:27433581

  9. Function of ram spermatozoa frozen in diluents supplemented with casein and vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Del Valle, I; Souter, A; Maxwell, W M C; Muiño-Blanco, T; Cebrián-Pérez, J A

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess biologically safer components as alternatives to egg yolk for the frozen storage of ram semen using casein, coconut or palm oil in either Salamon's diluent (S) or a swim-up medium (SU). Ejaculates were frozen as pellets and sperm motility (subjectively) and acrosome integrity (FITC-PNA/PI) by flow cytometry were assessed at 0, 3 and 6h after thawing and incubation at 37°C. Three experiments were done: different concentrations of palm oil (5%, 10% and 20%); casein added as emulsifier and protective agent; and differences between egg yolk, coconut and palm oil in S and SU. 20% of oil added to SU accounted for a lesser percentage (P<0.05) of motile cells compared to rest while no differences were found between different oil levels on viable cells. When casein was added to diluents containing 5% of palm oil, no differences were found between palm or casein (P>0.05). No differences were found when S and SU were compared neither as groups nor between S alone and containing coconut or palm oil; however, SU alone yielded less motility than SU 5% coconut. However, in both groups, S and SU, egg yolk accounted for the greatest values in both bases. These results indicate that none of biologically safer media components (casein, palm or coconut oil) used in this study maintained the function of ram spermatozoa after freeze-thawing better than S-containing egg yolk. The application of vegetable oils as substitutes for egg yolk in diluents for the cryopreservation of ram spermatozoa requires further research. PMID:23561943

  10. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetable oils combining gel permeation chromatography with solid-phase extraction clean-up.

    PubMed

    Fromberg, A; Højgård, A; Duedahl-Olesen, L

    2007-07-01

    A semi-automatic method for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible oils using a combined gel permeation chromatography/solid-phase extraction (GPC/SPE) clean-up is presented. The method takes advantage of automatic injections using a Gilson ASPEC XL sample handling system equipped with a GPC column (S-X3) and pre-packed silica SPE columns for the subsequent clean-up and finally gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) determination. The method was validated for the determination of PAHs in vegetable oils and it can meet the criteria for the official control of benzo[a]pyrene levels in foods laid down by the Commission of the European Communities. A survey of 69 vegetable oils sampled from the Danish market included olive oil as well as other vegetable oils such as rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, grape seed oil and sesame oil. Levels of benzo[a]pyrene in all the oils were low (<0.2-0.8 microg kg(-1)), except for one sample of sunflower oil containing 11 microg kg(-1) benzo[a]pyrene. PMID:17613061

  11. Rapid determination of sterols in vegetable oils by CEC using methacrylate ester-based monolithic columns.

    PubMed

    Lerma-García, María Jesús; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo; Herrero-Martínez, José M

    2008-11-01

    A method for the determination of sterols in vegetable oils by CEC with UV-Vis detection, using methacrylate ester-based monolithic columns, has been developed. To prepare the columns, polymerization mixtures containing monomers of different hydrophobicities were tried. The influence of composition of polymerization mixture was optimized in terms of porogenic solvent, monomers/porogens and monomer/crosslinker ratios. The composition of the mobile phase was also studied. The optimum monolith was obtained with lauryl methacrylate monomer at 60:40% (wt:wt) lauryl methacrylate/ethylene dimethacrylate ratio and 60 wt% porogens with 20 wt% of 1,4-butanediol (12 wt% 1,4-butanediol in the polymerization mixture). Excellent resolution between sterols was achieved in less than 7 min with an 85:10:5 v/v/v ACN-2-propanol-water buffer containing 5 mM Tris at pH 8.0. The limits of detection were lower than 0.04 mM, and inter-day and column-to-column reproducibilities at 0.75 mM were better than 6.2%. The method was applied to the determination of sterols in vegetable oils with different botanical origins and to detect olive oil adulteration with sunflower and soybean oils.

  12. Biodiesel production from vegetable oil and waste animal fats in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Alptekin, Ertan; Canakci, Mustafa; Sanli, Huseyin

    2014-11-01

    In this study, corn oil as vegetable oil, chicken fat and fleshing oil as animal fats were used to produce methyl ester in a biodiesel pilot plant. The FFA level of the corn oil was below 1% while those of animal fats were too high to produce biodiesel via base catalyst. Therefore, it was needed to perform pretreatment reaction for the animal fats. For this aim, sulfuric acid was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol in the pretreatment reactions. After reducing the FFA level of the animal fats to less than 1%, the transesterification reaction was completed with alkaline catalyst. Due to low FFA content of corn oil, it was directly subjected to transesterification. Potassium hydroxide was used as catalyst and methanol was used as alcohol for transesterification reactions. The fuel properties of methyl esters produced in the biodiesel pilot plant were characterized and compared to EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 biodiesel standards. According to the results, ester yield values of animal fat methyl esters were slightly lower than that of the corn oil methyl ester (COME). The production cost of COME was higher than those of animal fat methyl esters due to being high cost biodiesel feedstock. The fuel properties of produced methyl esters were close to each other. Especially, the sulfur content and cold flow properties of the COME were lower than those of animal fat methyl esters. The measured fuel properties of all produced methyl esters met ASTM D6751 (S500) biodiesel fuel standards.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of vegetable oil derived esters: evaluation for their diesel additive properties.

    PubMed

    Dmytryshyn, S L; Dalai, A K; Chaudhari, S T; Mishra, H K; Reaney, M J

    2004-03-01

    Trans-esterification of four vegetable oils; canola oil, greenseed canola oil from heat-damaged seeds, processed waste fryer grease and unprocessed waste fryer grease, was carried out using methanol, and KOH as catalyst. The methyl esters of the corresponding oils were separated from the crude glycerol, purified, and characterized by various methods to evaluate their densities, viscosities, iodine values, acid numbers, cloud points, pour points and gross heat of combustion, fatty acid and lipid compositions, lubricity properties, and thermal properties. The fatty acid composition suggests that 80-85% of the ester was from unsaturated acids. Substantial decrease in density and viscosity of the methyl esters compared to their corresponding oils suggested that the oils were in their mono or di glyceride form. The lubricity of the methyl esters, when blended at 1 vol% treat rate with ISOPAR M reference fuel, showed that the canola methyl ester enhanced the fuel's lubricity number. From the analyses performed, it was determined that the ester with the most potential for being an additive or a substitute for diesel fuel is the canola methyl ester, whose physical and chemical characteristics are similar to diesel fuel.

  14. Fatty esters from vegetable oils for use as a diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, B.; Pryde, E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Transesterification of sunflower and soybean oils to fatty esters has been carried out to study reaction variables such as: (1) molar ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil, (2) alcohol type (methanol, ethanol, and 1-butanol), (3) catalyst type (alkaline and acidic), and (4) reaction temperature (60/sup 0/, 45/sup 0/, and 32/sup 0/C). These studies showed that ester formation was 90 to 98% complete at the respective molar ratios of methanol/sunflower oil of 4:1 and 6:1. All three alcohols produced high yields of esters. Alkaline catalysts were much more effective than acid catalysts. At both 45/sup 0/ and 60/sup 0/, 97% of methyl esters were produced in 1 hr. 5 figures.

  15. Manufacturing of vegetable oils-based epoxy and composites for structural applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rongpeng

    Epoxidized vegetable oil (EVO) is one of the largest industrial applications of vegetable oils (VOs) and is widely used as a plasticizer and as a synthetic intermediate for polyol or unsaturated polyester. However, the utility of EVO as monomer for high performance epoxy thermoset polymer is limited by its reactivity and by the resulting physical properties. Herein, VO-based epoxy monomers, i.e., glycidyl esters of epoxidized fatty acids derived from soybean oil (EGS) or linseed oil (EGL), have been synthesized and were benchmarked against commercial available diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and also epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) controls. EGS and EGL possessed higher oxirane content, more reactivity and lower viscosity than ESO or epoxidized linseed oil (ELO), provided better compatibility with DGEBA as a reactive diluent, and yielded thermally and mechanically stronger polymers than polymers obtained using ESO. Glass transition temperatures (T g) of the VO-based epoxy thermoset polymers were mostly a function of monomer oxirane content with some added structural influences of epoxy reactivity, and presence of a pendant chain. Organo-modified montmorillonite clay (OMMT) and long glass fiber reinforced composites (FRC) were efficiently manufactured using anhydride cured EGS as matrices. The OMMT nanocomposites showed higher mechanical and thermal strength than the neat polymers but were also dependent on the dispersion techniques and the clay concentration. Surprisingly, the neat EGS-anhydride matrix FRC showed comparable properties, such as flexural and impact strengths and slightly lower Tg, versus DGEBA based counterparts. These high performance monomers, polymers, and composites have potential to replace petroleum-based epoxy as value-added products from VOs compared to EVOs.

  16. Determination of trigonelline in seeds and vegetable oils by capillary electrophoresis as a novel marker for the detection of adulterations in olive oils.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Hernández, Laura; Puchalska, Patrycja; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Crego, Antonio L; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2010-07-14

    A capillary electrophoresis method with UV detection was developed for the first time for the determination of the pyridine betaine trigonelline (N-methylnicotinic acid) in seeds and vegetable oils. Analytical characteristics of the method showed its good performance in terms of linearity (r > 0.999), precision (relative standard deviations < 5%), and limits of detection (up to 0.9 microM or 1 ng/g for oils). The developed method was applied to the analysis of soy and sunflower seeds, three varieties of olives, and sunflower, soy, and extra virgin olive oils. Trigonelline was determined in soy and sunflower seeds and their respective oils, whereas it was not detected in olives or olive oils. Different mixtures of extra virgin olive oil with seed oils were analyzed, detecting up to 10% of soy oil in olive oil. As a consequence, trigonelline is proposed in this work as a novel marker for the detection of adulterations of olive oils with other vegetable oils such as soy and sunflower oils.

  17. Synthesis of Polyformate Esters of Vegetable Oils: Milkweed, Pennycress, and Soy

    PubMed Central

    Harry-O'kuru, Rogers E.; Biresaw, Girma; Tisserat, Brent; Evangelista, Roque

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study of the characteristics of acyl derivatives of polyhydroxy milkweed oil (PHMWO), it was observed that the densities and viscosities of the respective derivatives decreased with increased chain length of the substituent acyl group. Thus from the polyhydroxy starting material, attenuation in viscosity of the derivatives relative to PHMWO was found in the order: PHMWO ≫ PAcMWE ≫ PBuMWE ≫ PPMWE (2332 : 1733 : 926.2 : 489.4 cSt, resp., at 40°C), where PAcMWE, PBuMWE, and PPMWE were the polyacetyl, polybutyroyl, and polypentanoyl ester derivatives, respectively. In an analogous manner, the densities also decreased as the chain length increased although not as precipitously compared to the viscosity drop. By inference, derivatives of vegetable oils with short chain length substituents on the triglyceride would be attractive in lubricant applications in view of their higher densities and possibly higher viscosity indices. Pursuant to this, we have explored the syntheses of formyl esters of three vegetable oils in order to examine the optimal density, viscosity, and related physical characteristics in relation to their suitability as lubricant candidates. In the absence of ready availability of formic anhydride, we opted to employ the epoxidized vegetable oils as substrates for formyl ester generation using glacial formic acid. The epoxy ring-opening process was smooth but was apparently followed by a simultaneous condensation reaction of the putative α-hydroxy formyl intermediate to yield vicinal diformyl esters from the oxirane. All three polyformyl esters milkweed, soy, and pennycress derivatives exhibited low coefficient of friction and a correspondingly much lower wear scar in the 4-ball antiwear test compared to the longer chain acyl analogues earlier studied. PMID:26955488

  18. Synthesis of Polyformate Esters of Vegetable Oils: Milkweed, Pennycress, and Soy.

    PubMed

    Harry-O'kuru, Rogers E; Biresaw, Girma; Tisserat, Brent; Evangelista, Roque

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study of the characteristics of acyl derivatives of polyhydroxy milkweed oil (PHMWO), it was observed that the densities and viscosities of the respective derivatives decreased with increased chain length of the substituent acyl group. Thus from the polyhydroxy starting material, attenuation in viscosity of the derivatives relative to PHMWO was found in the order: PHMWO ≫ PAcMWE ≫ PBuMWE ≫ PPMWE (2332 : 1733 : 926.2 : 489.4 cSt, resp., at 40°C), where PAcMWE, PBuMWE, and PPMWE were the polyacetyl, polybutyroyl, and polypentanoyl ester derivatives, respectively. In an analogous manner, the densities also decreased as the chain length increased although not as precipitously compared to the viscosity drop. By inference, derivatives of vegetable oils with short chain length substituents on the triglyceride would be attractive in lubricant applications in view of their higher densities and possibly higher viscosity indices. Pursuant to this, we have explored the syntheses of formyl esters of three vegetable oils in order to examine the optimal density, viscosity, and related physical characteristics in relation to their suitability as lubricant candidates. In the absence of ready availability of formic anhydride, we opted to employ the epoxidized vegetable oils as substrates for formyl ester generation using glacial formic acid. The epoxy ring-opening process was smooth but was apparently followed by a simultaneous condensation reaction of the putative α-hydroxy formyl intermediate to yield vicinal diformyl esters from the oxirane. All three polyformyl esters milkweed, soy, and pennycress derivatives exhibited low coefficient of friction and a correspondingly much lower wear scar in the 4-ball antiwear test compared to the longer chain acyl analogues earlier studied.

  19. Synthesis of Polyformate Esters of Vegetable Oils: Milkweed, Pennycress, and Soy.

    PubMed

    Harry-O'kuru, Rogers E; Biresaw, Girma; Tisserat, Brent; Evangelista, Roque

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study of the characteristics of acyl derivatives of polyhydroxy milkweed oil (PHMWO), it was observed that the densities and viscosities of the respective derivatives decreased with increased chain length of the substituent acyl group. Thus from the polyhydroxy starting material, attenuation in viscosity of the derivatives relative to PHMWO was found in the order: PHMWO ≫ PAcMWE ≫ PBuMWE ≫ PPMWE (2332 : 1733 : 926.2 : 489.4 cSt, resp., at 40°C), where PAcMWE, PBuMWE, and PPMWE were the polyacetyl, polybutyroyl, and polypentanoyl ester derivatives, respectively. In an analogous manner, the densities also decreased as the chain length increased although not as precipitously compared to the viscosity drop. By inference, derivatives of vegetable oils with short chain length substituents on the triglyceride would be attractive in lubricant applications in view of their higher densities and possibly higher viscosity indices. Pursuant to this, we have explored the syntheses of formyl esters of three vegetable oils in order to examine the optimal density, viscosity, and related physical characteristics in relation to their suitability as lubricant candidates. In the absence of ready availability of formic anhydride, we opted to employ the epoxidized vegetable oils as substrates for formyl ester generation using glacial formic acid. The epoxy ring-opening process was smooth but was apparently followed by a simultaneous condensation reaction of the putative α-hydroxy formyl intermediate to yield vicinal diformyl esters from the oxirane. All three polyformyl esters milkweed, soy, and pennycress derivatives exhibited low coefficient of friction and a correspondingly much lower wear scar in the 4-ball antiwear test compared to the longer chain acyl analogues earlier studied. PMID:26955488

  20. Survey of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of vegetable oils and oilseeds by GC-MS in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Long-Kai; Zhang, Dong-Dong; Liu, Yu-Lan

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of information regarding the occurrence and content of contamination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in edible vegetable oils and oilseeds used for oil production in China. By combining the advantages of ultrasound-assisted extraction, low temperature separation and silica SPE purification, a method for the determination of the USEPA, 16 PAHs was developed based on GC-MS to fill this gap. The method recoveries for oils and oilseeds were 84.4-113.8% and 84.3-115.3%, respectively. The LODs and LOQs for 16 PAHs were ranged from 0.06-0.17 and 0.19-0.56 μg kg(-1), respectively. Based on the established method, PAH concentrations in 21 edible oils and 17 oilseeds were determined. Almost all the PAHs were found in all the samples tested, especially the light PAHs (LPAHs). Three oil samples exceeded the maximum level of 10 μg kg(-1) for BaP set by China. However, five and six oil samples, respectively, exceeded the maximum limits of 2 and 10 μg kg(-1) set for BaP and PAH4 by the European Union. The concentrations of PAH16 in oilseed samples were 1.5 times higher than corresponding oil samples. The relationships between PAH4 and PAH8, PAH4 and PAH16 as well as PAH8 and PAH16 indicates that PAH4 is a sufficient surrogate for the contamination level of PAHs in edible oils when compared with PAH8.

