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Sample records for reflect lymph node

  1. Lymph nodes

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and conveying lymph and by producing various blood cells. Lymph nodes play an important part in the ... the microorganisms being trapped inside collections of lymph cells or nodes. Eventually, these organisms are destroyed and ...

  2. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... round organs that are part of the body’s lymphatic system . They are found widely throughout the body and ... lymph vessels and lymph nodes. Anatomy of the lymphatic system, showing the lymph vessels and lymph organs, including ...

  3. Swollen lymph nodes

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands; Glands - swollen; Lymph nodes - swollen; Lymphadenopathy Images Lymphatic system Infectious mononucleosis Circulation of lymph Lymphatic system Swollen glands References Armitage JO. Approach to ...

  4. Lymph node biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Performed The test is used to diagnose cancer, sarcoidosis, or an infection (such as tuberculosis): When you ... of lymph nodes and other organs and tissues ( sarcoidosis ) Risks Lymph node biopsy may result in any ...

  5. Popliteal lymph node dissection.

    PubMed

    Sholar, Alina; Martin, Robert C G; McMasters, Kelly M

    2005-02-01

    Most sentinel nodes are located in the cervical, axillary, and inguinal nodal basins. Sometimes, however, sentinel nodes exist outside these traditional nodal basins. Popliteal nodal metastasis is relatively uncommon, and popliteal lymph node dissection is infrequently necessary. However, with lymphoscintigraphic identification of popliteal sentinel nodes, surgeons are more frequently called on to address the popliteal nodal basin. Therefore, knowledge of the anatomy and surgical technique for popliteal lymphadenectomy is essential. This case study illustrates the importance of considering the approach to the popliteal lymph node basin for patients with melanoma.

  6. Intramammary lymph nodes.

    PubMed Central

    Jadusingh, I. H.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the prevalence and pathology of intramammary lymph nodes in breast specimens. METHODS: All breast specimens examined by a single pathologist over 70 months in a large teaching hospital were studied retrospectively. All the surgical pathology reports were reviewed. Relevant glass slides from cases in which intramammary lymph nodes were identified were also reexamined. RESULTS: Breast specimens (n = 682) were examined. Seven lymph nodes were found in five patients. The specimens comprised 533 biopsy specimens, 29 segmental resections, 22 reduction mammoplasties, 77 modified radical mastectomies and 20 gynecomastia mastectomies. No clinically relevant microscopical abnormalities were found in four lymph nodes and slight sinus histiocytosis was seen in two nodes. One node contained metastatic adenocarcinoma and benign glandular epithelial inclusions. CONCLUSION: Although rare, intramammary lymph nodes may be detected by careful gross examination of breast specimens even in the absence of clinical identification. They can occur in any quadrant of the breast and can display a variety of pathological conditions. Pathologists should be alert to the existence and potential importance of these lymph nodes. Images PMID:1452776

  7. Lymph node culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - lymph node ... or viruses grow. This process is called a culture. Sometimes, special stains are also used to identify specific cells or microorganisms before culture results are available. If needle aspiration does not ...

  8. Cancer and lymph nodes

    MedlinePlus

    ... or concerns about swollen lymph nodes or your cancer treatment. Alternative Names Lymph gland References Camp MS, Smith BL. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical Therapy . 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:592- ...

  9. [Pelvic lymph nodes imaging].

    PubMed

    Roy, C

    2013-10-01

    Detecting metastatic pelvic lymph nodes is essential during the survey of a pelvic carcinoma. In routine clinical practice, CT scan is commonly used. However, its accuracy is quite low for small size lymph nodes. Diffusion-weighted imaging could be in the near future an efficient modality. Copyright © 2013 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Integration of single-fiber reflectance spectroscopy into ultrasound-guided endoscopic lung cancer staging of mediastinal lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Kanick, Stephen Chad; van der Leest, Cor; Aerts, Joachim G J V; Hoogsteden, Henk C; Kascáková, Slávka; Sterenborg, Henricus J C M; Amelink, Arjen

    2010-01-01

    We describe the incorporation of a single-fiber reflectance spectroscopy probe into the endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) procedure utilized for lung cancer staging. A mathematical model is developed to extract information about the physiological and morphological properties of lymph tissue from single-fiber reflectance spectra, e.g., microvascular saturation, blood volume fraction, bilirubin concentration, average vessel diameter, and Mie slope. Model analysis of data from a clinical pilot study shows that the single-fiber reflectance measurement is capable of detecting differences in the physiology between normal and metastatic lymph nodes. Moreover, the clinical data show that probe manipulation within the lymph node can perturb the in vivo environment, a concern that must be carefully considered when developing a sampling strategy. The data show the feasibility of this novel technique; however, the potential clinical utility has yet to be determined.

  11. Integration of single-fiber reflectance spectroscopy into ultrasound-guided endoscopic lung cancer staging of mediastinal lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanick, Stephen Chad; van der Leest, Cor; Aerts, Joachim G. J. V.; Hoogsteden, Henk C.; Kaščáková, Slávka; Sterenborg, Henricus J. C. M.; Amelink, Arjen

    2010-01-01

    We describe the incorporation of a single-fiber reflectance spectroscopy probe into the endoscopic ultrasound fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) procedure utilized for lung cancer staging. A mathematical model is developed to extract information about the physiological and morphological properties of lymph tissue from single-fiber reflectance spectra, e.g., microvascular saturation, blood volume fraction, bilirubin concentration, average vessel diameter, and Mie slope. Model analysis of data from a clinical pilot study shows that the single-fiber reflectance measurement is capable of detecting differences in the physiology between normal and metastatic lymph nodes. Moreover, the clinical data show that probe manipulation within the lymph node can perturb the in vivo environment, a concern that must be carefully considered when developing a sampling strategy. The data show the feasibility of this novel technique; however, the potential clinical utility has yet to be determined.

  12. Swollen Lymph Nodes

    MedlinePlus

    ... of lymphadenitis depends on the cause. Symptoms Your lymphatic system is a network of organs, vessels and lymph ... synovium) Cancers Lymphoma — cancer that originates in your lymphatic system Leukemia — cancer of your body's blood-forming tissue, ...

  13. Proposing prognostic thresholds for lymph node yield in clinically lymph node-negative and lymph node-positive cancers of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Phoebe; Mehra, Saral; Sosa, Julie A; Roman, Sanziana A; Husain, Zain A; Burtness, Barbara A; Tate, Janet P; Yarbrough, Wendell G; Judson, Benjamin L

    2016-12-01

    Prognostic lymph node yield thresholds have been identified and incorporated into treatment guidelines for multiple cancer sites, but not for oral cancer. The objective of this study was to identify optimal thresholds in elective and therapeutic neck dissection for oral cavity cancers. Patients with oral cavity cancers in the National Cancer Database (NCDB) were stratified into clinically lymph node-negative (cN0) and clinically lymph node-positive (cN+) cohorts to reflect the differing surgical management for these diseases. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the relation between lymph node yield and overall survival, adjusting for other prognostic factors. Thresholds derived from the NCDB were validated in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. In patients with cN0 cancers of the oral cavity from the NCDB, those who had <16 lymph nodes had significantly decreased survival. The proportion of positive lymph nodes was higher for patients who had ≥16 lymph nodes (27.2% vs 16.3% for < 16 lymph nodes; P < .001). This threshold was validated in 2715 lymph node-negative cancers from SEER, with a mortality hazard ratio of 0.825 for ≥ 16 lymph nodes (95% confidence interval, 0.764-0.950; P = .004). In patients with cN + oral cavity cancers from the NCDB, groups with <26 lymph nodes had significantly decreased survival. This threshold was validated in 1903 lymph node-positive cancers from SEER, with a mortality hazard ratio of 0.791 (95% confidence interval, 0.692-0.903; P = .001). Academic centers, higher volume centers, and geographic location predicted higher lymph node yields. More extensive neck dissection (≥16 lymph nodes in cN0, ≥ 26 lymph nodes in cN+) was associated with better survival. Further evaluation of practice patterns in lymph node yield may represent an opportunity for improved quality of care. Cancer 2016;122:3624-31. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer

  14. Alternative staging of regional lymph nodes in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Szczepanik, Antoni M.; Paszko, Agata; Szura, Miroslaw; Scully-Horner, Thecla; Kulig, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The TNM pN stage based on the number of metastatic lymph nodes is an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer. Many studies have highlighted the phenomenon of stage migration and problems in comparing groups of patients with different numbers of total lymph nodes harvested within TNM staging. The current version of UICC/AJCC and JGCA TNM classifications postulates a minimal number of 16 lymph nodes as the base for N stage determination. Alternative systems such as lymph node ratio (LNR), positive to negative lymph node ratio (PNLNR), and LOGODDS (or LODDS), were implemented to increase the quality of LN assessment. These methods have reached the background in the literature, but to date no standard approach according to the cut-offs for the stages has been implemented. LOGODDS is the method that most reflects the number of harvested lymph nodes. The rationale for alternative staging methods, their correlations, and limitations are presented. PMID:27713774

  15. Histopathology of the Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, Susan A.

    2007-01-01

    Lymph nodes function as filters of tissues and tissue fluids and are sites of origin and production of lymphocytes for normal physiological functions. As part of this normal function, they react to both endogenous and exogenous substances with a variety of specific morphological and functional responses. Lesions can be both proliferative and nonproliferative, and can be treatment-related or not. The histological evaluation of lymph nodes is necessary in order to understand the immunotoxic effects of chemicals with the resulting data providing an important component of human risk assessment. It is the challenge of the toxicologic pathologist to interpret the pathology data within the complete clinical evaluation of the entire animal. Daily insults, ageing and toxins can alter the normal histology and primary function of lymph nodes. Therefore it is important to distinguish and differentiate lesions that occur naturally during normal development and ageing from those that are induced by xenobiotics. To achieve this goal, comparison with strain- age- and sex-matched controls is crucial. PMID:17067938

  16. Molecular Evolution Patterns in Metastatic Lymph Nodes Reflect the Differential Treatment Response of Advanced Primary Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Um, Sang-Won; Joung, Je-Gun; Lee, Hyun; Kim, Hojoong; Kim, Kyu-Tae; Park, Jinha; Hayes, D Neil; Park, Woong-Yang

    2016-11-15

    Tumor heterogeneity influences the clinical outcome of patients with cancer, and the diagnostic method to measure the tumor heterogeneity needs to be developed. We analyzed genomic features on pairs of primary and multiple metastatic lymph nodes from six patients with lung cancer using whole-exome sequencing and RNA sequencing. Although somatic single-nucleotide variants were shared in primary lung cancer and metastases, tumor evolution predicted by the pattern of genomic alterations was matched to anatomic location of the tumors. Four of six cases exhibited a branched clonal evolution pattern. Lymph nodes with acquired somatic variants demonstrated resistance to the cancer treatment. In this study, we demonstrated that multiple biopsies and sequencing strategies for different tumor regions are required for a comprehensive understanding of the landscape of genetic alteration and for guiding targeted therapy in advanced primary lung cancer. Cancer Res; 76(22); 6568-76. ©2016 AACR.

  17. Imaging of head and neck lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Eisenmenger, Laura B; Wiggins, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    The cervical lymph nodes can be affected by a variety of infectious, inflammatory, benign, and malignant pathologic conditions. Clinical history and physical examination with the complementary use of imaging is essential to accurately make a diagnosis or appropriate differential. Knowledge of cervical lymph node anatomy, drainage pathways, morphologic variations, and common nodal pathology is key to correct interpretation of cervical lymph nodes on imaging. Computed tomography (CT), MR, ultrasound, and PET/CT are complementary imaging modalities that can be used in the evaluation of cervical lymph node pathology.

  18. Clinical application of carbon nanoparticle lymph node tracer in the VI region lymph node dissection of differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, S P; Zhang, Y; Cui, Z Q; Chen, Q; Zhang, W; Zhou, C X; Xie, P P; Liu, B G

    2014-04-30

    The application and clinical significance of carbon nanoparticle lymph tracer in the VI region (central region) lymph node dissection of differentiated thyroid cancer was investigated. Eighty patients with differentiated thyroid cancer were equally divided into the carbon nanoparticle-marked group (ipsilateral thyroid injection) and the control group (no injection). All patients underwent standard primary tumor treatment and VI lymph node dissection. The number of lymph nodes retrieved in the carbon nanoparticle group (mean=6.725 pieces, range=1-13) was significantly higher than those retrieved in the control group (mean=3.6, range=1-7; P<0.05). The black staining lymph node rate was 69.89%. A significantly higher number of lymph nodes less than 2 mm were detected in the carbon nanoparticle group (P=0.0023). The transfer rates and lymph node metastasis rates did not differ significantly between the two groups. The black-staining lymph node metastasis rate was 20.74% (39/188) and the non-staining lymph node metastasis rate was 22.22% (18/81), which were not significantly different (P=0.7856). No parathyroid accidental resection was observed in the carbon nanoparticle group, whereas three cases occurred in the control group (P=0.2405). In conclusion, carbon nanoparticles show good lymphatic tracer effects, easy identification, increased number of lymph nodes retrieved, more accurate reflection of the VI region lymph node status, and increased accuracy of the clinical stage. These results should help develop reasonable surgery programs and follow-up comprehensive treatments, and can help to reduce the risk of accident parathyroid resection.

  19. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Cui, XinWu; Ignee, Andre; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; De Molo, Chiara; Pirri, Clara; Jedrzejczyk, Maciej; Christoph, Dietrich F

    2013-03-01

    Sentinel lymph nodes are the first lymph nodes in the region that receive lymphatic drainage from a primary tumor. The detection or exclusion of sentinel lymph node micrometastases is critical in the staging of cancer, especially breast cancer and melanoma because it directly affects patient's prognosis and surgical management. Currently, intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsies using blue dye and radioisotopes are the method of choice for the detection of sentinel lymph node with high identification rate. In contrast, conventional ultrasound is not capable of detecting sentinel lymph nodes in most cases. Contrast enhanced ultrasound with contrast specific imaging modes has been used for the evaluation and diagnostic work-up of peripherally located suspected lymphadenopathy. The method allows for real-time analysis of all vascular phases and the visualization of intranodal focal "avascular" areas that represent necrosis or deposits of neoplastic cells. In recent years, a number of animal and human studies showed that contrast enhanced ultrasound can be also used for the detection of sentinel lymph node, and may become a potential application in clinical routine. Several contrast agents have been used in those studies, including albumin solution, hydroxyethylated starch, SonoVue(®), Sonazoid(®) and Definity(®). This review summarizes the current knowledge about the use of ultrasound techniques in detection and evaluation of sentinel lymph node.

  20. [SENTINEL LYMPH NODES DISSECTION IN GYNECOLOGICAL MALIGNANCIES].

    PubMed

    Naaman, Yael; Goldenhersh, Limor; Ben-Arie, Alon

    2017-02-01

    During the last decade sentinel lymph nodes biopsy has become an essential part of primary surgical treatment in a number of malignancies including breast cancer, melanoma and head-and-neck malignancies. Dye or radioactive substances are injected at the primary tumor site, followed by pre-operative and intra-operative mapping. During surgery only positive lymph nodes are being dissected instead of a complete dissection of the lymphatic basin. The advantages of sentinel lymph nodes dissection are reducing the side effects of extensive lymph nodes dissection, while maintaining high detection rates and sensitivity in identifying cases with lymphatic tumor spread. In the past years, the use of sentinel lymph nodes biopsy has also been incorporated in the treatment of gynecological malignancies. In vulvar cancer, it has been shown that sentinel lymph nodes biopsy is correlated with the same survival and recurrence rates as full groin lymph nodes dissection, while substantially lowering complications and especially morbid lymphedema. Preliminary experience in cervical cancer and carcinoma of the endometrium also displays the feasibility and liability of this method. Yet, there are still several controversies regarding the optimal detection method, site of injection and its oncological safety. In this article we present a review of the current literature on this evolving field.

  1. Lymph node involvement in multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Engohan-Aloghe, Corinne; Anaf, Vincent; Noël, Jean Christophe

    2009-11-01

    Multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma is an uncommon lesion most frequently encountered in women of reproductive age. Although the pathologic characteristics have been documented, the lymph node status associated with this pathology, the etiopathogenesis and prognosis of which remain unclear, is unknown. We report here the case of a 35-year-old woman with a 5.5 cm multicystic mesothelioma affecting the pelvic peritoneum of the rectum. Involvement by multicystic mesothelioma was observed within two lymph nodes simultaneously resected with the tumor. To the best of our knowledge, lymph node involvement has not been described in previous studies.

  2. Argyrophilic nucleolar organizing regions and Ki67 equally reflect proliferation in fine needle aspirates of normal, hyperplastic, inflamed, and neoplastic canine lymph nodes (n = 101).

    PubMed

    Bauer, Natali B; Zervos, Daniela; Moritz, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    The count of argyrophilic nucleolar organizing regions (AgNOR) has been considered a useful variable that reflects cellular proliferation in canine lymph nodes, but it has not been compared with other markers of proliferation. Ki67 and AgNORs are equally useful as markers of tissue proliferation in fine needle aspirates of canine lymph nodes. A total of 101 dogs. Prospective, observational study of a convenience sample of dogs. Two smears were prepared for a May-Gruenwald-Giemsa stain and a Ki67/AgNOR double stain. In addition, CD3/CD79a immunostaining was performed when cytologic examination revealed a lymphoma. The dogs were grouped as normal (n = 26), reactive hyperplasia (n = 25), lymphadenitis (n = 31), and lymphoma (n = 19), based on the physical examination and the cytologic findings. The AgNOR count/cell, AgNOR area/cell and the percentage of cells staining positive for Ki67 were evaluated in 100-167 cells (median, 113 cells) by using automatic image analysis. Mean (SD) AgNOR counts/cell were 1.36 +/- 0.19 in normal dogs, 1.55 +/- 0.26 in lymphadenitis, 1.65 +/- 0.32 in reactive hyperplasia, and 3.67 +/- 1.08 in lymphoma. The percentage of Ki67 positive cells was 2.67 +/- 0.99% in normal lymph nodes, 5.04 +/- 3.34% in lymphadenitis, 5.36 +/- 2.14% in reactive hyperplasia, and 30.2 +/- 10.8% in lymphoma. All variables were significantly higher in dogs with lymphoma compared with the other groups (P < .0001). The sensitivity and the specificity of the AgNOR count for diagnosing lymphoma were 95 and 96% at a cutoff value of >2.04 AgNORs/cell. The cutoff value for the Ki67 positive cells was >10.40% (sensitivity, 95%; specificity, 98%). The results indicated that both AgNOR and Ki67 counts were good diagnostic tools for assessment of proliferation in aspirates of canine lymph nodes.

  3. Cervical lymph node diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Stephan; Kansy, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The lymph nodes are an essential part of the body’s immune system and as such are affected in many infectious, autoimmune, metabolic and malignant diseases. The cervical lymph nodes are particularly important because they are the first drainage stations for key points of contact with the outside world (mouth/throat/nose/eyes/ears/respiratory system) – a critical aspect especially among children – and can represent an early clinical sign in their exposed position on a child’s slim neck. Involvement of the lymph nodes in multiple conditions is accompanied by a correspondingly large number of available diagnostic procedures. In the interests of time, patient wellbeing and cost, a careful choice of these must be made to permit appropriate treatment. The basis of diagnostic decisions is a detailed anamnesis and clinical examination. Sonography also plays an important role in differential diagnosis of lymph node swelling in children and is useful in answering one of the critical diagnostic questions: is there a suspicion of malignancy? If so, full dissection of the most conspicuous lymph node may be necessary to obtain histological confirmation. Diagnosis and treatment of childhood cervical lymph node disorders present the attending pediatric and ENT physicians with some particular challenges. The spectrum of differential diagnoses and the varying degrees of clinical relevance – from banal infections to malignant diseases – demand a clear and considered approach to the child’s individual clinical presentation. Such an approach is described in the following paper. PMID:25587368

  4. Arm lymphoscintigraphy after axillary lymph node dissection or sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sarri, Almir José; Dias, Rogério; Laurienzo, Carla Elaine; Gonçalves, Mônica Carboni Pereira; Dias, Daniel Spadoto; Moriguchi, Sonia Marta

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Compare the lymphatic flow in the arm after breast cancer surgery and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) versus sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) using lymphos-cintigraphy (LS). Patients and methods A cross-sectional study with 39 women >18 years who underwent surgical treatment for unilateral breast cancer and manipulation of the axillary lymph node chain through either ALND or SLNB, with subsequent comparison of the lymphatic flow of the arm by LS. The variables analyzed were the area reached by the lymphatic flow in the upper limb and the sites and number of lymph nodes identified in the ALND or SLNB groups visualized in the three phases of LS acquisition (immediate dynamic and static images, delayed scan images). For all analyses, the level of significance was set at 5%. Results There was a significant difference between the ALND and SLNB groups, with predominant visualization of lymphatic flow and/or lymph nodes in the arm and axilla (P=0.01) and extra-axillary lymph nodes (P<0.01) in the ALND group. There was no significant difference in the total number of lymph nodes identified between the two groups. However, there was a significant difference in the distribution of lymph nodes in these groups. The cubital lymph node was more often visualized in the immediate dynamic images in the ALND group (P=0.004), while the axillary lymph nodes were more often identified in the delayed scan images of the SLNB group (P<0.01). The deltopectoral lymph node was only identified in the ALND group, but with no significant difference. Conclusion The lymphatic flow from the axilla was redirected to alternative extra-axillary routes in the ALND group. PMID:28331338

  5. Inguinal Lymph Node Anthracosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Anthracosis is defined as black, dense pigments in tissues, usually carbon deposits. We, as surgeons, have to make decisions during surgery to the best of our knowledge and based on what the literature provides us. We present the case of a 30-year-old female patient who underwent abdominoplasty. During surgery, bilateral inguinal pigmented and enlarged lymph nodes were seen. Biopsy of the nodes was done to rule out any malignancy. The results showed tattoo pigments on all lymph nodes. We present this case as tattoo pigment migration, which has been rarely described. PMID:27536493

  6. Lymph node staging in colorectal cancer: Old controversies and recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Resch, Annika; Langner, Cord

    2013-01-01

    Outcome prediction based on tumor stage reflected by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC)/Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) tumor node metastasis (TNM) system is currently regarded as the strongest prognostic parameter for patients with colorectal cancer. For affected patients, the indication for adjuvant therapy is mainly guided by the presence of regional lymph node metastasis. In addition to the extent of surgical lymph node removal and the thoroughness of the pathologist in dissecting the resection specimen, several parameters that are related to the pathological work-up of the dissected nodes may affect the clinical significance of lymph node staging. These include changing definitions of lymph nodes, involved lymph nodes, and tumor deposits in different editions of the AJCC/UICC TNM system as well as the minimum number of nodes to be dissected. Methods to increase the lymph node yield in the fatty tissue include methylene blue injection and acetone compression. Outcome prediction based on the lymph node ratio, defined as the number of positive lymph nodes divided by the total number of retrieved nodes, may be superior to the absolute numbers of involved nodes. Extracapsular invasion has been identified as additional prognostic factor. Adding step sectioning and immunohistochemistry to the pathological work-up may result in higher accuracy of histological diagnosis. The clinical value of more recent technical advances, such as sentinel lymph node biopsy and molecular analysis of lymph nodes tissue still remains to be defined. PMID:24379568

  7. Mediastinal lymph node size in lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Libshitz, H.I.; McKenna, R.J. Jr.

    1984-10-01

    Using a size criterion of 1 cm or greater as evidence for abnormality, the size of mediastinal lymph nodes identified by computed tomography (CT) was a poor predictor of mediastinal lymph node metastases in a series of 86 patients who had surgery for bronchogenic carcinoma. The surgery included full nodal sampling in all patients. Of the 86 patients, 36 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm identified by CT. Of the 21 patients with mediastinal metastases proven at surgery, 14 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm (sensitivity = 67%). Of the 65 patients without mediastinal metastases, 22 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm. Obstructive pneumonia and/or pulmonary collapse distal to the cancer was present in 39 patients (45%). Obstructive pneumonia and/or pulmonary collapse is a common occurrence in bronchogenic carcinoma, but mediastinal nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm in this circumstance cannot be presumed to represent metastatic disease. Metastatic mediastinal lymph node involvement was related to nodal size also in patients with evidence of prior granulomatous disease and in patients with no putative benign cause for nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm.

  8. Microfilaria in lymph node mimicking Kimura disease

    PubMed Central

    Jayalakshmy, PS; Pothen, Lillykutty; Letha, V; Sheeja, S

    2011-01-01

    In tropical and subtropical countries, parasitic infections are very rampant causing peripheral blood and or tissue eosinophilia. Here, a case of microfilaria in lymph node that produced intense eosinophil infiltrate is being reported. The dense eosinophil collection in the lymph node raised a possibility of Kimura's disease because no worms were seen in the initial sectioning of the tissue. Extensive sampling and diligent search revealed sections of microfilaria embedded in the eosinophil abscess along with foreign body giant cell reaction to its sheath material, leading to the correct diagnosis of this case. PMID:23508372

  9. Whole proteome analysis of mouse lymph nodes in cutaneous anthrax.

    PubMed

    Popova, Taissia G; Espina, Virginia; Zhou, Weidong; Mueller, Claudius; Liotta, Lance; Popov, Serguei G

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize a soluble proteome of popliteal lymph nodes during lymphadenitis induced by intradermal injection of Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores in mice using tandem LC-MS/MS and reverse-phase protein microarray with antibodies specific to epitopes of phosphorylated proteins. More than 380 proteins were detected in the normal intra-nodal lymph, while the infectious process resulted in the profound changes in the protein abundances and appearance of 297 unique proteins. These proteins belong to an array of processes reflecting response to wounding, inflammation and perturbations of hemostasis, innate immune response, coagulation and fibrinolysis, regulation of body fluid levels and vascular disturbance among others. Comparison of lymph and serum revealed 83 common proteins. Also, using 71 antibodies specific to total and phosphorylated forms of proteins we carried initial characterization of circulating lymph phosphoproteome which brought additional information regarding signaling pathways operating in the lymphatics. The results demonstrate that the proteome of intra-nodal lymph serves as a sensitive sentinel of the processes occurring within the lymph nodes during infection. The acute innate response of the lymph nodes to anthrax is accompanied by cellular damage and inflammation with a large number of up- and down-regulated proteins many of which are distinct from those detected in serum. MS data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001342.

  10. Whole Proteome Analysis of Mouse Lymph Nodes in Cutaneous Anthrax

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Weidong; Mueller, Claudius; Liotta, Lance; Popov, Serguei G.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize a soluble proteome of popliteal lymph nodes during lymphadenitis induced by intradermal injection of Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores in mice using tandem LC-MS/MS and reverse-phase protein microarray with antibodies specific to epitopes of phosphorylated proteins. More than 380 proteins were detected in the normal intra-nodal lymph, while the infectious process resulted in the profound changes in the protein abundances and appearance of 297 unique proteins. These proteins belong to an array of processes reflecting response to wounding, inflammation and perturbations of hemostasis, innate immune response, coagulation and fibrinolysis, regulation of body fluid levels and vascular disturbance among others. Comparison of lymph and serum revealed 83 common proteins. Also, using 71 antibodies specific to total and phosphorylated forms of proteins we carried initial characterization of circulating lymph phosphoproteome which brought additional information regarding signaling pathways operating in the lymphatics. The results demonstrate that the proteome of intra-nodal lymph serves as a sensitive sentinel of the processes occurring within the lymph nodes during infection. The acute innate response of the lymph nodes to anthrax is accompanied by cellular damage and inflammation with a large number of up- and down-regulated proteins many of which are distinct from those detected in serum. MS data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001342. PMID:25329596

  11. Occurrence of salmonella in the ileum, ileocolic lymph nodes, tonsils, mandibular lymph nodes and carcasses of pigs slaughtered for consumption.

    PubMed

    Vieira-Pinto, M; Temudo, P; Martins, C

    2005-12-01

    This study evaluates the occurrence of Salmonella in pork carcasses and in some risk tissues (ileum, ileocolic and mandibular lymph nodes and tonsils), that can be involved in Salmonella contamination during slaughter. Salmonella was identified in 27 (26.7%) pigs and in 13 (12.9%) carcasses. From these positive carcasses, 69.2% presented the same serotype as that identified in the corresponding pig, which emphasize the pigs importance as a source of Salmonella during the slaughter, suggesting that measures should be taken at the level of pig production in order to reduce the slaughtering of Salmonella-positive animals. The highest value of Salmonella occurrence was reached in the ileocolic lymph nodes (18.8%) and in the ileum (13.9%), representing Salmonella potential faecal source during pork processing at the abattoir. In these samples, a high level of Salmonella was observed in the ileocolic lymph nodes in comparison with the ileum. The mandibular lymph nodes (12.9%) also presented a higher occurrence in comparison with the tonsils (9.9%). These results indicate that the lymph nodes analysis could be more sensitive in the detection of Salmonella than the closer drainage tissue. Otherwise, the presence of Salmonella in the lymph nodes indicates lymphatic spread of the organism, which reflects an increased risk of pork contamination. These results also indicate that, in order to achieve a better control of Salmonella contamination during the slaughter process, it is important to consider the improvement of the evisceration practices and the tonsils as well the extraction of mandibular lymph nodes after slaughter.

  12. Detection of parasternal metastatic lymph nodes by sentinel lymph node methods in a patient with recurrence in the conserved breast.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Toshinari; Fujita, Takashi; Hayashi, Hironori; Ando, Yoshiaki; Hato, Yukari; Horio, Akiyo; Toyoshima, Chieko; Yamada, Mai; Iwata, Hiroji

    2014-03-01

    We herein report a case of second sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). A 57-year-old woman underwent breast-conserving surgery including axillary clearance at Aichi Cancer Center on October 20, 2003. Recurrent tumor in the conserved breast was diagnosed in March 2006. She received SLNB using radioactive tracer. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy detected 2 parasternal lymph nodes as hot spots. No abnormal lymph nodes were revealed on preoperative computed tomography. Salvage mastectomy was performed along with dissection of the Rotter and infraclavicular lymph nodes and biopsy of the detected parasternal lymph nodes. Micrometastases were discovered in both parasternal lymph nodes detected as sentinel lymph nodes. No more metastases were seen in the other lymph nodes. Reoperative SLNB offers the possibility of detecting metastasis in residual lymph nodes and determining whether chemotherapy should be used.

  13. Research sheds light on lymph node mystery.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    Researchers explain why so much HIV is found in the lymph nodes. The follicular dendritic cells act like flypaper to HIV and other pathogens. Once attracted, HIV is able to ambush critical immune cells, even in the presence of a vast excess of neutralizing antibodies. In the absence of follicular dendritic cells, similar quantities of neutralizing antibodies block HIV infectivity.

  14. Early diagnosis of lymph node metastasis: Importance of intranodal pressures.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yoshinobu; Mikada, Mamoru; Ouchi, Tomoki; Horie, Sachiko; Takeda, Kazu; Yamaki, Teppei; Sakamoto, Maya; Mori, Shiro; Kodama, Tetsuya

    2016-03-01

    Regional lymph node status is an important prognostic indicator of tumor aggressiveness. However, early diagnosis of metastasis using intranodal pressure, at a stage when lymph node size has not changed significantly, has not been investigated. Here, we use an MXH10/Mo-lpr/lpr mouse model of lymph node metastasis to show that intranodal pressure increases in both the subiliac lymph node and proper axillary lymph node, which are connected by lymphatic vessels, when tumor cells are injected into the subiliac lymph node to induce metastasis to the proper axillary lymph node. We found that intranodal pressure in the subiliac lymph node increased at the stage when metastasis was detected by in vivo bioluminescence, but when proper axillary lymph node volume (measured by high-frequency ultrasound imaging) had not increased significantly. Intravenously injected liposomes, encapsulating indocyanine green, were detected in solid tumors by in vivo bioluminescence, but not in the proper axillary lymph node. Basic blood vessel and lymphatic channel structures were maintained in the proper axillary lymph node, although sinus histiocytosis was detected. These results show that intranodal pressure in the proper axillary lymph node increases at early stages when metastatic tumor cells have not fully proliferated. Intranodal pressure may be a useful parameter for facilitating early diagnosis of lymph node metastasis.

  15. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alsaif, Abdulaziz A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To report our experience in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in early breast cancer. Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2005 and December 2014. There were 120 patients who underwent SLNB with frozen section examination. Data collected included the characteristics of patients, index tumor, and sentinel node (SN), SLNB results, axillary recurrence rate and SLNB morbidity. Results: There were 120 patients who had 123 cancers. Sentinel node was identified in 117 patients having 120 tumors (97.6% success rate). No SN was found intraoperatively in 3 patients. Frozen section results showed that 95 patients were SN negative, those patients had no immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), whereas 25 patients were SN positive and subsequently had immediate ALND. Upon further examination of the 95 negative SN’s by hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining for doubtful H&E cases, 10 turned out to have micrometastases (6 had delayed ALND and 4 had no further axillary surgery). Median follow up of patients was 35.5 months and the mean was 38.8 months. There was one axillary recurrence observed in the SN negative group. The morbidity of SLNB was minimal. Conclusion: The obtainable results from our local experience in SLNB in breast cancer, concur with that seen in published similar literature in particular the axillary failure rate. Sentinel lymph node biopsy resulted in minimal morbidity. PMID:26318461

  16. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound in discrimination between benign and malignant mediastinal and abdominal lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Hocke, Michael; Menges, Markus; Topalidis, Theodor; Dietrich, Christoph F; Stallmach, Andreas

    2008-04-01

    Enlarged lymph nodes in the mediastinum reflect neoplastic, infectious or other diseases. The classification of these nodes is crucial in the management of the patient. Currently, only invasive measures obtaining tissue samples reach satisfying specificity. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) may offer a non-invasive alternative. A total of 122 patients (age: 63 +/- 15 years, 92 males, 30 females) with enlarged mediastinal and/or paraaortic lymph nodes diagnosed by CT scan were included in the study. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration was performed and cytologic specimens were diagnosed as representing a malignant or benign process in case of Papanicolau IV and V, or Papanicolau I and II, respectively. Based on cytology results, the investigated lymph nodes were classified as neoplastic (n = 48) or non-neoplastic lymph nodes. Using the B-mode criteria the preliminary diagnosis was confirmed in 64 out of 74 benign lymph nodes (specificity 86%). Regarding malignant lymph nodes 33 of 48 were confirmed (sensitivity 68%). Using the advanced contrast-enhanced EUS criteria the diagnosis was confirmed in 68 of 74 benign lymph nodes (specificity 91%). However, in case of malignant lymph nodes the number of correct diagnoses dropped to 29 of 48 lymph nodes (sensitivity 60%). The contrast-enhanced EUS criteria to identify benign lymph nodes and node enlargement in malignant lymphoma do not differ. If those ten patients with malignant lymphoma are excluded, the sensitivity of the contrast enhanced EUS for malignant lymph nodes rises to 73%. Contrast-enhanced EUS improves the specificity in diagnosing benign lymph nodes as compared to B-mode EUS. It does not improve the correct identification of malignant lymph nodes and cannot replace EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration.

  17. Novel Methods of Lymph Node Evaluation for Predicting the Prognosis of Colorectal Cancer Patients with Inadequate Lymph Node Harvest

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Taek Soo; Choi, Sung Bong; Lee, Yoon Suk; Kim, Jun-Gi; Oh, Seong Taek; Lee, In Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Lymph node metastasis is an important factor for predicting the prognosis of colorectal cancer patients. However, approximately 60% of patients do not receive adequate lymph node evaluation (less than 12 lymph nodes). In this study, we identified a more effective tool for predicting the prognosis of patients who received inadequate lymph node evaluation. Materials and Methods The number of metastatic lymph nodes, total number of lymph nodes examined, number of negative metastatic lymph nodes (NL), lymph node ratio (LR), and the number of apical lymph nodes (APL) were examined, and the prognostic impact of these parameters was examined in patients with colorectal cancer who underwent surgery from January 2004 to December 2011. In total, 806 people were analyzed retrospectively. Results In comparison of different lymph node analysis methods for rectal cancer patients who did not receive adequate lymph node dissection, the LR showed a significant difference in overall survival (OS) and the APL predicted a significant difference in disease-free survival (DFS). In the case of colon cancer patients who did not receive adequate lymph node dissection, LR predicted a significant difference in DFS and OS, and the APL predicted a significant difference in DFS. Conclusion If patients did not receive adequate lymph node evaluation, the LR and NL were useful parameters to complement N stage for predicting OS in colon cancer, whereas LR was complementary for rectal cancer. The APL could be used for prediction of DFS in all patients. PMID:25943323

  18. A case of lymphangioleiomyomatosis affecting the supraclavicular lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Kamitani, Takeshi; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Soeda, Hiroyasu; Matsuo, Yoshio; Okafuji, Takashi; Sakai, Shuji; Hatakenaka, Masamitsu; Minami, Takahiro; Inoue, Hiromasa; Tanaka, Atsuo; Kohno, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Michiko; Nakashima, Yutaka; Honda, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The case of a 46-year-old woman with lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) involving the supraclavicular, mediastinal, and pelvic lymph nodes in addition to the lungs is reported. Computed tomography incidentally revealed multiple thin-walled pulmonary cysts and low-attenuating masses in the supraclavicular, mediastinal, and retroperitoneal lymph nodes. A biopsy of the supraclavicular mass was performed and diagnosed as LAM histopathologically. The common sites of extrapulmonary LAM include retroperitoneal and mediastinal lymph nodes; however, supraclavicular lymph node involvement is extremely rare.

  19. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ribero, Simone; Sportoletti Baduel, Eugenio; Osella-Abate, Simona; Dika, Emi; Quaglino, Pietro; Picciotto, Franco; Macripò, Giuseppe; Bataille, Veronique

    2017-08-01

    The management of melanoma is constantly evolving. New therapies and surgical advances have changed the landscape over the last years. Since being introduced by Dr Donald Morton, the role of sentinel lymph node has been debated. In many melanoma centers, sentinel node biopsy is not a standard of care for melanoma above 1 mm in thickness. The results of the MSLT-II Trial are not available for a while and in the meantime, this procedure is offered as a prognostic indicator as it has been shown to be very useful for assessing risk of relapse. The biology of lymph node spread in melanoma is a complex field and there are many factors which influence it such as age, melanoma body site, thickness but other factors such as regression, ulceration and gender need further evaluation. In this review, we address the clinical value of sentinel lymph node biopsy and how its indication has changed over the years especially recently with the setup of many adjuvant trials which are offered to stage 3 melanomas.

  20. Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping of Liver

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Hideyuki; Hyun, Hoon; Vargas, Christina; Genega, Elizabeth M.; Gravier, Julien; Gioux, Sylvain; Frangioni, John V.; Choi, Hak Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) hypothesis has been applied to many tissues and organs, liver has remained unstudied. At present, it is unclear whether hepatic SLNs even exist. If so, they could alter management in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and other hepatic malignancies by minimizing the extent of surgery while still providing precise nodal staging. We investigated whether invisible yet tissue-penetrating near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent light can provide simultaneous identification of both the sentinel lymph node (SLN) and all other regional lymph nodes (RLN) in the liver. Method In twenty five Yorkshire pigs, we determined whether SLNs exist in liver, and compared the effectiveness of two clinically available NIR fluorophores, methylene blue (MB) and indocyanine green (ICG), and two novel NIR fluorophores previously described by our group, ESNF14 and ZW800-3C, for SLN and RLN mapping. Results ESNF14 showed the highest signal-to-background ratio (SBR) and longest retention time in SLNs, without leakage to second-tier lymph nodes. ICG had apparent leakage to second-tier nodes, while ZW800-3C suffered from poor migration after intraparenchymal injection. However, when injected intravenously, ZW800-3C was able to highlight all RLNs in liver over a 4–6 h period. Simultaneous dual channel imaging of SLN (ESNF14) and RLN (ZW800-3C) permitted unambiguous identification and image-guided resection of SLNs and RLNs in liver. Conclusion The NIR imaging technology enables real-time intraoperative identification of SLNs and RLNs in the liver of swine. If these results are confirmed in patients, new strategies for the surgical management of intrahepatic malignancies should be possible. PMID:25968620

  1. Salmonella in lymph nodes of cattle presented for harvest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in the subiliac lymph nodes (LN) of cattle. Lymph node samples were obtained from carcasses of cull and feedlot cattle at commercial packing plants. Lymph nodes were trimmed of all fat, surface sterilized by submersion in boiling ...

  2. Salmonella prevalence in bovine lymph nodes differs among feedyards

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lymphatic tissue, specifically lymph nodes, is commonly incorporated into ground beef products as a component of lean trimmings. Salmonella and other pathogenic bacteria have been identified in bovine lymph nodes. Although Salmonella prevalence has been examined among lymph nodes within an animal,...

  3. Tumor-induced sentinel lymph node lymphangiogenesis and increased lymph flow precede melanoma metastasis.

    PubMed

    Harrell, Maria I; Iritani, Brian M; Ruddell, Alanna

    2007-02-01

    Lymphangiogenesis is associated with human and murine cancer metastasis, suggesting that lymphatic vessels are important for tumor dissemination. Lymphatic vessel alterations were examined using B16-F10 melanoma cells implanted in syngeneic C57Bl/6 mice, which form tumors metastasizing to draining lymph nodes and subsequently to the lungs. Footpad tumors showed no lymphatic or blood vessel growth; however, the tumor-draining popliteal lymph node featured greatly increased lymphatic sinuses. Lymph node lymphangiogenesis began before melanoma cells reached draining lymph nodes, indicating that primary tumors induce these alterations at a distance. Lymph flow imaging revealed that nanoparticle transit was greatly increased through tumor-draining relative to nondraining lymph nodes. Lymph node lymphatic sinuses and lymph flow were increased in mice implanted with unmarked or with foreign antigen-expressing melanomas, indicating that these effects are not due to foreign antigen expression. However, tumor-derived immune signaling could promote lymph node alterations, as macrophages infiltrated footpad tumors, whereas lymphocytes accumulated in tumor-draining lymph nodes. B lymphocytes are required for lymphangiogenesis and increased lymph flow through tumor-draining lymph nodes, as these alterations were not observed in mice deficient for B cells. Lymph node lymphangiogenesis and increased lymph flow through tumor-draining lymph nodes may actively promote metastasis via the lymphatics.

  4. In-vitro Strain and Modulus Measurements in Porcine Cervical Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Wing-Han Yuen, Queeny; Zheng, Yong-Ping; Huang, Yan-Ping; He, Jun-Feng; Chung-Wai Cheung, James; Ying, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Cervical lymph nodes are common sites of metastatic involvement in head and neck cancers. These lymph nodes are superficially located and palpation is a common practice for assessing nodal hardness and staging cancer which is, however, too subjective and with limited accuracy. In this study, the mechanical properties of pig lymph node tissues were investigated using ultrasound elastography and indentation test. Lymph nodes were excised from fresh pork pieces and embedded in an agar-gelatin phantom for strain imaging by elastography. A strain ratio reflecting the strain contrast of lymph node over agar-gelatin phantom was used to assess the elasticity of the lymph node. A cutting device was then custom-designed to slice the phantom into uniform slices for indentation test. The measurements revealed that there were significant differences in both the strain ratio and Young’s modulus between the peripheral and middle regions of the lymph nodes (both p < 0.05); however, the results appeared contradictory. Correlation between the results of the two measurements (modulus ratio vs. inversed strain ratio) showed their association was moderate for both the peripheral and middle regions (R2 = 0.437 and 0.424 respectively). As the tests were only performed on normal lymph nodes, comparison in stiffness between healthy and abnormal lymph nodes could not be made. Future studies should be conducted to quantify the stiffness change in abnormal lymph nodes. PMID:21643424

  5. Lymph node content of supraclavicular and thoracodorsal-based axillary flaps for vascularized lymph node transfer.

    PubMed

    Gerety, Patrick A; Pannucci, Christopher J; Basta, Marten N; Wang, Amber R; Zhang, Paul; Mies, Carolyn; Kanchwala, Suhail K

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular transfer of lymph node flaps has recently gained popularity as a treatment for secondary lymphedema often occurring after axillary, groin, or pelvic lymph node dissections. This study aimed to delineate the lymph node contents and pedicle characteristics of the supraclavicular (SC) and thoracodorsal (TD)-based axillary flaps as well as to compare lymph node quantification of surgeon vs pathologist. SC and TD flaps were dissected from fresh female cadavers. The surgeon assessed pedicle characteristics, lymph node content, and anatomy. A pathologist assessed all flaps for gross and microscopic lymph node contents. The κ statistic was used to compare surgeon and pathologist. Ten SC flaps and 10 TD flaps were harvested and quantified. In comparing the SC and TD flaps, there were no statistical differences between artery diameter (3.1 vs 3.2 mm; P = .75) and vein diameter (2.8 vs 3.5 mm; P = .24). The TD flap did have a significantly longer pedicle than the SC flap (4.2 vs 3.2 cm; P = .03). The TD flap was found to be significantly heavier than the SC flap (17.0 ± 4.8 vs 12.9 ± 3.3 g; P = .04). Gross lymph node quantity was similar in the SC and TD flaps (2.5 ± 1.7 vs 1.8 ± 1.2; P = .33). There was good agreement between the surgeon and pathologist in detecting gross lymph nodes in the flaps (SC κ = 0.87, TD κ = 0.61). The SC and TD flaps have similar lymph node quantity, but the SC flap has higher lymphatic density. A surgeon's estimation of lymph node quantity is reliable and has been verified in this study by comparison to a pathologist's examination. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Faries, Mark B; Morton, Donald L

    2007-12-01

    In patients with melanoma, surgery is pivotal not only for the primary tumor but also for regional and often distant metastases. The minimally invasive technique of sentinel node (SN) biopsy has become standard for detection of occult regional node metastasis in patients with intermediate-thickness primary melanoma; in these patients it has a central role in determining prognosis and a significant impact on survival when biopsy results are positive. Its role in thin melanoma remains under evaluation. The regional tumor-draining SN also is a useful model for studies of melanoma-induced immunosuppression. Although completion lymphadenectomy remains the standard of care for patients with SN metastasis, results of ongoing phase III trials will indicate whether SN biopsy without further lymph node surgery is adequate therapy for certain patients with minimal regional node disease.

  7. [Tuberculosis of the cervical lymph nodes].

    PubMed

    Dvorski, I

    1989-01-01

    Clinical observations and experiences in the treatment of 52 patients with tuberculous cervical lymphadenitis are presented during the period of 15 yrs. In all patients the diagnosis was confirmed by pathohistological analysis of extirpated lymph nodes. In 88% of patients the caseous necrosis form of tuberculosis was histologically verified while in 12% the productive one. In 87% of patients the tuberculous process was localised unilaterally and in 13% bilaterally. Deep lymph nodes were more frequently involved than those on the surface (58%:42%). Most of the patients were in the third, fourth and fifth decade of life. Female patients were more frequent than males (58%:42%). In all patients the chemotherapy with antituberculous drugs was administered. In 42% patients tonsilectomy was performed with or without adenoidectomy depending on age of the patient. Pathohistologically tuberculosis of the tonsillae was found only in 3 cases.

  8. Synthesis of Lymph Node-Targeting Adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Melissa C; Irvine, Darrell J

    2017-01-01

    Molecular adjuvants based off of pattern recognition receptor agonists are capable of potently stimulating innate immunity and inducing protective immune responses to subunit antigens. One significant disadvantage to these small molecule adjuvants is their pharmacokinetic profile of entering the blood stream rather than the lymphatics after parental injection. In order to target molecular adjuvants to lymph nodes, we have developed nanoparticle carriers whose size has been optimized to avoid the blood and efficiently drain to lymph nodes (Hanson et al. Vaccine 33:861-8,2015; Hanson et al. J Clin Invest 125:2532-2546, 2015). This chapter describes in detail the materials and procedures necessary to synthesize liposome nanoparticle carriers of either hydrophobic or hydrophilic adjuvants, including synthesis tips, alternative equipment options, and pitfalls to avoid.

  9. Lymph Node Dissection for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mizrachi, Aviram; Shaha, Ashok R.

    2017-01-01

    Lymph node metastases in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) have a wide spectrum of clinical significance. Several variables are taken under consideration when trying to decide on the optimal management of patients with DTC. Routine prophylactic central and/or lateral lymph node dissection is not advocated with exception of central neck dissection for locally advanced tumors. When regarding recurrent disease, foundations have been laid for clinicians to make accurate decisions as to when to perform surgery and when to continue maintaining the patient’s disease under observation. These complex decisions are determined based upon multiple factors, not only regarding the patient’s disease but also the patient’s comprehension of the procedure and apprehension levels. Nevertheless if the patient and/or clinician are emotionally keen to surgically remove the disease then the procedure should be considered. PMID:28117285

  10. [Lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes in children].

    PubMed

    Kvirikashvili, T O

    2006-01-01

    We investigated 79 patients (76.0%) with lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes among all 104 with general abdominal lymphosarcoma. Ultrasound tomography was used in 98.1 % cases; also, in the urgent cases cancer transcutaneal puncture was performed with the purpose of cytological investigation. In complicated situations computer tomography was considered as a highly informative method of investigation. Surgical intervention and radial therapy is inexpedient in a treatment program of lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes in children. Besides, it is shown the superiority of intensive program of polychemical therapy OMDV: vincristine (oncovin) -- 1.5 mg/m(2) i/v in the 1 day; metotrexate -- 250 mg/m(2) i/v drop by drop in the I day; dexamethazone 10 mg/m(2) per os 1-5 day; vepesid -- 100 mg/m(2) i/v drop by drop in the 4 and 5 days.) in comparison with the ACOP scheme: adriamicine or rubomicine - 30 mg/m(2) i/v 1 time in week (N 4-6); cyclophosphane -- 600 mg/m(2) i/v 1 time in week (N 4-6); vincristine (oncovin) -- 1.4 mg/m(2) i/v 1 time in week (N 4-6); prednisolone -- 40 mg/m(2) every day 4-6 week quitting gradually) for treatment of lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes in childhood age. General recovery without recurrence in children with lymphosarcoma of abdominal lymph nodes was occurred in 44.2% cases. In the case of polychemical therapy according to ACOP scheme, recovery was 20% and in the case of polychemical therapy following OMDV scheme, 78.1% of the children recovered.

  11. Pacinian Corpuscles in Human Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Feito, J; Cobo, J L; Santos-Briz, A; Vega, J A

    2017-08-14

    The occurrence of Pacinian corpuscles associated to lymph nodes is an anatomical rarity and very scarce information exists in this regard. Here we examined immunohistochemically four Pacinian corpuscles found in the close vicinity of the hiliar blood vessels of lymph nodes (2 cervical, 1 axillary, and 1 inguinal) during routine surgical pathology. Pacinian corpuscles were normally arranged and displayed a pattern of protein distribution as follows: the axon was positive for neurofilament proteins and neuron specific enolase, the inner core cells showed intense S100 protein and vimentin immunostaining while they were negative for glial fibrillary acidic protein, type IV collagen and glucose transporter 1; vimentin, type IV collagen, and glucose transporter 1 were also observed also in the outer-core and the capsule. These results are in agreement with those reported for cutaneous Pacinian corpuscles, demonstrating that the immunohistochemical profile of these corpuscles is independent of its anatomical localization. The possible functional significance of Pacinian corpuscles in lymph nodes is discussed. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Sentinel Lymph Nodes for Breast Carcinoma: A Paradigm Shift.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Aoife; Brogi, Edi

    2016-08-01

    -Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been established as the new standard of care for axillary staging in most patients with invasive breast carcinoma. Historically, all patients with a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy result underwent axillary lymph node dissection. Recent trials show that axillary lymph node dissection can be safely omitted in women with clinically node negative, T1 or T2 invasive breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast radiotherapy. This change in practice also has implications on the pathologic examination and reporting of sentinel lymph nodes. -To review recent clinical and pathologic studies of sentinel lymph nodes and explore how these findings influence the pathologic evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes. -Sources were published articles from peer-reviewed journals in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine) and published guidelines from the American Joint Committee on Cancer, the Union for International Cancer Control, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. -The main goal of sentinel lymph node examination should be to detect all macrometastases (>2 mm). Grossly sectioning sentinel lymph nodes at 2-mm intervals and evaluation of one hematoxylin-eosin-stained section from each block is the preferred method of pathologic evaluation. Axillary lymph node dissection can be safely omitted in clinically node-negative patients with negative sentinel lymph nodes, as well as in a selected group of patients with limited sentinel lymph node involvement. The pathologic features of the primary carcinoma and its sentinel lymph node metastases contribute to estimate the extent of non-sentinel lymph node involvement. This information is important to decide on further axillary treatment.

  13. Sentinel Lymph Nodes for Breast Carcinoma A Paradigm Shift

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Aoife; Brogi, Edi

    2016-01-01

    Context Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been established as the new standard of care for axillary staging in most patients with invasive breast carcinoma. Historically, all patients with a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy result underwent axillary lymph node dissection. Recent trials show that axillary lymph node dissection can be safely omitted in women with clinically node negative, T1 or T2 invasive breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast radiotherapy. This change in practice also has implications on the pathologic examination and reporting of sentinel lymph nodes. Objective To review recent clinical and pathologic studies of sentinel lymph nodes and explore how these findings influence the pathologic evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes. Data Sources Sources were published articles from peer-reviewed journals in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine) and published guidelines from the American Joint Committee on Cancer, the Union for International Cancer Control, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Conclusions The main goal of sentinel lymph node examination should be to detect all macrometastases (>2 mm). Grossly sectioning sentinel lymph nodes at 2-mm intervals and evaluation of one hematoxylin-eosin–stained section from each block is the preferred method of pathologic evaluation. Axillary lymph node dissection can be safely omitted in clinically node-negative patients with negative sentinel lymph nodes, as well as in a selected group of patients with limited sentinel lymph node involvement. The pathologic features of the primary carcinoma and its sentinel lymph node metastases contribute to estimate the extent of non–sentinel lymph node involvement. This information is important to decide on further axillary treatment. PMID:27472237

  14. Differential Gene Expression in Primary Breast Tumors Associated with Lymph Node Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ellsworth, Rachel E.; Field, Lori A.; Love, Brad; Kane, Jennifer L.; Hooke, Jeffrey A.; Shriver, Craig D.

    2011-01-01

    Lymph node status remains one of the most useful prognostic indicators in breast cancer; however, current methods to assess nodal status disrupt the lymphatic system and may lead to secondary complications. Identification of molecular signatures discriminating lymph node-positive from lymph node-negative primary tumors would allow for stratification of patients requiring surgical assesment of lymph nodes. Primary breast tumors from women with negative (n = 41) and positive (n = 35) lymph node status matched for possible confounding factors were subjected to laser microdissection and gene expression data generated. Although ANOVA analysis (P < .001, fold-change >1.5) revealed 13 differentially expressed genes, hierarchical clustering classified 90% of node-negative but only 66% of node-positive tumors correctly. The inability to derive molecular profiles of metastasis in primary tumors may reflect tumor heterogeneity, paucity of cells within the primary tumor with metastatic potential, influence of the microenvironment, or inherited host susceptibility to metastasis. PMID:22295210

  15. [Lymph node dissection in non-medullary differentiated thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Mathonnet, M

    2006-01-01

    Papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas are the most common form of endocrine carcinomas. Lymph node involvement seems to be a low risk factor for death, but it increases the risk for loco-regional recurrences and distant metastasis. The limits and the key points of the cervical lymph node dissection are described. The sentinel lymph node is used to rarely, so it could limit the lymph dissection. Node-picking has to be avoided. Central lymph node resection is recommended for high-risk patients, as male, patients more than 45 or less than 21 years old, papillary carcinomas greater than 1 cm or follicular carcinoma more than 2 cm in diameter. Lateral lymph node resection is performed when the lymph nodes of the central compartment are involved, more than 3 cm in diameter, and bulked. Prophylactic lymphadenectomy is useless. When thyroid carcinoma is known postoperatively, re-operation depends of the cervical mass and of the results of the radioactive iodine treatment.

  16. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with extramammary Paget's disease.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Naohito; Morita, Reiji; Yamada, Mizuki; Echigo, Takeshi; Hirano, Takashi; Takehara, Kazuhiko; Ichiyanagi, Kenji; Yokoyama, Kunihiko

    2004-10-01

    Patients with invasive extramammary Paget's disease appear to have a risk of regional lymph node metastasis. Despite the poor prognosis for patients with lymph node metastasis, management of extramammary Paget's disease without clinical evidence of involved nodes is controversial. To evaluate the usefulness of sentinel lymph node biopsy, patients with extramammary Paget's disease underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy using preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative patent blue dye injection with a handheld gamma-detecting probe. Thirteen patients with primary genital extramammary Paget's disease were included in the study. Sentinel nodes identified were excised and examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. All sentinel lymph nodes were also subjected to immunohistochemical staining for carcinoembryonic antigen, MUC1, cytokeratin 7, and gross cystic disease fluid protein-15. A total of 23 nodes were removed successfully. Tumor cells were detected in 4 nodes from four patients by hematoxylin and eosin staining. No additional lymph nodes were positive by immunohistochemistry. Three of the four sentinel-node-positive patients developed distant metastases. All nine patients without node involvement were free from disease during the follow-up period. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was safe and feasible method and may have an important role in the management of extramammary Paget's disease with clinically N0 status. To establish the optimal management of inguinal lymph nodes in extramammary Paget's disease, additional studies in large number of patients are needed.

  17. [Cytological examination of the intrathoracic lymph nodes (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Simeĉek, C

    1978-01-01

    During the last few years, cytological examinations of the intrathoracic lymph nodes have become a usual method of bronchological examinations, being applied by way of routine. Taking the analysis of 3408 perbronchial and pertracheal lymph node punctions as a basis, the author discusses the results. Mostly the intrathoracic nodes of lung cancer patients were examined. A metastasization could be detected in 58 per cent. At sarcoidosis and tuberculosis the results correspond to those of mediastinoscopy. The occurrence of the cholesterol crystals is mentioned. Occasionally, megacaryocytes and immature cells of the hematopoiesis are found in the lymph nodes. Due to the favourable anatomic conditions, also normal lymph nodes are accessible to perbronchial punction.

  18. Angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia with amyloidosis.

    PubMed Central

    West, K. P.; Morgan, D. R.; Lauder, I.

    1989-01-01

    Two cases of angiofollicular lymph node hyperplasia are described, one of the solitary plasma cell type the other of the multicentric hyaline vascular type. Both cases illustrate the wide ranging clinical and pathological findings associated with this condition but both also have unusual features. The solitary plasma cell lesion had an exceptional 32 year clinical history and was associated with systemic amyloidosis of AL type. The multicentric hyaline vascular case was associated with coexistent multiple myeloma and amyloid deposition also of AL type. These cases are presented with a review of the relevant literature. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2780459

  19. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Early Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    The role of axillary surgery for the treatment of primary breast cancer is in a process of constant change. During the last decade, axillary dissection with removal of at least 10 lymph nodes (ALD) was replaced by sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) as a staging procedure. Since then, the indication for SLNB rapidly expanded. Today's surgical strategies aim to minimize the rate of patients with a negative axillary status who undergo ALD. For some subgroups of patients, the indication for SLNB (e.g. multicentric disease, large tumors) or its implication for treatment planning (micrometastatic involvement, neoadjuvant chemotherapy) is being discussed. Although the indication for ALD is almost entirely restricted to patients with positive axillary lymph nodes today, the therapeutic effect of completion ALD is more and more questioned. On the other hand, the diagnostic value of ALD in node-positive patients is discussed. This article reflects today's standards in axillary surgery and discusses open issues on the diagnostic and therapeutic role of SLNB and ALD in the treatment of early breast cancer.

  20. Sentinel lymph node biopsy reveals a positive popliteal node in clear cell sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Yoshihisa; Tsukushi, Satoshi; Shibata, Shinichi; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2005-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma of the tendons and aponeuroses is an aggressive, rare soft tissue tumor with frequent metastases to regional lymph nodes. Sentinel lymph node biopsy, which has dramatically changed the management of melanoma, was used for clear cell sarcoma for an evaluation of popliteal and groin lymph node status. Although all isosulfan blue-stained groin lymph nodes were negative for malignancy, a popliteal lymph node was positive. Adjuvant 50 Gy of radiotherapy to the popliteal node might have been effective for local control for one year.

  1. Automatic detection of pelvic lymph nodes using multiple MR sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Michelle; Lu, Yue; Lu, Renzhi; Requardt, Martin; Moeller, Thomas; Takahashi, Satoru; Barentsz, Jelle

    2007-03-01

    A system for automatic detection of pelvic lymph nodes is developed by incorporating complementary information extracted from multiple MR sequences. A single MR sequence lacks sufficient diagnostic information for lymph node localization and staging. Correct diagnosis often requires input from multiple complementary sequences which makes manual detection of lymph nodes very labor intensive. Small lymph nodes are often missed even by highly-trained radiologists. The proposed system is aimed at assisting radiologists in finding lymph nodes faster and more accurately. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such system reported in the literature. A 3-dimensional (3D) MR angiography (MRA) image is employed for extracting blood vessels that serve as a guide in searching for pelvic lymph nodes. Segmentation, shape and location analysis of potential lymph nodes are then performed using a high resolution 3D T1-weighted VIBE (T1-vibe) MR sequence acquired by Siemens 3T scanner. An optional contrast-agent enhanced MR image, such as post ferumoxtran-10 T2*-weighted MEDIC sequence, can also be incorporated to further improve detection accuracy of malignant nodes. The system outputs a list of potential lymph node locations that are overlaid onto the corresponding MR sequences and presents them to users with associated confidence levels as well as their sizes and lengths in each axis. Preliminary studies demonstrates the feasibility of automatic lymph node detection and scenarios in which this system may be used to assist radiologists in diagnosis and reporting.

  2. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of inguinal lymph nodes, simulating lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Akansha; Malhotra, Kiran Preet; Sharma, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    Multiple enlarged lymph nodes in an elderly female patient can have varied etiologies as well as histologic pictures. We are presenting the case of a 53-year-old female who presented with inguinal lymphadenopathy with fever, which was clinically misconstrued as lymphoma. Cytology could not exclude a lymphoma. Histology led to the unusual diagnosis of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of lymph node in this case. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the lymph node is a rare, distinctive reactive proliferative pattern in the lymph node which involves proliferation of the connective tissue elements of the lymph node, admixed with lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils, and histiocytes. Multiple etiologic agents have been suggested in existing literature. Despite extensive search, no definite attributable cause could be sought. It is now widely accepted that inflammatory pseudotumor of the lymph node is a non-neoplastic proliferation which has a benign clinical course and excellent prognosis after surgical resection.

  3. Sentinel lymph node biopsy and melanoma: 2010 update Part II.

    PubMed

    Stebbins, William G; Garibyan, Lilit; Sober, Arthur J

    2010-05-01

    This article will discuss the evidence for and against the therapeutic efficacy of early removal of potentially affected lymph nodes, morbidity associated with sentinel lymph node biopsy and completion lymphadenectomy, current guidelines regarding patient selection for sentinel lymph node biopsy, and the remaining questions that ongoing clinical trials are attempting to answer. The Sunbelt Melanoma Trial and the Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trials I and II will be discussed in detail. At the completion of this learning activity, participants should be able to discuss the data regarding early surgical removal of lymph nodes and its effect on the overall survival of melanoma patients, be able to discuss the potential benefits and morbidity associated with complete lymph node dissection, and to summarize the ongoing trials aimed at addressing the question of therapeutic value of early surgical treatment of regional lymph nodes that may contain micrometastases. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Social temperament and lymph node innervation

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Erica K.; Capitanio, John P.; Tarara, Ross P.; Cole, Steve W.

    2008-01-01

    Socially inhibited individuals show increased vulnerability to viral infections, and this has been linked to increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). To determine whether structural alterations in SNS innervation of lymphoid tissue might contribute to these effects, we assayed the density of catecholaminergic nerve fibers in 13 lymph nodes from 7 healthy adult rhesus macaques that showed stable individual differences in propensity to socially affiliate (Sociability). Tissues from Low Sociable animals showed a 2.8-fold greater density of catecholaminergic innervation relative to tissues from High Sociable animals, and this was associated with a 2.3-fold greater expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) mRNA, suggesting a molecular mechanism for observed differences. Low Sociable animals also showed alterations in lymph node expression of the immunoregulatory cytokine genes IFNG and IL4, and lower secondary IgG responses to tetanus vaccination. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that structural differences in lymphoid tissue innervation might potentially contribute to relationships between social temperament and immunobiology. PMID:18068331

  5. Sentinel Lymph Node Evaluation in Women with Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Laura L.; Levenback, Charles F.; Frumovitz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Lymph node status is the most important prognosticator of survival among women with early stage cervical cancer. This means that many cervical cancer patients will undergo pelvic lymphadenectomy as part of their treatment. Unfortunately, this procedure is associated with significant morbidity. Utilizing the sentinel lymph node technique for women with cervical cancer has the potential to decrease this morbidity. Multiple studies have suggested that sentinel lymph node mapping in these patients is feasible with excellent detection rates and sensitivity. This review examines the current body of literature regarding sentinel lymph node biopsy among women with cervical cancer. PMID:24407177

  6. Detection of Lymph Node Metastases with SERRS Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Spaliviero, Massimiliano; Harmsen, Stefan; Huang, Ruimin; Wall, Matthew A.; Andreou, Chrysafis; Eastham, James A.; Touijer, Karim A.; Scardino, Peter T.; Kircher, Moritz F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The accurate detection of lymph node metastases in prostate cancer patients is important to direct treatment decisions. Our goal was to develop an intra-operative imaging approach to distinguish normal from metastasized lymph nodes. We therefore developed and tested gold-silica surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) nanoparticles that demonstrate high uptake within normal lymphatic tissue, and negligible uptake in areas of metastatic replacement. Procedures We evaluated the ability of SERRS nanoparticles to delineate lymph node metastases in an orthotopic prostate cancer mouse model using PC-3 cells transduced with mCherry fluorescent protein. Tumor bearing mice (n = 6) and non-tumor bearing control animals (n = 4) were injected intravenously with 30 fmol/g SERRS nanoparticles. After 16–18 hours, the retroperitoneal lymph nodes were scanned in situ and ex vivo with a Raman imaging system and a hand-held Raman scanner and data corroborated with fluorescence imaging for mCherry protein expression and histology. Results The SERRS nanoparticles demonstrated avid homing to normal lymph nodes, but not to metastasized lymph nodes. In cases where lymph nodes were partially infiltrated by tumor cells, the SERRS signal correctly identified, with sub-millimeter precision, healthy from metastasized components within the same lymph node. Conclusions This study serves as a first proof-of-principle that SERRS nanoparticles enable high precision and rapid intraoperative discrimination between normal and metastasized lymph nodes. PMID:26943129

  7. Novel method and applications for labeling and identifying lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiraly, Atilla P.; Naidich, David P.; Guendel, Lutz; Zhang, Li; Novak, Carol L.

    2007-03-01

    The lymphatic system comprises a series of interconnected lymph nodes that are commonly distributed along branching or linearly oriented anatomic structures. Physicians must evaluate lymph nodes when staging cancer and planning optimal paths for nodal biopsy. This process requires accurately determining the lymph node's position with respect to major anatomical landmarks. In an effort to standardize lung cancer staging, The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) has classified lymph nodes within the chest into 4 groups and 14 sub groups. We present a method for automatically labeling lymph nodes according to this classification scheme, in order to improve the speed and accuracy of staging and biopsy planning. Lymph nodes within the chest are clustered around the major blood vessels and the airways. Our fully automatic labeling method determines the nodal group and sub-group in chest CT data by use of computed airway and aorta centerlines to produce features relative to a given node location. A classifier then determines the label based upon these features. We evaluate the efficacy of the method on 10 chest CT datasets containing 86 labeled lymph nodes. The results are promising with 100% of the nodes assigned to the correct group and 76% to the correct sub-group. We anticipate that additional features and training data will further improve the results. In addition to labeling, other applications include automated lymph node localization and visualization. Although we focus on chest CT data, the method can be generalized to other regions of the body as well as to different imaging modalities.

