Science.gov

Sample records for reflects biological innovation

  1. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayley, Cheryl Ann

    Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help students develop deeper conceptual understanding. A substantive body of research indicates that formative and reflective assessment can significantly improve student learning. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (BRAC) examines support provided for high school science students through assessment practices. This investigation incorporates the usage of reflective assessments as a guiding practice for differentiated instruction and student choice. Reflective assessment is a metacognitive strategy that promotes self-monitoring and evaluation. The goals of the curriculum are to promote self-efficacy and conceptual understanding in students learning biology through developing their metacognitive awareness. BRAC was implemented in a high school biology classroom. Data from assessments, metacognitive surveys, self-efficacy surveys, reflective journals, student work, a culminating task and field notes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. The results suggest that students who develop their metacognitive skills developed a deeper conceptual understanding and improved feelings of self-efficacy when they were engaged in a reflective assessment unit embedded with student choice. BRAC is a tool for teachers to use assessments to assist students in becoming metacognitive and to guide student choice in learning opportunities.

  2. Two-phase increase in the maximum size of life over 3.5 billion years reflects biological innovation and environmental opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Jonathan L.; Boyer, Alison G.; Brown, James H.; Finnegan, Seth; Kowalewski, Michał; Krause, Richard A.; Lyons, S. Kathleen; McClain, Craig R.; McShea, Daniel W.; Novack-Gottshall, Philip M.; Smith, Felisa A.; Stempien, Jennifer A.; Wang, Steve C.

    2009-01-01

    The maximum size of organisms has increased enormously since the initial appearance of life >3.5 billion years ago (Gya), but the pattern and timing of this size increase is poorly known. Consequently, controls underlying the size spectrum of the global biota have been difficult to evaluate. Our period-level compilation of the largest known fossil organisms demonstrates that maximum size increased by 16 orders of magnitude since life first appeared in the fossil record. The great majority of the increase is accounted for by 2 discrete steps of approximately equal magnitude: the first in the middle of the Paleoproterozoic Era (≈1.9 Gya) and the second during the late Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic eras (0.6–0.45 Gya). Each size step required a major innovation in organismal complexity—first the eukaryotic cell and later eukaryotic multicellularity. These size steps coincide with, or slightly postdate, increases in the concentration of atmospheric oxygen, suggesting latent evolutionary potential was realized soon after environmental limitations were removed. PMID:19106296

  3. Methods to Enhance Reflective Behaviour in Innovation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdonschot, Suzanne G. M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to trace methods that help to develop the reflective behaviour that is necessary for identifying and describing learning processes in organisations that focus on improvement and innovation. Design/methodology/approach: An extensive literature review results in the characteristics of reflection when reflection is used to…

  4. [Around biological evolution. Reflections of a physicist].

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Palencia, Evariste

    2016-01-01

    This text is the written version of a talk at the Société de Biologie on February 17, 2016. It contains reflections of a non-biologist scientist on general problems of biological evolution, including the kind of causality involved, the ideas emerging from it, in particular the constructive and structuring character of phenomena such as predation, the role of stability and attractors. This leads to a larger reflection on dialectics, the general framework of evolving processes, which overpasses formal logic and instantaneousness.

  5. Reflection as a Facilitator of Teachers' Innovative Work Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messmann, Gerhard; Mulder, Regina H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of reflection as a preparatory mechanism for employees' engagement in innovative work behaviour (IWB). This issue was explored in a study with 67 teachers at the highest level of German secondary education. Specifically, we investigated whether teachers who reflected on work tasks, the social…

  6. Reflective Practice in a Pluri-Disciplinary Innovative Design Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choulier, Denis; Picard, Fabienne; Weite, Pierre-Alain

    2007-01-01

    Reflective practice is an important vehicle for the apprenticeship of tacit and procedure-oriented knowledge. This article explores the development of reflective practice in the teaching of an innovative design course. Starting from a characterization of the "materials of a design situation" (problem-solution duality, methods and tools,…

  7. The virtue of innovation: innovation through the lenses of biological evolution.

    PubMed

    Kell, Douglas B; Lurie-Luke, Elena

    2015-02-01

    We rehearse the processes of innovation and discovery in general terms, using as our main metaphor the biological concept of an evolutionary fitness landscape. Incremental and disruptive innovations are seen, respectively, as successful searches carried out locally or more widely. They may also be understood as reflecting evolution by mutation (incremental) versus recombination (disruptive). We also bring a platonic view, focusing on virtue and memory. We use 'virtue' as a measure of efforts, including the knowledge required to come up with disruptive and incremental innovations, and 'memory' as a measure of their lifespan, i.e. how long they are remembered. Fostering innovation, in the evolutionary metaphor, means providing the wherewithal to promote novelty, good objective functions that one is trying to optimize, and means to improve one's knowledge of, and ability to navigate, the landscape one is searching. Recombination necessarily implies multi- or inter-disciplinarity. These principles are generic to all kinds of creativity, novel ideas formation and the development of new products and technologies.

  8. The virtue of innovation: innovation through the lenses of biological evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kell, Douglas B.; Lurie-Luke, Elena

    2015-01-01

    We rehearse the processes of innovation and discovery in general terms, using as our main metaphor the biological concept of an evolutionary fitness landscape. Incremental and disruptive innovations are seen, respectively, as successful searches carried out locally or more widely. They may also be understood as reflecting evolution by mutation (incremental) versus recombination (disruptive). We also bring a platonic view, focusing on virtue and memory. We use ‘virtue’ as a measure of efforts, including the knowledge required to come up with disruptive and incremental innovations, and ‘memory’ as a measure of their lifespan, i.e. how long they are remembered. Fostering innovation, in the evolutionary metaphor, means providing the wherewithal to promote novelty, good objective functions that one is trying to optimize, and means to improve one's knowledge of, and ability to navigate, the landscape one is searching. Recombination necessarily implies multi- or inter-disciplinarity. These principles are generic to all kinds of creativity, novel ideas formation and the development of new products and technologies. PMID:25505138

  9. Technologically Reflective Individuals as Enablers of Social Innovation*

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Christiane; Gassmann, Oliver; van den Hende, Ellis

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies technologically reflective individuals and demonstrates their ability to develop innovations that benefit society. Technological reflectiveness (TR) is the tendency to think about the societal impact of an innovation, and those who display this capability in public are individuals who participate in online idea competitions focused on technical solutions for social problems (such as General Electric's eco‐challenge, the James Dyson Award, and the BOSCH Technology Horizon Award). However, technologically reflective individuals also reflect in private settings (e.g., when reading news updates), thus requiring a scale to identify them. This paper describes the systematic development of an easy‐to‐administer multi‐item scale to measure an individual's level of TR. Applying the TR scale in an empirical study on a health monitoring system confirmed that individuals' degree of TR relates positively to their ability to generate (1) more new product features and uses, (2) features with higher levels of societal impact, and (3) features that are more elaborated. This scale allows firms seeking to implement co‐creation in their new product development (NPD) process and sustainable solutions to identify such individuals. Thus, this paper indicates that companies wishing to introduce new technological products with a positive societal impact may profit from involving technologically reflective individuals in the NPD process. PMID:27134342

  10. Diffusion of innovations dynamics, biological growth and catenary function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guseo, Renato

    2016-12-01

    The catenary function has a well-known role in determining the shape of chains and cables supported at their ends under the force of gravity. This enables design using a specific static equilibrium over space. Its reflected version, the catenary arch, allows the construction of bridges and arches exploiting the dual equilibrium property under uniform compression. In this paper, we emphasize a further connection with well-known aggregate biological growth models over time and the related diffusion of innovation key paradigms (e.g., logistic and Bass distributions over time) that determine self-sustaining evolutionary growth dynamics in naturalistic and socio-economic contexts. Moreover, we prove that the 'local entropy function', related to a logistic distribution, is a catenary and vice versa. This special invariance may be explained, at a deeper level, through the Verlinde's conjecture on the origin of gravity as an effect of the entropic force.

  11. Innovative Biological Water Treatment for the Removal of Elevated Ammonia

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate the effectiveness of an innovative and simple biological water treatment approach for removing 3.3 mg N/L ammonia and iron from water using a pilot study conducted at a utility in Iowa. Biological water treatment can be an effective a...

  12. [In search of biology. Reflections on evolution].

    PubMed

    Sandín, Máximo

    2009-01-01

    After 150 years conceiving and dealing with Nature in terms of competence, costs-benefits, exploitation of resources, strategies..., we have managed to make it enter into a "recession." This estrangement from reality and from natural phenomena, has seriously jeopardized the future of mankind on our planet and makes it necessary, even urgent, the search for a conception of biology based on scientific concepts and vocabulary that re-connects us with Nature before it is too late.

  13. Biology Course Innovations: Remedial Science and Biology-at-Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Leonard F.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the objectives of remedial science instruction and provides a comparison of remedial and general biology courses in terms of hours of instruction, course credits, text assignments, tests, and laboratory exercises. Describes a biology-at-home course, which provides a laboratory kit, course syllabus, and study guide. (JP)

  14. New Innovations in Biological Control of Mosquitoes.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biological control of mosquitoes is a component of an integrated pest management strategy and includes general predators, parasites and pathogens. Pathogens of mosquitoes include bacteria, viruses, fungi and protists. The most successful group for applied mosquito control include the bacteria Baci...

  15. Reflections on Designing a Biology/Humanities Interdisciplinary Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, David; Battey, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses the reflections of a recent workshop on biology and the humanities subject areas to consider the potential for designing a first year interdisciplinary module that brings together teachers and learners in the Biosciences with their counterparts in English and History. It considers three building blocks of module design: aims and…

  16. Biologic rationale of esthetic crown lengthening using innovative proportion gauges.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that practitioners tend to underestimate the amount of tooth structure that must be exposed during a crown lengthening procedure. In the anterior portion of the mouth, this can lead to biologic width problems and subsequent cosmetic issues. This paper presents a biologically based, step-by-step approach to periodontal esthetic crown lengthening. Using a series of innovative measuring gauges, the ideal clinical crown length of a tooth as well as the proper occlusogingival placement of the interproximal papilla will be determined based on established, documented tooth proportion relationships. The biologic crown length of the tooth, defined as the distance from the incisal edge to the bone crest, will subsequently be determined as a function of the clinical crown length, with the ultimate goals being adequate tooth structure for the placement of a restorative margin, establishment of a healthy dentogingival complex, and the placement of an esthetically pleasing definitive restoration.

  17. Jet propulsion in animals: theoretical innovation and biological constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Mark

    2010-11-01

    Jet propulsion is arguably the oldest and simplest form of animal locomotion, and simple hydrodynamic theory highlights the many possible ways in which animals might maximize speed and minimize metabolic cost while using jet propulsion to travel from one point to another. However, environmental and physiological reality constrains the potential for hydrodynamic innovation. We explore two heuristic examples: Antarctic scallops, in which ecological release from predation apparently constrains the evolution of improved locomotory capacity, and squids, in which the fundamental limitations of muscular contraction constrain the hydrodynamic efficiency of locomotion for all but a small range of sizes. Even simple forms of locomotion can be complex in a biological context.

  18. Dynamic Tensions: Early Reflections from MDRC's Evaluation of the Innovative Professional Development Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MDRC, 2015

    2015-01-01

    In the Innovative Professional Development (iPD) Challenge, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation has invested in helping school districts and networks redesign their instructional support systems to better support educators in increasing student success. This Issue Focus, the second in a series, presents early reflections from MDRC's evaluation…

  19. Unlocking reflective practice for nurses: innovations in working with master of nursing students in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Joyce-McCoach, Joanne T; Parrish, Dominique R; Andersen, Patrea R; Wall, Natalie

    2013-09-01

    Being reflective is well established as an important conduit of practice development, a desirable tertiary graduate quality and a core competency of health professional membership. By assisting students to be more effective in their ability to reflect, they are better able to formulate strategies to manage issues experienced within a professional context, which ultimately assists them to be better service providers. However, some students are challenged by the practice of reflection and these challenges are even more notable for international students. This paper presents a teaching initiative that focused specifically on enhancing the capacity of an international cohort of nursing students, to engage in reflective practice. The initiative centered on an evaluation of a reflective practice core subject, which was taught in a Master of Nursing programme delivered in Hong Kong. A learning-centered framework was used to evaluate the subject and identify innovative strategies that would better assist international students to develop reflective practices. The outcomes of curriculum and teaching analysis and proposed changes and innovations in teaching practice to support international students are presented and discussed. PMID:23232086

  20. Spaces of the possible: universal Darwinism and the wall between technological and biological innovation.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Andreas; Rosen, William

    2014-08-01

    Innovations in biological evolution and in technology have many common features. Some of them involve similar processes, such as trial and error and horizontal information transfer. Others describe analogous outcomes such as multiple independent origins of similar innovations. Yet others display similar temporal patterns such as episodic bursts of change separated by periods of stasis. We review nine such commonalities, and propose that the mathematical concept of a space of innovations, discoveries or designs can help explain them. This concept can also help demolish a persistent conceptual wall between technological and biological innovation.

  1. Spaces of the possible: universal Darwinism and the wall between technological and biological innovation

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Andreas; Rosen, William

    2014-01-01

    Innovations in biological evolution and in technology have many common features. Some of them involve similar processes, such as trial and error and horizontal information transfer. Others describe analogous outcomes such as multiple independent origins of similar innovations. Yet others display similar temporal patterns such as episodic bursts of change separated by periods of stasis. We review nine such commonalities, and propose that the mathematical concept of a space of innovations, discoveries or designs can help explain them. This concept can also help demolish a persistent conceptual wall between technological and biological innovation. PMID:24850903

  2. The impact of different reference panels on spectral reflectance coefficients of some biological water pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenerowicz, Agnieszka; Walczykowski, Piotr

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring of water environment and ecosystem, detecting water contaminants and understanding water quality parameters are most important tasks in water management and protection of whole aquatic environment. Detection of biological contaminants play a very important role in preserving human health and water management. To obtain accurate and precise results of determination of the level of biological contamination and to distinguish its type it is necessary to determine precisely spectral reflectance coefficients of several water biological pollutants with inter alia spectroradiometer. This paper presents a methodology and preliminary results of acquisition of spectral reflectance coefficients with different reference panels (e.g. with 5%, 20%, 50%, 80% and 96% of reflectivity) of several biological pollutants. The authors' main task was to measure spectral reflectance coefficients of different biological water pollutants with several reference panels and to select optimal reference standard, which would allow for distinguish different types of several biological contaminants. Moreover it was necessary to indicate the spectral range in which it is possible to discriminate investigated samples of biological contaminants. By conducting many series of measurements of several samples of different types of biological pollutants, authors had concluded how the reflectivity of reference panel influences the accuracy of acquisition of spectral reflectance coefficients. This research was crucial in order to be able to distinguish several types of biological pollutants and to determine the useful spectral range for detection of different kinds of biological contaminants with multispectral and hyperspectral imagery.

  3. Some biological reflections on the concept of life.

    PubMed

    Pennazio, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Life is the natural phenomenon that has always aroused the largest interest of philosophers, theologians and scientists, on which a new science--biology--was founded two century ago just for throwing light on its mechanisms. As the pre-Hellenic culture was not able to separate distinctly philosophy from science, life was interpreted as a spurious flurry of the activity of Nature, in which religion, magic and science were interlaced in an intricate way. The Hippocratic medicine constituted the first attempt to focus attention on life by collecting some biological knowledge in order to maintain man's health. All the subsequent physiologists (from the Hellenic to the Latin period) benefited from the precepts of the Corpus Hippocraticum as long as the Christian religion imposed its theological rules that favoured the question relative to soul ever more closely interlaced with the physiology of body. The concept of life became therefore subjected to a number of opposite theories with strong prevalence of metaphysical conjectures until the 19th century but, in spite of this imposition, splendid successes were achieved by physiologists and naturalists such as Harvey, Descartes, Haller, Malpighi, Spallanzani, Wolff, and others, who laid the foundation of a biology that has Lamarck as promoter. The importance of Lamarck's biology came from the release from metaphysics with the introduction of physical and structural concepts which permeated the experimental biology to come. Three main events characterised the biology of the 19th century: i) the interplay of the new chemistry with biology, ii) the cell theory, iii) the concept of metabolism. These events led biology to the 20th century, the era of biochemistry and molecular genetics. The discoveries relative to metabolism characterised the first half of this century, while the second half was witness to the internal mechanisms regulating the life of cells, perhaps the most advanced success of the biology of all time. Today

  4. Messy biology and the origins of evolutionary innovations.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Dan S

    2010-10-01

    Biological messiness relates to infidelity, heterogeneity, stochastic noise and variation--both genetic and phenotypic--at all levels, from single proteins to organisms. Messiness comes from the complexity and evolutionary history of biological systems and from the high cost of accuracy. For better or for worse, messiness is inherent to biology. It also provides the raw material for physiological and evolutionary adaptations to new challenges.

  5. INNOVATIONS IN EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES FOR THE BIOLOGY TEACHING LABORATORY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BARTHELEMY, RICHARD E.; AND OTHERS

    LABORATORY TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT APPROPRIATE FOR TEACHING BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM STUDY BIOLOGY ARE EMPHASIZED. MAJOR CATEGORIES INCLUDE (1) LABORATORY FACILITIES, (2) EQUIPMENT AND TECHNIQUES FOR CULTURE OF MICRO-ORGANISMS, (3) LABORATORY ANIMALS AND THEIR HOUSING, (4) TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING PLANT GROWTH, (5) TECHNIQUES FOR STUDYING…

  6. Reflections on metapsychology, theoretical coherence, hermeneutics, and biology.

    PubMed

    Gedo, J E

    1997-01-01

    Unable to correlate clinical findings with contemporary neurophysiology, Freud tried to anchor psychoanalysis within biology through a speculative metapsychology. Recently, epistemological objections have led to abandonment of his proposals qua scientific theory, although many still use them metaphorically. Others deny the need for any general theory of mental functions. Some theorists would espouse a hermeneutic basis for psychoanalysis, outside the boundaries of biology; they purport to confine their purview to mental contents but often use concepts based on metapsychological assumptions. Because the meanings of such contents are difficult to determine, their interpretation should be "constructed" in collaboration with analysands. By contrast, trained observers may reliably collect psychobiological data, accumulating knowledge of cognition, affectivity, communication, and the regulation of behavior--matters Freud encompassed via the economic and structural viewpoints. Hence analytic theory should be correlated with the findings of semiotics, cognitive psychology, and brain science. The hermeneutic focus on dynamics and genetics overlooks crucial data, such as the occurrence of trauma, leading to confusion about processes of pathogenesis, working through, and structural change. These and other biological phenomena (such as functional deficits and repetitive enactments) call for interventions beyond interpreting mental contents; improvement depends on learning better to process these contents. Change implies gradual establishment of alternative neural pathways; this does not automatically follow insight. Hence psychoanalysis must deal with intrapsychic phenomena beyond subjectivity. Intrapsychic conflicts represent efforts to ward off archaic mentality (primitive thought processing). Theories divorced from neurocognitive considerations encourage the theoretical fiction that analysands possess an "intact ego."

  7. Stable isotope ratios in hair and teeth reflect biologic rhythms.

    PubMed

    Appenzeller, Otto; Qualls, Clifford; Barbic, Franca; Furlan, Raffaello; Porta, Alberto

    2007-07-25

    Biologic rhythms give insight into normal physiology and disease. They can be used as biomarkers for neuronal degenerations. We present a diverse data set to show that hair and teeth contain an extended record of biologic rhythms, and that analysis of these tissues could yield signals of neurodegenerations. We examined hair from mummified humans from South America, extinct mammals and modern animals and people, both healthy and diseased, and teeth of hominins. We also monitored heart-rate variability, a measure of a biologic rhythm, in some living subjects and analyzed it using power spectra. The samples were examined to determine variations in stable isotope ratios along the length of the hair and across growth-lines of the enamel in teeth. We found recurring circa-annual periods of slow and fast rhythms in hydrogen isotope ratios in hair and carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in teeth. The power spectra contained slow and fast frequency power, matching, in terms of normalized frequency, the spectra of heart rate variability found in our living subjects. Analysis of the power spectra of hydrogen isotope ratios in hair from a patient with neurodegeneration revealed the same spectral features seen in the patient's heart-rate variability. Our study shows that spectral analysis of stable isotope ratios in readily available tissues such as hair could become a powerful diagnostic tool when effective treatments and neuroprotective drugs for neurodegenerative diseases become available. It also suggests that similar analyses of archaeological specimens could give insight into the physiology of ancient people and animals.

  8. Stable isotope ratios in hair and teeth reflect biologic rhythms.

    PubMed

    Appenzeller, Otto; Qualls, Clifford; Barbic, Franca; Furlan, Raffaello; Porta, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Biologic rhythms give insight into normal physiology and disease. They can be used as biomarkers for neuronal degenerations. We present a diverse data set to show that hair and teeth contain an extended record of biologic rhythms, and that analysis of these tissues could yield signals of neurodegenerations. We examined hair from mummified humans from South America, extinct mammals and modern animals and people, both healthy and diseased, and teeth of hominins. We also monitored heart-rate variability, a measure of a biologic rhythm, in some living subjects and analyzed it using power spectra. The samples were examined to determine variations in stable isotope ratios along the length of the hair and across growth-lines of the enamel in teeth. We found recurring circa-annual periods of slow and fast rhythms in hydrogen isotope ratios in hair and carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in teeth. The power spectra contained slow and fast frequency power, matching, in terms of normalized frequency, the spectra of heart rate variability found in our living subjects. Analysis of the power spectra of hydrogen isotope ratios in hair from a patient with neurodegeneration revealed the same spectral features seen in the patient's heart-rate variability. Our study shows that spectral analysis of stable isotope ratios in readily available tissues such as hair could become a powerful diagnostic tool when effective treatments and neuroprotective drugs for neurodegenerative diseases become available. It also suggests that similar analyses of archaeological specimens could give insight into the physiology of ancient people and animals. PMID:17653263

  9. Innovative biological approaches for monitoring and improving water quality

    PubMed Central

    Aracic, Sanja; Manna, Sam; Petrovski, Steve; Wiltshire, Jennifer L.; Mann, Gülay; Franks, Ashley E.

    2015-01-01

    Water quality is largely influenced by the abundance and diversity of indigenous microbes present within an aquatic environment. Physical, chemical and biological contaminants from anthropogenic activities can accumulate in aquatic systems causing detrimental ecological consequences. Approaches exploiting microbial processes are now being utilized for the detection, and removal or reduction of contaminants. Contaminants can be identified and quantified in situ using microbial whole-cell biosensors, negating the need for water samples to be tested off-site. Similarly, the innate biodegradative processes can be enhanced through manipulation of the composition and/or function of the indigenous microbial communities present within the contaminated environments. Biological contaminants, such as detrimental/pathogenic bacteria, can be specifically targeted and reduced in number using bacteriophages. This mini-review discusses the potential application of whole-cell microbial biosensors for the detection of contaminants, the exploitation of microbial biodegradative processes for environmental restoration and the manipulation of microbial communities using phages. PMID:26322034

  10. Zenon Environmental, Inc.: ZenoGem{trademark} biological and ultrafiltration technology. Innovative technology evaluation report; Superfund innovative technology evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    Zenon Environmental Inc. (Zenon), of Burlington, Ontario, Canada had developed an innovative wastewater treatment technology called the ZenoGem{trademark} technology. The ZenoGem{trademark} technology integrates biological treatment with membrane-based ultrafiltration to treat wastewater with high concentrations of organic contaminants that cause elevated concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD). The Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) demonstration occurred between September and December 1994 at the Nascolite Superfund site (Nascolite) in Millville, Cumberland County, New Jersey. During the SITE demonstration, critical and noncritical measurements were evaluated. Critical measurements consisted of sample analyses and process measurements that directly impacted meeting the project`s primary technical objective. Critical measurements included collection of liquid and air samples for MMA and VOC analyses; liquid samples to evaluate COD; and flow rate measurements of the influent and effluent liquid streams. Noncritical, or system condition measurements, provided information on operating ranges, reliability, variability, cost-effectiveness, and full-scale remediation potential of the technology.

  11. EVALUATION OF REAL-TIME INNOVATIVE BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL MONITORING SYSTEMS TO PROTECT SOURCE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of Real-Time Innovative Biological and Chemical Monitoring Systems
    To Protect Source Waters

    Drinking water supplies have in recent years come under increasing pressure from regulatory concerns regarding TMDL designations and restoration strategies as well ...

  12. 75 FR 76472 - Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009; Meetings on User Fee Program for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... associations representing such companies. (See 75 FR 61497, October 5, 2010.) FDA is issuing this Federal... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009... called the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009 (BPCI Act) that amends the PHS Act...

  13. A Systems Biology Approach to Infectious Disease Research: Innovating the Pathogen-Host Research Paradigm

    SciTech Connect

    Aderem, Alan; Adkins, Joshua N.; Ansong, Charles; Galagan, James; Kaiser, Shari; Korth, Marcus J.; Law, G. L.; McDermott, Jason E.; Proll, Sean; Rosenberger, Carrie; Schoolnik, Gary; Katze, Michael G.

    2011-02-01

    The 20th century was marked by extraordinary advances in our understanding of microbes and infectious disease, but pandemics remain, food and water borne illnesses are frequent, multi-drug resistant microbes are on the rise, and the needed drugs and vaccines have not been developed. The scientific approaches of the past—including the intense focus on individual genes and proteins typical of molecular biology—have not been sufficient to address these challenges. The first decade of the 21st century has seen remarkable innovations in technology and computational methods. These new tools provide nearly comprehensive views of complex biological systems and can provide a correspondingly deeper understanding of pathogen-host interactions. To take full advantage of these innovations, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recently initiated the Systems Biology Program for Infectious Disease Research. As participants of the Systems Biology Program we think that the time is at hand to redefine the pathogen-host research paradigm.

  14. A membrane bioreactor for an innovative biological nitrogen removal process.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Sun, F Y; Wang, X M; Li, X Y

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid system has been developed for biological nitrogen removal through nitrification-denitrification. The system includes an aerobic tank and an anoxic tank with an intermediate sludge settler connected to a membrane bioreactor (MBR) with a submerged 0.4 microm hollow-fiber membrane module. The laboratory system has a total working volume of 6.5 L treating a glucose-based synthetic wastewater. The experimental results demonstrate that the new process is highly effective for simultaneous organic and nitrogen removal. During the stationary operation, a sludge SS (suspended solids) concentration of 6 g/L or higher can be maintained in the reactors. The system has a COD (chemical oxygen demand) loading rate of up to 2,100 mg/L-d and a total nitrogen loading rate of up to 170 mg N/L-d. More than 95% COD can be degraded, and the total nitrogen removal efficiency can be 90% or higher as the nitrogen is reduced from 100 to around 7.5 mg/L. A high quality effluent is produced with a SS of less than 1 mg/L. With the MBR, organic degradation, nitrogen removal and sludge-liquid separation can be well achieved within a short HRT of about 10 hr.

  15. Reflections on Supporting a Visually Impaired Student Complete a Biological Psychology Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Lucy R.; Cross, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    While there are a number of technologies that have been used, with varying levels of success, to support visually impaired students, the purpose of this article is to reflect upon the authors' experiences of supporting a visually impaired student through a nine-month level two undergraduate biological psychology module. The authors developed a…

  16. Exclusivity strategies and opportunities in view of the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act.

    PubMed

    Gaudry, Kate S

    2011-01-01

    Government-provided exclusivity periods provide pharmaceutical companies with incentives to invest in new drugs. Meanwhile, encouraging competition serves another worthy goal of improving the affordability of medications. Decades ago, the Hatch-Waxman Act set forth provisions attempting to balance these objectives in the context of small-molecule drugs. Recently, the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act was enacted to meet similar aims in the context of biologic drugs. This article presents a detailed comparison of these two Acts. While the Acts share many global similarities (e.g., providing exclusivity terms and abbreviated approval processes), many differences are also apparent when analyzing details of the provisions. One area of great departure between the Acts is the requirements of how a generic or follow-on applicant must address patents covering a reference product. After describing these differences, the article presents predictions of how reference product sponsors will adapt their patent-prosecution strategies in view of the new Biologics Act.

  17. Innovation in academic chemical screening: filling the gaps in chemical biology.

    PubMed

    Hasson, Samuel A; Inglese, James

    2013-06-01

    Academic screening centers across the world have endeavored to discover small molecules that can modulate biological systems. To increase the reach of functional-genomic and chemical screening programs, universities, research institutes, and governments have followed their industrial counterparts in adopting high-throughput paradigms. As academic screening efforts have steadily grown in scope and complexity, so have the ideas of what is possible with the union of technology and biology. This review addresses the recent conceptual and technological innovation that has been propelling academic screening into its own unique niche. In particular, high-content and whole-organism screening are changing how academics search for novel bioactive compounds. Importantly, we recognize examples of successful chemical probe development that have punctuated the changing technology landscape.

  18. Innovators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEA Today, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes various innovations that have been developed to enhance education. These innovations include: helping educators help at-risk students succeed; promoting high school journalism; ensuring quality online learning experiences; developing a student performing group that uses theater to address social issues; and having students design their…

  19. Innovation in the role of the Office of the Ombudsman of the Unified Health System (SUS) - reflections and potential benefits.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Fernando Manuel Bessa; Moreira, Marcelo Rasga; Ribeiro, José Mendes; Ouverney, Assis Mafort; Oliveira, Flávio José Fonseca de; Moro, Maria Francisca Abritta

    2016-08-01

    This article seeks to reflect on the potential of innovative practices in the design and work of the government bodies that comprise the National System of Offices of the Ombudsman of the Unified Health System. It is divided into two parts, seeking to answer the following question: How to think of and implement innovative practices - which include sustainability - when the people are voicing their urgent demands and these are being heard by the public authorities? These grievances are all the more urgent as they involve the area of Health and can they be promptly discussed, attended and resolved? In the first part, the article discusses the polysemic concept of innovation, focusing on its application in the three spheres of public administration, and highlights the importance of its close correlation with the different notions of information and knowledge in a society such as the one we live in. In the second, it develops a task-force of ideas for the office of the ombudsman and based on this, a draft operational concept of innovation in the role of the office of the ombudsman, considering the context of high speed change and transformations and the complexity inherent to contemporary life and the need for resource management and expertise development in information management. PMID:27557027

  20. Innovation in the role of the Office of the Ombudsman of the Unified Health System (SUS) - reflections and potential benefits.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Fernando Manuel Bessa; Moreira, Marcelo Rasga; Ribeiro, José Mendes; Ouverney, Assis Mafort; Oliveira, Flávio José Fonseca de; Moro, Maria Francisca Abritta

    2016-08-01

    This article seeks to reflect on the potential of innovative practices in the design and work of the government bodies that comprise the National System of Offices of the Ombudsman of the Unified Health System. It is divided into two parts, seeking to answer the following question: How to think of and implement innovative practices - which include sustainability - when the people are voicing their urgent demands and these are being heard by the public authorities? These grievances are all the more urgent as they involve the area of Health and can they be promptly discussed, attended and resolved? In the first part, the article discusses the polysemic concept of innovation, focusing on its application in the three spheres of public administration, and highlights the importance of its close correlation with the different notions of information and knowledge in a society such as the one we live in. In the second, it develops a task-force of ideas for the office of the ombudsman and based on this, a draft operational concept of innovation in the role of the office of the ombudsman, considering the context of high speed change and transformations and the complexity inherent to contemporary life and the need for resource management and expertise development in information management.

