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Sample records for reflected atomic particles

  1. Particle reflection and its energy spectrum from solid surfaces with adsorbate atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamura, Y.

    1988-06-01

    Using the ACAT and ACOCT codes, the particle reflection coefficients and energy spectra reflected from solid surfaces covered with adsorbated atoms have been calculated in the low-energy region. It is found that the particle reflection coefficients of low energy ions are much reduced due to the collision between an incoming ion and an adsorbate atom, especially for M1 > M3 ( M1 and M3 being the atomic masses of an ion and an adsorbate atom, respectively), and the surface peak from a substrate atom becomes strongly suppressed as the coverage increases.

  2. Why Do We Believe that an Atom Is Colourless? Reflections about the Teaching of the Particle Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albanese, Alessandro; Vicentini, Matilde

    1997-01-01

    Highlights students' ideas about the particle model of matter and its use. Discusses the atomic model in teaching and the rules of the particle modeling game. Demonstrates how a complete understanding of the rules of the model construction yields guidelines for didactic practice. Focuses on problems connected with visual communication through…

  3. Atomic Particle Detection, Understanding the Atom Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellman, Hal

    This booklet is one of the booklets in the "Understanding the Atom Series" published by the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission for high school science teachers and their students. The instruments used to detect both particles and electromagnetic radiation that emerge from the nucleus are described. The counters reviewed include ionization chambers,…

  4. The Atomic Origin of the Reflection Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prytz, Kjell

    2016-01-01

    It will be demonstrated how the reflection law may be derived on an atomic basis using the plane wave approximation together with Huygens' principle. The model utilized is based on the electric dipole character of matter originating from its molecular constituents. This approach is not new but has, since it was first introduced by Ewald and Oseen…

  5. The Atomic Origin of the Reflection Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prytz, Kjell

    2016-12-01

    It will be demonstrated how the reflection law may be derived on an atomic basis using the plane wave approximation together with Huygens' principle. The model utilized is based on the electric dipole character of matter originating from its molecular constituents. This approach is not new but has, since it was first introduced by Ewald and Oseen in 1915, been applied and analyzed many times before. Here we develop the Ewald-Oseen model of reflection adapted for high school and early undergraduate students with a basic knowledge of microscopic material structure.

  6. Spectrometers for particle measurements in space based on surface reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabash, S.; Wieser, M.; Wurz, P.

    2012-04-01

    This is a review talk on space particle spectrometers based on the surface reflection technique. We sum up the experience in development and operation of such instruments accumulated for the last 15 years at the Swedish Institute of space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden in close cooperation with University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. The technique is relatively new and used in space for measurements of few eV - few keV particles. It was first introduced for neutral atom detection in the GAS instrument onboard the ESA/NASA Ulysses mission (Witte et al., 1992) and later for ion measurements (Barabash et al., 2007) onboard Indian Chandrayaan-1. When a particle hit a surface, secondary electrons release and the particle is either absorbed by the surface or get scattered or reflected. The charge state of the reflected particles normally does not depend on the initial charge state and is neutral but also includes a fraction of negative and positive ions. These charged particles can be analyzed by conventional ion optics. The secondary electrons can be used for triggering a time-of-flight system. The surface reflection technique is close to the usage of foils/ulta-thin foils for particle detections but has a number of advantages. First, it does not require high pre-acceleration potentials and thus allows making more compact and light weight instruments. Secondly, it permits detection of neutral atoms down to 10 eV. Despite the interaction with the surface modifies the original particle velocity, the proper design of the following analyzer section and ion optics can mitigate this effect. We shortly introduce main characteristics of the particle - surface interactions important for this application, describe designs of the instruments flown in space, and show performances of the surface reflection based ENA and ion spectrometers developed for Mars / Venus Express, Chandrayaan-1, BepiColombo, Phobos-Grunt, and Swedish PRISMA.

  7. Solid Hydrogen Particles Analyzed for Atomic Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2001-01-01

    Solid hydrogen particles have been selected as a means of storing atomic propellants in future launch vehicles (refs. 1 to 2). In preparation for this, hydrogen particle formation in liquid helium was tested experimentally. These experiments were conducted to visually characterize the particles and to observe their formation and molecular transformations (aging) while in liquid helium. The particle sizes, molecular transformations, and agglomeration times were estimated from video image analyses. The experiments were conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center in the Supplemental Multilayer Insulation Research Facility (SMIRF, ref. 3). The facility has a vacuum tank, into which the experimental setup was placed. The vacuum tank prevented heat leaks and subsequent boiloff of the liquid helium, and the supporting systems maintained the temperature and pressure of the liquid helium bath where the solid particles were created. As the operation of the apparatus was developed, the hydrogen particles were easily visualized. The figures (ref. 1) show images from the experimental runs. The first image shows the initial particle freezing, and the second image shows the particles after the small particles have agglomerated. The particles finally all clump, but stick together loosely. The solid particles tended to agglomerate within a maximum of 11 min, and the agglomerate was very weak. Because the hydrogen particles are buoyant in the helium, the agglomerate tends to compact itself into a flat pancake on the surface of the helium. This pancake agglomerate is easily broken apart by reducing the pressure above the liquid. The weak agglomerate implies that the particles can be used as a gelling agent for the liquid helium, as well as a storage medium for atomic boron, carbon, or hydrogen. The smallest particle sizes that resulted from the initial freezing experiments were about 1.8 mm. About 50 percent of the particles formed were between 1.8 to 4.6 mm in diameter. These very

  8. Massive Particle Reflection from Moving Mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfarti, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the reflection of massive particles from moving mirrors. The adoption of the formalism based on the energy-momentum allowed us to derive the most general set of formulas, valid for massive and, in the limit, also for massless particles. We show that the momentum change of the reflecting particle always lies along the normal to the mirror, independent of the mirror speed. The subject is interesting not only to physicists designing concentrators for fascicles of massive particles and electron microscopes but also to computer scientists working in raytracing operating in the photon sector. The paper, far from being only theoretical, has profound and novel practical applications in both domains of engineering design and computer science.

  9. Subnanometer Palladium Particles Synthesized by Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Hao P.; Libera, Joseph A.; Stair, Peter C.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2011-06-03

    Monodispersed palladium nanoparticle catalysts were synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using alternating exposures of Pd hexafluoroacetylacetonate (Pd(hfac)₂) and formalin on an alumina support. The size of the ALD Pd particles could be tuned by adjusting the preparation conditions. Conventional ALD conditions produced Pd particles with an average size of 1.4 nm. Removal of surface hydroxyls from the alumina support by a chemical treatment using trimethyl aluminum (TMA) before performing Pd ALD led to nanoparticles larger than 2 nm. Ultrasmall (subnanometer) Pd particles were synthesized using low-temperature metal precursor exposures, followed by applying protective ALD alumina overcoats. The ALD Pd particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure, and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy techniques. The Pd loadings were measured by X-ray fluorescence. The catalytic performance of ALD Pd particles of different sizes was compared in the methanol decomposition reaction. The specific activity (normalized by Pd loading) of the ultrasmall Pd particles was higher than those of the larger particles. Considering the metal dispersion factor, the turnover frequency (TOF) of the ultrasmall Pd particles is comparable to that of the medium-sized (1.4 nm, on average) Pd particles synthesized under standard ALD conditions. The large Pd particles (>2 nm) are a factor of 2 less active than the smaller Pd particles.

  10. Characteristics of flows of energetic atoms reflected from metal targets during ion bombardment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmichev, A.; Perevertaylo, V.; Tsybulsky, L.; Volpian, O.

    2016-07-01

    Particle number and energy reflection coefficients for energetic neutralized gas ions (Ar and O atoms) backscattered from metal targets during ion bombardment have been calculated using TRIM code. The energy distributions of reflected atoms are computed, too, and their dependence on the primary ion energy and the angle of ion incidence is determined. The obtained data confirm the possibility of employing energetic atoms reflection for generation of high energy neutral beams and point out to take this phenomenon into account under analysis of the ion technology for coating deposition.

  11. Charged-Particle Impact Ionization of Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Bartschat, Klaus; Guan Xiaoxu

    2008-08-08

    We have developed a hybrid method to treat charged-particle impact ionization of complex atoms and ions. The essential idea is to describe the interaction between a fast projectile and the target perturbatively, up to second order, while the initial bound state and the ejected-electron--residual-ion interaction can be handled via a convergent R-matrix with pseudo-states (close-coupling) expansion. Example results for ionization of the heavy noble gases (Ne-Xe) by positron and electron impact are presented. The general scheme for a distorted-wave treatment of ionization by heavy-particle impact is described.

  12. Laser manipulation of atoms and particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Steven

    1991-08-01

    A variety of powerful techniques to control the position and velocity of neutral particles has been developed. As examples of this new ability, lasers have been used to construct a variety of traps, to cool atoms to temperatures below 3 x 10 exp -6th K, and to create atomic fountains that may give a hundredfold increase in the accuracy of atomic clocks. Bacteria can be held with laser traps while they are being viewed in an optical microscope, and organelles within a cell can be manipulated without puncturing the cell wall. Single molecules of DNA can now be stretched out and pinned down in a water solution with optical traps. These new capabilities may soon be applied to a wide variety of scientific questions as diverse as precision measurements of fundamental symmetries in physics and the study of biochemistry on a single molecule basis.

  13. Photoionization of Endohedral Atoms: Collective, Reflective and Collateral Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Himadri S.; McCune, Matthew A.; Madjet, Mohamed E.; Hopper, Dale E.; Manson, Steven T.

    2009-12-01

    The photoionization properties of a fullerene-confined atom differ dramatically from that of an isolated atom. In the low energy region, where the fullerene plasmons are active, the electrons of the confined atom emerge through a collective channel carrying a significant chunk of plasmon with it. The photoelectron angular distribution of the confined atom however shows far lesser impact of the effect. At higher energies, the interference between two single-electron ionization channels, one directly from the atom and another reflected off the fullerene cage, producuces oscillatory cross sections. But for the outermost atomic level, which transfers some electrons to the cage, oscillations are further modulated by the collateral emission from the part of the atomic charge density transferred to the cage. These various modes of emissions are studied for the photoionization of Ar endohedrally confined in C60.

  14. Photoionization of Endohedral Atoms: Collective, Reflective and Collateral Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Himadri S.; McCune, Matthew A.; Hopper, Dale E.; Madjet, Mohamed E.; Manson, Steven T.

    2009-12-03

    The photoionization properties of a fullerene-confined atom differ dramatically from that of an isolated atom. In the low energy region, where the fullerene plasmons are active, the electrons of the confined atom emerge through a collective channel carrying a significant chunk of plasmon with it. The photoelectron angular distribution of the confined atom however shows far lesser impact of the effect. At higher energies, the interference between two single-electron ionization channels, one directly from the atom and another reflected off the fullerene cage, producuces oscillatory cross sections. But for the outermost atomic level, which transfers some electrons to the cage, oscillations are further modulated by the collateral emission from the part of the atomic charge density transferred to the cage. These various modes of emissions are studied for the photoionization of Ar endohedrally confined in C{sub 60}.

  15. Reflection and Non-Reflection of Particle Wavepackets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Timothy; Lekner, John

    2008-01-01

    Exact closed-form solutions of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation are obtained, describing the propagation of wavepackets in the neighbourhood of a potential. Examples given include zero reflection, total reflection and partial reflection of the wavepacket, for the sech[superscript 2]x/a, 1/x[superscript 2] and delta(x) potentials,…

  16. Particle reflection and ion-induced desorption from tungsten surfaces with chemisorbed nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamura, Y.; Kimura, H.

    1987-06-01

    Using the Monte Carlo simulation program ACAT, ion-induced desorption yields of nitrogen chemisorbed on tungsten surfaces and the associated particle reflection coefficients have been calculated for low-energy helium-ions. It is found that both the particle reflection coefficients and the energy distributions of the reflected particles depend strongly on the thickness of the adsorbate layer on the surface if the ion energy is in the threshold regime and that the collision sequence of the near-threshold mechanism includes at least two adsorbate atoms. The ACAT desorption yields are found to be in good agreement with experimental yields.

  17. Particle reflection and ion-induced desorption from tungsten surfaces with chemisorbed nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamura, Y.; Kimura, H.

    Using the Monte Carlo simulation program ACAT, ion-induced desorption yields of nitrogen chemisorbed on tungsten surfaces and the associated particle reflection coefficients have been calculated for low-energy helium-ions. It is found that both the particle reflection coefficients and the energy distributions of the reflected particles depend strongly on the thickness of the adsorbate layer on the surface if the ion energy is in the threshold regime and that the collision sequence of the near-threshold mechanism includes at least two adsorbate atoms. The ACAT desorption yields are found to be in good agreement with experimental yields.

  18. Emerging Beam Resonances in Atom Diffraction from a Reflection Grating

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Bum Suk; Meijer, Gerard; Schoellkopf, Wieland

    2010-06-18

    We report on the observation of emerging beam resonances, well known as Rayleigh-Wood anomalies and threshold resonances in photon and electron diffraction, respectively, in an atom-optical diffraction experiment. Diffraction of He atom beams reflected from a blazed ruled grating at grazing incidence has been investigated. The total reflectivity of the grating as well as the intensities of the diffracted beams reveal anomalies at the Rayleigh angles of incidence, i.e., when another diffracted beam emerges parallel to the grating surface. The observed anomalies are discussed in terms of the classical wave-optical model of Rayleigh and Fano.

  19. Exact simulation of polarized light reflectance by particle deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramezan Pour, B.; Mackowski, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    The use of polarimetric light reflection measurements as a means of identifying the physical and chemical characteristics of particulate materials obviously relies on an accurate model of predicting the effects of particle size, shape, concentration, and refractive index on polarized reflection. The research examines two methods for prediction of reflection from plane parallel layers of wavelength—sized particles. The first method is based on an exact superposition solution to Maxwell's time harmonic wave equations for a deposit of spherical particles that are exposed to a plane incident wave. We use a FORTRAN-90 implementation of this solution (the Multiple Sphere T Matrix (MSTM) code), coupled with parallel computational platforms, to directly simulate the reflection from particle layers. The second method examined is based upon the vector radiative transport equation (RTE). Mie theory is used in our RTE model to predict the extinction coefficient, albedo, and scattering phase function of the particles, and the solution of the RTE is obtained from adding—doubling method applied to a plane—parallel configuration. Our results show that the MSTM and RTE predictions of the Mueller matrix elements converge when particle volume fraction in the particle layer decreases below around five percent. At higher volume fractions the RTE can yield results that, depending on the particle size and refractive index, significantly depart from the exact predictions. The particle regimes which lead to dependent scattering effects, and the application of methods to correct the vector RTE for particle interaction, will be discussed.

  20. Highly reflective polymeric substrates functionalized utilizing atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuzuarregui, Ana; Coto, Borja; Rodríguez, Jorge; Gregorczyk, Keith E.; Ruiz de Gopegui, Unai; Barriga, Javier; Knez, Mato

    2015-08-01

    Reflective surfaces are one of the key elements of solar plants to concentrate energy in the receivers of solar thermal electricity plants. Polymeric substrates are being considered as an alternative to the widely used glass mirrors due to their intrinsic and processing advantages, but optimizing both the reflectance and the physical stability of polymeric mirrors still poses technological difficulties. In this work, polymeric surfaces have been functionalized with ceramic thin-films by atomic layer deposition. The characterization and optimization of the parameters involved in the process resulted in surfaces with a reflection index of 97%, turning polymers into a real alternative to glass substrates. The solution we present here can be easily applied in further technological areas where seemingly incompatible combinations of polymeric substrates and ceramic coatings occur.

  1. Highly reflective polymeric substrates functionalized utilizing atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Zuzuarregui, Ana Gregorczyk, Keith E.; Coto, Borja; Ruiz de Gopegui, Unai; Barriga, Javier; Rodríguez, Jorge; Knez, Mato

    2015-08-10

    Reflective surfaces are one of the key elements of solar plants to concentrate energy in the receivers of solar thermal electricity plants. Polymeric substrates are being considered as an alternative to the widely used glass mirrors due to their intrinsic and processing advantages, but optimizing both the reflectance and the physical stability of polymeric mirrors still poses technological difficulties. In this work, polymeric surfaces have been functionalized with ceramic thin-films by atomic layer deposition. The characterization and optimization of the parameters involved in the process resulted in surfaces with a reflection index of 97%, turning polymers into a real alternative to glass substrates. The solution we present here can be easily applied in further technological areas where seemingly incompatible combinations of polymeric substrates and ceramic coatings occur.

  2. Improved atomic force microscopy cantilever performance by partial reflective coating

    PubMed Central

    Miyahara, Yoichi; Aeschimann, Laure; Grütter, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Summary Optical beam deflection systems are widely used in cantilever based atomic force microscopy (AFM). Most commercial cantilevers have a reflective metal coating on the detector side to increase the reflectivity in order to achieve a high signal on the photodiode. Although the reflective coating is usually much thinner than the cantilever, it can still significantly contribute to the damping of the cantilever, leading to a lower mechanical quality factor (Q-factor). In dynamic mode operation in high vacuum, a cantilever with a high Q-factor is desired in order to achieve a lower minimal detectable force. The reflective coating can also increase the low-frequency force noise. In contact mode and force spectroscopy, a cantilever with minimal low-frequency force noise is desirable. We present a study on cantilevers with a partial reflective coating on the detector side. For this study, soft (≈0.01 N/m) and stiff (≈28 N/m) rectangular cantilevers were used with a custom partial coating at the tip end of the cantilever. The Q-factor, the detection and the force noise of fully coated, partially coated and uncoated cantilevers are compared and force distance curves are shown. Our results show an improvement in low-frequency force noise and increased Q-factor for the partially coated cantilevers compared to fully coated ones while maintaining the same reflectivity, therefore making it possible to combine the best of both worlds. PMID:26199849

  3. Effect of particle nonsphericity on bidirectional reflectance of cirrus clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Mishchenko, M.I.; Rossow, W.B.; Macke, A.; Lacis, A.A.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the use of the fractal ice particle method to study the differences in bidirectional reflectance caused by the differences in the single scattering phase functions of spherical water droplets and nonspherical ice crystals.

  4. Universal diffraction of atoms and molecules from a quantum reflection grating

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bum Suk; Zhang, Weiqing; Schöllkopf, Wieland

    2016-01-01

    Since de Broglie’s work on the wave nature of particles, various optical phenomena have been observed with matter waves of atoms and molecules. However, the analogy between classical and atom/molecule optics is not exact because of different dispersion relations. In addition, according to de Broglie’s formula, different combinations of particle mass and velocity can give the same de Broglie wavelength. As a result, even for identical wavelengths, different molecular properties such as electric polarizabilities, Casimir-Polder forces, and dissociation energies modify (and potentially suppress) the resulting matter-wave optical phenomena such as diffraction intensities or interference effects. We report on the universal behavior observed in matter-wave diffraction of He atoms and He2 and D2 molecules from a ruled grating. Clear evidence for emerging beam resonances is observed in the diffraction patterns, which are quantitatively the same for all three particles and only depend on the de Broglie wavelength. A model, combining secondary scattering and quantum reflection, permits us to trace the observed universal behavior back to the peculiar principles of quantum reflection. PMID:27034979

  5. Universal diffraction of atoms and molecules from a quantum reflection grating.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bum Suk; Zhang, Weiqing; Schöllkopf, Wieland

    2016-03-01

    Since de Broglie's work on the wave nature of particles, various optical phenomena have been observed with matter waves of atoms and molecules. However, the analogy between classical and atom/molecule optics is not exact because of different dispersion relations. In addition, according to de Broglie's formula, different combinations of particle mass and velocity can give the same de Broglie wavelength. As a result, even for identical wavelengths, different molecular properties such as electric polarizabilities, Casimir-Polder forces, and dissociation energies modify (and potentially suppress) the resulting matter-wave optical phenomena such as diffraction intensities or interference effects. We report on the universal behavior observed in matter-wave diffraction of He atoms and He2 and D2 molecules from a ruled grating. Clear evidence for emerging beam resonances is observed in the diffraction patterns, which are quantitatively the same for all three particles and only depend on the de Broglie wavelength. A model, combining secondary scattering and quantum reflection, permits us to trace the observed universal behavior back to the peculiar principles of quantum reflection.

  6. Solid Hydrogen Particles and Flow Rates Analyzed for Atomic Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2003-01-01

    The experiments were conducted at Glenn's Small Multipurpose Research Facility (SMIRF, ref. 5). The experimental setup was placed in the facility's vacuum tank to prevent heat leaks and subsequent boiloff of the liquid helium. Supporting systems maintained the temperature and pressure of the liquid helium bath where the solid particles were created. Solid hydrogen particle formation was tested from February 23 to April 2, 2001. Millimeter-sized solid-hydrogen particles were formed in a Dewar of liquid helium as a prelude to creating atomic fuels and propellants for aerospace vehicles. Atomic fuels or propellants are created when atomic boron, carbon, or hydrogen is stored in solid hydrogen particles. The current testing characterized the solid hydrogen particles without the atomic species, as a first step to creating a feed system for the atomic fuels and propellants. This testing did not create atomic species, but only sought to understand the solid hydrogen particle formation and behavior in the liquid helium. In these tests, video images of the solid particle formation were recorded, and the total mass flow rate of the hydrogen was measured. The mass of hydrogen that went into the gaseous phase was also recorded using a commercially available residual gas analyzer. The temperatures, pressures, and flow rates of the liquids and gases in the test apparatus were recorded as well. Testing conducted in 1999 recorded particles as small as 2 to 5 mm in diameter. The current testing extended the testing conditions to a very cold Dewar ullage gas of about 20 to 90 K above the 4 K liquid helium. With the very cold Dewar gas, the hydrogen freezing process took on new dimensions, in some cases creating particles so small that they seemed to be microscopic, appearing as infinitesimally small scintillations on the videotaped images.

  7. Reflection Spectrum of Two Level Atoms by an Evanescent Laser Wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Weihan; Li, Qingning

    1996-01-01

    An exact solution and numerical calculation of the reflection of two level atoms by atomic mirror are presented. The curve of reflection coefficient against Rabi frequency calculated shows some new features, and the physical machanism underlying is analyzed.

  8. Wave-particle duality in a Raman atom interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Ai-Ai; Yang, Jun; Yan, Shu-Hua; Hu, Qing-Qing; Luo, Yu-Kun; Zhu, Shi-Yao

    2015-08-01

    We theoretically investigate the wave-particle duality based on a Raman atom interferometer, via the interaction between the atom and Raman laser, which is similar to the optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The wave and which-way information are stored in the atomic internal states. For the φ - π - π/2 type of atom interferometer, we find that the visibility (V) and predictability (P) still satisfy the duality relation, P2 + V2 ≤ 1. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51275523) and the Special Research Found for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education, China (Grant No. 20134307110009).

  9. The Influence of Particle Size on Infrared Reflectance Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Su, Yin-Fong; Blake, Thomas A.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Richardson, Robert L.

    2014-06-13

    Reflectance spectra of solids are influenced by the absorption coefficient as well as the particle size and morphology. In the infrared, spectral features may be observed as either maxima or minima: in general, the upward-going peaks in the reflectance spectrum result from surface scattering, which are rays that have reflected from the surface without penetration, whereas downward-going peaks result from either absorption or volume scattering, i.e. rays that have penetrated into the sample or refracted into the sample interior and are not reflected. The light signal reflected from solids usually encompasses all these effects which include dependencies on particle size, morphology and sample density. This paper measures the reflectance spectra in the 1.3 – 16 micron range for various bulk materials that have a combination of strong and weak absorption bands in order to understand the effects on the spectral features as a function of the mean grain size of the sample. The bulk materials were ground with a mortar and pestle and then sieved to separate the samples into various size fractions: 0-45, 45-90, 90-180, 180-250, 250-500, and >500 microns. The directional-hemispherical spectra were recorded using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere to measure the reflectance for all of the particle-size fractions. We have studied both organic and inorganic materials, but this paper focuses on inorganic salts, NaNO3 in particular. Our studies clearly show that particle size has an enormous influence on the measured reflectance spectra for bulk materials and that successful identification requires sufficient representative reflectance data so as to include the particle size(s) of interest. Origins of the effects are discussed.

  10. Multiple scattering and charged-particle - hydrogen-atom collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franco, V.; Thomas, B. K.

    1979-01-01

    Glauber-approximation scattering amplitudes for charged-particle - hydrogen-atom elastic and inelastic collisions are derived directly in terms of the known particle-electron and particle-proton Coulomb scattering amplitudes and the known hydrogen-atom form factors. It is shown that the particle-hydrogen amplitude contains no single-scattering term. The double-scattering term is obtained as a two-dimensional integral in momentum space. It is demonstrated how the result can be used as the starting point for an alternative and relatively simple derivation, in closed form, of the Glauber particle-hydrogen scattering amplitude for transitions from the ground state to an arbitrary (nlm) state.

  11. Laser steering of particle beams: Refraction and reflection ofparticle beams

    SciTech Connect

    Esarey, Eric; Katsouleas, T.; Mori, W.B.; Dodd, E.; Lee, S.; Hemker, R.; Clayton, C.; Joshi, C.

    1999-11-01

    The co-propagation of an intense particle beam with an ionizing laser beam in a working gas/plasma is considered. When the axes of the laser and particle beam are not aligned, then asymmetric plasma lensing results in a net dipole field acting on the particle beam. The particle beam can be steered or bent (as well as focused) by steering the laser. An analogy is made between the bending of the particle beam by collective effects at a plasma boundary and the refraction or reflection of light at an interface. This mechanism of particle steering may be of interest in applications for which permanent magnets are inconvenient of a fast turn on is required. 3-D particle-in-cell simulations and relevance to a recent experiment are discussed.

  12. Infrared reflectance spectra: Effects of particle size, provenance and preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Yin-Fong; Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Blake, Thomas A.; Forland, Brenda M.; Szecsody, James E.; Johnson, Timothy J.

    2014-09-22

    We have recently developed methods for making more accurate infrared total and diffuse directional - hemispherical reflectance measurements using an integrating sphere. We have found that reflectance spectra of solids, especially powders, are influenced by a number of factors including the sample preparation method, the particle size and morphology, as well as the sample origin. On a quantitative basis we have investigated some of these parameters and the effects they have on reflectance spectra, particularly in the longwave infrared. In the IR the spectral features may be observed as either maxima or minima: In general, upward-going peaks in the reflectance spectrum result from strong surface scattering, i.e. rays that are reflected from the surface without bulk penetration, whereas downward-going peaks are due to either absorption or volume scattering, i.e. rays that have penetrated or refracted into the sample interior and are not reflected. The light signals reflected from solids usually encompass all such effects, but with strong dependencies on particle size and preparation. This paper measures the reflectance spectra in the 1.3 – 16 micron range for various bulk materials that have a combination of strong and weak absorption bands in order to observe the effects on the spectral features: Bulk materials were ground with a mortar and pestle and sieved to separate the samples into various size fractions between 5 and 500 microns. The median particle size is demonstrated to have large effects on the reflectance spectra. For certain minerals we also observe significant spectral change depending on the geologic origin of the sample. All three such effects (particle size, preparation and provenance) result in substantial change in the reflectance spectra for solid materials; successful identification algorithms will require sufficient flexibility to account for these parameters.

  13. Experimental effects on IR reflectance spectra: particle size and morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiswenger, Toya N.; Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Su, Yin-Fong; Blake, Thomas A.; Ertel, Alyssa B.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Szecsody, James E.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Smith, Milton O.; Lanker, Cory L.

    2016-05-01

    For geologic and extraterrestrial samples it is known that both particle size and morphology can have strong effects on a species' infrared reflectance spectra. Due to such effects, the reflectance spectra cannot be predicted from the absorption coefficients alone. This is because reflectance is both a surface as well as a bulk phenomenon, incorporating both dispersion as well as absorption effects. The same spectral feature can even be observed as either a maximum or minimum. The complex effects depend on particle size and preparation, as well as the relative amplitudes of the optical constants n and k, i.e. the real and imaginary components of the complex refractive index. While somewhat oversimplified, upward-going amplitude in the reflectance spectrum usually results from surface scattering, i.e. rays that have been reflected from the surface without penetration, whereas downward-going peaks are due to either absorption or volume scattering, i.e. rays that have penetrated or refracted into the sample interior and are not reflected. While the effects are known, we report seminal measurements of reflectance along with quantified particle size of the samples, the sizing obtained from optical microscopy measurements. The size measurements are correlated with the reflectance spectra in the 1.3 - 16 micron range for various bulk materials that have a combination of strong and weak absorption bands in order to understand the effects on the spectral features as a function of the mean grain size. We report results for both anhydrous sodium sulfate Na2SO4 as well as ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4; the optical constants have been measured for (NH4)2SO4. To go a step further from the laboratory and into the field we explore our understanding of particle size effects on reflectance spectra using standoff detection at distances of up to 160 meters in a field experiment. The studies have shown that particle size has a strong influence on the measured reflectance spectra of such

  14. Experimental Effects on IR Reflectance Spectra: Particle Size and Morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Beiswenger, Toya N.; Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Su, Yin-Fong; Blake, Thomas A.; Ertel, Alyssa B.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Szecsody, James E.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Smith, Milton; Lanker, Cory

    2016-05-23

    For geologic and extraterrestrial samples it is known that both particle size and morphology can have strong effects on the species’ infrared reflectance spectra. Due to such effects, the reflectance spectra cannot be predicted from the absorption coefficients alone. This is because reflectance is both a surface as well as a bulk phenomenon, incorporating both dispersion as well as absorption effects. The same spectral features can even be observed as either a maximum or minimum. The complex effects depend on particle size and preparation, as well as the relative amplitudes of the optical constants n and k, i.e. the real and imaginary components of the complex refractive index. While somewhat oversimplified, upward-going amplitude in the reflectance spectrum usually result from surface scattering, i.e. rays that have been reflected from the surface without penetration, whereas downward-going peaks are due to either absorption or volume scattering, i.e. rays that have penetrated or refracted into the sample interior and are not reflected. While the effects are well known, we report seminal measurements of reflectance along with quantified particle size of the samples, the sizing obtained from optical microscopy measurements. The size measurements are correlated with the reflectance spectra in the 1.3 – 16 micron range for various bulk materials that have a combination of strong and weak absorption bands in order to understand the effects on the spectral features as a function of the mean grain size of the sample. We report results for both sodium sulfate Na2SO4 as well as ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4; the optical constants have been measured for (NH4)2SO4. To go a step further from the field to the laboratory we explore our understanding of particle size effects on reflectance spectra in the field using standoff detection. This has helped identify weaknesses and strengths in detection using standoff distances of up 160 meters away from the Target. The studies have

  15. Analog simulation of Weyl particles with cold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchet, Daniel; Rabinovic, Mihail; Reimann, Thomas; Kretschmar, Norman; Sievers, Franz; Salomon, Christophe; Lau, Johnathan; Goulko, Olga; Lobo, Carlos; Chevy, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    In this letter we report on a novel approach to study the dynamics of harmonically confined Weyl particles using magnetically trapped fermionic atoms. We find that after a kick of its center of mass, the system relaxes towards a steady state even in the absence of interactions, in stark contrast with massive particles which would oscillate without damping. Remarkably, the equilibrium distribution is non-Boltzmann, exhibiting a strong anisotropy which we study both numerically and experimentally.

  16. Noninvasive particle sizing using camera-based diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Abildgaard, Otto Højager Attermann; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Falster, Viggo; Parker, Alan; Christensen, Niels Jørgen; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Larsen, Rasmus

    2016-05-10

    Diffuse reflectance measurements are useful for noninvasive inspection of optical properties such as reduced scattering and absorption coefficients. Spectroscopic analysis of these optical properties can be used for particle sizing. Systems based on optical fiber probes are commonly employed, but their low spatial resolution limits their validity ranges for the coefficients. To cover a wider range of coefficients, we use camera-based spectroscopic oblique incidence reflectometry. We develop a noninvasive technique for acquisition of apparent particle size distributions based on this approach. Our technique is validated using stable oil-in-water emulsions with a wide range of known particle size distributions. We also measure the apparent particle size distributions of complex dairy products. These results show that our tool, in contrast to those based on fiber probes, can deal with a range of optical properties wide enough to track apparent particle size distributions in a typical industrial process.

  17. Big Bang Day : The Great Big Particle Adventure - 1. Atom

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    In this series, comedian and physicist Ben Miller asks the CERN scientists what they hope to find. The notion of atoms dates back to Greek philosophers who sought a natural mechanical explanation of the Universe, as opposed to a divine one. The existence what we call chemical atoms, the constituents of all we see around us, wasn't proved until a hundred years ago, but almost simultaneously it was realised these weren't the indivisible constituents the Greeks envisaged. Much of the story of physics since then has been the ever-deeper probing of matter until, at the end of the 20th century, a complete list of fundamental ingredients had been identified, apart from one, the much discussed Higgs particle. In this programme, Ben finds out why this last particle is so pivotal, not just to atomic theory, but to our very existence - and how hopeful the scientists are of proving its existence.

  18. Big Bang Day : The Great Big Particle Adventure - 1. Atom

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-08

    In this series, comedian and physicist Ben Miller asks the CERN scientists what they hope to find. The notion of atoms dates back to Greek philosophers who sought a natural mechanical explanation of the Universe, as opposed to a divine one. The existence what we call chemical atoms, the constituents of all we see around us, wasn't proved until a hundred years ago, but almost simultaneously it was realised these weren't the indivisible constituents the Greeks envisaged. Much of the story of physics since then has been the ever-deeper probing of matter until, at the end of the 20th century, a complete list of fundamental ingredients had been identified, apart from one, the much discussed Higgs particle. In this programme, Ben finds out why this last particle is so pivotal, not just to atomic theory, but to our very existence - and how hopeful the scientists are of proving its existence.

  19. Particle Shape Characterization of Lunar Regolith using Reflected Light Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarty, C. B.; Garcia, G. C.; Rickman, D.

    2014-12-01

    Automated identification of particles in lunar thin sections is necessary for practical measurement of particle shape, void characterization, and quantitative characterization of sediment fabric. This may be done using image analysis, but several aspects of the lunar regolith make such automations difficult. For example, many of the particles are shattered; others are aggregates of smaller particles. Sieve sizes of the particles span 5 orders of magnitude. The physical thickness of a thin section, at a nominal 30 microns, is large compared to the size of many of the particles. Image acquisition modes, such as SEM and reflected light, while superior to transmitted light, still have significant ambiguity as to the volume being sampled. It is also desirable to have a technique that is inexpensive, not resource intensive, and analytically robust. To this end, we have developed an image acquisition and processing protocol that identifies and delineates resolvable particles on the front surface of a lunar thin section using a petrographic microscope in reflected light. For a polished thin section, a grid is defined covering the entire thin section. The grid defines discrete images taken with 20% overlap, minimizing the number of particles that intersect image boundaries. In reflected light mode, two images are acquired at each grid location, with a closed aperture diaphragm. One image, A, is focused precisely on the front surface of the thin section. The second image, B, is made after the stage is brought toward the objective lens just slightly. A bright fringe line, analogous to a Becke line, appears inside all transparent particles at the front surface of the section in the second image. The added light in the bright line corresponds to a deficit around the particles. Particle identification is done using ImageJ and uses multiple steps. A hybrid 5x5 median filter is used to make images Af and Bf. This primarily removes very small particles just below the front surface

  20. The History of Laser Trapping of Atoms and Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkin, Arthur

    2003-03-01

    This subject began in 1970 with the demonstration of relatively large radiation pressure forces on small transparent macroscopic particles. Two components of the force were identified: a scattering force in the direction of the incident laser beam and a gradient component in the direction of the intensity gradient. This led to the discovery of stable optical trapping and manipulation of small neutral particles, using these two components. Such trapping was used to levitate particles in air, and also in vacuum with feedback damping. The use of feedback gives a sensitive force measurement technique with applications to the measurement of optical, electric, magnetic, and viscous forces in the subpiconewton range. Early work on understanding of similar scattering and gradient light forces on atoms led to the first experiment on focusing and defocusing of atoms by light and the invention of the single beam gradient or tweezers trap for atoms. By 1980 the fundamentals of the field had been established [1]. Experiments in the mid-1980s on optical tweezer trapping and cooling of atoms resulted in a revolution in atomic physics experimental techniques. The almost simultaneous demonstration of tweezer trapping of macroscopic dielectric particles and the serendipitous discovery of trapping of living biological particles has opened a new field of applications of tweezers to biological sciences. It is now possible to use optical tweezers to separate living single cells, measure the mechanical properties of cellular cytoplasm, and study single biological molecules in vitro [2]. The growing role of optical forces in recent work on Bose-Einstein condensation will be briefly discussed. [1] A. Ashkin, Science 210, 1081 (1980). [2] A. Ashkin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94, 4853 (1997).

  1. Realization of a particle-in-a-box: electron in an atomic Pd chain.

    PubMed

    Nilius, N; Wallis, T M; Ho, W

    2005-11-10

    Well-defined Pd chains were assembled from single atoms on a NiAl(110) surface with the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope. The electronic properties of the chains were determined by spatially resolved conductance measurements, revealing a series of quantum well states with parabolic dispersion. The particle-in-a-box states in Pd chains show higher onset energy and larger effective mass than those in Au chains investigated before, reflecting the influence of elemental composition on one-dimensional electronic systems. The intrinsic widths and spectral intensities of Pd induced states provide information on lifetime and spatial localization of states in the atomic chain.

  2. Three-dimensional light trap for reflective particles

    DOEpatents

    Neal, D.R.

    1999-08-17

    A system is disclosed for containing either a reflective particle or a particle having an index of refraction lower than that of the surrounding media in a three-dimensional light cage. A light beam from a single source illuminates an optics system and generates a set of at least three discrete focused beams that emanate from a single exit aperture and focus on to a focal plane located close to the particle. The set of focal spots defines a ring that surrounds the particle. The set of focused beams creates a ``light cage`` and circumscribes a zone of no light within which the particle lies. The surrounding beams apply constraining forces (created by radiation pressure) to the particle, thereby containing it in a three-dimensional force field trap. A diffractive element, such as an aperture multiplexed lens, or either a Dammann grating or phase element in combination with a focusing lens, may be used to generate the beams. A zoom lens may be used to adjust the size of the light cage, permitting particles of various sizes to be captured and contained. 10 figs.

  3. Three-dimensional light trap for reflective particles

    DOEpatents

    Neal, Daniel R.

    1999-01-01

    A system for containing either a reflective particle or a particle having an index of refraction lower than that of the surrounding media in a three-dimensional light cage. A light beam from a single source illuminates an optics system and generates a set of at least three discrete focussed beams that emanate from a single exit aperture and focus on to a focal plane located close to the particle. The set of focal spots defines a ring that surrounds the particle. The set of focussed beams creates a "light cage" and circumscribes a zone of no light within which the particle lies. The surrounding beams apply constraining forces (created by radiation pressure) to the particle, thereby containing it in a three-dimensional force field trap. A diffractive element, such as an aperture multiplexed lens, or either a Dammann grating or phase element in combination with a focusing lens, may be used to generate the beams. A zoom lens may be used to adjust the size of the light cage, permitting particles of various sizes to be captured and contained.

  4. Ionization of multielectron atoms by fast charged particles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidvar, K.; Kyle, H. L.; Sullivan, E. C.

    1972-01-01

    Using plane waves to describe the incident and scattered particles, and screened hydrogenic and Coulomb functions to describe the atomic electrons before and after ejections, we have calculated the differential and total ionization cross sections of 11 atoms and one ion by electron impact, and ionization of helium by proton impact. The effective charges of the screened hydrogenic functions are fixed by the Hartree-Fock calculations. Calculations have been carried out for the atomic s, p, and d electrons. For low atomic numbers, we find reasonable agreement with the experimental data. For intermediate atomic numbers, we expect our results to overestimate the actual cross sections, since our choice of a unit charge for the Coulomb function of the ejected electrons will overestimate the atomic dipole potential strength, and in turn the high-energy cross sections. The advantage of the method presented here is that the ionization amplitude is given in analytic form. This may allow further analysis on this amplitude, and facilitates extension of the numerical integration for the cross section to high impact energies.

  5. Interactions of satellite-speed helium atoms with satellite surfaces. 2: Energy distributions of reflected helium atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, S. M.; Knuth, E. L.

    1976-01-01

    Energy transfer in collisions of satellite-speed (7,000 m/sec) helium atoms with a cleaned 6061-T6 satellite-type aluminum surface was investigated using the molecular-beam technique. The amount of energy transferred was determined from the measured energy of the molecular-beam and the measured spatial and energy distributions of the reflected atoms. Spatial distributions of helium atoms scattered from a 6061-T6 aluminum surface were measured. The scattering pattern exhibits a prominent backscattering, probably due to the gross surface roughness and/or the relative lattice softness of the aluminum surface. Energy distributions of reflected helium atoms from the same surface were measured for six different incidence angles. For each incidence angle, distributions were measured at approximately sixty scattering positions. At a given scattering position, the energy spectra of the reflected helium atoms and the background gas were obtained using the retarding-field energy analyzer.

  6. Volume reflection efficiency for negative particles in bent crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biryukov, V. M.

    2017-02-01

    We suggest a formula for the efficiency of a single volume reflection of negatively charged particles in bent crystal planes and compare it to recent experiments at SLAC, MAMI and CERN with electrons and negative pions in the energy range from 0.855 to 150 GeV in Si crystals. We show that Lindhard reversibility rule provides sufficient basis for quantitative understanding of these experiments.

  7. Observations of specular reflective particles and layers in crystal clouds.

    PubMed

    Balin, Yurii S; Kaul, Bruno V; Kokhanenko, Grigorii P; Penner, Ioganes E

    2011-03-28

    In the present article, results of observations of high crystal clouds with high spatial and temporal resolution using the ground-based polarization LOSA-S lidar are described. Cases of occurrence of specularly reflective layers formed by particles oriented predominantly in the horizontal plane are demonstrated. Results of measuring echo-signal depolarization are compared for linear and circular polarization states of the initial laser beam.

  8. Reflected Charged Particle Populations around Dipolar Lunar Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deca, Jan; Divin, Andrey

    2016-10-01

    In this work we analyze and compare the reflected particle populations for both a horizontal and a vertical dipole model embedded in the lunar surface, representing the solar wind interaction with two different lunar magnetic anomaly (LMA) structures. Using the 3D full-kinetic electromagnetic code iPic3D, in combination with a test-particle approach to generate particle trajectories, we focus on the ion and electron dynamics. Whereas the vertical model electrostatically reflects ions upward under both near-parallel and near-perpendicular angles with respect to the lunar surface, the horizontal model only has a significant shallow component. Characterizing the electron dynamics, we find that the interplay of the mini-magnetosphere electric and magnetic fields is capable of temporarily trapping low-energy electrons and possibly ejecting them upstream. Our results are in agreement with recent high-resolution observations. Low- to medium-altitude ion and electron observations might be excellent indicators to complement orbital magnetic field measurements and better uncover the underlying magnetic field structure. The latter is of particular importance in defining the correlation between LMAs and lunar swirls, and further testing the solar wind shielding hypothesis for albedo markings due to space weathering. Observing more reflected ions does not necessarily point to the existence of a mini-magnetosphere.

  9. Double and Negative Reflection of Cold Atoms in Non-Abelian Gauge Potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Juzeliunas, Gediminas; Ruseckas, Julius; Jacob, Andreas; Santos, Luis; Oehberg, Patrik

    2008-05-23

    Atom reflection is studied in the presence of a non-Abelian vector potential proportional to a spin-1/2 operator. The potential is produced by a relatively simple laser configuration for atoms with a tripod level scheme. We show that the atomic motion is described by two different dispersion branches with positive or negative chirality. As a consequence, atom reflection shows unusual features, since an incident wave may split into two reflected ones at a barrier, an ordinary specular reflection, and an additional nonspecular one. Remarkably, the latter wave can exhibit negative reflection and may become evanescent if the angle of incidence exceeds a critical value. These reflection properties are crucial for future designs in non-Abelian atom optics.

  10. Atomic Bose-Hubbard Systems with Single-Particle Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preiss, Philipp Moritz

    Experiments with ultracold atoms in optical lattices provide outstanding opportunities to realize exotic quantum states due to a high degree of tunability and control. In this thesis, I present experiments that extend this control from global parameters to the level of individual particles. Using a quantum gas microscope for 87Rb, we have developed a single-site addressing scheme based on digital amplitude holograms. The system self-corrects for aberrations in the imaging setup and creates arbitrary beam profiles. We are thus able to shape optical potentials on the scale of single lattice sites and control the dynamics of individual atoms. We study the role of quantum statistics and interactions in the Bose-Hubbard model on the fundamental level of two particles. Bosonic quantum statistics are apparent in the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of massive particles, which we observe in tailored double-well potentials. These underlying statistics, in combination with tunable repulsive interactions, dominate the dynamics in single- and two-particle quantum walks. We observe highly coherent position-space Bloch oscillations, bosonic bunching in Hanbury Brown-Twiss interference and the fermionization of strongly interacting bosons. Many-body states of indistinguishable quantum particles are characterized by large-scale spatial entanglement, which is difficult to detect in itinerant systems. Here, we extend the concept of Hong-Ou-Mandel interference from individual particles to many-body states to directly quantify entanglement entropy. We perform collective measurements on two copies of a quantum state and detect entanglement entropy through many-body interference. We measure the second order Renyi entropy in small Bose-Hubbard systems and detect the buildup of spatial entanglement across the superfluid-insulator transition. Our experiments open new opportunities for the single-particle-resolved preparation and characterization of many-body quantum states.

  11. Interaction mechanisms between ceramic particles and atomized metallic droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yue; Lavernia, Enrique J.

    1992-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to provide insight into the dynamic interactions that occur when ceramic particles are placed in intimate contact with a metallic matrix undergoing a phase change. To that effect, Al-4 wt pct Si/SiCp composite droplets were synthesized using a spray atomization and coinjection approach, and their solidification microstructures were studied both qualitatively and quantitatively. The present results show that SiC particles (SiCp) were incor- porated into the matrix and that the extent of incorporation depends on the solidification con- dition of the droplets at the moment of SiC particle injection. Two factors were found to affect the distribution and volume fraction of SiC particles in droplets: the penetration of particles into droplets and the entrapment and/or rejection of particles by the solidification front. First, during coinjection, particles collide with the atomized droplets with three possible results: they may penetrate the droplets, adhere to the droplet surface, or bounce back after impact. The extent of penetration of SiC particles into droplets was noted to depend on the kinetic energy of the particles and the magnitude of the surface energy change in the droplets that occurs upon impact. In liquid droplets, the extent of penetration of SiC particles was shown to depend on the changes in surface energy, ΔEs, experienced by the droplets. Accordingly, large SiC particles encoun- tered more resistance to penetration relative to small ones. In solid droplets, the penetration of SiC particles was correlated with the dynamic pressure exerted by the SiC particles on the droplets during impact and the depth of the ensuing crater. The results showed that no pene- tration was possible in such droplets. Second, once SiC particles have penetrated droplets, their final location in the microstructure is governed by their interactions with the solidification front. As a result of these interactions, both entrapment and rejection of

  12. A theoretical investigation of the origins of atoms and sub-atomic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derow, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    It seems the universe was at some very early stage shortwave energy. When the universe cooled some of this became matter, perhaps best thought of as waves confined into quanta. The change into longer wavelengths, if we think of the wavelengths of the particles that make up atoms when emitted as radioactivity, with different properties was presumably brought about by this cooling. In atoms these quantized waves are further confined by electrostatic forces and perhaps other forces. It seems that the electrostatic forces caused the coalescence of neutrons and electrons into atoms, with neutrons being there to keep like charges in the nucleus from like charges i.e., protons, and maybe providing some kind of mass force in the atom. It may be the further cooling of the universe allowed larger atoms than hydrogen to form later as well as having allowed the electrostatic forces to cause the formation of the first atoms. Note the sheer explosive forces present at early stages may have also prevented atom formation and later relative stability allowed this process to take place.

  13. Atoms and Ions Interacting with Particles and Fields: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Robicheaux, Francis

    2014-09-18

    This grant supported research in basic atomic, molecular and optical physics related to the interactions of atoms with particles and fields. The duration of the grant was the 10 year period from 8/2003 to 8/2013. All of the support from the grant was used to pay salaries of the PI, postdocs, graduate students, and undergraduates and travel to conferences and meetings. The results were in the form of publications in peer reviewed journals. There were 65 peer reviewed publications over these 10 years with 8 of the publications in Physical Review Letters; all of the other articles were in respected peer reviewed journals (Physical Review A, New Journal of Physics, Journal of Physics B, ...). I will disuss the results for the periods of time relevant for each grant period.

  14. Focusing a helium atom beam using a quantum-reflection mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schewe, H. Christian; Zhao, Bum Suk; Meijer, Gerard; Schöllkopf, Wieland

    2009-11-01

    We demonstrate one-dimensional (1D) focusing of a thermal helium atom beam by quantum reflection from a cylindrical concave quartz mirror at near-grazing incidence. The smallest width of the focus achieved is 1.8 μm, essentially limited by spherical aberration. The various effects that contribute to the finite focal width have been investigated. We propose to apply near-grazing reflection from two concave elliptical mirrors in a Kirkpatrick-Baez arrangement for two-dimensional (2D) focusing of a helium atom beam, paving the way for a helium atom microprobe.

  15. Continuous production of nanostructured particles using spatial atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ommen, J. Ruud van Kooijman, Dirkjan; Niet, Mark de; Talebi, Mojgan; Goulas, Aristeidis

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, the authors demonstrate a novel spatial atomic layer deposition (ALD) process based on pneumatic transport of nanoparticle agglomerates. Nanoclusters of platinum (Pt) of ∼1 nm diameter are deposited onto titania (TiO{sub 2}) P25 nanoparticles resulting to a continuous production of an active photocatalyst (0.12–0.31 wt. % of Pt) at a rate of about 1 g min{sup −1}. Tuning the precursor injection velocity (10–40 m s{sup −1}) enhances the contact between the precursor and the pneumatically transported support flows. Decreasing the chemisorption temperature (from 250 to 100 °C) results in more uniform distribution of the Pt nanoclusters as it decreases the reaction rate as compared to the rate of diffusion into the nanoparticle agglomerates. Utilizing this photocatalyst in the oxidation reaction of Acid Blue 9 showed a factor of five increase of the photocatalytic activity compared to the native P25 nanoparticles. The use of spatial particle ALD can be further expanded to deposition of nanoclusters on porous, micron-sized particles and to the production of core–shell nanoparticles enabling the robust and scalable manufacturing of nanostructured powders for catalysis and other applications.

  16. Laser cooling and trapping of atomic particles. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1994-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning theory and experiments on laser cooling and laser trapping of neutral atoms and atomic ions. Atoms and ions are cooled by laser radiation pressure to very low Kelvin temperatures and confined in electromagnetic traps of very high density. Atomic particles cover sodium atoms, mercury ions, beryllium ions, magnesium ions, and hydrogen. Citations discuss applications in high performance spectroscopy, atomic clocks, microwave and optical frequency standards, relativistic neutral particle beam weapons, exotic fuels, cooling of electron beams, and space propulsion. (Contains a minimum of 185 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Laser cooling and trapping of atomic particles. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning theory and experiments on laser cooling and laser trapping of neutral atoms and atomic ions. Atoms and ions are cooled by laser radiation pressure to very low Kelvin temperatures and confined in electromagnetic traps of very high density. Atomic particles cover sodium atoms, mercury ions, beryllium ions, magnesium ions, and hydrogen. Citations discuss applications in high performance spectroscopy, atomic clocks, microwave and optical frequency standards, relativistic neutral particle beam weapons, exotic fuels, cooling of electron beams, and space propulsion. (Contains a minimum of 204 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Laser cooling and trapping of atomic particles. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning theory and experiments on laser cooling and laser trapping of neutral atoms and atomic ions. Atoms and ions are cooled by laser radiation pressure to very low Kelvin temperatures and confined in electromagnetic traps of very high density. Atomic particles discussed include sodium atoms, mercury ions, beryllium ions, magnesium ions, and hydrogen. Applications for high performance spectroscopy, atomic clocks, microwave and optical frequency standards, relativistic neutral particle beam weapons, exotic fuels, cooling of electron beams, and space propulsion are examined. (Contains a minimum of 151 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Collimated light reflection and transmission of a surface partially covered by large and tenuous particles.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Estrada, Omar; García-Valenzuela, Augusto

    2016-11-01

    We derive simple approximate expressions for the reflectivity and transmissivity of light from disordered monolayers of tenuous particles of dimensions larger than the wavelength and supported by a flat interface. The expressions derived can be used for different particle shapes and for moderate angles of incidence. We then investigate the effects of particle shape and orientation on reflectivity and transmissivity spectra of a monolayer of tenuous particles containing an optical chromophore in a solution in their interior. We also simulate the effects of a particle's shape and orientation on the angle dependence of the optical reflectivity and transmissivity. In our examples, we consider disordered monolayers of particles analogous to some biological cells.