  8. Popliteal lymph node assay: facts and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ravel, Guillaume; Descotes, Jacques

    2005-01-01

    The popliteal lymph node assay (PLNA) derives from the hypothesis that some supposedly immune-mediated adverse effects induced by certain pharmaceuticals involve a mechanism resembling a graft-versus-host reaction. The injection of many but not all of these compounds into the footpad of mice or rats produces an increase in the weight and/or cellularity of the popliteal lymph node in the treated limb (direct PLNA). Some of the compounds known to cause these adverse effects in humans, however, failed to induce a positive PLNA response, leading to refinements of the technique to include pretreatment with enzyme inducers, depletion of CD4(+) T cells or additional endpoints such as histological examination, lymphocyte subset analysis and cytokine fingerprinting. Alternative approaches have been used to improve further the predictability of the assay. In the secondary PLNA, the test compound is injected twice in order to illicit a greater secondary response, thus suggesting a memory-specific T cell response. In the adoptive PLNA, popliteal lymph node cells from treated mice are injected into the footpad of naive mice; a marked response to a subsequent footpad challenge demonstrates the involvement of T cells. Finally, the reporter antigens TNP-Ficoll and TNP-ovalbumin are used to differentiate compounds that induce responses involving neo-antigen help or co-stimulatory signals (modified PLNA). The PLNA is increasingly considered as a tool for detection of the potential to induce both sensitization and autoimmune reactions. A major current limitation is validation. A small inter-laboratory validation study of the direct PLNA found consistent results. No such study has been performed using an alternative protocol. Other issues include selection of the optimal protocol for an improved prediction of sensitization vs autoimmunity, and the elimination of false-positive responses due to primary irritation. Finally, a better understanding of underlying mechanisms is essential to

  9. Endoscopic ultrasound: Elastographic lymph node evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Christoph F.; Jenssen, Christian; Arcidiacono, Paolo G.; Cui, Xin-Wu; Giovannini, Marc; Hocke, Michael; Iglesias-Garcia, Julio; Saftoiu, Adrian; Sun, Siyu; Chiorean, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Different imaging techniques can bring different information which will contribute to the final diagnosis and further management of the patients. Even from the time of Hippocrates, palpation has been used in order to detect and characterize a body mass. The so-called virtual palpation has now become a reality due to elastography, which is a recently developed technique. Elastography has already been proving its added value as a complementary imaging method, helpful to better characterize and differentiate between benign and malignant masses. The current applications of elastography in lymph nodes (LNs) assessment by endoscopic ultrasonography will be further discussed in this paper, with a review of the literature and future perspectives. PMID:26374575

  10. Patterns of age-dependent changes in the numbers of lymph follicles and germinal centres in somatic and mesenteric lymph nodes in growing C57Bl/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    HOSHI, HAJIME; HORIE, KAEKO; TANAKA, KIYOSHI; NAGATA, HIDETUGU; AIZAWA, SIN; HIRAMOTO, MASAKI; RYOUKE, TOSHIO; AIJIMA, HIROSHI

    2001-01-01

    The timing of the first appearance of lymph follicles and germinal centres in various lymph nodes, and the ways in which numbers of these and IgM-synthesising cells increase within the nodes, were investigated in male and female C57Bl/6N mice aged from 4 d to 16 wk. The lymphoid organs examined were the Peyer's patches, spleen, somatic (submandibular, deep cervical, brachial, axillary, inguinal and popliteal) and visceral (mesenteric and lumbar) lymph nodes. Primary follicles appeared in most somatic lymph nodes 6 d after birth. The number of follicles per node then increased rather sharply in larger lymph nodes and slowly in smaller nodes, up to 28 d of age, reaching a level which varied according to the location of the node. Thereafter, the number of follicles in the somatic lymph nodes increased only slightly to moderately, reaching a peak or plateau at 8–12 wk. In the mesenteric (ileocaecal) nodes, primary follicles first appeared at 12 d, then increased linearly during the suckling period and after weaning to reach a plateau at 8 wk of age. Germinal centres appeared in the submandibular and mesenteric nodes at 28 d and their numbers increased consistently in the latter, while remaining low in the former. The impact of possible ‘natural’ exogenous antigen stimulation of the various lymph nodes was estimated from the presence of IgM-synthesising cells and germinal centres. Differences between the patterns of age-dependent changes in the numbers of lymph follicles observed in the somatic and mesenteric lymph nodes during their ontogeny are discussed in relation to differences in the magnitude of the exogenous antigen stimulatory effect. We also found that the variations in the numbers of lymph follicles produced in somatic lymph nodes at different locations during the first 28 d after birth reflected differences in the dimensions of the body regions drained by a particular somatic lymph node at this stage of development. PMID:11273044

  11. Intra-lymph node injection of biodegradable polymer particles.

    PubMed

    Andorko, James I; Tostanoski, Lisa H; Solano, Eduardo; Mukhamedova, Maryam; Jewell, Christopher M

    2014-01-02

    Generation of adaptive immune response relies on efficient drainage or trafficking of antigen to lymph nodes for processing and presentation of these foreign molecules to T and B lymphocytes. Lymph nodes have thus become critical targets for new vaccines and immunotherapies. A recent strategy for targeting these tissues is direct lymph node injection of soluble vaccine components, and clinical trials involving this technique have been promising. Several biomaterial strategies have also been investigated to improve lymph node targeting, for example, tuning particle size for optimal drainage of biomaterial vaccine particles. In this paper we present a new method that combines direct lymph node injection with biodegradable polymer particles that can be laden with antigen, adjuvant, or other vaccine components. In this method polymeric microparticles or nanoparticles are synthesized by a modified double emulsion protocol incorporating lipid stabilizers. Particle properties (e.g. size, cargo loading) are confirmed by laser diffraction and fluorescent microscopy, respectively. Mouse lymph nodes are then identified by peripheral injection of a nontoxic tracer dye that allows visualization of the target injection site and subsequent deposition of polymer particles in lymph nodes. This technique allows direct control over the doses and combinations of biomaterials and vaccine components delivered to lymph nodes and could be harnessed in the development of new biomaterial-based vaccines.

  12. Salmonella in lymph nodes of cattle presented for harvest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Salmonella can invade and survive within host immune cells. Once internalized, these pathogens have the potential to disseminate throughout the lymphatic system and reside within lymph nodes. If so, because some lymph nodes are located within muscle and fat tissues, Salmonella-positiv...

  13. Popliteal lymphadenectomy on sentinel lymph node melanoma metastasis.

    PubMed

    Barrasa Shaw, Antonio; Sancho Merle, Francisca; Fuster Diana, Carlos; Campos Máñez, Jorge; Vázquez Albadalejo, Carlos

    2006-03-01

    Popliteal lymph node dissection is a procedure that surgeons rarely perform and, therefore, scarcely represented in bibliography. In this paper we present the case of a patient with melanoma metastasis to popliteal sentinel lymph nodes showing the surgical procedure and discussing some epidemiological and technical issues.

  14. Dissemination in cutaneous leishmaniasis. 3. Lymph node involvement.

    PubMed

    al-Gindan, Y; Kubba, R; el-Hassan, A M; Omer, A H; Kutty, M K; Saeed, M B

    1989-05-01

    In a study of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) due to leishmania major in an endemic focus in Saudi Arabia, lymph node enlargement was observed in 66 of 643 patients (10.26%). The epitrochlear lymph nodes were most commonly involved (68%), but cervical (11%), axillary (15%), and inguinal (18%) lymph nodes were also involved. In eight patients (12%), two lymph node areas were involved. The affected lymph nodes were typically solitary, firm, mobile, nontender, only moderately enlarged, and appeared to persist beyond the clinical healing of the associated skin lesions. The results of pathologic and immunopathologic studies carried out on eight lymph nodes obtained from this group of patients supported the leishmanial etiology. Although amastigotes were only demonstrated in two lymph nodes, the leishmanial antigen was found in all eight specimens. The lymph node involvement is another manifestation of dissemination in infection with a dermotropic leishmania. It appears that in some cases, instead of the parasite, it may be the leishmanial antigen that disseminates and produces lymphadenitis.

  15. Giant lymph node hyperplasia of the mediastinum and refractory anaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Geary, C G; Fox, H

    1978-01-01

    An example is described of the syndrome of refractory anaemia in association with the plasma cell variant of giant lymph node hyperplasia of the mediastinum; the anaemia responded to removal of the lymphoid mass. The entity of giant lymph node hyperplasia is discussed and its relationship to the haematological syndrome is considered. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:690239

  16. Intra-lymph Node Injection of Biodegradable Polymer Particles

    PubMed Central

    Solano, Eduardo; Mukhamedova, Maryam; Jewell, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Generation of adaptive immune response relies on efficient drainage or trafficking of antigen to lymph nodes for processing and presentation of these foreign molecules to T and B lymphocytes. Lymph nodes have thus become critical targets for new vaccines and immunotherapies. A recent strategy for targeting these tissues is direct lymph node injection of soluble vaccine components, and clinical trials involving this technique have been promising. Several biomaterial strategies have also been investigated to improve lymph node targeting, for example, tuning particle size for optimal drainage of biomaterial vaccine particles. In this paper we present a new method that combines direct lymph node injection with biodegradable polymer particles that can be laden with antigen, adjuvant, or other vaccine components. In this method polymeric microparticles or nanoparticles are synthesized by a modified double emulsion protocol incorporating lipid stabilizers. Particle properties (e.g. size, cargo loading) are confirmed by laser diffraction and fluorescent microscopy, respectively. Mouse lymph nodes are then identified by peripheral injection of a nontoxic tracer dye that allows visualization of the target injection site and subsequent deposition of polymer particles in lymph nodes. This technique allows direct control over the doses and combinations of biomaterials and vaccine components delivered to lymph nodes and could be harnessed in the development of new biomaterial-based vaccines. PMID:24430972

  17. Prediction of additional lymph node involvement in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Pohlodek, K; Bozikova, S; Meciarova, I; Mucha, V; Bartova, M; Ondrias, F

    2016-01-01

    Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) has traditionally been the principal method for evaluating axillary lymph node status in breast cancer patients. In the past decades sentinel lymph nodes biopsy after lymphatic mapping has been used to stage the disease. The majority of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) positive patients do not have additional metastases in non-sentinel nodes (non-SLN) after additional ALND. These patients are exposed to the morbidity of ALND without any benefit from additional axillary clearence. In the present study we would like to asses the criteria for selecting those patients, who have high risk for non-SLN metastases in the axilla in cases of positive SLN. In this retrospective analysis, clinical and pathologic data from 163 patients who underwent SLN biopsy followed by ALND were collected. Following clinical and pathological characteristics were analyzed to predict the likehood of non-SLN metastases: age, staging, histologic type and grading of the tumors, hormonal receptor status, HER-2 receptor status and Ki-67 protein, angioinvasion, metastases in SLN and non-SLN. Relative frequencies of individual characteristics between sample groups were statistically tested by Chi-square test at significance level p=0.5, when sample sizes in groups were small (≤5) by Fisher´s exact test. Metastasis in SLN were present in 67 (41%) of patients, 48 patients (29,4%) had metastasis also in non-SLN. The ratio between non-SLN positive / non-SLN negative lymph nodes in patients with positive SLN increases with the stage of the disease, the difference between values for the pT1c and pT2 stadium was statistically significant (p = 0.0296). The same applies to grading, but the differences were not significant (p>0.05). We could not find significant differences for angioinvasion of the tumor, probably for small number of patients with angioinvasion (p>0.05).Only the stage of the tumor was shown to be significant in predicting the metastasis in non-SLN in our

  18. Lymph node metastasis of soft tissue tumors: a cytomorphologic study.

    PubMed

    Loya, Anand C; Prayaga, Aruna K; Arora, Anu; Sundaram, C; Rao, I Satish; Uppin, Shantveer G; Raju, G Suryanarayana; Surath, Anjna; Rajappa, R Senthil

    2007-01-01

    To study the frequency of regional lymph node metastasis of soft tissue tumors (STT) and to evaluate the utility of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) as an initial investigative modality. A prospective and retrospective study of over 6 years (1998-2004) was performed to look for frequency of STT metastasizing to lymph nodes. FNAC of enlarged nodes was performed as a routine outpatient procedure after obtaining complete clinical details. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry were correlated where available. Lymph node enlargement was seen in 23 of 241 patients with STTs, of which 19 cases showed involvement (7.88%), synchronous with primary in 12 cases and metachronous in 7 cases. The most common sites of primary tumor were the lower extremity and head and neck region with involved regional lymph nodes. STTs commonly involving lymph nodes were rhabdomyosarcoma and extraskeletal Ewing's/primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET); other rare tumors included malignant granular cell tumor, epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, mediastinal ganglioneuroblastoma, angiosarcoma and epithelioid sarcoma. Lymph node aspirates should be examined for alien cells, particularly smears that are paucicellular and demonstrate cystic change. Lymph node metastasis of STT is rare and influences staging, treatment and prognosis. Enlarged regional nodes should be examined with FNAC.

  19. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy in papillary thyroid carcinoma in patients with no preoperative evidence of lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    González, Óscar; Zafon, Carles; Caubet, Enric; García-Burillo, Amparo; Serres, Xavier; Fort, José Manuel; Mesa, Jordi; Castell, Joan; Roca, Isabel; Ramón Y Cajal, Santiago; Iglesias, Carmela

    2017-10-01

    Lymphadenectomy is recommended during surgery for papillary thyroid carcinoma when there is evidence of cervical lymph node metastasis (therapeutic) or in high-risk patients (prophylactic) such as those with T3 and T4 tumors of the TNM classification. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy may improve preoperative diagnosis of nodal metastases. To analyze the results of selective sentinel lymph node biopsy in a group of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and no evidence of nodal involvement before surgery. A retrospective, single-center study in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and no clinical evidence of lymph node involvement who underwent surgery between 2011 and 2013. The sentinel node was identified by scintigraphy. When the sentinel node was positive, the affected compartment was removed, and when sentinel node was negative, central lymph node dissection was performed. Forty-three patients, 34 females, with a mean age of 52.3 (±17) years, were enrolled. Forty-six (27%) of the 170 SNs resected from 24 (55.8%) patients were positive for metastasis. In addition, 94 (15.6%) out of the 612 lymph nodes removed in the lymphadenectomies were positive for metastases. Twelve of the 30 (40%) low risk patients (cT1N0 and cT2N0) changed their stage to pN1, whereas 12 of 13 (92%) high risk patients (cT3N0 and cT4N0) changed to pN1 stage. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy changes the stage of more than 50% of patients from cN0 to pN1. This confirms the need for lymph node resection in T3 and T4 tumors, but reveals the presence of lymph node metastases in 40% of T1-T2 tumors. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Lymph node density predicts recurrence and death after inguinal lymph node dissection for penile cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schwen, Zeyad R.; Ko, Joan S.; Meyer, Alexa; Netto, George J.; Burnett, Arthur L.; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine the impact of lymph node density (LND) on survival after inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND) for penile cancer. Materials and Methods Our institutional penile cancer database was queried for patients who underwent ILND. Clinicopathologic characteristics including LND and total number of positive lymph nodes (LNs) were analyzed to determine impact on recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). LND, or the percent of positive LN out of total LN, was calculated as a categorical variable at varying thresholds. Results Twenty-eight patients with complete follow-up were identified. Indications for ILND were stage >T2 in 20 patients (71.4%), palpable adenopathy in 7 (25%), high grade T1 in 1 (3.6%). Median node yield was 17.5 (interquartile range, 12−22), and positive LNs were found in 14 patients (50%). RFS and OS were significantly lower for patients with >15% LN density (median RFS: 62 months vs. 6.3 months, p=0.0120; median OS: 73.6 months vs. 6.3 months, p<0.001). Controlling for age, medical comorbidities, number of positive LN, T stage, pelvic LN status and indication, LN density >15% was independently associated with worse RFS (hazard ratio [HR], 3.6; p=0.04) and OS (HR, 73.6; p=0.002). The c-index for LND was higher than total positive LNs for RFS (0.64 vs. 0.54) and OS (0.79 vs. 0.61). Conclusions In this small, retrospective penile cancer cohort, the presence of nodal involvement >15% was associated with decreased RFS and OS, and outperformed total number of positive LN as a prognostic indicator. PMID:28097264

  1. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma: is there a correlation of preoperative lymphatic mapping with sentinel lymph nodes harvested?

    PubMed

    Hudak, Kristen Ann; Hudak, Kevin E; Dzwierzynski, William W

    2015-04-01

    Nodal status is the most significant prognostic factor in melanoma. No study has examined the relationship between lymphoscintigraphy, γ probe counts, harvested nodes, and nodal status. Two-hundred sixty two patients were identified who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma between 2001 and 2010. Clinicopathologic and treatment information was collected. The number of lymph nodes and basins demonstrated on lymphoscintigraphy was compared to those at surgery. γ Probe counts were compared. Median age was 54.5 years (range, 18-90 years) with 52.3% male. Average Breslow depth was 2.0 (1.9) mm; 99.6% of lymphoscintigraphy studies identified at least 1 basin, 80% showed only 1 (range, 0-4). Lymphoscintigraphy identified on average 1.5 (0.9) sentinel nodes and 31% with secondary node. Surgery excised on average 2.6 (1.4) nodes involving 1.2 (0.5) basins; 17.6% had a positive sentinel lymph node. There was no difference in the sum or average of γ counts between positive and negative sentinel lymph node groups (P = 0.2, P = 0.5). When comparing lymphoscintigraphy and surgical excision, the correlation of lymphatic basins was r = 0.67 and of lymph node numbers was r = 0.33. Lymphoscintigraphy should be used to identify the proper lymphatic basins for a sentinel node procedure, however, the removal of nodes must continue until the background count is less than 10%. The correlation of lymph node number identified on lymphoscintigraphy to surgical excision is weak. γ Probe counts cannot be used to differentiate positive from negative nodes and the positive lymph node is not always the hottest node.

  2. Hsp70 vaccination-induced primary immune responses in efferent lymph of the draining lymph node.

    PubMed

    Vrieling, Manouk; Santema, Wiebren; Vordermeier, Martin; Rutten, Victor; Koets, Ad

    2013-10-01

    Bovine paratuberculosis is a highly prevalent chronic infection of the small intestine in cattle, caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). In earlier studies we showed the protective effect of Hsp70/DDA subunit vaccination against paratuberculosis. In the current study we set out to measure primary immune responses generated at the site of Hsp70 vaccination. Lymph vessel cannulation was performed to obtain efferent lymph from the prescapular lymph node draining the neck area where the vaccine was applied. Hsp70 vaccination induced a significant increase of CD21(+) B cells in efferent lymph, accounting for up to 40% of efferent cells post-vaccination. Proliferation (Ki67(+)) within the CD21(+) B cell and CD4(+) T cell populations peaked between day 3 and day 5 post-vaccination. From day 7, Hsp70-specific antibody secreting cells (ASCs) could be detected in efferent lymph. Hsp70-specific antibodies, mainly of the IgG1 isotype, were also detected from this time point onwards. However, post-vaccination IFN-γ production in efferent lymph was non-sustained. In conclusion, Hsp70-vaccination induces only limited Th1 type immune responsiveness as reflected in efferent lymph draining the vaccination site. This is in line with our previous observations in peripheral blood. The main primary immunological outcome of the Hsp70/DDA subunit vaccination is B cell activation and abundant Hsp70-specific IgG1 production. This warrants the question whether Hsp70-specific antibodies contribute to the observed protective effect of Hsp70 vaccination in calves.

  3. Sentinel Lymph Nodes Mapping in Cervical Cancer a Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Diab, Yasser

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive literature search for more recent studies pertaining to sentinel lymph node mapping in the surveillance of cervical cancer to assess if sentinel lymph node mapping has sensitivity and specificity for evaluation of the disease; assessment of posttreatment response and disease recurrence in cervical cancer. The literature review has been constructed on a step wise study design that includes 5 major steps. This includes search for relevant publications in various available databases, application of inclusion and exclusion criteria for the selection of relevant publications, assessment of quality of the studies included, extraction of the relevant data and coherent synthesis of the data. The search yielded numerous studies pertaining to sentinel lymph node mapping, especially on the recent trends, comparison between various modalities and evaluation of the technique. Evaluation studies have appraised high sensitivity, high negative predictive values and low false-negative rate for metastasis detection using sentinel lymph node mapping. Comparative studies have established that of all the modalities for sentinel lymph node mapping, indocyanine green sentinel lymph node mapping has higher overall and bilateral detection rates. Corroboration of the deductions of these studies further establishes that the sentinel node detection rate and sensitivity are strongly correlated to the method or technique of mapping and the history of preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The review takes us to the strong conclusion that sentinel lymph node mapping is an ideal technique for detection of sentinel lymph nodes in cervical cancer patients with excellent detection rates and high sensitivity. The review also takes us to the supposition that a routine clinical evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes is feasible and a real-time florescence mapping with indocyanine green dye gives better statistically significant overall and bilateral detection than methylene blue.

  4. Sentinel Lymph Nodes Mapping in Cervical Cancer a Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Diab, Yasser

    2017-01-01

    Objective A comprehensive literature search for more recent studies pertaining to sentinel lymph node mapping in the surveillance of cervical cancer to assess if sentinel lymph node mapping has sensitivity and specificity for evaluation of the disease; assessment of posttreatment response and disease recurrence in cervical cancer. Materials and Methods The literature review has been constructed on a step wise study design that includes 5 major steps. This includes search for relevant publications in various available databases, application of inclusion and exclusion criteria for the selection of relevant publications, assessment of quality of the studies included, extraction of the relevant data and coherent synthesis of the data. Results The search yielded numerous studies pertaining to sentinel lymph node mapping, especially on the recent trends, comparison between various modalities and evaluation of the technique. Evaluation studies have appraised high sensitivity, high negative predictive values and low false-negative rate for metastasis detection using sentinel lymph node mapping. Comparative studies have established that of all the modalities for sentinel lymph node mapping, indocyanine green sentinel lymph node mapping has higher overall and bilateral detection rates. Corroboration of the deductions of these studies further establishes that the sentinel node detection rate and sensitivity are strongly correlated to the method or technique of mapping and the history of preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Conclusions The review takes us to the strong conclusion that sentinel lymph node mapping is an ideal technique for detection of sentinel lymph nodes in cervical cancer patients with excellent detection rates and high sensitivity. The review also takes us to the supposition that a routine clinical evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes is feasible and a real-time florescence mapping with indocyanine green dye gives better statistically significant overall and

  5. Sentinel lymph node biopsy and melanoma: 2010 update Part I.

    PubMed

    Stebbins, William G; Garibyan, Lilit; Sober, Arthur J

    2010-05-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma was introduced in the early 1990s as a minimally invasive method of identifying and pathologically staging regional lymph node basins in patients with clinical stage I/II melanoma. Numerous large trials have demonstrated that sentinel lymph node evaluation has utility in improving accuracy of prognostication and for risk stratifying patients into appropriate groups for clinical trials. However, there remains a great deal of controversy regarding the therapeutic role of removal of the remainder of locoregional lymph nodes should metastatic cells be identified in the sentinel node. This CME article will outline a brief history of the sentinel node concept before reviewing updates in surgical technique, histopathologic evaluation of nodal tissue, and cost effectiveness of sentinel node biopsy. After completing this learning activity, participants should be able to describe the concept of sentinel lymph node biopsy, to discuss the risks and benefits associated with this procedure, and to summarize the role of sentinel lymph node biopsy in management of patients with melanoma. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantification of microvessels in canine lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Tonar, Zbynĕk; Egger, Gunter F; Witter, Kirsti; Wolfesberger, Birgitt

    2008-10-01

    Quantification of microvessels in tumors is mostly based on counts of vessel profiles in tumor hot spots. Drawbacks of this method include low reproducibility and large interobserver variance, mainly as a result of individual differences in sampling of image fields for analysis. Our aim was to test an unbiased method for quantifying microvessels in healthy and tumorous lymph nodes of dogs. The endothelium of blood vessels was detected in paraffin sections by a combination of immunohistochemistry (von Willebrand factor) and lectin histochemistry (wheat germ agglutinin) in comparison with detection of basal laminae by laminin immunohistochemistry or silver impregnation. Systematic uniform random sampling of 50 image fields was performed during photo-documentation. An unbiased counting frame (area 113,600 microm(2)) was applied to each micrograph. The total area sampled from each node was 5.68 mm(2). Vessel profiles were counted according to stereological counting rules. Inter- and intraobserver variabilities were tested. The application of systematic uniform random sampling was compared with the counting of vessel profiles in hot spots. The unbiased estimate of the number of vessel profiles per unit area ranged from 100.5 +/- 44.0/mm(2) to 442.6 +/- 102.5/mm(2) in contrast to 264 +/- 72.2/mm(2) to 771.0 +/- 108.2/mm(2) in hot spots. The advantage of using systematic uniform random sampling is its reproducibility, with reasonable interobserver and low intraobserver variance. This method also allows for the possibility of using archival material, because staining quality is not limiting as it is for image analysis, and artifacts can easily be excluded. However, this method is comparatively time-consuming.

  7. [Intraoperative detection of the sentinel lymph nodes in lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Akopov, A L; Papayan, G V; Chistyakov, I V

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of the scientific data was made. It was used the literature devoted to the intraoperative visualization of the sentinel lymph nodes in patients with lung cancer. Correct detection of such lymph nodes with following pathologic investigation allowed limiting the volume of lympho-dissection in a number of patients. There is the possibility of maximal in-depth study of the sentinel lymph nodes by purposeful application of most sensible pathologic and molecular methods for detection their micrometastatic lesions. At the same time the treatment strategy and prognosis could be determined. The authors present the results of an application of dye techniques, radioactive preparation and fluorescence imaging for sentinel lymph node detection. Advantages and disadvantages of the methods are shown in the article. There are validated the prospects of technical development, study of information value of new applications and the most perspective method of fluorescence indocyanine green visualization by lymph outflow.

  8. Interaction between vascularized lymph node transfer and recipient lymphatics after lymph node dissection- a pilot study in a canine model

    PubMed Central

    Suami, Hiroo; Scaglioni, Mario F.; Dixon, Katherine A.; Tailor, Ramesh C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Vascularized lymph node transfer (VLNT) has become more wide-spread for surgical treatment of lymphedema. However, interaction between a transferred lymph node and the recipient lymphatic system in relieving lymphedema has not been identified. The aims of this study were to investigate anatomical changes in the lymphatic system in the forelimb of a canine after lymph node dissection and irradiation and to clarify the interaction between the transferred lymph node and recipient lymphatics. Materials and Methods Two adult female mongrel canines were used for this exploratory study. The unilateral axillary and lower neck node dissections were performed, and 15-Gy irradiation was applied on postoperative day three. After one year, a VLNT flap was harvested from the lower abdominal region and inset in the axilla with vascular anastomoses. The girth of each forelimb was determined with a tape measure at different time points. Indocyanine green fluorescence lymphography and lymphangiography were performed before and after each surgery to evaluate morphological changes in the lymphatics. Results Both canines revealed identical changes in the lymphatic system but only one canine developed lymphedema. After lymph node dissection, a collateral lymphatic pathway formed a connection to the contralateral cervical node. After VLNT, an additional collateral pathway formed a connection to the internal mammary node via the transferred node in the axilla. Conclusions The findings suggest that the lymphatic system has a homing mechanism, which allows the severed lymphatic vessels to detect and connect to adjacent lymph nodes. VLNT may create new collateral pathways to relieve lymphedema. PMID:27565078

  9. Assessment of lymph node involvement in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Mark L H; Schofield, John B

    2016-01-01

    Lymph node metastasis informs prognosis and is a key factor in deciding further management, particularly adjuvant chemotherapy. It is core to all contemporary staging systems, including the widely used tumor node metastasis staging system. Patients with node-negative disease have 5-year survival rates of 70%-80%, implying a significant minority of patients with occult lymph node metastases will succumb to disease recurrence. Enhanced staging techniques may help to identify this subset of patients, who might benefit from further treatment. Obtaining adequate numbers of lymph nodes is essential for accurate staging. Lymph node yields are affected by numerous factors, many inherent to the patient and the tumour, but others related to surgical and histopathological practice. Good lymph node recovery relies on close collaboration between surgeon and pathologist. The optimal extent of surgical resection remains a subject of debate. Extended lymphadenectomy, extra-mesenteric lymph node dissection, high arterial ligation and complete mesocolic excision are amongst the surgical techniques with plausible oncological bases, but which are not supported by the highest levels of evidence. With further development and refinement, intra-operative lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy may provide a guide to the optimum extent of lymphadenectomy, but in its present form, it is beset by false negatives, skip lesions and failures to identify a sentinel node. Once resected, histopathological assessment of the surgical specimen can be improved by thorough dissection techniques, step-sectioning of tissue blocks and immunohistochemistry. More recently, molecular methods have been employed. In this review, we consider the numerous factors that affect lymph node yields, including the impact of the surgical and histopathological techniques. Potential future strategies, including the use of evolving technologies, are also discussed. PMID:27022445

  10. Lymph node dissection – understanding the immunological function of lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Buettner, M; Bode, U

    2012-01-01

    Lymph nodes (LN) are one of the important sites in the body where immune responses to pathogenic antigens are initiated. This immunological function induced by cells within the LN is an extensive area of research. To clarify the general function of LN, to identify cell populations within the lymphatic system and to describe the regeneration of the lymph vessels, the experimental surgical technique of LN dissection has been established in various animal models. In this review different research areas in which LN dissection is used as an experimental tool will be highlighted. These include regeneration studies, immunological analysis and studies with clinical questions. LN were dissected in order to analyse the different cell subsets of the incoming lymph in detail. Furthermore, LN were identified as the place where the induction of an antigen-specific response occurs and, more significantly, where this immune response is regulated. During bacterial infection LN, as a filter of the lymph system, play a life-saving role. In addition, LN are essential for the induction of tolerance against harmless antigens, because tolerance could not be induced in LN-resected animals. Thus, the technique of LN dissection is an excellent and simple method to identify the important role of LN in immune responses, tolerance and infection. PMID:22861359

  11. Lymph node dissection--understanding the immunological function of lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Buettner, M; Bode, U

    2012-09-01

    Lymph nodes (LN) are one of the important sites in the body where immune responses to pathogenic antigens are initiated. This immunological function induced by cells within the LN is an extensive area of research. To clarify the general function of LN, to identify cell populations within the lymphatic system and to describe the regeneration of the lymph vessels, the experimental surgical technique of LN dissection has been established in various animal models. In this review different research areas in which LN dissection is used as an experimental tool will be highlighted. These include regeneration studies, immunological analysis and studies with clinical questions. LN were dissected in order to analyse the different cell subsets of the incoming lymph in detail. Furthermore, LN were identified as the place where the induction of an antigen-specific response occurs and, more significantly, where this immune response is regulated. During bacterial infection LN, as a filter of the lymph system, play a life-saving role. In addition, LN are essential for the induction of tolerance against harmless antigens, because tolerance could not be induced in LN-resected animals. Thus, the technique of LN dissection is an excellent and simple method to identify the important role of LN in immune responses, tolerance and infection. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2012 British Society for Immunology.

  12. Apelin promotes lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Laszlo, Viktoria; Rozsas, Anita; Garay, Tamas; Torok, Szilvia; Grusch, Michael; Berger, Walter; Paku, Sandor; Renyi-Vamos, Ferenc; Masri, Bernard; Tovari, Jozsef; Groger, Marion; Klepetko, Walter; Hegedus, Balazs; Dome, Balazs

    2014-01-01

    Whereas the role of the G-protein-coupled APJ receptor and its ligand, apelin, in angiogenesis has been well documented, the ability of the apelin/APJ system to induce lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis has been largely unexplored. To this end, we first show that APJ is expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) and, moreover, that it responds to apelin by activating the apelinergic signaling cascade. We find that although apelin treatment does not influence the proliferation of LECs in vitro, it enhances their migration, protects them against UV irradiation-induced apoptosis, increases their spheroid numbers in 3D culture, stimulates their in vitro capillary-like tube formation and, furthermore, promotes the invasive growth of lymphatic microvessels in vivo in the matrigel plug assay. We also demonstrate that apelin overexpression in malignant cells is associated with accelerated in vivo tumor growth and with increased intratumoral lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis. These results indicate that apelin induces lymphangiogenesis and, accordingly, plays an important role in lymphatic tumor progression. Our study does not only reveal apelin as a novel lymphangiogenic factor but might also open the door for the development of novel anticancer therapies targeting lymphangiogenesis. PMID:24962866

  13. LIGHT regulates inflamed draining lymph node hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mingzhao; Yang, Yajun; Wang, Yugang; Wang, Zhongnan; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2011-01-01

    Lymph node (LN) hypertrophy, the increased cellularity of LNs, is the major indication of the initiation and expansion of the immune response against infection, vaccination, cancer or autoimmunity. The mechanisms underlying LN hypertrophy remain poorly defined. Here, we demonstrate that LIGHT (TNFSF14) is a novel factor essential for LN hypertrophy after CFA immunization. Mechanistically, LIGHT is required for the influx of lymphocytes into but not egress out of LNs. In addition, LIGHT is required for DC migration from the skin to draining LNs. Compared with WT mice, LIGHT−/− mice express lower levels of chemokines in skin and addressins in LN vascular endothelial cells after CFA immunization. We unexpectedly observed that LIGHT from radioresistant rather than radiosensitive cells, likely Langerhans cells, is required for LN hypertrophy. Importantly, antigen-specific T cell responses were impaired in DLN of LIGHT−/− mice, suggesting the importance of LIGHT regulation of LN hypertrophy in the generation of an adaptive immune response. Collectively, our data reveal a novel cellular and molecular mechanism for the regulation of LN hypertrophy and its potential impact on the generation of an optimal adaptive immune response. PMID:21572030

  14. Most frequent location of the sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chiao; Lee, Po-Chu; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Huang, Chiun-Sheng

    2014-07-01

    Inappropriate skin incisions can make sentinel lymph node dissection difficult. A knowledge of the most common locations of the hotspot in the axilla helps in planning the incision. This information also helps to locate the lymph node preoperatively by ultrasound. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the most common location of the sentinel lymph node in the axilla. From January 2006 to December 2010, 974 consecutive patients who underwent sentinel lymph node dissection guided by (99m)Tc-sulfur colloid were included and the position of the hotspot in the axilla was recorded prospectively. The location of the hottest spot on the skin of the axilla was categorized into seven areas divided by five landmarks. In 98.4% of our patients, the hotspot detected on the axilla skin before sentinel lymph node dissection was located in the area demarcated by the four landmarks of the hairline, a line tangential to and 2 cm below the center of the hairline, the lateral border of the pectoralis major muscle, and the mid-axillary line. The area between these four landmarks is the most frequent location of the sentinel lymph node identified using the radioisotope method. We suggest that this area should be carefully evaluated preoperatively by ultrasound for appropriate surgical planning. A skin incision in this area is also recommended when sentinel lymph node dissection is guided by blue dye. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Extended lymph node dissection in robotic radical prostatectomy: Current status

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Sameer; Alemozaffar, Mehrdad; Gill, Inderbir; Aron, Monish

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The role and extent of extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) during radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer patients remains unclear. Materials and Methods: A PubMed literature search was performed for studies reporting on treatment regimens and outcomes in patients with prostate cancer treated by RP and extended lymph node dissection between 1999 and 2013. Results: Studies have shown that RP can improve progression-free and overall survival in patients with lymph node-positive prostate cancer. While this finding requires further validation, it does allow urologists to question the former treatment paradigm of aborting surgery when lymph node invasion from prostate cancer occurred, especially in patients with limited lymph node tumor infiltration. Studies show that intermediate- and high-risk patients should undergo ePLND up to the common iliac arteries in order to improve nodal staging. Conclusions: Evidence from the literature suggests that RP with ePLND improves survival in lymph node-positive prostate cancer. While studies have shown promising results, further improvements and understanding of the surgical technique and post-operative treatment are required to improve treatment for prostate cancer patients with lymph node involvement. PMID:27127352

  16. Computed Tomographic Evaluation of Presumptively Normal Canine Sternal Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Ryota; Mori, Takashi; Ito, Yusuke; Kawabe, Mifumi; Murakmi, Mami; Maruo, Kohji

    The sternal lymph nodes receive drainage from a wide variety of structures in the thoraco-abdominal region. Evaluation of these lymph nodes is essential, especially in cancer patients. Computed tomography (CT) can detect sternal lymph nodes more accurately than radiography or ultrasonography, and the criteria of the sternal lymphadenopathy are unknown. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the CT characteristics of the sternal lymph nodes in dogs considered unlikely to have lymphadenopathy. The ratio of the short axis dimension of the sternal lymph nodes to the thickness of the second sternebra was also investigated. At least one sternal lymph node was identified in each of the 152 dogs included in the study. The mean long axis and short axis dimensions were 0.700 cm and 0.368 cm, respectively. The mean ratio of the sternal lymph nodes to the second sternebrae was 0.457, and the 95% prediction interval ranged from 0.317 to 0.596 (almost a fixed value independent of body weight). These findings will be useful when evaluating sternal lymphadenopathy using CT.

  17. The role of lymph node revealing solution on the improvement of lymph node harvest in colorectal cancer specimens.

    PubMed

    Profeta da Luz, M M; Lacerda-Filho, A; Demas Alvares Cabral, M M; Maciel da Fonseca, L; de Almeida Araújo, S; de Almeida Sanches, S R; Gomes da Silva, R

    2016-03-01

    The correct analysis of lymph node status is one of the most important parameters for the accurate pathological diagnosis of colorectal cancer. Our aim was to evaluate the number of lymph nodes among the specimens obtained from colorectal resections due to colorectal cancer, before and after the routine use of a lymph node revealing solution (LNRS). Data from 780 surgical specimens from patients of both genders with colorectal cancer were studied. The cases were divided chronologically into two groups: the conventional group included 497 specimens treated with conventional methods, i.e. without the use of the LNRS (January 2000 to July 2007), and the LNRS group included 283 specimens examined through the routine use of this solution (August 2007 to July 2012). Most patients were female (57.4%) with a median age of 62 years. The median lymph node number was 18, and 75.9% of the cases (592) had 12 or more nodes dissected. Lymph node metastases were noted in 334 cases (42.8%). A median of 24 lymph nodes was dissected in the LNRS group compared to 15 in the conventional group (P < 0.001). The LNRS group had 9.2% of cases with fewer than 12 lymph nodes dissected compared with 32.6% in the conventional group (P < 0.001). The use of the LNRS increases the number of lymph nodes obtained from colorectal cancer surgical specimens and can help to reduce the number of cases with < 12 lymph nodes. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. Patterns and clinical significance of cervical lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid cancer patients with Delphian lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guibin; Zhang, Hua; Hao, Shaolong; Liu, Chengxin; Xu, Jie; Ning, Jinyao; Wu, Guochang; Jiang, Lixin; Li, Guojun; Zheng, Haitao; Song, Xicheng

    2017-08-22

    Although the roles of Delphian lymph node (DLN) metastasis in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) have been previously reported, there are still limited data on correlations of clinicopathologic factors with DLN metastasis and unique patterns of cervical node subsite metastasis in PTC patients with DLN metastasis. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 320 patients with a diagnosis of PTC who underwent primary surgery. Clinicopathologic features and DLN metastasis patterns were analyzed for predicting extensive cervical lymph node metastasis. Both univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to identify independent factors for cervical lymph node metastasis. DLN metastasis was significantly associated with multifocality, tumor size > 1 cm, extrathyroid extension, BRAF(V600E) mutation, central neck node metastasis (CNNM), and lateral neck nodes metastases. Patients with DLN metastasis had more lymph node metastases in the central compartment. CNNM number and tumor size > 1 cm were independent risk factors for DLN metastasis. DLN metastasis was highly predictive of lateral lymph node metastasis with moderate sensitivity and high specificity. DLN metastasis is associated with several poor prognostic factors, including extensive cervical lymph node metastasis, and can serve as a predictor of advanced PTC. The presence of DLN metastasis should prompt surgeons to perform an aggressive surgery approach.

  19. Lymph node mapping with carbon nanoparticles and the risk factors of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Chen, Man-Man; Zhu, Guang-Sheng; Ma, Mao-Guang; Du, Han-Song; Long, Yue-Ping

    2016-12-01

    The study aimed to examine the applicability of carbon nanoparticles as a tracer for lymph node mapping and the related factors of lymph node and No.8p subgroup metastasis in patients with gastric cancer. Clinical data of 50 patients with gastric cancer, who had not received treatment preoperatively and underwent gastrectomy in Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Wuhan Union Hospital, between October 2014 and August 2015, were retrospectively analyzed. These patients were found to have no distant metastasis preoperatively. Thirty-five out of 50 patients were subjected to lymphatic mapping technique using carbon nanoparticles as the tracer, and the rest 15 cases did not experience the lymphatic mapping and served as controls. The sensitivity, specificity, false positive rate and false negative rate were calculated according to the number of lymph nodes, and the staining and metastasis condition of lymph nodes. The diagnostic value of carbon nanoparticles on metastatic lymph nodes was evaluated. The relationship between the metastasis of lymph nodes or subgroup No.8p lymph nodes and clinicopathologic features was analyzed by χ(2)-test or Fisher's exact test. All patients underwent D2 surgery (lymph node dissection including all the group 1 and group 2 nodes) plus the dissection of the subgroup No.8p lymph nodes. It was found that the average number of harvested lymph nodes in lymphatic mapping technique group (45.7±14.5) was greater than that in control group (39.2±11.7), but the difference was not significantly different (P=0.138>0.05). The success rate, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and false negative rate was 97%, 57%, 28%, 62% and 72% respectively. The metastasis of lymph nodes was correlated to the depth of cancer invasion (T stage) (P=0.004<0.05), and the metastasis of No.8p lymph nodes was correlated to the extent of lymph node involvement (N stage) (P=0.007<0.05). Six cases had lymph node metastasis in subgroup No.8p, and their TNM stages and

  20. Lipid Histiocytosis of the Gallbladder Neck Lymph Node.

    PubMed

    Handra-Luca, Adriana; Ben Romdhane, Mohamed Habib; Straub, Beate Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Lipid histiocytosis of the gallbladder neck lymph node is rarely reported nowadays. Two obese patients presented with gallbladder lithiasis detected on CT scan. The treatment consisted in coelioscopic cholecystectomy. Microscopy revealed subacute/chronic lithiasic cholecystitis and foci of vacuolated cells in the gallbladder neck lymph node. These cells were positive for CD68, CD31, S100 protein, and adipophilin and negative for cytokeratin and Alcian blue. In conclusion, we report lymph node lipid histiocytosis diagnosed microscopically after cholecystectomy. While such lesions may remain unidentified on imaging procedures, the microscopic analysis may require special stains and immunohistochemistry for ruling out adenocarcinoma metastasis.

  1. Clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangement in the infarcted lymph node syndrome.

    PubMed

    Laszewski, M J; Belding, P J; Feddersen, R M; Lutz, C T; Goeken, J A; Kemp, J D; Dick, F R

    1991-07-01

    The authors report a case of complete lymph node infarction in which a specific etiology could not be determined by morphologic or immunophenotypic studies; however, clonal rearrangement of the immunoglobulin gene was demonstrated by Southern blot hybridization of DNA extracted from the necrotic tissue. A subsequent lymph node biopsy later was diagnosed as malignant lymphoma, using morphologic, immunophenotypic and genotypic criteria. Identical clonally rearranged bands were present in DNA from both the infarcted nodal and the subsequent tissue biopsies. In the setting of lymph node necrosis, gene rearrangement studies may provide diagnostic information concerning clonality, even if morphologic and immunophenotypic studies are indeterminate for a lymphoproliferative process.

  2. Lipid Histiocytosis of the Gallbladder Neck Lymph Node

    PubMed Central

    Ben Romdhane, Mohamed Habib; Straub, Beate Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Lipid histiocytosis of the gallbladder neck lymph node is rarely reported nowadays. Two obese patients presented with gallbladder lithiasis detected on CT scan. The treatment consisted in coelioscopic cholecystectomy. Microscopy revealed subacute/chronic lithiasic cholecystitis and foci of vacuolated cells in the gallbladder neck lymph node. These cells were positive for CD68, CD31, S100 protein, and adipophilin and negative for cytokeratin and Alcian blue. In conclusion, we report lymph node lipid histiocytosis diagnosed microscopically after cholecystectomy. While such lesions may remain unidentified on imaging procedures, the microscopic analysis may require special stains and immunohistochemistry for ruling out adenocarcinoma metastasis. PMID:27847666

  3. Number of Lymph Nodes Harvested From a Mediastinal Lymphadenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Mark S.; Decker, Paul A.; Ballman, Karla; Malthaner, Richard A.; Inculet, Richard I.; Jones, David R.; McKenna, Robert J.; Landreneau, Rodney J.; Putnam, Joe B.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lymph node status is a major determinant of stage and survival in patients with lung cancer; however, little information is available about the expected yield of a mediastinal lymphadenectomy. Methods: The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0030 prospective, randomized trial of mediastinal lymph node sampling vs complete mediastinal lymphadenectomy during pulmonary resection enrolled 1,111 patients from July 1999 to February 2004. Data from 524 patients who underwent complete mediastinal lymph node dissection were analyzed to determine the number of lymph nodes obtained. Results: The median number of additional lymph nodes harvested from a mediastinal lymphadenectomy following systematic sampling was 18 with a range of one to 72 for right-sided tumors, and 18 with a range of four to 69 for left-sided tumors. The median number of N2 nodes harvested was 11 on the right and 12 on the left. A median of at least six nodes was harvested from at least three stations in 99% of patients, and 90% of patients had at least 10 nodes harvested from three stations. Overall, 21 patients (4%) were found to have occult N2 disease. Conclusions: Although high variability exists in the actual number of lymph nodes obtained from various nodal stations, complete mediastinal lymphadenectomy removes one or more lymph nodes from all mediastinal stations. Adequate mediastinal lymphadenectomy should include stations 2R, 4R, 7, 8, and 9 for right-sided cancers and stations 4L, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 for left-sided cancers. Six or more nodes were resected in 99% of patients in this study. Trial registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00003831; URL: clinicaltrials.gov PMID:20829340

  4. Tumor immunity in rat lymph nodes following transplantation.

    PubMed

    Rabson, J A; Geyer, S J; Levine, G; Swartz, W M; Futrell, J W

    1982-07-01

    Inguinal lymph nodes in the Buffalo rat were autotransplanted to the popliteal fossa by an intact vascular pedicle or by microvascular anastomosis. These revascularized nodes had normal histology and made spontaneous afferent and efferent lymphatic reconnection with surrounding lymphatic vessels, as documented by ink and silicone rubber injection studies. Lymphoscintigraphy with 99mTc antimony sulfide colloid correctly predicted the 44 of 120 node transplants that had made afferent reconnection. To demonstrate immunologic activity of lymph nodes following transplantation, a cellular adherance assay was employed to detect cell-mediated cytotoxicity of lymph node cells isolated from rats sensitized to an allogeneic gliosarcoma. Cytotoxicity was detected in nontransplanted regional nodes sensitized to tumor (p less than 0.01) and in nodes transplanted by vascular pedicle and then sensitized to tumor (p less than 0.001). This study demonstrates that lymph nodes can be transplanted with restoration of functional lymphatic anatomy, and that following transplantation, lymph nodes retain the ability to mount an immune response against tumor.

  5. Tumor immunity in rat lymph nodes following transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Rabson, J A; Geyer, S J; Levine, G; Swartz, W M; Futrell, J W

    1982-01-01

    Inguinal lymph nodes in the Buffalo rat were autotransplanted to the popliteal fossa by an intact vascular pedicle or by microvascular anastomosis. These revascularized nodes had normal histology and made spontaneous afferent and efferent lymphatic reconnection with surrounding lymphatic vessels, as documented by ink and silicone rubber injection studies. Lymphoscintigraphy with 99mTc antimony sulfide colloid correctly predicted the 44 of 120 node transplants that had made afferent reconnection. To demonstrate immunologic activity of lymph nodes following transplantation, a cellular adherance assay was employed to detect cell-mediated cytotoxicity of lymph node cells isolated from rats sensitized to an allogeneic gliosarcoma. Cytotoxicity was detected in nontransplanted regional nodes sensitized to tumor (p less than 0.01) and in nodes transplanted by vascular pedicle and then sensitized to tumor (p less than 0.001). This study demonstrates that lymph nodes can be transplanted with restoration of functional lymphatic anatomy, and that following transplantation, lymph nodes retain the ability to mount an immune response against tumor. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:7092359

  6. [Intraoperative lymph node staging in bronchogenic carcinoma surgery. Consensus report].

    PubMed

    2001-12-01

    To define methods for lymph node staging and the absence of nodal involvement (pN0) during surgery for bronchogenic carcinoma (BC). Review of previous definitions of the Bronchogenic Carcinoma Cooperation Group of the Spanish Society of Pneumology and Chest Surgery (GCCB-S), and a comparison with the international literature; proposal of new definitions agreed upon by the GCCB-S. Methods for intraoperative lymph node evaluation proposed are as follows: not performed; biopsy (biopsy or removal of nodes with no intention of sampling all nodal stations); sampling (removal of nodes of a pre-established number of nodal stations, including at least the paratracheal, subcarinal and hilar stations); systematic nodal dissection (SND) (excision of all nodes from stations on the operated side); extended nodal dissection (removal of contralateral pulmonary and mediastinal nodes as a complement to SND); and miscellaneous, for other forms of intraoperative staging. The proposed definition for pN0 is removal of at least six lymph nodes, pathology of all N1 locations, removal of lymph nodes from right superior and inferior paratracheal and subcarinal stations for right lung tumors, removal of subcarinal nodes for left lung tumors, removal of subaortic and anterior mediastinal nodes for tumors of the left upper lobe, and removal of paraesophageal and pulmonary ligament nodes for tumors of lower lobes. The new definitions encompass the current forms of intraoperative evaluation of BC and avoid the inaccuracies of previous definitions from the GCCB-S.

  7. Fluorescence imaging to study cancer burden on lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Souza, Alisha V.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Gunn, Jason R.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2015-03-01

    Morbidity and complexity involved in lymph node staging via surgical resection and biopsy calls for staging techniques that are less invasive. While visible blue dyes are commonly used in locating sentinel lymph nodes, since they follow tumor-draining lymphatic vessels, they do not provide a metric to evaluate presence of cancer. An area of active research is to use fluorescent dyes to assess tumor burden of sentinel and secondary lymph nodes. The goal of this work was to successfully deploy and test an intra-nodal cancer-cell injection model to enable planar fluorescence imaging of a clinically relevant blue dye, specifically methylene blue along with a cancer targeting tracer, Affibody labeled with IRDYE800CW and subsequently segregate tumor-bearing from normal lymph nodes. This direct-injection based tumor model was employed in athymic rats (6 normal, 4 controls, 6 cancer-bearing), where luciferase-expressing breast cancer cells were injected into axillary lymph nodes. Tumor presence in nodes was confirmed by bioluminescence imaging before and after fluorescence imaging. Lymphatic uptake from the injection site (intradermal on forepaw) to lymph node was imaged at approximately 2 frames/minute. Large variability was observed within each cohort.

  8. [Clinically undetectable lymph node invasion in vulvar cancer].

    PubMed

    Sarian, Luís Otávio Zanatta; Marshall, Priscila Silva; Derchain, Sophie Françoise Mauricette; Torres, José Carlos Campos; Santos, Adriana de Cassia Paiva; Souza, Gustavo Antônio de

    2005-01-01

    To assess the neoplastic invasion of superficial and deep inguinal lymph nodes of women with invasive vulvar squamous carcinoma smaller than 5 centimeters with a clinically normal inguinal region. the medical records of 59 women cared at the State University of Campinas with invasive vulvar squamous carcinoma T1 and T2 and who presented clinically normal inguinal regions (N0) were reviewed. Clinical characteristics of both tumor and patients were evaluated as well as the follow-up data. Odds ratios and Fisher's Exact Test were used to assess the correlations between the invasion of inguinal lymph nodes and tumor size, grade, relapses and clinical complications. Confidence limits of 95% were used. Age of the patients ranged from 34 to 91 years (mean 67 years), and follow-up time ranged from 3 days (peri-operatory death) to 252 months (mean 27 months). Clinically, 22 (37%) women had lesions T1 lesions and 37 (63%) T2. Histological analysis showed unilateral lymphatic invasion in six (10%) women and bilateral in three (5%). There was no significant association between tumor size and lymph node invasion. Also, pathologic tumor size and grade were not associated with lymph node neoplastic involvement. Relapses and late complications were not correlated with lymph node neoplastic invasion. Superficial and deep inguinal dissection disclosed clinically undetectable lymph node neoplastic invasion, although tumor size and histological grade, relapses and late complications were not associated with node involvement.

  9. Ascending colon cancer with synchronous external iliac and inguinal lymph node metastases but without regional lymph node metastasis: a case report and brief literature review.

    PubMed

    Kitano, Yuki; Kuramoto, Masafumi; Masuda, Toshiro; Kuroda, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Kenichiro; Ikeshima, Satoshi; Iyama, Ken-Ichi; Shimada, Shinya; Baba, Hideo

    2017-12-01

    Lymph node metastasis to the iliac or inguinal region of colon cancer is extremely rare. We experienced a case of ascending colon cancer with synchronous isolated right external iliac and inguinal lymph node metastases but without any regional lymph node metastasis. An 83-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to anemia. Colonoscopy and computed tomography revealed an ascending colon cancer and also right external iliac and inguinal lymph node swelling. Further examination by F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography strongly suggested that these lymph nodes were metastatic. Right hemicolectomy with lymph node dissection along the superior mesenteric artery, and right external iliac and inguinal lymph node dissection were performed. Histological examination revealed that both lymph nodes were metastasized from colon cancer, and there was no evidence of regional lymph node metastasis. The patient has shown no sign of recurrence at 27 months after surgery.

  10. Is Full Lymph Node Removal Always Needed for Melanoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... was no better than less extensive surgery and observation for extending survival. "I think many more patients will decide to go with observation now, rather than immediate complete lymph node dissection," ...

  11. Lymph node dissection for gastric cancer: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Thales Paulo; Martins, Mário Rino

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common neoplasms and an important cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Efforts to reduce its high mortality rates are currently focused on multidisciplinary management. However, surgery remains a cornerstone in the management of patients with resectable disease. There is still some controversy as to the extent of lymph node dissection for potentially curable stomach cancer. Surgeons in eastern countries favor more extensive lymph node dissection, whereas those in the West favor less extensive dissection. Thus, extent of lymph node dissection remains one of the most hotly discussed aspects of gastric surgery, particularly because most stomach cancers are now often comprehensively treated by adding some perioperative chemotherapy or chemo-radiation. We provide a critical review of lymph nodes dissection for gastric cancer with a particular focus on its benefits in a multimodal approach. PMID:25992202

  12. Analysis of the movement of calcified lymph nodes during breathing

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, Peter . E-mail: peter.jenkins@glos.nhs.uk; Salmon, Clare; Mannion, Cathy

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: To identify and measure the respiratory-induced movement of calcified mediastinal lymph nodes. Methods and materials: Twenty-one patients receiving radiation therapy for primary lung or pleural tumors were noted to have calcification within one or more mediastinal lymph nodes. The breathing motion of 27 such nodes was measured with orthogonal fluoroscopic imaging during quiet respiration. Results: All 27 nodes showed some motion synchronous with breathing. The mean respiratory movement was 6.6 mm, 2.6 mm, and 1.4 mm in the craniocaudal, dorsoventral, and mediolateral planes, respectively. There was a significant difference in the amplitude of motion in the craniocaudal plane compared with movement in the other two directions (p < 0.001). No differences were seen in the movement of lymph nodes dependent on position within the mediastinum (supracarinal vs. infracarinal or hilar vs. mediastinal). Neither size of the primary tumor nor spirometric parameters were correlated with the amplitude of lymph node movement. Conclusions: Mediastinal lymph nodes move during breathing, and this needs to be accounted for when the internal margin component of the PTV is defined. The amplitude of this movement is anisotropic and seems to be less than that reported for primary lung tumors. This should permit a modest reduction in the margin allowed for breathing movement around involved mediastinal nodes, particularly in the mediolateral and dorsoventral planes.

  13. [Predictive factors for non-sentinel lymph nodes affection in breast carcinoma--outcomes of a Czech multicenter study of sentinel lymph nodes].

    PubMed

    St'astný, K; Cervinka, V; Siller, J; Havlícek, K; Gatek, J; Vachtová, M; Zedníková, I; Narsanská, A; Sůvová, B; Treska, V; Kubala, O; Prokop, J; Ostruszka, P; Dostalík, J; Hornychová, H; Hovorková, E; Ryska, A; Hácová, M; Rothröckel, P; Vázan, P; Velecký, J; Hes, O; Michal, M; Horácek, J; Buzrla, P; Cegan, M; Tomanová, R; Dvorácková, J; Záhora, J

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess positivity nonsentinel lymph nodes in patients with macro, micro and submicrometastases in sentinel lymph nodes and find predictive factors of positivity nonsentinel lymph nodes. Study was conducted at the Department of Surgery in Pardubice, Pilsen, Ostrava and Zlín. Sentinel lymph nodes were assessed based on standards of Czech Pathological Society. Detection of sentinel lymph nodes was performed based on radionavigation or combination of radionavigation and blue dye method. In group N1 (macrometastases) there was found positivity of nonsentinel lymph nodes in 50% (45 from 90 patients). In group N1 Mi (micrometastases) there was found positivity of nonsentinel lymph nodes in 26.7% (16 from 60 patients). In group NO I+ (sub-micrometastases) there was found positivity of nonsentinel lymph nodes in 6.7% (1 from 15 patients). Predictive factors were size of metastasis, number of positive sentinel lymph nodes and grading. Size of tumor was not found to be a predictive factor of positivity nonsentinel lymph nodes. High positivity of nonsentinel lymph nodes in pacients with macro and micrometastases in sentinel lymph nodes advocates to perform axillary lymph nodes dissection. Due to small number of patients with submicrometastases it is not possible to assess if axillary dissection is necessary or not. Predictive factors of positivity of nonsentinel lymph nodes are size of metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes, number of positive sentinel lymph nodes and grading. Size of tumor was not found to be a predictive factor due to small tumors in the study. In spite of this it is necessary to consider it like a predictive factor of positivity nonsentinel lymph nodes. In patients with macro and micrometastases it is necessary to perform axillary dissection. In patients with submicrometastases in sentinel lymph nodes it is necessary to consider predictive factors.

  14. Sentinel lymph node biopsy indications and controversies in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wiatrek, Rebecca; Kruper, Laura

    2011-05-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become the standard of care for early breast cancer. Its use in breast cancer has been evaluated in several randomized controlled trials and validated in multiple prospective studies. Additionally, it has been verified that SLNB has decreased morbidity when compared to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). The technique used to perform sentinel lymph node mapping was also evaluated in multiple studies and the accuracy rate increases when radiocolloid and blue dye are used in combination. As SLNB became more accepted, contraindications were delineated and are still debated. Patients who have clinically positive lymph nodes or core biopsy-proven positive lymph nodes should not have SLNB, but should have an ALND as their staging procedure. The safety of SLNB in pregnant patients is not fully established. However, patients with multifocal or multicentric breast cancer and patients having neoadjuvant chemotherapy are considered candidates for SLNB. However, the details of which specific neoadjuvant patients should have SLNB are currently being evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. Patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) benefit from SLNB when mastectomy is planned and when there is a high clinical suspicion of invasion. With the advent of SLNB, pathologic review of breast cancer lymph nodes has evolved. The significance of occult metastasis in SLNB patients is currently being debated. Additionally, the most controversial subject with regards to SLNB is determining which patients with positive SLNs benefit from further axillary dissection.

  15. Recurrent ovarian cancer presenting in the right supraclavicular lymph node with isolated metastasis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tomohito; Ohmichi, Masahide

    2012-07-02

    The majority of ovarian cancer recurrences are in the abdomen. However, some cases relapse as isolated lymph node metastases, mostly in pelvic or para-aortic nodes. Peripheral isolated lymph node metastasis is rare. A 69-year-old Japanese woman had recurrent ovarian cancer presenting with isolated right supraclavicular lymph node metastasis. After surgical resection and combination chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel, her right supraclavicular lymph node completely regressed. Peripheral isolated lymph nodes, including right supraclavicular lymph node, can recur without a macroscopic abdominal lesion. Clinicians should carefully examine peripheral lymph nodes for recurrence.

  16. Recurrent ovarian cancer presenting in the right supraclavicular lymph node with isolated metastasis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The majority of ovarian cancer recurrences are in the abdomen. However, some cases relapse as isolated lymph node metastases, mostly in pelvic or para-aortic nodes. Peripheral isolated lymph node metastasis is rare. Case presentation A 69-year-old Japanese woman had recurrent ovarian cancer presenting with isolated right supraclavicular lymph node metastasis. After surgical resection and combination chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel, her right supraclavicular lymph node completely regressed. Conclusions Peripheral isolated lymph nodes, including right supraclavicular lymph node, can recur without a macroscopic abdominal lesion. Clinicians should carefully examine peripheral lymph nodes for recurrence. PMID:22747642

  17. Impact of Completion Lymph Node Dissection on Patients with Positive Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, David Y; Lau, Briana J; Huynh, Kelly T; Flaherty, Devin C; Lee, Ji-Hey; Stern, Stacey L; Day, Steve J O'; Foshag, Leland J; Faries, Mark B

    2016-01-01

    Background The need for complete lymph node dissection (CLND) in patients with positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) is an important unanswered clinical question. Study Design Patients diagnosed with positive SNB at a melanoma referral center from 1991 to 2013 were studied. Outcomes of patients who underwent CLND were compared to those who did not undergo immediate CLND (observation group, OBS). Results There were 471 patients who had positive SNB; 375 (79.6%) in the CLND group and 96 (20.4%) in the OBS group. The groups were similar except that the CLND group was younger and had more sentinel nodes removed. Five-year nodal recurrence free survival was significantly better in the CLND group compared to the OBS group (93.1% vs 84.4%, p= 0.005). However, the 5- (66.4% vs 55.2%) and 10- year (59.5% vs 45.0%) distant metastasis free survival was not significantly different (p= 0.061). The CLND group's melanoma specific survival (MSS) was superior to the OBS group; 5 year MSS was (73.7 vs 65.5%) and10 year MSS- (66.8 vs 48.3%, p=0.015). On multivariate analysis, CLND was associated with improved MSS (HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.40-0.89, p= 0.011) and lower nodal recurrence (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.24-0.86, p=0.016). Increased Breslow thickness, older age, ulceration, and trunk melanoma were all associated with worse outcomes. On subgroup analysis, following factors were associated with better outcomes from CLND- male gender, non-ulcerated primary, intermediate thickness, Clark level IV or lower extremity tumors. Conclusions Treatment of positive SNB with CLND was associated with improved MSS and nodal recurrence rate. Follow up beyond 5 years was needed to see a significant difference in MSS. PMID:27236435

  18. Stage IB carcinoma of the cervix with lymph node metastases.

    PubMed

    Terada, K Y; Morley, G W; Roberts, J A

    1988-11-01

    From January 1, 1946, through January 1, 1986, at the University of Michigan, 60 patients were treated with Stage IB (FIGO) carcinoma of the cervix with lymph node metastases. Clinical variables were examined with regard to long-term survival. Prognostically significant variables were (1) highest level of lymph node involvement and (2) tumor histology. Patients with common iliac or periaortic node involvement had an actuarial survival at 5 years of 14%; 5-year survival for patients with only pelvic node involvement (external iliac, hypogastric, or obturator) was 68%. Patients with adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous histology had an actuarial survival at 5 years of 16%; 5-year survival for patient with squamous cell carcinoma was 71%. Overall survival for all patients with lymph node involvement was 61%. For patients undergoing radical hysterectomy as primary treatment, postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy did not significantly improve survival.

  19. Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... more likely to affect arm function and cause lymphedema. For this reason, sentinel node biopsy is the ... OR supraclavicular (above the clavicle) nodes have cancer Lymphedema Lymphedema [lim-fa-DEE-ma] is a build- ...

  20. Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... nodes . The axillary nodes are the first place breast cancer is likely to spread. During breast surgery, some ... if cancer cells are present. This helps determine breast cancer stage and guide treatment. So, it is more ...