  1. Research and development in drug innovation: reflections from the 2013 bioeconomy conference in China, lessons learned and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Changxiao; Constantinides, Panayiotis P; Li, Yazhuo

    2014-04-01

    The enormous progress biotechnology, bioinformatics and nanotechnology made in recent years provides opportunities and scientific framework for development of biomedicine and constitutes a paradigm shift in pharmaceutical R&D and drug innovation. By analyzing the data and related information at R&D level over the past decades, developmental tendency and R&D patterns were summarized. We found that a growing number of biologics in the pipeline of pharma companies with successful products already in the market though, small molecular entities have primarily dominated drug innovation. Additionally, small/medium size companies will continue to play a key role in the development of small molecule drugs and biologics in a multi-channel integrated process. More importantly, modern and effective R&D strategies in biomedicine development to predict and evaluate efficacy and/or safety of 21st century therapeutics are urgently needed. To face new challenges, developmental strategies were proposed, in terms of molecular targeted medicine, generic drugs, new drug delivery system and protein-based drugs. Under the current circumstances, interdisciplinary cooperation mode and policy related to drug innovation in China were deeply discussed as well.

  2. Research and development in drug innovation: reflections from the 2013 bioeconomy conference in China, lessons learned and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changxiao; Constantinides, Panayiotis P.; Li, Yazhuo

    2014-01-01

    The enormous progress biotechnology, bioinformatics and nanotechnology made in recent years provides opportunities and scientific framework for development of biomedicine and constitutes a paradigm shift in pharmaceutical R&D and drug innovation. By analyzing the data and related information at R&D level over the past decades, developmental tendency and R&D patterns were summarized. We found that a growing number of biologics in the pipeline of pharma companies with successful products already in the market though, small molecular entities have primarily dominated drug innovation. Additionally, small/medium size companies will continue to play a key role in the development of small molecule drugs and biologics in a multi-channel integrated process. More importantly, modern and effective R&D strategies in biomedicine development to predict and evaluate efficacy and/or safety of 21st century therapeutics are urgently needed. To face new challenges, developmental strategies were proposed, in terms of molecular targeted medicine, generic drugs, new drug delivery system and protein-based drugs. Under the current circumstances, interdisciplinary cooperation mode and policy related to drug innovation in China were deeply discussed as well. PMID:26579372

  3. Total-Internal-Reflection Platforms for Chemical and Biological Sensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapsford, Kim E.

    Sensing platforms based on the principle of total internal reflection (TIR) represent a fairly mature yet still expanding and exciting field of research. Sensor development has mainly been driven by the need for rapid, stand-alone, automated devices for application in the fields of clinical diagnosis and screening, food and water safety, environmental monitoring, and chemical and biological warfare agent detection. The technologies highlighted in this chapter are continually evolving, taking advantage of emerging advances in microfabrication, lab-on-a-chip, excitation, and detection techniques. This chapter describes many of the underlying principles of TIR-based sensing platforms and additionally focusses on planar TIR fluorescence (TIRF)-based chemical and biological sensors.

  4. The World Café: An Innovative Method to Facilitate Reflections on Internationalisation in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estacio, Emee Vida; Karic, Toni

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an example of how the World Café method can be used as a platform to encourage reflection on internationalisation in higher education. The World Café is a community engagement method that encourages participants to engage in reflection and dialogue in a relaxed and comfortable atmosphere. It promotes the use of multiple…

  5. Technique for examining biological materials using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and the kubelka-munk function

    DOEpatents

    Alfano, Robert R.; Yang, Yuanlong

    2003-09-02

    Method and apparatus for examining biological materials using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and the Kubelka-Munk function. In one aspect, the method is used to determine whether a tissue sample is cancerous or not and comprises the steps of (a) measuring the diffuse reflectance from the tissue sample at a first wavelength and at a second wavelength, wherein the first wavelength is a wavelength selected from the group consisting of 255-265 nm and wherein the second wavelength is a wavelength selected from the group consisting of 275-285 nm; (b) using the Kubelka-Munk function to transform the diffuse reflectance measurement obtained at the first and second wavelengths; and (c) comparing a ratio or a difference of the transformed Kubelka-Munk measurements at the first and second wavelengths to appropriate standards determine whether or not the tissue sample is cancerous. One can use the spectral profile of KMF between 250 nm to 300 nm to determine whether or not the tissue sample is cancerous or precancerous. According to the value at the first and second wavelengths determine whether or not the malignant tissue is invasive or mixed invasive and in situ or carcinoma in situ.

  6. Interim Reflections on the Corporate University and SME Academy Business Development Innovation and Its Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dealtry, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to reflect on and inform about learning points from ECUANET, a two-year duration best practice action research and transnational networking project as it approaches its final stage. Design/methodology/approach: The paper explicates the key positive and obfuscating dynamics that the project team have had to,…

  7. Mastery, Enjoyment, Tradition and Innovation: A Reflective Practice Model for Instrumental and Vocal Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Tom

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a model to assist music teachers in reflecting on their teaching practice in relation to their aims and values. Initially developed as a workshop aid for use on a music education MA program, the model is intended to provoke critical engagement with two prominent tensions in music education: that between mastery and enjoyment,…

  8. Numerical analysis of ultrasound propagation and reflection intensity for biological acoustic impedance microscope.

    PubMed

    Gunawan, Agus Indra; Hozumi, Naohiro; Yoshida, Sachiko; Saijo, Yoshifumi; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Yamamoto, Seiji

    2015-08-01

    This paper proposes a new method for microscopic acoustic imaging that utilizes the cross sectional acoustic impedance of biological soft tissues. In the system, a focused acoustic beam with a wide band frequency of 30-100 MHz is transmitted across a plastic substrate on the rear side of which a soft tissue object is placed. By scanning the focal point along the surface, a 2-D reflection intensity profile is obtained. In the paper, interpretation of the signal intensity into a characteristic acoustic impedance is discussed. Because the acoustic beam is strongly focused, interpretation assuming vertical incidence may lead to significant error. To determine an accurate calibration curve, a numerical sound field analysis was performed. In these calculations, the reflection intensity from a target with an assumed acoustic impedance was compared with that from water, which was used as a reference material. The calibration curve was determined by changing the assumed acoustic impedance of the target material. The calibration curve was verified experimentally using saline solution, of which the acoustic impedance was known, as the target material. Finally, the cerebellar tissue of a rat was observed to create an acoustic impedance micro profile. In the paper, details of the numerical analysis and verification of the observation results will be described.

  9. Methods for open innovation on a genome-design platform associating scientific, commercial, and educational communities in synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic biology requires both engineering efficiency and compliance with safety guidelines and ethics. Focusing on the rational construction of biological systems based on engineering principles, synthetic biology depends on a genome-design platform to explore the combinations of multiple biological components or BIO bricks for quickly producing innovative devices. This chapter explains the differences among various platform models and details a methodology for promoting open innovation within the scope of the statutory exemption of patent laws. The detailed platform adopts a centralized evaluation model (CEM), computer-aided design (CAD) bricks, and a freemium model. It is also important for the platform to support the legal aspects of copyrights as well as patent and safety guidelines because intellectual work including DNA sequences designed rationally by human intelligence is basically copyrightable. An informational platform with high traceability, transparency, auditability, and security is required for copyright proof, safety compliance, and incentive management for open innovation in synthetic biology. GenoCon, which we have organized and explained here, is a competition-styled, open-innovation method involving worldwide participants from scientific, commercial, and educational communities that aims to improve the designs of genomic sequences that confer a desired function on an organism. Using only a Web browser, a participating contributor proposes a design expressed with CAD bricks that generate a relevant DNA sequence, which is then experimentally and intensively evaluated by the GenoCon organizers. The CAD bricks that comprise programs and databases as a Semantic Web are developed, executed, shared, reused, and well stocked on the secure Semantic Web platform called the Scientists' Networking System or SciNetS/SciNeS, based on which a CEM research center for synthetic biology and open innovation should be established.

  10. Secular change in chert distribution: a reflection of evolving biological participation in the silica cycle.

    PubMed

    Maliva, R G; Knoll, A H; Siever, R

    1989-01-01

    In the modern oceans, the removal of dissolved silica from sea water is principally a biological process carried out by diatoms, with lesser contributions from radiolaria, silicoflagellates, and sponges. Because such silica in sediments is often redistributed locally during diagenesis to from nodular or bedded chert, stratigraphic changes in the facies distribution of early diagenetic chert provide important insights into the development of biological participation in the silica cycle. The abundance of chert in upper Proterozoic peritidal carbonates suggests that at this time silica was removed from seawater principally by abiological processes operating in part of the margins of the oceans. With the evolution of demosponges near the beginning of the Cambrian Period, subtidal biogenetic cherts became increasingly common, and with the Ordovician rise of radiolaria to ecological and biogeochemical prominence, sedimented skeletons became a principal sink for oceanic silica. Cherts of Silurian to Cretaceous age share many features of facies distribution and petrography but they differ from Cenozoic siliceous deposits. These differences are interpreted to reflect the mid-Cretaceous radiation of diatoms and their subsequent rise to domination of the silica cycle. Biogeochemical cycles provide an important framework for the paleobiological interpretation of the organisms that participate in them.

  11. Confocal reflectance quantitative phase microscopy system for cell biology studies (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vijay Raj; So, Peter T. C.

    2016-03-01

    Quantitative phase microscopy (QPM), used to measure the refractive index, provides the optical path delay measurement at each point of the specimen under study and becomes an active field in biological science. In this work we present development of confocal reflection phase microscopy system to provide depth resolved quantitative phase information for investigation of intracellular structures and other biological specimen. The system hardware development is mainly divided into two major parts. First, creates a pinhole array for parallel confocal imaging of specimen at multiple locations simultaneously. Here a digital micro mirror device (DMD) is used to generate pinhole array by turning on a subset micro-mirrors arranged on a grid. Second is the detection of phase information of confocal imaging foci by using a common path interferometer. With this novel approach, it is possible to measure the nuclei membrane fluctuations and distinguish them from the plasma membrane fluctuations. Further, depth resolved quantitative phase can be correlated to the intracellular contents and 3D map of refractive index measurements.

  12. Secular change in chert distribution: a reflection of evolving biological participation in the silica cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maliva, R. G.; Knoll, A. H.; Siever, R.

    1989-01-01

    In the modern oceans, the removal of dissolved silica from sea water is principally a biological process carried out by diatoms, with lesser contributions from radiolaria, silicoflagellates, and sponges. Because such silica in sediments is often redistributed locally during diagenesis to from nodular or bedded chert, stratigraphic changes in the facies distribution of early diagenetic chert provide important insights into the development of biological participation in the silica cycle. The abundance of chert in upper Proterozoic peritidal carbonates suggests that at this time silica was removed from seawater principally by abiological processes operating in part of the margins of the oceans. With the evolution of demosponges near the beginning of the Cambrian Period, subtidal biogenetic cherts became increasingly common, and with the Ordovician rise of radiolaria to ecological and biogeochemical prominence, sedimented skeletons became a principal sink for oceanic silica. Cherts of Silurian to Cretaceous age share many features of facies distribution and petrography but they differ from Cenozoic siliceous deposits. These differences are interpreted to reflect the mid-Cretaceous radiation of diatoms and their subsequent rise to domination of the silica cycle. Biogeochemical cycles provide an important framework for the paleobiological interpretation of the organisms that participate in them.

  13. Secular change in chert distribution: a reflection of evolving biological participation in the silica cycle.

    PubMed

    Maliva, R G; Knoll, A H; Siever, R

    1989-01-01

    In the modern oceans, the removal of dissolved silica from sea water is principally a biological process carried out by diatoms, with lesser contributions from radiolaria, silicoflagellates, and sponges. Because such silica in sediments is often redistributed locally during diagenesis to from nodular or bedded chert, stratigraphic changes in the facies distribution of early diagenetic chert provide important insights into the development of biological participation in the silica cycle. The abundance of chert in upper Proterozoic peritidal carbonates suggests that at this time silica was removed from seawater principally by abiological processes operating in part of the margins of the oceans. With the evolution of demosponges near the beginning of the Cambrian Period, subtidal biogenetic cherts became increasingly common, and with the Ordovician rise of radiolaria to ecological and biogeochemical prominence, sedimented skeletons became a principal sink for oceanic silica. Cherts of Silurian to Cretaceous age share many features of facies distribution and petrography but they differ from Cenozoic siliceous deposits. These differences are interpreted to reflect the mid-Cretaceous radiation of diatoms and their subsequent rise to domination of the silica cycle. Biogeochemical cycles provide an important framework for the paleobiological interpretation of the organisms that participate in them. PMID:11539810

  14. Serum and tissue PIVKA-II expression reflect the biological malignant potential of small hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tamano, Masaya; Sugaya, Hitoshi; Oguma, Motoo; Iijima, Makoto; Yoneda, Masashi; Murohisa, Toshimitsu; Kojima, Kazuo; Kuniyoshi, Toru; Majima, Yuichi; Hashimoto, Takashi; Terano, Akira

    2002-04-01

    A sensitive method for measuring the serum level of protein-induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) has become so widely available that it is now used for the clinical diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is known that serum PIVKA-II can be a prognostic indicator for HCC, but there have been no detailed investigations concerning the tissue expression of PIVKA-II. The present study assessed the relationship between serum or tissue PIVKA-II and the biological malignant potential of HCC. The subjects were 25 patients with histologically confirmed HCC, that were solitary and 3 cm or less in diameter. Tissue PIVKA-II was detected by immunostaining using MU-3 as the primary antibody. The biological malignant potential of the tumors was evaluated on the basis of the Ki-67 labeling index of HCC cells and the tumor arterial vascularity assesed by angiography and CO(2) enhanced ultrasonography. The recurrence-free period after treatment was also evaluated. Among the 25 patients, eight were positive for tissue PIVKA-II. Serum PIVKA-II levels were significantly higher in the tissue PIVKA-II-positive patients compared with the negative patients, but serum and tissue PIVKA-II expressions were not consistently parallel. Tumor cell proliferation was closely correlated with the tissue PIVKA-II expression, while the recurrence-free period was correlated with the serum PIVKA-II level. Tumor arterial vascularity showed a strong correlation with the expression of both serum and tissue PIVKA-II. In conclusion, serum and tissue PIVKA-II expression reflect the biological malignant potential of HCC and thus may be useful indicators for the prognosis of small HCC.

  15. The Emory Chemical Biology Discovery Center: leveraging academic innovation to advance novel targets through HTS and beyond.

    PubMed

    Johns, Margaret A; Meyerkord-Belton, Cheryl L; Du, Yuhong; Fu, Haian

    2014-03-01

    The Emory Chemical Biology Discovery Center (ECBDC) aims to accelerate high throughput biology and translation of biomedical research discoveries into therapeutic targets and future medicines by providing high throughput research platforms to scientific collaborators worldwide. ECBDC research is focused at the interface of chemistry and biology, seeking to fundamentally advance understanding of disease-related biology with its HTS/HCS platforms and chemical tools, ultimately supporting drug discovery. Established HTS/HCS capabilities, university setting, and expertise in diverse assay formats, including protein-protein interaction interrogation, have enabled the ECBDC to contribute to national chemical biology efforts, empower translational research, and serve as a training ground for young scientists. With these resources, the ECBDC is poised to leverage academic innovation to advance biology and therapeutic discovery.

  16. Innovative light collimator with afocal lens and total internal reflection lens for daylighting system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo-Jian; Chen, Yin-Ti; Ullah, Irfan; Chou, Chun-Han; Chan, Kai-Cyuan; Lai, Yi-Lung; Lin, Chia-Ming; Chang, Cheng-Ming; Whang, Allen Jong-Woei

    2015-10-01

    This research presents a novel design of the collimator, which uses total internal reflection (TIR), convex, and concave lenses for the natural light illumination system (NLIS). The concept of the NLIS is to illuminate building interiors with natural light, which saves energy consumption. The TIR lens is used to collimate the light, and convex and concave lenses are used to converge the light to the required area. The results have shown that the efficiency in terms of achieving collimated light using the proposed collimator at the output of the light collector is better than that of a previous system without a collimator. PMID:26479648

  17. Twenty Years of Growth and Innovation: A Reflection on PACKRAT's Impact on Physician Assistant Education.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Kim; Lessard, Donovan; Britt, Zach

    2015-12-01

    In its 20th year, the Physician Assistant Clinical Knowledge Rating and Assessment Tool (PACKRAT) is a student self-assessment that can assist physician assistant (PA) students and PA program faculty in identifying strengths and areas in need of improvement in the didactic and clinical phases of PA education. In this reflection, we provide an overview of the history of PACKRAT and outline some of its benefits for students and PA programs, as well as its generative role in assessment within PA studies. Taking a broader view of PACKRAT's impact on assessment for the PA profession, we outline the research on its benefits and its use to maximize student performance, as well as how it has promoted the development of additional assessment tools. PMID:26599313

  18. Twenty Years of Growth and Innovation: A Reflection on PACKRAT's Impact on Physician Assistant Education.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Kim; Lessard, Donovan; Britt, Zach

    2015-12-01

    In its 20th year, the Physician Assistant Clinical Knowledge Rating and Assessment Tool (PACKRAT) is a student self-assessment that can assist physician assistant (PA) students and PA program faculty in identifying strengths and areas in need of improvement in the didactic and clinical phases of PA education. In this reflection, we provide an overview of the history of PACKRAT and outline some of its benefits for students and PA programs, as well as its generative role in assessment within PA studies. Taking a broader view of PACKRAT's impact on assessment for the PA profession, we outline the research on its benefits and its use to maximize student performance, as well as how it has promoted the development of additional assessment tools.

  19. Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance Spectroscopy: An Innovative Strategy for Analyzing Mineral Components in Energy Relevant Systems

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Christian Menno; Pejcic, Bobby; Esteban, Lionel; Piane, Claudio Delle; Raven, Mark; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2014-01-01

    The direct qualitative and quantitative determination of mineral components in shale rocks is a problem that has not been satisfactorily resolved to date. Infrared spectroscopy (IR) is a non-destructive method frequently used in mineral identification, yet challenging due to the similarity of spectral features resulting from quartz, clay, and feldspar minerals. This study reports on a significant improvement of this methodology by combining infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy (IR-ATR) with partial least squares (PLS) regression techniques for classifying and quantifying various mineral components present in a number of different shale rocks. The developed multivariate classification model was calibrated using pure component mixtures of the most common shale minerals (i.e., kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, calcite, and quartz). Using this model, the IR spectra of 11 real-world shale samples were analyzed and evaluated. Finally, the performance of the developed IR-ATR method was compared with results obtained via X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. PMID:25358261

  20. High resolution laser remote imaging innovative tools for preservation of painted surfaces: information from reflectance and fluorescence data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantoni, R.; Ferri de Collibus, M.; Francucci, M.; Fornetti, G.; Guarneri, M.; Caneve, L.; Colao, F.; Fiorani, L.; Palucci, A.; Spizzichino, V.

    2013-11-01

    Two innovative laser scanning prototypes have been developed at ENEA for diagnostics of large surfaces relevant to monumental cultural heritage. The first, based on amplitude modulation technique in the visible, is a trichromatic (Red /Green /Blue) imaging topologic radar (RGB-ITR) specialized to collect high resolution 3D models. After proper color calibration, it allows for hyper-realistic rendering of colored features on painted surfaces and for precise localization of irregularities. The second is a line scanning system, working either in reflectance or laser induced fluorescence mode, capable of fast 2D monochromatic images acquisition on up to 90 different spectral channels in the visible/UV range, which was developed to investigate the presence of different substances onto the painted surface. Data collected during former field campaigns on frescos by means each scanning system will be reported and discussed extracting information of interest to conservators by means of specific data processing methodologies and respective software tools. Recent results relevant to paints of the Assumption on slate and canvas by Scipione Pulzone named "il Gaetano" collected in two churches in Rome (San Silvestro al Quirinale, Bandini chapel; Santa Caterina dei Funari, Solano della Vetera Chapel) from the late XVI century are presented in order to demonstrate the increased diagnostic capabilities coming from data integration. From combination of reflectance data from both instruments, the first true remote differential colorimetry has been implemented, giving a chance to test the color quality in the future from the archived images.

  1. Science café course: an innovative means of improving communication skills of undergraduate biology majors.

    PubMed

    Goldina, Anna; Weeks, Ophelia I

    2014-05-01

    To help bridge the increasing gap between scientists and the public, we developed an innovative two-semester course called Science Café. In this course, undergraduate biology majors learn to develop communication skills to be better able to explain science concepts and current developments in science to non-scientists. Students develop and host outreach events on various topics relevant to the community, thereby increasing interactions between budding scientists and the public. Such a Science Café course emphasizes development of science communication skills early, at the undergraduate level, and empowers students to use their science knowledge in everyday interactions with the public to increase science literacy, get involved in the local community and engage the public in a dialogue on various pressing science issues. We believe that undergraduate science majors can be great ambassadors for science and are often overlooked since many aspire to go on to medical/veterinary/pharmacy schools. However, science communication skills are especially important for these types of students because when they become healthcare professionals, they will interact with the public as part of their everyday jobs and can thus be great representatives for the field.

  2. Science Café Course: An Innovative Means of Improving Communication Skills of Undergraduate Biology Majors

    PubMed Central

    Goldina, Anna; Weeks, Ophelia I.

    2014-01-01

    To help bridge the increasing gap between scientists and the public, we developed an innovative two-semester course called Science Café. In this course, undergraduate biology majors learn to develop communication skills to be better able to explain science concepts and current developments in science to non-scientists. Students develop and host outreach events on various topics relevant to the community, thereby increasing interactions between budding scientists and the public. Such a Science Café course emphasizes development of science communication skills early, at the undergraduate level, and empowers students to use their science knowledge in everyday interactions with the public to increase science literacy, get involved in the local community and engage the public in a dialogue on various pressing science issues. We believe that undergraduate science majors can be great ambassadors for science and are often overlooked since many aspire to go on to medical/veterinary/pharmacy schools. However, science communication skills are especially important for these types of students because when they become healthcare professionals, they will interact with the public as part of their everyday jobs and can thus be great representatives for the field. PMID:24839510

  3. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and optical polarization imaging of in-vivo biological tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora-Núñez, A.; Castillejos, Y.; García-Torales, G.; Martínez-Ponce, G.

    2013-11-01

    A number of optical techniques have been reported in the scientific literature as accomplishable methodologies to diagnose diseases in biological tissue, for instance, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and optical polarization imaging (OPI). The skin is the largest organ in the body and consists of three primary layers, namely, the epidermis (the outermost layer exposed to the world), the dermis, and the hypodermis. The epidermis changes from to site to site, mainly because of difference in hydration. A lower water content increase light scattering and reduce the penetration depth of radiation. In this work, two hairless mice have been selected to evaluate their skin features by using DRS and OPI. Four areas of the specimen body were chosen to realize the comparison: back, abdomen, tail, and head. From DRS, it was possible to distinguish the skin nature because of different blood irrigation at dermis. In the other hand, OPI shows pseudo-depolarizing regions in the measured Mueller images related to a spatially varying propagation of the scattered light. This provides information about the cell size in the irradiated skin.

  4. The Use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to Encourage Reflection, Interaction and Collaboration for Innovation and Professional Growth in Higher and Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szecsy, Elsie M.; Danzig, Arnold B.; Gonzalez, Josue M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory case study is to describe efforts made to encourage reflection, interaction, and collaboration for educational innovation and professional growth in three contexts where interactive information and communication technology (ICT) was introduced. The study is framed in adult learning theory (Knowles, 1980; Merriam,…

  5. Planar solar concentrator featuring alignment-free total-internal-reflection collectors and an innovative compound tracker.

    PubMed

    Teng, Tun-Chien; Lai, Wei-Che

    2014-12-15

    This study proposed a planar solar concentrator featuring alignment-free total-internal-reflection (TIR) collectors and an innovative compound tracker. The compound tracker, combining a mechanical single-axis tracker and scrollable prism sheets, can achieve a performance on a par with dual-axis tracking while reducing the cost of the tracking system and increasing its robustness. The alignment-free TIR collectors are assembled on the waveguide without requiring alignment, so the planar concentrator is relatively easily manufactured and markedly increases the feasibility for use in large concentrators. Further, the identical TIR collector is applicable to various-sized waveguide slab without requiring modification, which facilitates flexibility regarding the size of the waveguide slab. In the simulation model, the thickness of the slab was 2 mm, and its maximal length reached 6 m. With an average angular tolerance of ±0.6°, and after considering both the Fresnel loss and the angular spread of the sun, the simulation indicates that the waveguide concentrator of a 1000-mm length provides the optical efficiencies of 62-77% at the irradiance concentrations of 387-688, and the one of a 2000-mm length provides the optical efficiencies of 52-64.5% at the irradiance concentrations of 645-1148. Alternatively, if a 100-mm horizontally staggered waveguide slab is collocated with the alignment-free TIR collectors, the optical efficiency would be greatly improved up to 91.5% at an irradiance concentration of 1098 (C(geo) = 1200X).

  6. Implementation of an Explicit and Reflective Pedagogy in Introductory Biology Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bautista, Nazan Uludag; Schussler, Elisabeth E.

    2010-01-01

    Students need to reflect on the practice of science to fully understand the nature of science (NOS), which is an important component of scientific literacy. In this paper, the authors describe how to implement an explicit and reflective pedagogy in college science laboratories and share examples from their implementation in a multiple-section…

  7. The abdominal compartment syndrome: review, experience report and description of an innovative biological mesh application.

    PubMed

    Parmeggiani, Domenico; Gubitosi, Adelmo; Ruggiero, Roberto; Docimo, Giovanni; Atelli, Pietro Francesco; Avenia, Nicola

    2011-12-01

    fascia extremities, to solve the IAP. The employment of ample muscle edges represents the ideal solution in the reconstruction of the abdominal walls after laparotomic operations, offering a valid dynamic support preferable in comparison with the employment of alloplastic material. In consideration of the limits of this technique in the enormous parietal disaster-ACS treatment, we describe a new kind of innovative mesh application (Permacol(®)), most often used for parietal disaster or enormous incisional hernias, which can easily be preferred to dual mesh prosthesis, having a better biological profile and no capacity to produce intestinal adherences. PMID:21710331

  8. Finding Clarity by Fostering Confusion: Reflections on Teaching an Undergraduate Integrated Biological Systems Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Kirsten H.

    2015-01-01

    Undergraduate biology programs in smaller liberal arts colleges are increasingly becoming focused on health science fields. This narrowing of focus potentially decreases opportunities for these students to explore other sub-fields of biology. This perspectives article highlights how one small university in Connecticut decided to institute a…

  9. The First Cut Is the Deepest: Reflections on the State of Animal Dissection in Biology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Villiers, Rian; Monk, Martin

    2005-01-01

    In biology education, the study of structure has traditionally involved the use of dissection. Animal-rights campaigners have caused biology educators and learners to question the necessity of dissections. This study reviews the research evidence for the efficacy of alternatives to dissection and then turns to research evidence on attitudes to…

  10. Planar solar concentrator featuring alignment-free total-internal-reflection collectors and an innovative compound tracker.

    PubMed

    Teng, Tun-Chien; Lai, Wei-Che

    2014-12-15

    This study proposed a planar solar concentrator featuring alignment-free total-internal-reflection (TIR) collectors and an innovative compound tracker. The compound tracker, combining a mechanical single-axis tracker and scrollable prism sheets, can achieve a performance on a par with dual-axis tracking while reducing the cost of the tracking system and increasing its robustness. The alignment-free TIR collectors are assembled on the waveguide without requiring alignment, so the planar concentrator is relatively easily manufactured and markedly increases the feasibility for use in large concentrators. Further, the identical TIR collector is applicable to various-sized waveguide slab without requiring modification, which facilitates flexibility regarding the size of the waveguide slab. In the simulation model, the thickness of the slab was 2 mm, and its maximal length reached 6 m. With an average angular tolerance of ±0.6°, and after considering both the Fresnel loss and the angular spread of the sun, the simulation indicates that the waveguide concentrator of a 1000-mm length provides the optical efficiencies of 62-77% at the irradiance concentrations of 387-688, and the one of a 2000-mm length provides the optical efficiencies of 52-64.5% at the irradiance concentrations of 645-1148. Alternatively, if a 100-mm horizontally staggered waveguide slab is collocated with the alignment-free TIR collectors, the optical efficiency would be greatly improved up to 91.5% at an irradiance concentration of 1098 (C(geo) = 1200X). PMID:25607496

  11. Effects on biological systems of reflected light from a satellite power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, M.

    1981-01-01

    Light reflection produced by the satellite power system and the possible effects of that light on the human eye, plants, and animals were studied. For the human eye, two cases of reflected light, might cause eye damage if viewed for too long. These cases are: (1) if, while in low Earth orbit, the orbital transfer vehicle is misaligned to reflect the Sun to Earth there exists a maximum safe fixation time for the naked eye of 42.4 secs; (2) reflection from the aluminum paint on the back of the orbital transfer vehicle, while in or near low Earth orbit, can be safely viewed by the naked eye for 129 sec. For plants and animals the intensity and timing of light are not a major problem. Ways for reducing and/or eliminating the irradiances are proposed.

  12. A Reflection on the Fate of Chiral 1,2,4-Triazole Fungicides in Biological Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    In biological systems, stereoisomers of chiral compounds can exhibit significantly different pharmacokinetics (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination) and pharmacodynamics (physiological effects). Pharmacokinetic processes (i.e., what the body does to the chemical)...

  13. Molecular dynamics simulations and neutron reflectivity as an effective approach to characterize biological membranes and related macromolecular assemblies.