  1. Survey of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of vegetable oils and oilseeds by GC-MS in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Long-Kai; Zhang, Dong-Dong; Liu, Yu-Lan

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of information regarding the occurrence and content of contamination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in edible vegetable oils and oilseeds used for oil production in China. By combining the advantages of ultrasound-assisted extraction, low temperature separation and silica SPE purification, a method for the determination of the USEPA, 16 PAHs was developed based on GC-MS to fill this gap. The method recoveries for oils and oilseeds were 84.4-113.8% and 84.3-115.3%, respectively. The LODs and LOQs for 16 PAHs were ranged from 0.06-0.17 and 0.19-0.56 μg kg(-1), respectively. Based on the established method, PAH concentrations in 21 edible oils and 17 oilseeds were determined. Almost all the PAHs were found in all the samples tested, especially the light PAHs (LPAHs). Three oil samples exceeded the maximum level of 10 μg kg(-1) for BaP set by China. However, five and six oil samples, respectively, exceeded the maximum limits of 2 and 10 μg kg(-1) set for BaP and PAH4 by the European Union. The concentrations of PAH16 in oilseed samples were 1.5 times higher than corresponding oil samples. The relationships between PAH4 and PAH8, PAH4 and PAH16 as well as PAH8 and PAH16 indicates that PAH4 is a sufficient surrogate for the contamination level of PAHs in edible oils when compared with PAH8. PMID:26836028

  2. Fatty Acid Composition as a Predictor for the Oxidation Stability of Korean Vegetable Oils with or without Induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jung-Mi; Surh, Jeonghee

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether the fatty acid composition could make a significant contribution to the oxidation stability of vegetable oils marketed in Korea. Ten kinds, 97 items of vegetable oils that were produced in either an industrialized or a traditional way were collected and analyzed for their fatty acid compositions and lipid oxidation products, in the absence or presence of oxidative stress. Peroxidability index (PI) calculations based on the fatty acid composition ranged from 7.10 to 111.87 with the lowest value found in olive oils and the highest in perilla oils. In the absence of induced oxidative stress, malondialdehyde (MDA), the secondary lipid oxidation product, was generated more in the oils with higher PI (r=0.890), while the tendency was not observed when the oils were subjected to an oxidation-accelerating system. In the presence of the oxidative stress, the perilla oils produced in an industrialized manner generated appreciably higher amounts of MDA than those produced in a traditional way, although both types of oils presented similar PIs. The results implicate that the fatty acid compositions could be a predictor for the oxidation stability of the vegetable oils at the early stage of oil oxidation, but not for those at a later stage of oxidation. PMID:24471078

  3. Physico-chemical properties of Tecoma stans Linn. seed oil: a new crop for vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Sbihi, Hassen Mohamed; Mokbli, Sadok; Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Tecoma stans Linn. is known to have various medicinal and therapeutic properties. However, to our knowledge, no information is available regarding their seed oils. In this study, the fatty acid (FA) compositions, physico-chemical properties and antioxidant capacities of T. stans seed oils (TSOs) were investigated. The oil content of the seeds was 15%. The FAs of the TSOs were analysed by GC-MS. α-Linolenic (45.47%), oleic (23.56%), linoleic (11.48%), palmitic (6.09%) and stearic (4.12%) acids were the major detected FAs. γ-Linolenic acid and stearidonic acid, unusually FAs, were also present (1.04% and 6.65%, respectively). The total tocol content in the TSOs was found to be 266.06 mg/100 g. The main component was γ-tocopherol (78.93%). The total phenolic content (168.69 mg GAE/100 g oil) and total flavonoid content (5.54 mg CE/g oil) were also determined in the TSOs.

  4. Preparation and Viscosity of Biodiesel from New and Used Vegetable Oil: An Inquiry-Based Environmental Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Nathan R.; Casey, John Patrick; Brown, Earlene D.; Oneyma, Ezenwa; Donaghy, Kelley J.

    2006-01-01

    A synthesis is developed to make biodiesel from vegetable oils such as soybean, sunflower, and corn oil, as an exercise in the laboratory. Viscosity measurements were used to gain an understanding of an intermolecular property of the biodiesel and that has limited the implementation of biodiesel on a wide scale basis, solidification at low…

  5. Fatty acid profile of cheese from dairy goats fed a diet enriched with castor, sesame and faveleira vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Ertha; Queiroga, Rita; Oliveira, Maria; Medeiros, Ariosvaldo; Sabedot, Mayara; Bomfim, Marco; Madruga, Marta

    2014-01-15

    The addition of vegetable oils to the diets of dairy goats is an alternative to supplemental feeding during the dry period and improves the lipid profile of milk and by-products. Cheeses were produced using milk from cross bred goats (Saanen×Alpina) fed diets enriched with 4% vegetable oil (faveleira, sesame or castor), the fatty acid profile of cheeses was studied. Supplementation with vegetable oils did not increase the total fat percentage of the cheese (p≥0.05) but did increase the percentage of CLA isomers, long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA); in addition, the index of desirable fatty acids (DFA--expressed as the sum of unsaturated fatty acids plus stearic acid) was increased for cheese made from milk from goats fed sesame or faveleira oil. Cheeses may have had increased percentages of cis-9,trans-11-CLA due to the supplementation of animal diets with vegetable oils rich in C18:2, such as faveleira and sesame oils. The fatty acid profile of goat cheese did not change significantly in response to the use of castor oil. Thus, the addition of sesame and faveleira oils to goat diets positively altered the fatty acid profile, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat present in goat cheese.

  6. EFFECTS OF FERRIC HYDROXIDE ON THE ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION KINETICS AND TOXICITY OF VEGETABLE OIL IN FRESHWATER SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biodegradation of vegetable oil in freshwater sediments exhibits self-inhibitory characteristics when it occurs under methanogenic conditions but not under iron-reducing conditions. The basis of the protective effect of iron was investigated by comparing its effects on oil biodeg...

  7. Vegetation community composition in wetlands created following oil sand mining in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Roy, Marie-Claude; Foote, Lee; Ciborowski, Jan J H

    2016-05-01

    Reclaiming wetlands following open pit mining for industrial oil sand extraction is challenging due to the physical and chemical conditions of the post-mined landscape. The aim of our study was to examine and compare the influence of oil sands process water (OSPW) and material (fine fluid tails or FFT) on the plant community composition of created wetlands. Compared to created-unamended and natural wetlands, the created wetlands amended with OSPW and/or FFT (created-tailings wetlands) had significantly higher water salinity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen concentration and lower oxidative-reductive potential. Water chemistry parameters of created-unamended did not differ significantly from those of natural wetlands. The sediment of created wetlands had significantly less moisture, total nitrogen, and organic content than the natural wetlands. The application of OSPW/FFT in created wetlands will likely lead to initial vegetation composition atypical of natural regional wetlands. For the objective of reclaiming vegetation composition to the status of natural regional wetlands, unamended wetlands were the best reclamation option, based on the physical and chemical parameters measured. Despite being the favored reclamation option, created-unamended wetlands' physical and chemical characteristics remain atypical of natural wetlands. Most significantly, the basin morphometry of created wetlands was significantly different from that of naturally-formed wetlands in the region, and this appears to partly explain difference in vegetation composition. We also demonstrate that species richness alone is not a useful measure in wetland monitoring. Instead, plant community composition is a better indicator of wetland conditions.

  8. Determination of Milk Fat Adulteration with Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats by Gas Chromatographic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Ha-Jung; Park, Jung-Min

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the potential application of gas chromatography (GC) in detecting milk fat (MF) adulteration with vegetable oils and animal fats and of characterizing samples by fat source. One hundred percent pure MF was adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats at various concentrations (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%). GC was used to obtain the fatty acid (FA) profiles, triacylglycerol (TG) contents, and cholesterol contents. The pure MF and the adulterated MF samples were discriminated based on the total concentrations of saturated FAs and on the 2 major FAs (oleic acid [C18:1n9c] and linoleic acid [C18:2n6c], TGs [C52 and C54], and cholesterol contents using statistical analysis to compared difference. These bio-markers enabled the detection of as low as 10% adulteration of non-MF into 100% pure MF. The study demonstrated the high potential of GC to rapidly detect MF adulteration with vegetable and animal fats, and discriminate among commercial butter and milk products according to the fat source. These data can be potentially useful in detecting foreign fats in these butter products. Furthermore, it is important to consider that several individual samples should be analyzed before coming to a conclusion about MF authenticity.

  9. Determination of Milk Fat Adulteration with Vegetable Oils and Animal Fats by Gas Chromatographic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Ha-Jung; Park, Jung-Min

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed the potential application of gas chromatography (GC) in detecting milk fat (MF) adulteration with vegetable oils and animal fats and of characterizing samples by fat source. One hundred percent pure MF was adulterated with different vegetable oils and animal fats at various concentrations (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, and 90%). GC was used to obtain the fatty acid (FA) profiles, triacylglycerol (TG) contents, and cholesterol contents. The pure MF and the adulterated MF samples were discriminated based on the total concentrations of saturated FAs and on the 2 major FAs (oleic acid [C18:1n9c] and linoleic acid [C18:2n6c], TGs [C52 and C54], and cholesterol contents using statistical analysis to compared difference. These bio-markers enabled the detection of as low as 10% adulteration of non-MF into 100% pure MF. The study demonstrated the high potential of GC to rapidly detect MF adulteration with vegetable and animal fats, and discriminate among commercial butter and milk products according to the fat source. These data can be potentially useful in detecting foreign fats in these butter products. Furthermore, it is important to consider that several individual samples should be analyzed before coming to a conclusion about MF authenticity. PMID:26265530

  10. Layered double hydroxide catalyst for the conversion of crude vegetable oils to a sustainable biofuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollaeian, Keyvan

    Over the last two decades, the U.S. has developed the production of biodiesel, a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters, using chiefly vegetable oils as feedstocks. However, there is much concern about the availability of high-quality vegetable oils for longterm biodiesel production. Problems have also risen due to the production of glycerol, an unwanted byproduct, as well as the need for process wash water. Therefore, this study was initiated to produce not only fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) but also fatty acid glycerol carbonates (FAGCs) by replacing methanol with dimethyl carbonate (DMC). The process would have no unnecessary byproducts and would be a simplified process compared to traditional biodiesel. In addition, this altering of the methylating agent could convert triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids to a sustainable biofuel. In this project, Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) was optimized by calcination in different temperature varied from 250°C to 450°C. The gallery between layers was increased by intercalating sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). During catalyst preparation, the pH was controlled ~10. In our experiment, triazabicyclodecene (TBD) was attached with trimethoxysilane (3GPS) as a coupling agent, and N-cetyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was added to remove SDS from the catalyst. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy. The effect of the heterogeneous catalyst on the conversion of canola oil, corn oil, and free fatty acids was investigated. To analyze the conversion of lipid oils to biofuel an in situ Raman spectroscopic method was developed. Catalyst synthesis methods and a proposed mechanism for converting triglycerides and free fatty acids to biofuel will be presented.

  11. Transesterification of waste vegetable oil under pulse sonication using ethanol, methanol and ethanol-methanol mixtures.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2014-12-01

    This study reports on the effects of direct pulse sonication and the type of alcohol (methanol and ethanol) on the transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil without any external heating or mechanical mixing. Biodiesel yields and optimum process conditions for the transesterification reaction involving ethanol, methanol, and ethanol-methanol mixtures were evaluated. The effects of ultrasonic power densities (by varying sample volumes), power output rates (in W), and ultrasonic intensities (by varying the reactor size) were studied for transesterification reaction with ethanol, methanol and ethanol-methanol (50%-50%) mixtures. The optimum process conditions for ethanol or methanol based transesterification reaction of waste vegetable oil were determined as: 9:1 alcohol to oil ratio, 1% wt. catalyst amount, 1-2 min reaction time at a power output rate between 75 and 150 W. It was shown that the transesterification reactions using ethanol-methanol mixtures resulted in biodiesel yields as high as >99% at lower power density and ultrasound intensity when compared to ethanol or methanol based transesterification reactions.

  12. DPPH assay of vegetable oils and model antioxidants in protic and aprotic solvents.

    PubMed

    Prevc, Tjaša; Segatin, Nataša; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar; Cigić, Blaž

    2013-05-15

    The rate of reaction of phenolic antioxidants with DPPH depends on solvent composition. The rate constants can differ by more than two orders of magnitude for the same phenolic compound. Reactions are faster in alcohols than in ethyl acetate that is used routinely for the analysis of antioxidant potential (AOP) of nonpolar samples such as vegetable oils. Incorporation of an acid base pair into the assay solvent buffers the system against acid impurities such as free fatty acids and CO2 from the air. This is shown to increase the rate of oxidation and number of electrons of phenolic compounds exchanged with DPPH. Typically, DPPH assays are performed for predetermined time intervals at which phenolic compounds are not fully oxidized and therefore higher reaction rates result in higher values of AOP. More than twofold AOP was obtained for oleuropein, sesamol, sinapic acid, caffeic acid and protocatechuic acid in buffered alcohols than in ethyl acetate. The AOP of sesame, pumpkin seed and extra virgin olive oil is accordingly higher when determined in buffered alcohols. DPPH assays in ethyl acetate result in underestimation of AOP of unrefined vegetable oils. PMID:23618135

  13. Classification of vegetable oils based on their concentration of saturated fatty acids using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    PubMed

    Mbesse Kongbonga, Yvon G; Ghalila, Hassen; Onana, Marthe Boyomo; Ben Lakhdar, Zohra

    2014-03-15

    Spectrochemical analyses of organic liquid media such as vegetable oils and sweetened water were performed with the use of LIBS. The aim of this work is to study, on the basis of spectral analyses by LIBS technique of "Swan band" of C2 emitted by different vegetable oils in liquid phase, the characteristics of each organic media. Furthermore this paper proposes, as a classification, a single parameter that could be used to determine the concentration of saturated fatty acids of vegetable oils. A Nd:YAG operating at λ=532 nm and an energies per pulse of 30 mJ was focused onto the surface of the liquid in ambient air. Following ablation of vegetable oils and sweetened water, we find that vibrational bonds of C2 were released from the molecule containing carbon-carbon bonds linear. In the case of vegetable oils, we find a clear relationship between C2 emission from the plasma and the concentration of saturated fatty acids in the oil.

  14. Effect of refined coconut oil or copra meal on methane output and on intake and performance of beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Jordan, E; Lovett, D K; Monahan, F J; Callan, J; Flynn, B; O'Mara, F P

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to establish the effect of feeding either refined coconut oil (CO) or copra meal containing CO to beef heifers on DMI, animal performance, enteric CH4 emissions, diet digestibility, and the fatty acid profile of the resulting meat. Forty-one Charolais and Limousin crossbred beef heifers (474 +/- 29 kg; 661 +/- 89 d of age) were blocked by BW before being assigned in a randomized complete block design to 1 of 3 experimental treatments (n = 12) or to a pretrial slaughter group (n = 5) used to determine the initial carcass weight. The experimental period lasted for 93 d. Enteric CH4 output was recorded for 2 periods of 5 consecutive days from d 14 to 18 and from d 70 to 74. The 3 dietary treatments were 1) control, a barley/soybean meal-based concentrate with 0 g of CO/ d; 2) RCO, a barley/soybean meal-based concentrate with 250 g of CO/d from refined coconut oil; and 3) CM, a copra meal-based concentrate with 250 g of CO/d from copra meal. Each diet had a 50:50 forage:concentrate using grass silage as the forage source. There was no effect of diet on DMI (P = 0.734) or GE intake (P = 0.486). The addition of RCO increased ADG (P < 0.05) compared with the control treatment. The CM treatment decreased (P < 0.05) average daily carcass gain compared with the RCO treatment only. There was a decrease (P < 0.05) in the digestibility of the DM, OM, CP, and GE fractions of the diet only with the CM treatment. Both the RCO and CM concentrates decreased (P < 0.001) daily enteric CH4 output when expressed in terms of liters per day, liters per kilogram of DMI, percentage of GE intake, liters per kilogram of ADG, and liters per kilogram of average daily carcass gain. The RCO treatment produced the greatest numerical response for all measures. Ruminal protozoa numbers on the RCO treatment were lower (P < 0.05) than on the control treatment. The concentrations of the fatty acid methyl esters, lauric (P < 0.001) and myristic (P < 0.002) acids, were

  15. Monitoring of quality and stability characteristics and fatty acid compositions of refined olive and seed oils during repeated pan- and deep-frying using GC, FT-NIRS, and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Zribi, Akram; Jabeur, Hazem; Aladedunye, Felix; Rebai, Ahmed; Matthäus, Bertrand; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2014-10-22

    Refined olive, corn, soybean, and sunflower oils were used as cooking oils for deep-frying at two different temperatures, 160 and 190 °C, and for pan-frying of potatoes at 180 °C for 10 successive sessions under the usual domestic practice. Several chemical parameters were assayed during frying operations to evaluate the status of the frying oils. Refined olive oil, as frying oil, was found to be more stable than the refined seed oils. In fact, this oil has proven the greatest resistance to oxidative deterioration, and its trans-fatty acid contents and percentages of total polar compounds were found to be lower at 160 °C during deep-frying. Finally, chemometric analysis has demonstrated that the lowest deterioration of the quality of all refined oils occurred in the refined olive oil during deep-frying at 160 °C and the highest deterioration occurred in the refined sunflower oil during pan-frying at 180 °C.