  20. Application of atomic force microscopy to the study of natural and model soil particles.

    PubMed

    Cheng, S; Bryant, R; Doerr, S H; Rhodri Williams, P; Wright, C J

    2008-09-01

    The structure and surface chemistry of soil particles has extensive impact on many bulk scale properties and processes of soil systems and consequently the environments that they support. There are a number of physiochemical mechanisms that operate at the nanoscale which affect the soil's capability to maintain native vegetation and crops; this includes soil hydrophobicity and the soil's capacity to hold water and nutrients. The present study used atomic force microscopy in a novel approach to provide unique insight into the nanoscale properties of natural soil particles that control the physiochemical interaction of material within the soil column. There have been few atomic force microscopy studies of soil, perhaps a reflection of the heterogeneous nature of the system. The present study adopted an imaging and force measurement research strategy that accounted for the heterogeneity and used model systems to aid interpretation. The surface roughness of natural soil particles increased with depth in the soil column a consequence of the attachment of organic material within the crevices of the soil particles. The roughness root mean square calculated from ten 25 microm(2) images for five different soil particles from a Netherlands soil was 53.0 nm, 68.0 nm, 92.2 nm and 106.4 nm for the respective soil depths of 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm and 30-40 cm. A novel analysis method of atomic force microscopy phase images based on phase angle distribution across a surface was used to interpret the nanoscale distribution of organic material attached to natural and model soil particles. Phase angle distributions obtained from phase images of model surfaces were found to be bimodal, indicating multiple layers of material, which changed with the concentration of adsorbed humic acid. Phase angle distributions obtained from phase images of natural soil particles indicated a trend of decreasing surface coverage with increasing depth in the soil column. This was consistent with

  1. Coherent Reflection of He Atom Beams from Rough Surfaces at Grazing Incidence

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Bum Suk; Schewe, H. Christian; Meijer, Gerard; Schoellkopf, Wieland

    2010-09-24

    We report coherent reflection of thermal He atom beams from various microscopically rough surfaces at grazing incidence. For a sufficiently small normal component k{sub z} of the incident wave vector of the atom the reflection probability is found to be a function of k{sub z} only. This behavior is explained by quantum reflection at the attractive branch of the Casimir-van der Waals interaction potential. For larger values of k{sub z} the overall reflection probability decreases rapidly and is found to also depend on the parallel component k{sub x} of the wave vector. The material specific k{sub x} dependence for this classic reflection at the repulsive branch of the potential is discussed in terms of an averaging out of the surface roughness under grazing incidence conditions.

  2. Independent-particle models for light negative atomic ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganas, P. S.; Talman, J. D.; Green, A. E. S.

    1980-01-01

    For the purposes of astrophysical, aeronomical, and laboratory application, a precise independent-particle model for electrons in negative atomic ions of the second and third period is discussed. The optimum-potential model (OPM) of Talman et al. (1979) is first used to generate numerical potentials for eight of these ions. Results for total energies and electron affinities are found to be very close to Hartree-Fock solutions. However, the OPM and HF electron affinities both depart significantly from experimental affinities. For this reason, two analytic potentials are developed whose inner energy levels are very close to the OPM and HF levels but whose last electron eigenvalues are adjusted precisely with the magnitudes of experimental affinities. These models are: (1) a four-parameter analytic characterization of the OPM potential and (2) a two-parameter potential model of the Green, Sellin, Zachor type. The system O(-) or e-O, which is important in upper atmospheric physics is examined in some detail.

  3. Excited state distribution of reflected hydrogen atoms at metal surfaces - Development of theoretical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, D.; Kenmotsu, T.; Ohya, K.; Tanabe, T.

    2009-06-01

    Numerical methods were developed to study single electron capture by translating hydrogen atoms above metal surfaces. The present method gives predictions for hitherto unknown population distribution of excited species in hydrogen atoms reflected at the metal surfaces. The excited state abundance was calculated for Mo surface. Kinetic energy distribution of the reflected atoms was taken into account with the aid of the Monte-Carlo simulation code (ACAT). Energy distribution associated with the 3d 2 excited state in reflected neutrals consistently explains peak energy variation with incident energies of Doppler-shifted D α lines measured by Tanabe et al. Occupation probability of the magnetic sub-levels is obtained to be highly polarized. It suggests strong anisotropy in angular distribution of photon emission from the excited states created via the surface electron capture.

  4. SIMULATION OF ENERGETIC NEUTRAL ATOMS FROM SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Linghua; Li, Gang; Shih, Albert Y.; Lin, Robert P.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

    2014-10-01

    Energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) provide the only way to observe the acceleration site of coronal-mass-ejection-driven (CME-driven) shock-accelerated solar energetic particles (SEPs). In gradual SEP events, energetic protons can charge exchange with the ambient solar wind or interstellar neutrals to become ENAs. Assuming a CME-driven shock with a constant speed of 1800 km s{sup –1} and compression ratio of 3.5, propagating from 1.5 to 40 R{sub S} , we calculate the accelerated SEPs at 5-5000 keV and the resulting ENAs via various charge-exchange interactions. Taking into account the ENA losses in the interplanetary medium, we obtain the flux-time profiles of these solar ENAs reaching 1 AU. We find that the arriving ENAs at energies above ∼100 keV show a sharply peaked flux-time profile, mainly originating from the shock source below 5 R{sub S} , whereas the ENAs below ∼20 keV have a flat-top time profile, mostly originating from the source beyond 10 R{sub S} . Assuming the accelerated protons are effectively trapped downstream of the shock, we can reproduce the STEREO ENA fluence observations at ∼2-5 MeV/nucleon. We also estimate the flux of ENAs coming from the charge exchange of energetic storm protons, accelerated by the fast CME-driven shock near 1 AU, with interstellar hydrogen and helium. Our results suggest that appropriate instrumentation would be able to detect ENAs from SEPs and to even make ENA images of SEPs at energies above ∼10-20 keV.

  5. Coherent reflection of light from a turbid suspension of particles in an internal-reflection configuration: Theory versus experiment.

    PubMed

    García-Valenzuela, Augusto; Barrera, Rubén; Sánchez-Pérez, Celia; Reyes-Coronado, Alejandro; Méndez, Eugenio

    2005-09-05

    We compare a recently developed coherent-scattering model for the reflectance of light from a turbid colloidal suspension of particles with experimental measurements. The experimental data were obtained in an internal reflection configuration around the critical angle using a glass prism in contact with a monodisperse colloidal suspension of latex particles, and a polydisperse suspension of TiO2 particles. First, we review the coherent scattering model and extend it to the case of polydisperse suspensions in an internal reflection configuration. The experimental data is then compared with results of the coherent scattering model and results obtained assuming that the colloidal system can be treated as a homogeneous medium with an effective index of refraction. We find that the experimental results are not compatible with the effective medium model. On the other hand, good fits to the experimental curves can be obtained with the coherent scattering model.

  6. Agglomeration rate and action forces between atomized particles of agglomerator and inhaled-particles from coal combustion.

    PubMed

    Wei, Feng; Zhang, Jun-ying; Zheng, Chu-guang

    2005-01-01

    In order to remove efficiently haled-particles emissions from coal combustions, a new way was used to put forward the process of agglomeration and the atomization was produced by the nozzle and then sprayed into the flue before precipitation devices of power station boiler in order to make inhaled-particles agglomerate into bigger particles, which can be easily removed but not change existing running conditions of boiler. According to this idea, a model is set up to study agglomeration rate and effect forces between fly ash inhaled-particles and atomized agglomerator particles. The developed agglomeration rate was expressed by relative particle number decreasing speed per unit volume. The result showed that viscosity force and flow resistance force give main influences on agglomeration effect of inhaled-particles, while springiness force and gravity have little effect on agglomeration effect of theirs. Factors influencing the agglomeration rate and effect forces are studied, including agglomerator concentration, agglomerator flux and agglomerator density, atomized-particles diameters and inhaled-particles diameter and so on.

  7. Influence of Air Humidity and Water Particles on Dust Control Using Ultrasonic Atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okawa, Hirokazu; Nishi, Kentaro; Shindo, Dai; Kawamura, Youhei

    2012-07-01

    The influence of air humidity and water particles on dust control was examined using ultrasonic atomization at 2.4 MHz, an acrylic box (61 L), and four types of ore dust samples: green tuff (4 µm), green tuff (6 µm), kaolin, and silica. It was clearly demonstrated that ultrasonic atomization was effective in raising humidity rapidly. However, at high relative air humidity, the water particles remained stable in the box without changing to water vapor. Ultrasonic atomization was applied to suppress dust dispersion and 40-95% dust reduction was achieved at 83% relative air humidity. Dust dispersion was more effective with ultrasonic atomization than without.

  8. Atomization method for verifying size effects of inhalable particles on lung damage of mice.

    PubMed

    Tao, Chen; Tang, Yue; Zhang, Lan; Tian, Yonggang; Zhang, Yingmei

    2017-02-01

    To explore the size effects of inhalable particles on lung damage, aqueous aerosol containing cadmium was studied as a model to design a new type of two-stage atomization device that was composed of two adjustable parts with electronic ultrasonic atomization and pneumatic atomization. The working parameters and effectiveness of this device were tested with H2O atomization and CdCl2 inhalation, respectively. By gravimetrically detecting the mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 and analysing the particle size with a laser sensor, we confirmed the particle size distribution of the aqueous aerosol produced by the new device under different working conditions. Then, we conducted experiments in male Kunming mice that inhaled CdCl2 to determine the size effects of inhalable particles on lung damage and to confirm the effectiveness of the device. The new device could effectively control the particle size in the aqueous aerosol. The inhaled CdCl2 entered and injured the lungs of the mice by causing tissue damage, oxidative stress, increasing endoplasmic reticulum stress and triggering an inflammatory response, which might be related to where the particles deposited. The smaller particles in the aqueous aerosol atomized by the new two-stage atomization device deposited deeper into lung causing more damage. This device could provide a new method for animal experiments involving inhalation with water-soluble toxins.

  9. Launch Vehicle Performance with Solid Particle Feed Systems for Atomic Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of launch vehicle Gross Liftoff Weight (GLOW) using high energy density atomic propellants with solid particle feed systems was conducted. The analyses covered several propellant combinations, including atoms of aluminum (Al), boron (B). carbon (C), and hydrogen (H) stored in a solid cryogenic particle, with a cryogenic liquid as the carrier fluid. Several different weight percents (wt%) for the liquid carrier were investigated and the gross lift off weight (GLOW) of the vehicles using the solid particle feed systems were compared with a conventional 02/H2 propellant vehicle. The potential benefits and effects of feed systems using solid particles in a liquid cryogenic fluid are discussed.

  10. Interactions of satellite-speed helium atoms with satellite-surfaces. 1: Spatial distributions of reflected helium atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, S. M.; Rodgers, W. E.; Knuth, E. L.

    1975-01-01

    Interactions of satellite-speed helium atoms with practical satellite surfaces were investigated experimentally, and spatial distributions of satellite-speed helium beams scattered from four different engineering surfaces were measured. The 7000 m/sec helium beams were produced using an arc-heated supersonic molecular beam source. The test surfaces included cleaned 6061-T6 aluminum plate, anodized aluminum foil, white paint, and quartz surfaces. Both in-plane (in the plane containing the incident beam and the surface normal) and out-of-plane spatial distributions of reflected helium atoms were measured for six different incidence angles (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 deg from the surface normal). It was found that a large fraction of the incident helium atoms were scattered back in the vicinity of the incoming beam, particularly in the case of glancing incidence angles. This unexpected scattering feature results perhaps from the gross roughness of these test surfaces. This prominent backscattering could yield drag coefficients which are higher than for surfaces with either forward-lobed or diffusive (cosine) scattering patterns.

  11. Solid Hydrogen Experiments for Atomic Propellants: Particle Formation Energy and Imaging Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents particle formation energy balances and detailed analyses of the images from experiments that were conducted on the formation of solid hydrogen particles in liquid helium during the Phase II testing in 2001. Solid particles of hydrogen were frozen in liquid helium and observed with a video camera. The solid hydrogen particle sizes and the total mass of hydrogen particles were estimated. The particle formation efficiency is also estimated. Particle sizes from the Phase I testing in 1999 and the Phase II testing in 2001 were similar. Though the 2001 testing created similar particles sizes, many new particle formation phenomena were observed. These experiment image analyses are one of the first steps toward visually characterizing these particles and it allows designers to understand what issues must be addressed in atomic propellant feed system designs for future aerospace vehicles.

  12. Solid Hydrogen Experiments for Atomic Propellants: Particle Formation, Imaging, Observations, and Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2005-01-01

    This report presents particle formation observations and detailed analyses of the images from experiments that were conducted on the formation of solid hydrogen particles in liquid helium. Hydrogen was frozen into particles in liquid helium, and observed with a video camera. The solid hydrogen particle sizes and the total mass of hydrogen particles were estimated. These newly analyzed data are from the test series held on February 28, 2001. Particle sizes from previous testing in 1999 and the testing in 2001 were similar. Though the 2001 testing created similar particles sizes, many new particle formation phenomena were observed: microparticles and delayed particle formation. These experiment image analyses are some of the first steps toward visually characterizing these particles, and they allow designers to understand what issues must be addressed in atomic propellant feed system designs for future aerospace vehicles.

  13. Determination of the coefficient of reflection of metastable argon atoms from the discharge tube wall

    SciTech Connect

    Grigorian, G. M.; Dyatko, N. A.; Kochetov, I. V.

    2015-05-15

    Radial profiles of the density of metastable atoms Ar({sup 3}P{sub 2}) in the positive column of a dc glow discharge in argon were measured. Gas-discharge glass tubes with clean inner surfaces and surfaces covered with a carbonitride or carbon film were utilized. The parameters of the discharge plasma under experimental conditions were calculated in the framework of a one-dimensional (along the tube radius) discharge model. The coefficient K of reflection of Ar({sup 3}P{sub 2}) atoms from the tube wall was estimated by comparing the measured and calculated density profiles. It is found that, for a clean tube wall, the coefficient of reflection is K = 0.4 ± 0.2, whereas for a wall covered with a carbonitride or carbon film, it is K < 0.2.

  14. Dynamics and Thermodynamics of Many-particle Cold Atom Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-05

    Polkovnikov, “Non-adiabacity and large flucutations in a many particle Landau Zener problem”, Phys. Rev. A 79, 042703 (2009).  C. De Grandi, A...Polkovnikov, “Adiabatic perturbation theory: from Landau - Zener problem to quenching through a quantum critical point”, arXiv:0910.2236, contribution to...Polkovnikov, “Non-adiabacity and large flucutations in a many particle Landau Zener problem”, Phys. Rev. A 79, 042703 (2009).  B. Berg, L. I

  15. General theory of frequency modulated selective reflection. Influence of atom surface interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducloy, M.; Fichet, M.

    1991-12-01

    We calculate the modulation of the reflection coefficient for a frequency-modulated (FM) light beam incident on the interface between a dielectric and an atomic vapor. The vapor is described as a gas of resonant, Doppler-broadened, two-level systems, with transition frequency and linewidth arbitrarily depending on the atom-dielectric distance. The atoms are supposed to get deexcited at collisions with the surface. The transient atomic response is calculated to first order in the incident field, for both incoming and desorbed atoms. The reflection coefficient, evaluated to first order in the vapor dipole polarization, leads to a formal expression of the reflectivity modulation, valid for arbitrary atom-surface interaction potentials. One first discusses the reflection signal in absence of wall interactions, for arbitrary modulation frequencies. At large frequencies, it allows one to monitor both vapor absorption and dispersion. Second, the formal theory is applied to the case of a Van der Waals-London surface attraction exerted on the atomic vapor. Both normal and oblique beam incidences are considered. One shows how the vapor dispersion signal is red-shifted and strongly distorted by the appearance of vapor-surface long-range interactions, and how it can be used to monitor these interactions. At non-normal incidences, the lineshapes get Doppler-broadened. On calcule le coefficient de réflexion d'un faisceau lumineux, modulé en fréquence, incident sur une interface entre un milieu diélectrique et une vapeur atomique. Cette vapeur est décrite comme un ensemble de systèmes à deux niveaux, présentant un élargissement Doppler, et dont la fréquence de transition et la largeur de raie sont supposées dépendre de la distance au milieu diélectrique. On suppose par ailleurs que les atomes sont déexcités sur la paroi. La réponse transitoire des atomes est analysée au premier ordre en fonction du champ électromagnétique incident. Du coefficient de r

  16. Universal Diffraction of Atomic and Molecular Matter-Waves: A Comparison of He and D2 Quantum Reflected from a Grating.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiqing; Lee, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Hye Ah; Jin, Byung Gwun; Kim, Bong Jun; Kim, Lee Yeong; Zhao, Bum Suk; Schöllkopf, Wieland

    2016-11-18

    Molecular beams of He and D2 are scattered from a ruled diffraction grating in conical-mount geometry under grazing-incidence conditions. Fully resolved diffraction patterns as a function of detection angle are recorded for different grating azimuth angles and for two different kinetic energies of the particle beams. Variations in diffraction peak widths are traced back to different velocity spreads of He and D2 determined by time-of-flight measurements. A comprehensive analysis of diffraction intensities confirms universal diffraction, that is, for identical de Broglie wavelengths, the relative diffraction intensities for He and D2 are the same. Universal diffraction results from peculiarities of quantum reflection of the atoms and molecules from the diffraction grating. In quantum reflection particles scatter many nanometers in front of the surface from the long-range attractive branch of the particle-surface interaction potential without probing the potential well and the short-range repulsive branch of the potential.

  17. OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE ON THE PRESENCE OF AN OUTER REFLECTING BOUNDARY IN SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLE EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Lun C.; Reames, Donald V.; Ng, Chee K.; Saloniemi, Oskari; Wang Linghua

    2009-08-20

    We have focused primarily on the 2001 September 24 solar energetic particle (SEP) event to verify previous indications of the presence of an outer reflecting boundary of SEPs. By using energetic electron and ion data obtained from multi-spacecraft observations, we have identified a collimated particle beam consisting of reflected particles returning from an outer boundary. The peak of reflected particles appears before the arrival of particles at 90 deg. pitch angle. In addition, an onset time analysis is carried out in order to determine parameters characterizing the boundary. Our analysis suggests that the presence of a counter-streaming particle beam with a deep depression at {approx}90 deg. pitch angle during the onset phase is evidence for a nearby reflecting boundary. We have compared this property in the SEP events of 2002 April 21 and August 24. A reflecting boundary that blocks a flux tube is important in space weather forecasting since it can cause the 'reservoir' effect that may enhance the intensity and duration of high-energy particles.

  18. Optical binding of particle pairs in retro-reflected beam geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damková, Jana; Chvátal, Lukáš; Brzobohatý, Oto; Zemánek, Pavel

    2016-12-01

    Optical binding of polystyrene microparticle pairs in retro-reflected wide Gaussian beam, called "tractor beam", is studied experimentally and the results are compared with the numerical calculations based on the multiple-particle Mie scattering theory. To investigate the dynamics of optically bound particle pairs in three dimensions we employ holographic video microscopy technique. We show that the particle pair motion is strongly dependent on the relative distances of the particles and the switching between applying pushing and pulling force on particle pairs can be achieved only by changing their configuration even though the "tractor-beam" parameters remain unchanged.

  19. Imaging Multi-Particle Atomic and Molecular Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Landers, Allen

    2016-02-12

    Final Report for Grant Number: DE- FG02-10ER16146 This grant supported research in basic atomic, molecular and optical physics related to the interactions of atoms and molecules with photons and electrons. The duration of the grant was the 5 year period from 4/1/2010 – 10/31/2015. All of the support from the grant was used to pay salaries of the PI, graduate students, and undergraduates and travel to conferences and meetings. The results were in the form of publications in peer reviewed journals. There were 20 peer reviewed publications over these 5 years with 2 of the publications in Physical Review Letters and 1 in Nature; all of the other articles were in respected peer reviewed journals (Physical Review A, New Journal of Physics, Journal of Physics B ...).

  20. Inelastic transitions in slow heavy-particle atomic collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Krstic, P. S.; Reinhold, C. O.; Burgdo''rfer, J.

    2001-05-01

    It is a generally held belief that inelastic transition probabilities and cross sections in slow, nearly adiabatic atomic collisions decrease exponentially with the inverse of the collision velocity v [i.e., {sigma}{proportional_to}exp(-const/v)]. This notion is supported by the Landau-Zener approximation and the hidden crossings approximation. We revisit the adiabatic limit of ion-atom collisions and show that for very slow collisions radial transitions are dominated by the topology of the branch points of the radial velocity rather than the branch points of the energy eigensurface. This can lead to a dominant power-law dependence of inelastic cross sections, {sigma}{proportional_to}v{sup n}. We illustrate the interplay between different contributions to the transition probabilities in a one-dimensional collision system for which the exact probabilities can be obtained from a direct numerical solution of the time-dependent Scho''dinger equation.

  1. On the multiple internal reflections of particles and photons tunneling in one, two, or three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olkhovsky, V. S.

    2014-11-01

    We analyze multiple internal reflections of particles and photons undergoing one-, two-, and three-dimensional tunneling. Results obtained by using the time-dependent Schr \\ddot odinger equation for nonrelativistic particles and those obtained with the time-dependent Helmholtz equation for electromagnetic waves are presented. The paper closes with conclusions and considerations for future research.

  2. Model solution for volume reflection of relativistic particles in a bent crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Bondarenco, M. V.

    2010-10-15

    For volume reflection process in a bent crystal, exact analytic expressions for positively- and negatively-charged particle trajectories are obtained within a model of parabolic continuous potential in each interplanar interval, with the neglect of incoherent multiple scattering. In the limit of the crystal bending radius greatly exceeding the critical value, asymptotic formulas are obtained for the particle mean deflection angle in units of Lindhard's critical angle, and for the final beam profile. Volume reflection of negatively charged particles is shown to contain effects of rainbow scattering and orbiting, whereas with positively charged particles none of these effects arise within the given model. The model predictions are compared with experimental results and numerical simulations. Estimates of the volume reflection mean angle and the final beam profile robustness under multiple scattering are performed.

  3. Composite material reinforced with atomized quasicrystalline particles and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Biner, S.B.; Sordelet, D.J.; Lograsso, B.K.; Anderson, I.E.

    1998-12-22

    A composite material comprises an aluminum or aluminum alloy matrix having generally spherical, atomized quasicrystalline aluminum-transition metal alloy reinforcement particles disposed in the matrix to improve mechanical properties. A composite article can be made by consolidating generally spherical, atomized quasicrystalline aluminum-transition metal alloy particles and aluminum or aluminum alloy particles to form a body that is cold and/or hot reduced to form composite products, such as composite plate or sheet, with interfacial bonding between the quasicrystalline particles and the aluminum or aluminum alloy matrix without damage (e.g. cracking or shape change) of the reinforcement particles. The cold and/or hot worked composite exhibits substantially improved yield strength, tensile strength, Young`s modulus (stiffness). 3 figs.

  4. Composite material reinforced with atomized quasicrystalline particles and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Biner, Suleyman B.; Sordelet, Daniel J.; Lograsso, Barbara K.; Anderson, Iver E.

    1998-12-22

    A composite material comprises an aluminum or aluminum alloy matrix having generally spherical, atomized quasicrystalline aluminum-transition metal alloy reinforcement particles disposed in the matrix to improve mechanical properties. A composite article can be made by consolidating generally spherical, atomized quaiscrystalline aluminum-transition metal alloy particles and aluminum or aluminum alloy particles to form a body that is cold and/or hot reduced to form composite products, such as composite plate or sheet, with interfacial bonding between the quasicrystalline particles and the aluminum or aluminum alloy matrix without damage (e.g. cracking or shape change) of the reinforcement particles. The cold and/or hot worked compositehibits substantially improved yield strength, tensile strength, Young's modulus (stiffness).

  5. Fresnel reflectance in refractive index estimation of light scattering solid particles in immersion liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räty, J.; Niskanen, I.; Peiponen, K.-E.

    2010-06-01

    The refractive index of homogenous particle population can be determined by the so-called immersion liquid method. The idea is to find a known liquid whose refractive index matches the index of the particles. We report on a method that simultaneously obtains the refractive index of particles and that of the immersion liquid. It is based on a system using internal light reflection and Fresnel's theory. The method includes a series of straightforward reflection measurements and a fitting procedure. The validity of the method was tested with CaF2 particles. The method has applications within scientific studies of microparticles and nanoparticles or micro-organism in suspensions. It can be also be utilized in industry for the detection of the refractive index of products involving particles for the purpose of improvement of product quality.

  6. Numerical simulation of white double-layer coating with different submicron particles on the spectral reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Jiale; Cheng, Qiang; Si, Mengting; Su, Yang; Zhou, Yifan; Song, Jinlin

    2017-03-01

    The spectral selective coating is becoming more and more popular against solar irradiation not only in keeping the coated objects stay cool but also retain the appearance of the objects by reducing the glare of reflected sunlight. In this work a numerical study is investigated to design the double-layer coating with different submicron particles to achieve better performance both in thermal and aesthetic aspects. By comparison, the performance of double-layer coating with TiO2 and ZnO particles is better than that with single particles. What's more, the particle diameter, volume fraction of particle as well as substrate condition is also investigated. The results show that an optimized double-layer coating with particles should be the one with an appropriate particle diameter, volume fraction and the black substrate.

  7. Oxygen atom kinetics in silane-hydrogen-nitrous oxide mixtures behind reflected shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javoy, S.; Mével, R.; Dupré, G.

    2010-11-01

    Resonance Absorption Spectroscopy has been used to study the O-atom dynamics behind reflected shock waves in highly argon diluted silane-hydrogen-nitrous oxide mixtures in the temperature range 1606-2528 K and at total pressures from 234 to 584 kPa. The absorptions at 130.5 nm of N 2O, SiH 4 and Si have been taken into account to compare simulated and experimental absorption profiles. A detailed kinetic model has been also used to interpret the results and reaction pathway and sensitivity analyses have been performed to underline important elementary reactions. A comparison with the O-atom kinetic in silane-nitrous oxide and hydrogen-nitrous oxide mixtures is also proposed.

  8. Atomic data for controlled fusion research. Volume III. Particle interactions with surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, E.W.

    1985-02-01

    This report provides a handbook of data concerning particle solid interactions that are relevant to plasma-wall interactions in fusion devices. Published data have been collected, assessed, and represented by a single functional relationship which is presented in both tabular and graphical form. Mechanisms reviewed here include sputtering, secondary electron emission, particle reflection, and trapping.

  9. Reactor concepts for atomic layer deposition on agitated particles: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Longrie, Delphine Deduytsche, Davy; Detavernier, Christophe

    2014-01-15

    The number of possible applications for nanoparticles has strongly increased in the last decade. For many applications, nanoparticles with different surface and bulk properties are necessary. A popular surface modification technique is coating the particle surface with a nanometer thick layer. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is known as a reliable method for depositing ultrathin and conformal coatings. In this article, agitation or fluidization of the particles is necessary for performing ALD on (nano)particles. The principles of gas fluidization of particles will be outlined, and a classification of the gas fluidization behavior of particles based on their size and density will be given. Following different reactor concepts that have been designed to conformally coat (nano)particles with ALD will be described, and a concise overview will be presented of the work that has been performed with each of them ending with a concept reactor for performing spatial ALD on fluidized particles.

  10. Digital atom interferometer with single particle control on a discretized space-time geometry.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Andreas; Alberti, Andrea; Alt, Wolfgang; Belmechri, Noomen; Hild, Sebastian; Karski, Michał; Widera, Artur; Meschede, Dieter

    2012-06-19

    Engineering quantum particle systems, such as quantum simulators and quantum cellular automata, relies on full coherent control of quantum paths at the single particle level. Here we present an atom interferometer operating with single trapped atoms, where single particle wave packets are controlled through spin-dependent potentials. The interferometer is constructed from a sequence of discrete operations based on a set of elementary building blocks, which permit composing arbitrary interferometer geometries in a digital manner. We use this modularity to devise a space-time analogue of the well-known spin echo technique, yielding insight into decoherence mechanisms. We also demonstrate mesoscopic delocalization of single atoms with a separation-to-localization ratio exceeding 500; this result suggests their utilization beyond quantum logic applications as nano-resolution quantum probes in precision measurements, being able to measure potential gradients with precision 5 x 10(-4) in units of gravitational acceleration g.

  11. Quantum Walks with Neutral Atoms: Quantum Interference Effects of One and Two Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robens, Carsten; Brakhane, Stefan; Meschede, Dieter; Alberti, A.

    We report on the state of the art of quantum walk experiments with neutral atoms in state-dependent optical lattices. We demonstrate a novel state-dependent transport technique enabling the control of two spin-selective sublattices in a fully independent fashion. This transport technique allowed us to carry out a test of single-particle quantum interference based on the violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality and, more recently, to probe two-particle quantum interference effects with neutral atoms cooled into the motional ground state. These experiments lay the groundwork for the study of discrete-time quantum walks of strongly interacting, indistinguishable particles to demonstrate quantum cellular automata of neutral atoms.

  12. Correlated wave functions for three-particle systems with Coulomb interaction - The muonic helium atom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, K.-N.

    1977-01-01

    A computational procedure for calculating correlated wave functions is proposed for three-particle systems interacting through Coulomb forces. Calculations are carried out for the muonic helium atom. Variational wave functions which explicitly contain interparticle coordinates are presented for the ground and excited states. General Hylleraas-type trial functions are used as the basis for the correlated wave functions. Excited-state energies of the muonic helium atom computed from 1- and 35-term wave functions are listed for four states.

  13. Laser-Induced Particle Adsorption on Atomically Thin MoS2.

    PubMed

    Tran Khac, Bien Cuong; Jeon, Ki-Joon; Choi, Seung Tae; Kim, Yong Soo; DelRio, Frank W; Chung, Koo-Hyun

    2016-02-10

    Atomically thin molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) shows great potential for use in nanodevices because of its remarkable electronic, optoelectronic, and mechanical properties. These material properties are often dependent on the thickness or the number of layers, and hence Raman spectroscopy is widely used to characterize the thickness of atomically thin MoS2 due to the sensitivity of the vibrational spectrum to thickness. However, the lasers used in Raman spectroscopy can increase the local surface temperature and eventually damage the upper layers of the MoS2, thereby changing the aforementioned material properties. In this work, the effects of lasers on the topography and material properties of atomically thin MoS2 were systematically investigated using Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. In detail, friction force microscopy was used to study the friction characteristics of atomically thin MoS2 as a function of laser powers from 0.5 to 20 mW and number of layers from 1 to 3. It was found that particles formed on the top surface of the atomically thin MoS2 due to laser-induced thermal effects. The degree of particle formation increased as the laser power increased, prior to the thinning of the atomically thin MoS2. In addition, the degree of particle formation increased as the number of MoS2 layers increased, which suggests that the thermal behavior of the supported MoS2 may differ depending on the number of layers. The particles likely originated from the atmosphere due to laser-induced heating, but could be eliminated via appropriate laser powers and exposure times, which were determined experimentally. The outcomes of this work indicate that thermal management is crucial in the design of reliable nanoscale devices based on atomically thin MoS2.

  14. Scattering of He Atoms from a Microstructured Grating: Quantum Reflection Probabilities and Diffraction Patterns.

    PubMed

    Miret-Artés, Salvador; Pollak, Eli

    2017-03-02

    The quantum reflection measured previously by Zhao et al. ( Phys. Rev. A 2008 , 78 , 010902(R) ) for the scattering of He atoms off of a microstructured grating is described and analyzed theoretically. Using the close-coupling formalism with a complex absorbing potential and describing the long-range interaction in terms of the Casimir-van der Waals potential, we find probabilities and diffraction patterns that are in fairly good agreement with the experimental results. The central outcomes of this study are two-fold. First is the theoretical confirmation that, indeed, the phenomenon of quantum reflection may be detected not only through the elastic peak but also in terms of a quantum reflected diffraction pattern. Second, we demonstrate that the phenomenon of quantum reflection is the result of a coherent process where all of the potential regions are involved on an equal footing. It is a nonlocal property and cannot be related only to the long-range badlands region of the potential of interaction.

  15. Spectroscopy, manipulation and trapping of neutral atoms, molecules, and other particles using optical nanofibers: a review.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Michael J; Deasy, Kieran; Frawley, Mary; Kumar, Ravi; Prel, Eugen; Russell, Laura; Truong, Viet Giang; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2013-08-13

    The use of tapered optical fibers, i.e., optical nanofibers, for spectroscopy and the detection of small numbers of particles, such as neutral atoms or molecules, has been gaining interest in recent years. In this review, we briefly introduce the optical nanofiber, its fabrication, and optical mode propagation within. We discuss recent progress on the integration of optical nanofibers into laser-cooled atom and vapor systems, paying particular attention to spectroscopy, cold atom cloud characterization, and optical trapping schemes. Next, a natural extension of this work to molecules is introduced. Finally, we consider several alternatives to optical nanofibers that display some advantages for specific applications.

  16. Size-selective separation of submicron particles in suspensions with ultrasonic atomization.

    PubMed

    Nii, Susumu; Oka, Naoyoshi

    2014-11-01

    Aqueous suspensions containing silica or polystyrene latex were ultrasonically atomized for separating particles of a specific size. With the help of a fog involving fine liquid droplets with a narrow size distribution, submicron particles in a limited size-range were successfully separated from suspensions. Performance of the separation was characterized by analyzing the size and the concentration of collected particles with a high resolution method. Irradiation of 2.4MHz ultrasound to sample suspensions allowed the separation of particles of specific size from 90 to 320nm without regarding the type of material. Addition of a small amount of nonionic surfactant, PONPE20 to SiO2 suspensions enhanced the collection of finer particles, and achieved a remarkable increase in the number of collected particles. Degassing of the sample suspension resulted in eliminating the separation performance. Dissolved air in suspensions plays an important role in this separation.

  17. Simple algorithms for remote determination of mineral abundances and particle sizes from reflectance spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Paul E.; Smith, Milton O.; Adams, John B.

    1992-01-01

    Algorithms were developed, based on Hapke's (1981) equations, for remote determinations of mineral abundances and particle sizes from reflectance spectra. In this method, spectra are modeled as a function of end-member abundances and illumination/viewing geometry. The method was tested on a laboratory data set. It is emphasized that, although there exist more sophisticated models, the present algorithms are particularly suited for remotely sensed data, where little opportunity exists to independently measure reflectance versus article size and phase function.

  18. Geometric phase of an accelerated two-level atom in the presence of a perfectly reflecting plane boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Hua; Zhang, Jialin; Yu, Hongwei

    2016-08-15

    We study the geometric phase of a uniformly accelerated two-level atom coupled with vacuum fluctuations of electromagnetic fields in the presence of a perfectly reflecting plane. We find that the geometric phase difference between the accelerated and inertial atoms which can be observed by atom interferometry crucially depends on the polarizability of the atom and the distance to the boundary and it can be dramatically manipulated with anisotropically polarizable atoms. In particular, extremely close to the boundary, the phase difference can be increased by two times as compared to the case without any boundary. So, the detectability of the effects associated with acceleration using an atom interferometer can be significantly increased by the presence of a boundary using atoms with anisotropic polarizability.

  19. Electrostatic separation of superconducting particles from non-superconducting particles and improvement in fuel atomization by electrorheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhabria, Deepika

    This thesis has two major topics: (1) Electrostatic Separation of Superconducting Particles from a Mixture of Non-Superconducting Particles. (2) Improvement in fuel atomization by Electrorheology. (1) Based on the basic science research, the interactions between electric field and superconductors, we have developed a new technology, which can separate superconducting granular particles from their mixture with non-superconducting particles. The electric-field induced formation of superconducting balls is important aspect of the interaction between superconducting particles and electric field. When the applied electric field exceeds a critical value, the induced positive surface energy on the superconducting particles forces them to aggregate into balls or cling to the electrodes. In fabrication of superconducting materials, especially HTSC materials, it is common to come across materials with multiple phases: some grains are in superconducting state while the others are not. Our technology is proven to be very useful in separating superconducting grains from the rest non-superconducting materials. To separate superconducting particles from normal conducting particles, we apply a suitable strong electric field. The superconducting particles cling to the electrodes, while normal conducting particles bounce between the electrodes. The superconducting particles could then be collected from the electrodes. To separate superconducting particles from insulating ones, we apply a moderate electric field to force insulating particles to the electrodes to form short chains while the superconducting particles are collected from the middle of capacitor. The importance of this technology is evidenced by the unsuccessful efforts to utilize the Meissner effect to separate superconducting particles from nonsuperconducting ones. Because the Meissner effect is proportional to the particle volume, it has been found that the Meissner effect is not useful when the superconducting

  20. Radiative transfer equation and direct simulation prediction of reflection and absorption by particle deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramezan pour, Bahareh; Mackowski, Daniel W.

    2017-03-01

    Two methods for computing the normal incidence absorptance and hemispherical reflectance from plane parallel layers of wavelength-sized spherical particles are presented. The first method is based on an exact superposition solution to Maxwell's time harmonic wave equations for a system of randomly-positioned spherical particles excited by an incident plane wave. The second method is based upon the scalar radiative transport equation (RTE) applied to a plane parallel medium. Comparisons are made using five values of particle refractive index, sphere size parameters ranging from 1 to 4, and particle volume concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 0.4. The results indicate that the multiple sphere T matrix method (MSTM) and RTE predictions of hemispherical reflectance and absorptance converge when particle volume fraction becomes small. At higher volume fractions the RTE can yield results for hemispherical reflectance that, depending on the particle size and refractive index, significantly depart from the exact predictions. On the other hand, RTE and MSTM predictions of absorptance have a much closer agreement which is largely independent of the sphere optical properties and volume concentration.

  1. Quantitative measurement of atomic sodium in the plume of a single burning coal particle

    SciTech Connect

    van Eyk, P.J.; Ashman, P.J.; Alwahabi, Z.T.; Nathan, G.J.

    2008-11-15

    The release of volatile sodium during coal combustion is a significant factor in the fouling and corrosion of heat transfer surfaces within industrial coal-fired boilers. A method for measuring the temporal release of atomic sodium from a single coal particle is described. Laser absorption was used to calibrate laser-induced fluorescence measurements of atomic sodium utilising the sodium D1 line (589.59 nm) in a purpose-designed flat flame environment. The calibration was then applied to planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements of sodium atoms in the plume from a single Victorian brown coal particle (53 mg) suspended within the flat flame. The peak concentration of atomic sodium was approximately 64.1 ppb after 1080.5 s, which appears to correspond to the end of char combustion. To our knowledge this is the first in situ quantitative measurement of the concentration field of atomic sodium in the plume above a burning particle. A simple kinetic model has been used to estimate the rate of sodium decay in the post-flame gases. Comparison of the estimated and measured decay rates showed reasonable agreement. (author)

  2. Effects of porous films on the light reflectivity of pigmentary titanium dioxide particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yong; Qiao, Bing; Wang, Tig-Jie; Gao, Han; Yu, Keyi

    2016-11-01

    The light reflectivity of the film-coated titanium dioxide particles (TiO2) as a function of the film refractive index was derived and calculated using a plane film model. For the refractive index in the range of 1.00-2.15, the lower the film refractive index is, the higher is the light reflectivity of the film. It is inferred that the lower apparent refractive index of the porous film resulted in the higher reflectivity of light, i.e., the higher hiding power of the titanium dioxide particles. A dense film coating on TiO2 particles with different types of oxides, i.e., SiO2, Al2O3, MgO, ZnO, ZrO2, TiO2, corresponding to different refractive indices of the film from 1.46 to 2.50, was achieved, and the effects of refractive index on the hiding power from the model prediction were confirmed. Porous film coating of TiO2 particles was achieved by adding the organic template agent triethanolamine (TEA). The hiding power of the coated TiO2 particles was increased from 88.3 to 90.8 by adding the TEA template to the film coating (5-20 wt%). In other words, the amount of titanium dioxide needed was reduced by approximately 10% without a change in the hiding power. It is concluded that the film structure coated on TiO2 particle surface affects the light reflectivity significantly, namely, the porous film exhibits excellent performance for pigmentary titanium dioxide particles with high hiding power.

  3. Monte Carlo simulation of light reflection from cosmetic powder particles near the human skin surface.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Takashi; Kumagawa, Tatsuya; Motoda, Masafumi; Igarashi, Takanori; Nakao, Keisuke

    2013-06-01

    The reflection and scattering properties of light incident on human skin covered with powder particles have been investigated. A three-layer skin structure with a pigmented area is modeled, and the propagation of light in the skin's layers and in a layer of particles near the skin's surface is simulated using the Monte Carlo method. Assuming that only single scattering of light occurs in the powder layer, the simulation results show that the reflection spectra of light from the skin change with the size of powder particles. The color difference between normal and discolored skin is found to decrease considerably when powder particles with a diameter of approximately 0.25 μm are present near the skin's surface. The effects of the medium surrounding the particles, and the influence of the distribution of particle size (polydispersity), are also examined. It is shown that a surrounding medium with a refractive index close to that of the skin substantially suppresses the extreme spectral changes caused by the powder particles covering the skin surface.

  4. In situ nucleation of carbon nanotubes by the injection of carbon atoms into metal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Manzo, Julio A.; Terrones, Mauricio; Terrones, Humberto; Kroto, Harold W.; Sun, Litao; Banhart, Florian

    2007-05-01

    The synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) of desired chiralities and diameters is one of the most important challenges in nanotube science and achieving such selectivity may require a detailed understanding of their growth mechanism. We report the formation of CNTs in an entirely condensed phase process that allows us, for the first time, to monitor the nucleation of a nanotube on the spherical surface of a metal particle. When multiwalled CNTs containing metal particle cores are irradiated with an electron beam, carbon from graphitic shells surrounding the metal particles is ingested into the body of the particle and subsequently emerges as single-walled nanotubes (SWNTs) or multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs) inside the host nanotubes. These observations, at atomic resolution in an electron microscope, show that there is direct bonding between the tubes and the metal surface from which the tubes sprout and can be readily explained by bulk diffusion of carbon through the body of catalytic particles, with no evidence of surface diffusion.

  5. Why Do Marbles Become Paler on Grinding? Reflectance, Spectroscopy, Color, and Particle Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagorio, Maria Gabriela

    2004-01-01

    A qualitative description of the color-change problem, which will assist in rationalizing the change in color of marbles after grinding them using a simple physical picture and the qualitative dependence of diffuse reflectance on particle size is presented. Different approaches are discussed but it is seen that the interpretation of nanoparticles…

  6. Fine Surface Images That Reflect Cytoskeletal Structures in Cultured Glial Cells by Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Yukako; Hatakeyama, Dai; Tojima, Takuro; Kawabata, Kazushige; Ushiki, Tatsuo; Ogura, Shigeaki; Abe, Kazuhiro; Ito, Etsuro

    1998-06-01

    The morphology of cultured glial cells was examined using a combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and immunofluorescence staining for cytoskeletons. The meshwork of type-1 astrocytes consisted of thick longitudinal and thin lateral lines on the cell surfaces observed by AFM; the former lines were confirmed to be reflections of actin filaments. The astrocytic processes of type-2 astrocytes were observed to be rugged on AFM. These structures were mainly affected by microtubules. Immunofluorescence imaging of microglia revealed that actin filaments and microtubules were arranged radially and wavily along the cell edge, respectively. AFM could detect these radial and wavy structures clearly. These results show that AFM can provide information on the cytoskeletons of glial cells, indicating that AFM is a useful tool for the morphological characterization of cells.

  7. Orthoclase surface structure dissolution measured in situ by x-ray reflectivity and atomic force microscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Sturchio, N. C.; Fenter, P.; Cheng, L.; Teng, H.

    2000-11-28

    Orthoclase (001) surface topography and interface structure were measured during dissolution by using in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) and synchrotrons X-ray reflectivity at pH 1.1-12.9 and T = 25-84 C. Terrace roughening at low pH and step motion at high pH were the main phenomena observed, and dissolution rates were measured precisely. Contrasting dissolution mechanisms are inferred for low- and high-pH conditions. These observations clarify differences in alkali feldspar dissolution mechanisms as a function of pH, demonstrate a new in situ method for measuring face-specific dissolution rates on single crystals, and improve the fundamental basis for understanding alkali feldspar weathering processes.

  8. Numerical modelling of emission of a two-level atom near a metal nanoparticle with account for tunnelling of an electron from an atom into a particle

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorovich, S V; Protsenko, I E

    2016-01-31

    We report the results of numerical modelling of emission of a two-level atom near a metal nanoparticle under resonant interaction of light with plasmon modes of the particle. Calculations have been performed for different polarisations of light by a dipole approximation method and a complex multipole method. Depending on the distance between a particle and an atom, the contribution of the nonradiative process of electron tunnelling from a two-level atom into a particle, which is calculated using the quasi-classical approximation, has been taken into account and assessed. We have studied spherical gold and silver particles of different diameters (10 – 100 nm). The rates of electron tunnelling and of spontaneous decay of the excited atomic state are found. The results can be used to develop nanoscale plasmonic emitters, lasers and photodetectors. (nanooptics)

  9. Microstructure simulation of rapidly solidified ASP30 high-speed steel particles by gas atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jie; Wang, Bo; Yang, Zhi-liang; Wu, Guang-xin; Zhang, Jie-yu; Zhao, Shun-li

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the microstructure evolution of rapidly solidified ASP30 high-speed steel particles was predicted using a simulation method based on the cellular automaton-finite element (CAFE) model. The dendritic growth kinetics, in view of the characteristics of ASP30 steel, were calculated and combined with macro heat transfer calculations by user-defined functions (UDFs) to simulate the microstructure of gas-atomized particles. The relationship among particle diameter, undercooling, and the convection heat transfer coefficient was also investigated to provide cooling conditions for simulations. The simulated results indicated that a columnar grain microstructure was observed in small particles, whereas an equiaxed microstructure was observed in large particles. In addition, the morphologies and microstructures of gas-atomized ASP30 steel particles were also investigated experimentally using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The experimental results showed that four major types of microstructures were formed: dendritic, equiaxed, mixed, and multi-droplet microstructures. The simulated results and the available experimental data are in good agreement.

  10. Bidirectional reflectance spectroscopy 7. The single particle phase function hockey stick relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapke, Bruce

    2012-11-01

    The measured volume-average single particle angular scattering functions of a large number of types of particle of interest for planetary regoliths in the visible-near-IR wavelength region can be represented to a reasonable approximation by two-parameter, double Henyey-Greenstein functions. When the two parameters of this function are plotted against one another they are found to be inversely correlated and lie within a restricted zone shaped like a hockey stick within the parameter space. The centroid of the zone is a curve that can be represented by a simple empirical equation. The wide variety of types of particles used to construct the plot implies that this equation may represent most of the particles found in regoliths. This means that when modeling the bidirectional reflectance of a regolith it may be possible to reduce the number of parameters necessary to specify the reflectance, and also to characterize the entire single particle phase function from observations at phase angles less than 90°. Even if the hockey stick relation has a finite width, rather than being a line, it restricts the parameter space that must be searched when fitting data. The curve should also be useful for forward modeling particle phase functions.

  11. Surface roughtness and its influence on particle adhesion using atomic force microscope techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Gady, B.; Schaefer, D.; Reifenberger, R.; Rimai, D.; DeMejo, L.P.

    1996-12-31

    The surface force interactions between individual 8 {mu}m diameter spheres and atomically flat substrates have been systematically investigated using atomic force techniques. The lift-off force of glass, polystyrene and tin particles from atomically smooth mica and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite substrates was determined as a function of the applied loading force in an inert nitrogen environment. While the relative magnitudes of the measured lift-off force was found to scale as expected between the various systems studied, the absolute values were a factor of {approximately}50 smaller than expected from the Johnson, Kendall, and Roberts theory. The surface topography of representative spheres was characterized with atomic force microscopy, allowing a quantitative assessment of the role that surface roughness plays in the adhesion of micrometer-size particles to substrates. Taking into account the radius of curvature of the asperities measured from the atomic force scans, agreement between the measured and theoretical estimates for the lift-off forces was improved, with the corrected experimental forces about a factor of 3 smaller than theoretical expectations.

  12. Quantifying the Hygroscopic Growth of Individual Submicrometer Particles with Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Morris, Holly S; Estillore, Armando D; Laskina, Olga; Grassian, Vicki H; Tivanski, Alexei V

    2016-04-05

    The water uptake behavior of atmospheric aerosol dictates their climate effects. In many studies, aerosol particles are deposited onto solid substrates to measure water uptake; however, the effects of the substrate are not well understood. Furthermore, in some cases, methods used to analyze and quantify water uptake of substrate deposited particles use a two-dimensional (2D) analysis to monitor growth by following changes in the particle diameter with relative humidity (RH). However, this 2D analysis assumes that the droplet grows equally in all directions. If particle growth is not isotropic in height and diameter, this assumption can cause inaccuracies when quantifying hygroscopic growth factors (GFs), where GF for a for a spherical particle is defined as the ratio of the particle diameter at a particular relative humidity divided by the dry particle diameter (typically about 5% RH). However, as shown here, anisotropic growth can occur in some cases. In these cases, a three-dimensional (3D) analysis of the growth is needed. This study introduces a way to quantify the hygroscopic growth of substrate deposited particles composed of model systems relevant to atmospheric aerosols using atomic force microscopy (AFM), which gives information on both the particle height and area and thus a three-dimensional view of each particle. In this study, we compare GFs of submicrometer sized particles composed of single component sodium chloride (NaCl) and malonic acid (MA), as well as binary mixtures of NaCl and MA, and NaCl and nonanoic acid (NA) determined by AFM using area (2D) equivalent diameters, similar to conventional microscopy methods, to GFs determined using volume (3D) equivalent diameter. We also compare these values to GFs determined by a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA; substrate free, 3D method). It was found that utilizing volume equivalent diameter for quantifying GFs with AFM agreed well with those determined by substrate-free HTDMA

  13. Single-particle evanescent light scattering simulations for total internal reflection microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helden, Laurent; Eremina, Elena; Riefler, Norbert; Hertlein, Christopher; Bechinger, Clemens; Eremin, Yuri; Wriedt, Thomas

    2006-10-01

    We simulate and measure light scattering of a micrometer-sized spherical particle suspended in solution close to a glass substrate. The model, based on the discrete sources method, is developed to describe the experimental situation of total internal reflection microscopy experiments; i.e., the particle is illuminated by an evanescent light field originating from the glass-solvent interface. In contrast to the well-established assumption of a simple exponential decay of the scattering intensity with distance, we demonstrate significant deviations for a certain range of penetration depths and polarization states of the incident light.

  14. Single-particle evanescent light scattering simulations for total internal reflection microscopy.

    PubMed

    Helden, Laurent; Eremina, Elena; Riefler, Norbert; Hertlein, Christopher; Bechinger, Clemens; Eremin, Yuri; Wriedt, Thomas

    2006-10-01

    We simulate and measure light scattering of a micrometer-sized spherical particle suspended in solution close to a glass substrate. The model, based on the discrete sources method, is developed to describe the experimental situation of total internal reflection microscopy experiments; i.e., the particle is illuminated by an evanescent light field originating from the glass-solvent interface. In contrast to the well-established assumption of a simple exponential decay of the scattering intensity with distance, we demonstrate significant deviations for a certain range of penetration depths and polarization states of the incident light.

  15. Optical response of two-level atoms with reflection geometry as a model of a quantum phase gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, Hisaki; Takeuchi, Shigeki; Sasaki, Keiji

    2005-07-01

    The nonlinear optical response obtained from a model system of a quantum phase gate is investigated. The model system consists of a thin infinite atomic layer of two-level atoms placed in front of a perfect reflecting mirror. The optical response obtained from the model system is semiclassically analyzed using the finite difference time domain method with the optical Bloch equations. It is shown that a nonlinear phase shift of π is achieved when the atomic layer is placed at an antinode of the input field. This result is consistent with the theoretical result obtained from a one-dimensional atom model [H. F. Hofmann, K. Kojima, S. Takeuchi, and K. Sasaki, J. Opt. B: Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 5, 218 (2003)]. The dependence of the nonlinear phase shift on the position of the atomic layer is also studied in detail.

  16. Effect of energy transfer from atomic electron shell to an α particle emitted by decaying nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igashov, S. Yu.; Tchuvil'sky, Yu. M.

    2016-12-01

    The process of energy transfer from the electron shell of an atom to an α particle propagating through the shell is formulated mathematically. Using the decay of the 226Ra nucleus as an example, it is demonstrated that this phenomenon increases the α-decay intensity in contrast with other known effects of similar type. Moreover, the α decay of the nucleus is more strongly affected by the energy transfer than by all other effects taken together.

  17. Dose limited reliability of quantitative annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy for nano-particle atom-counting.

    PubMed

    De Backer, A; Martinez, G T; MacArthur, K E; Jones, L; Béché, A; Nellist, P D; Van Aert, S

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF STEM) has become a powerful technique to characterise nano-particles on an atomic scale. Because of their limited size and beam sensitivity, the atomic structure of such particles may become extremely challenging to determine. Therefore keeping the incoming electron dose to a minimum is important. However, this may reduce the reliability of quantitative ADF STEM which will here be demonstrated for nano-particle atom-counting. Based on experimental ADF STEM images of a real industrial catalyst, we discuss the limits for counting the number of atoms in a projected atomic column with single atom sensitivity. We diagnose these limits by combining a thorough statistical method and detailed image simulations.

  18. Reflection/transmission calculation of complex particle slabs for normal incidence through dipole approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamanos, Theodosios; Papadimopoulos, Athanasios; Kantartzis, Nikolaos; Tsiboukis, Theodoros

    2017-01-01

    The computation of the reflection/transmission coefficients from normally illuminated bianisotropic metamaterial slabs through a rigorous method is presented in this paper. The bianisotropic particles that compose finite slabs are approximated as electric and magnetic dipoles. Modeling these slabs as a succession of 2D arrays, the interaction of all dipoles is described via Green's function series, for a given wave illumination on each array, and the excited dipole moments are obtained by the resulting linear system. Finally, the reflection/transmission coefficients are derived in terms of summing the scattering from the equivalent surfaces that comprise the slab. The new algorithm is applied to a bianisotropic and a complicated chiral particle, while all results are compared to numerically simulated ones.

  19. Determining the band gap and mean kinetic energy of atoms from reflection electron energy loss spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Vos, M.; Marmitt, G. G.; Finkelstein, Y.; Moreh, R.

    2015-09-14

    Reflection electron energy loss spectra from some insulating materials (CaCO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and SiO{sub 2}) taken at relatively high incoming electron energies (5–40 keV) are analyzed. Here, one is bulk sensitive and a well-defined onset of inelastic excitations is observed from which one can infer the value of the band gap. An estimate of the band gap was obtained by fitting the spectra with a procedure that includes the recoil shift and recoil broadening affecting these measurements. The width of the elastic peak is directly connected to the mean kinetic energy of the atom in the material (Doppler broadening). The experimentally obtained mean kinetic energies of the O, C, Li, Ca, and Si atoms are compared with the calculated ones, and good agreement is found, especially if the effect of multiple scattering is taken into account. It is demonstrated experimentally that the onset of the inelastic excitation is also affected by Doppler broadening. Aided by this understanding, we can obtain a good fit of the elastic peak and the onset of inelastic excitations. For SiO{sub 2}, good agreement is obtained with the well-established value of the band gap (8.9 eV) only if it is assumed that the intensity near the edge scales as (E − E{sub gap}){sup 1.5}. For CaCO{sub 3}, the band gap obtained here (7 eV) is about 1 eV larger than the previous experimental value, whereas the value for Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (7.5 eV) is the first experimental estimate.