    PubMed

    Darré, L; Iglesias-Fernandez, J; Kohlmeyer, A; Wacklin, H; Domene, C

    2015-10-13

    In combination with other spectroscopy, microscopy, and scattering techniques, neutron reflectivity is a powerful tool to characterize biological systems. Specular reflection of neutrons provides structural information at the nanometer and subnanometer length scales, probing the composition and organization of layered materials. Currently, analysis of neutron reflectivity data involves several simplifying assumptions about the structure of the sample under study, affecting the extraction and interpretation of information from the experimental data. Computer simulations can be used as a source of structural and dynamic data with atomic resolution. We present a novel tool to compare the structural properties determined by neutron reflectivity experiments with those obtained from molecular simulations. This tool allows benchmarking the ability of molecular dynamics simulations to reproduce experimental data, but it also promotes unbiased interpretation of experimentally determined quantities. Two application examples are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the new tool. The first example is the generation of reflectivity profiles for a 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) lipid bilayer from molecular dynamics simulations using data from both atomistic and coarse-grained models, and comparison with experimentally measured data. The second example is the calculation of lipid volume changes with temperature and composition from all atoms simulations of single and mixed 1,2-di-palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) bilayers. PMID:26574275

  14. Innovation, Innovation, Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuller, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Innovation, Universities and Skills. The new title of the department offers much food for thought. The title is indeed an intriguing and important one. Bringing the idea of innovation right to the fore is, to use an overworked term, challenging. Pinning down what innovation means is not at all easy. There are three different lines of argument. The…

  15. Learning Biology through Innovative Curricula: A Comparison of Game- and Nongame-Based Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Troy D.; Romine, William L.; Menon, Deepika; Ferdig, Richard E.; Annetta, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    This study explored student learning in the context of innovative biotechnology curricula and the effects of gaming as a central element of the learning experience. The quasi-experimentally designed study compared learning outcomes between two curricular approaches: One built around a computer-based game, and the other built around a narrative…

  16. Meaning Making: What Reflective Essays Reveal about Biology Students' Conceptions about Natural Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balgopal, Meena M.; Montplaisir, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    The process of reflective writing can play a central role in making meaning as learners process new information and connect it to prior knowledge. An examination of the written discourse can therefore be revealing of learners' cognitive understanding and affective (beliefs, feelings, motivation to learn) responses to concepts. Despite reflective…

  17. Retrieving the optical parameters of biological tissues using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and Fourier series expansions. I. theory and application

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz Morales, Aarón A.; Vázquez y Montiel, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    The determination of optical parameters of biological tissues is essential for the application of optical techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Diffuse Reflection Spectroscopy is a widely used technique to analyze the optical characteristics of biological tissues. In this paper we show that by using diffuse reflectance spectra and a new mathematical model we can retrieve the optical parameters by applying an adjustment of the data with nonlinear least squares. In our model we represent the spectra using a Fourier series expansion finding mathematical relations between the polynomial coefficients and the optical parameters. In this first paper we use spectra generated by the Monte Carlo Multilayered Technique to simulate the propagation of photons in turbid media. Using these spectra we determine the behavior of Fourier series coefficients when varying the optical parameters of the medium under study. With this procedure we find mathematical relations between Fourier series coefficients and optical parameters. Finally, the results show that our method can retrieve the optical parameters of biological tissues with accuracy that is adequate for medical applications. PMID:23082281

  18. Journal of Biological Education: A Personal Reflection on Its First 50 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, Michael Reiss describes his time with the "Journal of Biology Education" ("JBE") dating back to 1984 when the journal published his first article (Reiss 1984). Over the years, Reiss has authored 31 "JBE" pieces (excluding reviews) including one in honor of the journal's 25th anniversary (Reiss…

  19. Study of the influence of glucose on diffuse reflection of ultrashort laser pulses from a medium simulating a biological tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Bykov, A V; Indukaev, A K; Priezzhev, A V; Myllylae, R

    2008-05-31

    The influence of glucose on the diffuse reflection of near-IR femtosecond laser radiation from single- and three-layer media simulating biological tissues is studied experimentally. Based on a 800-nm femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser emitting 40-fs pulses and a VUV Agat streak camera, a setup is built for time and spatially resolved detection of radiation diffusely reflected from the volume of a strongly scattering medium. A multichannel fibreoptic system is developed for detecting pulses simultaneously at several fixed distances between a radiation source and detector. It is shown that the peak intensity and total energy of detected pulses are sensitive to variations in the glucose concentration in the medium under study from 0 to 1000 mg dL{sup -1}. The relative sensitivity in our experiments achieved 0.030% mg dL{sup -1}. (biophotonics)

  20. Interdisciplinary Dialogue for Education, Collaboration, and Innovation: Intelligent Biology and Medicine In and Beyond 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bing; Huang, Yufei; McDermott, Jason E.; Posey, Rebecca H.; Xu, Hua; Zhao, Zhongming

    2013-12-09

    The 2013 International Conference on Intelligent Biology and Medicine (ICIBM 2013) was held on August 11-13, 2013 in Nashville, Tennessee, USA. The conference included six scientific sessions, two tutorial sessions, one workshop, two poster sessions, and four keynote presentations that covered cutting-edge research topics in bioinformatics, systems biology, computational medicine, and intelligent computing. Here, we present a summary of the conference and an editorial report of the supplements to BMC Genomics and BMC Systems Biology that include 19 research papers selected from ICIBM 2013.

  1. 'Follow-on biologics': ensuring continued innovation in the biotechnology industry.

    PubMed

    Manheim, Bruce S; Granahan, Patricia; Dow, Kenneth J

    2006-01-01

    Congress adopted legislation in 1984 to encourage pharmaceutical companies to develop new drugs, while simultaneously allowing competitors to bring cheaper generic versions to market. More than twenty years later, Congress may be faced with a similar balancing act for biologics. When Congress takes up this issue, it must focus on the substantial differences that exist between biologics and drugs. It should also evaluate the patent law, which is yielding increasingly narrow patents. If additional measures are not adopted in light of the intersection of these factors, then any legislation allowing for "follow-on" biologics could stifle development of new medicines from biotechnology.

  2. Education, collaboration, and innovation: intelligent biology and medicine in the era of big data.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Jianhua; Jin, Victor; Huang, Yufei; Xu, Hua; Edwards, Jeremy S; Chen, Yidong; Zhao, Zhongming

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a summary of the 2014 International Conference on Intelligent Biology and Medicine (ICIBM 2014) and the editorial report of the supplement to BMC Genomics and BMC Systems Biology that includes 20 research articles selected from ICIBM 2014. The conference was held on December 4-6, 2014 at San Antonio, Texas, USA, and included six scientific sessions, four tutorials, four keynote presentations, nine highlight talks, and a poster session that covered cutting-edge research in bioinformatics, systems biology, and computational medicine.

  3. Education, collaboration, and innovation: intelligent biology and medicine in the era of big data

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a summary of the 2014 International Conference on Intelligent Biology and Medicine (ICIBM 2014) and the editorial report of the supplement to BMC Genomics and BMC Systems Biology that includes 20 research articles selected from ICIBM 2014. The conference was held on December 4-6, 2014 at San Antonio, Texas, USA, and included six scientific sessions, four tutorials, four keynote presentations, nine highlight talks, and a poster session that covered cutting-edge research in bioinformatics, systems biology, and computational medicine. PMID:26099197

  4. ZENON ENVIRONMENTAL INC., ZENOGEM™ BIOLOGICAL AND ULTRAFILTRATION TECHNOLOGY; INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the results of a field demonstration conducted under the SITE Program. The technology which was demonstrated was a wastewater treatment technology developed by Zenon Environmental Inc. The process, named ZenoGem™, integrates biological treatment with memb...

  5. Physical and biological assessments of the innovative bilayered wound dressing made of silk and gelatin for clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Hasatsri, Sukhontha; Yamdech, Rungnapha; Chanvorachote, Pithi; Aramwit, Pornanong

    2015-04-01

    The physical and biological assessments of the innovative bilayered wound dressing made of silk and gelatin that we have developed previously were performed to evaluate its efficacy for clinical applications. The absorption ability and dehydration rate of the dressing were assessed using the split-thickness skin graft and leg ulcer wound bed models. The bioactivities of the bilayered wound dressing were evaluated. The bilayered dressing showed continuous absorption rate of wound exudate, providing the suitability for the wound with extended inflammation phase. The dehydration rate of the bilayered dressing was comparable to the commercially available dressing of which the moisture maintenance capability is claimed. The bilayered dressing showed good conformability, as can be seen by the homogeneous distribution pattern of bromophenol blue absorbed. In terms of biological activities, the bilayered dressing was less toxic to skin cells than the commercially available dressing. The bilayered dressing was also shown to promote cell migration and collagen production due to the bioactive protein components. We here concluded that the superior properties of the bilayered dressing over the commercially available dressing were the conformability and biological activities to accelerate the wound healing, while the other properties were comparable to those of commercially available dressing. The data obtained in this study would be very useful for the further evaluation of the bilayered dressing in clinical trial.

  6. The MOOC and Learning Analytics Innovation Cycle (MOLAC): A Reflective Summary of Ongoing Research and Its Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drachsler, H.; Kalz, M.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the interplay between learning analytics and massive open online courses (MOOCs) and provides a conceptual framework to situate ongoing research in the MOOC and learning analytics innovation cycle (MOLAC framework). The MOLAC framework is organized on three levels: On the micro-level, the data collection and analytics…

  7. [Innovation in adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer: new biologic parameters, a perspective for treatment tailoring].

    PubMed

    Belkacémi, Y

    2009-01-01

    In the adjuvant setting, whole breast radiation therapy (RT) delivering 50 Gy in 5 weeks with or without a boost to the tumor bed remains the standard of care. RT indications and volume definition are generally dependant on existing prognostic factors. Except in particular cases, RT technique does not vary according to the patient or tumor biology profiles in terms of total dose, dose per fraction, fractionation, and RT duration. The challenge is to define new parameters or tumor biology profiles that will allow patient selection for more tailored RT than the 5 to 7 week standard schedules. The future issue is to define biological markers able to screen patients and tumors according to their high metastatic potential (in which the primary therapeutic challenge may not be locoregional control) and those patients that have a particular radiosensitivity to ionizing radiation for higher benefit/risk ratio. Thus, it is probable that patient profiles, tumor biology markers and gene expression profiling could provide in future an added value to conventional markers to predict patients at high-risk of local and distant recurrences who need tailored treatment or a particular sequence of adjuvant therapy.

  8. Instructional Experiences of Graduate Assistants Implementing Explicit and Reflective Introductory Biology Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uludag Bautista, Nazan; Schussler, Elisabeth E.; Rybczynski, Stephen M.

    2014-05-01

    Science education reform documents identify nature of science (NOS) as a critical component of scientific literacy and call for universities, colleges, and K-12 schools to explicitly integrate NOS learning into science curricula. In response to these calls, this study investigated the classroom practices of nine graduate assistants (GAs) who taught expository and inquiry laboratories that implemented an explicit and reflective (ER) pedagogy to teach NOS. The purpose of this qualitative study was to better understand the experiences that enabled or inhibited GA implementation of an ER strategy in a college setting. The findings revealed that achieving quality implementation in this setting was very difficult. Factors such as GAs' ability to foster meaningful classroom discussions, laboratory logistics (e.g. lack of time and supplies), and the value undergraduates and GAs saw in learning about NOS were identified by GAs and observed by the researchers as barriers to the technique maximizing its potential. Thus, for meaningful infusion of NOS into science curricula, pedagogical support for GAs to manage meaningful classroom discussions in support of NOS or other complex topics is recommended for an ER approach to NOS learning to be successful in college settings.

  9. Reflections on implementing several models of teaching in a high school biology class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Michael E.

    This research investigates the challenges faced in enacting instructional models that previous research has found to foster student learning. In order to complete this study, the researcher documented, through a strategy of reflective practice, his return to teaching high school science after having served for a time as a science specialist and instructional coach. The study develops quality personal insights and questions that may be used by other educators and researchers to investigate the enactment of these different models and strategies. The research is limited to the spring of the 2010 school year and use notes, journals, and planner documents from the 2008--2009 school year. In order to appreciate complex interactions, triangulation was made through dovetailing personal observations with requested observations of the campus assistant principal, the district science specialist, and an out of district observer. Also, a short questionnaire administered to the students in these classes. Throughout this study, the researcher demonstrates that it is feasible to use these models. However, such external factors as imposed curriculum and standardized testing play a large role in everyday decision making of this particular teacher. The sheer amount of content to be covered under the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) also influenced instructional decisions that were made. Choices about what strategy to use resided mainly within the teacher/researcher and were governed and affected mostly by his interactions with students and professional judgments about what would both bolster student understanding and help students score well on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS).

  10. Cell lines from MYCN transgenic murine tumours reflect the molecular and biological characteristics of human neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Andy J; Cheng, Ngan Ching; Ford, Jette; Smith, Janice; Murray, Jayne E; Flemming, Claudia; Lastowska, Maria; Jackson, Michael S; Hackett, Christopher S; Weiss, William A; Marshall, Glenn M; Kees, Ursula R; Norris, Murray D; Haber, Michelle

    2007-06-01

    Overexpression of the human MYCN oncogene driven by a tyrosine hydroxylase promoter causes tumours in transgenic mice that recapitulate the childhood cancer neuroblastoma. To establish an in vitro model to study this process, a series of isogenic cell lines were developed from these MYCN-driven murine tumours. Lines were established from tumours arising in homozygous and hemizygous MYCN transgenic mice. Hemizygous tumours gave rise to cell lines growing only in suspension. Homozygous tumours gave rise to similar suspension lines as well as morphologically distinct substrate-adherent lines characteristic of human S-type neuroblastoma cells. FISH analysis demonstrated selective MYCN transgene amplification in cell lines derived from hemizygous mice. Comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis confirmed a range of neuroblastoma-associated genetic changes in the various lines, in particular, gain of regions syntenic with human 17q. These isogenic lines together with the transgenic mice thus represent valuable models for investigating the biological characteristics of aggressive neuroblastoma.

  11. Omics meets hypothesis-driven research. Partnership for innovative discoveries in vascular biology and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rüegg, Curzio; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Farmer, Pierre; Mariotti, Agnese

    2008-11-01

    The emergence of omics technologies allowing the global analysis of a given biological or molecular system, rather than the study of its individual components, has revolutionized biomedical research, including cardiovascular medicine research in the past decade. These developments raised the prospect that classical, hypothesis-driven, single gene-based approaches may soon become obsolete. The experience accumulated so far, however, indicates that omic technologies only represent tools similar to those classically used by scientists in the past and nowadays, to make hypothesis and build models, with the main difference that they generate large amounts of unbiased information. Thus, omics and classical hypothesis-driven research are rather complementary approaches with the potential to effectively synergize to boost research in many fields, including cardiovascular medicine. In this article we discuss some general aspects of omics approaches, and review contributions in three areas of vascular biology, thrombosis and haemostasis, atherosclerosis and angiogenesis, in which omics approaches have already been applied (vasculomics).

  12. Innovation in biological production and upgrading of methane and hydrogen for use as gaseous transport biofuel.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ao; Cheng, Jun; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-01-01

    Biofuels derived from biomass will play a major role in future renewable energy supplies in transport. Gaseous biofuels have superior energy balances, offer greater greenhouse gas emission reductions and produce lower pollutant emissions than liquid biofuels. Biogas derived through fermentation of wet organic substrates will play a major role in future transport systems. Biogas (which is composed of approximately 60% methane/hydrogen and 40% carbon dioxide) requires an upgrading process to reduce the carbon dioxide content to less than 3% before it is used as compressed gas in transport. This paper reviews recent developments in fermentative biogas production and upgrading as a transport fuel. Third generation gaseous biofuels may be generated using marine-based algae via two-stage fermentation, cogenerating hydrogen and methane. Alternative biological upgrading techniques, such as biological methanation and microalgal biogas upgrading, have the potential to simultaneously upgrade biogas, increase gaseous biofuel yield and reduce carbon dioxide emission.

  13. Innovation in biological production and upgrading of methane and hydrogen for use as gaseous transport biofuel.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ao; Cheng, Jun; Murphy, Jerry D

    2016-01-01

    Biofuels derived from biomass will play a major role in future renewable energy supplies in transport. Gaseous biofuels have superior energy balances, offer greater greenhouse gas emission reductions and produce lower pollutant emissions than liquid biofuels. Biogas derived through fermentation of wet organic substrates will play a major role in future transport systems. Biogas (which is composed of approximately 60% methane/hydrogen and 40% carbon dioxide) requires an upgrading process to reduce the carbon dioxide content to less than 3% before it is used as compressed gas in transport. This paper reviews recent developments in fermentative biogas production and upgrading as a transport fuel. Third generation gaseous biofuels may be generated using marine-based algae via two-stage fermentation, cogenerating hydrogen and methane. Alternative biological upgrading techniques, such as biological methanation and microalgal biogas upgrading, have the potential to simultaneously upgrade biogas, increase gaseous biofuel yield and reduce carbon dioxide emission. PMID:26724182

  14. The constitutional protection of trade secrets and patents under the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Richard A

    2011-01-01

    The Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009 ("Biosimilars Act") is for the field of pharmaceutical products the single most important legislative development since passage of the Drug Price Competition and Patent Term Restoration Act of 1984 ("Hatch-Waxman Act"), on which portions of the Biosimilars Act are clearly patterned. Congress revised section 351 of the Public Health Service Act (PHSA) to create a pathway for FDA approval of "biosimilar" biological products. Each biosimilar applicant is required to cite in its application a "reference product" that was approved on the basis of a full application containing testing data and manufacturing information, which is owned and was submitted by another company and much of which constitutes trade secret information subject to constitutional protection. Because the Biosimilars Act authorizes biosimilar applicants to cite these previously approved applications, the implementation of the new legislative scheme raises critical issues under the Fifth Amendment of the Constitution, pursuant to which private property--trade secrets included--may not be taken for public use, without "just compensation." FDA must confront those issues as it implements the scheme set out in the Biosimilars Act. This article will discuss these issues, after providing a brief overview of the Biosimilars Act and a more detailed examination of the law of trade secrets.

  15. Human retroviruses in leukaemia and AIDS: reflections on their discovery, biology and epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Karpas, Abraham

    2004-11-01

    The study of retroviruses has had a profound impact by unveiling an unusual form of viral replication: the multiplication of RNA viruses via a proviral DNA, for which Jan Svoboda provided the experimental model over forty years ago. In 1970 Temin, Mizutani and Baltimore discovered that this group of viruses contains a unique enzyme catalysing the synthesis of a DNA copy of the viral RNA: reverse transcriptase (RT). The discovery of RT has itself had an enormous impact on molecular biology in general, but also stimulated many premature claims of its detection in human disease. Claims by Gallo's laboratory that the cytoplasm of human leukaemia cells contained RT proved to be unfounded, as did his report in collaboration with Weiss that myeloid leukaemia contained HL23 virus, this organism proving not to be human but a laboratory contaminant of three monkey viruses. Conclusive demonstration of a retroviral involvement in human leukaemia was first provided in 1981 by Hinuma and his associates, showing that adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL), a rare form of leukaemia endemic to south-west Japan, is caused by a new retrovirus (ATLV). Other publications in December 1980 and through 1981 claimed the discovery of a new human T-cell leukaemia virus involved in mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sézary's syndrome (SS). This virus was termed HTLV by Gallo. The nucleotide sequence of ATLV is strongly conserved, that of my 1983 isolate from a black British ATL patient being practically identical with the Japanese virus isolates. After AIDS was recognised in 1981 by Gottlieb and coworkers as a new human disease, several papers were published by Gallo and his associates during 1983-4, invoking the oncovirus responsible for adult T-cell leukaemia as the cause of AIDS. In 1983 the French scientist Barré-Sinoussi and her colleagues succeeded in isolating a new agent in the disease, a lentivirus, which they named LAV. The French immunologist Klatzmann and his colleagues discovered that LAV killed

  16. Characterization and biological abatement of diffuse methane emissions and odour in an innovative wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Barcón, Tamara; Hernández, Jerónimo; Gómez-Cuervo, Santiago; Garrido, Juan M; Omil, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    An innovative and patented process for medium-high strength sewage which comprises an anaerobic step followed by a hybrid anoxic-aerobic chamber and a final ultrafiltration stage was characterized in terms of methane fugitive emissions as well as odours. The operation at ambient temperature implies higher methane content in the liquid anaerobic effluent, which finally causes concentrations around 0.01-2.4% in the off-gas released in the anoxic-aerobic chamber (1.25% average). Mass balances indicate that these emissions account for up to 30-35% of the total methane generated in the anaerobic reactor. A conventional biofilter (BF) operated at an empty bed residence time of 4 min was used to treat these emissions for 70 d. In spite of the fluctuations in the methane inlet concentrations derived from the operation of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), it was possible to operate at pseudo-steady-state conditions, achieving average removal efficiencies of 76.5% and maximum elimination capacities of 30.1 g m(-3) h(-1). Odour removal was quantified as 99.1%. Fluorescence in situ hybridization probes as well as metabolic activity assays demonstrated the suitability of the biomass developed in the WWTP as inoculum to start up the BF due to the presence of methanotrophic bacteria.

  17. Functional proteomic analysis revealed ground-base ion radiations cannot reflect biological effects of space radiations of rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Sun, Yeqing; Zhao, Qian; Han, Lu

    2016-07-01

    Highly ionizing radiation (HZE) in space is considered as main factor causing biological effects. Radiobiological studies during space flights are unrepeatable due to the variable space radiation environment, ground-base ion radiations are usually performed to simulate of the space biological effect. Spaceflights present a low-dose rate (0.1˜~0.3mGy/day) radiation environment inside aerocrafts while ground-base ion radiations present a much higher dose rate (100˜~500mGy/min). Whether ground-base ion radiation can reflect effects of space radiation is worth of evaluation. In this research, we compared the functional proteomic profiles of rice plants between on-ground simulated HZE particle radiation and spaceflight treatments. Three independent ground-base seed ionizing radiation experiments with different cumulative doses (dose range: 2˜~20000mGy) and different liner energy transfer (LET) values (13.3˜~500keV/μμm) and two independent seed spaceflight experiments onboard Chinese 20th satellite and SZ-6 spacecraft were carried out. Alterations in the proteome were analyzed by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry identifications. 45 and 59 proteins showed significant (p<0.05) and reproducible quantitative differences in ground-base ion radiation and spaceflight experiments respectively. The functions of ground-base radiation and spaceflight proteins were both involved in a wide range of biological processes. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis further revealed that ground-base radiation responsive proteins were mainly involved in removal of superoxide radicals, defense response to stimulus and photosynthesis, while spaceflight responsive proteins mainly participate in nucleoside metabolic process, protein folding and phosphorylation. The results implied that ground-base radiations cannot truly reflect effects of spaceflight radiations, ground-base radiation was a kind of indirect effect to rice causing

  18. Green genes: bioinformatics and systems-biology innovations drive algal biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Reijnders, Maarten J M F; van Heck, Ruben G A; Lam, Carolyn M C; Scaife, Mark A; dos Santos, Vitor A P Martins; Smith, Alison G; Schaap, Peter J

    2014-12-01

    Many species of microalgae produce hydrocarbons, polysaccharides, and other valuable products in significant amounts. However, large-scale production of algal products is not yet competitive against non-renewable alternatives from fossil fuel. Metabolic engineering approaches will help to improve productivity, but the exact metabolic pathways and the identities of the majority of the genes involved remain unknown. Recent advances in bioinformatics and systems-biology modeling coupled with increasing numbers of algal genome-sequencing projects are providing the means to address this. A multidisciplinary integration of methods will provide synergy for a systems-level understanding of microalgae, and thereby accelerate the improvement of industrially valuable strains. In this review we highlight recent advances and challenges to microalgal research and discuss future potential. PMID:25457388

  19. Green genes: bioinformatics and systems-biology innovations drive algal biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Reijnders, Maarten J M F; van Heck, Ruben G A; Lam, Carolyn M C; Scaife, Mark A; dos Santos, Vitor A P Martins; Smith, Alison G; Schaap, Peter J

    2014-12-01

    Many species of microalgae produce hydrocarbons, polysaccharides, and other valuable products in significant amounts. However, large-scale production of algal products is not yet competitive against non-renewable alternatives from fossil fuel. Metabolic engineering approaches will help to improve productivity, but the exact metabolic pathways and the identities of the majority of the genes involved remain unknown. Recent advances in bioinformatics and systems-biology modeling coupled with increasing numbers of algal genome-sequencing projects are providing the means to address this. A multidisciplinary integration of methods will provide synergy for a systems-level understanding of microalgae, and thereby accelerate the improvement of industrially valuable strains. In this review we highlight recent advances and challenges to microalgal research and discuss future potential.

  20. The Athlete Biological Passport: an integral element of innovative strategies in antidoping.

    PubMed

    Vernec, Alan R

    2014-05-01

    Concern for the health of athletes and integrity of sport resulted in the banning of specific substances although many years passed before analytical testing took place. Soon doping control programmes became synonymous with urine tests and adverse analytical findings. This system has its limits due to the detection window of prohibited substances, the timing of sample collections and the sophistication of some doping regimens. There have been a number of situations where these limits were demonstrated by athletes who proclaimed innocence based on passing their analytical tests only to later confess to doping. New strategies were called for to protect clean athletes. In the current World Anti-Doping Code, there are eight means to an Anti-Doping Rule Violation (ADRV). Article 2.2 states that the use of a prohibited substance may be established by any reliable means including witness statements, documentary evidence or evaluations of longitudinal profiling. In 2006, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) with the support of some International Federations (IFs) gathered a group of experts to develop a harmonised programme on longitudinal profiling, or serial analysis of indirect biomarkers of doping, that was both scientifically and legally robust. This culminated in the WADA Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) Operating Guidelines and Technical Documents, published in 2009. The ABP is a paradigm that infers the use of prohibited substance (or method) by the monitoring of discriminant biomarkers over time. The haematological module detects blood manipulation by the use of erythropoietic stimulating agents or via blood transfusions. The steroidal module aims to identify endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids when administered exogenously and other indirect steroid doping substances or methods. Other ABP modules (endocrine, 'omics') are being developed. The term passport, first coined in 2000, is now defined in the ABP Guidelines as the longitudinal profile and all other

  1. Study and reflections on the functional and organizational role of neuromessenger nitric oxide in learning: An artificial and biological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez Araujo, C. P.

    2000-05-01

    We present in this work a theoretical and conceptual study and some reflections on a fundamental aspect concerning with the structure and brain function: the Cellular Communication. The main interests of our study are the signal transmission mechanisms and the neuronal mechanisms responsible to learning. We propose the consideration of a new kind of communication mechanisms, different to the synaptic transmission, "Diffusion or Volume Transmission." This new alternative is based on a diffusing messenger as nitric oxide (NO). Our study aims towards the design of a conceptual framework, which covers implications of NO in the artificial neural networks (ANNs), both in neural architecture and learning processing. This conceptual frame might be able to provide possible biological support for many aspects of ANNs and to generate new concepts to improve the structure and operation of them. Some of these new concepts are The Fast Diffusion Neural Propagation (FDNP), the Diffuse Neighborhood (DNB), (1), the Diffusive Hybrid Neuromodulation (DHN), the Virtual Weights. Finally we will propose a new mathematical formulation for the Hebb learning law, taking into account the NO effect. Along the same lines, we will reflect on the possibility of a new formal framework for learning processes in ANNs, which consist of slow and fast learning concerning with co-operation between the classical neurotransmission and FDNP. We will develop this work from a computational neuroscience point of view, proposing a global study framework of diffusion messenger NO (GSFNO), using a hybrid natural/artificial approach. Finally it is important to note that we can consider this paper the first paper of a set of scientific work on nitric oxide (NO) and artificial neural networks (ANNs): NO and ANNs Series. We can say that this paper has a character of search and query on both subjects their implications and co-existence.

  2. Integration of an innovative biological treatment with physical or chemical disinfection for wastewater reuse.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, Marco; Del Moro, Guido; Levantesi, Caterina; Luprano, Maria Laura; Di Iaconi, Claudio

    2016-02-01

    In the present paper, the effectiveness of a Sequencing Batch Biofilter Granular Reactor (SBBGR) and its integration with different disinfection strategies (UV irradiation, peracetic acid) for producing an effluent suitable for agricultural use was evaluated. The plant treated raw domestic sewage, and its performances were evaluated in terms of the removal efficiency of a wide group of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. The SBBGR resulted really efficient in removing suspended solids, COD and nitrogen with an average effluent concentration of 5, 32 and 10 mg/L, respectively. Lower removal efficiency was observed for phosphorus with an average concentration in the effluent of 3 mg/L. Plant effluent was also characterized by an average electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio of 680 μS/cm and 2.9, respectively. Therefore, according to these gross parameters, the SBBGR effluent was conformed to the national standards required in Italy for agricultural reuse. Moreover, disinfection performances of the SBBGR was higher than that of conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants and met the quality criteria suggested by WHO (Escherichia coli<1000 CFU/100 mL) for agricultural reuse. In particular, the biological treatment by SBBGR removed 3.8±0.4 log units of Giardia lamblia, 2.8±0.8 log units of E. coli, 2.5±0.7 log units of total coliforms, 2.0±0.3 log units of Clostridium perfringens, 2.0±0.4 log units of Cryptosporidium parvum and 1.7±0.7 log units of Somatic coliphages. The investigated disinfection processes (UV and peracetic acid) resulted very effective for total coliforms, E. coli and somatic coliphages. In particular, a UV radiation and peracetic acid doses of 40 mJ/cm(2) and 1 mg/L respectively reduced E. coli content in the effluent below the limit for agricultural reuse in Italy (10 CFU/100 mL). Conversely, they were both ineffective on C.perfringens spores.