  16. Monitoring of quality and stability characteristics and fatty acid compositions of refined olive and seed oils during repeated pan- and deep-frying using GC, FT-NIRS, and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Zribi, Akram; Jabeur, Hazem; Aladedunye, Felix; Rebai, Ahmed; Matthäus, Bertrand; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2014-10-22

    Refined olive, corn, soybean, and sunflower oils were used as cooking oils for deep-frying at two different temperatures, 160 and 190 °C, and for pan-frying of potatoes at 180 °C for 10 successive sessions under the usual domestic practice. Several chemical parameters were assayed during frying operations to evaluate the status of the frying oils. Refined olive oil, as frying oil, was found to be more stable than the refined seed oils. In fact, this oil has proven the greatest resistance to oxidative deterioration, and its trans-fatty acid contents and percentages of total polar compounds were found to be lower at 160 °C during deep-frying. Finally, chemometric analysis has demonstrated that the lowest deterioration of the quality of all refined oils occurred in the refined olive oil during deep-frying at 160 °C and the highest deterioration occurred in the refined sunflower oil during pan-frying at 180 °C. PMID:25264922

  17. Dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction of herbicides in vegetable oil with metal-organic framework MIL-101.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Zhang, Liyuan; Nian, Li; Cao, Bocheng; Wang, Zhibing; Lei, Lei; Yang, Xiao; Sui, Jiaqi; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

    2015-03-01

    Dispersive microsolid-phase extraction based on metal-organic framework has been developed and applied to the extraction of triazine and phenylurea herbicides in vegetable oils in this work. The herbicides were directly extracted with MIL-101 from diluted vegetables oils without any further cleanup. The separation and determination of herbicides were carried out on high performance liquid chromatography. The effects of experimental parameters, including volume ratio of n-hexane to oil sample, mass of MIL-101, extraction time, centrifugation time, eluting solvent, and elution time were investigated. The Student's t test was applied to evaluate the selected experimental conditions. The limits of detection for the herbicides ranged from 0.585 to 1.04 μg/L. The recoveries of the herbicides ranged from 87.3 to 107%. Our results showed that the present method is rapid, simple, and effective for extracting herbicides in vegetable oils.

  18. Wet peroxide oxidation and catalytic wet oxidation of stripped sour water produced during oil shale refining.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Jaidev; Tardio, James; Jani, Harit; Bhargava, Suresh K; Akolekar, Deepak B; Grocott, Stephen C

    2007-07-31

    Catalytic wet oxidation (CWO) and wet peroxide oxidation (WPO) of stripped sour water (SSW) from an oil shale refinery was investigated. Greater than 70% total organic carbon (TOC) removal from SSW was achieved using Cu(NO(3))(2) catalysed WO under the following conditions using a glass lined reaction vessel: 200 degrees C, pO(2)=0.5MPa, 3h, [Cu(NO(3))(2)]=67mmol/L. Significant TOC removal ( approximately 31%) also occurred in the system without added oxygen. It is proposed that this is predominantly due to copper catalysed oxidative decarboxylation of organics in SSW based on observed changes in copper oxidation state. Greater than 80% TOC removal was achieved using WPO under the following conditions: 150 degrees C, t=1.5h, [H(2)O(2)]=64g/L. Significantly more TOC could be removed from SSW by adding H(2)O(2) in small doses as opposed to adding the same total amount in one single dose. It was concluded that WPO was a far more effective process for removing odorous compounds from SSW.

  19. Characterization of vegetable oils: detailed compositional fingerprints derived from electrospray ionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhigang; Rodgers, Ryan P; Marshall, Alan G

    2004-08-25

    Adulteration of vegetable oil is of concern for both commercial and health reasons. Compositional based fingerprints can potentially reveal both the oil source and its possible adulteration. Here, electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) resolves and identifies literally thousands of distinct chemical components of commercial canola, olive, and soybean oils, without extraction or other wet chemical separation pretreatment. In negative-ion ESI FT-ICR MS, the acidic components of soybean oil are easily distinguished from those of canola and olive oil based on relative abundances of C(18) fatty acids, whereas olive oil differs from canola and soybean oil based on relative abundances of tocopherols. In positive-ion ESI FT-ICR MS, the three oils are readily distinguished according to the relative abundances of di- and triacylglycerols with various numbers of double bonds in the fatty acid chains. We demonstrate the detection of soybean oil as an adulterant of olive oil, based on relative abundances of members of each of several chemical families. We suggest that the detailed chemical compositions of vegetable oils can be used to characterize them and to detect and identify adulterants. PMID:15315364

  20. Characterization of vegetable oils: detailed compositional fingerprints derived from electrospray ionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhigang; Rodgers, Ryan P; Marshall, Alan G

    2004-08-25

    Adulteration of vegetable oil is of concern for both commercial and health reasons. Compositional based fingerprints can potentially reveal both the oil source and its possible adulteration. Here, electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) resolves and identifies literally thousands of distinct chemical components of commercial canola, olive, and soybean oils, without extraction or other wet chemical separation pretreatment. In negative-ion ESI FT-ICR MS, the acidic components of soybean oil are easily distinguished from those of canola and olive oil based on relative abundances of C(18) fatty acids, whereas olive oil differs from canola and soybean oil based on relative abundances of tocopherols. In positive-ion ESI FT-ICR MS, the three oils are readily distinguished according to the relative abundances of di- and triacylglycerols with various numbers of double bonds in the fatty acid chains. We demonstrate the detection of soybean oil as an adulterant of olive oil, based on relative abundances of members of each of several chemical families. We suggest that the detailed chemical compositions of vegetable oils can be used to characterize them and to detect and identify adulterants.

  1. The role of genomics and biotechnology in achieving global food security for high-oleic vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Richard F

    2012-01-01

    Health related concerns for dietary 'trans-fat' in the U.S. have mediated a significant decline in the use of hydrogenated vegetable oils in edible applications. Oils having a natural abundance of oleic acid provide many functional properties that are derived from partial hydrogenation of polyunsaturated oils. However, the long term agronomic production capacity of existing high-oleic oil crops to replace hydrogenated oil ingredients is not sustainable. Although improvements are expected in processing technology, genetic modification of seed composition offers the most promising tactic to increase the overall supply of high-oleic commodity oils. Genetic enhancement of oleic acid concentration has been demonstrated experimentally in nearly every oilseed. Private companies have launched production of genetically enhanced oleic acid cultivars such as: Nexera™ Omega-9 canola and Omega-9 sunflower oils. The E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company plans commercial production of Plenish™ high-oleic soybeans in 2012. The Monsanto Co. plans commercial production of Vistive-Gold™ low-saturated high-oleic soybeans possibly as early as 2013. These 'new' high-oleic oilseeds must not only exhibit superior oil quality but also sequentially improved yield potential. Genetic maps that help breeders identify, locate and track useful genes will facilitate accomplishment of that goal. However, a reference sequence map in soybean is the only available chromosome scale assembly of an oilseed genome. Knowledge of genome structure enables technological advances that help increase soybean yielding ability, improve crop protection against biotic stresses, and reveal alleles for genes that mediate expression of quality traits. Led by soybean, genetically enhanced high-oleic vegetable oils that now are becoming commercially available may capture greater than 40% of the domestic consumption of vegetable oil in the U.S. by 2020. This innovation in oilseed technology is a positive step toward

  2. Rapid engine test to measure injector fouling in diesel engines using vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Korus, R.A.; Jaiduk, J.; Peterson, C.L.

    1985-11-01

    Short engine tests were used to determine the rate of carbon deposition on direct injection diesel nozzles. Winter rape, high-oleic and high-linoleic safflower blends with 50% diesel were tested for carbon deposit and compared to that with D-2 Diesel Control Fuel. Deposits were greatest with the most unsaturated fuel, high-linoleic safflower, and least with winter rape. All vegetable oil blends developed power similar to diesel fueled engines with a 6 to 8% greater fuel consumption. 8 references.

  3. Phase and chemical equilibria in the transesterification reaction of vegetable oils with supercritical lower alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anikeev, V. I.; Stepanov, D. A.; Ermakova, A.

    2011-08-01

    Calculations of thermodynamic data are performed for fatty acid triglycerides, free fatty acids, and fatty acid methyl esters, participants of the transesterification reaction of vegetable oils that occurs in methanol. Using the obtained thermodynamic parameters, the phase diagrams for the reaction mixture are constructed, and the chemical equilibria of the esterification reaction of free fatty acids and the transesterification reaction of fatty acid triglycerides attained upon treatment with supercritical methanol are determined. Relying on our analysis of the obtained equilibria for the esterification reaction of fatty acids and the transesterification reaction of triglycerides attained upon treatment with lower alcohols, we select the optimum conditions for performing the reaction in practice.

  4. Carotenoid bioavailability from raw vegetables and a moderate amount of oil in human subjects is greatest when the majority of daily vegetables are consumed at one meal.

    PubMed

    Goltz, Shellen R; Sapper, Teryn N; Failla, Mark L; Campbell, Wayne W; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2013-05-01

    While the impact of food composition and processing on carotenoid bioavailability has been the subject of several investigations, the effect of meal patterning remains unknown. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the impact of select consumption patterns on the bioavailability of carotenoids from vegetables. On three randomized testing days, subjects consumed raw salad vegetables and 8 g canola oil over a two meal period in three meal patterns. Meal patterns included consumption of 100% of vegetables and oil in the first meal and 0% in the second, 75% in the first meal and 25% in the second, and 50% in the first meal and 50% in the second. Additional protein-rich "chef's salad" ingredients were distributed equally between meals. We hypothesized that carotenoid absorption would be highest when 50% of vegetables and oil were consumed at each meal and lowest when 100% were consumed at once. Blood was collected 0 to 12 hours postprandially and triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein fractions (TRL) were isolated by ultracentrifugation. TRL carotenoid concentrations were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector. Considering all carotenoids, absorption expressed as area under the curve was greatest when ≥75% of vegetables were consumed in a single meal (P < .05). Absorption of carotenes also followed this trend (P < .05 for α- and β-carotene). For xanthophylls, consuming all vegetables in one meal increased absorption compared to intake of 50% at each meal (P < .05). These data suggest that carotenoid absorption may be the greatest when daily recommended vegetables are consumed in one meal compared to smaller doses over multiple meals.

  5. A single-source route for the synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles using vegetable oil solvents.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Angela S; Silva, Nuno J O; Trindade, Tito; Pereira, Sergio

    2012-12-01

    We report a general method for the synthesis of metal oxide colloidal nanocrystals in sunflower oil using single-source precursors. In this research, iron oxide nanocrystals have been synthesized and characterized though this method can be extended to the synthesis of other common metal oxides such as ZnO and also to other types of vegetable oils as solvents. Using this method, nanoparticles with average diameters of 7 nm and 3 nm were obtained respectively for iron oxide and zinc oxide. The magnetic iron oxide phase was identified using powder XRD, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and magnetic measurements as maghemite as the main component. The magnetic measurements demonstrate the superparamagnetic behavior of the iron oxide nanoparticles. This synthetic approach is an interesting way to synthesize metal oxide nanocrystals in eco-friendly solvents of natural origin.

  6. A vegetable oil-based organogel for use in pH-mediated drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Khuphe, Mthulisi; Mukonoweshuro, Blessing; Kazlauciunas, Algy; Thornton, Paul D

    2015-12-21

    Organogels prepared with vegetable oils as the liquid organic phase present an excellent platform for the controlled delivery of hydrophobic guest molecules. We disclose a graft copolymer comprised of a poly(L-serine) backbone linked to alkane side-chains by hydrolytically susceptible ester bonds, that is capable of gelating edible safflower oil. The thermoresponsive organogel formed, which is non-cytotoxic, is capable of withholding guest molecules before undergoing targeted disassembly upon incubation in solutions of acidic pH, permitting the directed release of payload molecules. The presented material offers an extremely promising candidate for the controlled delivery of hydrophobic agents within acidic environments, such as cancer tumour sites. PMID:26414286

  7. Determination of coenzyme Q10, coenzyme Q9, and melatonin contents in virgin argan oils: comparison with other edible vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Venegas, Carmen; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; García-Corzo, Laura; Escames, Germaine; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío; López, Luis Carlos

    2011-11-23

    Virgin argan oil possesses high antioxidant capacity (AC), which may be partially explained by its high content in antioxidant molecules such as polyphenols and tocopherols. However, the content in other antioxidant molecules, for example, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ(10)), coenzyme Q9 (CoQ(9)), and melatonin (Mel), which have been identified in other edible vegetable oils, have not been evaluated in virgin argan oil. Consequently, it was decided to evaluate the contents of CoQ(10), CoQ(9), and Mel in virgin argan oils and compare the results to those obtained in extra virgin olive oils and some varieties of seed oils. By the use of sensitive HPLC-EC/F methods, the results showed that virgin argan oil is a rich source of CoQ(10) and Mel, but no CoQ(9) was detected. Extra virgin olive oil showed higher levels of CoQ(10) and lower levels of Mel than virgin argan oil. Between the seed oil samples, only virgin soybean oil showed higher CoQ(10) and Mel levels than virgin argan oil. The results may be relevant for the contribution of CoQ(10) and Mel to the biological activities of virgin argan oil.

  8. Animal performance and meat characteristics in steers reared in intensive conditions fed with different vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Castro, T; Cabezas, A; De la Fuente, J; Isabel, B; Manso, T; Jimeno, V

    2016-03-01

    Enhancing the quality of beef meat is an important goal in terms of improving both the nutritional value for the consumer and the commercial value for producers. The aim of this work was to study the effects of different vegetable oil supplements on growth performance, carcass quality and meat quality in beef steers reared under intensive conditions. A total of 240 Blonde D' Aquitaine steers (average BW=293.7±38.88 kg) were grouped into 24 batches (10 steers/batch) and were randomly assigned to one of the three dietary treatments (eight batches per treatment), each supplemented with either 4% hydrogenated palm oil (PALM) or fatty acids (FAs) from olive oil (OLI) or soybean oil (SOY). No differences in growth performance or carcass quality were observed. For the meat quality analysis, a steer was randomly selected from each batch and the 6th rib on the left half of the carcass was dissected. PALM meat had the highest percentage of 16:0 (P<0.05) and the lowest n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio (P<0.05), OLI had the highest content of t11-18:1 (P<0.01) and c9,t11-18:2 (P<0.05) and SOY showed the lowest value of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (P<0.001), the highest percentage of PUFA (P<0.01) and a lower index of atherogenicity (P=0.07) than PALM. No significant differences in the sensory characteristics of the meat were noted. However, the results of the principal component analysis of meat characteristics enabled meat from those steers that consumed fatty acids from olive oil to be differentiated from that of steers that consumed soybean oil.

  9. Properties of Cookies Made with Natural Wax-Vegetable Oil Organogels.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hong-Sik; Singh, Mukti; Lee, Suyong

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of cookies in which the conventional margarine is replaced with an organogel of vegetable oil (VO) and natural wax. New cookies from VO organogels contain no trans fats and much less saturated fats than cookies made with a conventional margarine. To understand the effects of different kinds of waxes, organogels were prepared from 4 different waxes including sunflower wax (SW), rice bran wax (RBW), beeswax, and candelilla wax and properties of cookie dough and cookie were evaluated. To investigate the effects of different VOs on the properties of cookies, 3 VOs including olive oil, soybean oil and flaxseed oil representing oils rich in oleic acid (18:1), linoleic acid (18:2), and linolenic acid (18:3), respectively, were used. Both the wax and VO significantly affected properties of organogel such as firmness and melting behavior shown in differential scanning calorimetry. The highest firmness of organogel was observed with SW and flaxseed oil. Properties of dough such as hardness and melting behavior were also significantly affected by wax and VO while trends were somewhat different from those for organogels. SW and RBW provided greatest hardnesses to cookie dough. However, hardness, spread factor, and fracturability of cookie containing the wax-VO organogel were not significantly affected by different waxes and VOs. Several cookies made with wax-VO organogels showed similar properties to cookies made with a commercial margarine. Therefore, this study shows the high feasibility of utilization of the organogel technology in real foods such as cookies rich in unsaturated fats.

  10. Properties of Cookies Made with Natural Wax-Vegetable Oil Organogels.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hong-Sik; Singh, Mukti; Lee, Suyong

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of cookies in which the conventional margarine is replaced with an organogel of vegetable oil (VO) and natural wax. New cookies from VO organogels contain no trans fats and much less saturated fats than cookies made with a conventional margarine. To understand the effects of different kinds of waxes, organogels were prepared from 4 different waxes including sunflower wax (SW), rice bran wax (RBW), beeswax, and candelilla wax and properties of cookie dough and cookie were evaluated. To investigate the effects of different VOs on the properties of cookies, 3 VOs including olive oil, soybean oil and flaxseed oil representing oils rich in oleic acid (18:1), linoleic acid (18:2), and linolenic acid (18:3), respectively, were used. Both the wax and VO significantly affected properties of organogel such as firmness and melting behavior shown in differential scanning calorimetry. The highest firmness of organogel was observed with SW and flaxseed oil. Properties of dough such as hardness and melting behavior were also significantly affected by wax and VO while trends were somewhat different from those for organogels. SW and RBW provided greatest hardnesses to cookie dough. However, hardness, spread factor, and fracturability of cookie containing the wax-VO organogel were not significantly affected by different waxes and VOs. Several cookies made with wax-VO organogels showed similar properties to cookies made with a commercial margarine. Therefore, this study shows the high feasibility of utilization of the organogel technology in real foods such as cookies rich in unsaturated fats. PMID:27027545

  11. Survey of dissolved air flotation system efficiency for reduce of pollution of vegetable oil industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Keramati, H; Alidadi, H; Parvaresh, A R; Movahedian, H; Mahvi, A H

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this research was to sudy the reduction of pollution of vegetable oil manufacturing wastewater with DAF system. At first phase of this examination, the optimum dosage of the coagulants was determined. The coagulants that used in this study were Alum and Ferric Chloride. The second phase was flotation in this series of examinations, oil, COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid and suspended solid measured in raw wastewater and the effluent of the DAF pilot. Optimum value of pH for alum and ferric chloride obtained 7.5 and 5.5, respectively. Optimum dosage for these obtained 30 and 32 mg L(-1) in this research. Mean removal for the parameters ofoil, COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid and suspended solid obtained 75.85, 78.27, 77.32, 82.47, 73.52 and 85.53%, respectively. With pressure rising from 3 to 4 and 5 atm removing rate of COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid parameters reduced, but oil and suspended solid have increase. In addition, following increase of flotation time up to 120 sec all of the measured parameters have increase in removing rate. Optimum A/S for removal of COD, total solid, volatile solid, fixed solid parameters obtained 0.001 and for oil and suspended solid obtained 0.0015.