  1. Patterns of lymph node metastasis of parotid cancer.

    PubMed

    Shinomiya, Hitomi; Otsuki, Naoki; Yamashita, Daisuke; Nibu, Ken-Ichi

    2016-08-01

    To define the incidence and pattern of spread of lymph node metastasis from parotid cancers and to clarify the risk factors and appropriate extent of neck dissection (ND) for individual patient with parotid cancer. A total of 72 patients with parotid gland cancer treated by surgery between 1994 and 2013 were analyzed retrospectively by reference to medical records. In line with our protocol, patients with clinically positive lymph nodes and/or cT3/T4 disease were generally selected to undergo ND. Pathological examinations revealed mucoepidermoid carcinoma in 23 patients, carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma in 11, adenoid cystic carcinoma in 9, salivary duct carcinoma in 9, acinic cell carcinoma in 8, squamous cell carcinoma in 5, adenocarcinoma NOS in 4, epithelial myoepithelial carcinoma in 2, and basal cell carcinoma in 1. Thirty-three patients underwent neck dissection: modified radical ND (MRND) in 13, and elective ND (END) in 20. Postoperative RT (PORT) was performed in 33 patients. Among 13 cN+ patients, 10 were pN+ and lymph node metastasis was distributed mainly in levels I, II, III and V. Among 59 cN- patients, clinical T1, T2, T3 and T4 classifications accounted for 10, 24, 10 and 15 patients, respectively. The incidence of occult lymph node metastasis was 22%. Occult lymph node metastasis was mostly seen in the intraparotid, levels I and II of patients with cT4 disease. Among the ND group, 12 necks were pathologically negative for cancer (pN0). Relapse of neck lymph node metastasis occurred only in two patients treated by MRND with pathologically positive lymph nodes (pN+). These patients developed local and distant metastasis within 1 year after neck lymph node recurrence, and subsequently died of the cancer. pN+ was found in 19/30 high grade (63%), 1/10 intermediate grade (10%), and 3/32 low grade (9.4%). Among 33 patients who received PORT, only 1 patient relapsed neck lymph node. For patients with clinically positive lymph nodes, ipsilateral modified

  2. A nomogram improves AJCC stages for colorectal cancers by introducing CEA, modified lymph node ratio and negative lymph node count

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen-yu; Gao, Wei; Luo, Qi-feng; Yin, Xiao-wei; Basnet, Shiva; Dai, Zhen-ling; Ge, Hai-yan

    2016-01-01

    Lymph node stages (pN stages) are primary contributors to survival heterogeneity of the 7th AJCC staging system for colorectal cancer (CRC), indicating spaces for modifications. To implement the modifications, we selected eligible CRC patients from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database as participants in a training (n = 6675) and a test cohort (n = 6760), and verified tumor deposits to be metastatic lymph nodes to derive modified lymph node count (mLNC), lymph node ratio (mLNR), and positive lymph node count (mPLNC). After multivariate Cox regression analyses with forward stepwise elimination of the mLNC and mPLNC for the training cohort, a nomogram was constructed to predict overall survival (OS) via incorporating preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen, pT stages, negative lymph node count, mLNR and metastasis. Internal validations of the nomogram showed concordance indexes (c-index) of 0.750 (95% CI, 0.736–0.764) and 0.749 before and after corrections for overfitting. Serial performance evaluations indicated that the nomogram outperformed the AJCC stages (c-index = 0.725) with increased accuracy, net benefits, risk assessment ability, but comparable complexity and clinical validity. All the results were reproducible in the test cohort. In summary, the proposed nomogram may serve as an alternative to the AJCC stages. However, validations with longer follow-up periods are required. PMID:27941905

  3. The clinical significance of subcarinal lymph node dissection in the radical resection of oesophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Haibo; Li, Yin; Ding, Zhidan; Liu, Xianben; Xu, Jinliang; Qin, Jianjun

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To explore the rule of subcarinal lymph node metastasis in thoracic oesophageal cancer and its clinical significance in the radical resection of oesophageal cancer. METHODS We retrospectively analysed 2223 patients with oesophageal cancer who were admitted to Henan Cancer Hospital during 2004–2011 and underwent surgery as the first treatment option. Routine subcarinal lymph node dissections were performed, and the sections from the resected lymph nodes were embedded in paraffin for routine pathological examination. RESULTS Subcarinal lymph node metastasis was observed in 200 patients (9%). Logistic regression analysis identified the following risk factors (P < 0.05): tumour location, depth of invasion into the oesophageal wall, tissue type, number of lymph node metastases, paraoesophageal lymph node metastasis (level 8 lymph nodes), left gastric cardiac lymph node metastasis. Unpaired t-test and χ2-test showed that more lymph node metastases, longer tumour length, deeper tumour invasion, middle oesophageal cancer, squamous-cell carcinoma, lower degree of differentiation, paraoesophageal lymph node metastasis and left gastric cardiac lymph node metastasis were associated with a higher frequency of subcarinal lymph node metastases (P < 0.05). Using the Kaplan–Meier method, recurrence and metastasis were shown to be more likely with solitary subcarinal lymph node metastasis than with solitary paraoesophageal lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Tumour location, depth of invasion, pathological type, degree of differentiation and other factors are closely associated with subcarinal lymph node metastasis. Recurrence and metastasis after oesophageal dissection are more likely with subcarinal lymph node metastasis. PMID:23475120

  4. Unexpected locations of sentinel lymph nodes in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    How, Jeffrey; Boldeanu, Irina; Lau, Susie; Salvador, Shannon; How, Emily; Gotlieb, Raphael; Abitbol, Jeremie; Halder, Ajay; Amajoud, Zainab; Probst, Stephan; Brin, Sonya; Gotlieb, Walter

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the anatomical location of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) following intra-operative cervical injection in endometrial cancer. All consecutive patients with endometrial cancer undergoing sentinel lymph node mapping were included in this prospective study following intra-operative cervical injection of tracers. Areas of SLN detection distribution were mapped. Among 436 patients undergoing SLN mapping, there were 1095 SLNs removed, and 7.9% of these SLNs found in 13.1% of patients, were detected in areas not routinely harvested during a standard lymph node dissection. These included the internal iliac vein, parametrial, and pre-sacral areas. The SLN was the only positive node in 46.1% (15/36) of cases with successful mapping and completion lymphadenectomy, including 3 cases where the sentinel node in the atypical location was the only node with metastatic disease. SLN mapping using intra-operative cervical injection is capable to map out areas not typically included in a standard lymphadenectomy. The sentinel node is the most relevant lymph node to analyze and may enable to discover metastatic disease in unusual areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Clinical analysis of cervical lymph node metastasis of hypopharyngeal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinglong; Xu, Jian

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the pattern of cervical lymph node metastasis in hypopharyngeal carcinoma. Forty-five cases of hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma were analyzed retrospectively. (1) The total rate of lymph node metastasis was 75.56%. 11.11% metastases for bilateral neck and 4.44% did unilateral neck in 10 bilateral neck dissection. The total distance metastasis rate out of lymph node were 79.41%. The rate of bilateral distance metastasis and unilateral distance metastasis were both 5.88% in 10 bilateral neck dissection. (2) 163 of 411 lymph nodes (39.66%) were positive. The percentage of positive lymph node were 0.61%, 49.08%, 25.77%, 21.47% and 3.07% in region I, II, III, IV and V respectively. The rates of lymph node metastasis were 3.57%, 62.02%, 37.17%, 42.17% and 8.62% in region I, II, III, NV and V respectively. (3) The statistical significant differences were found between region I + V and II + III and IV (P < 0.05), among II, III and IV (P < 0.05), between II and III + IV (P < 0.05), between II and III (P < 0.05), between II and IV (P < 0.05), among I, II, III, IV and II + III + IV (P < 0.05), among V, II, III, IV and II + III + IV (P < 0.05). There were not statistical significant differences in region between III and IV (P > 0.05), between I and V (P > 0.05). (4) There were not statistical significant differences in the rates of lymph node metastasis and capsule invasion between T1 + T2 and T3 + T4 (P > 0.05), among T1, T2, T3 and T4 (P > 0.05). (5) There were not statistical significant differences in the rates of lymph node metastasis and distance metastasis between pyriform sinus and out of it (P > 0.05). (6) There were not statistical significant differences in the rates of lymph node metastasis and distance metastasis between cervical esophagus invasion and not (P > 0.05). (7) There were not statistical significant differences in the rates of lymph node metastasis and distance metastasis among N1, N2, N3 (P > 0.05). (8) There were statistical

  6. Comparative Morbidity of Axillary Lymph Node Dissection and the Sentinel Lymph Node Technique

    PubMed Central

    Silberman, Allan W.; McVay, Carie; Cohen, Jason S.; Altura, Jack F.; Brackert, Sandra; Sarna, Gregory P.; Palmer, Daphne; Ko, Albert; Memsic, Leslie

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess our long-term complications from complete axillary lymph node dissection (AXLND) in patients with breast cancer. Summary Background Data: Complete AXLND as part of the surgical therapy for breast cancer has come under increased scrutiny due the use of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy technique to assess the status of the axillary nodes. As the enthusiasm for the SLN technique has increased, our impression has been that the perceived complication rate from AXLND has increased dramatically while the negative aspects of the SLN technique have been underemphasized. Methods: Female patients seen in routine follow-up over a 1-year period were eligible for our retrospective study of the long-term complications from AXLND if they were a minimum of 1 year out from all primary therapy; ie, surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy. All patients had previously undergone either a modified radical mastectomy (MRM) or a segmental mastectomy with axillary dissection and postoperative radiation (SegAx/XRT). All patients had a Level I–III dissection. Objective measurements, including upper and lower arm circumferences and body mass index (BMI), were obtained, and a subjective evaluation from the patients was conducted. Results: Ninety-four patients were eligible for our study; 44 had undergone MRM, and 50 had undergone SegAx/XRT. The average number of nodes removed was 25.6 (standard deviation, 8). Thirty-three percent of the patients had positive nodal disease, 95% of the patients had an upper arm circumference within 2 cm of the unaffected side, and 93.3% had a lower arm circumference within 2 cm of the unaffected side. Subjectively, 90.4% of the patients had either no or minimal arm swelling, and 96.8% of the patients had “good” or “excellent” overall arm function. The most common long-term symptom was numbness involving the upper, inner aspect of the affected arm (25.5%). Conclusions: Our data indicate that a complete AXLND can be performed with

  7. Predictive Factors for Nonsentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients With Positive Sentinel Lymph Nodes After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: Nomogram for Predicting Nonsentinel Lymph Node Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jai Min; Lee, Se Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Yu, Jonghan; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Jeong Eon; Han, Se Hwan; Jung, Yong Sik; Nam, Seok Jin

    2017-04-06

    Axillary lymph node (ALN) status is an important prognostic factor for breast cancer patients. With increasing numbers of patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), issues concerning sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) after NAC have emerged. We analyzed the clinicopathologic features and developed a nomogram to predict the possibility of nonsentinel lymph node (NSLN) metastases in patients with positive SLNs after NAC. A retrospective medical record review was performed of 140 patients who had had clinically positive ALNs at presentation, had a positive SLN after NAC on subsequent SLNB, and undergone axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) from 2008 to 2014. On multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis, pathologic T stage, lymphovascular invasion, SLN metastasis size, and number of positive SLN metastases were independent predictors for NSLN metastases (P < .05). The NAC nomogram was based on these 4 variables. A receiver operating characteristic curve was plotted, and the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.791 for the NAC nomogram. In the internal validation of performance, the AUCs for the training and test sets were 0.801 and 0.760, respectively. The nomogram was validated in an external patient cohort, with an AUC of 0.705. The Samsung Medical Center NAC nomogram was developed to predict the likelihood of additional positive NSLNs. The Samsung Medical Center NAC nomogram could provide information to surgeons regarding whether to perform additional ALND when the permanent biopsy revealed positive findings, although the intraoperative SLNB findings were negative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Popliteal lymph node metastasis of tibial osteoblastic osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Dirik, Yalın; Çınar, Arda; Yumrukçal, Feridun; Eralp, Levent

    2014-01-01

    We report a case with lymph node metastasis of osteosarcoma, which is a rare entity in comparison to hematogeneous lung or bone metastasis. Twenty-seven years old male patient referred to our clinic complaining of ongoing left knee pain and swelling since one month without a history of prior trauma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a mass of malignant nature which causes more prominent expansion and destruction of the bone distally with periosteal reaction. A lymphadenomegaly 16mm×13mm in diameter was also present in the popliteal fossa having the same signal pattern with the primary lesion. Thirteen weeks following the first referral of the patient, wide resection and reconstruction with modular tumor prosthesis was performed. Popliteal lymph node was excised through the same incision. Pathologic examination of the resected speciman reported osteoblastic osteosarcoma. The lymph node extirpated from the popliteal fossa was reported to be a metastasis of the primary tumor. Osteosarcoma of the long bones is the most common primary malignant bone neoplasm of both childhood and adulthood. Osteosarcomas commonly metastasize hematogeneously to the lungs and bones. Lymph node metastasis is a rare entity. Similar studies report rates between 2.3% and 4%. It is not clearly explained, how lymph node metastasis in osteosarcoma occurs despite lack of lymphatic drainage in normal cortical and spongious bone. Lymph node metastasis of osteosarcoma is a rare entity and metastatic patterns could not be clearly explained. On the other hand, the effects of lymph node metastasis on prognosis are also not clearly defined and further studies are needed. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Beyond conventional pathology: towards preoperative and intraoperative lymph node staging.

    PubMed

    Winter, Marnie; Gibson, Rachel; Ruszkiewicz, Andrew; Thompson, Sarah K; Thierry, Benjamin

    2015-02-15

    Accurate detection of lymph node metastases is critical for many solid tumours to guide treatment strategies and determine prognostic outcomes. The gold standard for detection of metastasis is by histological analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) sections of removed lymph nodes; this analysis method has remained largely unchanged for decades. Recent studies have highlighted limitations in the sensitivity of this approach, at least in its current clinical use, to detect very small metastatic deposits. Importantly, the poor prognostic outcomes associated with the presence of such small tumour deposits are now well established in a number of cancers. In addition, histological analysis of FFPE sections cannot be used practically for intraoperative node assessment. Novel lymph node staging technologies are therefore actively being developed. This review critically presents the main advances in this field and discusses why these technologies have not been able to provide a better alternative to the current gold standard diagnostic technique. © 2014 UICC.

  10. [Factor analysis and method exploring for lymph nodes harvest in gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Wang, P P; Xi, H Q; Zhang, K C; Chen, L

    2017-04-01

    The number of lymph node dissection and positive lymph nodes are the necessary guarantees for patients to achieve accurate staging after gastric cancer surgery. On the basis of the minimum number of lymph nodes dissection recommended by the NCCN guidelines, as many as possible lymph node yields will be most likely to benefit patients. Many factors can influence the number of lymph node yields including surgery, patient, tumor pathology and postoperative sorting factors. Compared with traditional manual nodal dissection method, fat-clearing technique and methylene blue staining method can improve the number of lymph nodes detection, while lymphatic tracers, such as carbon nanoparticles, are conducive to show lymphatic vessels, contributing to the dissection of small lymph nodes. The initial results from People's Liberation Army General Hospital show that lymph node packet submission after isolation by surgeon yields more lymph nodes. For the establishment of standards, lymph node retrieval-related procedures need further in-depth exploration and investigation.

  11. Impact of tumor chronology and tumor biology on lymph node metastasis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Ann; Ryckx, Andries; Belmans, Ann; Wildiers, Hans; Neven, Patrick; Floris, Giuseppe; Schöffski, Patrick; Christiaens, Marie-Rose

    2013-01-01

    The significance of nodal metastasis in breast cancer is under discussion. We investigated the impact of variables of tumor chronology and tumor biology on the presence of lymph node metastases. Lymph node involvement is the main prognostic factor in breast cancer. However, it is under discussion whether nodal metastasis in breast cancer only reflects the chronological age of the tumor or whether it is also a marker of tumor biology. The goal of our study was to investigate the impact of variables of tumor chronology and biology on the presence of lymph node metastases. We performed a retrospective analysis of data from 3002 patients with an early invasive breast carcinoma. All patients underwent primary surgery at the University Hospitals Leuven between 2001 and 2009. First, the impact of tumor size on the presence of lymph node metastasis was evaluated as the chronological age of a tumor is supposed to be reflected in its size. Next, the impact of tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion and the hormone receptor status, which are all variables of tumor biology, was studied. Logistic regression analyses were performed and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was calculated as a measure of discrimination between logistic regression models. Using pathological tumor size the AUC of prediction was 0.67. Based on variables of tumor biology, axillary lymph node positivity could be predicted with an AUC of 0.68. Combining variables of tumor chronology and biology an AUC of 0.74 for the prediction of axillary lymph node (ALN) positivity was calculated. According to our data variables of tumor chronology and tumor biology have a similar impact on the presence of lymph node metastasis.

  12. Prognostic Significance of the Number of Removed and Metastatic Lymph Nodes and Lymph Node Ratio in Breast Carcinoma Patients with 1–3 Axillary Lymph Node(s) Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Duraker, Nüvit; Batı, Bakır; Demir, Davut; Çaynak, Zeynep Civelek

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the prognostic significance of lymph node ratio (LNR), number of metastatic lymph nodes divided by number of removed nodes in 924 breast carcinoma patients with 1–3 metastatic axillary lymph node(s). The most significant LNR threshold value separating patients in low- and high-risk groups with significant survival difference was 0.20 for disease-free survival (P < 0.001), 0.30 for locoregional recurrence-free survival (P < 0.001), and 0.15 for distant metastasis-free survival (P < 0.001), and the patients with lower LNR had better survival. All three LNR threshold values had independent prognostic significance in Cox analysis (P < 0.001 for all three of them). In conclusion, LNR is a useful tool in separating breast carcinoma patients with 1–3 metastatic lymph node(s) into low- and high-risk prognostic groups. PMID:22091427

  13. Lymph Node Activation by PET/CT Following Vaccination With Licensed Vaccines for Human Papillomaviruses.

    PubMed

    Coates, Emily E; Costner, Pamela J; Nason, Martha C; Herrin, Douglas M; Conant, Shielah; Herscovitch, Peter; Sarwar, Uzma N; Holman, Lasonji; Mitchell, Jillian; Yamshchikov, Galina; Koup, Richard A; Graham, Barney S; Millo, Corina M; Ledgerwood, Julie E

    2017-05-01

    While PET using F-FDG is most commonly used for imaging malignant tumors, vaccination is known to cause transient inflammation of lymph nodes inducing positive findings on F-FDG PET scans. The pattern, magnitude, and duration of lymph node activation following vaccination have not been clearly defined. Furthermore, the addition of adjuvants to vaccines can further enhance the immune response. The presented study was designed to define lymph node activation following administration of the Food and Drug Administration-licensed human papillomavirus vaccines, Cervarix and Gardasil, which contain similar antigens with different adjuvants. Twenty-seven women aged 18 to 25 years were randomized to receive either Cervarix or Gardasil in the clinical trial VRC 900. Fifteen subjects participated in the PET/CT portion of the trial and received scans of lymph node activation at prevaccination and "1 week" (8-14 days) and "1 month" (23-36 days) after the first or third vaccination. PET/CT scans revealed that all vaccine recipients had ipsilateral axillary lymph node activity. Three of 4 Cervarix recipients also showed contralateral lymph node activity 1 month after the first vaccination. For both Cervarix and Gardasil, the SUV activity resolved over time, with activity extended up to day 37 after the first and third vaccinations. Following intramuscular vaccination, there were no major differences between duration of uptake and intensity of SUV between Cervarix and Gardasil recipients in ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes. Contralateral node activation was detected up to 1 month after the first vaccination in Cervarix recipients only, possibly reflecting differences in vaccine adjuvant formulation.

  14. Salvage Lymph Node Dissection for Node-only Recurrence of Prostate Cancer: Ready for Prime Time?

    PubMed

    Suardi, Nazareno; Briganti, Alberto; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Fossati, Nicola; Montorsi, Francesco

    2016-12-30

    Several studies show that salvage lymph-node dissection for node-only recurrence of prostate cancer after radical treatment might represent a viable treatment modality for node-only recurrent PCa. However, as long as high quality data is not available, this approach should still be considered experimental.

  15. Modeling lymphocyte homing and encounters in lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The efficiency of lymph nodes depends on tissue structure and organization, which allow the coordination of lymphocyte traffic. Despite their essential role, our understanding of lymph node specific mechanisms is still incomplete and currently a topic of intense research. Results In this paper, we present a hybrid discrete/continuous model of the lymph node, accounting for differences in cell velocity and chemotactic response, influenced by the spatial compartmentalization of the lymph node and the regulation of cells migration, encounter, and antigen presentation during the inflammation process. Conclusion Our model reproduces the correct timing of an immune response, including the observed time delay between duplication of T helper cells and duplication of B cells in response to antigen exposure. Furthermore, we investigate the consequences of the absence of dendritic cells at different times during infection, and the dependence of system dynamics on the regulation of lymphocyte exit from lymph nodes. In both cases, the model predicts the emergence of an impaired immune response, i.e., the response is significantly reduced in magnitude. Dendritic cell removal is also shown to delay the response time with respect to normal conditions. PMID:19939270

  16. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Matthey-Giè, Marie-Laure; Boubaker, Ariane; Letovanec, Igor; Demartines, Nicolas; Matter, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    The management of lymph nodes in nonmelanoma skin cancer patients is currently still debated. Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM), and other rare skin neoplasms have a well-known risk to spread to regional lymph nodes. The use of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) could be a promising procedure to assess this risk in clinically N0 patients. Metastatic SNs have been observed in 4.5–28% SCC (according to risk factors), in 9–42% MCC, and in 14–57% PEM. We observed overall 30.8% positive SNs in 13 consecutive patients operated for high-risk nonmelanoma skin cancer between 2002 and 2011 in our institution. These high rates support recommendation to implement SLNB for nonmelanoma skin cancer especially for SCC patients. Completion lymph node dissection following positive SNs is also a matter of discussion especially in PEM. It must be remembered that a definitive survival benefit of SLNB in melanoma patients has not been proven yet. However, because of its low morbidity when compared to empiric elective lymph node dissection or radiation therapy of lymphatic basins, SLNB has allowed sparing a lot of morbidity and could therefore be used in nonmelanoma skin cancer patients, even though a significant impact on survival has not been demonstrated. PMID:23476781

  17. Automatic detection and segmentation of lymph nodes from CT data.

    PubMed

    Barbu, Adrian; Suehling, Michael; Xu, Xun; Liu, David; Zhou, S Kevin; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2012-02-01

    Lymph nodes are assessed routinely in clinical practice and their size is followed throughout radiation or chemotherapy to monitor the effectiveness of cancer treatment. This paper presents a robust learning-based method for automatic detection and segmentation of solid lymph nodes from CT data, with the following contributions. First, it presents a learning based approach to solid lymph node detection that relies on marginal space learning to achieve great speedup with virtually no loss in accuracy. Second, it presents a computationally efficient segmentation method for solid lymph nodes (LN). Third, it introduces two new sets of features that are effective for LN detection, one that self-aligns to high gradients and another set obtained from the segmentation result. The method is evaluated for axillary LN detection on 131 volumes containing 371 LN, yielding a 83.0% detection rate with 1.0 false positive per volume. It is further evaluated for pelvic and abdominal LN detection on 54 volumes containing 569 LN, yielding a 80.0% detection rate with 3.2 false positives per volume. The running time is 5-20 s per volume for axillary areas and 15-40 s for pelvic. An added benefit of the method is the capability to detect and segment conglomerated lymph nodes.

  18. [Axillary lymph node dissection in clinically occult breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Le Bouëdec, G; Pomel, C; Chamussy, E; Feillel, V; de Latour, M; Dauplat, J

    1996-07-01

    The study concerns 265 patients with axillary lymph node dissection for non-palpable breast cancer. The mammographically detected breast tumors were: 36 ductal carcinomas in situ (DCIS), 23 microinvasive carcinomas, 206 invasive carcinomas of which 179 were invasive ductal cancers (IDC), 25 invasive lobular cancers (ILC) and 2 mucinous invasive carcinomas. The histologic size of the invasive component was < or = 5 mm in 38 cases, 6-10 mm in 84 cases, 11-15 mm in 53 cases, 16-20 mm in 16 cases, > 20 mm in 15 cases. Axillary dissection was performed immediately during the initial surgical procedure in 209 patients (79%) or secondarily in 56 (21%) according to the results of intraoperative examination of surgical specimens on frozen sections. Axillary lymph node involvement was not found in DCIS, microinvasive carcinomas or invasive carcinomas < or = 5 mm in size. Among all 206 invasive breast carcinomas, lymph node involvement was found in 7.8% (16/206) of cases. There were 9/84 (10.7%) in tumors > 10 mm, 7/122 (5.8%) in tumors < or = 10 mm. Thus, it is concluded that lymph node involvement is unlikely to be found in patients with non palpable breast cancers, specially those with carcinoma in situ, microinvasive breast tumors and invasive breast cancer with less than 5 mm maximum diameter size. Axillary dissection may be avoided in these patients. However, the use of new prognostic factors of lymph node involvement may help in the definition of patient group.

  19. Salmonella prevalence in bovine lymph nodes differs among feedyards.

    PubMed

    Haneklaus, Ashley N; Harris, Kerri B; Griffin, Davey B; Edrington, Thomas S; Lucia, Lisa M; Savell, Jeffrey W

    2012-06-01

    Lymphatic tissue, specifically lymph nodes, is commonly incorporated into ground beef products as a component of lean trimmings. Salmonella and other pathogenic bacteria have been identified in bovine lymph nodes, which may impact compliance with the Salmonella performance standards for ground beef established by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Although Salmonella prevalence has been examined among lymph nodes between animals, no data are currently available regarding feedyard origin of the cattle and Salmonella prevalence. Bovine lymph nodes (279 superficial cervical plus 28 iliofemoral = 307) were collected from beef carcasses at a commercial beef harvest and processing plant over a 3-month period and examined for the prevalence of Salmonella. Cattle processed were from seven feedyards (A through G). Salmonella prevalence was exceptionally low (0% of samples were positive ) in cattle from feedyard A and high (88.2%) in cattle from feedyard B. Prevalence in the remaining feedyards ranged widely: 40.0% in feedyard C, 4.0% in feedyard D, 24.0% in feedyard E, 42.9% in feedyard F, and 40.0% in feedyard G. These data indicate the range of differences in Salmonella prevalence among feedyards. Such information may be useful for developing interventions to reduce or eliminate Salmonella from bovine lymph nodes, which would assist in the reduction of Salmonella in ground beef.

  20. Role of parathymic lymph nodes in metastatic tumor development.

    PubMed

    Banfalvi, Gaspar

    2012-06-01

    Parathymic lymph nodes as potential sites of tumor progression have been neglected in humans. We have established a rat renal capsule-parathymic lymph node model to study in vivo metastasis. Epithelial liver carcinoma (HeDe) and mesenchymal mesoblastic nephroma (NeDe) cell lines have been established after inducing chemical carcinogenesis in newborn Fisher 344 inbred rats by N-nitrosodimethylamine. Implanting the exact number of tumor cells (HeDe, NeDe) under the renal capsule allowed the standardization and timing of metastatic development. Tumor cells released from the primary tumor in the peritoneal cavity were drained to the parathymic lymph nodes (PTNs) as sentinel lymph nodes. Similarly, tumor cells injected i.p. were engulfed by macrophages, drained through the transdiaphragmatic channels, and transported to the thoracal lymphatics, primarily to PTNs. Tumor cells after transdiaphragmic drainage can enter both anterior mammary and parathymic sentinel lymph nodes. The potential common origin can shed new light on the metastatic cell progression of PTNs and mammary tumors.

  1. Lymph node staging of oral and maxillofacial neoplasms in 31 dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Herring, Erin S; Smith, Mark M; Robertson, John L

    2002-09-01

    A retrospective study was performed to report the histologic examination results of regional lymph nodes of dogs and cats with oral or maxillofacial neoplasms. Twenty-eight dogs and 3 cats were evaluated. Histologic examination results of standard and serial tissue sectioning of regional lymph nodes were recorded. When available, other clinical parameters including mandibular lymph node palpation, thoracic radiographs, and pre- and postoperative fine needle aspiration of lymph nodes were compared with the histologic results. Squamous cell carcinoma, fibrosarcoma, and melanoma were the most common neoplasms diagnosed in dogs. Squamous cell carcinoma and fibrosarcoma were diagnosed in cats. Of the palpably enlarged mandibular lymph nodes, 17.0% had metastatic disease histologically. Radiographically evident thoracic metastatic disease was present in 7.4% of cases. Preoperative cytologic evaluation of the mandibular lymph node based on fine needle aspiration concurred with the histologic results in 90.5% of lymph nodes examined. Postoperative cytologic evaluation of fine needle aspirates of regional lymph nodes concurred with the histologic results in 80.6% of lymph nodes examined. Only 54.5% of cases with metastatic disease to regional lymph nodes had metastasis that included the mandibular lymph node. Serial lymph node sectioning provided additional information or metastasis detection. Cytologic evaluation of the mandibular lymph node correlates positively with histology, however results may fail to indicate the presence of regional metastasis. Assessment of all regional lymph nodes in dogs and cats with oral or maxillofacial neoplasms will detect more metastatic disease than assessing the mandibular lymph node only.

  2. The impact of axillary lymph nodes removed in staging of node-positive breast carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kuru, Bekir . E-mail: bekirkuru@hotmail.com; Bozgul, Mustafa

    2006-12-01

    Purpose: Number of positive lymph nodes in the axilla and pathologic lymph node status (pN) have a great impact on staging according to the current American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system of breast carcinoma. Our aim was to define whether the total number of removed axillary lymph nodes influences the pN and thus the staging. Methods and Materials: The records of 798 consecutive invasive breast cancer patients with T1-3 tumors and positive axillary lymph nodes who underwent modified radical mastectomy between 1999 and 2005 in our hospital were reviewed. The total number of removed nodes were grouped, and compared with the patient and tumor characteristics and the influence of the number of nodes removed on the staging was analyzed. Results: The proportion of patients with {>=}4 positive nodes (59%), and pN3 status (51%) were the highest in the group with 21-25 nodes removed. Compared with patients with 1-20 nodes removed, the proportion of patients with {>=}4 positive nodes (52%), and pN3 status (46%) were significantly higher in those with more than 20 nodes removed. Although the proportion of Stage IIA and IIB decreased, the proportion of Stage IIIA and IIIC increased in patients with >20 nodes removed compared with those with 1-20 nodes removed. Conclusions: In patients with axillary node-positive breast carcinoma, staging is highly influenced by total number of removed nodes. Levels I-III axillary dissection with more than 20 axillary lymph nodes removed could lead to more effective adjuvant chemotherapy and increases substantially the proportion of patients to receive radiotherapy.

  3. Clinicopathologic features predicting involvement of non- sentinel axillary lymph nodes in Iranian women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Moosavi, Seyed Alireza; Abdirad, Afshin; Omranipour, Ramesh; Hadji, Maryam; Razavi, Amirnader Emami; Najafi, Massoome

    2014-01-01

    Almost half of the breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes have no additional disease in the remaining axillary lymph nodes. This group of patients do not benefit from complete axillary lymph node dissection. This study was designed to assess the clinicopathologic factors that predict non-sentinel lymph node metastasis in Iranian breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes. The records of patients who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy, between 2003 and 2012, were reviewed. Patients with at least one positive sentinel lymph node who underwent completion axillary lymph node dissection were enrolled in the present study. Demographic and clinicopathologic characteristics including age, primary tumor size, histological and nuclear grade, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, extracapsular invasion, and number of harvested lymph nodes, were evaluated. The data of 167 patients were analyzed. A total of 92 (55.1%) had non-sentinel lymph node metastasis. Univariate analysis of data revealed that age, primary tumor size, histological grade, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, extracapsular invasion, and the number of positive sentinel lymph nodes to the total number of harvested sentinel lymph nodes ratio, were associated with non-sentinel lymph node metastasis. After logistic regression analysis, age (OR=0.13; 95% CI, 0.02-0.8), primary tumor size (OR=7.7; 95% CI, 1.4-42.2), lymphovascular invasion (OR=19.4; 95% CI, 1.4- 268.6), extracapsular invasion (OR=13.3; 95% CI, 2.3-76), and the number of positive sentinel lymph nodes to the total number of harvested sentinel lymph nodes ratio (OR=20.2; 95% CI, 3.4-121.9), were significantly associated with non-sentinel lymph node metastasis. According to this study, age, primary tumor size, lymphovascular invasion, extracapsular invasion, and the ratio of positive sentinel lymph nodes to the total number of harvested sentinel lymph nodes, were found to be independent predictors of

  4. Lymph node staging in prostate cancer: perspective for the pathologist.

    PubMed

    Prendeville, Susan; van der Kwast, Theodorus H

    2016-12-01

    Pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) currently represents the gold standard method for nodal staging in the setting of localised prostate cancer and may also have a therapeutic benefit in certain patients. The histopathological evaluation of PLND specimens plays a critical role in accurate lymph node staging, however there is currently a lack of consensus regarding the optimum approach and no quality parameters are in place. In addition, there are no guidelines as to the handling of less commonly encountered nodal specimens such as those identified within the anterior fat pad. This summary provides an overview of pertinent issues regarding lymph node staging in prostate cancer, with a focus on the histopathological evaluation of resected nodal specimens. We hope that this review will further the discussion on how to achieve a more standardised approach to the processing and reporting of PLND specimens in the setting of prostate cancer.

  5. Characteristics of magnetic probes for identifying sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Ookubo, Tetsu; Inoue, Yusuke; Kim, Dongmin; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Mashiko, Yusuke; Kusakabe, Moriaki; Sekino, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    The identification of the sentinel lymph nodes that cause tumor metastasis is important in breast cancer therapy. The detection of magnetic fluid accumulating in the lymph nodes using a magnetic probe allows surgeons to identify the lymph nodes. In this study, we carried out numerical simulations and experiments to investigate the sensitivity and basic characteristics of a magnetic probe consisting of a permanent magnet and a small magnetic sensor. The measured magnetic flux density arising from the magnetic fluid agreed well with the numerical results. In addition, the results helped realize an appropriate probe configuration for achieving high sensitivity to magnetic fluid. A prototype probe detected magnetic fluid located 30 mm from the probe head.

  6. Lymph node hemangioma in one-humped camel

    PubMed Central

    Aljameel, M.A.; Halima, M.O.

    2015-01-01

    Hemangioma is a benign tumor of blood and lymphatic vessels. It is common in skin, mucosa and soft tissues, and its occurrence in lymph nodes is extremely rare. A 10 year-old she-camel was slaughtered at Nyala slaughterhouse, South Darfur State, Sudan. Grossly, the carcass was emaciated. The left ventral superficial cervical lymph node was enlarged, hard on palpation and protruded outside the body. Its cut surface was dark red in color and measured (18 cm) in diameter. Histopathologically, the sections revealed vascular masses were composed of non-encapsulated clusters of small and medium sized with thick and thin-walled, filled with blood, separated by courageous stroma and surrounded by closely packed proliferating capillaries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first record of the left ventral superficial cervical lymph node hemangioma in a camel in the Sudan. PMID:26753134

  7. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for cutaneous head and neck malignancies.

    PubMed

    Dwojak, Sunshine; Emerick, Kevin S

    2015-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is a procedure that can provide critical information regarding pathologic lymph node status and accurate regional staging. This is very important for developing treatment plans and providing prognostic guidance for cutaneous malignancies. The head and neck (HN) region is unique from other body sites due to its complex lymphatic drainage pathways, multiple lymph node basins, proximity of important cranial nerves and potential for contralateral or bilateral drainage. These unique aspects of the HN previously created some uncertainty about the use of SLNB in the HN. This review will discuss the current reliable status of HN SLNB and provide a guide for its current application in cutaneous malignancy of the HN.

  8. Axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer patients: sonographic evaluation*

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Denise Joffily Pereira da Costa; Elias, Simone; Nazário, Afonso Celso Pinto

    2014-01-01

    Axillary staging of patients with early-stage breast cancer is essential in the treatment planning. Currently such staging is intraoperatively performed, but there is a tendency to seek a preoperative and less invasive technique to detect lymph node metastasis. Ultrasonography is widely utilized for this purpose, many times in association with fine-needle aspiration biopsy or core needle biopsy. However, the sonographic criteria for determining malignancy in axillary lymph nodes do not present significant predictive values, producing discrepant results in studies evaluating the sensitivity and specificity of this method. The present study was aimed at reviewing the literature approaching the utilization of ultrasonography in the axillary staging as well as the main morphological features of metastatic lymph nodes. PMID:25741091

  9. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer: predictors of axillary and non-sentinel lymph node involvement.

    PubMed

    Postacı, Hakan; Zengel, Baha; Yararbaş, Ulkem; Uslu, Adam; Eliyatkın, Nuket; Akpınar, Göksever; Cengiz, Fevzi; Durusoy, Raika

    2013-12-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a standard method for the evaluation of axillary status in patients with T1-2N0M0 breast cancers. To determine the prognostic significance of primary tumour-related clinico-histopathological factors on axillary and non-sentinel lymph node involvement of patients who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy. Retrospective clinical study. In the present study, 157 sentinel lymph node biopsies were performed in 151 consecutive patients with early stage breast cancer between June 2008 and December 2011. Successful lymphatic mapping was obtained in 157 of 158 procedures (99.4%). The incidence of larger tumour size (2.543±1.21 vs. 1.974±1.04), lymphatic vessel invasion (70.6% vs. 29.4%), blood vessel invasion (84.2% vs. 15.8%), and invasive lobular carcinoma subtype (72.7% vs. 27.3%) were statistically significantly higher in patients with positive SLNs. Logistic stepwise regression analysis disclosed tumour size (odds ratio: 1.51, p=0.0021) and lymphatic vessel invasion (odds ratio: 4.68, p=0.001) as significant primary tumour-related prognostic determinants of SLN metastasis. A close relationship was identified between tumour size and lymphatic vessel invasion of the primary tumour and axillary lymph node involvement. However, the positive predictive value of these two independent variables is low and there is no compelling evidence to recommend their use in routine clinical practice.

  10. Clinical significance of microscopic melanoma metastases in the nonhottest sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Su; Lobo, Alice Z C; Tanabe, Kenneth K; Muzikansky, Alona; Durazzo, Tyler; Sober, Arthur; Tsao, Hensin; Cosimi, A Benedict; Lawrence, Donald P; Duncan, Lyn M

    2015-05-01

    A practice gap exists in the surgical removal of sentinel lymph nodes, from removal of only the most radioactive (hottest) lymph node to removal of all lymph nodes with radioactivity greater than 10% of the hottest lymph node. To determine the clinical significance of melanoma in sentinel lymph nodes that are not the hottest sentinel node and to determine the risk for disease progression based on sentinel lymph node status and primary tumor characteristics. Consecutive patients with cutaneous melanoma with sentinel lymph nodes resected from January 5, 2004, to June 30, 2008, with a mean follow-up of 59 months, at Massachusetts General Hospital were included in this retrospective review. The last year of follow-up was 2012. The operative protocol led to resection of all sentinel lymph nodes with radioactivity greater than 10% of the hottest lymph node. The number of lymph nodes removed, technetium-99m counts for each sentinel lymph node, presence or absence of sentinel lymph node metastases, primary tumor characteristics, disease progression, and melanoma-specific survival were recorded. Microscopic melanoma metastases in the hottest and nonhottest sentinel lymph nodes and factors that correlate with disease progression and mortality. A total of 1575 sentinel lymph nodes were analyzed in 475 patients. Ninety-one patients (19%) had positive sentinel lymph nodes. Of these, 72 (79%) had metastases in the hottest sentinel lymph node. Of 19 cases with tumor present, but not in the hottest sentinel lymph node, counts ranged from 26% to 97% of the hottest node. Progression occurred in 43% of patients with sentinel node metastasis, regardless of whether the hottest lymph node was positive. In patients with negative sentinel lymph nodes, 11% developed metastases beyond the sentinel lymph node basin and 3.4% recurred in the basin. Mitogenicity of the primary tumor was associated with mortality (odds ratio, 2.435; 95% CI, 1.351-4.391; P < .001). Removing only the hottest

  11. Robust automated lymph node segmentation with random forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, David; Lu, Le; Yao, Jianhua; Liu, Jiamin; Turkbey, Evrim; Summers, Ronald M.

    2014-03-01

    Enlarged lymph nodes may indicate the presence of illness. Therefore, identification and measurement of lymph nodes provide essential biomarkers for diagnosing disease. Accurate automatic detection and measurement of lymph nodes can assist radiologists for better repeatability and quality assurance, but is challenging as well because lymph nodes are often very small and have a highly variable shape. In this paper, we propose to tackle this problem via supervised statistical learning-based robust voxel labeling, specifically the random forest algorithm. Random forest employs an ensemble of decision trees that are trained on labeled multi-class data to recognize the data features and is adopted to handle lowlevel image features sampled and extracted from 3D medical scans. Here we exploit three types of image features (intensity, order-1 contrast and order-2 contrast) and evaluate their effectiveness in random forest feature selection setting. The trained forest can then be applied to unseen data by voxel scanning via sliding windows (11×11×11), to assign the class label and class-conditional probability to each unlabeled voxel at the center of window. Voxels from the manually annotated lymph nodes in a CT volume are treated as positive class; background non-lymph node voxels as negatives. We show that the random forest algorithm can be adapted and perform the voxel labeling task accurately and efficiently. The experimental results are very promising, with AUCs (area under curve) of the training and validation ROC (receiver operating characteristic) of 0.972 and 0.959, respectively. The visualized voxel labeling results also confirm the validity.

  12. Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Cervical Lymph Nodes in Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Machado, Maria Regina Marrocos; Tavares, Marcos Roberto; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto; Chammas, Maria Cristina

    2017-02-01

    Objective To determine what ultrasonographic features can identify metastatic cervical lymph nodes, both preoperatively and in recurrences after complete thyroidectomy. Study Design Prospective. Setting Outpatient clinic, Department of Head and Neck Surgery, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, Brazil. Subjects and Methods A total of 1976 lymph nodes were evaluated in 118 patients submitted to total thyroidectomy with or without cervical lymph node dissection. All the patients were examined by cervical ultrasonography, preoperatively and/or postoperatively. The following factors were assessed: number, size, shape, margins, presence of fatty hilum, cortex, echotexture, echogenicity, presence of microcalcification, presence of necrosis, and type of vascularity. The specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of each variable were calculated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. A receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted to determine the best cutoff value for the number of variables to discriminate malignant lymph nodes. Results Significant differences were found between metastatic and benign lymph nodes with regard to all of the variables evaluated ( P < .05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that size and echogenicity were the best combination of altered variables (odds ratio, 40.080 and 7.288, respectively) in discriminating malignancy. The ROC curve analysis showed that 4 was the best cutoff value for the number of altered variables to discriminate malignant lymph nodes, with a combined specificity of 85.7%, sensitivity of 96.4%, and efficiency of 91.0%. Conclusion Greater diagnostic accuracy was achieved by associating the ultrasonographic variables assessed rather than by considering them individually.

  13. Robotic Salvage Lymph Node Dissection After Radical Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Torricelli, Fabio C M; Cividanes, Arnaldo; Guglielmetti, Giuliano B; Coelho, Rafael F

    2015-01-01

    Radical prostatectomy is a first-line treatment for localized prostate cancer. However, in some cases, biochemical recurrence associated with imaging-detected nodal metastases may happen. Herein, we aim to present the surgical technique for salvage lymph node dissection after radical prostatectomy. A 70 year-old asymptomatic man presented with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of 7.45 ng/mL. Digital rectal examination was normal and trans-rectal prostate biopsy revealed a prostate adenocarcinoma Gleason 7 (3+4). Pre-operative computed tomography scan and bone scintigraphy showed no metastatic disease. In other service, the patient underwent a robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy plus obturador lymphadenectomy. Pathologic examination showed a pT3aN0 tumor. After 6 months of follow-up, serum PSA was 1.45 ng/mL. Further investigation with 11C--Choline PET/CT revealed only a 2-cm lymph node close to the left internal iliac artery. The patient was counseled for salvage lymph node dissection. Salvage lymph node dissection was uneventfully performed. Operative time was 1.5 hour, blood loss was minimal, and there were no intra- or postoperative complications. The patient was discharged from hospital in the 1st postoperative day. After 12 months of follow-up, his PSA was undetectable with no other adjuvant therapy. Robotic salvage pelvic lymph node dissection is an effective option for treatment of patients with biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy and only pelvic lymph node metastasis detected by C11-Choline PET/CT.

  14. Lymph node pooling: a feasible and efficient method of lymph node molecular staging in colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rakislova, Natalia; Montironi, Carla; Aldecoa, Iban; Fernandez, Eva; Bombi, Josep Antoni; Jimeno, Mireya; Balaguer, Francesc; Pellise, Maria; Castells, Antoni; Cuatrecasas, Miriam

    2017-01-14

    Pathologic lymph node staging is becoming a deficient method in the demanding molecular era. Nevertheless, the use of more sensitive molecular analysis for nodal staging is hampered by its high costs and extensive time requirements. Our aim is to take a step forward in colon cancer (CC) lymph node (LN) pathology diagnosis by proposing a feasible and efficient molecular method in routine practice using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). Molecular detection of tumor cytokeratin 19 (CK19) mRNA with RT-LAMP was performed in 3206 LNs from 188 CC patients using two methods: individual analysis of 1449 LNs from 102 patients (individual cohort), and pooled LN analysis of 1757 LNs from 86 patients (pooling cohort). A median of 13 LNs (IQR 10-18) per patient were harvested in the individual cohort, and 18 LNs (IQR 13-25) per patient in the pooling cohort (p ≤ 0.001). The median of molecular assays performed in the pooling cohort was 2 per patient (IQR 1-3), saving a median of 16 assays/patient. The number of molecular assays performed in the individual cohort was 13 (IQR 10-18), corresponding to the number of LNs to be analyzed. The sensitivity and specificity of the pooling method for LN involvement (assessed by hematoxylin and eosin) were 88.9% (95% CI 56.5-98.0) and 79.2% (95% CI 68.9-86.8), respectively; concordance, 80.2%; PPV, 33.3%; NPV, 98.4%. The individual method had 100% sensitivity (95% CI 72.2-100), 44.6% specificity (95% CI 34.8-54.7), 50% concordance, 16.4% PPV, and 100% NPV. The amount of tumor burden detected in all LNs of a case, or total tumor load (TTL) was similar in both cohorts (p = 0.228). LN pooling makes it possible to analyze a high number of LNs from surgical colectomies with few molecular tests per patient. This approach enables a feasible means to integrate LN molecular analysis from CC specimens into pathology diagnosis and provides a more accurate LN pathological staging with potential prognostic

  15. [Appendiceal neuroendocrine tumor with lymph node metastasis in a teenager].

    PubMed

    Kim, Keun Young; Park, Won Cheol

    2015-02-01

    Neuroendocrine tumor (NET) is a cancer-like tumor that occurs mostly in the gastrointestinal system. Within the gastrointestinal tract, NET most commonly occurs in the rectum whereas appendix is very rarely involved. In most cases of appendiceal NET, it is found at a relatively early stage compared to other NETs because appendiceal NET frequently presents with acute appendicitis because appendiceal NET frequently presents with acute appendicitis even when the size is smaller than 1 cm. Therefore, it is very rare for lymph node metastasis to occur in a young adult. Herein, we report a rare case of grade 1 appendiceal NET with lymph node metastasis which developed in a teenage male.

  16. Malakoplakia of the pancreas with diffuse lymph-node involvement.

    PubMed

    Nuciforo, Paolo Giovanni; Moneghini, Laura; Braidotti, Paola; Castoldi, Laura; De Rai, Paolo; Bosari, Silvano

    2003-01-01

    We report a case of malakoplakia involving the pancreas in a 74-year-old man with associated regional lymphoadenopathy. Histological examination of both pancreas and lymph nodes revealed a diffuse histiocytic infiltrate containing numerous Michaelis-Gutmann bodies. Electron microscopy supported the diagnosis of malakoplakia and showed bacterial-like structures. Differential diagnosis includes myofibroblastic inflammatory tumor and histiocytic neoplasms. Lymph-node involvement during malakoplakia is extremely rare and it has never been documented microscopically. Lymphohematogenous spread of bacteria may be the cause of the nodal involvement, which, however, does not appear to influence the clinical course of the disease.

  17. Lymph Node Positivity in Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma: Should Size Matter?

    PubMed

    Gahagan, John V; Whealon, Matthew D; Phelan, Michael J; Mills, Steven; Pigazzi, Alessio; Stamos, Michael J; Nguyen, Ninh T; Carmichael, Joseph C

    2017-07-01

    The management algorithm for appendiceal adenocarcinoma is not well defined. This study sought to determine whether tumor size or depth of invasion better correlates with the presence of lymph node metastases in appendiceal adenocarcinoma, and to compare these rates with colon adenocarcinoma. A retrospective review of the National Cancer Database was performed to identify patients with appendiceal or colonic adenocarcinoma from 2004 to 2013 who underwent surgical resection. Cases were categorized by tumor size and by T stage. Rates of lymph node metastases were examined as a function of size and T stage. A total of 3,402 appendiceal and 314,864 colonic cases were identified. For appendiceal adenocarcinoma, larger tumor size was associated with higher T stage: Pearson correlation of 0.41 (95% CI 0.408 to 0.414; p < 0.001). Lymph node metastases were present in 19.1%, 27.8%, 39.6%, 39.4%, 42.4% and 39.1% for tumor sizes <1 cm, >1 to 2 cm, >2 to 3 cm, >3 to 4 cm, >4 to 5 cm, and >5 cm, respectively. Lymph node metastases were present in 0%, 11.2%, 12.3%, 35.5%, and 40.0% for in situ, T1, T2, T3, and T4 tumors, respectively. There was no difference in the rates of lymph node metastases between appendiceal and colonic adenocarcinoma for tumor sizes <3 cm, or for in situ and T1 tumors. Rates of lymph node metastases are higher in colonic adenocarcinoma for tumor sizes >3 cm and for T2, T3, and T4 tumors (p < 0.01). In appendiceal adenocarcinoma, the rate of lymph node metastases is substantial, even for small tumors. Tumor size should play no role in the decision of whether to perform a hemicolectomy. Appendectomy alone does not produce an adequate lymph node sample. Right hemicolectomy should be performed for all appendiceal adenocarcinomas. Copyright © 2017 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Percutaneous tattoo pigment simulating calcific deposits in axillary lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Yactor, Amy R.; Michell, Michael N.; Koch, Meghan S.; Leete, Tyler G.; Shah, Zeeshan A.; Carter, Brett W.

    2013-01-01

    The isolated finding of calcific deposits within axillary lymph nodes on mammography suggests a broad range of differential diagnoses, from benign causes such as granulomatous reaction secondary to previous histoplasmosis infection to malignancies such as breast cancer and metastatic disease from extramammary primary malignancies. Therefore, the isolated finding of intranodal calcium may warrant biopsy for a definitive diagnosis when a benign etiology is not apparent. We present a patient with isolated axillary lymph node densities on mammography and chest computed tomography, which were subsequently proven to represent deposition of tattoo pigment. PMID:23382606

  19. [Lymph node involvement in œsophageal cancer: surgical approach].

    PubMed

    Gronnier, C; Mariette, C

    2014-10-01

    Lymph node invasion is an early event in the oesophageal carcinogenesis and represents the main prognostic factor in the curative setting. Even though the primacy of surgical resection has been challenged by the definitive radiochemotherapy for locally advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the oesophagus, surgery is now again a gold standard, in combination with (radio)chemotherapy, to improve locoregional disease control and long term survival. Surgery, especially lymphadenectomy, has consequently to be standardized through quality criteria. Lymph node stations invaded in œsophageal and junctional cancers, lymphadenectomy, and its impact on outcomes are discussed in this review based on the highest level of evidence published data.

  20. Patterns of lymph node metastasis in locally advanced cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhikai; Hu, Ke; Liu, An; Shen, Jie; Hou, Xiaorong; Lian, Xin; Sun, Shuai; Yan, Junfang; Zhang, Fuquan

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate patterns and locations of lymph node metastasis in locally advanced cervical cancers.A total of 244 consecutive patients with stage IIb cervical cancer were retrospectively evaluated. Contrast-enhanced CT scans were used for lymph node grading. Lymph nodes with the shortest axis (>1 cm) were categorized as positive and those between 0.5 and 1 cm were categorized as suspicious. All lymph nodes (LNs) were also classified by their anatomic locations.Nine hundred thirty-one LNs (136 positive and 795 suspicious) were identified. Sixty-three (25.8%) patients had positive LNs, and 153 (62.7%) patients had only suspicious LNs. The metastatic pattern was predictable traveling from level 1 (external iliac, internal iliac, obturator, and mesorectum groups) through level 2 (common iliac and presacral groups) to level 3 (para-aortic groups). In most groups, LNs were located within 1.0 cm of main blood vessels. Our novel findings were: presacral LNs metastases were rare (2/244, 0.82%); the left common iliac group (LCI) had significantly more enlarged nodes than the right common iliac group (P = 0.00); the LCI and left down-para-aortic group were further away from blood vessels than expected (1.2 cm and 1.4 cm, respectively); no additional margin was needed in anterolateral direction for external iliac groups.The lymph node metastatic patterns are relatively predicable. Different expansions from vessels should be used to include LNs for different groups. Presacral nodes metastases are rare, and further study is warranted to see whether this region can be excluded from nodal CTV.

  1. [The number of removed axillary sentinel lymph nodes and its impact on the diagnostic accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Zapletal, O; Coufal, O; Selingerová, I; Krsička, P; Vrtělová, P

    2013-01-01

    The number of lymph nodes removed during the sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with breast cancer usually ranges from 1 to 3. In some cases, multiple nodes are identified and removed, which could be associated with increased risk of postoperative morbidity. The objective of the study was to assess the number of sentinel lymph nodes removed in patients treated in our hospital, to analyze factors that may influence the amount of the removed nodes, and to find if there is an upper threshold number of lymph nodes that should be removed without sacrificing the diagnostic accuracy of the sentinel lymph node biopsy. Clinical data of four hundred and forty (440) breast cancer patients who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy in Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute during the year 2011 were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The number of sentinel lymph nodes ranged from 0 to 9 (average 1.7, median 1). The number of sentinel lymph nodes was significantly influenced by the age of the patient, the operating surgeon and the laterality of the surgery. In 275 cases the sentinel lymph nodes were negative, in the other cases macrometastases (n = 101), micrometastases (n = 46) or isolated tumor cells (n = 17) were found. In all the cases, but one, the staging of the axilla was determined by the status of the first three sentinel lymph nodes removed. Only in one case the first detected macrometastasis was present in the fifth node. In the vast majority of cases, the first three sentinel lymph nodes are sufficient to accurately assess the axillary status. However, with respect to the described case of first detected metastasis in the fifth node, to the present literary data and to the variability of clinical situations, we generally recommend to remove all lymph nodes meeting the criteria of the surgical definition of sentinel lymph node.

  2. Inguinal sentinel lymph node biopsy for staging anal cancer.

    PubMed

    Péley, G; Farkas, E; Sinkovics, I; Kovács, T; Keresztes, S; Orosz, Z; Köves, I

    2002-01-01

    The optimal treatment of clinically negative inguinal lymph nodes in patients with primary anal cancer has not yet been clearly defined. The presence of metastases in the inguinal lymph nodes is an adverse prognostic factor for anal cancer. In the present study the feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for staging anal cancer was investigated. From September 1999 to March 2002, 8 patients with biopsy proven primary anal cancer underwent lymphoscintigraphy and dual-agent guided inguinal SLNB for nodal staging before starting multimodality treatment. Inguinal SLNB was successful in all 8 patients (13 groins). A total of 20 hot and blue SLNs (mean 1,5 (1-2) per groins) were removed. In 2 patients (25%) the SLN was positive for metastasis. Lymphoscintigraphy followed by dual-agent guided inguinal SLNB is technically feasible for staging patients with primary anal cancer. The detection of metastases in the removed sentinel lymph node(s) may alter the treatment and thus may improve the locoregional control and overall survival of these patients.

  3. Reliability of sentinel node procedure for lymph node staging in prostate cancer patients at high risk for lymph node involvement.

    PubMed

    Van den Bergh, Laura; Joniau, Steven; Haustermans, Karin; Deroose, Christophe M; Isebaert, Sofie; Oyen, Raymond; Mottaghy, Felix M; Ameye, Filip; Berkers, Joost; Van Poppel, Hendrik; Lerut, Evelyne

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the reliability of a sentinel node (SN) procedure for nodal staging in prostate cancer (PCa) patients at high risk for lymph node (LN) involvement. Seventy-four patients with localized prostate adenocarcinoma, who were clinically node-negative and had a risk of LN involvement of ≥ 10% (Partin tables), were prospectively enrolled. Upon intraprostatic 99mTc-nanocolloid injection, they underwent planar scintigraphy and SPECT imaging. Surgical removal of the SN, located by means of a gamma probe, was completed with a superextended LN dissection (seLND) as a reference and followed by radical prostatectomy. In total, 470 SN (median 6, IQR 3-9) were scintigraphically detected of which 371 (median 4, IQR 2-6) were located by gamma probe and selectively removed during surgery (79%). Histopathology confirmed LN metastases in 37 patients (50%) having 106 affected LN in total (median number per patient 2, IQR 1-4). Twenty-eight patients were node positive (N+) based on the analysis of the resected SN. However, the seLND that was performed as a reference revealed nine additional N+ patients resulting in a sensitivity of 76% (28/37). In total, 15 of 37 patients (41%) had metastases in SN only and could have been spared seLND to remove all affected nodes. We found a relatively low sensitivity when addressing the SN procedure for nodal staging in PCa patients at high risk for LN involvement. Importantly, only less than half of the N+ patients could have been spared a seLND to remove all affected lymphoid tissue.

  4. Sentinel lymph node mapping in melanoma of the ear.

    PubMed

    Wey, P D; De La Cruz, C; Goydos, J S; Choi, M L; Borah, G L

    1998-05-01

    Primary nodal drainage basins in melanoma of the head and neck are often unpredictable. The ear is a notorious example of an anatomic site with ambiguous patterns of lymphatic drainage. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy has recently emerged as one modality to assist in identifying clinically relevant nodes. We propose that the addition of intraoperative lymph node mapping techniques that utilize radioactive tracers ("intraoperative lymphoscintigraphy") can increase the accuracy of identifying sentinel nodes and help to determine which patients may benefit from a complete neck dissection. This report demonstrates the ambiguity in identifying drainage patterns in melanoma of the ear and offers a reliable method of sentinel lymph node mapping. This report also addresses current issues regarding treatment protocols of patients with micrometastatic disease in the periauricular region.

  5. Intraoperative Imaging for Sentinel Lymph Nodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    camera and probe. Sentinel Node 2004, submitted. CONCLUSION User experience suggests that a field of view (FOV) less than 5" x 5" would not be useful in...SLN localization especially for breast cancer cases. Preliminary analysis of acquired data and user experience suggest a 5" x 5" FOV has some

  6. Sentinel lymph node detection in gynecologic malignancies by a handheld fluorescence camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Ole; Szyc, Lukasz; Muallem, Mustafa Zelal; Ignat, Iulia; Chekerov, Radoslav; Macdonald, Rainer; Sehouli, Jalid; Braicu, Ioana; Grosenick, Dirk

    2017-02-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence imaging using indocyanine green (ICG) as a tracer is a promising technique for mapping the lymphatic system and for detecting sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) during cancer surgery. In our feasibility study we have investigated the application of a custom-made handheld fluorescence camera system for the detection of lymph nodes in gynecological malignancies. It comprises a low cost CCD camera with enhanced NIR sensitivity and two groups of LEDs emitting at wavelengths of 735 nm and 830 nm for interlaced recording of fluorescence and reflectance images of the tissue, respectively. With the help of our system, surgeons can observe fluorescent tissue structures overlaid onto the anatomical image on a monitor in real-time. We applied the camera system for intraoperative lymphatic mapping in 5 patients with vulvar cancer, 5 patients with ovarian cancer, 3 patients with cervical cancer, and 3 patients with endometrial cancer. ICG was injected at four loci around the primary malignant tumor during surgery. After a residence time of typically 15 min fluorescence images were taken in order to visualize the lymph nodes closest to the carcinomas. In cases with vulvar cancer about half of the lymph nodes detected by routinely performed radioactive SLN mapping have shown fluorescence in vivo as well. In the other types of carcinomas several lymph nodes could be detected by fluorescence during laparotomy. We conclude that our low cost camera system has sufficient sensitivity for lymphatic mapping during surgery.

  7. The surgical anatomy of the supraclavicular lymph node flap: A basis for the free vascularized lymph node transfer.

    PubMed

    Steinbacher, Johannes; Tinhofer, Ines E; Meng, Stefan; Reissig, Lukas F; Placheta, Eva; Roka-Palkovits, Julia; Rath, Thomas; Cheng, Ming-Huei; Weninger, Wolfgang J; Tzou, Chieh Han

    2017-01-01

    Vascularized lymph node transfer is an effective surgical method in reducing lymphedema. This study provides the first detailed description of the surgical anatomy of the supraclavicular lymph node flap in regard to pedicle length, pedicle diameter, and the number of lymph nodes and their exact location inside the flap. Bilateral supraclavicular dissections of nine fresh cadavers (five female) were performed. Before the dissection, the exact number of lymph nodes was determined sonographically by an experienced radiologist, and their distance from the jugular notch was measured. After anatomic dissection, the vascular pedicle's diameter and length were measured. The mean number of lymph nodes was 1.5 ± 1.85 on the right side and 3 ± 2.26 on the left. Their mean distance from the jugular notch was 8.29 ± 2.15 cm on the right and 6.10 ± 1.21 cm on the left. The pedicle's length was 4.72 ± 1.03 cm on the right and 4.86 ± 0.99 cm on the left, and its diameter 2.03 ± 0.83 on the right and 1.80 ± 0.77 on the left. The pedicle length and diameter of the supraclavicular lymph node flap are suitable for a microvascular tissue transfer. J. Surg. Oncol. 2017;115:60-62. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Molecular Mechanism of Lymph Node Metastasis in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    modulated mammary tumor growth and spontaneous metastasis. Moreover, expression of CCR7 had no effect on primary tumor growth, but affects lymph node...express CCL21, which is not affected following treatment with hyaluronan. Together, these data suggest an important role of HAS2, LYVE1 and CCR7 in a...lym ph nodes. CCL21 is primarily expressed in LECs and functions as a ch emoattractant for CCR7 -expressi ng dendritic cells and T cells. W e

  9. Isolated perifacial lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma with clinically node-negative neck.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sangeet Kumar; Arora, Sowrabh Kumar; Kumar, Gopal; Sarin, Deepak

    2016-10-01

    The incidence of occult perifacial nodal disease in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma is not well reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of isolated perifacial lymph node metastasis in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma with a clinically node-negative neck. The study will shed light on current controversies and will provide valuable clinical and pathological information in the practice of routine comprehensive removal of these lymph node pads in selective neck dissection in the node-negative neck. Prospective analysis. This study was started in August 2011 when intraoperatively we routinely separated the lymph node levels from the main specimen for evaluation of the metastatic rate to different lymph node levels in 231 patients of oral squamous cell cancer with a clinically node-negative neck. The current study demonstrated that 19 (8.22%) out of 231 patients showed ipsilateral isolated perifacial lymph node involvement. The incidence of isolated perifacial nodes did not differ significantly between the oral tongue (7.14%) and buccal mucosa (7.75%). Incidence was statistically significant in cases with lower age group (<45 years), advanced T stage, and higher depth of tumor invasion. Isolated perifacial node metastasis is high in oral squamous cell carcinoma with a clinically node-negative neck. The incidence of isolated perifacial involvement is high in cases of buccal mucosal and tongue cancers. A meticulous dissection of the perifacial nodes seems prudent when treating the neck in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2252-2256, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Support vector machine model for diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer with multidetector computed tomography: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lymph node metastasis (LNM) of gastric cancer is an important prognostic factor regarding long-term survival. But several imaging techniques which are commonly used in stomach cannot satisfactorily assess the gastric cancer lymph node status. They can not achieve both high sensitivity and specificity. As a kind of machine-learning methods, Support Vector Machine has the potential to solve this complex issue. Methods The institutional review board approved this retrospective study. 175 consecutive patients with gastric cancer who underwent MDCT before surgery were included. We evaluated the tumor and lymph node indicators on CT images including serosal invasion, tumor classification, tumor maximum diameter, number of lymph nodes, maximum lymph node size and lymph nodes station, which reflected the biological behavior of gastric cancer. Univariate analysis was used to analyze the relationship between the six image indicators with LNM. A SVM model was built with these indicators above as input index. The output index was that lymph node metastasis of the patient was positive or negative. It was confirmed by the surgery and histopathology. A standard machine-learning technique called k-fold cross-validation (5-fold in our study) was used to train and test SVM models. We evaluated the diagnostic capability of the SVM models in lymph node metastasis with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. And the radiologist classified the lymph node metastasis of patients by using maximum lymph node size on CT images as criterion. We compared the areas under ROC curves (AUC) of the radiologist and SVM models. Results In 175 cases, the cases of lymph node metastasis were 134 and 41 cases were not. The six image indicators all had statistically significant differences between the LNM negative and positive groups. The means of the sensitivity, specificity and AUC of SVM models with 5-fold cross-validation were 88.5%, 78.5% and 0.876, respectively. While the

  11. [Prognostic factors for gastric cancer without lymph node involvement].

    PubMed

    Tapia, Oscar; Villaseca, Miguel; Bellolio, Enrique; Araya, Juan Carlos; Roa, Juan Carlos

    2011-04-01

    The absence of lymph node involvement (N0) in gastric cancer is associated with a better survival. However some N0 gastric tumors still have a bad prognosis. To study demographic and morphological variables associated with prognosis in N0 gastric carcinoma. Review of pathological records of a regional general hospital, identifying patients with a N0 gastric cancer surgically excised between 1986 and 2003. In the study period, 459 gastrectomies were performed for gastric cancer and in 32%, the tumor was devoid of lymph node involvement. These later patients were followed for a median of 64 months with a 71% five years actuarial survival. Bivariate analysis identified age, tumor size, gastric wall infiltration, pathological type according to Lauren and Ming, lymphovascular involvement, number of lymph nodes excised and TNM stage as prognostic values Multivariate analysis disclosed the level of gastric wall infiltration, the presence of a poorly differentiated tumor, lymphatic vascular involvement, number of excise lymph nodes and tumor size as independent prognostic factors. N0 gastric tumors are found in 32% of gastrectomies for gastric cancer and have a 71% five years actuarial survival. Gastric wall infiltration, pathological degree of differentiation tumor size and lymphovascular involvement are independent prognostic factors.

  12. [Flow cytometry in datecting lymph node micrometastasis in colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Sun, Q; Ding, Y; Zhang, J

    2001-01-25

    To study the methodology and significance of flow cytometry in detecting lymph node micrometastasis of colorectal cancer. One hundred sixty-two cellular suspensions were prepared with lymph nodes which were resected radically on 25 patients with colorectal cancer and in which no cancer cells were found by HE staining. Different concentrations of cultured Lovo colorectal cancer cells were added into the celular suspension prepared from lymph node tissue of persons without colorectal cancer in order to prepare a control model. Dual staining with CK/FTTC and PI was made to the sedimetns from those 2 kinds of suspension. Flow cytometry was used to detect cancer cells. An ideal correlation was obtained between the detection value and the theoretical value of cancer cells in the specimen suspensions and control models (r = 0.097 6) with a sensitivity rate of 10/10(5). Cancer cells were detected from 7 out of the 25 patients and 30 of the 162 cellular suspensions. The detection rate was correlated with the size and infiltrating depth of the cancer. Flow cytometry is a reliable, rapid, and quantitative method for detecting lymph node micrometastasis in colorectal cancer.

  13. Retroperitoneal unicentric Castleman's disease (giant lymph node hyperplasia): case report.

    PubMed

    Waisberg, Jaques; Satake, Marie; Yamagushi, Nagamassa; Matos, Leandro Luongo de; Waisberg, Daniel Reis; Artigiani Neto, Ricardo; Franco, Maria Isete Fares

    2007-07-05

    Castleman's disease, or giant lymph node hyperplasia, is a rare disorder of the lymphoid tissue that causes lymph node enlargement. It is considered benign in its localized form, but aggressive in the multicentric type. The definitive diagnosis is based on postoperative pathological findings. The aim here was to describe a case of retroperitoneal unicentric Castleman's disease in the retroperitoneum. A 61-year old white male with weight loss and listlessness presented with moderate arterial hypertension and leukopenia. Abdominal tomography revealed a 5 x 4 x 5 cm oval mass of low attenuation, with inner calcification and intense enhancement on intravenous contrast, located in the retroperitoneal region, between the left kidney and the aorta, at the renal hilus. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a non-pulsatile solid oval mass situated in the retroperitoneum, adjacent to the left renal hilus. The retroperitoneal lesion was removed in its entirety. Examination of frozen samples revealed benign lymph node tissue and histopathological examination of the surgical sample revealed hyaline-vascular giant lymph node hyperplasia (Castleman's disease). The patient was discharged on the 12th day without significant events. Two months after the operation, the patient was readmitted with severe cardiac insufficiency, acute renal failure and bronchopneumonia, which progressed to acute respiratory insufficiency, sepsis and death.

  14. [Clinical analysis on giant lymph node hyperplasia on neck].

    PubMed

    Ma, Shi-hong; Liu, Qin-jiang; Wang, Jun; Yang, Rong

    2009-03-01

    To improve the diagnosis and management level of giant lymph node hyperplasia (Castleman's disease). To retrospective analyze 10 misdiagnosed cases with Castleman's disease in order to give some suggestions for clinical diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Ten patients with neck giant lymph node hyperplasia underwent surgical treatment after misdiagnosis. There were 8 localized Castleman's disease constituted of 6 cases with hyaline vascular type and 2 cases with mixture type and 2 multicentric Castleman's disease constituted of 1 cases with plasma cell type and 1 cases with mixture type were classified according to the criteria described by Frizzera. Ten cases were diagnosed by secondary operation after misdiagnosis and were clinically characterized by painless neck lymphadenectasis, 2 cases with multicentric Castleman's disease accompanied with aspecific systemic symptom and (or) multi-system damage. Ten cases survived for 4 - 17 years during follow-up periods in which 1 case with plasma cell type, multicentric Castleman's disease was recurrent 2 years later and underwent lymphadenectomy and chemotherapy and have no local recurrence so far. Castleman's disease on neck is seldom seen and liable to misdiagnose. The diagnosis of Castleman's disease is based on its histopathological characteristics by lymph node resection biopsy. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis with lymph node tuberculosis, lymphadenitis, sarcoidosis and granuloma. Operation is the first choice for patient with localized type and multicentric type without serious involvement of multiple system functions.

