Science.gov

Sample records for refiner-marketers

  1. 78 FR 16262 - Tesoro Refining & Marketing Company LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tesoro Refining & Marketing Company LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial... notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Tesoro Refining & Marketing Company LLC's application for... the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To facilitate electronic service, persons with...

  2. Essays on refining markets and environmental policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oladunjoye, Olusegun Akintunde

    This thesis is comprised of three essays. The first two essays examine empirically the relationship between crude oil price and wholesale gasoline prices in the U.S. petroleum refining industry while the third essay determines the optimal combination of emissions tax and environmental research and development (ER&D) subsidy when firms organize ER&D either competitively or as a research joint venture (RJV). In the first essay, we estimate an error correction model to determine the effects of market structure on the speed of adjustment of wholesale gasoline prices, to crude oil price changes. The results indicate that market structure does not have a strong effect on the dynamics of price adjustment in the three regional markets examined. In the second essay, we allow for inventories to affect the relationship between crude oil and wholesale gasoline prices by allowing them to affect the probability of regime change in a Markov-switching model of the refining margin. We find that low gasoline inventory increases the probability of switching from the low margin regime to the high margin regime and also increases the probability of staying in the high margin regime. This is consistent with the predictions of the competitive storage theory. In the third essay, we extend the Industrial Organization R&D theory to the determination of optimal environmental policies. We find that RJV is socially desirable. In comparison to competitive ER&D, we suggest that regulators should encourage RJV with a lower emissions tax and higher subsidy as these will lead to the coordination of ER&D activities and eliminate duplication of efforts while firms internalize their technological spillover externality.

  3. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 97 - Final Section 126 Rule: Non-EGU Allocations, 2004-2007

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Lawrence SOUTH POINT ETHANOL 0744000009 B007 107 OH Lucas SUN REFINING & MARKETING CO, TOLEDO REF 0448010246 B044 47 OH Lucas SUN REFINING & MARKETING CO, TOLEDO REF 0448010246 B046 34 OH Lucas SUN REFINING... SHENANGO IRON & COKE WORKS 0050 006 18 PA Allegheny SHENANGO IRON & COKE WORKS 0050 009 15 PA Delaware...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 97 - Final Section 126 Rule: Non-EGU Allocations, 2004-2007

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Lawrence SOUTH POINT ETHANOL 0744000009 B007 107 OH Lucas SUN REFINING & MARKETING CO, TOLEDO REF 0448010246 B044 47 OH Lucas SUN REFINING & MARKETING CO, TOLEDO REF 0448010246 B046 34 OH Lucas SUN REFINING... SHENANGO IRON & COKE WORKS 0050 006 18 PA Allegheny SHENANGO IRON & COKE WORKS 0050 009 15 PA Delaware...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 97 - Final Section 126 Rule: Non-EGU Allocations, 2004-2007

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Lawrence SOUTH POINT ETHANOL 0744000009 B007 107 OH Lucas SUN REFINING & MARKETING CO, TOLEDO REF 0448010246 B044 47 OH Lucas SUN REFINING & MARKETING CO, TOLEDO REF 0448010246 B046 34 OH Lucas SUN REFINING... SHENANGO IRON & COKE WORKS 0050 006 18 PA Allegheny SHENANGO IRON & COKE WORKS 0050 009 15 PA Delaware...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 97 - Final Section 126 Rule: Non-EGU Allocations, 2004-2007

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Lawrence SOUTH POINT ETHANOL 0744000009 B007 107 OH Lucas SUN REFINING & MARKETING CO, TOLEDO REF 0448010246 B044 47 OH Lucas SUN REFINING & MARKETING CO, TOLEDO REF 0448010246 B046 34 OH Lucas SUN REFINING... SHENANGO IRON & COKE WORKS 0050 006 18 PA Allegheny SHENANGO IRON & COKE WORKS 0050 009 15 PA Delaware...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 97 - Final Section 126 Rule: Non-EGU Allocations, 2004-2007

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Lawrence SOUTH POINT ETHANOL 0744000009 B007 107 OH Lucas SUN REFINING & MARKETING CO, TOLEDO REF 0448010246 B044 47 OH Lucas SUN REFINING & MARKETING CO, TOLEDO REF 0448010246 B046 34 OH Lucas SUN REFINING... SHENANGO IRON & COKE WORKS 0050 006 18 PA Allegheny SHENANGO IRON & COKE WORKS 0050 009 15 PA Delaware...