  12. Sedimentation and deformation of an aqueous sodium hydroxide drop in vegetable oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Andrew; Hyacinthe, Hyaquino; Ward, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    The addition of water droplets in fuels is known to provide benefits such as decreased Nitrous Oxide NOx emissions. Unfortunately the shelf life of a water-fuel emulsion is limited by the sedimentation rate of the water droplets. It is well known that adding surfactants can significantly slow the sedimentation rate due to the introduction of Marangoni stresses. In the case of a vegetable oil fuel, adding sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to the water droplets will produce surfactants through saponification in the form of sodium-carboxylate salts. Pendant drops of aqueous NaOH solutions with pH between 11 and 13 will be suspended in several oils such as corn, olive, canola and soybean oil in order to measure the interfacial tension. The change in interfacial tension with time will be used to estimate the surfactant concentration and the saponification rate. Then individual drops will be placed in the oils to observe the settling velocity and drop deformation. NSF CBET.

  13. Microbial side-chain cleavage of phytosterols by mycobacteria in vegetable oil/aqueous two-phase system.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang-Guang; Guan, Yi-Xin; Wang, Hai-Qing; Yao, Shan-Jing

    2014-09-01

    Microbial side-chain cleavage of natural sterols to 4-androstene-3,17-dione (AD) and 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione (ADD) by Mycobacteria has received much attention in pharmaceutical industry, while low yield of the reaction owing to the strong hydrophobicity of sterols is a tough problem to be solved urgently. Eight kinds of vegetable oils, i.e., sunflower, peanut, corn, olive, linseed, walnut, grape seed, and rice oil, were used to construct oil/aqueous biphasic systems in the biotransformation of phytosterols by Mycobacterium sp. MB 3683 cells. The results indicated that vegetable oils are suitable for phytosterol biotransformation. Specially, the yield of AD carried out in sunflower biphasic system (phase ratio of 1:9, oil to aqueous) was greatly increased to 84.8 % with 10 g/L feeding concentration after 120-h transformation at 30 °C and 200 rpm. Distribution coefficients of AD in different oil/aqueous systems were also determined. Because vegetable oils are of low cost and because of their eco-friendly characters, there is a great potential for the application of oil/aqueous two-phase systems in bacteria whole cell biocatalysis.

  14. [Fast analysis of common fatty acids in edible vegetable oils by ultra-performance convergence chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Lin, Chunhua; Xie, Xianqing; Fan, Naili; Tu, Yuanhong; Chen, Yan; Liao, Weilin

    2015-04-01

    A fast analytical method for five common fatty acids in six edible vegetable oils was developed by ultra-performance convergence chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPC2-MS). The five fatty acids are palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Their contents in the corn oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, tea oil, rapeseed oil and peanut oil were compared. The chromatographic separation was performed on an ACQUITY UPC2 BEH 2-EP column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm) using the mobile phases of carbon dioxide and methanol/acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) with gradient elution. The separated compounds were detected by negative electrospray ionization ESF-MS. The results showed that the reasonable linearities were achieved for all the analytes over the range of 0.5-100 mg/L with the correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.9985-0.9998. The limits of quantification (S/N ≥ 10) of the five fatty acids were 0.15-0.50 mg/L. The recoveries of the five fatty acids at three spiked levels were in the range of 89.61%-108.50% with relative standard deviations of 0.69%-3.01%. The developed method showed high performance, good resolution and fast analysis for the underivatized fatty acids. It has been successfully used to detect the five fatty acids from corn oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil, tea oil rapeseed oil and peanut oil.

  15. Simultaneous determination of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin for vegetable oil adulteration by immunoaffinity chromatography cleanup coupled with LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fei; Yang, Qingqing; Matthäus, Bertrand; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Liangxiao

    2016-05-15

    Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were selected as adulteration markers to authenticate vegetable oils. In this study, a method of immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was established for the determination of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in vegetable oils. In this method, immunosorbents were obtained by covalently coupling highly specific capsaicinoid polyclonal antibodieswith CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B, and then packed into a polyethylene column. In this paper, the major parameters affecting IAC extraction efficiency, including loading, washing and eluting conditions, were also investigated. The IAC column displayed high selectivity for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin with the maximum capacity of 240ng. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for capsaicin were calculated as 0.02 and 0.08μgkg(-1), and for dihydrocapsaicin were 0.03 and 0.10μgkg(-1). The recoveries of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in oil samples were in the range of 87.3-95.2% with the relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 6.1%. The results indicated that capsaicinoid compounds could not be found in edible vegetable oils. Therefore, the proposed method is simple, reliable and adequate for routine monitoring of capsaicinoid compounds in vegetable oils and has an excellent potential for detection of adulteration with inedible waste oil. PMID:26739369

  16. Simultaneous determination of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin for vegetable oil adulteration by immunoaffinity chromatography cleanup coupled with LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fei; Yang, Qingqing; Matthäus, Bertrand; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Liangxiao

    2016-05-15

    Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were selected as adulteration markers to authenticate vegetable oils. In this study, a method of immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was established for the determination of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in vegetable oils. In this method, immunosorbents were obtained by covalently coupling highly specific capsaicinoid polyclonal antibodieswith CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B, and then packed into a polyethylene column. In this paper, the major parameters affecting IAC extraction efficiency, including loading, washing and eluting conditions, were also investigated. The IAC column displayed high selectivity for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin with the maximum capacity of 240ng. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for capsaicin were calculated as 0.02 and 0.08μgkg(-1), and for dihydrocapsaicin were 0.03 and 0.10μgkg(-1). The recoveries of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in oil samples were in the range of 87.3-95.2% with the relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 6.1%. The results indicated that capsaicinoid compounds could not be found in edible vegetable oils. Therefore, the proposed method is simple, reliable and adequate for routine monitoring of capsaicinoid compounds in vegetable oils and has an excellent potential for detection of adulteration with inedible waste oil.

  17. Performance of vegetable oils as a cooling medium in comparison to a standard mineral oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totten, G. E.; Tensi, H. M.; Lainer, K.

    1999-08-01

    Immersion quenching is the most widely used quenching technique today and is usually one of the last steps in heat treat processing. Improper hardening to incorrect cooling is generally a great loss and causes a great percentage of manufacturing costs. To avoid a failure in cooling, researchers are committed to describing the cooling effect as precisely as possible. The cooling of immersion cooled workpieces or probes is generally characterized by the process of wetting. Evaporable fluids exhibit the three well known stages of cooling: vapor blanket stage, boiling stage, and convective heat transfer. Therefore cooling behavior is influenced by a wide variety and depends on a number of parameters, that is, type of quenchant used, bath temperature, rate of agitation, and the physical and chemical properties of the quenched parts. Environmental pollution has caused the search for new products in har dening and shock cooling of steels. The use of soybean oils as quenching fluids is new, and compared with standard mineral oils, there are many advantages mainly concerning the environment and the health of workers.

  18. Techno-economic comparison of biojet fuel production from lignocellulose, vegetable oil and sugar cane juice.

    PubMed

    Diederichs, Gabriel Wilhelm; Ali Mandegari, Mohsen; Farzad, Somayeh; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a techno-economic comparison was performed considering three processes (thermochemical, biochemical and hybrid) for production of jet fuel from lignocellulosic biomass (2G) versus two processes from first generation (1G) feedstocks, including vegetable oil and sugar cane juice. Mass and energy balances were constructed for energy self-sufficient versions of these processes, not utilising any fossil energy sources, using ASPEN Plus® simulations. All of the investigated processes obtained base minimum jet selling prices (MJSP) that is substantially higher than the market jet fuel price (2-4 fold). The 1G process which converts vegetable oil, obtained the lowest MJSPs of $2.22/kg jet fuel while the two most promising 2G processes- the thermochemical (gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) and hybrid (gasification and biochemical upgrading) processes- reached MJSPs of $2.44/kg and $2.50/kg jet fuel, respectively. According to the economic sensitivity analysis, the feedstock cost and fixed capital investment have the most influence on the MJSP. PMID:27259188

  19. Techno-economic comparison of biojet fuel production from lignocellulose, vegetable oil and sugar cane juice.

    PubMed

    Diederichs, Gabriel Wilhelm; Ali Mandegari, Mohsen; Farzad, Somayeh; Görgens, Johann F

    2016-09-01

    In this study, a techno-economic comparison was performed considering three processes (thermochemical, biochemical and hybrid) for production of jet fuel from lignocellulosic biomass (2G) versus two processes from first generation (1G) feedstocks, including vegetable oil and sugar cane juice. Mass and energy balances were constructed for energy self-sufficient versions of these processes, not utilising any fossil energy sources, using ASPEN Plus® simulations. All of the investigated processes obtained base minimum jet selling prices (MJSP) that is substantially higher than the market jet fuel price (2-4 fold). The 1G process which converts vegetable oil, obtained the lowest MJSPs of $2.22/kg jet fuel while the two most promising 2G processes- the thermochemical (gasification and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) and hybrid (gasification and biochemical upgrading) processes- reached MJSPs of $2.44/kg and $2.50/kg jet fuel, respectively. According to the economic sensitivity analysis, the feedstock cost and fixed capital investment have the most influence on the MJSP.

  20. Impact of essential oils on the taste acceptance of tomato juice, vegetable soup, or poultry burgers.

    PubMed

    Espina, Laura; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael

    2014-08-01

    Despite the vast body of available literature on the possibilities of essential oils (EOs) as food preservatives or functional ingredients, the sensory impact of their addition to foods has barely been approached. This work focuses on the hedonic taste acceptance of 3 food products (tomato juice, vegetable soup, and poultry burgers) when they are incorporated with potentially antimicrobial concentrations (20 to 200 μL/L) of 6 selected EOs (lemon, pennyroyal mint, thyme, and rosemary) and individual compounds (carvacrol, p-cymene). Although addition of 20 μL/L of pennyroyal mint or lemon EO did not change the taste acceptance of tomato juice, higher concentrations of these compounds or any concentration of the other 4 compounds did. In vegetable soup, the tolerance limit for rosemary EO, thyme EO, carvacrol, or p-cymene was 20 μL/L, while the addition of 200 μL/L of lemon EO was accepted. Tolerance limits in poultry burgers were established in 20 μL/L for carvacrol and thyme EOs, 100 μL/L for pennyroyal mint EO and p-cymene, and 200 μL/L for lemon and rosemary EOs. Moreover, incorporation of pennyroyal mint EO to tomato juice or poultry burgers, and enrichment of vegetable soup with lemon EO, could contribute to the development of food products with an improved sensory appeal. PMID:25077550

  1. Impact of essential oils on the taste acceptance of tomato juice, vegetable soup, or poultry burgers.

    PubMed

    Espina, Laura; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael

    2014-08-01

    Despite the vast body of available literature on the possibilities of essential oils (EOs) as food preservatives or functional ingredients, the sensory impact of their addition to foods has barely been approached. This work focuses on the hedonic taste acceptance of 3 food products (tomato juice, vegetable soup, and poultry burgers) when they are incorporated with potentially antimicrobial concentrations (20 to 200 μL/L) of 6 selected EOs (lemon, pennyroyal mint, thyme, and rosemary) and individual compounds (carvacrol, p-cymene). Although addition of 20 μL/L of pennyroyal mint or lemon EO did not change the taste acceptance of tomato juice, higher concentrations of these compounds or any concentration of the other 4 compounds did. In vegetable soup, the tolerance limit for rosemary EO, thyme EO, carvacrol, or p-cymene was 20 μL/L, while the addition of 200 μL/L of lemon EO was accepted. Tolerance limits in poultry burgers were established in 20 μL/L for carvacrol and thyme EOs, 100 μL/L for pennyroyal mint EO and p-cymene, and 200 μL/L for lemon and rosemary EOs. Moreover, incorporation of pennyroyal mint EO to tomato juice or poultry burgers, and enrichment of vegetable soup with lemon EO, could contribute to the development of food products with an improved sensory appeal.

  2. Vegetation community composition in wetlands created following oil sand mining in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Roy, Marie-Claude; Foote, Lee; Ciborowski, Jan J H

    2016-05-01

    Reclaiming wetlands following open pit mining for industrial oil sand extraction is challenging due to the physical and chemical conditions of the post-mined landscape. The aim of our study was to examine and compare the influence of oil sands process water (OSPW) and material (fine fluid tails or FFT) on the plant community composition of created wetlands. Compared to created-unamended and natural wetlands, the created wetlands amended with OSPW and/or FFT (created-tailings wetlands) had significantly higher water salinity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen concentration and lower oxidative-reductive potential. Water chemistry parameters of created-unamended did not differ significantly from those of natural wetlands. The sediment of created wetlands had significantly less moisture, total nitrogen, and organic content than the natural wetlands. The application of OSPW/FFT in created wetlands will likely lead to initial vegetation composition atypical of natural regional wetlands. For the objective of reclaiming vegetation composition to the status of natural regional wetlands, unamended wetlands were the best reclamation option, based on the physical and chemical parameters measured. Despite being the favored reclamation option, created-unamended wetlands' physical and chemical characteristics remain atypical of natural wetlands. Most significantly, the basin morphometry of created wetlands was significantly different from that of naturally-formed wetlands in the region, and this appears to partly explain difference in vegetation composition. We also demonstrate that species richness alone is not a useful measure in wetland monitoring. Instead, plant community composition is a better indicator of wetland conditions. PMID:26921562

  3. Desulfurization of Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils and alkali. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, R.; Cheng, J.; Shi, F.; Wang, Y.

    1995-12-31

    Organic sulfur is removed from coals by treatment with aqueous base, air, and vegetable oils with minimal loss of BTU. Such results were revealed during exploratory experiments on an ICCI funded project to remove organic sulfur from Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. In fact, prewashing IBC-108 coal with dilute alkali prior to treating with linseed oil and air results in 26% removal of sulfur. This new method will be investigated by treating coals with alkali, impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of the solid products. During this first quarter the selection of base for pretreatment and extraction (Task 1) has been completed. NaOH is better than NH{sub 4}OH for the pretreatment and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is better than NaOH for the oil extraction. About 40% of sulfur is removed from IBC-108 coal using 5% NaOH for pretreatment followed by linseed oil oxidation in air and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} extraction.

  4. Production of natural antioxidants from vegetable oil deodorizer distillates: effect of catalytic hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Pagani, María Ayelén; Baltanás, Miguel A

    2010-02-01

    Natural tocopherols are one of the main types of antioxidants found in living creatures, but they also have other critical biological functions. The biopotency of natural (+)-alpha-tocopherol (RRR) is 36% higher than that of the synthetic racemic mixture and 300% higher than the SRR stereoisomer. Vegetable oil deodorizer distillates (DD) are an excellent source of natural tocopherols. Catalytic hydrogenation of DD preconcentrates has been suggested as a feasible route for recovery of tocopherols in high yield. However, it is important to know whether the hydrogenation operation, as applied to these tocopherol-rich mixtures, is capable of preserving the chiral (RRR) character, which is critical to its biopotency. Fortified (i.e., (+)-alpha-tocopherol enriched) sunflower oil and methyl stearate, as well as sunflower oil DD, were fully hydrogenated using commercial Ni and Pd catalysts (120-180 degrees C; 20-60 psig). Products were analyzed by chiral HPLC. Results show that the desired chiral configuration (RRR) is fully retained. Thus, the hydrogenation route can be safely considered as a valid alternative for increasing the efficiency of tocopherol recovery processes from DDs while preserving their natural characteristics.

  5. Final report on LDRD project : biodiesel production from vegetable oils using slit-channel reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    Kalu, E. Eric; Chen, Ken Shuang

    2008-01-01

    This report documents work done for a late-start LDRD project, which was carried out during the last quarter of FY07. The objective of this project was to experimentally explore the feasibility of converting vegetable (e.g., soybean) oils to biodiesel by employing slit-channel reactors and solid catalysts. We first designed and fabricated several slit-channel reactors with varying channel depths, and employed them to investigate the improved performance of slit-channel reactors over traditional batch reactors using a NaOH liquid catalyst. We then evaluated the effectiveness of several solid catalysts, including CaO, ZnO, MgO, ZrO{sub 2}, calcium gluconate, and heteropolyacid or HPA (Cs{sub 2.5}H{sub 0.5}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}), for catalyzing the soybean oil-to-biodiesel transesterification reaction. We found that the slit-channel reactor performance improves as channel depth decreases, as expected; and the conversion efficiency of a slit-channel reactor is significantly higher when its channel is very shallow. We further confirmed CaO as having the highest catalytic activity among the solid catalysts tested, and we demonstrated for the first time calcium gluconate as a promising solid catalyst for converting soybean oil to biodiesel, based on our preliminary batch-mode conversion experiments.