  15. A Case of Primary Plasmacytoma of Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Young Hyo; Park, Su Kyoung; Oh, Ho Suk; Choi, Jung Hye; Ahn, Myung Ju; Lee, Young Yul

    2005-01-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma may originate in any organ, either as a primary tumor or as a facet of systemic multiple myeloma. These solid lesions most commonly affect the upper respiratory tract, gastrointestinal and urogenital tract, skin, and lung. Primary plasmacytoma of the lymph node is a rare hematologic neoplasm, which usually manifests as an enlargement of the cervical lymph nodes with no evidence of any other plasma cell dyscrasia. A 56-year-old man was admitted, due to the presence of multiple palpable masses in the right cervical and submandibular areas. Surgical resection revealed plasmacytoma of the lymph nodes. According to our full work-up, no evidence of the systemic involvement of plasma cell dyscrasia was discovered and thus, the diagnosis of primary plasmacytoma of the lymph node was made. Radiotherapy was administered, and the remnant mass was reduced substantially, to 1×2 cm in size. The patient was scheduled to be monitored by a PET CT scan, as well as by a neck CT scan. PMID:16134778

  16. Supraclavicular lymph node: incidence of unsuspected metastatic prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Hematpour, Khashayar; Bennett, Carol J; Rogers, David; Head, Christian S

    2006-09-01

    An uncommon presentation of prostate carcinoma to the supraclavicular lymph nodes is herein reviewed. With prompt diagnosis and treatment, patient survival can be extended. A high index of suspicion is necessary to make the diagnosis. The clinical features of four cases involving metastatic prostate carcinoma will be discussed.

  17. Perihilar Cholangiocarcinoma: Number of Nodes Examined and Optimal Lymph Node Prognostic Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Bagante, Fabio; Tran, Thuy; Spolverato, Gaya; Ruzzenente, Andrea; Buttner, Stefan; Ethun, Cecilia G; Koerkamp, Bas Groot; Conci, Simone; Idrees, Kamran; Isom, Chelsea A; Fields, Ryan C; Krasnick, Bradley; Weber, Sharon M; Salem, Ahmed; Martin, Robert CG; Scoggins, Charles; Shen, Perry; Mogal, Harveshp D; Schmidt, Carl; Beal, Eliza; Hatzaras, Ioannis; Vitiello, Gerardo; IJzermans, Jan NM; Maithel, Shishir K; Poultsides, George; Guglielmi, Alfredo; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND The role of routine lymphadenectomy for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma is still controversial and no study has defined the minimum number of lymph nodes examined (TNLE). We sought to assess the prognostic performance of American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (7th edition) N stage, lymph node ratio, and log odds (LODDS; logarithm of the ratio between metastatic and nonmetastatic nodes) in patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma and identify the optimal TNLE to accurately stage patients. METHODS A multi-institutional database was queried to identify 437 patients who underwent hepatectomy for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma between 1995 and 2014. The prognostic abilities of the lymph node staging systems were assessed using the Harrell’s c-index. A Bayesian model was developed to identify the minimum TNLE. RESULTS One hundred and fifty-eight (36.2%) patients had lymph node metastasis. Median TNLE was 3 (interquartile range, 1 to 7). The LODDS had a slightly better prognostic performance than lymph node ratio and American Joint Committee on Cancer, in particular among patients with <4 TNLE (c-index = 0.568). For 2 TNLE, the Bayesian model showed a poor discriminatory ability to distinguish patients with favorable and poor prognosis. When TNLE was >2, the hazard ratio for N1 patients was statistically significant and the hazard ratio for N1 patients increased from 1.51 with 4 TNLE to 2.10 with 10 TNLE. Although the 5-year overall survival of N1 patients was only slightly affected by TNLE, the 5-year overall survival of N0 patients increased significantly with TNLE. CONCLUSIONS Perihilar cholangiocarcinoma patients undergoing radical resection should ideally have at least 4 lymph nodes harvested to be accurately staged. In addition, although LODDS performed better at determining prognosis among patients with <4 TNLE, both lymph node ratio and LODDS outperformed compared with American Joint Committee on Cancer N stage among

  18. LCP nanoparticle for tumor and lymph node metastasis imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yu-Cheng

    A lipid/calcium/phosphate (LCP) nanoparticle formulation (particle diameter ˜25 nm) has previously been developed to delivery siRNA with superior efficiency. In this work, 111In was formulated into LCP nanoparticles to form 111In-LCP for SPECT/CT imaging. With necessary modifications and improvements of the LCP core-washing and surface-coating methods, 111In-LCP grafted with polyethylene glycol exhibited reduced uptake by the mononuclear phagocytic system. SPECT/CT imaging supported performed biodistribution studies, showing clear tumor images with accumulation of 8% or higher injected dose per gram tissue (ID/g) in subcutaneous, human-H460, lung-cancer xenograft and mouse-4T1, breast cancer metastasis models. Both the liver and the spleen accumulated ˜20% ID/g. Accumulation in the tumor was limited by the enhanced permeation and retention effect and was independent of the presence of a targeting ligand. A surprisingly high accumulation in the lymph nodes (˜70% ID/g) was observed. In the 4T1 lymph node metastasis model, the capability of intravenously injected 111In-LCP to visualize the size-enlarged and tumor-loaded sentinel lymph node was demonstrated. By analyzing the SPECT/CT images taken at different time points, the PK profiles of 111In-LCP in the blood and major organs were determined. The results indicated that the decrement of 111In-LCP blood concentration was not due to excretion, but to tissue penetration, leading to lymphatic accumulation. Larger LCP (diameter ˜65 nm) nanoparticles were also prepared for the purpose of comparison. Results indicated that larger LCP achieved slightly lower accumulation in the tumor and lymph nodes, but much higher accumulation in the liver and spleen; thus, larger nanoparticles might not be favorable for imaging purposes. We also demonstrated that LCP with a diameter of ˜25 nm were better able to penetrate into tissues, travel in the lymphatic system and preferentially accumulate in the lymph nodes due to 1) small

  19. Proposed pathway and mechanism of vascularized lymph node flaps.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ran; Zelken, Jonathan; Yang, Chin-Yu; Lin, Chia-Yu; Cheng, Ming-Huei

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the pump mechanism and pathway of lymph transit in vascularized lymph node flaps. Microsurgical treatment of lymphedema with vascularized lymph node transfer can improve signs and symptoms of disease, but the pathways and mechanisms of these flaps warrant further exploration. (Animal model) 72 flaps were raised in 18 rats: 36 groin flaps contained lymph nodes (LN), 36 deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flaps did not (non-LN). Indocyanine green (ICG) was added into normal saline (NS), 1%, 3%, 5%, 7% and 10% albumin. Three rats were assigned to each group. LN and non-LN flaps were submerged in solution and surveyed for venous fluorescence. In the 7% albumin and NS groups, volumetric change of solution was measured. (Human model) A similar experiment was performed in humans using five submental LN flaps. (Animal model) Fluorescence was detected in the venous pedicle of LN flaps submerged in 5%, 7% and 10% albumin, and half of flaps submerged in 3% albumin. Fluorescence was not detected in LN node flaps submerged in ICG-containing NS or 1% albumin solution. Fluorescence was not detected in non-LN flaps. There was greater volume reduction with LN flaps than non-LN flaps (p<0.001). (Human model) Fluorescence was detected in the venous pedicle of all flaps immersed in lymph. ICG fluorescence was detected in the venous pedicle of rat and human LN flaps submerged in lymph or albumin when the concentration was greater than 3%. Based on these results, a pathway for lymphatic uptake is presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A new vascularized cervical lymph node transplantation model: an anatomic study in rats.

    PubMed

    Uygur, Safak; Ozturk, Can; Bozkurt, Mehmet; Kwiecien, Grzegorz; Madajka, Maria; Siemionow, Maria

    2013-12-01

    Vascularized lymph node transfer is of high interest for the treatment of lymphedema. Currently, there are few experimental small animal models of vascularized lymph node transplantation. In this article, our aim was to describe a new vascularized cervical lymph node transplantation model in rats. Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200 to 250 g were used in this study. The anatomic features of the neck lymph nodes in rats were explored. Anatomic neck dissections were performed, and lymph node flaps were harvested. The common carotid artery and the jugular vein were used as the vascular pedicles of the lymph node flap. Methylene blue dye was injected into the arterial pedicle. Lymph nodes were identified, and their structure was confirmed by histological evaluation. Laser-assisted indocyanine green angiography was used to confirm perfusion of the lymph node flap. An adequate perfusion was observed in the lymph node flap. The dye disseminated evenly within the lymph nodes, indicating that the flap had a well-established vascular network and an adequate blood supply. Macroscopically, perfusion of 5 to 6 lymph nodes was observed. Histological examination of tissue samples confirmed well-defined lymph nodes. After indocyanine green administration, fluorescence was observed throughout the lymph node flap and within the venous pedicle of the flap. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing vascularized lymph node flap in the head and neck region of a rat. Our lymph node flap preparation technique confirmed the presence of 5 to 6 lymph nodes within the flap. The presented vascularized lymph node flap can be applied to transplantation studies, lymphedema studies, and to studies on immunological mechanism of tolerance and rejection.

  1. Extended lymph node dissection in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: lymph node yield and distribution of metastases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Hyun; Lim, Sey Kiat; Koo, Kyo Chul; Han, Woong Kyu; Hong, Sung Joon; Rha, Koon Ho

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we reported our experience performing robotic extended lymph node dissection (eLND) in patients with prostate cancer. A total of 147 patients with intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer who underwent robotic eLND from May 2008 to December 2011 were included in this analysis. The dissection template extended to the ureter crossing the iliac vessels. We assessed lymph node yield, lymph node positivity, and perioperative outcomes. Lymph node positivity was also evaluated according to the number of lymph nodes (LNs) removed (<22 vs ≥22). The median number of LNs removed was 22 (11-51), and 97 positive LNs were found in 24 patients (16.3%). While the obturator fossa was the most common site for LN metastases (42.3%, 41/97), the internal iliac area was the most common area for a single positive LN packet (20.8%, 5/24). Eight patients (33.3%, 8/24) had positive LNs at the common iliac area. The incidence of positive LNs did not differ according to the number of LNs removed. Complications associated with eLND occurred in 21 patients (14.3%) and symptomatic lymphocele was found in five patients (3.4%). In conclusion, robotic eLND can be performed with minimal morbidity. Furthermore, LN yield and the node positive rate achieved using this robotic technique are comparable to those of open series. In addition, the extent of dissection is more important than the absolute number of LNs removed in eLND, and the robotic technique is not a prohibitive factor for performing eLND.

  2. Clinical utilities and biological characteristics of melanoma sentinel lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Dale; Thomas, Daniel C; Zager, Jonathan S; Pockaj, Barbara; White, Richard L; Leong, Stanley PL

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 73870 people will be diagnosed with melanoma in the United States in 2015, resulting in 9940 deaths. The majority of patients with cutaneous melanomas are cured with wide local excision. However, current evidence supports the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) given the 15%-20% of patients who harbor regional node metastasis. More importantly, the presence or absence of nodal micrometastases has been found to be the most important prognostic factor in early-stage melanoma, particularly in intermediate thickness melanoma. This review examines the development of SLNB for melanoma as a means to determine a patient’s nodal status, the efficacy of SLNB in patients with melanoma, and the biology of melanoma metastatic to sentinel lymph nodes. Prospective randomized trials have guided the development of practice guidelines for use of SLNB for melanoma and have shown the prognostic value of SLNB. Given the rapidly advancing molecular and surgical technologies, the technical aspects of diagnosis, identification, and management of regional lymph nodes in melanoma continues to evolve and to improve. Additionally, there is ongoing research examining both the role of SLNB for specific clinical scenarios and the ways to identify patients who may benefit from completion lymphadenectomy for a positive SLN. Until further data provides sufficient evidence to alter national consensus-based guidelines, SLNB with completion lymphadenectomy remains the standard of care for clinically node-negative patients found to have a positive SLN. PMID:27081640

  3. Secondary sentinel lymph node tracing technique: a new method for tracing lymph nodes in radical gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Zong-lin; Jiang, Huai-wu; Song, Min; Xu, Liang; Xia, Dong; Liu, Qing

    2015-11-01

    To explore the feasibility and clinical value of secondary sentinel lymph node (SSLN) tracing technique in radical gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer (AGC). From January 2009 to June 2011, 247 patients who suffered from gastric angle cancer with metastasis in No. 3 group lymph nodes were divided randomly into groups A and B. Methylthioninium chloride was injected into the peripheral tissue of the metastatic No. 3 group lymph nodes of 138 patients in group A before tumor resections. SSLNs were traced and individual lymphadenectomies were carried out based on the biopsy results of the SSLNs. Standard D2 radical gastrectomies were carried out directly on 109 patients in group B. Postoperative follow-up and survival analysis were carried out for patients in both groups. SSLNs were found in 114 (82.6%) patients in group A. Ninety of those patients (78.9%) demonstrated existing metastasis in SSLNs. According to Kaplan-Meier's method, the postoperative 3-year cumulative survival rates were 63.5% and 47.5%, and the median survival time were 40 and 36 months for the patients of groups A and B, respectively (P<0.05). The SSLN tracing technique is feasible in radical gastrectomy for AGC. It gives surgeons important information about the terminal status of lymph node metastasis and provides some scientific basis for individual lymphadenectomy.

  4. Supraclavicular Lymph Node Excision Biopsy in Patients with Suspected Supraclavicular Lymph Node Metastasis of Lung Cancer: Experience in a Tertiary Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lim, Sang Chul

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness and accuracy of supraclavicular lymph node excision biopsy in the diagnosis of suspected supraclavicular lymph node metastasis of lung cancer. A retrospective review was performed to evaluate patients with suspected supraclavicular lymph node metastasis of lung cancer who underwent supraclavicular lymph node excision biopsy from January 2011 to July 2014. Forty-six patients with suspected supraclavicular lymph node metastasis of lung cancer underwent supraclavicular lymph node excision biopsy, which diagnosed benign diseases in 6 patients and malignant diseases in 40 patients. Supraclavicular lymph node excision biopsy was usually performed on patients during their first clinical visit under local anesthesia. For diagnosing suspected lung cancer, supraclavicular lymph node excision biopsy had a diagnostic sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 97.6%, positive-predictive value of 83.3%, negative-predictive value of 100%, and accuracy of 97.8%. No major complication resulted from surgical intervention. Supraclavicular lymph node excision biopsy is a useful and accurate adjunct for the evaluation of suspected supraclavicular lymph node metastasis of lung cancer in a tertiary hospital. PMID:28184341

  5. Supraclavicular Lymph Node Excision Biopsy in Patients with Suspected Supraclavicular Lymph Node Metastasis of Lung Cancer: Experience in a Tertiary Hospital.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Lim, Sang Chul

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness and accuracy of supraclavicular lymph node excision biopsy in the diagnosis of suspected supraclavicular lymph node metastasis of lung cancer. A retrospective review was performed to evaluate patients with suspected supraclavicular lymph node metastasis of lung cancer who underwent supraclavicular lymph node excision biopsy from January 2011 to July 2014. Forty-six patients with suspected supraclavicular lymph node metastasis of lung cancer underwent supraclavicular lymph node excision biopsy, which diagnosed benign diseases in 6 patients and malignant diseases in 40 patients. Supraclavicular lymph node excision biopsy was usually performed on patients during their first clinical visit under local anesthesia. For diagnosing suspected lung cancer, supraclavicular lymph node excision biopsy had a diagnostic sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 97.6%, positive-predictive value of 83.3%, negative-predictive value of 100%, and accuracy of 97.8%. No major complication resulted from surgical intervention. Supraclavicular lymph node excision biopsy is a useful and accurate adjunct for the evaluation of suspected supraclavicular lymph node metastasis of lung cancer in a tertiary hospital.

  6. Fast neutron treatment of cervical lymph nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.F.

    1983-09-01

    An editonal is presented which discusses a brief interim report of the prospective, randomized, RTOG study of fast neutron radiation therapy, mixed neutron and photon treatment and standard photon radiation therapy for inoperable, advanced squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck excluding brain. The authors point out that neck nodes serve as an excellent in vivo test site to evaluate the results of fast neutron radiotherapy. The tumor volume is easily measured and the responses of both tumor and normal tissues are easily assessed. The editorial continues that it is all too rare to see the result of a randomized clinical trial in oncology which shows a statistically significant improvement, has a reasonably large number of patients, and is followed-up for a sufficiently long time. It is therefore a particular pleasure to see these three factors occurring together in the report of neutron treatments by Griffin.

  7. Pulmonary lymph node charting in normal dogs with blue dye and scintigraphic lymphatic mapping.

    PubMed

    Tuohy, Joanne L; Worley, Deanna R

    2014-08-01

    The prognosis of dogs with primary lung tumors and lymph node metastasis is poorer than of dogs without metastasis. Biopsy of intrathoracic lymph nodes is recommended, but without specific guidelines. This study investigated incorporation of a human lymph node classification in normal dogs with intercostal thoracotomies. Methylene blue and technetium-99m sulfur colloid lobar injections were used for enhanced nodal identification. Descriptive comparisons were made for lymph node resections utilizing both veterinary and human anatomic lymph node charts. Amedian of 2 (range 1–4) lymph nodes were removed per hemithorax in vivo versus a median 6.5 (range 2–8) lymph nodes removed ex vivo from each hemithorax following in vivo dissections. Incorporation of a human thoracic lymph node classification system may be useful for future clinical application in dogs. Future use of either methylene blue or technetium for canine thoracic lymphadenectomy needs to be evaluated further.

  8. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer: Predictors of Axillary and Non-Sentinel Lymph Node Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Postacı, Hakan; Zengel, Baha; Yararbaş, Ülkem; Uslu, Adam; Eliyatkın, Nuket; Akpınar, Göksever; Cengiz, Fevzi; Durusoy, Raika

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a standard method for the evaluation of axillary status in patients with T1-2N0M0 breast cancers. Aims: To determine the prognostic significance of primary tumour-related clinico-histopathological factors on axillary and non-sentinel lymph node involvement of patients who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy. Study design: Retrospective clinical study. Methods: In the present study, 157 sentinel lymph node biopsies were performed in 151 consecutive patients with early stage breast cancer between June 2008 and December 2011. Results: Successful lymphatic mapping was obtained in 157 of 158 procedures (99.4%). The incidence of larger tumour size (2.543±1.21 vs. 1.974±1.04), lymphatic vessel invasion (70.6% vs. 29.4%), blood vessel invasion (84.2% vs. 15.8%), and invasive lobular carcinoma subtype (72.7% vs. 27.3%) were statistically significantly higher in patients with positive SLNs. Logistic stepwise regression analysis disclosed tumour size (odds ratio: 1.51, p=0.0021) and lymphatic vessel invasion (odds ratio: 4.68, p=0.001) as significant primary tumour-related prognostic determinants of SLN metastasis. Conclusion: A close relationship was identified between tumour size and lymphatic vessel invasion of the primary tumour and axillary lymph node involvement. However, the positive predictive value of these two independent variables is low and there is no compelling evidence to recommend their use in routine clinical practice. PMID:25207151

  9. A single cervical lymph node metastasis of malignant ameloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoori; Choi, Sung-Weon; Lee, Jong-Ho; Ahn, Kang-Min

    2014-12-01

    Cervical node metastasis of malignant ameloblastoma is extremely rare. Because of its rarity, there is no standard treatment modality in a single lymph node metastasis in malignant ameloblastoma. Eleven patients of malignant ameloblastoma involving a single cervical lymph node metastasis and one new case were reviewed. Neck treatment was classified into neck dissection and simple excision. Local nodal recurrence, distant metastasis and follow-up periods were investigated. Eight patients were treated with neck dissection (group A) and four patients underwent a simple node excision (group B). Two patients in group A experienced multiple organ metastases such as liver and lung seven months and 13 years after neck dissection respectively. The other patients showed no recurrence and metastasis. In group B, there was no report of a regional neck recurrence and distant metastasis during follow-up of 1-7 years. Multiple nodes metastasis requires a radical neck dissection; however, simple excision with close follow-up may be used in a single node metastasis in malignant ameloblastoma. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Probabilistic issues with sentinel lymph nodes in malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Robin T

    2015-09-01

    To address issues of probability for sentinel lymph node results in melanoma and provide details about the probabilistic nature of the numbers of sentinel nodes as well as to address how these issues relate to tumor thickness and patient outcomes. Analysis of the probability of observing sentinel node metastases uses the discrete exponential probability distribution to address the number of observed positive sentinel nodes. In addition, mathematical functions derived from survival analysis are used. Data are then chosen from the literature to illustrate the approach and to derive results. Observations about the numbers of positive and negative sentinel nodes closely follow discrete exponential probability distributions, and the relationship between the probability of a positive sentinel node and tumor thickness follows closely a function derived from survival analysis. Sentinel node results relate to tumor thickness as well as to the total number of nodes harvested but fall short of identifying all those who eventually develop metastatic melanoma. Probability analyses provide useful insight into the success and failure of the sentinel node biopsy procedure in patients with melanoma. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  11. Popliteal lymph node dissection for metastases of cutaneous malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Frederico; Moutinho, Vitor; Akaishi, Eduardo; Mendes, Gabriella; Perina, Andre; Lima, Tiberio; Lallee, Margareth; Couto, Sergio; Utiyama, Edivaldo; Rasslan, Samir

    2014-05-01

    Popliteal lymph node dissection is performed when grossly metastatic nodal disease is encountered in the popliteal fossa or after microscopic metastasis is found in interval sentinel nodes during clinical staging of cutaneous malignant melanoma. Initially, an S-shaped incision is made to gain access to the popliteal fossa. A careful en bloc removal of fat tissue and lymph nodes is made to preserve and avoid the injury of peroneal and tibial nerves as well as popliteal vessels, following the previous recommendations. This rare surgical procedure was successfully employed in a patient with cutaneous malignant melanoma and nodal metastases at the popliteal fossa. The technique described by Karakousis was reproduced in a step-by-step fashion to allow anatomical identification of the neurovascular structures and radical resection with no post-operative morbidity and prompt recovery. Popliteal lymph node dissection is a rarely performed operative procedure. Following a lymphoscintigraphic examination of the popliteal nodal station, surgeons can be asked to explore the popliteal fossa. Detailed familiarity of the operative procedure is necessary, however, to avoid complications.

  12. Internal Mammary Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy With Modified Injection Technique

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Peng-Fei; Cong, Bin-Bin; Zhao, Rong-Rong; Yang, Guo-Ren; Liu, Yan-Bing; Chen, Peng; Wang, Yong-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although the 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer incorporated the internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) concept, there has been little change in surgical practice patterns because of the low visualization rate of internal mammary sentinel lymph nodes (IMSLN) with the traditional radiotracer injection technique. In this study, various injection techniques were evaluated in term of the IMSLN visualization rate, and the impact of IM-SLNB on the diagnostic and prognostic value were analyzed. Clinically, axillary lymph nodes (ALN) negative patients (n = 407) were divided into group A (traditional peritumoral intraparenchymal injection) and group B (modified periareolar intraparenchymal injection). Group B was then separated into group B1 (low volume) and group B2 (high volume) according to the injection volume. Clinically, ALN-positive patients (n = 63) were managed as group B2. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed for patients with IMSLN visualized. The IMSLN visualization rate was significantly higher in group B than that in group A (71.1% versus 15.5%, P < 0.001), whereas the axillary sentinel lymph nodes were reliably identified in both groups (98.9% versus 98.3%, P = 0.712). With high injection volume, group B2 was found to have higher IMSLN visualization rate than group B1 (75.1% versus 45.8%, P < 0.001). The IMSLN metastasis rate was only 8.1% (12/149) in clinically ALN-negative patients with successful IM-SLNB, and adjuvant treatment was altered in a small proportion. The IMSLN visualization rate was 69.8% (44/63) in clinically ALN-positive patients with the IMSLN metastasis rate up to 20.5% (9/44), and individual radiotherapy strategy could be guided with the IM-SLNB results. The modified injection technique (periareolar intraparenchymal, high volume, and ultrasound guidance) significantly improved the IMSLN visualization rate, making the routine IM-SLNB possible in daily practice. Internal

  13. Lymph node dissection for Siewert II esophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xiao-Feng; Yue, Jie; Tang, Peng; Shang, Xiao-Bin; Jiang, Hong-Jing; Yu, Zhen-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The present study was aimed to investigate the application of right thansthoracic Ivor–Lewis (IL), left transthoracic (LTT), and left thoracoabdominal (LTA) approach in Siewert type II adenocarcinoma of esophagogastric junction (AEG). The data of 196 patients with Siewert type II AEG received surgical resection in our cancer center between January 2014 and April 2016 was retrospectively analyzed. Finally, 136 patients met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study and divided into the IL (47 cases), LTT (51 cases), and LTA group (38 cases). Clinical and short-term treatment effects were compared among the 3 groups. The patients with weight loss, diabetes, and heart disease increased in the LTT group (P = 0.054, P = 0.075, and P = 0.063, respectively). Operation time was significantly longest in the IL group (P < 0.001), but the amount of bleeding and tumor size did not significantly differ among the 3 groups (P = 0.176 and P = 0.228, respectively). The IL group had the significantly longest proximal surgical margin (P < 0.001) and most number of total (P < 0.001) and thoracic lymph nodes (P < 0.001) dissected. Both the IL and LTA groups had more abdominal lymph nodes dissected than the LTT group (P < 0.001). In general, the IL and LTT groups had the highest dissection rates of every station of thoracic (P < 0.05) and lower mediastinal lymph nodes (P < 0.05), respectively. The dissection rate of the paracardial, left gastric artery, and gastric lesser curvature lymph nodes did not differ significantly among the 3 groups (P > 0.05), but the dissection rate of the hepatic artery, splenic artery, and celiac trunk lymph nodes was significantly highest in the IL group (P < 0.05). Postoperative hospital stay, perioperative complications, and mortality did not differ significantly among the 3 groups (P > 0.05). Compared with the traditional left transthoracic approach, the Ivor–Lewis approach

  14. Value and Efficacy of Sentinel Lymph Node Diagnostics in Patients With Penile Carcinoma With Nonpalpable Inguinal Lymph Nodes: Five-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lützen, Ulf; Zuhayra, Maaz; Marx, Marlies; Zhao, Yi; Knüpfer, Stephanie; Colberg, Christian; Jünemann, Klaus-Peter; Naumann, Carsten Maik

    2016-08-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has been described as a minimally invasive method for lymph node staging in patients with a penile carcinoma and nonpalpable inguinal nodes in national and international guidelines of involved professional societies. However, this method is rarely used. The aim of this study was to validate reliability and morbidity of this method and to discuss radiation exposure of persons involved. Twenty-eight patients with histologically negative sentinel lymph nodes in 47 groins with nonpalpable inguinal lymph nodes were included in this study (17 T1(a/b)-, 8 T2- and 3 T3-stages). We recorded prospectively all cases of lymph node recurrence and complications in patients with initially nonpalpable inguinal lymph nodes and histologically negative sentinel lymph nodes. False-negative findings and morbidity were calculated as qualitative criteria. Inguinal regions with palpable lymph nodes and/or evidence of metastases were not considered in accordance with the guidelines. During a median follow-up of 68 (4-131) months, we observed one case of bilateral lymph node recurrence and one case of prolonged inguinal lymphorrhea, which could be managed conservatively. Per inguinal region, false-negative rate was 4.25%, and morbidity rate was 2.12%; seen per patient, the rates were both 3.57%. Sentinel lymph node biopsy under use of radioactive tracers is a reliable method of lymph node staging in patients with penile carcinoma and nonpalpable inguinal lymph nodes. The methodical complexity is justified by high reliability and low radiation exposure for both patient and medical staff and low morbidity rates.

  15. [The Role of Supraclavicular lymph node dissection in Breast Cancer Patients with Synchronous Ipsilateral Supraclavicular Lymph Node Metastasis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Qi, X M; Chen, A X; Zhang, P; Cao, X C; Xiao, C H

    2017-05-23

    Objective: In this study, we evaluated the effect of supraclavicular lymph node dissection in breast cancer patients who presented with ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph node metastasis (ISLM) without distant metastasis. Methods: A total of 90 patients with synchronous ISLM without distant metastasis between 2000 and 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were retrospectively divided into two groups, namely supraclavicular lymph node dissection group(34 patients) and non-dissection group(56 patients), according to whether they underwentsupraclavicular lymph node dissection or not.The Kaplan-Meier method was applied to analyze the locoregional relapse free survival (LRFS) and overall survival(OS). Results: Median follow-upwas 85 months(range, 6 to 11 months). Local recurrence in 32 cases, 47 cases of distant metastasis, of which 25 patients were accompanied by both locoregional relapse and distant metastasis. Of the 32 patients with locoregional relapse, 11 patients were in the lymph node dissection group and 21 patients in the control group. Of the 47 patients with distant metastases, 17 were treated with lymph node dissection, 30 in the control group. Thirty-two patients died in the whole group and 16 patients underwentlymph node dissection and 16 patients didn't. There was no significant difference between the rate of 5-year LRFS and 5-year OS (P=0.359, P=0.246). For patients of ER negative, the 5-year loco-regional relapse free survival rates were 63.7% and 43.3% in supraclavicular lymph node dissection group and control group, respectively. The 5-year overall survival rates were 52.1% and 52.3%, respectively, and there were no statistically significant differences (P=0.118, P=0.951). For patients of PR negative, the 5-yearloco-regional relapse free rates were 59.8% and 46.2%, respectively, and the 5-year overall survival rates were 50.6% and 43.2%, respectively, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (P=0.317, P=0.973). The 5-year

  16. Modeling Lymph Flow and Fluid Exchange with Blood Vessels in Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Jafarnejad, Mohammad; Woodruff, Matthew C; Zawieja, David C; Carroll, Michael C; Moore, J E

    2015-12-01

    Lymph nodes (LNs) are positioned strategically throughout the body as critical mediators of lymph filtration and immune response. Lymph carries cytokines, antigens, and cells to the downstream LNs, and their effective delivery to the correct location within the LN directly impacts the quality and quantity of immune response. Despite the importance of this system, the flow patterns in LN have never been quantified, in part because experimental characterization is so difficult. To achieve a more quantitative knowledge of LN flow, a computational flow model has been developed based on the mouse popliteal LN, allowing for a parameter sensitivity analysis to identify the important system characteristics. This model suggests that about 90% of the lymph takes a peripheral path via the subcapsular and medullary sinuses, while fluid perfusing deeper into the paracortex is sequestered by parenchymal blood vessels. Fluid absorption by these blood vessels under baseline conditions was driven mainly by oncotic pressure differences between lymph and blood, although the magnitude of fluid transfer is highly dependent on blood vessel surface area. We also predict that the hydraulic conductivity of the medulla, a parameter that has never been experimentally measured, should be at least three orders of magnitude larger than that of the paracortex to ensure physiologic pressures across the node. These results suggest that structural changes in the LN microenvironment, as well as changes in inflow/outflow conditions, dramatically alter the distribution of lymph, cytokines, antigens, and cells within the LN, with great potential for modulating immune response.

  17. Prevalence and Characterization of Salmonella in Bovine Lymph Nodes Potentially Destined for Use in Ground Beef

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A potential source of pathogenic bacteria in ground beef is the lymphatic system, specifically the lymph nodes. There are several reports of bacteria isolated from the lymph nodes of cattle at slaughter; however, most of the studies have dealt with mesenteric lymph nodes that are not normally incor...

  18. Prevalence and characterization of Salmonella in bovine lymph nodes potentially destined for use in ground beef.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Terrance M; Brichta-Harhay, Dayna M; Bosilevac, Joseph M; Guerini, Michael N; Kalchayanand, Norasak; Wells, James E; Shackelford, Steven D; Wheeler, Tommy L; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2008-08-01

    A potential source of pathogenic bacteria in ground beef is the lymphatic system, specifically the lymph nodes. Bacteria have been isolated from the lymph nodes of cattle at slaughter; however, most studies have dealt with mesenteric lymph nodes, which are not normally incorporated into ground beef. The objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence and multidrug-resistance status of Salmonella in bovine lymph nodes associated with lean and fat trimmings that might be utilized in ground beef production. Bovine lymph nodes (n = 1,140) were collected from commercial beef processing plants. Half of the lymph nodes sampled were obtained from cull cow and bull processing plants, and the remainder were obtained from fed beef processing plants. Lymph nodes located in chuck and flank adipose tissue were collected for this study. Salmonella prevalence in the lymph node samples was low, with an overall prevalence of 1.6% and a 95% confidence interval of 0.85 to 2.3%. Lymph nodes from cull cattle carcasses had a higher prevalence of Salmonella than did those from fed cattle carcasses. Lymph nodes from the flanks of cow and bull carcasses had the highest prevalence at 3.86%, whereas lymph nodes from the chuck region of fed cattle carcasses had the lowest prevalence at 0.35%. Three of the 18 Salmonella-positive lymph node samples contained multidrug-resistant Salmonella, and all 3 samples were from cull cattle.

  19. Insight into the differences in classification of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes between Wang’s lymph node map and the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer lymph node map

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ya-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of malignant-tumor-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) has for the past 30 years been an effective technique for the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer. Understanding the anatomy of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes is essential to improve the yield of TBNA. Wang’s lymph node map is based on the lymph node map of the American Thoracic Society (ATS), and on the TBNA technique; it was published in 1994, and has promoted the development of both conventional TBNA (cTBNA) and endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA). In 2009, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) developed a new chest lymph node map to reconcile the differences between the Naruke and The Mountain-Dresler (MD)-ATS lymph node maps. The IASLC lymph node map was incorporated into the seventh edition of the tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) staging system for lung cancer, which directly affected the treatment and prognosis of lung cancer. There are significant differences between Wang’s lymph node map and the IASLC lymph node map in TNM staging, and it is imperative to understand these differences and correlate these maps for the prognosis and staging of lung cancer using cTBNA or EBUS-TBNA. PMID:26807271

  20. Laparoscopic iliac and iliofemoral lymph node resection for melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Don; Roberts, Kurt E; Teng, Edward; Narayan, Deepak

    2012-12-01

    Regional lymphadenectomy in the iliac and groin, originally devised by Basset in 1912, is performed for the treatment of melanoma metastatic to this lymphatic basin. Laparoscopic iliac node dissection may be a valuable management option because it allows performance of the same procedure as in open surgery but with significant benefits such as decreased operative morbidity due to decreased surgical trauma, less violation of the abdominal muscles or the inguinal ligament, reduced postoperative pain, and increased patient satisfaction with the cosmetic appearance. The authors' approach makes use of a laparoscopic technique to offer an alternative to traditionally described lymph node dissection for melanoma. A review of the literature showed few laparoscopic approaches in this context. Jones et al. do not perform the resection en bloc and do not address the iliofemoral lymph node dissection with a combined retroperitoneal technique such as the current authors use. Two authors in the literature use laparoscopy through a transperitoneal approach, with a piecemeal removal of nodes. Delman et al. limit their technique to the inguinal and high femoral basin alone. The video demonstrates the novel use of a laparoscopic method to harvest iliac lymph nodes in combination with a minimally invasive approach to groin dissection for metastatic melanoma. After a laparoscopic resection of these nodes, the authors deliver the iliac nodal contents through the groin using a minimally invasive approach. This approach is highly beneficial to the patient. He is able to leave the hospital significantly earlier than he would have after a traditional open procedure. He can return to his job as a car mechanic within 1 week and is metastasis free at the 9-month follow-up assessment without evidence of lymphocele formation. The authors do not believe that this technique has any significant implication for lymphocele formation compared with an open procedure because in essence, the same

  1. Photoacoustic image-guided needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chulhong; Erpelding, Todd N.; Akers, Walter J.; Maslov, Konstantin; Song, Liang; Jankovic, Ladislav; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Achilefu, Samuel; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-03-01

    We have implemented a hand-held photoacoustic and ultrasound probe for image-guided needle biopsy using a modified clinical ultrasound array system. Pulsed laser light was delivered via bifurcated optical fiber bundles integrated with the hand-held ultrasound probe. We photoacoustically guided needle insertion into rat sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) following accumulation of indocyanine green (ICG). Strong photoacoustic image contrast of the needle was achieved. After intradermal injection of ICG in the left forepaw, deeply positioned SLNs (beneath 2-cm thick chicken breast) were easily indentified in vivo and in real time. Further, we confirmed ICG uptake in axillary lymph nodes with in vivo and ex vivo fluorescence imaging. These results demonstrate the clinical potential of this hand-held photoacoustic system for facile identification and needle biopsy of SLNs for cancer staging and metastasis detection in humans.

  2. Sentinel lymph node imaging by a fluorescently labeled DNA tetrahedron.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Ran; Lee, Yong-Deok; Lee, Taemin; Kim, Byeong-Su; Kim, Sehoon; Ahn, Dae-Ro

    2013-07-01

    Sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) are the first lymph nodes which cancer cells reach after traveling through lymphatic vessels from the primary tumor. Evaluating the nodal status is crucial in accurate staging of human cancers and accordingly determines prognosis and the most appropriate treatment. The commonly used methods for SLN identification in clinics are based on employment of a colloid of radionuclide or injection of a small dye. Although these methods have certainly contributed to improve surgical practice, new imaging materials are still required to overcome drawbacks of the techniques such as inconvenience of handling radioactive materials and short retention time of small dyes in SLNs. Here, we prepare a fluorescence-labeled DNA tetrahedron and perform SLN imaging by using the DNA nanoconstruct. With a successful identification of SLNs by the DNA nanoconstruct, we suggest that DNA tetrahedron hold great promises for clinical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Peritoneal malignant mesothelioma metastatic to supraclavicular lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Zannella, Stefano; Testi, Maria Adele; Cattoretti, Giorgio; Pelosi, Giuseppe; Zucchini, Nicola

    2014-09-01

    Distinguishing between malignant mesothelioma and reactive mesothelial hyperplasia is often inestimable, but may be a challenging gauntlet for pathologists. A 62-year-old man underwent appendectomy after the identification of a peritoneal mass and the histological examination showed mesothelial proliferation along the appendix surface with no clear images of infiltration. After a few months the patient developed mediastinal and supraclavicular lymphadenopathies, and a nodal biopsy showed mesothelial cell proliferation invading lymphatic sinuses, consistent with the cells seen in the abdominal cavity. Since overt morphologic criteria for malignancy were lacking and reactive mesothelial cell deposits have been documented in lymph nodes, a molecular investigation of the CDKN2A (henceforth simply p16) gene status via fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed, which showed homozygous deletion in 100% tumor cells. These data ruled out the hypothesis of reactive mesothelial cells inclusion in lymph nodes, thus confirming the diagnosis of epithelioid malignant mesothelioma. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. What next? Managing lymph nodes in men with penile cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leveridge, Michael; Siemens, D. Robert; Morash, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The management of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the penis is often daunting given its rarity and subsequent lack of high-level evidence to support our decision-making. This culminates in the complex surgical issues involving the management of the regional lymph nodes, which is of critical importance to both quantity and quality of life for these patients. This review aims to highlight the decisive issues surrounding the management of the pelvic and inguinal lymph nodes in the setting of squamous cell carcinoma of the penis, and to spotlight recently published information that adds credence to accepted management strategies of both the clinically positive and negative groin after successful management of the primary lesion. PMID:18953451

  5. A Clinico-Pathological Study of Cervical Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Batni, Gaurav; Gaur, Sushil; Sinha, O N; Agrawal, Siddhant Priya; Srivasatva, Abhinav

    2016-12-01

    Cervical lymphadenopathy is one of the commonest presenting complaint of patient in ENT OPD Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) is one of the most reliable, less expensive, and basic diagnostic procedure for the definitive and conclusive diagnosis for the immune system which reciprocates in the form of enlarged lymph nodes. A study was conducted in ENT Department of Santosh Medical College, Ghazibad from August 2015 to May 2016 on 64 patients with enlarged cervical lymph nodes. FNAC was done to make the diagnosis. Out of 64 patients (51.5 %) was reactive non-specific, 28 % tubercular, 3.1 % lymphoma and 17 % were malignant. FNAC is one of the most dependable diagnostic tools in case of cervical lymphadenopathy for early diagnosis and detection for the better management.

  6. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in paediatric melanoma. A case series.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Aguilar, M; Álvarez Pérez, R M; García Gómez, F J; Fernández Ortega, P; Borrego Dorado, I

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma in children is uncommon, being particularly rare in children under 10 years-old. However, this disease is increasing by a mean of 2% per year. As in adults, the lymph node status is the most important prognostic factor, crucial to performing the selective sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). We report 3 cases of paediatric patients of 3, 4 and 8 years-old, in which SLNB was performed for malignant melanoma. Paediatric age implies greater technical difficulty to the scintigraphy scan due to poor patient cooperation, with mild sedation required in some cases, and only being able to acquire planar images in other cases. SPECT/CT was only performed in the oldest patient. In our cases, SLNB was useful for selecting the least invasive surgery in order to reduce morbidity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of CEUS in characterization of superficial lymph nodes: a single center prospective study

    PubMed Central

    de Stefano, Giorgio; Scognamiglio, Umberto; Di Martino, Filomena; Parrella, Roberto; Scarano, Francesco; Signoriello, Giuseppe; Farella, Nunzia

    2016-01-01

    Accurate lymph node characterization is important in a large number of clinical settings. We evaluated the usefulness of Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) in distinguishing between benign and malignant lymph nodes compared with conventional ultrasonography in the differential diagnosis of superficial lymphadenopathy. We present our experience for 111 patients enrolled in a single center. 111 superficial lymph nodes were selected and only 1 lymph node per patient underwent CEUS. A definitive diagnosis for all lymph nodes was obtained by ultrasonographically guided biopsy and/or excision biopsy. The size of the lymph nodes, the site (neck, axilla, inguinal region) being easily accessible for biopsy, and the US and color Doppler US characteristics guided us in selecting the nodes to be evaluated by CEUS. In our study we identified different enhancement patterns in benign and malignant lymph nodes, with a high degree of diagnostic accuracy for superficial lymphadenopathy in comparison with conventional US. PMID:27191746

  8. Molecular Mechanism of Lymph Node Metastasis in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    inflammatory leukocytes to lymph nodes. CXCL21 is primarily expressed in LECs and functions as a chemoattractant for CCR7 -expressing dendritic cells and T...binding of HA to LYVE-1 regulates SLC production in LECs, which functions as chemoattractant for CCR7 - expressing breast cancer cells. Results...regulates SLC production in LECs, which functions as chemoattractant for CCR7 -expressing breast cancer cells. (Months 1-12) Generation of 4T1 cells

  9. Prognostic implication of hepatoduodenal ligament lymph nodes in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sung Eun; Choi, Min-Gew; Lee, Jun Ho; Sohn, Tae Sung; Bae, Jae Moon; Kim, Sung

    2017-01-01

    Abstract There has been controversy regarding whether hepatoduodenal lymph node (HDLN) metastasis in gastric cancer is distant or regional metastasis. HDLN positivity was classified as distant metastasis in the 7th American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) classification, but it was reclassified as regional lymph node metastasis in the 8th AJCC classification. The aim of our study is to verify prognostic significance of HDLN metastasis in gastric cancer. This retrospective study enrolled patients with gastric cancer who underwent D2 gastrectomy from January 2007 to June 2010. HDLN was classified as a regional lymph node. Total number of patients was 3175; 143 (4.5%) of them had HDLN metastasis. The HDLN positivity was significantly associated with older age, more advanced tumor stage, undifferentiated histologic type, and pathologic diagnosis of lymphatic, vascular, and perineural invasions. Five-year survival rate of HDLN-positive patients with stages I to III disease was significantly higher than that of stage IV group (59.3% vs 18.8%, P = 0.001). In patients with stage III disease, 5-year survival rate of HDLN-positive group was significantly lower than that of HDLN-negative group (51.7% vs 66.3%, P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that HDLN metastasis was an independent prognostic factor. HDLN has a different prognostic significance from other regional lymph nodes in advanced stage of gastric cancer though its positivity is not considered as distant metastasis. HDLN positivity itself seems to be an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer, and the survival outcomes of patients with stage III disease need to be reconsidered according to HDLN positivity. PMID:28353581

  10. [Incidence and influencing factors of distal external iliac lymph node metastasis in early cervical cancer].

    PubMed

    Yin, Yueju; Sheng, Xiugui; Li, Xinglan; Li, Dapeng; Han, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Xiaoling; Zhang, Tingting

    2014-06-01

    The distal external iliac lymph nodes are located along the external iliac artery between the deep circumflex iliac vein and the inguinal canal. Our study aimed to investigate the incidence of metastasis in distal external iliac lymph nodes and its association with clinicopathological factors in patients with early stage cervical cancer, and to determine the role of distal external iliac lymph nodes dissection in the surgery. Five hundred and twenty-four patients with early stage cervical cancer underwent radical hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy in the Shandong Province Cancer Hospital between June 1995 and December 2011, and their clinicopathological features were analyzed retrospectively. Of the 524 patients, 124 (23.7%) had pelvic lymph node metastasis. The metastasis rates were 16.2% (85 of 524 patients) in the obturator lymph nodes, 12.2% (64 of 524 patients) in the internal and external iliac lymph nodes, 2.9% (15 of 524 patients) in the common iliac lymph nodes, 2.1% (11 of 524 patients) in the distal external iliac lymph nodes, and 1.7% (9 of 524 patients) in the para-aortic nodes. The incidence of isolated positive distal external iliac lymph nodes was 0.2%. Univariate analysis showed that lymphovascular space invasion, pelvic lymph node metastases (excluding distal external iliac lymph nodes) were significantly associated with distal external iliac lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that pelvic lymph node metastasis (excluding distal external iliac lymph nodes) was the independent risk factor for metastasis to distal external iliac lymph nodes. In early stage cervical cancer, distal external iliac lymph node metastasis is rare, especially in cases with stage IA or without pelvic lymph node metastasis. Less extensive pelvic lymphadenectomy may be considered in these patients in order to reduce operative complications and improve patients' quality of life. The deep circumflex iliac vein may be an

  11. Indocyanine green detects sentinel lymph nodes in early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Huang, Linping; Wang, Ning; Chen, Ping

    2017-04-01

    Objective To explore the clinical value of indocyanine green (ICG) for the fluorescence-guided detection of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) during sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients with early breast cancer. Methods This retrospective study included female patients with breast cancer. Patients were administered methylene blue and ICG using standard techniques. All SLNs that were collected during surgery were submitted for pathological examination. SLNs were defined as those that were either fluorescent, blue, fluorescent and blue or palpably suspicious. Surgical complications, axillary recurrence, distant metastasis and overall survival rates were observed postoperatively. Results A total of 60 patients were enrolled in the study. The fluorescence detection rate of SLNs was 100% ( n = 177), with a mean of 2.95 SLNs per patient. The methylene blue staining rate was 88.3% ( n = 106), with a mean of 1.77 SLNs per patient. Pathological assessment of intraoperative frozen specimens revealed SLN metastases in 10 patients, who immediately underwent axillary lymph node dissection. No patient had axillary recurrence or distant metastases, with a survival rate of 100%. Patients who underwent SLNB showed good appearance in the axillary wound, with no limited shoulder joint abduction and upper limb oedema. Conclusion Fluorescence-guided SLNB has several advantages and is suitable for clinical application.

  12. Fluorescence spectroscopy using indocyanine green for lymph node mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haj-Hosseini, Neda; Behm, Pascal; Shabo, Ivan; Wârdell, Karin

    2014-02-01

    The principles of cancer treatment has for years been radical resection of the primary tumor. In the oncologic surgeries where the affected cancer site is close to the lymphatic system, it is as important to detect the draining lymph nodes for metastasis (lymph node mapping). As a replacement for conventional radioactive labeling, indocyanine green (ICG) has shown successful results in lymph node mapping; however, most of the ICG fluorescence detection techniques developed are based on camera imaging. In this work, fluorescence spectroscopy using a fiber-optical probe was evaluated on a tissue-like ICG phantom with ICG concentrations of 6-64 μM and on breast tissue from five patients. Fiber-optical based spectroscopy was able to detect ICG fluorescence at low intensities; therefore, it is expected to increase the detection threshold of the conventional imaging systems when used intraoperatively. The probe allows spectral characterization of the fluorescence and navigation in the tissue as opposed to camera imaging which is limited to the view on the surface of the tissue.

  13. Cardiac Sarcoidosis Diagnosed by Incidental Lymph Node Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Jun; Fujiu, Katsuhito; Roh, Solji; Tajima, Miyu; Maki, Hisataka; Kojima, Toshiya; Ushiku, Tetsuo; Nawata, Kan; Takeda, Norihiko; Watanabe, Masafumi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Komuro, Issei

    2017-02-07

    Cardiac involvement in systemic sarcoidosis sometimes provokes life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmia. Steroid administration is one of the fundamental anti-arrhythmia therapies. For an indication of steroid therapy, a definitive diagnosis of sarcoidosis is required.(1)) However, cases that are clearly suspected of cardiac sarcoidosis based on their clinical courses sometimes do not meet the current diagnostic criteria and result in the loss of an appropriate opportunity to perform steroid therapy.Here we report a case that was diagnosed as sarcoidosis by incidental biopsy of an inguinal lymph node during cardiac resuscitation for cardiac tamponade.(2)) While the inguinal lymph node was not swollen on computed tomography, a specimen obtained from an incidental biopsy during the exposure of a femoral vessel for the establishment of extracorporeal cardio-pulmonary resuscitation showed a non-caseating granuloma.This findings suggest a non-swelling lymph node biopsy might be an alternative strategy for the diagnosis for sarcoidosis if other standard strategies do not result in a diagnosis of sarcoidosis.

  14. Adrenomedullin gene dosage correlates with tumor and lymph node lymphangiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Karpinich, Natalie O.; Kechele, Daniel O.; Espenschied, Scott T.; Willcockson, Helen H.; Fedoriw, Yuri; Caron, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM) is a potent lymphangiogenic factor that promotes lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) proliferation through a pharmacologically tractable G-protein-coupled receptor. Numerous types of human cancers have increased levels of AM; however, the functional consequences of this fact have not been characterized. Therefore, we evaluated whether modulating adrenomedullin (Adm) gene dosage within tumor cells affects lymphangiogenesis. Murine Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells that overexpress or underexpress Adm were injected subcutaneously into C57BL/6 mice, and tumors were evaluated for growth and vascularization. A dosage range from ∼10 to 200% of wild-type Adm expression did not affect LLC proliferation in vitro or in vivo, nor did it affect angiogenesis. Notably, the dosage of Adm markedly and significantly influenced tumor lymphangiogenesis. Reduced Adm expression in tumors decreased the proliferation of LECs and the number of lymphatic vessels, while elevated tumor Adm expression led to enlarged lymphatic vessels. Moreover, overexpression of Adm in tumors induced sentinel lymph node lymphangiogenesis and led to an increased incidence of Ki67-positive foci within the lung. These data show that tumor-secreted AM is a critical factor for driving both tumor and lymph node lymphangiogenesis. Thus, pharmacological targeting of AM signaling may provide a new avenue for inhibition of tumor lymphangiogenesis.—Karpinich, N. O., Kechele, D. O., Espenschied, S. T., Willcockson, H. H., Fedoriw, Y., Caron, K. M. Adrenomedullin gene dosage correlates with tumor and lymph node lymphangiogenesis. PMID:23099649

  15. High Definition Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging for Lymph Node Histopathology

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, L. Suzanne; Wrobel, Tomasz P.; Mayerich, David; Bindra, Snehal; Emmadi, Rajyasree; Bhargava, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Chemical imaging is a rapidly emerging field in which molecular information within samples can be used to predict biological function and recognize disease without the use of stains or manual identification. In Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging, molecular absorption contrast provides a large signal relative to noise. Due to the long mid-IR wavelengths and sub-optimal instrument design, however, pixel sizes have historically been much larger than cells. This limits both the accuracy of the technique in identifying small regions, as well as the ability to visualize single cells. Here we obtain data with micron-sized sampling using a tabletop FT-IR instrument, and demonstrate that the high-definition (HD) data lead to accurate identification of multiple cells in lymph nodes that was not previously possible. Highly accurate recognition of eight distinct classes - naïve and memory B cells, T cells, erythrocytes, connective tissue, fibrovascular network, smooth muscle, and light and dark zone activated B cells was achieved in healthy, reactive, and malignant lymph node biopsies using a random forest classifier. The results demonstrate that cells currently identifiable only through immunohistochemical stains and cumbersome manual recognition of optical microscopy images can now be distinguished to a similar level through a single IR spectroscopic image from a lymph node biopsy. PMID:26039216

  16. [Number of positive central cervical lymph nodes for predicting lateral cervical lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Cai, Yefeng; Chen, Endong; Ni, Chunjue; Li, Quan; Zeng, Ruichao; Zhang, Xiaohua

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the number of central cervical lymph node metastasis (CCLNM) in predicting lateral cervical lymph node metastasis (LCLNM) in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). From January 2005 to October 2010, a total of 133 patients diagnosed as PTC underwent central and lateral cervical lymph node dissection were enrolled in this study. Quantitative analysis was performed to explore the correlation between the number of CCLNM and LCLNM. The sensitivity of central cervical node metastasis to predict lateral cervical node metastasis was 84.7%(61/72), and the positive predictive value (PPV) was 66.3% (61/92). The incidence of lateral cervical LNM was correlated with the number of CCLNM (r=0.911, P=0.004). The LCLNM rates in patients with number of CCLNM <2 and ≥ 2 were 54.5% (12/22) and 70.0% (49/70), respectively, with a non-significant difference (P=0.181). The LCLNM rates in patients with number of CCLNM < 3 and ≥ 3 were 50.0% (19/38) and 77.8% (42/54), showing a significant difference (P=0.006). The LCLNM rates in patients with number of CCLNM <4 and ≥ 4 were 55.1% (27/49) and 79.1% (34/43), with a significant difference (P=0.015). The LCLNM rates in patients with number of CCLNM <5 and ≥ 5 with the LLNM rate were 57.6% (34/59) and 81.8% (27/33), showing a significant difference (P=0.019). The LCLNM rates in patients with number of CCLNM <6 and ≥ 6 were 60.0% (39/65) and 81.5% (22/27), showing a significant difference (P=0.047). CCLNM has a significant association with LCLNM in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma. LCLNM is mainly observed in patients with ≥ 3 CCLNM. Therefore, the number of CLNM ≥ 3 may be a valuable predictor of lateral cervical lymph node metastasis, and lateral cervical lymph node dissection should be considered.

  17. [Intravenous contrast-enhanced ultrasound of metastatic lymph nodes in rabbit VX2 tongue carcinoma model].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Shi, Fang; Li, Shi-min; Jin, Yun-jie; Wu, Hai-tao

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the sonographic features of the cervical lymph nodes in rabbit VX2 tongue carcinoma model and hyperplasia cervical lymph nodes model using gray scale contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) after intravenous administration of SonoVue (a sonographic contrast agent) and to evaluate the potential utility of CEUS in detecting early metastatic cervical lymph nodes in the rabbit VX2 tongue carcinoma model. Twenty New Zealand rabbits were placed into 2 groups, 12 for node metastasis and 18 for node hyperplasia. Cervical CEUS was performed in the rabbits of both groups before and after intravenous administration of SonoVue(0.6 ml). The phase, pattern, beginning area and echogenicity of enhancement of the lymph nodes on the right neck were observed and recorded. Dissection of the lymph nodes were guided by the marks made during CEUS and examined histopathologically. On the right side of each rabbit only one lymph node were detected in both groups. All 8 cases in the hyperplasia group showed homogeneous enhancement starting from central, while in the metastasis group one case showed homogeneous enhancement starting from the central, 3 cases showed inhomogeneous enhancement starting from periphery, and 8 cases showed inhomogeneous enhancement starting both from central and periphery. One lymph node was dissected on the right side of the neck in each rabbit in both groups. Pathological examination showed all 12 lymph nodes in the metastatic group were metastatic lymph nodes, and all 8 lymph nodes in the hyperplasia group were hyperplastic lymph nodes. After intravenous CEUS, metastatic lymph nodes show inhomogeneous enhancement starting from periphery/central or periphery area, while hyperplastic lymph nodes show homogeneous enhancement starting from central area. Metastatic lymph nodes can be characterized as being neoplastic or benign on the basis of the enhancement patterns evaluated by CEUS.

  18. In vivo and ex vivo sentinel node mapping does not identify the same lymph nodes in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Helene Schou; Bennedsen, Astrid Louise Bjørn; Burgdorf, Stefan Kobbelgaard; Eriksen, Jens Ravn; Eiholm, Susanne; Toxværd, Anders; Riis, Lene Buhl; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2017-07-01

    Identification of lymph nodes and pathological analysis is crucial for the correct staging of colon cancer. Lymph nodes that drain directly from the tumor area are called "sentinel nodes" and are believed to be the first place for metastasis. The purpose of this study was to perform sentinel node mapping in vivo with indocyanine green and ex vivo with methylene blue in order to evaluate if the sentinel lymph nodes can be identified by both techniques. Patients with colon cancer UICC stage I-III were included from two institutions in Denmark from February 2015 to January 2016. In vivo sentinel node mapping with indocyanine green during laparoscopy and ex vivo sentinel node mapping with methylene blue were performed in all patients. Twenty-nine patients were included. The in vivo sentinel node mapping was successful in 19 cases, and ex vivo sentinel node mapping was successful in 13 cases. In seven cases, no sentinel nodes were identified. A total of 51 sentinel nodes were identified, only one of these where identified by both techniques (2.0%). In vivo sentinel node mapping identified 32 sentinel nodes, while 20 sentinel nodes were identified by ex vivo sentinel node mapping. Lymph node metastases were found in 10 patients, and only two had metastases in a sentinel node. Placing a deposit in relation to the tumor by indocyanine green in vivo or of methylene blue ex vivo could only identify sentinel lymph nodes in a small group of patients.

  19. Spectral imaging as a potential tool for optical sentinel lymph node biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, Jack D.; Hoy, Paul R.; Rutt, Harvey N.

    2011-07-01

    Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy (SLNB) is an increasingly standard procedure to help oncologists accurately stage cancers. It is performed as an alternative to full axillary lymph node dissection in breast cancer patients, reducing the risk of longterm health problems associated with lymph node removal. Intraoperative analysis is currently performed using touchprint cytology, which can introduce significant delay into the procedure. Spectral imaging is forming a multi-plane image where reflected intensities from a number of spectral bands are recorded at each pixel in the spatial plane. We investigate the possibility of using spectral imaging to assess sentinel lymph nodes of breast cancer patients with a view to eventually developing an optical technique that could significantly reduce the time required to perform this procedure. We investigate previously reported spectra of normal and metastatic tissue in the visible and near infrared region, using them as the basis of dummy spectral images. We analyse these images using the spectral angle map (SAM), a tool routinely used in other fields where spectral imaging is prevalent. We simulate random noise in these images in order to determine whether the SAM can discriminate between normal and metastatic pixels as the quality of the images deteriorates. We show that even in cases where noise levels are up to 20% of the maximum signal, the spectral angle map can distinguish healthy pixels from metastatic. We believe that this makes spectral imaging a good candidate for further study in the development of an optical SLNB.

  20. Intradermal administration of fluorescent contrast agents for delivery to axillary lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, John C.; Meric-Berstam, Funda; Krishnamurthy, Savitri; Tan, I.-Chih; Zhu, Banghe; Wagner, Jamie L.; Babiera, Gildy V.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2014-05-01

    In this proof-of-concept study we seek to demonstrate the delivery of fluorescent contrast agent to the tumor-draining lymph node basin following intraparenchymal breast injections and intradermal arm injection of micrograms of indocyanine green in 20 breast cancer patients undergoing complete axillary lymph node dissection. Individual lymph nodes were assessed ex vivo for presence of fluorescent signal. In all, 88% of tumor-negative lymph nodes and 81% of tumor-positive lymph nodes were fluorescent. These results indicate that future studies utilizing targeted fluorescent contrast agents may demonstrate improved surgical and therapeutic intervention.

  1. Retroperitoneal Lymph Nodes in Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Kidney and Ureter

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Shilajit D.; Eggener, Scott E.

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of transitional cell carcinoma of the kidney and ureter is low and for that reason limited data exists regarding the appropriate management of regional retroperitoneal lymph nodes. Lymph node metastases have consistently been associated with an adverse prognosis. However, five-year cancer-specific survival following nephroureterectomy and lymphadenectomy for patients with lymph node involvement ranges from 0–39%, suggesting a therapeutic benefit. This review covers the primary tumor characteristics associated with lymph node involvement, imaging of the lymph nodes, as well as the rationale, role, patient selection, suggested anatomic templates, and technical considerations for lymphadenectomy. PMID:19190765

  2. Current Status and Scope of Lymph Node Micrometastasis in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang Min; Park, Sung-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, lymph node micrometastasis has been evaluated for its prognostic value in gastric cancer. Lymph node micrometastasis cannot be detected via a usual pathologic examination, but it can be detected by using some other techniques including immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay. With the development of such diagnostic techniques, the detection rate of lymph node micrometastasis is constantly increasing. Although the prognostic value of lymph node micrometastasis remains debatable, its clinical impact is apparently remarkable in both early and advanced gastric cancer. At present, studies on the prognostic value of lymph node micrometastasis are evolving to overcome its current limitations and extend the scope of its application. PMID:25861517

  3. Comparison of mouse strains using the local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Woolhiser, M R; Munson, A E; Meade, B J

    2000-05-05

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA), as recommended by the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), only allows for the use of CBA mice. The objective of these studies was to begin to assess the response of chemical sensitizers in the LLNA across six strains of female mice (C57BL/6, SJL/J, BALB/c, B6C3F1, DBA/2 and CBA). The moderate sensitizer alpha-hexylcinnamaldehyde (HCA) was chosen as the test chemical, while toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) were evaluated at single concentrations as positive controls. Draining lymph node cell proliferation following acetone exposure varied across strains. SJL mice had a significantly higher degree of proliferation with 2111 d.p.m./2 nodes. The remaining five strains demonstrated responses which ranged from 345 to 887 dpm/2 nodes. DBA/2, B6C3F1, BALB/c and CBA mice had essentially equal levels of lymph node proliferation following exposure to the three chemicals. While C57BL/6 mice gave similar results as CBA mice following DNFB and HCA administration, the LLNA response to TDI was considerably lower. SJL mice provided low stimulation indexes (SI) values for all three chemicals evaluated. Regardless of the level of LLNA response, all six mouse strains identified the sensitization potential of HCA, TDI or DNFB. Based on these studies, DBA/2, B6C3F1 and BALB/c mice are good choices for continued evaluation as additional mouse strains for use in the LLNA.

  4. Cost analysis of sentinel lymph node biopsy in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Menchón, T; Sánchez-Pedreño, P; Martínez-Escribano, J; Corbalán-Vélez, R; Martínez-Barba, E

    2015-04-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the most useful tool for node staging in melanoma. SLNB facilitates selective dissection of lymph nodes, that is, the performance of lymphadenectomy only in patients with sentinel nodes positive for metastasis. Our aim was to assess the cost of SLNB, given that this procedure has become the standard of care for patients with melanoma and must be performed whenever patients are to be enrolled in clinical trials. Furthermore, the literature on the economic impact of SLNB in Spain is scarce. From 2007 to 2010, we prospectively collected data for 100 patients undergoing SLNB followed by transhilar bivalving and multiple-level sectioning of the node for histology. Our estimation of the cost of the technique was based on official pricing and fee schedules for the Spanish region of Murcia. The rate of node-positive cases in our series was 20%, and the mean number of nodes biopsied was 1.96; 44% of the patients in the series had thin melanomas. The total cost was estimated at between €9486.57 and €10471.29. Histopathology accounted for a considerable portion of the cost (€5769.36). The cost of SLNB is high, consistent with amounts described for a US setting. Optimal use of SLNB will come with the increasingly appropriate selection of patients who should undergo the procedure and the standardization of a protocol for histopathologic evaluation that is both sensitive and easy to perform. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  5. Lymph-node staining with activated carbon CH40: a new method for axillary lymph-node dissection in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Takashi; Saito, Toshihiro; Narushima, Yoichi; Iwamoto, Kazutsugu; Iizuka, Masashi; Hagiwara, Akeo; Sawai, Kiyoshi; Kikuchi, Shu; Kunii, Yasuo; Yamauchi, Hidemi

    2000-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the usefulness of activated carbon particles (CH40) as a vital staining dye for visualizing lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes in breast cancer. Design A retrospective evaluation. Setting Department of Surgery in Sendai National Hospital, Japan, a 716-bed teaching hospital. Methods To identify as many lymph nodes as possible in the axillary fat, by which we might decrease the possibility of the presence of undetected metastatic nodes, an emulsion of activated carbon particles (CH40) was injected into the centre of the mammary gland, close to the tumour site, 3 days before radical surgery. Main outcome measure The number of lymph nodes found by the traditional method and by the CH40-injection method were recorded. Results After injection, the CH40 was readily adsorbed into regional lymphatics and streamed along with the lymph flow to blacken regional lymph nodes. The CH40-guided method increased the mean number of nodes per case found in the axilla from 8.4, by the traditional method, to 14.0 nodes per case. Conclusions The use of the CH40 technique has two technical advantages; one is that it allows surgeons to locate the blackened lymph nodes at the time of surgery and the other is that it allows pathologists to look for the nodes in fatty tissue. Lymph-node dissection with the aid of activated carbon particles is inexpensive, easy to perform and enables the smallest lymph nodes to be easily recognized. CH40 is the technique of choice for the detection of axillary lymph nodes in cases where the number of lymph nodes detected by the traditional method is too small for accurate surgery. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that CH40 could be an appropriate tool for more accurate staging of breast cancer axillary specimens. PMID:10851412

  6. Efficacy of Methylene Blue in Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Altan; Mayir, Burhan; Demirbakan, Kenan; Oygür, Nezihi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the recommended approach in the evaluation of axilla during breast cancer surgery. In this study, results of patients who underwent methylene blue sentinel lymph node biopsy were evaluated. Materials and Methods The study included 32 female patients with T1 and T2 tumors. 5 ml of 1% methylene blue was injected into the peritumoral area or around the cavity. The axillary sentinel lymph node was found and removed, and then axillary dissection was performed. The sentinel lymph node and axillary dissection specimen were histopathologically examined and the results were compared. Results The sentinel lymph node was found in 30 (94%) patients. Lymph node metastasis was not observed in 17 patients in both the sentinel lymph node and axilla. Two patients had metastasis in the axilla although this was not detected in sentinel lymph node. Eleven patients had metastasis both in the sentinel lymph node and in the axilla. The accuracy rate was 93%, and the false negativity rate was identified as 15%. Conclusion Sentinel lymph node biopsy by methylene blue is a method that can be applied with high accuracy. Methylene blue can be considered as an alternative to isosulphane blue in sentinel lymph node biopsy.