  3. The Athlete Biological Passport: an integral element of innovative strategies in antidoping.

    PubMed

    Vernec, Alan R

    2014-05-01

    Concern for the health of athletes and integrity of sport resulted in the banning of specific substances although many years passed before analytical testing took place. Soon doping control programmes became synonymous with urine tests and adverse analytical findings. This system has its limits due to the detection window of prohibited substances, the timing of sample collections and the sophistication of some doping regimens. There have been a number of situations where these limits were demonstrated by athletes who proclaimed innocence based on passing their analytical tests only to later confess to doping. New strategies were called for to protect clean athletes. In the current World Anti-Doping Code, there are eight means to an Anti-Doping Rule Violation (ADRV). Article 2.2 states that the use of a prohibited substance may be established by any reliable means including witness statements, documentary evidence or evaluations of longitudinal profiling. In 2006, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) with the support of some International Federations (IFs) gathered a group of experts to develop a harmonised programme on longitudinal profiling, or serial analysis of indirect biomarkers of doping, that was both scientifically and legally robust. This culminated in the WADA Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) Operating Guidelines and Technical Documents, published in 2009. The ABP is a paradigm that infers the use of prohibited substance (or method) by the monitoring of discriminant biomarkers over time. The haematological module detects blood manipulation by the use of erythropoietic stimulating agents or via blood transfusions. The steroidal module aims to identify endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids when administered exogenously and other indirect steroid doping substances or methods. Other ABP modules (endocrine, 'omics') are being developed. The term passport, first coined in 2000, is now defined in the ABP Guidelines as the longitudinal profile and all other

  4. Integration of an innovative biological treatment with physical or chemical disinfection for wastewater reuse.

    PubMed

    De Sanctis, Marco; Del Moro, Guido; Levantesi, Caterina; Luprano, Maria Laura; Di Iaconi, Claudio

    2016-02-01

    In the present paper, the effectiveness of a Sequencing Batch Biofilter Granular Reactor (SBBGR) and its integration with different disinfection strategies (UV irradiation, peracetic acid) for producing an effluent suitable for agricultural use was evaluated. The plant treated raw domestic sewage, and its performances were evaluated in terms of the removal efficiency of a wide group of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters. The SBBGR resulted really efficient in removing suspended solids, COD and nitrogen with an average effluent concentration of 5, 32 and 10 mg/L, respectively. Lower removal efficiency was observed for phosphorus with an average concentration in the effluent of 3 mg/L. Plant effluent was also characterized by an average electrical conductivity and sodium adsorption ratio of 680 μS/cm and 2.9, respectively. Therefore, according to these gross parameters, the SBBGR effluent was conformed to the national standards required in Italy for agricultural reuse. Moreover, disinfection performances of the SBBGR was higher than that of conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants and met the quality criteria suggested by WHO (Escherichia coli<1000 CFU/100 mL) for agricultural reuse. In particular, the biological treatment by SBBGR removed 3.8±0.4 log units of Giardia lamblia, 2.8±0.8 log units of E. coli, 2.5±0.7 log units of total coliforms, 2.0±0.3 log units of Clostridium perfringens, 2.0±0.4 log units of Cryptosporidium parvum and 1.7±0.7 log units of Somatic coliphages. The investigated disinfection processes (UV and peracetic acid) resulted very effective for total coliforms, E. coli and somatic coliphages. In particular, a UV radiation and peracetic acid doses of 40 mJ/cm(2) and 1 mg/L respectively reduced E. coli content in the effluent below the limit for agricultural reuse in Italy (10 CFU/100 mL). Conversely, they were both ineffective on C.perfringens spores. PMID:26584070

  5. Analogical reflection as a source for the science of life: Kant and the possibility of the biological sciences.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Dalia

    2016-08-01

    In contrast to the previously widespread view that Kant's work was largely in dialogue with the physical sciences, recent scholarship has highlighted Kant's interest in and contributions to the life sciences. Scholars are now investigating the extent to which Kant appealed to and incorporated insights from the life sciences and considering the ways he may have contributed to a new conception of living beings. The scholarship remains, however, divided in its interest: historians of science are concerned with the content of Kant's claims, and the ways in which they may or may not have contributed to the emerging science of life, while historians of philosophy focus on the systematic justifications for Kant's claims, e.g., the methodological and theoretical underpinnings of Kant's statement that living beings are mechanically inexplicable. My aim in this paper is to bring together these two strands of scholarship into dialogue by showing how Kant's methodological concerns (specifically, his notion of reflective judgment) contributed to his conception of living beings and to the ontological concern with life as a distinctive object of study. I argue that although Kant's explicit statement was that biology could not be a science, his implicit and more fundamental claim was that the study of living beings necessitates a distinctive mode of thought, a mode that is essentially analogical. I consider the implications of this view, and argue that it is by developing a new methodology for grasping organized beings that Kant makes his most important contribution to the new science of life.

  6. Analogical reflection as a source for the science of life: Kant and the possibility of the biological sciences.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Dalia

    2016-08-01

    In contrast to the previously widespread view that Kant's work was largely in dialogue with the physical sciences, recent scholarship has highlighted Kant's interest in and contributions to the life sciences. Scholars are now investigating the extent to which Kant appealed to and incorporated insights from the life sciences and considering the ways he may have contributed to a new conception of living beings. The scholarship remains, however, divided in its interest: historians of science are concerned with the content of Kant's claims, and the ways in which they may or may not have contributed to the emerging science of life, while historians of philosophy focus on the systematic justifications for Kant's claims, e.g., the methodological and theoretical underpinnings of Kant's statement that living beings are mechanically inexplicable. My aim in this paper is to bring together these two strands of scholarship into dialogue by showing how Kant's methodological concerns (specifically, his notion of reflective judgment) contributed to his conception of living beings and to the ontological concern with life as a distinctive object of study. I argue that although Kant's explicit statement was that biology could not be a science, his implicit and more fundamental claim was that the study of living beings necessitates a distinctive mode of thought, a mode that is essentially analogical. I consider the implications of this view, and argue that it is by developing a new methodology for grasping organized beings that Kant makes his most important contribution to the new science of life. PMID:27474186

  7. Light reflection by the cuticle of C. aurigans scarabs: a biological broadband reflector of left handed circularly polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libby, E.; Azofeifa, D. E.; Hernández-Jiménez, M.; Barboza-Aguilar, C.; Solís, A.; García-Aguilar, I.; Arce-Marenco, L.; Hernández, A.; Vargas, W. E.

    2014-08-01

    Measured reflection spectra from elytra of Chrysina aurigans scarabs are reported. They show a broad reflection band for wavelengths from 0.525 to 1.0 μm with a sequence of maxima and minima reflection values superimposed on a mean value of around 40% for the high reflection band. Different mechanisms contributing to the reflection spectra have been considered, with the dominant effect, reflection of left handed circularly polarized light, being produced by a laminated left handed twisted structure whose pitch changes with depth through the procuticle in a more complex way than that characterizing broad band circular polarizers based on cholesteric liquid crystals.

  8. The "What Is a System" Reflection Interview as a Knowledge Integration Activity for High School Students' Understanding of Complex Systems in Human Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripto, Jaklin; Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Snapir, Zohar; Amit, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the reflection interview as a tool for assessing and facilitating the use of "systems language" amongst 11th grade students who have recently completed their first year of high school biology. Eighty-three students composed two concept maps in the 10th grade--one at the beginning of the school year and one at its end.…

  9. Transforming beliefs and practices: Elementary teacher candidates' development through shared authentic teaching and reflection experiences within an innovative science methods course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidoo, Kara

    Elementary teachers are criticized for failing to incorporate meaningful science instruction in their classrooms or avoiding science instruction altogether. The lack of adequate science instruction in elementary schools is partially attributed to teacher candidates' anxiety, poor content and pedagogical preparation, and low science teaching self-efficacy. The central premise of this study was that many of these issues could be alleviated through course modifications designed to address these issues. The design tested and presented here provided prospective elementary educators' authentic science teaching experiences with elementary students in a low-stakes environment with the collaboration of peers and science teacher educators. The process of comprehensive reflection was developed for and tested in this study. Comprehensive reflection is individual and collective, written and set in dialogic discourse, focused on past and future behavior, and utilizes video recordings from shared teaching experiences. To test the central premise, an innovative science methods course was designed, implemented and evaluated using a one-group mixed-method design. The focus of the analysis was on changes in self-efficacy, identity and teaching practices as a function of authentic science teaching experiences and comprehensive reflection. The quantitative tools for analysis were t-tests and repeated-measures ANOVA on the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument-B (STEBI-B) and weekly self-rating on confidence as a learner and a teacher of science, respectively. The tools used to analyze qualitative data included thematic analysis and interpretative phenomenological analysis. In addition, theoretically grounded tools were developed and used in a case study to determine the ways one prospective educator's science teaching identity was influenced by experiences in the course. The innovative course structure led the development of teacher candidates' science teaching identity

  10. Innovation Promises and Evidence Realities.

    PubMed

    Maschke, Karen J

    2016-09-01

    Over the past year media outlets and scientific and bioethics journals have reported about several medical and scientific innovations touted as having the potential to fundamentally change not only how diseases and disorders are diagnosed and treated but even how to alter the genomes of future generations. The purported "miracle" blood-testing technology of Theranos and the potential use of the genome editing technology CRISPR-Cas9 to modify human and nonhuman organisms reflect dramatic advances in scientific understanding about the biological mechanisms of humans and other living organisms. Yet evidence about whether these and other innovative biomedical technologies are safe and effective and lead to improved health outcomes for patients young and old is often in dispute. How to assess the safety and effectiveness of innovative biomedical technologies, who should be involved in that effort, and how to define risks and benefits of those technologies are questions at the intersection of values, interests, and politics. PMID:27649835

  11. Innovation Promises and Evidence Realities.

    PubMed

    Maschke, Karen J

    2016-09-01

    Over the past year media outlets and scientific and bioethics journals have reported about several medical and scientific innovations touted as having the potential to fundamentally change not only how diseases and disorders are diagnosed and treated but even how to alter the genomes of future generations. The purported "miracle" blood-testing technology of Theranos and the potential use of the genome editing technology CRISPR-Cas9 to modify human and nonhuman organisms reflect dramatic advances in scientific understanding about the biological mechanisms of humans and other living organisms. Yet evidence about whether these and other innovative biomedical technologies are safe and effective and lead to improved health outcomes for patients young and old is often in dispute. How to assess the safety and effectiveness of innovative biomedical technologies, who should be involved in that effort, and how to define risks and benefits of those technologies are questions at the intersection of values, interests, and politics.

  12. Monitoring the performance of innovative and traditional biocides mixed with consolidants and water-repellents for the prevention of biological growth on stone.

    PubMed

    Pinna, Daniela; Salvadori, Barbara; Galeotti, Monica

    2012-04-15

    In this study, some mixtures of consolidants or water-repellent products and biocides developed to prevent biological growth, were tested over time on three stone substrates with different bioreceptivity. The performance of both traditional (tetraethylorthosilicate, methylethoxy polysiloxane, Paraloid B72, tributyltin oxide, dibutyltin dilaurate) and innovative compounds (copper nanoparticles) was assessed using colour measurements, the water absorption by contact sponge method, and observation under stereo and optical microscopes. The application of the mixtures had also the purpose of controlling re-colonization on stone after a conservation treatment. The study site was the archaeological Area of Fiesole; the mixtures were applied in situ to sandstone, marble and plaster which had been cleaned beforehand. An innovative aspect of the study is that, by using non-invasive methods, it also permitted monitoring the mixtures' effectiveness in preventing biological growth. The monitoring results made it possible to assess the bioreceptivity of the treated stones (sandstone, marble, plaster) over a period of almost three years. The results showed that the mixtures of consolidants or water-repellent products with biocides were effective in preventing biological growth on both a substrate with low bioreceptivity like plaster and a substrate with high bioreceptivity such as marble. The innovative mixture of nano-Cu particles with a water-repellent yielded good results in terms of preventing biological colonization. Moreover, they apparently did not affect the substrates' colour. Mixtures of nano-Cu particles with a consolidant and a water-repellent hold great promise for preventing re-colonization of stone after conservation treatment. PMID:22401787

  13. Cultural inter-population differences do not reflect biological distances: an example of interdisciplinary analysis of populations from Eastern Adriatic coast

    PubMed Central

    Bašić, Željana; Fox, Ayano R; Anterić, Ivana; Jerković, Ivan; Polašek, Ozren; Anđelinović, Šimun; Holland, Mitchell M; Primorac, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Aim To compare the population group from the Šopot graveyard with population groups from traditional Croatian medieval graveyards by using anthropological, craniometrics, and mitochondrial (mtDNA) analysis and to examine if the cultural differences between population groups reflect biological differences. Methods We determined sex, age at death, pathological, and traumatic changes of skeletal remains from the Šopot graveyard and compared them with a cumulative medieval sample from the same region. We also performed principal component analysis to compare skeletal remains from Šopot with those from Ostrovica and other Central European samples according to 8 cranial measurements. Finally, we compared 46 skeletons from Šopot with medieval (Ostrovica) and contemporary populations using mDNA haplogroup profiling. Results The remains from Šopot were similar to the cumulative sample in lifestyle and quality of life markers. Principal component analysis showed that they were closely related to Eastern Adriatic coast sites (including Ostrovica and Šopot) in terms of cranial morphology, indicating similar biological makeup. According to mDNA testing, Šopot population showed no significant differences in the haplogroup prevalence from either medieval or contemporary populations. Conclusion This study shows that the Šopot population does not significantly differ from other medieval populations from this area. Besides similar quality of life markers, these populations also had similar biological markers. Substantial archeological differences can therefore be attributed to apparent cultural influences, which in this case do not reflect biological differences. PMID:26088847

  14. Prospective Technology Assessment of Synthetic Biology: Fundamental and Propaedeutic Reflections in Order to Enable an Early Assessment.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jan Cornelius

    2016-08-01

    Synthetic biology is regarded as one of the key technosciences of the future. The goal of this paper is to present some fundamental considerations to enable procedures of a technology assessment (TA) of synthetic biology. To accomplish such an early "upstream" assessment of a not yet fully developed technology, a special type of TA will be considered: Prospective TA (ProTA). At the center of ProTA are the analysis and the framing of "synthetic biology," including a characterization and assessment of the technological core. The thesis is that if there is any differentia specifica giving substance to the umbrella term "synthetic biology," it is the idea of harnessing self-organization for engineering purposes. To underline that we are likely experiencing an epochal break in the ontology of technoscientific systems, this new type of technology is called "late-modern technology." -I start this paper by analyzing the three most common visions of synthetic biology. Then I argue that one particular vision deserves more attention because it underlies the others: the vision of self-organization. I discuss the inherent limits of this new type of late-modern technology in the attempt to control and monitor possible risk issues. I refer to Hans Jonas' ethics and his early anticipation of the risks of a novel type of technology. I end by drawing conclusions for the approach of ProTA towards an early societal shaping of synthetic biology.

  15. Analysing Vee Diagram Reflections to Explore Pre-Service Science Teachers' Understanding the Nature of Science in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savran-Gencer, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    Vee diagrams have been a metacognitive tool to help in learning the nature and structure of knowledge by reflecting on the scientific process and making knowledge much more explicit to learners during the practical work. This study aimed to assess pre-service science teachers' understanding some aspects of NOS by analyzing their reflections…

  16. Information Interactions between Members of Science-Profession Dyads as Reflected by Journal Use: Ichthyology and Fisheries Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, F. Douglas

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the science-profession dyad of ichthyology and fisheries biology through citation analysis of the journal literature. It found that the fields overlap in the journals cited, and, although differences in citation behavior were identified, some exchange of information within the dyad was indicated. (38 references) (Author/MES)

  17. A Community College Instructor's Reflective Journey Toward Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Nature of Science in a Non-majors Undergraduate Biology Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajewski, Sarah J.; Schwartz, Renee

    2014-08-01

    Research supports an explicit-reflective approach to teaching about nature of science (NOS), but little is reported on teachers' journeys as they attempt to integrate NOS into everyday lessons. This participatory action research paper reports the challenges and successes encountered by an in-service teacher, Sarah, implementing NOS for the first time throughout four units of a community college biology course (genetics, molecular biology, evolution, and ecology). Through the action research cycles of planning, implementing, and reflecting, Sarah identified areas of challenge and success. This paper reports emergent themes that assisted her in successfully embedding NOS within the science content. Data include weekly lesson plans and pre/post reflective journaling before and after each lesson of this lecture/lab combination class that met twice a week. This course was taught back to back semesters, and this study is based on the results of a year-long process. Developing pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for NOS involves coming to understand the overlaps and connections between NOS, other science subject matter, pedagogical strategies, and student learning. Sarah found that through action research she was able to grow and assimilate her understanding of NOS within the biology content she was teaching. A shift in orientation toward teaching products of science to teaching science processes was a necessary shift for NOS pedagogical success. This process enabled Sarah's development of PCK for NOS. As a practical example of putting research-based instructional recommendations into practice, this study may be very useful for other teachers who are learning to teach NOS.

  18. Broadening of effective photonic band gaps in biological chiral structures: From intrinsic narrow band gaps to broad band reflection spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, W. E.; Hernández-Jiménez, M.; Libby, E.; Azofeifa, D. E.; Solis, Á.; Barboza-Aguilar, C.

    2015-09-01

    Under normal illumination with non-polarized light, reflection spectra of the cuticle of golden-like and red Chrysina aurigans scarabs show a structured broad band of left-handed circularly polarized light. The polarization of the reflected light is attributed to a Bouligand-type left-handed chiral structure found through the scarab's cuticle. By considering these twisted structures as one-dimensional photonic crystals, a novel approach is developed from the dispersion relation of circularly polarized electromagnetic waves traveling through chiral media, to show how the broad band characterizing these spectra arises from an intrinsic narrow photonic band gap whose spectral position moves through visible and near-infrared wavelengths.

  19. 76 FR 27062 - Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009; Options for a User Fee Program for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ...; Options for a User Fee Program for Biosimilar and Interchangeable Biological Product Applications for... this document to request comments relating to the development of a user fee program for biosimilar and...). FDA is requesting input on the identified principles for development of a 351(k) user fee program,...

  20. Modulating biological events by biophysics: an innovative molecular methodology using ion cyclotron resonance--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Corbellini, Ezio; Corbellini, Monica; Licciardello, Orazio; Marotta, Francesco

    2014-04-01

    The QUEC PHISIS(™) technology, based on the theory of coherence domains of water, is the most advanced application of quantum electrodynamics coherence suitable for transferring highly targeted and personalized electromagnetic signals to the living cells. Several experimental studies in aged rats confirm its beneficial action on vital cellular parameters while also optimizing the bioavailability and absorption of fundamental elements in cellular metabolism. Clinical observations have followed and have strengthened its applicability in healthy volunteers and in patients with complex diseases such as cardiovascular, neuromuscular, and metabolic disorders. Our pilot study on severely compromised, frail subjects corroborates its relevance. The delivery of correct frequencies has the potential to become a safe, very affordable, and effective therapeutic modality that is amenable to being integrated with pharmacological drugs, thus representing a substantial innovation in medical practice. PMID:24059702

  1. The Need for Innovative Methods of Teaching and Learning Chemistry in Higher Education--Reflections from a Project of the European Chemistry Thematic Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eilks, Ingo; Byers, Bill

    2010-01-01

    This paper summarizes the work and conclusions of a working group established by the European Chemistry Thematic Network (ECTN). The aim of the working group was to identify potential areas for innovative approaches to the teaching and learning of chemistry in Higher Education, and to survey good practice throughout the EU. The paper starts by…

  2. Systems biology and systems genetics - novel innovative approaches to study host-pathogen interactions during influenza infection.

    PubMed

    Kollmus, Heike; Wilk, Esther; Schughart, Klaus

    2014-06-01

    Influenza represents a serious threat to public health with thousands of deaths each year. A deeper understanding of the host-pathogen interactions is urgently needed to evaluate individual and population risks for severe influenza disease and to identify new therapeutic targets. Here, we review recent progress in large scale omics technologies, systems genetics as well as new mathematical and computational developments that are now in place to apply a systems biology approach for a comprehensive description of the multidimensional host response to influenza infection. In addition, we describe how results from experimental animal models can be translated to humans, and we discuss some of the future challenges ahead.

  3. The `What is a system' reflection interview as a knowledge integration activity for high school students' understanding of complex systems in human biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripto, Jaklin; Ben-Zvi Assaraf, Orit; Snapir, Zohar; Amit, Miriam

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the reflection interview as a tool for assessing and facilitating the use of 'systems language' amongst 11th grade students who have recently completed their first year of high school biology. Eighty-three students composed two concept maps in the 10th grade-one at the beginning of the school year and one at its end. The first part of the interview is dedicated to guiding the students through comparing their two concept maps and by means of both explicit and non-explicit teaching. Our study showed that the explicit guidance in comparing the two concept maps was more effective than the non-explicit, eliciting a variety of different, more specific, types of interactions and patterns (e.g. 'hierarchy', 'dynamism', 'homeostasis') in the students' descriptions of the human body system. The reflection interview as a knowledge integration activity was found to be an effective tool for assessing the subjects' conceptual models of 'system complexity', and for identifying those aspects of a system that are most commonly misunderstood.

  4. Use of high-intensity sonication for pre-treatment of biological tissues prior to multielemental analysis by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Calle, Inmaculada De; Costas, Marta; Cabaleiro, Noelia; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    In this work, two ultrasound-based procedures are developed for sample preparation prior to determination of P, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se and Sr in biological tissues by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Ultrasound-assisted extraction by means of a cup-horn sonoreactor and ultrasonic-probe slurry sampling were compared with a well-established procedure such as magnetic agitation slurry sampling. For that purpose, seven certified reference materials and different real samples of animal tissue were used. Similar accuracy and precision is obtained with the three sample preparation approaches tried. Limits of detection were dependent on both the sample matrix and the sample pre-treatment used, best values being achieved with ultrasound-assisted extraction. Advantages of ultrasound-assisted extraction include reduced sample handling, decreased contamination risks (neither addition of surfactants nor use of foreign objects inside the extraction vial), simpler background (no solid particles onto the sample carrier) and improved recovery for some elements such as P. A mixture of 10% v/v HNO3 + 20-40% v/v HCl was suitable for extraction from biological tissues.

  5. Reflecting Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galea, Simone

    2012-01-01

    This paper demystifies reflective practice on teaching by focusing on the idea of reflection itself and how it has been conceived by two philosophers, Plato and Irigaray. It argues that reflective practice has become a standardized method of defining the teacher in teacher education and teacher accreditation systems. It explores how practices of…

  6. Propolis Standardized Extract (EPP-AF®), an Innovative Chemically and Biologically Reproducible Pharmaceutical Compound for Treating Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Berretta, Andresa Aparecida; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Bueno, Paula Carolina Pires; de Oliveira Lima Leite Vaz, Mirela Mara; Marchetti, Juliana Maldonado

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a formulation, containing the propolis standardized extract (EPP-AF®), which can assist in the healing of skin lesions. To achieve this objective the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the propolis extract was determined. The final product was subjected to in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical evaluation. The broth macrodilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts and formulations against the microorganisms most commonly found in burns, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Wistar rats with puncture wounded skin were used to evaluate the wound healing properties of propolis. The results of chemical and biological characterization demonstrated the batch-to-batch reproducibility of the standardized extract which is an unprecedented result. The antimicrobial and wound healing activity of the pharmaceutical studied showed the best results when samples contain 3.6% propolis, suggesting that this is the most promising composition. PMID:22457606

  7. Propolis standardized extract (EPP-AF®), an innovative chemically and biologically reproducible pharmaceutical compound for treating wounds.

    PubMed

    Berretta, Andresa Aparecida; Nascimento, Andresa Piacezzi; Bueno, Paula Carolina Pires; Vaz, Mirela Mara de Oliveira Lima Leite; Marchetti, Juliana Maldonado

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a formulation, containing the propolis standardized extract (EPP-AF(®)), which can assist in the healing of skin lesions. To achieve this objective the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the propolis extract was determined. The final product was subjected to in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical evaluation. The broth macrodilution method was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts and formulations against the microorganisms most commonly found in burns, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Wistar rats with puncture wounded skin were used to evaluate the wound healing properties of propolis. The results of chemical and biological characterization demonstrated the batch-to-batch reproducibility of the standardized extract which is an unprecedented result. The antimicrobial and wound healing activity of the pharmaceutical studied showed the best results when samples contain 3.6% propolis, suggesting that this is the most promising composition.

  8. EBP2R - an innovative enhanced biological nutrient recovery activated sludge system to produce growth medium for green microalgae cultivation.

    PubMed

    Valverde-Pérez, Borja; Ramin, Elham; Smets, Barth F; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2015-01-01

    Current research considers wastewater as a source of energy, nutrients and water and not just a source of pollution. So far, mainly energy intensive physical and chemical unit processes have been developed to recover some of these resources, and less energy and resource demanding alternatives are needed. Here, we present a modified enhanced biological phosphorus removal and recovery system (referred to as EBP2R) that can produce optimal culture media for downstream micro-algal growth in terms of N and P content. Phosphorus is recovered as a P-stream by diversion of some of the effluent from the upstream anaerobic reactor. By operating the process at comparably low solids retention times (SRT), the nitrogen content of wastewater is retained as free and saline ammonia, the preferred form of nitrogen for most micro-algae. Scenario simulations were carried out to assess the capacity of the EBP2R system to produce nutrient rich organic-carbon depleted algal cultivation media of target composition. Via SRT control, the quality of the constructed cultivation media can be optimized to support a wide range of green micro-algal growth requirements. Up to 75% of the influent phosphorus can be recovered, by diverting 30% of the influent flow as a P-stream at an SRT of 5 days. Through global sensitivity analysis we find that the effluent N-to-P ratio and the P recovered are mainly dependent on the influent quality rather than on biokinetics or stoichiometry. Further research is needed to demonstrate that the system performance predicted through the model-based design can be achieved in reality. PMID:25480432

  9. Earlybird in South Staffordshire: Reflections on an Innovative Model of Interagency Working to Deliver an Intervention for Families of Preschool Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpin, Julia; Pitt, Sally; Dodd, Emma

    2011-01-01

    In this article three education and health services professionals, Julia Halpin, Sally Pitt and Emma Dodd, describe and reflect upon the way in which a small group of professionals from health and education services worked in collaboration to meet the need to inform and empower parents of preschool children with a diagnosis of autistic spectrum…

  10. ESF-EMBO Symposium “Molecular Biology and Innovative Therapies in Sarcomas of Childhood and Adolescence” Sept 29–Oct 4, Polonia Castle Pultusk, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Beat W.; Koscielniak, Ewa; Kovar, Heinrich; Fulda, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and Ewing sarcoma (ES) are among the most common pediatric sarcomas (Arndt et al., 2012). Despite sarcomas representing a highly heterogeneous group of tumors, ES and alveolar RMS (ARMS) typically share one common genetic characteristic, namely a specific chromosomal translocation (Helman and Meltzer, 2003; Lessnick and Ladanyi, 2012). These translocations generate fusion proteins, which are composed of two transcription factors (TF). Typically, one TF is a developmentally regulated factor that is essential for proper specification of a given lineage and provides the DNA-binding domain, while the partner TF contributes a transactivation domain that drives aberrant expression of target genes. Based on these common genetic characteristics, the first ESF-EMBO research conference entitled “Molecular Biology and Innovative Therapies in Sarcomas of Childhood and Adolescence” with special focus on RMS and ES was held at the Polonia Castle in Pultusk, Poland. The conference gathered 70 participants from more than 15 countries and several continents representing most research groups that are active in this field. PMID:23761860

  11. Effect of mineralogical, geochemical and biological properties on soils reflectance to assess temporal and spatial dynamics of BSCs in Sahelian ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourguignon, A.; Cerdan, O.; Desprats, J. F.; Marin, B.; Malam Issa, O.; Valentin, C.; Rajot, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    Land degradation and desertification are among the major environmental problems, resulting in reduced productivity and development of bare surfaces in arid and semi-arid areas of the world. One important factor that acts to increase soil stability and nutrient content, and thus to prevent water and wind erosion and enhance soil productivity of arid environment, is the presence of biological soil crusts (BSCs). They are the dominant ground cover and a key component of arid environments built up mainly by cyanobacteria. They enhance degraded soil quality by providing a stable and water-retaining substratum and increasing fertility by N and C fixations. The BioCrust project, funded by ANR (VMCS 2008), focuses on BSCs in the Sahelian zone of West Africa (Niger), a highly vulnerable zone facing soil degradation due to the harsh climatic conditions, with variable rainfall, and high anthropic pressure on land use. Unlike arid areas of developed countries (USA, Australia and Israel) or China where BSCs have been extensively studied, studies from Sahelian zone (Africa) are limited (neither the inventory of their different form nor the estimation of their spatial extension has been carried out). The form, structure and composition of BSCs vary depending on characteristics related to soils and biological composition. This study focuses on the soils characterisation using ground-based spectroradiometry. An extensive database was built included spectral measurements on BSCs, bare soils and vegetation that occur in the same area, visual criteria, in situ and laboratory measurements on the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of BSCs and their substratum. The work is carried out on geo-statistical processing of data acquired in sites along a north-south climatic gradient and three types of representative land uses. The investigated areas are highly vulnerable zone facing soil degradation due to the harsh climatic conditions, with variable rainfall, and high anthropic

  12. Teaching innovation.

    PubMed

    Lachman, Vicki D; Glasgow, Mary Ellen Smith; Donnelly, Gloria F

    2009-01-01

    Innovation in healthcare is essential to solve the "wicked problems" currently facing healthcare. This article focuses on nature of innovation and how it operates, how innovators think and view problems, how the theory and practice of innovation can be taught in novel ways, and how organizational cultures foster or suppress innovation. Examples of teaching strategies and nurse-driven innovation illustrate the theory and practice of innovation.

  13. Reflection and reflective practice.

    PubMed

    Schutz, Sue

    2007-09-01

    Reflection is an approach to the generation of understanding about practice that has become a largely accepted part of nursing education at both undergraduate and post-qualifying levels. It is also increasingly common now for healthcare professionals to use reflection in their practice communities as a part of their daily professional work. The literature is replete with accounts of the possible benefits to practitioners and clients of using reflection in practice, yet this amounts to a rather scant evidence base. For community nurses there are several challenges in the practical application of reflective practice, but these are not insurmountable. Issues such as lone-working and geographical distance may be a challenge. There are some key skills that will help public health and community practitioners get started in reflection and some important issues that should be addressed before beginning. Reflective practice has, however, the potential to help practitioners in all fields unlock the tacit knowledge and understanding that they have of their practice and use this to generate knowledge for future practice.

  14. Reflective Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2013-01-01

    Thomas Farrell's "Reflective Teaching" outlines four principles that take teachers from just doing reflection to making it a way of being. Using the four principles, Reflective Practice Is Evidence Based, Reflective Practice Involves Dialogue, Reflective Practice Links Beliefs and Practices, and Reflective Practice Is a Way of Life,…

  15. Reflection Coefficients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses and provides an example of reflectivity approximation to determine whether reflection will occur. Provides a method to show thin-film interference on a projection screen. Also applies the reflectivity concepts to electromagnetic wave systems. (MVL)

  16. Summary Report: Pilot Study of an Innovative Biological Treatment Process for the Removal of Ammonia from a Small Drinking Water System

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of biologically active filtration to oxidize ammonia as a full-scale drinking water treatment process has not been thoroughly considered in the United States. A number of concerns with biological water treatment exist including the potential release of excessive numbers o...

  17. Schooling Redesigned: Towards Innovative Learning Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Istance, David

    2015-01-01

    What does redesigning schools and schooling through innovation mean in practice? How might it be brought about? These questions have inspired an influential international reflection on "Innovative Learning Environments" (ILE) led by the OECD. This reflection has already resulted in publications on core design principles and frameworks…

  18. Innovative Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barsi, Louis M.; Kaebnick, Gweneth W.

    1989-01-01

    The phenomenon of innovation within the university is examined, noting the possibility of innovation as a key to college vitality. A study was conducted using a group of institutions that demonstrated recent innovative spirit. Members of the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU), each has been recognized in an annual…

  19. Encouraging innovation.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Anthony A

    2014-02-01

    Innovation is central to the scientific endeavor, and yet the current system of funding in the United States discourages innovation, especially in the young. Subtle alterations to the funding system, guided in part by the success of the European Research Council, could have major effects on encouraging innovation.