  20. Determining the band gap and mean kinetic energy of atoms from reflection electron energy loss spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vos, M.; Marmitt, G. G.; Finkelstein, Y.; Moreh, R.

    2015-09-01

    Reflection electron energy loss spectra from some insulating materials (CaCO3, Li2CO3, and SiO2) taken at relatively high incoming electron energies (5-40 keV) are analyzed. Here, one is bulk sensitive and a well-defined onset of inelastic excitations is observed from which one can infer the value of the band gap. An estimate of the band gap was obtained by fitting the spectra with a procedure that includes the recoil shift and recoil broadening affecting these measurements. The width of the elastic peak is directly connected to the mean kinetic energy of the atom in the material (Doppler broadening). The experimentally obtained mean kinetic energies of the O, C, Li, Ca, and Si atoms are compared with the calculated ones, and good agreement is found, especially if the effect of multiple scattering is taken into account. It is demonstrated experimentally that the onset of the inelastic excitation is also affected by Doppler broadening. Aided by this understanding, we can obtain a good fit of the elastic peak and the onset of inelastic excitations. For SiO2, good agreement is obtained with the well-established value of the band gap (8.9 eV) only if it is assumed that the intensity near the edge scales as (E - Egap)1.5. For CaCO3, the band gap obtained here (7 eV) is about 1 eV larger than the previous experimental value, whereas the value for Li2CO3 (7.5 eV) is the first experimental estimate.

  1. Paramagnetic particle assemblies as colloidal models for atomic and molecular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dichuan

    2011-12-01

    Colloidal particles are ideal models for studying the behavior of atomic and molecular systems. They resemble their atomic and molecular analogues in that their dynamics are driven by thermal energy and their equilibrium properties are controlled by inter-particle interactions. Based on this analogy, it is reasonable to construct colloidal chains, where each particle represents a repeat unit, as models for polymers. The advantages of this system over molecular systems are its controllable rigidity, contour length and diameter, as well as the convenience to capture its instantaneous shape and position via video microscopy, which are not trivial to realize in molecular systems. By utilizing the dipolar properties of magnetic colloids, a number of groups have assembled semiflexible and rigid colloidal chains by cross-linking magnetic beads under a magnetic field using polymer linkers. Recently, efforts in constructing colloidal chains led even to anisotropic magnetic colloidal chains that mimic the detailed atomic arrangements of polymers. These properties make colloidal chains possible candidates for the classic bead-spring or bead-rod model systems for semiflexible and rigid polymers. In my thesis, I present a method for generating linear colloidal chain structures by linking surface functionalized paramagnetic particles using DNA. First, I investigate the force interactions between individual magnetic particles under different conditions to optimize the resulting chain stability. A systematic study the bending and rotational diffusion dynamics of the chains and their relationship with the DNA linking chemistry is presented. I then demonstrate their use as a ideal model system to study polymer dynamics In addition, a technique to measure short-range repulsive surface forces between these colloids with high precision was developed. Building on these repulsive force studies, a colloidal system to study 2-D phase transitions was created. This thesis provides insights

  2. Ultra-wideband, Wide Angle and Polarization-insensitive Specular Reflection Reduction by Metasurface based on Parameter-adjustable Meta-Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jianxun; Lu, Yao; Zhang, Hui; Li, Zengrui; (Lamar) Yang, Yaoqing; Che, Yongxing; Qi, Kainan

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, an ultra-wideband, wide angle and polarization-insensitive metasurface is designed, fabricated, and characterized for suppressing the specular electromagnetic wave reflection or backward radar cross section (RCS). Square ring structure is chosen as the basic meta-atoms. A new physical mechanism based on size adjustment of the basic meta-atoms is proposed for ultra-wideband manipulation of electromagnetic (EM) waves. Based on hybrid array pattern synthesis (APS) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, the selection and distribution of the basic meta-atoms are optimized simultaneously to obtain the ultra-wideband diffusion scattering patterns. The metasurface can achieve an excellent RCS reduction in an ultra-wide frequency range under x- and y-polarized normal incidences. The new proposed mechanism greatly extends the bandwidth of RCS reduction. The simulation and experiment results show the metasurface can achieve ultra-wideband and polarization-insensitive specular reflection reduction for both normal and wide-angle incidences. The proposed methodology opens up a new route for realizing ultra-wideband diffusion scattering of EM wave, which is important for stealth and other microwave applications in the future.

  3. Ultra-wideband, Wide Angle and Polarization-insensitive Specular Reflection Reduction by Metasurface based on Parameter-adjustable Meta-Atoms

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jianxun; Lu, Yao; Zhang, Hui; Li, Zengrui; (Lamar) Yang, Yaoqing; Che, Yongxing; Qi, Kainan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an ultra-wideband, wide angle and polarization-insensitive metasurface is designed, fabricated, and characterized for suppressing the specular electromagnetic wave reflection or backward radar cross section (RCS). Square ring structure is chosen as the basic meta-atoms. A new physical mechanism based on size adjustment of the basic meta-atoms is proposed for ultra-wideband manipulation of electromagnetic (EM) waves. Based on hybrid array pattern synthesis (APS) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, the selection and distribution of the basic meta-atoms are optimized simultaneously to obtain the ultra-wideband diffusion scattering patterns. The metasurface can achieve an excellent RCS reduction in an ultra-wide frequency range under x- and y-polarized normal incidences. The new proposed mechanism greatly extends the bandwidth of RCS reduction. The simulation and experiment results show the metasurface can achieve ultra-wideband and polarization-insensitive specular reflection reduction for both normal and wide-angle incidences. The proposed methodology opens up a new route for realizing ultra-wideband diffusion scattering of EM wave, which is important for stealth and other microwave applications in the future. PMID:28181593

  4. Ultra-wideband, Wide Angle and Polarization-insensitive Specular Reflection Reduction by Metasurface based on Parameter-adjustable Meta-Atoms.

    PubMed

    Su, Jianxun; Lu, Yao; Zhang, Hui; Li, Zengrui; Lamar Yang, Yaoqing; Che, Yongxing; Qi, Kainan

    2017-02-09

    In this paper, an ultra-wideband, wide angle and polarization-insensitive metasurface is designed, fabricated, and characterized for suppressing the specular electromagnetic wave reflection or backward radar cross section (RCS). Square ring structure is chosen as the basic meta-atoms. A new physical mechanism based on size adjustment of the basic meta-atoms is proposed for ultra-wideband manipulation of electromagnetic (EM) waves. Based on hybrid array pattern synthesis (APS) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, the selection and distribution of the basic meta-atoms are optimized simultaneously to obtain the ultra-wideband diffusion scattering patterns. The metasurface can achieve an excellent RCS reduction in an ultra-wide frequency range under x- and y-polarized normal incidences. The new proposed mechanism greatly extends the bandwidth of RCS reduction. The simulation and experiment results show the metasurface can achieve ultra-wideband and polarization-insensitive specular reflection reduction for both normal and wide-angle incidences. The proposed methodology opens up a new route for realizing ultra-wideband diffusion scattering of EM wave, which is important for stealth and other microwave applications in the future.

  5. Effects of Particle Size on the Attenuated Total Reflection Spectrum of Minerals.

    PubMed

    Udvardi, Beatrix; Kovács, István J; Fancsik, Tamás; Kónya, Péter; Bátori, Miklósné; Stercel, Ferenc; Falus, György; Szalai, Zoltán

    2016-09-26

    This study focuses on particle size effect on monomineralic powders recorded using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy. Six particle size fractions of quartz, feldspar, calcite, and dolomite were prepared (<2, 2-4, 4-8, 8-16, 16-32, and 32-63 µm). It is found that the width, intensity, and area of bands in the ATR FT-IR spectra of minerals have explicit dependence on the particle size. As particle size increases, the intensity and area of IR bands usually decrease while the width of bands increases. The band positions usually shifted to higher wavenumbers with decreasing particle size. Infrared spectra of minerals are the most intensive in the particle size fraction of 2-4 µm. However, if the particle size is very small (<2 µm), due to the wavelength and penetration depth of the IR light, intensity decreases. Therefore, the quantity of very fine-grained minerals may be underestimated compared to the coarser phases. A nonlinear regression analysis of the data indicated that the average coefficients and indices of the power trend line equation imply a very simplistic relationship between median particle diameter and absorbance at a given wavenumber. It is concluded that when powder samples with substantially different particle size are compared, as in regression analysis for modal predictions using ATR FT-IR, it is also important to report the grain size distribution or surface area of samples. The band area of water (3000-3620 cm(-1)) is similar in each mineral fraction, except for the particles below 2 µm. It indicates that the finest particles could have disproportionately more water adsorbed on their larger surface area. Thus, these higher wavenumbers of the ATR FT-IR spectra may be more sensitive to this spectral interference if the number of particles below 2 µm is considerable. It is also concluded that at least a proportion of the moisture could be very adhesive to the particles due to the band

  6. Design of reflective color filters with high angular tolerance by particle swarm optimization method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chenying; Hong, Liang; Shen, Weidong; Zhang, Yueguang; Liu, Xu; Zhen, Hongyu

    2013-04-22

    We propose three color filters (red, green, blue) based on a two-dimensional (2D) grating, which maintain the same perceived specular colors for a broad range of incident angles with the average polarization. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) method is employed to design these filters for the first time to our knowledge. Two merit functions involving the reflectance curves and color difference in CIEDE2000 formula are respectively constructed to adjust the structural parameters during the optimization procedure. Three primary color filters located at 637nm, 530nm and 446nm with high saturation are obtained with the peak reflectance of 89%, 83%, 66%. The reflectance curves at different incident angles are coincident and the color difference is less than 8 for the incident angle up to 45°. The electric field distribution of the structure is finally studied to analyze the optical property.

  7. Detecting molecules and cells labeled with magnetic particles using an atomic magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Dindi; Ruangchaithaweesuk, Songtham; Yao, Li; Xu, Shoujun

    2012-09-01

    The detection of magnetically labeled molecules and cells involves three essential parameters: sensitivity, spatial resolution, and molecular specificity. We report on the use of atomic magnetometry and its derivative techniques to achieve high performance in terms of all these parameters. With a sensitivity of 80 fT/√Hz for dc magnetic fields, we show that 7,000 streptavidin-conjugated magnetic microparticles magnetized by a permanent magnet produce a magnetic field of 650 pT; this result predicts that a single such particle can be detected during one second of signal averaging. Spatial information is obtained using a scanning magnetic imaging scheme. The spatial resolution is 20 μm with a detection distance of more than 1 cm; this distance is much longer than that in previous reports. The molecular specificity is achieved using force-induced remnant magnetization spectroscopy, which currently uses an atomic magnetometer for detection. As an example, we perform measurement of magnetically labeled human CD4+ T cells, whose count in the blood is the diagnostic criterion for human immunodeficiency virus infection. Magnetic particles that are specifically bound to the cells are resolved from nonspecifically bound particles and quantitatively correlate with the number of cells. The magnetic particles have an overall size of 2.8 μm, with a magnetic core in nanometer regime. The combination of our techniques is predicted to be useful in molecular and cellular imaging.

  8. Removal of particles from lithographic masks through plasma-assisted cleaning by metastable atomic neutralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytle, W. M.; Szybilski, D. S.; Das, C. E.; Raju, R.; Surla, V.; Neumann, M. J.; Ruzic, D. N.

    2008-11-01

    For extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) to become a high volume manufacturing technology for integrated circuit manufacturing, the cleanliness of the system, especially the photomask, is of high importance. For EUV photomasks, which cannot be protected from contamination by the use of a pellicle, an effective and quick cleaning technology needs to be ready in order to maintain wafer throughput. There are challenges to extend current wet cleaning technologies to meet the future needs for damage-free and high efficiency mask cleaning. Accordingly, a unique process for cleaning particulates from surfaces, specifically photomasks as well as wafers, has been evaluated at the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. The removal technique utilizes a high density plasma source as well as pulsed substrate biases to provide for removal. Helium is used as the primary gas in the plasma, which under ionization, provides for a large density of helium metastable atoms present in the plasma. These metastable helium atoms have on the order of 20 eV of energy which can transfer to particles on the substrate to be cleaned. When the substrate is under a small flux of ion bombardment, these bonds then remain broken and it is theorized that this allows the particles to be volatilized for their subsequent removal. 100 % particle removal efficiency has been obtained for 30 nm, 80 nm, and 200 nm polystyrene latex particles. In addition, removal rate has been correlated with helium metastable population density determined by optical emission spectroscopy.

  9. Elastic collisions of classical point particles on a finite frictionless linear track with perfectly reflecting endpoints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLuca, R.

    2006-03-01

    Repeated elastic collisions of point particles on a finite frictionless linear track with perfectly reflecting endpoints are considered. The problem is analysed by means of an elementary linear algebra approach. It is found that, starting with a state consisting of a projectile particle in motion at constant velocity and a target particle at rest in a fixed known position, the points at which collisions occur on track, when plotted versus progressive numerals, corresponding to the collisions themselves, show periodic patterns for a rather large choice of values of the initial position x(0) and on the mass ratio r. For certain values of these parameters, however, only regular behaviour over a large number of collisions is detected.

  10. Methodology for the Elimination of Reflection and System Vibration Effects in Particle Image Velocimetry Data Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bremmer, David M.; Hutcheson, Florence V.; Stead, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    A methodology to eliminate model reflection and system vibration effects from post processed particle image velocimetry data is presented. Reflection and vibration lead to loss of data, and biased velocity calculations in PIV processing. A series of algorithms were developed to alleviate these problems. Reflections emanating from the model surface caused by the laser light sheet are removed from the PIV images by subtracting an image in which only the reflections are visible from all of the images within a data acquisition set. The result is a set of PIV images where only the seeded particles are apparent. Fiduciary marks painted on the surface of the test model were used as reference points in the images. By locating the centroids of these marks it was possible to shift all of the images to a common reference frame. This image alignment procedure as well as the subtraction of model reflection are performed in a first algorithm. Once the images have been shifted, they are compared with a background image that was recorded under no flow conditions. The second and third algorithms find the coordinates of fiduciary marks in the acquisition set images and the background image and calculate the displacement between these images. The final algorithm shifts all of the images so that fiduciary mark centroids lie in the same location as the background image centroids. This methodology effectively eliminated the effects of vibration so that unbiased data could be used for PIV processing. The PIV data used for this work was generated at the NASA Langley Research Center Quiet Flow Facility. The experiment entailed flow visualization near the flap side edge region of an airfoil model. Commercial PIV software was used for data acquisition and processing. In this paper, the experiment and the PIV acquisition of the data are described. The methodology used to develop the algorithms for reflection and system vibration removal is stated, and the implementation, testing and

  11. Localization and force analysis at the single virus particle level using atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chih-Hao; Horng, Jim-Tong; Chang, Jeng-Shian; Hsieh, Chung-Fan; Tseng, You-Chen; Lin, Shiming

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Localization of single virus particle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Force measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Force mapping. -- Abstract: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a vital instrument in nanobiotechnology. In this study, we developed a method that enables AFM to simultaneously measure specific unbinding force and map the viral glycoprotein at the single virus particle level. The average diameter of virus particles from AFM images and the specificity between the viral surface antigen and antibody probe were integrated to design a three-stage method that sets the measuring area to a single virus particle before obtaining the force measurements, where the influenza virus was used as the object of measurements. Based on the purposed method and performed analysis, several findings can be derived from the results. The mean unbinding force of a single virus particle can be quantified, and no significant difference exists in this value among virus particles. Furthermore, the repeatability of the proposed method is demonstrated. The force mapping images reveal that the distributions of surface viral antigens recognized by antibody probe were dispersed on the whole surface of individual virus particles under the proposed method and experimental criteria; meanwhile, the binding probabilities are similar among particles. This approach can be easily applied to most AFM systems without specific components or configurations. These results help understand the force-based analysis at the single virus particle level, and therefore, can reinforce the capability of AFM to investigate a specific type of viral surface protein and its distributions.

  12. DFT studies of oxygen dissociation on the 116-atom platinum truncated octahedron particle.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Paul C; Aleksandrov, Hristiyan A; Neyman, Konstantin M; Johnston, Roy L

    2014-12-28

    Density functional theory calculations are performed to investigate oxygen dissociation on 116-atom truncated octahedron platinum particles. This work builds on results presented previously [Jennings et al., Nanoscale, 2014, 6, 1153], where it was shown that shell flexibility played an important role in facilitating fast oxygen dissociation. In this study, through investigation of the larger particle size, it is shown that oxygen dissociation on the (111) facet of pure platinum species is still aided by shell flexibility at larger sizes. Only the hollow sites close to the edges of the (111) facet mediate oxygen dissociation; oxygen is bound too weakly at other hollow sites for dissociation to occur. Further studies are performed on the (100) facet, which is larger for the Pt116 particle than for either the Pt38 or Pt79 ones. Much higher dissociation barriers are found on the (100) facet compared to the (111) facet, where the bridge sites are favourable for oxygen dissociation.

  13. High Deformability and Particle Size Distribution of Monodisperse Phytoglycogen Nanoparticles Revealed By Atomic Force Microscopy Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baylis, Benjamin; Dutcher, John

    We have used atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging in water to determine the volume of hydrated monodisperse phytoglycogen nanoparticles adsorbed onto mica surfaces. By significantly reducing the interaction between the AFM tip and the ``sticky'' nanoparticles, we were able to obtain high quality images. We found that the adsorbed particles are highly deformed, forming pancake-like objects on the hydrophilic mica surface. By measuring the distribution of particle volumes, we calculated the average effective spherical radius of the hydrated particles, and compared this value with that measured in solution using small angle neutron scattering. These measurements illustrate the distinct advantages of AFM imaging over other imaging techniques, namely the ability to measure the height of objects in a liquid environment.

  14. A study of single drug particle adhesion interactions using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Eve, J K; Patel, N; Luk, S Y; Ebbens, S J; Roberts, C J

    2002-05-15

    This paper aims to use Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to characterise the interaction forces between micronized salbutamol particles, an active ingredient frequently used in metered dose inhalers, and also to glass, lactose and a fluoropolymer. The methodology used involves challenging a salbutamol functionalized AFM tip to the surfaces of interest and measuring the force experienced by the cantilever as a function of tip-sample separation. Analysis of this force-distance data allows quantification of the particle-substrate adhesion. This study yields a ranking of adhesion as glass>lactose>salbutamol>polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). An increase in the interaction force between the salbutamol particle and PTFE on repeated contact due to tribocharging is also observed.

  15. Morphology and Growth of Thin Films Probed by Atomic Beam Reflectivity Techniques.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrich, D. J.; Wetterer, S. M.; Schwartz, P. V.; Fenter, P.; Schreiber, F.; Scoles, G.

    1997-03-01

    The technique of probing metal film growth on metal substrates with thermal energy atom scattering (TEAS) has been well demonstrated and therefore shows promise for the investigation of the growth of organic thin films on metal surfaces. He beam specular reflectivity, which is typically 30% for a surface such as Au(111), drops to very low values during the early stages of monolayer formation rising again when the layer is completed. Unfortunately, most organic layers are soft and do not show large specularity increases at monolayer completion. However, we have been able to study in this way the growth of a decanethiol monolayer on Au(111) detecting the formation of both the low density 'striped' phase and the final equilibrium close-packed "standing-up" phase. Furthermore in growing PTCDA (3,4,9,10- perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride) films we have seen the specularity drop to much higher final values without going through an intermediate minimum, which is consistent with the growth of these films into "mesa" type crystallites as detected independently by X-ray scattering and AFM.

  16. Transmission resonances in above-barrier reflection of ultra-cold atoms by the Rosen-Morse potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishkhanyan, H. A.; Krainov, V. P.; Ishkhanyan, A. M.

    2010-04-01

    Quantum above-barrier reflection of ultra-cold atoms by the Rosen-Morse potential is analytically considered within the mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii approximation. Reformulating the problem of reflectionless transmission as a quasi-linear eigenvalue problem for the potential depth, an approximation for the specific height of the potential that supports reflectionless transmission of the incoming matter wave is derived via modification of the Rayleigh-Schrödinger time-independent perturbation theory. The approximation provides a highly accurate description of the resonance position for all the resonance orders if the nonlinearity parameter is small compared with the incoming particle's chemical potential. Notably, the result for the first transmission resonance turns out to be exact, i.e. the derived formula for the resonant potential height gives the exact value of the first nonlinear resonance's position for all the allowed variation range of the involved parameters, the nonlinearity parameter and chemical potential. This has been demonstrated by constructing the exact solution of the problem for the first resonance. Furthermore, the presented approximation reveals that, in contrast to the linear case, in the nonlinear case reflectionless transmission may occur not only for potential wells but also for potential barriers with positive potential height. It also shows that the nonlinear shift of the resonance position from the position of the corresponding linear resonance is approximately described as a linear function of the resonance order. Finally, a compact (yet, highly accurate) analytic formula for the nth-order resonance position is constructed via combination of analytical and numerical methods.

  17. Investigating the particle to fibre transition threshold during electrohydrodynamic atomization of a polymer solution.

    PubMed

    Husain, O; Lau, W; Edirisinghe, M; Parhizkar, M

    2016-08-01

    Electrohydrodynamic atomization (EHDA) is a key research area for producing micro and nano-sized structures. This process can be categorized into two main operating regimes: electrospraying for particle generation and electrospinning for fibre production. Producing particles/fibres of the desired size or morphology depends on two main factors; properties of the polymeric solution used and the processing conditions including flow rate, applied voltage and collection distance. In this work the particle-fibre transition region was analyzed by changing the polymer concentration of PLGA poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) in acetone between 2 and 25wt%. Subsequently the processing conditions were adjusted to study the optimum transition parameters. Additionally the EHDA configuration was also modified by adding a metallic plate to observe the deposition area. The diameter and the distance of the plate from the capillary tip were adjusted to investigate variations in particle and fibre morphologies as well. It was found that complete transition from particles to fibres occurs at 20wt% indicating concentration to be the dominant criterion. Low flow rates yielded fibres without beads. However the applied voltage and distance between the tip of the nozzle jetting the polymer solution and collector (working distance) did not yield definitive results. Reducing the collector distance and increasing applied voltages produces smooth as well as beaded fibres. Addition of a metal plate reduces particle size by ~1μm; the fibre size increases especially with increasing plate diameter while bead density and size reduces when the disc is fixed closer to the capillary tip. Additionally, the deposition area is reduced by 70% and 57% with the addition of metal plates of 30mm and 60mm, respectively. The results indicate that a metal plate can be utilized further to tune the particle/fibre size and morphology and this also significantly increases the yield of EHDA process which is currently a

  18. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) for direct analysis of aerosol particle samples.

    PubMed

    Bontempi, E; Zacco, A; Benedetti, D; Borgese, L; Colombi, P; Stosnach, H; Finzi, G; Apostoli, P; Buttini, P; Depero, L E

    2010-04-14

    Atmospheric aerosol particles have a great impact on the environment and on human health. Routine analysis of the particles usually involves only the mass determination. However, chemical composition and phases provide fundamental information about the particles' origins and can help to prevent health risks. For example, these particles may contain heavy metals such as Pb, Ni and Cd, which can adversely affect human health. In this work, filter samples were collected in Brescia, an industrial town located in Northern Italy. In order to identify the chemical composition and the phases of the atmospheric aerosols, the samples were analysed by means of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry with a laboratory instrument and X-ray microdiffraction at Synchrotron Daresbury Laboratories, Warrington (Cheshire, UK). The results are discussed and correlated to identify possible pollution sources. The novelty of this analytical approach is that filter samples for TXRF were analysed directly and did not require chemical pretreatment to leach elements from the aerosol particulates. The results of this study clearly show that TXRF is a powerful technique for the analysis of atmospheric aerosols on 'as-received' filters, thereby leaving samples intact and unaltered for possible subsequent analyses by other methods. In addition, the low detection limits for many elements (low ng/cm2) indicate that this method may hold promise in various application fields, such as nanotechnology.

  19. An active one-particle microrheometer: incorporating magnetic tweezers to total internal reflection microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xiangjun; Hua, Li; Wu, Chi; Ngai, To

    2013-03-01

    We present a novel microrheometer by incorporating magnetic tweezers in the total internal reflection microscopy (TIRM) that enables measuring of viscoelastic properties of materials near solid surface. An evanescent wave generated by a solid∕liquid interface in the TIRM is used as the incident light source in the microrheometer. When a probe particle (of a few micrometers diameter) moves near the interface, it can interact with the evanescent field and reflect its position with respect to the interface by the scattered light intensity. The exponential distance dependence of the evanescent field, on the one hand, makes this technique extremely sensitive to small changes from z-fluctuations of the probe (with a resolution of several nanometers), and on the other, it does not require imaging of the probe with high lateral resolution. Another distinct advantage is the high sensitivity in determining the z position of the probe in the absence of any labeling. The incorporated magnetic tweezers enable us to effectively manipulate the distance of the embedded particle from the interface either by a constant or an oscillatory force. The force ramp is easy to implement through a coil current ramp. In this way, the local viscous and elastic properties of a given system under different confinements can therefore be measured by resolving the near-surface particle motion. To test the feasibility of applying this microrheology to soft materials, we measured the viscoelastic properties of sucrose and poly(ethylene glycol) solutions and compared the results to bulk rheometry. In addition, we applied this technique in monitoring the structure and properties of deformable microgel particles near the flat surface.

  20. Relativistic Momentum-Space Equations with Applications to Atomic and Elementary Particle Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardekopf, Eugene Edward

    Relativistic equal-time wave equations obtained from field theory which describe bound states of N Dirac particles inevitably involve free or external-field positive -energy projection operators (LAMDA)(,+)(i). For N > 2 these operators are vital if the equations are to admit normaliz- able solutions. Such equations have been used in the past to obtain relativistic corrections to simple atomic systems, and to provide a theoretical basis for the Dirac-Hartree-Fock type of equations for many-electron atoms. These equations also find applications in ele- mentary particle physics in describing bound states of quarks. Here we initiate a numerical study of such equations, avoiding an expan- sion in powers of v/c. We work in momentum space, where the free projection operators are simple functions of (')p. We describe tech- niques for finding the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of H(,+)(1,2) = h(,D)(1) + h(,D)(2) + (LAMDA)(,++)V(LAMDA)(,++) where h(,D)(i) is the free Dirac Hamiltonian and V is a local potential with either a (VBAR)(')r(,1)-(')r(,2)(VBAR)('-1) singularity in the case of atomic systems, or a (VBAR)(')r(,1)-(')r(,2)(VBAR) behavior plus a Coulomb-like singular- ity in the case of bound quarks. Results are presented for both pure Coulomb and a Coulomb plus Breit potential for the atomic case, and for a pure Lorentz scalar in the linear potential case. In the atomic case a wide range of m(,1)/m(,2) and coupling strength (gamma) is studied and the m(,2) = (INFIN) limit is compared with the Dirac equation. The magni- tude of level shifts associated with virtual pair production in such two-body systems is discussed. For intermediate values of (gamma) a com- parison is made between the numerical results and those of pertur- bation theory. We find that there can often be large corrections to perturbative results even for not terribly large values of v/c. We also study the strong coupling limit and find the value (gamma)(,max) for which the lowest-lying bound state

  1. Electronic excitation of ground state atoms by collision with heavy gas particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, C. Frederick

    1993-01-01

    point where the initial and final potentials cross, or at least come very close. Therefore, this mechanism would be applicable to the case where a gas is initially at very low temperature suddenly subjected to high energy heavy particle bombardment. This situation would model the measurement of excitation cross section by molecular beam techniques, for example. The purpose is to report values of cross sections and rate coefficients for collision excitation of ground state atoms estimated with the Landau-Zener transition theory and to compare results with measurement of excitation cross sections for a beam of Hydrogen atoms impacting Argon atom targets. Some very dubious approximations are used, and the comparison with measurement is found less than ideal, but results are at least consistent within order of magnitude. The same model is then applied to the case of N-N atom collisions, even though the approximations then become even more doubtful. Still the rate coefficients obtained are at least plausible in both magnitude and functional form, and as far as I am aware these are the only estimates available for such rate coefficients.

  2. Fast Pyrolysis of Wood for Biofuels: Spatiotemporally Resolved Diffuse Reflectance In situ Spectroscopy of Particles.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Alex D; Hough, Blake R; Williams, C Luke; Teixeira, Andrew R; Schwartz, Daniel T; Pfaendtner, Jim; Dauenhauer, Paul J

    2014-02-20

    Fast pyrolysis of woody biomass is a promising process capable of producing renewable transportation fuels to replace gasoline, diesel, and chemicals currently derived from nonrenewable sources. However, biomass pyrolysis is not yet economically viable and requires significant optimization before it can contribute to the existing oil-based transportation system. One method of optimization uses detailed kinetic models for predicting the products of biomass fast pyrolysis, which serve as the basis for the design of pyrolysis reactors capable of producing the highest value products. The goal of this work is to improve upon current pyrolysis models, usually derived from experiments with low heating rates and temperatures, by developing models that account for both transport and pyrolysis decomposition kinetics at high heating rates and high temperatures (>400 °C). A new experimental technique is proposed herein: spatiotemporally resolved diffuse reflectance in situ spectroscopy of particles (STR-DRiSP), which is capable of measuring biomass composition during fast pyrolysis with high spatial (10 μm) and temporal (1 ms) resolution. Compositional data were compared with a comprehensive 2D single-particle model, which incorporated a multistep, semiglobal reaction mechanism, prescribed particle shrinkage, and thermophysical properties that varied with temperature, composition, and orientation. The STR-DRiSP technique can be used to determine the transport-limited kinetic parameters of biomass decomposition for a wide variety of biomass feedstocks.

  3. Control of degreening in postharvest green sour citrus fruit by electrostatic atomized water particles.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Naoki; Takamura, Kohtaro; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Migita, Catharina Taiko; Masuda, Yukihiro; Maekawa, Tetsuya

    2014-08-01

    The effect of electrostatic atomized water particles (EAWP) on degreening of green sour citrus fruit during storage was determined. Superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals included in EAWP were present on the surface of the fruit peel after the treatment. Hydrogen peroxide was formed from EAWP in an aqueous solution, which could indicate that a hydroxyl radical of EAWP turns to hydrogen peroxide in the fruit flavedo as well as in the aqueous solution. EAWP treatment effectively suppressed the degreening of green yuzu and Nagato-yuzukichi fruits during storage at 20°C. The enhancement in K+ ion leakage of both EAWP-treated fruits reduced in comparison with the control. In spite of EAWP treatment, total peroxide level in both fruits showed almost no changes during storage, suggesting that hydrogen peroxide formed by EAWP treatment could stimulate the activation of hydrogen peroxide scavenging system and control degreening of these fruits during storage.

  4. Characterization of virus-like particles by atomic force microscopy in ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oropesa, Reinier; Ramos, Jorge R.; Falcón, Viviana; Felipe, Ariel

    2013-06-01

    Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) are attractive candidates for vaccine design since they resemble native viroids in size and morphology, but they are non-infectious due to the absence of a viral genome. The visualization of surface morphologies and structures can be used to deepen the understanding of physical, chemical, and biological phenomena. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a useful tool for the visualization of soft biological samples in a nanoscale resolution. In this work we have investigated the morphology of recombinant surface antigens of hepatitis B (rHBsAg) VLPs from Cuban vaccine against hepatitis B. The rHBsAg VLPs sizes estimated by AFM between 15 and 30 nm are similar to those reported on previous transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies.

  5. Development of Spectral and Atomic Models for Diagnosing Energetic Particle Characteristics in Fast Ignition Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, Joseph J

    2009-08-07

    This Final Report summarizes work performed under DOE STTR Phase II Grant No. DE-FG02-05ER86258 during the project period from August 2006 to August 2009. The project, “Development of Spectral and Atomic Models for Diagnosing Energetic Particle Characteristics in Fast Ignition Experiments,” was led by Prism Computational Sciences (Madison, WI), and involved collaboration with subcontractors University of Nevada-Reno and Voss Scientific (Albuquerque, NM). In this project, we have: Developed and implemented a multi-dimensional, multi-frequency radiation transport model in the LSP hybrid fluid-PIC (particle-in-cell) code [1,2]. Updated the LSP code to support the use of accurate equation-of-state (EOS) tables generated by Prism’s PROPACEOS [3] code to compute more accurate temperatures in high energy density physics (HEDP) plasmas. Updated LSP to support the use of Prism’s multi-frequency opacity tables. Generated equation of state and opacity data for LSP simulations for several materials being used in plasma jet experimental studies. Developed and implemented parallel processing techniques for the radiation physics algorithms in LSP. Benchmarked the new radiation transport and radiation physics algorithms in LSP and compared simulation results with analytic solutions and results from numerical radiation-hydrodynamics calculations. Performed simulations using Prism radiation physics codes to address issues related to radiative cooling and ionization dynamics in plasma jet experiments. Performed simulations to study the effects of radiation transport and radiation losses due to electrode contaminants in plasma jet experiments. Updated the LSP code to generate output using NetCDF to provide a better, more flexible interface to SPECT3D [4] in order to post-process LSP output. Updated the SPECT3D code to better support the post-processing of large-scale 2-D and 3-D datasets generated by simulation codes such as LSP. Updated atomic physics modeling to provide for

  6. Ultra-narrow spectroscopic cells in atomic spectroscopy: reflection, transmission, fluorescence, and nonadiabatic transitions at the walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazgalev, A.; Sarkisyan, D.; Cartaleva, S.; Przhibelskii, S.; Vartanyan, T.

    2014-11-01

    Ultra-narrow cells with the thicknesses in the range from several wavelengths to the small fractions of the wavelength brought a number of new opportunities for atomic spectroscopy. Depending on the cell thickness, spectral lines recorded in ultra-narrow cells are either Doppler-free or Doppler-broadened. With careful selection of the cell thickness hyperfine structure may be easily resolved without resorting on the multibeam nonlinear optical techniques. Moreover, frequent collisions with the walls leads to the important modifications of velocity selective optical pumping resonances. Finally, ultra-narrow cells provide with the unique opportunity to study collisions of the excited atoms with the solid surfaces. In this contribution several examples of the use of the ultra-narrow spectroscopic cells filled with the alkali atomic vapour is presented. First, we discuss general aspects of the transient polarisation that defines all peculiarities of an ultra-narrow cell as a spectroscopic tool. Second, we demonstrate the resolution of the magnetic sublevels in the transition from Zeeman to Paschen-Back regime in the Cs hyperfine structure. Third, new aspects of velocity selective optical pumping resonances in reflection and transmission of resonant radiation by the 6 wavelengths thick cell filled with Cs are discussed. Forth, the experimental evidences of the nonadiabatic transitions between excited states of Rb atoms in the course of collisions with the sapphire surface are presented.

  7. Identification of HIV-1-Based Virus-like Particles by Multifrequency Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    González-Domínguez, Irene; Gutiérrez-Granados, Sonia; Cervera, Laura; Gòdia, Francesc; Domingo, Neus

    2016-09-20

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) have become a promising platform for vaccine production. VLPs are formed by structural viral proteins that inherently self-assemble when expressed in a host cell. They represent a highly immunogenic and safe vaccine platform, due to the absence of the viral genome and its high protein density. One of the most important parameters in vaccine production is the quality of the product. A related bottleneck in VLP-based products is the presence of cellular vesicles as a major contaminant in the preparations, which will require the set up of techniques allowing for specific discrimination of VLPs from host vesicular bodies. In this work novel, to our knowledge, multifrequency (MF) atomic force microscopy (AFM) has permitted full structural nanophysical characterization by its access to the virus capsid of the HIV-based VLPs. The assessment of these particles by advanced amplitude modulation-frequency modulation (AM-FM) viscoelastic mapping mode has enhanced the imaging resolution of their nanomechanical properties, opening a new window for the study of the biophysical attributes of VLPs. Finally, the identification and differentiation of HIV-based VLPs from cellular vesicles has been performed under ambient conditions, providing, to our knowledge, novel methodology for the monitoring and quality control of VLPs.

  8. Laser cooling and trapping of atomic particles. January 1970-September 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for Jan 70-Sep 89

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning theory and experiments on laser cooling and laser trapping of neutral atoms and atomic ions. Atoms and ions are cooled by laser radiation pressure to very low Kelvin temperatures and confined in electromagnetic traps with very high density. Atomic particles discussed include sodium atoms, mercury ions, beryllium ions, magnesium ions, and hydrogen. Applications include high performance spectroscopy, atomic clocks, microwave and optical frequency standards, relativistic neutral particle beam weapons, exotic fuels, cooling of electron beams, and space propulsion. (Contains 97 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  9. Evidence for direct observation by Mössbauer spectroscopy of surface tin atoms in platinum tin particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candy, J.-P.; Roisin, E.; Basset, J.-M.; Uzio, D.; Morin, S.; Fischer, L.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.; Jumas, J.-C.

    2005-09-01

    119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy at 77 K was used to observe surface tin atoms on PtSnx/SiO2 catalysts. Two families of PtSnx/SiO2 catalysts with fully reduced Pt(0) and Sn(0) atoms were prepared following the Surface Organo-metallic Chemistry on Metal strategy. These two families of catalysts exhibit about the same Sn/Pt composition, but very different metallic particle diameters, each with narrow particle size distribution, so that, the ratio between surface tin atoms and “bulk” tin atoms was significantly different for the two families. In addition to the well known “Pt Sn” bulk alloy with small quadripole splitting, a new Pt Sn species with large quadripole splitting and isomer shift in the range of Sn(0) was observed. The relative proportion of this species with respect to “Pt Sn” bulk alloy is greater for small particles than for the larger ones, which suggests that this species is a surface tin atom present in a “Pt Sn” alloy.

  10. A Total Measure of Multi-Particle Quantum Correlations in Atomic Schrödinger Cat States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Ram Narayan

    2017-04-01

    We propose a total measure of multi-particle quantum correlation in a system of N two-level atoms (N qubits). We construct a parameter that encompasses all possible quantum correlations among N two-level atoms in arbitrary symmetric pure states and define its numerical value to be the total measure of the net atom-atom correlations. We use that parameter to quantify the total quantum correlations in atomic Schrödinger cat states, which are generated by the dispersive interaction in a cavity. We study the variation of the net amount of quantum correlation as we vary the number of atoms from N=2 to N=100 and obtain some interesting results. We also study the variation of the net correlation, for fixed interaction time, as we increase the number of atoms in the excited state of the initial system, and notice some interesting features. We also observe the behaviour of the net quantum correlation as we continuously increase the interaction time, for the general state of N two-level atoms in a dispersive cavity.

  11. Double electron capture between an α particle and a helium atom in the presence of an intense laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shu-Min; Miao, Yan-Gang; Zhou, Zi-Fang; Chen, Ji; Liu, Yao-Yang

    1998-05-01

    In the first Born approximation, the symmetrical double-electron-capture collision between an α particle and a helium atom in the presence of an intense laser field is studied. The capture cross section is promoted considerably and is an increasing function of the ratio of the laser amplitude to frequency. With increasing impact energy, the dressing modification becomes notable.

  12. PREFACE: International Conference on Many Particle Spectroscopy of Atoms, Molecules, Clusters and Surfaces (MPS2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancarani, Lorenzo Ugo

    2015-04-01

    This volume contains a collection of contributions from the invited speakers at the 2014 edition of the International Conference on Many Particle Spectroscopy of Atoms, Molecules, Clusters and Surfaces held in Metz, France, from 15th to 18th July 2014. This biennial conference alternates with the ICPEAC satellite International Symposium on (e,2e), Double Photoionization and Related Topics, and is concerned with experimental and theoretical studies of radiation interactions with matter. These include many-body and electron-electron correlation effects in excitation, and in single and multiple ionization of atoms, molecules, clusters and surfaces with various projectiles: electrons, photons and ions. More than 80 scientists, from 19 different countries around the world, came together to discuss the most recent progress on these topics. The scientific programme included 28 invited talks and a poster session extending over the three days of the meeting. Amongst the 51 posters, 11 have been selected and were advertised through short talks. Besides, Professor Nora Berrah gave a talk in memory of Professor Uwe Becker who sadly passed away shortly after co-chairing the previous edition of this conference. Financial support from the Institut Jean Barriol, Laboratoire SRSMC, Groupement de Recherche THEMS (CNRS), Ville de Metz, Metz Métropole, Conseil Général de la Moselle and Région Lorraine is gratefully acknowledged. Finally, I would like to thank the members of the local committee and the staff of the Université de Lorraine for making the conference run smoothly, the International Advisory Board for building up the scientific programme, the sessions chairpersons, those who gave their valuable time in carefully refereeing the articles of this volume and last, but not least, all participants for contributing to lively and fruitful discussions throughout the meeting.

  13. Characterization of hydrogel microstructure using laser tweezers particle tracking and confocal reflection imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotlarchyk, M. A.; Botvinick, E. L.; Putnam, A. J.

    2010-05-01

    Hydrogels are commonly used as extracellular matrix mimetics for applications in tissue engineering and increasingly as cell culture platforms with which to study the influence of biophysical and biochemical cues on cell function in 3D. In recent years, a significant number of studies have focused on linking substrate mechanical properties to cell function using standard methodologies to characterize the bulk mechanical properties of the hydrogel substrates. However, current understanding of the correlations between the microstructural mechanical properties of hydrogels and cell function in 3D is poor, in part because of a lack of appropriate techniques. Here we have utilized a laser tracking system, based on passive optical microrheology instrumentation, to characterize the microstructure of viscoelastic fibrin clots. Trajectories and mean square displacements were observed as bioinert PEGylated (PEG: polyethylene glycol) microspheres (1, 2 or 4.7 µm in diameter) diffused within confined pores created by the protein phase of fibrin hydrogels. Complementary confocal reflection imaging revealed microstructures comprised of a highly heterogeneous fibrin network with a wide range of pore sizes. As the protein concentration of fibrin gels was increased, our quantitative laser tracking measurements showed a corresponding decrease in particle mean square displacements with greater resolution and sensitivity than conventional imaging techniques. This platform-independent method will enable a more complete understanding of how changes in substrate mechanical properties simultaneously influence other microenvironmental parameters in 3D cultures.

  14. Characterization of hydrogel microstructure using laser tweezers particle tracking and confocal reflection imaging.

    PubMed

    Kotlarchyk, M A; Botvinick, E L; Putnam, A J

    2010-05-19

    Hydrogels are commonly used as extracellular matrix mimetics for applications in tissue engineering and increasingly as cell culture platforms with which to study the influence of biophysical and biochemical cues on cell function in 3D. In recent years, a significant number of studies have focused on linking substrate mechanical properties to cell function using standard methodologies to characterize the bulk mechanical properties of the hydrogel substrates. However, current understanding of the correlations between the microstructural mechanical properties of hydrogels and cell function in 3D is poor, in part because of a lack of appropriate techniques. Here we have utilized a laser tracking system, based on passive optical microrheology instrumentation, to characterize the microstructure of viscoelastic fibrin clots. Trajectories and mean square displacements were observed as bioinert PEGylated (PEG: polyethylene glycol) microspheres (1, 2 or 4.7 μm in diameter) diffused within confined pores created by the protein phase of fibrin hydrogels. Complementary confocal reflection imaging revealed microstructures comprised of a highly heterogeneous fibrin network with a wide range of pore sizes. As the protein concentration of fibrin gels was increased, our quantitative laser tracking measurements showed a corresponding decrease in particle mean square displacements with greater resolution and sensitivity than conventional imaging techniques. This platform-independent method will enable a more complete understanding of how changes in substrate mechanical properties simultaneously influence other microenvironmental parameters in 3D cultures.

  15. Aluminum Matrix Composites Strengthened with CuZrAgAl Amorphous Atomized Powder Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutkiewicz, Jan; Rogal, Łukasz; Wajda, Wojciech; Kukuła-Kurzyniec, Agata; Coddet, Christian; Dembinski, Lucas

    2015-06-01

    The Al-matrix composites were prepared by hot pressing in vacuum of an aluminum powder with 20 and 40 wt.% addition of the amorphous Cu43Zr43Ag7Al7 alloy (numbers indicate at.%) obtained using gas atomization method. The amorphous structure of the powder was confirmed using x-ray diffraction, DSC, and TEM. The average size of mostly spherical particles was 100 μm, so the powder was sieved to obtain maximum size of 60 μm. The composites were prepared using uniaxial cold pressing in vacuum and at a temperature of 400 °C. The composites of hardness from 43 to 53 HV were obtained for both additions of the amorphous phase. They reached compression strength of 150 MPa for 20% of amorphous phase and 250 MPa for the higher content. The modest hardening effect was caused by crack initiation at Al/amorphous interfaces. The amorphous phase was only partially crystallized in the hot-pressed composites, what did not cause hardness decrease. The application of nanocrystalline aluminum powders obtained by high-energy ball milling for the matrix of composites allowed obtaining nanocrystalline aluminum matrix composites of size near 150 nm, strengthened with the amorphous powders, whose compression strength was near 550 MPa for the composite containing 40% of the amorphous phase and slightly lower for the composite containing 20% of the phase. They showed much higher ductility of 23% in comparison with 7% for the composite containing 40% amorphous phase. The distribution of the strengthening phase in the nanocrystalline matrix was not homogeneous; the amorphous particles formed bands, where majority of cracks nucleated during compression test.

  16. Effect of hard particle impacts on the atomic oxygen survivability of reflector surfaces with transparent protective overcoats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulino, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Silver mirror samples with protective coatings were subjected to a stream of 27 microns alumina particles to induce pinhole defects. The protective coating consisted of a layer of aluminum dioxide over silver followed by a layer of silicon dioxide over the alumina. Samples were prepared on both graphite-epoxy composite and fused quartz substrates. After exposure to the hard particle stream, the samples were exposed to an oxygen plasma environment in a laboratory plasma asher. The effects of both the hard particles and the oxygen plasma were documented by both reflectance measurements and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that oxidative damage to the silver reflecting layer continues beyond that of the erosively exposed silver. Oxidative undercutting of the silver layer and graphite-epoxy substrate continues in undamaged areas through adjacent, particle damaged defect sites. This may have implications for the use of such mirrors in a space station solar dynamic power system.

  17. Development of atomic layer deposition-activated microchannel plates for single particle detection at cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Gorelikov, Dmitry Sullivan, Neal; Rouffignac, Philippe de; Li, Huazhi; Narayanamoorthy, Jayasri; Tremsin, Anton S.

    2014-03-15

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology is used to nanoengineer functional films inside the pores of microchannel plate (MCP) electron multipliers, enabling a novel MCP manufacturing technology that substantially improves performance and opens novel applications. The authors have developed custom tools and recipes for the growth of conformal films, with optimized conductance and secondary electron emission inside very long channels (∼6–20 μm diameter and >600 μm length, with tens of millions of channels per single MCP) by ALD. The unique ability to tune the characteristics of these ALD films enables their optimization to applications where time-resolved single particle imaging can be performed in extreme conditions, such as high counting rates at cryogenic temperatures. Adhesion of the conductive and emissive nanofilms to the 20 μm pore MCP glass substrates and their mechanical stability over a very wide range of temperatures (10–700 K) were confirmed experimentally. Resistance of ALD MCPs was reproducible during multiple cool-down cycles with no film degradation observed. Optimizing resistance of novel MCPs for operation at cryogenic temperature should enable high count rate event detection at temperatures below 20 K.

  18. Impurity precipitation in atomized particles evidenced by nano x-ray diffraction computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnin, Anne; Wright, Jonathan P.; Tucoulou, Rémi; Palancher, Hervé

    2014-08-25

    Performances and physical properties of high technology materials are influenced or even determined by their initial microstructure and by the behavior of impurity phases. Characterizing these impurities and their relations with the surrounding matrix is therefore of primary importance but it unfortunately often requires a destructive approach, with the risk of misinterpreting the observations. The improvement we have done in high resolution X-ray diffraction computed tomography combined with the use of an X-ray nanoprobe allows non-destructive crystallographic description of materials with microscopic heterogeneous microstructure (with a grain size between 10 nm and 10 μm). In this study, the grain localization in a 2D slice of a 20 μm solidified atomized γU-Mo particle is shown and a minority U(C,O) phase (1 wt. %) with sub-micrometer sized grains was characterized inside. Evidence is presented showing that the onset of U(C,O) grain crystallization can be described by a precipitation mechanism since one single U-Mo grain has direct orientation relationship with more than one surrounding U(C,O) grains.

  19. Relativistic dynamics of half-spin particles in a homogeneous magnetic field: an atom with nucleus of spin 12.

    PubMed

    Misra, Anirban; Datta, Sambhu N

    2005-08-08

    An investigation of the relativistic dynamics of N+1 spin-12 particles placed in an external, homogeneous magnetic field is carried out. The system can represent an atom with a fermion nucleus and N electrons. Quantum electrodynamical interactions, namely, projected Briet and magnetic interactions, are chosen to formulate the relativistic Hamiltonian. The quasi-free-particle picture is retained here. The total pseudomomentum is conserved, and its components are distinct when the total charge is zero. Therefore, the center-of-mass motion can be separated from the Hamiltonian for a neutral (N+1)-fermion system, leaving behind a unitarily transformed, effective Hamiltonian H(0) at zero total pseudomomentum. The latter operator represents the complete relativistic dynamics in relative coordinates while interaction is chosen through order alpha4mc2. Each one-particle part in the effective Hamiltonian can be brought to a separable form for positive- and negative-energy states by replacing the odd operator in it through two successive unitary transformations, one due to Tsai [Phys. Rev. D 7, 1945 (1973)] and the other due to Weaver [J. Math. Phys. 18, 306 (1977)]. Consequently, the projector changes and the interaction that involves the concerned particle also becomes free from the corresponding odd operators. When this maneuver is applied only to the nucleus, and the non-Hermitian part of the transformed interaction is removed by another unitary transformation, a familiar form of the atomic relativistic Hamiltonian H(atom) emerges. This operator is equivalent to H(0). A good Hamiltonian for relativistic quantum chemical calculations, H(Qchem), is obtained by expanding the nuclear part of the atomic Hamiltonian through order alpha4mc2 for positive-energy states. The operator H(Qchem) is obviously an approximation to H(atom). When the same technique is used for all particles, and subsequently the non-Hermitian terms are removed by suitable unitary transformations, one

  20. Atomic Scale Flatness of Chemically Cleaned Silicon Surfaces Studied by Infrared Attenuated-Total-Reflection Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawara, Kenichi; Yasaka, Tatsuhiro; Miyazaki, Seiichi; Hirose, Masataka

    1992-07-01

    Hydrogen-terminated Si(111) and Si(100) surfaces obtained by aqueous HF or pH-modified (pH{=}5.3) buffered-HF (BHF) treatments have been characterized by a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) attenuated-total-reflection (ATR) technique. The BHF treatment provides better surface flatness than the HF treatment. Pure water rinse is effective for improving the Si(111) surface flatness, while this is not the case for Si(100) because the pure water acts as an alkaline etchant and promotes the formation of (111) microfacets or microdefects on the (100) surface.

  1. Atomic-scale identification of Pd leaching in nanoparticle catalyzed C–C coupling: Effects of particle surface disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, Beverly D.; Bedford, Nicholas M.; Seifert, Soenke; Koerner, Hilmar; Ramezani-Dakhel, Hadi; Heinz, Hendrik; Naik, Rajesh R.; Frenkel, Anatoly I.; Knecht, Marc R.

    2015-07-23

    C–C coupling reactions are of great importance in the synthesis of numerous organic compounds, where Pd nanoparticle catalyzed systems represent new materials to efficiently drive these reactions. Despite their pervasive utility, the catalytic mechanism of these particle-based reactions remains highly contested. Herein we present evidence of an atom leaching mechanism for Stille coupling under aqueous conditions using peptide-capped Pd nanoparticles. EXAFS analysis revealed Pd coordination changes in the nanoparticle consistent with Pd atom abstraction, where sizing analysis by SAXS confirmed particle size changes associated with a leaching process. It is likely that recently discovered highly disordered surface Pd atoms are the favored catalytic active sites and are leached during oxidative addition, resulting in smaller particles. Thus, probing the mechanism of nanoparticle-driven C–C coupling reactions through structural analyses provides fundamental information concerning these active sites and their reactivity at the atomic-scale, which can be used to improve catalytic performance to meet important sustainability goals.

  2. Atomic-scale identification of Pd leaching in nanoparticle catalyzed C–C coupling: Effects of particle surface disorder

    DOE PAGES

    Briggs, Beverly D.; Bedford, Nicholas M.; Seifert, Soenke; ...

    2015-07-23

    C–C coupling reactions are of great importance in the synthesis of numerous organic compounds, where Pd nanoparticle catalyzed systems represent new materials to efficiently drive these reactions. Despite their pervasive utility, the catalytic mechanism of these particle-based reactions remains highly contested. Herein we present evidence of an atom leaching mechanism for Stille coupling under aqueous conditions using peptide-capped Pd nanoparticles. EXAFS analysis revealed Pd coordination changes in the nanoparticle consistent with Pd atom abstraction, where sizing analysis by SAXS confirmed particle size changes associated with a leaching process. It is likely that recently discovered highly disordered surface Pd atoms aremore » the favored catalytic active sites and are leached during oxidative addition, resulting in smaller particles. Thus, probing the mechanism of nanoparticle-driven C–C coupling reactions through structural analyses provides fundamental information concerning these active sites and their reactivity at the atomic-scale, which can be used to improve catalytic performance to meet important sustainability goals.« less

  3. Atomic-resolution spectroscopic imaging of ensembles of nanocatalyst particles across the life of a fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Xin, Huolin L; Mundy, Julia A; Liu, Zhongyi; Cabezas, Randi; Hovden, Robert; Kourkoutis, Lena Fitting; Zhang, Junliang; Subramanian, Nalini P; Makharia, Rohit; Wagner, Frederick T; Muller, David A

    2012-01-11

    The thousand-fold increase in data-collection speed enabled by aberration-corrected optics allows us to overcome an electron microscopy paradox: how to obtain atomic-resolution chemical structure in individual nanoparticles yet record a statistically significant sample from an inhomogeneous population. This allowed us to map hundreds of Pt-Co nanoparticles to show atomic-scale elemental distributions across different stages of the catalyst aging in a proton-exchange-membrane fuel cell, and relate Pt-shell thickness to treatment, particle size, surface orientation, and ordering.