  7. The value of positive lymph nodes ratio combined with negative lymph node count in prediction of breast cancer survival

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing; Long, Quanyi; Li, Hongjiang; Lv, Qing; Tan, Qiuwen

    2017-01-01

    Background Positive lymph node ratio (LNR), defined as ratio of positive lymph nodes to all lymph nodes removed, is a powerful prognostic factor in invasive breast cancer. Here we focused on the impact of negative lymph node (NLN) count on the prediction of value of LNR in breast cancer survival. Methods Of 929 invasive breast cancer patients were enrolled in our retrospective study. We use Kaplan-Meier to calculate the 5-year overall survival (OS) according to different clinicopathologic parameters. The prediction value of NLN count and LNR in OS was examined. Results The optimal cutoff of NLN count was designated as 9. Five-year OS was 77.0% and 95.0% in patients with NLN of 0–9 and ≥10, respectively (P<0.001). Among 204 patients who had 0–9 NLN, 25 patients with LNR 0–20.0% had 5-year OS of 95.7%, 104 patients with LNR 20.1–65.0% had 5-year OS of 83.4%, and 75 patients with LNR 65.1–100.0% had 5-year OS of 61.7% (P<0.001); Among 725 patients who had NLN ≥10, 650 patients with LNR 0–20.0% had 5-year OS of 96.1%, 68 patients with LNR 20.1–65.0% had 5-year OS of 86.8%, and 7 patients with LNR 65.1–100% had 5-year OS of 71.4% (P<0.001). Conclusions High NLN count is associated with improved survival in invasive breast cancer patients. Combining NLN count with LNR could be considered as an alternative to LNR alone in prediction of postoperative breast cancer survival. PMID:28740666

  8. Predictors of cervical lymph node metastasis in salivary gland cancer.

    PubMed

    Ettl, Tobias; Gosau, Martin; Brockhoff, Gero; Schwarz-Furlan, Stephan; Agaimy, Abbas; Reichert, Torsten E; Rohrmeier, Christian; Zenk, Johannes; Iro, Heinrich

    2014-04-01

    This study compares clinicopathological parameters with novel molecular markers for predicting cervical lymph node metastasis in salivary gland cancer. Three hundred sixteen salivary gland carcinomas were included in this study. Genomic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), and hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET) was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Chi-square tests, multivariate regression, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were used for statistics. Nodal staging determines long-term survival. Clinicopathological parameters associated with positive neck nodes are advanced age (p = .006), T3/T4 classification, histological high-grade malignancy, and diagnosis of salivary duct carcinoma (p < .001 each). Neck node metastases also correlate with copy number gain of EGFR (p = .004) and HER2, aberration of MET, and deletion of PTEN (p < .001 each). Multivariate analysis showed SDC (p = .002) to be the strongest predictor of lymph node metastasis, followed by MET aberration (p = .009), T3/T4 classification (p = .017), PTEN deletion (p = .042), and adenocarcinoma not otherwise specified (NOS; p = .047). The histological subtype is crucial for decisions regarding neck dissection. New molecular parameters may also indicate elective treatment of the neck. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Sentinel lymph node metastasis in anal melanoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tien, Huey Y; McMasters, Kelly M; Edwards, Michael J; Chao, Celia

    2002-01-01

    Anal melanoma represents only 1% of all melanomas. Owing to delayed diagnosis and early metastasis, the prognosis is uniformly poor. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy has become the preferred method of nodal staging method for cutaneous melanoma. The role of SLN biopsy for staging of anal melanoma remains unclear. We report a 39-yr-old Caucasian woman who presented with a history of chronic hemorrhoidal pain. She noted a pedunculated peri-anal mass associated with bleeding. Upon biopsy, the lesion was found to be a 6-mm thick primary anal melanoma. There was no evidence of metastatic disease on preoperative imaging studies. She underwent wide local excision of the peri-anal site of the primary melanoma and intra-operative lymphatic mapping with both isosulfan blue and filtered technetium sulfur colloid. With the guidance a lymphoscintigram, ipsilateral inguinal sentinel lymphadenectomy identified five nodes, all of which were both "hot" and blue. One node was found to have a 1-mm metastatic deposit. Subsequently, the patient was treated with adjuvant radiation therapy to the primary site as well as to the superficial and deep inguinal nodal basins. She also received four cycles of biochemotherapy. SLN biopsy appears feasible for staging the superficial inguinal lymph nodes in patients with anal melanoma. However, the impact of SLN biopsy, early detection of occult metastasis, and adjuvant systemic and radiation therapy on the long-term survival of patients with anal melanoma is uncertain.

  10. [Clinical study of cervical lymph node metastasis in maxillary cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Maeda, Akiteru; Chijiwa, Hideki; Sakamoto, Kikuo; Miyajima, Yoshimi; Umeno, Hirohito; Nakashima, Tadashi

    2008-06-01

    The clinical characteristics of lymph node metastasis in maxillary cancer patients were analyzed. Thirty-eight (23%) of the 166 patients who received intial treatment at Kurume University Hospital between 1978 and 2003 had cervical lymph node metastasis at the time of diagnosis. The disease-specific 5-year survival rate was 63% in the lymph node metastasis negative group and 18% in the lymph node metastasis positive group (p<0.01). There was a statistically significant correlation between bone invasion and lymph node metastasis in the case of the group with bone invasion of the posterior wall of the maxillary sinus. Cervical neck lymph node metastasis developed in 38 (28%) of 135 posterior-wall-invasion-positive group and in none (0%) of the 31 patients in the negative group (p<0.01). Because distant metastasis is common in patients with lymph node metastasis, postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy is highly recommended.

  11. Prognostic role of the lymph node ratio in node positive colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Jun-Lin; Li, Yuan; Yang, Lie; Yu, Yong-Yang; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Zhou, Zong-Guang

    2016-01-01

    The lymph node ratio (LNR) (i.e. the number of metastatic lymph nodes divided by the number of totally resected lymph nodes) has recently emerged as an important prognostic factor in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging system for colorectal cancer does not consider it as a prognostic parameter. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the prognostic role of the LNR in node positive CRC. A systematic search was performed in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library for relevant studies up to November 2015. As a result, a total of 75,838 node positive patients in 33 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Higher LNR was significantly associated with shorter overall survival (OS) (HR = 1.91; 95% CI 1.71–2.14; P = 0.0000) and disease free survival (DFS) (HR = 2.75; 95% CI: 2.14–3.53; P = 0.0000). Subgroup analysis showed similar results. Based on these results, LNR was an independent predictor of survival in colorectal cancer patients and should be considered as a parameter in future oncologic staging systems. PMID:27662659

  12. Lymph node status of lateral neck compartment in patients with N1b papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Min; Wang, Soo-Geun; Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, In-Ju; Son, Seok-Man; Lee, Byung-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion Loco-regional recurrence-free survival was significantly decreased in the papillary thyroid cancer patients with > 6 metastatic lymph nodes and a lymph node ratio > 0.22. Also, the risk of lung metastasis was significantly increased in cases with bilateral neck node metastases. Objective This study focused on the metastatic lymph node status of the lateral neck compartment to understand its prognostic significance for loco-regional recurrence and distant metastasis. Methods Between January 2004 and December 2009, 1040 patients were diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer and underwent treatment. Results In a multivariate analysis, sex, the number of metastatic lymph nodes, and the lymph node ratio was significantly associated with loco-regional recurrence. The sensitivity/specificity of > 6 metastatic lymph nodes for predicting recurrence was 64.0%/69.7%. The 5-year loco-regional recurrence-free survival of patients with 0-6 metastatic lymph nodes and > 6 metastatic lymph nodes were 93.4% and 79.2%, respectively. The 5-year loco-regional recurrence-free survival of patients with a lymph node ratio ≤ 0.22 and a lymph node ratio > 0.22 were 97.1% and 78.8%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, only bilateral neck node metastases were significantly associated with lung metastasis.

  13. Lymph node-positive prostate cancer: current issues, emerging technology and impact on clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Adams, Julia; Cheng, Liang

    2011-09-01

    Lymph node metastasis in patients with prostate cancer indicates a poorer prognosis compared with patients without lymph node metastasis; however, some patients with node-positive disease have long-term survival. Many studies have attempted to discern what characteristics of lymph node metastasis are prognostically significant. These characteristics include nodal tumor volume, number of positive lymph nodes, lymph node density, extranodal extension, lymphovascular invasion and tumor dedifferentiation. Favorable characteristics of regional lymph node involvement included a smaller tumor size and smaller tumor volume. However, the current staging system for prostate cancer does not provide different subclassifications for patients with node-positive prostate cancer. In recent years numerous advanced technologies for the detection of lymph node metastasis have been developed, including molecular imaging techniques and the CellSearch Circulating Tumor Cell System. With the increased detection of patients with prostate cancer, emergence of new technology to identify lymph node metastasis and the number of radical prostatectomies being performed on the rise, subclassifying patients with lymph node-positive disease is imperative. Subclassification would provide a better picture of patient prognosis and allow for a better understanding of targeted therapies to treat patients with lymph node metastasis.

  14. Ontogeny of the antigen-reactive lymph follicle-forming capacity of the popliteal lymph node in neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Hiramoto, M; Aizawa, S; Horie, K; Nagata, H; Hoshi, H

    2005-10-01

    The ontogenetic development of the reactive lymph follicle-forming capacity of the popliteal lymph node was investigated immunohistochemically in young mice which had received a single injection of hemocyanin (KLH) in a rear footpad at a predetermined age (between 1 and 21 days). The mice were sacrificed at various intervals after injection. In non-stimulated young mice, primary lymph follicles first appeared in the popliteal node at 11 days of age. When KLH was given to 7-day-old or older mice, each draining popliteal node showed a marked increase in B lymphocytes in the extrafollicular zone 3 days after injection and produced a number of "new" lymph follicles outside the pre-existing follicles over the next few days. In mice injected at 2-4 days of age, these nodes showed an increase in B lymphocytes in the outer cortex and had produced several lymph follicles by 8 days of age. The number of lymph follicles produced by each node tended to increase in line with age at injection. These results indicate that neonatal popliteal nodes become able to produce lymph follicles in response to exogenous antigens some time before ontogenetically developing follicles appear. The formation of new lymph follicles observed in draining popliteal nodes after KLH injection at an early postnatal age is discussed in relation to the ontogenetic development of stromal cells (precursors of follicular dendritic cells) that are capable of interacting with B lymphocytes and the extent of B lymphocyte influx into the node induced by KLH stimulation.

  15. Multifunctional Polymer Microbubbles for Advanced Sentinel Lymph Node Imaging and Mapping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    February 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Multifunctional Polymer Microbubbles for Advanced Sentinel Lymph Node Imaging and Mapping 5b...dye loading capacity for imaging and surgical labeling of sentinel lymph nodes . Second, the training plan seeks to improve the PI’s scientific... node for breast cancer patients. Current sentinel lymph node identification techniques have significant background signal at the injection site and

  16. Modeling Lymph Flow and Fluid Exchange with Blood Vessels in Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Jafarnejad, Mohammad; Woodruff, Matthew C.; Zawieja, David C.; Carroll, Michael C.; Moore, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Lymph nodes (LNs) are positioned strategically throughout the body as critical mediators of lymph filtration and immune response. Lymph carries cytokines, antigens, and cells to the downstream LNs, and their effective delivery to the correct location within the LN directly impacts the quality and quantity of immune response. Despite the importance of this system, the flow patterns in LN have never been quantified, in part because experimental characterization is so difficult. Methods and Results: To achieve a more quantitative knowledge of LN flow, a computational flow model has been developed based on the mouse popliteal LN, allowing for a parameter sensitivity analysis to identify the important system characteristics. This model suggests that about 90% of the lymph takes a peripheral path via the subcapsular and medullary sinuses, while fluid perfusing deeper into the paracortex is sequestered by parenchymal blood vessels. Fluid absorption by these blood vessels under baseline conditions was driven mainly by oncotic pressure differences between lymph and blood, although the magnitude of fluid transfer is highly dependent on blood vessel surface area. We also predict that the hydraulic conductivity of the medulla, a parameter that has never been experimentally measured, should be at least three orders of magnitude larger than that of the paracortex to ensure physiologic pressures across the node. Conclusions: These results suggest that structural changes in the LN microenvironment, as well as changes in inflow/outflow conditions, dramatically alter the distribution of lymph, cytokines, antigens, and cells within the LN, with great potential for modulating immune response. PMID:26683026

  17. Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection as First-Line Treatment of Node-Positive Seminoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Brian; Shah, Swar; Shojaei, Sepehr; Daneshmand, Siamak

    2015-08-01

    The long-term morbidity associated with treating advanced seminoma can be significant. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) has established oncologic efficacy in treating germ cell tumors with minimal long-term toxicity. We describe our experience with RPLND as a front-line treatment of lymph node-positive seminoma. We reviewed our institutional review board-approved testicular cancer database to find the patients with pure seminoma and isolated retroperitoneal lymph node disease who had undergone primary RPLND. The clinical and pathologic variables were obtained. The follow-up data were used to determine recurrence and death. Four patients with a mean age of 37 years were identified. All patients had normal tumor markers and retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy measuring 1.1, 1.5, 1.8, and 5.5 cm before RPLND. Of the 4 patients, 3 had had seminoma diagnosed at orchiectomy and 1 (with a 5.5-cm retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy and a burned out primary testicular mass) had had seminoma diagnosed at RPLND after 2 nondiagnostic retroperitoneal biopsies. All patients had undergone nerve-sparing, template, extraperitoneal RPLND and were discharged home after 3 days. An average of 3 positive lymph nodes were found. Of the 4 patients, 3 had pathologic stage IIA and 1 stage IIB disease, with no patient undergoing adjuvant therapy. At a mean follow-up period of 25 months, no patient had experienced disease recurrence, and none had died. All patients maintained antegrade ejaculation, and no long-term complications had developed. Our small series has demonstrated encouraging oncologic efficacy for RPLND as a primary treatment of retroperitoneal lymph node-positive seminoma. A multi-institutional phase II trial of RPLND for stage IIA seminoma is being developed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Utility of lymphangiography in the prediction of lymph node metastases in patients with cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Munkarah, A R; Jhingran, A; Iyer, R B; Wallace, S; Eifel, P J; Gershenson, D; Burke, T W

    2002-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the value of lymphangiography in selecting patients for surgical staging of locally advanced cervical cancer. We reviewed our computerized database to identify patients with cervical cancer who had abnormal findings on lymphangiography and underwent retroperitoneal lymph node dissection between September 1991 and January 1996. The records of these patients were retrospectively reviewed, and the following data were retrieved: clinical tumor stage and findings on lymphangiography at surgery, and on pathologic examination of resected lymph nodes. The lymphangiograms were reviewed and reinterpreted in blinded fashion by two of the authors. The positive and negative predictive values of lymphangiography for the presence of lymph node metastases were calculated, with findings on pathologic examination of lymph nodes used as the gold standard. The positive and negative predictive values of surgeons' clinical assessments at surgery were also calculated. Fifty patients met the selection criteria and constituted the study population. Fourteen patients (28%) had histologically negative nodes, and 36 patients (72%) had lymph node metastases. Thirty-three patients had metastases to pelvic nodes, 1515 patients had metastases to common iliac nodes, and 1616 patients had metastases to para-aortic nodes. The positive predictive value of lymphangiography for lymph node metastases was 74% for pelvic nodes, 73% for common iliac nodes, and 88% for para-aortic nodes. The negative predictive value of lymphangiography for lymph node metastasis was 76% for common iliac nodes and 77% for para-aortic nodes. Overall, 46% of the patients selected for surgical exploration had histologic findings of either common iliac or para-aortic lymph node metastases; these findings led clinicians to extend radiation fields to cover the para-aortic lymph nodes. Lymphangiography is helpful in selecting patients with cervical cancer who have a high risk of common iliac or para

  19. Factors that influence 12 or more harvested lymph nodes in early-stage colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chao-Wen; Lin, Chieh-Hsin; Wang, Jui-Ho; Wang, Hsin-Tai; Ou, Wen-Chieh; King, Tai-Ming

    2009-02-01

    The number of lymph nodes required for accurate staging is a critical component in early-stage (stage A and B) colorectal cancer (CRC). Current guidelines demand at least 12 lymph nodes to be retrieved. Results of previous studies were contradictory in factors, which influenced the number of harvested lymph nodes. This study was designed to determine the factors that influence the number of harvested lymph nodes (> or =12) in early-stage CRC in a single institution. Between 2003 and 2007, data on patients who underwent surgery for early-stage CRC were analyzed retrospectively. Data for a total of 470 patients were collected and all the tumor-bearing specimens were fixed with node identification performed. Several possible factors that influence 12 or more harvested lymph nodes were investigated and classified into four aspects: (1) operating surgeon, (2) examining pathologist, (3) patient (age, sex, and body mass index), and (4) disease (maximal length of tumor, length of specimen, tumor localization, tumor cell differentiation, Dukes stage, type of resection, and type of tumor). A total of 289 patients (61.5%) with 12 or more harvested lymph nodes and 181 patients (38.5%) with < 12 lymph nodes were analyzed. The results demonstrate that within a single institution the maximal length of tumor, tumor localization, and depth of tumor invasion according to Dukes stage were independent influencing factors of 12 or more harvested lymph nodes. Maximal length of tumor was associated with more harvested lymph nodes (P < 0.001). Neither the operating surgeon nor the examining pathologist had significant influence on the number of harvested lymph nodes. The number of harvested lymph nodes was highly variable in patients who underwent resection of early-stage CRC. Neither the operating surgeon nor the examining pathologist had significant influence on the number of harvested lymph nodes. Therefore, from the viewpoint of the surgeons, disease itself is the most important

  20. Outcome following sentinel lymph node biopsy-guided decisions in breast cancer patients with conversion from positive to negative axillary lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kang, Young-Joon; Han, Wonshik; Park, Soojin; You, Ji Young; Yi, Ha Woo; Park, Sungmin; Nam, Sanggeun; Kim, Joo Heung; Yun, Keong Won; Kim, Hee Jeong; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Park, Seho; Lee, Jeong Eon; Lee, Eun Sook; Noh, Dong-Young; Lee, Jong Won

    2017-08-01

    Many breast cancer patients with positive axillary lymph nodes achieve complete node remission after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The usefulness of sentinel lymph node biopsy in this situation is uncertain. This study evaluated the outcomes of sentinel biopsy-guided decisions in patients who had conversion of axillary nodes from clinically positive to negative following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We reviewed the records of 1247 patients from five hospitals in Korea who had breast cancer with clinically axillary lymph node-positive status and negative conversion after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, between 2005 and 2012. Patients who underwent axillary operations with sentinel biopsy-guided decisions (Group A) were compared with patients who underwent complete axillary lymph node dissection without sentinel lymph node biopsy (Group B). Axillary node recurrence and distant recurrence-free survival were compared. There were 428 cases in Group A and 819 in Group B. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that recurrence-free survivals were not significantly different between Groups A and B (4-year axillary recurrence-free survival: 97.8 vs. 99.0%; p = 0.148). Multivariate analysis also indicated the two groups had no significant difference in axillary and distant recurrence-free survival. For breast cancer patients who had clinical conversion of axillary lymph nodes from positive to negative following neoadjuvant chemotherapy, sentinel biopsy-guided axillary surgery, and axillary lymph node dissection without sentinel lymph node biopsy had similar rates of recurrence. Thus, sentinel biopsy-guided axillary operation in breast cancer patients who have clinically axillary lymph node positive to negative conversion following neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a useful strategy.

  1. The importance of tattoo pigment in sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Soran, Atilla; Menekse, Ebru; Kanbour-Shakir, Amal; Tane, Kaori; Diego, Emilia; Bonaventura, Marguerite; Johnson, Ronald

    2017-07-06

    The presence of pigment in axillary lymph nodes (LN) secondary to migration of tattoo ink can imitate the appearance of a blue sentinel lymph node (SLN) on visual inspection, causing the operator to either miss the true SLN or excise more than is needed. We present patients with tattoos ipsilateral to an early stage breast cancer who underwent a SLN biopsy. Patients were retrospectively reviewed from medical records and clinicopathologic data was collected. A total of 52 LNs were retrieved from 15 patients for sentinel mapping and 29 of them had tattoo pigmentation on pathologic evaluation. Of those 29 SLNs, 2 of them (6.9%) were pigmented, but did not contain either blue dye or Tc-99m (pseudopigmented SLN). Two (3.8%) SLNs were positive for metastasis; both of these had either blue dye or Tc99m uptake, and 1 demonstrated tattoo pigment in the node. In this cohort of patients with ipsilateral tattoos, removed more LNs lead to unnecessary excision which may important for increasing the risk of arm morbidity from SLN biopsy. However, the presence of tattoo pigment did not interfere with understaging for axillary mapping and it did not effect of pathological identification of SLNs positivity.

  2. Unplanned irradiation of internal mammary lymph nodes in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kanyilmaz, Gul; Aktan, Meryem; Koc, Mehmet; Demir, Hikmettin; Demir, Lütfi Saltuk

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the incidental dose to the internal mammary chain (IMC) in patients treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, to estimate the predictors affecting the magnitude of IMC receiving dose and to determine the predictive role of clinical parameters on survival. Between 2009 and 2015, 348 patients undergoing RT for breast cancer were retrospectively analyzed. All patients underwent our department's routine procedure for breast cancer. The internal mammary lymph nodes were contoured according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) concensus. Based on each patient's dose-volume histograms, the mean doses (D mean) to internal mammary gland were analyzed. Overall survival and disease-free survival were also evaluated. The median follow-up time was 38 (range 3-80) months. The D mean to IMC was 32.8 Gy and the dose delivered to IMC showed a greater coverage in modified radical mastectomy (MRM) group compared with breast conserving surgery (34.6 vs 26.7 Gy). The T-stage of tumor and the N-stage of tumor affected the incidental dose to IMC. The tumor size, the number of involved lymph nodes, the percentage of involved lymph nodes, hormonal status, advanced T-stage and advanced N-stage were the prognostic factors that affect survival. The IMC received meaningful incidental irradiation dose when treated with two opposite tangential fields and ipsilateral supraclavicular fossa with a single anterior field. The real effect of incidental dose on survival and the hypothesis about the benefit of incidental irradiation of IMC should be examined in clinical studies.

  3. Rapid immunohistochemistry of sentinel lymph nodes for metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Eudy, Grant E; Carlson, Grant W; Murray, Douglas R; Waldrop, Sandra M; Lawson, Dianne; Cohen, Cynthia

    2003-08-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is performed on patients with malignant melanoma (MM) to assess the need for selective complete lymphadenectomy. Melanoma metastasis to regional lymph nodes is an important prognostic indicator in patients with MM. This study assesses the sensitivity and specificity of rapid immunohistochemistry (RIHC) in intraoperative delineation of melanoma metastasis to SLN. RIHC for S-100 protein, HMB45, and a melanoma marker cocktail (melan A, HMB45, and tyrosinase) was performed on 71 SLNs obtained from 28 patients with MM. Frozen sections (6 micro thick) on plus slides were fixed for 2 to 3 minutes in cold acetone and then stored at -70 degrees C. The EnVision kit (Dako, Carpinteria, CA) for rapid immunohistochemistry (RIHC) on frozen tissue sections was used, and the staining technique took 19 minutes. Together with preparation of the frozen sections and fixation in acetone, immunostained slides were available in approximately 25 minutes. Of the 71 SNLs examined, 7 showed melanoma metastasis in permanent sections. RIHC of frozen sections detected metastatic melanoma in 6 SLNs, with a sensitivity of 86% for HMB45 and 71% for S-100 protein and the melanoma cocktail and a specificity of 97% for HMB45 and 100% for S-100 and the melanoma cocktail. We conclude that RIHC for HMB45, S-100 protein, and the melanoma cocktail may help detect melanoma metastasis in SLN intraoperatively, leading to total lymph node dissection and obviating the need for 2 surgical procedures. Section folds and background stain can make interpretation difficult. Intraoperative time constraints require a more rapid technique. A recent consensus group has discouraged frozen-section examination of SLN.

  4. Renal cell carcinoma: Atypical metastasis to inguinal lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Qamar Saeed; Bhatty, Tanweer Ahmed Naveed; Khan, Ziauddin; Osman, Elsawi Medani

    2017-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common tumor of the urinary tract. It is known to have variable presentations due to the extremely vascular nature of the organ. RCC are known to metastasize to lungs, bone, and brain commonly but atypical metastasis to various sites are reported in literature but as very rare pathology. We report a case of a 60-year-old female who presented with multiple inguinal and axillary lymph node enlargements which on excision biopsy showed metastatic RCC. RCC can present with synchronous metastatic deposits in the various organs. RCC can metastasize to some atypical sites as well such as thyroid, orbit, and neck as mentioned earlier in literature. The patient presenting with extra-regional lymph nodes like inguinal and axillary is extremely rare, and so far only one clinical case could be found from India in 2008. A 61-year-old female presented in the emergency department with left flank pain and hematuria. Imaging showed left swollen kidney but multiple lymph nodes in retroperitoneum, left inguinal and axillary region. Excisional biopsy confirmed metastatic renal clear cell carcinoma. The case was referred to an oncologist after left radical nephrectomy for further treatment. Renal cancer is quite common aggressive disease. Due to its vascular nature, it may present quite atypically as evident from literature. Although treatment of metastatic carcinoma is still controversial surgery is the mainstay of treatment and guidelines consider metastasectomy and cytoreductive nephrectomy as valid option followed by targeted systemic therapies. RCC has quite a high potential to metastasize in the versatile pattern, in our case, it is evident that valid management is still surgery but needs support from the multidisciplinary team. PMID:28216937

  5. Post-Chemotherapy Robotic Retroperitoneal Lymph Node Dissection: Institutional Experience.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Mohamed H; Littlejohn, Nathan; Cox, Michelle; Eltahawy, Ehab A; Davis, Rodney

    2016-05-01

    There is little literature on robotic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RRPLND) in the difficult post-chemotherapy (PC) setting. We report on the outcome of RRPLND in patients with PC-residual masses. Between 2011 and 2015, we performed 12 PC-RRPLND. Mean patient age was 37.8 years. Mean body mass index was 30.78. Nine (75%) patients had nonseminomatus germ cell tumor (NSGCT) and three (25%) patients had seminoma tumors. Cancer stage was III in six (50%), II-C in three (25%), II-B in two (16.7%), and II-A in one (8.03%). International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group (IGCCCG) prognostic classification in the NSGCT was good in six, intermediate in two, and poor in one, and was good in the three seminoma patients. The procedure was completed effectively in 11 (91.7%) patients. Mean operative time was 312 minutes. The mean estimated blood loss was 475 mL. Mean hospital stay was 3.2 days. Mean number of lymph node excised was 12. Six of the excised masses were ≥5 cm (N3), largest was 7.5 cm. Pathology showed teratoma in five (45.5%), benign/necrosis in five (45.5%), and viable germ cells in one (9%). Major complication (Clavien ≥3) occurred in one patient and minor (Clavien ≤2) in two. Antegrade ejaculation was preserved in eight patients and in one could not be assessed. At a median follow-up of 31 months, no infield or outfield relapses occurred. Robotic PC-retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) is technically feasible and with acceptable morbidity. It is associated with low blood loss and short hospital stay. More research is needed to assess the long-term outcome and to compare standard open RPLND.

  6. Decreased identification rate of sentinel lymph node after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seok Hyung; Kim, Seok-Ki; Kwon, Youngmee; Kang, Han-Sung; Kang, Jae Hee; Ro, Jungsil; Lee, Eun Sook

    2004-10-01

    We prospectively studied the feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy by comparing the identification rate and the false-negative rate (FNR) with the results obtained from the patients without chemotherapy. From October 2001 to March 2003, a total of 284 consecutive patients who underwent SLNB and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) at the Center for Breast Cancer, National Cancer Center were enrolled. Of the 284 patients, 54 underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to operation. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) was mapped by radioactive colloid alone or in combination with blue dye. All SLNs were evaluated by 2 mm serial sections after hematoxylin-eosin staining. The overall SLN identification rate was 91.9% (261/284): 72.2% (39/54) of the patients after chemotherapy and 96.5% (222/230) of the patients without chemotherapy. These results suggest that preoperative chemotherapy significantly affects lymphatic mapping ( p< 0.001). Among the patients with chemotherapy, there were 3 false negatives in 39 successfully mapped tumors, yielding an FNR of 11.1% (3/27), a negative prediction value (NPV) of 80.0% (12/15), and an accuracy of 92.3% (36/39). There were 10 false negatives among 222 successfully detected patients without chemotherapy, yielding an FNR of 9.9% (10/101), an NPV of 92.4% (121/131), and an accuracy of 95.5% (212/222). These results were not statistically different when compared ( p > 0.05). Although the SLN identification rate significantly decreased after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, SLNB could accurately predict axillary status. Thus SLNB can be an alternative to ALND even after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in cases of successful identification of the SLN.

  7. See the unseen: Mesorectal lymph node metastases in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, Sameh; Meller, Birgit; Leitsmann, Conrad; Strauss, Arne; Ritter, Christian; Lotz, Joachim; Meller, Johannis; Trojan, Lutz; Sahlmann, Carsten-Oliver

    2016-06-01

    Our study is the first evaluation of nodal metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) to mesorectal lymph nodes (MLN) detected by (68) Ga-PSMA-PET/CT. We retrospectively analyzed 76 consecutive PCa patients who underwent (68) Ga-PSMA-PET/CT: 61 PCa patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) after curative treatment and 15 high-risk PCa before primary therapy. We assessed PET-positive MLN, which are indicative for PCa. We detected PET-positive lesions for PCa in (68) Ga-PSMA-PET/CT in 66 of 76 (87%) patients. Nodal disease was imaged in 47 of 66 (71%) patients. Indicative mesorectal nodal lesions for PCa were detected in 12 of 76 (15.8%) patients. The median number of PET-positive MLN was one per patient. Seven of twelve patients had recurrent PCa after radical prostatectomy with a median PSA value of 1.84 ng/ml (range 0.31-13). Five of twelve patients had untreated first diagnosed high-risk PCa with median PSA value of 90 ng/ml (range 4.6-93) at PET/CT, respectively. For all PET positive MLN a morphological correlate was found in CT (shortest diameter median 4 mm [range 4-21]; longest diameter median 7.5 mm [range 5-25]). After PET/CT, four patients with recurrent PCa received hormonal therapy, one patient was treated with directed radiation therapy of MLN, one patient received chemotherapy, and one patient was treated with pelvic lymph node dissection. Three high-risk PCa patients received hormonal therapy, and two patients were treated with adjuvant hormonal therapy after radical prostatectomy. Detection and exact location of nodal metastasis for PCa is crucial for the choice of treatment and the patient's prognosis. (68) Ga-PSMA-PET/CT seems to improve the detection of nodal metastasis in PCa, especially concerning mesorectal lymph nodes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Clinical significance of altering epithelial-mesenchymal transition in metastatic lymph nodes of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Keishi; Uenosono, Yoshikazu; Arigami, Takaaki; Yanagita, Shigehiro; Matsushita, Daisuke; Kijima, Takashi; Amatatsu, Masahiko; Uchikado, Yasuto; Kijima, Yuko; Maemura, Kosei; Natsugoe, Shoji

    2017-02-28

    The E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and Snail genes are epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-inducible genes. Previous studies demonstrated that the expression of EMT markers in the primary tumor sites of gastric cancer correlates with tumor progression and prognosis. However, the clinical significance of the expression of these EMT markers in metastatic lymph nodes remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the expression of these EMT markers in the primary tumor sites and metastatic lymph nodes. Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the expression of E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and Snail in 89 primary tumors and 511 metastatic lymph nodes obtained from patients with gastric cancer. The weak expression of E-cadherin in tumors and lymph nodes increased with more lymph node metastasis and in more undifferentiated tumors. The strong expression of N-cadherin in lymph nodes correlated with more lymph nodes metastasis, an advanced stage, and poor prognosis. The weak expression of Snail in tumors correlated with lymphatic invasion. The strong expression of Snail in lymph nodes correlated with more lymph node metastasis and an advanced stage. The strong expression of Snail in tumors and its weak expression in lymph nodes correlated with more lymph node metastasis, an advanced stage, and poor prognosis. The expression of N-cadherin in metastatic lymph nodes is useful for predicting the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer. The Snail switch-namely, the positive-to-negative conversion of the Snail status-between primary tumors and lymph node metastasis may be important for confirming EMT and mesenchymal-epithelial transition.

  9. Histologic Review of Sarcoidosis in a Neck Lymph Node.

    PubMed

    Welter, Shannon M; DeLuca-Johnson, Javier; Thompson, Keith

    2017-08-29

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. It may occur at any age, but is most commonly seen in young to middle age adults. Sarcoidosis remains more common in women regardless of geographic or racial boundaries. Although the etiology remains unclear, the most common explanation is that sarcoidosis is a disease of immunologic dysregulation triggered by an as yet unidentified environmental or microbial antigen in genetically susceptible persons. We review a case of sarcoidosis with was initially diagnosed in a neck lymph node that was removed for evaluation of metastatic squamous cell carcinoma with a discussion on the clinical and histologic characteristic of the disease.

  10. The prognostic value of lymph node ratio and updated TNM classification in rectal cancer patients with adequate versus inadequate lymph node dissection.

    PubMed

    Junginger, T; Goenner, U; Lollert, A; Hollemann, D; Berres, M; Blettner, M

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify whether the lymph node ratio (LNR) is superior to the updated TNM classification regarding the prognosis of stage III rectal cancer patients who have not undergone neoadjuvant therapy. The TNM system is based on the absolute number of lymph nodes involved, and the LNR takes into account involved and examined nodes. In 237 patients with stage III rectal cancer, we evaluated prognostic factors for 5-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and risk of distant metastases (DM) using the Kaplan-Meier method, with patients divided based on adequate versus inadequate lymph node dissection (≥12 vs. <12 lymph nodes examined). The updated TNM divides patients into four groups (1, 2-3, 4-6, and ≥7 involved nodes), while LNR divides patients into quartiles. Multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed. Among patients with adequate lymph node dissection, the distributions within the two systems were in agreement in 141/178 (79.2 %, kappa 0.721), and the predictive values for OS, DFS, and DM were similar. In patients with inadequate lymph node dissection, the classifications of both systems were concordant in only 13/59 (22 %, kappa 0.021). The pN system significantly under-staged patients, while the LNR classification was a better predictor of OS, DFS, and DM. In patients with adequate lymph node dissection, LNR staging does not add substantial information to the predictions of updated TNM lymph node staging. However, in patients with inadequate lymph node harvesting, the LNR compensates for the under-staging of the TNM classification and provides a better estimation of prognosis than the updated TNM system.

  11. Quantitative analysis of the central-chest lymph nodes based on 3D MDCT image data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Kongkuo; Bascom, Rebecca; Mahraj, Rickhesvar P. M.; Higgins, William E.

    2009-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. In lung-cancer staging, central-chest lymph nodes and associated nodal stations, as observed in three-dimensional (3D) multidetector CT (MDCT) scans, play a vital role. However, little work has been done in relation to lymph nodes, based on MDCT data, due to the complicated phenomena that give rise to them. Using our custom computer-based system for 3D MDCT-based pulmonary lymph-node analysis, we conduct a detailed study of lymph nodes as depicted in 3D MDCT scans. In this work, the Mountain lymph-node stations are automatically defined by the system. These defined stations, in conjunction with our system's image processing and visualization tools, facilitate lymph-node detection, classification, and segmentation. An expert pulmonologist, chest radiologist, and trained technician verified the accuracy of the automatically defined stations and indicated observable lymph nodes. Next, using semi-automatic tools in our system, we defined all indicated nodes. Finally, we performed a global quantitative analysis of the characteristics of the observed nodes and stations. This study drew upon a database of 32 human MDCT chest scans. 320 Mountain-based stations (10 per scan) and 852 pulmonary lymph nodes were defined overall from this database. Based on the numerical results, over 90% of the automatically defined stations were deemed accurate. This paper also presents a detailed summary of central-chest lymph-node characteristics for the first time.

  12. Initial results with preoperative tattooing of biopsied axillary lymph nodes and correlation to sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Choy, Nicole; Lipson, Jafi; Porter, Catherine; Ozawa, Michael; Kieryn, Anne; Pal, Sunita; Kao, Jennifer; Trinh, Long; Wheeler, Amanda; Ikeda, Debra; Jensen, Kristin; Allison, Kimberly; Wapnir, Irene

    2015-02-01

    Pretreatment evaluation of axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) and marking of biopsied nodes in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer is becoming routine practice. We sought to test tattooing of biopsied ALNs with a sterile black carbon suspension (Spot™). The intraoperative success of identifying tattooed ALNs and their concordance to sentinel nodes was determined. Women with suspicious ALNs and newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent palpation and/or ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration or core needle biopsy, followed by injection of 0.1 to 0.5 ml of Spot™ ink into the cortex of ALNs and adjacent soft tissue. Group I underwent surgery first, and group II underwent neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery. Identification of black pigment and concordance between sentinel and tattooed nodes was evaluated. Twenty-eight patients were tattooed, 16 in group I and 12 in group II. Seventeen cases had evidence of atypia or metastases, 8 (50 %) in group I and 9 (75 %) in group II. Average number of days from tattooing to surgery was 22.9 (group I) and 130 (group II). Black tattoo ink was visualized intraoperatively in all cases, except one case with microscopic black pigment only. Fourteen group I and 10 group II patients had black pigment on histological examination of ALNs. Sentinel nodes corresponded to tattooed nodes in all except one group I patient with a tattooed non-sentinel node. Tattooed nodes are visible intraoperatively, even months later. This approach obviates the need for additional localization procedures during axillary staging.

  13. Predictive Factors for Non-Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in the Case of Positive Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Two or Fewer Nodes in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Toshikawa, Chie; Koyama, Yu; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Tatsuda, Kumiko; Moro, Kazuki; Tsuchida, Junko; Hasegawa, Miki; Niwano, Toshiyuki; Manba, Naoko; Ikarashi, Mayuko; Kameyama, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Kosugi, Shin-Ichi; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2015-08-01

    In breast cancer, recent clinical trials have shown that sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) alone without axillary lymph node dissection results in excellent prognosis if there is sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastasis in two or fewer nodes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between non-SLN metastasis and clinicopathological factors in case of SLN metastasis in two or fewer nodes in breast cancer. Patients who underwent SLNB for invasive breast cancer and were found to have positive SLN in two or fewer nodes were evaluated. The associations between non-SLN metastasis and clinicopahological factors were examined. Statistical analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests, with statistical significance set at P < 0.05. A total of 358 patients were enrolled during the study period and all of these patients were female and 54 patients had SLN metastasis (15%). Positive SLN in two or fewer nodes was identified in 44 patients (81.5%). Among these patients, 17 (38.6%) were found to have non-SLN metastasis. Non-SLN metastasis was associated with invasive tumor size (P = 0.015) and lymphatic involvement (P = 0.035). Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size (P = 0.011) and lymphatic involvement (P = 0.019) remained significant independent predictors of non-SLN metastasis, and that an invasive tumor size cut-off point of 28 mm was useful for dividing patients with positive SLN in two or fewer nodes into non-SLN-positive and non-SLN-negative groups. Non-SLN metastasis was found in more than 30% of patients with SLN metastasis present in two or fewer nodes. Large tumor size and the presence of lymphatic involvement were significantly associated with non-SLN metastasis.

  14. Predictive Factors for Non-Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in the Case of Positive Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Two or Fewer Nodes in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Toshikawa, Chie; Koyama, Yu; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Tatsuda, Kumiko; Moro, Kazuki; Tsuchida, Junko; Hasegawa, Miki; Niwano, Toshiyuki; Manba, Naoko; Ikarashi, Mayuko; Kameyama, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Kosugi, Shin-ichi; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2015-01-01

    Background In breast cancer, recent clinical trials have shown that sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) alone without axillary lymph node dissection results in excellent prognosis if there is sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastasis in two or fewer nodes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between non-SLN metastasis and clinicopathological factors in case of SLN metastasis in two or fewer nodes in breast cancer. Methods Patients who underwent SLNB for invasive breast cancer and were found to have positive SLN in two or fewer nodes were evaluated. The associations between non-SLN metastasis and clinicopahological factors were examined. Statistical analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests, with statistical significance set at P < 0.05. Results A total of 358 patients were enrolled during the study period and all of these patients were female and 54 patients had SLN metastasis (15%). Positive SLN in two or fewer nodes was identified in 44 patients (81.5%). Among these patients, 17 (38.6%) were found to have non-SLN metastasis. Non-SLN metastasis was associated with invasive tumor size (P = 0.015) and lymphatic involvement (P = 0.035). Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size (P = 0.011) and lymphatic involvement (P = 0.019) remained significant independent predictors of non-SLN metastasis, and that an invasive tumor size cut-off point of 28 mm was useful for dividing patients with positive SLN in two or fewer nodes into non-SLN-positive and non-SLN-negative groups. Conclusions Non-SLN metastasis was found in more than 30% of patients with SLN metastasis present in two or fewer nodes. Large tumor size and the presence of lymphatic involvement were significantly associated with non-SLN metastasis. PMID:26124908

  15. Initial results of imaging melanoma metastasis in resected human lymph nodes using photoacoustic computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, Jithin; Grootendorst, Diederik J.; Vijn, Thomas W.; Wouters, Michel W.; van Boven, Hester; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Ruers, Theo J. M.; Manohar, Srirang

    2011-09-01

    The pathological status of the sentinel lymph node is important for accurate melanoma staging, ascertaining prognosis and planning treatment. The standard procedure involves biopsy of the node and histopathological assessment of its status. Drawbacks of this examination include a finite sampling of the node with the likelihood of missing metastases, and a significant time-lag before histopathological results are available to the surgeon. We studied the applicability of photoacoustic computed tomographic imaging as an intraoperative modality for examining the status of resected human sentinel lymph nodes. We first applied the technique to image ex vivo pig lymph nodes carrying metastases-simulating melanoma cells using multiple wavelengths. The experience gained was applied to image a suspect human lymph node. We validated the photoacoustic imaging results by comparing a reconstructed slice with a histopathological section through the node. Our results suggest that photoacoustics has the potential to develop into an intraoperative imaging method to detect melanoma metastases in sentinel lymph nodes.

  16. [Long-term results of sentinel node biopsy diagnostics in penile carcinoma : Dynamic sentinel node biopsy in cases with nonpalpable lymph nodes in the groin].

    PubMed

    Naumann, C M; Bothe, K; Munk-Hartig, A-K; van der Horst, C; Massad, H; Lützen, U; Jünemann, K-P; Hamann, M F

    2016-05-01

    Dynamic sentinel node biopsy (DSNB) has been recommended in the EAU guidelines for several years as a minimally invasive method for lymph node staging in patients with penile carcinoma and nonpalpable lymph nodes. However, due to the high methodological demands and the primarily unreliable results, this method is rarely used in Germany. The aim of this study was to establish the reliability and morbidity of this method. The frequency of lymph node recurrent disease and complications were prospectively recorded in patients with initially nonpalpable inguinal lymph nodes and histologically negative sentinel lymph nodes. Quality criteria were the false negative rate (percentage of lymph node recurrence in negative procedures) and the morbidity rate. Inguinal regions with palpable lymph nodes and/or evidence of metastases were not considered. The study included 37 patients with histologically negative sentinel lymph nodes in 63 groins with nonpalpable inguinal lymph nodes. There were 21 T1(a/b) stages, 10 T2, and 6 T3 stages. Tumor differentiation was good in 4, moderate in 26, and poor in 7 patients. During a median follow-up of 52 months (range 1-131 months), we observed a bilateral lymph node recurrence in 1 patient and a conservatively managed prolonged lymphorrhea in another patient. Per inguinal region the false-negative rate was 3.2 % and the morbidity rate was 1.6 %; seen per patient the rates were both 2.7 %. DSNB is a reliable method of lymph node staging in patients with penile carcinoma and nonpalpable inguinal lymph nodes. The high degree of reliability in combination with the low morbidity justifies the higher methodical complexity of this method.

  17. [Cervical lymph node metastasis in medullary thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Yan, Dangui; Zhang, Bin; Li, Zhengjiang; Wu, Yuehuang; Liu, Shaoyan; Liu, Wensheng; Xu, Zhengang; Tang, Pingzhang

    2015-04-01

    To study the patterns of cervical lymph node metastasis of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Ninety-one patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma first treated between January 1999 and October 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Of 91 patients, 39 cases presented with clinical negative node (cN0) and 52 cases with clinical positive node (cN+). Central compartment dissection was performed in all cases. Lateral neck dissection was performed in 52 cN+ cases (71 sides). All neck dissection specimens were obtained and analyzed for lymph node (LN) involvement with respect to neck levels. The distribution of LN with metastasis was studied in cN+ patients and the following factors were used to study the predictive value of central compartment LN metastasis: sex, age, family history, tumor size, bilateral tumor, multifocality of the tumor, extracapsular spread, and remote metastasis. Univariate analysis with the χ(2) test was used to analyze the statistical correlation between central compartment LN metastasis and other clinical factors. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors related to central compartment metastasis. Neck and bilateral neck metastasis rates were 73.6%, 19.8% respectively. Metastasis rates in central compartment and superior mediastinal region were 68.1% and 27.5% respectively. The central compartment metastasis rate was 33.3% in cN0 patients and 94.2% in cN+ patients. The superior mediastinal metastasis rate was 2.6% in cN0 patients and 46.2% in cN+ patients. Extracapsular spread was an independent predictive factor for central compartment metastasis (χ(2)=15.592, P=0.000, OR=12.876). The incidences of LN metastases at level II, III, IV, V were 62.9%,84.5%,83.1%,50.0% in cN+ patient, respectively. Multi-sites were involved. The possibility of lateral neck metastasis was higher when preoperative value of calcitonin was higher than 300 ng/L (66.7% vs 28.6%, χ(2)=5.771, P=0.016). Cervical lymph node metastasis of medullary

  18. Morphological analysis of lymph nodes in Odontocetes from north and northeast coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira e Silva, Fernanda Menezes; Guimarães, Juliana Plácido; Vergara-Parente, Jociery Einhardt; Carvalho, Vitor Luz; De Meirelles, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Marmontel, Miriam; Ferrão, Juliana Shimara Pires; Miglino, Maria Angelica

    2014-05-01

    The morphology and location of lymph nodes from seven species of Odontocetes, of both sexes and different age groups, were described. All animals were derived from stranding events along the North and Northeastern coasts of Brazil. After the identification of lymph nodes in situ, tissue samples were analyzed for light and electron microscopy. Vascular volume density (VVD) and vascular length density (VLD) were evaluated in the mesenteric lymph nodes. Lymph nodes occurred as solitary nodules or in groups, varying in shape and size. In addition to using the nomenclature recommended by Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, new nomenclatures were suggested based on the lymph nodes topography. Lymph nodes were covered by a highly vascularized and innervated capsule of dense connective tissue, below which muscle fibers were observed, inconsistently, in all studied species. There was no difference in VLD among different age groups. However, VVD was higher in adults. Lymph nodes parenchyma was divided into an outer cortex, containing lymph nodules and germinal centers; a paracortical region, transition zone with dense lymphoid tissue; and an inner medulla, composed of small irregular cords of lymphatic tissue, blood vessels, and diffuse lymphoid tissue. Abundant collagen fibers were observed around arteries and arterioles. Germinal centers were more evident and developed in calves and young animals, being more discrete and sparse in adults. The morphology of lymph nodes in Odontocetes was typical of that observed in other terrestrial mammals. However, new groups of lymph nodes were described for seven species occurring in the Brazilian coast.

  19. Risk factors and prognosis of IB-IIB cervical carcinoma with common iliac lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Long; Zheng, Min; Liu, Ji-Hong; Xiong, Ying; Ding, Hui; Tang, Li; Wang, Hui-Yun

    2010-04-01

    Pelvic lymph node metastasis is an important prognostic factor of cervical cancer. The prognosis of cervical cancer patients with common iliac lymph node metastasis is poor, but few systematic studies have been reported . This study was to investigate the characteristics, risk, treatment and prognosis of stage IB-IIB cervical carcinoma patients with common iliac lymph node metastasis. A total of 960 patients with cervical cancer receiving radical hysterectomy and bilateral pelvic lymphadenectomy were selected from the hospitalized patients in the Cancer Center of Sun Yat-sen University between January 1995 and December 2005, and analyzed retrospectively. Of the 960 patients, 288 (30.0%) had pelvic lymph node metastasis, and 45 (4.7%) had positive common iliac lymph node. The 5-year overall survival rate (OS) of patients with common iliac lymph node metastasis was 46.1%, and 67.5% in patients with other pelvic lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). Univariate analysis showed that clinical stage, serum level of squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) > 4 microg/L before treatment, depth of cervical invasion > or =2/3 and positive parametrial margin were associated with common iliac lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). Patients with > or =3 pelvic lymph node metastasis (excluding common iliac lymph node) or recurrence had poor prognosis (P < 0.05). Factors predictive of common iliac lymph node metastasis on Logistic forward regression were SCC-Ag > 4 microg/L (P = 0.026, OR = 2.303) before treatment and positive parametrial margin (P = 0.045, OR = 2.634). Cervical cancer patients with common iliac lymph node metastasis had poorer prognosis compared with patients with other pelvic lymph node metastasis. SCC-Ag >4 microg/L before treatment and positive parametrial margin were the independent predictive factors for common iliac lymph node metastasis of cervical carcinoma. Pelvic lymph node metastasis (excluding common iliac lymph node) > or = 3 or recurrence was prognostic

  20. Mediastinal lymph node detection and station mapping on chest CT using spatial priors and random forest

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiamin; Hoffman, Joanne; Zhao, Jocelyn; Yao, Jianhua; Lu, Le; Kim, Lauren; Turkbey, Evrim B.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an automated system for mediastinal lymph node detection and station mapping for chest CT. Methods: The contextual organs, trachea, lungs, and spine are first automatically identified to locate the region of interest (ROI) (mediastinum). The authors employ shape features derived from Hessian analysis, local object scale, and circular transformation that are computed per voxel in the ROI. Eight more anatomical structures are simultaneously segmented by multiatlas label fusion. Spatial priors are defined as the relative multidimensional distance vectors corresponding to each structure. Intensity, shape, and spatial prior features are integrated and parsed by a random forest classifier for lymph node detection. The detected candidates are then segmented by the following curve evolution process. Texture features are computed on the segmented lymph nodes and a support vector machine committee is used for final classification. For lymph node station labeling, based on the segmentation results of the above anatomical structures, the textual definitions of mediastinal lymph node map according to the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer are converted into patient-specific color-coded CT image, where the lymph node station can be automatically assigned for each detected node. Results: The chest CT volumes from 70 patients with 316 enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes are used for validation. For lymph node detection, their system achieves 88% sensitivity at eight false positives per patient. For lymph node station labeling, 84.5% of lymph nodes are correctly assigned to their stations. Conclusions: Multiple-channel shape, intensity, and spatial prior features aggregated by a random forest classifier improve mediastinal lymph node detection on chest CT. Using the location information of segmented anatomic structures from the multiatlas formulation enables accurate identification of lymph node stations. PMID:27370151

  1. Additional non-sentinel lymph node metastases in early oral cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Den Toom, Inne J; Bloemena, Elisabeth; van Weert, Stijn; Karagozoglu, K Hakki; Hoekstra, Otto S; de Bree, Remco

    2017-02-01

    To determine risk factors for additional non-sentinel lymph node metastases in neck dissection specimens of patients with early stage oral cancer and a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). A retrospective analysis of 36 previously untreated SLNB positive patients in our institution and investigation of currently available literature of positive SLNB patients in early stage oral cancer was done. Degree of metastatic involvement [classified as isolated tumor cells (ITC), micro- and macrometastasis] of the sentinel lymph node (SLN), the status of other SLNs, and additional non-SLN metastases in neck dissection specimens were analyzed. Of 27 studies, comprising 511 patients with positive SLNs, the pooled prevalence of non-SLN metastasis in patients with positive SLNs was 31 %. Non-SLN metastases were detected (available from 9 studies) in 13, 20, and 40 % of patients with ITC, micro-, and macrometastasis in the SLN, respectively. The probability of non-SLN metastasis seems to be higher in the case of more than one positive SLN (29 vs. 24 %), the absence of negative SLNs (40 vs. 19 %), and a positive SLN ratio of more than 50 % (38 vs. 19 %). Additional non-SLN metastases were found in 31 % of neck dissections following positive SLNB. The presence of multiple positive SLNs, the absence of negative SLNs, and a positive SLN ratio of more than 50 % may be predictive factors for non-SLN metastases. Classification of SLNs into ITC, micro-, and macrometastasis in the future SLNB studies is important to answer the question if treatment of the neck is always needed after positive SLNB.

  2. Factors influencing lymph node recovery from the operative specimen after gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Schoenleber, Scott J; Schnelldorfer, Thomas; Wood, Christina M; Qin, Rui; Sarr, Michael G; Donohue, John H

    2009-07-01

    Regional lymph node metastases are an important predictor of survival for patients with resectable adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Currently, the number of lymph nodes examined is frequently less than requirements for accurate staging. Clinical factors associated with lymph node recovery are understood poorly. We performed a retrospective chart review of 99 consecutive patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma distal to the gastroesophageal junction to determine clinical variables associated lymph node recovery. Ninety-nine patients underwent gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma at our two hospitals. More than 15 lymph nodes were examined in 64% of specimens. Univariate analysis showed an association between the number of lymph nodes recovered and the number of positive nodes, lymphadenectomy extent, hospital, surgeon, and pathology technician (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis identified the pathology technician as the most important healthcare-related variable contributing to the variation of lymph node recovery, using fixed- (p < 0.001) and random-effects models. This study suggests that the pathology technician is an important healthcare-related factor influencing lymph node recovery after gastrectomy. In identifying potential areas benefiting from a systems improvements approach, focus on the technical aspects of specimen processing may be of benefit in maximizing the number of lymph nodes recovered.

  3. Indocyanine green-guided sentinel lymph node biopsy for periocular tumors.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Tal J; Perry, Julian D; Korn, Jason M; Costin, Bryan R; Gastman, Brian R; Singh, Arun D

    2014-01-01

    To compare the accuracy of indocyanine green (ICG)-guided sentinel lymph node biopsy to sentinel lymph node biopsy performed with technetium-99m in eyelid and in conjunctival malignancies. Review of a consecutive series of adult patients undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy for eyelid and conjunctival malignancies between 2009 and 2013. Only patients undergoing both ICG-guided and technetium-99m-guided sentinel lymph node biopsies were included. Five patients were identified: 3 women and 2 men. Four had conjunctival melanoma and 1 had eyelid melanoma. ICG aided in localization and confirmation of the sentinel nodes identified by technetium-99m, and all sentinel lymph nodes identified by technetium-99m were identified by ICG. All patients who underwent both sentinel lymph node modalities had negative lymph node biopsies for micrometastasis, but metastatic disease eventually developed in 1 patient. No safety concerns were identified with the use of ICG in the ocular adnexal region. For certain periocular malignancies, ICG-guided sentinel lymph node biopsy safely identifies sentinel lymph nodes intraoperatively possibly to a similar extent compared with technetium-99m-guided methods.

  4. Tumor location-dependent skip lateral cervical lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon Se; Shin, Sung-Chan; Lim, Yun-Sung; Lee, Jin-Choon; Wang, Soo-Geun; Son, Seok-Man; Kim, In-Ju; Lee, Byung-Joo

    2014-06-01

    Lateral cervical lymph node metastasis without central lymph node (CLN) metastasis is not infrequent in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). This study was designed to investigate the frequency and pattern of skip metastasis in PTC. We reviewed 131 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy with CLN dissection and selective lymph node dissection. Tumor location was classified in 3 areas (upper, middle, and lower third) based on preoperative ultrasonographic findings. All skip metastases occurred in patients whose tumors had been on the upper part of the thyroid (p < .001). Among 9 patients with skip metastasis, level III lymph nodes (66.7%) were the lymph nodes that were most frequently involved in skip metastasis. Primary tumors in the upper portion of the thyroid are closely linked to skip metastasis. Careful preoperative evaluation of lateral cervical lymph nodes is suggested when a tumor is in the upper portion. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Super natural killer cells that target metastases in the tumor draining lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Siddarth; Chan, Maxine F; Li, Jiahe; King, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Tumor draining lymph nodes are the first site of metastasis in most types of cancer. The extent of metastasis in the lymph nodes is often used in staging cancer progression. We previously showed that nanoscale TRAIL liposomes conjugated to human natural killer cells enhance their endogenous therapeutic potential in killing cancer cells cultured in engineered lymph node microenvironments. In this work, it is shown that liposomes decorated with apoptosis-inducing ligand TRAIL and an antibody against a mouse natural killer cell marker are carried to the tumor draining inguinal lymph nodes and prevent the lymphatic spread of a subcutaneous tumor in mice. It is shown that targeting natural killer cells with TRAIL liposomes enhances their retention time within the tumor draining lymph nodes to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. It is concluded that this approach can be used to kill cancer cells within the tumor draining lymph nodes to prevent the lymphatic spread of cancer.

  6. Lymph node biophysical remodeling is associated with melanoma lymphatic drainage.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Nathan Andrew; McClain, Jacob; Tuell, Sara Lydia; Warner, Alex; Smith, Blair; Yun, Youngho; Mohan, Abhinav; Sushnitha, Manuela; Thomas, Susan Napier

    2015-11-01

    Tissue remodeling is a characteristic of many solid tumor malignancies including melanoma. By virtue of tumor lymphatic transport, remodeling pathways active within the local tumor microenvironment have the potential to be operational within lymph nodes (LNs) draining the tumor interstitium. Here, we show that lymphatic drainage from murine B16 melanomas in syngeneic, immune-competent C57Bl/6 mice is associated with LN enlargement as well as nonuniform increases in bulk tissue elasticity and viscoelasticity, as measured by the response of whole LNs to compression. These remodeling responses, which quickly manifest in tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLNs) after tumor inoculation and before apparent metastasis, were accompanied by changes in matrix composition, including up to 3-fold increases in the abundance of soluble collagen and hyaluronic acid. Intranodal pressures were also significantly increased in TDLNs (+1 cmH2O) relative to both non-tumor-draining LNs (-1 cmH2O) and LNs from naive animals (-1 to 2 cmH2O). These data suggest that the reorganization of matrix structure, composition, and fluid microenvironment within LNs associated with tumor lymphatic drainage parallels remodeling seen in primary malignancies and has the potential to regulate the adhesion, proliferation, and signaling function of LN-resident cells involved in directing melanoma disease progression.

  7. Marseillevirus in lymphoma: a giant in the lymph node.

    PubMed

    Aherfi, Sarah; Colson, Philippe; Audoly, Gilles; Nappez, Claude; Xerri, Luc; Valensi, Audrey; Million, Matthieu; Lepidi, Hubert; Costello, Regis; Raoult, Didier

    2016-10-01

    The family Marseilleviridae is a new clade of giant viruses whose original member, marseillevirus, was described in 2009. These viruses were isolated using Acanthamoeba spp primarily from the environment. Subsequently, a close relative of marseillevirus was isolated from the faeces of a healthy young man, and others were detected in blood samples of blood donors and recipients and in a child with lymph node adenitis. In this Grand Round we describe the detection of marseillevirus by PCR, fluorescence in-situ hybridisation, direct immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry in the lymph node of a 30-year-old woman diagnosed with Hodgkin's lymphoma, together with IgG antibodies to marseillevirus. A link with viruses and bacteria has been reported for many lymphomas. We review the literature describing these associations, the criteria used to consider a causal association, and the underlying mechanisms of lymphomagenesis. Our observations suggest that consideration should be given to marseillevirus infections as an additional viral cause or consequence of Hodgkin's lymphoma, and that this hypothesis should be tested further.

  8. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for conjunctival malignant melanoma: surgical techniques

    PubMed Central

    Wainstein, Alberto JA; Drummond-Lage, Ana P; Kansaon, Milhem JM; Bretas, Gustavo O; Almeida, Rodrigo F; Gloria, Ana LF; Figueiredo, Ana RP

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this report is to examine the viability and safety of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and radio guided sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for conjunctival melanoma, and to identify the best technique to perform this procedure. Methods Three patients diagnosed with malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva underwent lymphoscintigraphy and SLN biopsy using a dual technique comprising isosulfan blue dye and technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid. Each patient was anesthetized and the conjunctival melanoma was excised. SLNs were localized by a gamma probe, identified according to radioactivity and sentinel blue printing, and dissected, along with drainage of the associated lymphatic basins. The SLNs were evaluated by a pathologist using hematoxylin-eosin staining following serial sectioning and immunohistochemistry using a triple melanoma cocktail (S-100, Melan-A, and HMB-45 antigens). Results Two SLNs were stained in the jugular chain during preoperative lymphoscintigraphy in the first patient, two SLNs were identified in the preauricular and submandibular areas in the second patient, and two SLNs were identified in the submandibular and parotid areas in the third patient. All lymph nodes identified by lymphoscintigraphy were dissected and identified at surgery with 100% accuracy in all three patients. All SLNs were histologically and immunohistochemically negative. Patients had good cosmetic and functional results, and maintained their visual acuity and ocular motility. Conclusion Patients with conjunctival melanoma can undergo preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and SLN biopsy safely using radioactive technetium and isosulfan blue dye. PMID:25565762

  9. Features Predicting Sentinel Lymph Node Positivity in Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jennifer L.; Griffith, Kent A.; Lowe, Lori; Wong, Sandra L.; McLean, Scott A.; Fullen, Douglas R.; Lao, Christopher D.; Hayman, James A.; Bradford, Carol R.; Rees, Riley S.; Johnson, Timothy M.; Bichakjian, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a relatively rare, potentially aggressive cutaneous malignancy. We examined the clinical and histologic features of primary MCC that may correlate with the probability of a positive sentinel lymph node (SLN). Methods Ninety-five patients with MCC who underwent SLN biopsy at the University of Michigan were identified. SLN biopsy was performed on 97 primary tumors, and an SLN was identified in 93 instances. These were reviewed for clinical and histologic features and associated SLN positivity. Univariate associations between these characteristics and a positive SLN were tested for by using either the χ2 or the Fisher's exact test. A backward elimination algorithm was used to help create a best multiple variable model to explain a positive SLN. Results SLN positivity was significantly associated with the clinical size of the lesion, greatest horizontal histologic dimension, tumor thickness, mitotic rate, and histologic growth pattern. Two competing multivariate models were generated to predict a positive SLN. The histologic growth pattern was present in both models and combined with either tumor thickness or mitotic rate. Conclusion Increasing clinical size, increasing tumor thickness, increasing mitotic rate, and infiltrative tumor growth pattern were significantly associated with a greater likelihood of a positive SLN. By using the growth pattern and tumor thickness model, no subgroup of patients was predicted to have a lower than 15% to 20% likelihood of a positive SLN. This suggests that all patients presenting with MCC without clinical evidence of regional lymph node disease should be considered for SLN biopsy. PMID:21300936

  10. Increased Angiogenesis and Lymphangiogenesis in Metastatic Sentinel Lymph Nodes Is Associated With Nonsentinel Lymph Node Involvement and Distant Metastasis in Patients With Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Pastushenko, Ievgenia; Van den Eynden, Gert G; Vicente-Arregui, Sandra; Prieto-Torres, Lucia; Alvarez-Alegret, Ramiro; Querol, Ignacio; Dirix, Luc Y; Carapeto, Francisco J; Vermeulen, Peter B; Van Laere, Steven J

    2016-05-01

    Lymph node angio- and lymphangio-genesis have been shown to play an important role in the premetastatic niche of sentinel lymph nodes. In the current study we have investigated the association of angio- and lympangio-genesis related parameters in metastatic sentinel lymph nodes of patients with melanoma with the presence of nonsentinel and distant organ metastasis. Peritumoral and intratumoral relative blood and lymphatic vessel areas (evaluated by Chalkley method), blood and lymphatic microvessel densities, and the rates of blood and lymphatic vessel proliferation were assessed in primary tumors and sentinel lymph node metastasis of 44 patients with melanoma using CD34/Ki-67 and D240/Ki-67 immunohistochemical double staining. Primary melanoma exhibited significantly higher rate of lymphatic proliferation compared with its lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05), while lymph node metastasis showed significantly higher rate of blood vessel proliferation (P < 0.05). Using multivariate logistic regression model, the rate of peritumoral lymphatic proliferation was inversely associated with positive nonsentinel lymph node status (P < 0.05), whereas the rate of intratumoral blood vessel proliferation was associated with distant organ metastasis (P < 0.05). Using multivariate Cox regression analysis, the rate of intratumoral blood vessel proliferation was also inversely associated with overall survival of patients with melanoma (P < 0.05).

  11. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer: review on various methodological approaches.

    PubMed

    Zengel, Baha; Yararbas, Ulkem; Sirinocak, Ahmet; Ozkok, Guliz; Denecli, Ali Galip; Postaci, Hakan; Uslu, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been accepted as a standard procedure for early stage breast cancer. In this retrospective analysis, the results obtained with different methodological approaches using radiocolloid with or without blue dye were examined. A total of 158 sentinel lymph node biopsies were performed in 152 patients. Group A (85 patients) underwent lymphatic mapping using a combination of periareolar intradermal radiocolloid and subareolar blue dye injections. Group B (73 patients) underwent only periareolar intradermal radiocolloid injection. One large tin colloid and two small radiocolloids (nanocolloid of serum albumin -NC- and colloidal rhenium sulphide -CS-) were used. Successful lymphatic mapping was attained in 157 of 158 procedures (99.4%). Radiocolloids localized sentinel lymph nodes in 99.4% and blue dye in 75.3% of the cases. The number of sentinel lymph nodes removed was greater in nanocolloid and colloidal rhenium sulphide groups (P ≤0.05). Among 60 metastatic sentinel lymph nodes, frozen section analysis using hematoxylin and eosin staining failed to detect 1 macro- and 10 micrometastasis. Radiocolloid uptake was higher in sentinel lymph nodes accumulating blue dye (1643 ± 3216 counts/10 sec vs 526 ± 1284 counts/10 sec, P <0.001). Higher count rates were obtained by using larger sized colloids (median and interquartile range: tin colloid, 2050 and 4548; nanocolloid, 835 and 1799; colloidal rhenium sulphide, 996 and 2079; P = 0.01). Only 2 extra-axillary sentinel lymph nodes were visualized using periareolar intradermal injection modality. Radiocolloids were more successful than blue dye in sentinel lymph node detection. More sentinel lymph nodes were harvested with small colloids, but different sized radiocolloids were similarly successful. Sentinel lymph nodes having higher radiocolloid uptake tended to accumulate blue dye more frequently. Sentinel lymph nodes manifested higher count rates when a larger colloid was used. Frozen section

  12. The Level of Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen and Lymph Node Metastasis in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lekskul, Navamol; Charakorn, Chuenkamon; Lertkhachonsuk, Arb-Aroon; Rattanasiri, Sasivimol; Israngura Na Ayudhya, Nathpong

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the utility and a cut-off level of serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-Ag) to predict lymph node metastasis in locally advanced cervical cancer cases. We also investigated the correlation between SCC-Ag level and lymph node status. From June 2009 to June 2014, 232 patients with cervical cancer stage IB2-IVA, who were treated at Ramathibodi Hospital, were recruited. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify the best cut-off point of SCC-Ag level to predict lymph node metastasis. Quantile regression was performed to evaluate the correlation between SCC-Ag levels and pelvic lymph node metastasis, paraaortic lymph node metastasis, and parametrial involvement as well as tumor size. Pelvic lymph node metastasis and paraaortic lymph node metastasis were diagnosed in 46.6% and 20.1% of the patients, respectively. The median SCC-Ag level was 6 ng/mL (range, 0.5 to 464.6 ng/ mL). The areas under ROC curves between SCC-Ag level and pelvic lymph node metastasis, paraaotic lymph node metastasis, parametrial involvements were low. SCC-Ag level was significantly correlated with paraaortic lymph node status (p=0.045) but not with pelvic lymph node status and parametrial involvement. SCC-Ag level was also related to the tumor diameter (p<0.05). SCC-Ag level is not a good predictor for pelvic and paraaortic lymph node metastasis. However, it is still beneficial to assess the tumor burden of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix.