  20. A Community College Instructor's Reflective Journey toward Developing Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Nature of Science in a Non-Majors Undergraduate Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajewski, Sarah J.; Schwartz, Renee

    2014-01-01

    Research supports an explicit-reflective approach to teaching about nature of science (NOS), but little is reported on teachers' journeys as they attempt to integrate NOS into everyday lessons. This participatory action research paper reports the challenges and successes encountered by an in-service teacher, Sarah, implementing NOS for the…

  1. Innovation: the classic traps.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2006-11-01

    Never a fad, but always in or out of fashion, innovation gets rediscovered as a growth enabler every half dozen years. Too often, though, grand declarations about innovation are followed by mediocre execution that produces anemic results, and innovation groups are quietly disbanded in cost-cutting drives. Each managerial generation embarks on the same enthusiastic quest for the next new thing. And each generation faces the same vexing challenges- most of which stem from the tensions between protecting existing revenue streams critical to current success and supporting new concepts that may be crucial to future success. In this article, Harvard Business School professor Rosabeth Moss Kanter reflects on the four major waves of innovation enthusiasm she's observed over the past 25 years. She describes the classic mistakes companies make in innovation strategy, process, structure, and skills assessment, illustrating her points with a plethora of real-world examples--including AT&T Worldnet, Timberland, and Ocean Spray. A typical strategic blunder is when managers set their hurdles too high or limit the scope of their innovation efforts. Quaker Oats, for instance, was so busy in the 1990s making minor tweaks to its product formulas that it missed larger opportunities in distribution. A common process mistake is when managers strangle innovation efforts with the same rigid planning, budgeting, and reviewing approaches they use in their existing businesses--thereby discouraging people from adapting as circumstances warrant. Companies must be careful how they structure fledgling entities alongside existing ones, Kanter says, to avoid a clash of cultures and agendas--which Arrow Electronics experienced in its attempts to create an online venture. Finally, companies commonly undervalue and underinvest in the human side of innovation--for instance, promoting individuals out of innovation teams long before their efforts can pay off. Kanter offers practical advice for avoiding

  2. The Reflective Learning Continuum: Reflecting on Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltier, James W.; Hay, Amanda; Drago, William

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reflection to marketing educators is increasingly recognized. However, there is a lack of empirical research that considers reflection within the context of both the marketing and general business education literature. This article describes the use of an instrument that can be used to measure four identified levels of a…

  3. Innovation network

    PubMed Central

    Acemoglu, Daron; Akcigit, Ufuk; Kerr, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Technological progress builds upon itself, with the expansion of invention in one domain propelling future work in linked fields. Our analysis uses 1.8 million US patents and their citation properties to map the innovation network and its strength. Past innovation network structures are calculated using citation patterns across technology classes during 1975–1994. The interaction of this preexisting network structure with patent growth in upstream technology fields has strong predictive power on future innovation after 1995. This pattern is consistent with the idea that when there is more past upstream innovation for a particular technology class to build on, then that technology class innovates more. PMID:27681628

  4. Bringing about Curriculum Innovations. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 82

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karkkainen, Kiira

    2012-01-01

    Innovation is essential for the education sector. The ways in which curriculum decision making is organised reflects different implicit approaches on how educational systems pertain to promote innovation in education. Curriculum holds an outstanding place when seeking to promote innovation in education, as it reflects the vision for education by…

  5. Trends in IT Innovation to Build a Next Generation Bioinformatics Solution to Manage and Analyse Biological Big Data Produced by NGS Technologies.

    PubMed

    de Brevern, Alexandre G; Meyniel, Jean-Philippe; Fairhead, Cécile; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Malpertuy, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing the human genome began in 1994, and 10 years of work were necessary in order to provide a nearly complete sequence. Nowadays, NGS technologies allow sequencing of a whole human genome in a few days. This deluge of data challenges scientists in many ways, as they are faced with data management issues and analysis and visualization drawbacks due to the limitations of current bioinformatics tools. In this paper, we describe how the NGS Big Data revolution changes the way of managing and analysing data. We present how biologists are confronted with abundance of methods, tools, and data formats. To overcome these problems, focus on Big Data Information Technology innovations from web and business intelligence. We underline the interest of NoSQL databases, which are much more efficient than relational databases. Since Big Data leads to the loss of interactivity with data during analysis due to high processing time, we describe solutions from the Business Intelligence that allow one to regain interactivity whatever the volume of data is. We illustrate this point with a focus on the Amadea platform. Finally, we discuss visualization challenges posed by Big Data and present the latest innovations with JavaScript graphic libraries. PMID:26125026

  6. Trends in IT Innovation to Build a Next Generation Bioinformatics Solution to Manage and Analyse Biological Big Data Produced by NGS Technologies

    PubMed Central

    de Brevern, Alexandre G.; Meyniel, Jean-Philippe; Fairhead, Cécile; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Malpertuy, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing the human genome began in 1994, and 10 years of work were necessary in order to provide a nearly complete sequence. Nowadays, NGS technologies allow sequencing of a whole human genome in a few days. This deluge of data challenges scientists in many ways, as they are faced with data management issues and analysis and visualization drawbacks due to the limitations of current bioinformatics tools. In this paper, we describe how the NGS Big Data revolution changes the way of managing and analysing data. We present how biologists are confronted with abundance of methods, tools, and data formats. To overcome these problems, focus on Big Data Information Technology innovations from web and business intelligence. We underline the interest of NoSQL databases, which are much more efficient than relational databases. Since Big Data leads to the loss of interactivity with data during analysis due to high processing time, we describe solutions from the Business Intelligence that allow one to regain interactivity whatever the volume of data is. We illustrate this point with a focus on the Amadea platform. Finally, we discuss visualization challenges posed by Big Data and present the latest innovations with JavaScript graphic libraries. PMID:26125026

  7. Trends in IT Innovation to Build a Next Generation Bioinformatics Solution to Manage and Analyse Biological Big Data Produced by NGS Technologies.

    PubMed

    de Brevern, Alexandre G; Meyniel, Jean-Philippe; Fairhead, Cécile; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Malpertuy, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing the human genome began in 1994, and 10 years of work were necessary in order to provide a nearly complete sequence. Nowadays, NGS technologies allow sequencing of a whole human genome in a few days. This deluge of data challenges scientists in many ways, as they are faced with data management issues and analysis and visualization drawbacks due to the limitations of current bioinformatics tools. In this paper, we describe how the NGS Big Data revolution changes the way of managing and analysing data. We present how biologists are confronted with abundance of methods, tools, and data formats. To overcome these problems, focus on Big Data Information Technology innovations from web and business intelligence. We underline the interest of NoSQL databases, which are much more efficient than relational databases. Since Big Data leads to the loss of interactivity with data during analysis due to high processing time, we describe solutions from the Business Intelligence that allow one to regain interactivity whatever the volume of data is. We illustrate this point with a focus on the Amadea platform. Finally, we discuss visualization challenges posed by Big Data and present the latest innovations with JavaScript graphic libraries.

  8. Innovation @ NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the activities National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is doing to encourage innovation across the agency. All information provided is available publicly.

  9. Developing Materials for Biology Teaching. Asian Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) Report of a Sub-Regional Workshop (Bangkok, Thailand, August 3-12, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    The major purposes of this workshop were to develop teaching and learning materials on certain selected key biology concepts relevant to environmental, genetic, and agricultural aspects, and to develop exemplary training materials on certain teacher competencies relating to laboratory and field techniques. Chapter One reports on the status and…

  10. Systems Biology for Smart Crops and Agricultural Innovation: Filling the Gaps between Genotype and Phenotype for Complex Traits Linked with Robust Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Rajesh Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Gaur, Vikram Singh; Pandey, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, rapid developments in several omics platforms and next generation sequencing technology have generated a huge amount of biological data about plants. Systems biology aims to develop and use well-organized and efficient algorithms, data structure, visualization, and communication tools for the integration of these biological data with the goal of computational modeling and simulation. It studies crop plant systems by systematically perturbing them, checking the gene, protein, and informational pathway responses; integrating these data; and finally, formulating mathematical models that describe the structure of system and its response to individual perturbations. Consequently, systems biology approaches, such as integrative and predictive ones, hold immense potential in understanding of molecular mechanism of agriculturally important complex traits linked to agricultural productivity. This has led to identification of some key genes and proteins involved in networks of pathways involved in input use efficiency, biotic and abiotic stress resistance, photosynthesis efficiency, root, stem and leaf architecture, and nutrient mobilization. The developments in the above fields have made it possible to design smart crops with superior agronomic traits through genetic manipulation of key candidate genes. PMID:26484978

  11. Systems Biology for Smart Crops and Agricultural Innovation: Filling the Gaps between Genotype and Phenotype for Complex Traits Linked with Robust Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Pathak, Rajesh Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Gaur, Vikram Singh; Pandey, Dinesh

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, rapid developments in several omics platforms and next generation sequencing technology have generated a huge amount of biological data about plants. Systems biology aims to develop and use well-organized and efficient algorithms, data structure, visualization, and communication tools for the integration of these biological data with the goal of computational modeling and simulation. It studies crop plant systems by systematically perturbing them, checking the gene, protein, and informational pathway responses; integrating these data; and finally, formulating mathematical models that describe the structure of system and its response to individual perturbations. Consequently, systems biology approaches, such as integrative and predictive ones, hold immense potential in understanding of molecular mechanism of agriculturally important complex traits linked to agricultural productivity. This has led to identification of some key genes and proteins involved in networks of pathways involved in input use efficiency, biotic and abiotic stress resistance, photosynthesis efficiency, root, stem and leaf architecture, and nutrient mobilization. The developments in the above fields have made it possible to design smart crops with superior agronomic traits through genetic manipulation of key candidate genes.

  12. Systems Biology for Smart Crops and Agricultural Innovation: Filling the Gaps between Genotype and Phenotype for Complex Traits Linked with Robust Agricultural Productivity and Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Pathak, Rajesh Kumar; Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Gaur, Vikram Singh; Pandey, Dinesh

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, rapid developments in several omics platforms and next generation sequencing technology have generated a huge amount of biological data about plants. Systems biology aims to develop and use well-organized and efficient algorithms, data structure, visualization, and communication tools for the integration of these biological data with the goal of computational modeling and simulation. It studies crop plant systems by systematically perturbing them, checking the gene, protein, and informational pathway responses; integrating these data; and finally, formulating mathematical models that describe the structure of system and its response to individual perturbations. Consequently, systems biology approaches, such as integrative and predictive ones, hold immense potential in understanding of molecular mechanism of agriculturally important complex traits linked to agricultural productivity. This has led to identification of some key genes and proteins involved in networks of pathways involved in input use efficiency, biotic and abiotic stress resistance, photosynthesis efficiency, root, stem and leaf architecture, and nutrient mobilization. The developments in the above fields have made it possible to design smart crops with superior agronomic traits through genetic manipulation of key candidate genes. PMID:26484978

  13. N,N prime -Dimethylthiourea dioxide formation from N,N prime -dimethylthiourea reflects hydrogen peroxide concentrations in simple biological systems

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, W.E.; Muldrow, M.E.; Parker, N.B.; Barkley, R.; Linas, S.L.; Repine, J.E. )

    1988-05-01

    The authors hypothesized that measurement of a specific product from reaction of N,N{prime}-dimethylthiourea (Me{sub 2}TU) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} would provide a good indication of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} scavenging and protection seen after addition of Me{sub 2}TU to biological systems. They found that addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to Me{sub 2}TU yielded a single stable product, Me{sub 2}TU dioxide. Me{sub 2}TU dioxide formation correlated with Me{sub 2}TU consumption as a function of added H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration and was prevented by simultaneous addition of catalase (but not boiled catalase), superoxide dismutase, dimethyl sulfoxide, mannitol, or sodium benzoate. Me{sub 2}TU dioxide formation, Me{sub 2}TU consumption, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration increases occurred in mixtures containing phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and normal human neutrophils but not in mixtures containing PMA and neutrophils from patients with chronic granulomatous disease or in mixtures containing PMA and normal neutrophils and catalase. Me{sub 2}TU dioxide formation also occurred in isolated rat lungs perfused with Me{sub 2}TU and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} but not in lungs perfused with Me{sub 2}TU and elastase, histamine, or oleic acid. In contrast, Me{sub 2}TU dioxide formation did not occur after exposure of Me{sub 2}TU to {sup 60}Co-generated hydroxyl radical or hypochlorous acid in the presence of catalase. The results indicate that reaction of Me{sub 2}TU with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} selectively forms Me{sub 2}TU may be useful for assessing the presence and significance of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in biological systems.

  14. Managing Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    1991-01-01

    Describes one library's use of technological innovation to provide Associated Press updates over the library's 24-hour dial-up service during the Persian Gulf War. Suggests five rules for innovation: (1) develop a shared vision; (2) foster frequent, formal, and informal communication; (3) empower employees; (4) take limited risks; and (5) use, but…

  15. Reflected Glory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Colin

    2006-01-01

    The scientific model of how people see things is far removed from children's real-world experience. They know that light is needed in order to see an object, but may not know that light is reflected off the object and some of that light enters the eyes. In this article, the author explores children's understanding of reflection and how to develop…

  16. Reflecting on Reflecting on Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Arthur L.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses three broad themes--reflection, power, and negotiation--that are evidenced in all of the articles in this issue. In this article, the author tries to transgress the articles at some middling altitude to seek some broader thematics. His observations about reflection, power, and negotiation do transcend individual efforts,…

  17. Radar reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-07-01

    This TOP describes a method for measuring the radar reflectivity characteristics of aircraft. It uses a rotating platform and various radar systems to obtain calibrated radar Automatic Gain Control values for each degree of aspect angle for the aircraft. The purpose of this test is to provide comparable values of radar reflectivity for Army aircraft at various radar frequencies and parameter for fixed positions and aspect angles on the aircraft. Data collected on each specific aircraft can be used to evaluate radar reflectivity characteristics of aircraft skin material, paint, and structural changes such as flat versus curved surfaces.

  18. Innovation through developing consumers’ community. Part I: Innovation in action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gălăţanu (Avram, E.; Avasilcăi, S.

    2015-11-01

    Technological changes and need for innovation represents the main concerns for organizational growth and profitability. However the main priority is still about achieving high performance through product development and consumers' engagement activities. As implementation of open innovation applications increased and value co — creation became well known and major process, companies were engaged into value co — innovation activities. From this point of view the need for joint efforts with consumers in product development arose. Thus the primary condition for an organization to be consumer centric is to define clear the vision and mission which reflects the common efforts for co — creation and diffusion of innovation. As Research & Development processes evolved and interest for innovative concepts and products arose, companies started to implement the specific instruments for consumers' attraction and engagement into design and product development. The digitalized innovation became the main source for establishing the direct communication with the consumers. In order to achieve organization growth, profitability and recognition, the companies should be aware of the innovation importance and the need for internal change. From this point of view, there is necessary to assess the organizational structures, to implement new policies and to establish strategic targets. Basically it is justified the need for platform occurrence and development. Based on case study of BMW Group, recognised leader in automotive industry for innovative concepts, there will be analysed main features within organizational context which promotes the innovation implementation. There will be provided the review of the BMW Group experience of innovation activities, main consumers' engagement strategies, the values which promote the consumer — centric product development, new opportunities assessment, major policies and concerns. The foreseen result is to understand how companies are

  19. Bioregulatory systems medicine: an innovative approach to integrating the science of molecular networks, inflammation, and systems biology with the patient's autoregulatory capacity?

    PubMed

    Goldman, Alyssa W; Burmeister, Yvonne; Cesnulevicius, Konstantin; Herbert, Martha; Kane, Mary; Lescheid, David; McCaffrey, Timothy; Schultz, Myron; Seilheimer, Bernd; Smit, Alta; St Laurent, Georges; Berman, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Bioregulatory systems medicine (BrSM) is a paradigm that aims to advance current medical practices. The basic scientific and clinical tenets of this approach embrace an interconnected picture of human health, supported largely by recent advances in systems biology and genomics, and focus on the implications of multi-scale interconnectivity for improving therapeutic approaches to disease. This article introduces the formal incorporation of these scientific and clinical elements into a cohesive theoretical model of the BrSM approach. The authors review this integrated body of knowledge and discuss how the emergent conceptual model offers the medical field a new avenue for extending the armamentarium of current treatment and healthcare, with the ultimate goal of improving population health.

  20. Bioregulatory systems medicine: an innovative approach to integrating the science of molecular networks, inflammation, and systems biology with the patient's autoregulatory capacity?

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Alyssa W.; Burmeister, Yvonne; Cesnulevicius, Konstantin; Herbert, Martha; Kane, Mary; Lescheid, David; McCaffrey, Timothy; Schultz, Myron; Seilheimer, Bernd; Smit, Alta; St. Laurent, Georges; Berman, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Bioregulatory systems medicine (BrSM) is a paradigm that aims to advance current medical practices. The basic scientific and clinical tenets of this approach embrace an interconnected picture of human health, supported largely by recent advances in systems biology and genomics, and focus on the implications of multi-scale interconnectivity for improving therapeutic approaches to disease. This article introduces the formal incorporation of these scientific and clinical elements into a cohesive theoretical model of the BrSM approach. The authors review this integrated body of knowledge and discuss how the emergent conceptual model offers the medical field a new avenue for extending the armamentarium of current treatment and healthcare, with the ultimate goal of improving population health. PMID:26347656

  1. Antiviral cationic peptides as a strategy for innovation in global health therapeutics for dengue virus: high yield production of the biologically active recombinant plectasin peptide.

    PubMed

    Rothan, Hussin A; Mohamed, Zulqarnain; Suhaeb, Abdulrazzaq M; Rahman, Noorsaadah Abd; Yusof, Rohana

    2013-11-01

    Dengue virus infects millions of people worldwide, and there is no vaccine or anti-dengue therapeutic available. Antimicrobial peptides have been shown to possess effective antiviral activity against various viruses. One of the main limitations of developing these peptides as potent antiviral drugs is the high cost of production. In this study, high yield production of biologically active plectasin peptide was inexpensively achieved by producing tandem plectasin peptides as inclusion bodies in E. coli. Antiviral activity of the recombinant peptide towards dengue serotype-2 NS2B-NS3 protease (DENV2 NS2B-NS3pro) was assessed as a target to inhibit dengue virus replication in Vero cells. Single units of recombinant plectasin were collected after applying consecutive steps of refolding, cleaving by Factor Xa, and nickel column purification to obtain recombinant proteins of high purity. The maximal nontoxic dose (MNTD) of the recombinant peptide against Vero cells was 20 μM (100 μg/mL). The reaction velocity of DENV2 NS2B-NS3pro decreased significantly after increasing concentrations of recombinant plectasin were applied to the reaction mixture. Plectasin peptide noncompetitively inhibited DENV2 NS2B-NS3pro at Ki value of 5.03 ± 0.98 μM. The percentage of viral inhibition was more than 80% at the MNTD value of plectasin. In this study, biologically active recombinant plectasin which was able to inhibit dengue protease and viral replication in Vero cells was successfully produced in E. coli in a time- and cost- effective method. These findings are potentially important in the development of potent therapeutics against dengue infection.

  2. Initiating Innovation in Post-Secondary Institutions--Customizing Teaching and Learning Environments for the Twenty-First Century: Collective Reflections from the 2014 Cohort of 3M National Student Fellows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Heather; Chandrashekhar, Shwetha; Huang, Danny; Kim, David; Liu, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In light of the enormous changes unfolding in the higher education landscape, we don't have to look too far to recognize evidence of the transformation and redefinition of the construct of both teaching and learning in the information age. With a growing focus on teaching and learning at all levels of post-secondary institutions, innovation is…

  3. Building an innovation factory.

    PubMed

    Hargadon, A; Sutton, R I

    2000-01-01

    New ideas are the precious currency of the new economy, but generating them doesn't have to be a mysterious process. The image of the lone genius inventing from scratch is a romantic fiction. Businesses that constantly innovate have systematized the production and testing of new ideas, and the system can be replicated by practically any organization. The best innovators use old ideas as the raw materials for new ideas, a strategy the authors call knowledge brokering. The system for sustaining innovation is the knowledge brokering cycle, and the authors discuss its four parts. The first is capturing good ideas from a wide variety of sources. The second is keeping those ideas alive by playing with them, discussing them, and using them. Imagining new uses for old ideas is the third part--some knowledge brokers encourage cross-pollination by creating physical layouts that allow, or even force, people to interact with one another. The fourth is turning promising concepts into real services, products, processes, or business models. Companies can use all or part of the cycle. Large companies in particular desperately need to move ideas from one place to another. Some will want to build full-fledged consulting groups dedicated to internal knowledge brokering. Others can hire people who have faced problems similar to the companies' current problems. The most important lesson is that business leaders must change how they think about innovation, and they must change how their company cultures reflect that thinking.

  4. Gender, Innovation and Education in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Ingrid, Ed.; King, Linda, Ed.

    This document contains 19 papers on gender, innovation, and education in Latin America. The following papers are included: "Introduction" (Ingrid Jung); "Reflections on the Gender Perspective in Experiences of Non-Formal Education with Women" (Lilian Celiberti); "Gender and Innovation" (Graciela Messina); "Towards a Pedagogy of Education…

  5. Dispersing Waves: Innovation in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Anne, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood education Centres of Innovation (COI) were established in 2002 as part of the 10-year plan for early childhood education, "Pathways to the Future/Nga Huarahi Arataki." In COI projects, innovative early childhood teaching teams reflect on and investigate their practices through action research, and share their findings with the…

  6. High-throughput multiplexed xMAP Luminex array panel for detection of twenty two medically important mosquito-borne arboviruses based on innovations in synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Glushakova, Lyudmyla G; Bradley, Andrea; Bradley, Kevin M; Alto, Barry W; Hoshika, Shuichi; Hutter, Daniel; Sharma, Nidhi; Yang, Zunyi; Kim, Myong-Jung; Benner, Steven A

    2015-03-01

    Mosquito-borne arboviruses are emerging world-wide as important human and animal pathogens. This makes assays for their accurate and rapid identification essential for public health, epidemiological, ecological studies. Over the past decade, many mono- and multiplexed assays targeting arboviruses nucleic acids have been reported. None has become established for the routine identification of multiple viruses in a "single tube" setting. With increasing multiplexing, the detection of viral RNAs is complicated by noise, false positives and negatives. In this study, an assay was developed that avoids these problems by combining two new kinds of nucleic acids emerging from the field of synthetic biology. The first is a "self-avoiding molecular recognition system" (SAMRS), which enables high levels of multiplexing. The second is an "artificially expanded genetic information system" (AEGIS), which enables clean PCR amplification in nested PCR formats. A conversion technology was used to place AEGIS component into amplicon, improving their efficiency of hybridization on Luminex beads. When Luminex "liquid microarrays" are exploited for downstream detection, this combination supports single-tube PCR amplification assays that can identify 22 mosquito-borne RNA viruses from the genera Flavivirus, Alphavirus, Orthobunyavirus. The assay differentiates between closely-related viruses, as dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and the California serological group. The performance and the sensitivity of the assay were evaluated with dengue viruses and infected mosquitoes; as few as 6-10 dengue virions can be detected in a single mosquito.

  7. High-throughput Multiplexed xMAP Luminex Array Panel for Detection of Twenty TWO Medically Important Mosquito-borne Arboviruses based on Innovations in Synthetic Biology

    PubMed Central

    Glushakova, Lyudmyla G.; Bradley, Andrea; Bradley, Kevin M.; Alto, Barry W.; Hoshika, Shuichi; Hutter, Daniel; Sharma, Nidhi; Yang, Zunyi; Kim, Myong-Jung; Benner, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Mosquito-borne arboviruses are emerging world-wide as important human and animal pathogens. This makes assays for their accurate and rapid identification essential for public health, epidemiological, ecological studies. Over the past decade, many mono- and multiplexed assays targeting arboviruses nucleic acids have been reported. None has become established for the routine identification of multiple viruses in a “single tube” setting. With increasing multiplexing, the detection of viral RNAs is complicated by noise, false positives and negatives. In this study, an assay was developed that avoids these problems by combining two new kinds of nucleic acids emerging from the field of synthetic biology. The first is a “self-avoiding molecular recognition system” (SAMRS), which enables high levels of multiplexing. The second is an “artificially expanded genetic information system” (AEGIS), which enables clean PCR amplification in nested PCR formats. A conversion technology was used to place AEGIS component into amplicon, improving their efficiency of hybridization on Luminex beads. When Luminex “liquid microarrays” are exploited for downstream detection, this combination supports single-tube PCR amplification assays that can identify 22 mosquito-borne RNA viruses from the genera Flavivirus, Alphavirus, Orthobunyavirus. The assay differentiates between closely-related viruses, as dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and the California serological group. The performance and the sensitivity of the assay were evaluated with dengue viruses and infected mosquitoes; as few as 6–10 dengue virions can be detected in a single mosquito. PMID:25680538

  8. Innovation Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyka, Andreas; Scharnhorst, Andrea

    The idea for this book started when we organized a topical workshop entitled "Innovation Networks - New Approaches in Modeling and Analyzing" (held in Augsburg, Germany in October 2005), under the auspices of Exystence, a network of excellence funded in the European Union's Fifth Framework Program. Unlike other conferences on innovation and networks, however, this workshop brought together scientists from economics, sociology, communication science, science and technology studies, and physics. With this book we aim to build further on a bridge connecting the bodies of knowledge on networks in economics, the social sciences and, more recently, statistical physics.

  9. Small Business Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The PER-Force Handcontroller was originally developed for the International Space Station under a Johnson Space Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. Produced by Cybernet Systems Corporation, the unit is a force-reflecting system that manipulates robots or objects by "feel." The Handcontroller moves in six degrees of freedom, with real and virtual reality forces simulated by a 3-D molecular modeling software package. It is used in molecular modeling in metallurgy applications, satellite docking research, and in research on military unmanned ground vehicles.

  10. Innovations: Scientific, Technological, and Social.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabor, Dennis

    Dr. Gabor, the inventor of holography (lenseless photography), defines "innovation" as a methodical creation of the human spirit, a novelty that once created can be usefully and repeatedly applied. He describes and evaluates 100 important technological and biological inventions that can probably be expected within the next 50 years. He also…

  11. Mathematical Innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Through Small Business Innovation Research funds from the Stennis Space Center, MathSoft, Inc., developed a system that can provide the building blocks for signal analysis and rapid prototyping. The product is the result of work to help NASA develop a complete understanding propulsion test data by using time frequency displays, automatic estimation and denoising, and data analysis plots for wavelet decomposition.

  12. Accelerating Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Week, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The word "innovation" seems to be in everyone's lexicon these days; it's even turning up as part of new education job titles in school districts and states. The ideas that undergird it are animating a growing movement that's spurring new policies, programs, and products that carry with them the potential to transform how students learn and how…

  13. It's not just about innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H. S.

    2008-03-01

    Last year, I was one of the reviewers of proposals to a newly created NIH program, the New Innovator Award. Its goal was to address a frequent criticism – that peer review is biased against innovation – and to fund exceptionally innovative, high impact research from new investigators. To encourage the submission of innovative ideas, preliminary data was not required. Nearly 2,200 applications were submitted, but only 30 awards were made, for a success rate of <1.4%. This suggests either that there are a lot of unfunded innovative ideas out there, or that the ability to submit a proposal without preliminary data was irresistible. Over the years, I have observed that very few innovative ideas are ever brought to the point where they have made a significant impact on biological research. Grant review panels implicitly understand this unpleasant truth. The defining characteristic of successful ideas are bright and preserving scientists who believe in their ideas and are willing to do whatever it takes to make them succeed. What Thomas Edison said about genius is equally applicable to innovation; it, too, is mostly about perspiration.

  14. Revisiting de Beer’s textbook example of heterochrony and jaw elongation in fish: calmodulin expression reflects heterochronic growth, and underlies morphological innovation in the jaws of belonoid fishes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Heterochronic shifts during ontogeny can result in adaptively important innovations and might be initiated by simple developmental switches. Understanding the nature of these developmental events can provide insights into fundamental molecular mechanisms of evolutionary change. Fishes from the Suborder Belonoidei display a vast array of extreme craniofacial morphologies that appear to have arisen through a series of heterochronic shifts. We performed a molecular heterochrony study, comparing postembryonic jaw development in representatives of the Suborder Belonoidei, the halfbeak Dermogenys pusilla (where the lower jaw is considerably elongated compared to the upper jaw) and the needlefish Belone belone (where both jaws are elongated), to a representative of their sister group the Suborder Adrianichthyoidei, the medaka Oryzias latipes, which has retained the ancestral morphology. Results Early in development, the lower jaw displays accelerated growth both in needlefish and halfbeak compared to medaka, and secondary acceleration of the upper jaw is seen in needlefish later in their development, representing a case of mosaic heterochrony. We identified toothless extensions of the dentaries as innovations of Belonoid fishes and the source of heterochronic growth. The molecular basis of growth heterochronies in the Belonoidei was examined through comparing expression of skeletogenic genes during development of halfbeak and medaka. The calmodulin paralogue calm1 was identified as a potential regulator of jaw length in halfbeak as its expression gradually increases in the lower jaw, but not the upper jaw, in a pattern that matches its outgrowth. Moreover, medaka displays equal expression of calm1 in the upper and lower jaws, consistent with the lack of jaw outgrowth in this species. Conclusions Heterochronic shifts in jaw growth have occurred repeatedly during the evolution of Belonoid fishes and we identify toothless extensions of the dentaries as an

  15. Innovating Firms and Aggregate Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klette, Tor Jakob; Kortum, Samuel

    2004-01-01

    We develop a parsimonious model of innovation to confront firm-level evidence. It captures the dynamics of individual heterogeneous firms, describes the behavior of an industry with firm entry and exit, and delivers a general equilibrium model of technological change. While unifying the theoretical analysis of firms, industries, and the aggregate…

  16. Haitian reflections.

    PubMed

    Docrat, Fathima

    2010-08-01

    Natural disasters and acts of terrorism demonstrate a similar critical need for national preparedness. As one of a team of volunteers with a local South African NGO who recently went on a medical mission, I would like to share glimpses of our experience and reflect on the mistakes - and also to state the obvious: that we do not learn from our mistakes. A simple literature search has shown that the same mistakes happen repeatedly. 'Humanitarian disasters occur with frightening regularity, yet international responses remain fragmented, with organizations and responders being forced to "reinvent the wheel" with every new event'. This is the result of an obvious lack of preparedness.

  17. Reflective Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  18. Beyond Dissection: Innovative Tools for Biology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Sandra, Ed.