  4. Effect of the particle-hole channel on BCS-Bose-Einstein condensation crossover in atomic Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qijin

    2016-05-01

    BCS-Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover is effected by increasing pairing strength between fermions from weak to strong in the particle-particle channel, and has attracted a lot of attention since the experimental realization of quantum degenerate atomic Fermi gases. Here we study the effect of the (often dropped) particle-hole channel on the zero T gap Δ(0), superfluid transition temperature Tc, the pseudogap at Tc, and the mean-field ratio 2Δ(0)/, from BCS through BEC regimes, using a pairing fluctuation theory which includes self-consistently the contributions of finite-momentum pairs and features a pseudogap in single particle excitation spectrum. Summing over the infinite particle-hole ladder diagrams, we find a complex dynamical structure for the particle-hole susceptibility χph, and conclude that neglecting the self-energy feedback causes a serious over-estimate of χph. While our result in the BCS limit agrees with Gor’kov et al., the particle-hole channel effect becomes more complex and pronounced in the crossover regime, where χph is reduced by both a smaller Fermi surface and a big (pseudo)gap. Deep in the BEC regime, the particle-hole channel contributions drop to zero. We predict a density dependence of the magnetic field at the Feshbach resonance, which can be used to quantify χph and test different theories.

  5. Effect of the particle-hole channel on BCS–Bose-Einstein condensation crossover in atomic Fermi gases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qijin

    2016-01-01

    BCS–Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover is effected by increasing pairing strength between fermions from weak to strong in the particle-particle channel, and has attracted a lot of attention since the experimental realization of quantum degenerate atomic Fermi gases. Here we study the effect of the (often dropped) particle-hole channel on the zero T gap Δ(0), superfluid transition temperature Tc, the pseudogap at Tc, and the mean-field ratio 2Δ(0)/, from BCS through BEC regimes, using a pairing fluctuation theory which includes self-consistently the contributions of finite-momentum pairs and features a pseudogap in single particle excitation spectrum. Summing over the infinite particle-hole ladder diagrams, we find a complex dynamical structure for the particle-hole susceptibility χph, and conclude that neglecting the self-energy feedback causes a serious over-estimate of χph. While our result in the BCS limit agrees with Gor’kov et al., the particle-hole channel effect becomes more complex and pronounced in the crossover regime, where χph is reduced by both a smaller Fermi surface and a big (pseudo)gap. Deep in the BEC regime, the particle-hole channel contributions drop to zero. We predict a density dependence of the magnetic field at the Feshbach resonance, which can be used to quantify χph and test different theories. PMID:27183875

  6. Effect of the particle-hole channel on BCS-Bose-Einstein condensation crossover in atomic Fermi gases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qijin

    2016-05-17

    BCS-Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) crossover is effected by increasing pairing strength between fermions from weak to strong in the particle-particle channel, and has attracted a lot of attention since the experimental realization of quantum degenerate atomic Fermi gases. Here we study the effect of the (often dropped) particle-hole channel on the zero T gap Δ(0), superfluid transition temperature Tc, the pseudogap at Tc, and the mean-field ratio 2Δ(0)/, from BCS through BEC regimes, using a pairing fluctuation theory which includes self-consistently the contributions of finite-momentum pairs and features a pseudogap in single particle excitation spectrum. Summing over the infinite particle-hole ladder diagrams, we find a complex dynamical structure for the particle-hole susceptibility χph, and conclude that neglecting the self-energy feedback causes a serious over-estimate of χph. While our result in the BCS limit agrees with Gor'kov et al., the particle-hole channel effect becomes more complex and pronounced in the crossover regime, where χph is reduced by both a smaller Fermi surface and a big (pseudo)gap. Deep in the BEC regime, the particle-hole channel contributions drop to zero. We predict a density dependence of the magnetic field at the Feshbach resonance, which can be used to quantify χph and test different theories.

  7. Fuzzy ternary particle systems by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization from layer-by-layer colloidal core-shell macroinitiator particles.

    PubMed

    Fulghum, Timothy M; Patton, Derek L; Advincula, Rigoberto C

    2006-09-26

    We report the synthesis of ternary polymer particle material systems composed of (a) a spherical colloidal particle core, coated with (b) a polyelectrolyte intermediate shell, and followed by (c) a grafted polymer brush prepared by surface-initiated polymerization as the outer shell. The layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition process was utilized to create a functional intermediate shell of poly(diallyl-dimethylammonium chloride)/poly(acrylic acid) multilayers on the colloid template with the final layer containing an atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) macroinitiator polyelectrolyte. The intermediate core-shell architecture was analyzed with FT-IR, electrophoretic mobililty (zeta-potential) measurements, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The particles were then utilized as macroinitiators for the surface-initiated ATRP grafting process for poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer brush. The polymer grafting was confirmed with thermo gravimetric analysis, FT-IR, and TEM. The polymer brush formed the outermost shell for a ternary colloidal particle system. By combining the LbL and surface-initiated ATRP methods to produce controllable multidomain core-shell architectures, interesting functional properties should be obtainable based on independent polyelectrolyte and polymer brush behavior.

  8. Non-specular reflections in a macroscopic system with wave-particle duality: spiral waves in bounded media.

    PubMed

    Langham, Jacob; Barkley, Dwight

    2013-03-01

    Spiral waves in excitable media possess both wave-like and particle-like properties. When resonantly forced (forced at the spiral rotation frequency) spiral cores travel along straight trajectories, but may reflect from medium boundaries. Here, numerical simulations are used to study reflections from two types of boundaries. The first is a no-flux boundary which waves cannot cross, while the second is a step change in the medium excitability which waves do cross. Both small-core and large-core spirals are investigated. The predominant feature in all cases is that the reflected angle varies very little with incident angle for large ranges of incident angles. Comparisons are made to the theory of Biktashev and Holden. Large-core spirals exhibit other phenomena such as binding to boundaries. The dynamics of multiple reflections is briefly considered.

  9. Single-particle detection of products from atomic and molecular reactions in a cryogenic ion storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krantz, C.; Novotný, O.; Becker, A.; George, S.; Grieser, M.; Hahn, R. von; Meyer, C.; Schippers, S.; Spruck, K.; Vogel, S.; Wolf, A.

    2017-04-01

    We have used a single-particle detector system, based on secondary electron emission, for counting low-energetic (∼keV/u) massive products originating from atomic and molecular ion reactions in the electrostatic Cryogenic Storage Ring (CSR). The detector is movable within the cryogenic vacuum chamber of CSR, and was used to measure production rates of a variety of charged and neutral daughter particles. In operation at a temperature of ∼ 6 K , the detector is characterised by a high dynamic range, combining a low dark event rate with good high-rate particle counting capability. On-line measurement of the pulse height distributions proved to be an important monitor of the detector response at low temperature. Statistical pulse-height analysis allows to infer the particle detection efficiency of the detector, which has been found to be close to unity also in cryogenic operation at 6 K.

  10. PREFACE: International Conference on Many Particle Spectroscopy of Atoms, Molecules, Clusters and Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowek, Danielle; Bennani, Azzedine; Lablanquie, Pascal; Maquet, Alfred

    2008-12-01

    The 2008 edition of the International Conference on Many Particle Spectroscopy of Atoms, Molecules, Clusters and Surfaces was held in Paris from 30 June to 2 July 2008. This biennial conference alternates with the International Symposium on (e,2e), Double Photoionization and Related Topics which is a satellite of the International Conference on Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions (ICPEAC) conference. Over 110 participants from 20 countries gathered to examine the latest developments in the field of radiation interactions with matter. These include electron-electron correlation effects in excitation and in single and multiple ionization of atoms, molecules, clusters and surfaces with various projectiles: electrons, photons and ions. The present proceedings gathers the contributions of invited speakers and is intended to provide a detailed state-of-the-art account of the various facets of the field. Special thanks are due to Université Paris Sud XI, CNRS, and the laboratories LCAM, LIXAM and LCPMR which provided financial support for the organization of the conference. We are also grateful to the contribution of the companies Varian and RoentDek Handels GmbH. Guest Editors: Danielle Dowek and Azzedine Bennani LCAM, Université Paris Sud XI, France Pascal Lablanquie and Alfred Maquet LCPMR, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE Lorenzo Avaldi, (Italy) Alexei Grum Grzhimailo, (Russia) Klaus Bartschat, (USA) Nikolai Kabachnik, (Russia) Jamal Berakdar, (Germany) Birgit Lohmann, (Australia) Nora Berrah, (USA) Don H Madison, (USA) Michael Brunger, (Australia) Francis Penent, (France) Albert Crowe, (UK) Bernard Piraux, (Belgium) Claude Dal Cappello, (France) Roberto Rivarola, (Argentina) JingKang Deng, (China) Emma Sokkel, (Ireland) Alexander Dorn, (Germany) Giovanni Stefani, (Italy) Reinhardt Dorner, (Germany) Noboru Watanabe, (Japan) François Frémont, (France) LOCAL ORGANIZING COMMITTEE Azzedine BENNANI (Chair

  11. The effect of the electronic structure, phase transition, and localized dynamics of atoms in the formation of tiny particles of gold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mubarak; Lin, I.-Nan

    2017-01-01

    In addition to self-governing properties, tiny-sized particles of metallic colloids are the building blocks of large-sized particles; thus, their study has been the subject of a large number of publications. In the present work, it has been discussed that geometry structure of tiny particle made through atom-to-atom amalgamation depends on attained dynamics of gold atoms along with protruded orientations. The localized process conditions direct two-dimensional structure of a tiny particle at atomically flat air-solution interface while heating locally dynamically approached atoms, thus, negate the role of van der Waals interactions. At electronphoton-solution interface, impinging electrons stretch or deform atoms of tiny particles depending on the mechanism of impingement. In addition, to strike regular grid of electrons ejected on split of atoms not executing excitations and de-excitations of their electrons, atoms of tiny particles also deform or stretch while occupying various sites depending on the process of synergy. Under suitable impinging electron streams, those tiny particles in monolayer two-dimensional structure electron states of their atoms are diffused in the direction of transferred energy, thus, coincide to the next adjacent atoms in each one-dimensional array dealing the same sort of behavior. Instantaneously, photons of adequate energy propagate on the surfaces of such electronic structures and modify those into smooth elements, thus, disregard the phenomenon of localized surface plasmons. This study highlights the fundamental process of formation of tiny particles where the role of localized dynamics of atoms and their electronic structure along with interaction to light are discussed. Such a tool of processing materials, in nonequilibrium pulse-based process, opens a number of possibilities to develop engineered materials with specific chemical, optical, and electronic properties.

  12. A method for the direct measurement of surface tension of collected atmospherically relevant aerosol particles using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hritz, Andrew D.; Raymond, Timothy M.; Dutcher, Dabrina D.

    2016-08-01

    Accurate estimates of particle surface tension are required for models concerning atmospheric aerosol nucleation and activation. However, it is difficult to collect the volumes of atmospheric aerosol required by typical instruments that measure surface tension, such as goniometers or Wilhelmy plates. In this work, a method that measures, ex situ, the surface tension of collected liquid nanoparticles using atomic force microscopy is presented. A film of particles is collected via impaction and is probed using nanoneedle tips with the atomic force microscope. This micro-Wilhelmy method allows for direct measurements of the surface tension of small amounts of sample. This method was verified using liquids, whose surface tensions were known. Particles of ozone oxidized α-pinene, a well-characterized system, were then produced, collected, and analyzed using this method to demonstrate its applicability for liquid aerosol samples. It was determined that oxidized α-pinene particles formed in dry conditions have a surface tension similar to that of pure α-pinene, and oxidized α-pinene particles formed in more humid conditions have a surface tension that is significantly higher.

  13. Bose-Einstein condensation of particle-hole pairs in ultracold fermionic atoms trapped within optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chaohong

    2004-09-17

    We investigate the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC, superfluidity) of particle-hole pairs in ultracold fermionic atoms with repulsive interactions and arbitrary polarization, which are trapped within optical lattices. In the strongly repulsive limit, the dynamics of particle-hole pairs can be described by a hard-core Bose-Hubbard model. The insulator-superfluid and charge-density-wave- (CDW) superfluid phase transitions can be induced by decreasing and increasing the potential depths with controlling the trapping laser intensity, respectively. The parameter and polarization dependence of the critical temperatures for the ordered states (BEC and/or CDW) are discussed simultaneously.

  14. An atomic model AAA-ATPase/20S core particle sub-complex of the 26S proteasome

    PubMed Central

    Förster, Friedrich; Lasker, Keren; Beck, Florian; Nickell, Stephan; Sali, Andrej; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    The 26S proteasome is the most downstream element of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway of protein degradation. It is composed of the 20S core particle (CP) and the 19S regulatory particle (RP). The RP consists of 6 AAA-ATPases and at least 13 non-ATPase subunits. Based on a cryo-EM map of the 26S proteasome, structures of homologs, and physical protein-protein interactions we derive an atomic model of the AAA-ATPase-CP sub-complex. The ATPase order in our model (Rpt1/Rpt2/Rpt6/Rpt3/Rpt4/Rpt5) is in excellent agreement with the recently identified base-precursor complexes formed during the assembly of the RP. Furthermore, the atomic CP-AAA-ATPase model suggests that the assembly chaperone Nas6 facilitates CP-RP association by enhancing the shape complementarity between Rpt3 and its binding CP alpha subunits partners. PMID:19653995

  15. Particle transport in a He-microchip plasma atomic emission system with an ultrasonic nebulizer for aqueous sample introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Joosuck; Lim, H. B.

    2008-11-01

    The transport efficiency of dried particles generated from an ultrasonic nebulizer (USN) was studied to improve the analytical performance of a lab-made, He-microchip plasma system, in which a quartz tube (~ 1 mm i.d.) was positioned inside the central channel of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) polymer chip. The polymer microchip plasma has the advantages of low cost, small size, easy handling and design, and self-ignition with long stabilization (> 24 h). However, direct introduction of aqueous solution into the microplasma for the detection of metals remains problematic due to plasma instability. In addition, the much smaller size of the system can cause signal suppression due to low transport efficiency. Therefore, knowledge of particle transport efficiency in this microplasma system is required to enhance the sensitivity and stability. The weight of transported particles in the range of 0.02 to 10 mg m - 3 was measured using a piezobalance with a precision of 0.4-17.8%, depending on the operating conditions. The significant effects of the USN operating conditions and the physical properties of the tubing, namely, length, inner diameter and surface characteristics, on the number of particles transported from the nebulizer to the microplasma were studied. When selected metals, such as Na, Mg and Pb, at a concentration of 5 mg L - 1 were nebulized, transported particles were obtained with a mass range of 0.5-5 mg m - 3 , depending on atomic weights. For application of the He-rf-microplasma, the atomic emission system was optimized by changing both the radio frequency (rf) power (60-200 W) and cooling temperature of the USN (- 12-9 °C). The limits of detection obtained for K, Na and Cu were 0.26, 0.22, and 0.28 mg L - 1 , respectively. These results confirmed the suitable stability and sensitivity of the He-rf-PDMS microchip plasma for application as an atomization source.

  16. Optimal experimental design for nano-particle atom-counting from high-resolution STEM images.

    PubMed

    De Backer, A; De Wael, A; Gonnissen, J; Van Aert, S

    2015-04-01

    In the present paper, the principles of detection theory are used to quantify the probability of error for atom-counting from high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (HR STEM) images. Binary and multiple hypothesis testing have been investigated in order to determine the limits to the precision with which the number of atoms in a projected atomic column can be estimated. The probability of error has been calculated when using STEM images, scattering cross-sections or peak intensities as a criterion to count atoms. Based on this analysis, we conclude that scattering cross-sections perform almost equally well as images and perform better than peak intensities. Furthermore, the optimal STEM detector design can be derived for atom-counting using the expression for the probability of error. We show that for very thin objects LAADF is optimal and that for thicker objects the optimal inner detector angle increases.

  17. Search for the Effect of Massive Bodies on Atomic Spectra and Constraints on Yukawa-Type Interactions of Scalar Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leefer, N.; Gerhardus, A.; Budker, D.; Flambaum, V. V.; Stadnik, Y. V.

    2016-12-01

    We propose a new method to search for hypothetical scalar particles that have feeble interactions with standard-model particles. In the presence of massive bodies, these interactions produce a nonzero Yukawa-type scalar-field magnitude. Using radio-frequency spectroscopy data of atomic dysprosium, as well as atomic clock spectroscopy data, we constrain the Yukawa-type interactions of a scalar field with the photon, electron, and nucleons for a range of scalar-particle masses corresponding to length scales >10 cm . In the limit as the scalar-particle mass mϕ→0 , our derived limits on the Yukawa-type interaction parameters are Λγ≳8 ×1 019 GeV , Λe≳1.3 ×1 019 GeV , and ΛN≳6 ×1 020 GeV . Our measurements also constrain combinations of interaction parameters, which cannot otherwise be probed with traditional anomalous-force measurements. We suggest further measurements to improve on the current level of sensitivity.

  18. Single-particle mineralogy of Chinese soil particles by the combined use of low-Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis and attenuated total reflectance-FT-IR imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Malek, Md Abdul; Kim, Bowha; Jung, Hae-Jin; Song, Young-Chul; Ro, Chul-Un

    2011-10-15

    Our previous work on the speciation of individual mineral particles of micrometer size by the combined use of attenuated total reflectance FT-IR (ATR-FT-IR) imaging and a quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis technique (EPMA), low-Z particle EPMA, demonstrated that the combined use of these two techniques is a powerful approach for looking at the single-particle mineralogy of externally heterogeneous minerals. In this work, this analytical methodology was applied to characterize six soil samples collected at arid areas in China, in order to identify mineral types present in the samples. The six soil samples were collected from two types of soil, i.e., loess and desert soils, for which overall 665 particles were analyzed on a single particle basis. The six soil samples have different mineralogical characteristics, which were clearly differentiated in this work. As this analytical methodology provides complementary information, the ATR-FT-IR imaging on mineral types, and low-Z particle EPMA on the morphology and elemental concentrations, on the same individual particles, more detailed information can be obtained using this approach than when either low-Z particle EPMA or ATR-FT-IR imaging techniques are used alone, which has a great potential for the characterization of Asian dust and mineral dust particles.

  19. Evidence of wave-particle duality for single fast hydrogen atoms.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, H T; Fischer, D; Berenyi, Z; Cocke, C L; Gudmundsson, M; Haag, N; Johansson, H A B; Källberg, A; Levin, S B; Reinhed, P; Sassenberg, U; Schuch, R; Simonsson, A; Støchkel, K; Cederquist, H

    2008-08-22

    We report the direct observation of interference effects in a Young's double-slit experiment where the interfering waves are two spatially separated components of the de Broglie wave of single 1.3 MeV hydrogen atoms formed close to either target nucleus in H++H2 electron-transfer collisions. Quantum interference strongly influences the results even though the hydrogen atoms have a de Broglie wavelength, lambda_{dB}, as small as 25 fm.

  20. Detection and identification of explosive particles in fingerprints using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectromicroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mou, Yongyan; Rabalais, J Wayne

    2009-07-01

    The application of attenuated total reflection (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectromicroscopy for detection of explosive particles in fingerprints is described. The combined functions of ATR-FTIR spectromicroscopy are visual searching of particles in fingerprints and measuring the FTIR spectra of the particles. These functions make it possible to directly identify whether a suspect has handled explosives from the fingerprints alone. Particles in explosive contaminated fingerprints are either ingredients of the explosives, finger residues, or other foreign materials. These cannot normally be discriminated by their morphology alone. ATR-FTIR spectra can provide both particle morphology and composition. Fingerprints analyzed by ATR-FTIR can be used for further analysis and identification because of its non-destructive character. Fingerprints contaminated with three different types of explosives, or potential explosives, have been analyzed herein. An infrared spectral library was searched in order to identify the explosive residues. The acquired spectra are compared to those of finger residue alone, in order to differentiate such residue from explosive residue.

  1. A total internal reflection ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy study of interactions between Proteus mirabilis lipopolysaccharides and antibodies.

    PubMed

    Gleńska-Olender, J; Sęk, S; Dworecki, K; Kaca, W

    2015-07-01

    Specific antigen-antibody interactions play a central role in the human immune system. The objective of this paper is to detect immune complexes using label-free detection techniques, that is, total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE) and atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based topography and recognition imaging. Interactions of purified rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies with bacterial endotoxins (Proteus mirabilis S1959 O3 lipopolysaccharides) were studied. Lipopolysaccharide was adsorbed on gold surface for TIRE. In the AFM imaging experiments, LPS was attachment to the PEG linker (AFM tip modification). The mica surface was covered by IgG. In TIRE, the optical parameters Ψ and Δ change when a complex is formed. It was found that even highly structured molecules, such as IgG antibodies (anti-O3 LPS rabbit serum), preserve their specific affinity to their antigens (LPS O3). LPS P. mirabilis O3 response of rabbit serum anti-O3 was also tested by topography and recognition imaging. Both TIRE and AFM techniques were recruited to check for possible detection of antigen-antibody recognition event. The presented data allow for determination of interactions between a variety of biomolecules. In future research, this technique has considerable potential for studying a wide range of antigen-antibody interactions and its use may be extended to other biomacromolecular systems.

  2. Analytic expressions for atomic layer deposition: Coverage, throughput, and materials utilization in cross-flow, particle coating, and spatial atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Yanguas-Gil, Angel; Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2014-05-15

    In this work, the authors present analytic models for atomic layer deposition (ALD) in three common experimental configurations: cross-flow, particle coating, and spatial ALD. These models, based on the plug-flow and well-mixed approximations, allow us to determine the minimum dose times and materials utilization for all three configurations. A comparison between the three models shows that throughput and precursor utilization can each be expressed by universal equations, in which the particularity of the experimental system is contained in a single parameter related to the residence time of the precursor in the reactor. For the case of cross-flow reactors, the authors show how simple analytic expressions for the reactor saturation profiles agree well with experimental results. Consequently, the analytic model can be used to extract information about the ALD surface chemistry (e.g., the reaction probability) by comparing the analytic and experimental saturation profiles, providing a useful tool for characterizing new and existing ALD processes.

  3. Optical Properties Of Solid Particle Receiver Materials II: Diffuse Reflectance Of Norton Masterbeads At Elevated Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, K. A.; Griffin, J. W.; Pettit, R. B.

    1985-12-01

    An experimental system to measure the diffuse reflectance of a particulate sample over the wavelength range of 300 to 2500 nm at elevated temperatures up to 1000°C has been developed and implemented. A description of the experimental apparatus and measurement procedures, as well as optical reflectance data for the Masterbeadse, are presented. Using the high temperature measurement system, the diffuse reflectance of Masterbeads changed by less than 1% for sample temperatures from 150°C to 930°C. However, after heating a sample for three hours at 1000°C in air, the solar absorptance measured at room temperature decreased from an initial value of 0.93 to 0.89.

  4. Stereological characterization of the {gamma}' particles in a nickel base superalloy: Comparison between transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Risbet, M. Feaugas, X.; Guillemer-Neel, C.; Clavel, M.

    2008-09-15

    Critical comparison of transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy techniques was provided concerning size measurements of {gamma}' precipitates in a nickel-base superalloy. The divergence between results is explained in terms of the resolution limit for atomic force microscopy, linked both to the tip dimension and the diameter of the investigated particles.

  5. Experiment and theory in particle physics: Reflections on the discovery of the tau lepton

    SciTech Connect

    Perl, M.L.

    1996-08-01

    This article is thoughts from the author on particle physics work from his perspective. It is not a summary of his work on the tau lepton, but rather a look at what makes good science, experimental and theoretical, from his experiences in the field. The section titles give a good summary on the topics the author chooses to touch upon. They are: the state of elementary particle physics; getting good ideas in experimental science; a difficult field; experiments and experimenting; 10% of the money and 30% of the time; the dictatorship of theory; technological dreams; last words.

  6. Single-particle characterization of summertime Antarctic aerosols collected at King George Island using quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Maskey, Shila; Geng, Hong; Song, Young-Chul; Hwang, Heejin; Yoon, Young-Jun; Ahn, Kang-Ho; Ro, Chul-Un

    2011-08-01

    Single-particle characterization of Antarctic aerosols was performed to investigate the impact of marine biogenic sulfur species on the chemical compositions of sea-salt aerosols in the polar atmosphere. Quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis was used to characterize 2900 individual particles in 10 sets of aerosol samples collected between March 12 and 16, 2009 at King Sejong Station, a Korean scientific research station located at King George Island in the Antarctic. Two size modes of particles, i.e., PM(2.5-10) and PM(1.0-2.5), were analyzed, and four types of particles were identified, with sulfur-containing sea-salt particles being the most abundant, followed by genuine sea-salt particles without sulfur species, iron-containing particles, and other species including CaCO(3)/CaMg(CO(3))(2), organic carbon, and aluminosilicates. When a sulfur-containing sea-salt particle showed an atomic concentration ratio of sulfur to sodium of >0.083 (seawater ratio), it is regarded as containing nonsea-salt sulfate (nss-SO(4)(2-)) and/or methanesulfonate (CH(3)SO(3)(-)), which was supported by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared imaging measurements. These internal mixture particles of sea-salt/CH(3)SO(3)(-)/SO(4)(2-) were very frequently encountered. As nitrate-containing particles were not encountered, and the air-masses for all of the samples originated from the Pacific Ocean (based on 5-day backward trajectories), the oxidation of dimethylsulfide (DMS) emitted from phytoplanktons in the ocean is most likely to be responsible for the formation of the mixed sea-salt/CH(3)SO(3)(-)/SO(4)(2-) particles.

  7. Some reflections on the role of semi-classical atomic models in the teaching and learning of introductory quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, Colm

    2016-03-01

    The role of "semi-classical" (Bohr-Sommerfeld) and "semi-quantum-mechanical" (atomic orbital) models in the context of the teaching of atomic theory is considered. It is suggested that an appropriate treatment of such models can serve as a useful adjunct to quantum mechanical study of atomic systems.

  8. Experimental impact features in Stardust aerogel: How track morphology reflects particle structure, composition, and density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearsley, Anton T.; Burchell, Mark J.; Price, Mark C.; Cole, Michael J.; Wozniakiewicz, Penelope J.; Ishii, Hope A.; Bradley, John P.; Fries, Marc; Foster, Nicholas J.

    2012-04-01

    The Stardust collector shows diverse aerogel track shapes created by impacts of cometary dust. Tracks have been classified into three broad types (A, B, and C), based on relative dimensions of the elongate "stylus" (in Type A "carrots") and broad "bulb" regions (Types B and C), with occurrence of smaller "styli" in Type B. From our experiments, using a diverse suite of projectile particles shot under Stardust cometary encounter conditions onto similar aerogel targets, we describe differences in impactor behavior and aerogel response resulting in the observed range of Stardust track shapes. We compare tracks made by mineral grains, natural and artificial aggregates of differing subgrain sizes, and diverse organic materials. Impacts of glasses and robust mineral grains generate elongate, narrow Type A tracks (as expected), but with differing levels of abrasion and lateral branch creation. Aggregate particles, both natural and artificial, of a wide range of compositions and volatile contents produce diverse Type B or C shapes. Creation of bulbous tracks is dependent upon impactor internal structure, grain size distribution, and strength, rather than overall grain density or content of volatile components. Nevertheless, pure organic particles do create Type C, or squat Type A* tracks, with length to width ratios dependent upon both specific organic composition and impactor grain size. From comparison with the published shape data for Stardust aerogel tracks, we conclude that the abundant larger Type B tracks on the Stardust collector represent impacts by particles similar to our carbonaceous chondrite meteorite powders.

  9. Reflectance of micron-sized dust particles retrieved with the Umov law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubko, Evgenij; Videen, Gorden; Zubko, Nataliya; Shkuratov, Yuriy

    2017-03-01

    The maximum positive polarization Pmax that initially unpolarized light acquires when scattered from a particulate surface inversely correlates with its geometric albedo A. In the literature, this phenomenon is known as the Umov law. We investigate the Umov law in application to single-scattering submicron and micron-sized agglomerated debris particles, model particles that have highly irregular morphology. We find that if the complex refractive index m is constrained to Re(m)=1.4-1.7 and Im(m)=0-0.15, model particles of a given size distribution have a linear inverse correlation between log(Pmax) and log(A). This correlation resembles what is measured in particulate surfaces, suggesting a similar mechanism governing the Umov law in both systems. We parameterize the dependence of log(A) on log(Pmax) of single-scattering particles and analyze the airborne polarimetric measurements of atmospheric aerosols reported by Dolgos & Martins in [1]. We conclude that Pmax ≈ 50% measured by Dolgos & Martins corresponds to very dark aerosols having geometric albedo A=0.019 ± 0.005.

  10. Scattering amplitudes and static atomic correction factors for the composition-sensitive 002 reflection in sphalerite ternary III-V and II-VI semiconductors.

    PubMed

    Schowalter, M; Müller, K; Rosenauer, A

    2012-01-01

    Modified atomic scattering amplitudes (MASAs), taking into account the redistribution of charge due to bonds, and the respective correction factors considering the effect of static atomic displacements were computed for the chemically sensitive 002 reflection for ternary III-V and II-VI semiconductors. MASAs were derived from computations within the density functional theory formalism. Binary eight-atom unit cells were strained according to each strain state s (thin, intermediate, thick and fully relaxed electron microscopic specimen) and each concentration (x = 0, …, 1 in 0.01 steps), where the lattice parameters for composition x in strain state s were calculated using continuum elasticity theory. The concentration dependence was derived by computing MASAs for each of these binary cells. Correction factors for static atomic displacements were computed from relaxed atom positions by generating 50 × 50 × 50 supercells using the lattice parameter of the eight-atom unit cells. Atoms were randomly distributed according to the required composition. Polynomials were fitted to the composition dependence of the MASAs and the correction factors for the different strain states. Fit parameters are given in the paper.

  11. Technical note: a near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy technique to predict particle size of starch within corn silage.

    PubMed

    Zwald, A; Dorshorst, A E; Hoffman, P C; Bauman, L M; Bertram, M G

    2008-05-01

    Starch particle size characteristics of 81 diverse corn silage samples, which included 27 combinations of hybrid, planting dates, and harvest dates subjected to 3 different degrees of kernel processing, were determined via vertical shaking through 9 screens with nominal square apertures of 19.0, 13.2, 9.5, 6.7, 4.75, 3.35, 2.36, 1.18, and 0.6 mm and a pan. Starch content of dry matter remaining on each screen and on the pan for each corn silage was determined, and geometric mean particle size (GMPS, mum), starch particles(SP)/g, starch surface area (SSA, cm(2)/g), kernel processing score (KPS), % starch < 4.75 mm, and the percentage of total starch remaining on each screen of the vertical shakers were calculated. Near-infrared reflectance spectra were obtained by scanning 3 types of samples: 1 mm of dried ground corn silage; whole undried, unground corn silage; and undried, unground corn silage that passed through a 19-mm screen. Calibrations to predict GMPS, SP, SSA, and KPS characteristics of corn silage starch were attempted from each spectral origin. Calibrations to predict GMPS, SP, SSA, KPS, and the percentage of total starch retained on screens of the vertical shaker was unattainable (R(2) < 0.45) using spectra obtained from 1 mm of dried ground corn silage or whole undried, unground corn silage. However, reasonable near-infrared reflectance spectra equations (R(2) > 0.81) for GMPS, SSA, and KPS were attained using spectra from undried, unground corn silage that passed through a 19-mm screen. This technique holds promise as a rapid and efficient method to determine particle size characteristics of starch within corn silage.

  12. Atomic force microscopy investigation of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reassembled particles

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, Yu. G.; Ulbrich, P.; Haubova, S.; Ruml, T.; McPherson, A. . E-mail: amcphers@uci.edu

    2007-04-10

    Particles of {delta}ProCANC, a fusion of capsid (Canada) and nucleocapsid (NC) protein of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV), which lacks the amino terminal proline, were reassembled in vitro and visualized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The particles, of 83-84 nm diameter, exhibited ordered domains based on trigonal arrays of prominent rings with center to center distances of 8.7 nm. Imperfect closure of the lattice on the spherical surface was affected by formation of discontinuities. The lattice is consistent only with plane group p3 where one molecule is shared between contiguous rings. There are no pentameric clusters nor evidence that the particles are icosahedral. Tubular structures were also reassembled, in vitro, from two HIV fusion proteins, {delta}ProCANC and CANC. The tubes were uniform in diameter, 40 nm, but varied in length to a maximum of 600 nm. They exhibited left handed helical symmetry based on a p6 hexagonal net. The organization of HIV fusion proteins in the tubes is significantly different than for the protein units in the particles of M-PMV {delta}ProCANC.

  13. Influence of particle size distribution on reflected and transmitted light from clouds.

    PubMed

    Kattawar, G W; Plass, G N

    1968-05-01

    The light reflected and transmitted from clouds with various drop size distributions is calculated by a Monte Carlo technique. Six different models are used for the drop size distribution: isotropic, Rayleigh, haze continental, haze maritime, cumulus, and nimbostratus. The scattering function for each model is calculated from the Mie theory. In general, the reflected and transmitted radiances for the isotropic and Rayleigh models tend to be similar, as are those for the various haze and cloud models. The reflected radiance is less for the haze and cloud models than for the isotropic and Rayleigh models/except for an angle of incidence near the horizon when it is larger around the incident beam direction. The transmitted radiance is always much larger for the haze and cloud models near the incident direction; at distant angles it is less for small and moderate optical thicknesses and greater for large optical thicknesses (all comparisons to isotropic and Rayleigh models). The downward flux, cloud albedo, and ean optical path are discussed. The angular spread of the beam as a function of optical thickness is shown for the nimbostratus model.

  14. Infrared, spectral, directional-hemispherical reflectance of fused silica, Teflon polytetrafluoroethylene polymer, chrome oxide ceramic particle surface, Pyromark 2500 paint, Krylon 1602 paint, and Duraflect coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persky, Merle J.; Szczesniak, Martin

    2008-04-01

    Infrared, spectral, directional-hemispherical reflectivity measurements of polished fused silica, Teflon polytetrafluoroethylene polymer, chrome oxide ceramic particle surface, Pyromark 2500 paint, Krylon 1602 paint, and Duraflect coating are provided. The reflectance was measured with an estimated accuracy of 0.01 to 0.02 units and a precision of 0.005 units. All the surfaces were measured at ambient temperatures. Additionally, the chrome oxide ceramic particle surface was measured at 486 K and the Pyromark 2500 at four temperatures to 877 K. Polarization measurements are also provided for fused silica, Duraflect, chrome oxide ceramic particle surface, and Pyromark 2500 paint. Separate diffuse and specular reflectance components for the Duraflect and chrome oxide ceramic surfaces are included. Fresnel-based predictions for fused silica parallel and perpendicular polarized reflections are compared to measurements. It is notable that the Pyromark 2500 and chrome oxide ceramic particle surfaces exhibit a significant lack of manufacturing repeatability.

  15. Interactions of neutral and singly charged keV atomic particles with gas-phase adenine molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarado, Fresia; Bari, Sadia; Hoekstra, Ronnie; Schlathoelter, Thomas

    2007-07-21

    KeV atomic particles traversing biological matter are subject to charge exchange and screening effects which dynamically change this particle's effective charge. The understanding of the collision cascade along the track thus requires a detailed knowledge of the interaction dynamics of radiobiologically relevant molecules, such as DNA building blocks or water, not only with ionic but also with neutral species. We have studied collisions of keV H{sup +}, He{sup +}, and C{sup +} ions and H{sup 0}, He{sup 0}, and C{sup 0} atoms with the DNA base adenine by means of high resolution time-of-flight spectrometry. For H{sup 0} and H{sup +} we find qualitatively very similar fragmentation patterns, while for carbon, strong differences are observed when comparing C{sup 0} and C{sup +} impact. For collisions with He{sup 0} and He{sup +} projectiles, a pronounced delayed fragmentation channel is observed, which has not been reported before.

  16. Density and glass forming ability in amorphous atomic alloys: The role of the particle softness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, Ian; Hudson, Toby; Harrowell, Peter

    2016-04-01

    A key property of glass forming alloys, the anomalously small volume difference with respect to the crystal, is shown to arise as a direct consequence of the soft repulsive potentials between metals. This feature of the inter-atomic potential is demonstrated to be responsible for a significant component of the glass forming ability of alloys due to the decrease in the enthalpy of fusion and the associated depression of the freezing point.

  17. Energetic particle imaging: The evolution of techniques in imaging high-energy neutral atom emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, D. G.; Brandt, P. C.; Westlake, J. H.; Jaskulek, S. E.; Andrews, G. B.; Nelson, K. S.

    2016-09-01

    Energetic neutral atom imaging instruments have been flown on a variety of space missions to satisfy a variety of science requirements. In this paper we discuss the most recent developments that lead to improvements in energy range, angular resolution, and background rejection for the high-energy range, as represented in the past by the Cassini magnetosphere imaging instrument Ion and Neutral Camera, the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) mission High-Energy Neutral Atom instrument, and to some degree the IMAGE mission Medium-Energy Neutral Atom instrument. The new approaches discussed here rely on the use of ultrathin foils without UV filters and on very high speed coincidence logic to reduce accidentals from intense background sources. We present laboratory results demonstrating an electrostatic design that meets the coincidence timing requirements, position, and scattering performance consistent with angular resolution (full width at half maximum) of 2° for hydrogen above 10 keV and a hydrogen energy threshold ≤1 keV.

  18. Characterization of the surface charge distribution on kaolinite particles using high resolution atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Naveen; Zhao, Cunlu; Klaassen, Aram; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder; Siretanu, Igor

    2016-02-01

    Most solid surfaces, in particular clay minerals and rock surfaces, acquire a surface charge upon exposure to an aqueous environment due to adsorption and/or desorption of ionic species. Macroscopic techniques such as titration and electrokinetic measurements are commonly used to determine the surface charge and ζ -potential of these surfaces. However, because of the macroscopic averaging character these techniques cannot do justice to the role of local heterogeneities on the surfaces. In this work, we use dynamic atomic force microscopy (AFM) to determine the distribution of surface charge on the two (gibbsite-like and silica-like) basal planes of kaolinite nanoparticles immersed in aqueous electrolyte with a lateral resolution of approximately 30 nm. The surface charge density is extracted from force-distance curves using DLVO theory in combination with surface complexation modeling. While the gibbsite-like and the silica-like facet display on average positive and negative surface charge values as expected, our measurements reveal lateral variations of more than a factor of two on seemingly atomically smooth terraces, even if high resolution AFM images clearly reveal the atomic lattice on the surface. These results suggest that simple surface complexation models of clays that attribute a unique surface chemistry and hence homogeneous surface charge densities to basal planes may miss important aspects of real clay surfaces.

  19. Conformational changes of Gag HIV-1 on a lipid bilayer measured by neutron reflectivity provides insights into viral particle assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanda, H.; Datta, S. A. K.; Heinrich, F.; Loesche, M.; Rein, A.; Krueger, S.

    2009-03-01

    Formation of the HIV-1 is mediated by the Gag polyprotein at the cytoplasmic membrane surface of the infected host cell. Studies suggest large conformational changes in the Gag protein may occur during self-assembly on the membrane [Current Biology, 1997 (7) p.729, J. Mol. Biol. 2007 (365) p. 812]. The one-dimensional profile of Gag bound to a lipid bilayer interface was determined at angstrom resolution by neutron reflectometry. This was done using a novel method for modeling reflectivity data by a Monte Carlo simulation technique. The results show conditions under which the Gag protein can be made to extend or stay compact on the membrane surface. Further atomic detail was obtained using atomistic models to fit the one-dimensional Gag structural data. This involved combining X-ray resolution structures of the ordered protein domains with conformational sampling of the flexible linker region.

  20. Resolution and Sensitivity of Inline Focused Beam Reflectance Measurement During Wet Granulation in Pharmaceutically Relevant Particle Size Ranges.

    PubMed

    Narang, Ajit S; Stevens, Timothy; Hubert, Mario; Paruchuri, Srinivasa; Macias, Kevin; Bindra, Dilbir; Gao, Zhihui; Badawy, Sherif

    2016-12-01

    Real-time process monitoring using a process analytical technology for granule size distribution can enable quality-by-design in drug product manufacturing. In this study, the resolution and sensitivity of chord length distribution (CLD) measured inline inside a high shear granulator using focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) C35 probe was investigated using different particle size grades of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). In addition, the impact of water and impeller tip speed on the measurement accuracy as well as correlation with offline particle sizing techniques (FBRM, laser diffraction [Malvern Mastersizer(®)], microscopy [Sympatec QicPic(®)], and nested sieve analysis) was studied. Inline FBRM resolved size differences between different MCC grades, and the data correlated well with offline analyses. Impeller tip speed changed the number density of inline CLD measurements while addition of water reduced the CLD of dry MCC, likely due to deagglomeration of primary particles. In summary, inline FBRM CLD measurement in high shear granulator provides adequate resolution and reproducible measurements in the pharmaceutically relevant size range both in the presence and in the absence of water. Therefore, inline FBRM can be a valuable tool for the monitoring of high shear wet granulation.

  1. Interactions of satellite-speed helium atoms with satellite surfaces. 3: Drag coefficients from spatial and energy distributions of reflected helium atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, P. K.; Knuth, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    Spatial and energy distributions of helium atoms scattered from an anodized 1235-0 aluminum surface as well as the tangential and normal momentum accommodation coefficients calculated from these distributions are reported. A procedure for calculating drag coefficients from measured values of spatial and energy distributions is given. The drag coefficient calculated for a 6061 T-6 aluminum sphere is included.

  2. REFLECTIONS ON MY CONTRIBUTIONS TO PARTICLE PHYSICS AND RECENT EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FROM RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    SAMIOS,N.P.

    2002-01-18

    My talk today will be composed of two parts. The first part will consist of a summary of some of my experimental contributions over the years. It will not be exhaustive but will highlight the findings that had relevance to the progress of our understanding of particle physics as it has evolved over the years. This section will be divided into three periods: Early, Intermediate and Late, with an in depth discussion of a few of the more significant results. The second part will consist of a discussion of the recently completed Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) machine at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). This will encompass the parameters of the accelerator and some of the interesting and exciting early experimental results emanating from this machine.

  3. Using ultrasonic atomization to produce an aerosol of micron-scale particles

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, T.D.; Hogan, J.; Mugler, A.; Schubmehl, M.; Schommer, N.; Bernoff, A.J.; Dasnurkar, S.; Ditmire, T.

    2005-11-15

    A device that uses ultrasonic atomization of a liquid to produce an aerosol of micron-scale droplets is described. This device represents a new approach to producing targets relevant to laser-driven fusion studies, and to rare studies of nonlinear optics in which wavelength-scale targets are irradiated. The device has also made possible tests of fluid dynamics models in a novel phase space. The distribution of droplet sizes produced by the device and the threshold power required for droplet production are shown to follow scaling laws predicted by fluid dynamics.

  4. Using ultrasonic atomization to produce an aerosol of micron-scale particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnelly, T. D.; Hogan, J.; Mugler, A.; Schubmehl, M.; Schommer, N.; Bernoff, A. J.; Dasnurkar, S.; Ditmire, T.

    2005-11-01

    A device that uses ultrasonic atomization of a liquid to produce an aerosol of micron-scale droplets is described. This device represents a new approach to producing targets relevant to laser-driven fusion studies, and to rare studies of nonlinear optics in which wavelength-scale targets are irradiated. The device has also made possible tests of fluid dynamics models in a novel phase space. The distribution of droplet sizes produced by the device and the threshold power required for droplet production are shown to follow scaling laws predicted by fluid dynamics.

  5. Measurements of dispersion forces between colloidal latex particles with the atomic force microscope and comparison with Lifshitz theory

    SciTech Connect

    Elzbieciak-Wodka, Magdalena; Ruiz-Cabello, F. Javier Montes; Trefalt, Gregor; Maroni, Plinio; Borkovec, Michal; Popescu, Mihail N.

    2014-03-14

    Interaction forces between carboxylate colloidal latex particles of about 2 μm in diameter immersed in aqueous solutions of monovalent salts were measured with the colloidal probe technique, which is based on the atomic force microscope. We have systematically varied the ionic strength, the type of salt, and also the surface charge densities of the particles through changes in the solution pH. Based on these measurements, we have accurately measured the dispersion forces acting between the particles and estimated the apparent Hamaker constant to be (2.0 ± 0.5) × 10{sup −21} J at a separation distance of about 10 nm. This value is basically independent of the salt concentration and the type of salt. Good agreement with Lifshitz theory is found when roughness effects are taken into account. The combination of retardation and roughness effects reduces the value of the apparent Hamaker constant and its ionic strength dependence with respect to the case of ideally smooth surfaces.

  6. Passivation of pigment-grade TiO2 particles by nanothick atomic layer deposited SiO2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, David M.; Liang, Xinhua; Burton, Beau B.; Kamal Akhtar, M.; Weimer, Alan W.

    2008-06-01

    Pigment-grade TiO2 particles were passivated using nanothick insulating films fabricated by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Conformal SiO2 and Al2O3 layers were coated onto anatase and rutile powders in a fluidized bed reactor. SiO2 films were deposited using tris-dimethylaminosilane (TDMAS) and H2O2 at 500 °C. Trimethylaluminum and water were used as precursors for Al2O3 ALD at 177 °C. The photocatalytic activity of anatase pigment-grade TiO2 was decreased by 98% after the deposition of 2 nm SiO2 films. H2SO4 digest tests were performed to exhibit the pinhole-free nature of the coatings and the TiO2 digest rate was 40 times faster for uncoated TiO2 than SiO2 coated over a 24 h period. Mass spectrometry was used to monitor reaction progress and allowed for dosing time optimization. These results demonstrate that the TDMAS-H2O2 chemistry can deposit high quality, fully dense SiO2 films on high radius of curvature substrates. Particle ALD is a viable passivation method for pigment-grade TiO2 particles.

  7. Measurements of dispersion forces between colloidal latex particles with the atomic force microscope and comparison with Lifshitz theory.

    PubMed

    Elzbieciak-Wodka, Magdalena; Popescu, Mihail N; Montes Ruiz-Cabello, F Javier; Trefalt, Gregor; Maroni, Plinio; Borkovec, Michal

    2014-03-14

    Interaction forces between carboxylate colloidal latex particles of about 2 μm in diameter immersed in aqueous solutions of monovalent salts were measured with the colloidal probe technique, which is based on the atomic force microscope. We have systematically varied the ionic strength, the type of salt, and also the surface charge densities of the particles through changes in the solution pH. Based on these measurements, we have accurately measured the dispersion forces acting between the particles and estimated the apparent Hamaker constant to be (2.0 ± 0.5) × 10(-21) J at a separation distance of about 10 nm. This value is basically independent of the salt concentration and the type of salt. Good agreement with Lifshitz theory is found when roughness effects are taken into account. The combination of retardation and roughness effects reduces the value of the apparent Hamaker constant and its ionic strength dependence with respect to the case of ideally smooth surfaces.

  8. Nanoscale indentation of polymer and composite polymer-silica core-shell submicrometer particles by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Armini, Silvia; Vakarelski, Ivan U; Whelan, Caroline M; Maex, Karen; Higashitani, Ko

    2007-02-13

    Atomic force microscopy was employed to probe the mechanical properties of surface-charged polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)-based terpolymer and composite terpolymer core-silica shell particles in air and water media. The composite particles were achieved with two different approaches: using a silane coupling agent (composite A) or attractive electrostatic interactions (composite B) between the core and the shell. Young's moduli (E) of 4.3+/-0.7, 11.1+/-1.7, and 8.4+/-1.7 GPa were measured in air for the PMMA-based terpolymer, composite A, and composite B, respectively. In water, E decreases to 1.6+/-0.2 GPa for the terpolymer; it shows a slight decrease to 8.0+/-1.2 GPa for composite A, while it decreases to 2.9+/-0.6 GPa for composite B. This trend is explained by considering a 50% swelling of the polymer in water confirmed by dynamic light scattering. Close agreement is found between the absolute values of elastic moduli determined by nanoindentation and known values for the corresponding bulk materials. The thickness of the silica coating affects the mechanical properties of composite A. In the case of composite B, because the silica shell consists of separate particles free to move in the longitudinal direction that do not individually deform when the entire composite deforms, the elastic properties of the composites are determined exclusively by the properties of the polymer core. These results provide a basis for tailoring the mechanical properties of polymer and composite particles in air and in solution, essential in the design of next-generation abrasive schemes for several technological applications.

  9. Human Injury From Atomic Particles and Photon Exposure: Fears, Myths, Risks, and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Energy absorbtion from particles and photons moving at relativistic speeds has been a fundamental part of life on earth and wherever else life might exist. Heat and visible light have deeply influenced the course of human evolution, affecting habitat and nutrition. The photons of ionizing radiation that over time can possibly affect evolution, contribute to the more immediate problem of morbidity and mortality of cancer. This review addresses our radiative energy absorbtion, from both natural and manmade sources, and its relationship with disease and death. Educational Public Health efforts to offset the dangers of solar ultraviolet overexposure are presented, together with data on the significant mortality of metastatic melanoma. PMID:20481234

  10. Human injury from atomic particles and photon exposure: fears, myths, risks, and mortality.

    PubMed

    Tabrah, Frank L

    2010-04-01

    Energy absorbtion from particles and photons moving at relativistic speeds has been a fundamental part of life on earth and wherever else life might exist. Heat and visible light have deeply influenced the course of human evolution, affecting habitat and nutrition. The photons of ionizing radiation that over time can possibly affect evolution, contribute to the more immediate problem of morbidity and mortality of cancer This review addresses our radiative energy absorbtion, from both natural and manmade sources, and its relationship with disease and death. Educational Public Health efforts to offset the dangers of solar ultraviolet overexposure are presented, together with data on the significant mortality of metastatic melanoma.

  11. Optically sensitive devices based on Pt nano particles fabricated by atomic layer deposition and embedded in a dielectric stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhelashvili, V.; Padmanabhan, R.; Meyler, B.; Yofis, S.; Atiya, G.; Cohen-Hyams, Z.; Weindling, S.; Ankonina, G.; Salzman, J.; Kaplan, W. D.; Eisenstein, G.

    2015-10-01

    We report a series of metal insulator semiconductor devices with embedded Pt nano particles (NPs) fabricated using a low temperature atomic layer deposition process. Optically sensitive nonvolatile memory cells as well as optical sensors: (i) varactors, whose capacitance-voltage characteristics, nonlinearity, and peak capacitance are strongly dependent on illumination intensity; (ii) highly linear photo detectors whose responsivity is enhanced due to the Pt NPs. Both single devices and back to back pairs of diodes were used. The different configurations enable a variety of functionalities with many potential applications in biomedical sensing, environmental surveying, simple imagers for consumer electronics and military uses. The simplicity and planar configuration of the proposed devices makes them suitable for standard CMOS fabrication technology.

  12. Optically sensitive devices based on Pt nano particles fabricated by atomic layer deposition and embedded in a dielectric stack

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhelashvili, V.; Padmanabhan, R.; Eisenstein, G.; Meyler, B.; Yofis, S.; Weindling, S.; Salzman, J.; Atiya, G.; Cohen-Hyams, Z.; Kaplan, W. D.; Ankonina, G.

    2015-10-07

    We report a series of metal insulator semiconductor devices with embedded Pt nano particles (NPs) fabricated using a low temperature atomic layer deposition process. Optically sensitive nonvolatile memory cells as well as optical sensors: (i) varactors, whose capacitance-voltage characteristics, nonlinearity, and peak capacitance are strongly dependent on illumination intensity; (ii) highly linear photo detectors whose responsivity is enhanced due to the Pt NPs. Both single devices and back to back pairs of diodes were used. The different configurations enable a variety of functionalities with many potential applications in biomedical sensing, environmental surveying, simple imagers for consumer electronics and military uses. The simplicity and planar configuration of the proposed devices makes them suitable for standard CMOS fabrication technology.

  13. Modeling of reflection of detonation and shock waves from a rigid wall in mixtures of a reactive gas and chemically inert particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, A. V.; Fomin, P. A.; Tropin, D. A.; Chen, J.-R.

    2012-05-01

    An algorithm of approximate calculation of the reflection of detonation waves in mixtures of a reactive gas and chemically inert microparticles has been proposed. Consideration has been given to the case where the gas behind the wave front is in chemical equilibrium (D → D reflection). It has been shown that the presence of the condensed phase can substantially decrease the parameters of the reflected wave (its velocity, pressure, and temperature). Within the framework of a one-dimensional nonstationary approach and with allowance for the detailed kinetics of chemical reactions, the evolution of the shock wave in a stoichiometric hydrogen-oxygen mixture with sand particles in its reflection from a rigid wall has been calculated. The limiting particle concentration below which the reflected wave is of the detonation type and above which it is of the shock type has been found.

  14. Transport of charge and atomic particles in Rydberg state-rich plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagström, Magnus; Davidsson, Jan; Holmlid, Leif

    1998-02-01

    New methods make it possible to form considerable flux densities of Rydberg atoms of alkali metals. It is now possible to study the transport processes in regions where the density of Rydberg atoms is large. Examples of such studies have been given by Svensson and coworkers. In the present study, 0022-3727/31/4/013/img1 ions and Rydberg states 0022-3727/31/4/013/img2 are formed by desorption at 1300-1800 K from an Ir surface covered by a thin graphite layer. Due to the very large cross sections for collision processes involving Rydberg species, the Rydberg state-rich plasma between the Ir emitter and a cold grid electrode is not collision free, even at a pressure of 0022-3727/31/4/013/img3 mbar. Electron or 0022-3727/31/4/013/img4 emission takes place from the grid at a rate controlled by the flux of 0022-3727/31/4/013/img1 and 0022-3727/31/4/013/img2. The transition to penetration of 0022-3727/31/4/013/img1 and 0022-3727/31/4/013/img2 through the cloud of excited species between the emitter and grid is observed directly by molecular beam and ion sampling to detectors in a separate chamber. There is a space-charge limited behaviour for the positive current through the plasma as well as, in some modes, a clear positive saturation current, which shows that little gas phase ionization takes place. A current larger than expected from the saturation current as well as maxima in the voltage dependences are observed at high Rydberg densities. These effects are probably caused by space charge compensation due to a dielectric phase of condensed excited species, which means, for example, that the effective distance between the emitter and grid is decreased, as observed. The temperature variation of the space charge limited behaviour gives an activation energy of 0022-3727/31/4/013/img9, while the saturation current gives an activation energy of 0022-3727/31/4/013/img10. This agrees well with the electronic excitations 0022-3727/31/4/013/img11 at 0.90 eV and 0022

  15. Optimization of a high shear wet granulation process using focused beam reflectance measurement and particle vision microscope technologies.