  6. Development of a method to recovery and amplification DNA by real-time PCR from commercial vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Gómez, Sonia; Busto, María D; Perez-Mateos, Manuel; Ortega, Natividad

    2014-09-01

    This study describes the design of a suitable DNA isolation method from commercial vegetable oils for the application of DNA markers for food safety and traceability. Firstly, a comparative study was made of eight methods for the recovery of high quality DNA from olive, sunflower and palm oils, and a CTAB-based method was selected. In order to optimize this method, the effect of the organic compounds and several components in the lysis buffer and the lysis and precipitation time were evaluated. For the purpose of overcoming the limitations detected in spectrophotometric and PCR DNA yield evaluations, the performance of the extraction protocols during the optimization processes was evaluated using qPCR. The suggested DNA extraction optimized is less time consuming than other conventional DNA extraction methods, uses a reduced oil volume and is cheaper than available commercial kits. Additionally, the applicability of this method has been successfully assayed in ten commercial vegetable oils and derivatives.

  7. Lipid formation and γ-linolenic acid production by Mucor circinelloides and Rhizopus sp., grown on vegetable oil

    PubMed Central

    Tauk-Tornisielo, Sâmia M.; Arasato, Luciana S.; de Almeida, Alex F.; Govone, José S.; Malagutti, Eleni N.

    2009-01-01

    The fungi strains were tested in Bioscreen automated system to select the best nutritional source. Following, shaking submserse cultures were studied in media containing sole carbon or nitrogen source. The growth of these strains improved in media containing vegetable oil, with high concentration of lipids. The high concentration of γ-linolenic acid was obtained with M. circinelloides in culture containing sesame oil. PMID:24031370

  8. Formation of Glycidyl Fatty Acid Esters Both in Real Edible Oils during Laboratory-Scale Refining and in Chemical Model during High Temperature Exposure.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Weiwei; Liu, Guoqin; Liu, Xinqi

    2016-07-27

    In the present study, the formation mechanisms of glycidyl fatty acid esters (GEs) were investigated both in real edible oils (soybean oil, camellia oil, and palm oil) during laboratory-scale preparation and refining and in chemical model (1,2-dipalmitin (DPG) and 1-monopalmitin (MPG)) during high temperature exposure (160-260 °C under nitrogen). The formation process of GEs in the chemical model was monitored using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The results showed that the roasting and pressing process could produce certain amounts of GEs that were much lower than that produced in the deodorization process. GE contents in edible oils increased continuously and significantly with increasing deodorization time below 200 °C. However, when the temperature exceeded 200 °C, GE contents sharply increased in 1-2 h followed by a gradual decrease, which could verify a simultaneous formation and degradation of GEs at high temperature. In addition, it was also found that the presence of acylglycerol (DAGs and MAGs) could significantly increase the formation yield of GEs both in real edible oils and in chemical model. Compared with DAGs, moreover, MAGs displayed a higher formation capacity but substantially lower contribution to GE formation due to their low contents in edible oils. In situ ATR-FTIR spectroscopic evidence showed that cyclic acyloxonium ion intermediate was formed during GE formation derived from DPG and MPG in chemical model heated at 200 °C. PMID:27319409

  9. Vaporization and carbonization tendency of vegetable oils as a function of chemical composition: morphology of carbon deposits on steel surfaces at elevated temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the volatility of a series of vegetable oils and to relate the results to the vegetable oil fatty acid profile and deposit forming tendency. Since the amount of maximum deposit is related to what remains to carbonize, volatility is a contributing facto...

  10. Replacement of dietary fish oil by vegetable oils affects humoral immunity and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines genes in gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata.

    PubMed

    Montero, D; Mathlouthi, F; Tort, L; Afonso, J M; Torrecillas, S; Fernández-Vaquero, A; Negrin, D; Izquierdo, M S

    2010-12-01

    Commercial gilthead sea bream feeds are highly energetic, fish oil traditionally being the main lipid source. But the decreased fish oil production together with the increased prices of this oil encourages its substitution by vegetable oils, imposing new nutritional habits to aquaculture species. Partial replacement of fish oil by vegetable oils in diets for marine species allows good feed utilization and growth but may affect fish health, since imbalances in dietary fatty acids may alter fish immunological status. The effect of dietary oils on different aspects of fish immune system has been reported for some species, but very little is known about the effect of dietary oils on immune-related genes expression in fish. Thus, the objective of this study was to elucidate the role of dietary oils on the expression of two pro-inflammatory cytokines, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α) and Interleukine 1β (IL-1β) on intestine and head kidney after exposure to the bacterial pathogen Photobacterium damselae sp. piscicida. For that purpose, 5 iso-nitrogenous and iso-lipidic diets (45% crude protein, 22% crude lipid content) were formulated. Anchovy oil was the only lipid source used in the control diet (FO), but in the other diets, fish oil was totally (100%) or partially (70%) substituted by linseed (rich in n-3 fatty acids) or soybean (rich in n-6 fatty acids) (100L, 100S, 70L, 70S). Fish were fed experimental diets during 80 days and after this period were exposed to an experimental intestinal infection with the pathogen. Serum and tissue samples were obtained at pre-infection and after 1, 3 and 7 days of infection. RNA was extracted and cDNA was synthesized by reverse transcription from intestine and head kidney and the level expression of TNF-α and IL-1β were assayed by using quantitative real time PCR. The expression level of genes analysed was represented as relative value, using the comparative Ct method (2(-ΔΔCt)). Serum anti-bacterial activity was measured as

  11. Rapid quantitative method for total brominated vegetable oil in soft drinks using ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Yousef, Ashraf A; Abbas, Alaa B; Badawi, Bassam Sh; Al-Jowhar, Wafaa Y; Zain, Esam A; El-Mufti, Seham A

    2012-08-01

    A simple, quantitative and rapid method for total brominated vegetable oil (BVO) using ion chromatography (IC) with suppressed conductivity detection was developed and successfully applied to soft drinks with results expressed as inorganic bromide anion. The procedure involves extraction of BVO with diethyl ether and treatment with zinc dust in a solution of acetic acid, giving recoveries ranging between 92.5 and 98.5%. The calibration curves obtained were linear with correlation coefficients (r²) of 0.998, a coefficient of variation (CV) of less than 5% and limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of 250 and 750 µg l⁻¹, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of BVO in several commercial soft drinks which were found to contain BVO in the range 1.8-14.510 mg l⁻¹. The method has less sources of error compared to previously published methods.

  12. Classification of edible vegetable oils using square wave voltammetry with multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Gambarra-Neto, Francisco Fernandes; Marino, Glimaldo; Araújo, Mário César Ugulino; Galvão, Roberto Kawakami Harrop; Pontes, Márcio José Coelho; Medeiros, Everaldo Paulo de; Lima, Renato Sousa

    2009-03-15

    This paper proposes a simple and non-expensive electroanalytical methodology for classification of edible vegetable oils with respect to type (canola, sunflower, corn and soybean) and conservation state (expired and non-expired shelf life). The proposed methodology employs an alcoholic extraction procedure followed by square wave voltammetry (SWV). Two chemometric methods were compared for classification of the resulting voltammograms, namely Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) with variable selection by the Successive Projections Algorithm (SPA). The results were evaluated in terms of errors in a set of samples not included in the modelling process. The best results were obtained with the SPA-LDA method, which correctly classified all samples in terms of type and conservation state.

  13. Acute toxicity of vegetable oil factory effluent to some freshwater teleosts in relation to size.

    PubMed

    Kondal, J K; Gupta, S; Saxena, P K

    1984-05-01

    Specimens of Cirrhina mrigala (Ham.), Labeo rohita (Ham.) and Channa punctatus (Bl.) falling in the size (total length) range of 5.5 +/- 1.0 cm to 27.0 +/- 2.0 cm were exposed to different concentrations of the vegetable oil factory effluent for evaluating the influence of size on the acute toxicity of the factory effluent. The results suggest that relative toxicity of the effluent decreased with increase in the size of the fish. However, for specimens exceeding 20.0 +/- 1.6 cm in size, the toxicity of the effluent increased with an increase in size of the fish. The results also indicate that C. mrigala was most susceptible, while C. punctatus was least susceptible to the effluent.

  14. Characterizing the Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill on Marshland Vegetation, Gulf Coast Louisiana, Using Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokaly, R. F.; Roberts, D. A.; Heckman, D.; Piazza, S.; Steyer, G.; Couvillion, B.; Holloway, J. M.; Mills, C. T.; Hoefen, T. M.

    2010-12-01

    Between April-July 2010 oil from the nation's largest oil spill contaminated the coastal marshlands of Louisiana. Data from the Airborne Visible/InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) are being used to (1) delineate the area of impact, (2) quantify the depth of oil penetration into the marsh and (3) characterize the physical and chemical impacts of the oil on the ecosystem. AVIRIS was flown on NASA ER-2 and Twin Otter aircraft, acquiring data at 7.5 and 4.4 meter pixel size, respectively. Concurrently, field surveys and sample collections were made in the imaged areas. Data were collected in early May, early July, late July and mid-August over the area ranging from Terrebonne Bay to the end of the Mississippi River delta. AVIRIS data were converted from radiance to reflectance. Oiled areas were detected by comparing AVIRIS spectra to field and laboratory spectrometer measurements of oiled and unaffected vegetation using the USGS Material Identification and Characterization Algorithm (MICA). Results indicate that the area in and around Barataria Bay was most extensively and heavily affected. In field surveys, stems of Spartina alterniflora and Juncus roemerianus, the dominant species observed in the heavily oiled zones, were bent and broken by the weight of the oil, resulting in a damaged canopy that extended up to 30 meters into marsh. In less impacted zones, oil was observed on the plant stems but the canopy remained intact. In the bird's foot region of the delta, the area impacted was less extensive and the dominant affected species, Phragmites australis, suffered oiled stems but only minor fracturing of the canopy. Additional AVIRIS flights and field surveys are planned for the fall of 2010 and summer 2011. By comparing plant species composition, canopy biochemical content, and vegetation fractional cover within affected areas and to unaffected areas, we will continue to monitor degradation and recovery in the ecosystem, including on the longer-term chemical

  15. Effects of vegetable oil residue after soil extraction on physical-chemical properties of sandy soil and plant growth.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zongqiang; Li, Peijun; Wilke, B M; Alef, Kassem

    2008-01-01

    Vegetable oil has the ability to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated sandy soil for a remediation purpose, with some of the oil remaining in the soil. Although most of the PAHs were removed, the risk of residue oil in the soil was not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the vegetable oil residue on higher plant growth and sandy soil properties after soil extraction for a better understanding of the soil remediation. Addition of sunflower oil and column experiment were performed on a PAH contaminated soil and/or a control soil, respectively. Soils were incubated for 90 d, and soil pH was measured during the soil incubation. Higher plant growth bioassays with Avena sativa L. (oat) and Brassica rapa L. (turnip) were performed after the incubation, and then soil organic carbon contents were measured. The results show that both the nutrient amendment and the sunflower oil degradation resulted in the decrease of soil pH. When these two process worked together, their effects were counteracted due to the consumption of the nutrients and oil removal, resulting in different pH profiles. Growth of A. sativa was adversely affected by the sunflower oil, and the nutrient amendments stimulated the A. sativa growth significantly. B. rapa was more sensitive to the sunflower oil than A. sativa. Only 1% sunflower oil addition plus nutrient amendment stimulated B. rapa growth. All the other treatments on B. rapa inhibited its growth significantly. The degradation of the sunflower oil in the soils was proved by the soil organic carbon content.

  16. Effects of vegetable oil residue after soil extraction on physical-chemical properties of sandy soil and plant growth.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zongqiang; Li, Peijun; Wilke, B M; Alef, Kassem

    2008-01-01

    Vegetable oil has the ability to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated sandy soil for a remediation purpose, with some of the oil remaining in the soil. Although most of the PAHs were removed, the risk of residue oil in the soil was not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the vegetable oil residue on higher plant growth and sandy soil properties after soil extraction for a better understanding of the soil remediation. Addition of sunflower oil and column experiment were performed on a PAH contaminated soil and/or a control soil, respectively. Soils were incubated for 90 d, and soil pH was measured during the soil incubation. Higher plant growth bioassays with Avena sativa L. (oat) and Brassica rapa L. (turnip) were performed after the incubation, and then soil organic carbon contents were measured. The results show that both the nutrient amendment and the sunflower oil degradation resulted in the decrease of soil pH. When these two process worked together, their effects were counteracted due to the consumption of the nutrients and oil removal, resulting in different pH profiles. Growth of A. sativa was adversely affected by the sunflower oil, and the nutrient amendments stimulated the A. sativa growth significantly. B. rapa was more sensitive to the sunflower oil than A. sativa. Only 1% sunflower oil addition plus nutrient amendment stimulated B. rapa growth. All the other treatments on B. rapa inhibited its growth significantly. The degradation of the sunflower oil in the soils was proved by the soil organic carbon content. PMID:19209632

  17. Fish oil supplementation maintains adequate plasma arachidonate in cats, but similar amounts of vegetable oils lead to dietary arachidonate deficiency from nutrient dilution.

    PubMed

    Angell, Rebecca J; McClure, Melena K; Bigley, Karen E; Bauer, John E

    2012-05-01

    Because fatty acid (FA) metabolism of cats is unique, effects of dietary fish and vegetable oil supplementation on plasma lipids, lipoproteins, lecithin/cholesterol acyl transferase activities, and plasma phospholipid and esterified cholesterol (EC) FAs were investigated. Cats were fed a commercial diet supplemented with 8 g oil/100 g diet for 4 weeks using either high-oleic-acid sunflower oil (diet H), Menhaden fish oil (diet M), or safflower oil (diet S). When supplemented, diet M contained sufficient arachidonate (AA), but diets H and S were deficient. We hypothesized that diet M would modify plasma lipid metabolism, increase FA long-chain n-3 (LCn-3) FA content but not deplete AA levels. Also, diet S would show linoleic acid (LA) accumulation without conversion to AA, and both vegetable oil supplements would dilute dietary AA content when fed to meet cats' energy needs. Plasma samples on weeks 0, 2, and 4 showed no alterations in total cholesterol or nonesterified FA concentrations. Unesterified cholesterol decreased and EC increased in all groups, whereas lecithin/cholesterol acyl transferase activities were unchanged. Diet M showed significant triacylglycerol lowering and decreased pre-β-lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma phospholipid FA profiles revealed significant enrichment of 18:1n-9 with diet H, LA and 20:2n-6 with diet S, and FA LCn-3FA with diet M. Depletion of AA was observed with diets H and S but not with diet M. Diet M EC FA profiles revealed specificities for LA and 20:5n-3 but not 22:5n-3 or 22:6n-3. Oversupplementation of some commercial diets with vegetable oils causes AA depletion in young cats due to dietary dilution. Findings are consistent with the current recommendations for at least 0.2 g AA/kg diet and that fish oil supplements provide both preformed LCn-3 polyunsaturated FA and AA.

  18. Modified vegetation indices for Ganoderma disease detection in oil palm from field spectroradiometer data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafri, Helmi Z. M.; Anuar, M. Izzuddin; Saripan, M. Iqbal

    2009-10-01

    High resolution field spectroradiometers are important for spectral analysis and mobile inspection of vegetation disease. The biggest challenges in using this technology for automated vegetation disease detection are in spectral signatures pre-processing, band selection and generating reflectance indices to improve the ability of hyperspectral data for early detection of disease. In this paper, new indices for oil palm Ganoderma disease detection were generated using band ratio and different band combination techniques. Unsupervised clustering method was used to cluster the values of each class resultant from each index. The wellness of band combinations was assessed by using Optimum Index Factor (OIF) while cluster validation was executed using Average Silhouette Width (ASW). 11 modified reflectance indices were generated in this study and the indices were ranked according to the values of their ASW. These modified indices were also compared to several existing and new indices. The results showed that the combination of spectral values at 610.5nm and 738nm was the best for clustering the three classes of infection levels in the determination of the best spectral index for early detection of Ganoderma disease.

  19. [Determination of fatty acids in vegetable oils using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to quadropole mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yueming; Feng, Feng; Guo, Wei; Chu, Xiaogang; Pan, Jiarong; Jia, Wei

    2012-11-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with quadropole mass spectrometry (GC x GC-qMS) was applied to the detection of 31 fatty acids in vegetable oils. The sets of columns, modulation period, scan range of quadropole mass spectrometer were optimized. The results demonstrated that the separation was achieved in 50 min with the column set of DB-1 (30 m x0. 25 mm x 0.25 microm) as the 1st column and DB-Wax (3.2 m x 0.1 mm x 0. 1 microm) as the 2nd column. All fatty acids were accurately and sensitively determined while the modulation period was 3.5 s and the scan range of quadropole MS was m/z 40-350. Most of the fatty acids were identified by NIST library spectra search, the other fatty acid isomers were identified by single standard injection analysis. When applying this method to the real vegetable oil samples, not only the sensitivities were 100 times higher than those obtained with GC-qMS methods, but also some minor fatty acids were identified. This work suggested a new technical approach in analyzing fatty acid components in vegetable oils, which is meaningful to prohibit adulteration and ensuring the quality safety of edible vegetable oils.