    This catalog lists resources available for classroom use in teaching about anatomy and physiology which are alternatives to dissection. The entries are provided under three main categories: (1) Whole Animal Dissection/Vivisection; (2) Animal Organ or System Anatomy and Physiology; and (3) Other, including animal behavior, biotechnology,…

  19. Reflected Glory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-02-01

    The nebula Messier 78 takes centre stage in this image taken with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile, while the stars powering the bright display take a backseat. The brilliant starlight ricochets off dust particles in the nebula, illuminating it with scattered blue light. Igor Chekalin was the overall winner of ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition with his image of this stunning object. Messier 78 is a fine example of a reflection nebula. The ultraviolet radiation from the stars that illuminate it is not intense enough to ionise the gas to make it glow - its dust particles simply reflect the starlight that falls on them. Despite this, Messier 78 can easily be observed with a small telescope, being one of the brightest reflection nebulae in the sky. It lies about 1350 light-years away in the constellation of Orion (The Hunter) and can be found northeast of the easternmost star of Orion's belt. This new image of Messier 78 from the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory is based on data selected by Igor Chekalin in his winning entry to the Hidden Treasures competition [1]. The pale blue tint seen in the nebula in this picture is an accurate representation of its dominant colour. Blue hues are commonly seen in reflection nebulae because of the way the starlight is scattered by the tiny dust particles that they contain: the shorter wavelength of blue light is scattered more efficiently than the longer wavelength red light. This image contains many other striking features apart from the glowing nebula. A thick band of obscuring dust stretches across the image from the upper left to the lower right, blocking the light from background stars. In the bottom right corner, many curious pink structures are also visible, which are created by jets of material being ejected from stars that have recently formed and are still buried deep in dust clouds. Two bright stars, HD 38563A and

  20. Reflected Glory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-02-01

    The nebula Messier 78 takes centre stage in this image taken with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile, while the stars powering the bright display take a backseat. The brilliant starlight ricochets off dust particles in the nebula, illuminating it with scattered blue light. Igor Chekalin was the overall winner of ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition with his image of this stunning object. Messier 78 is a fine example of a reflection nebula. The ultraviolet radiation from the stars that illuminate it is not intense enough to ionise the gas to make it glow - its dust particles simply reflect the starlight that falls on them. Despite this, Messier 78 can easily be observed with a small telescope, being one of the brightest reflection nebulae in the sky. It lies about 1350 light-years away in the constellation of Orion (The Hunter) and can be found northeast of the easternmost star of Orion's belt. This new image of Messier 78 from the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory is based on data selected by Igor Chekalin in his winning entry to the Hidden Treasures competition [1]. The pale blue tint seen in the nebula in this picture is an accurate representation of its dominant colour. Blue hues are commonly seen in reflection nebulae because of the way the starlight is scattered by the tiny dust particles that they contain: the shorter wavelength of blue light is scattered more efficiently than the longer wavelength red light. This image contains many other striking features apart from the glowing nebula. A thick band of obscuring dust stretches across the image from the upper left to the lower right, blocking the light from background stars. In the bottom right corner, many curious pink structures are also visible, which are created by jets of material being ejected from stars that have recently formed and are still buried deep in dust clouds. Two bright stars, HD 38563A and

  1. Reflections on intuition and expertise.

    PubMed

    Perry, M A

    2000-01-01

    Reflective practice now appears firmly established in the English speaking world of professional nursing practice and development. Outside this linguistic context, however, the concept seems less well-known. This paper describes an experience drawn from clinical practice and education in French-speaking Switzerland followed by explicit reflection grounded in questions generated by Johns' model for structured reflection. Thus, a concept well-described in the English-language literature underpins an innovative approach to a French-language clinical teaching situation. The professional implications of this situation are explored through meaningful reflection providing new insight into familiar circumstances as they relate to the nurse tutor's role. This exploration is followed by a critical approach to the experience and the subsequent structured reflection in order to address relationships between intuition and expertise and self-awareness through reflection. A hermeneutic perspective provides additional insight into the nurse-patient relationship where both come to the situation with their own 'pre-understandings'. Individual horizons thus endorse a new understanding going beyond taken-for-granted meanings.

  2. Innovation spread: lessons from HIV.

    PubMed

    Talbert-Slagle, Kristina; Berg, David; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2013-09-01

    Efficient spreading of evidence-based innovations among complex health systems remains an elusive goal despite extensive study in the social sciences. Biology provides a model of successful spread in viruses, which have evolved to spread with maximum efficiency using minimal resources. Here we explore the molecular mechanisms of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spread and identify five steps that are also common to a recent example of spread in complex health systems: reduction in door-to-balloon times for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We then describe a new model we have developed, called AIDED, which is based on mixed-methods research but informed by the conceptual framework of HIV spread among cells. The AIDED model contains five components: Assess, Innovate, Develop, Engage and Devolve, and can describe any one of the following: the spread of HIV among cells, the spread of practices to reduce door-to-balloon time for patients with STEMI and the spread of certain family health innovations in low- and middle-income countries. We suggest that by looking to the biological sciences for a model of spread that has been honed by evolution, we may have identified fundamental steps that are necessary and sufficient for efficient, low-cost spread of health innovations among complex health systems.

  3. Building biological foundries for next-generation synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Chao, Ran; Yuan, YongBo; Zhao, HuiMin

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic biology is an interdisciplinary field that takes top-down approaches to understand and engineer biological systems through design-build-test cycles. A number of advances in this relatively young field have greatly accelerated such engineering cycles. Specifically, various innovative tools were developed for in silico biosystems design, DNA de novo synthesis and assembly, construct verification, as well as metabolite analysis, which have laid a solid foundation for building biological foundries for rapid prototyping of improved or novel biosystems. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art technologies for synthetic biology and discusses the challenges to establish such biological foundries. PMID:25985756

  4. Reflecting on reflections: enhancement of medical education curriculum with structured field notes and guided feedback.

    PubMed

    Wald, Hedy S; Davis, Stephen W; Reis, Shmuel P; Monroe, Alicia D; Borkan, Jeffrey M

    2009-07-01

    The promotion of reflective capacity within the teaching of clinical skills and professionalism is posited as fostering the development of competent health practitioners. An innovative approach combines structured reflective writing by medical students and individualized faculty feedback to those students to augment instruction on reflective practice. A course for preclinical students at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, entitled "Doctoring," combined reflective writing assignments (field notes) with instruction in clinical skills and professionalism and early clinical exposure in a small-group format. Students generated multiple e-mail field notes in response to structured questions on course topics. Individualized feedback from a physician-behavioral scientist dyad supported the students' reflective process by fostering critical-thinking skills, highlighting appreciation of the affective domain, and providing concrete recommendations. The development and implementation of this innovation are presented, as is an analysis of the written evaluative comments of students taking the Doctoring course. Theoretical and clinical rationales for features of the innovation and supporting evidence of their effectiveness are presented. Qualitative analyses of students' evaluations yielded four themes of beneficial contributions to their learning experience: promoting deeper and more purposeful reflection, the value of (interdisciplinary) feedback, the enhancement of group process, and personal and professional development. Evaluation of the innovation was the fifth theme; some limitations are described, and suggestions for improvement are provided. Issues of the quality of the educational paradigm, generalizability, and sustainability are addressed.

  5. Reflections on Behavior Analysis and Evolutionary Biology: A Selective Review of Evolution Since Darwin—The First 150 Years. Edited by M. A. Bell, D. J. Futuyama, W. F. Eanes, & J. S. Levinton

    PubMed Central

    Donahoe, John W

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on parallels between the selectionist sciences of evolutionary biology and behavior analysis. In selectionism, complex phenomena are interpreted as the cumulative products of relatively simple processes acting over time—natural selection in evolutionary biology and reinforcement in behavior analysis. Because evolutionary biology is the more mature science, an examination of the factors that led to the triumph of natural selection provides clues whereby reinforcement may achieve a similar fate in the science of behavior.

  6. A Reflective Look at Reflecting Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pender, Rebecca L.; Stinchfield, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    This article reviewed existing literature and research on the reflecting team process. There is a dearth of empirical research that explores the reflecting team process and the outcome of counseling that uses reflecting teams. Implications of using reflecting teams for counselors, counselor educators, and clients will be discussed. A call for…

  7. Growth, innovation, scaling, and the pace of life in cities

    PubMed Central

    Bettencourt, Luís M. A.; Lobo, José; Helbing, Dirk; Kühnert, Christian; West, Geoffrey B.

    2007-01-01

    Humanity has just crossed a major landmark in its history with the majority of people now living in cities. Cities have long been known to be society's predominant engine of innovation and wealth creation, yet they are also its main source of crime, pollution, and disease. The inexorable trend toward urbanization worldwide presents an urgent challenge for developing a predictive, quantitative theory of urban organization and sustainable development. Here we present empirical evidence indicating that the processes relating urbanization to economic development and knowledge creation are very general, being shared by all cities belonging to the same urban system and sustained across different nations and times. Many diverse properties of cities from patent production and personal income to electrical cable length are shown to be power law functions of population size with scaling exponents, β, that fall into distinct universality classes. Quantities reflecting wealth creation and innovation have β ≈1.2 >1 (increasing returns), whereas those accounting for infrastructure display β ≈0.8 <1 (economies of scale). We predict that the pace of social life in the city increases with population size, in quantitative agreement with data, and we discuss how cities are similar to, and differ from, biological organisms, for which β<1. Finally, we explore possible consequences of these scaling relations by deriving growth equations, which quantify the dramatic difference between growth fueled by innovation versus that driven by economies of scale. This difference suggests that, as population grows, major innovation cycles must be generated at a continually accelerating rate to sustain growth and avoid stagnation or collapse. PMID:17438298

  8. Partial Internal Reflections on Total Internal Reflection Fluorescent Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Sanford

    2009-01-01

    Microscopy, especially fluorescence microscopy, has proven to be a powerful method for studying biological processes. Unfortunately, some of the same features that make biological membranes powerful (for example, all of the action taking place across a narrow 4 nm film) also make it difficult to visualize by fluorescence. Over the past 30 years numerous tricks have been developed to narrow the plane over which data is collected. One approach is particularly well suited for studying membrane events: total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. A key issue to address, when using TIR to tackle a new biological problem is: How can one judge whether the signals being observed are actually the biological phenomena that one wishes to study? PMID:19818624

  9. Critical Reflective Work Behaviour: A Survey Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Woerkom, Marianne; Nijhof, Wim J.; Nieuwenhuis, Loek F. M.

    After a review of the literature, critical reflective work behavior (CRWB) was defined as: a set of connected, individual activities aimed at analyzing, optimizing, or innovating work practices on the individual, team, or organizational level. The combination of literature review and analysis of case studies led to the operationalization of CRWB…

  10. Macrothermodynamics of Biological Evolution:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladyshev, Georgi P.

    The author sets forth general considerations pertaining to the thermodynamic theory of biological evolution and the aging of living organisms. It becomes much easier to comprehend the phenomenon of life scrutinizing the formation of structural hierarchies of biological matter applying different temporal scales. These scales are 'identified' by nature itself, and this is reflected in the law of temporal hierarchies. The author discusses some misunderstandings in thermodynamics and evolutionary biology. A simple physicochemical model of biological evolution and the development of living beings is proposed. The considered theory makes it possible to use physicochemical evaluations to develop effective anti-aging diets.

  11. Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2009; Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2009; Reflected Ceiling Plan/Reflected Deck Plan 2010 - Gilpin's Falls Covered Bridge, Spanning North East Creek at Former (Bypassed) Section of North East Road (SR 272), North East, Cecil County, MD

  12. Biological Threats

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thunderstorms & Lightning Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may ...

  13. Playing PACman: Principal Assessment Centres as an Addictive Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Patricia A.; Allison, Derek J.

    This paper considers the nature of the Principal Assessment Center (PAC) innovation, discusses probable reasons for its popularity, and offers a few reflections on some implications of the success of this innovation. The first section considers the origin and nature of principal assessment centers and describes the model used by the Educational…

  14. Medical innovation laws: an unnecessary innovation.

    PubMed

    Richards, Bernadette

    2016-06-01

    Objective This paper aims to demonstrate that any suggestion that there is a need for specific innovation laws is flawed. Innovation is central to good medical practice and is adequately supported by current law. Methods The paper reviews the nature of medical innovation and outlines recent attempts in the UK to introduce specific laws aimed at 'encouraging' and 'supporting' innovation. The current legal framework is outlined and the role of the law in relation to medical innovation explored. Results The analysis demonstrates the cyclic relationship between medical advancement and the law and concludes that there is no requirement for specific innovation laws. Conclusions The law not only supports innovation and development in medical treatment but encourages it as central to a functioning medical system. There is no need to introduce specific laws aimed at medical innovation; to do so represents an unnecessary legal innovation and serves to complicate matters. What is known about the topic? Over recent months, there has been a great deal of discussion surrounding the law in the context of medical innovation. This was driven by the attempts in the UK to introduce specific laws in the Medical Innovation Bill. The general subject matter - negligence and the expected standard of care in the provision of treatment - is very well understood, but not in cases where the treatment can be described as innovative. The general rhetoric in both the UK and Australia around the Medical Innovation Bill demonstrates a lack of understanding of the position of the law with regards to innovative treatment. What does this paper add? This paper adds clarity to the debate. It presents the law and explains the manner in which the law can operate around innovative treatment. The paper asserts that medical innovation is both supported and encouraged by existing legal principles. What are the implications for practitioners? The paper presents an argument that can guide the policy position

  15. Quality Self-Reflection through Reflection Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gun, Bahar

    2011-01-01

    This research study discusses the importance of "reflection training" in teacher education programmes. The main premise of the study is that although teachers are constantly encouraged to "reflect" on their teaching, they are unable to do so effectively unless they are specifically trained in how to reflect (they tend to "react" rather than…

  16. Reflections on Reflective Learning in Professional Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warhurst, Russell

    2008-01-01

    Reflective learning is a standard and largely unquestioned pedagogy of initial in-service professional education. This case study problematises the processes of reflective learning and examines the constraints on beginning professionals' reflection. The paper outlines a theoretical framework to enable understanding of the nature of reflective…

  17. Biological and Pharmaceutical Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Challa S. S. R.

    2006-01-01

    This first comprehensive yet concise overview of all important classes of biological and pharmaceutical nanomaterials presents in one volume the different kinds of natural biological compounds that form nanomaterials or that may be used to purposefully create them. This unique single source of information brings together the many articles published in specialized journals, which often remain unseen by members of other, related disciplines. Covering pharmaceutical, nucleic acid, peptide and DNA-Chitosan nanoparticles, the book focuses on those innovative materials and technologies needed for the continued growth of medicine, healthcare, pharmaceuticals and human wellness. For chemists, biochemists, cell biologists, materials scientists, biologists, and those working in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  18. Promoting innovation in pediatric nutrition.

    PubMed

    Bier, Dennis M

    2010-01-01

    Truly impactful innovation can only be recognized in retrospect. Moreover, almost by definition, developing algorithmic paths on roadmaps for innovation are likely to be unsuccessful because innovators do not generally follow established routes. Nonetheless, environments can be established within Departments of Pediatrics that promote innovating thinking. The environmental factors necessary to do so include: (1) demand that academic Pediatrics Departments function in an aggressively scholarly mode; (2) capture the most fundamental science in postnatal developmental biology; (3) focus education and training on the boundaries of our knowledge, rather than the almost exclusive attention to what we think we already know; (4) devote mentoring, time and resources to only the most compelling unanswered questions in the pediatric sciences, including nutrition; (5) accept only systematic, evidence-based answers to clinical questions; (6) if systematic, evidence-based data are not available, design the proper studies to get them; (7) prize questioning the answers to further move beyond the knowledge limit; (8) support the principle that experiments in children will be required to convincingly answer clinical questions important to children, and (9) establish the multicenter resources in pediatric scientist training, clinical study design and implementation, and laboratory and instrument technologies required to answer today's questions with tomorrow's methods.

  19. Hybrid Doctoral Program: Innovative Practices and Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvich, Dori; Manning, JoAnn; McCormick, Kathy; Campbell, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This paper reflects on how one mid-Atlantic University innovatively incorporated technology into the development of a hybrid doctoral program in educational leadership. The paper describes a hybrid doctoral degree program using a rigorous design; challenges of reworking a traditional syllabus of record to a hybrid doctoral program; the perceptions…

  20. Orientations to Reflective Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellington, Bud; Austin, Patricia

    1996-01-01

    Delineates five orientations to reflective practice: immediate, technical, deliberative, dialectic, and transpersonal, each reflecting different social science bases and beliefs and values about education. Views them as interactive, interdependent, noncompeting, aspects of reflective practice. (SK)

  1. Innovations and Innovation Processes in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Barbro; Ostergren, Bertil

    Included in this report are seven comparative case studies of innovation processes in higher education in Sweden. The purpose of the study is to chart dysfunctions in the system in planning for change, and also to gain more knowledge of the organization by studying it when it has been "disturbed" through introduction of an innovative process. The…

  2. The Role of Administrator Characteristics on Perceptions of Innovativeness among Public School Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hite, Julie M.; Williams, Ellen J.; Hilton, Sterling C.; Baugh, Steven C.

    2006-01-01

    Pressures for reform require greater innovativeness among public school administrators than in the past. Perceptions of innovativeness, which function as administrators' reality and influence participation in innovation, are reflected in their informal network relationships. Using network methods and descriptive statistics, this article explores a…

  3. Innovation and STEM Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Julia Link

    2015-01-01

    How do schools with a focus on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fit in with state goals to increase innovation and to boost the economy? This article briefly discusses how educators can encourage creativity and innovation.

  4. China's Innovation Paradox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    China aims to become an innovation-led nation by 2020, but its leadership is generally sceptical--and oftentimes hostile--to the market forces, open exchange of ideas, and creative destruction that have unlocked innovation in other countries. Instead, Beijing hopes to promote innovation in China through a massive expansion in higher education,…

  5. The Impact of Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Banion, Terry; Weidner, Laura; Wilson, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    With funding from MetLife Foundation, the League for Innovation in the Community College engaged in a yearlong study in 2009 of the nature of innovation in the community college. Using recipients of the League's Innovation of the Year Award at 19 community colleges during the period from 1999 through 2008 as a data set, the authors used document…

  6. Who Are the Innovators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Banion, Terry; Weidner, Laura; Wilson, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    As we approach the second decade of the new millennium, there is a renaissance of innovation in education, a resurgence of interest and experimentation that begs for analysis and review. To that end, the League for Innovation in the Community College proposed to conduct a national study on the nature of innovation in the community college using…

  7. Self-reflection, gender and science achievement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoop, Kathleen A.

    Drawing on socio-cognitive learning theory, this study compared achievement scores of 134 male and female high school biology students randomly assigned to groups which either used self-reflection, used self-reflection and received feedback, or did not self-reflect. Following a pretest, the teacher provided self-reflection strategy instruction to students in the two intervention groups and then subsequently provided in-class self-reflection time for these groups. The posttest concluded the unit; the retention measure was five weeks later. A quasi-experimental 3 x 3 x 2 (time x intervention x gender) factorial repeated-measures control group design was used for this study; a repeated measures ANOVA and several one-way ANOVA's were used to answer the research questions. Results from the repeated-measures ANOVA revealed significant results for Time and Time x Intervention, with the reflection group demonstrating significantly lower gains from pretest to posttest than the other two groups. The ANOVA examining differences between those who reflected and those who reflected and received feedback provided significant results with similar results for the difference between the control group and the reflection group. For teachers and students this study provides several areas of practical significance. Primarily, teachers may find lower student achievement if students regularly self-reflect but do not receive feedback for their reflection.

  8. Scintillator reflective layer coextrusion

    DOEpatents

    Yun, Jae-Chul; Para, Adam

    2001-01-01

    A polymeric scintillator has a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof. The reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and an adhesive binder. The adhesive binder includes polymeric material from which the scintillator is formed. A method of forming the polymeric scintillator having a reflective layer adhered to the exterior surface thereof is also provided. The method includes the steps of (a) extruding an inner core member from a first amount of polymeric scintillator material, and (b) coextruding an outer reflective layer on the exterior surface of the inner core member. The outer reflective layer comprises a reflective pigment and a second amount of the polymeric scintillator material.

  9. Collective Genius: Bridging the Gaps among Research, Innovation and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hair, Mary John

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on bridging the gaps among research, innovation, and practice. First, the author reflects on historical perspectives involving the use of research to improve education and serve the public good. Second, the author explores the current climate as reflected by three national reports highlighting future roles of…

  10. Reflectivity, Reflexivity and Situated Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malthouse, Richard; Roffey-Barentsen, Jodi; Watts, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an aspect of reflective practice referred to as situated reflective practice. The overarching theory is derived from social theories of structuration and reflexivity. In particular, from Giddens' theory of structuration, which sees social life as an interplay of agency and structure. Discussion of the research reported…

  11. [Incubate of learning in nursing: an innovation in teaching the care].

    PubMed

    Cecagno, Diana; Siqueira, Hedi Crecencia Heckler de; Calvetti, Adriane; Castro, Queli Lisiane; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2009-01-01

    This study had as objective to reflect about incubate of learning in the nursing as an innovation in the teaching of the care. The incubate can be considered a strategy to create conditions for the incubation, the development of innovative ideas and the wakening of new enterprising ideas for the growth up of people, businesses and institutions. When using the critical, reflective thought associated when making in nursing, propitious environment, the incubate points with respect to methodological innovation at learning of the care.

  12. Biological Technicians

    MedlinePlus

    ... Biological technicians typically need a bachelor’s degree in biology or a closely related field. It is important ... Biological technicians typically need a bachelor’s degree in biology or a closely related field. It is important ...

  13. 78 FR 47319 - Fee Schedule for Reference Biological Standards and Biological Preparations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... Rule (DFR) titled ``Distribution of Reference Biological Standards and Biological Preparations (78 FR... review should include any adjustment to reflect changes in costs or market value. HHS/CDC has conducted...

  14. Surface Reflectance and Ocean Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    MODIS's 36 spectral bands provide scientists the chance to study many of Earth's terrestrial and oceanic characteristics with a single instrument, for example, Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Land Surface Reflectance (LSR). This image was made from data collected during the month of May 2001. The LSR portion of the image is made from data collected at three wavelengths: 645 nm (red), 555 nm (green), and 469 nm (blue). This combination is similar to what our eyes would see. Combined with the land surface data are MODIS's measurements of SST in May, using detectors that capture thermal radiation at 4.0 um, a design innovation that improves measurements in moist areas, such as the tropics, where persistent clouds often interfere with satellite measurements of SST. Large-scale temperature patterns are apparent, such as the Gulf Stream off the east coast of the United States, and the Kuroshio Circulation southeast of Japan

  15. Reflections in art

    PubMed Central

    CAVANAGH, PATRICK; CHAO, JESSICA; WANG, DINA

    2009-01-01

    When artists depict a mirror in a painting, it necessarily lacks the most obvious property of a mirror: as we move around the painting of the mirror, the reflections we see in it do not change. And yet representations of mirrors and other reflecting surfaces can be quite convincing in paintings. Here, we will examine the rules of reflection, the many ways that painters can break those rules without losing the impression of reflection and the rules that cannot be broken. The rules that govern the perception of reflection are a small subset of the physical rules of reflection. PMID:18534102

  16. The discipline of innovation.

    PubMed

    Drucker, P F

    1998-01-01

    Some innovations spring from a flash of genius. But as Peter Drucker points out in this HBR Classic, most result from a conscious, purposeful search for opportunities. For managers seeking innovation, engaging in disciplined work is more important than having an entrepreneurial personality. Writing originally in the May-June 1985 issue, Drucker describes the major sources of opportunities for innovation. Within a company or industry, opportunities can be found in unexpected occurrences, incongruities of various kinds, process needs, or changes in an industry or market. Outside a company, opportunities arise from demographic changes, changes in perception, or new knowledge. These seven sources overlap, and the potential for innovation may well lie in more than one area at a time. Innovations based on new knowledge, of course, tend to have the greatest effect on the marketplace. But it often takes decades before the ideas are translated into actual products, processes, or services. The other sources of innovation are easier and simpler to handle, yet they still require managers to look beyond established practices. Drucker emphasizes that in seeking opportunities, innovators need to look for simple, focused solutions to real problems. The greatest praise an innovation can receive is for people to say, "This is obvious!" Grandiose ideas designed to revolutionize an industry rarely work. Innovation, like any other endeavor, takes talent, ingenuity, and knowledge. But Drucker cautions that if diligence, persistence, and commitment are lacking, companies are unlikely to succeed at the business of innovation.

  17. Teaching Biology for a Sustainable Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musante, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Students at Calvin College in Grand Rapids, Michigan, can now take an innovative biology course in which an integrated, interdisciplinary, problem-based approach is used--one that the scientific community itself is promoting. The first course in a four-semester sequence, Biology 123--The Living World: Concepts and Connections--explores real-world…

  18. Reflection modeling in ultraviolet phototherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, David Robert; Robbins, Chris; Martin, Colin J.; Phanco, Graeme; Hare, Neil John O'

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Ultraviolet phototherapy is a widely used treatment which has exceptional success with a variety of skin conditions. Over-exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) can however be detrimental and cause side effects such as erythema, photokeratisis, and even skin cancer. Quantifying patient dose is therefore imperative to ensure biologically effective treatment while minimizing negative repercussions. A dose model for treatment would be valuable in achieving these ends. Methods: Prior work by the authors concentrated on modeling the output of the lamps used in treatment and it was found a line source model described the output from the sources to a high degree. In practice, these lamps are surrounded by reflective anodized aluminum in patient treatment cabins and this work extends the model to quantify specular reflections from these planes on patient dose. Results: The extension of the model to allow for reflected images in addition to tube output shows a remarkably good fit to the actual data measured. Conclusions: The reflection model yields impressive accuracy and is a good basis for full UVR cabin modeling.

  19. Reflection Positivity for Parafermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Arthur; Pedrocchi, Fabio L.

    2015-07-01

    We establish reflection positivity for Gibbs trace states for a class of gauge-invariant, reflection-invariant Hamiltonians describing parafermion interactions on a lattice. We relate these results to recent work in the condensed-matter physics literature.

  20. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOEpatents

    Wood, J.L.

    1992-12-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. 2 figs.

  1. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOEpatents

    Wood, James L.

    1992-01-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources.

  2. Untwisting the polarization properties of light reflected by scarab beetles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Luke T.; Finlayson, Ewan D.; Vukusic, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The spectral and angle-dependent optical properties of two scarab beetle species belonging to the genus Chrysina are presented. The species display broadband reflectivity and selectively reflect left-circularly polarized light. We use electron microscopy to detail the left-handed, twisted lamellar structure present in these biological systems and imaging scatterometry to characterize their bidirectional reflectance distribution function. We show that the broadband nature of the beetles' reflectance originates due to the range of pitch dimensions found in the structure.

  3. The discipline of innovation.

    PubMed

    Drucker, P F

    1985-01-01

    As managers recognize the heightened importance of innovation to competitive success, they face an apparent paradox: the orderly and predictable decisions on which a business rests depend increasingly on the disorderly and unpredictable process of innovation. How can managers expect to plan for--or count on--a process that is itself so utterly dependent on creativity, inspiration, and old-fashioned luck? Drawing on his many years' experience studying innovative and entrepreneurial companies, the author argues that this paradox is apparent only, not real. Most of what happens in successful innovations is not the happy occurrence of a blinding flash of insight but, rather, the careful implementation of an unspectacular but systematic management discipline. At the heart of that discipline lies the knowledge of where to look for innovation opportunities and how to identify them. It is to this study of the sources of innovation that Mr. Drucker here addresses himself. PMID:10272260

  4. Reflective Learning in Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockbank, Anne, Ed.; McGill, Ian, Ed.; Beech, Nic, Ed.

    This book contains 22 papers on reflective learning in practice. The following papers are included: "Our Purpose" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "The Nature and Context of Learning" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "Reflective Learning and Organizations" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "Reflective Learning in Practice" (Ann…

  5. Liberating Moral Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  6. Teaching Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Despite long-standing commitment to the notion of critical reflection across the healthcare professions it is unusual for critical theory and practice to be taught as explicit subjects in healthcare higher education. There is evidence to show that reflective techniques such as critical portfolios and reflective diaries can help students to…

  7. The Mayo Innovation Scholars Program: Undergraduates Explore the Science and Economics of Medical Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrini, John J.; Jansen, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The Mayo Innovation Scholars Program introduces undergraduates to technology transfer in biomedical sciences by having teams of students from multiple disciplines (e.g., biology, chemistry, economics, and business) analyze inventions in development at the Mayo Clinic. Over 6 months, teams consult with inventors, intellectual property experts, and…

  8. Balancing innovation and evidence.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, Jobeth W

    2015-01-01

    Nurse educators are encouraged to use evidence to guide their teaching strategies. However, evidence is not always available. How can educators make decisions regarding strategies when data are limited or absent? Where do innovation and creativity fit? How can innovation be balanced with evidence? This article provides a discussion regarding other sources of evidence, such as extrapolations, theories and principles, and collective expertise. Readers are encouraged to review the options and then analyze how they might be applied to innovation in education.

  9. Display innovations through glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Lori L.

    2016-03-01

    Prevailing trends in thin, lightweight, high-resolution, and added functionality, such as touch sensing, continue to drive innovation in the display market. While display volumes grow, so do consumers’ need for portability, enhanced optical performance, and mechanical reliability. Technical advancements in glass design and process have enabled display innovations in these areas while supporting industry growth. Opportunities for further innovation remain open for glass manufacturers to drive new applications, enhanced functionality, and increased demand.

  10. Biological Races in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two most commonly used biological concepts of race, chimpanzees are indeed subdivided into races but humans are not. Adaptive traits, such as skin color, have frequently been used to define races in humans, but such adaptive traits reflect the underlying environmental factor to which they are adaptive and not overall genetic differentiation, and different adaptive traits define discordant groups. There are no objective criteria for choosing one adaptive trait over another to define race. As a consequence, adaptive traits do not define races in humans. Much of the recent scientific literature on human evolution portrays human populations as separate branches on an evolutionary tree. A tree-like structure among humans has been falsified whenever tested, so this practice is scientifically indefensible. It is also socially irresponsible as these pictorial representations of human evolution have more impact on the general public than nuanced phrases in the text of a scientific paper. Humans have much genetic diversity, but the vast majority of this diversity reflects individual uniqueness and not race. PMID:23684745

  11. Innovation and wound healing.

    PubMed

    Harding, Keith

    2015-04-01

    Innovation in medicine requires unique partnerships between academic research, biotech or pharmaceutical companies, and health-care providers. While innovation in medicine has greatly increased over the past 100 years, innovation in wound care has been slow, despite the fact that chronic wounds are a global health challenge where there is a need for technical, process and social innovation. While novel partnerships between research and the health-care system have been created, we still have much to learn about wound care and the wound-healing processes.

  12. Torts and innovation.

    PubMed

    Parchomovsky, Gideon; Stein, Alex

    2008-11-01

    This Essay exposes and analyzes a hitherto overlooked cost of tort law: its adverse effect on innovation. Tort liability for negligence, defective products, and medical malpractice is determined by reference to custom. We demonstrate that courts' reliance on custom and conventional technologies as the benchmark of liability chills innovation and distorts its path. Specifically, recourse to custom taxes innovators and subsidizes replicators of conventional technologies. We explore the causes and consequences of this phenomenon and propose two possible ways to modify tort law in order to make it more welcoming to innovation.