    PubMed

    Arp, Zane; Smith, Ben; Dycus, Eric; O'grady, Des

    2011-08-01

    Application of process analytical technology in the pharmaceutical industry has led to a great number of studies into inline instrumentation. Near-infrared moisture monitoring in fluid bed drying and content uniformity assurance in blending are gaining acceptance for monitoring and quality control of these processes. Although these techniques are a great improvement over traditional methods, each is performed at points in processing wherein processing is well understood and interfacing equipment is relatively easy. More complex unit operations have largely been unexplored due to complexities interfacing inline analytical equipment to unit operations or a lack of methodologies that can be applied to measure attributes of interest. This paper reports results from a study utilizing a focused beam reflectance measurement system equipped with window scraper technology for the inline measurement and control of a high shear wet granulation (HSWG) process. In addition to this, offline results obtained with a particle vision microscope system are compared to verify the results obtained inline. It is shown that using these technologies in monitoring the HSWG process greatly increases process understanding of physical changes occurring during processing through real-time observation of particle size, leading to real-time control of the process.

  16. Reprint of Nonlinear vector waves of a flexural mode in a chain model of atomic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitenkova, S. P.; Raj, N.; Stepanyants, Y. A.

    2015-04-01

    Flexural transverse waves in an anharmonic chain of atoms is considered and the nonlinear vector equation for the phonon modes in the long-wave approximation is derived taking into account the weak dispersion effects. Particular cases of the equation derived are discussed; among them the vector mKdV equation (Gorbacheva and Ostrovsky, 1983) [12], as well as the new model vector equations dubbed here the 'second order cubic Benjamin-Ono (socBO) equation' and 'nonlinear pseudo-diffusion equation'. Stationary solutions to the equation derived are studied and it is found in which cases physically reasonable periodic and solitary type solutions may exist. The simplest non-stationary interactions of solitary waves of different polarisation are studied by means of numerical simulation. A new interesting phenomenon is revealed when two solitons of the same or opposite polarities interact elastically, whereas the interaction of two solitons lying initially in the perpendicular planes is essentially inelastic resulting in the survival of only one soliton and destruction of another one.

  17. Nonlinear vector waves of a flexural mode in a chain model of atomic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitenkova, S. P.; Raj, N.; Stepanyants, Y. A.

    2015-03-01

    Flexural transverse waves in an anharmonic chain of atoms is considered and the nonlinear vector equation for the phonon modes in the long-wave approximation is derived taking into account the weak dispersion effects. Particular cases of the equation derived are discussed; among them the vector mKdV equation (Gorbacheva and Ostrovsky, 1983) [12], as well as the new model vector equations dubbed here the 'second order cubic Benjamin-Ono (socBO) equation' and 'nonlinear pseudo-diffusion equation'. Stationary solutions to the equation derived are studied and it is found in which cases physically reasonable periodic and solitary type solutions may exist. The simplest non-stationary interactions of solitary waves of different polarisation are studied by means of numerical simulation. A new interesting phenomenon is revealed when two solitons of the same or opposite polarities interact elastically, whereas the interaction of two solitons lying initially in the perpendicular planes is essentially inelastic resulting in the survival of only one soliton and destruction of another one.

  18. Atomic force microscopy measurements of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation onto clay-sized particles

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qiaoyun; Wu, Huayong; Cai, Peng; Fein, Jeremy B.; Chen, Wenli

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion onto mineral surfaces and subsequent biofilm formation play key roles in aggregate stability, mineral weathering, and the fate of contaminants in soils. However, the mechanisms of bacteria-mineral interactions are not fully understood. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to determine the adhesion forces between bacteria and goethite in water and to gain insight into the nanoscale surface morphology of the bacteria-mineral aggregates and biofilms formed on clay-sized minerals. This study yields direct evidence of a range of different association mechanisms between bacteria and minerals. All strains studied adhered predominantly to the edge surfaces of kaolinite rather than to the basal surfaces. Bacteria rarely formed aggregates with montmorillonite, but were more tightly adsorbed onto goethite surfaces. This study reports the first measured interaction force between bacteria and a clay surface, and the approach curves exhibited jump-in events with attractive forces of 97 ± 34 pN between E. coli and goethite. Bond strengthening between them occurred within 4 s to the maximum adhesion forces and energies of −3.0 ± 0.4 nN and −330 ± 43 aJ (10−18 J), respectively. Under the conditions studied, bacteria tended to form more extensive biofilms on minerals under low rather than high nutrient conditions. PMID:26585552

  19. Atomic force microscopy measurements of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation onto clay-sized particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qiaoyun; Wu, Huayong; Cai, Peng; Fein, Jeremy B.; Chen, Wenli

    2015-11-01

    Bacterial adhesion onto mineral surfaces and subsequent biofilm formation play key roles in aggregate stability, mineral weathering, and the fate of contaminants in soils. However, the mechanisms of bacteria-mineral interactions are not fully understood. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to determine the adhesion forces between bacteria and goethite in water and to gain insight into the nanoscale surface morphology of the bacteria-mineral aggregates and biofilms formed on clay-sized minerals. This study yields direct evidence of a range of different association mechanisms between bacteria and minerals. All strains studied adhered predominantly to the edge surfaces of kaolinite rather than to the basal surfaces. Bacteria rarely formed aggregates with montmorillonite, but were more tightly adsorbed onto goethite surfaces. This study reports the first measured interaction force between bacteria and a clay surface, and the approach curves exhibited jump-in events with attractive forces of 97 ± 34 pN between E. coli and goethite. Bond strengthening between them occurred within 4 s to the maximum adhesion forces and energies of -3.0 ± 0.4 nN and -330 ± 43 aJ (10-18 J), respectively. Under the conditions studied, bacteria tended to form more extensive biofilms on minerals under low rather than high nutrient conditions.

  20. Experimental investigations of electron capture from atomic hydrogen and deuterium by alpha particles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    We have undertaken a program at the University of Missouri-Rolla to experimentally determine cross sections for ion-atom collisions of interest in fusion reactor development. During the last grant period, we have made measurements of total and singly-differential cross sections for the alpha double-capture reaction. He{sup ++} + He(ls{sup 2}) {yields} He({Sigma}n,{ell}) + He{sup ++}. Collisions of this type have been discussed as a basis for diagnostics in which alphas are neutralized in a single collisions either by a HeI beam or by the ablative cloud from mechanically introduced impurity pellets. We are now finishing measurements of cross sections for the alpha single capture reaction He{sup ++} + He(1s{sup 2}) {yields} He{sup +}(n) + He{sup +}(1s), and propose to study He{sup ++} + H(1s) {yields} He{sup +}(n) + H{sup +} during next year. Accurate knowledge of these cross sections is fundamental for modeling of neutral-hydrogen beam penetration in fusion plasmas as well as for spectroscopic diagnostics of alpha densities and velocity distributions, especially for the case of capture into the n = 4 state of the projectile He{sup +}. Our measurements are made using a unique collision spectrometer discussed in this paper.

  1. Cross sections for inelastic collisions of fast charged particles with atoms and molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Inokuti, Mitio

    1985-01-01

    A large volume of data of these cross sections are required for solving problems of radiological physics and dosimetry, as well as for detailed analysis of the earliest stage of radiation actions on matter (including the biological cell and substances constituting it). Current experimental data of the cross sections are far from being complete or even satisfactory for tentative applications. One practical approach to the cross-section determination is to test experimental data with general criteria. For example, the Bethe theory indicates a close connection between photoabsorption and energy absorption by glancing collisions. Development and use of these data constraints, first put forth by Platzman, can now be demonstrated in many examples. More recent studies concern the determination of the analytic expression most suitable for fitting the data on the oscillator-strength distribution or the energy distribution of secondary electrons from ionizing collisions of charged particles. There are three areas to which major efforts should be directed. First, methods of absolute cross-section measurements both for electron and ionic collisions must be thoroughly reviewed so that sources of systematic errors may be identified and corrected. Second, efforts should be devoted to the understanding of the data systematics, viz., the trends of cross sections for a series of molecules. Finally, electron and ionic collisions with molecules in condensed phases will be an important topic of study for years to come; initial reports on efforts toward this direction are encouraging. 46 refs.

  2. Echoing with the Voices of Victims: Reflection on Vietnamese Lessons on the Japanese Experiences of Atomic Bombs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Eisuke; Hien, Do Thi; Hang, Khong Thi Diem

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the case of a Vietnamese teacher whose conception of teaching changed greatly following a short but intensive series of lessons based on the Japanese experiences with atomic bombs. The following three issues are considered: 1) what types of efforts teachers should make to increase the depth of their lessons, on the basis of…

  3. Structural Flexibility of the Nucleosome Core Particle at Atomic Resolution studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    Roccatano, Danilo; Barthel, Andre; Zacharias, Martin W.

    2007-01-24

    The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Comparative explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed on a complete nucleosome core particle with and without N-terminal histone tails for more than 20 ns. Main purpose of the simulations was to study the dynamics of mobile elements such as histone N-terminal tails and how packing and DNA-bending influences the fine structure and dynamics of DNA. Except for the tails, histone and DNA molecules stayed on average close to the crystallographic start structure supporting the quality of the current force field approach. Despite the packing strain, no increase of transitions to noncanonical nucleic acid backbone conformations compared to regular B-DNA was observed. The pattern of kinks and bends along the DNA remained close to the experiment overall. In addition to the local dynamics, the simulations allowed the analysis of the superhelical mobility indicating a limited relative mobility of DNA segments separated by one superhelical turn (mean relative displacement of approximately 60.2 nm, mainly along the superhelical axis). An even higher rigidity was found for relative motions (distance fluctuations) of segments separated by half a superhelical turn (approximately 60.1 nm). The N-terminal tails underwent dramatic conformational rearrangements on the nanosecond time scale toward partially and transiently wrapped states around the DNA. Many of the histone tail changes corresponded to coupled association and folding events from fully solvent-exposed states toward complexes with the major and minor grooves of DNA. The simulations indicate that the rapid conformational changes of the tails can modulate the DNA accessibility within a few nanoseconds. # 2007

  4. Transfer of a weakly bound electron in collisions of Rydberg atoms with neutral particles. II. Ion-pair formation and resonant quenching of the Rb(nl) and Ne(nl) States by Ca, Sr, and Ba atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Narits, A. A.; Mironchuk, E. S.; Lebedev, V. S.

    2013-10-15

    Electron-transfer processes are studied in thermal collisions of Rydberg atoms with alkaline-earth Ca(4s{sup 2}), Sr(5s{sup 2}), and Ba(6s{sup 2}) atoms capable of forming negative ions with a weakly bound outermost p-electron. We consider the ion-pair formation and resonant quenching of highly excited atomic states caused by transitions between Rydberg covalent and ionic terms of a quasi-molecule produced in collisions of particles. The contributions of these reaction channels to the total depopulation cross section of Rydberg states of Rb(nl) and Ne(nl) atoms as functions of the principal quantum number n are compared for selectively excited nl-levels with l Much-Less-Than n and for states with large orbital quantum numbers l = n - 1, n - 2. It is shown that the contribution from resonant quenching dominates at small values of n, and the ion-pair formation process begins to dominate with increasing n. The values and positions of the maxima of cross sections for both processes strongly depend on the electron affinity of an alkaline-earth atom and on the orbital angular momentum l of a highly excited atom. It is shown that in the case of Rydberg atoms in states with large l {approx} n - 1, the rate constants of ion-pair formation and collisional quenching are considerably lower than those for nl-levels with l Much-Less-Than n.

  5. An international conference in honour of the centennial of the birth of Ya.B. Zeldovich, "Subatomic Particles, Nucleons, Atoms, the Universe: Processes and Structure"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilin, S. Ya.; Ruffini, R.; Vereshchagin, G.

    2015-06-01

    An international conference in honour of the centennial of the birth of Ya.B. Zeldovich, "Subatomic Particles, Nucleons, Atoms, the Universe: Processes and Structure" was held in Minsk, Belarus on March 10-14, 2014. Scientific papers based on plenary presentations made at this conference are being published in Volumes 6 and 7, 2015 of "Astronomy Reports."

  6. Single atomic particle at rest in free space : new value for electron radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehmelt, H.

    Zero-point confinement in a suitable trap is briefly discussed as a quantum-mechanical equivalent of the classical single particle at rest in free space. So far, such confinement has been realized only for the 150 GHz cyclotron motion in geonium, a single electron permanently confined in a Penning trap. The most important result of mono-ion spectroscopy is a new, 10 000 times smaller, radius for the electron. This result was obtained by analyzing our g-factor data, g/2 = 1.001 159 652 193 (4), on the basis of a near-Dirac particle model. RF spectroscopy in geonium relies on the Continuous Stem Gerlach Effect in which a spin flip is detected as a small change in the ~ 60 MHz axial oscillation frequency of the electron in the trap. The Kaufmann Effect or relativistic mass shift may become a superior alternative : operating a geonium apparatus as a frequency selective mini-synchro-cyclotron has produced an easily detectable shift in the axial frequency. Like in Habann's 1926 split-anode magnetron, energy is quickly transferred from the oscillating electron to a resonant circuit, but by us for the purpose of detection, damping and cooling of the oscillatory motion. Conversely, localizing the electron to ~ 60 μm in the node of a standing wave in the trap cavity, where this cavity looks like a short, when it is resonant with the cyclotron motion, has made it possible to decrease the natural line width ten-fold. By driving the axial frequency not on resonance but on a side band higher by the ~ 12 kHz magnetron frequency, it has been possible to force the magnetron motion to absorb the excess in the photon energy and thereby shrink the magnetron radius to ~ 15 μm. By an analogous laser spectroscopic procedure the oscillation amplitude of a Ba+ ion in a different trap has been reduced to ~ 120 nm or less. Like in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, confinement is now much smaller than the wave length and no motional side bands appear in the optical spectrum. Such a mono

  7. All-Atom Continuous Constant pH Molecular Dynamics With Particle Mesh Ewald and Titratable Water.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yandong; Chen, Wei; Wallace, Jason A; Shen, Jana

    2016-11-08

    Development of a pH stat to properly control solution pH in biomolecular simulations has been a long-standing goal in the community. Toward this goal recent years have witnessed the emergence of the so-called constant pH molecular dynamics methods. However, the accuracy and generality of these methods have been hampered by the use of implicit-solvent models or truncation-based electrostatic schemes. Here we report the implementation of the particle mesh Ewald (PME) scheme into the all-atom continuous constant pH molecular dynamics (CpHMD) method, enabling CpHMD to be performed with a standard MD engine at a fractional added computational cost. We demonstrate the performance using pH replica-exchange CpHMD simulations with titratable water for a stringent test set of proteins, HP36, BBL, HEWL, and SNase. With the sampling time of 10 ns per replica, most pKa's are converged, yielding the average absolute and root-mean-square deviations of 0.61 and 0.77, respectively, from experiment. Linear regression of the calculated vs experimental pKa shifts gives a correlation coefficient of 0.79, a slope of 1, and an intercept near 0. Analysis reveals inadequate sampling of structure relaxation accompanying a protonation-state switch as a major source of the remaining errors, which are reduced as simulation prolongs. These data suggest PME-based CpHMD can be used as a general tool for pH-controlled simulations of macromolecular systems in various environments, enabling atomic insights into pH-dependent phenomena involving not only soluble proteins but also transmembrane proteins, nucleic acids, surfactants, and polysaccharides.

  8. Characteristics of hypervelocity impact craters on LDEF experiment S1003 and implications of small particle impacts on reflective surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirtich, Michael J.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Devries, Christopher; Merrow, James E.

    1993-01-01

    The Ion Beam textured and coated surfaces EXperiment (IBEX), designated S1003, was flown on LDEF at a location 98 deg in a north facing direction relative to the ram direction. Thirty-six diverse materials were exposed to the micrometeoroid (and some debris) environment for 5.8 years. Optical property measurements indicated no changes for almost all of the materials except S-13G, Kapton, and Kapton-coated surfaces, and these changes can be explained by other environmental effects. From the predicted micrometeoroid flux of NASA SP-8013, no significant changes in optical properties of the surfaces due to micrometeoroids were expected. There were hypervelocity impacts on the various diverse materials flown on IBEX, and the characteristics of these craters were documented using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The S1003 alumigold-coated aluminum cover tray was sectioned into 2 cm x 2 cm pieces for crater documentation. The flux curve generated from this crater data fits well between the 1969 micrometeoroid model and the Kessler debris model for particles less than 10(exp -9) gm which were corrected for the S1003 positions (98 deg to ram). As the particle mass increases, the S1003 impact data is greater than that predicted by even the debris model. This, however, is consistent with data taken on intercostal F07 by the Micrometeoroid/Debris Special Investigating Group (M/D SIG). The mirrored surface micrometeoroid detector flown on IBEX showed no change in solar reflectance and corroborated the S1003 flux curve, as well as results of this surface flown on SERT 2 and OSO 3 for as long as 21 years.

  9. Influence of particle and surface quality on the vitrinite reflectance of dispersed organic matter: Comparative exercise using data from the qualifying system for reflectance analysis working group of ICCP

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borrego, A.G.; Araujo, C.V.; Balke, A.; Cardott, B.; Cook, A.C.; David, P.; Flores, D.; Hamor-Vido, M.; Hiltmann, W.; Kalkreuth, W.; Koch, J.; Kommeren, C.J.; Kus, J.; Ligouis, B.; Marques, M.; Mendonca, Filho J.G.; Misz, M.; Oliveira, L.; Pickel, W.; Reimer, K.; Ranasinghe, P.; Suarez-Ruiz, I.; Vieth, A.

    2006-01-01

    The development of a qualifying system for reflectance analysis has been the scope of a working group within the International Committee for Coal and Organic Petrology (ICCP) since 1999, when J. Koch presented a system to qualify vitrinite particles according to their size, proximity to bright components and homogeneity of the surface. After some years of work aimed at improving the classification system using photomicrographs, it was decided to run a round robin exercise on microscopy samples. The classification system tested consists of three qualifiers ranging from excellent to low quality vitrinites with an additional option for unsuitable vitrinites. This paper reports on the results obtained by 22 analysts who were asked to measure random reflectance readings on vitrinite particles assigning to each reading a qualifier. Four samples containing different organic matter types and a variety of vitrinite occurrences have been analysed. Results indicated that the reflectance of particles classified as excellent, good or poor compared to the total average reflectance did not show trends to be systematically lower or higher for the four samples analysed. The differences in reflectance between the qualifiers for any given sample were lower than the scatter of vitrinite reflectance among participants. Overall, satisfactory results were obtained in determining the reflectance of vitrinite in the four samples analysed. This was so for samples having abundant and easy to identify vitrinites (higher plant-derived organic matter) as well as for samples with scarce and difficult to identify particles (samples with dominant marine-derived organic matter). The highest discrepancies were found for the organic-rich oil shales where the selection of the vitrinite population to measure proved to be particularly difficult. Special instructions should be provided for the analysis of this sort of samples. The certainty of identification of the vitrinite associated with the vitrinite

  10. Particle size distribution of river-suspended sediments determined by in situ measured remote-sensing reflectance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanzhi; Huang, Zhaojun; Chen, Chuqun; He, Yijun; Jiang, Tingchen

    2015-07-10

    Suspended sediments in water bodies are classified into organic and inorganic matter and have been investigated by remote-sensing technology for years. Focusing on inorganic matter, however, detailed information such as the grain size of this matter has not been provided yet. In this study, we present a new solution for estimating inorganic suspended sediments' size distribution in highly complex Case 2 waters by using a simple spectrometer sensor rather than a backscattering sensor. An experiment was carried out in the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) in the dry season to collect the remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) and particle size distribution (PSD) of inorganic suspended sediments. Based on Mie theory, PSDs in the PRE waters were retrieved by Rrs, colored dissolved organic matter, and phytoplankton. The retrieved median diameters in 12 stations show good agreement with those of laboratory analysis at root mean square error of 2.604 μm (27.63%), bias of 1.924 μm (20.42%), and mean absolute error of 2.298 μm (24.37%). The retrieved PSDs and previous PSDs were compared, and the features of PSDs in the PRE waters were concluded.

  11. Focussed beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) monitoring of particle size and morphology in suspension cultures of Morinda citrifolia and Centaurea calcitrapa.

    PubMed

    Jeffers, Paul; Raposo, Sara; Lima-Costa, Maria-Emilia; Connolly, Patricia; Glennon, Brian; Kieran, Patricia M

    2003-12-01

    Laser light scattering technology, as applied in the Lasentec focussed beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) system, was used to characterise two morphologically dissimilar plant cell suspension cultures, Morinda citrifolia and Centaurea calcitrapa. Shake-flask suspensions were analysed in terms of biomass concentration and aggregate size/shape over the course of typical batch growth cycles. For the heavily aggregated C. calcitrapa, biomass levels [from 10-160 g fresh weight (fw) l(-1))] were linearly correlated with FBRM counts. For M. citrifolia, which grows in unbranched chains of 2-10 elongated cells, linear correlation of biomass concentration with FBRM counts was applicable in the range 0-100 g fw l(-1); at higher levels (100-300 g fw l(-1)), biomass was non-linearly correlated with FBRM counts and length-weighted average FBRM chord length. For both cell systems, particle morphology (size/shape) was quantified using semi-automated digital image analysis. The average aggregate equivalent diameter (C. calcitrapa) and average chain length (M. citrifolia), determined using image analysis, closely tracked the FBRM average chord length. The data clearly demonstrate the potential for applying the FBRM technique for rapid characterisation of plant cell suspension cultures.

  12. Analytic expressions for Atomic Layer Deposition: coverage, throughput, and materials utilization in cross-flow, particle coating, and spatial ALD

    SciTech Connect

    Yanguas-Gil, Angel; Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2014-05-01

    In this work, the authors present analytic models for atomic layer deposition (ALD) in three common experimental configurations: cross-flow, particle coating, and spatial ALD. These models, based on the plug-flow and well-mixed approximations, allow us to determine the minimum dose times and materials utilization for all three configurations. A comparison between the three models shows that throughput and precursor utilization can each be expressed by universal equations, in which the particularity of the experimental system is contained in a single parameter related to the residence time of the precursor in the reactor. For the case of cross-flow reactors, the authors show how simple analytic expressions for the reactor saturation profiles agree well with experimental results. Consequently, the analytic model can be used to extract information about the ALD surface chemistry (e. g., the reaction probability) by comparing the analytic and experimental saturation profiles, providing a useful tool for characterizing new and existing ALD processes. (C) 2014 American Vacuum Society

  13. MODELING REFLECTANCE AND TRANSMITTANCE OF QUARTZ-FIBER FILTER SAMPLES CONTAINING ELEMENTAL CARBON PARTICLES: IMPLICATIONS FOR THERMAL/OPTICAL ANALYSIS. (R831086)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A radiative transfer scheme that considers absorption, scattering, and distribution of light-absorbing elemental carbon (EC) particles collected on a quartz-fiber filter was developed to explain simultaneous filter reflectance and transmittance observations prior to and during...

  14. The Development of Dalton's Atomic Theory as a Case Study in the History of Science: Reflections for Educators in Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viana, Hélio Elael Bonini; Porto, Paulo Alves

    2010-01-01

    The inclusion of the history of science in science curricula—and specially, in the curricula of science teachers—is a trend that has been followed in several countries. The reasons advanced for the study of the history of science are manifold. This paper presents a case study in the history of chemistry, on the early developments of John Dalton’s atomic theory. Based on the case study, several questions that are worth discussing in educational contexts are pointed out. It is argued that the kind of history of science that was made in the first decades of the twentieth century (encyclopaedic, continuist, essentially anachronistic) is not appropriate for the development of the competences that are expected from the students of sciences in the present. Science teaching for current days will benefit from the approach that may be termed the “new historiography of science”.

  15. Reflectance spectroscopy of low atomic weight and Na-rich minerals: Borates, hydroxides, nitrates, nitrites, and peroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloutis, E.; Berg, B.; Mann, P.; Applin, D.

    2016-01-01

    We have measured reflectance spectra (0.35-20 μm) of a suite of minerals and synthetic compounds that contain low-Z (⩽Na) elements as the major cation and/or the major anion in oxides/oxyhydroxides, and are relevant to planetary geology and astrobiology. The suite comprises Na-borates, Na-, K-, Ca-hydroxides, nitrates, nitrites, and peroxides. Na-borate spectra exhibit B-O fundamental vibrations between 7 and 14 μm, and overtones/combinations of these bands in the 1.55, 1.75, 2.15, and 2.25 μm regions. Na-, K-, and Ca-hydroxide reflectance spectra are characterized by OH and metal-OH fundamental vibrations near 3, 8, and 18 μm, and a number of overtone and combination absorption bands at shorter wavelengths, and a characteristic metal-OH band near 2.35 μm. The nitrate and nitrite spectra exhibit fundamental N-O vibrations in the 7-14 μm region and numerous combinations and overtones that are still detectable to as low as ∼1.8 μm. Na-peroxide is largely spectrally featureless below 24 μm, making its detection problematic, while H-peroxide has many OH-related absorption features below 2.5 μm that differ in position from those of H2O ice and liquid. The results of this study indicate that the borates, hydroxides, nitrates, nitrite, and hydrogen peroxide can all be uniquely identified using characteristic absorption features that are present below 2.5 μm. However, some of these features are weak, and their detectability will depend on the types and abundances of any accessory phases that may be present.

  16. Experiences and Reflections about Teaching Atomic Structure in a Jigsaw Classroom in Lower Secondary School Chemistry Lessons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilks, Ingo

    2005-02-01

    This article describes and discusses an example of how atomic structure can be taught in lower secondary chemistry using a modified jigsaw-classroom method. The lesson was taught in grades 9 and 10 (age range 15 17 years) chemistry in 13 learning groups with a total of 313 students in various grammar, middle, and comprehensive schools in Germany. The written evaluation of the lesson focused on determining the students’ opinions on the teaching methods that were used. Emphasis was on gathering information from the students’ viewpoint. Did the students think that these methods could make science lessons more attractive? Could these methods help to promote more active student learning, cooperative learning, or communicative and social abilities? Additional data that were derived from a cognitive test and teacher feedback are also presented. The results of the study show that teaching methods like the jigsaw classroom have potential to improve students’ attitude towards science. The results may also indicate that it is appropriate to demand that student-oriented and cooperative-learning methods be used more often in secondary level science education.

  17. Design and demonstration of a system for the deposition of atomic-oxygen durable coatings for reflective solar dynamic power system concentrators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclure, Donald J.

    1988-01-01

    A system for the vacuum deposition of atomic-oxygen durable coatings for reflective solar dynamic power systems (SDPS) concentrators was designed and demonstrated. The design issues pertinent to SDPS were developed by the Government Aerospace Systems Division of the Harris Corporation and are described in NASA-CR-179489. Both design and demonstration phases have been completed. At the time of this report the deposition system was ready for coating of facets for SDPS concentrators. The materials issue relevant to the coating work were not entirely resolved. These issues can only be resolved when substrates which are comparable to those which will be used in flight hardware are available. The substrates available during the contract period were deficient in the areas of surface roughness and contamination. These issues are discussed more thoroughly in the body of the report.

  18. Atomizing nozzle and process

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, I.E.; Figliola, R.S.; Molnar, H.M.

    1993-07-20

    High pressure atomizing nozzle includes a high pressure gas manifold having a divergent expansion chamber between a gas inlet and arcuate manifold segment to minimize standing shock wave patterns in the manifold and thereby improve filling of the manifold with high pressure gas for improved melt atomization. The atomizing nozzle is especially useful in atomizing rare earth-transition metal alloys to form fine powder particles wherein a majority of the powder particles exhibit particle sizes having near-optimum magnetic properties.

  19. Atomizing nozzle and process

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E.; Figliola, Richard S.; Molnar, Holly M.

    1992-06-30

    High pressure atomizing nozzle includes a high pressure gas manifold having a divergent expansion chamber between a gas inlet and arcuate manifold segment to minimize standing shock wave patterns in the manifold and thereby improve filling of the manifold with high pressure gas for improved melt atomization. The atomizing nozzle is especially useful in atomizing rare earth-transition metal alloys to form fine powder particles wherein a majority of the powder particles exhibit particle sizes having near-optimum magnetic properties.

  20. The Nature of Atoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Alan

    This monograph was written for the purpose of presenting physics to college students who are not preparing for careers in physics. It deals with the nature of atoms, and treats the following topics: (1) the atomic hypothesis, (2) the chemical elements, (3) models of an atom, (4) a particle in a one-dimensional well, (5) a particle in a central…

  1. Effects due to adsorbed atoms upon angular and energy distributions of surface produced negative hydrogen ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, M.; Bacal, M.; Kasuya, T.; Kato, S.; Kenmotsu, T.; Sasao, M.

    2013-02-01

    Exposure to Cs added hydrogen discharge makes surface of plasma grid of a negative hydrogen ion source covered with Cs and hydrogen. A Monte-Carlo particle simulation code ACAT was run to evaluate the effects due to adsorbed Cs and H atoms upon the angular and energy distributions of H atoms leaving the surface. Accumulation of H atoms on the surface reduces particle reflection coefficients and the mean energy of backscattered H atoms. Angular distributions of H atoms reflected from the hydrogen covered surface tend to be under-cosine at lower energies. Desorption of adsorbed H atoms is more efficient for hydrogen positive ions than for Cs positive ions at lower incident energy. At higher energy more than 100 eV, Cs ions desorb adsorbed H atoms more efficiently than hydrogen ions.

  2. Indentation analysis of nano-particle using nano-contact mechanics models during nano-manipulation based on atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daeinabi, Khadijeh; Korayem, Moharam Habibnejad

    2011-03-01

    Atomic force microscopy is applied to measure intermolecular forces and mechanical properties of materials, nano-particle manipulation, surface scanning and imaging with atomic accuracy in the nano-world. During nano-manipulation process, contact forces cause indentation in contact area between nano-particle and tip/substrate which is considerable at nano-scale and affects the nano-manipulation process. Several nano-contact mechanics models such as Hertz, Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov (DMT), Johnson-Kendall-Roberts-Sperling (JKRS), Burnham-Colton-Pollock (BCP), Maugis-Dugdale (MD), Carpick-Ogletree-Salmeron (COS), Pietrement-Troyon (PT), and Sun et al. have been applied as the continuum mechanics approaches at nano-scale. In this article, indentation depth and contact radius between tip and substrate with nano-particle for both spherical and conical tip shape during nano-manipulation process are analyzed and compared by applying theoretical, semiempirical, and empirical nano-contact mechanics models. The effects of adhesion force, as the main contrast point in different nano-contact mechanics models, on nano-manipulation analysis is investigated for different contact radius, and the critical point is discussed for mentioned models.

  3. Transfer of a weakly bound electron in collisions of Rydberg atoms with neutral particles. I. Long-range interaction effects in the ionic-covalent coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, V. S. Narits, A. A.

    2013-10-15

    Ion-pair formation processes are studied in collisions of Rydberg atoms with neutral particles possessing small electron affinities. Nonadiabatic transitions from a Rydberg covalent term to an ionic term of a quasi-molecule are considered using the modified Landau-Zener theory supplemented with calculation of survival factors of an anion decaying in the Coulomb field of a positive ion core. Using the technique of irreducible tensor operators and the momentum representation of the wavefunction of a highly excited atom, exact expressions are obtained for transition matrix elements and the ionic-covalent coupling parameter. The approach developed in the paper provides the description beyond the scope of a conventional assumption about a small variation of the wavefunction of the Rydberg atom on the range of electron coordinates determined by the characteristic radius of the wavefunction of the anion. This allows one to correctly consider long-range effects of the interaction between a weakly bound electron and the neutral core of a negative ion in processes under study. It is shown by the example of thermal collisions of Xe(nf) atoms with CH{sub 3}CN molecules that this is very important for a reliable quantitative description of anion formation with a low binding energy. The results are compared with experiments and calculations performed within the framework of a number of approximate methods.

  4. Comprehensive Size-Determination of Whole Virus Vaccine Particles Using Gas-Phase Electrophoretic Mobility Macromolecular Analyzer, Atomic Force Microscopy, and Transmission Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Havlik, Marlene; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Friedbacher, Gernot; Winkler, Wolfgang; Messner, Paul; Perez-Burgos, Laura; Tauer, Christa; Allmaier, Günter

    2015-01-01

    Biophysical properties including particle size distribution, integrity, and shape of whole virus vaccine particles at different stages in tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) vaccines formulation were analyzed by a new set of methods. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) was used as a conservative sample preparation for vaccine particle fractionation and gas-phase electrophoretic mobility macromolecular analyzer (GEMMA) for analyzing electrophoretic mobility diameters of isolated TBE virions. The derived particle diameter was then correlated with molecular weight. The diameter of the TBE virions determined after SEC by GEMMA instrumentation was 46.8 ± 1.1 nm. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were implemented for comparison purposes and to gain morphological information on the virion particle. Western blotting (Dot Blot) as an immunological method confirmed biological activity of the particles at various stages of the developed analytical strategy. AFM and TEM measurements revealed higher diameters with much higher SD for a limited number of virions, 60.4 ± 8.5 and 53.5 ± 5.3 nm, respectively. GEMMA instrumentation was also used for fractionation of virions with specifically selected diameters in the gas-phase, which were finally collected by means of an electrostatic sampler. At that point (i.e., after particle collection), AFM and TEM showed that the sampled virions were still intact, exhibiting a narrow size distribution (i.e., 59.8 ± 7.8 nm for AFM and 47.5 ± 5.2 nm for TEM images), and most importantly, dot blotting confirmed immunological activity of the collected samples. Furthermore dimers and virion artifacts were detected, too. PMID:26266988

  5. Semi-Relativistic Reflection and Transmission Coefficients for Two Spinless Particles Separated by a Rectangular-Shaped Potential Barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thylwe, K. E.; Oluwadare, O. J.; Oyewumi, K. J.

    2016-10-01

    A generalized Schrödinger approximation, due to Ikhdair & Sever, of the semi-relativistic two-body problem with a rectangular barrier in (1+1) dimensions is compared with exact computations. Exact and approximate transmission and reflection coefficients are obtained in terms of local wave numbers. The approximate transmission and reflection coefficients turn out to be surprisingly accurate in an energy range |ɛ - V0| < 2μc2, where μ is the reduced mass, ɛ the scattering energy, and V0 the barrier top energy. The approximate wave numbers are less accurate.

  6. Effect of Deficit Irrigation and Kaolin-based Foliar Reflectant Particle Film on Aroma of cv. Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water deficit during development of red-skinned wine grape enhances berry composition for wine production but increases risk of fruit exposure to deleterious levels of heat and/or solar radiation. Foliar application of a kaolin-based particle film has been shown in many crops to alleviate stress sym...

  7. The n-particle picture and the calculation of the electronic structure of atoms, molecules, and solids

    SciTech Connect

    Gonis, A.; Turchi, P.E.A.; Schulthess, T.C.; Ek, J. van

    1997-08-01

    The works referred to above indicate the usefulness of viewing an N-particle system from a higher-dimensional perspective. In doing so, one should attempt to strike a balance between conceptual clarity and computational efficiency, which mitigates against considering calculations in 3n-dimensional space except for rather small values of n. It appears that such a procedure may be profitably employed if a system of N particles were to be considered as consisting of a collection of units or sets, (I{sub k}), each containing n{sub k} particles so that {Sigma}{sub k} n{sub k} = N. The resulting problem associated with these sets of particles that interact with one another is obviously formally identical to the original one. However, it possesses the formal advantage of allowing, in principle, the systematic approach to an exact solution by treating the entire system as a single unit. The operative words here are in principle, as practical applications do not seem to be possible but for the smallest number of particles in a unit, say n = 2 or n = 3. However, in such an implementation, the interparticle correlation is treated directly and explicitly within a unit, resulting in a more accurate treatment of the system the larger the number of particle in a unit.

  8. Proposed Studies Of Radiation Damping In Laser Interaction With An Ultra-thin, Coherently Reflecting Electron Sheet, Regarded As A Macro-particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habs, D.; Kiefer, D.; Henig, A.; Hörlein, R.; Schreiber, J.; Allinger, K.; Bin, J.; Thirolf, P.; Lang, C.; Yamazaki, T.; Homma, K.

    2010-04-01

    We introduce the concept of an ultra-thin, dense electron sheet as a macro-particle—similar to an electron microbunch of an FEL—where N electrons coherently reflect in the inner rest frame of the bunch. This ultra-thin electron sheet is pushed out off an ultra-thin Diamond-Like Carbon (DLC) target by a driver laser and acts as a relativistic flying mirror [1, 2] for a production laser. The space charge forces of the electron sheet are balanced by the trapping fields of the driver laser, of the remaining ion sheet and of the counter propagating production laser, resulting in longitudinally bound electrons. Like in the Mössbauer effect of nuclei the photon recoil is taken up by the N electrons of the macro-particle. The Landau-Lifshitz equation [3] for the classical radiation damping reaction of an external laser force Fext, here especially the Lorentz force, has been deduced as the first and second term in a Taylor series expansion ∑n = o∞(1/n!)(τ0)ndnFext/dtn, where τ0 = 2e2/(3mec3) = r0/c is the critical time and r0 is the classical electron radius. For the macro-particle the mass me is replaced by M = Nṡme, the charge e by q = Nṡe and the critical time τ0 by τmac = Nṡτ0. Thus the reflected fields and the radiation damping fields can be strongly enhanced and studied experimentally. Here we can test experimentally how higher order terms of the Taylor expansion contribute. For higher orders n the number N is reduced due the reduced coherence volume of the electron sheet, resulting in a convergence of the power series. Possible higher order terms increase the reflectivity of the relativistic mirror further and lead to much higher fields, which may even reach the Schwinger limit for the vacuum. They also would result in Doppler boosted higher order Landau-Lifshitz harmonics. In quantum mechanics new acceleration radiation effects like the Unruh effect [4, 5] are predicted, where now the single detector-like electron may be replaced by the N

  9. Single-particle characterization of atmospheric aerosols collected at Gosan, Korea, during the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment field campaign using low-Z (atomic number) particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Geng, Hong; Cheng, Fangqin; Ro, Chul-Un

    2011-11-01

    A quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis (ED-EPMA), namely low-Z (atomic number) particle EPMA, was used to characterize the chemical compositions of the individual aerosol particles collected at the Gosan supersite, Jeju Island, Korea, as a part of the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia). On 4-10 April 2001 just before a severe dust storm arrived, seven sets of aerosol samples were obtained by a seven-stage May cascade impactor with a flow rate of 20 L/min. Overall 11,200 particles on stages 1-6 with cutoff diameters of 16, 8, 4, 2, 1, and 0.5 microm, respectively, were examined and classified based on their secondary electron images and X-ray spectra. In general, sea salt particles were the most frequently encountered, followed by mineral dust, organic carbon (OC)-like, (NH4)2SO4/NH4HSO4-containing, elemental carbon (EC)-like, Fe-rich, and K-rich particles. Sea salt and mineral dust particles had a higher relative abundance on stages 1-5, whereas OC-like, (NH4)2SO4/NH4HSO4-containing, Fe-rich, and K-rich particles were relatively abundant on stage 6. The analysis on relative number abundances of various particle types combined with 72-hr backward air mass trajectories indicated that a lot of reacted sea salt and reacted mineral dust (with airborne NOx and SO2 or their acidic products) and OC-like particles were carried by the air masses passing over the Yellow Sea (for sample "10 April") and many NH4HSO4/ (NH4)2SO4-containing particles were carried by the air masses passing over the Sea of Japan and Korea Strait (for samples "4-9 April"). It was concluded that the atmosphere over Jeju Island was influenced by anthropogenic SO2 and NOx, organic compounds, and secondary aerosols when Asian dust was absent.

  10. Pigment particles analysis with a total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer: study of influence of instrumental parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coccato, Alessia; Vekemans, Bart; Vincze, Laszlo; Moens, Luc; Vandenabeele, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis is an excellent tool to determine major, minor and trace elements in minuscule amounts of samples, making this technique very suitable for pigment analysis. Collecting minuscule amounts of pigment material from precious works of art by means of a cotton swab is a well-accepted sampling method, but poses specific challenges when TXRF is to be used for the characterization of the unknown material.

  11. Spatially and spectrally resolved particle swarm optimization for precise optical property estimation using diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kholodtsova, Maria N; Daul, Christian; Loschenov, Victor B; Blondel, Walter C P M

    2016-06-13

    This paper presents a new approach to estimate optical properties (absorption and scattering coefficients µa and µs) of biological tissues from spatially-resolved spectroscopy measurements. A Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)-based algorithm was implemented and firstly modified to deal with spatial and spectral resolutions of the data, and to solve the corresponding inverse problem. Secondly, the optimization was improved by fitting exponential decays to the two best points among all clusters of the "particles" randomly distributed all over the parameter space (µs, µa) of possible solutions. The consequent acceleration of all the groups of particles to the "best" curve leads to significant error decrease in the optical property estimation. The study analyzes the estimated optical property error as a function of the various PSO parameter combinations, and several performance criteria such as the cost-function error and the number of iterations in the algorithms proposed. The final one led to error values between ground truth and estimated values of µs and µa less than 6%.

  12. Predicting the stability of atom-like and molecule-like unit-charge Coulomb three-particle systems.

    PubMed

    King, Andrew W; Herlihy, Patrick E; Cox, Hazel

    2014-07-28

    Non-relativistic quantum chemical calculations of the particle mass, m±2, corresponding to the dissociation threshold in a range of Coulomb three-particle systems of the form m±1m±2m±3, are performed variationally using a series solution method with a Laguerre-based wavefunction. These masses are used to calculate an accurate stability boundary, i.e., the line that separates the stability domain from the instability domains, in a reciprocal mass fraction ternary diagram. This result is compared to a lower bound to the stability domain derived from symmetric systems and reveals the importance of the asymmetric (mass-symmetry breaking) terms in the Hamiltonian at dissociation. A functional fit to the stability boundary data provides a simple analytical expression for calculating the minimum mass of a third particle required for stable binding to a two-particle system, i.e., for predicting the bound state stability of any unit-charge three-particle system.

  13. Microstructural evolution and magnetic properties of ultrafine solute-atom particles formed in a Cu75-Ni20-Fe5 alloy on isothermal annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jun-Seop; Takeda, Mahoto; Bae, Dong-Sik

    2016-12-01

    Microstructural features strongly affect magnetism in nano-granular magnetic materials. In the present work we have investigated the relationship between the magnetic properties and the self-organized microstructure formed in a Cu75-Ni20-Fe5 alloy comprising ferromagnetic elements and copper atoms. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations showed that on isothermal annealing at 873 K, nano-scale solute (Fe,Ni)-rich clusters initially formed with a random distribution in the Cu-rich matrix. Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) measurements revealed that these ultrafine solute clusters exhibited super-spinglass and superparamagnetic states. On further isothermal annealing the precipitates evolved to cubic or rectangular ferromagnetic particles and aligned along the <100> directions of the copper-rich matrix. Electron energy-band calculations based on the first-principle Korringa-Kohn-Rostocker (KKR) method were also implemented to investigate both the electronic structure and the magnetic properties of the alloy. Inputting compositions obtained experimentally by scanning transmission electron microscopy-electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) analysis, the KKR calculation confirmed that ferromagnetic precipitates (of moment 1.07μB per atom) formed after annealing for 2 × 104 min. Magneto-thermogravimetric (MTG) analysis determined with high sensitivity the Curie temperatures and magnetic susceptibility above room temperature of samples containing nano-scale ferromagnetic particles.

  14. Orbital motion of dust particles in an rf magnetron discharge. Ion drag force or neutral atom wind force

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, A. F.; Ryabinkin, A. N.; Serov, A. O.; Dyatko, N. A.; Starostin, A. N.; Filippov, A. V.

    2012-03-15

    Microparticles with sizes up to 130 {mu}m have been confined and the velocity and diameter of particles in a plasma trap of an rf magnetron discharge with an arc magnetic field have been simultaneously measured. The motion of the gas induced by electron and ion cyclotron currents has been numerically simulated using the Navier-Stokes equation. The experimental and numerical results confirm the mechanism of the orbital motion of dust particles in the magnetron discharge plasma that is associated with the orbital motion of the neutral gas accelerated by electron and ion drift flows in crossed electric and magnetic fields.

  15. Concentration of circulating miRNA-containing particles in serum enhances miRNA detection and reflects CRC tissue-related deregulations

    PubMed Central

    ElSharawy, Abdou; Röder, Christian; Becker, Thomas; Habermann, Jens K.; Schreiber, Stefan; Rosenstiel, Philip; Kalthoff, Holger

    2016-01-01

    The emerging potential of miRNAs as biomarkers for cancer detection demands parallel evaluation of strategies for reliable identification of disease-related signatures from easily accessible and pertinent body compartments. Here, we addressed whether efficient concentration of circulating miRNA-carrying particles is a rationale for miRNA biomarker discovery. We systematically compared miRNA signatures in 93 RNA preparations from three serum entities (whole serum, particle-concentrated, and particle-depleted fractions) and corresponding tissue samples from patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) as a model disease. Significant differences between whole sera and particle-concentrated serum fractions of CRC patients emerged for 45 of 742 tested miRNAs. Twenty-eight of these 45 miRNAs were differentially expressed between particle-concentrated serum fractions of metastatic CRC- and healthy individuals. Over half of these candidates (15 of 28) showed deregulations only in concentrated serum fractions, but not in whole sera, compared to the respective controls. Our results also provided evidence of a consistent downregulation of miR-486 and miR-92a, and further showed a possible “strand-specific” deregulation of extracellular miRNAs in CRC. More importantly, most of the identified miRNAs in the enriched sera reflected the patterns of the corresponding tumor tissues and showed links to cancer-related inflammation. Further investigation of seven serum pools revealed a subset of potential extracellular miRNA candidates to be implicated in both neoplastic and inflammatory bowel disease. Our findings demonstrate that enrichment and sensitive detection of miRNA carriers is a promising approach to detect CRC-related pathological changes in liquid biopsies, and has potential for clinical diagnostics. PMID:27683108

  16. Waves and Particles--The Orbital Atom, Parts One & Two of an Integrated Science Sequence, Student Guide, 1971 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Project Committee, OR.

    The third year of the Portland Project, a three-year secondary school curriculum in integrated science, consists of four parts, the first two of which are covered in this student guide. The reading assignments for part one, "Waves and Particles," are listed in the student guide and are to be read in the Harvard Project Physics textbook.…

  17. Calculation of effective atomic number and electron density of essential biomolecules for electron, proton, alpha particle and multi-energetic photon interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurudirek, Murat; Onaran, Tayfur

    2015-07-01

    Effective atomic numbers (Zeff) and electron densities (Ne) of some essential biomolecules have been calculated for total electron interaction, total proton interaction and total alpha particle interaction using an interpolation method in the energy region 10 keV-1 GeV. Also, the spectrum weighted Zeff for multi-energetic photons has been calculated using Auto-Zeff program. Biomolecules consist of fatty acids, amino acids, carbohydrates and basic nucleotides of DNA and RNA. Variations of Zeff and Ne with kinetic energy of ionizing charged particles and effective photon energies of heterogeneous sources have been studied for the given materials. Significant variations in Zeff and Ne have been observed through the entire energy region for electron, proton and alpha particle interactions. Non-uniform variation has been observed for protons and alpha particles in low and intermediate energy regions, respectively. The maximum values of Zeff have found to be in higher energies for total electron interaction whereas maximum values have found to be in relatively low energies for total proton and total alpha particle interactions. When it comes to the multi-energetic photon sources, it has to be noted that the highest Zeff values were found at low energy region where photoelectric absorption is the pre-dominant interaction process. The lowest values of Zeff have been shown in biomolecules such as stearic acid, leucine, mannitol and thymine, which have highest H content in their groups. Variation in Ne seems to be more or less the same with the variation in Zeff for the given materials as expected.

  18. Real-time particle size analysis using focused beam reflectance measurement as a process analytical technology tool for a continuous granulation-drying-milling process.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay; Taylor, Michael K; Mehrotra, Amit; Stagner, William C

    2013-06-01

    Focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) was used as a process analytical technology tool to perform inline real-time particle size analysis of a proprietary granulation manufactured using a continuous twin-screw granulation-drying-milling process. A significant relationship between D20, D50, and D80 length-weighted chord length and sieve particle size was observed with a p value of <0.0001 and R(2) of 0.886. A central composite response surface statistical design was used to evaluate the effect of granulator screw speed and Comil® impeller speed on the length-weighted chord length distribution (CLD) and particle size distribution (PSD) determined by FBRM and nested sieve analysis, respectively. The effect of granulator speed and mill speed on bulk density, tapped density, Compressibility Index, and Flowability Index were also investigated. An inline FBRM probe placed below the Comil-generated chord lengths and CLD data at designated times. The collection of the milled samples for sieve analysis and PSD evaluation were coordinated with the timing of the FBRM determinations. Both FBRM and sieve analysis resulted in similar bimodal distributions for all ten manufactured batches studied. Within the experimental space studied, the granulator screw speed (650-850 rpm) and Comil® impeller speed (1,000-2,000 rpm) did not have a significant effect on CLD, PSD, bulk density, tapped density, Compressibility Index, and Flowability Index (p value > 0.05).

  19. Surface Acidity and Properties of TiO2/SiO2 Catalysts Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition: UV-visible Diffuse Reflectance, DRIFTS, and Visible Raman Spectroscopy Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-15

    the grafted TiO2 were in a highly dispersed amorphous form.19 Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a thin film growth technique, which relies on self... Thin Films . U.S. Patent 4058430, 1977. (21) Ritala, M. Appl. Surf. Sci. 1997, 112, 223. TiO2 /SiO2 Catalysts Prepared by ALD J. Phys. Chem. C, Vol. 113...Surface Acidity and Properties of TiO2 /SiO2 Catalysts Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition: UV-visible Diffuse Reflectance, DRIFTS, and Visible Raman

  20. Formation of the muonic helium atom /alpha particle-muon-electron/ and observation of its Larmor precession

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souder, P. A.; Casperson, D. E.; Crane, T. W.; Hughes, V. W.; Lu, D. C.; Yam, M. H.; Orth, H.; Reist, H. W.; Zu Putlitz, G.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments are described in which it proved possible to form the muonic helium atom by stopping polarized negative muons in a helium gas with a 2% xenon admixture at a pressure of 14 atm. The observed Larmor precession amplitudes are plotted against the gyromagnetic ratio for both muons and antimuons stopped in He + 2% Xe. In addition, a non-zero residual polarization of 0.06 plus or minus 0.01 was measured for muons stopped in pure helium gas, which corresponds to a depolarization factor of 18 plus or minus 3.

  1. High resolution selective reflection spectroscopy as a probe of long-range surface interaction : measurement of the surface van der Waals attraction exerted on excited Cs atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrollier, Martine; Fichet, Michèle; Oria, Marcos; Rahmat, Gabriel; Bloch, Daniel; Ducloy, Martial

    1992-04-01

    Selective reflection spectroscopy at an interface with a low-density resonant vapor, especially when combined with a frequency modulation technique, is a high-resolution Doppler-free tool for probing atoms interacting with a surface. We analyze different types of relevant surface interaction, emphasizing the spectral consequences of a van der Waals surface attraction associated to a z^{-3} potential dependence (z: distance to the wall). We present detailed results of two series of experiments at a Cs vapor/dielectric window interface on the 6S{1/2}-6P{3/2} (λ = 852 nm) resonance line and on the 6S{1/2}-7P second resonance line (λ = 455 nm and 459 nm). Lineshape analysis at various pressures consistently shows that a van der Waals-type surface attraction has to be considered to interpret strong lineshape distortions and resonance shift. The attractive strengths are found to be equal respectively to ≈ 2 kHz μm^3 and ≈ 20 kHz μm^3, independently of the considered hyperfine component, within the experimental accuracy. It yields also typical parameters of pressure broadening and shift, which are shown to originate in collisional processes, at densities where the medium is opaque. Theoretical expectations for the VW strength are discussed on the basis of the results of atomic theory. The predicted values are smaller, by a typical factor of 2, than those deduced from the experiments. The validity of the theory, when applied to a dielectric interface, is discussed and seems questionable when the frequency of virtual atomic transitions involved in the van der Waals attraction potential lies in the dielectric window absorption range. La spectroscopie de réflexion sélective à l'interface d'une vapeur résonnante de faible densité, combinée à une technique de modulation de fréquence, permet de sonder à haute résolution et sans effet Doppler des atomes en interaction avec une surface. On analyse différents types d'interaction de surface envisageables, en

  2. Particle Hardening in Creep-Resistant Mg-Alloy MRI 230D Probed by Nanoindenting Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backes, Björn; Durst, Karsten; Amberger, Dorothea; Göken, Mathias

    2009-02-01

    Two different Mg alloys, AZ91 and MRI 230D, have been investigated with the objective to understand the differences in high-temperature deformation behavior. AZ91 is known for its rather poor creep resistance; in contrast to this, MRI 230D is known to have a rather high resistance against plastic deformation at elevated temperatures. The microstructure and mechanical properties of as-cast and crept specimens of two Mg alloys (AZ91 and MRI 230D) were characterized by nanoindenting atomic force microscopy (NI-AFM). In the cell interior, a significant higher hardness was found for MRI 230D in comparison to AZ91. Precipitates with an average size of about 50 nm found in the cell interior of MRI 230D after creep deformation are discussed as the major hardening component.