  20. Health risk assessment of eight heavy metals in nine varieties of edible vegetable oils consumed in China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fangkun; Fan, Wenxiu; Wang, Xuejing; Qu, Li; Yao, Shuwen

    2011-12-01

    Eight heavy metals, namely Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Ni, Pb and As, in nine varieties of edible vegetable oils collected from China were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) after microwave digestion. The accuracy of procedure was confirmed by certified reference materials (GBW10018 and GBW08551). The relative standard deviations were found below 10%. The concentrations for copper, zinc, iron, manganese, nickel, lead and arsenic were observed in the range of 0.214-0.875, 0.742-2.56, 16.2-45.3, 0.113-0.556, 0.026-0.075, 0.009-0.018 and 0.009-0.019 μg g(-1), respectively. Cadmium was found to be 2.64-8.43 μg/kg. In general, iron content was higher than other metals in the investigated edible vegetable oils. Comparing with safety intake levels for these heavy metals recommended by Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (IOM), US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), the dietary intakes of the eight heavy metals from weekly consumption of 175 g of edible vegetable oils or daily consumption 25 g of edible vegetable oils for a 70 kg individual should pose no risk to human health.

  1. Acid-Catalyzed Preparation of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil: An Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bladt, Don; Murray, Steve; Gitch, Brittany; Trout, Haylee; Liberko, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This undergraduate organic laboratory exercise involves the sulfuric acid-catalyzed conversion of waste vegetable oil into biodiesel. The acid-catalyzed method, although inherently slower than the base-catalyzed methods, does not suffer from the loss of product or the creation of emulsion producing soap that plagues the base-catalyzed methods when…

  2. Green Printing: Colorimetric and Densitometric Analysis of Solvent-Based and Vegetable Oil-Based Inks of Multicolor Offset Printing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dharavath, H. Naik; Hahn, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in the measurable print attributes (Print Contrast and Dot Gain) and color gamut of solvent-based (SB) inks vs. vegetable oil-based (VO) inks of multicolor offset printing. The literature review revealed a lack of published research on this subject. VO inks tend to perform (color…

  3. Evaluation of poly(90% biscyanopropyl/10% cyanopropylphenyl siloxane) capillary columns for the gas chromatographic quantification of trans fatty acids in non-hydrogenated vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Delmonte, Pierluigi

    2016-08-19

    Current gas chromatographic (GC) methods for the analysis of fatty acids (FA) were optimized primarily for the quantification of the trans 18:1 FAs (18:1 tFAs) produced during the partial hydrogenation of fats and oils. Recent regulatory action regarding the application of partial hydrogenation in the processing of edible fats and oils may reshape the FA composition of these products. The higher content in 18:3 tFAs compared to 18:1 tFAs of most refined non-hydrogenated vegetable oils (RNHVO), and the challenge in their quantification applying current methods, suggest the need for new methodologies. This manuscript describes a simple GC method for the analysis of FAs in RNHVOs utilizing a 100m (0.25mm I.D.) capillary column coated with poly(90% biscyanopropyl/10% cyanopropylphenyl siloxane) (90% BCS). The optimization of the chromatographic conditions and the detection of co-eluting compounds were carried out by applying comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography with online reduction (GC-OR×GC). Results showed that 90% BCS capillary columns operated at the elution temperature of 162°C provide the separation of the 18:1, 18:2 and 18:3 tFAs, contained in RNHVOs, from other components. A minor constituent of Canola oil, 16:3n-3, partially co-eluted with trans-18:1 FAMEs. This simple GC method showed the ability to measure trans-fat in RNHVOs at the level of 0.5g/100g, providing comparable quantitative results to the more complex GC×GC methodology.

  4. Evaluation of poly(90% biscyanopropyl/10% cyanopropylphenyl siloxane) capillary columns for the gas chromatographic quantification of trans fatty acids in non-hydrogenated vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Delmonte, Pierluigi

    2016-08-19

    Current gas chromatographic (GC) methods for the analysis of fatty acids (FA) were optimized primarily for the quantification of the trans 18:1 FAs (18:1 tFAs) produced during the partial hydrogenation of fats and oils. Recent regulatory action regarding the application of partial hydrogenation in the processing of edible fats and oils may reshape the FA composition of these products. The higher content in 18:3 tFAs compared to 18:1 tFAs of most refined non-hydrogenated vegetable oils (RNHVO), and the challenge in their quantification applying current methods, suggest the need for new methodologies. This manuscript describes a simple GC method for the analysis of FAs in RNHVOs utilizing a 100m (0.25mm I.D.) capillary column coated with poly(90% biscyanopropyl/10% cyanopropylphenyl siloxane) (90% BCS). The optimization of the chromatographic conditions and the detection of co-eluting compounds were carried out by applying comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography with online reduction (GC-OR×GC). Results showed that 90% BCS capillary columns operated at the elution temperature of 162°C provide the separation of the 18:1, 18:2 and 18:3 tFAs, contained in RNHVOs, from other components. A minor constituent of Canola oil, 16:3n-3, partially co-eluted with trans-18:1 FAMEs. This simple GC method showed the ability to measure trans-fat in RNHVOs at the level of 0.5g/100g, providing comparable quantitative results to the more complex GC×GC methodology. PMID:27470095

  5. Paradoxical effect of n-3-containing vegetable oils on long-chain n-3 fatty acids in rat heart.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Leslie G; Gibson, Robert A; Pedler, Janet; James, Michael J

    2005-10-01

    Flaxseed, echium, and canola oils contain alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3, ALA) in a range of concentrations. To examine their effect on elevating cardiac levels of long-chain n-3 FA, diets based on these n-3-containing vegetable oils were fed to rats for 4 wk. Sunflower oil, which contains little ALA, was a comparator. Despite canola oil having the lowest ALA content of the three n-3-containing vegetable oils, it was the most potent for elevating DHA (22:6n-3) levels in rat hearts and plasma. However, the relative potencies of the dietary oils for elevation of EPA (20:5n-3) in heart and plasma followed the same rank order as their ALA content, i.e., flaxseed > echium > canola > sunflower oil. This paradox may be explained by lower ALA intake leading to decreased competition for Delta6 desaturase activity between ALA and the 24:5n-3 FA precursor to DHA formation.

  6. Corn oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn oil is a popular vegetable oil in the US and in many other countries. Because of its pleasant nutty flavor, its good stability, and its popularity for making margarines, corn oil has long been considered a premium vegetable oil. Among all of the vegetable oils, corn oil ranks tenth in terms of ...

  7. Application of a Combustion Model to a Diesel Engine Fueled with Vegetable Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu, Rosca; Edward, Rakosi; Comsa, Iulian-Agape; Radu, Gaiginschi

    The paper presents the application of a three component model to the theoretical study of the combustion process of a Diesel engine fueled with sunflower oil and sunflower oil-Diesel fuel mixtures. The model assumes that the working fluid consists of three components: the fresh air, the flame and the burned gases. The combustion model uses the energy conservation equation: vc·Qc·dξα=dUα+dLα+dQwα, [1] where vc is the fuel cyclic dose, Qc is the fuel heating value, ξα=vcα/vc, vcα is the quantity of burned fuel up to the moment α, Uα is the internal energy of the working fluid, Qwα is the heat exchanged through the cylinder walls and Lα is the mechanical work. The heat release law was assumed to be a Vibe type one: ξα=Rc·[1-exp(-6.9·AmPp+1)]+(1-Rc)·[1-exp(-6.9·Amd+1)], [2] where: ·Ap=(α-αd)/(αP-αd) and A=(α-αd)/(αF-αd) ·αd-start of combustion angle ·αf-end of combustion angle ·αP-end of rapid combustion angle. Using Eqs. [1] and [2] we have obtained the cylinder pressure during combustion, for the vegetable fuels taken into account; the peak values were confirmed during the experiments.

  8. One-step hydrotreatment of vegetable oil to produce high quality diesel-range alkanes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congxin; Tian, Zhijian; Wang, Lei; Xu, Renshun; Liu, Qianhe; Qu, Wei; Ma, Huaijun; Wang, Bingchun

    2012-10-01

    A one-step hydrotreatment of vegetable oil combining deoxygenation and isomerization to directly produce low cloud point, high quality diesel is devised. The Pt/zeolite bifunctional catalysts prepared by using SAPO-11 and ZSM-22 zeolites as supports are used in this process. Catalytic reactions are conducted in a fixed-bed reactor under a hydrogen atmosphere. Over the bifunctional catalyst, 100 % conversion of soybean oil is obtained at 357 °C, 4 MPa, and 1 h(-1), and 80 % organic liquid yield is achieved, which is close to the maximum theoretical liquid yield. In the organic products, the alkanes selectivity is 100 % with an i-alkanes selectivity above 63 %. NH(3)-temperature programmed desorption (TPD), pyridine IR spectroscopy, and other characterization techniques are used to study the effect of the support acidity on the reaction pathway. Over the Pt/zeolite bifunctional catalyst with less strong Lewis acid sites, the reaction proceeds via the decarboxylation plus decarbonylation pathway. This one-step method provides a new strategy to produce low cloud point, high quality diesel from biomass feedstock in a more economic and attractive way. PMID:22764086

  9. Multiresidue analysis of environmental pollutants in edible vegetable oils by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui-Ze; Jiang, Jie; Mao, Ting; Zhao, Ya-Song; Lu, Yong

    2016-09-15

    A novel multiresidue determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and alkylphenols (APs) in edible vegetable oils was developed. The samples were extracted with hexane-saturated acetonitrile, and after concentration, the extract was directly qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode. The calibration curve displayed good linearity in the range of 2-100 μg/L, with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. The mean recoveries were 70.0-110.8% by analysis of spiked oil, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2.1-10.2% (n=6), respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) for the 23 PAHs, 17 PAEs and 3 APs were 0.1-1.0 μg/kg, 0.1-4.0 μg/kg and 1.2-3.0 μg/kg, respectively. The established method effectively avoided interference from large amounts of lipids and pigments. It was applied to real sample and shown to be a rapid and reliable alternative for determination and confirmation in routine analysis.

  10. Toxicological evaluation of vegetable oils and biodiesel in soil during the biodegradation process

    PubMed Central

    Tamada, Ivo S.; Montagnolli, Renato N.; Lopes, Paulo R. M.; Bidoia, Ederio D.

    2012-01-01

    Vegetable oils and their derivatives, like biodiesel, are used extensively throughout the world, thus posing an environmental risk when disposed. Toxicity testing using test organisms shows how these residues affect ecosystems. Toxicity tests using earthworms (Eisenia foetida) are widespread because they are a practical resource for analyzing terrestrial organisms. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of arugula (Eruca sativa) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with four different periods of biodegradation in soil: zero days, 60 days, 120 days and 180 days. The studied contaminants were soybean oil (new and used) and biodiesel (B100). An evaluation of the germination of both seeds showed an increased toxicity for all contaminants as the biodegradation occurred, biodiesel being the most toxic among the contaminants. On the other hand, for the tests using earthworms, the biodiesel was the only contaminant that proved to be toxic. Therefore, the higher toxicity of the sample containing these hydrocarbons over time can be attributed to the secondary compounds formed by microbial action. Thus, we conclude that the biodegradation in soil of the studied compounds requires longer periods for the sample toxicity to be decreased with the action of microorganisms. PMID:24031989

  11. Multiresidue analysis of environmental pollutants in edible vegetable oils by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui-Ze; Jiang, Jie; Mao, Ting; Zhao, Ya-Song; Lu, Yong

    2016-09-15

    A novel multiresidue determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters (PAEs) and alkylphenols (APs) in edible vegetable oils was developed. The samples were extracted with hexane-saturated acetonitrile, and after concentration, the extract was directly qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) in positive ion mode. The calibration curve displayed good linearity in the range of 2-100 μg/L, with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. The mean recoveries were 70.0-110.8% by analysis of spiked oil, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2.1-10.2% (n=6), respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) for the 23 PAHs, 17 PAEs and 3 APs were 0.1-1.0 μg/kg, 0.1-4.0 μg/kg and 1.2-3.0 μg/kg, respectively. The established method effectively avoided interference from large amounts of lipids and pigments. It was applied to real sample and shown to be a rapid and reliable alternative for determination and confirmation in routine analysis. PMID:27080878

  12. Toxicological evaluation of vegetable oils and biodiesel in soil during the biodegradation process.

    PubMed

    Tamada, Ivo S; Montagnolli, Renato N; Lopes, Paulo R M; Bidoia, Ederio D

    2012-10-01

    Vegetable oils and their derivatives, like biodiesel, are used extensively throughout the world, thus posing an environmental risk when disposed. Toxicity testing using test organisms shows how these residues affect ecosystems. Toxicity tests using earthworms (Eisenia foetida) are widespread because they are a practical resource for analyzing terrestrial organisms. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of arugula (Eruca sativa) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with four different periods of biodegradation in soil: zero days, 60 days, 120 days and 180 days. The studied contaminants were soybean oil (new and used) and biodiesel (B100). An evaluation of the germination of both seeds showed an increased toxicity for all contaminants as the biodegradation occurred, biodiesel being the most toxic among the contaminants. On the other hand, for the tests using earthworms, the biodiesel was the only contaminant that proved to be toxic. Therefore, the higher toxicity of the sample containing these hydrocarbons over time can be attributed to the secondary compounds formed by microbial action. Thus, we conclude that the biodegradation in soil of the studied compounds requires longer periods for the sample toxicity to be decreased with the action of microorganisms. PMID:24031989

  13. A Dietary Pattern Characterized by High Intake of Vegetables, Fruits, and Vegetable Oils Is Associated with Reduced Risk of Preeclampsia in Nulliparous Pregnant Norwegian Women1–3

    PubMed Central

    Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Samuelsen, Sven Ove; Torjusen, Hanne; Trogstad, Lill; Alexander, Jan; Magnus, Per; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2009-01-01

    Several dietary substances have been hypothesized to influence the risk of preeclampsia. Our aim in this study was to estimate the association between dietary patterns during pregnancy and the risk of preeclampsia in 23,423 nulliparous pregnant women taking part in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Women participating in MoBa answered questionnaires at gestational wk 15 (a general health questionnaire) and 17–22 (a FFQ). The pregnancy outcomes were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess the associations among food variables. Principal component factor analysis identified 4 primary dietary patterns that were labeled: vegetable, processed food, potato and fish, and cakes and sweets. Relative risks of preeclampsia were estimated as odds ratios (OR) and confounder control was performed with multiple logistic regression. Women with high scores on a pattern characterized by vegetables, plant foods, and vegetable oils were at decreased risk [relative risk (OR) for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.85]. Women with high scores on a pattern characterized by processed meat, salty snacks, and sweet drinks were at increased risk [OR for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.42]. These findings suggest that a dietary pattern characterized by high intake of vegetables, plant foods, and vegetable oils decreases the risk of preeclampsia, whereas a dietary pattern characterized by high consumption of processed meat, sweet drinks, and salty snacks increases the risk. PMID:19369368

  14. A dietary pattern characterized by high intake of vegetables, fruits, and vegetable oils is associated with reduced risk of preeclampsia in nulliparous pregnant Norwegian women.

    PubMed

    Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Samuelsen, Sven Ove; Torjusen, Hanne; Trogstad, Lill; Alexander, Jan; Magnus, Per; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2009-06-01

    Several dietary substances have been hypothesized to influence the risk of preeclampsia. Our aim in this study was to estimate the association between dietary patterns during pregnancy and the risk of preeclampsia in 23,423 nulliparous pregnant women taking part in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Women participating in MoBa answered questionnaires at gestational wk 15 (a general health questionnaire) and 17-22 (a FFQ). The pregnancy outcomes were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess the associations among food variables. Principal component factor analysis identified 4 primary dietary patterns that were labeled: vegetable, processed food, potato and fish, and cakes and sweets. Relative risks of preeclampsia were estimated as odds ratios (OR) and confounder control was performed with multiple logistic regression. Women with high scores on a pattern characterized by vegetables, plant foods, and vegetable oils were at decreased risk [relative risk (OR) for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.85]. Women with high scores on a pattern characterized by processed meat, salty snacks, and sweet drinks were at increased risk [OR for tertile 3 vs. tertile 1: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.42]. These findings suggest that a dietary pattern characterized by high intake of vegetables, plant foods, and vegetable oils decreases the risk of preeclampsia, whereas a dietary pattern characterized by high consumption of processed meat, sweet drinks, and salty snacks increases the risk.

  15. Comparison of indirect and direct quantification of esters of monochloropropanediol in vegetable oil.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Mathieu; Tarres, Adrienne; Goldmann, Till; Empl, Anna Maria; Donaubauer, Alfred; Seefelder, Walburga

    2012-05-01

    The presence of fatty acid esters of monochloropropanediol (MEs) in food is a recent concern raised due to the carcinogenicity of their hydrolysable moieties 2- and 3-monochloropropanediol (2- and 3-MCPD). Several indirect methods for the quantification of MEs have been developed and are commonly in use until today, however significant discrepancies among analytical results obtained are challenging their reliability. The aim of the present study was therefore to test the trueness of an indirect method by comparing it to a newly developed direct method using palm oil and palm olein as examples. The indirect method was based on ester cleavage under acidic conditions, derivatization of the liberated 2- and 3-MCPD with heptafluorobutyryl imidazole and GC-MS determination. The direct method was comprised of two extraction procedures targeting 2-and 3-MCPD mono esters (co-extracting as well glycidyl esters) by the use of double solid phase extraction (SPE), and 2- and 3-MCPD di-esters by the use of silica gel column, respectively. Detection was carried out by liquid chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-ToF-MS). Accurate quantification of the intact compounds was assured by means of matrix matched standard addition on extracts. Analysis of 22 palm oil and 7 palm olein samples (2- plus 3-MCPD contamination ranged from 0.3 to 8.8 μg/g) by both methods revealed no significant bias. Both methods were therefore considered as comparable in terms of results; however the indirect method was shown to require less analytical standards, being less tedious and furthermore applicable to all type of different vegetable oils and hence recommended for routine application.