  13. Illuminating Cell Biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Ames Research Center awarded Ciencia, Inc., a Small Business Innovation Research contract to develop the Cell Fluorescence Analysis System (CFAS) to address the size, mass, and power constraints of using fluorescence spectroscopy in the International Space Station's Life Science Research Facility. The system will play an important role in studying biological specimen's long-term adaptation to microgravity. Commercial applications for the technology include diverse markets such as food safety, in situ environmental monitoring, online process analysis, genomics and DNA chips, and non-invasive diagnostics. Ciencia has already sold the system to the private sector for biosensor applications.

  14. Biological Filters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemetson, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. The review is concerned with biological filters, and it covers: (1) trickling filters; (2) rotating biological contractors; and (3) miscellaneous reactors. A list of 14 references is also presented. (HM)

  15. Biological Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Z Index Contact Us FAQs What's New Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... and Health Topics A-Z Index What's New Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and ...

  16. Drosophila Sex Combs as a Model of Evolutionary Innovations

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Artyom

    2011-01-01

    The diversity of animal and plant forms is shaped by nested evolutionary innovations. Understanding the genetic and molecular changes responsible for these innovations is therefore one of the key goals of evolutionary biology. From the genetic point of view, the origin of novel traits implies the origin of new regulatory pathways to control their development. To understand how these new pathways are assembled in the course of evolution, we need model systems that combine relatively recent innovations with a powerful set of genetic and molecular tools. One such model is provided by the Drosophila sex comb – a male-specific morphological structure that evolved in a relatively small lineage related to the model species D. melanogaster. Our extensive knowledge of sex comb development in D. melanogaster provides the basis for investigating the genetic changes responsible for sex comb origin and diversification. At the same time, sex combs can change on microevolutionary timescales and differ spectacularly among closely related species, providing opportunities for direct genetic analysis and for integrating developmental and population-genetic approaches. Sex comb evolution is associated with the origin of novel interactions between HOX and sex determination genes. Activity of the sex determination pathway was brought under the control of the HOX code to become segment-specific, while HOX gene expression became sexually dimorphic. At the same time, both HOX and sex determination genes were integrated into the intrasegmental spatial patterning network, and acquired new joint downstream targets. Phylogenetic analysis shows that similar sex comb morphologies evolved independently in different lineages. Convergent evolution at the phenotypic level reflects convergent changes in the expression of HOX and sex determination genes, involving both independent gains and losses of regulatory interactions. However, the downstream cell differentiation programs have diverged between

  17. Organizational Learning: Leading Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collinson, Vivienne; Cook, Tanya Fedoruk

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the interplay among the environment, learning, leaders, and innovations in school systems. Six conditions that, together, have potential to shape an environment that supports organizational learning are illustrated with data from two leaders of innovation: one in an environment that resisted change; the other in a supportive…

  18. Knowledge, Innovation and Internationalisation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Technology Policy Council of Finland, Helsinki.

    Finland is challenged to make the most of globalization by reinforcing its positive aspects. The 1990s taught that success in creating innovations is a key factor for success of business and societies. A precondition, high-level technological and business know-how, requires systematic input into producing social innovations that prevent societal…

  19. Calling All Innovators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Tony

    2012-01-01

    In a study of highly innovative young people in their 20s, the author found that although many people in the millennial generation want to do meaningful work and make a difference in the world, conventional high schools and colleges are not preparing their graduates to be innovators and entrepreneurs. This is a serious problem, he asserts, because…

  20. Innovation and the City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleiman, Neil; Forman, Adam; Ko, Jae; Giles, David; Bowles, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    With Washington trapped in budget battles and partisan gridlock, cities have emerged as the best source of government innovation. Nowhere is this more visible than in New York City. Since taking office in 2002, Mayor Bloomberg has introduced a steady stream of innovative policies, from a competition to recruit a new applied sciences campus and a…

  1. ERM Ideas and Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, Lenore

    2012-01-01

    Welcome to the new "Journal of Electronic Resources Librarianship" column entitled "ERM Ideas and Innovations," which will appear in each issue of JERL for the next 2 years, and possibly more, beginning with this issue. The overall focus of each column will be to introduce and expand ideas, discuss innovations, and ultimately encourage and foster…

  2. 2012 Innovators Awards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Meg; Raths, David; Namahoe, Kanoe

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors present the 2012 Campus Technology Innovators. These IT leaders have deployed extraordinary technology solutions to meet campus challenges. The authors also recognize the vendors and products involved in making these innovative projects a success. The 10 winners are: (1) University of Arizona (Student Systems and…

  3. [Biological weapons].

    PubMed

    Kerwat, K; Becker, S; Wulf, H; Densow, D

    2010-08-01

    Biological weapons are weapons of mass destruction that use pathogens (bacteria, viruses) or the toxins produced by them to target living organisms or to contaminate non-living substances. In the past, biological warfare has been repeatedly used. Anthrax, plague and smallpox are regarded as the most dangerous biological weapons by various institutions. Nowadays it seems quite unlikely that biological warfare will be employed in any military campaigns. However, the possibility remains that biological weapons may be used in acts of bioterrorism. In addition all diseases caused by biological weapons may also occur naturally or as a result of a laboratory accident. Risk assessment with regard to biological danger often proves to be difficult. In this context, an early identification of a potentially dangerous situation through experts is essential to limit the degree of damage.

  4. Morphomechanical Innovation Drives Explosive Seed Dispersal.

    PubMed

    Hofhuis, Hugo; Moulton, Derek; Lessinnes, Thomas; Routier-Kierzkowska, Anne-Lise; Bomphrey, Richard J; Mosca, Gabriella; Reinhardt, Hagen; Sarchet, Penny; Gan, Xiangchao; Tsiantis, Miltos; Ventikos, Yiannis; Walker, Simon; Goriely, Alain; Smith, Richard; Hay, Angela

    2016-06-30

    How mechanical and biological processes are coordinated across cells, tissues, and organs to produce complex traits is a key question in biology. Cardamine hirsuta, a relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, uses an explosive mechanism to disperse its seeds. We show that this trait evolved through morphomechanical innovations at different spatial scales. At the organ scale, tension within the fruit wall generates the elastic energy required for explosion. This tension is produced by differential contraction of fruit wall tissues through an active mechanism involving turgor pressure, cell geometry, and wall properties of the epidermis. Explosive release of this tension is controlled at the cellular scale by asymmetric lignin deposition within endocarp b cells-a striking pattern that is strictly associated with explosive pod shatter across the Brassicaceae plant family. By bridging these different scales, we present an integrated mechanism for explosive seed dispersal that links evolutionary novelty with complex trait innovation. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  5. Reflections on Reflective Abstractions in Creative Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Leonora Marx

    This report proposes a modification of Jean Piaget's concept of "creative abstraction," the mechanism of creative thought, which develops both intelligence and creative ideas. By reflecting on one's actions and the coordinations of actions, the individual constructs new relationships, links, rules, or correspondences between and among them.…

  6. Manage customer-centric innovation--systematically.

    PubMed

    Selden, Larry; MacMillan, Ian C

    2006-04-01

    No matter how hard companies try, their approaches to innovation often don't grow the top line in the sustained, profitable way investors expect. For many companies, there's a huge difference between what's in their business plans and the market's expectations for growth (as reflected in firms' share prices, market capitalizations, and P/E ratios). This growth gap springs from the fact that companies are pouring money into their insular R&D labs instead of working to understand what the customer wants and using that understanding to drive innovation. As a result, even companies that spend the most on R&D remain starved for both customer innovation and market-capitalization growth. In this article, the authors spell out a systematic approach to innovation that continuously fuels sustained, profitable growth. They call this approach customer-centric innovation, or CCI. At the heart of CCI is a rigorous customer R&D process that helps companies to continually improve their understanding of who their customers are and what they need. By so doing, they consistently create or improve their customer value proposition. Customer R&D also focuses on better ways of communicating value propositions and delivering the complete experience to real customers. Since so much of the learning about customers and so much of the experimentation with different segmentations, value propositions, and delivery mechanisms involve the people who regularly deal with customers, it is absolutely essential for frontline employees to be at the center of the CCI process. Simply put, customer R&D propels the innovation effort away from headquarters and the traditional R&D lab out to those closest to the customer. Using the example of the luggage manufacturer Tumi, the authors provide a step-by-step approach for achieving true customer-centric innovation. PMID:16579418

  7. Promoting innovation in pediatric nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Truly impactful innovation can only be recognized in retrospect. Moreover, almost by definition, developing algorithmic paths on roadmaps for innovation are likely to be unsuccessful because innovators do not generally follow established routes. Nonetheless, environments can be established within ...

  8. The innovation value chain.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Morten T; Birkinshaw, Julian

    2007-06-01

    The challenges of coming up with fresh ideas and realizing profits from them are different for every company. One firm may excel at finding good ideas but may have weak systems for bringing them to market. Another organization may have a terrific process for funding and rolling out new products and services but a shortage of concepts to develop. In this article, Hansen and Birkinshaw caution executives against using the latest and greatest innovation approaches and tools without understanding the unique deficiencies in their companies' innovation systems. They offer a framework for evaluating innovation performance: the innovation value chain. It comprises the three main phases of innovation (idea generation, conversion, and diffusion) as well as the critical activities performed during those phases (looking for ideas inside your unit; looking for them in other units; looking for them externally; selecting ideas; funding them; and promoting and spreading ideas companywide). Using this framework, managers get an end-to-end view of their innovation efforts. They can pinpoint their weakest links and tailor innovation best practices appropriately to strengthen those links. Companies typically succumb to one of three broad "weakest-link" scenarios. They are idea poor, conversion poor, or diffusion poor. The article looks at the ways smart companies - including Intuit, P&G, Sara Lee, Shell, and Siemens- modify the best innovation practices and apply them to address those organizations' individual needs and flaws. The authors warn that adopting the chain-based view of innovation requires new measures of what can be delivered by each link in the chain. The approach also entails new roles for employees "external scouts" and "internal evangelists," for example. Indeed, in their search for new hires, companies should seek out those candidates who can help address particular weaknesses in the innovation value chain. PMID:17580654

  9. Mapping your innovation strategy.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Scott D; Eyring, Matt; Gibson, Lib

    2006-05-01

    In the complex sport of American football, teams rely on playbooks as thick as the Manhattan phone directory. But when it comes to creating innovative growth businesses-which is at least as complicated as professional football--most companies have not developed detailed game plans. Indeed, many managers have concluded that a fog enshrouds the world of innovation, obscuring high-potential opportunities. The authors believe that companies can penetrate that fog by developing growth strategies based on disruptive innovations, as defined by Clayton Christensen. Such innovations conform to a pattern: They offer an entirely new solution; they perform adequately along traditional dimensions and much better along other dimensions that matter more to target customers; and they are not initially appealing to powerful incumbents. Companies can develop customized checklists, or playbooks, by combining this basic pattern with analysis of major innovations in their markets. The key early on is to focus not on detailed financial estimates--which will always guide companies toward the markets most hostile to disruptive innovations--but on how well the innovation fits the pattern of success. It's also crucial to encourage flexibility: Companies must be willing to kill projects that are going nowhere, exempt innovations from standard development processes, and avoid burdening project teams with extra financing, which can keep them heading in the wrong direction. Companies can create competitive advantage by becoming champions at defining the pattern of successful innovations and executing against it. But as that pattern becomes obvious--and others emerge-building a sustainable advantage on innovation competencies will again prove elusive.

  10. The innovation value chain.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Morten T; Birkinshaw, Julian

    2007-06-01

    The challenges of coming up with fresh ideas and realizing profits from them are different for every company. One firm may excel at finding good ideas but may have weak systems for bringing them to market. Another organization may have a terrific process for funding and rolling out new products and services but a shortage of concepts to develop. In this article, Hansen and Birkinshaw caution executives against using the latest and greatest innovation approaches and tools without understanding the unique deficiencies in their companies' innovation systems. They offer a framework for evaluating innovation performance: the innovation value chain. It comprises the three main phases of innovation (idea generation, conversion, and diffusion) as well as the critical activities performed during those phases (looking for ideas inside your unit; looking for them in other units; looking for them externally; selecting ideas; funding them; and promoting and spreading ideas companywide). Using this framework, managers get an end-to-end view of their innovation efforts. They can pinpoint their weakest links and tailor innovation best practices appropriately to strengthen those links. Companies typically succumb to one of three broad "weakest-link" scenarios. They are idea poor, conversion poor, or diffusion poor. The article looks at the ways smart companies - including Intuit, P&G, Sara Lee, Shell, and Siemens- modify the best innovation practices and apply them to address those organizations' individual needs and flaws. The authors warn that adopting the chain-based view of innovation requires new measures of what can be delivered by each link in the chain. The approach also entails new roles for employees "external scouts" and "internal evangelists," for example. Indeed, in their search for new hires, companies should seek out those candidates who can help address particular weaknesses in the innovation value chain.

  11. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, I.J.; Wendt, J.R.

    1994-09-06

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors. 8 figs.

  12. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOEpatents

    Fritz, Ian J.; Wendt, Joel R.

    1994-01-01

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors.

  13. Reflective diffraction grating

    DOEpatents

    Lamartine, Bruce C.

    2003-06-24

    Reflective diffraction grating. A focused ion beam (FIB) micromilling apparatus is used to store color images in a durable medium by milling away portions of the surface of the medium to produce a reflective diffraction grating with blazed pits. The images are retrieved by exposing the surface of the grating to polychromatic light from a particular incident bearing and observing the light reflected by the surface from specified reception bearing.

  14. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOEpatents

    Wood, James L.

    1992-01-01

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. One layer of each set of bilayers consist of titanium, and the second layer of each set of bilayers consist of an alloy of nickel with carbon interstitially present in the nickel alloy.

  15. Biology outside the Classroom: The SNAB Visit/Issue Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkerton, John

    2007-01-01

    In September 2002, Salter's Nuffield Advanced Biology ("SNAB") began a three year pilot phase in schools, representing the first major innovation in UK biology education since the 1970s. One part of the AS level coursework was a report on an "Issue of Biological Interest". This could be based on an actual visit outside school or on a literature…

  16. SwampLog: A Structured Journal for Reflection-in-Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicassio, Frank

    1992-01-01

    Describes "SwampLog," an action-research journal process useful for recording and reflecting upon ongoing experience, exploring and creating innovative approaches to education, and gauging the resultant effects upon organizational, instructional, and individual renewal. (PRA)

  17. Systems Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H S.

    2006-06-01

    The biology revolution over the last 50 years has been driven by the ascendancy of molecular biology. This was enthusiastically embraced by most biologists because it took us into increasingly familiar territory. It took mysterious processes, such as the replication of genetic material and assigned them parts that could be readily understood by the human mind. When we think of ''molecular machines'' as being the underlying basis of life, we are using a paradigm derived from everyday experience. However, the price that we paid was a relentless drive towards reductionism and the attendant balkanization of biology. Now along comes ''systems biology'' that promises us a solution to the problem of ''knowing more and more about less and less''. Unlike molecular biology, systems biology appears to be taking us into unfamiliar intellectual territory, such as statistics, mathematics and computer modeling. Not surprisingly, systems biology has met with widespread skepticism and resistance. Why do we need systems biology anyway and how does this new area of research promise to change the face of biology in the next couple of decades?

  18. Enabling Europe to innovate.

    PubMed

    Dearing, Andrew

    2007-01-19

    As activities that relate to innovation become increasingly global and open and so draw the private and public sectors into complex networks of partnerships, these activities also tend to concentrate where the ecosystem is most supportive. European public policy, which in recent years has emphasized the importance of research and development (R&D) in achieving competitive knowledge-based societies, is shifting toward approaches that address the broader qualities required of favorable ecosystems for innovation in a global economy, thereby incorporating the roles of market demand, public procurement, and regulation, as well as science, education, and industrial R&D, as part of determining effective innovation policies.

  19. Enabling Europe to innovate.

    PubMed

    Dearing, Andrew

    2007-01-19

    As activities that relate to innovation become increasingly global and open and so draw the private and public sectors into complex networks of partnerships, these activities also tend to concentrate where the ecosystem is most supportive. European public policy, which in recent years has emphasized the importance of research and development (R&D) in achieving competitive knowledge-based societies, is shifting toward approaches that address the broader qualities required of favorable ecosystems for innovation in a global economy, thereby incorporating the roles of market demand, public procurement, and regulation, as well as science, education, and industrial R&D, as part of determining effective innovation policies. PMID:17234939

  20. NREL Spectrum of Innovation

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    There are many voices calling for a future of abundant clean energy. The choices are difficult and the challenges daunting. How will we get there? The National Renewable Energy Laboratory integrates the entire spectrum of innovation including fundamental science, market relevant research, systems integration, testing and validation, commercialization and deployment. The innovation process at NREL is interdependent and iterative. Many scientific breakthroughs begin in our own laboratories, but new ideas and technologies come to NREL at any point along the innovation spectrum to be validated and refined for commercial use.

  1. Innovative revenue generation.

    PubMed

    Pink, G H; Deber, R B; Lavoie, J N; Aserlind, E

    1991-01-01

    Innovative revenue generation by Canadian hospitals is drawing increasing attention. After a critical examination of the literature, we classified these into six areas: clinical/diagnostic insured services, clinical/diagnostic non-insured services, hotel services, retail services, administrative services and financial activities. We concluded that many Canadian hospitals are engaging in innovative revenue generation activities, the success of such activities has been mixed, there are many factors to consider when selecting revenue generation activities, many aspects of innovative revenue generation involve sophisticated business and risk management skills not traditionally required in hospital management, and implementation of many such activities requires support from the hospital board, hospital staff and medical staff.

  2. [Innovation in research].

    PubMed

    Zárate, Eduardo

    2010-09-01

    We briefly revise the economic resources that the State allocated between the years 2000 and 2005, and their relationship with the production of research projects. In face of the few fiscal resources, innovations are proposed to the traditional research model, sustained in producing new products. Assuming it is possible to perform innovations in the process of producing a service or a product, which implies modifying the regional and national policies, driving the model proposed by P. Drucker of producing innovations with technology with T in capital letters, would on turn generate patents and social and economic profitability. PMID:21152737

  3. Transparencies and Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the use of perspective, or showing things as the human eye sees them, when creating reflections and transparencies in works of art. Provides examples of artwork using transparency, reflection, and refraction by M. C. Escher, Richard Estes, and Janet Fish to give students an opportunity to learn about these three art techniques. (CMK)

  4. Earth's Reflection: Albedo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillette, Brandon; Hamilton, Cheri

    2011-01-01

    When viewing objects of different colors, you might notice that some appear brighter than others. This is because light is reflected differently from various surfaces, depending on their physical properties. The word "albedo" is used to describe how reflective a surface is. The Earth-atmosphere has a combined albedo of about 30%, a number that is…

  5. Renewable liquid reflection grating

    DOEpatents

    Ryutov, Dmitri D.; Toor, Arthur

    2003-10-07

    A renewable liquid reflection grating. Electrodes are operatively connected to a conducting liquid in an arrangement that produces a reflection grating and driven by a current with a resonance frequency. In another embodiment, the electrodes create the grating by a resonant electrostatic force acting on a dielectric liquid.

  6. Proteomics technology in systems biology.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jeffrey C; Figeys, Daniel

    2006-08-01

    It has now become apparent that a full understanding of a biological process (e.g. a disease state) is only possible if all biomolecular interactions are taken into account. Systems biology works towards understanding the intricacies of cellular life through the collaborative efforts of biologists, chemists, mathematicians and computer scientists and recently, a number of laboratories around the world have embarked upon such research agendas. The fields of genomics and proteomics are foundational in systems biology studies and a great deal of research is currently being conducted in each worldwide. Moreover, many technological advances (particularly in mass spectrometry) have led to a dramatic rise in the number of proteomic studies over the past two decades. This short review summarizes a selection of technological innovations in proteomics that contribute to systems biology studies. PMID:16880956

  7. Aging and computational systems biology.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Kathleen M; Morgan, Amy E; Mc Auley, Mark T

    2016-01-01

    Aging research is undergoing a paradigm shift, which has led to new and innovative methods of exploring this complex phenomenon. The systems biology approach endeavors to understand biological systems in a holistic manner, by taking account of intrinsic interactions, while also attempting to account for the impact of external inputs, such as diet. A key technique employed in systems biology is computational modeling, which involves mathematically describing and simulating the dynamics of biological systems. Although a large number of computational models have been developed in recent years, these models have focused on various discrete components of the aging process, and to date no model has succeeded in completely representing the full scope of aging. Combining existing models or developing new models may help to address this need and in so doing could help achieve an improved understanding of the intrinsic mechanisms which underpin aging.

  8. The aesthetics of chemical biology.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Glenn

    2012-12-01

    Scientists and philosophers have long reflected on the place of aesthetics in science. In this essay, I review these discussions, identifying work of relevance to chemistry and, in particular, to the field of chemical biology. Topics discussed include the role of aesthetics in scientific theory choice, the aesthetics of molecular images, the beauty-making features of molecules, and the relation between the aesthetics of chemical biology and the aesthetics of industrial design.

  9. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    PubMed

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  10. Innovations in petrochemical crackers

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, L.

    1996-10-01

    A comprehensive review will be given on the latest innovations in petrochemical cracker technologies. These improvements can result in significant costs reduction for various feedstocks. Several examples will be illustrated.

  11. Minority Innovation Challenges Institute

    NASA Video Gallery

    Do you want to learn more about how to compete in NASA’s technical challenges for both prestige and significant cash prizes? NASA’s Minority Innovation Challenges Institute trains and mentors mino...

  12. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including use of dwarf cichlids (fishes) in secondary school biology, teaching edge effects on stomatal diffusion, computer program on effects of selection on gene frequencies, biological oxidation/reduction reactions, short cuts with Drosophila, computer program…

  13. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents experiments, demonstrations, activities and ideas relating to various fields of biology to be used in biology courses in secondary schools. Among those experiments presented are demonstrating the early stages of ferns and mosses and simple culture methods for fern prothalli. (HM)

  14. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, exercises, demonstrations, and information on a variety of biology topics including labeling systems, biological indicators of stream pollution, growth of lichens, reproductive capacity of bulbous buttercups, a straw balance to measure transpiration, interaction of fungi, osmosis, and nitrogen fixation and crop production. (DC)

  15. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including chi-square tests on a microcomputer, an integrated biology game, microscope slides of leaf stomata, culturing soil nematodes, technique for watering locust egg-laying tubes, hazards of biological chemicals (such as benzene, benzidene, calchicine,…

  16. Open-market innovation.

    PubMed

    Rigby, Darrell; Zook, Chris

    2002-10-01

    Companies in many industries are feeling immense pressure to improve their ability to innovate. Even in these tough economic times, executives have pushed innovation initiatives to the top of their priority lists, but they know that the best ideas aren't always coming out of their own R&D labs. That's why a growing number of companies are exploring the idea of open-market innovation--an approach that uses tools such as licensing, joint ventures, and strategic alliances to bring the benefits of free trade to the flow of new ideas. For instance, when faced with the unanticipated anthrax scare last fall, Pitney Bowes had nothing in its R&D pipeline to help its customers combat the deadly spores. So it sought help from outside innovators to come up with scanning and imaging technologies that could alert its customers to tainted letters and packages. And Dow Chemical and Cargill jointly produced a new form of plastic derived from plant starches--a breakthrough product that neither company could have created on its own. In this article, Bain consultants Darrell Rigby and Chris Zook describe the advantages and disadvantages of open-market innovation and the ways some companies are using it to gain competitive advantage. By importing ideas from the outside, the authors say, companies can collect more and better ideas from different kinds of experts. Creative types within a company will stick around longer if they know their ideas will eventually find a home--as internal R&D projects or as concepts licensed to outside buyers. Exporting ideas also gives companies a way to measure an innovation's real value. However, the authors warn against entering into open-market innovation without properly structuring deals: Xerox and TRW virtually gave away their innovations and had to stand by while other companies capitalized on them. PMID:12389463

  17. Innovative Clinical Trial Designs

    PubMed Central

    Lavori, Philip W.

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the 20th-century health care system sometimes seemed to be inhospitable to and unmoved by experimental research, its inefficiency and unaffordability have led to reforms that foreshadow a new health care system. We point out certain opportunities and transformational needs for innovations in study design offered by the 21st-century health care system, and describe some innovative clinical trial designs and novel design methods to address these needs and challenges. PMID:26140056

  18. Open-market innovation.

    PubMed

    Rigby, Darrell; Zook, Chris

    2002-10-01

    Companies in many industries are feeling immense pressure to improve their ability to innovate. Even in these tough economic times, executives have pushed innovation initiatives to the top of their priority lists, but they know that the best ideas aren't always coming out of their own R&D labs. That's why a growing number of companies are exploring the idea of open-market innovation--an approach that uses tools such as licensing, joint ventures, and strategic alliances to bring the benefits of free trade to the flow of new ideas. For instance, when faced with the unanticipated anthrax scare last fall, Pitney Bowes had nothing in its R&D pipeline to help its customers combat the deadly spores. So it sought help from outside innovators to come up with scanning and imaging technologies that could alert its customers to tainted letters and packages. And Dow Chemical and Cargill jointly produced a new form of plastic derived from plant starches--a breakthrough product that neither company could have created on its own. In this article, Bain consultants Darrell Rigby and Chris Zook describe the advantages and disadvantages of open-market innovation and the ways some companies are using it to gain competitive advantage. By importing ideas from the outside, the authors say, companies can collect more and better ideas from different kinds of experts. Creative types within a company will stick around longer if they know their ideas will eventually find a home--as internal R&D projects or as concepts licensed to outside buyers. Exporting ideas also gives companies a way to measure an innovation's real value. However, the authors warn against entering into open-market innovation without properly structuring deals: Xerox and TRW virtually gave away their innovations and had to stand by while other companies capitalized on them.

  19. Innovation Process Design: A Change Management and Innovation Dimension Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peisl, Thomas; Reger, Veronika; Schmied, Juergen

    The authors propose an innovative approach to the management of innovation integrating business, process, and maturity dimensions. Core element of the concept is the adaptation of ISO/IEC 15504 to the innovation process including 14 innovation drivers. Two managerial models are applied to conceptualize and visualize the respective innovation strategies, the Balanced Scorecard and a Barriers in Change Processes Model. An illustrative case study shows a practical implementation process.

  20. Implementing and evaluating reflective practice group sessions.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Deidre; Higgins, Agnes

    2006-05-01

    The rapidly changing and developing arenas of biological and medical technology, coupled with a myriad of social concerns and issues affecting individual, family and societal health, necessitates that nursing practitioners engage themselves fully with patients in the pursuit of health and healing. The above factors have not only served as catalysts in the development of educational curricula in general but also nursing curricula. Reflection in these curricula is often considered an appropriate vehicle for the analysis of nursing practice, fostering not only an understanding of nurse's work but also the development of critically thoughtful approaches essential for providing nursing care in complex environments [Duke, S., Appleton, J., 2000. The use of reflection in a palliative care programme: a qualitative study of the development of reflective skills over an academic year. J. Adv. Nurs. 32 (6), 1557-1568]. Consequently, nurse educators are being called upon to develop nurses who are reflective practitioners. The focus of this paper is on an exploration of issues that arose from the implementation of reflective sessions with a group of qualified nurses undertaking a diploma in nursing. This paper addresses the challenges experienced in the introduction of reflection as a teaching method. Recommendations for other lecturers when using this approach are also provided. It is anticipated this paper will provide practical advice and guidance for educators who wish to use reflective sessions to enhance the educational experience of their nursing students. PMID:19040874

  1. The innovator's DNA.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Jeffrey H; Gregersen, Hal B; Christensen, Clayton M

    2009-12-01

    "How do I find innovative people for my organization? And how can I become more innovative myself?" These are questions that stump most senior executives, who know that the ability to innovate is the "secret sauce" of business success. Perhaps for this reason most of us stand in awe of the work of visionary entrepreneurs such as Apple's Steve Jobs, Amazon's Jeff Bezos, eBay's Pierre Omidyar, and P&G's A.G. Lafley. How do these individuals come up with groundbreaking new ideas? In this article, Dyer, of Brigham Young University; Gregersen, of Insead; and Christensen, of Harvard Business School, reveal how innovative entrepreneurs differ from typical executives. Their study demonstrates that five "discovery skills" distinguish the most creative executives: Associating helps them discover new directions by making connections among seemingly unrelated questions, problems, or ideas. Questioning allows innovators to break out of the status quo and consider new ideas. Through observing, innovators carefully and consistently look out for small behavioral details--in the activities of customers, suppliers, and other companies -to gain insights about new ways of doing things. In experimenting, they relentlessly try on new experiences and explore the world. And through networking with diverse individuals from an array of backgrounds, they gain radically different perspectives.

  2. The innovator's DNA.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Jeffrey H; Gregersen, Hal B; Christensen, Clayton M

    2009-12-01

    "How do I find innovative people for my organization? And how can I become more innovative myself?" These are questions that stump most senior executives, who know that the ability to innovate is the "secret sauce" of business success. Perhaps for this reason most of us stand in awe of the work of visionary entrepreneurs such as Apple's Steve Jobs, Amazon's Jeff Bezos, eBay's Pierre Omidyar, and P&G's A.G. Lafley. How do these individuals come up with groundbreaking new ideas? In this article, Dyer, of Brigham Young University; Gregersen, of Insead; and Christensen, of Harvard Business School, reveal how innovative entrepreneurs differ from typical executives. Their study demonstrates that five "discovery skills" distinguish the most creative executives: Associating helps them discover new directions by making connections among seemingly unrelated questions, problems, or ideas. Questioning allows innovators to break out of the status quo and consider new ideas. Through observing, innovators carefully and consistently look out for small behavioral details--in the activities of customers, suppliers, and other companies -to gain insights about new ways of doing things. In experimenting, they relentlessly try on new experiences and explore the world. And through networking with diverse individuals from an array of backgrounds, they gain radically different perspectives. PMID:19968057

  3. Toward a Curriculum Innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoronka, Kevin F. W.

    2008-05-01

    This paper proposes an innovation on HIV prevention, in response to the United Nations Millennium Development Goal to combat HIV/AIDS. The curriculum innovation is through a participatory research design of life skills based education course, involving both healthy faculty tutors and young community leaders at the centre. The innovation builds onto the strengths of previous IIV prevention interventions and argues that effective life skills based education targets the individual, peers and the wider community since the same levels are crucial in HIV transmission. The innovation also recommends a rethinking of the content used to teach and learn life skill based education to prevent HIV and recommends that such content is to be co-conducted by the young community involvement. The content is to be delivered in a participatory way in order for the young community leaders to engage in critical action to prevent HIV. Because of the novelty of such an intervention, the innovation recognizes that such an approach to the design and implementation of the curriculum initiative is complex and involves careful planning, monitoring and evaluation to yield desired outcomes. In conclusion, the innovation recommends that HIV prevention can be possible even in a country such as Sierra Leone, with increasing HIV prevalence in the world.