  3. Determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in small samples by microbore ion chromatography and photometric, atomic absorption spectrometry and total-reflection X-ray fluorescence detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinner, T.; Hoffmann, P.; Ortner, H. M.

    1993-02-01

    Iron(II) and iron(III) are determined after separation on an ion Chromatographie column by various detection systems. "On-line" detection was achieved by the use of a photometer with a flow cell of 0.8 μl; for "off-line" detection, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry or total-reflection X-ray fluorescence were used. The applicability of the methods is shown for standard solutions and atmospheric samples. As a typical result, 50 μg/l of iron can be determined in a 10 μl sample with a nucrobore ion chromatograph-photometer and atomic absorption system and 40 μg/l of iron in a microbore ion chromatograph-total-reflection X-ray fluorescence combination.

  4. Commercial and Cost Effective Production of Two-Dimensional Read-Out Boards for Sub-Atomic Particle Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Crary, David; Majka, Richard

    2010-10-22

    We report results from research aimed at developing and demonstrating production of 2-D readout structures for GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) charged particle tracking chambers at Tech-Etch. Readout boards of two types, bi-planar and single plane, were fabricated and evaluated. The results show that Tech-Etch can produce suitable boards of either type however the single plane board has a number of advantages both in production and use that will likely make it the preferred choice for GEM tracking chambers.

  5. Annealing Behavior of Atomic Layer Deposited HfO2 Films Studied by Synchrotron X-ray Reflectivity and Grazing Incidence Small Angle Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.; Allen, A; Jordan-Sweet, J; Ilavsky, J

    2009-01-01

    New results are presented for the annealing behavior of ultrathin complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) gate dielectric HfO{sub 2} films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD). A series of ALD HfO{sub 2} dielectric films has been studied by a combination of x-ray reflectivity (XRR) and grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) measurements. By using these techniques together, we have shown that the surface, interfaces, and internal structure of thin ALD films can be characterized with unprecedented sensitivity. Changes in film thickness, film roughness, or diffuseness of the film/substrate interface as measured by XRR are correlated with the corresponding changes in the internal film nanostructure, as measured by GISAXS. Although the films are dense, an internal film structure is shown to exist, attributed primarily to {approx} 2 nm 'missing island' porosity features close to the substrate; these are most likely associated with coalescence defects as a result of initial ALD growth, as they are not observed in the upper regions of the film. Some 8-9 nm heterogeneities are also present, which may indicate a widespread modulation in the film density pervading the entire film volume, and which likely also give rise to surface roughness. Comparison of the data between different scattering geometries and among a carefully designed sequence of samples has enabled important insights to be derived for the annealing behavior of the ALD HfO{sub 2} films. The main effects of single, brief, high temperature excursions to above 900C are to anneal out some of the fine voids and reduce the mean roughness and interfacial diffuseness of the film. These changes are indicative of densification. However, depending on the film thickness, the annealing behavior at temperatures between 650 and 800C is quite different for single excursion and cyclic anneals. Particularly for thin, just-coalesced films, XRR indicates marked increases in the film thickness and in the

  6. Density relaxation and particle motion characteristics in a non-ionic deep eutectic solvent (acetamide + urea): time-resolved fluorescence measurements and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Das, Anuradha; Das, Suman; Biswas, Ranjit

    2015-01-21

    Temperature dependent relaxation dynamics, particle motion characteristics, and heterogeneity aspects of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) made of acetamide (CH3CONH2) and urea (NH2CONH2) have been investigated by employing time-resolved fluorescence measurements and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. Three different compositions (f) for the mixture [fCH3CONH2 + (1 - f)NH2CONH2] have been studied in a temperature range of 328-353 K which is ∼120-145 K above the measured glass transition temperatures (∼207 K) of these DESs but much lower than the individual melting temperature of either of the constituents. Steady state fluorescence emission measurements using probe solutes with sharply different lifetimes do not indicate any dependence on excitation wavelength in these metastable molten systems. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy measurements reveal near-hydrodynamic coupling between medium viscosity and rotation of a dissolved dipolar solute. Stokes shift dynamics have been found to be too fast to be detected by the time-resolution (∼70 ps) employed, suggesting extremely rapid medium polarization relaxation. All-atom simulations reveal Gaussian distribution for particle displacements and van Hove correlations, and significant overlap between non-Gaussian (α2) and new non-Gaussian (γ) heterogeneity parameters. In addition, no stretched exponential relaxations have been detected in the simulated wavenumber dependent acetamide dynamic structure factors. All these results are in sharp contrast to earlier observations for ionic deep eutectics with acetamide [Guchhait et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 104514 (2014)] and suggest a fundamental difference in interaction and dynamics between ionic and non-ionic deep eutectic solvent systems.

  7. Density relaxation and particle motion characteristics in a non-ionic deep eutectic solvent (acetamide + urea): Time-resolved fluorescence measurements and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Anuradha; Das, Suman; Biswas, Ranjit

    2015-01-21

    Temperature dependent relaxation dynamics, particle motion characteristics, and heterogeneity aspects of deep eutectic solvents (DESs) made of acetamide (CH{sub 3}CONH{sub 2}) and urea (NH{sub 2}CONH{sub 2}) have been investigated by employing time-resolved fluorescence measurements and all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. Three different compositions (f) for the mixture [fCH{sub 3}CONH{sub 2} + (1 − f)NH{sub 2}CONH{sub 2}] have been studied in a temperature range of 328-353 K which is ∼120-145 K above the measured glass transition temperatures (∼207 K) of these DESs but much lower than the individual melting temperature of either of the constituents. Steady state fluorescence emission measurements using probe solutes with sharply different lifetimes do not indicate any dependence on excitation wavelength in these metastable molten systems. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy measurements reveal near-hydrodynamic coupling between medium viscosity and rotation of a dissolved dipolar solute. Stokes shift dynamics have been found to be too fast to be detected by the time-resolution (∼70 ps) employed, suggesting extremely rapid medium polarization relaxation. All-atom simulations reveal Gaussian distribution for particle displacements and van Hove correlations, and significant overlap between non-Gaussian (α{sub 2}) and new non-Gaussian (γ) heterogeneity parameters. In addition, no stretched exponential relaxations have been detected in the simulated wavenumber dependent acetamide dynamic structure factors. All these results are in sharp contrast to earlier observations for ionic deep eutectics with acetamide [Guchhait et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 104514 (2014)] and suggest a fundamental difference in interaction and dynamics between ionic and non-ionic deep eutectic solvent systems.

  8. Probing exotic phenomena at the interface of nuclear and particle physics with the electric dipole moments of diamagnetic atoms: A unique window to hadronic and semi-leptonic CP violation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, N.; Sahoo, B. K.; Yoshinaga, N.; Sato, T.; Asahi, K.; Das, B. P.

    2017-03-01

    The current status of electric dipole moments of diamagnetic atoms which involves the synergy between atomic experiments and three different theoretical areas, i.e. particle, nuclear and atomic, is reviewed. Various models of particle physics that predict CP violation, which is necessary for the existence of such electric dipole moments, are presented. These include the standard model of particle physics and various extensions of it. Effective hadron level combined charge conjugation (C) and parity (P) symmetry violating interactions are derived taking into consideration different ways in which a nucleon interacts with other nucleons as well as with electrons. Nuclear structure calculations of the CP-odd nuclear Schiff moment are discussed using the shell model and other theoretical approaches. Results of the calculations of atomic electric dipole moments due to the interaction of the nuclear Schiff moment with the electrons and the P and time-reversal (T) symmetry violating tensor-pseudotensor electron-nucleus are elucidated using different relativistic many-body theories. The principles of the measurement of the electric dipole moments of diamagnetic atoms are outlined. Upper limits for the nuclear Schiff moment and tensor-pseudotensor coupling constant are obtained combining the results of atomic experiments and relativistic many-body theories. The coefficients for the different sources of CP violation have been estimated at the elementary particle level for all the diamagnetic atoms of current experimental interest and their implications for physics beyond the standard model is discussed. Possible improvements of the current results of the measurements as well as quantum chromodynamics, nuclear and atomic calculations are suggested.

  9. The Response of the Ionospheric Cusp to the Solar Through Two Perspectives: Low Energy Changed Particle In-Situ Measurements and Low- Energy Neutral Atom Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, V. N.; Moore, T. E.; Chandler, M. O.; Craven, P. D.

    2000-01-01

    The IMAGE mission provides a new perspective on the study of the response of the magnetosphere/ionosphere system to changing solar wind conditions, particularly the variability of ion outflow. Learning to interpret this new type of data becomes an essential step in the process of melding these results with the wealth of in-situ charged particle observations obtained over the past 25 years. In order to understand how the in-situ data correspond to and contrast with IMAGE results we will perform a conjunctive study of event data from two instruments to shed light on the coupling of the solar wind and ionosphere from these different perspectives. We will use the Low Energy Neutral Atom instrument (LENA) which images energetic neutral atom emissions from upward flowing ionospheric ions and the Thermal Ion Dynamics Instrument (TIDE) on the Polar satellite which measures in-situ ion outflow from 0.3-300 eV. Our primary goal will be to understand how comparing the imaging and in-situ perspectives can aid in the analysis of both data sets.

  10. The Response of the Ionospheric Cusp to the Solar Wind Through Two Perspectives: Low Energy Charged Particle In-Situ Measurements and Low-Energy Neutral Atom Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, V. N.; Moore, T. E.; Chandler, M. O.; Giles, B. L.; Craven, P. D.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) mission provides a new perspective on the study of the response of the magnetosphere/ionosphere system to changing solar wind conditions, particularly the variability of ion outflow. Learning to interpret this new type of data becomes an essential step in the process of melding these results with the wealth of in-situ charged particle observations obtained over the past 25 years. In order to understand how the in-situ data correspond to and contrast with IMAGE results we will perform a conjunctive study of event data from two instruments to shed light on the coupling of the solar wind and ionosphere from these different perspectives. We will use the Low Energy Neutral Atom instrument (LENA) which images energetic neutral atom emissions from upward flowing ionospheric ions and the Thermal Ion Dynamics Instrument (TIDE) on the Polar satellite which measures in-situ ion outflow from 0.3-300 eV. Our primary goal will be to understand how comparing the imaging and in-situ perspectives can aid in the analysis of both data sets.

  11. Trapping of diffusing particles by clusters of absorbing disks on a reflecting wall with disk centers on sites of a square lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Dagdug, Leonardo; Vazquez, Marco-Vinicio; Lizunov, Vladimir A.; Zimmerberg, Joshua; Bezrukov, Sergey M.

    2013-02-01

    A simple approximate formula is derived for the rate constant that describes steady-state flux of diffusing particles through a cluster of perfectly absorbing disks on the otherwise reflecting flat wall, assuming that the disk centers occupy neighboring sites of a square lattice. A distinctive feature of trapping by a disk cluster is that disks located at the cluster periphery shield the disks in the center of the cluster. This competition of the disks for diffusing particles makes it impossible to find an exact analytical solution for the rate constant in the general case. To derive the approximate formula, we use a recently suggested approach [A. M. Berezhkovskii, L. Dagdug, V. A. Lizunov, J. Zimmerberg, and S. M. Bezrukov, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 211102 (2012)], 10.1063/1.4726015, which is based on the replacement of the disk cluster by an effective uniform partially absorbing spot. The formula shows how the rate constant depends on the size and shape of the cluster. To check the accuracy of the formula, we compare its predictions with the values of the rate constant obtained from Brownian dynamics simulations. The comparison made for 18 clusters of various shapes and sizes shows good agreement between the theoretical predictions and numerical results.

  12. Focusing of particles scattered by a surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babenko, P. Yu.; Zinov'ev, A. N.; Shergin, A. P.

    2015-06-01

    It has been shown by computer simulation that the coefficient of reflection of argon atoms scattered by crystalline aluminum and germanium targets at glancing angles of less than 4° is close to unity and the beam of scattered particles exhibits focusing (the angular distributions of particles are strongly compressed). Whereas beam focusing with respect to the azimuth is well known and has already been studied, sharp focusing in the surface-normal direction at small glancing angles has not been studied so far. This effect is confirmed by the experimental results. It is associated with multiple scattering of incident particles by the atomic chain. The simulation results allowed finding quite accurately the amplitude of thermal vibrations of surface atoms ((0.123 ± 0.007) Å for aluminum), which agrees well with the experiment.

  13. Commercial and Cost Effective Production of Two-Dimensional Read-Out Boards for Sub-Atomic Particle Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Crary, David; Majka, Richard

    2010-10-22

    Tech-Etch has considerable experience in numerous related high precision etched Kapton® products including production of GEM foils. The required precision and production process for 2-D readout boards is similar to that developed for GEM foil production. Additionally, Tech-Etch has strong ties with several research institutions (namely Brookhaven National Laboratory, MIT and Yale University) that can help design and evaluate the performance of the readout boards produced at Tech-Etch. Since Tech-Etch is a small company, it also has the capability to produce a large variety of part configurations, optimized for a particular customer's requirements. We report results from research aimed at developing and demonstrating production of 2-D readout structures for GEM (Gas Electron Multiplier) charged particle tracking chambers at Tech-Etch. Readout boards of two types, bi-planar and single plane, were fabricated and evaluated. The results show that Tech-Etch can produce suitable boards of either type however the single plane board has a number of advantages both in production and use that will likely make it the preferred choice for GEM tracking chambers.

  14. [Study of the last glacial loess-like deposits in the coastal area of South China with diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and laser particle size analysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Chen, Zhen; Chen, Guo-neng

    2014-11-01

    Newly discovered yellow silt widely distributed in the coastal area of south China was analyzed using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and laser particle size (LPS) methods in the present paper. The authors take the lead in trying to synthetically judge the depositional environment, transporting agent and forming mechanism of the yellow silt from angles of output forms of iron minerals as well as grain size distribution features of the samples chose from three representative sections and a drill core. The DRS first derivative curves show the peak height of iron minerals decreasing from hematite (565 nm) to goethite (505 and 435 nm), which reflects a relatively dry, cold climate that coincides with the aeolian loess widely distributed in the northwest China, but reverses of the fluvial and marine deposits which experienced a well hydration in humid conditions over a long period of time in study area. LPS analysis show that grain size from top to bottom of the sections and drill core are homogeneous and typical of aeolian sediments. The grain size distribution in the yellow silt is characterized by double peaks with main peak of 10-50 μm and a secondary peak of < 5 μm, similar to that of loess in northwest China but quite different from associated fluvial and marine deposits featured by unidirectional change of allocation mode of the grain size groups. Based on grain size analysis, DRS results, age range of 10-80 ka, and spatial distribution that both of the positive landforms and buried topographies in the coastal area of south China have this kind of sediments, the yellow silt is considered to represent an aeolian deposit formed during the last glacial period, which is called "loess-like deposits" in our study.

  15. Eliminated Phototoxicity of TiO2 Particles by an Atomic-Layer-Deposited Al2 O3 Coating Layer for UV-Protection Applications.

    PubMed

    Jang, Eunyong; Sridharan, Kishore; Park, Young Min; Park, Tae Joo

    2016-08-16

    We demonstrate the conformal coating of an ultrathin Al2 O3 layer on TiO2 nanoparticles through atomic layer deposition by using a specifically designed rotary reactor to eliminate the phototoxicity of the particles for cosmetic use. The ALD reactor is modified to improve the coating efficiency as well as the agitation of the particles for conformal coating. Elemental and microstructural analyses show that ultrathin Al2 O3 layers are conformally deposited on the TiO2 nanoparticles with a controlled thickness. Rhodamine B dye molecules on Al2 O3 -coated TiO2 exhibited a long life time under UV irradiation, that is, more than 2 h, compared to that on bare TiO2 , that is, 8 min, indicating mitigation of photocatalytic activity by the coated layer. The effect of carbon impurities in the film resulting from various deposition temperatures and thicknesses of the Al2 O3 layer on the photocatalytic activity are also thoroughly investigated with controlled experimental condition by using dye molecules on the surface. Our results reveal that an increased carbon impurity resulting from a low processing temperature provides a charge conduction path and generates reactive oxygen species causing the degradation of dye molecule. A thin coated layer, that is, less than 3 nm, also induced the tunneling of electrons and holes to the surface, hence oxidizing dye molecules. Furthermore, the introduction of an Al2 O3 layer on TiO2 improves the light trapping thus, enhances the UV absorption.

  16. Atom-atom inelastic collisions and three-body atomic recombination in weakly ionized argon plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, C. G.; Kunc, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    A stationary collisional-radiative model including both inelastic electron-atom and atom-atom collisions is used to examine nonequilibrium weakly ionized argon plasmas with atomic densities 10 to the 16th to 10 to the 20th/cu cm, temperatures below 6000 K, and with different degrees of radiation trapping. It is shown that three-body atomic recombination becomes important at high particle densities. Comparison is made between the present approach and Thomson's theory for atomic recombination.

  17. Reflecting Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galea, Simone

    2012-01-01

    This paper demystifies reflective practice on teaching by focusing on the idea of reflection itself and how it has been conceived by two philosophers, Plato and Irigaray. It argues that reflective practice has become a standardized method of defining the teacher in teacher education and teacher accreditation systems. It explores how practices of…

  18. Mechanical and tribological property comparison of melt-compounded nanocomposites of atomic-layer-deposition-coated polyamide particles and commercial nanofillers

    SciTech Connect

    Nevalainen, K.; Suihkonen, R.; Etelaeaho, P.; Vuorinen, J.; Jaervelae, P.; Isomaeki, N.; Hintze, C.; Leskelae, M.

    2009-07-15

    Mechanical and tribological properties of melt-compounded titanium dioxide nanocomposites of atomic-layer-deposition (ALD)-coated polyamide particles and commercial nanofillers were compared. The nanofiller dispersion in the polyamide matrix was studied using transmission electron microscopy showing very different morphology for the ALD-created and the traditional nanocomposites: former appearing as ribbons in the matrix whereas latter composing from spherical clusters. The effect of such morphology change on the specimen's mechanical response subjected to tensile and impact loading was investigated. The results demonstrated that ALD-created nanocomposites possess significantly higher Young's modulus than pure and traditionally filled polyamide matrix. However, transition from ductile to brittle behavior occurs especially for the ALD-created nanocomposites. Notched impact strength experiments supported this, suggesting that the impact strength of ALD-created composites decreased significantly compared to pure polyamide matrix, whereas traditionally melt-compounded nanocomposites showed no significant changes. Furthermore, the tribological properties of the selected specimens were determined and the effect of the nanofiller on the friction and scratching properties of the polyamide matrix is discussed.

  19. Goos-Hänchen Shift and Even-Odd Peak Oscillations in Edge-Reflections of Surface Polaritons in Atomically Thin Crystals.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ji-Hun; Wang, Sheng; Shi, Zhiwen; Zhao, Wenyu; Yablonovitch, Eli; Wang, Feng

    2017-03-08

    Two-dimensional surface polaritons (2DSPs), such as graphene plasmons, exhibit various unusual properties, including electrical tunability and strong spatial confinement with high Q-factor, which can enable tunable photonic devices for deep subwavelength light manipulations. Reflection of plasmons at the graphene's edge plays a critical role in the manipulation of 2DSP and enables their direct visualization in near-field infrared microscopy. However, a quantitative understanding of the edge-reflections, including reflection phases and diffraction effects, has remained elusive. Here, we show theoretically and experimentally that edge-reflection of 2DSP exhibits unusual behaviors due to the presence of the evanescent waves, including an anomalous Goos-Hänchen phase shift as in total internal reflections and an unexpected even-odd peak amplitude oscillation from the wave diffraction at the edge. Our theory is not only valid for plasmons in graphene but also for other 2D polaritons, such as phonon polaritons in ultrathin boron nitride flakes and exciton polariton in two-dimensional semiconductors.

  20. Atom Interferometer Modeling Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-08

    a specific value at each timestep . LiveAtom will reflect the specified current sources in the visualization through a plot that is brighter at 6...Carlo (DSMC) modeling feature, users can simulate the behavior of cold, thermal atoms in a dynamic magnetic potential. This could be used, for example

  1. A comparative study on total reflection X-ray fluorescence determination of low atomic number elements in air, helium and vacuum atmospheres using different excitation sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, N. L.; Kanrar, Buddhadev; Aggarwal, S. K.; Wobrauschek, Peter; Rauwolf, M.; Streli, Christina

    2014-09-01

    A comparison of trace element determinations of low atomic number (Z) elements Na, Mg, Al, P, K and Ca in air, helium and vacuum atmospheres using W Lβ1, Mo Kα and Cr Kα excitations has been made. For Mo Kα and W Lβ1 excitations a Si (Li) detector with beryllium window was used and measurements were performed in air and helium atmospheres. For Cr Kα excitation, a Si (Li) detector with an ultra thin polymer window (UTW) was used and measurements were made in vacuum and air atmospheres. The sensitivities of the elemental X-ray lines were determined using TXRF spectra of standard solutions and processing them by IAEA QXAS program. The elemental concentrations of the elements in other solutions were determined using their TXRF spectra and pre-determined sensitivity values. The study suggests that, using the above experimental set up, Mo Kα excitation is not suited for trace determination of low atomic number element. Excitation by WLβ1 and helium atmosphere, the spectrometer can be used for the determination of elements with Z = 15 (P) and above with fairly good detection limits whereas Cr Kα excitation with ultra thin polymer window and vacuum atmosphere is good for the elements having Z = 11 (Na) and above. The detection limits using this set up vary from 7048 pg for Na to 83 pg for Ti.

  2. Solar Neutral Particles

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows a neutral solar particle's path leaving the sun, following the magnetic field lines out to the heliosheath. The solar particle hits a hydrogen atom, stealing its electron, and ...

  3. Single molecule investigations of DNA looping using the tethered particle method and translocation by acto-myosin using polarized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beausang, John F.

    Single molecule biophysics aims to understand biological processes by studying them at the single molecule level in real time. The proteins and nucleic acids under investigation typically exist in an aqueous environment within ˜ ten degrees of room temperature. These seemingly benign conditions are actually quite chaotic at the nanoscale, where single bio-molecules perform their function. As a result, sensitive experiments and statistical analyses are required to separate the weak single molecule signal from its background. Protein-DNA interactions were investigated by monitoring DNA looping events in tethered particle experiments. A new analysis technique, called the Diffusive hidden Markov method, was developed to extract kinetic rate constants from experimental data without any filtering of the raw data; a common step that improves the signal to noise ratio, but at the expense of lower time resolution. In the second system, translocation of the molecular motor myosin along its actin filament track was studied using polarized total internal reflection (polTIRF) microscopy, a technique that determines the orientation and wobble of a single fluorophore attached to the bio-molecule of interest. The range of resolvable angles was increased 4-fold to include a hemisphere of possible orientations. As a result, the handedness of actin filament twirling as it translocated along a myosin-coated surface was determined to be left-handed. The maximum time resolution of a polTIRF setup was increased 50-fold, in part by recording the arrival times and polarization state of single photons using a modified time-correlated single photon counting device. A new analysis, the Multiple Intensity Change Point algorithm, was developed to detect changes in molecular orientation and wobble using the raw time-stamped data with no user-defined bins or thresholds. The analysis objectively identified changes in the orientation of a bifunctional-rhodamine labeled calmodulin that was attached

  4. Helium Atom Scattering from KTa0:7Nb0:3O3 (001): Anomalous Surface reflectivity with varying surface temperature and helium wave vector

    SciTech Connect

    Fatema, Rifat; Trelenberg, T. W.; Van Winkle, David; Skofronick, J. G.; Safron, Sanford A.; Flaherty, F. A.; Boatner, Lynn A

    2011-01-01

    Helium atom diraction experiments have been carried out on the (001) surface of KTaO3 doped with 30% Nb. The surfaces were produced by cleaving single crystals of the material in situ. After the samples were thermally cycled, the angular distributions measured in the <100> azimuth, but not those in the <110> azimuth, revealed half-order diraction peaks. These indicate the formation of small (21) surface domains. The scans of the specular and Bragg diraction peak intensities as the sample temperatures were varied from about 325K to 60-80K and back to 325K showed large hysteresis particularly in the <100> azimuth. In addition, these scans showed a distinct intensity dip at about 85K, which is far removed from any bulk phase transition temperature of this material. Most curious, the specular re ectivity of the surface was found to be a strong function of the He wavevector, decreasing rapidly as the wavevector was varied above or below an optimum value.

  5. A new simple method for point contact Andreev reflection (PCAR) using a self-aligned atomic filament in transition-metal oxides.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Inrok; Lee, Keundong; Jin, Hyunwoo; Choi, Sunhwa; Jung, Eunok; Park, Bae Ho; Lee, Suyoun

    2015-05-14

    Point contact Andreev reflection (PCAR) has become a standard method for measuring the spin polarization (P) of spintronic materials due to its unique simplicity and the firm physical ground, but it is still challenging to achieve a clean point contact between a superconductor (SC) and a metal (N) for implementing PCAR. In this work, we suggest a much simpler method for PCAR measurement, where a point contact between SC and N is provided by a metallic filament in a transition-metal oxide generated by electrical bias. This method has been successfully demonstrated using a structure composed of Nb/NiO/Pt, where P of the Ni filament was estimated to be about 40%, consistent with the known value of the bulk Ni. In addition, we investigated the dependence of the conductance spectrum on the measurement temperature and the magnetic field. We found that the superconductivity is not fully suppressed until 9 T far above the critical field of Nb, which is associated with the nm-sized constriction of our SC/N junction, much smaller than the coherence length of the SC.

  6. Evanescent Wave Atomic Mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezali, S.; Taleb, A.

    2008-09-01

    A research project at the "Laboratoire d'électronique quantique" consists in a theoretical study of the reflection and diffraction phenomena via an atomic mirror. This poster presents the principle of an atomic mirror. Many groups in the world have constructed this type of atom optics experiments such as in Paris-Orsay-Villetaneuse (France), Stanford-Gaithersburg (USA), Munich-Heidelberg (Germany), etc. A laser beam goes into a prism with an incidence bigger than the critical incidence. It undergoes a total reflection on the plane face of the prism and then exits. The transmitted resulting wave out of the prism is evanescent and repulsive as the frequency detuning of the laser beam compared to the atomic transition δ = ωL-ω0 is positive. The cold atomic sample interacts with this evanescent wave and undergoes one or more elastic bounces by passing into backward points in its trajectory because the atoms' kinetic energy (of the order of the μeV) is less than the maximum of the dipolar potential barrier ℏΩ2/Δ where Ω is the Rabi frequency [1]. In fact, the atoms are cooled and captured in a magneto-optical trap placed at a distance of the order of the cm above the prism surface. The dipolar potential with which interact the slow atoms is obtained for a two level atom in a case of a dipolar electric transition (D2 Rubidium transition at a wavelength of 780nm delivered by a Titane-Saphir laser between a fundamental state Jf = l/2 and an excited state Je = 3/2). This potential is corrected by an attractive Van der Waals term which varies as 1/z3 in the Lennard-Jones approximation (typical atomic distance of the order of λ0/2π where λ0 is the laser wavelength) and in 1/z4 if the distance between the atom and its image in the dielectric is big in front of λ0/2π. This last case is obtained in a quantum electrodynamic calculation by taking into account an orthornormal base [2]. We'll examine the role of spontaneous emission for which the rate is inversely

  7. Nondestructive characterization of municipal-solid-waste-contaminated surface soil by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence and low-Z (atomic number) particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Dhrubajyoti; Ghosh, Rita; Mitra, Ajoy K; Roy, Subinit; Sarkar, Manoranjan; Chowdhury, Subhajit; Bhowmik, Asit; Mukhopadhyay, Ujjal; Maskey, Shila; Ro, Chul-Un

    2011-11-01

    The long-term environmental impact of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfilling is still under investigation due to the lack of detailed characterization studies. A MSW landfill site, popularly known as Dhapa, in the eastern fringe of the metropolis of Kolkata, India, is the subject of present study. A vast area of Dhapa, adjoining the current core MSW dump site and evolving from the raw MSW dumping in the past, is presently used for the cultivation of vegetables. The inorganic chemical characteristics of the MSW-contaminated Dhapa surface soil (covering a 2-km stretch of the area) along with a natural composite (geogenic) soil sample (from a small countryside farm), for comparison, were investigated using two complementary nondestructive analytical techniques, energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) for bulk analysis and low-Z (atomic number) particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis (low-Z particle EPMA) for single-particle analysis. The bulk concentrations of K, Rb, and Zr remain almost unchanged in all the soil samples. The Dhapa soil is found to be polluted with heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, and Pb (highly elevated) and Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Sr (moderately elevated), compared to the natural countryside soil. These high bulk concentration levels of heavy metals were compared with the Ecological Soil Screening Levels for these elements (U.S. Environment Protection Agency) to assess the potential risk on the immediate biotic environment. Low-Z particle EPMA results showed that the aluminosilicate-containing particles were the most abundant, followed by SiO2, CaCO3-containing, and carbonaceous particles in the Dhapa samples, whereas in the countryside sample only aluminosilicate-containing and SiO2 particles were observed. The mineral particles encountered in the countryside sample are solely of geogenic origin, whereas those from the Dhapa samples seem to have evolved from a mixture of raw dumped MSW, urban dust, and other contributing factors such as wind

  8. Reflection Coefficients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses and provides an example of reflectivity approximation to determine whether reflection will occur. Provides a method to show thin-film interference on a projection screen. Also applies the reflectivity concepts to electromagnetic wave systems. (MVL)

  9. Precipitation of energetic neutral atoms and induced non-thermal escape fluxes from the Martian atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Lewkow, N. R.; Kharchenko, V.

    2014-08-01

    The precipitation of energetic neutral atoms, produced through charge exchange collisions between solar wind ions and thermal atmospheric gases, is investigated for the Martian atmosphere. Connections between parameters of precipitating fast ions and resulting escape fluxes, altitude-dependent energy distributions of fast atoms and their coefficients of reflection from the Mars atmosphere, are established using accurate cross sections in Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Distributions of secondary hot (SH) atoms and molecules, induced by precipitating particles, have been obtained and applied for computations of the non-thermal escape fluxes. A new collisional database on accurate energy-angular-dependent cross sections, required for description of the energy-momentum transfer in collisions of precipitating particles and production of non-thermal atmospheric atoms and molecules, is reported with analytic fitting equations. Three-dimensional MC simulations with accurate energy-angular-dependent cross sections have been carried out to track large ensembles of energetic atoms in a time-dependent manner as they propagate into the Martian atmosphere and transfer their energy to the ambient atoms and molecules. Results of the MC simulations on the energy-deposition altitude profiles, reflection coefficients, and time-dependent atmospheric heating, obtained for the isotropic hard sphere and anisotropic quantum cross sections, are compared. Atmospheric heating rates, thermalization depths, altitude profiles of production rates, energy distributions of SH atoms and molecules, and induced escape fluxes have been determined.

  10. Atom Interferometry for Fundamental Physics and Gravity Measurements in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohel, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Laser-cooled atoms are used as freefall test masses. The gravitational acceleration on atoms is measured by atom-wave interferometry. The fundamental concept behind atom interferometry is the quantum mechanical particle-wave duality. One can exploit the wave-like nature of atoms to construct an atom interferometer based on matter waves analogous to laser interferometers.

  11. Probing fine magnetic particles with neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Pynn, R.

    1991-12-31

    Because thermal neutrons are scattered both by nuclei and by unpaired electrons, they provide an ideal probe for studying the atomic and magnetic structures of fine-grained magnetic materials, including nanocrystalline solids, thin epitaxial layers, and colloidal suspensions of magnetic particles, known as ferrofluids. Diffraction, surface reflection, and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) are the techniques used. With the exception of surface reflection, these methods are described in this article. The combination of SANS with refractive-index matching and neutron polarisation analysis is particularly powerful because it allows the magnetic and atomic structures to be determined independently. This technique has been used to study both dilute and concentrated ferrofluid suspensions of relatively monodisperse cobalt particles, subjected to a series of applied magnetic fields. The size of the cobalt particle core and the surrounding surfactant layer were determined. The measured interparticle structure factor agrees well with a recent theory that allows correlations in binary mixtures of magnetic particles to be calculated in the case of complete magnetic alignment. When one of the species in such a binary mixture is a nonmagnetic, cyclindrical macromolecule, application of a magnetic field leads to some degree of alignment of the nonmagnetic species. This result has been demonstrated with tobacco mosaic virus suspended in a water-based ferrofluid.

  12. Probing fine magnetic particles with neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Pynn, R.

    1991-01-01

    Because thermal neutrons are scattered both by nuclei and by unpaired electrons, they provide an ideal probe for studying the atomic and magnetic structures of fine-grained magnetic materials, including nanocrystalline solids, thin epitaxial layers, and colloidal suspensions of magnetic particles, known as ferrofluids. Diffraction, surface reflection, and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) are the techniques used. With the exception of surface reflection, these methods are described in this article. The combination of SANS with refractive-index matching and neutron polarisation analysis is particularly powerful because it allows the magnetic and atomic structures to be determined independently. This technique has been used to study both dilute and concentrated ferrofluid suspensions of relatively monodisperse cobalt particles, subjected to a series of applied magnetic fields. The size of the cobalt particle core and the surrounding surfactant layer were determined. The measured interparticle structure factor agrees well with a recent theory that allows correlations in binary mixtures of magnetic particles to be calculated in the case of complete magnetic alignment. When one of the species in such a binary mixture is a nonmagnetic, cyclindrical macromolecule, application of a magnetic field leads to some degree of alignment of the nonmagnetic species. This result has been demonstrated with tobacco mosaic virus suspended in a water-based ferrofluid.

  13. Size-based speciation of iron in clay mineral particles by gravitational field-flow fractionation with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chantiwas, Rattikan; Beckett, Ronald; Grudpan, Kate

    2005-01-01

    Gravitational field-flow fractionation (FFF) coupled to UV and ETAAS detectors has been tested for micron-size particles in the range of 5-20 μm using three Fe-rich clay samples. The iron content estimated after aqua regia extraction was about 20-40 mg kg -1. The ETAAS analysis was performed both off-line from collected fractions and in an online continuous sampling mode using a specially designed flow through vial placed in the autosampler of the ETAAS. Comparison of the direct injection method with total analysis after aqua regia digestion shows that slurry injection of the dilute samples in the gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF) effluent is quite efficient in these samples. In the majority of cases, more than 90% recovery was obtained for the slurry injection method. Fe mass-based particle size distributions and Fe concentration versus particle diameter plots can be generated using certain assumptions. This provides detailed information on size-based speciation of particulate samples. Generally, the Fe concentrations in the particles decreased slightly with an increase in particle size as is often found for soil and sediment samples.

  14. Low-energy particle interaction at carbon nanowalls on W surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, N.; Yamaoka, H.; Nishiura, M.; Tsumori, K.; Nagamura, T.; Sasao, M.; Kenmotsu, T.; Matsumoto, Y.; Wada, M.

    2009-06-01

    We measured the characteristics of the reflected particles from a carbon nanowall (CNW) deposited on a W surface following the injection of 1-2 keV H + and O + ions. The reflected ion energies and intensities indicated a contribution from multiple scattering in the target. The reflection angular dependence of the reflected ion intensities reached the maximum around the mirror angle and showed a sharp distribution, which may be attributable to the effect due to the aligned structure of the CNW. The energies and intensities of the reflected ions decreased with the time of ion bombardment. The intensities and energies of the reflected ions were, however, recovered to some degree by baking the sample, indicating the surface modification due to retention of the injected particles during the injection. We used the Monte Carlo simulation code ACAT (Atomic Collision in Amorphous Target) to study these processes theoretically and the calculated results supported the experimental results.

  15. Micro-flow imaging analyses reflect mechanisms of aggregate formation: Comparing protein particle data sets using the Kullback-Leibler divergence.

    PubMed

    Maddux, Nathaniel R; Daniels, Austin L; Randolph, Theodore W

    2017-01-31

    Sub-visible particles in therapeutic protein formulations are an increasing manufacturing and regulatory concern due to their potential to cause adverse immune responses. Flow imaging microscopy is used extensively to detect sub-visible particles and investigate product deviations, typically by comparing imaging data using histograms of particle descriptors. Such an approach discards much information, and requires effort to interpret differences, which is problematic when comparing many data sets. We propose to compare imaging data by using the Kullback-Leibler divergence, an information theoretic measure of the difference of distributions.(1) We use the divergence to generate scatter plots representing the similarity between data sets, and to classify new data into previously determined categories. Our approach is multidimensional, automated and less biased than traditional techniques. We demonstrate the method with FlowCAM® imagery of protein aggregates acquired from monoclonal antibody samples subjected to different stresses. The method succeeds in classifying aggregated samples by stress condition, and, once trained, is able to identify the stress that caused aggregate formation in new samples. In addition to potentially detecting subtle incipient manufacturing faults, the method may have applications to verification of product uniformity after manufacturing changes, identification of counterfeit products, and development of closely matching bio-similar products.

  16. High-frequency ultrasonic atomization for drug delivery to rodent animal models - optimal particle size for lung inhalation of difluoromethyl ornithine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guifang; Fandrey, Chris; Naqwi, Amir; Wiedmann, Timothy Scott

    2008-06-01

    A high-(8-MHz) and a low-(1.7-MHz) frequency ultrasonic transducer were compared for delivering aerosols to mouse lung. The aerosol concentration (mass of dry particles/volume of air) rose nonlinearly with solution concentration of difluoromethyl ornithine for both transducers. The particle size was linear with the cube root of the solution concentration, and the slope of the low-frequency transducer was 8 times greater than that of the high-frequency transducer. The deposition fraction assessed by the assayed mass in the lung relative to the calculated inhaled mass was found to decline exponentially with particle size. The lower-frequency transducer provided a higher dose despite a lower deposition fraction, but the high-frequency transducer was more efficient and provides a more selective deposition in the lower respiratory tract while operating with significantly less demands on aerosol drying.

  17. Reflected Glory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-02-01

    The nebula Messier 78 takes centre stage in this image taken with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile, while the stars powering the bright display take a backseat. The brilliant starlight ricochets off dust particles in the nebula, illuminating it with scattered blue light. Igor Chekalin was the overall winner of ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition with his image of this stunning object. Messier 78 is a fine example of a reflection nebula. The ultraviolet radiation from the stars that illuminate it is not intense enough to ionise the gas to make it glow - its dust particles simply reflect the starlight that falls on them. Despite this, Messier 78 can easily be observed with a small telescope, being one of the brightest reflection nebulae in the sky. It lies about 1350 light-years away in the constellation of Orion (The Hunter) and can be found northeast of the easternmost star of Orion's belt. This new image of Messier 78 from the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory is based on data selected by Igor Chekalin in his winning entry to the Hidden Treasures competition [1]. The pale blue tint seen in the nebula in this picture is an accurate representation of its dominant colour. Blue hues are commonly seen in reflection nebulae because of the way the starlight is scattered by the tiny dust particles that they contain: the shorter wavelength of blue light is scattered more efficiently than the longer wavelength red light. This image contains many other striking features apart from the glowing nebula. A thick band of obscuring dust stretches across the image from the upper left to the lower right, blocking the light from background stars. In the bottom right corner, many curious pink structures are also visible, which are created by jets of material being ejected from stars that have recently formed and are still buried deep in dust clouds. Two bright stars, HD 38563A and

  18. Atomizer with liquid spray quenching

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E.; Osborne, Matthew G.; Terpstra, Robert L.

    1998-04-14

    Method and apparatus for making metallic powder particles wherein a metallic melt is atomized by a rotating disk or other atomizer at an atomizing location in a manner to form molten droplets moving in a direction away from said atomizing location. The atomized droplets pass through a series of thin liquid quenching sheets disposed in succession about the atomizing location with each successive quenching sheet being at an increasing distance from the atomizing location. The atomized droplets are incrementally cooled and optionally passivated as they pass through the series of liquid quenching sheets without distorting the atomized droplets from their generally spherical shape. The atomized, cooled droplets can be received in a chamber having a collection wall disposed outwardly of the series of liquid quenching sheets. A liquid quenchant can be flowed proximate the chamber wall to carry the cooled atomized droplets to a collection chamber where atomized powder particles and the liquid quenchant are separated such that the liquid quenchant can be recycled.

  19. Atomizer with liquid spray quenching

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, I.E.; Osborne, M.G.; Terpstra, R.L.

    1998-04-14

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for making metallic powder particles wherein a metallic melt is atomized by a rotating disk or other atomizer at an atomizing location in a manner to form molten droplets moving in a direction away from said atomizing location. The atomized droplets pass through a series of thin liquid quenching sheets disposed in succession about the atomizing location with each successive quenching sheet being at an increasing distance from the atomizing location. The atomized droplets are incrementally cooled and optionally passivated as they pass through the series of liquid quenching sheets without distorting the atomized droplets from their generally spherical shape. The atomized, cooled droplets can be received in a chamber having a collection wall disposed outwardly of the series of liquid quenching sheets. A liquid quenchant can be flowed proximate the chamber wall to carry the cooled atomized droplets to a collection chamber where atomized powder particles and the liquid quenchant are separated such that the liquid quenchant can be recycled. 6 figs.

  20. Atom cooling by nonadiabatic expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xi; Muga, J. G.; Campo, A. del; Ruschhaupt, A.

    2009-12-15

    Motivated by the recent discovery that a reflecting wall moving with a square-root-in-time trajectory behaves as a universal stopper of classical particles regardless of their initial velocities, we compare linear-in-time and square-root-in-time expansions of a box to achieve efficient atom cooling. For the quantum single-atom wave functions studied the square-root-in-time expansion presents important advantages: asymptotically it leads to zero average energy whereas any linear-in-time (constant box-wall velocity) expansion leaves a nonzero residual energy, except in the limit of an infinitely slow expansion. For finite final times and box lengths we set a number of bounds and cooling principles which again confirm the superior performance of the square-root-in-time expansion, even more clearly for increasing excitation of the initial state. Breakdown of adiabaticity is generally fatal for cooling with the linear expansion but not so with the square-root-in-time expansion.

  1. Summary of Alpha Particle Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Medley, S.S.; White, R.B.; Zweben, S.J.

    1998-08-19

    This paper summarizes the talks on alpha particle transport which were presented at the 5th International Atomic Energy Agency's Technical Committee Meeting on "Alpha Particles in Fusion Research" held at the Joint European Torus, England in September 1997.

  2. Accurate atom counting in mesoscopic ensembles.

    PubMed

    Hume, D B; Stroescu, I; Joos, M; Muessel, W; Strobel, H; Oberthaler, M K

    2013-12-20

    Many cold atom experiments rely on precise atom number detection, especially in the context of quantum-enhanced metrology where effects at the single particle level are important. Here, we investigate the limits of atom number counting via resonant fluorescence detection for mesoscopic samples of trapped atoms. We characterize the precision of these fluorescence measurements beginning from the single-atom level up to more than one thousand. By investigating the primary noise sources, we obtain single-atom resolution for atom numbers as high as 1200. This capability is an essential prerequisite for future experiments with highly entangled states of mesoscopic atomic ensembles.

  3. Accurate Atom Counting in Mesoscopic Ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hume, D. B.; Stroescu, I.; Joos, M.; Muessel, W.; Strobel, H.; Oberthaler, M. K.

    2013-12-01

    Many cold atom experiments rely on precise atom number detection, especially in the context of quantum-enhanced metrology where effects at the single particle level are important. Here, we investigate the limits of atom number counting via resonant fluorescence detection for mesoscopic samples of trapped atoms. We characterize the precision of these fluorescence measurements beginning from the single-atom level up to more than one thousand. By investigating the primary noise sources, we obtain single-atom resolution for atom numbers as high as 1200. This capability is an essential prerequisite for future experiments with highly entangled states of mesoscopic atomic ensembles.

  4. Generation of Well-Relaxed All-Atom Models of Large Molecular Weight Polymer Melts: A Hybrid Particle-Continuum Approach Based on Particle-Field Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    De Nicola, Antonio; Kawakatsu, Toshihiro; Milano, Giuseppe

    2014-12-09

    A procedure based on Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations employing soft potentials derived from self-consistent field (SCF) theory (named MD-SCF) able to generate well-relaxed all-atom structures of polymer melts is proposed. All-atom structures having structural correlations indistinguishable from ones obtained by long MD relaxations have been obtained for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) melts. The proposed procedure leads to computational costs mainly related on system size rather than to the chain length. Several advantages of the proposed procedure over current coarse-graining/reverse mapping strategies are apparent. No parametrization is needed to generate relaxed structures of different polymers at different scales or resolutions. There is no need for special algorithms or back-mapping schemes to change the resolution of the models. This characteristic makes the procedure general and its extension to other polymer architectures straightforward. A similar procedure can be easily extended to the generation of all-atom structures of block copolymer melts and polymer nanocomposites.

  5. Imaging techniques: Nanoparticle atoms pinpointed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farle, Michael

    2017-02-01

    The locations of atoms in a metallic alloy nanoparticle have been determined using a combination of electron microscopy and image simulation, revealing links between the particle's structure and magnetic properties. See Letter p.75

  6. Virtual monopoles in a bosonic atom-diatomic-molecule system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sheng-Chang; Fu, Li-Bin; Liu, Jie

    2014-02-01

    We investigate the virtual monopoles in an ultracold bosonic atom-diatomic-molecule system with a three-level second-quantized model. In the quantum theory, we show that the monopole field of the ground state does not have a spherical symmetry. We calculate the monopole charge and find that it is an integer multiple of the elementary charge g0=1/2. This multiple exactly reflects the degeneracy properties of the ground state and strongly depends on the total particle number and the atom-number imbalance between two atomic species. In the mean-field limit, we illustrate that the system can create continuous monopole charges in the case of heteronuclear molecules. The underlying mechanism associated with the degeneracy properties and the application related to the quantum phase transition of the monopoles are briefly discussed as well.

  7. A Quantum Model of Atoms (the Energy Levels of Atoms).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafie, Francois

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the model for all atoms which was developed on the same basis as Bohr's model for the hydrogen atom. Calculates the radii and the energies of the orbits. Demonstrates how the model obeys the de Broglie's hypothesis that the moving electron exhibits both wave and particle properties. (Author/ASK)

  8. The Reflective Learning Continuum: Reflecting on Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltier, James W.; Hay, Amanda; Drago, William

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reflection to marketing educators is increasingly recognized. However, there is a lack of empirical research that considers reflection within the context of both the marketing and general business education literature. This article describes the use of an instrument that can be used to measure four identified levels of a…

  9. Andreev Reflection in Bosonic Condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Zapata, I.; Sols, F.

    2009-05-08

    We study the bosonic analog of Andreev reflection at a normal-superfluid interface where the superfluid is a boson condensate. We model the normal region as a zone where nonlinear effects can be neglected. Against the background of a decaying condensate, we identify a novel contribution to the current of reflected atoms. The group velocity of this Andreev reflected component differs from that of the normally reflected one. For a three-dimensional planar or two-dimensional linear interface Andreev reflection is neither specular nor conjugate.

  10. Single particle analysis of herpes simplex virus: comparing the dimensions of one and the same virions via atomic force and scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kämmer, Evelyn; Götz, Isabell; Bocklitz, Thomas; Stöckel, Stephan; Dellith, Andrea; Cialla-May, Dana; Weber, Karina; Zell, Roland; Dellith, Jan; Deckert, Volker; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Currently, two types of direct methods to characterize and identify single virions are available: electron microscopy (EM) and scanning probe techniques, especially atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM in particular provides morphologic information even of the ultrastructure of viral specimens without the need to cultivate the virus and to invasively alter the sample prior to the measurements. Thus, AFM can play a critical role as a frontline method in diagnostic virology. Interestingly, varying morphological parameters for virions of the same type can be found in the literature, depending on whether AFM or EM was employed and according to the respective experimental conditions during the AFM measurements. Here, an inter-methodological proof of principle is presented, in which the same single virions of herpes simplex virus 1 were probed by AFM previously and after they were measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Sophisticated chemometric analyses then allowed a calculation of morphological parameters of the ensemble of single virions and a comparison thereof. A distinct decrease in the virions' dimensions was found during as well as after the SEM analyses and could be attributed to the sample preparation for the SEM measurements. Graphical abstract The herpes simplex virus is investigated with scanning electron and atomic force microscopy in view of varying dimensions.

  11. Submerged Reflectance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    at 450 and viewed at 0* (i.e., viewed nor1al to the surface). Instruments for performing this particular bi-directional reflectance measurement are...are described below. 3.1 THEORY OF ABSOLUTE SUBMERGED REFLECTANCE MEASUREMENT An absolute measurement of the reflectance of a surface can be obtained by...relative reflectance measurement is shown in Figure 2. The irradiance across the target will vary within the field of view of the photometer because

  12. Fundamental Particle Structure in the Cosmological Dark Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlopov, Maxim

    2013-11-01

    The nonbaryonic dark matter of the universe is assumed to consist of new stable forms of matter. Their stability reflects symmetry of micro-world and mechanisms of its symmetry breaking. Particle candidates for cosmological dark matter are lightest particles that bear new conserved quantum numbers. Dark matter particles may represent ideal gas of noninteracting particles. Self-interacting dark matter weakly or superweakly coupled to ordinary matter is also possible, reflecting nontrivial pattern of particle symmetry in the hidden sector of particle theory. In the early universe the structure of particle symmetry breaking gives rise to cosmological phase transitions, from which macroscopic cosmological defects or primordial nonlinear structures can be originated. Primordial black holes (PBHs) can be not only a candidate for dark matter, but also represent a universal probe for superhigh energy physics in the early universe. Evaporating PBHs turn to be a source of even superweakly interacting particles, while clouds of massive PBHs can serve as nonlinear seeds for galaxy formation. The observed broken symmetry of the three known families may provide a simultaneous solution for the problems of the mass of neutrino and strong CP-violation in the unique framework of models of horizontal unification. Dark matter candidates can also appear in the new families of quarks and leptons and the existence of new stable charged leptons and quarks is possible, hidden in elusive "dark atoms." Such possibility, strongly restricted by the constraints on anomalous isotopes of light elements, is not excluded in scenarios that predict stable double charged particles. The excessive -2 charged particles are bound in these scenarios with primordial helium in O-helium "atoms," maintaining specific nuclear-interacting form of the dark matter, which may provide an interesting solution for the puzzles of the direct dark matter searches. In the context of cosmoparticle physics, studying

  13. Role of inter-particle force between micro and nano magnetic particles on the stability of magnetorheological fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laherisheth, Zarana; Parekh, Kinnari; Upadhyay, R. V.

    2017-02-01

    The concept of phase condensation of larger size particles in a poly-dispersed magnetic fluid (also known as ferrofluid) is employed as a tool to investigate the interaction of nanoparticles with micro particles in magnetorheological (MR) fluid. Two different shapes iron micron sized particles are used in MR fluid formulation: spherical and flake shaped. The magnetic fluid is used as a base carrier having three different magnetic nanoparticles volume fraction (0.2%, 0.6% and 0.8%). The study suggests that the interaction of magnetic nanoparticles with micron sized particle depends on the geometrical shape of the particle as well as surface roughness. The sedimentation ratio of flake shaped MR fluid increases with nanoparticles volume fractions while for spherical particles it remains virtually constant. The supernatant fluid analysis suggests that, larger sized particle fraction from magnetic fluid are attached to the surface of micron sized flake shape particles, which results in reduction of sliding friction between the particles and small sized fraction clouds around the flake. The atomic force microscopy results suggest that the surface roughness of flake shape particles are nearly 5 times higher than spherical shape particles. The role of these two different interactions is reflected in the sedimentation ratio of MR fluid.

  14. Quantum design using a multiple internal reflections method in a study of fusion processes in the capture of alpha-particles by nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maydanyuk, Sergei P.; Zhang, Peng-Ming; Belchikov, Sergei V.

    2015-08-01

    A high precision method to determine fusion in the capture of α-particles by nuclei is presented. For α-capture by 40Ca and 44Ca, such an approach gives (1) the parameters of the α-nucleus potential and (2) fusion probabilities. This method found new parametrization and fusion probabilities and decreased the error by 41.72 times for α +40Ca and 34.06 times for α +44Ca in a description of experimental data in comparison with existing results. We show that the sharp angular momentum cutoff proposed by Glas and Mosel is a rough approximation, Wong's formula and the Hill-Wheeler approach determine the penetrability of the barrier without a correct consideration of the barrier shape, and the WKB approach gives reduced fusion probabilities. Based on our fusion probability formula, we explain the difference between experimental cross-sections for α +40Ca and α +44Ca, which is connected with the theory of coexistence of the spherical and deformed shapes in the ground state for nuclei near the neutron magic shell N = 20. To provide deeper insight into the physics of nuclei with the new magic number N = 26, the cross-section for α +46Ca is predicted for future experimental tests. The role of nuclear deformations in calculations of the fusion probabilities is analyzed.

  15. Atomic polarizabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Safronova, M. S.; Mitroy, J.; Clark, Charles W.; Kozlov, M. G.

    2015-01-22

    The atomic dipole polarizability governs the first-order response of an atom to an applied electric field. Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics and have been the subject of considerable interest and heightened importance in recent years. In this paper, we will summarize some of the recent applications of atomic polarizability studies. A summary of results for polarizabilities of noble gases, monovalent, and divalent atoms is given. The development of the CI+all-order method that combines configuration interaction and linearized coupled-cluster approaches is discussed.

  16. Scaling of cross sections for K-electron capture by high-energy protons and alpha-particles from the multielectron atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidvar, K.

    1979-01-01

    Electron capture by protons from H, He, and the K shell of Ar, and electron capture by alpha particles from He are considered. Using the experimental data, a function of the capture cross section is formed. It is shown that when this function is plotted versus the inverse of the collision energies, at high energies a straight line is obtained. At lower energies the line is concave up or down, depending on the charge of the projectile and/or the effective charge and the ionization potential of the electron that is being captured. The plot can be used to predict cross sections where experimental data are not available, and as a guide in future experiments. High-energy scaling formulas for K-electron capture by low-charge projectiles are given.

  17. Scaling of cross sections for K-electron capture by high-energy protons and alpha-particles from the multielectron atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidvar, K.