  16. Biodiesel classification by base stock type (vegetable oil) using near infrared spectroscopy data.

    PubMed

    Balabin, Roman M; Safieva, Ravilya Z

    2011-03-18

    The use of biofuels, such as bioethanol or biodiesel, has rapidly increased in the last few years. Near infrared (near-IR, NIR, or NIRS) spectroscopy (>4000cm(-1)) has previously been reported as a cheap and fast alternative for biodiesel quality control when compared with infrared, Raman, or nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods; in addition, NIR can easily be done in real time (on-line). In this proof-of-principle paper, we attempt to find a correlation between the near infrared spectrum of a biodiesel sample and its base stock. This correlation is used to classify fuel samples into 10 groups according to their origin (vegetable oil): sunflower, coconut, palm, soy/soya, cottonseed, castor, Jatropha, etc. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used for outlier detection and dimensionality reduction of the NIR spectral data. Four different multivariate data analysis techniques are used to solve the classification problem, including regularized discriminant analysis (RDA), partial least squares method/projection on latent structures (PLS-DA), K-nearest neighbors (KNN) technique, and support vector machines (SVMs). Classifying biodiesel by feedstock (base stock) type can be successfully solved with modern machine learning techniques and NIR spectroscopy data. KNN and SVM methods were found to be highly effective for biodiesel classification by feedstock oil type. A classification error (E) of less than 5% can be reached using an SVM-based approach. If computational time is an important consideration, the KNN technique (E=6.2%) can be recommended for practical (industrial) implementation. Comparison with gasoline and motor oil data shows the relative simplicity of this methodology for biodiesel classification. PMID:21397073

  17. Classification of vegetable oils according to their botanical origin using sterol profiles established by direct infusion mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lerma-García, María J; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo; Herrero-Martínez, José M; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F

    2008-04-01

    A simple and quick method to classify vegetable oils according to their botanical origin, based on direct infusion of sterol extracts into a mass spectrometer, was developed. Using mass spectrometry (MS) with either an electrospray ionization or an atmospheric pressure photoionization source, followed by linear discriminant analysis of the mass spectral data, oil samples corresponding to eight different botanical origins were perfectly classified with an excellent resolution among all the categories. An excellent correlation between the sterol profiles obtained by MS and by the official gas chromatography (with flame ionization detection) method was obtained. Thus, the proposed method is a promising alternative for sterol fingerprinting of vegetable oils, with the advantage that prior chromatographic separation is not required.

  18. Desulfurization of Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils and alkali, Quarterly report, March 1 - May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, R.; Cheng, J.; Shi, F.; Wang, Y.

    1996-12-31

    Organic sulfur is removed from coals by treatment with aqueous base, air, and vegetable oils with minimal loss of BTU. Such results were revealed during exploratory experiments on an ICCI funded project to remove organic sulfur from Illinois coals with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. In fact, prewashing IBC-108 coal with dilute alkali prior to treating with linseed oil and air results in 26% removal of sulfur. This new method is being investigated by treating coals with alkali, impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. During the first quarter the selection of base fro pretreatment and extraction was completed. NaOH is better than NH{sub 4}OH for the pretreatment and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is better than NaOH for the oil extraction. During the second quarter the effectiveness of linseed oil and NaOH for sulfur removal from IBC-108 coal was further tested by pretreating the coal with two base concentrations at four different times followed by treatment with linseed oil at 125{degrees}C for three different times and finally washing with 5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and methanol. During this third quarter more experimental parameters were systematically varied in order to study the effectiveness of linseed oil and NaOH for sulfur removal from IBC- 108 coal.

  19. Desulfurization of coal with hydroperoxides of vegetable oils. [Quarterly progress report], December 1, 1994--February 28, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.V.; Gaston, R.D.; Song, Ruozhi; Cheng, Jianjun; Shi, Feng; Gholson, K.L.; Ho, K.K.

    1995-12-31

    This project proposes a new method for removing organic sulfur from Illinois coals using readily available farm products. It proposes to use air and vegetable oils to disrupt the coal matrix, oxidize sulfur forms, increase volatiles, and desulfurize coal. This will be accomplished by impregnating coals with polyunsaturated oils, converting the oils to their hydroperoxides, and heating. Since these oils are relatively inexpensive and easily applied, this project could lead to a cost effective method for removing organic sulfur from coals. Moreover, the oils are environmentally safe; they will produce no noxious products and will improve burning qualities of the solid products. Preliminary experiments showed that IBC 104 coal catalyzes the formation of hydroperoxides in safflower oil and that more sulfur is extracted from the treated than untreated coal. During the first quarter the requirement of an added photosensitizer was eliminated, the catalytic effect of coal was confirmed, and the existence of a complex set of reactions was revealed. During this second quarter working with IBC-108 coal (2.3% organic S. 0.4% pyrite S), the effects of different ratios of oil:coal, different extraction solvents, and different temperatures were examined. A new pretreatment which combines alkali with linseed oil was discovered. Best organic sulfur removal is approximately 26% using alkali pretreatment combined with linseed oil at 1OO{degree}C. BTU loses can be kept to a minimum of 3% with proper use of solvents.

  20. Increasing the energy density of vegetative tissues by diverting carbon from starch to oil biosynthesis in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Sanjaya; Durrett, Timothy P; Weise, Sean E; Benning, Christoph

    2011-10-01

    Increasing the energy density of biomass by engineering the accumulation of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in vegetative tissues is synergistic with efforts to produce biofuels by conversion of lignocellulosic biomass. Typically, TAG accumulates in developing seeds, and little is known about the regulatory mechanisms and control factors preventing oil biosynthesis in vegetative tissues in most plants. Here, we engineered Arabidopsis thaliana to ectopically overproduce the transcription factor WRINKLED1 (WRI1) involved in the regulation of seed oil biosynthesis. Furthermore, we reduced the expression of APS1 encoding a major catalytic isoform of the small subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase involved in starch biosynthesis using an RNAi approach. The resulting AGPRNAi-WRI1 lines accumulated less starch and more hexoses. In addition, these lines produced 5.8-fold more oil in vegetative tissues than plants with WRI1 or AGPRNAi alone. Abundant oil droplets were visible in vegetative tissues. TAG molecular species contained long-chain fatty acids, similar to those found in seed oils. In AGPRNAi-WRI1 lines, the relative expression level of sucrose synthase 2 was considerably elevated and correlated with the level of sugars. The relative expression of the genes encoding plastidic proteins involved in de novo fatty acid synthesis, biotin carboxyl carrier protein isoform 2 and acyl carrier protein 1, was also elevated. The relative contribution of TAG compared to starch to the overall energy density increased 9.5-fold in one AGPRNAi-WRI1 transgenic line consistent with altered carbon partitioning from starch to oil. PMID:22003502

  1. The comparison of solid phase microextraction-GC and static headspace-GC for determination of solvent residues in vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Ligor, Magdalena; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2008-02-01

    The objective of these investigations has been the determination of volatile organic compounds including residue solvents present in vegetable oil samples. Some olive oil, rape oil, sunflower oil, soy-bean oil, pumpkin oil, grape oil, rice oil as well as hazel-nut oil samples were analysed. Among residue solvents the following compounds have been mentioned: acetone, n-hexane, benzene, and toluene. Some experiments for the solid phase microextraction (SPME)-GC-flame ionisation detection (FID) were performed to examine extraction conditions such as fiber exposure time, temperature of extraction, and temperature of desorption. Various SPME fibers such as polydimethylsiloxane, Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane and polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene coatings were used for the isolation of tested compounds from vegetable oil samples. After optimisation of SPME, real vegetable oil samples were examined using SPME-GC/MS. Based on preliminary experiments the qualitative and quantitative analyses for the determination of acetone, n-hexane, benzene and toluene were performed by SPME-GC-FID and static head-space (SHS)-GC-FID methods. The regression coefficients for calibration curves for the examined compounds were R(2) > or = 0.992. This shows that the used method is linear in the examined concentration range (0.005-0.119 mg/kg for SPME-GC-FID and 0.003-0.728 mg/kg for SHS-GC-FID). Chemical properties of analysed vegetable oils have been characterised by chemometric procedure (cluster analysis).

  2. Comparison of the radical scavenging potential of polar and lipidic fractions of olive oil and other vegetable oils under normal conditions and after thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Valavanidis, Athanasios; Nisiotou, Christala; Papageorgiou, Yiannis; Kremli, Ioulia; Satravelas, Nikolaos; Zinieris, Nikolaos; Zygalaki, Helen

    2004-04-21

    The antioxidant activity (IC(50)) of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), commercial olive oil, and other vegetable oils (soybean, sunflower, and corn oil) was determined by UV-vis and by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of the stable radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Also, we studied the antioxidant activity of the methanol soluble phase (methanolic, MF) and the nonsoluble phase (lipidic, LF) of oils by the same methods. Similarly, we studied the effect of heating on the antioxidant activity at 160 and 190 degrees C. Also, the MF, containing the polyphenolic substances, was used for measurements of the radical scavenging capacity toward the most important oxygen free radicals, superoxide anion (O(2)(*)(-)) and hydroxyl (HO(*)) radicals. Results showed that soybean oil and EVOO had the highest antioxidant potential and thermal stability. In the case of soybean oil, the antioxidant capacity is the result of its high content of gamma- and delta-tocopherols (with the highest antioxidant capacity and thermostabilities), whereas in EVOO, the antioxidant potential is the result of the combination of specific antioxidant polyphenols, which are acting additionally as effective stabilizers of alpha-tocopherol. The high content of EVOO in tyrosol, hydrotyrosol, and oleuropein and other polyphenolics with radical scavenging abilities toward superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical suggests that olive oil possesses biological properties that could partially account for the observed beneficial health effects of the Mediterranean diet.

  3. Emissions from diesel engines using fatty acid methyl esters from different vegetable oils as blends and pure fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, O.; Munack, A.; Schaak, J.; Pabst, C.; Schmidt, L.; Bünger, J.; Krahl, J.

    2012-05-01

    Biodiesel is used as a neat fuel as well as in blends with mineral diesel fuel. Because of the limited availability of fossil resources, an increase of biogenic compounds in fuels is desired. To achieve this goal, next to rapeseed oil, other sustainably produced vegetable oils can be used as raw materials. These raw materials influence the fuel properties as well as the emissions. To investigate the environmental impact of the exhaust gas, it is necessary to determine regulated and non-regulated exhaust gas components. In detail, emissions of aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), as well as mutagenicity in the Ames test are of special interest. In this paper emission measurements on a Euro III engine OM 906 of Mercedes-Benz are presented. As fuel vegetable oil methyl esters from various sources and reference diesel fuel were used as well as blends of the vegetable oil methyl esters with diesel fuel. PAH were sampled according to VDI Guideline 3872. The sampling procedure of carbonyls was accomplished using DNPH cartridges coupled with potassium iodide cartridges. The carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions of the tested methyl esters show advantages over DF. The particle mass emissions of methyl esters were likewise lower than those of DF, only linseed oil methyl ester showed higher particle mass emissions. A disadvantage is the use of biodiesel with respect to emissions of nitrogen oxides. They increased depending on the type of methyl ester by 10% to 30%. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the results of mutagenicity tests correlate with those of the PM measurements, at which for palm oil methyl ester next to coconut oil methyl ester the lowest emissions were detected. From these results one can formulate a clear link between the iodine number of the ester and the emission behaviour. For blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel, emissions changed linearly with the proportion of biodiesel. However, especially in the non

  4. Production and characterization of a functional Iranian white brined cheese by replacement of dairy fat with vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Achachlouei, B Fathi; Hesari, J; Damirchi, S Azadmard; Peighambardoust, Sh; Esmaiili, M; Alijani, S

    2013-10-01

    Full-fat cheese usually contains high amounts of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, which may have negative health effects. In this study, full-fat white brined cheese, as a control sample, and experimental cheeses with olive and canola oils (T1, white brined cheese containing 50% canola oil, T2, white brined cheese containing 50% olive oil, T3, white brined cheese containing 100% canola oil and T4, white brined cheese containing 100% olive oil) were prepared from bovine milk. Physicochemical properties, lipolysis, proteolysis patterns and sensorial properties in the prepared samples were determined during 80 days of storage at 20-day intervals. Cheese incorporating vegetable oils showed lower amounts of saturated fatty acids and higher amounts of unsaturated fatty acids compared with the full-fat cheese (control) samples. Moisture, pH, lipolysis value, as assessed by the acid-degree value, and proteolysis values (pH 4.6 SN/TN% and NPN/TN%) significantly (p < 0.05) were increased in all samples, whereas total titrable acidity decreased during 40 days of ripening but then increased slightly. Sensory properties of white brined cheese incorporating with vegetable oils were different from those of full-fat cheese samples. White brined cheese containing olive and canola oils (100% fat substitution) received better sensory scores compared to other samples. The results showed that it is possible to replace dairy fat with olive and canola oils, which can lead to produce a new healthy and functional white brined cheese.

  5. Determination of α-tocopherol in vegetable oils using a molecularly imprinted polymers-surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic biosensor.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shaolong; Gao, Fang; Chen, Zhiwen; Grant, Edward; Kitts, David D; Wang, Shuo; Lu, Xiaonan

    2013-11-01

    We report the development of a novel hybrid "capture-detection" molecularly imprinted polymers-surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic (MIPs-SERS) biosensor for the detection and quantification of α-tocopherol (α-Toc) in vegetable oils. α-Toc served as the template for MIPs synthesis. Methacrylic acid formed as the functional monomer. Ethylene glycol dimethacrylate was the cross-linking agent, and 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile was used as the initiator. The synthesized MIPs functioned to rapidly and selectively adsorb and separate α-Toc from oil components. We validated a dendritic silver nanostructure synthesized by a displacement reaction to be a suitable SERS substrate for the enhancement of Raman signals. Second-derivative transformations and chemometric models based upon SERS spectral features confirmed the possibility of a rapid and precise detection and quantification of different spiking levels of α-Toc in four different sources of vegetable oils (Mahalanobis distance from 15.93 to 34.01 for PCA model; R > 0.92, RMSE < 0.41 for PLSR model). The MIPs-SERS biosensor had a high sensitivity as well as a good recovery for α-Toc analysis in vegetable oils. The entire analysis required 15 min or less to complete with limited sample preparation.

  6. The ecotoxicology of vegetable versus mineral based lubricating oils: 3. Coral fertilization and adult corals.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Philip; Negri, Andrew P; Burns, Kathryn A; Heyward, Andrew J

    2004-05-01

    Biodegradable vegetable-derived lubricants (VDL) might be less toxic to marine organisms than mineral-derived oils (MDL) due to the absence of high molecular weight aromatics, but this remains largely untested. In this laboratory study, adult corals and coral gametes were exposed to various concentrations of a two-stroke VDL-1A and a corresponding MDL to determine which lubricant type was more toxic to each life stage. In the fertilization experiment, gametes from the scleractinian coral Acropora microphthalma were exposed to water-accommodated fractions (WAF) of VDL-1A and MDL for four hours. The MDL and VDL-1A WAFs inhibited normal fertilization of the corals at 200 microg l(-1) total hydrocarbon content (THC) and 150 microg l(-1) THC respectively. Disturbance of a stable coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis is regarded as a valid measure of sub-lethal stress in adult corals. The state of the symbiosis in branchlets of adult colonies of Acropora formosa was monitored using indicators such as dinoflagellate expulsion and dark-adapted photosystem II yields of dinoflagellate (using pulse amplitude modulation fluorescence). An effect on symbiosis was measurable following 48 h exposure to the lubricants at concentrations of 190 microg l(-1) and 37 microg l(-1) THC for the MDL and VDL-1A respectively. GC/MS revealed that the main constituent of the VDL-1A WAF was the compound coumarin, added by the manufacturer to improve odour. The fragrance containing coumarin was removed from the lubricant formulation and the toxicity towards adult corals re-examined. The coumarin-free VDL-2 exhibited significantly less toxicity towards the adult corals than all of the other oil types tested, with the only measurable effect being a slight but significant drop in photosynthetic efficiency at 280 microg l(-1).