  8. Focus Groups Help To Focus the Marketing Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashar, Hanna; Lane, Maureen

    1996-01-01

    A university-based degree completion program for adults conducted focus group research to refine market positioning and promotion. Focus groups averaged five current students and recent graduates who reflected, demographically, the current student population. Results gave insight into reasons for selecting the university, aspects of the program…

  9. State of lead additive use, 1995: Two gasoline systems in Latin America, Part I

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-26

    Unleaded gasoline in Latin America is taking market share away from leaded as automobile manufacturers, refiners, marketers, and consumers accommodate the phase-down of lead. The urgency of moving to unleaded gasoline is based on many factors as each country has a different viewpoint and a different environmental protection vision. This issue of Energy Detente examines the current phase of the ongoing lead phase-down in Latin America.

  10. U. S. petroleum strategies in the decade of the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.

    1991-01-01

    The book offer guidance and recommendations for strategies in the coming decade, based on research, interviews, and almost a decade of specializing in reporting on environmental issues in the petroleum industry. Included will be a chapter on crisis management. This book contains the catalyst: Exxon Valdez spill; The More things change; The new consciousness; Government leads the way; New approaches; Natural gas: fuel of the future; Strategies for U.S. explorationists; Drilling production strategies; Transportation strategies; Strategies for refiners marketers; Petrochemicals and gas processing strategies; The public, media, and crisis management; Battle plans.

  11. Measurement fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    The need to have accurate petroleum measurement is obvious. Petroleum measurement is the basis of commerce between oil producers, royalty owners, oil transporters, refiners, marketers, the Department of Revenue, and the motoring public. Furthermore, petroleum measurements are often used to detect operational problems or unwanted releases in pipelines, tanks, marine vessels, underground storage tanks, etc. Therefore, consistent, accurate petroleum measurement is an essential part of any operation. While there are several methods and different types of equipment used to perform petroleum measurement, the basic process stays the same. The basic measurement process is the act of comparing an unknown quantity, to a known quantity, in order to establish its magnitude. The process can be seen in a variety of forms; such as measuring for a first-down in a football game, weighing meat and produce at the grocery, or the use of an automobile odometer.

  12. US energy industry financial developments, 1993 second quarter

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-29

    US Energy Industry Financial Developments, 1993 Second Quarter provides information on the financial performance of energy companies during the most recent reporting period. The data are taken from public sources such as the Wall Street Journal, Energy Information Administration publications, corporate press releases, and other public sources. Based on information provided in 1993 second quarter financial disclosures, net income for 114 petroleum companies--including 19 majors--rose 33 percent between the second quarter of 1992 and the second quarter of 1993. Both upstream (oil and gas exploration, development and production) operations and downstream (petroleum refining, marketing, and transport) contributed to the improved financial Performance of petroleum companies consolidated operations. Rate-regulated industries also showed positive income growth between the second quarter of 1992 and the second quarter of 1993 due to higher natural gas prices and increased electricity consumption.

  13. Market assessment overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib-Agahi, H.

    1981-01-01

    Market assessment, refined with analysis disaggregated from a national level to the regional level and to specific market applications, resulted in more accurate and detailed market estimates. The development of an integrated set of computer simulations, coupled with refined market data, allowed progress in the ability to evaluate the worth of solar thermal parabolic dish systems. In-depth analyses of both electric and thermal market applications of these systems are described. The following market assessment studies were undertaken: (1) regional analysis of the near term market for parabolic dish systems; (2) potential early market estimate for electric applications; (3) potential early market estimate for industrial process heat/cogeneration applications; and (4) selection of thermal and electric application case studies for fiscal year 1981.