  13. 10 % fluorescein sodium vs 1 % isosulfan blue in breast sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lidong; Liu, Zhao; Liang, Mengdi; Wang, Li; Song, Xingli; Wang, Shui

    2016-11-03

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is well accepted to be a standard procedure in breast cancer surgery with clinically negative lymph nodes. Isosulfan blue is the first dye approved by the USA Food and Drug Administration for the localization of the lymphatic system. Few alternative tracers have been investigated. In this study, we aimed to compare the differences between 10 % fluorescein sodium and 1 % isosulfan blue in breast sentinel lymph node biopsy and to investigate the feasibility of using 10 % fluorescein sodium as a new dye for breast sentinel lymph node biopsy. A total of 30 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into the fluorescein sodium group and the isosulfan blue group (15 rabbits per group). Fluorescein sodium or isosulfan blue was injected subcutaneously into the second pair of mammary areolas. The average fading time of the second lymph nodes in the isosulfan blue group was significantly shorter than that in the fluorescein sodium group. Moreover, the detection rates of SLNs were higher in the fluorescein sodium group than in the isosulfan blue group. No significant differences between the fluorescein sodium group and isosulfan blue group were observed regarding the distances between the detected sentinel lymph nodes and second pair of mammary areolas, the distances between the second lymph nodes and second pair of mammary areolas, the number of detected sentinel lymph nodes and second lymph nodes, the average dyeing time of the sentinel and the second lymph nodes, and the average fading time of the second lymph nodes. In summary, we first reported that fluorescein sodium is a potential new tracer for breast sentinel lymph node biopsy.

  14. Multifunctional Polymer Microbubbles for Advanced Sentinel Lymph Node Imaging and Mapping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Sentinel Lymph Node Imaging and Mapping PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Andrew P. Goodwin CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of California...Polymer Microbubbles for Advanced Sentinel Lymph Node Imaging and Mapping 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0215   5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...capacity for imaging and surgical labeling of sentinel lymph nodes . Second, the training plan sought to improve the PI’s scientific development

  15. Assessment of Lymphedema Risk Following Lymph Node Dissection and Radiation Therapy for Primary Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    AD_ Award Number: DAMD17-03-1-0622 TITLE: Assessment of Lymphedema Risk Following Lymph Node Dissection and Radiation Therapy for Primary Breast...NUMBERS Assessment of Lymphedema Risk Following Lymph Node DAMDI7-03-1-0622 Dissection and Radiation Therapy for Primary Breast Cancer 6. AUThOR(S...axillary lymph nodes critical for upper extremity drainage predicts the development of lymphedema . In addition to funding this research project, the

  16. Angiomyomatous hamartoma of a popliteal lymph node: an unusual cause of posterior knee pain.

    PubMed

    Mauro, Craig S; McGough, Richard L; Rao, Uma N M

    2008-10-01

    Angiomyomatous hamartoma is a primary vascular tumor primarily found in the inguinal and femoral lymph nodes characterized by the replacement of nodal tissue by smooth muscle cells and fibrous tissue in sclerotic lymphatic stroma. There has been 1 report of an angiomyomatous hamartoma of a cervical lymph node, and this is the first reported case occurring in an extremity. We present a case of angiomyomatous hamartoma occurring in a single popliteal lymph node.

  17. Iodine-131: An Effective Method for Treating Lymph Node Metastases of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    He, Ying; Pan, Ming-zhi; Huang, Jian-min; Xie, Peng; Zhang, Fang; Wei, Ling-ge

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of radioactive iodine-131 (131I) therapy for lymph node metastasis of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and to identify influential factors using univariate and multivariate analyses to determine if identified factors influence the efficacy of treatment. Material/Methods This study included a retrospective review of 218 patients with histologically proven DTC in the post-operation stage. After thyroid tissue remnants were eliminated with 131I therapy, patients’ lymph node status was confirmed by ultrasound and by 131I whole body scan regarding lymph node metastasis, and then patients were treated with 131I as appropriate. The treatment efficacy was assessed and possible influencing factors were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results The total effective rate of 131I therapy was 88.07% (including a cure rate of 20.64% and an improvement rate of 67.43%). The non-effective rate was 11.93%. Of the total 406 lymph nodes of 218 patients, 319 lymph nodes (78.57%) were judged to be effectively cured, including 133 (32.75%) lymph nodes that were totally eliminated and 186 (45.82%) lymph nodes that shrank. Eighty-seven (21.43%) of the 406 lymph nodes had no obvious change. No lymph nodes were found to be in a continuously enlarging state. Distant metastasis, size of lymph node, human serum thyroglobulin (HTG) level, and condition of thyroid remnants ablation were identified as the independent factors influencing the efficacy of treatment using univariate and multivariate analyses. Conclusions The use of 131I is a promising treatment for lymph node metastasis of DCT. Distant metastasis, size of lymph nodes, HTG level, and condition of thyroid remnant ablation were independent factors influencing the treatment efficacy. PMID:27974741

  18. Preparation of (99m)Tc-isosulfan blue for lymph node localization in rats (99m)Tc-isosulfan blue for lymph node localization.

    PubMed

    İlem-Özdemir, Derya; Yararbas, Ulkem; Zengel, Baha; Ertan, Gökhan; Asikoglu, Makbule

    2016-12-01

    The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as the first regional lymph node to receive lymphatic drainage from a malignant tumor. Therefore, this node is a "sentinel" for second metastatic lymph node stations and for labeling regional tumor spread. For SLN detection, many surgeons preferred a combination of a preoperative injection of radiolabeled colloid and the intraoperative injection of blue dye. Under this combination protocol, nodes are considered to be "sentinel nodes" if they are radioactive and blue. The aim of this study is to develop a new single agent that combines both detection methods. For this purpose Isosulfan Blue (ISB) was radiolabeled by (99m)Tc with high labeling yield and stability. In vivo gamma scintigraphy studies were performed with rats. According to the scintigraphic studies, (99m)Tc-ISB shows rapid and high accumulation in both axillary (ALN) and popliteal lymph node (PLN). After the imaging study, extremity was opened and nodes were scanned for the radioactivity. According to performed study the lymph nodes were clearly seen to become blue and carried compound was sufficient to allow identification with a gamma probe. In conclusion, (99m)Tc-ISB has the potential to facilitate lymphatic mapping and subsequent sentinel node biopsy for solid malignancies such as breast cancer and melanoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prone-position thoracoscopic resection of posterior mediastinal lymph node metastasis from rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, Yasuhiro; Noma, Kazuhiro; Koujima, Takeshi; Maeda, Naoaki; Tanabe, Shunsuke; Ohara, Toshiaki; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2015-02-12

    Mediastinal lymph node metastasis from colorectal cancer is rare, and barely any reports have described resection of this pathology. We report herein a successful thoracoscopic resection of mediastinal lymph node metastasis in a prone position. A 65-year-old man presented with posterior mediastinal lymph node metastasis after resection of the primary rectal cancer and metachronous hepatic metastasis. Metastatic lymph nodes were resected completely using thoracoscopic surgery in the prone position, which provided advantages of minimal invasiveness, good surgical field, and reduced ergonomic burden on the surgeon. Thoracoscopic resection in the prone position was thought to have the potential to become the standard procedure of posterior mediastinal tumors.

  20. Clinical significance of intraparotid lymph node metastasis in primary parotid cancer.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chwee Ming; Gilbert, Mark R; Johnson, Jonas T; Kim, Seungwon

    2014-11-01

    The clinical utility of intraparotid lymph node metastasis in primary parotid cancer is unknown, and this study was undertaken to address this gap in knowledge. A medical chart review was performed on 86 patients who underwent parotidectomy with neck dissection (39 cN+ and 47 cN0). The disease-specific mortality and locoregional recurrence (LRR) were correlated with intraparotid lymph node metastasis status. Using intraparotid lymph node metastasis status to predict cervical nodal metastasis resulted in a sensitivity and specificity of 70% and 90.6%, respectively (positive predictive value [PPV] of 87.3%). Patients with positive intraparotid lymph node metastasis had a worse 3-year disease-specific mortality compared with patients with negative intraparotid lymph node metastasis (p = .0037). Patients with cN0 neck but positive intraparotid lymph node metastasis were more likely to develop locoregional recurrence than patients without intraparotid lymph node metastasis (p = .08). In patients with cN0 neck but positive intraparotid lymph node metastasis, intraparotid lymph node metastasis presence was strongly associated with a worse disease-specific survival and placed them at a higher risk of locoregional recurrence. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Tuberculosis axillary lymph node coexistent breast cancer in adjuvant treatment: case report

    PubMed Central

    Bromberg, Silvio Eduardo; do Amaral, Paulo Gustavo Tenório

    2015-01-01

    Coexistence of breast cancer and tuberculosis is rare. In most cases, involvement by tuberculosis occurs in axillary lymph nodes. We report a case of a 43-years-old patient who had undergone adenomastectomy and left sentinel lymph node biopsy due to a triple negative ductal carcinoma. At the end of adjuvant treatment, the patient had an atypical lymph node in the left axilla. Lymph node was excised, and after laboratory analysis, the diagnosis was ganglion tuberculosis. The patient underwent treatment for primary tuberculosis. The development of these two pathologies can lead to problems in diagnosis and treatment. An accurate diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary surgical procedures. PMID:26018148

  2. Histiocytic necrotising lymphadenitis (Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease) of axillary lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraju, Santosh; Vaishnav, Sakshi; Burke, Leandra H; Norman, Earl M

    2015-01-01

    Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD) or histiocytic necrotising lymphadenitis is a rare entity, occurring most commonly in young Asian adults. KFD is characterised by fever with tender lymph node enlargement. The cervical group of lymph nodes is most commonly involved, and the diagnosis is conclusively made by lymph node biopsy and histopathology. KFD is a self-limiting condition, which usually resolves over 1–4 months. Symptomatic treatment with antipyretics and/or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is recommended. Here we describe an uncommon presentation of KFD in a young woman in which only the axillary lymph nodes were enlarged. PMID:25564582

  3. Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen PET/CT: Uptake in Lymph Nodes With Active Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Dias, André Henrique; Holm Vendelbo, Mikkel; Bouchelouche, Kirsten

    2017-03-01

    We describe 2 cases of Ga-PSMA PET/CT in prostate cancer patients. Both cases demonstrated symmetrical bilateral involvement of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes besides findings in relation with prostatic disease. In both cases, endobronchial ultrasound-guided biopsy showed that the involvement of the thoracic lymph nodes was caused by nonnecrotic granulomas compatible with sarcoidosis. The cases demonstrated that increased Ga-PSMA uptake can be seen in lymph nodes with active sarcoidosis, with images mimicking those well known from FDG PET/CT. Because of these findings, granulomatous disease has to be included in the differential diagnostic evaluation of patients with Ga-PSMA-positive lymph nodes.

  4. Monitoring of Blood Vessel Density Using Contrast-Enhanced High Frequency Ultrasound May Facilitate Early Diagnosis of Lymph Node Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Takuma; Takemura, Tomoaki; Ouchi, Tomoki; Mori, Shiro; Sakamoto, Maya; Arai, Yoichi; Kodama, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    Time-dependent alterations in the ultrasonography characteristics of lymph nodes during early-stage metastasis have not been compared with those of tumor-draining lymph nodes that do not develop tumor; this is partly due to the absence of an appropriate experimental model. In a previous study of lymph nodes with experimental early-stage metastasis, we used contrast-enhanced high-frequency ultrasound to demonstrate that an increase in lymph node blood vessel density preceded any changes in lymph node volume. In the present study, we used an experimental model of lymph node metastasis in which tumor cells metastasized from the subiliac lymph node to the proper axillary lymph node (the tumor-draining lymph node). We utilized contrast-enhanced high-frequency ultrasound to perform a longitudinal analysis of tumor-draining lymph nodes, comparing those at an early-stage of metastasis with those that did not develop detectable metastasis. We found that the normalized blood vessel density of an early-stage metastatic lymph node exhibited a progressive rise, whereas that of a tumor-draining lymph node not containing tumor began to increase later. For both types of lymph nodes, the normalized blood vessel density on the final day of experiments showed a trend towards being higher than that measured in controls. We further found that mice with an initially low value for lymph node blood vessel density subsequently showed a larger increase in the blood vessel density of the metastatic lymph node; this differed significantly from measurements in controls. The present study indicates that a longitudinal analysis of the blood vessel densities of tumor-draining lymph nodes, made using contrast-enhanced high-frequency ultrasound imaging, may be a potentially promising method for detecting early-stage lymph node metastasis in selected patients. Furthermore, our findings suggest that tumor in an upstream lymph node may induce alteration of the vascular structures in draining lymph

  5. Regional Disease Control in Selected Patients with Sentinel Lymph Node Involvement and Omission of Axillary Lymph Node Dissection.

    PubMed

    Cserni, Gábor; Maráz, Róbert

    2015-09-01

    Whether an axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is needed for breast cancer patients with minimal sentinel lymph node (SLN) involvement is arguable despite recent data supporting the omission of axillary clearance in these patients. Data on disease recurrence of 111 patients with SLN involvement and no ALND were analysed. Patients with minimal SLN involvement were assessed for their risk of non-SLN metastasis by means of several nomograms. The series included patients with isolated tumour cells (n = 76), micrmetastasis (n = 33) and macrometastasis (n = 2) who were followed for a median of 37 months (range 12-148 months). Six patients died, 3 of disease and 3 of unrelated causes. Eight further patients had breast cancer related events: 1 local breast recurrence and seven distant metastases. No axillary regional recurrence was detected. Disease related events were not associated with the risk of non-SLN metastasis. The presented data suggest that omitting ALND in patients with low volume SLN metastasis may be a safe procedure, and support the observation that systemic disease recurrence may not be associated with axillary recurrence or the risk of NSLN involvement predicted by nomograms.

  6. Lymph node revealing solutions in colorectal cancer: should they be used routinely?

    PubMed

    Horne, Joanne; Bateman, Adrian C; Carr, Norman J; Ryder, Isobel

    2014-05-01

    The Royal College of Pathologists (RCPath) and College of American Pathologists recommend that at least 12 lymph nodes should be harvested for adequate staging of colorectal carcinoma. Just one nodal tumour deposit upstages the malignancy from pN0 to pN1. This is critically important as node-positive patients (pN1) are considered for adjuvant chemotherapy whereas node-negative patients (pN0) may not be. It is not always easy to harvest the required number, especially in patients with rectal carcinoma who may have received neoadjuvant therapy-an increasingly common treatment. The use of neoadjuvant therapy is known to further decrease the number and size of identifiable lymph nodes within specimens, meaning that the lymph node harvest often fails to reach RCPath guidelines. Lymph node revealing solutions consisting of either single chemicals such as alcohol or acetone or compounds have been investigated to help improve the lymph node harvest in difficult specimens, for example, those received following neoadjuvant therapy. Published research evidence reviewed here suggests that lymph node revealing solutions significantly improve lymph node harvesting, and that glacial acetic acid, ethanol, water and formalin is advantageous in comparison with other revealing solutions in that it is safe, cheap, easy to use and relatively quick. However, the quantity of good evidence is limited and the clinical implications of improving lymph node harvesting require further research.

  7. A head and neck lymph node classification using an anatomical grid system while maintaining clinical relevance.

    PubMed

    Benninger, Brion; Barrett, Richard

    2011-10-01

    The current classification of head and neck lymph nodes lacks a standardized system that integrates basic anatomy and clinical relevance. Currently, anatomy texts, atlases, and journals used to educate future health care professionals use a classification system that differs from the commonly used clinical nomenclature. As a result, student trainees entering the professional world are confused by lymph node terminology. The purpose of this study was to suggest a lymph node classification system that accurately reflected anatomy and clinical applications. A literature search was conducted on anatomic and clinical texts, atlases, journals, and Web sites. Two recurring classification themes were found from anatomic texts and atlases: superficial and deep chains, and local anatomic structures. Since 1988 the clinical specialties have used a Roman numeral "level" system. The differences between anatomic and clinical classification systems have led to academic frustration. After analysis, a functional classification system was developed that integrated anatomic and clinical terminology from the current classification systems. This suggested system revised the clinically accepted level system approved in 1988 and replaced the terminology with an anatomically derived naming system. This system satisfies the need for a classification that unifies anatomic and clinical applications. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 99mTc-Evans blue dye for mapping contiguous lymph node sequences and discriminating the sentinel lymph node in an ovine model.

    PubMed

    Tsopelas, Chris; Bevington, Elaine; Kollias, James; Shibli, Sabah; Farshid, Gelareh; Coventry, Brendon; Chatterton, Barry E

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of (99m)Tc-Evans blue for discriminating the sentinel lymph node in multitiered lymph node sequences by using an ovine model. (99m)Tc-Evans blue is an agent that has both radioactive and color signals in a single dose. Previous studies in smaller animal models suggested that this agent could have advantages over the dual-injection technique of radiocolloid/blue dye. Doses of (99m)Tc-Evans blue ( approximately 21 MBq) containing Evans blue dye (approximately 4 mg) were administered to the hind limbs or fore limbs of sheep to map the lymphatic drainage patterns, validate its ability to identify the sentinel lymph node, and examine the reproducibility of the technique. The study protocol was repeated with (99m)Tc-antimony trisulfide colloid and Patent Blue V dye. After the operative exposure, lymph nodes were identified with the gamma probe and then excised and analyzed for radioactivity (percentage of injected dose) and blue color. After the administration of (99m)Tc-Evans blue, all lymph nodes harvested (35 of 35) in either short chains or long basins were hot and blue. The sentinel lymph nodes concentrated more radioactivity than the second-tier nodes to the extent of 2:1 to 215:1. For radiocolloid/Patent Blue V, the ratios were lower, at 2:1 to 3:1. (99m)Tc-Evans blue was found to better discriminate the sentinel lymph node than (99m)Tc-antimony trisulfide colloid/Patent Blue V in variable multitier lymph node anatomy, and it is an agent that promises to have positive clinical applications.

  9. A Nomogram to Predict Adequate Lymph Node Recovery before Resection of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen-yu; Li, Cong; Gao, Wei; Yin, Xiao-wei; Luo, Qi-feng; Liu, Nan; Basnet, Shiva; Dai, Zhen-ling; Ge, Hai-yan

    2016-01-01

    Increased lymph node count (LNC) has been associated with prolonged survival in colorectal cancer (CRC), but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. The study aims to identify new predictors and develop a preoperative nomogram for predicting the probability of adequate LNC (≥ 12). 501 eligible patients were retrospectively selected to identify clinical-pathological factors associated with LNC ≥ 12 through univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The nomogram was built according to multivariate analyses of preoperative factors. Model performance was assessed with concordance index (c-index) and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), followed by internal validation and calibration using 1000-resample bootstrapping. Clinical validity of the nomogram and LNC impact on stage migration were also evaluated. Multivariate analyses showed patient age, CA19-9, circulating lymphocytes, neutrophils, platelets, tumor diameter, histology and deposit significantly correlated with LNC (P < 0.05). The effects were marginal for CEA, anemia and CRC location (0.05 < P < 0.1). The multivariate analyses of preoperative factors suggested decreased age, CEA, CA19-9, neutrophils, proximal location, and increased platelets and diameter were significantly associated with increased probability of LNC ≥ 12 (P < 0.05). The nomogram achieved c-indexes of 0.75 and 0.73 before and after correction for overfitting. The AUC was 0.75 (95% CI, 0.70–0.79) and the clinically valid threshold probabilities were between 10% and 60% for the nomogram to predict LNC < 12. Additionally, increased probability of adequate LNC before surgery was associated with increased LNC and negative lymph nodes rather than increased positive lymph nodes, lymph node ratio, pN stages or AJCC stages. Collectively, the results indicate the LNC is multifactorial and irrelevant to stage migration. The significant correlations with preoperative circulating markers may

  10. Comparative study between ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology of axillary lymph nodes and sentinel lymph node histopathology in early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Coelho, Lívio Portela; Borges, Rafael Soares; Alencar, Airlane Pereira; Cardoso-Campos-Verdes, Larysse Maira; da Silva-Sampaio, João Paulo; Borges, Umbelina Soares; Gebrim, Luiz Henrique; da Silva, Benedito Borges

    2017-05-01

    The replacement of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) by ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-guided FNA) cytology of axillary lymph nodes is controversial, despite the simplicity and reduced cost of the latter. In the present study, US-guided FNA was performed in 27 patients with early-stage breast cancer for comparison with SNB. Data were analyzed by calculation of sample proportions. Tumor subtypes included invasive ductal carcinoma (85%), invasive lobular carcinoma (7%), and tubular and metaplastic carcinoma (4%). FNA had a sensitivity of 45%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 73%. Axillary lymph node cytology obtained by US guided-FNA in patients with breast cancer had a specificity similar to that of sentinel lymph node histopathology in the presence of axillary node metastases. However, when lymph node cytology is negative, it does not exclude the existence of metastatic implants, due to its low sensitivity in comparison to sentinel lymph node histopathology.

  11. Comparative study between ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology of axillary lymph nodes and sentinel lymph node histopathology in early-stage breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso-Coelho, Lívio Portela; Borges, Rafael Soares; Alencar, Airlane Pereira; Cardoso-Campos-Verdes, Larysse Maira; da Silva-Sampaio, João Paulo; Borges, Umbelina Soares; Gebrim, Luiz Henrique; da Silva, Benedito Borges

    2017-01-01

    The replacement of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) by ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-guided FNA) cytology of axillary lymph nodes is controversial, despite the simplicity and reduced cost of the latter. In the present study, US-guided FNA was performed in 27 patients with early-stage breast cancer for comparison with SNB. Data were analyzed by calculation of sample proportions. Tumor subtypes included invasive ductal carcinoma (85%), invasive lobular carcinoma (7%), and tubular and metaplastic carcinoma (4%). FNA had a sensitivity of 45%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 73%. Axillary lymph node cytology obtained by US guided-FNA in patients with breast cancer had a specificity similar to that of sentinel lymph node histopathology in the presence of axillary node metastases. However, when lymph node cytology is negative, it does not exclude the existence of metastatic implants, due to its low sensitivity in comparison to sentinel lymph node histopathology. PMID:28521436

  12. Intraoperative Frozen Section Evaluation of Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Breast Carcinoma: Single-Institution Indian Experience.

    PubMed

    Somashekhar, S P; Naikoo, Zahoor Ahmed; Zaveri, Shabber S; Holla, Soumya; Chandra, Suresh; Mishra, Suniti; Parameswaran, R V

    2015-12-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is an established way of predicting axillary nodal metastasis in early breast cancer. Intraoperative frozen sections (FS) of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) can be used to detect metastatic disease, allowing immediate axillary lymph node dissection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of intraoperative frozen sections in evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes in cases of breast cancer. Between March 2006 and August 2010, a total of 164 patients with clinically node-negative operable breast cancer were subjected to sentinel lymph node biopsy of axillary lymph nodes using preoperative peritumoral injection of radioactive colloid and methylene blue. Intraoperative identification of sentinel nodes was done using a handheld gamma probe and identification of blue-stained nodes. The nodes were sent for frozen section examination. The results of frozen section were compared with the final histopathology. Out of the 164 cases, metastases were detected in SLN by frozen section in 38 cases. There were three false-negative cases (all showing micrometastasis on final histopathology). FS had sensitivity of 92.6 %, specificity of 100 %, and overall accuracy of 98.1 %. The positive predictive value was 100 %, and the negative predictive value was 97.6 %. FS for diagnosis of metastasis of SLNs is reliable. Patients with negative SLNs by the FS diagnosis can avoid reoperation for axillary lymph node dissection. However, FS may fail to detect micrometastases, especially in cases with small tumors.

  13. The prognostic impact of lymph-node dissection on lobectomy for pulmonary metastasis.

    PubMed

    Shiono, Satoshi; Matsutani, Noriyuki; Okumura, Sakae; Nakajima, Jun; Horio, Hirotoshi; Kohno, Mitsutomo; Ikeda, Norihiko; Kawamura, Masafumi

    2015-10-01

    The prevalence and characteristics of lymph-node metastasis have not been thoroughly investigated in patients with pulmonary metastases from various primary neoplasms. The necessity of performing lymph-node dissection with pulmonary metastasectomy is unknown. We retrospectively reviewed the database of the Metastatic Lung Tumor Study Group of Japan. Between November 1980 and June 2013, 4363 patients underwent resection of pulmonary metastases. After selecting for patients who underwent lobectomy, 683 patients (16%) were analysed. The presence of lymph-node metastasis, outcomes and prognoses were investigated. The primary tumour site was colorectal in 350 patients, head and neck in 73 patients, kidney in 41 patients, uterus in 41 patients and bone/soft tissue in 31 patients. The overall 5-year survival rate after pulmonary metastasectomy was 50.1%, and the 10-year survival rate was 36.4%. Lymph-node metastasis was more frequently found in uterine (27%) and head and neck cancers (29%). Five-year survival rates were 53.8% in patients without lymph-node metastasis, 39.4% in patients with hilar lymph-node metastasis and 30.8% in patients with mediastinal lymph-node metastasis. The extent of lymph-node dissection was not related to survival. Univariate analysis revealed that tumour size, the presence of lymph-node metastasis, the presence of multiple lesions, a disease-free interval of 24 months or less and incomplete resection were significant predictors of poor prognosis. Multivariate analysis confirmed these prognostic factors. Retrospective analysis of lobectomy for pulmonary metastasis demonstrated that lymph-node metastasis is a significant prognostic factor predicting poor outcome. Lymph-node sampling or dissection is therefore warranted to predict patient prognosis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy on Axillary Lymph Node Positivity and Numbers in Breast Cancer Cases.

    PubMed

    Uyan, Mikail; Koca, Bulent; Yuruker, Savas; Ozen, Necati

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the numbers of axillary lymph nodes (ALN) taken out by dissection between patients with breast cancer operated on after having neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) treatment and otherswithout having neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and to investigate factors affecting lymph node positivity. A total of 49 patients operated due to advanced breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and 144 patients with a similar stage of the cancer having primary surgical treatment without chemotherapy at the general surgery clinic of Ondokuz Mayis University Medicine Faculty between the dates 01.01.2006 and 31.10.2012 were included in the study. The total number of lymph nodes taken out by axillary dissection (ALND) was categorized as the number of positive lymph nodes and divided into <10 and ≥10. The variables to be compared were analysed using the program SPSS 15.0 with P<0.05 accepted as significant. Median number of dissected lymph nodes from the patient group having neoadjuvant chemotherapy was 16 (16-33) while it was 20 (5-55) without chemotherapy. The respective median numbers of positive lymph nodes were 5 ( 0-19) and 10 (0-51). In 8 out of 49 neoadjuvant chemotherapy patients (16.3%), the number of dissected lymph nodes was below 10, and it was below 10 in 17 out of 144 primary surgery patients. Differences in numbers of dissected total and positive lymph nodes between two groups were significant, but this was not the case for numbers of <10 lymph nodes. The number of dissected lymph nodes from the patients with breast cancer having neoadjuvant chemotherapy may be less than without chemotherapy. This may not always be attributed to an inadequate axillary dissection. More research to evaluate the numbers of positive lymph nodes are required in order to increase the reliability of staging in the patients with breast cancer undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Lymphography-Guided Selective High-Dose Lymph Node Irradiation in Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Meijer, Hanneke J.M.; Debats, Oscar A.; Kunze-Busch, Martina; Kollenburg, Peter van; Leer, Jan Willem; Witjes, J. Alfred; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Barentsz, Jelle O.; Lin, Emile N.J.Th. van

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of magnetic resonance lymphography (MRL) -guided delineation of a boost volume and an elective target volume for pelvic lymph node irradiation in patients with prostate cancer. The feasibility of irradiating these volumes with a high-dose boost to the MRL-positive lymph nodes in conjunction with irradiation of the prostate using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was also investigated. Methods and Materials: In 4 prostate cancer patients with a high risk of lymph node involvement but no enlarged lymph nodes on CT and/or MRI, MRL detected pathological lymph nodes in the pelvis. These lymph nodes were identified and delineated on a radiotherapy planning CT to create a boost volume. Based on the location of the MRL-positive lymph nodes, the standard elective pelvic target volume was individualized. An IMRT plan with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) was created with dose prescriptions of 42 Gy to the pelvic target volume, a boost to 60 Gy to the MRL-positive lymph nodes, and 72 Gy to the prostate. Results: All MRL-positive lymph nodes could be identified on the planning CT. This information could be used to delineate a boost volume and to individualize the pelvic target volume for elective irradiation. IMRT planning delivered highly acceptable radiotherapy plans with regard to the prescribed dose levels and the dose to the organs at risk (OARs). Conclusion: MRL can be used to select patients with limited lymph node involvement for pelvic radiotherapy. MRL-guided delineation of a boost volume and an elective pelvic target volume for selective high-dose lymph node irradiation with IMRT is feasible. Whether this approach will result in improved outcome for these patients needs to be investigated in further clinical studies.

  16. Lack of standards for the detection of melanoma in sentinel lymph nodes: a survey and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Dekker, John; Duncan, Lyn M

    2013-11-01

    Detection of microscopic melanoma metastases in sentinel lymph nodes drives clinical care; patients without metastases are observed, and patients with metastases are offered completion lymphadenectomy and adjuvant therapy. We sought to determine common elements in currently used analytic platforms for sentinel lymph nodes in melanoma patients. An electronic survey was distributed to 83 cancer centers in North America. Seventeen responses (20%) were received. The number of sentinel lymph node mapping procedures for melanoma ranged from less than 11 to more than 100 patients per year, with 72% of institutions mapping more than 50 melanoma patients a year. Uniform practices included (1) processing all of the lymph node tissue rather than submitting representative sections and (2) use of immunohistochemical stains if no tumor was identified on the hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections. Significant variability existed regarding the method of sectioning lymph nodes at grossing and in the histology laboratory; most bisected nodes longitudinally (94%) and performed deeper levels into the block (67%), but these were not uniform practices. S-100 was the most commonly used immunohistochemical stain (78%), followed by Melan-A (56%), MART-1 (50%), HMB-45 (44%), tyrosinase (33%), MiTF (11%), and pan-melanoma (6%). There is a need for a standardized platform for detecting melanoma in sentinel lymph nodes. Current practices by a majority of laboratories and findings in the reported literature support the following: histologic evaluation of all lymph node tissue, use of immunohistochemical stains, bisecting lymph nodes longitudinally, and performing deeper levels into the tissue block.

  17. [Presence of intramammary lymph nodes in the preoperative lymphoscintigraphy to locate the sentinel lymph node. Clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Nogareda, Z; Álvarez, A; Perlaza, P; Caparrós, F X; Alonso, I; Paredes, P; Vidal-Sicart, S

    2015-01-01

    The routes of lymphatic drainage from a breast cancer are the axilla (the most frequent) and the extra axillary regions. Among the latter, there are the so-called intrammamary lymph nodes (IMLN). This study has aimed to assess the incidence of IMLNs in our patients and study the evolution of these cases with IMLN in the lymphoscintigraphy. Thirty-eight patients (out of 1725) with IMLN in the pre-operative lymphoscintigraphy were assessed. During the surgical procedure, using a gamma probe, IMLNs were located and excised. After their harvesting, a meticulous surgical field scan was performed. When the axillary sentinel node was positive for metastasis, a complete axillary lymphadenectomy was performed. In those where the axillary sentinel node was negative and IMLN was positive (IMLN+), axillary lymphadenectomy was also performed, except for one case. Thirty-four out of the 38 IMLNs were obtained (89.5%), because no lymphatic tissue was found in pathology analysis in three cases (8%) and in one patient (3%) IMLN was not found during surgery. Ten (26%) metastatic IMLNs were located and the remaining 24 IMLNs cases (63%) were metastasis-free. During the clinical follow-up, one patient with IMLN+ developed hepatic metastases. The remaining 33 patients did not present any recurrence. No follow-up data were available for three patients. IMLN and axillary sentinel node biopsy are recommended when both are depicted in preoperative lymphoscintigraphy. The axilla treatment will only depend on the axillary sentinel node status. Based on the data from other authors and our own experience, avoiding the axillary lymphadenectomy when a metastatic IMLN without axillary involvement seems reasonable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  18. Compact intraoperative imaging device for sentinel lymph node mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Bauer, Adam Q.; Akers, Walter; Sudlow, Gail; Liang, Kexian; Shen, Duanwen; Berezin, Mikhail; Culver, Joseph P.; Achilefu, Samuel

    2011-03-01

    We have developed a novel real-time intraoperative fluorescence imaging device that can detect near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence and map sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). In contrast to conventional imaging systems, this device is compact, portable, and battery-operated. It is also wearable and thus allows hands-free operation of clinicians. The system directly displays the fluorescence in its goggle eyepiece, eliminating the need for a remote monitor. Using this device in murine lymphatic mapping, the SLNs stained with indocyanine green (ICG) can be readily detected. Fluorescence-guided SLN resection under the new device was performed with ease. Ex vivo examination of resected tissues also revealed high fluorescence level in the SLNs. Histology further confirmed the lymphatic nature of the resected SLNs.

  19. [Castleman disease of the inter-lobar lymph node origin].

    PubMed

    Minami, Hiroyuki; Sano, I; Furukawa, K; Oikawa, M; Nonaka, T; Iwasaki, K

    2005-12-01

    We report a case of Castleman disease which originated from the inter-lobar lymph node, with a review of literatures. A 19-year-old woman complaining of cough was pointed out to have an abnormal shadow in the left lung field on chest X-ray. Chest computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with enhancement revealed a homogeneous mass lesion at the left inter-lobar portion of the lung. Bronchoscopic findings demonstrated mucosal telangiectasis of the left lower bronchus. We performed the usual axillary thoracotomy and succeeded in extirpation of the tumor without large amount of bleeding. The tumor was elastic and hard, and 70 x 55 x 45 mm in size. Her postoperative course was uneventful and she was discharged on the 12th postoperative day.

  20. Giant lymph node hyperplasia a diagnostic dilemma in the neck.

    PubMed

    Raut, V; Cullen, J; Hughes, D

    2001-04-01

    Giant lymph node hyperplasia (GLNH) or Castleman's disease is a rare pathological entity commonly presenting as a solitary mediastinal tumour (unifocal variant), although other anatomical sites have been reported including the head and neck, abdomen and axilla. Though the head and neck is the second commonest site for this lesion, only 60 cases [1,2] have been reported in the literature. Pre-operative diagnosis of the unifocal variant can be difficult as routine investigations carried out in the clinic setting are often inconclusive. A multicentric form of this disease with a poorer prognosis in comparison to the unifocal lesion has been described by Gaba et al. in 1978 [3]. We present a case of an unusually large, slow growing, asymptomatic, unifocal variant of this tumour restricted to the neck which underwent successful surgical excision. A review of the literature, histopathological characteristics and differential diagnosis is also presented.

  1. Nanoparticles in Sentinel Lymph Node Assessment in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Laura; Charles-Edwards, Geoff; Douek, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The modern management of the axilla in breast cancer relies on surgery for accurate staging of disease and identifying those patients at risk who would benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. The introduction of sentinel lymph node biopsy has revolutionized axillary surgery, but still involves a surgical procedure with associated morbidity in many patients with no axillary involvement. Nanotechnology encompasses a broad spectrum of scientific specialities, of which nanomedicine is one. The potential use of dual-purpose nanoprobes could enable imaging the axilla simultaneous identification and treatment of metastatic disease. Whilst most applications of nanomedicine are still largely in the laboratory phase, some potential applications are currently undergoing clinical evaluation for translation from the bench to the bedside. This is an exciting new area of research where scientific research may become a reality. PMID:24281206

  2. Cervical lymph node metastases from remote primary tumor sites

    PubMed Central

    López, Fernando; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Silver, Carl E.; Haigentz, Missak; Bishop, Justin A.; Strojan, Primož; Hartl, Dana M.; Bradley, Patrick J.; Mendenhall, William M.; Suárez, Carlos; Takes, Robert P.; Hamoir, Marc; Robbins, K. Thomas; Shaha, Ashok R.; Werner, Jochen A.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio

    2016-01-01

    Although most malignant lymphadenopathy in the neck represent lymphomas or metastases from head and neck primary tumors, occasionally, metastatic disease from remote, usually infraclavicular, sites presents as cervical lymphadenopathy with or without an obvious primary tumor. In general, these tumors metastasize to supraclavicular lymph nodes, but occasionally may present at an isolated higher neck level. A search for the primary tumor includes information gained by histology, immunohistochemistry, and evaluation of molecular markers that may be unique to the primary tumor site. In addition, 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglocose positron emission tomography combined with CT (FDG-PET/CT) has greatly improved the ability to detect the location of an unknown primary tumor, particularly when in a remote location. Although cervical metastatic disease from a remote primary site is often incurable, there are situations in which meaningful survival can be achieved with appropriate local treatment. Management is quite complex and requires a truly multidisciplinary approach. PMID:26713674

  3. Stromal infrastructure of the lymph node and coordination of immunity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jonathan E; Turley, Shannon J

    2015-01-01

    The initiation of adaptive immune responses depends upon the careful maneuvering of lymphocytes and antigen into and within strategically placed lymph nodes (LNs). Non-hematopoietic stromal cells form the cellular infrastructure that directs this process. Once regarded as merely structural features of lymphoid tissues, these cells are now appreciated as essential regulators of immune cell trafficking, fluid flow, and LN homeostasis. Recent advances in the identification and in vivo targeting of specific stromal populations have resulted in striking new insights to the function of stromal cells and reveal a level of complexity previously unrealized. We discuss here recent discoveries that highlight the pivotal role that stromal cells play in orchestrating immune cell homeostasis and adaptive immunity.

  4. Role of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound in lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Hocke, Michael; Ignee, Andre; Dietrich, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosing unclear lymph node (LN) enlargements in the mediastinum and abdomen is the most important indication of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-fine needle aspiration (FNA) after the diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic diseases. Investigating LNs in these areas can happen in different clinical settings. Mostly, it is the first modality in general LN diseases without any peripheral LN enlargements. On the other hand, it can be the question of LN involvement in a known or suspected primary tumor. Due to EUS-FNA cytology, those questions can be answered highly, accurately. However, a primary discrimination of LNs might be helpful to increase the diagnostic value of the FNA cytology, especially in cases with multiple LN enlargements and hard to reach enlarged LNs for example by vessel interposition. Because of the unreliability of B-mode criteria, further diagnostic improvements such as elastography and contrast-enhanced EUS are investigated to increase the accuracy of the initial diagnosis. PMID:28218194

  5. Sentinel lymph node biopsy followed by delayed mastectomy and reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Brady, Bridget; Fant, Jerri; Jones, Ronald; Grant, Michael; Andrews, Valerie; Livingston, Sheryl; Kuhn, Joseph

    2003-02-01

    The role of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy with total mastectomy is evolving. In patients who desire mastectomy with immediate reconstruction, the final pathologic results of the SLN may create unique problems. Specifically, if the SLN is found to be positive on final pathology, the reconstructed patient would generally require a potentially difficult re-operation on the remaining axillary nodes. The purpose of this study was to review the results of patients who underwent an initial SNL biopsy followed by a planned mastectomy and reconstruction. A chart review of patients who underwent staged SLN biopsy with subsequent definitive procedure between 1997 and 2001 was conducted. These were evaluated with regard to type of tumor, status of sentinel node, and design of subsequent operation. There were 40 patients who underwent an initial SLN biopsy followed by a staged mastectomy with reconstruction. Tumors included high-grade carcinoma in situ (n = 4), infiltrating ductal carcinoma (n = 28), invasive lobular carcinoma (n = 4), mucinous carcinoma (n = 1), adenoid cystic carcinoma (n = 1), and mixed ductal and lobular carcinoma (n = 2). Tissue biopsy was obtained by either open (n = 9) or needle (n = 31) technique. Twenty-five patients had a negative SLN biopsy and a delayed total mastectomy with immediate reconstruction. Positive SLNs were identified in 15 patients (37%). Eight patients had macroscopic nodal metastases and underwent a delayed modified radical mastectomy and immediate reconstruction. Seven patients had microscopic nodal metastases and 3 declined further axillary dissection. They proceeded with total mastectomy and immediate reconstruction. These data suggest that a substantial proportion of patients treated with SLN biopsy, simple mastectomy, and reconstruction will have positive sentinel lymph nodes. Thus, the ideal approach for patients who wish to have reconstruction should involve an initial SLN biopsy as a separate procedure. If the SLN is benign

  6. [Analysis of the patterns of cervical lymph node recurrence in patients with cN0 papillary thyroid carcinoma after central neck lymph node dissection].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui; Xu, Zhengang; Wang, Xiaolei; Wu, Yuehuang; Liu, Shaoyan

    2015-10-01

    To retrospectively analyze the long-term results of prophylactic central lymph node dissection in cN0 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and investigate the treatment method of the cervical lymph nodes for cN0 PTC. One hundred and thirty-six patients with cN0 PTC were treated by surgery at the Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from 2000 to 2006. Their clinicopathological characteristics, surgical procedures and survival outcomes were collected and analyzed. The occult lymph node metastasis rate in central compartment was 61.0%. The average number of positive lymph nodes was 2.47 (1-13), in which 54 patients had 1-2 and 29 patients had ≥ 3 positive lymph nodes. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age less than 45 (P=0.001, OR 3.571, 95% CI 1.681-7.587)and extracapsular spread (ECS) (P=0.015, OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.241-7.202)were independent risk factors for lymph node metastasis in the central compartment. The ten-year cumulative overall survival rate was 98.3% and cumulative lateral neck metastasis rate was 25.2%. Multivariate analysis with Cox regression model showed that ECS (P=0.001, OR 5.211, 95% CI1.884-14.411) and positive lymph nodes in the central compartment ≥ 3 (P=0.009, OR 4.005, 95% CI 1.419-11.307) were independent risk factors for lymph node recurrence in the lateral neck region. The distribution of recurrent lymph nodes: level IV (82.4%), level III (64.7%), level II (29.4%) and level V (11.8%). Routine central lymph node dissection, at least unilateral, should be conducted for cN0 papillary thyroid carcinoma. Attention should be paid to the treatment of lateral neck region in patients with cN0 papillary thyroid carcinoma. Selective neck dissection is suggested for cN0 PTC with ECS or positive central lymph nodes ≥ 3, or both. The range of dissection should include level III and IV at least.

  7. Complications of autologous lymph-node transplantation for limb lymphoedema.

    PubMed

    Vignes, S; Blanchard, M; Yannoutsos, A; Arrault, M

    2013-05-01

    This study aims to assess potential complications of autologous lymph-node transplantation (ALNT) to treat limb lymphoedema. Prospective, observational study. All limb-lymphoedema patients, followed up in a single lymphology department, who decided to undergo ALNT (January 2004-June 2012) independently of our medical team, were included. Among the 26 patients (22 females, four males) included, 14 had secondary upper-limb lymphoedema after breast-cancer treatment and seven had secondary and five primary lower-limb lymphoedema. Median (interquartile range, IQR) ages at primary lower-limb lymphoedema and secondary lymphoedema onset were 18.5 (13-30) and 47.4 (35-58) years, respectively. Median body mass index (BMI) was 25.9 (22.9-29.3) kg m⁻². For all patients, median pre-surgery lymphoedema duration was 37 (24-90) months. Thirty-four ALNs were transplanted into the 26 patients, combined with liposuction in four lower-limb-lymphoedema patients. Ten (38%) patients developed 15 complications: six, chronic lymphoedema (four upper limb, two lower limb), defined as ≥2-cm difference versus the contralateral side, in the limb on the donor lymph-node-site territory, persisting for a median of 40 months post-ALNT; four, post-surgical lymphocoeles; one testicular hydrocoele requiring surgery; and four with persistent donor-site pain. Median (IQR) pre- and post-surgical lymphoedema volumes, calculated using the formula for a truncated cone, were, respectively, 1023 (633-1375) ml (median: 3 (1-6) months) and 1058 (666-1506) ml (median: 40 (14-72) months; P = 0.73). ALNT may engender severe, chronic complications, particularly persistent iatrogenic lymphoedema. Further investigations are required to evaluate and clearly determine its indications. Copyright © 2012 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sentinel lymph node mapping with indocyanine green in vaginal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, In Ok; Lee, Jung Yun; Kim, Sunghoon; Kim, Sang Wun; Kim, Young Tae; Nam, Eun Ji

    2017-07-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping is being adapted to gynecologic cancer. Higher SLN mapping rates were reported with indocyanine green (ICG) compared to other dyes. The aim of this film is to share our experience of SLN mapping with ICG in vaginal cancer. A 40 year-old woman was diagnosed with squamous cell vaginal cancer. About 1.5 cm-sized tumor was located on the posterior vaginal fornix. Preoperatively she was assumed to be stage I vaginal cancer. Beginning of surgery, we performed SLN mapping by ICG injection into 3- and 9-o'clock positions of the vaginal tumor. Concentrated in 1.25 mg/mL, 1 mL of ICG solution was injected into deep stroma and another 1 mL submucosally in both sides. Bilateral SLN identification and lymphadenectomy were done. Afterward, laparoscopic Type C1 Querleu-Morrow radical hysterectomy with vaginectomy was done. A fluorescence endoscope produced by KARL STORZ (Tuttlingen, Germany) was used for ICG detection. To our knowledge, this is the first film report performing SLN mapping with ICG in vaginal cancer. The mapping was successful and we were able to recognize SLN of vaginal cancer. SLNs were located in the bilateral obturator fossa. According to the pathologic diagnosis, the mass size was 15 mm and invasion depth was 1 mm. Subvaginal tissue involvement and pelvic wall extension were absent. Resection margin of the vagina was free from carcinoma. No lymph node metastasis was reported including the bilateral SLNs. For vaginal cancer, SLN mapping can be applied by injecting ICG into the bilateral sides of the vaginal tumor.

  9. Robot - assisted laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in testicular tumor

    PubMed Central

    Torricelli, Fabio C. M.; Jardim, Denis; Guglielmetti, Giuliano B.; Patel, Vipul; Coelho, Rafael F.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction and objective Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) is indicated for patients with non-seminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT) with residual disease after chemotherapy. Although the gold standard approach is still the open surgery, few cases of robot-assisted laparoscopic RPLND have been described. Herein, we aim to present the surgical technique for robot-assisted laparoscopic RPLND. Patient and method A 30 year-old asymptomatic man presented with left testicular swelling for 2 months. Physical examination revealed an enlarged and hard left testis. Alpha-fetoprotein (>1000ng/mL) and beta-HCG (>24.000U/L) were increased. Beta-HCG increased to >112.000U/L in less than one month. The patient underwent a left orchiectomy. Pathological examination showed a mixed NSGCT (50% embryonal carcinoma; 30% teratoma; 10% yolk sac; 10% choriocarcinoma). Computed tomography scan revealed a large tumor mass close to the left renal hilum (10x4x4cm) and others enlarged paracaval and paraortic lymph nodes (T2N3M1S3-stage III). Patient was submitted to 4 cycles of BEP with satisfactory response. Residual mass was suggestive of teratoma. Based on these findings, he was submitted to a robot-assisted RPLND. Results RPLND was uneventfully performed. Operative time was 3.5 hours. Blood loss was minimal, and there were no intra- or postoperative complications. The patient was discharged from hospital in the 1st postoperative day. Pathological examination showed a pure teratoma. After 6 months of follow-up, patient is asymptomatic with an alpha-fetoprotein of 2.9ng/mL and an undetectable beta-HCG. Conclusion Robot-assisted laparoscopic RPLND is a feasible procedure with acceptable morbidity even for post chemotherapy patients when performed by an experienced surgeon.

  10. Mastoscopic sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Boni; Zhang, Hongyan; Li, Xiaorong; Qian, Liyuan; Chen, Xuedong; Wu, Wei; Wen, Yanguang; Zhao, Yujun

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated that mastoscopic sentinel lymph node biopsy (MSLNB) has good identification rate (IR) and low false negative rate (FNR). However, few studies have directly compared the surgical performance and peri- and post-operative factors of MSLNB with conventional sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). Methodology Sixty patients diagnosed with breast cancer were recruited and randomly assigned to one of the three groups: MSLNB, SLNB and SLNB with lipolysis injection. Peri- and post-operative parameters were compared using general linear models. To examine the effect of age on these parameters, we performed separate analysis stratified by age (≤50 years old vs. >50 years old). Results Patients in the MSLNB group experienced longer surgery and suffered higher surgical cost than patients who underwent conventional SLNB or SLNB with lipolysis injection (p<0.0001). Despite this, they had significantly less blood loss than those who underwent conventional SLNB (22.0±7.0 ml vs.73.5±39.6 ml; p<0.0001). Analysis by age group indicates a similar pattern of difference among the three groups. MSLNB and conventional SLNB have similar IR and FNR. Conclusion As a minimally invasive technique, MSLNB can significantly reduce blood loss while providing similar IR and FNR, indicating that it can be a promising alternative to conventional SLNB. Conclusion Variations in popliteal artery terminal branching pattern occurred in 7.4% to 17.6% of patients. Pre-surgical detection of these variations with MD CTA may help to reduce the risk of iatrogenic arterial injury by enabling a better surgical treatment plan. PMID:28352718

  11. Management of non-visualization following dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy for squamous cell carcinoma of the penis.

    PubMed

    Sahdev, Varun; Albersen, Maarten; Christodoulidou, Michelle; Parnham, Arie; Malone, Peter; Nigam, Raj; Bomanji, Jamshed; Muneer, Asif

    2017-04-01

    To review the management and clinical outcomes of uni- or bilateral non-visualization of inguinal lymph nodes during dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy (DSNB) in patients diagnosed with penile cancer and clinically impalpable inguinal lymph nodes (cN0), and to develop an algorithm for the management of patients in which non-visualization occurs. This is a retrospective observational study over a period of 4 years, comprising 166 patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma undergoing DSNB and followed up for a minimum of 6 months. All cases diagnosed with uni- or bilateral non-visualization of sentinel nodes in this cohort were identified from a penile cancer database. The management of the inguinal lymph nodes after non-visualization and the oncological outcomes including local and regional recurrence rates were documented. Out of 166 consecutive patients undergoing DSNB, 20 patients (12%) had unilateral non-visualization after injection of intradermal (99m) Tc. Of these 20 patients, seven underwent repeat DSNB at a later date, with six having successful visualization. One patient had persistent non-visualization and proceeded to a superficial modified inguinal lymphadenectomy (SML). None of these patients experienced recurrence at follow-up. A further seven patients underwent modified SML with on-table frozen-section analysis of the lymph node packet; none of these patients were found to have micrometastatic disease in the inguinal lymph nodes, although one patient developed metastatic inguinal node disease at a later date. Six patients elected to undergo clinical surveillance and have remained disease-free. Patients with impalpable inguinal lymph nodes undergoing DSNB with ≥G2 T1 disease should ideally have bilateral visualization of the sentinel lymph nodes, reflecting the drainage pattern from the primary tumour. In the present series, 12% of patients were found to have unilateral non-visualization after DSNB. Among patients offered a repeat DSNB at a later

  12. Anatomy and nomenclature of murine lymph nodes: Descriptive study and nomenclatory standardization in BALB/cAnNCrl mice.

    PubMed

    Van den Broeck, Wim; Derore, Annie; Simoens, Paul

    2006-05-30

    Murine lymph nodes are intensively studied but often assigned incorrectly in scientific papers. In BALB/cAnNCrl mice, we characterized a total of 22 different lymph nodes. Peripheral nodes were situated in the head and neck region (mandibular, accessory mandibular, superficial parotid, cranial deep cervical nodes), and at the forelimb (proper axillary, accessory axillary nodes) and hindlimb (subiliac, sciatic, popliteal nodes). Intrathoracic lymph nodes included the cranial mediastinal, tracheobronchal and caudal mediastinal nodes. Abdominal lymph nodes were associated with the gastrointestinal tract (gastric, pancreaticoduodenal, jejunal, colic, caudal mesenteric nodes) or were located along the major intra-abdominal blood vessels (renal, lumbar aortic, lateral iliac, medial iliac and external iliac nodes). Comparative and nomenclative aspects of murine lymph nodes are discussed. The position of the lymph nodes of BALB/cAnNCrl mice is summarized and illustrated in an anatomical chart containing proposals for both an official nomenclature according to the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria and English terms.

  13. Modified methylene blue injection improves lymph node harvest in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianpei; Huang, Pinjie; Zheng, Zongheng; Chen, Tufeng; Wei, Hongbo

    2017-04-01

    The presence of nodal metastases in rectal cancer plays an important role in accurate staging and prognosis, which depends on adequate lymph node harvest. The aim of this prospective study is to investigate the feasibility and survival benefit of improving lymph node harvest by a modified method with methylene blue injection in rectal cancer specimens. One hundred and thirty-one patients with rectal cancer were randomly assigned to the control group in which lymph nodes were harvested by palpation and sight, or to the methylene blue group using a modified method of injection into the superior rectal artery with methylene blue. Analysis of clinicopathologic records, including a long-term follow-up, was performed. In the methylene blue group, 678 lymph nodes were harvested by simple palpation and sight. Methylene blue injection added 853 lymph nodes to the total harvest as well as 32 additional metastatic lymph nodes, causing a shift to node-positive stage in four patients. The average number of lymph nodes harvested was 11.7 ± 3.4 in the control group and 23.2 ± 4.7 in the methylene blue group, respectively. The harvest of small lymph nodes (<5 mm) and the average number of metastatic nodes were both significantly higher in the methylene blue group. The modified method of injection with methylene blue had no impact on overall survival. The modified method with methylene blue injection improved lymph node harvest in rectal cancer, especially small node and metastatic node retrieval, which provided more accurate staging. However, it was not associated with overall survival. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  14. Metastatic lymph node ratio, 6th or 7th AJCC edition: witch is the best lymph node classification for esophageal cancer? Prognosis factor analysis in 487 patients

    PubMed Central

    CORAL, Roberto V.; BIGOLIN, André V.; CORAL, Roberto P.; HARTMANN, Antonio; DRANKA, Carolina; ROEHE, Adriana V.

    2015-01-01

    Background The esophageal cancer is one of the most common and aggressive worldwide. Recently, the AJCC changed the staging system, considering, among others, the important role of the lymph node metastasis on the prognosis. Aim To discuss the applicability of different forms of lymph node staging in a western surgical center. Methods Four hundred eighty seven patients with esophageal cancer were enrolled. Three staging systems were evaluated, the 6th and the 7th AJCC editions and the Lymph Node Metastatic Ratio. Results The majority of the cases were squamous cell carcinoma. The mean lymph node sample was eight. Considering the survival, there was no significant difference between the patients when they were classified by the 7th AJCC edition. Analysis of the Lymph Node Metastatic Ratio, just on the group of patients with 0 to 25%, has shown significant difference (p=0,01). The 6th AJCC edition shows the major significant difference between among the classifications evaluated. Conclusion In this specific population, the 7th AJCC edition for esophageal cancer was not able to find differences in survival when just the lymph node analysis was considered. PMID:26176242

  15. Computed tomography-based distribution of involved lymph nodes in patients with upper esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, M; Liu, Y; Xu, L; Huang, Y; Li, W; Yu, J; Kong, L

    2015-06-01

    Delineating the nodal clinical target volume (ctvn) remains a challenging task in patients with cervical or upper thoracic esophageal carcinoma (ec). In particular, the extent of the lymph area that should be included in the irradiation field remains controversial. In the present study, the extent of the ctvn was determined based on the incidence of lymph node involvement mapped by computed tomography (ct) imaging. Our study included 468 patients who were diagnosed with cervical and upper thoracic ec and who received staging information between June 2005 and April 2011. The anatomic distribution of metastatic regional lymph nodes was mapped using ct images and grouped using the levels established by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. The probability of the various groups being involved was examined. If a lymph node group had a probability of 10% or more of being involved, it was considered at high risk for metastasis, and elective treatment as part of the ctvn was recommended. Lymph node involvement was mapped by ct in 256 patients (54.7%). Not all lymph node groups should be included in the ctvn. For cervical lesions, the involved lymph nodes were located mainly between the hyoid bone and the arcus aortae; the recommended ctvn should consist of the neck lymph nodes at levels iii and iv (supraclavicular group) and thoracic groups 2 and 3P. In upper thoracic ec patients, most of the involved lymph nodes were distributed between the cricoid cartilage and the subcarinal area; the ctvn should cover the supraclavicular group and thoracic nodal groups 2, 3P, 4, 5, and 7. Our ct-based study indicates a specific distribution and incidence of metastatic lymph node groups in patients with cervical and upper thoracic ec. The results suggest that regional lymph node groups should be electively included in the ctvn for precise radiation administration.

  16. Computed tomography–based distribution of involved lymph nodes in patients with upper esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, M.; Liu, Y.; Xu, L.; Huang, Y.; Li, W.; Yu, J.; Kong, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Delineating the nodal clinical target volume (ctvn) remains a challenging task in patients with cervical or upper thoracic esophageal carcinoma (ec). In particular, the extent of the lymph area that should be included in the irradiation field remains controversial. In the present study, the extent of the ctvn was determined based on the incidence of lymph node involvement mapped by computed tomography (ct) imaging. Methods Our study included 468 patients who were diagnosed with cervical and upper thoracic ec and who received staging information between June 2005 and April 2011. The anatomic distribution of metastatic regional lymph nodes was mapped using ct images and grouped using the levels established by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. The probability of the various groups being involved was examined. If a lymph node group had a probability of 10% or more of being involved, it was considered at high risk for metastasis, and elective treatment as part of the ctvn was recommended. Results Lymph node involvement was mapped by ct in 256 patients (54.7%). Not all lymph node groups should be included in the ctvn. For cervical lesions, the involved lymph nodes were located mainly between the hyoid bone and the arcus aortae; the recommended ctvn should consist of the neck lymph nodes at levels iii and iv (supraclavicular group) and thoracic groups 2 and 3P. In upper thoracic ec patients, most of the involved lymph nodes were distributed between the cricoid cartilage and the subcarinal area; the ctvn should cover the supraclavicular group and thoracic nodal groups 2, 3P, 4, 5, and 7. Conclusions Our ct-based study indicates a specific distribution and incidence of metastatic lymph node groups in patients with cervical and upper thoracic ec. The results suggest that regional lymph node groups should be electively included in the ctvn for precise radiation administration. PMID:26089729

  17. Lymph node metastases in patients undergoing surgery for a gallbladder cancer. Extension of the lymph node dissection and prognostic value of the lymph node ratio.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, David Jérémie; Viganò, Luca; Russolillo, Nadia; Langella, Serena; Ferrero, Alessandro; Capussotti, Lorenzo

    2015-03-01

    Lymph node (LN) status is one of the strongest prognostic factors after gallbladder cancer (GBC) resection. The adequate extension of LN dissection and the stratification of the prognosis in N+ patients have been debated. The present study aims to clarify these issues. A total of 112 consecutive patients who underwent operations for GBC with LN dissection were analyzed. Twenty-five patients (22.3%) had D1 dissection (hepatic pedicle), and 87 (77.7%) had D2 dissection (hepatic pedicle, celiac and retro-pancreatic area). The LN ratio (LNR) was computed as follows: number of metastatic LNs/number of retrieved LNs. The median number of retrieved LNs was 7 (1-35). Fifty-nine patients (52.7%) had LN metastases (22 N2). D2 dissection allowed the retrieval of more LNs (8 vs. 3, p = 0.0007), with similar short-term outcomes. Common bile duct (CBD) resection (n = 41) did not increase the number of retrieved LNs. In five patients, D2 dissection identified skip LN metastases that otherwise would have been missed. LN metastases negatively impacted survival (5-years survival 57.2% if N0 vs. 12.4% if N+, p < 0.0001), but N1 and N2 patients had similar survival rates. The number of LN+ (1-3 vs. ≥4) did not impact prognosis. An LNR = 0.15 stratified the prognosis of N+ patients: 5-years survival 32.7% if LNR ≤ 0.15 vs. 10.3% if LNR > 0.15 (multivariate analysis p = 0.007). A D2 LN dissection is recommended in all patients, because it allows for better staging. CBD resection does not improve LN dissection. An LNR = 0.15, not the site of metastatic LNs, stratified the prognoses of N+ patients.

  18. A case of donor-site lymphoedema after lymph node-superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator flap transfer.

    PubMed

    Pons, Gemma; Masia, Jaume; Loschi, Pietro; Nardulli, Maria Luisa; Duch, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Vascularised lymph node transfer is a promising technique to treat limb lymphoedema, especially when caused by lymph node dissection. The most common approach is the transfer of superficial inguinal lymph nodes using groin flaps or superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator flaps. Lower-limb lymphatic sequelae are unexpected as these lymph nodes should drain lymph from the lower abdominal wall. Recently, Vignes et al. described two cases out of 26 cases of chronic lymphoedema after superficial inguinal lymph node harvest. From a series of 42 vascularised lymph node transfers performed at our centre, only one patient developed swelling in the donor thigh. The features of this patient who underwent a lymph node-containing superficial circumflex iliac artery perforator flap are reported herein. We recommend maximal accuracy in selecting the appropriate lymph nodes for transfer and provide some tips from our experience.

  19. Salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma with cervical lymph node metastasis: a preliminary study of 62 cases.

    PubMed

    Min, R; Siyi, L; Wenjun, Y; Ow, A; Lizheng, W; Minjun, D; Chenping, Z

    2012-08-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is an infrequent malignant neoplasm that originates most commonly in the major and minor salivary glands of the head and neck region. This study provides new information on head and neck ACC with cervical lymph node metastasis. Of 616 patients who underwent primary tumour resection from 1995 to 2008 in the authors' hospital, 62 cases with cervical lymph node metastasis were analyzed. The general incidence of cervical lymph node metastasis in ACC was approximately 10%. The base of tongue, mobile tongue and mouth floor were the most frequent sites of lymph nodes metastasis, with incidences of 19.2%, 17.6% and 15.3%, respectively. Most cases occurred via a classic 'tunnel-style' metastasis and the level Ib and II regions were the most frequently involved. Primary site and lymphovascular invasion were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis. High patient mortality was significantly correlated with lymph node positive cases. The tongue-mouth floor complex has a high propensity for cervical lymph node metastasis, which occurs through a classic 'tunnel-style' metastasis. Peritumoral lymphovascular invasion could be taken as strong predictor for lymph node metastasis, which ultimately leads to poor prognosis of ACC patient. Selective neck dissection should be considered in such cases. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of Risk Reduction for Lymphedema Following Sentinel Lymph Noded Guided Surgery for Primary Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    Lymphedema Following Sentinel Lymph Noded Guided Surgery for Primary Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Andrea L. Cheville, M.D...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Assessment of Risk Reduction for Lymphedema Following Sentinel Lymph Noded Guided Surgery for Primary Breast Cancer 5b...14. ABSTRACT Lymphedema is a common complication of primary breast cancer therapy. It is a chronic, insidiously progressive, and potentially

  1. MPEG-DSPE polymeric micelle for translymphatic chemotherapy of lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Dong, Qing; Yan, Zhiqiang; Lu, Weiyue; Feng, Lingling; Xie, Cao; Xie, Zuoxu; Su, Bingxia; Liu, Min

    2015-06-20

    Lymph node metastasis is one of the major pathways for tumor formation and it is difficult to deliver chemotherapeutics at therapeutic concentrations to lymph node metastasis. This study prepared methyl poly(ethylene glycol)-distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine/doxorubicin (MPEG-DSPE/DOX) micelle for the treatment of lymph node metastasis. The MPEG-DSPE/DOX micelle prepared were of spherical morphology with a particle size of 20 ± 5 nm. The uptake rates of DOX and MPEG-DSPE/DOX micelle by A375 cells were 51.2% and 88.7%, respectively. The phagocytosis rate of MPEG-DSPE/Rhodamine B micelle by RAW264.7 cells was 17.2-fold lower than for Rhodamine B alone. After subcutaneous injection, MPEG-DSPE micelle underwent lymphatic absorption and accumulated in popliteal lymph nodes. MPEG-DSPE/DOX micelle significantly alleviated damage to the subcutaneous tissue of the injection sites compared with DOX alone. We established a model of nude mice bearing lymph node metastasis of A375 cells. After subcutaneous injection, the weights of both the popliteal and iliac lymph nodes of the MPEG-DSPE/DOX micelle group were significantly lower than in the saline and DOX groups. MPEG-DSPE/DOX micelle effectively killed the tumor cells in popliteal and iliac lymph nodes. In conclusion, MPEG-DSPE micelle is a promising drug delivery system for the treatment of lymph node metastasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Leukemias involving abdominal and pelvic lymph nodes: evaluation with contrast-enhanced MDCT.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ge; Yang, Zhi-Gang; Bai, Jiao; Li, Yuan; Xu, Hua-Yan; Long, Qi-Hua

    2014-10-01

    To clarify features of lymph nodes associated with leukemia purposing to offer help for imaging diagnosis and differential diagnosis of leukemia. We retrospectively analyzed 47 patients with clinically proven leukemia involving the abdominal and pelvic lymph nodes. Of these 47 patients, 10 had acute myeloid leukemia, 9 had acute lymphocytic leukemia, and 28 had chronic lymphocytic leukemia. MDCT was used to determine lymph node features such as morphology, growth patterns, size, enhancement patterns, anatomical distribution, and manifestations in extramedullary organs. Incidence of leukemia was higher in men than in women. Enlarged lymph nodes were more frequently conglomerated in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (96.4%) than in acute myeloid leukemia (50%) and acute lymphocytic leukemia (55.6%; P < 0.05 for both). Lymph nodes associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia were larger than those associated with acute myeloid and lymphocytic leukemias (P < 0.05 for both). The enlarged lymph nodes appeared homogeneous (80.9%) and homogeneous mixed with peripheral (19.1%). No statistically significant differences were observed between the three types of leukemias with respect to enhancement patterns (all P > 0.05). The lymph nodes commonly associated with these three leukemias were located in the lesser omentum, upper and lower para-aortic regions, and groin region. Our study showed that contrast-enhanced MDCT could accurately determine the enhancement patterns and anatomical distribution of lymph nodes associated with leukemia. Therefore, it is helpful for imaging diagnosis and differential diagnosis of leukemia.

  3. Ultrasonography of the supramammary lymph nodes for diagnosis of bovine chronic subclinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Khoramian, B; Vajhi, A; Ghasemzadeh-Nava, H; Ahrari-Khafi, M S; Bahonar, A

    2015-01-01

    Currently, somatic cell count (SCC) and bacterial culture are considered as the gold standard of detecting subclinical Mastitis. Mastitis leads to proliferation of lymphocytes in the supramammary lymph nodes and subsequent enlargement of ipsilateral lymph node. Ultrasonography can be used to survey these changes. A portable ultrasound machine with a 2-5 MHz convex transducer was used to identify the supramammary lymph node size in 35 cows in a herd with chronic Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. After pre-milking udder preparation, a California mastitis test (CMT) was performed and individual milk samples were taken from each quarter for bacterial culture and somatic cell count (SCC) in accordance with NMC recommendations. The mean length (range 5.77-12.90 cm) and width (range 2.07-7.41 cm) of the lymph node were 9.2 and 4.03 cm, respectively. There was a positive correlation between lymph node size (length and depth) and culture of milk samples on ipsilateral quarters. Also, there was a significant difference correlation between CMT or mean log SCC of each side and size of supramammary lymph node in the same side. This study showed significant changes in supramammary lymph node dimensions in mastitis cases, so ultrasonography of this lymph node is probably a useful method for mastitis detection, especially in situations that test on milk is impossible.