    1976-01-01

    Electron capture by protons from H, He, and the K-shell of Ar, and alpha particles from He are considered. It is shown that when a certain function of the experimental cross sections is plotted versus the inverse of the collision energy, at high energies the function falls on a straight line. At lower energies the function concaves up or down, depending on the charge of the projectile, the effective charge and the ionization potential of the electron that is being captured. The plot can be used to predict cross sections where experimental data are not available, and as a guide in future experiments. High energy scaling formulas for K-electron capture by low-charge projectiles are given.

  18. The atomic hypothesis: physical consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas, Martín

    2008-08-01

    The hypothesis that matter is made of some ultimate and indivisible objects, together with the restricted relativity principle, establishes a constraint on the kind of variables we are allowed to use for the variational description of elementary particles. We consider that the atomic hypothesis not only states the indivisibility of elementary particles, but also that these ultimate objects, if not annihilated, cannot be modified by any interaction so that all allowed states of an elementary particle are only kinematical modifications of any one of them. Therefore, an elementary particle cannot have excited states. In this way, the kinematical group of spacetime symmetries not only defines the symmetries of the system, but also the variables in terms of which the mathematical description of the elementary particles can be expressed in either the classical or the quantum mechanical description. When considering the interaction of two Dirac particles, the atomic hypothesis restricts the interaction Lagrangian to a kind of minimal coupling interaction.

  19. An electrostatic ion pump with nanostructured Si field emission electron source and Ti particle collectors for supporting an ultra-high vacuum in miniaturized atom interferometry systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Anirban; Velásquez-García, Luis F.

    2016-12-01

    We report a field emission-based, magnetic-less ion pump architecture for helping maintain a high vacuum within a small chamber that is compatible with miniaturized cold-atom interferometry systems. A nanostructured silicon field emitter array, with each nano-sharp tip surrounded by a self-aligned proximal gate electrode, is used to generate a surplus of electrons that cause impact ionization of gas molecules. A two-stage cylindrical electron collector, made of titanium, is used to increase the travel distance of the electrons, augmenting the ionization probability; gas ionization is subsequently followed by gettering of the ions by a negatively charged, annular-shaped titanium electrode. A proof-of-concept pump prototype was characterized using a 25 cm3 stainless steel vacuum chamber backed up by an external turbomolecular pump, a diaphragm pump, and a standard ion pump. Pumping action was observed with the electrostatic pump operating alone after an initial rapid rise of the chamber pressure due to electron/ion scrubbing. In addition, running the electrostatic pump in combination with the standard ion pump results in a lower vacuum level compared to the vacuum level produced by the standard ion pump acting alone. A proposed reduced-order model accurately predicts the functional dependence of the pressure versus time data and provides a good estimate of the characteristic pumping time constant inferred from the experiments.

  20. Spatial confinement of muonium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaw, K. S.; Antognini, A.; Prokscha, T.; Kirch, K.; Liszkay, L.; Salman, Z.; Crivelli, P.

    2016-08-01

    We report the achievement of spatial confinement of muonium atoms (the bound state of a positive muon and an electron). Muonium emitted into a vacuum from mesoporous silica reflects between two SiO2 confining surfaces separated by 1 mm. From the data, one can extract that the reflection probability on the confining surfaces kept at 100 K is about 90% and the reflection process is well described by a cosine law. This technique enables new experiments with this exotic atomic system and is a very important step towards a measurement of the 1 S -2 S transition frequency using continuous-wave laser spectroscopy.

  1. Investigation of the effective atomic numbers of dosimetric materials for electrons, protons and alpha particles using a direct method in the energy region 10 keV-1 GeV: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kurudirek, Murat; Aksakal, Oğuz; Akkuş, Tuba

    2015-11-01

    A direct method has been used for the first time, to compute effective atomic numbers (Z eff) of water, air, human tissues, and some organic and inorganic compounds, for total electron proton and alpha particle interaction in the energy region 10 keV-1 GeV. The obtained values for Z eff were then compared to those obtained using an interpolation procedure. In general, good agreement has been observed for electrons, and the difference (%) in Z eff between the results of the direct and the interpolation method was found to be <10 % for all materials, in the energy range from 10 keV to 1 MeV. More specifically, results of the two methods were found to agree well (Dif. <10 %) for air, calcium fluoride, kapton polyimide film, paraffin wax and plastic scintillator in the entire energy region with respect to the total electron interaction. On the other hand, values for Z eff calculated using both methods for protons and alpha particles generally agree with each other in the high-energy region above 10 MeV.

  2. Atomic mass compilation 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, B.; Venkataramaniah, K.; Czok, U.; Scheidenberger, C.

    2014-03-15

    Atomic mass reflects the total binding energy of all nucleons in an atomic nucleus. Compilations and evaluations of atomic masses and derived quantities, such as neutron or proton separation energies, are indispensable tools for research and applications. In the last decade, the field has evolved rapidly after the advent of new production and measuring techniques for stable and unstable nuclei resulting in substantial ameliorations concerning the body of data and their precision. Here, we present a compilation of atomic masses comprising the data from the evaluation of 2003 as well as the results of new measurements performed. The relevant literature in refereed journals and reports as far as available, was scanned for the period beginning 2003 up to and including April 2012. Overall, 5750 new data points have been collected. Recommended values for the relative atomic masses have been derived and a comparison with the 2003 Atomic Mass Evaluation has been performed. This work has been carried out in collaboration with and as a contribution to the European Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Network of Evaluations.

  3. Dynamics of One-Dimensional Bose Liquids: Andreev-Like Reflection at Y Junctions and the Absence of the Aharonov-Bohm Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Tokuno, Akiyuki; Oshikawa, Masaki; Demler, Eugene

    2008-04-11

    We study one-dimensional Bose liquids of interacting ultracold atoms in the Y-shaped potential when each branch is filled with atoms. We find that the excitation packet incident on a single Y junction should experience a negative density reflection analogous to the Andreev reflection at normal-superconductor interfaces, although the present system does not contain fermions. In a ring-interferometer-type configuration, we find that the transport is completely insensitive to the (effective) flux contained in the ring, in contrast with the Aharonov-Bohm effect of a single particle in the same geometry.

  4. Dynamics of one-dimensional Bose liquids: Andreev-like reflection at Y junctions and the absence of the Aharonov-Bohm effect.

    PubMed

    Tokuno, Akiyuki; Oshikawa, Masaki; Demler, Eugene

    2008-04-11

    We study one-dimensional Bose liquids of interacting ultracold atoms in the Y-shaped potential when each branch is filled with atoms. We find that the excitation packet incident on a single Y junction should experience a negative density reflection analogous to the Andreev reflection at normal-superconductor interfaces, although the present system does not contain fermions. In a ring-interferometer-type configuration, we find that the transport is completely insensitive to the (effective) flux contained in the ring, in contrast with the Aharonov-Bohm effect of a single particle in the same geometry.

  5. Negative Numbers and Antimatter Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsan, Ung Chan

    Dirac's equation states that an electron implies the existence of an antielectron with the same mass (more generally same arithmetic properties) and opposite charge (more generally opposite algebraic properties). Subsequent observation of antielectron validated this concept. This statement can be extended to all matter particles; observation of antiproton, antineutron, antideuton … is in complete agreement with this view. Recently antihypertriton was observed and 38 atoms of antihydrogen were trapped. This opens the path for use in precise testing of nature's fundamental symmetries. The symmetric properties of a matter particle and its mirror antimatter particle seem to be well established. Interactions operate on matter particles and antimatter particles as well. Conservation of matter parallels addition operating on positive and negative numbers. Without antimatter particles, interactions of the Standard Model (electromagnetism, strong interaction and weak interaction) cannot have the structure of group. Antimatter particles are characterized by negative baryonic number A or/and negative leptonic number L. Materialization and annihilation obey conservation of A and L (associated to all known interactions), explaining why from pure energy (A = 0, L = 0) one can only obtain a pair of matter particle antimatter particle — electron antielectron, proton and antiproton — via materialization where the mass of a pair of particle antiparticle gives back to pure energy with annihilation. These two mechanisms cannot change the difference in the number of matter particles and antimatter particles. Thus from pure energy only a perfectly symmetric (in number) universe could be generated as proposed by Dirac but observation showed that our universe is not symmetric, it is a matter universe which is nevertheless neutral. Fall of reflection symmetries shattered the prejudice that there is no way to define in an absolute way right and left or matter and antimatter

  6. QED in a time-dependent double cavity and creation of entanglement between noninteracting atoms via quantum eraser technique

    SciTech Connect

    Cirone, Markus A.; Rzazewski, Kazimierz

    1999-03-11

    We discuss two striking features of quantum mechanics: The concepts of vacuum and of entanglement. We first study the radiation field inside a double cavity (a cavity which contains a reflecting mirror). If the mirror is rapidly removed, peculiar quantum phenomena, such as photon creation from vacuum and squeezing, occur. We discuss then a gedanken experiment which employs the double cavity to create entanglement between two atoms. The atoms cross the double cavity and interact with its two independent radiation fields. After the atoms leave the cavity, the mirror is suddenly removed. Measurement of the radiation field inside the cavity can give rise to entanglement between the atoms. The method can be extended to an arbitrary number of atoms, providing thus an N-particle GHZ state.

  7. Doping of Semiconducting Atomic Chains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toshishige, Yamada; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Due to the rapid progress in atom manipulation technology, atomic chain electronics would not be a dream, where foreign atoms are placed on a substrate to form a chain, and its electronic properties are designed by controlling the lattice constant d. It has been shown theoretically that a Si atomic chain is metallic regardless of d and that a Mg atomic chain is semiconducting or insulating with a band gap modified with d. For electronic applications, it is essential to establish a method to dope a semiconducting chain, which is to control the Fermi energy position without altering the original band structure. If we replace some of the chain atoms with dopant atoms randomly, the electrons will see random potential along the chain and will be localized strongly in space (Anderson localization). However, if we replace periodically, although the electrons can spread over the chain, there will generally appear new bands and band gaps reflecting the new periodicity of dopant atoms. This will change the original band structure significantly. In order to overcome this dilemma, we may place a dopant atom beside the chain at every N lattice periods (N > 1). Because of the periodic arrangement of dopant atoms, we can avoid the unwanted Anderson localization. Moreover, since the dopant atoms do not constitute the chain, the overlap interaction between them is minimized, and the band structure modification can be made smallest. Some tight-binding results will be discussed to demonstrate the present idea.

  8. Atomic supersymmetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostelecky, V. Alan

    1993-01-01

    Atomic supersymmetry is a quantum-mechanical supersymmetry connecting the properties of different atoms and ions. A short description of some established results in the subject are provided and a few recent developments are discussed including the extension to parabolic coordinates and the calculation of Stark maps using supersymmetry-based models.

  9. Reflecting on Reflecting on Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Arthur L.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses three broad themes--reflection, power, and negotiation--that are evidenced in all of the articles in this issue. In this article, the author tries to transgress the articles at some middling altitude to seek some broader thematics. His observations about reflection, power, and negotiation do transcend individual efforts,…

  10. Particle data reduction in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakayama, Mitsushige

    1987-01-01

    The characterization of atomized particles generated by various atomizer and the mechanics of their evaporation and combustion processes were studied. The need existed for visualizing the internal structure of flames including evaporation and combustion processes as well as for a better way of understanding spray particle generation mechanisms and internal structures. A particle sizer based on Fraunhofer diffraction for detecting particle size and in-line Fraunhofer holograms for observation of local spray particles were used. A novel visualizing technique based on Computer Technology was developed and is discussed.

  11. Effective atomic number, energy loss and radiation damage studies in some materials commonly used in nuclear applications for heavy charged particles such as H, C, Mg, Fe, Te, Pb and U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurudirek, Murat

    2016-05-01

    Commonly used nuclear physics materials such as water, concrete, Pb-glass, paraffin, freon and P 10 gases, some alloys such as brass, bronze, stainless-steel and some scintillators such as anthracene, stilbene and toluene have been investigated with respect to the heavy charged particle interaction as means of projected range and effective atomic number (Zeff) in the energy region 10 keV to 10 MeV. Calculations were performed for heavy ions such as H, C, Mg, Fe, Te, Pb and U. Also, the energy loss and radiation damage were studied using SRIM Monte Carlo code for anthracene for different heavy ions of 100 keV kinetic energy. It has been observed that the variation in Zeff becomes less when the atomic number of the ions increase. Glass-Pb, bronze, brass, stainless-steel and Freon gas were found to vary less than 10% in the energy region 10 keV to 10 MeV. For total proton interaction, discrepancies up to 10% and 18% between two databases namely PSTAR and SRIM were noted in mass stopping power and Zeff of water, respectively. The range calculations resulted with a conclusion that the metal alloys and glass-Pb have lowest values of ranges confirming best shielding against energetic heavy ions whereas freon and P 10 gases have the highest values of ranges in the entire energy region. The simulation results showed that the energy loss (%) to target electrons decreases as the Z of the incident ion increases. Also, it was observed that the radiation damage first increases with Z of the ion and then keeps almost constant for ions with Z≥52.

  12. Neutral Atom Imaging of Near-Earth Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mura, A.; Plainaki, C.; Milillo, A.; Orsini, S.; Barabash, S.; Leoni, R.; Selci, S.; Dandouras, I.; Kallio, E.; Wurz, P.; De Angelis, A.

    2012-04-01

    In many planetary environments of the solar system (Mercury, Moon, icy satellites, and more), direct solar wind precipitation results in neutral particle release via ion-sputtering (IS) process, as well as plasma reflection and neutralization (Backscattering, BS). In particular, solar wind sputtering is one of the most important agents for the surface erosion of a near-Earth asteroid (NEA), acting together with other surface release processes, such as photon stimulated desorption, thermal desorption and micrometeoroid impact vaporization. Detection and analysis of high-energy sputtered atoms gives important information on surface-loss processes as well as on surface elemental composition. RAMON (Released Atoms and Ions MONitor) proposed as payload for the MarcoPolo-R Mission, consists of two neutral atom sensors and an ion monitor: 1) SHEAMON (Sputtered High-Energy Atoms MONitor) will investigate the ion-sputtering and backscattering process by detecting neutral atoms between ~10 eV and ~3 keV and determining their direction and velocity; 2) GASP (GAs SPectrometer) will analyse the mass of the low-energy (below 10 eV) neutral atoms released by different surface processes; 3) MIM (Miniaturized Ion Monitor) will measure the flux and energy spectra of precipitating and backscattered solar wind protons, which originate the Ion Sputtering and Backscattering processes investigated by SHEAMON. By combining the measurements made by all three units, RAMON experiment will investigate on a) the processes happening on the surface of the NEA as a result of its exposure to space environment and collisions, b) the role of the surface release processes in the body evolution, c) the surface mineralogy and chemistry, derived from the composition of the released material, d) the magnitude of the erosion due to space weathering, e) the efficiency of each process as a function of environment conditions, and f) the possible non-uniform over the surface efficiency in particle release

  13. Atomic physics and non-equilibrium plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Weisheit, J.C.

    1986-04-25

    Three lectures comprise the report. The lecture, Atomic Structure, is primarily theoretical and covers four topics: (1) Non-relativistic one-electron atom, (2) Relativistic one-electron atom, (3) Non-relativistic many-electron atom, and (4) Relativistic many-electron atom. The lecture, Radiative and Collisional Transitions, considers the problem of transitions between atomic states caused by interactions with radiation or other particles. The lecture, Ionization Balance: Spectral Line Shapes, discusses collisional and radiative transitions when ionization and recombination processes are included. 24 figs., 11 tabs.

  14. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  15. T 3-Interferometer for atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, M.; Efremov, M. A.; Roura, A.; Schleich, W. P.; DeSavage, S. A.; Davis, J. P.; Srinivasan, A.; Narducci, F. A.; Werner, S. A.; Rasel, E. M.

    2017-04-01

    The quantum mechanical propagator of a massive particle in a linear gravitational potential derived already in 1927 by Kennard [2, 3] contains a phase that scales with the third power of the time T during which the particle experiences the corresponding force. Since in conventional atom interferometers the internal atomic states are all exposed to the same acceleration a, this T^3-phase cancels out and the interferometer phase scales as T^2. In contrast, by applying an external magnetic field we prepare two different accelerations a_1 and a_2 for two internal states of the atom, which translate themselves into two different cubic phases and the resulting interferometer phase scales as T^3. We present the theoretical background for, and summarize our progress towards experimentally realizing such a novel atom interferometer.

  16. Simulation Studies of Hydrogen Ion reflection from Tungsten for the Surface Production of Negative Hydrogen Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Wada, Motoi

    2011-09-26

    The production efficiency of negative ions at tungsten surface by particle reflection has been investigated. Angular distributions and energy spectra of reflected hydrogen ions from tungsten surface are calculated with a Monte Carlo simulation code ACAT. The results obtained with ACAT have indicated that angular distributions of reflected hydrogen ions show narrow distributions for low-energy incidence such as 50 eV, and energy spectra of reflected ions show sharp peaks around 90% of incident energy. These narrow angular distributions and sharp peaks are favorable for the efficient extraction of negative ions from an ion source equipped with tungsten surface as negative ionization converter. The retained hydrogen atoms in tungsten lead to the reduction in extraction efficiency due to boarded angular distributions.

  17. Simulation Studies of Hydrogen Ion reflection from Tungsten for the Surface Production of Negative Hydrogen Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenmotsu, Takahiro; Wada, Motoi

    2011-09-01

    The production efficiency of negative ions at tungsten surface by particle reflection has been investigated. Angular distributions and energy spectra of reflected hydrogen ions from tungsten surface are calculated with a Monte Carlo simulation code ACAT. The results obtained with ACAT have indicated that angular distributions of reflected hydrogen ions show narrow distributions for low-energy incidence such as 50 eV, and energy spectra of reflected ions show sharp peaks around 90% of incident energy. These narrow angular distributions and sharp peaks are favorable for the efficient extraction of negative ions from an ion source equipped with tungsten surface as negative ionization converter. The retained hydrogen atoms in tungsten lead to the reduction in extraction efficiency due to boarded angular distributions.

  18. Acting Atoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farin, Susan Archie

    1997-01-01

    Describes a fun game in which students act as electrons, protons, and neutrons. This activity is designed to help students develop a concrete understanding of the abstract concept of atomic structure. (DKM)

  19. Kinetic Atom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David B.

    1981-01-01

    Surveys the research of scientists like Joule, Kelvin, Maxwell, Clausius, and Boltzmann as it comments on the basic conceptual issues involved in the development of a more precise kinetic theory and the idea of a kinetic atom. (Author/SK)

  20. Atomic Force Microscope Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation (large file)

    This animation is a scientific illustration of the operation of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Atomic Force Microscope, or AFM. The AFM is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer, or MECA.

    The AFM is used to image the smallest Martian particles using a very sharp tip at the end of one of eight beams.

    The beam of the AFM is set into vibration and brought up to the surface of a micromachined silicon substrate. The substrate has etched in it a series of pits, 5 micrometers deep, designed to hold the Martian dust particles.

    The microscope then maps the shape of particles in three dimensions by scanning them with the tip.

    At the end of the animation is a 3D representation of the AFM image of a particle that was part of a sample informally called 'Sorceress.' The sample was delivered to the AFM on the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 2, 2008).

    The image shows four round pits, only 5 microns in depth, that were micromachined into the silicon substrate.

    A Martian particle only one micrometer, or one millionth of a meter, across is held in the upper left pit.

    The rounded particle shown at the highest magnification ever seen from another world is a particle of the dust that cloaks Mars. Such dust particles color the Martian sky pink, feed storms that regularly envelop the planet and produce Mars' distinctive red soil.

    The AFM was developed by a Swiss-led consortium, with Imperial College London producing the silicon substrate that holds sampled particles.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Ligandless surfactant mediated solid phase extraction combined with Fe₃O₄ nano-particle for the preconcentration and determination of cadmium and lead in water and soil samples followed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry: multivariate strategy.

    PubMed

    Jalbani, N; Soylak, M

    2014-04-01

    In the present study, a microextraction technique combining Fe3O4 nano-particle with surfactant mediated solid phase extraction ((SM-SPE)) was successfully developed for the preconcentration/separation of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in water and soil samples. The analytes were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The effective variables such as the amount of adsorbent (NPs), the pH, concentration of non-ionic (TX-114) and centrifugation time (min) were investigated by Plackett-Burman (PBD) design. The important variables were further optimized by central composite design (CCD). Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits (LODs) of Cd(II) and Pb(II) were 0.15 and 0.74 µg/L, respectively. The validation of the proposed procedure was checked by the analysis of certified reference materials of TMDA 53.3 fortified water and GBW07425 soil. The method was successfully applied for the determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in water and soil samples.

  2. Nonequilibrium Flows with Smooth Particle Applied Mechanics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kum, Oyeon

    Smooth particle methods are relatively new methods for simulating solid and fluid flows though they have a 20-year history of solving complex hydrodynamic problems in astrophysics, such as colliding planets and stars, for which correct answers are unknown. The results presented in this thesis evaluate the adaptability or fitness of the method for typical hydrocode production problems. For finite hydrodynamic systems, boundary conditions are important. A reflective boundary condition with image particles is a good way to prevent a density anomaly at the boundary and to keep the fluxes continuous there. Boundary values of temperature and velocity can be separately controlled. The gradient algorithm, based on differentiating the smooth particle expressions for (urho) and (Trho), does not show numerical instabilities for the stress tensor and heat flux vector quantities which require second derivatives in space when Fourier's heat -flow law and Newton's viscous force law are used. Smooth particle methods show an interesting parallel linking them to molecular dynamics. For the inviscid Euler equation, with an isentropic ideal gas equation of state, the smooth particle algorithm generates trajectories isomorphic to those generated by molecular dynamics. The shear moduli were evaluated based on molecular dynamics calculations for the three weighting functions, B spline, Lucy, and Cusp functions. The accuracy and applicability of the methods were estimated by comparing a set of smooth particle Rayleigh -Benard problems, all in the laminar regime, to corresponding highly-accurate grid-based numerical solutions of continuum equations. Both transient and stationary smooth particle solutions reproduce the grid-based data with velocity errors on the order of 5%. The smooth particle method still provides robust solutions at high Rayleigh number where grid-based methods fails. Considerably fewer smooth particles are required than atoms in a corresponding molecular dynamics

  3. Coherent Atom Optics with fast metastable rare gas atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Grucker, J.; Baudon, J.; Karam, J.-C.; Perales, F.; Vassilev, G.; Ducloy, M.; Bocvarski, V.

    2006-12-01

    Coherent atom optics experiments making use of an ultra-narrow beam of fast metastable atoms generated by metastability exchange are reported. The transverse coherence of the beam (coherence radius of 1.7 {mu}m for He*, 1.2 {mu}m for Ne*, 0.87 {mu}m for Ar*) is demonstrated via the atomic diffraction by a non-magnetic 2{mu}m-period reflection grating. The combination of the non-scalar van der Waals (vdW) interaction with the Zeeman interaction generated by a static magnetic field gives rise to ''vdW-Zeeman'' transitions among Zeeman sub-levels. Exo-energetic transitions of this type are observed with Ne*(3P2) atoms traversing a copper micro-slit grating. They can be used as a tunable beam splitter in an inelastic Fresnel bi-prism atom interferometer.

  4. Epitaxy: Programmable Atom Equivalents Versus Atoms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mary X; Seo, Soyoung E; Gabrys, Paul A; Fleischman, Dagny; Lee, Byeongdu; Kim, Youngeun; Atwater, Harry A; Macfarlane, Robert J; Mirkin, Chad A

    2017-01-24

    The programmability of DNA makes it an attractive structure-directing ligand for the assembly of nanoparticle (NP) superlattices in a manner that mimics many aspects of atomic crystallization. However, the synthesis of multilayer single crystals of defined size remains a challenge. Though previous studies considered lattice mismatch as the major limiting factor for multilayer assembly, thin film growth depends on many interlinked variables. Here, a more comprehensive approach is taken to study fundamental elements, such as the growth temperature and the thermodynamics of interfacial energetics, to achieve epitaxial growth of NP thin films. Both surface morphology and internal thin film structure are examined to provide an understanding of particle attachment and reorganization during growth. Under equilibrium conditions, single crystalline, multilayer thin films can be synthesized over 500 × 500 μm(2) areas on lithographically patterned templates, whereas deposition under kinetic conditions leads to the rapid growth of glassy films. Importantly, these superlattices follow the same patterns of crystal growth demonstrated in atomic thin film deposition, allowing these processes to be understood in the context of well-studied atomic epitaxy and enabling a nanoscale model to study fundamental crystallization processes. Through understanding the role of epitaxy as a driving force for NP assembly, we are able to realize 3D architectures of arbitrary domain geometry and size.

  5. Solid Hydrogen Formed for Atomic Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2000-01-01

    Several experiments on the formation of solid hydrogen particles in liquid helium were recently conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field. The solid hydrogen experiments are the first step toward seeing these particles and determining their shape and size. The particles will ultimately store atoms of boron, carbon, or hydrogen, forming an atomic propellant. Atomic propellants will allow rocket vehicles to carry payloads many times heavier than possible with existing rockets or allow them to be much smaller and lighter. Solid hydrogen particles are preferred for storing atoms. Hydrogen is generally an excellent fuel with a low molecular weight. Very low temperature hydrogen particles (T < 4 K) can prevent the atoms from recombining, making it possible for their lifetime to be controlled. Also, particles that are less than 1 mm in diameter are preferred because they can flow easily into a pipe when suspended in liquid helium. The particles and atoms must remain at this low temperature until the fuel is introduced into the engine combustion (or recombination) chamber. Experiments were, therefore, planned to look at the particles and observe their formation and any changes while in liquid helium.

  6. Reflectance Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    The overall goal of this work has been to develop a set of computational tools and media abstractions for the terrain bidirectional reflectance problem. The modeling of soil and vegetation surfaces has been emphasized with a gradual increase in the complexity of the media geometries treated. Pragmatic problems involved in the combined modeling of soil, vegetation, and atmospheric effects have been of interest and one of the objectives has been to describe the canopy reflectance problem in a classical radiative transfer sense permitting easier inclusion of our work by other workers in the radiative transfer field.

  7. The Mystery of Matter, World of the Atom Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, William G.

    This booklet is one in the "World of the Atome Series" for junior high school students and their teachers. It describes the fascinating story of the search for the key to the structure of matter. These topics are reviewed: the chemical atom of the 19th century, the planetary atom, the wave atom, inside the elementary particles, and the mystery of…

  8. Particles, Quarks, Leptons and Coloured Glue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, Lewis

    1980-01-01

    Explains the current situation in particle physics by reviewing the three major periods in the development of atomic theory. Outlines the current picture of fundamental particles and identifies five major problems with this model. (GS)

  9. Atomic research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.; Connatser, Robert; Cothren, Bobby; Johnson, R. B.

    1993-01-01

    Work performed by the University of Alabama in Huntsville's (UAH) Center for Applied Optics (CAO) entitled Atomic Research is documented. Atomic oxygen (AO) effects on materials have long been a critical concern in designing spacecraft to withstand exposure to the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. The objective of this research effort was to provide technical expertise in the design of instrumentation and experimental techniques for analyzing materials exposed to atomic oxygen in accelerated testing at NASA/MSFC. Such testing was required to answer fundamental questions concerning Space Station Freedom (SSF) candidate materials and materials exposed to atomic oxygen aboard the Long-Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The primary UAH task was to provide technical design, review, and analysis to MSFC in the development of a state-of-the-art 5eV atomic oxygen beam facility required to simulate the RAM-induced low earth orbit (LEO) AO environment. This development was to be accomplished primarily at NASA/MSFC. In support of this task, contamination effects and ultraviolet (UV) simulation testing was also to be carried out using NASA/MSFC facilities. Any materials analysis of LDEF samples was to be accomplished at UAH.

  10. Fresnel diffraction mirror for an atomic wave.

    PubMed

    Oberst, Hilmar; Kouznetsov, Dimitrii; Shimizu, Kazuko; Fujita, Jun-Ichi; Shimizu, Fujio

    2005-01-14

    We have experimentally demonstrated a material-independent mirror for atomic waves that uses the Fresnel diffraction at an array of parallel ridges. He* (2 (3)S(1)) and Ne* (1s(3)) atomic waves were reflected coherently on a silicon plate with a microfabricated grating structure, consisting of narrow wall-like ridges. We measured the reflectivity at grazing incidence as a function of the incident velocity and angle. Our data show that the reflectivity on this type of mirror depends only on the distance between the ridges, the wavelength, and the incident angle, but is insensitive to the material of the grating structure. The reflectivity is observed to increase by 2 orders of magnitude, compared to that of a flat polished silicon surface, where the reflection is caused by the attractive surface potential. For He* atoms, the measured reflectivity exceeds 10% for normal incident velocities below about 25 cm/s.

  11. Ghost imaging with atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakimov, R. I.; Henson, B. M.; Shin, D. K.; Hodgman, S. S.; Dall, R. G.; Baldwin, K. G. H.; Truscott, A. G.

    2016-12-01

    Ghost imaging is a counter-intuitive phenomenon—first realized in quantum optics—that enables the image of a two-dimensional object (mask) to be reconstructed using the spatio-temporal properties of a beam of particles with which it never interacts. Typically, two beams of correlated photons are used: one passes through the mask to a single-pixel (bucket) detector while the spatial profile of the other is measured by a high-resolution (multi-pixel) detector. The second beam never interacts with the mask. Neither detector can reconstruct the mask independently, but temporal cross-correlation between the two beams can be used to recover a ‘ghost’ image. Here we report the realization of ghost imaging using massive particles instead of photons. In our experiment, the two beams are formed by correlated pairs of ultracold, metastable helium atoms, which originate from s-wave scattering of two colliding Bose-Einstein condensates. We use higher-order Kapitza-Dirac scattering to generate a large number of correlated atom pairs, enabling the creation of a clear ghost image with submillimetre resolution. Future extensions of our technique could lead to the realization of ghost interference, and enable tests of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement and Bell’s inequalities with atoms.

  12. Method of identifying defective particle coatings

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Mark E.; Whiting, Carlton D.

    1986-01-01

    A method for identifying coated particles having defective coatings desig to retain therewithin a build-up of gaseous materials including: (a) Pulling a vacuum on the particles; (b) Backfilling the particles at atmospheric pressure with a liquid capable of wetting the exterior surface of the coated particles, said liquid being a compound which includes an element having an atomic number higher than the highest atomic number of any element in the composition which forms the exterior surface of the particle coating; (c) Drying the particles; and (d) Radiographing the particles. By television monitoring, examination of the radiographs is substantially enhanced.

  13. Introduction to Free Atoms and Particles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    under vacuum mp bp’ (OC at about Vaporization Vapor Element (0C) (0C) 10 pi pressure ) method composition W 3410 5660 Laser. c-beam. W are. sublimation...34 Kenneth J Klabunde TABLE 1.1 (continued) Vaporization temperature under vacuum mp bpc (°C at about Vaporization Vapor Element (0C) (0C) 1O p pressure ...which the vapor pressure of the element is I x 10-2 torr [3], which is an estimate of the temperature at which convenient vaporization under vacuum

  14. Atom Interferometry

    ScienceCinema

    Mark Kasevich

    2016-07-12

    Atom de Broglie wave interferometry has emerged as a tool capable of addressing a diverse set of questions in gravitational and condensed matter physics, and as an enabling technology for advanced sensors in geodesy and navigation. This talk will review basic principles, then discuss recent applications and future directions. Scientific applications to be discussed include measurement of G (Newton’s constant), tests of the Equivalence Principle and post-Newtonian gravity, and study of the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in layered superfluids. Technology applications include development of precision gryoscopes and gravity gradiometers. The talk will conclude with speculative remarks looking to the future: Can atom interference methods be sued to detect gravity waves? Can non-classical (entangled/squeezed state) atom sources lead to meaningful sensor performance improvements?

  15. Atom Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kasevich, Mark

    2008-05-08

    Atom de Broglie wave interferometry has emerged as a tool capable of addressing a diverse set of questions in gravitational and condensed matter physics, and as an enabling technology for advanced sensors in geodesy and navigation. This talk will review basic principles, then discuss recent applications and future directions. Scientific applications to be discussed include measurement of G (Newton's constant), tests of the Equivalence Principle and post-Newtonian gravity, and study of the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in layered superfluids. Technology applications include development of precision gyroscopes and gravity gradiometers. The talk will conclude with speculative remarks looking to the future: Can atom interference methods be used to detect gravity waves? Can non-classical (entangled/squeezed state) atom sources lead to meaningful sensor performance improvements?

  16. Atom Interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Kasevich

    2008-05-07

    Atom de Broglie wave interferometry has emerged as a tool capable of addressing a diverse set of questions in gravitational and condensed matter physics, and as an enabling technology for advanced sensors in geodesy and navigation. This talk will review basic principles, then discuss recent applications and future directions. Scientific applications to be discussed include measurement of G (Newton’s constant), tests of the Equivalence Principle and post-Newtonian gravity, and study of the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition in layered superfluids. Technology applications include development of precision gryoscopes and gravity gradiometers. The talk will conclude with speculative remarks looking to the future: Can atom interference methods be sued to detect gravity waves? Can non-classical (entangled/squeezed state) atom sources lead to meaningful sensor performance improvements?

  17. Suspension of Atoms Using Optical Pulses, and Application to Gravimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, K. J.; Burke, J. H. T.; Sackett, C. A.

    2009-04-17

    Atoms from a {sup 87}Rb condensate are suspended against gravity using repeated reflections from a pulsed optical standing wave. Up to 100 reflections are observed, yielding suspension times of over 100 ms. The local gravitational acceleration can be determined from the pulse rate required to achieve suspension. Further, a gravitationally sensitive atom interferometer was implemented using the suspended atoms. This technique could potentially provide a precision measurement of gravity without requiring the atoms to fall a large distance.

  18. String-like collective atomic motion in the melting and freezing of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao; Kalvapalle, Pranav; Douglas, Jack F

    2011-12-08

    The melting of a solid represents a transition between a solid state in which atoms are localized about fixed average crystal lattice positions to a fluid state that is characterized by relative atomic disorder and particle mobility so that the atoms wander around the material as a whole, impelled by the random thermal impulses of surrounding atoms. Despite the fundamental nature and practical importance of this particle delocalization transition, there is still no fundamental theory of melting and instead one often relies on the semi-phenomenological Lindemann-Gilvarry criterion to estimate roughly the melting point as an instability of the crystal lattice. Even the earliest simulations of melting in hexagonally packed hard discs by Alder and Wainwright indicated the active role of nonlocal collective atomic motions in the melting process, and here we utilize molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to determine whether the collective particle motion observed in melting has a similar geometrical form as those in recent studies of nanoparticle (NP) interfacial dynamics and the molecular dynamics of metastable glass-forming liquids. We indeed find string-like collective atomic motion in NP melting that is remarkably similar in form to the collective interfacial motions in NPs at equilibrium and to the collective motions found in the molecular dynamics of glass-forming liquids. We also find that the spatial localization and extent of string-like motion in the course of NP melting and freezing evolves with time in distinct ways. Specifically, the collective atomic motion propagates from the NP surface and from within the NP in melting and freezing, respectively, and the average string length varies smoothly with time during melting. In contrast, the string-like cooperative motion peaks in an intermediate stage of the freezing process, reflecting a general asymmetry in the dynamics of NP superheating and supercooling.

  19. Neutron reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousin, Fabrice; Menelle, Alain

    2015-10-01

    The specular neutron reflectivity is a technique enabling the measurement of neutron scattering length density profile perpendicular to the plane of a surface or an interface, and thereby the profile of chemical composition. The characteristic sizes that are probed range from around 5 Å up 5000 Å. It is a scattering technique that averages information on the entire surface and it is therefore not possible to obtain information within the plane of the interface. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the contrast by isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons) makes it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics and magnetic thin films. This course is a basic introduction to the technique and does not address the magnetic reflectivity. It is composed of three parts describing respectively its principle and its formalism, the experimental aspects of the method (spectrometers, samples) and two examples related to the materials for energy.

  20. Atomizing apparatus for making polymer and metal powders and whiskers

    DOEpatents

    Otaigbe, Joshua U.; McAvoy, Jon M.; Anderson, Iver E.; Ting, Jason; Mi, Jia; Terpstra, Robert

    2003-03-18

    Method for making polymer particulates, such as spherical powder and whiskers, by melting a polymer material under conditions to avoid thermal degradation of the polymer material, atomizing the melt using gas jet means in a manner to form atomized droplets, and cooling the droplets to form polymer particulates, which are collected for further processing. Atomization parameters can be controlled to produce polymer particulates with controlled particle shape, particle size, and particle size distribution. For example, atomization parameters can be controlled to produce spherical polymer powders, polymer whiskers, and combinations of spherical powders and whiskers. Atomizing apparatus also is provided for atoomizing polymer and metallic materials.

  1. Quantum Phases of Atom-Molecule Mixtures of Fermionic Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Nicolas; Tsai, Shan-Wen

    2009-11-01

    Cold atom experiments have observed atom-molecule mixtures by tuning the interactions between particles.footnotetextM.L. Olsen, J. D. Perreault, T. D. Cumby, and D. S. Jin, Phys. Rev. A 80, 030701(R) (2009) We study many particle interactions by examaning a simple model that describes the destruction of fermionic atom pairs to form single bosonic molecules and vice versa. A set of functional Renomalization Group equationsfootnotetextR. Shankar, Rev. Mod. Phys., Vol 66 No. 1, January 1994^,footnotetextS.W. Tsai, A.H. Castro Neto, R. Shankar, D.K. Campbell, Phys. Rev. B 72, 054531 (2005) describing these processes are set up and solved numerically. The Self Energy of the fermions are attained as a function of frequency and we search for frequency dependent instabilities that could denote a transition from a disordered liquid to a BCS phase. (Financial support from NSF DMR-084781 and UC-Lab Fees Research Program.)

  2. Interplay between exotic superfluidity and magnetism in a chain of four-component ultracold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szirmai, E.; Barcza, G.; Sólyom, J.; Legeza, Ö.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the spin-polarized chain of ultracold alkaline-earth-metal atoms with spin-3/2 described by the fermionic Hubbard model with SU(4) symmetric attractive interaction. The competition of bound pairs, trions, quartets, and unbound atoms is studied analytically and by density-matrix renormalization-group simulations. We find several distinct states where bound particles coexist with the ferromagnetic state of unpaired fermions. In particular, an exotic inhomogeneous Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO)-type superfluid of quartets in a magnetic background of uncorrelated atoms is found for weaker interactions. We show that the system can be driven from this quartet-FFLO state to a molecular state of localized quartets where spatial segregation between molecular crystals and ferromagnetic liquids emerges, and this transition is reflected in the static structure factor.

  3. Linear Atom Guides: Guiding Rydberg Atoms and Progress Toward an Atom Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traxler, Mallory A.

    In this thesis, I explore a variety of experiments within linear, two-wire, magnetic atom guides. Experiments include guiding of Rydberg atoms; transferring between states while keeping the atoms contained within the guide; and designing, constructing, and testing a new experimental apparatus. The ultimate goal of the atom guiding experiments is to develop a continuous atom laser. The guiding of 87Rb 59D5/2 Rydberg atoms is demonstrated. The evolution of the atoms is driven by the combined effects of dipole forces acting on the center-of-mass degree of freedom as well as internal-state transitions. Time delayed microwave and state-selective field ionization, along with ion detection, are used to investigate the evolution of the internal-state distribution as well as the Rydberg atom motion while traversing the guide. The observed decay time of the guided-atom signal is about five times that of the initial state. A population transfer between Rydberg states contributes to this lengthened lifetime, and also broadens the observed field ionization spectrum. The population transfer is attributed to thermal transitions and, to a lesser extent, initial state-mixing due to Rydberg-Rydberg collisions. Characteristic signatures in ion time-of-flight signals and spatially resolved images of ion distributions, which result from the coupled internal-state and center-of-mass dynamics, are discussed. Some groups have used a scheme to make BECs where atoms are optically pumped from one reservoir trap to a final state trap, irreversibly transferring those atoms from one trap to the other. In this context, transfer from one guided ground state to another is studied. In our setup, before the atoms enter the guide, they are pumped into the | F = 1, mF = --1> state. Using two repumpers, one tuned to the F = 1 → F' = 0 transition (R10) and the other tuned to the F = 1 → F' = 2 transition (R12), the atoms are pumped between these guided states. Magnetic reflections within the guide

  4. Coherent Backscattering of Light Off One-Dimensional Atomic Strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sørensen, H. L.; Béguin, J.-B.; Kluge, K. W.; Iakoupov, I.; Sørensen, A. S.; Müller, J. H.; Polzik, E. S.; Appel, J.

    2016-09-01

    We present the first experimental realization of coherent Bragg scattering off a one-dimensional system—two strings of atoms strongly coupled to a single photonic mode—realized by trapping atoms in the evanescent field of a tapered optical fiber, which also guides the probe light. We report nearly 12% power reflection from strings containing only about 1000 cesium atoms, an enhancement of 2 orders of magnitude compared to reflection from randomly positioned atoms. This result paves the road towards collective strong coupling in 1D atom-photon systems. Our approach also allows for a straightforward fiber connection between several distant 1D atomic crystals.

  5. Atomic data for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

  6. Chameleon induced atomic afterglow

    SciTech Connect

    Brax, Philippe; Burrage, Clare

    2010-11-01

    The chameleon is a scalar field whose mass depends on the density of its environment. Chameleons are necessarily coupled to matter particles and will excite transitions between atomic energy levels in an analogous manner to photons. When created inside an optical cavity by passing a laser beam through a constant magnetic field, chameleons are trapped between the cavity walls and form a standing wave. This effect will lead to an afterglow phenomenon even when the laser beam and the magnetic field have been turned off, and could be used to probe the interactions of the chameleon field with matter.

  7. Hybrid atom-membrane optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treutlein, Philipp

    We have realized a hybrid mechanical system in which ultracold atoms and a micromechanical membrane are coupled by radiation pressure forces. The atoms are trapped in an optical lattice, formed by retro-reflection of a laser beam from an optical cavity that contains the membrane as mechanical element. When we laser cool the atoms, we observe that the membrane is sympathetically cooled from ambient to millikelvin temperatures through its interaction with the atoms. Sympathetic cooling with ultracold atoms or ions has previously been used to cool other microscopic systems such as atoms of a different species or molecular ions up to the size of proteins. Here we use it to efficiently cool the fundamental vibrational mode of a macroscopic solid-state system, whose mass exceeds that of the atomic ensemble by ten orders of magnitude. Our hybrid system operates in a regime of large atom-membrane cooperativity. With technical improvements such as cryogenic pre-cooling of the membrane, it enables ground-state cooling and quantum control of mechanical oscillators in a regime where purely optomechanical techniques cannot reach the ground state. References: A. Jöckel, A. Faber, T. Kampschulte, M. Korppi, M. T. Rakher, and P. Treutlein, Sympathetic cooling of a membrane oscillator in a hybrid mechanical-atomic system, Nature Nanotechnology 10, 55 (2015). B. Vogell, T. Kampschulte, M. T. Rakher, A. Faber, P. Treutlein, K. Hammerer, and P. Zoller, Long distance coupling of a quantum mechanical oscillator to the internal states of an atomic ensemble, New J. Phys. 17, 043044 (2015). B. Vogell, K. Stannigel, P. Zoller, K. Hammerer, M. T. Rakher, M. Korppi, A. Jöckel, and P. Treutlein, Cavity-enhanced long-distance coupling of an atomic ensemble to a micromechanical membrane, Phys. Rev. A 87, 023816 (2013).

  8. Reflective Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  9. Reflective Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NRC-2 Superinsulation, manufactured by Metallized Products, Inc. (MPI), is designed for superconducting magnets used in MRI systems and particle accelerators. It is a thin, polyester film characterized by a unique crinkled surface that provides surface stand-off between layers and minimizes heat transfer in multilayer applications. NRC-2/Two is a two-sided metallized film. The material, originally developed as a skin for balloon-like satellites, was later used by NASA as a thermal barrier. MPI worked with NASA on the development of the original material and now supplies it for both space and consumer applications.

  10. Elementary Particles and Forces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigg, Chris

    1985-01-01

    Discusses subatomic particles (quarks, leptons, and others) revealed by higher accelerator energies. A connection between forces at this subatomic level has been established, and prospects are good for a description of forces that encompass binding atomic nuclei. Colors, fundamental interactions, screening, camouflage, electroweak symmetry, and…

  11. Atomic Physics, Science (Experimental): 5318.42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petit, Ralph E.

    Presented is the study of modern and classical concepts of the atom; the structure of the atom as a mass-energy relationship; practical uses of radioactivity; isotopes; and the strange particles. Performance objectives (16) are included as well as a detailed course outline. Experiments, demonstrations, projects and reports to enhance student…

  12. The Elusive Neutrino, Understanding the Atom Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Jeremy

    This booklet is one of the booklets in the "Understanding the Atom Series" published by the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission for high school science teachers and their students. The discovery of the neutrino and the research involving this important elementary particle of matter is discussed. The introductory section reviews topics basic…

  13. Atomic arias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    The American composer John Adams uses opera to dramatize controversial current events. His 1987 work Nixon in China was about the landmark meeting in 1972 between US President Richard Nixon and Chairman Mao Zedong of China; The Death of Klinghoffer (1991) was a musical re-enactment of an incident in 1985 when Palestinian terrorists kidnapped and murdered a wheelchair-bound Jewish tourist on a cruise ship. Adams's latest opera, Doctor Atomic, is also tied to a controversial event: the first atomic-bomb test in Alamogordo, New Mexico, on 16 June 1945. The opera premièred in San Francisco in 2005, had a highly publicized debut at the Metropolitan Opera in New York in 2008, and will have another debut on 25 February - with essentially the same cast - at the English National Opera in London.

  14. Atomic rivals

    SciTech Connect

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1990-01-01

    This book is a memoir of rivalries among the Allies over the bomb, by a participant and observer. Nuclear proliferation began in the uneasy wartime collaboration of the United States, England, Canada, and Free France to produce the atom bomb. Through the changes of history, a young French chemist had a role in almost every act of this international drama. This memoir is based on Goldschmidt's own recollections, interviews with other leading figures, and 3,000 pages of newly declassified documents in Allied archives. From his own start as Marie Curie's lab assistant, Goldschmidt's career was closely intertwined with Frances complicated rise to membership in the nuclear club. As a refugee from the Nazis, he became part of the wartime nuclear energy project in Canada and found himself the only French scientist to work (although briefly) on the American atom bomb project.

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pd-103 (Palladium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pd-103 (Palladium, atomic number Z = 46, mass number A = 103).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for F-18 (Fluorine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope F-18 (Fluorine, atomic number Z = 9, mass number A = 18).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for I-124 (Iodine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope I-124 (Iodine, atomic number Z = 53, mass number A = 124).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for B-12 (Boron)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope B-12 (Boron, atomic number Z = 5, mass number A = 12).

  19. Atomic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, A.E.; Kukla, K.; Cheng, S.

    1995-08-01

    In a collaboration with the Atomic Physics group at Argonne and the University of Toledo, the Atomic Physics group at the University of Notre Dame is measuring the fine structure transition energies in highly-charged lithium-like and helium-like ions using beam-foil spectroscopy. Precise measurements of 2s-2p transition energies in simple (few-electron) atomic systems provide stringent tests of several classes of current atomic- structure calculations. Analyses of measurements in helium-like Ar{sup 16+} have been completed, and the results submitted for publication. A current goal is to measure the 1s2s{sup 3}S{sub 1} - 1s2p{sup 3}P{sub 0} transition wavelength in helium-like Ni{sup 26+}. Measurements of the 1s2s{sup 2}S{sub 1/2} - 1s2p{sup 2}P{sub 1/2,3/2} transition wavelengths in lithium-like Kr{sup 33+} is planned. Wavelength and lifetime measurements in copper-like U{sup 63+} are also expected to be initiated. The group is also participating in measurements of forbidden transitions in helium-like ions. A measurement of the lifetime of the 1s2s{sup 3}S{sub 1} state in Kr{sup 34+} was published recently. In a collaboration including P. Mokler of GSI, Darmstadt, measurements have been made of the spectral distribution of the 2E1 decay continuum in helium-like Kr{sup 34+}. Initial results have been reported and further measurements are planned.

  20. Determination of copper nanoparticle size distributions with total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Andy; Luening, Katharina; Brennan, Sean; Homma, Takayuki; Kubo, Nobuhiro; Nowak, Stanisław H; Pianetta, Piero

    2017-01-01

    Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis is extensively used by the semiconductor industry for measuring trace metal contamination on silicon surfaces. In addition to determining the quantity of impurities on a surface, TXRF can reveal information about the vertical distribution of contaminants by measuring the fluorescence signal as a function of the angle of incidence. In this study, two samples were intentionally contaminated with copper in non-deoxygenated and deoxygenated ultrapure water (UPW) resulting in impurity profiles that were either atomically dispersed in a thin film or particle-like, respectively. The concentration profile of the samples immersed into deoxygenated UPW was calculated using a theoretical concentration profile representative of particles, yielding a mean particle height of 16.1 nm. However, the resulting theoretical profile suggested that a distribution of particle heights exists on the surface. The fit of the angular distribution data was further refined by minimizing the residual error of a least-squares fit employing a model with a Gaussian distribution of particle heights about the mean height. The presence of a height distribution was also confirmed with atomic force microscopy measurements.

  1. Atomic Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Claudio

    2000-10-01

    Atomic and molecular data are required in a variety of fields ranging from the traditional astronomy, atmospherics and fusion research to fast growing technologies such as lasers, lighting, low-temperature plasmas, plasma assisted etching and radiotherapy. In this context, there are some research groups, both theoretical and experimental, scattered round the world that attend to most of this data demand, but the implementation of atomic databases has grown independently out of sheer necessity. In some cases the latter has been associated with the data production process or with data centers involved in data collection and evaluation; but sometimes it has been the result of individual initiatives that have been quite successful. In any case, the development and maintenance of atomic databases call for a number of skills and an entrepreneurial spirit that are not usually associated with most physics researchers. In the present report we present some of the highlights in this area in the past five years and discuss what we think are some of the main issues that have to be addressed.

  2. The Atomic and Nuclear Physics of Atomic EDMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chupp, Timothy

    2016-09-01

    Atomic Electric-Dipole-Moment (EDM) measurements employ low-energy atomic and precision-measurement techniques to measure the effects of elementary particle forces that affect the distribution of charge and mass in the nucleus, which is probed by the atomic electrons. Experiments and their interpretation strongly overlap atomic and nuclear physics in the experimental and theoretical problems presented. On the experimental side, the atomic EDM couples to electric fields while the magnetic dipole moment couples to magnetic fields requiring exquisite control and characerization of the magnetic fields. Measuring the tiny frequency shifts requires clock-comparisons and a large signal-to-noise ratio for frequency resolution much smaller than the linewidths, which are lmitied by observation times. To address the experimental challenges, I will discuss systematic effects related to magnetic fields and techniques of magnetometry and co-magntometery as well as optical pumping and related techniques that enhance signal-to-noise. I will also address the interpretation of atomic EDMs in terms of a set of low-energy parameters that relate to effective-field-theory coefficients, and I will empshaize the need for improved calculations from both atomic-theory and nuclear theory.

  3. Reflective Shields for Artificial Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, F. L.

    1986-01-01

    Report proposes reflective shield that protects spacecraft from radiant energy. Also gives some protection against particle beams and cosmic rays. Conceptual shield essentially advanced version of decorative multifaceted mirror balls often hung over dance floors. Mirror facets disperse radiant energy in many directions.

  4. Imaging alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A conducting coated high voltage electrode (1) and a tungsten wire grid (2) constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source (3) to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window (4) allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  5. Imaging alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.

    1980-10-29

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A dielectric coated high voltage electrode and a tungsten wire grid constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  6. EDITORIAL: Atomic layer deposition Atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godlewski, Marek

    2012-07-01

    The growth method of atomic layer deposition (ALD) was introduced in Finland by Suntola under the name of atomic layer epitaxy (ALE). The method was originally used for deposition of thin films of sulphides (ZnS, CaS, SrS) activated with manganese or rare-earth ions. Such films were grown for applications in thin-film electroluminescence (TFEL) displays. The ALE mode of growth was also tested in the case of molecular beam epitaxy. Films grown by ALD are commonly polycrystalline or even amorphous. Thus, the name ALE has been replaced by ALD. In the 80s ALD was developed mostly in Finland and neighboring Baltic countries. Deposition of a range of different materials was demonstrated at that time, including II-VI semiconductors (e.g. CdTe, CdS) and III-V (e.g. GaAs, GaN), with possible applications in e.g. photovoltaics. The number of publications on ALD was slowly increasing, approaching about 100 each year. A real boom in interest came with the development of deposition methods of thin films of high-k dielectrics. This research was motivated by a high leakage current in field-effect transistors with SiO2-based gate dielectrics. In 2007 Intel introduced a new generation of integrated circuits (ICs) with thin films of HfO2 used as gate isolating layers. In these and subsequent ICs, films of HfO2 are deposited by the ALD method. This is due to their unique properties. The introduction of ALD to the electronics industry led to a booming interest in the ALD growth method, with the number of publications increasing rapidly to well above 1000 each year. A number of new applications were proposed, as reflected in this special issue of Semiconductor Science and Technology. The included articles cover a wide range of possible applications—in microelectronics, transparent electronics, optoelectronics, photovoltaics and spintronics. Research papers and reviews on the basics of ALD growth are also included, reflecting a growing interest in precursor chemistry and growth

  7. Photonic, Electronic and Atomic Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fainstein, Pablo D.; Lima, Marco Aurelio P.; Miraglia, Jorge E.; Montenegro, Eduardo C.; Rivarola, Roberto D.