  14. US energy industry financial developments, 1993 third quarter

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    Based on information provided in 1993 third quarter financial disclosures, the average net income for 112 petroleum companies -- including 18 majors -- rose 13 percent between the third quarter of 1992 and the third quarter of 1993. The gain in overall petroleum income was derived from increases in refined product consumption and margins, which improved the profitability of downstream petroleum (refining, marketing and transport) operations. A 17-percent decline in crude oil prices led to reduced income for upstream (oil and gas exploration, development and production) operations. A 16-percent rise in natural gas wellhead prices only partially offset the negative effects of low crude oil prices. Electric utilities also reported improved financial results for the third quarter of 1993 as hotter summer temperatures relative to the year-earlier quarter helped boost air conditioning demand and overall electricity usage. The following points highlight third-quarter energy industry financial developments: (1) Refined product demand and margins lift downstream earnings. Petroleum product consumption rose 2 percent between the third quarter of 1992 and the third quarter of 1993. Although petroleum product prices declined in the most recent reporting period, they did not decline as much as crude oil input prices. As a consequence, refined product margins widened. (2) Lower crude oil prices reduce upstream earnings. Crude oil prices fell 17 percent between the third quarter of 1992 and the third quarter of 1993 leading to a substantial reduction in income for the major petroleum companies` upstream operations. (3) Drilling income rises with increased North American exploratory activity.

  15. US Energy Industry Financial Developments, 1993 fourth quarter, April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-14

    This report traces key financial trends in the US energy industry for the fourth quarter of 1993. Financial data (only available for publicly-traded US companies) are included in two broad groups -- fossil fuel production and rate-regulated electric utilities. All financial data are taken from public sources such as energy industry corporate reports and press releases, energy trade publications, and The Wall Street Journal`s Earnings Digest; return on equity is calculated from data available from Standard and Poor`s Compustat data service. Since several major petroleum companies disclose their income by lines of business and geographic area, these data are also presented in this report. Although the disaggregated income concept varies by company and is not strictly comparable to corporate income, relative movements in income by lines of business and geographic area are summarized as useful indicators of short-term changes in the underlying profitability of these operations. Based on information provided in 1993 fourth quarter financial disclosures, the net income for 82 petroleum companies -- including 18 majors -- was unchanged between the fourth quarter of 1992 and the fourth quarter of 1993. An 18-percent decline in crude oil prices resulted in a deterioration of the performance of upstream (oil and gas production) petroleum companies during the final quarter of 1993. However, prices for refined products fell much less than the price of crude oil, resulting in higher refined product margins and downstream (refining, marketing and transport) petroleum earnings. An increase in refined product demand also contributed to the rise in downstream income.

  16. Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzel, S.; Baumann-Stanzer, K.

    2009-04-01

    Dispersion modeling of accidental releases of toxic gases - Comparison of the models and their utility for the fire brigades. Sirma Stenzel, Kathrin Baumann-Stanzer In the case of accidental release of hazardous gases in the atmosphere, the emergency responders need a reliable and fast tool to assess the possible consequences and apply the optimal countermeasures. For hazard prediction and simulation of the hazard zones a number of air dispersion models are available. The most model packages (commercial or free of charge) include a chemical database, an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) and automated graphical output for display the results, they are easy to use and can operate fast and effective during stress situations. The models are designed especially for analyzing different accidental toxic release scenarios ("worst-case scenarios"), preparing emergency response plans and optimal countermeasures as well as for real-time risk assessment and management. There are also possibilities for model direct coupling to automatic meteorological stations, in order to avoid uncertainties in the model output due to insufficient or incorrect meteorological data. Another key problem in coping with accidental toxic release is the relative width spectrum of regulations and values, like IDLH, ERPG, AEGL, MAK etc. and the different criteria for their application. Since the particulate emergency responders and organizations require for their purposes unequal regulations and values, it is quite difficult to predict the individual hazard areas. There are a quite number of research studies and investigations coping with the problem, anyway the end decision is up to the authorities. The research project RETOMOD (reference scenarios calculations for toxic gas releases - model systems and their utility for the fire brigade) was conducted by the Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) in cooperation with the Vienna fire brigade, OMV Refining & Marketing GmbH and