  4. Ultrasonography of the supramammary lymph nodes for diagnosis of bovine chronic subclinical mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Khoramian, B.; Vajhi, A.; Ghasemzadeh-Nava, H.; Ahrari-Khafi, M. S.; Bahonar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, somatic cell count (SCC) and bacterial culture are considered as the gold standard of detecting subclinical Mastitis. Mastitis leads to proliferation of lymphocytes in the supramammary lymph nodes and subsequent enlargement of ipsilateral lymph node. Ultrasonography can be used to survey these changes. A portable ultrasound machine with a 2-5 MHz convex transducer was used to identify the supramammary lymph node size in 35 cows in a herd with chronic Staphylococcus aureus mastitis. After pre-milking udder preparation, a California mastitis test (CMT) was performed and individual milk samples were taken from each quarter for bacterial culture and somatic cell count (SCC) in accordance with NMC recommendations. The mean length (range 5.77-12.90 cm) and width (range 2.07-7.41 cm) of the lymph node were 9.2 and 4.03 cm, respectively. There was a positive correlation between lymph node size (length and depth) and culture of milk samples on ipsilateral quarters. Also, there was a significant difference correlation between CMT or mean log SCC of each side and size of supramammary lymph node in the same side. This study showed significant changes in supramammary lymph node dimensions in mastitis cases, so ultrasonography of this lymph node is probably a useful method for mastitis detection, especially in situations that test on milk is impossible. PMID:27175155

  5. Lymph node density--prognostic value in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Rudra, Sonali; Spiotto, Michael T; Witt, Mary Ellyn; Blair, Elizabeth A; Stenson, Kerstin; Haraf, Daniel J

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prognostic value of lymph node density in head and neck cancer. We utilized a prospective, multicenter database of 223 patients with head and neck cancer to identify patients who underwent lymph node dissection before chemoradiation to assess the prognostic significance of lymph node density. In 38 patients who met study criteria, lymph node density ≤0.20 predicted for improved overall survival (OS; 79% vs 50%; p = .04). Lymph node density was also associated with a trend toward improved 3-year locoregional control (96% vs 79%; p = .14) and distant metastasis-free survival (93% vs 78%; p = .13). In the patients with treatment failure distantly or locoregionally, that failure was earlier in patients with lymph node density >0.20 than in patients with lymph node density ≤0.20 (median, 12.7 months vs 5.2 months; p = .004). Our data suggest that lymph node density predicts for OS in patients with head and neck cancer and that the difference in OS may be because of differences in time to failure. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Primary Kaposi's sarcoma in lymph nodes concurrent with chronic lymphatic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Weshler, Z; Leviatan, A; Krasnokuki, D; Kopolovitch, J

    1979-02-01

    Both Kaposi's sarcoma and chronic lymphatic leukemia affect the lymph nodes, and not infrequently, the same patient. The authors describe the occurrence of both diseases in the same lymph node. The rarity of this finding suggests different histopathogenic origins of the two diseases.

  7. Model-based segmentation of pathological lymph nodes in CT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dornheim, Lars; Dornheim, Jana; Rössling, Ivo; Mönch, Tobias

    2010-03-01

    For the computer-aided diagnosis of tumor diseases knowledge about the position, size and type of the lymph nodes is needed to compute the tumor classification (TNM). For the computer-aided planning of subsequent surgeries like the Neck Dissection spatial information about the lymph nodes is also important. Thus, an efficient and exact segmentation method for lymph nodes in CT data is necessary, especially pathological altered lymph nodes play an important role here. Based on prior work, in this paper we present a noticeably enhanced model-based segmentation method for lymph nodes in CT data, which now can be used also for enlarged and mostly well separated necrotic lymph nodes. Furthermore, the kind of pathological variation can be determined automatically during segmentation, which is important for the automatic TNM classification. Our technique was tested on 21 lymph nodes from 5 CT datasets, among several enlarged and necrotic ones. The results lie in the range of the inter-personal variance of human experts and improve the results of former work again. Bigger problems were only noticed for pathological lymph nodes with vague boundaries due to infiltrated neighbor tissue.

  8. Noninvasive photoacoustic sentinel lymph node mapping using Au nanocages as a lymph node tracer in a rat model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kwang Hyun; Kim, Chulhong; Cobley, Claire M.; Xia, Younan; Wang, Lihong V.

    2009-02-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has been widely performed and become the standard procedure for axillary staging in breast cancer patients. In current SLNB, identification of SLNs is prerequisite, and blue dye and/or radioactive colloids are clinically used for mapping. However, these methods are still intraoperative, and especially radioactive colloids based method is ionizing. As a result, SLNB is generally associated with ill side effects. In this study, we have proposed near-infrared Au nanocages as a new tracer for noninvasive and nonionizing photoacoustic (PA) SLN mapping in a rat model as a step toward clinical applications. Au nanocages have great features: biocompatibility, easy surface modification for biomarker, a tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) which allows for peak absorption to be optimized for the laser being used, and capsule-type drug delivery. Au nanocage-enhanced photoacoustic imaging has the potential to be adjunctive to current invasive SLNB for preoperative axillary staging in breast cancer patients.

  9. Pattern of cervical lymph node metastasis in tonsil cancer: predictive factor analysis of contralateral and retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eun-Jae; Oh, Jeong-In; Choi, Kyu-Young; Lee, Dong-Jin; Park, Il-Seok; Kim, Jin-Hwan; Rho, Young-Soo

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of cervical lymph node metastasis in tonsil cancer including the retropharyngeal (RPLN) nodal metastasis. Seventy-six tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma patients who underwent surgery-based treatment were retrospectively analyzed. Most patients had advanced stage (stages III and IV: 81.6%) tonsil cancer. Sixteen patients were treated with surgery only. Postoperative radiotherapy was performed to 38 patients, and chemoradiation to 22 patients. Seventy-one therapeutic neck dissections and 27 elective neck dissections were performed. Thirty-four patients underwent RPLN dissection based on the preoperative inclusion criteria. There was a statistically significant metastasis in level I or V nodes, when the ipsilateral multilevel, or contralateral nodes were positive. The rate of contralateral occult cases was 28.6%. T3-4 stages, primary lesions close to the midline, or ipsilateral multilevel involvement were significantly associated with contralateral metastasis. Ipsilateral multilevel involvement was the independent factor with multivariate analysis. RPLN metastasis was confirmed in 9 of the 34 (26.5%) subjects. Disease-specific survival rate was significantly different according to RPLN status (82.1% vs. 55.6%; p=0.021). Positive pre-operative image, posterior pharyngeal wall invasion, more than N2 stage, contralateral node metastasis, or ipsilateral multilevel involvement were correlated with RPLN metastasis. Bilateral neck dissection is mandatory for primary lesions close to the midline and advanced ipsilateral nodal disease. Elective RPLN dissection should be considered for patients with advanced neck and primary tumor, particularly for tumors with posterior pharyngeal wall invasion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlation of Lymph Node Density With Negative Outcome Predictors in Oral and Maxillofacial Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Roderick Youngdo; Ward, Brent Benson; Brockhoff, Hans C; Helman, Joseph I; Braun, Thomas M; Skouteris, Christos A

    2016-10-01

    Lymph node density is defined as the number of positive lymph nodes per total number of excised lymph nodes. In oral and maxillofacial cancer, there are recent data showing that increased lymph node density leads to worse outcomes for patients. However, data correlating lymph node density with other known risk parameters are lacking. This study investigated whether a direct correlation exists among cervical lymph node density, depth of invasion, perineural invasion, and extracapsular tumor spread. A retrospective chart review was undertaken to include all patients who underwent neck dissection with resection of primary oral and maxillofacial squamous cell carcinoma from January 2009 through July 2014. After applying the exclusion criteria, 286 patients were identified. Primary tumor depth of invasion, perineural invasion, and lymph node status, including extracapsular spread, were obtained from the standard pathology report. Descriptive statistics were applied. The association between 2 continuous tumor characteristics was summarized with the Pearson correlation coefficient, and the association between a continuous and a binary tumor characteristic was summarized with 2-sample t test. Statistical significance for the study was set at a P value less than .05. Mean age at time of surgery was 63.9 ± 12.5 years. The final study included 169 men and 117 women (N = 286). The mean depth of invasion was 12.3 ± 11 mm (range, 1 to 69 mm). Mean lymph node density was 0.04 ± 0.1 (range, 0 to 0.81). There was a positive association between lymph node density and depth of tumor invasion (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = 0.21; P < .001). Tumors with perineural invasion had a statistically significant difference in mean lymph node density (0.074 for positive vs 0.024 for negative; P < .001). There also was a significant association in mean lymph node density with the presence of extracapsular spread (0.143 for positive and 0.010 for negative; P < .001). Statistically

  11. Effects of incision and irradiation on regional lymph node metastasis in carcinoma of the hamster tongue

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtake, K.; Shingaki, S.; Nakajima, T. )

    1990-07-01

    The effects of incision and irradiation on regional lymph node metastasis in DMBA-induced squamous cell carcinomas of the hamster tongue are reported. Metastasis to the submandibular lymph nodes was confirmed histologically in 48.0% of the animals. The incidence of lymph node metastasis was significantly increased (65.9%) after repeated incisions of tongue carcinomas. Three gray whole-body irradiation also increased the rate of metastasis from 31.0% to 46.3%. Higher incidences of lymphatic vessel invasion after incision and concomitant lymph node metastasis in the lymphatic invasion-positive group indicated a stepwise relationship leading to an increase in lymph node metastasis after incision. Because of the high incidence of metastases and close resemblance to human carcinomas in the tumor cell deposition and establishment of metastatic foci, DMBA-induced tongue carcinoma with invasion may serve as an experimental model of human oral carcinomas.

  12. Supraclavicular lymph node metastasis as the initial presentation of primary fallopian tube carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Nobuyuki; Tateoka, Kazuhiro; Fukaya, Kazumasa; Terada, Tadashi; Kubushiro, Kaneyuki

    2010-06-01

    Supraclavicular lymph node metastasis is a rare presentation of primary fallopian tube carcinoma. A 76-year-old woman presented with an enlarged supraclavicular lymph node. A biopsy was performed, and its findings confirmed metastatic adenocarcinoma. Subsequent exploratory laparotomy revealed right fallopian tube carcinoma as the primary lesion; consequently, right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. After adjuvant chemotherapy, she underwent a laparotomy with total abdominal hysterectomy, left salpingo-oophorectomy, pelvic and para-aortic lymph node sampling, and omentectomy. Supraclavicular lymph node metastasis was thought to be, although rarely, the first manifestation of primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC). When supraclavicular lymph node metastasis of an unknown origin is encountered, the possibility of PFTC should be considered.

  13. Near-infrared-fluorescence imaging of lymph nodes by using liposomally formulated indocyanine green derivatives.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Taro; Fujito, Hiromichi; Suganami, Akiko; Ouchi, Tomoki; Ooishi, Aki; Aoki, Akira; Onoue, Kazutaka; Muraki, Yutaka; Madono, Tomoyuki; Fujinami, Masanori; Tamura, Yutaka; Hayashi, Hideki

    2014-01-15

    Liposomally formulated indocyanine green (LP-ICG) has drawn much attention as a highly sensitive near-infrared (NIR)-fluorescence probe for tumors or lymph nodes in vivo. We synthesized ICG derivatives tagged with alkyl chains (ICG-Cn), and we examined NIR-fluorescence imaging for lymph nodes in the lower extremities of mice by using liposomally formulated ICG-Cn (LP-ICG-Cn) as well as conventional liposomally formulated ICG (LP-ICG) and ICG. Analysis with a noninvasive preclinical NIR-fluorescence imaging system revealed that LP-ICG-Cn accumulates in only the popliteal lymph node 1h after injection into the footpad, whereas LP-ICG and ICG accumulate in the popliteal lymph node and other organs like the liver. This result indicates that LP-ICG-Cn is a useful NIR-fluorescence probe for noninvasive in vivo bioimaging, especially for the sentinel lymph node.

  14. [Unidirectional axillary lymph node swelling in a 31-year-old woman].

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Tom; Robiller, Franz; Schau, Anja; Winkler, Christina

    2002-10-15

    Swelling in the lymph nodes leads one to think at first in terms of diagnostic differentials such as local inflammation, tumor metastases, or lymphomas. Kikuchi-Fujimoto lymphadenitis is a rare cause of feverish lymphadenitis. A 31-year-old woman was admitted with painful axillary feverish swelling of the lymph nodes. There had been no previous illnesses and n the case history of her mother, a mammary carcinoma could be found. Ultrasonic and MRI tests showed the lymph node conglomerate to be located in the left axilla. Laboratory tests revealed a constellation of inflammation with lymphomonocytosis. Serologic tests for viral causes were negative. A necrotizing lymphadenitis of the Kikuchi-Fujimoto type was described in the histological reclamation of a lymph node. Within 2 weeks, spontaneous regression of the feverish lymphadenitis occurred. In cases of unclear lymphadenitis, an attempt at achieving histological reclamation of a lymph node is desirable in order to realize rare differential diagnosis such as Kikuchi-Fujimoto lymphadenitis.

  15. Periaortic lymph node involvement by metastatic angiosarcoma and benign sinus mesothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Isotalo, P A; Jabit, M; Wenckebach, G F

    2001-05-01

    Hyperplastic mesothelial cells involving lymph node sinuses have only been recently described. Most nodal mesothelial cells are thought to originate from mesothelial surfaces disrupted by serosal effusions. Dislodged mesothelial cells likely gain access to submesothelial lymphatics via mesothelial stomata and disseminate to draining lymph nodes. Unusual lymph node architectural patterns result when benign sinus mesothelial cells occur concurrently with a neoplastic nodal process. We describe a young man who developed diffuse metastases from a primary cardiac angiosarcoma. His periaortic lymph nodes contained metastatic angiosarcoma and hyperplastic mesothelial cells with a sinus distribution. The patient had a clinical history of progressive haemoperitoneum, exacerbated by thrombocytopaenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Massive haemoperitoneum of 5000 ml was confirmed at autopsy. This is the first report to suggest that multiple episodes of intraperitoneal haemorrhage and ascites may both act in the same manner to cause dislodgment and dissemination of mesothelial cells to draining lymph node sinuses.

  16. Lymph node-independent liver metastasis in a model of metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Enquist, Ida B; Good, Zinaida; Jubb, Adrian M; Fuh, Germaine; Wang, Xi; Junttila, Melissa R; Jackson, Erica L; Leong, Kevin G

    2014-03-26

    Deciphering metastatic routes is critically important as metastasis is a primary cause of cancer mortality. In colorectal cancer (CRC), it is unknown whether liver metastases derive from cancer cells that first colonize intestinal lymph nodes, or whether such metastases can form without prior lymph node involvement. A lack of relevant metastatic CRC models has precluded investigations into metastatic routes. Here we describe a metastatic CRC mouse model and show that liver metastases can manifest without a lymph node metastatic intermediary. Colorectal tumours transplanted onto the colonic mucosa invade and metastasize to specific target organs including the intestinal lymph nodes, liver and lungs. Importantly, this metastatic pattern differs from that observed following caecum implantation, which invariably involves peritoneal carcinomatosis. Anti-angiogenesis inhibits liver metastasis, yet anti-lymphangiogenesis does not impact liver metastasis despite abrogating lymph node metastasis. Our data demonstrate direct hematogenous spread as a dissemination route that contributes to CRC liver malignancy.

  17. Anatomic-histologic study of the floor of the mouth: the lingual lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Ananian, Sargis G; Gvetadze, Shalva R; Ilkaev, Konstantin D; Mochalnikova, Valeria V; Zayratiants, Georgiy O; Mkhitarov, Vladimir A; Yang, Xin; Ciciashvili, Aleksandr M

    2015-06-01

    The lingual lymph nodes are inconstant nodes located within the fascial/intermuscular spaces of the floor of the mouth. Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma has been reported to recur and metastasize in lingual lymph nodes with poor prognosis. Lingual lymph nodes are not currently included in basic tongue squamous cell carcinoma surgery. Twenty-one cadavers (7 males, 14 females) were studied, aged from 57 to 94 years (mean age 76.3 years). The gross specimen of the floor of the mouth was divided into blocks: A (median nodes), B, B' (parahyoid), C, C' (paraglandular). Serial histological microslides were cut and stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Frequency of lingual lymph nodes in each block and their microscopic features were assessed. The lingual lymph nodes in overall number of 7 were detected in 5 of the 21 cadavers (23.8%). The total incidence of lingual lymph node was 33.3% (7 nodes/21 cadavers). Block A failed to demonstrate any lymph nodes (0%); Blocks B, B'-2 nodes (9.5%) and 2 nodes (9.5%), respectively; Blocks C, C'-1 node (4.8%) and 2 nodes (9.5%), respectively. The mean lingual lymph node length was 4.1 mm (from 1.4 to 8.7 mm), the mean thickness was 2.8 mm (from 0.8 to 7.5 mm). Five cadavers (23.8%) revealed mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. Atrophic changes appeared in 4 (57.1%) lingual lymph nodes. The presence of lymph node-bearing tissue in the floor of the mouth is demonstrated. In account of resection radicalism and better local control the fat tissue of the floor of the mouth should be removed in conjunction to glossectomy. Further anatomic and clinical research is required to establish the role of lingual lymph node in oral squamous cell carcinoma recurrence and metastasis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The Prognostic Value of Harvested Lymph Nodes and the Metastatic Lymph Node Ratio for Gastric Cancer Patients: Results of a Study of 1,101 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan-Fang; Feng, Xing-Yu; Sun, Xiao-Wei; Li, Wei; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Zhan, You-Qing; Qian, Chao-Nan; Chen, Ying-Bo

    2012-01-01

    Aim To investigate whether the recommendation to remove 15 lymph nodes that is used in the staging system is necessary to assess gastric cancer progression and to evaluate whether our metastatic lymph node ratio dividing method, adapted from the AJCC’s (American Joint Committee on Cancer) 7th TNM staging system, is helpful for the patients with fewer than 15 harvested lymph nodes. Methods We performed a retrospective study of 1101 patients with histologically diagnosed gastric cancer who underwent a D2 gastrectomy at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between January 2001 and December 2010. The Kappa and Chi-squared tests were employed to compare the clinicopathological variables. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression were employed for the univariate and multivariate survival analyses. Results In the trial, 346, 601 and 154 patients had 0–14, 15–30 and more than 30 lymph nodes harvested, respectively. The median survival times of patients with different lymph nodes harvested in N0, N1, N2 and N3a groups were 45.43, 54.28 and 66.95 months (p = 0.068); 49.22, 44.25 and 56.72 months (p<0.001), 43.94, 47.97 and 35.19 months (p = 0.042); 32.88, 42.76 and 23.50 months (p = 0.016). Dividing the patients who had fewer than 15 lymph nodes harvested by the metastatic lymph node ratio at 0, 0.13 and 0.40, the median survival times of these 4 groups were 70.6, 50.5, 53.5 and 30.7 months (p<0.001). After re-categorising these 4 groups into the N0, N1, N2, N3a groups, the histological grade, T staging, premier N staging, and restaged N staging were the independent prognostic factors. Conclusions Large numbers of lymph nodes harvested in radical gastrectomy do not cause stage migration. For those patients with a small number of harvested lymph nodes, their stage should be divided by the metastatic lymph node ratio, referred to in the TNM staging system, to assign them an accurate stage. PMID:23166665

  19. Drainage of cells and soluble antigen from the CNS to regional lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Laman, Jon D; Weller, Roy O

    2013-09-01

    Despite the absence of conventional lymphatics, there is efficient drainage of both cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) from the CNS to regional lymph nodes. CSF drains from the subarachnoid space by channels that pass through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone to the nasal mucosa and cervical lymph nodes in animals and in humans; antigen presenting cells (APC) migrate along this pathway to lymph nodes. ISF and solutes drain from the brain parenchyma to cervical lymph nodes by a separate route along 100-150 nm wide basement membranes in the walls of cerebral capillaries and arteries. This pathway is too narrow for the migration of APC so it is unlikely that APC traffic directly from brain parenchyma to lymph nodes by this route. We present a model for the pivotal involvement of regional lymph nodes in immunological reactions of the CNS. The role of regional lymph nodes in immune reactions of the CNS in virus infections, the remote influence of the gut microbiota, multiple sclerosis and stroke are discussed. Evidence is presented for the role of cervical lymph nodes in the induction of tolerance and its influence on neuroimmunological reactions. We look to the future by examining how nanoparticle technology will enhance our understanding of CNS-lymph node connections and by reviewing the implications of lymphatic drainage of the brain for diagnosis and therapy of diseases of the CNS ranging from neuroimmunological disorders to dementias. Finally, we review the challenges and opportunities for progress in CNS-lymph node interactions and their involvement in disease processes.

  20. Lymph node mapping in rabbit liver cancer with nanocarbon and methylene blue injecta.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhong

    2013-05-13

    To discuss the value of lymph node mapping in rabbit liver cancer with nanocarbon and methylene blue injecta. Rabbit liver cancer model was established by transplanting VX2 cells with laparotomy in celiac planting method. Twenty Japan white rabbits were divided into two groups randomly. Each group had 10 rabbits. Lymph node mapping in two groups rabbit liver cancer were observed. Two groups rabbit liver cancer and local lymph nodes were removed. The number and location of local lymph nodes were recorded, and then the samples were obtained from both groups. The lymph nodes dyed time was (100.50±29.92) s in nanocarbon group, and (11.20±4.18) s in methylene blue group with statistical significance between two groups (P=0.000). In the comparison of lymph node fading time, nanocarbon group was (2.22±0.74) h, methylene blue group was (1.63±0.54) h, nanocarbon group was longer than the methylene blue group, but without statistical significance (P=0.058). The accuracy was 87.5% (35/40) in methylene blue group, while, the nanocarbon group was 87.2% (34/39), with statistical significance (P=1.000). Experimental results show that application of nanocarbon injection and methylene blue injection during resection of liver cancer and local lymph nodes in rabbit liver cancer model has obvious tracer function in liver cancer and lymphatic drainage. It can reduce the complexity and risk of the operation, and avoid the blindness in the process of traditional lymph node dissection surgery. Besides, they can effectively reduce the number of residual lymph nodes after operation. It can achieve the lymph node dissection more thoroughly, promptly, easily and safely. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A longitudinal MRI study on lymph nodes histiocytosis of a xenograft cancer model

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-González, María; Plaza-García, Sandra; Arizeta, Janire; Bianchessi, Silvia; Trigueros, César; Reese, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Background Efforts are continuously made to detect and investigate the pivotal processes and interplay between the response of sentinel lymph node and malignant cells from a primary tumor. Conversely, some frequently used tumor animal models, such as human cancer xenografts, rarely feature metastasis. Therefore, lymph node alterations are seldom assessed. We consider that studying lymph node response could contribute to the understanding of host reaction to cancer. In the present study, we explored the presence of regional lymph node alterations in parallel with tumor growth using a pancreatic tumor xenograft model which does not develop metastasis. Methods and findings We established an animal cancer model by the subcutaneous inoculation of PANC-1 (a metastatic human pancreatic cancer cell line) in the left upper flank of athymic nude mice. Tumor animals, along with controls (n = 7 / group) were subjected to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in order to follow tumor growth and brachial and axillary lymph nodes alterations over several weeks. Further histological analyses were performed at the end of the study. The individual average of the different lymph nodes sizes was 15–40% larger in the tumor animals compared to control animals at week 8 to week 20. The tumor size and lymph node size were not correlated. Histological analysis of the lymph nodes showed paracortical histiocytosis. No metastasis to lymph nodes could be detected by histology. In tumor bearing animals, histiocytosis was associated with isolated apoptotic bodies and migration of human tumoral cells was confirmed by specific immunostaining of human origin markers. Conclusions The lack of metastasis as well as the pathological manifestation of the lymph node alteration in this pre-clinical model established here parallels findings in patients with sinus histiocytosis that is correlated with improved survival. PMID:28704462

  2. Adenocarcinoma arising at a colostomy site with inguinal lymph node metastasis: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Masayoshi; Kawada, Kenji; Hida, Koya; Hasegawa, Suguru; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2015-02-01

    Inguinal lymph node metastasis from adenocarcinoma arising at a colostomy site is extremely rare, and the significance of surgical resection for metastatic inguinal lymph nodes has not been established. An 82-year-old woman who had undergone abdominoperineal resection 27 years earlier was admitted to our hospital complaining of bleeding from a colostomy. Physical examination revealed that a tumor at the colostomy site directly invaded into the peristomal skin, and that a left inguinal lymph node was firm and swollen. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan demonstrated accumulation of (18)F-fluorodeoxy glucose into both the colostomy tumor and the left swollen inguinal lymph node, while there was no evidence of metastasis to liver or lungs. She underwent open left hemicolectomy with wide local resection of the colostomy, and dissection of left inguinal lymph nodes. Histological diagnosis was a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma that directly invaded into the surrounding skin and metastasized to the left inguinal lymph node. The patient has been followed up for >5 years without any sign of recurrence. In general, inguinal lymph node metastasis from colorectal cancers is regarded as a systemic disease with a poor prognosis, and so systemic chemotherapy and radiotherapy, but not surgical lymph node dissection, are recommended. Considering the lymphatic drainage route in the present case, inguinal lymph node metastasis does not represent a systemic disease but rather a sentinel nodal metastasis from adenocarcinoma at a colostomy site. Surgical dissection of metastatic inguinal lymph nodes should be considered to enable a favorable prognosis in the absence of distant metastasis to other organs.

  3. Ultrasound texture analysis: Association with lymph node metastasis of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Yeon; Lee, Eunjung; Nam, Se Jin; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Han, Kyung Hwa; Kwak, Jin Young

    2017-01-01

    This retrospective study aimed to evaluate whether ultrasound texture analysis is useful to predict lymph node metastasis in patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board, and the need to obtain informed consent was waived. Between May and July 2013, 361 patients (mean age, 43.8 ± 11.3 years; range, 16-72 years) who underwent staging ultrasound (US) and subsequent thyroidectomy for conventional PTMC ≤ 10 mm between May and July 2013 were included. Each PTMC was manually segmented and its histogram parameters (Mean, Standard deviation, Skewness, Kurtosis, and Entropy) were extracted with Matlab software. The mean values of histogram parameters and clinical and US features were compared according to lymph node metastasis using the independent t-test and Chi-square test. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the independent factors associated with lymph node metastasis. Tumors with lymph node metastasis (n = 117) had significantly higher entropy compared to those without lymph node metastasis (n = 244) (mean±standard deviation, 6.268±0.407 vs. 6.171±.0.405; P = .035). No additional histogram parameters showed differences in mean values according to lymph node metastasis. Entropy was not independently associated with lymph node metastasis on multivariate logistic regression analysis (Odds ratio, 0.977 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.482-1.980]; P = .949). Younger age (Odds ratio, 0.962 [95% CI, 0.940-0.984]; P = .001) and lymph node metastasis on US (Odds ratio, 7.325 [95% CI, 3.573-15.020]; P < .001) were independently associated with lymph node metastasis. Texture analysis was not useful in predicting lymph node metastasis in patients with PTMC.

  4. Lymph node extramedullary hematopoiesis in breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy: a potential diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Prieto-Granada, Carlos; Setia, Namrata; Otis, Christopher N

    2013-06-01

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) develops as a compensatory mechanism associated with hematologic processes but it may occur in association with chemotherapy. Three cases of EMH arising in axillary lymph nodes following neoadjuvant therapy for breast carcinoma are reported herein. Three women ranging in age from 41 to 47 years presented with unilateral breast masses measuring 0.6 to 4.0 cm in greatest dimension and were diagnosed with infiltrating ductal carcinoma, grade III by core needle biopsies. Two of the tumors were triple negative and one was estrogen receptor positive. All patients subsequently received neoadjuvant therapy followed by lumpectomies. No residual carcinoma was identified in postchemotherapy breast resection specimens. One patient underwent a sentinel lymph node procedure, the second patient an axillary lymph node dissection, and the third patient had a core biopsy of an enlarged axillary lymph node. The patient that underwent axillary lymph node dissection had metastatic carcinoma in one of her lymph nodes. Foci of EMH consisting of myeloid, erythroid, and megakaryocytic precursors were present within the nodal parenchyma and/or subcapsular sinuses of axillary lymph nodes of all three cases. Megakaryocytes were immunoreactive with factor VIII, erythroid elements with Glycophorin and myeloid precursors with myeloperoxidase. With increasing use of neoadjuvant therapy for breast carcinoma, EMH within lymph nodes is more likely to be encountered. Hematopoietic precursors present in lymph nodes may potentially be misdiagnosed as metastatic tumor cells, particularly as lobular carcinoma or metaplastic carcinoma. Therefore, caution should be exercised when evaluating axillary lymph nodes in the clinical setting of neoadjuvant therapy for breast carcinoma.

  5. [Anatomo-topographic features of parasternal lymph nodes in adult humans].

    PubMed

    Shvedavchenko, A I

    1981-08-01

    The parasternal lymph nodes have been revealed in corpses of person died at the age 22-85 years by the method of preparation after Gerota's blue had been interstitially injected into the tissue of the mammary gland, the diaphragm, the diaphragmal surface of the liver, the pleura and the pericardium. The mass has also been injected into the lymph nodes and vessels revealed by means of the interstitial injection. Most of the parasternal lymph nodes are situated in interposal places, their number varying from 2 to 20 in the parasternal lymphatic chain. At the level of the costal cartilage they are found much more seldom. Maximal number of the parasternal lymph nodes situating behind one costal cartilage is 4. Behind the IV and the V costal cartilage, left to the sternum no lymph nodes have been revealed. The most removed from the sternal edge, the lymph nods in the V and the VI intercostal spaces, both to the left and to the right have been found. As to the position of blood vessels, the lymph nodes occur mostly medially and laterally but not anterior or posterior to them or between them. The size of the lymph nodes varies from 1 to 25 mm.

  6. Indocyanine green SPY elite-assisted sentinel lymph node biopsy in cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Korn, Jason M; Tellez-Diaz, Alejandra; Bartz-Kurycki, Marisa; Gastman, Brian

    2014-04-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the standard of care for intermediate-depth and high-risk thin melanomas. Recently, indocyanine green and near-infrared imaging have been used to aid in sentinel node biopsy. The present study aimed to determine the feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy with indocyanine green SPY Elite navigation and to critically evaluate the technique compared with the standard modalities. A retrospective review of 90 consecutive cutaneous melanoma patients who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed. Two cohorts were formed: group A, which had sentinel lymph node biopsy performed with blue dye and radioisotope; and group B, which had sentinel lymph node biopsy performed with radioisotope and indocyanine green SPY Elite navigation. The cohorts were compared to assess for differences in localization rates, sensitivity and specificity of sentinel node identification, and length of surgery. The sentinel lymph node localization rate was 79.4 percent using the blue dye method, 98.0 percent using the indocyanine green fluorescence method, and 97.8 percent using the radioisotope/handheld gamma probe method. Indocyanine green fluorescence detected more sentinel lymph nodes than the vital dye method alone (p = 0.020). A trend toward a reduction in length of surgery was noted in the SPY Elite cohort. Sentinel lymph node mapping and localization in cutaneous melanoma with the indocyanine green SPY Elite navigation system is technically feasible and may offer several advantages over current modalities, including higher sensitivity and specificity, decreased number of lymph nodes sampled, decreased operative time, and potentially lower false-negative rates. Diagnostic, II.

  7. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer patients using fluorescence navigation with indocyanine green

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There are various methods for detecting sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) using a vital dye is a convenient and safe, intraoperatively preparative method to assess lymph node status. However, the disadvantage of the dye method is that the success rate of sentinel lymph node detection depend on the surgeon's skills and preoperative mapping of the sentinel lymph node is not feasible. Currently, a vital dye, radioisotope, or a combination of both is used to detect sentinel nodes. Many surgeons have reported successful results using either method. In this study we have analyzed breast lymphatic drainage pathways using indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging. Methods We examined the lymphatic courses, or lymphatic vessels, in the breast using ICG fluorescence imaging, and applied this method to SLNB in patients who underwent their first operative treatment for breast cancer between May 2006 and April 2008. Fluorescence images were obtained using a charge coupled device camera with a cut filter used as a detector, and light emitting diodes at 760 nm as a light source. When ICG was injected into the subareola and periareola, subcutaneous lymphatic vessels from the areola to the axilla became visible by fluorescence within a few minutes. The sentinel lymph node was then dissected with the help of fluorescence imaging navigation. Results The detection rate of sentinel nodes was 100%. 0 to 4 states of lymphatic drainage pathways from the areola were observed. The number of sentinel nodes was 3.41 on average. Conclusions This method using indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging may possibly improve the detection rate of sentinel lymph nodes with high sensitivity and compensates for the deficiencies of other methods. The ICG fluorescence imaging technique enables observation of breast lymph vessels running in multiple directions and easily and accurately identification of sentinel lymph nodes. Thus, this technique can

  8. Intraoperative photodynamic diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in esophageal cancer patients using 5-aminolevulinic acid

    PubMed Central

    MOTOORI, MASAAKI; YANO, MASAHIKO; TANAKA, KOJI; KISHI, KENTARO; TAKAHASHI, HIDENORI; INOUE, MASAHIRO; SAITO, TAKURO; SUGIMURA, KEIJIRO; FUJIWARA, YOSHIYUKI; ISHIKAWA, OSAMU; SAKON, MASATO

    2015-01-01

    Lymph node metastasis is the strongest prognostic factor in esophageal cancer patients who have undergone esophagectomy. The accurate diagnosis of lymph node metastasis is important, but the pre-operative diagnostic accuracy is poor. The intraoperative diagnosis based on histopathological examination of frozen tissue specimens is complicated and time-consuming. Therefore, the establishment of a simple and rapid intraoperative diagnostic method is essential. Exogenous application of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) causes a selective accumulation of protoporphyrin IX, which is a fluorescent substrate, in cancer cells. The present study evaluated the feasibility of photodynamic diagnosis using ALA (ALA-PDD) for lymph node metastasis in esophageal cancer. A total of 292 lymph nodes were analyzed from 8 esophageal squamous cell cancer patients treated with esophagectomy. The patients were administered ALA orally prior to surgery. Excised lymph nodes were cut in half and examined by spectrometer. The diagnostic results of ALA-PDD were compared to those of the histopathological examination. Among the 292 lymph nodes, 19 nodes (6.5%) were histologically metastatic and 21 nodes (7.2%) were PDD-positive. The sensitivity and specificity of ALA-PDD were 84.2% (16/19) and 98.2% (268/273), respectively. The area of cancer nests of the PDD-negative lymph nodes was <2 mm2. Metastatic lymph nodes, including cancer nests >4 mm2, were correctly diagnosed by ALA-PDD. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that ALA-PDD of lymph node metastasis in patients with esophageal cancer is feasible. Further investigation would make this method a simple and rapid intraoperative diagnostic tool. PMID:26722285

  9. Occult Pelvic Lymph Node Involvement in Bladder Cancer: Implications for Definitive Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsmith, Benjamin; Baumann, Brian C.; He, Jiwei; Tucker, Kai; Bekelman, Justin; Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha; Vaughn, David; Keefe, Stephen M.; Guzzo, Thomas; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Christodouleas, John P.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To inform radiation treatment planning for clinically staged, node-negative bladder cancer patients by identifying clinical factors associated with the presence and location of occult pathologic pelvic lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: The records of patients with clinically staged T1-T4N0 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder undergoing radical cystectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy at a single institution were reviewed. Logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between preoperative clinical variables and occult pathologic pelvic or common iliac lymph nodes. Percentages of patient with involved lymph node regions entirely encompassed within whole bladder (perivesicular nodal region), small pelvic (perivesicular, obturator, internal iliac, and external iliac nodal regions), and extended pelvic clinical target volume (CTV) (small pelvic CTV plus common iliac regions) were calculated. Results: Among 315 eligible patients, 81 (26%) were found to have involved pelvic lymph nodes at the time of surgery, with 38 (12%) having involved common iliac lymph nodes. Risk of occult pathologically involved lymph nodes did not vary with clinical T stage. On multivariate analysis, the presence of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) on preoperative biopsy was significantly associated with occult pelvic nodal involvement (odds ratio 3.740, 95% confidence interval 1.865-7.499, P<.001) and marginally associated with occult common iliac nodal involvement (odds ratio 2.307, 95% confidence interval 0.978-5.441, P=.056). The percentages of patients with involved lymph node regions entirely encompassed by whole bladder, small pelvic, and extended pelvic CTVs varied with clinical risk factors, ranging from 85.4%, 95.1%, and 100% in non-muscle-invasive patients to 44.7%, 71.1%, and 94.8% in patients with muscle-invasive disease and biopsy LVI. Conclusions: Occult pelvic lymph node rates are substantial for all clinical subgroups, especially patients with LVI on biopsy. Extended

  10. Three-dimensional atlas of lymph node topography based on the visible human data set.

    PubMed

    Qatarneh, Sharif M; Kiricuta, Ion-Christian; Brahme, Anders; Tiede, Ulf; Lind, Bengt K

    2006-05-01

    Comprehensive atlases of lymph node topography are necessary tools to provide a detailed description of the lymphatic distribution in relation to other organs and structures. Despite the recent developments of atlases and guidelines focusing on definitions of lymphatic regions, a comprehensive and detailed description of the three-dimensional (3D) nodal distribution is lacking. This article describes a new 3D atlas of lymph node topography based on the digital images of the Visible Human Male Anatomical (VHMA) data set. About 1,200 lymph nodes were localized in the data set and their distribution was compared with data from current cross-sectional lymphatic atlases. The identified nodes were delineated and then labeled with different colors that corresponded to their anatomical locations. A series of 2D illustrations, showing discrete locations, description, and distribution of major lymph nodes, was compiled to form a cross-sectional atlas. The resultant contours of all localized nodes in the VHMA data set were superimposed to develop a volumetric model. A 3D reconstruction was generated for the lymph nodes and surrounding structures. The volumetric lymph node topography was also integrated into the existing VOXEL-MAN digital atlas to obtain an interactive and photo-realistic visualization of the lymph nodes showing their proximity to blood vessels and surrounding organs. The lymph node topography forms part of our whole body atlas database, which includes organs, definitions, and parameters that are related to radiation therapy. The lymph node topography atlas could be utilized for visualization and exploration of the 3D lymphatic distribution to assist in defining the target volume for treatment based on the lymphatic spread surrounding the primary tumor.

  11. Semi-automatic central-chest lymph-node definition from 3D MDCT images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Kongkuo; Higgins, William E.

    2010-03-01

    Central-chest lymph nodes play a vital role in lung-cancer staging. The three-dimensional (3D) definition of lymph nodes from multidetector computed-tomography (MDCT) images, however, remains an open problem. This is because of the limitations in the MDCT imaging of soft-tissue structures and the complicated phenomena that influence the appearance of a lymph node in an MDCT image. In the past, we have made significant efforts toward developing (1) live-wire-based segmentation methods for defining 2D and 3D chest structures and (2) a computer-based system for automatic definition and interactive visualization of the Mountain central-chest lymph-node stations. Based on these works, we propose new single-click and single-section live-wire methods for segmenting central-chest lymph nodes. The single-click live wire only requires the user to select an object pixel on one 2D MDCT section and is designed for typical lymph nodes. The single-section live wire requires the user to process one selected 2D section using standard 2D live wire, but it is more robust. We applied these methods to the segmentation of 20 lymph nodes from two human MDCT chest scans (10 per scan) drawn from our ground-truth database. The single-click live wire segmented 75% of the selected nodes successfully and reproducibly, while the success rate for the single-section live wire was 85%. We are able to segment the remaining nodes, using our previously derived (but more interaction intense) 2D live-wire method incorporated in our lymph-node analysis system. Both proposed methods are reliable and applicable to a wide range of pulmonary lymph nodes.

  12. Left Gastric Artery Lymph Nodes Should Be Included in D1 Lymph Node Dissection in Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ikoma, Naruhiko; Blum, Mariela; Estrella, Jeannelyn S; Wang, Xuemei; Fournier, Keith F; Mansfield, Paul F; Ajani, Jaffer A; Badgwell, Brian D

    2017-08-17

    The Japanese Classification of Gastric Carcinoma includes the left gastric artery (#7) lymph nodes (LNs) in the recommended extent of D1 LN dissection, but this recommendation has not been validated in western institutions. We reviewed data from a prospectively maintained database of gastric cancer patients who underwent resection at our academic cancer center and had a separate pathologic assessment of #7 LN in 2005-2016. Risk factors for #7 LN metastases and overall survival were examined by uni- and multivariable analyses. We identified 173 patients; 114 (66%) were treated with preoperative therapy, most commonly with chemoradiation therapy (47%, 81/173). We identified 22 patients (13%) who had #7 LN metastases, which accounted for 35% (22/63) of node-positive patients. No preoperative factors were associated with #7 LN metastases by univariable analyses. Patients with #7 metastases were not associated with shorter overall survival after adjustment by nodal stage (hazard ratio 1.49, 95% confidence interval 0.67-3.32; p = 0.33). Metastasis to #7 LN station was common in gastric cancer, but the survival impact was not significant after adjustment by nodal stage. We conclude that #7 LNs should be routinely dissected in gastric cancer patients, and this station should be included within the extent of D1 LN dissection.

  13. Multiphoton microscopy as a diagnostic tool for pathological analysis of sentinel lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemiere, J.; Douady, J.; Estève, F.; Salameire, D.; Lantuejoul, S.; Lorimier, P.; Ricard, C.; van der Sanden, B.; Vial, J.-C.

    2009-02-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has shown a powerful potential for biomedical in vivo and ex vivo analysis of tissue sections and explants. Studies were carried out on several animal organs such as brain, arteries, lungs, and kidneys. One of the current challenges is to transfer to the clinic the knowledge and the methods previously developed in the labs at the preclinical level. For tumour staging, physicians often remove the lymph nodes that are localized at the proximity of the lesion. In case of breast cancer or melanoma, sentinel lymph node protocol is performed: pathologists randomly realize an extensive sampling of formol fixed nodes. However, the duration of this protocol is important and its reliability is not always satisfactory. The aim of our study was to determine if multiphoton microscopy would enable the fast imaging of lymph nodes on important depths, with or without exogenous staining. Experiments were first conducted on pig lymph nodes in order to test various dyes and to determine an appropriate protocol. The same experiments were then performed on thin slices of human lymph nodes bearing metastatic melanoma cells. We obtained relevant images with both endofluorescence plus second-harmonic generation and xanthene dyes. They show a good contrast between tumour and healthy cells. Furthermore, images of pig lymph nodes were recorded up to 120μm below the surface. This new method could then enable a faster diagnosis with higher efficiency for the patient. Experiments on thicker human lymph nodes are currently underway in order to validate these preliminary results.

  14. Laparoscopic sentinel lymph node (SLN) versus extensive pelvic dissection for clinically localized prostate carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Caroline; Rousseau, Thierry; Bridji, Boumédiène; Pallardy, Amandine; Lacoste, Jacques; Campion, Loïc; Testard, Aude; Aillet, Geneviève; Mouaden, Ayat; Curtet, Chantal; Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise

    2012-02-01

    Lymph node metastasis is an important prognostic factor in prostate cancer (PC). The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the accuracy of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy by laparoscopy in staging locoregional patients with clinically localized PC. A transrectal ultrasound-guided injection of 0.3 ml/100 MBq (99m)Tc-sulphur rhenium colloid in each prostatic lobe was performed the day before surgery. Detection was performed intraoperatively with a laparoscopic probe (Gamma Sup CLERAD) followed by extensive resection. SLN counts were performed in vivo and confirmed ex vivo. Histological analysis was performed by haematoxylin-phloxine-saffron staining, followed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) if the SLN was free of metastasis. The study included 93 patients with PC at intermediate or high risk of lymph node metastases. The intraoperative detection rate was 93.5% (87/93). Nineteen patients had lymph node metastases, nine only in SLN. The false-negative rate was 10.5% (2/19). The internal iliac region was the primary metastatic site (43.3%). Metastatic sentinel nodes in the common iliac region beyond the ureteral junction were present in 13.3%. Limited or standard lymph node resection would have ignored 73.2 and 56.6% of lymph node metastases, respectively. Laparoscopy is suitable for broad identification of SLN metastasis, and targeted resection of these lymph nodes significantly limits the risk of extended surgical resection whilst maintaining the accuracy of the information.

  15. Lymph node transfer and perinodal lymphatic growth factor treatment for lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Honkonen, Krista M; Visuri, Mikko T; Tervala, Tomi V; Halonen, Paavo J; Koivisto, Mari; Lähteenvuo, Markku T; Alitalo, Kari K; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo; Saaristo, Anne M

    2013-05-01

    Our objective was to define the optimal growth factor treatment to be used in combination with lymph node transfer to normalize lymphatic vascular anatomy. In the lymph node transfer method, lymphatic anastomoses are expected to form spontaneously. However, lymphangiogenic growth factor therapies have shown promising results in preclinical models of lymphedema. The inguinal lymphatic vasculature of pigs was surgically destroyed around the inguinal lymph node. To enhance the regrowth of the lymphatic network in the defected area, adenoviral vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) was administered intranodally or perinodally. Control animals received injections of saline or control vector. The lymphangiogenic effect of the growth factor therapy and any potential adverse effects associated with the 2 alternative delivery routes were examined 2 months postoperatively. Both routes of growth factor administration induced robust growth of lymphatic vessels and helped to preserve the structure of the transferred lymph nodes in comparison with the controls. The lymph nodes of the control treated animals regressed in size and their nodal structure was partly replaced by fibro-fatty scar tissue. Intranodally injected adenoviral VEGF-C and adenoviral vector encoding control gene LacZ induced macrophage accumulation inside the node, whereas perinodal administration of VEGF-C did not have this adverse effect. Lymphangiogenic growth factors improve lymphatic vessel regeneration and lymph node function after lymph node transfer. The perinodal route of delivery provides a basis for future clinical trials in lymphedema patients.

  16. Lymph Node Density in Node-Positive Laryngeal Carcinoma: Analysis of Prognostic Value for Survival.

    PubMed

    Imre, Abdulkadir; Pinar, Ercan; Dincer, Elif; Ozkul, Yılmaz; Aslan, Hale; Songu, Murat; Tatar, Bekir; Onur, Irem; Ozturkcan, Sedat; Aladag, Ibrahim

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the value of lymph node density (LND) as a predictor of survival in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and positive neck node (pN+) after laryngectomy. Case series with chart review. Katip Celebi University Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey. We reviewed the records of 289 patients with newly diagnosed primary laryngeal carcinomas who underwent partial or total laryngectomy and combined neck dissection at a tertiary referral center between June 2006 and December 2014. Patients with pN+ laryngeal SCC (n = 101) were included in the study. Overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were used to evaluate the prognostic significance of LND. In 101 patients with pN+ laryngeal SCC, LND ≥0.09 and number of metastatic lymph nodes >4 were significantly associated with OS and DFS but not the overall tumor, node, and metastasis stage. Forward stepwise Cox regression analysis revealed that LND ≥0.09 was the only independent predictor of both DFS and OS. Furthermore, the odds ratio of LND ≥0.09 was 10 times higher in patients with regional recurrence when compared patients without regional recurrence. LND was the only independent prognostic predictor of OS and DFS in patients with pN+ laryngeal SCC. Moreover, patients with LND ≥0.09 were significantly associated with high risk of regional recurrence. Thus, patients with LND ≥0.09 are at high risk of regional recurrence and death and may be considered for adjuvant chemoradiation. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  17. Can normal lymph node architecture be characterised by optical coherence tomography?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, R. A.; Scolaro, L.; Klyen, B. R.; Hamza, S.; Robbins, P.; Saunders, C.; Sampson, D. D.

    2008-12-01

    Assessment of lymph node involvement is a key prognostic marker in early breast cancer. This paper demonstrates the ability of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to characterise the micro-architecture of healthy, non-cancerous lymph nodes. OCT is shown to differentiate stroma, cortex and adipose tissue. Characteristic patterns are also identified for germinal centres and blood vessels within the node. Results are correlated against a histopathological gold standard.

  18. CT evaluation of cardiophrenic angle lymph nodes in patients with malignant lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, C.S.; Blank, N.; Castellino, R.A.

    1984-10-01

    Two hundred seventy-four computed tomographic (CT) scans of the thorax were obtained in 209 patients with malignant lymphoma (153 Hodgkin disease and 56 non-Hodgkin lymphoma). Fourteen patients (6.6%) were shown to have adenopathy involving the cardiophrenic angle lymph nodes on CT. Of these, only three were considered positive on the basis of chest radiography alone. The anatomy of these diaphragmatic lymph nodes and CT appearance of these nodes when pathologically enlarged are discussed.

  19. Predictors of sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer-radioactivity and Ki-67.

    PubMed

    Thangarajah, Fabinshy; Malter, Wolfram; Hamacher, Stefanie; Schmidt, Matthias; Krämer, Stefan; Mallmann, Peter; Kirn, Verena

    2016-12-01

    Since the introduction of the sentinel node technique for breast cancer in the 1990s patient's morbidity was reduced. Tracer uptake is known to be dependent from lymph node integrity and activity of macrophages. The aim of this study was to assess whether radioactivity of the tracer can predict sentinel lymph node metastases. Furthermore, a potential association with Ki-67 index was examined. Non-invasive prediction of lymph node metastases could lead to a further decrease of morbidity. We retrospectively analyzed patients with primary breast cancer who underwent surgery at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in the University Hospital of Cologne between 2012 and 2013. Injection of radioactive tracer was done a day before surgery in the department of Nuclear Medicine. Clinical data and radioactivity of the sentinel node measured the day before and intraoperatively were abstracted from patient's files. Of 246 patients, 64 patients had at least one, five patients had two and one patient had three positive sentinel lymph nodes. Occurrence of sentinel lymph node metastases was not associated with preoperative tracer activity (p = 0,319), intraoperative tracer activity of first sentinel node (p = 0,086) or with loss of tracer activity until operation (p = 0,909). There was no correlation between preoperative Ki-67 index and occurrence of lymph node metastases (p = 0,403). In our cohort, there was no correlation between radioactivity and sentinel node metastases. Tracer uptake might not only be influenced by lymph node metastases and does not predict metastatic lymph node involvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prognostic relevance of an epigenetic biomarker panel in sentinel lymph nodes from colon cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lind, Guro E; Guriby, Marianne; Ahlquist, Terje; Hussain, Israr; Jeanmougin, Marine; Søreide, Kjetil; Kørner, Hartwig; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Nordgård, Oddmund

    2017-01-01

    Patients with early colorectal cancer (stages I-II) generally have a good prognosis, but a subgroup of 15-20% experiences relapse and eventually die of disease. Occult metastases have been suggested as a marker for increased risk of recurrence in patients with node-negative disease. Using a previously identified, highly accurate epigenetic biomarker panel for early detection of colorectal tumors, we aimed at evaluating the prognostic value of occult metastases in sentinel lymph nodes of colon cancer patients. The biomarker panel was analyzed by quantitative methylation-specific PCR in primary tumors and 783 sentinel lymph nodes from 201 patients. The panel status in sentinel lymph nodes showed a strong association with lymph node stage (P = 8.2E-17). Compared with routine lymph node diagnostics, the biomarker panel had a sensitivity of 79% (31/39). Interestingly, among 162 patients with negative lymph nodes from routine diagnostics, 13 (8%) were positive for the biomarker panel. Colon cancer patients with high sentinel lymph node methylation had an inferior prognosis (5-year overall survival P = 3.0E-4; time to recurrence P = 3.1E-4), although not significant. The same trend was observed in multivariate analyses (P = 1.4E-1 and P = 6.7E-2, respectively). Occult sentinel lymph node metastases were not detected in early stage (I-II) colon cancer patients who experienced relapse. Colon cancer patients with high sentinel lymph node methylation of the analyzed epigenetic biomarker panel had an inferior prognosis, although not significant in multivariate analyses. Occult metastases in TNM stage II patients that experienced relapse were not detected.

  1. [SentiMag--the magnetic detection system of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Coufal, O; Fait, V; Lžičařová, E; Chrenko, V; Žaloudík, J

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of the new detection system of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer (SentiMag) and to compare its use to the standard method of detection with a radioisotope and a gamma-probe. Twenty breast cancer patients scheduled for sentinel lymph node biopsy underwent standard lymphatic mapping with a radioisotope and also with the Sienna+ tracer. During the surgery, sentinel lymph nodes were identified preferably with the SentiMag system. The gamma-probe was used only at the end of the surgery to verify whether all sentinel lymph nodes had been harvested. The sentinel lymph node was detected in all cases. Both methods agreed in 18 cases, i.e. the lymph node with the highest magnetic value ex vivo was the same node as the one with the highest radioactivity. A metastasis in the sentinel lymph node was found in three patients. It is very likely that with the sole use of the SentiMag system, the results would have been identical to those of using the standard method with a radioisotope and the gamma-probe. The new magnetic detection method of sentinel lymph nodes (SentiMag) is feasible and clinically comparable to the gold standard method of detection with a radioisotope and the gamma-probe in patients with breast cancer. The new method could find its use not only in hospitals where the department of nuclear medicine is not available but in all hospitals performing sentinel lymph node biopsies in breast cancer and possibly other types of cancer.

  2. Use of High Frequency Ultrasound to Monitor Cervical Lymph Node Alterations in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Walk, Elyse L.; McLaughlin, Sarah; Coad, James; Weed, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Cervical lymph node evaluation by clinical ultrasound is a non-invasive procedure used in diagnosing nodal status, and when combined with fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), provides an effective method to assess nodal pathologies. Development of high-frequency ultrasound (HF US) allows real-time monitoring of lymph node alterations in animal models. While HF US is frequently used in animal models of tumor biology, use of HF US for studying cervical lymph nodes alterations associated with murine models of head and neck cancer, or any other model of lymphadenopathy, is lacking. Here we utilize HF US to monitor cervical lymph nodes changes in mice following exposure to the oral cancer-inducing carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) and in mice with systemic autoimmunity. 4-NQO induces tumors within the mouse oral cavity as early as 19 wks that recapitulate HNSCC. Monitoring of cervical (mandibular) lymph nodes by gray scale and power Doppler sonography revealed changes in lymph node size eight weeks after 4-NQO treatment, prior to tumor formation. 4-NQO causes changes in cervical node blood flow resulting from oral tumor progression. Histological evaluation indicated that the early 4-NQO induced changes in lymph node volume were due to specific hyperproliferation of T-cell enriched zones in the paracortex. We also show that HF US can be used to perform image-guided fine needle aspirate (FNA) biopsies on mice with enlarged mandibular lymph nodes due to genetic mutation of Fas ligand (Fasl). Collectively these studies indicate that HF US is an effective technique for the non-invasive study of cervical lymph node alterations in live mouse models of oral cancer and other mouse models containing cervical lymphadenopathy. PMID:24955984

  3. The surgical treatment of a melanoma patient with macroscopic metastasis in peri and retrocaval lymph nodes and with a positive sentinel lymph node in the groin.

    PubMed

    Giudice, Giuseppe; Robusto, Fabio; Nacchiero, Eleonora

    2016-02-04

    The extension of iliac-obturator dissection in melanoma patient with metastatic sentinel node of the groin is very debated. More recent studies - in accord with guidelines for urogenital cancers - suggest the extension to pelvic lymph nodes. At present, however, anatomical limits and indications to pelvic dissection are not defined in melanoma patients with metastatic lymph nodes of groin. A 46-year-old man affected by nodular cutaneous melanoma (Breslow-thickness 10 mm, Clark-level V) on the anterior-medial surface of the right leg underwent sentinel node biopsy of groin. Three macro-metastatic sentinel lymph nodes were removed in right inguinal field and, after 2 weeks, an ipsi-lateral inguinal lymphadenectomy with an extended pelvic dissection was performed. During the surgery, we reported the presence of macrometastases also in retro/peri caval lymph nodes. As a result of these findings, we decided to perform the super-extended pelvic lymphadenectomy. Overall we removed 56 lymph nodes with 9 peri-caval and 2 retro-caval macro metastatic lymph nodes. After a period of 49 months, the patients came to our attention with multiple scrotal metastases. The imagining restaging of the patient was already negative for other melanoma localizations. Currently there are no guidelines about indications and anatomical limits of iliac-obturator extension in melanoma patients. The extended pelvic dissection is the gold-standard procedure used in urogenital carcinomas. In case of finding of macro-metastases during the surgical procedure, the approach to follow is even more uncertain. We perform a super-extended pelvic dissection with a good prognosis for the patient. Caval-metastasis, Extended-pelvic-lymphadenectomy, Metastatic-melanoma.

  4. Afferent lymph-derived T cells and DCs use different chemokine receptor CCR7-dependent routes for entry into the lymph node and intranodal migration.

    PubMed

    Braun, Asolina; Worbs, Tim; Moschovakis, G Leandros; Halle, Stephan; Hoffmann, Katharina; Bölter, Jasmin; Münk, Anika; Förster, Reinhold

    2011-08-14

    Little is known about the molecular mechanisms that determine the entry into the lymph node and intranodal positioning of lymph-derived cells. By injecting cells directly into afferent lymph vessels of popliteal lymph nodes, we demonstrate that lymph-derived T cells entered lymph-node parenchyma mainly from peripheral medullary sinuses, whereas dendritic cells (DCs) transmigrated through the floor of the subcapsular sinus on the afferent side. Transmigrating DCs induced local changes that allowed the concomitant entry of T cells at these sites. Signals mediated by the chemokine receptor CCR7 were absolutely required for the directional migration of both DCs and T cells into the T cell zone but were dispensable for the parenchymal entry of lymph-derived T cells and dendrite probing of DCs. Our findings provide insight into the molecular and structural requirements for the entry into lymph nodes and intranodal migration of lymph-derived cells of the immune system.

  5. Predictive factors and pattern of central lymph node metastasis in unilateral papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yong Bae; Yoo, Han Seok; Song, Chang Myeon; Park, Chul Won; Lee, Chang Beom; Tae, Kyung

    2016-02-01

    Prophylactic central neck dissection (CND) for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the patterns and predictive factors of central lymph node metastasis in cases of PTC that were clinically determined to be node negative. We studied 485 patients who have unilateral PTC without clinical lymph node metastasis and underwent total thyroidectomy and prophylactic bilateral CND from 2003 to 2012, retrospectively. The frequency, subsite and predictive factors of central lymph node metastasis were analyzed. In total, 166 (32.4%) patients had occult central lymph node metastases. The most common subsite of central node metastases was the ipsilateral paratracheal lymph node (26.0%), followed by pretracheal (12.5%), prelaryngeal (5.0%), and contralateral paratracheal (3.9%) lymph nodes. The tumor size larger than 0.5cm (p=0.003), age under 45 (p<0.001) and extrathyroidal extension (p=0.028) were associated with ipsilateral central compartment metastasis in multivariate analysis. Contralateral central node metastasis was associated with tumor size >3cm, age under 45, and multifocality and ipsilateral central node metastasis in univariate analysis, but it was associated with only ipsilateral central node metastasis in multivariate analysis (p=0.001). Prophylactic CND might be considered for PTC patients with large tumor size or extrathyroidal extension based on rates of lymph node metastasis. Unilateral CND might be appropriate as prophylactic CND due to the low metastatic rate to the contralateral paratracheal node. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Hot or not? The 10% rule in sentinel lymph node biopsy for malignant melanoma revisited.

    PubMed

    Murphy, A D; Britten, A; Powell, B

    2014-03-01

    The surgeon needs a practical rule to follow when deciding whether to excise a lymph node during sentinel node biopsy (SLNB). The "10% rule" dictates that all nodes with a radiation count of greater than 10% of the hottest node and all blue nodes should be removed, and this study observes the effects of following this rule in SLNB in melanoma. We reviewed the records of 665 patients with primary melanoma who underwent sentinel lymph node over a 5-year period (2007-2011). 2064 nodes were identified in 898 nodal basins in 665 patients. 141 (21%) patients had at least one positive sentinel node. 105 positive nodal basins were identified in which more than one sentinel node was removed. In 18 of these, a less radioactive node was positive for tumour when the most radioactive node was negative. Of 175 positive nodes 157 (90%) contained blue dye staining. For cases in which the positive sentinel node was not the hottest node, the positive node had apparent blue dye staining in all 18 cases (100%), and was the second hottest node in the basin. In this series removing just the hottest node and all blue nodes would not have missed a single positive basin and would have resulted in a 38% reduction in the number of nodes removed compared to those taken following the 10% rule, without changing the staging in any patient. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Cervical lymph node metastasis in clinical N0 papillary thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Yan, Dan-gui; Zhang, Bin; An, Chang-ming; Zhang, Zong-min; Li, Zheng-jiang; Xu, Zhen-gang; Tang, Ping-zhang

    2011-11-01

    To study the patterns of cervical lymph nodes metastasis and the surgical managements of cervical lymph nodes in clinical N0 (cN0) papillary thyroid carcinoma. Fifty-one consecutive patients with papillary carcinomas without clinical evidence of cervical lymph node involvement were included in the study between August 2007 and September 2010, in which 53 sides underwent neck lymph node dissection. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy intra-operative hand-held gamma probe detecting and blue dye technique were used to detect the sentinel lymph node (SLN). SLNs were sent to frozen-section and the results were compared with specimen of routine selective neck dissection. All the pathologic specimens were reviewed by pathologists, counting the numbers of pathologic positive nodes and mapping the localization of positive nodes in level II, III, IV, V and VI respectively. The following criteria were used to study the predictive value of lateral neck compartment lymph node metastasis: age, multifocality of the tumor, extracapsular spread (ECS), tumor size, and the number of central compartment metastasis nodes. Univariate analysis with the χ2 test was used to analyze the statistical correlation between lateral neck compartment lymph node metastasis and the other clinical factors. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the multivariate correlates of lateral neck compartment metastasis. The occult lymph node metastasis and lateral neck metastasis rates were 77.4% and 58.5% respectively, central compartment metastasis ≥3 nodes was the only independent predictive factor for the metastasis in lateral neck. Twelve sides were pN0 and other 41 sides were pN+ in all 53 side specimens. Of 41 sides with pN+, 17 sides (41.5%) involved single site and 24 sides (58.5%) involved multi-sites. The distribution of metastasis lymph nodes:level VI 62.3%, level III 52.8%, level IV 30.2%, level II 18.9%, and level V 0%. Cervical occult lymph node metastasis in cN0 papillary

  8. Spectrum Analysis of Endobronchial Ultrasound Radiofrequency of Lymph Nodes in Patients With Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Takahiro; Shingyoji, Masato; Anayama, Takashi; Kimura, Hideki; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Yoshino, Ichiro

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the spectral features of the radiofrequency of lymph nodes during endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) and to determine its diagnostic value for detecting metastatic nodes in patients with lung cancer. Ultrasound spectrums of lymph nodes during EBUS-TBNA were retrospectively analyzed. A linear regression of frequency spectrum and the ultrasonic spectral parameters midband-fit, slope, and intercept were calculated. Mean values for these parameters within lymph nodes were computed. The cutoff values for each parameter for distinguishing metastatic vs benign lymph nodes were first determined within the training set; these cutoff values were then applied to the testing set for validation. Overall, 362 lymph nodes (112 metastatic, 250 benign) were analyzed as the training set, and 284 lymph nodes (74 metastatic, 210 benign) were evaluated as the testing set. In the training set, all of the parameters showed a significant difference between metastatic and benign lymph nodes (P < .001). The metastatic nodes tended to show low midband-fit, high slope, and low intercept. When midband-fit and intercept were combined, the diagnostic accuracy was maximized in the training set. In the testing set, the combination of intercept and slope produced the highest diagnostic accuracy, with the following outcomes: sensitivity, 79.7%; specificity, 84.3%; diagnostic accuracy, 83.1%; positive predictive value, 64.1%; and negative predictive value, 92.2%. Metastatic lymph nodes possess unique ultrasonic spectrum features, and spectrum analysis can be used as a novel diagnostic tool for differentiating between benign and malignant nodes in patients with lung cancer. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Lymph node topology dictates T cell migration behavior

    PubMed Central

    Beltman, Joost B.; Marée, Athanasius F.M.; Lynch, Jennifer N.; Miller, Mark J.; de Boer, Rob J.

    2007-01-01

    Adaptive immunity is initiated by T cell recognition of foreign peptides presented on dendritic cells (DCs) by major histocompatibility molecules. These interactions take place in secondary lymphoid tissues, such as lymph nodes (LNs) and spleen, and hence the anatomical structure of these tissues plays a crucial role in the development of immune responses. Two-photon microscopy (2PM) imaging in LNs suggests that T cells walk in a consistent direction for several minutes, pause briefly with a regular period, and then take off in a new, random direction. Here, we construct a spatially explicit model of T cell and DC migration in LNs and show that all dynamical properties of T cells could be a consequence of the densely packed LN environment. By means of 2PM experiments, we confirm that the large velocity fluctuations of T cells are indeed environmentally determined rather than resulting from an intrinsic motility program. Our simulations further predict that T cells self-organize into microscopically small, highly dynamic streams. We present experimental evidence for the presence of such turbulent streams in LNs. Finally, the model allows us to estimate the scanning rates of DCs (2,000 different T cells per hour) and T cells (100 different DCs per hour). PMID:17389236

  10. Lymph node topology dictates T cell migration behavior.

    PubMed

    Beltman, Joost B; Marée, Athanasius F M; Lynch, Jennifer N; Miller, Mark J; de Boer, Rob J

    2007-04-16

    Adaptive immunity is initiated by T cell recognition of foreign peptides presented on dendritic cells (DCs) by major histocompatibility molecules. These interactions take place in secondary lymphoid tissues, such as lymph nodes (LNs) and spleen, and hence the anatomical structure of these tissues plays a crucial role in the development of immune responses. Two-photon microscopy (2PM) imaging in LNs suggests that T cells walk in a consistent direction for several minutes, pause briefly with a regular period, and then take off in a new, random direction. Here, we construct a spatially explicit model of T cell and DC migration in LNs and show that all dynamical properties of T cells could be a consequence of the densely packed LN environment. By means of 2PM experiments, we confirm that the large velocity fluctuations of T cells are indeed environmentally determined rather than resulting from an intrinsic motility program. Our simulations further predict that T cells self-organize into microscopically small, highly dynamic streams. We present experimental evidence for the presence of such turbulent streams in LNs. Finally, the model allows us to estimate the scanning rates of DCs (2,000 different T cells per hour) and T cells (100 different DCs per hour).

  11. Optimization of Coded Aperture Radioscintigraphy for Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Hirofumi; Idoine, John D.; Gioux, Sylvain; Accorsi, Roberto; Slochower, David R.; Lanza, Richard C.; Frangioni, John V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Radioscintigraphic imaging during sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping could potentially improve localization; however, parallel-hole collimators have certain limitations. In this study, we explored the use of coded aperture (CA) collimators. Procedures Equations were derived for the six major dependent variables of CA collimators (i.e., masks) as a function of the ten major independent variables, and an optimized mask was fabricated. After validation, dual-modality CA and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence SLN mapping was performed in pigs. Results Mask optimization required the judicious balance of competing dependent variables, resulting in sensitivity of 0.35%, XY resolution of 2.0 mm, and Z resolution of 4.2 mm at an 11.5 cm FOV. Findings in pigs suggested that NIR fluorescence imaging and CA radioscintigraphy could be complementary, but present difficult technical challenges. Conclusions This study lays the foundation for using CA collimation for SLN mapping, and also exposes several problems that require further investigation. PMID:21567254

  12. The Lymph Node as a New Site for Kidney Organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Francipane, Maria Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    The shortage of organs for kidney transplantation has created the need to develop new strategies to restore renal structure and function. Given our recent finding that the lymph node (LN) can serve as an in vivo factory to generate or sustain complex structures like liver, pancreas, and thymus, we investigated whether it could also support kidney organogenesis from mouse renal embryonic tissue (metanephroi). Here we provide the first evidence that metanephroi acquired a mature phenotype upon injection into LN, and host cells likely contributed to this process. Urine-like fluid-containing cysts were observed in several grafts 12 weeks post-transplantation, indicating metanephroi transplants’ ability to excrete products filtered from the blood. Importantly, the kidney graft adapted to a loss of host renal mass, speeding its development. Thus, the LN might provide a unique tool for studying the mechanisms of renal maturation, cell proliferation, and fluid secretion during cyst development. Moreover, we provide evidence that inside the LN, short-term cultured embryonic kidney cells stimulated with the Wnt agonist R-Spondin 2 gave rise to a monomorphic neuron-like cell population expressing the neuronal 200-kDa neurofilament heavy marker. This finding indicates that the LN might be used to validate the differentiation potential of candidate stem cells in regenerative nephrology. PMID:25646529

  13. Detecting apoptosis of leukocytes in mouse lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Cabañas, Laura; Delgado-Martín, Cristina; López-Cotarelo, Pilar; Escribano-Diaz, Cristina; Alonso-C, Luis M; Riol-Blanco, Lorena; Rodríguez-Fernández, José Luis

    2014-05-01

    Although there are multiple methods for analyzing apoptosis in cultured cells, methodologies for analyzing apoptosis in vivo are sparse. In this protocol, we describe how to detect apoptosis of leukocytes in mouse lymph nodes (LNs) via the detection of apoptotic caspases. We have previously used this protocol to study factors that modulate dendritic cell (DC) survival in LNs; however, it can also be used to analyze other leukocytes that migrate to the LNs. DCs labeled with a fluorescent cell tracker are subcutaneously injected in the posterior footpads of mice. Once the labeled DCs reach the popliteal LN (PLN), the animals are intravenously injected with FLIVO, a permeant fluorescent reagent that selectively marks active caspases and consequently apoptotic cells. Explanted PLNs are then examined under a two-photon microscope to look for the presence of apoptotic cells among the DCs injected. The protocol requires 6-6.5 h for preparation and analysis plus an additional 34-40 h to allow apoptosis of the injected DCs in the PLN.