  7. Testing and preformance measurement of straight vegetable oils as an alternative fuel for diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayanan, Arunachalam

    Rising fuel prices, growing energy demand, concerns over domestic energy security and global warming from greenhouse gas emissions have triggered the global interest in bio-energy and bio-fuel crop development. Backlash from these concerns can result in supply shocks of traditional fossil fuels and create immense economic pressure. It is thus widely argued that bio-fuels would particularly benefit developing countries by off-setting their dependencies on imported petroleum. Domestically, the transportation sector accounts for almost 40% of liquid fuel consumption, while on-farm application like tractors and combines for agricultural purposes uses close to an additional 18%. It is estimated that 40% of the farm budget can be attributed to the fuel costs. With the cost of diesel continuously rising, farmers are now looking at using Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) as an alternative fuel by producing their own fuel crops. This study evaluates conventional diesel compared to the use of SVO like Camelina, Canola and Juncea grown on local farms in Colorado for their performance and emissions on a John Deere 4045 Tier-II engine. Additionally, physical properties like density and viscosity, metal/mineral content, and cold flow properties like CFPP and CP of these oils were measured using ASTM standards and compared to diesel. It was found that SVOs did not show significant differences compared to diesel fuel with regards to engine emissions, but did show an increase in thermal efficiency. Therefore, this study supports the continued development of SVO production as a viable alternative to diesel fuels, particularly for on-farm applications. The need for providing and developing a sustainable, economic and environmental friendly fuel alternative has taken an aggressive push which will require a strong multidisciplinary education in the field of bio-energy. Commercial bio-energy development has the potential to not only alleviate the energy concerns, but also to give renewed

  8. Pilot scale production, characterization, and optimization of epoxidized vegetable oil-based resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monono, Ewumbua Menyoli

    Novel epoxidized sucrose soyate (ESS) resins perform much better than other vegetable oil-based resins; thus, they are of current interest for commercial scale production and for a wide range of applications in coatings and polymeric materials. However, no work has been published that successfully scaled-up the reaction above a 1 kg batch size. To achieve this goal, canola oil was first epoxidized at a 300 g scale to study the epoxidation rate and thermal profile at different hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) addition rates, bath temperatures, and reaction times. At least 83% conversion of double bonds to oxirane was achieved by 2.5 h, and the reaction temperature was 8-15 °C higher than the water bath temperature within the first 30-40 min of epoxidation. A 38 L stainless steel kettle was modified as a reactor to produce 10 kg of ESS. Twenty 7-10 kg batches of ESS were produced with an overall 87.5% resin yield and > 98% conversion after batch three. The conversion and resin quality were consistent across the batches due to the modifications on the reaction that improved mixing and reaction temperature control within 55-65 oC. The total production time was reduced from 8 to 4 days due to the fabrication of a 40 L separatory funnel for both washing and filtration. A math model was developed to optimize the epoxidation process. This was done by using the Box-Behnken design to model the conversion at various acetic acid, H2O2, and Amberlite ratios and at various reaction temperatures and times. The model had an adjusted R2 of 97.6% and predicted R2 of 96.8%. The model showed that reagent amounts and time can be reduced by 18% without compromising the desired conversion value and quality.

  9. Impacts of cell surface characteristics on population dynamics in a sequencing batch yeast reactor treating vegetable oil-containing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wenzhou; Hesham, Abd El-Latif; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Xinchun; Yang, Min

    2011-06-01

    Ten yeast strains acquired from different sources and capable of utilizing vegetable oil or related compounds (fatty acid or oleic acid) as sole carbon sources were inoculated into a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for the treatment of high-strength vegetable oil-containing wastewater. The SBR system stably removed >89% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and >99% of oil when fed with wastewater containing 15 g/L COD and 10 g/L oil in average. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 26S rRNA genes showed that among the ten yeast strains, only Candida lipolytica, Candida tropicalis, and Candida halophila were dominant in the system. To elucidate the major factors affecting the selection of yeast strains in the SBR system, the three dominant strains were compared with two non-dominant strains in terms of COD removal performance, biomass yield, cell settleability, cell flocculation ability, cell emulsification ability, and surface hydrophobicity. Results showed that hydrophobicity and emulsification ability of yeast cells were the two most important factors determining the selection of yeast strains in the treatment of high-strength oil-containing wastewater.

  10. Microbial Dynamics During a Temporal Sequence of Bioreduction Stimulated by Emulsified Vegetable Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schadt, C. W.; Gihring, T. M.; Yang, Z.; Wu, W.; Green, S.; Overholt, W.; Zhang, G.; Brandt, C. C.; Campbell, J. H.; Carroll, S. C.; Criddle, C.; Jardine, P. M.; Lowe, K.; Mehlhorn, T.; Kostka, J. E.; Watson, D. B.; Brooks, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    Amendments of slow-release substrates (e.g. emulsified vegetable oil; EVO) are potentially pragmatic alternatives to short-lived labile substrates for sustained uranium bioimmobilization within groundwater systems. The spatial and temporal dynamics of geochemical and microbial community changes during EVO amendment are likely to differ significantly from populations stimulated by readily utilizable soluble substrates (e.g. ethanol or acetate). We tracked dynamic changes in geochemistry and microbial communities for 270 days following a one-time EVO injection at the Oak Ridge Integrated Field Research Challenge (ORIFRC) site that resulted in decreased groundwater U concentrations for ~4 months. Pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR of 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) genes from monitoring well samples revealed a rapid decline in bacterial community richness and evenness after EVO injection, concurrent with increased 16S rRNA copy levels, indicating the selection of a narrow group consisting of 10-15 dominant OTUs, rather than a broad community stimulation. By association of the known physiology of close relatives identified in the pyrosequencing analysis, it is possible to infer a hypothesized sequence of microbial functions leading the major changes in electron donors and acceptors in the system. Members of the Firmicutes family Veillonellaceae dominated after injection and most likely catalyzed the initial oil decomposition and utilized the glycerol associated with the oils. Sulfate-reducing bacteria from the genus Desulforegula, known for LCFA oxidation to acetate, also dominated shortly after EVO amendment and are thought to catalyze this process. Acetate and H2 production during LCFA degradation appeared to stimulate NO3-, Fe(III), U(VI), and SO42- reduction by members of the Comamonadaceae, Geobacteriaceae, and Desulfobacterales. Methanogenic archaea flourished late in the experiment and in some samples constituted over 25 % of the total

  11. Simple and rapid quantification of brominated vegetable oil in commercial soft drinks by LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Chitranshi, Priyanka; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo

    2016-12-15

    We report here a simple and rapid method for the quantification of brominated vegetable oil (BVO) in soft drinks based upon liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Unlike previously reported methods, this novel method does not require hydrolysis, extraction or derivatization steps, but rather a simple "dilute and shoot" sample preparation. The quantification is conducted by mass spectrometry in selected ion recording mode and a single point standard addition procedure. The method was validated in the range of 5-25μg/mL BVO, encompassing the legal limit of 15μg/mL established by the US FDA for fruit-flavored beverages in the US market. The method was characterized by excellent intra- and inter-assay accuracy (97.3-103.4%) and very low imprecision [0.5-3.6% (RSD)]. The direct nature of the quantification, simplicity, and excellent statistical performance of this methodology constitute clear advantages in relation to previously published methods for the analysis of BVO in soft drinks.

  12. In situ bioremediation of uranium with emulsified vegetable oil as the electron donor.

    PubMed

    Watson, David B; Wu, Wei-Min; Mehlhorn, Tonia; Tang, Guoping; Earles, Jennifer; Lowe, Kenneth; Gihring, Thomas M; Zhang, Gengxin; Phillips, Jana; Boyanov, Maxim I; Spalding, Brian P; Schadt, Christopher; Kemner, Kenneth M; Criddle, Craig S; Jardine, Philip M; Brooks, Scott C

    2013-06-18

    A field test with a one-time emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) injection was conducted to assess the capacity of EVO to sustain uranium bioreduction in a high-permeability gravel layer with groundwater concentrations of (mM) U, 0.0055; Ca, 2.98; NO3(-), 0.11; HCO3(-), 5.07; and SO4(2-), 1.23. Comparison of bromide and EVO migration and distribution indicated that a majority of the injected EVO was retained in the subsurface from the injection wells to 50 m downgradient. Nitrate, uranium, and sulfate were sequentially removed from the groundwater within 1-2 weeks, accompanied by an increase in acetate, Mn, Fe, and methane concentrations. Due to the slow release and degradation of EVO with time, reducing conditions were sustained for approximately one year, and daily U discharge to a creek, located approximately 50 m from the injection wells, decreased by 80% within 100 days. Total U discharge was reduced by 50% over the one-year period. Reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) was confirmed by synchrotron analysis of recovered aquifer solids. Oxidants (e.g., dissolved oxygen, nitrate) flowing in from upgradient appeared to reoxidize and remobilize uranium after the EVO was exhausted as evidenced by a transient increase of U concentration above ambient values. Occasional (e.g., annual) EVO injection into a permeable Ca and bicarbonate-containing aquifer can sustain uranium bioreduction/immobilization and decrease U migration/discharge.

  13. Vegetable Oil Derived Solvent, and Catalyst Free “Click Chemistry” Thermoplastic Polytriazoles

    PubMed Central

    Floros, Michael C.; Leão, Alcides Lopes; Narine, Suresh S.

    2014-01-01

    Azide-alkyne Huisgen “click” chemistry provides new synthetic routes for making thermoplastic polytriazole polymers—without solvent or catalyst. This method was used to polymerize three diester dialkyne monomers with a lipid derived 18 carbon diazide to produce a series of polymers (labelled C18C18, C18C9, and C18C4 based on monomer chain lengths) free of residual solvent and catalyst. Three diester dialkyne monomers were synthesized with ester chain lengths of 4, 9, and 18 carbons from renewable sources. Significant differences in thermal and mechanical properties were observed between C18C9 and the two other polymers. C18C9 presented a lower melting temperature, higher elongation at break, and reduced Young's modulus compared to C18C4 and C18C18. This was due to the “odd-even” effect induced by the number of carbon atoms in the monomers which resulted in orientation of the ester linkages of C18C9 in the same direction, thereby reducing hydrogen bonding. The thermoplastic polytriazoles presented are novel polymers derived from vegetable oil with favourable mechanical and thermal properties suitable for a large range of applications where no residual solvent or catalyst can be tolerated. Their added potential biocompatibility and biodegradability make them ideal for applications in the medical and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:25032224

  14. Vegetable oil derived solvent, and catalyst free "click chemistry" thermoplastic polytriazoles.

    PubMed

    Floros, Michael C; Leão, Alcides Lopes; Narine, Suresh S

    2014-01-01

    Azide-alkyne Huisgen "click" chemistry provides new synthetic routes for making thermoplastic polytriazole polymers-without solvent or catalyst. This method was used to polymerize three diester dialkyne monomers with a lipid derived 18 carbon diazide to produce a series of polymers (labelled C18C18, C18C9, and C18C4 based on monomer chain lengths) free of residual solvent and catalyst. Three diester dialkyne monomers were synthesized with ester chain lengths of 4, 9, and 18 carbons from renewable sources. Significant differences in thermal and mechanical properties were observed between C18C9 and the two other polymers. C18C9 presented a lower melting temperature, higher elongation at break, and reduced Young's modulus compared to C18C4 and C18C18. This was due to the "odd-even" effect induced by the number of carbon atoms in the monomers which resulted in orientation of the ester linkages of C18C9 in the same direction, thereby reducing hydrogen bonding. The thermoplastic polytriazoles presented are novel polymers derived from vegetable oil with favourable mechanical and thermal properties suitable for a large range of applications where no residual solvent or catalyst can be tolerated. Their added potential biocompatibility and biodegradability make them ideal for applications in the medical and pharmaceutical industries.

  15. Simple and rapid quantification of brominated vegetable oil in commercial soft drinks by LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Chitranshi, Priyanka; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo

    2016-12-15

    We report here a simple and rapid method for the quantification of brominated vegetable oil (BVO) in soft drinks based upon liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Unlike previously reported methods, this novel method does not require hydrolysis, extraction or derivatization steps, but rather a simple "dilute and shoot" sample preparation. The quantification is conducted by mass spectrometry in selected ion recording mode and a single point standard addition procedure. The method was validated in the range of 5-25μg/mL BVO, encompassing the legal limit of 15μg/mL established by the US FDA for fruit-flavored beverages in the US market. The method was characterized by excellent intra- and inter-assay accuracy (97.3-103.4%) and very low imprecision [0.5-3.6% (RSD)]. The direct nature of the quantification, simplicity, and excellent statistical performance of this methodology constitute clear advantages in relation to previously published methods for the analysis of BVO in soft drinks. PMID:27451219

  16. Authentication of vegetable oils by confocal X-ray scattering analysis with coherent/incoherent scattered X-rays.

    PubMed

    Li, Fangzuo; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents an alternative analytical method based on the Rayleigh to Compton scattering intensity ratio and effective atomic number for non-destructive identification of vegetable oils using confocal energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering spectrometry. A calibration curve for the Rayleigh to Compton scattering intensity ratio and effective atomic number was constructed on the basis of a reliable physical model for X-ray scattering. The content of light elements, which are "invisible" using X-ray fluorescence, can be calculated "by difference" from the calibration curve. In this work, we demonstrated the use of this proposed approach to identify complex organic matrices in different vegetable oils with high precision and accuracy. PMID:27211668

  17. Authentication of vegetable oils by confocal X-ray scattering analysis with coherent/incoherent scattered X-rays.

    PubMed

    Li, Fangzuo; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents an alternative analytical method based on the Rayleigh to Compton scattering intensity ratio and effective atomic number for non-destructive identification of vegetable oils using confocal energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and scattering spectrometry. A calibration curve for the Rayleigh to Compton scattering intensity ratio and effective atomic number was constructed on the basis of a reliable physical model for X-ray scattering. The content of light elements, which are "invisible" using X-ray fluorescence, can be calculated "by difference" from the calibration curve. In this work, we demonstrated the use of this proposed approach to identify complex organic matrices in different vegetable oils with high precision and accuracy.

  18. Metabolism and Fatty Acid Profile in Fat and Lean Rainbow Trout Lines Fed with Vegetable Oil: Effect of Carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Kamalam, Biju Sam; Médale, Françoise; Larroquet, Laurence; Corraze, Geneviève; Panserat, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrates on metabolism, with special focus on fatty acid bioconversion and flesh lipid composition in two rainbow trout lines divergently selected for muscle lipid content and fed with vegetable oils. These lines were chosen based on previously demonstrated potential differences in LC-PUFA synthesis and carbohydrate utilization. Applying a factorial study design, juvenile trout from the lean (L) and the fat (F) line were fed vegetable oil based diets with or without gelatinised starch (17.1%) for 12 weeks. Blood, liver, muscle, intestine and adipose tissue were sampled after the last meal. Feed intake and growth was higher in the L line than the F line, irrespective of the diet. Moderate postprandial hyperglycemia, strong induction of hepatic glucokinase and repressed glucose-6-phosphatase transcripts confirmed the metabolic response of both lines to carbohydrate intake. Further at the transcriptional level, dietary carbohydrate in the presence of n-3 LC-PUFA deficient vegetable oils enhanced intestinal chylomicron assembly, disturbed hepatic lipid metabolism and importantly elicited a higher response of key desaturase and elongase enzymes in the liver and intestine that endorsed our hypothesis. PPARγ was identified as the factor mediating this dietary regulation of fatty acid bioconversion enzymes in the liver. However, these molecular changes were not sufficient to modify the fatty acid composition of muscle or liver. Concerning the genotype effect, there was no evidence of substantial genotypic difference in lipid metabolism, LC-PUFA synthesis and flesh fatty acid profile when fed with vegetable oils. The minor reduction in plasma glucose and triglyceride levels in the F line was linked to potentially higher glucose and lipid uptake in the muscle. Overall, these data emphasize the importance of dietary macro-nutrient interface in evolving fish nutrition strategies. PMID:24124573

  19. Metabolism and fatty acid profile in fat and lean rainbow trout lines fed with vegetable oil: effect of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Kamalam, Biju Sam; Médale, Françoise; Larroquet, Laurence; Corraze, Geneviève; Panserat, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrates on metabolism, with special focus on fatty acid bioconversion and flesh lipid composition in two rainbow trout lines divergently selected for muscle lipid content and fed with vegetable oils. These lines were chosen based on previously demonstrated potential differences in LC-PUFA synthesis and carbohydrate utilization. Applying a factorial study design, juvenile trout from the lean (L) and the fat (F) line were fed vegetable oil based diets with or without gelatinised starch (17.1%) for 12 weeks. Blood, liver, muscle, intestine and adipose tissue were sampled after the last meal. Feed intake and growth was higher in the L line than the F line, irrespective of the diet. Moderate postprandial hyperglycemia, strong induction of hepatic glucokinase and repressed glucose-6-phosphatase transcripts confirmed the metabolic response of both lines to carbohydrate intake. Further at the transcriptional level, dietary carbohydrate in the presence of n-3 LC-PUFA deficient vegetable oils enhanced intestinal chylomicron assembly, disturbed hepatic lipid metabolism and importantly elicited a higher response of key desaturase and elongase enzymes in the liver and intestine that endorsed our hypothesis. PPARγ was identified as the factor mediating this dietary regulation of fatty acid bioconversion enzymes in the liver. However, these molecular changes were not sufficient to modify the fatty acid composition of muscle or liver. Concerning the genotype effect, there was no evidence of substantial genotypic difference in lipid metabolism, LC-PUFA synthesis and flesh fatty acid profile when fed with vegetable oils. The minor reduction in plasma glucose and triglyceride levels in the F line was linked to potentially higher glucose and lipid uptake in the muscle. Overall, these data emphasize the importance of dietary macro-nutrient interface in evolving fish nutrition strategies.

  20. Opportunities for Biorenewables in Oil Refineries

    SciTech Connect

    Marker, T.L.

    2005-12-19

    Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential for using biorenewable feedstocks in oil refineries. Economic analyses were conducted, with support from process modeling and proof of principle experiments, to assess a variety of potential processes and configurations. The study considered two primary alternatives: the production of biodiesel and green diesel from vegetable oils and greases and opportunities for utilization of pyrolysis oil. The study identified a number of promising opportunities for biorenewables in existing or new refining operations.