    2006-11-01

    . Absolute total cross sections for electron-CH[symbol] scattering at intermediate energies / M. C. A. Lopes ... [et al.]. Electron-CO[symbol] scattering in a cluster environment / I. I. Fabrikant. Isomer effect in electron collisions with small hydrocarbons / M. H. F. Bettega ... [et al.]. Low energy electron interactions with bio-molecules / B. P. Marinković ... [et al.]. Narrow resonances in dissociative electron attachment and vibrational excitation in H[symbol] / M. Číček. (e, 2e) experiments with randomly oriented and fixed-in-space hydrogen molecules / M. Takahashi. Initial and final state correlation effects in (e, 3e) processes / G. Gasaneo, S. Otranto and K. V. Rodríguez. An (e, 2˙e) experiment for simultaneous ionization-excitation of helium to the He[symbol](2p)[symbol]P states by electron impact / A. Dorn ... [et al.] -- Collisions involving exotic particles. Antihydrogen in the laboratory / M. Charlton. Atomic collisions involving positrons / H. R. J. Walters and C. Starret. Ionization and positronium formation in noble gases / J. P. Marler, J. P. Sullivan and C. M. Surko. Study of inner-shell ionization by low-energy positron impact / Y. Nagashima ... [et al.]. Positron-atom bound states and interactions / M. W. J. Bromley. Extraction of ultra-slow antiproton beams for single collision experiments / H. A. Torii ... [et al.]. Positronium formation from valence and inner shells in noble gases / L. J. M. Dunlop and G. F. Gribakin. Molecular effects in neutrino mass measurements / N. Doss ... [et al.] -- Collisions involving heavy projectiles. Probing the solar wind with cometary X-ray and far-ultraviolet emission / R. Hoekstra ... [et al.]. Production of O[symbol] + neutrals from the collision of C[symbol] with water / H. Luna ... [et al.]. Vector correlation of fragment ions produced by collision of Ar[symbol] with dimethyldisulfide / T. Matsuoka ... [et al.]. Slow multiply charged ion-molecule collision dynamics studied through a multi

  8. Energetic neutral atoms emitted from ice by ion bombardment under Ganymede surface conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieser, Martin; Barabash, Stas; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Wurz, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Magnetospheric or solar wind ions directly interacting with a planetary surface result in backscattering or sputtering of energetic neutral atoms. One example is the solar wind interaction with the surface of the Moon, where the produced energetic neutral atoms were observed by the Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer instrument (SARA) on Chandrayaan-1. At Jupiter, magnetospheric plasma interacts in a similar way with the surface of the Galilean moons. However, the emission of energetic neutral atoms from "dirty" ices as found e.g. on Ganymede's surface is poorly understood. We set up an experiment to study the ion to surface interaction under Ganymede surface environment conditions using the unique capabilities of the MEFISTO test facility at University of Bern. Ions of various species and energies up to 33 keV/q were impacted on a block of ice made from a mixture of water, NaCl and dry ice. The energetic neutral atoms produced by the interaction were detected with the prototype of the Jovian Neutrals Analyzer instrument (JNA.) JNA is proposed as part of the Particle Environment Package (PEP) for ESA's JUICE mission to Jupiter and instrument is based on the Energetic Energetic Neutral Atom instrument (ENA) built for the BepiColombo Magnetospheric Orbiter. We present energy spectra for different ion beam species and energetic neutral atom species combinations. The data show high yields for energetic neutral atoms up to the upper end of the instrument energy range of 3.3 keV. The energy spectra of the neutral atom flux emitted from the ice could only partially be fitted by the Sigmund-Thompson formula. In some cases, but not all, a Maxwellian distribution provides a reasonable description of the data.

  9. Rydberg States of Atoms and Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stebbings, R. F.; Dunning, F. B.

    2011-03-01

    List of contributors; Preface; 1. Rydberg atoms in astrophysics A. Dalgarno; 2. Theoretical studies of hydrogen Rydberg atoms in electric fields R. J. Damburg and V. V. Kolosov; 3. Rydberg atoms in strong fields D. Kleppner, Michael G. Littman and Myron L. Zimmerman; 4. Spectroscopy of one- and two-electron Rydberg atoms C. Fabre and S. Haroche; 5. Interaction of Rydberg atoms with blackbody radiation T. F. Gallagher; 6. Theoretical approaches to low-energy collisions of Rydberg atoms with atoms and ions A. P. Hickman, R. E. Olson and J. Pascale; 7. Experimental studies of the interaction of Rydberg atoms with atomic species at thermal energies F. Gounand and J. Berlande; 8. Theoretical studies of collisions of Rydberg atoms with molecules Michio Matsuzawa; 9. Experimental studies of thermal-energy collisions of Rydberg atoms with molecules F. B. Dunning and R. F. Stebbings; 10. High-Rydberg molecules Robert S. Freund; 11. Theory of Rydberg collisions with electrons, ions and neutrals M. R. Flannery; 12. Experimental studies of the interactions of Rydberg atoms with charged particles J. -F. Delpech; 13. Rydberg studies using fast beams Peter M. Koch; Index.

  10. Atom Skimmers and Atom Lasers Utilizing Them

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulet, Randall; Tollett, Jeff; Franke, Kurt; Moss, Steve; Sackett, Charles; Gerton, Jordan; Ghaffari, Bita; McAlexander, W.; Strecker, K.; Homan, D.

    2005-01-01

    Atom skimmers are devices that act as low-pass velocity filters for atoms in thermal atomic beams. An atom skimmer operating in conjunction with a suitable thermal atomic-beam source (e.g., an oven in which cesium is heated) can serve as a source of slow atoms for a magneto-optical trap or other apparatus in an atomic-physics experiment. Phenomena that are studied in such apparatuses include Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases, spectra of trapped atoms, and collisions of slowly moving atoms. An atom skimmer includes a curved, low-thermal-conduction tube that leads from the outlet of a thermal atomic-beam source to the inlet of a magneto-optical trap or other device in which the selected low-velocity atoms are to be used. Permanent rare-earth magnets are placed around the tube in a yoke of high-magnetic-permeability material to establish a quadrupole or octupole magnetic field leading from the source to the trap. The atoms are attracted to the locus of minimum magnetic-field intensity in the middle of the tube, and the gradient of the magnetic field provides centripetal force that guides the atoms around the curve along the axis of the tube. The threshold velocity for guiding is dictated by the gradient of the magnetic field and the radius of curvature of the tube. Atoms moving at lesser velocities are successfully guided; faster atoms strike the tube wall and are lost from the beam.

  11. Proton: the particle.

    PubMed

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10(80). Protons were created at 10(-6) -1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10(10) years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10(34) years; that is, the age of the universe is 10(-24)th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W(+), W(-), Z(0), and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter.

  12. Proton: The Particle

    SciTech Connect

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10{sup 80}. Protons were created at 10{sup −6} –1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10{sup 10} years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10{sup 34} years; that is, the age of the universe is 10{sup −24}th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W{sup +}, W{sup −}, Z{sup 0}, and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter.

  13. The Scattering of Gas Atoms from Solid Surfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Alan J.

    1977-01-01

    Traditional undergraduate courses in gas kinetic theory encourage the view that in all collisions between a gas atom and a surface, the angle of incidence of the gas atom equals its angle of reflection. This article illustrates and explains the incorrectness in assuming specular reflection and zero dwell time. (Author/MA)

  14. Displacement per Atom, Primary Knocked-on Atoms Produced in an Atomic Solid Target

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    Version 00 DART calculates the total number of displacements, primary knocked-on atoms, recoil spectra, displacement cross sections and displacement per atoms rates in a poly atomic solid target, composed of many different isotopes, using ENDF/B-VI derived cross sections. To calculate these values, different incident particles were considered: neutrons, ions and electrons. The user needs only to specify an incident particle energy spectrum and the composition of the target. The number of displaced atoms is calculated within the Binary Collision Approximation framework. To calculate the number of displacements the DART code does not use the classical NRT dpa analytical formula, which is only appropriate for projectile and target of the same mass. It numerically solves the linearized Boltzmann equation for a polyatomic target. It can be a useful tool to select the nature and energy of ions or electrons in particle accelerators or electron microscopes to mimic the primary damage induced by neutron irradiation in nuclear plants or fission facilities. Nuclear data: • Typically any ENDFB format evaluation may be used. This package includes the ENDFB-VI nuclear data library. Energy ranges: • Neutron or ion : 10E-11 to 20 MeV Data library distributed with DART v1.0: • ENDFB-VI nuclear data library

  15. Application of atomic magnetometry in magnetic particledetection

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Shoujun; Donaldson, Marcus H.; Pines, Alexander; Rochester,Simon M.; Budker, Dmitry; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2006-09-17

    We demonstrate the detection of magnetic particles carriedby water in a continuous flow using an atomic magnetic gradiometer.Studies on three types of magnetic particles are presented: a singlecobalt particle (diameter ~;150 mum, multi-domain), a suspension ofsuperparamagnetic magnetite particles (diameter ~;1 mum), andferromagnetic cobalt nanoparticles (diameter ~;10 nm, 120 kA/mmagnetization). Estimated detection limits are 20 mum diameter for asingle cobalt particle at a water flow rate 30 ml/min, 5x103 magnetiteparticles at 160 ml/min, and 50 pl for the specific ferromagnetic fluidat 130 ml/min. Possible applications of our method arediscussed.

  16. Quantum phase gate using single atom nonlinearlity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Shigeki; Oka, Hisaki; Kojima, Kunihiro; Hofmann, Holger F.; Sasaki, Keiji

    2005-08-01

    The nonlinear optical response obtained from a single two level atom in a one-sided cavity is studied using a model system, where a infinite atomic layer sits in front of a reflecting mirror. When the atomic layer is placed at the antinode of input field, the result given by finite difference time domain method coupled with the optical Bloch equations is consistent with previous analytical result [ H F. Hofmann, K. Kojima, S. Takeuchi, and K. Sasaki, J. Opt. B 5, 218 (2003) ] based on one-dimensional atom model.

  17. High Atom Number in Microsized Atom Traps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-14

    cooling of some atoms in atomic beam. We have reconfigured the apparatus for applying bichromatic forces transverse to the atomic beam, as it will be...apparatus for applying bichromatic forces transverse to the atomic beam, as it will be easier to extend this to two dimensions. Research to develop

  18. ATOMIC PHYSICS, AN AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAM, VOLUME 1, SUPPLEMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DETERLINE, WILLIAM A.; KLAUS, DAVID J.

    AUTOINSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS WERE PREPARED FOR USE IN AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE SELF-TUTORING APPROACH IN EDUCATION. THE MATERIALS COVER SECTIONS ON (1) THE ATOM, (2) ATOMIC PARTICLES, (3) CATHODE RAYS, (4) MEASURING THE ELECTRON, (5) CHARGE AND MASS OF THE ELECTRON, AND (6) MASS OF ATOMS. RELATED REPORTS ARE ED 003 205 THROUGH ED 003 207, ED…

  19. Atomic magnetometer

    DOEpatents

    Schwindt, Peter [Albuquerque, NM; Johnson, Cort N [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-07-03

    An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which uses a pump light beam at a D1 or D2 transition of an alkali metal vapor to magnetically polarize the vapor in a heated cell, and a probe light beam at a different D2 or D1 transition to sense the magnetic field via a polarization rotation of the probe light beam. The pump and probe light beams are both directed along substantially the same optical path through an optical waveplate and through the heated cell to an optical filter which blocks the pump light beam while transmitting the probe light beam to one or more photodetectors which generate electrical signals to sense the magnetic field. The optical waveplate functions as a quarter waveplate to circularly polarize the pump light beam, and as a half waveplate to maintain the probe light beam linearly polarized.

  20. Particle Accelerators | RadTown USA | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-02-23

    article accelerators are special machines that speed up charged particles and smash them into atoms, breaking the atoms into even smaller pieces. Scientists use particle accelerators to study the smallest building blocks of our world. Accelerators can produce ionizing radiation in the form of x-rays, neutrons and charged particle beams as well as radioisotopes for use in research and technology.

  1. Diagnostic probes for particle and molecule distributions in laser-generated plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Kimbrell, S.M.

    1990-10-17

    Laser microprobe analysis (LMA) offers good spatial and depth resolution for solid sampling of virtually any material. Coupled with numerous optical spectroscopic and mass spectrometric detection methods, LMA is a powerful analytical tool. Yet, fundamental understanding of the interaction between the laser and the sample surface leading to the formation of the high temperature plasma (plume) is far from complete. To better understand the process of plume formation, an imaging method based on acousto-optic laser beam deflection has been coupled with light scattering methods and absorption methods to record temporal and spatial maps of the particle and molecule distributions in the plume with good resolution. Because particles can make up a major fraction of the vaporized material under certain operating conditions, they can reflect a large loss of atomic signal for elemental analysis, even when using auxiliary excitation to further vaporized the particles. Characterization of the particle size distributions in plumes should provide insight into the vaporization process and information necessary for studies of efficient particle transfer. Light scattering methods for particle size analysis based on the Mie Theory are used to determine the size of particles in single laser-generated plumes. The methods used, polarization ratio method and dissymmetry ratio method, provide good estimates of particle size with good spatial and temporal resolution for this highly transient system. Large particles, on the order of 0.02-0.2{mu}m in radius, were observed arising directly from the sample surface and from condensation.

  2. Fast metastable hydrogen atoms from H2 molecules: twin atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimèche, A.; Houdoux, D.; Rahmat, G.; Dulieu, O.; Schneider, I. F.; Medina, A.; Jalbert, G.; Zappa, F.; de Carvalho, C. R.; Nascimento, R. F.; de Castro Faria, N. V.; Robert, J.

    2015-01-01

    It is a difficult task to obtain "twin atoms", i.e. pairs of massive particles such that one can perform experiments in the same fashion that is routinely done with "twin photons". One possible route to obtain such pairs is by dissociating homonuclear diatomic molecules. We address this possibility by investigating the production of metastable H(2s) atoms coming from the dissociation of cold H2 molecules produced in a Campargue nozzle beam crossing an electron beam from a high intensity pulsed electron gun. Dissociation by electron impact was chosen to avoid limitations of target molecular excited states due to selection rules. Detectors placed several centimeters away from the collision center, and aligned with respect to possible common molecular dissociation channel, analyze the neutral fragments as a function of their time-of-flight (TOF) through Lyman-α detection. Evidence for the first time observed coincidence of pairs of H(2s) atoms obtained this way is presented.

  3. Laser-Free Cold-Atom Gymnastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Harvey; Feinberg, Benedict; Munger, Charles T., Jr.; Nishimura, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    We have performed beam transport simulations on ultra cold (2 μK) and cold (130 μK) neutral Cs atoms in the F = M = + 4 (magnetic weak-field seeking) ground state. We use inhomogeneous magnetic fields to focus and accelerate the atoms. Acceleration of neutral atoms by an inhomogeneous magnetic field was demonstrated by Stern and Gerlach in 1922. In the simulations, a two mm diameter cloud of atoms is released to fall under gravity. A magnetic coil focuses the falling atoms. After falling 41 cm, the atoms are reflected in the magnetic fringe field of a solenoid. They return to their starting height, about 0.7 s later, having passed a second time through the focusing coil. The simulations show that > 98 % of ultra cold Cs atoms and > 70 % of cold Cs atoms will survive at least 15 round trips (assuming perfect vacuum). More than 100 simulations were run to optimize coil currents and focusing coil diameter and height. Simulations also show that atoms can be launched into a fountain. An experimental apparatus to test the simulations, is being constructed. This technique may find application in atomic fountain clocks, interferometers, and gravitometers, and may be adaptable for use in microgravity. It may also work with Bose-Einstein condensates of paramagnetic atoms.

  4. A Reflective Look at Reflecting Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pender, Rebecca L.; Stinchfield, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    This article reviewed existing literature and research on the reflecting team process. There is a dearth of empirical research that explores the reflecting team process and the outcome of counseling that uses reflecting teams. Implications of using reflecting teams for counselors, counselor educators, and clients will be discussed. A call for…

  5. Entanglement-enhanced atomic gyroscope

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J. J.; Hallwood, D. W.; Dunningham, J. A.

    2010-04-15

    The advent of increasingly precise gyroscopes has played a key role in the technological development of navigation systems. Ring-laser and fiber-optic gyroscopes, for example, are widely used in modern inertial guidance systems and rely on the interference of unentangled photons to measure mechanical rotation. The sensitivity of these devices scales with the number of particles used as 1/{radical}(N). Here we demonstrate how, by using sources of entangled particles, it is possible to do better and even achieve the ultimate limit allowed by quantum mechanics where the precision scales as 1/N. We propose a gyroscope scheme that uses ultracold atoms trapped in an optical ring potential.

  6. Chaotic behavior of channeling particles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling; Kaloyeros, Alain E.; Wang, Guang-Hou

    1994-03-01

    Channeling describes the collimated motion of energetic charged particles along the lattice plane or axis in a crystal. The energetic particles are steered through the channels formed by strings of atomic constituents in the lattice. In the case of planar channeling, the motion of a charged particle between the atomic planes can be periodic or quasiperiodic, such as a simple oscillatory motion in the transverse direction. In practice, however, the periodic motion of the channeling particles can be accompanied by an irregular, chaotic behavior. In this paper, the Moliere potential, which is considered as a good analytical approximation for the interaction of channeling particles with the rows of atoms in the lattice, is used to simulate the channeling behavior of positively charged particles in a tungsten (100) crystal plane. By appropriate selection of channeling parameters, such as the projectile energy E(0) and incident angle psi(0), the transition of channeling particles from regular to chaotic motion is demonstrated. It is argued that the fine structures that appear in the angular scan channeling experiments are due to the particles' chaotic motion.

  7. Coronal element abundances derived from solar energetic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, Donald V.

    1994-01-01

    The large gradual solar-energetic-particle (SEP) events, where abundances are commonly measured, are produced when coronal mass ejections (CMEs) drive shock waves through the corona and the interplanetary medium. The shock accelerates particles from the highly-ionized, approximately 1.5 MK, plasma in a manner that depends only weakly upon the Q/A of the ion, except at very high energies. Averaging the approximately 1 MeV/amu abundances over many events compensates for the acceleration effects to produce abundances that appear to correspond directly to those in the coronal source for all observed elements, including H. The resulting abundances reflect the 4 x enhancement of ions with low values of first ionization potential (FIP) arising from ion-neutral fractionation that occurs as the atoms are transported up from the photosphere. A different pattern of fractionation is found for ions that are shock-accelerated from the high speed solar wind emerging from coronal holes.

  8. Solar Energetic Particle Studies with PAMELA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bravar, U.; Christian, E. R.; deNolfo, Georgia; Ryan, J. M.; Stochaj, S.

    2011-01-01

    The origin of the high-energy solar energetic particles (SEPs) may conceivably be found in composition signatures that reflect the elemental abundances of the low corona and chromosphere vs. the high corona and solar wind. The presence of secondaries, such as neutrons and positrons, could indicate a low coronal origin of these particles. Velocity dispersion of different species and over a wide energy range can be used to determine energetic particle release times at the Sun. Together with multi-wavelength imaging, in- situ observations of a variety of species, and coverage over a wide energy range provide a critical tool in identifying the origin of SEPs, understanding the evolution of these events within the context of solar active regions, and constraining the acceleration mechanisms at play. The Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA)instrument, successfully launched in 2006 and expected to remain operational until at least the beginning of 2012, measures energetic particles in the same energy range as ground-based neutron monitors, and lower energies as well. It thus bridges the gap between low energy in-situ observations and ground-based Ground Level Enhancements (GLE) observations. It can measure the charge (up to Z=6) and atomic number of the detected particles, and it can identify and measure positrons and detect neutrons-an unprecedented array of data channels that we can bring to bear on the origin of high-energy SEPs. We present prelimiary results on the for the 2006 December 13 solar flare and GLE and the 2011 March 21 solar flare, both registering proton and helium enhancements in PAMELA. Together with multi- spacecraft contextual data and modeling, we discuss the PAMELA results in the context of the different acceleration mechanisms at play.

  9. Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2009; Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2009; Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2010 - Gilpin's Falls Covered Bridge, Spanning North East Creek at Former (Bypassed) Section of North East Road (SR 272), North East, Cecil County, MD

  10. Imager of low energy neutral atoms (ILENA) - Imaging neutrals from the magnetosphere at energies below 20 keV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrero, Federico A.; Smith, Mark F.

    1992-01-01

    We describe a new imager suitable for measurements of magnetospheric neutrals with energies from about 100 eV to about 10 keV; an energy range adequate for imaging the plasmasheet neutral atoms out to about 10 R(E). The instrument, an outgrowth of a study of atom-surface collisions in support of satellite drag calculations, separates incident photons from neutral atoms by surface scattering and conversion of the neutrals to ions. Subsequently, the ions formed on the first surface are accelerated through a light rejection section which also disperses the ions according to energy. The dispersed ion beam is then allowed to impact a second surface where a start pulse is generated to obtain ion velocity and energy/charge. The second surface is chosen to give large secondary electron emission without regard to charge state of the particles reflected from it. The data supporting the proposed ILENA design is presented in the first part of the paper.

  11. High-flux source of low-energy neutral beams using reflection of ions from metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuthbertson, John W.; Motley, Robert W.; Langer, William D.

    1992-01-01

    Reflection of low-energy ions from surfaces can be applied as a method of producing high-flux beams of low-energy neutral particles, and is an important effect in several areas of plasma technology, such as in the edge region of fusion devices. We have developed a beam source based on acceleration and reflection of ions from a magnetically confined coaxial RF plasma source. The beam provides a large enough flux to allow the energy distribution of the reflected neutrals to be measured despite the inefficiency of detection, by means of an electrostatic cylindrical mirror analyzer coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Energy distributions have been measured for oxygen, nitrogen, and inert gas ions incident with from 15 to 70 eV reflected from amorphous metal surfaces of several compositions. For ions of lighter atomic mass than the reflecting metal, reflected beams have peaked energy distributions; beams with the peak at 4-32 eV have been measured. The energy and mass dependences of the energy distributions as well as measurements of absolute flux, and angular distribution and divergence are reported. Applications of the neutral beams produced are described.

  12. Rutherford, Maestro of the Atom

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, John

    2003-12-10

    This talk will cover some of the lesser known aspects of Rutherford's work, including his early work in wireless signaling and his later encouragement of radio studies of the ionosphere, the development of what was later improved to be now called the Geiger-Muller tube, his acoustic work for submarine detection during the First World War, the development of particle accelerators and the race to splitting the atom, the first use of coincidence detectors, and why he received just one Nobel Prize.

  13. Atomic Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, R.; Imanaliev, A.; Aspect, A.; Cheneau, M.; Boiron, D.; Westbrook, C. I.

    2015-04-01

    Two-particle interference is a fundamental feature of quantum mechanics, and is even less intuitive than wave-particle duality for a single particle. In this duality, classical concepts--wave or particle--are still referred to, and interference happens in ordinary space-time. On the other hand, two-particle interference takes place in a mathematical space that has no classical counterpart. Entanglement lies at the heart of this interference, as it does in the fundamental tests of quantum mechanics involving the violation of Bell's inequalities. The Hong, Ou and Mandel experiment is a conceptually simpler situation, in which the interference between two-photon amplitudes also leads to behaviour impossible to describe using a simple classical model. Here we report the realization of the Hong, Ou and Mandel experiment using atoms instead of photons. We create a source that emits pairs of atoms, and cause one atom of each pair to enter one of the two input channels of a beam-splitter, and the other atom to enter the other input channel. When the atoms are spatially overlapped so that the two inputs are indistinguishable, the atoms always emerge together in one of the output channels. This result opens the way to testing Bell's inequalities involving mechanical observables of massive particles, such as momentum, using methods inspired by quantum optics, and to testing theories of the quantum-to-classical transition. Our work also demonstrates a new way to benchmark non-classical atom sources that may be of interest for quantum information processing and quantum simulation.

  14. Atomic Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment.

    PubMed

    Lopes, R; Imanaliev, A; Aspect, A; Cheneau, M; Boiron, D; Westbrook, C I

    2015-04-02

    Two-particle interference is a fundamental feature of quantum mechanics, and is even less intuitive than wave-particle duality for a single particle. In this duality, classical concepts--wave or particle--are still referred to, and interference happens in ordinary space-time. On the other hand, two-particle interference takes place in a mathematical space that has no classical counterpart. Entanglement lies at the heart of this interference, as it does in the fundamental tests of quantum mechanics involving the violation of Bell's inequalities. The Hong, Ou and Mandel experiment is a conceptually simpler situation, in which the interference between two-photon amplitudes also leads to behaviour impossible to describe using a simple classical model. Here we report the realization of the Hong, Ou and Mandel experiment using atoms instead of photons. We create a source that emits pairs of atoms, and cause one atom of each pair to enter one of the two input channels of a beam-splitter, and the other atom to enter the other input channel. When the atoms are spatially overlapped so that the two inputs are indistinguishable, the atoms always emerge together in one of the output channels. This result opens the way to testing Bell's inequalities involving mechanical observables of massive particles, such as momentum, using methods inspired by quantum optics, and to testing theories of the quantum-to-classical transition. Our work also demonstrates a new way to benchmark non-classical atom sources that may be of interest for quantum information processing and quantum simulation.

  15. Reflectance Changes during Shock-induced Phase Transformations in Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, G. D.; Turley, W. D.; Veeser, L. R.; Jensen, B. J.; Rigg, P. A.

    2010-06-01

    In performing shock wave experiments to study the characteristics of metals at high pressures, wave profiles (i.e., velocity measurements of the surface of the sample) are an established and useful way to study phase transformations. For example, a sudden change in the velocity or its slope can occur when the phase transformation induces a large volume change leading to a change in particle velocity. Allowing the shock to release into a transparent window that is in contact with the sample surface allows the study of conditions away from the shock Hugoniot. However, in cases where the wave profile is not definitive an additional phase-transformation diagnostic would be useful. Changes in the electronic structure of the atoms in the crystal offer opportunities to develop new phase-change diagnostics. We have studied optical reflectance changes for several phase transformations to see whether reflectance changes might be a generally applicable phase-transformation diagnostic. Shocks were produced by direct contact with explosives or with impacts from guns. Optical wavelengths for the reflectance measurements ranged from 355 to 700 nm. We studied samples of tin, iron, gallium, and cerium as each passed through a phase transformation during shock loading and, if observable, a reversion upon unloading. For solid-solid phase changes in tin and iron we saw small changes in the surface scattering characteristics, perhaps from voids or rough areas frozen into the surface of the sample as it transformed to a new crystal structure. For melt in gallium and cerium we saw changes in the wavelength dependence of the reflectance, and we surmise that these changes may result from changes in the crystal electronic structure. It appears that reflectance measurements can be a significant part of a larger suite of diagnostics to search for difficult-to-detect phase transformations.

  16. Homogeneous Atomic Fermi Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Yan, Zhenjie; Patel, Parth B.; Hadzibabic, Zoran; Yefsah, Tarik; Struck, Julian; Zwierlein, Martin W.

    2017-03-01

    We report on the creation of homogeneous Fermi gases of ultracold atoms in a uniform potential. In the momentum distribution of a spin-polarized gas, we observe the emergence of the Fermi surface and the saturated occupation of one particle per momentum state: the striking consequence of Pauli blocking in momentum space for a degenerate gas. Cooling a spin-balanced Fermi gas at unitarity, we create homogeneous superfluids and observe spatially uniform pair condensates. For thermodynamic measurements, we introduce a hybrid potential that is harmonic in one dimension and uniform in the other two. The spatially resolved compressibility reveals the superfluid transition in a spin-balanced Fermi gas, saturation in a fully polarized Fermi gas, and strong attraction in the polaronic regime of a partially polarized Fermi gas.

  17. Transmitted, reflected, quasi-reflected, and multiply reflected ions in low-Mach number shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedalin, M.

    2016-11-01

    The dependence of ion dynamics on the cross-shock potential and upstream βi in low-Mach number marginally critical shocks is studied using advanced test particle analysis,. The directly transmitted ions provide the main contribution to the downstream ion pressure. The fraction of reflected ions increases with the increase of the cross-shock potential and βi. This fraction is small and their contribution to the downstream ion pressure is negligible in marginally critical shocks. A population of quasi-reflected ions is identified. These ions make a loop inside the ramp and do not appear upstream. They acquire energies comparable to the energies of the true reflected ions, are observed as a halo in the downstream ion distribution, and contribute significantly to the downstream pressure. Thus, the transmitted and quasi-reflected ions shape the downstream magnetic profile. At higher cross-shock potentials and βi the reflected ions cause formation of a magnetic dip just ahead of the ramp. A small fraction of ions are multiply reflected at the shock front. All these ions escape into the upstream region and all escaping ions are mutliply reflected.

  18. The atomic orbitals of the topological atom.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Cordoba, Eloy; Salvador, Pedro; Mayer, István

    2013-06-07

    The effective atomic orbitals have been realized in the framework of Bader's atoms in molecules theory for a general wavefunction. This formalism can be used to retrieve from any type of calculation a proper set of orthonormalized numerical atomic orbitals, with occupation numbers that sum up to the respective Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) atomic populations. Experience shows that only a limited number of effective atomic orbitals exhibit significant occupation numbers. These correspond to atomic hybrids that closely resemble the core and valence shells of the atom. The occupation numbers of the remaining effective orbitals are almost negligible, except for atoms with hypervalent character. In addition, the molecular orbitals of a calculation can be exactly expressed as a linear combination of this orthonormalized set of numerical atomic orbitals, and the Mulliken population analysis carried out on this basis set exactly reproduces the original QTAIM atomic populations of the atoms. Approximate expansion of the molecular orbitals over a much reduced set of orthogonal atomic basis functions can also be accomplished to a very good accuracy with a singular value decomposition procedure.

  19. "Bohr's Atomic Model."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willden, Jeff

    2001-01-01

    "Bohr's Atomic Model" is a small interactive multimedia program that introduces the viewer to a simplified model of the atom. This interactive simulation lets students build an atom using an atomic construction set. The underlying design methodology for "Bohr's Atomic Model" is model-centered instruction, which means the central model of the…

  20. Particle fuel diversion structure

    SciTech Connect

    Eshleman, R. D.

    1985-07-30

    A particle fuel burning furnace has an upper combustion chamber for holding a pile of particle fuel and burning the same from the bottom thereof. The furnace also includes a lower combustion chamber for after-burning combustible gases given off by the burning of solid fuel in the upper chamber and a series of spaced apart vertically-extending passageways arranged in a row and interconnecting the upper and lower chambers for communicating the combustible gases from the upper to the lower chamber. A first improved feature relates to a particle fuel delivery control device which operates an auger for filling the upper chamber with particle fuel to a desired level. A beam of light is transmitted and reflected between a photoelectric cell and reflector respectively of the device. When the particle fuel pile has grown in height during filling to the desired level the light beam is interrupted and filling is terminated. A second improved feature relates to a particle fuel diversion structure positioned in spaced relationship above and overlying the row of passageways. The structure forms a horizontal slot which extends laterally from the passageways which prevents particles of fuel from falling through the passageways and relocates the flame which burns the particle fuel pile from the bottom to a region away from the passageways.

  1. Acceleration using total internal reflection

    SciTech Connect

    Fernow, R.C.

    1991-06-07

    This report considers the use of a dielectric slab undergoing total internal reflection as an accelerating structure for charged particle beams. We examine the functional dependence of the electromagnetic fields above the surface of the dielectric for polarized incident waves. We present an experimental arrangement for testing the performance of the method, using apparatus under construction for the Grating Acceleration experiment at Brookhaven National Laboratory. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Volatile compounds and sensory attributes of wine from cv. Merlot (Vitis vinifera L.) grown under differential levels of water deficit with or without a kaolin-based, foliar reflectant particle film

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influences on wine volatile composition and wine sensory attributes from a foliar application of a kaolin-based particle film on vines under differing levels of water deficit were evaluated over three consecutive seasons for the cultivar Merlot grown in the high desert region of southwestern Ida...

  3. Atomic Energy Basics, Understanding the Atom Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, TN. Div. of Technical Information.

    This booklet is part of the "Understanding the Atom Series," though it is a later edition and not included in the original set of 51 booklets. A basic survey of the principles of nuclear energy and most important applications are provided. These major topics are examined: matter has molecules and atoms, the atom has electrons, the nucleus,…

  4. Remarkable NO oxidation on single supported platinum atoms.

    PubMed

    Narula, Chaitanya K; Allard, Lawrence F; Stocks, G M; Moses-DeBusk, Melanie

    2014-11-28

    Our first-principles density functional theoretical modeling suggests that NO oxidation is feasible on fully oxidized single θ-Al2O3 supported platinum atoms via a modified Langmuir-Hinshelwood pathway. This is in contrast to the known decrease in NO oxidation activity of supported platinum with decreasing Pt particle size believed to be due to increased platinum oxidation. In order to validate our theoretical study, we evaluated single θ-Al2O3 supported platinum atoms and found them to exhibit remarkable NO oxidation activity. A comparison of turnover frequencies (TOF) of single supported Pt atoms with those of platinum particles for NO oxidation shows that single supported Pt atoms are as active as fully formed platinum particles. Thus, the overall picture of NO oxidation on supported Pt is that NO oxidation activity decreases with decreasing Pt particle size but accelerates when Pt is present only as single atoms.

  5. Remarkable NO oxidation on single supported platinum atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Allard, Lawrence F.; Stocks, G. M.; Moses-DeBusk, Melanie

    2014-11-28

    Our first-principles density functional theoretical modeling suggests that NO oxidation is feasible on fully oxidized single θ-alumina-supported platinum atoms via a modified Langmuir-Hinshelwood pathway. This is in contrast to the known decrease in NO oxidation activity of supported platinum with decreasing Pt particle size believed to be due to increased platinum oxidation. In order to validate our theoretical study, we evaluated single θ-Al2O3-supported platinum atoms and found them to exhibit remarkable NO oxidation activity. A comparison of turnover frequencies (TOF) of single supported Pt atoms with those of platinum particles for NO oxidation shows that single supported Pt atoms are as active as fully formed platinum particles. The overall picture of NO oxidation on supported Pt is that NO oxidation activity decreases with decreasing Pt particle size but accelerates when Pt is present only as single atoms.

  6. Remarkable NO oxidation on single supported platinum atoms

    PubMed Central

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Allard, Lawrence F.; Stocks, G. M.; Moses-DeBusk, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Our first-principles density functional theoretical modeling suggests that NO oxidation is feasible on fully oxidized single θ-Al2O3 supported platinum atoms via a modified Langmuir-Hinshelwood pathway. This is in contrast to the known decrease in NO oxidation activity of supported platinum with decreasing Pt particle size believed to be due to increased platinum oxidation. In order to validate our theoretical study, we evaluated single θ-Al2O3 supported platinum atoms and found them to exhibit remarkable NO oxidation activity. A comparison of turnover frequencies (TOF) of single supported Pt atoms with those of platinum particles for NO oxidation shows that single supported Pt atoms are as active as fully formed platinum particles. Thus, the overall picture of NO oxidation on supported Pt is that NO oxidation activity decreases with decreasing Pt particle size but accelerates when Pt is present only as single atoms. PMID:25429995

  7. Remarkable NO oxidation on single supported platinum atoms

    DOE PAGES

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Allard, Lawrence F.; Stocks, G. M.; ...

    2014-11-28

    Our first-principles density functional theoretical modeling suggests that NO oxidation is feasible on fully oxidized single θ-alumina-supported platinum atoms via a modified Langmuir-Hinshelwood pathway. This is in contrast to the known decrease in NO oxidation activity of supported platinum with decreasing Pt particle size believed to be due to increased platinum oxidation. In order to validate our theoretical study, we evaluated single θ-Al2O3-supported platinum atoms and found them to exhibit remarkable NO oxidation activity. A comparison of turnover frequencies (TOF) of single supported Pt atoms with those of platinum particles for NO oxidation shows that single supported Pt atoms aremore » as active as fully formed platinum particles. The overall picture of NO oxidation on supported Pt is that NO oxidation activity decreases with decreasing Pt particle size but accelerates when Pt is present only as single atoms.« less

  8. Particle separation

    DOEpatents

    Moosmuller, Hans [Reno, NV; Chakrabarty, Rajan K [Reno, NV; Arnott, W Patrick [Reno, NV

    2011-04-26

    Embodiments of a method for selecting particles, such as based on their morphology, is disclosed. In a particular example, the particles are charged and acquire different amounts of charge, or have different charge distributions, based on their morphology. The particles are then sorted based on their flow properties. In a specific example, the particles are sorted using a differential mobility analyzer, which sorts particles, at least in part, based on their electrical mobility. Given a population of particles with similar electrical mobilities, the disclosed process can be used to sort particles based on the net charge carried by the particle, and thus, given the relationship between charge and morphology, separate the particles based on their morphology.

  9. Particle separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moosmuller, Hans (Inventor); Chakrabarty, Rajan K. (Inventor); Arnott, W. Patrick (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Embodiments of a method for selecting particles, such as based on their morphology, is disclosed. In a particular example, the particles are charged and acquire different amounts of charge, or have different charge distributions, based on their morphology. The particles are then sorted based on their flow properties. In a specific example, the particles are sorted using a differential mobility analyzer, which sorts particles, at least in part, based on their electrical mobility. Given a population of particles with similar electrical mobilities, the disclosed process can be used to sort particles based on the net charge carried by the particle, and thus, given the relationship between charge and morphology, separate the particles based on their morphology.

  10. Observing quantum gases in real time: Single-atom detection on a chip

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, A.; Bender, H.; Stibor, A.; Fortagh, J.; Zimmermann, C.

    2009-07-15

    Single magnetically trapped {sup 87}Rb atoms on an atom chip are detected with 67{+-}12 % efficiency by three photon ionization and subsequent ion detection in a channel electron multiplier. State selective detection of single atoms and high-resolution optical spectroscopy on trapped atom clouds are demonstrated. The temperature and particle density of a trapped atomic gas is monitored in situ and in real time with negligible atom loss due to ionization below 5%.

  11. Enhanced T-odd, P-odd electromagnetic moments in reflection asymmetric nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Spevak, V.; Auerbach, N.; Flambaum, V.V.

    1997-09-01

    Collective P- and T-odd moments produced by parity and time invariance violating forces in reflection asymmetric nuclei are considered. The enhanced collective Schiff, electric dipole, and octupole moments appear due to the mixing of rotational levels of opposite parity. These moments can exceed single-particle moments by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The enhancement is due to the collective nature of the intrinsic moments and the small energy separation between members of parity doublets. In turn these nuclear moments induce enhanced T- and P-odd effects in atoms and molecules. A simple estimate is given and a detailed theoretical treatment of the collective T-, P-odd electric moments in reflection asymmetric, odd-mass nuclei is presented. In the present work we improve on the simple liquid drop model by evaluating the Strutinsky shell correction and include corrections due to pairing. Calculations are performed for octupole deformed long-lived odd-mass isotopes of Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, and Pa and the corresponding atoms. Experiments with such atoms may improve substantially the limits on time reversal violation. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  12. Preservice teachers' pedagogical content knowledge of using particle models in teaching chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, Onno; van Driel, Jan H.; Verloop, Nico

    2005-10-01

    In this article, we describe the results of a study of the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of preservice chemistry teachers in the context of a postgraduate teacher education program. A group of preservice teachers (n = 12) took part in an experimental introductory course module about the use of particle models to help secondary school students understand the relationship between phenomena (e.g., properties of substances, physical and chemical processes) and corpuscular entities (e.g., atoms, molecules, ions). The module emphasized learning from teaching by connecting authentic teaching experiences with institutional workshops. Research data were obtained from answers to written assignments, transcripts of workshop discussions, and reflective lesson reports, written by the participants. The outcomes of the study revealed that, initially, all participants were able to describe specific learning difficulties, such as problems secondary school students have in relating the properties of substances to characteristics of the constituent particles. Also, at this stage, all preservice teachers acknowledged the potential importance of using models of molecules and atoms to promote secondary school students' understanding of the relationship between phenomena and corpuscular entities. After teaching, all preservice teachers demonstrated a deeper understanding of their students' problems with the use of particle models. In addition, about half of the participants had become more aware of the possibilities and limitations of using particle models in specific teaching situations. Through learning from teaching, the preservice teachers further developed their PCK of using particle models, although this development varied among preservice teachers studied.

  13. The Confusion of Molecular Particles with Substances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selley, N. J.

    1978-01-01

    Objects to the idea of treating molecular particles, such as molecules and atoms, as equal in kind to substances when discussing chemical reactions, thus confusing their different roles in the theory of matter. (GA)

  14. The theoretical reflectance of X-rays from optical surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neergaard, J. R.; Reynolds, J. M.; Fields, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    The theoretical reflectance of X-rays from various materials and evaporated films is presented. A computer program was written that computes the reflected intensity as a function of the angle of the incident radiation. The quantities necessary to generate the efficiency and their effect on the data are demonstrated. Five materials were chosen for evaluation: (1) fused silica, (2) chromium, (3) beryllium, (4) gold, and (5) a thin layer contaminant. Fused silica is a versatile and common material; chromium has high reflection efficiency at X-ray wavelengths and is in the middle of the atomic number range; beryllium contains a single atomic shell and has a low range atomic number; gold contains multiple atomic shells and has a high atomic number; the contaminant is treated as a thin film in the calculations and results are given as a function of thickness for selected wavelengths. The theoretical results are compared to experimental data at lambda = 8.34 A.

  15. Particle generator

    DOEpatents

    Hess, Wayne P.; Joly, Alan G.; Gerrity, Daniel P.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Sushko, Peter V.; Shlyuger, Alexander L.

    2005-06-28

    Energy tunable solid state sources of neutral particles are described. In a disclosed embodiment, a halogen particle source includes a solid halide sample, a photon source positioned to deliver photons to a surface of the halide, and a collimating means positioned to accept a spatially defined plume of hyperthermal halogen particles emitted from the sample surface.

  16. Sagnac Interferometry with a Single Atomic Clock.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, R; Hush, M R; Bishop, T; Lesanovsky, I; Fernholz, T

    2015-10-16

    The Sagnac effect enables interferometric measurements of rotation with high precision. Using matter waves instead of light promises resolution enhancement by orders of magnitude that scales with particle mass. So far, the paradigm for matter wave Sagnac interferometry relies on de Broglie waves and thus on free propagation of atoms either in free fall or within waveguides. However, the Sagnac effect can be expressed as a proper time difference experienced by two observers moving in opposite directions along closed paths and has indeed been measured with atomic clocks flown around Earth. Inspired by this, we investigate an interferometer comprised of a single atomic clock. The Sagnac effect manifests as a phase shift between trapped atoms in different internal states after transportation along closed paths in opposite directions, without any free propagation. With analytic models, we quantify limitations of the scheme arising from atomic dynamics and finite temperature. Furthermore, we suggest an implementation with previously demonstrated technology.

  17. Muonic Atoms and the Nuclear Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antognini, A.

    High-precision laser spectroscopy of atomic energy levels enables the measurement of nuclear properties. Sensitivity to these properties is particularly enhanced in muonic atoms which are bound systems of a muon and a nucleus. Exemplary is the measurement of the proton charge radius from muonic hydrogen performed by the CREMA collaboration which resulted in an order of magnitude more precise charge radius as extracted from other methods but at a variance of 7 standard deviations. Here, we summarize the role of muonic atoms for the extraction of nuclear charge radii, we present the status of the so called "proton charge radius puzzle", and we sketch how muonic atoms can be used to infer also the magnetic nuclear radii, demonstrating again an interesting interplay between atomic and particle/nuclear physics.

  18. Atomic Resolution Imaging of Halide Perovskites.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yi; Zhang, Dandan; Kisielowski, Christian; Dou, Letian; Kornienko, Nikolay; Bekenstein, Yehonadav; Wong, Andrew B; Alivisatos, A Paul; Yang, Peidong

    2016-12-14

    The radiation-sensitive nature of halide perovskites has hindered structural studies at the atomic scale. We overcome this obstacle by applying low dose-rate in-line holography, which combines aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with exit-wave reconstruction. This technique successfully yields the genuine atomic structure of ultrathin two-dimensional CsPbBr3 halide perovskites, and a quantitative structure determination was achieved atom column by atom column using the phase information of the reconstructed exit-wave function without causing electron beam-induced sample alterations. An extraordinarily high image quality enables an unambiguous structural analysis of coexisting high-temperature and low-temperature phases of CsPbBr3 in single particles. On a broader level, our approach offers unprecedented opportunities to better understand halide perovskites at the atomic level as well as other radiation-sensitive materials.

  19. Orientations to Reflective Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellington, Bud; Austin, Patricia

    1996-01-01

    Delineates five orientations to reflective practice: immediate, technical, deliberative, dialectic, and transpersonal, each reflecting different social science bases and beliefs and values about education. Views them as interactive, interdependent, noncompeting, aspects of reflective practice. (SK)

  20. Solidification analysis of a centrifugal atomizer using the Al-32.7wt.% Cu alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, Matthew G.

    1998-02-23

    A centrifugal atomizer (spinning disk variety) was designed and constructed for the production of spherical metal powders, 100-1,000 microns in diameter in an inert atmosphere. Initial atomization experiments revealed the need for a better understanding of how the liquid metal was atomized and how the liquid droplets solidified. To investigate particle atomization, Ag was atomized in air and the process recorded on high-speed film. To investigate particle solidification, Al-32.7 wt.% Cu was atomized under inert atmosphere and the subsequent particles were examined microscopically to determine solidification structure and rate. This dissertation details the experimental procedures used in producing the Al-Cu eutectic alloy particles, examination of the particle microstructures, and determination of the solidification characteristics (e.g., solidification rate) of various phases. Finally, correlations are proposed between the operation of the centrifugal atomizer and the observed solidification spacings.

  1. Radiation in Particle Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    More, R; Graziani, F; Glosli, J; Surh, M

    2010-11-19

    Hot dense radiative (HDR) plasmas common to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and stellar interiors have high temperature (a few hundred eV to tens of keV), high density (tens to hundreds of g/cc) and high pressure (hundreds of megabars to thousands of gigabars). Typically, such plasmas undergo collisional, radiative, atomic and possibly thermonuclear processes. In order to describe HDR plasmas, computational physicists in ICF and astrophysics use atomic-scale microphysical models implemented in various simulation codes. Experimental validation of the models used to describe HDR plasmas are difficult to perform. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the many-body interactions of plasmas is a promising approach to model validation but, previous work either relies on the collisionless approximation or ignores radiation. We present four methods that attempt a new numerical simulation technique to address a currently unsolved problem: the extension of molecular dynamics to collisional plasmas including emission and absorption of radiation. The first method applies the Lienard-Weichert solution of Maxwell's equations for a classical particle whose motion is assumed to be known. The second method expands the electromagnetic field in normal modes (planewaves in a box with periodic boundary-conditions) and solves the equation for wave amplitudes coupled to the particle motion. The third method is a hybrid molecular dynamics/Monte Carlo (MD/MC) method which calculates radiation emitted or absorbed by electron-ion pairs during close collisions. The fourth method is a generalization of the third method to include small clusters of particles emitting radiation during close encounters: one electron simultaneously hitting two ions, two electrons simultaneously hitting one ion, etc. This approach is inspired by the virial expansion method of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Using a combination of these methods we believe it is possible to do atomic-scale particle simulations of

  2. Nonlinear atom interferometer surpasses classical precision limit.

    PubMed

    Gross, C; Zibold, T; Nicklas, E; Estève, J; Oberthaler, M K

    2010-04-22

    Interference is fundamental to wave dynamics and quantum mechanics. The quantum wave properties of particles are exploited in metrology using atom interferometers, allowing for high-precision inertia measurements. Furthermore, the state-of-the-art time standard is based on an interferometric technique known as Ramsey spectroscopy. However, the precision of an interferometer is limited by classical statistics owing to the finite number of atoms used to deduce the quantity of interest. Here we show experimentally that the classical precision limit can be surpassed using nonlinear atom interferometry with a Bose-Einstein condensate. Controlled interactions between the atoms lead to non-classical entangled states within the interferometer; this represents an alternative approach to the use of non-classical input states. Extending quantum interferometry to the regime of large atom number, we find that phase sensitivity is enhanced by 15 per cent relative to that in an ideal classical measurement. Our nonlinear atomic beam splitter follows the 'one-axis-twisting' scheme and implements interaction control using a narrow Feshbach resonance. We perform noise tomography of the quantum state within the interferometer and detect coherent spin squeezing with a squeezing factor of -8.2 dB (refs 11-15). The results provide information on the many-particle quantum state, and imply the entanglement of 170 atoms.

  3. Gas atomization synthesis of refractory or intermetallic compounds and supersaturated solid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Iver E.; Lograsso, Barbara K.; Ellis, Timothy W.

    1994-01-01

    A metallic melt is atomized using a high pressure atomizing gas wherein the temperature of the melt and the composition of the atomizing gas are selected such that the gas and melt react in the atomization spray zone to form a refractory or intermetallic compound in the as-atomized powder particles. A metallic melt is also atomized using a high pressure atomizing gas mixture gas wherein the temperature of the melt and the ratio of a reactive gas to a carrier gas are selected to form powder particles comprising a supersaturated solid solution of the atomic species of the reactive gas in the particles. The powder particles are then heat treated to precipitate dispersoids in-situ therein to form a dispersion strengthened material.

  4. Gas atomization synthesis of refractory or intermetallic compounds and supersaturated solid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, I.E.; Lograsso, B.K.; Ellis, T.W.

    1994-11-29

    A metallic melt is atomized using a high pressure atomizing gas wherein the temperature of the melt and the composition of the atomizing gas are selected such that the gas and melt react in the atomization spray zone to form a refractory or intermetallic compound in the as-atomized powder particles. A metallic melt is also atomized using a high pressure atomizing gas mixture gas wherein the temperature of the melt and the ratio of a reactive gas to a carrier gas are selected to form powder particles comprising a supersaturated solid solution of the atomic species of the reactive gas in the particles. The powder particles are then heat treated to precipitate dispersoids in-situ therein to form a dispersion strengthened material. 9 figures.

  5. Chaos in a quasiclassical hadronic atom

    SciTech Connect

    Benvenuto, F.; Casati, G.; Shepelyansky, D.L.

    1996-02-01

    We investigate the classical dynamics of the helium atom in which one electron is replaced by a heavy particle with a negative charge, such as an antiproton. The general properties of motion and the conditions for chaotic dynamics are studied via the derivation of the planetary map. The regime of strongly correlated motion of two particles is also analyzed. The properties of quantum motion are briefly discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  6. Solid Hydrogen Experiments for Atomic Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2001-01-01

    This paper illustrates experiments that were conducted on the formation of solid hydrogen particles in liquid helium. Solid particles of hydrogen were frozen in liquid helium, and observed with a video camera. The solid hydrogen particle sizes, their molecular structure transitions, and their agglomeration times were estimated. article sizes of 1.8 to 4.6 mm (0.07 to 0. 18 in.) were measured. The particle agglomeration times were 0.5 to 11 min, depending on the loading of particles in the dewar. These experiments are the first step toward visually characterizing these particles, and allow designers to understand what issues must be addressed in atomic propellant feed system designs for future aerospace vehicles.

  7. Neutral atom traps.

    SciTech Connect

    Pack, Michael Vern

    2008-12-01

    This report describes progress in designing a neutral atom trap capable of trapping sub millikelvin atom in a magnetic trap and shuttling the atoms across the atom chip from a collection area to an optical cavity. The numerical simulation and atom chip design are discussed. Also, discussed are preliminary calculations of quantum noise sources in Kerr nonlinear optics measurements based on electromagnetically induced transparency. These types of measurements may be important for quantum nondemolition measurements at the few photon limit.

  8. Structurally Coloured Secondary Particles Composed of Black and White Colloidal Particles

    PubMed Central

    Takeoka, Yukikazu; Yoshioka, Shinya; Teshima, Midori; Takano, Atsushi; Harun-Ur-Rashid, Mohammad; Seki, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the colourful secondary particles formed by controlling the aggregation states of colloidal silica particles and the enhancement of the structural colouration of the secondary particles caused by adding black particles. We obtained glossy, partially structurally coloured secondary particles in the absence of NaCl, but matte, whitish secondary particles were obtained in the presence of NaCl. When a small amount of carbon black was incorporated into both types of secondary particles, the incoherent multiple scattering of light from the amorphous region was considerably reduced. However, the peak intensities in the reflection spectra, caused by Bragg reflection and by coherent single wavelength scattering, were only slightly decreased. Consequently, a brighter structural colour of these secondary particles was observed with the naked eye. Furthermore, when magnetite was added as a black particle, the coloured secondary particles could be moved and collected by applying an external magnetic field. PMID:23917891

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Pa-247 (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Pa-247 (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91, mass number A = 247).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Po-210 (Polonium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Po-210 (Polonium, atomic number Z = 84, mass number A = 210).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-329 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-329 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 329).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-327 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-327 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 327).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-347 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-347 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 347).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-352 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-352 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 352).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-322 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-322 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 322).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-286 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-286 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 286).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-359 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-359 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 359).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-283 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-283 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 283).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-287 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-287 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 287).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-342 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-342 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 342).

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-293 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-293 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 293).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-298 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-298 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 298).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-299 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-299 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 299).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-323 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-323 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 323).

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-304 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-304 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 304).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-340 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-340 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 340).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-269 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-269 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 269).

  8. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-307 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-307 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 307).

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-354 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-354 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 354).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-360 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-360 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 360).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-320 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-320 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 320).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-348 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-348 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 348).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-349 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-349 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 349).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-334 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-334 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 334).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-333 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-333 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 333).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-305 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-305 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 305).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-289 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-289 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 289).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-336 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-336 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 336).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-280 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-280 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 280).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-272 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-272 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 272).

  1. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-268 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-268 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 268).

  2. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-277 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-277 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 277).

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-318 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-318 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 318).

  4. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-337 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-337 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 337).

  5. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-335 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-335 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 335).

  6. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-310 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-310 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 310).

  7. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-309 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-309 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 309).

  8. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-295 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-295 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 295).

  9. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-325 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-325 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 325).

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-313 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-313 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 313).

  11. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-303 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-303 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 303).

  12. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-339 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-339 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 339).

  13. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-312 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-312 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 312).

  14. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-356 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-356 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 356).

  15. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-276 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-276 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 276).

  16. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-316 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-316 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 316).

  17. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-311 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-311 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 311).

  18. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-315 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-315 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 315).

  19. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-300 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-300 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 300).

  20. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-273 (Bohrium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-273 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 273).