  14. Institutional variants for lymph node counts after pancreatic resections.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Roderich E

    2017-09-01

    Lymph node (LN) counts from pancreatectomy are postulated as quality metric for surgical therapy of pancreatic malignancy. Prospectively collected data from a single surgeon's pancreatectomy experience were analyzed for predictors of LN counts. Of 315 consecutive patients (54% female, median age: 65, range 18-88), 239 had a proven cancer diagnosis (76%). Operations included pancreatoduodenectomy (69%), distal pancreatectomy (26%), total pancreatectomy (1%) and others (4%). Patients were treated in 4 different tertiary cancer center settings (Institution A: 11%; B: 46%; C: 27%; D: 16%) with consistent regional dissection standards. Mean total LN counts differed between institutions for malignancies (A: 18, B: 13, C: 26, D: 26, p < 0.0001) and benign diseases (p = 0.003). At least 15 LNs were reported in 63% of cancer patients (institution range: 34-92%, p < 0.0001). Pathologic processing should be standardized if LN numbers are to be adopted as quality metric for pancreatic cancer resections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Acral lentiginous melanoma: who benefits from sentinel lymph node biopsy?

    PubMed

    Ito, Takamichi; Wada, Maiko; Nagae, Konosuke; Nakano-Nakamura, Misa; Nakahara, Takeshi; Hagihara, Akihito; Furue, Masutaka; Uchi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    There are significant clinicopathological, genetic, and biological differences between acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) and other types of melanoma. We sought to investigate the use of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for patients with ALM. This was a retrospective review of 116 patients with primary ALM. Melanoma-specific and disease-free survival were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, together with multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. All patients were Japanese (48 male and 68 female). Metastases in SLN were noted in 13 of 84 patients who underwent SLN biopsy. No patients with thin ALM (≤1 mm) and only 2 patients with nonulcerated ALM had tumor-positive SLN. Patients with positive SLN had significantly shorter melanoma-specific survival (5-year survival rate, 37.5% vs 84.3%; P < .0001) and disease-free survival (5-year survival, 37.5% vs 77.9%; P = .0024). Among patients with thick (>1 mm) ALM, the influence of SLN positivity on melanoma-specific survival was increased (5-year survival, 22.7% vs 80.8%; P = .0005). This was a retrospective study and had a small sample size. SLN biopsy should be considered for patients with thick or ulcerated ALM. For patients with thin or nonulcerated ones, it may be of limited importance. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Terahertz imaging of metastatic lymph nodes using spectroscopic integration technique

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Yeon; Choi, Hyuck Jae; Cheon, Hwayeong; Cho, Seong Whi; Lee, Seungkoo; Son, Joo-Hiuk

    2017-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) imaging was used to differentiate the metastatic states of frozen lymph nodes (LNs) by using spectroscopic integration technique (SIT). The metastatic states were classified into three groups: healthy LNs, completely metastatic LNs, and partially metastatic LNs, which were obtained from three mice without infection and six mice infected with murine melanoma cells for 30 days and 15 days, respectively. Under histological examination, the healthy LNs and completely metastatic LNs were found to have a homogeneous cellular structure but the partially metastatic LNs had interfaces of the melanoma and healthy tissue. THz signals between the experimental groups were not distinguished at room temperature due to high attenuation by water in the tissues. However, a signal gap between the healthy and completely metastatic LNs was detected at freezing temperature. The signal gap could be enhanced by using SIT that is a signal processing method dichotomizing the signal difference between the healthy cells and melanoma cells with their normalized spectral integration. This technique clearly imaged the interfaces in the partially metastatic LNs, which could not be achieved by existing methods using a peak point or spectral value. The image resolution was high enough to recognize a metastatic area of about 0.7 mm size in the partially metastatic LNs. Therefore, this pilot study demonstrated that THz imaging of the frozen specimen using SIT can be used to diagnose the metastatic state of LNs for clinical application. PMID:28271007

  17. The lymph node as a new site for kidney organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Francipane, Maria Giovanna; Lagasse, Eric

    2015-03-01

    The shortage of organs for kidney transplantation has created the need to develop new strategies to restore renal structure and function. Given our recent finding that the lymph node (LN) can serve as an in vivo factory to generate or sustain complex structures like liver, pancreas, and thymus, we investigated whether it could also support kidney organogenesis from mouse renal embryonic tissue (metanephroi). Here we provide the first evidence that metanephroi acquired a mature phenotype upon injection into LN, and host cells likely contributed to this process. Urine-like fluid-containing cysts were observed in several grafts 12 weeks post-transplantation, indicating metanephroi transplants' ability to excrete products filtered from the blood. Importantly, the kidney graft adapted to a loss of host renal mass, speeding its development. Thus, the LN might provide a unique tool for studying the mechanisms of renal maturation, cell proliferation, and fluid secretion during cyst development. Moreover, we provide evidence that inside the LN, short-term cultured embryonic kidney cells stimulated with the Wnt agonist R-Spondin 2 gave rise to a monomorphic neuron-like cell population expressing the neuronal 200-kDa neurofilament heavy marker. This finding indicates that the LN might be used to validate the differentiation potential of candidate stem cells in regenerative nephrology.

  18. Biological Ablation of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Submucosally Invaded Early Gastrointestinal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Satoru; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Yuuri; Kuroda, Shinji; Nishizaki, Masahiko; Nagasaka, Takeshi; Shirakawa, Yasuhiro; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Urata, Yasuo; Hoffman, Robert M; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Currently, early gastrointestinal cancers are treated endoscopically, as long as there are no lymph node metastases. However, once a gastrointestinal cancer invades the submucosal layer, the lymph node metastatic rate rises to higher than 10%. Therefore, surgery is still the gold standard to remove regional lymph nodes containing possible metastases. Here, to avoid prophylactic surgery, we propose a less-invasive biological ablation of lymph node metastasis in submucosally invaded gastrointestinal cancer patients. We have established an orthotopic early rectal cancer xenograft model with spontaneous lymph node metastasis by implantation of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled human colon cancer cells into the submucosal layer of the murine rectum. A solution containing telomerase-specific oncolytic adenovirus was injected into the peritumoral submucosal space, followed by excision of the primary rectal tumors mimicking the endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) technique. Seven days after treatment, GFP signals had completely disappeared indicating that sentinel lymph node metastasis was selectively eradicated. Moreover, biologically treated mice were confirmed to be relapse-free even 4 weeks after treatment. These results indicate that virus-mediated biological ablation selectively targets lymph node metastasis and provides a potential alternative to surgery for submucosal invasive gastrointestinal cancer patients. PMID:25523761

  19. National equipment of intraoperatory gamma detection in the identification of sentinel lymph node in animal model.

    PubMed

    Santos, Paula Cristina Fada dos; Santos, Ivan Dunshee de Abranches Oliveira; Nahas, Fábio Xerfan; Oliveira Filho, Renato Santos de; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2009-01-01

    To investigate a national equipment of intraoperatory gamma detection in the identification of sentinel lymph node. Thirty young adult male rats were used. After anesthetized, animals were divided into two groups of 15 animals each. Animals from group A received dextram 500 - Tc99 radiopharmaceutical and patent blue V and those from group B received only patent blue V to map the lymphatic drainage. The presence of radiation in the background area, in the area of injection and of the ex vivo sentinel lymph node of group A were measured. After the exeresis, each lymph node in group A and in group B was mixed forming a new random sequence and the radioactive reading of each lymph node was carried out, using both pieces of equipment. The hottest sentinel lymph node was identified by the national equipment when radiation was measured in the area of limphatic drainage after the Dextran 500 was injected. Also, the ex vivo sentinel lymph node. The national equipment has also detected radiation in the lymph nodes that had not received radiopharmaceutical, leading to false positive, checked by the application of Mann-Whitney tests and Student's paired t-tests. The Cronbach alpha has shown high internal consistency of data 0.9416. The national equipment of intraoperatory gamma detection identifies the LS and showed false positives LS and needs improvement.

  20. EpCAM Expression in Lymph Node and Bone Metastases of Prostate Carcinoma: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Anna K.; Hoving, Hilde D.; Rosati, Stefano; van Leenders, Geert J. L. H.; de Jong, Igle J.

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need for new imaging modalities in prostate carcinoma staging. A non-invasive modality that can assess lymph node and bone metastases simultaneously is preferred. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a membranous protein of interest as an imaging target since it is overexpressed in prostatic carcinoma compared with benign prostate epithelium and compared with stroma. However, EpCAM expression in lymph node metastases is sparsely available in the literature and EpCAM expression in bone metastases is yet unknown. The current study evaluates the expression of EpCAM in prostate carcinoma lymph nodes, in matched normal lymph nodes, in prostate carcinoma bone metastases, and in normal bone by immunohistochemistry. EpCAM was expressed in 100% of lymph node metastases (21 out of 21), in 0% of normal lymph nodes (0 out of 21), in 95% of bone metastases (19 out of 20), and in 0% of normal bone (0 out of 14). Based on these results, EpCAM may be a feasible imaging target in prostate carcinoma lymph node and bone metastases. Prospective clinical trials are needed to confirm current results. Preoperative visualization of prostate carcinoma metastases will improve disease staging and will prevent unnecessary invasive surgery. PMID:27690012

  1. Biological ablation of sentinel lymph node metastasis in submucosally invaded early gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Satoru; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Yuuri; Kuroda, Shinji; Nishizaki, Masahiko; Nagasaka, Takeshi; Shirakawa, Yasuhiro; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Urata, Yasuo; Hoffman, Robert M; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2015-03-01

    Currently, early gastrointestinal cancers are treated endoscopically, as long as there are no lymph node metastases. However, once a gastrointestinal cancer invades the submucosal layer, the lymph node metastatic rate rises to higher than 10%. Therefore, surgery is still the gold standard to remove regional lymph nodes containing possible metastases. Here, to avoid prophylactic surgery, we propose a less-invasive biological ablation of lymph node metastasis in submucosally invaded gastrointestinal cancer patients. We have established an orthotopic early rectal cancer xenograft model with spontaneous lymph node metastasis by implantation of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled human colon cancer cells into the submucosal layer of the murine rectum. A solution containing telomerase-specific oncolytic adenovirus was injected into the peritumoral submucosal space, followed by excision of the primary rectal tumors mimicking the endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) technique. Seven days after treatment, GFP signals had completely disappeared indicating that sentinel lymph node metastasis was selectively eradicated. Moreover, biologically treated mice were confirmed to be relapse-free even 4 weeks after treatment. These results indicate that virus-mediated biological ablation selectively targets lymph node metastasis and provides a potential alternative to surgery for submucosal invasive gastrointestinal cancer patients.

  2. Normal mediastinal lymph node size and number: CT and anatomic study

    SciTech Connect

    Genereux, G.P.; Howie, J.L.

    1984-06-01

    Normal lymph nodes were studied retrospectively by computed tomography (CT) in 39 patients and by dissection at autopsy in 12 cadavers. The mediastinum was divided arbitrarily into four zones relating to the left innominate vein (zone 1), pretracheal space (zone 2), precarinal/subcarinal compartment (zone 3), and aorticopulmonary window (zone 4). Of 225 lymph nodes from all zones in the CT study, 99% measured less than 16 mm in largest diameter. Using contiguous 10-mm CT scans, lymph nodes were detected in 65%-95% of patients, depending on the zone studies. The mean number of lymph nodes on a representative section was 1.1. There was a significant size difference between lymph nodes residing in the superior mediastinum compared with those in the middle mediastinum contiguous to the carina. Thus, only 7% of lymph nodes in zone 1 were larger than 5 mm, whereas 90% and 67% of lymph nodes in zones 3 and 4, respectively, were larger, in the 6-10 mm range.

  3. DNA methylation profile of triple negative breast cancer-specific genes comparing lymph node positive patients to lymph node negative patients

    PubMed Central

    Mathe, Andrea; Wong-Brown, Michelle; Locke, Warwick J.; Stirzaker, Clare; Braye, Stephen G.; Forbes, John F.; Clark, Susan J.; Avery-Kiejda, Kelly A.; Scott, Rodney J.

    2016-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive breast cancer subtype with no targeted treatment available. Our previous study identified 38 TNBC-specific genes with altered expression comparing tumour to normal samples. This study aimed to establish whether DNA methylation contributed to these expression changes in the same cohort as well as disease progression from primary breast tumour to lymph node metastasis associated with changes in the epigenome. We obtained DNA from 23 primary TNBC samples, 12 matched lymph node metastases, and 11 matched normal adjacent tissues and assayed for differential methylation profiles using Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. The results were validated in an independent cohort of 70 primary TNBC samples. The expression of 16/38 TNBC-specific genes was associated with alteration in DNA methylation. Novel methylation changes between primary tumours and lymph node metastases, as well as those associated with survival were identified. Altered methylation of 18 genes associated with lymph node metastasis were identified and validated. This study reveals the important role DNA methylation plays in altered gene expression of TNBC-specific genes and lymph node metastases. The novel insights into progression of TNBC to secondary disease may provide potential prognostic indicators for this hard-to-treat breast cancer subtype. PMID:27671774

  4. DNA methylation profile of triple negative breast cancer-specific genes comparing lymph node positive patients to lymph node negative patients.

    PubMed

    Mathe, Andrea; Wong-Brown, Michelle; Locke, Warwick J; Stirzaker, Clare; Braye, Stephen G; Forbes, John F; Clark, Susan J; Avery-Kiejda, Kelly A; Scott, Rodney J

    2016-09-27

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive breast cancer subtype with no targeted treatment available. Our previous study identified 38 TNBC-specific genes with altered expression comparing tumour to normal samples. This study aimed to establish whether DNA methylation contributed to these expression changes in the same cohort as well as disease progression from primary breast tumour to lymph node metastasis associated with changes in the epigenome. We obtained DNA from 23 primary TNBC samples, 12 matched lymph node metastases, and 11 matched normal adjacent tissues and assayed for differential methylation profiles using Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChips. The results were validated in an independent cohort of 70 primary TNBC samples. The expression of 16/38 TNBC-specific genes was associated with alteration in DNA methylation. Novel methylation changes between primary tumours and lymph node metastases, as well as those associated with survival were identified. Altered methylation of 18 genes associated with lymph node metastasis were identified and validated. This study reveals the important role DNA methylation plays in altered gene expression of TNBC-specific genes and lymph node metastases. The novel insights into progression of TNBC to secondary disease may provide potential prognostic indicators for this hard-to-treat breast cancer subtype.

  5. Importance of sentinel lymph nodes in colorectal cancer: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Köksal, Hande; Bostanci, Hasan; Mentes, B Bülent

    2007-01-01

    Accurate identification of lymph nodes involved in metastases is vitally important for predicting survival, and it facilitates decision making with regard to adjuvant therapy. The study described here, which was undertaken to evaluate the role of sentinel lymph node mapping in refining the staging of colorectal cancer, was performed prospectively in 19 patients with colorectal cancer who underwent surgery from January to July 2005. Sentinel lymph node sampling was performed during each operation with isosulfan blue dye. Additional immunohistochemical staining was performed only if the sentinel nodes were negative for metastasis. In 18 of 19 patients, at least 1 sentinel node was identified. In 5 of 18 patients, sentinel nodes were positive for metastasis, and in 3 of 5, the sentinel node was the only node containing metastasis that was detected by immunohistochemical staining. In 3 patients, metastases in nonsentinel lymph nodes were detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining; these were determined to be false-negative results. Upstaging associated with sentinel lymph node mapping may reveal disease that might otherwise remain undetected by conventional methods. Patients who are upstaged may benefit from adjuvant therapies that have been shown to improve survival.

  6. Tattoo pigment mimicking metastatic malignant melanoma in an axillary sentinel lymph node

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, A; O'Donoghue, G T; Kerin, M

    2010-01-01

    The case of a 37-year-old man with a Clarkes level III, Breslow thickness 1.2 mm superficial spreading melanoma of his forearm is described. Intraoperatively, a black-pigmented ipsilateral axillary sentinel lymph node, highly suspicious for metastatic disease, was harvested. The patient had a faded tattoo in the vicinity of the malignant melanoma. Histological examination of the lymph node demonstrated normal lymphoid tissue and the presence of pigmented macrophages due to tattoo ink. Metastatic malignant melanoma was ruled out. The importance of histological confirmation of an enlarged pigmented node before complete dissection of the regional lymph nodes is discussed. The importance of recording the presence of decorative tattoos is stressed as the tattoo pigment may clinically mimic metastatic disease in those with malignant melanoma undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy.

  7. Prediction model of pelvic lymph node metastasis in early stage cervical cancer and its clinical value.

    PubMed

    Sun, J R; Zhang, Y N; Sun, X M; Feng, S Y; Yan, M

    2011-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the risk factors of pelvic lymph node metastasis in early stage cervical cancer in order to establish a prediction model for this metastasis and to explore the feasibility of conservative surgery. The records of 207 stage IB-IIA cervical cancer patients were retrospectivly analyzed. The risk factors of pelvic lymph node metastasis were analyzed using univariate and multivariate methods. The prediction model for pelvic lymph node metastasis was established by logistic regression. Without preoperative adjuvant therapy, the metastatic rate of pelvic lymph node in stage IB-IIA cervical cancer was 25.1%. The serum SCCAg, the tumor diameter, the depth of cervical stroma invasion, and the cervical canal involvement were revealed as the risk factors of pelvic lymph node metastasis by univariate analysis (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the serum SCCAg and the depth of cervical stroma invasion were the independent risk factors of pelvic lymph node metastasis (P<0.05, OR = 6.917, 2.227). The patients were divided into three groups according to different independent risk factors: the low-risk group, the medium-risk group, and the high-risk group, which showed metastatic rates of pelvic lymph node of 5.7%, 16.9%, and 48.7%, respectively (P<0.001). A prediction model for pelvic lymph node metastasis was established as follows: Logti(P) = -2.534 + serum SCCAg×1.934 + depth of cervical stroma invasion×0.801. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of this prediction model were 53.8%, 83.9 %, 52.8%, 84.4%, and 76.3%, respectively. The serum SCCAg and the depth of cervical stroma invasion were the independent risk factors of pelvic lymph node metastasis in early stage cervical cancer. The proposed prediction model may help to improve the conservative surgery for early stage cervical cancer.

  8. Race Is a Risk for Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients With Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ikoma, Naruhiko; Blum, Mariela; Chiang, Yi-Ju; Estrella, Jeannelyn S; Roy-Chowdhuri, Sinchita; Fournier, Keith; Mansfield, Paul; Ajani, Jaffer; Badgwell, Brian D

    2017-04-01

    The frequency of lymph node metastasis in each T stage of gastric cancer has not been as well described for Western populations as it has for Asian populations. This study aimed to determine these frequencies and to investigate risk factors associated with lymph node metastases in a racially diverse U.S. A prospectively maintained database of 8260 patients with gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma treated at our institution from 1995 to 2013 was reviewed to identify those who underwent surgical resection without preoperative therapy. Associations between clinicopathologic variables and lymph node metastasis were tested with uni- and multivariate analyses. The study identified 218 patients with a pathologic diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent upfront gastrectomy. These study subjects included 115 white (53 %), 19 black (9 %), and 41 Asian (19 %) patients. At least 15 lymph nodes were examined in 148 (68 %) of the patients. The lymph node metastasis rates were 10 % for stage T1a, 34 % for stage T1b, 44 % for stage T2, 73 % for stage T3, and 95 % for stage T4 tumors. Univariate analysis showed that submucosal invasion, race, 15 or more lymph nodes examined, and lymphovascular invasion were associated with lymph node metastasis in T1 and T2 tumors. The multivariate analysis showed all but lymphovascular invasion to be independent risk factors for nodal metastasis. The rates of lymph node metastasis observed in this study were higher than those reported in Asian reports. Race was an independent risk factor for lymph node metastasis. Caution is therefore needed when evidence from Asian countries is extrapolated to more racially diverse Western countries.

  9. FDG uptake in cervical lymph nodes in children without head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Vali, Reza; Bakari, Alaa A; Marie, Eman; Kousha, Mahnaz; Charron, Martin; Shammas, Amer

    2017-06-01

    Reactive cervical lymphadenopathy is common in children and may demonstrate increased (18)F-fluoro-deoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) uptake on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). We sought to evaluate the frequency and significance of (18)F-FDG uptake by neck lymph nodes in children with no history of head and neck cancer. The charts of 244 patients (114 female, mean age: 10.4 years) with a variety of tumors such as lymphoma and post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases (PTLD), but no head and neck cancers, who had undergone (18)F-FDG PET/CT were reviewed retrospectively. Using the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), increased (18)F-FDG uptake by neck lymph nodes was recorded and compared with the final diagnosis based on follow-up studies or biopsy results. Neck lymph node uptake was identified in 70/244 (28.6%) of the patients. In 38 patients, the lymph nodes were benign. In eight patients, the lymph nodes were malignant (seven PTLD and one lymphoma). In 24 patients, we were not able to confirm the final diagnosis. Seven out of the eight malignant lymph nodes were positive for PTLD. The mean SUVmax was significantly higher in malignant lesions (4.2) compared with benign lesions (2.1) (P = 0.00049). (18)F-FDG uptake in neck lymph nodes is common in children and is frequently due to reactive lymph nodes, especially when the SUVmax is <3.2. The frequency of malignant cervical lymph nodes is higher in PTLD patients compared with other groups.

  10. A draining lymph node assay (DLNA) for assessing the sensitizing potential of proteins.

    PubMed

    Boverhof, Darrell R; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar; Hotchkiss, Jon A; Osterloh-Quiroz, Mandy; Woolhiser, Michael R

    2010-03-15

    There is a need for a simple and predictive model to identify the respiratory sensitization potential of (novel) proteins. The present study examined the use of a mouse draining lymph node assay (DLNA) approach, employing several routes of exposure, as a possible starting point for assessing protein sensitization potential. Consistent with the experimental procedure for the standard local lymph node assay (LLNA), female BALB/c mice were dosed dermally (topical), intranasally (IN) or by oropharyngeal aspiration (OP) on days 1, 2 and 3, and proliferation in the relevant draining lymph nodes was measured on day 6. For each route, the auricular, superficial cervical and tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN) were evaluated following treatment with Subtilisin Carlsberg (SUB; a potent sensitizer/allergen), ovalbumin (OVA; a potent food allergen), beta-lactoglobulin (BLG; a moderate food allergen), and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH; a strong immunogen with no reports of respiratory sensitization). Initial studies with OVA indicated that dermal administration did not stimulate lymph node proliferation. Responses in the tracheobronchial lymph node were most dramatic (stimulation indices up to 100) and reproducible for both the IN and OP routes. In a comparative experiment, all proteins induced lymph node proliferation with a rank order potency of SUB>KLH>OVA>BLG. The influence of the endotoxin content on lymph node proliferation was determined to be minimal, and did not impact the rank order potency. Molecular characterization of the TBLN at an equipotent proliferative dose was conducted for select gene transcripts based on research examining chemical sensitizers. Expression profiles differed among the four proteins, but the relevance of these responses was not clear and they did not further discriminate their allergic potential. These data illustrate both the opportunities and challenges associated with the examination of the draining lymph node proliferative response to

  11. Significance of lymph node metastasis on survival of women with uterine adenosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Machida, Hiroko; Nathenson, Michael J; Takiuchi, Tsuyoshi; Adams, Crystal L; Garcia-Sayre, Jocelyn; Matsuo, Koji

    2017-03-01

    Uterine adenosarcoma (UAS) is a rare gynecologic malignancy and the significance of lymph node metastasis on survival has not been well studied. A retrospective study was performed utilizing the Surveillance, Epidemiology, End Results Program to examine UAS (n=994), endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS, n=2910), and uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS, n=5506) diagnosed between 1973 and 2013. The impact of lymph node metastasis on cause-specific survival (CSS) was cross-compared by multivariable analysis. Systematic literature review was conducted to examine the impact of nodal metastasis on progression-free survival (PFS) in UAS. UAS had the lowest incidence of lymph node metastasis among the sarcoma subtypes examined (UAS 2.9%, LMS 3.4%, and ESS 6.6%, P<0.001). Lymph node metastasis was independently associated with decreased CSS in all three tumor types (all, P<0.01); however, magnitudes of statistical significance of lymph node metastasis for CSS were similar across the three tumor types: adjusted-hazard ratio (aHR) for UAS 2.34, ESS 2.43, and LMS 2.10. Systematic literature review identified 230 unique cases of surgically treated UAS. On multivariable analysis, lymph node metastasis (aHR 4.72) had the greatest degree of significance for PFS compared to other tumor factors including sarcomatous overgrowth (aHR 2.88), heterologous elements (aHR 2.08), and deep myometrial invasion (aHR 1.51). Large tumor, deep myometrial invasion, and sarcomatous overgrowth were associated with increased risk of lymph node metastasis (all, P<0.05). While uterine adenosarcoma had a low incidence of lymph node metastasis, the impact of lymph node metastasis on survival was comparable to ESS or LMS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. DETECTION OF OCCULT LYMPH NODE TUMOR CELLS IN NODE-NEGATIVE GASTRIC CANCER PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marina Alessandra; Ramos, Marcus Fernando Kodama Pertille; Dias, Andre Roncon; Yagi, Osmar Kenji; Faraj, Sheila Friedrich; Zilberstein, Bruno; Cecconello, Ivan; Mello, Evandro Sobroza de; Ribeiro-Jr, Ulysses

    2017-01-01

    The presence of lymph nodes metastasis is one of the most important prognostic indicators in gastric cancer. The micrometastases have been studied as prognostic factor in gastric cancer, which are related to decrease overall survival and increased risk of recurrence. However, their identification is limited by conventional methodology, since they can be overlooked after routine staining. To investigate the presence of occult tumor cells using cytokeratin (CK) AE1/AE3 immunostaining in gastric cancer patients histologically lymph node negative (pN0) by H&E. Forty patients (T1-T4N0) submitted to a potentially curative gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy were evaluated. The results for metastases, micrometastases and isolated tumor cells were also associated to clinicopathological characteristics and their impact on stage grouping. Tumor deposits within lymph nodes were defined according to the tumor-node-metastases guidelines (7th TNM). A total of 1439 lymph nodes were obtained (~36 per patient). Tumor cells were detected by immunohistochemistry in 24 lymph nodes from 12 patients (30%). Neoplasic cells were detected as a single or cluster tumor cells. Tumor (p=0.002), venous (p=0.016), lymphatic (p=0.006) and perineural invasions (p=0.04), as well as peritumoral lymphocytic response (p=0.012) were correlated to CK-positive immunostaining tumor cells in originally negative lymph nodes by H&E. The histologic stage of two patients was upstaged from stage IB to stage IIA. Four of the 28 CK-negative patients (14.3%) and three among 12 CK-positive patients (25%) had disease recurrence (p=0.65). The CK-immunostaining is an effective method for detecting occult tumor cells in lymph nodes and may be recommended to precisely determine tumor stage. It may be useful as supplement to H&E routine to provide better pathological staging. A presença de metástase em linfonodos é um dos indicadores prognósticos mais importantes no câncer gástrico. As micrometástases têm sido

  13. Sentinel lymph node procedure in patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal: early experience.

    PubMed

    Damin, Daniel C; Rosito, Mario A; Gus, Pedro; Spiro, Bernardo L; Amaral, Beatriz B; Meurer, Luise; Cartel, Andre; Schwartsmann, Gilberto

    2003-08-01

    This study was conducted to assess the feasibility of the sentinel lymph node procedure in patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal. Between February 2001 and November 2002, 14 patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal and no clinical evidence of inguinal involvement were prospectively enrolled in the study. The sentinel lymph node procedure consisted of a combination of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy with technetium 99m dextran 500 injected around the tumor and intraoperative detection of the sentinel node with a gamma probe. Patent blue V dye was also injected at the periphery of the tumor to facilitate direct identification of the blue-stained lymph node. After removal, the sentinel node was studied by hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry for pancytokeratins (antigen A1 and A3). Detection and removal of sentinel lymph nodes was possible in all patients. There was no correlation between tumor size and pattern of lymphatic drainage to the groin. Tumors located in the midline of the anal canal gave rise to bilateral sentinel nodes in eight of nine cases. In total, 23 sentinel lymph nodes were removed. One patient (7.1 percent) had a node identified as positive for metastatic carcinoma on immunohistochemical staining. Surgical complications were minimal. The standardized technique was safe and highly effective in sampling inguinal sentinel lymph nodes in carcinoma of the anal canal. It also proved to be useful as an instrument to detect micrometastatic deposits in clinically normal nodes. Our early results suggest the sentinel lymph node procedure may have a role in guiding a more selective approach for patients with anal cancer. Additional studies in a larger patient population to determine the sensitivity and specificity of this method are warranted.

  14. Simultaneous mapping of pan and sentinel lymph nodes for real-time image-guided surgery.

    PubMed

    Ashitate, Yoshitomo; Hyun, Hoon; Kim, Soon Hee; Lee, Jeong Heon; Henary, Maged; Frangioni, John V; Choi, Hak Soo

    2014-01-01

    The resection of regional lymph nodes in the basin of a primary tumor is of paramount importance in surgical oncology. Although sentinel lymph node mapping is now the standard of care in breast cancer and melanoma, over 20% of patients require a completion lymphadenectomy. Yet, there is currently no technology available that can image all lymph nodes in the body in real time, or assess both the sentinel node and all nodes simultaneously. In this study, we report an optical fluorescence technology that is capable of simultaneous mapping of pan lymph nodes (PLNs) and sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in the same subject. We developed near-infrared fluorophores, which have fluorescence emission maxima either at 700 nm or at 800 nm. One was injected intravenously for identification of all regional lymph nodes in a basin, and the other was injected locally for identification of the SLN. Using the dual-channel FLARE intraoperative imaging system, we could identify and resect all PLNs and SLNs simultaneously. The technology we describe enables simultaneous, real-time visualization of both PLNs and SLNs in the same subject.

  15. A Novel Approach to Segment and Classify Regional Lymph Nodes on Computed Tomography Images

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Hongmin; Cui, Chunyan; Tian, Haiying; Zhang, Min; Li, Li

    2012-01-01

    Morphology of lymph nodal metastasis is critical for diagnosis and prognosis of cancer patients. However, accurate prediction of lymph node type based on morphological information is rarely available due to lack of pathological validation. To obtain correct morphological information, lymph nodes must be segmented from computed tomography (CT) image accurately. In this paper we described a novel approach to segment and predict the status of lymph nodes from CT images and confirmed the diagnostic performance by clinical pathological results. We firstly removed noise and preserved edge details using a revised nonlinear diffusion equation, and secondly we used a repulsive-force-based snake method to segment the lymph nodes. Morphological measurements for the characterization of the node status were obtained from the segmented node image. These measurements were further selected to derive a highly representative set of node status, called feature vector. Finally, classical classification scheme based on support vector machine model was employed to simulate the prediction of nodal status. Experiments on real clinical rectal cancer data showed that the prediction performance with the proposed framework is highly consistent with pathological results. Therefore, this novel algorithm is promising for status prediction of lymph nodes. PMID:23193427

  16. Three-dimensional optical imaging of microvascular networks within intact lymph node in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Yeongri; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2010-09-01

    Sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) are the first lymph nodes to drain wastes originated from cancerous tissue. There is a need for an in vivo imaging method that can image the intact SLN to further our understanding of its normal as well as abnormal functions. We report the use of ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography (UHS-OMAG) to image functional microvascular and lymphatic vessel networks that innervate the intact lymph node in mice in vivo. The promising results show a potential role of UHS-OMAG in the future understanding and diagnosis of the SLN involvement in cancer development.

  17. Label-free 3D optical imaging of microcirculation within sentinel lymph node in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Yeongri; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2011-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) is the first lymph node to drain wastes originated from cancerous tissue. There is a need for an in vivo imaging method that can image the intact SLN in order to further our understanding of its normal as well as abnormal functions. We report the use of ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography (UHS-OMAG) to image functional microvascular and lymphatic vessel networks that innervate the intact lymph node in mice in vivo. The promising results show a potential role of UHS-OMAG in the future understanding and diagnosis of the SLN involvement in cancer development.

  18. Vulvar melanoma: is there a role for sentinel lymph node biopsy?

    PubMed

    de Hullu, Joanne A; Hollema, Harry; Hoekstra, Harald J; Piers, Do A; Mourits, Marian J E; Aalders, Jan G; van der Zee, Ate G J

    2002-01-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the author's recent, preliminary experience with the sentinel lymph node procedure in patients with vulvar melanoma and to compare this experience with treatment and follow-up of patients with vulvar melanomas who were treated previously at their institution. From 1997, sentinel lymph node procedure with the combined technique (99mTechnetium-labeled nanocolloid and Patente Blue-V) was performed as a standard staging procedure for patients with vulvar melanoma with a thickness > 1 mm and no clinically suspicious inguinofemoral lymph nodes. For the current study, clinicopathologic data from all 33 patients with vulvar melanoma who were treated between 1978 and 2000 at the University Hospital Groningen were reviewed and analyzed. From January 1997 until December 2000, identification of sentinel lymph nodes was successful in all nine patients who were referred for treatment of vulvar melanoma. Three patients underwent subsequent complete inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy because of metastatic sentinel lymph nodes. In follow-up, groin recurrences (in-transit metastases) occurred in two of nine patients, both 12 months after primary treatment. Both patients had melanomas with a thickness > 4 mm and previously had negative sentinel lymph nodes. There was a trend toward more frequent groin recurrences in patients after undergoing the sentinel lymph node procedure (2 of 9 patients) compared with 24 historic control patients (0 of 24 patients; P = 0.06). Five of 33 patients developed local recurrences: Two patients had groin recurrences, and 11 patients developed distant metastases. Twelve patients died of vulvar melanoma. Seventeen patients with a median follow-up of 66 months (range, 9-123 months) are currently alive (overall survival rate, 52%). Although the numbers were small, this study showed that the sentinel lymph node procedure is capable of identifying patients who have occult lymph node metastases and who may benefit from

  19. Development of a handheld fluorescence imaging camera for intraoperative sentinel lymph node mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szyc, Łukasz; Bonifer, Stefanie; Walter, Alfred; Jagemann, Uwe; Grosenick, Dirk; Macdonald, Rainer

    2015-05-01

    We present a compact fluorescence imaging system developed for real-time sentinel lymph node mapping. The device uses two near-infrared wavelengths to record fluorescence and anatomical images with a single charge-coupled device camera. Experiments on lymph node and tissue phantoms confirmed that the amount of dye in superficial lymph nodes can be better estimated due to the absorption correction procedure integrated in our device. Because of the camera head's small size and low weight, all accessible regions of tissue can be reached without the need for any adjustments.

  20. Vascular changes in popliteal lymph nodes due to antigen challenge in normal and lethally irradiated mice

    SciTech Connect

    Steeber, D.A.; Erickson, C.M.; Hodde, K.C.; Albrecht, R.M.

    1987-06-01

    The microvascular system of the murine popliteal lymph node was investigated using scanning electron microscopy of microcorrosion casts. Time-dependent changes in the microvasculature following regional antigen challenge in normal and lymphocyte-depleted mice were studied. Normal lymph node microvasculature exhibited a significant increase in both the vascular bed and post-capillary venules containing high-endothelium in response to antigen challenge. Lymph nodes of lymphocyte-depleted mice showed no microvascular size increase following antigen challenge and a reduction in the amount of high-endothelium was observed.

  1. Potential Use of Transferred Lymph Nodes as Metastasis Detectors after Tumor Excision

    PubMed Central

    Nicoli, Fabio; Ciudad, Pedro; Lim, Seong Yoon; Lazzeri, Davide; D'Ambrosia, Christopher; Kiranantawat, Kidakorn; Chilgar, Ram M; Sapountzis, Stamatis; Sacak, Bulent

    2015-01-01

    Due to the fact that it reliably results in positive outcomes, lymph node flap transfer is becoming an increasingly popular surgical procedure for the prevention and treatment of lymphedema. This technique has been shown to stimulate lymphoangiogenesis and restore lymphatic function, as well as decreasing infection rates, minimizing pain, and preventing the recurrence of lymphedema. In this article, we investigate possible additional benefits of lymph node flap transfer, primarily the possibility that sentinel lymph nodes may be used to detect micro-metastasis or in-transit metastasis and may function as an additional lymphatic station after the excision of advanced skin cancer. PMID:26217570

  2. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer: A Clinical Review and Update.

    PubMed

    Zahoor, Sheikh; Haji, Altaf; Battoo, Azhar; Qurieshi, Mariya; Mir, Wahid; Shah, Mudasir

    2017-09-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy has become a standard staging tool in the surgical management of breast cancer. The positive impact of sentinel lymph node biopsy on postoperative negative outcomes in breast cancer patients, without compromising the oncological outcomes, is its major advantage. It has evolved over the last few decades and has proven its utility beyond early breast cancer. Its applicability and efficacy in patients with clinically positive axilla who have had a complete clinical response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is being aggressively evaluated at present. This article discusses how sentinel lymph node biopsy has evolved and is becoming a useful tool in new clinical scenarios of breast cancer management.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Patterns of spread

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Lizhi; Zhang Guoyi; Xie Chuangmiao; Liu Xuewen; Cui Chunyan; Li Li . E-mail: lililixj@hotmail.com

    2006-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence, distribution, and spread pattern of retropharyngeal lymph node (RLN) involvement in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Materials: The MR images of 275 patients with newly diagnosed NPC were reviewed retrospectively. Nodes were classified as metastatic based on size criteria, the presence of nodal necrosis, and extracapsular spread. Results: Retropharyngeal lymph node involvement was detected in 175 (63.6%) patients. Metastatic RLNs were seen at the following levels: occipital bone, 24 (9.6%) nodes; C1, 157 (62.5%) nodes; C1/2, 40 (15.9%) nodes; C2, 27 (10.8%) nodes; C2/3, 1 (0.4%) node; and C3, 2 (0.8%) nodes. The incidence of RLN involvement was equal to the incidence of cervical lymph node involvement (81.4% vs. 81.4%) in 215 patients with nodal metastases. A significantly higher incidence of metastatic RLNs was observed in the presence of oropharynx, prestyloid parapharyngeal space, post-styloid parapharyngeal space, longus colli muscle, medial pterygoid muscle, levator muscle of velum palatini, tensor muscle of velum palatini, Level II node, Level III node, and Level V node involvement. A significantly lower incidence of metastatic RLNs was found in T1, N0, and Stage I disease. Conversely, no significant difference in the incidence of metastatic RLNs was observed between T1, 2, and, 3; N2 and N3; or Stage II, III, and IV disease. Conclusions: There is an orderly decrease in the incidence of metastatic lateral RLNs from the C1 to C3 level. Metastatic RLNs associate well with involvement of certain structures in early stage primary tumors and lymph node metastases of the upper jugular chain (Level II, Level III nodes) and the posterior triangle (Level V nodes). Both RLNs and cervical Level II nodes appear to be the first-echelon nodes in NPC.

  4. Thoracoscopic radical esophagectomy and laparoscopic transhiatal lymph node dissection for superficial esophageal cancer associated with lymph node metastases in the dorsal area of the thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Itasu; Okamoto, Koichi; Tsukada, Tomoya; Saito, Hiroto; Fushida, Sachio; Ikeda, Hiroko; Ohta, Tetsuo

    2015-12-01

    Esophageal cancer invading the muscularis mucosa sometimes involves regional lymph node metastases. However, lymph node metastases are rare in the dorsal area of the thoracic aorta. We describe a patient with an intramucosal esophageal cancer invading the muscularis mucosa, accompanied by lymph node metastases in the dorsal area of the thoracic aorta. These lesions were successfully resected by hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery using a transhiatal approach. A 60-year-old man was diagnosed with superficial esophageal cancer during a routine health examination. Endoscopic examination and ultrasonography revealed a superficial cancer, of diameter 6.0 cm, invading the submucosal layer and intramural metastases caudal to the primary tumor. Enhanced computed tomography and F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography demonstrated the two metastatic lymph nodes, one in the dorsal area of the thoracic aorta and the other near the left gastric artery. Thoracoscopic radical esophagectomy with three-field lymph node dissection was performed. The metastatic lymph node in the dorsal area of the thoracic aorta was successfully removed by hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery using a transhiatal approach. Histopathological examination showed primary cancer invading the muscularis mucosa and intramural metastases in the lamina propria mucosa and submucosal layer. The pathological diagnosis according to the Japanese classification of esophageal cancer was MtLt, 47 mm, 0-IIa + IIb, pT1a-MM, ie(+), INF-b, ly3, v0, pN4(4a), pIM1, M0, and pstage IVa. The patient underwent two courses of adjuvant chemotherapy, consisting of CDDP and 5-fluorouracil. At present, 1 year and 8 months after surgery, the patient remains alive without tumor recurrence. Although the lymph node in the dorsal area of the thoracic aorta is not recognized as regional nodes of thoracic esophageal cancer, solitary mediastinal metastases from a mucosal cancer may indicate the existence of direct lymphatic flow

  5. Intravital imaging of the mouse popliteal lymph node.

    PubMed

    Liou, H L Rachel; Myers, Jay T; Barkauskas, Deborah S; Huang, Alex Y

    2012-02-08

    Lymph nodes (LNs) are secondary lymphoid organs, which are strategically located throughout the body to allow for trapping and presentation of foreign antigens from peripheral tissues to prime the adaptive immune response. Juxtaposed between innate and adaptive immune responses, the LN is an ideal site to study immune cell interactions. Lymphocytes (T cells, B cells and NK cells), dendritic cells (DCs), and macrophages comprise the bulk of bone marrow-derived cellular elements of the LN. These cells are strategically positioned in the LN to allow efficient surveillance of self antigens and potential foreign antigens. The process by which lymphocytes successfully encounter cognate antigens is a subject of intense investigation in recent years, and involves an integration of molecular contacts including antigen receptors, adhesion molecules, chemokines, and stromal structures such as the fibro-reticular network. Prior to the development of high-resolution real-time fluorescent in vivo imaging, investigators relied on static imaging, which only offers answers regarding morphology, position, and architecture. While these questions are fundamental in our understanding of immune cell behavior, the limitations intrinsic with this technique does not permit analysis to decipher lymphocyte trafficking and environmental clues that affect dynamic cell behavior. Recently, the development of intravital two-photon laser scanning microscopy (2P-LSM) has allowed investigators to view the dynamic movements and interactions of individual cells within live LNs in situ. In particular, we and others have applied this technique to image cellular behavior and interactions within the popliteal LN, where its compact, dense nature offers the advantage of multiplex data acquisition over a large tissue area with diverse tissue sub-structures. It is important to note that this technique offers added benefits over explanted tissue imaging techniques, which require disruption of blood, lymph flow

  6. How important is the number of pelvic lymph node retrieved to locorregional staging of cervix cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Thales Paulo; Bezerra, Artur Lício Rocha; Martins, Mário Rino; Carneiro, Vandré Cabral Gomes

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To explore how important is the number of pelvic lymph nodes dissected for the nodal staging in FIGO IA2-IB2 cervical cancer, submitted to radical surgical treatment. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on patients who underwent Piver class II radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy, in two centers in the state of Pernambuco, from January, 2001 to December, 2008. The analysis of the area under the ROC curve was adopted as a summary-measure of discriminatory power of the number of nodes dissected in predicting the pelvic nodal status. Additionally, we also confirm our findings using logistic regression and the Fisher's exact test. Results: The postoperative pathological study included 662 pelvic lymph nodes dissected (median per-patient=9, q25=6 − q75=13) from 69 patients. The ROC curve analysis revealed AUC=0.642, for the discriminatory value of the number of nodes dissected in predicting the pelvic nodal status. Similar findings were found after categorization using 10 and 15 lymph nodes as cut-offs (AUC=0.605 and 0.526, respectively). Logistic regression revealed odds ratio of 0.912 (95% CI=0.805-1.032; p=0.125) for the predictive value of the number of nodes dissected, and a number of nodes ≥10 or ≥15 lymph nodes was not significantly associated with the nodal status by the Fischer's exact test (p=0.224 and p=0.699, respectively). Conclusion: The number of pelvic lymph nodes dissected did not correlate with pelvic lymph node metastatic involvement. This study suggests that dissection of a greater number of lymph nodes does not increase locoregional nodal staging in cervical cancer. PMID:24488383

  7. Listeria infection inhibits IgE production in regional lymph nodes by suppressing chemotaxis of basophils to lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Kanoh, Makoto; Maruyama, Saho; Asano, Yoshihiro

    2013-12-01

    Infection with Listeria induces a dominant shift to the Th1 immune response and inhibits the Th2 response. Papain is frequently utilized in animal models of allergies. Papain administration induces chemotaxis of basophils to regional lymph nodes (LNs) and production of interleukin (IL)-4 by basophils, resulting in a Th2-dominant status and increased IgE production in LNs. In this model, production of immunoglobulin (Ig) E by LN cells is primarily controlled by IL-4 produced by basophils. Based on this model, it was postulated that Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) infection suppresses IgE production by LN cells. Therefore, the effects of Lm infection on a papain-induced mouse model of allergies were investigated. Following s.c. injection of papain, basophils transiently migrated to draining LNs because of the effects of chemokine (C-C) motif ligand (CCL) 24 and secreted IL-4, inducing a Th2 response. Lm infection blocked recruitment of basophils into the popliteal LNs by inhibiting CCL24 production. Papain-induced class switch recombination (CSR) to IgE is inhibited by Lm infection, whereas CSR to IgG1 is not affected by the same treatment. Therefore, the CSR of IgG1 to IgE is basophil-dependent, whereas the CSR of IgM to IgG1 is basophil-independent. Hence, Lm infection suppresses CSR to IgE without affecting CSR to IgG1.

  8. Lymph node and lymphoid organs fine needle aspiration cytology: historical background.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, Immacolata; Vigliar, Elena; Vetrani, Antonio; Zeppa, Pio

    2012-01-01

    Lymph node has probably been the first target of Fine Needle Cytology (FNC) and among the latest to be accepted as an affordable diagnostic procedure. In 1912, dr. Hirschfeld performed FNC to diagnose cutaneous lymphomas and other tumours. Subsequently FNC was used to diagnose lymphoblastoma and splenic FNC to diagnose leishmaniasis on Romanowsky-stained smears. One of the first systematic study on lymph node FNC was then performed at John Hopkins Hospital, in Baltimore (USA) using FNC and Romanowsky stain on air-dried smears. In the twenties, two independent groups from Memorial Hospital (New York, USA), worked on FNC of a large scale of different human pathologies. One of this study reported 1,405 diagnoses of cancer and other diseases by means of FNC, mainly performed on lymph nodes (662 cases). In the sixties, at the Karolinska Hospital (Stockholm, Sweden) a group of cytopathologists started a Cytopathology Service available to the whole Institution, which exploited all fields of FNC. Since then, the procedure spread all over the word and nowadays it is routinely used for the diagnosis of different organs and pathologies including lymph node. Distinguished cytopathologists have worked on lymph nodal FNC producing significant advances and highlighting advantages and inevitable limitations of the technique. Despite some persistent criticism, FNC is a generally accepted procedure in the first diagnosis of lymph nodes enlargement. Moreover, numerous studies have demonstrated that vital cells obtained by FNC are excellent samples suitable for molecular evaluation, offering new challenging application to lymph node FNC.

  9. Indirect computed tomography lymphangiography with aqueous contrast for evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes in dogs with tumors of the head.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Janet A; Secrest, Scott A; Northrup, Nicole C; Saba, Corey F; Schmiedt, Chad W

    2017-09-01

    Sentinel lymph node evaluation is widely used in human medicine to evaluate the first lymph node(s) to which a tumor drains. Sentinel lymph node biopsy allows avoidance of extensive lymphadenectomies in cases where the sentinel lymph node is negative for metastasis, thereby reducing patient morbidity. It has been shown that regional lymph nodes are not always the sentinel lymph node, thus identification and sampling of sentinel lymph nodes allows for more accurate staging, which is critical for treatment and prognostication in dogs with cancer. The objective of this prospective, pilot study was to determine if indirect computed tomography (CT) lymphangiography with aqueous contrast agent would successfully allow identification of sentinel lymph nodes in dogs with masses on the head. Eighteen dogs underwent CT lymphangiography. The sentinel lymph node was successfully identified within 3 min of contrast injection in 16 dogs (89%). Compression of lymphatic vessels from endotracheal tube ties and/or the patient's own body weight delayed or prevented identification of sentinel lymph nodes in two dogs (11%). Computed tomography lymphangiography with aqueous contrast can be used successfully to rapidly identify sentinel lymph nodes in dogs with masses on the head. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  10. Probabilities of identifying a micrometastasis in a cervical lymph node from laryngeal cancer. A stereometric approach.

    PubMed

    Delides, Alexander; Maniadakis, Michael; Stathopoulos, Eustathios

    2013-08-01

    Lymph node micrometastases are important for prognosis and treatment. Their identification in neck dissection specimens with large numbers of nodes is a matter of chance unless serial sectioning or step sectioning at intervals of 200 μm is used, a method which is impractical. For a case of squamous cell laryngeal carcinoma where a micrometastasis was found in one of the lymph nodes, we performed a stereometric analysis of the probability of identifying the lesion. One section at a depth of 100 μm from the surface of each bisected lymph node revealed a micrometastasis, with a range of conditional probability of 75-98%. Serial sectioning of all excised nodes is unrealistic for routine practice. Knowing the probability of actually identifying a micrometastasis could be important additional information for the clinician and the management of the patient. By performing three sections, the probability of missing a micrometastasis within a normally appearing node would be 2-25%.

  11. Isolation of Salmonella from mesenteric lymph nodes of healthy cattle at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Samuel, J L; O'Boyle, D A; Mathers, W J; Frost, A J

    1980-03-01

    Salmonella was sought in 100 normal, slaughtered cattle, most of which had been held for at least four days before slaughter. The organism was isolated from 76 cattle: from the rumen contents of 62, the ruminal lymph nodes of two and the mesenteric lymph nodes of 54. The mesenteric nodes of 35 of the cattle yielded salmonellae by direct plating; plate counts indicated that some nodes contained over 2500 organisms per gram. S typhimurium was the most prevalent serotype in the mesenteric nodes but not in the rumen; up to seven serotypes were isolated from one animal. In animals which have travelled or been held for several days before slaughter, the mesenteric lymph nodes may be a source of contamination for meat and edible offal in the abattoir.

  12. Clinicopathological features for predicting central and lateral lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma: Analysis of 66 cases that underwent central and lateral lymph node dissection

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Yang; Wang, Chongjie; Li, Liye; Xing, Haijun; Bai, Yun; Han, Bing; Liu, Zhiyan; Yang, Xiangshan; Zhu, Shourong

    2017-01-01

    Currently the surgical approach for papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC), particularly the range of lymph node dissection, remains controversial. The present study aims to evaluate the risk factors for central and lateral lymph node metastasis (CLNM and LLNM) for appropriate clinical decision of neck lymph node dissection in PTMC. A total of 66 cases of PTMC that underwent unilateral or bilateral lobectomy plus prophylactic cervical lymph node dissection were collected for clinicopathological evaluation, including age, gender, tumor size, subtypes, extrathyroidal invasion, multifocality, calcifications, loss of cellular polarity/cohesiveness (LOP/C) in the invasive front, CLNM and LLNM, and retrospectively analysis. Univariate analysis revealed that LOP/C was significantly associated with CLNM (P=0.001) and LLNM (P<0.0001). The male gender was a risk factor of CLNM (P=0.04), while the age <45 years, tumor size >0.5 cm and multifocality were high-risk factors of LLNM (P=0.022, 0.044 and 0.005, respectively). Multivariable analysis revealed that LOP/C was significantly associated with CLNM [P=0.007, odds ratio (OR)=7.765, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.773–33.996] and LLNM [P=0.029, OR=5.717, 95% CI=1.190–27.470]. Both multivariable analysis and χ2 test revealed that CLNM was another important high-risk factor of LLNM (P=0.021, OR=5.444, 95% CI=1.290–22.969, χ2=17.867, P<0.001). The present study revealed that prophylactic central lymph node dissection is essential for PTMC surgery and that prophylactic lateral lymph node dissection is recommend for patients with LOP/C and CLNM, which can be performed by intraoperative frozen section pathological examination. This must be considered discreetly in the case of patients with age <45 years, tumor size >0.5 cm and multifocal lesions. PMID:28123728

  13. Use of Lymph Node Ultrasound Prior to Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in 384 Patients with Melanoma: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, D; Brotons-Seguí, M; Del Toro, C; González, M; Requena, C; Traves, V; Pla, A; Bolumar, I; Moreno-Ramírez, D; Nagore, E

    2017-08-08

    Locoregional lymph node ultrasound is not typically included in guidelines as part of the staging process prior to sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). The objective of the present study was to make a clinical and economic analysis of lymph node ultrasound prior to SLNB. We performed a retrospective study of 384 patients with clinical stage I-II primary melanoma who underwent locorregional lymph node ultrasound (with or without ultrasound-guided biopsy) prior to SLNB between 2004 and 2015. We evaluated the reliability and cost-effectiveness of the strategy. Use of locorregional lymph node ultrasound avoided SLNB in 23 patients (6%). Ultrasound had a sensitivity of 46% and specificity of 76% for the detection of metastatic lymph nodes that were not clinically palpable. False negatives were significantly more common in patients aged over 60 years and in tumors with a thickness of less than 2mm. The staging process using SLNB and ultrasound with ultrasound-guided biopsy produced an increase of €16.30 in the unit price. Our cost-effectiveness analysis identified the staging protocol with ultrasound and SLNB as the dominant strategy, with a lower cost-effectiveness ratio than the alternative, consisting of SLNB alone (8,095.24 vs. €28,605.00). Ultrasound with ultrasound-guided biopsy for the diagnostic staging of melanoma prior to SLNB is a useful and cost-effective tool. This procedure does not substitute SLNB, though it does allow to avoid SLNB in a not insignificant proportion of patients. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinicopathological features for predicting central and lateral lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma: Analysis of 66 cases that underwent central and lateral lymph node dissection.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yang; Wang, Chongjie; Li, Liye; Xing, Haijun; Bai, Yun; Han, Bing; Liu, Zhiyan; Yang, Xiangshan; Zhu, Shourong

    2017-01-01

    Currently the surgical approach for papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC), particularly the range of lymph node dissection, remains controversial. The present study aims to evaluate the risk factors for central and lateral lymph node metastasis (CLNM and LLNM) for appropriate clinical decision of neck lymph node dissection in PTMC. A total of 66 cases of PTMC that underwent unilateral or bilateral lobectomy plus prophylactic cervical lymph node dissection were collected for clinicopathological evaluation, including age, gender, tumor size, subtypes, extrathyroidal invasion, multifocality, calcifications, loss of cellular polarity/cohesiveness (LOP/C) in the invasive front, CLNM and LLNM, and retrospectively analysis. Univariate analysis revealed that LOP/C was significantly associated with CLNM (P=0.001) and LLNM (P<0.0001). The male gender was a risk factor of CLNM (P=0.04), while the age <45 years, tumor size >0.5 cm and multifocality were high-risk factors of LLNM (P=0.022, 0.044 and 0.005, respectively). Multivariable analysis revealed that LOP/C was significantly associated with CLNM [P=0.007, odds ratio (OR)=7.765, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.773-33.996] and LLNM [P=0.029, OR=5.717, 95% CI=1.190-27.470]. Both multivariable analysis and χ(2) test revealed that CLNM was another important high-risk factor of LLNM (P=0.021, OR=5.444, 95% CI=1.290-22.969, χ(2)=17.867, P<0.001). The present study revealed that prophylactic central lymph node dissection is essential for PTMC surgery and that prophylactic lateral lymph node dissection is recommend for patients with LOP/C and CLNM, which can be performed by intraoperative frozen section pathological examination. This must be considered discreetly in the case of patients with age <45 years, tumor size >0.5 cm and multifocal lesions.

  15. Ultrasonography-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for cervical lymph node metastasis from thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Ge, Minghua; Xu, Dong; Chen, Liyu; Qian, Chaowen; Shi, Kaiyuan; Liu, Junping; Chen, Yong

    2014-11-01

    The aim was to explore the efficacy and safety of ultrasonography-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for cervical lymph node metastases from thyroid carcinoma. Eight patients with previous total thyroidectomy and radioiodine therapy were enrolled in this study. A total of 20 cervical lymph node metastases were confirmed by percutaneous biopsy. Participants underwent ultrasonography-guided RFA treatment for all confirmed metastatic lymph nodes. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and sonoelastography were performed to rapidly evaluate treatment responses before and shortly after RFA. Routine follow-up consisted of conventional US, CEUS, sonoelastography, thyroglobulin level, and necessary fine needle aspiration cytology. All eight patients were successfully treated without obvious complications. Post-RFA CEUS showed that total metastatic lymph nodes were ablated. The sonoelastographic score of ablated area elevated significantly shortly after RFA (P < 0.001). With a mean follow-up of 9.4 ± 5.1 months, there were no evidences of recurrence at ablated sites; however, two new cervical recurrent lymph nodes occurred in one case, which was successfully ablated as well. The mass volume shrinkages of the ablated nodes were observed in all cases. We found that 5 treated lymph nodes disappeared, 4 were reduced more than 80%, 9 were reduced between 50% and 80%, and 2 were reduced less than 50%. At the last follow-up evaluation, the serum thyroglobulin levels had decreased in 6 of 8 patients. Ultrasonography-guided percutaneous RFA for cervical lymph node metastasis of thyroid malignancy is a feasible, effective, and safe therapy. This procedure shows a nonsurgical therapeutic option for metastatic lymph nodes in patients with difficult reoperations or inoperations, it may reduce or delay a large number of highly invasive repeated neck dissections.

  16. Sparing level Ib lymph nodes by intensity-modulated radiotherapy in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Ou, Dan; He, Xiayun; Hu, Chaosu

    2014-12-01

    We retrospectively investigated the patterns of locoregional relapse and survival of patients to evaluate whether sparing level Ib lymph nodes by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma was feasible. One hundred and twenty nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients received treatment with level Ib lymph nodes spared by IMRT between January 2005 and August 2008 in our center. Before treatment, each patient underwent enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of the nasopharynx and neck. Patients with negative cervical lymph nodes received radiotherapy to the nasopharynx, skull base and upper neck drainage areas, while patients with cervical lymph node involvement received treatment to the whole neck. The prescription doses were 66-70.4 Gy/30-32 fractions to the gross tumor volume of nasopharynx, 66 Gy to the positive neck nodes, 60 Gy to the high-risk clinical target volume and 54 Gy to the low-risk clinical target volume. Patients staged III, IV A/B or II also received chemotherapy. The median follow-up of these 120 patients was 54 months. The 5-year local control, regional control, distant metastasis-free and overall survival rates were 90.7, 96.5, 84.8 and 81.4 %, respectively. Four patients suffered regional recurrence: 2, 1 and 1 experienced regional recurrence in level II, retropharyngeal and parotid lymph nodes, respectively. In nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with negative level Ib lymph nodes who are treated with level Ib-sparing IMRT, regional lymph node recurrence alone is rare. Therefore, sparing level Ib lymph nodes by IMRT is feasible in selected patients.

  17. Anatomy of the lymph node venous networks of the groin and their investigation by ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Uhl, Jean Francois; Lo Vuolo, Miguel; Labropoulos, Nicos

    2016-06-01

    To describe the anatomy of the lymph node venous networks of the groin and their assessment by ultrasonography. Anatomical dissection of 400 limbs in 200 fresh cadavers following latex injection as well as analysis of 100 CT venograms. Routine ultrasound examinations were done in patients with chronic venous disease. Lymph node venous networks were found in either normal subjects or chronic venous disease patients with no history of operation. These networks have three main characteristics: they cross the nodes, are connected to the femoral vein by direct perforators, and join the great saphenous vein and/or anterior accessory great saphenous vein. After groin surgery, lymph node venous networks are commonly seen as a dilated and refluxing network with a dystrophic aspect. We found dilated lymph node venous networks in about 15% of the dissected cadavers. It is likely that lymph node venous networks represent remodeling and dystrophic changes of a normal pre-existing network rather than neovessels related to angiogenic factors that occur as a result of an inflammatory response to surgery. The so-called neovascularization after surgery could, in a number of cases, actually be the onset of dystrophic lymph node venous networks.Lymph node venous networks are an ever-present anatomical finding in the groin area. Their dilatation as well as the presence of reflux should be ruled out by US examination of the venous system as they represent a contraindication to a groin approach, particularly in recurrent varicose veins after surgery patients. A refluxing lymph node venous network should be treated by echo-guided foam injection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Evaluation of the 7th AJCC TNM Staging System in Point of Lymph Node Classification

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Hoo; Ha, Tae Kyung

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The 7th AJCC tumor node metastasis (TNM) staging system modified the classification of the lymph node metastasis widely compared to the 6th edition. To evaluate the prognostic predictability of the new TNM staging system, we analyzed the survival rate of the gastric cancer patients assessed by the 7th staging system. Materials and Methods Among 2,083 patients who underwent resection for gastric cancer at the department of surgery, Hanyang Medical Center from July 1992 to December 2009, This study retrospectively reviewed 5-year survival rate (5YSR) of 624 patients (TanyN3M0: 464 patients, TanyNanyM1: 160 patients) focusing on the number of metastatic lymph node and distant metastasis. We evaluated the applicability of the new staging system. Results There were no significant differences in 5YSR between stage IIIC with more than 29 metastatic lymph nodes and stage IV (P=0.053). No significant differences were observed between stage IIIB with more than 28 metastatic lymph nodes and stage IV (P=0.093). Distinct survival differences were present between patients who were categorized as TanyN3M0 with 7 to 32 metastatic lymph nodes and stage IV. But patients with more than 33 metastatic lymph nodes did not show any significant differences compared to stage IV (P=0.055). Among patients with TanyN3M0, statistical significances were seen between patients with 7 to 30 metastatic lymph nodes and those with more than 31 metastatic lymph nodes. Conclusions In the new staging system, modifications of N classification is mandatory to improve prognostic prediction. Further study involving a greater number of cases is required to demonstrate the most appropriate cutoffs for N classification. PMID:22076209

  19. Epidermal growth factor facilitates melanoma lymph node metastasis by influencing tumor lymphangiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bracher, Andreas; Cardona, Ana Soler; Tauber, Stefanie; Fink, Astrid M; Steiner, Andreas; Pehamberger, Hubert; Niederleithner, Heide; Petzelbauer, Peter; Gröger, Marion; Loewe, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in epidermal growth factor (EGF) expression are known to be of prognostic relevance in human melanoma, but EGF-mediated effects on melanoma have not been extensively studied. As lymph node metastasis usually represents the first major step in melanoma progression, we were trying to identify a potential role of primary tumor-derived EGF in the mediation of melanoma lymph node metastases. Stable EGF knockdown (EGFkd) in EGF-high (M24met) and EGF-low (A375) expressing melanoma cells was generated. Only in EGF-high melanoma cells, EGFkd led to a significant reduction of lymph node metastasis and primary tumor lymphangiogenesis in vivo, as well as impairment of tumor cell migration in vitro. Moreover, EGF-induced sprouting of lymphatic but not of blood endothelial cells was abolished using supernatants of M24met EGFkd cells. In addition, M24met EGFkd tumors showed reduced vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) expression levels. Similarly, in human primary melanomas, a direct correlation between EGF/VEGF-C and EGF/Prox-1 expression levels was found. Finally, melanoma patients with lymph node micrometastases undergoing sentinel node biopsy were found to have significantly elevated EGF serum levels as compared with sentinel lymph node-negative patients. Our data indicate that tumor-derived EGF is important in mediating melanoma lymph node metastasis.

  20. Cooccurrence of Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Salmonella Induced Neck Abscess in a Cervical Lymph Node

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Myung; Jung, Eun Jung; Song, Eun Jin; Kim, Dong Chul; Jeong, Chi-Young; Ju, Young-Tae; Lee, Young-Joon; Hong, Soon-Chan; Choi, Sang-Kyung; Ha, Woo-Song

    2017-01-01

    Cervical lymph node metastasis is common in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Salmonella species are rarely reported as causative agents in focal infections of the head and neck. The cooccurrence of lymph node metastasis from PTC and a bacterial infection is rare. This report describes a 76-year-old woman with a cervical lymph node metastasis from PTC and Salmonella infection of the same lymph node. The patient presented with painful swelling in her left lateral neck region for 15 days, and neck ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a cystic mass along left levels II–IV. The cystic mass was suspected of being a metastatic lymph node; modified radical neck dissection was performed. Histopathological examination confirmed the presence of PTC in the resected node and laboratory examination of the combined abscess cavity confirmed the presence of Salmonella Typhi. Following antibiotic sensitivity testing of the cultured Salmonella Typhi, she was treated with proper antibiotics. Cystic lesions in lymph nodes with metastatic cancer may indicate the presence of cooccurring bacterial infection. Thus, culturing of specimen can be option to make accurate diagnosis and to provide proper postoperative management. PMID:28261270

  1. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) significance in colorectal cancer: methods and results. General report.

    PubMed

    Sfeclan, Maria Cristina; Vîlcea, Ionică Daniel; Barišić, Goran; Mogoantă, Stelian ŞtefăniŢă; Moraru, Emil; Ciorbagiu, Mihai Călin; Vasile, Ion; Vere, Cristin Constantin; Vîlcea, Alina Maria; Mirea, Cecil Sorin

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer appears to be one of the most important malignancies in the world, with a survival rate depending on the TNM stage. The presence of lymph nodes metastasis indicates the necessity of adjuvant chemotherapy but exact classification of the N stage requires at least 12 lymph nodes to be pathologically examined. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is considered to be the closest lymph node to the tumor, bearing the highest risk of malignant cells colonization. The main advantage of the sentinel lymph node mapping in colorectal cancer is identification and separate pathological examination of the nodes carrying the highest risk of metastasis. There are still open questions regarding the best method for sentinel lymph node mapping (in vivo or ex vivo), the factors influencing it, which substance is better for identification and which are the best histological methods and markers to be used. Numerous studies have discussed the quality and applicability of the method, but the importance of the SLN in colorectal carcinoma remains an open issue.

  2. [Long-term survival of a patient with lung cancer with skip metastasis to supraclavicular lymph nodes].

    PubMed

    Ohta, Y; Nakaizumi, H; Furukawa, S; Ushijima, S; Mori, Y; Sato, H; Kurumaya, H

    1995-04-01

    A case of lung cancer with skip metastasis to supraclavicular lymph nodes is described. The patient had undergone radical resection for gastric cancer about nine years ago. For about one year, chemotherapy had been done by Tegafur (600 mg/day) after operation. Radical resection for lung cancer (p/d squamous cell carcinoma) was performed about seven years ago. Pathologically, mediastinal lymph node metastasis could not be detected. The needle aspiration biopsy of supraclavicular lymph node revealed metastasis. Then, radical neck lymph nod