  4. Adult Learning in Innovative Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland Olsen, Dorothy

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between learning and innovation has been a central theme in studies of innovation (Fagerberg et al., 2005, Borras & Edquist, 2014, Lundvall & Johnsen, 1994). Studies of the workplace have also claimed a relationship between skills or training and a firm's ability to innovate (Toner, 2011). Recent studies of innovation in…

  5. Identifying Innovative Agricultural Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rayfield, John; Murphy, Tim; Briers, Gary; Lewis, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Researchers identified innovative agricultural education programs across the United States. A Delphi study was conducted with the teachers in innovative programs. According to the teachers, innovative programs in 2020 will use hands-on activities and will be run by highly motivated teachers. The purpose of innovative programs in the future will be…

  6. Weak shock reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, John K.; Brio, Moysey

    2000-05-01

    We present numerical solutions of a two-dimensional inviscid Burgers equation which provides an asymptotic description of the Mach reflection of weak shocks. In our numerical solutions, the incident, reflected, and Mach shocks meet at a triple point, and there is a supersonic patch behind the triple point, as proposed by Guderley for steady weak-shock reflection. A theoretical analysis indicates that there is an expansion fan at the triple point, in addition to the three shocks. The supersonic patch is extremely small, and this work is the first time it has been resolved.

  7. Information Complexity and Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnoli, Franco; Bignone, Franco A.; Cecconi, Fabio; Politi, Antonio

    Kolmogorov contributed directly to Biology in essentially three problems: the analysis of population dynamics (Lotka-Volterra equations), the reaction-diffusion formulation of gene spreading (FKPP equation), and some discussions about Mendel's laws. However, the widely recognized importance of his contribution arises from his work on algorithmic complexity. In fact, the limited direct intervention in Biology reflects the generally slow growth of interest of mathematicians towards biological issues. From the early work of Vito Volterra on species competition, to the slow growth of dynamical systems theory, contributions to the study of matter and the physiology of the nervous system, the first 50-60 years have witnessed important contributions, but as scattered pieces apparently uncorrelated, and in branches often far away from Biology. Up to the 40' it is hard to see the initial loose build up of a convergence, for those theories that will become mainstream research by the end of the century, and connected by the study of biological systems per-se.

  8. Communication and nursing: a study-abroad student's reflections.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Anna Karina Martins; Tuohy, Dympna

    Globalisation in the academic context provides the opportunity for sharing knowledge and innovations between institutions in different countries, through the creation of study abroad and academic mobility programmes. For nursing students, studying abroad facilitates the development of cultural sensitivity so that they may care appropriately for an increasingly multicultural patient population in their own countries. This article describes a Brazilian 'study abroad' student nurse's experience of studying a 'communication and therapeutic relationships' module in an Irish university. Johns' model of structured reflection was used to frame, describe and reflect on the experience. This reflection informs 'study abroad' students and their universities about the student experience through a personal account of one such student.

  9. Grand challenges in space synthetic biology

    PubMed Central

    Montague, Michael G.; Cumbers, John; Hogan, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Space synthetic biology is a branch of biotechnology dedicated to engineering biological systems for space exploration, industry and science. There is significant public and private interest in designing robust and reliable organisms that can assist on long-duration astronaut missions. Recent work has also demonstrated that such synthetic biology is a feasible payload minimization and life support approach as well. This article identifies the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead in the field of space synthetic biology, while highlighting relevant progress. It also outlines anticipated broader benefits from this field, because space engineering advances will drive technological innovation on Earth. PMID:26631337

  10. Grand challenges in space synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Amor A; Montague, Michael G; Cumbers, John; Hogan, John A; Arkin, Adam P

    2015-12-01

    Space synthetic biology is a branch of biotechnology dedicated to engineering biological systems for space exploration, industry and science. There is significant public and private interest in designing robust and reliable organisms that can assist on long-duration astronaut missions. Recent work has also demonstrated that such synthetic biology is a feasible payload minimization and life support approach as well. This article identifies the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead in the field of space synthetic biology, while highlighting relevant progress. It also outlines anticipated broader benefits from this field, because space engineering advances will drive technological innovation on Earth. PMID:26631337

  11. Grand challenges in space synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Amor A; Montague, Michael G; Cumbers, John; Hogan, John A; Arkin, Adam P

    2015-12-01

    Space synthetic biology is a branch of biotechnology dedicated to engineering biological systems for space exploration, industry and science. There is significant public and private interest in designing robust and reliable organisms that can assist on long-duration astronaut missions. Recent work has also demonstrated that such synthetic biology is a feasible payload minimization and life support approach as well. This article identifies the challenges and opportunities that lie ahead in the field of space synthetic biology, while highlighting relevant progress. It also outlines anticipated broader benefits from this field, because space engineering advances will drive technological innovation on Earth.

  12. Biological Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyhrman, Sonya

    2004-10-01

    The ocean is arguably the largest habitat on the planet, and it houses an astounding array of life, from microbes to whales. As a testament to this diversity and its importance, the discipline of biological oceanography spans studies of all levels of biological organization, from that of single genes, to organisms, to their population dynamics. Biological oceanography also includes studies on how organisms interact with, and contribute to, essential global processes. Students of biological oceanography are often as comfortable looking at satellite images as they are electron micrographs. This diversity of perspective begins the textbook Biological Oceanography, with cover graphics including a Coastal Zone Color Scanner image representing chlorophyll concentration, an electron micrograph of a dinoflagellate, and a photograph of a copepod. These images instantly capture the reader's attention and illustrate some of the different scales on which budding oceanographers are required to think. Having taught a core graduate course in biological oceanography for many years, Charlie Miller has used his lecture notes as the genesis for this book. The text covers the subject of biological oceanography in a manner that is targeted to introductory graduate students, but it would also be appropriate for advanced undergraduates.

  13. Encouraging Counsellor Reflection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upton, David; Asch, Rachel

    1999-01-01

    Describes the evolution and testing of an "attributes checklist" tool for assisting counselor development. These attributes relate to characteristics of case notes that indicate evidence of counselor reflection and consideration of the counseling process. (Author/GCP)

  14. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  15. Innovation of laboratory exercises in course Distributed systems and computer networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souček, Pavel; Slavata, Oldřich; Holub, Jan

    2013-09-01

    This paper is focused on innovation of laboratory exercises in course Distributed Systems and Computer Networks. These exercises were introduced in November of 2012 and replaced older exercises in order to reflect real life applications.

  16. [Progress in synthetic biology of "973 Funding Program" in China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Guoqiang; Wang, Ying

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews progresses made in China from 2011 in areas of "Synthetic Biology" supported by State Basic Research 973 Program. Till the end of 2014, 9 "synthetic biology" projects have been initiated with emphasis on "microbial manufactures" with the 973 Funding Program. Combined with the very recent launch of one project on "mammalian cell synthetic biology" and another on "plant synthetic biology", Chinese "synthetic biology" research reflects its focus on "manufactures" while not giving up efforts on "synthetic biology" of complex systems.

  17. Reflectance of aqueous solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querry, M. R.

    1972-01-01

    The optical properties and optical constants of water and aqueous solutions were studied to develop an accurate tabulation of graphical representations of the optical constants through a broad spectrum. Manuscripts of articles are presented concerning extinction coefficients, relative specular reflectance, and temperature effect on the water spectrum. Graphs of absolute reflectance, phase shifts, index of refraction, and extinction coefficients for water, heavy water and aqueous solutions are included.

  18. BIOLOGICAL WARFARE

    PubMed Central

    Beeston, John

    1953-01-01

    The use of biological agents as controlled weapons of war is practical although uncertain. Three types of agents are feasible, including pathogenic organisms and biological pests, toxins, and synthetic hormones regulating plant growth. These agents may be chosen for selective effects varying from prolonged incipient illness to death of plants, man and domestic animals. For specific preventive and control measures required to combat these situations, there must be careful and detailed planning. The nucleus of such a program is available within the existing framework of public health activities. Additional research and expansion of established activities in time of attack are necessary parts of biological warfare defense. PMID:13059641

  19. Biological post

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, B. Suresh; Kumar, Senthil; Mohan Kumar, N. S.; Karunakaran, J. V.

    2015-01-01

    Anterior tooth fracture as a result of traumatic injuries, is frequently encountered in endodontic practice. Proper reconstruction of extensively damaged teeth can be achieved through the fragment reattachment procedure known as “biological restoration.” This case report refers to the esthetics and functional recovery of extensively damaged maxillary central incisor through the preparation and adhesive cementation of “biological post” in a young patient. Biological post obtained through extracted teeth from another individual–represent a low-cost option and alternative technique for the morphofunctional recovery of extensively damaged anterior teeth. PMID:26538952

  20. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  1. Repairing the broken market for antibiotic innovation.

    PubMed

    Outterson, Kevin; Powers, John H; Daniel, Gregory W; McClellan, Mark B

    2015-02-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacterial diseases pose serious and growing threats to human health. While innovation is important to all areas of health research, it is uniquely important in antibiotics. Resistance destroys the fruit of prior research, making it necessary to constantly innovate to avoid falling back into a pre-antibiotic era. But investment is declining in antibiotics, driven by competition from older antibiotics, the cost and uncertainty of the development process, and limited reimbursement incentives. Good public health practices curb inappropriate antibiotic use, making return on investment challenging in payment systems based on sales volume. We assess the impact of recent initiatives to improve antibiotic innovation, reflecting experience with all sixty-seven new molecular entity antibiotics approved by the Food and Drug Administration since 1980. Our analysis incorporates data and insights derived from several multistakeholder initiatives under way involving governments and the private sector on both sides of the Atlantic. We propose three specific reforms that could revitalize innovations that protect public health, while promoting long-term sustainability: increased incentives for antibiotic research and development, surveillance, and stewardship; greater targeting of incentives to high-priority public health needs, including reimbursement that is delinked from volume of drug use; and enhanced global collaboration, including a global treaty.

  2. Evaluation & Innovation: Making the most of IDEAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhamer, B.; Christian, C.

    1999-09-01

    The focus of the IDEAS poster presentation will be how to measure results of an educational outreach program through evaluation as well as innovation and innovative educational outreach programs. The poster will provide an overview of evaluation methodology to support the Education/Public Outreach segments of proposals to the Office of Space Science and how to build the evaluation process into a proposal. The poster will also address how scientists can use the IDEAS program to optimize their influence on the development of effective K-13 educational resources. In addition to evaluation methodology, the IDEAS poster presentation will provide an introduction to the use of innovative methods to create effective K-13 educational resources. Methods such as the World Wide Web, computer technology and interactivity will be addressed. Examples and URL's of previous IDEAS programs that reflect innovative approaches will be provided. Specific information will be provided on program elements in the form of handouts that include evaluation methods, eligibility, and budget guidelines. For more information, the IDEAS Grant Program Web site URL is http://ideas.stsci.edu/.

  3. Repairing the broken market for antibiotic innovation.

    PubMed

    Outterson, Kevin; Powers, John H; Daniel, Gregory W; McClellan, Mark B

    2015-02-01

    Multidrug-resistant bacterial diseases pose serious and growing threats to human health. While innovation is important to all areas of health research, it is uniquely important in antibiotics. Resistance destroys the fruit of prior research, making it necessary to constantly innovate to avoid falling back into a pre-antibiotic era. But investment is declining in antibiotics, driven by competition from older antibiotics, the cost and uncertainty of the development process, and limited reimbursement incentives. Good public health practices curb inappropriate antibiotic use, making return on investment challenging in payment systems based on sales volume. We assess the impact of recent initiatives to improve antibiotic innovation, reflecting experience with all sixty-seven new molecular entity antibiotics approved by the Food and Drug Administration since 1980. Our analysis incorporates data and insights derived from several multistakeholder initiatives under way involving governments and the private sector on both sides of the Atlantic. We propose three specific reforms that could revitalize innovations that protect public health, while promoting long-term sustainability: increased incentives for antibiotic research and development, surveillance, and stewardship; greater targeting of incentives to high-priority public health needs, including reimbursement that is delinked from volume of drug use; and enhanced global collaboration, including a global treaty. PMID:25646108

  4. Snapshots of Primary and Secondary Education in Asia-Pacific. Educational Innovation for Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, John Dewar

    In responding to the emerging challenges to education in Asia and the Pacific in this new century, this Asia-Pacific Programme of Educational Innovation for Development (APEID) book series, "Educational Innovation for Development," is launched to reflect a knowledge base of rethinking on roles of education in development. The series intends to…

  5. Biology Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Twelve new experiments in biology are described by teachers for use in classrooms. Broad areas covered include enzyme action, growth regulation, microscopy, respiration, germination, plant succession, leaf structure and blood structure. Explanations are detailed. (PS)

  6. Bottle Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CSTA Journal, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Provides hands-on biology activities using plastic bottles that allow students to become engaged in asking questions, creating experiments, testing hypotheses, and generating answers. Activities explore terrestrial and aquatic systems. (MKR)

  7. Biology Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Some helpful ideas are proposed for use by biology teachers. Topics included are Food Webs,'' Key to Identification of Families,'' Viruses,'' Sieve Tube,'' Woodlice,'' Ecology of Oak Leaf Roller Moth,'' and Model Making.'' (PS)

  8. Biology Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Ten ideas that have been tried out by the authors in schools are presented for biology teachers. The areas covered include genetics, dispersal of seeds, habituation in earthworms, respiration, sensory neurons, fats and oils. A reading list is provided. (PS)

  9. Analytical elimination of substrate backside reflections from reflectance measurements.

    PubMed

    Wilbrandt, Steffen; Stenzel, Olaf

    2016-09-01

    An analytical approach to eliminate substrate backside reflections from measured reflectance of an unknown optical coating has been deducted. Thereby, measured transmittance, reflectance, and backside reflectance of the coating and transmittance and reflectance of the uncoated substrate at the desired angle of incidence and polarization state are required as input data. In the underlying theory, layer and substrate materials may be absorbing. PMID:27607274

  10. Reflection of a birth reflections midwife.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Meg

    2015-10-01

    Supporting a woman's emotional recovery following what can sometimes be a traumatic event is becoming an important part of postnatal care. That simple question, "How was the birth?" can be the first step in allowing a woman to acknowledge and voice her innermost anxieties around the birth of her baby, and put her on the right path towards feeling better about it, if need be. The birth reflections service has been running in our area for almost six years and its purpose is two fold: firstly it provides women with a safe environment in which to talk about their labour and birth, where they can become better informed about the birth and where they can express themselves freely. Secondly, it provides first hand feedback for the maternity service about the care that's been given, enabling us to change practice for the better.

  11. EDITORIAL: Physical Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscoe, Jane

    2004-06-01

    Physical Biology is a new peer-reviewed publication from Institute of Physics Publishing. Launched in 2004, the journal will foster the integration of biology with the traditionally more quantitative fields of physics, chemistry, computer science and other math-based disciplines. Its primary aim is to further the understanding of biological systems at all levels of complexity, ranging from the role of structure and dynamics of a single molecule to cellular networks and organisms. The journal encourages the development of a new biology-driven physics based on the extraordinary and increasingly rich data arising in biology, and provides research directions for those involved in the creation of novel bio-engineered systems. Physical Biology will publish a stimulating combination of full length research articles, communications, perspectives, reviews and tutorials from a wide range of disciplines covering topics such as: Single-molecule studies and nanobiotechnology Molecular interactions and protein folding Charge transfer and photobiology Ion channels; structure, function and ion regulation Molecular motors and force generation Subcellular processes Biological networks and neural systems Modeling aspects of molecular and cell biology Cell-cell signaling and interaction Biological patterns and development Evolutionary processes Novel tools and methods in physical biology Experts in the areas encompassed by the journal's scope have been appointed to the Editorial Scientific Committee and the composition of the Committee will be updated regularly to reflect the developments in this new and exciting field. Physical Biology is free online to everyone in 2004; you are invited to take advantage of this offer by visiting the journal homepage at http://physbio.iop.org This special print edition of Physical Biology is a combination of issues 1 and 2 of this electronic-only journal and it brings together an impressive range of articles in the fields covered, including a popular

  12. The innovation triad: an EvoDevo agenda.

    PubMed

    Müller, Gerd B; Newman, Stuart A

    2005-11-15

    This article introduces a special issue on evolutionary innovation and morphological novelty, two interrelated themes that have received a remarkable increase of attention over the past few years. We begin with a discussion of the question of whether innovation and novelty represent distinct evolutionary problems that require a distinct conceptualization. We argue that the mechanisms of innovation and their phenotypic results--novelty--can only be properly addressed if they are distinguished from the standard evolutionary themes of variation and adaptation, and we present arguments for making such a distinction. We propose that origination, the first formation of biological structures, is another distinct problem of morphological evolution, and that together with innovation and novelty it constitutes a conceptual complex we call the innovation triad. We define a problem agenda of the triad, which separates the analysis of the initiating conditions from the mechanistic realization of innovation, and we discuss the theoretical problems that arise from treating innovation as distinct from variation. Further, we categorize the empirical approaches that address themes of the innovation triad in recognizing four major strands of research: the morphology and systematics program, the gene regulation program, the epigenetic program, and the theoretical biology program. We provide examples of each program, giving priority to contributions in the present issue. In conclusion, we observe that the innovation triad is one of the defining topics of EvoDevo research and may represent its most pertinent contribution to evolutionary theory. We point out that an inclusion of developmental systems properties into evolutionary theory represents a shift of explanatory emphasis from the external factors of natural selection to the internal dynamics of developmental systems, complementing adaptation with emergence, and contingency with inherency.

  13. Innovation in tissue viability documentation for acute services.

    PubMed

    Parnham, A

    2011-09-01

    This paper discusses the developmental process, outcome and delivery of an innovative approach to standardising tissue viability documentation across two sites within Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, following the results of benchmarking pressure ulcer preventive care strategies and recommendations from pressure ulcer root cause analysis. It reflects upon the process, highlighting the lessons learnt.

  14. Light distribution modulated diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pin-Yuan; Chien, Chun-Yu; Sheu, Chia-Rong; Chen, Yu-Wen; Tseng, Sheng-Hao

    2016-06-01

    Typically, a diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) system employing a continuous wave light source would need to acquire diffuse reflectances measured at multiple source-detector separations for determining the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of turbid samples. This results in a multi-fiber probe structure and an indefinite probing depth. Here we present a novel DRS method that can utilize a few diffuse reflectances measured at one source-detector separation for recovering the optical properties of samples. The core of innovation is a liquid crystal (LC) cell whose scattering property can be modulated by the bias voltage. By placing the LC cell between the light source and the sample, the spatial distribution of light in the sample can be varied as the scattering property of the LC cell modulated by the bias voltage, and this would induce intensity variation of the collected diffuse reflectance. From a series of Monte Carlo simulations and phantom measurements, we found that this new light distribution modulated DRS (LDM DRS) system was capable of accurately recover the absorption and scattering coefficients of turbid samples and its probing depth only varied by less than 3% over the full bias voltage variation range. Our results suggest that this LDM DRS platform could be developed to various low-cost, efficient, and compact systems for in-vivo superficial tissue investigation. PMID:27375931

  15. Light distribution modulated diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pin-Yuan; Chien, Chun-Yu; Sheu, Chia-Rong; Chen, Yu-Wen; Tseng, Sheng-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Typically, a diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) system employing a continuous wave light source would need to acquire diffuse reflectances measured at multiple source-detector separations for determining the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of turbid samples. This results in a multi-fiber probe structure and an indefinite probing depth. Here we present a novel DRS method that can utilize a few diffuse reflectances measured at one source-detector separation for recovering the optical properties of samples. The core of innovation is a liquid crystal (LC) cell whose scattering property can be modulated by the bias voltage. By placing the LC cell between the light source and the sample, the spatial distribution of light in the sample can be varied as the scattering property of the LC cell modulated by the bias voltage, and this would induce intensity variation of the collected diffuse reflectance. From a series of Monte Carlo simulations and phantom measurements, we found that this new light distribution modulated DRS (LDM DRS) system was capable of accurately recover the absorption and scattering coefficients of turbid samples and its probing depth only varied by less than 3% over the full bias voltage variation range. Our results suggest that this LDM DRS platform could be developed to various low-cost, efficient, and compact systems for in-vivo superficial tissue investigation. PMID:27375931

  16. Radar reflectivity of titan.

    PubMed

    Muhleman, D O; Grossman, A W; Butler, B J; Slade, M A

    1990-05-25

    The present understanding of the atmosphere and surface conditions on Saturn's largest moon, Titan, including the stability of methane, and an application of thermodynamics leads to a strong prediction of liquid hydrocarbons in an ethane-methane mixture on the surface. Such a surface would have nearly unique microwave reflection properties due to the low dielectric constant. Attempts were made to obtain reflections at a wavelength of 3.5 centimeters by means of a 70-meter antenna in California as the transmitter and the Very Large Array in New Mexico as the receiving instrument. Statistically significant echoes were obtained that show Titan is not covered with a deep, global ocean of ethane, as previously thought. The experiment yielded radar cross sections normalized by the Titan disk of 0.38 +/- 0.15, 0.78 +/- 0.15, and 0.25 +/- 0.15 on three consecutive nights during which the sub-Earth longitude on Titan moved 50 degrees. The result for the combined data for the entire experiment is 0.35 +/- 0.08. The cross sections are very high, most consistent with those of the Galilean satellites; no evidence of the putative liquid ethane was seen in the reflection data. A global ocean as shallow as about 200 meters would have exhibited reflectivities smaller by an order of magnitude, and below the detection limit of the experiment. The measured emissivity at similar wavelengths of about 0.9 is somewhat inconsistent with the high reflectivity.

  17. Photonic structures in biology.

    PubMed

    Vukusic, Pete; Sambles, J Roy

    2003-08-14

    Millions of years before we began to manipulate the flow of light using synthetic structures, biological systems were using nanometre-scale architectures to produce striking optical effects. An astonishing variety of natural photonic structures exists: a species of Brittlestar uses photonic elements composed of calcite to collect light, Morpho butterflies use multiple layers of cuticle and air to produce their striking blue colour and some insects use arrays of elements, known as nipple arrays, to reduce reflectivity in their compound eyes. Natural photonic structures are providing inspiration for technological applications.

  18. Innovating for cash.

    PubMed

    Andrew, James P; Sirkin, Harold L

    2003-09-01

    Despite companies' almost fanatical worship of innovation, most new products don't generate money. That's because executives don't realize that the approach they take to commercializing a new product is as important as the innovation itself. Different approaches can generate very different levels of profit. Companies tend to favor one of three different innovation approaches, each with its own investment profile, profitability pattern, risk profile, and skill requirements. Most organizations are instinctively integrators: They manage all the steps needed to take a product to market themselves. Organizations can also choose to be orchestrators: They focus on some parts of the commercialization process and depend on partners to manage the rest. And finally, companies can be licensers: They sell or license a new product or idea to another organization that handles the commercialization process. Different innovations require different approaches. Selecting the most suitable approach, the authors' research found, often yields two or three times the profits of the least optimal approach. Yet companies tend to rely only on the mode most familiar to them. Executives would do better to take several different factors into account before deciding which tack to take, including the industry they're trying to enter, the specific characteristics of the innovation, and the risks involved in taking the product to market. By doing so, companies can match the approach to the opportunity and reap the maximum profit. Choosing the wrong approach, like Polaroid did, for example, can lead to the failure of both the product and the company. Optimizing their approaches, as Whirlpool has done, helps ensure that companies' innovations make money. PMID:12964395

  19. Nuclear Innovation Workshops Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, John Howard; Allen, Todd Randall; Hildebrandt, Philip Clay; Baker, Suzanne Hobbs

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Innovation Workshops were held at six locations across the United States on March 3-5, 2015. The data collected during these workshops has been analyzed and sorted to bring out consistent themes toward enhancing innovation in nuclear energy. These themes include development of a test bed and demonstration platform, improved regulatory processes, improved communications, and increased public-private partnerships. This report contains a discussion of the workshops and resulting themes. Actionable steps are suggested at the end of the report. This revision has a small amount of the data in Appendix C removed in order to avoid potential confusion.

  20. Unit train loadout innovations

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.L.; Gardner, T.G.

    1993-12-31

    A number of material handling related innovations developed by the coal, rail, and ancillary-type industries are allowing coal mining companies to be highly productive in a very competitive energy market. New technology is rapidly leading to fully automated loading, weighing, identification (reading), and quality control systems for equally new unit trains. The important innovations that have improved in-motion, unit-train coal loading include batch loading systems and coupled-in-motion weighing-feed back systems; top-off loading systems; radio-frequency car tagging (identification); and high speed coupled-in-motion weighing scales.

  1. A Review of Innovation Systems Framework as a Tool for Gendering Agricultural Innovations: Exploring Gender Learning and System Empowerment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingiri, Ann N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To reflect on the opportunities that a systems understanding of innovation provides for addressing gender issues relevant to women, and to provide some insight on how these might be tackled. Approach: Review of literature relating to gender issues and how they relate to achieving, on the one hand, equity and efficiency goals, and on the…

  2. Interference reflection microscopy.

    PubMed

    Barr, Valarie A; Bunnell, Stephen C

    2009-12-01

    Interference reflection microscopy (IRM) is an optical technique used to study cell adhesion or cell mobility on a glass coverslip. The interference of reflected light waves generates images with high contrast and definition. IRM can be used to examine almost any cell that will rest upon a glass surface, although it is most useful in examining sites of close contact between a cell and substratum. This unit presents methods for obtaining IRM images of cells with particular emphasis on IRM imaging with a laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM), as most LSCM are already capable of recording these images without any modification of the instrument. Techniques are presented for imaging fixed and live cells, as well as simultaneous multi-channel capture of fluorescence and reflection images.

  3. Biologic History and the Cardinal Rule of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schopf, J. W.

    2004-12-01

    ,000 Ma ago, they first evolved slowly -- following the Cardinal Rule of Life -- until ˜1,000 Ma ago when sexual reproduction took over. This development markedly speeded the development of new species that could compete, and eventually dominate, in habitats previously owned by their non-sexual prokaryotic ancestors, as evidenced both in the fossil record and by molecular biology-based rRNA phylogenetic trees. The third innovation was cellular differentiation and multicelluarity. Although the "Cambrian Explosion" -- the great radiation of animal life during the Cambrian Period beginning ˜550 Ma ago -- is commonly viewed as reflecting this event, it seems more a continuum than a step-function change. Evolution speeded in the half-billion years between 1,000 Ma ago and the beginning of the Cambrian: phytoplankton gave rise to multicellular seaweeds by ˜850 Ma; and primitive protozoans, present as early as ˜950 Ma, had by ˜600 Ma given rise to soft-bodied multicelled animals. Soon thereafter, animals developed shelly protective armor -- marking the beginning of the Cambrian Period, and thus of the Phanerozoic Eon. The Phanerozoic history of life is familiar to all, from spore-producing to seed-producing to flowering plants, from animals without backbones to fish, land-dwelling vertebrates, then birds and mammals. Plants ("eatees") and animals ("eaters") co-evolved in sequence. Again, life followed the Cardinal Rule, changing little, then evolving rapidly, as new ecologic opportunities became available.

  4. When Theory Meets Practice: What Student Teachers Learn from Guided Reflection on Their Own Classroom Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orland-Barak, Lily; Yinon, Hayuta

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on extant theorizing and research on reflective teaching, this paper discusses the impact of an innovative methods course designed around the activity of student teachers' reflections on their own classroom discourse, for their understandings of the connections between theory and practice. Situated in the context of foreign language…

  5. Blended Delivery and Online Assessment: Scaffolding Student Reflections in Work-Integrated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, Ingrid; Beatson, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This paper documents a teaching innovation addressing the challenges of embedding and assessing reflective practice in work-integrated learning, specifically marketing internships. We identify four issues relating to this problem: lack of knowledge or skill for reflection, limitations of physical journals, facilitation of different forms of…

  6. Promoting and Assessing "Deep Learning" in Geography Fieldwork: An Evaluation of Reflective Field Diaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dummer, Trevor J. B.; Cook, Ian G.; Parker, Sara L.; Barrett, Giles A.; Hull, Andrew P.

    2008-01-01

    Fieldwork is central to teaching and learning in geography. The assessment of student learning from fieldwork can, however, be problematic. This paper evaluates the use of reflective diaries for assessing level three undergraduate geography fieldwork. It is concluded that reflective fieldwork diaries offer an innovative and flexible approach to…

  7. Design for reflection.

    PubMed

    Bagnara, Sebastiano; Pozzi, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Since a few years, a number of academic papers have been proposing to shift from user-centered design to human-centered (or person) design. In this contribution, we discuss as the common tread underlying these works the idea that design should also address the reflective part of our human experience, and not only aim to maximize the experiential aspects. Our review is complemented with examples derived from the internet world and from ICT consumer products. The main research areas we see as promising for the approach of "design for reflection" are: design for pauses, design for detachment, design for serendipity. PMID:22316867

  8. Creativity, brain, and art: biological and neurological considerations.

    PubMed

    Zaidel, Dahlia W

    2014-01-01

    Creativity is commonly thought of as a positive advance for society that transcends the status quo knowledge. Humans display an inordinate capacity for it in a broad range of activities, with art being only one. Most work on creativity's neural substrates measures general creativity, and that is done with laboratory tasks, whereas specific creativity in art is gleaned from acquired brain damage, largely in observing established visual artists, and some in visual de novo artists (became artists after the damage). The verb "to create" has been erroneously equated with creativity; creativity, in the classic sense, does not appear to be enhanced following brain damage, regardless of etiology. The turning to communication through art in lieu of language deficits reflects a biological survival strategy. Creativity in art, and in other domains, is most likely dependent on intact and healthy knowledge and semantic conceptual systems, which are represented in several pathways in the cortex. It is adversely affected when these systems are dysfunctional, for congenital reasons (savant autism) or because of acquired brain damage (stroke, dementia, Parkinson's), whereas inherent artistic talent and skill appear less affected. Clues to the neural substrates of general creativity and specific art creativity can be gleaned from considering that art is produced spontaneously mainly by humans, that there are unique neuroanatomical and neurofunctional organizations in the human brain, and that there are biological antecedents of innovation in animals.

  9. Creativity, brain, and art: biological and neurological considerations

    PubMed Central

    Zaidel, Dahlia W.

    2014-01-01

    Creativity is commonly thought of as a positive advance for society that transcends the status quo knowledge. Humans display an inordinate capacity for it in a broad range of activities, with art being only one. Most work on creativity’s neural substrates measures general creativity, and that is done with laboratory tasks, whereas specific creativity in art is gleaned from acquired brain damage, largely in observing established visual artists, and some in visual de novo artists (became artists after the damage). The verb “to create” has been erroneously equated with creativity; creativity, in the classic sense, does not appear to be enhanced following brain damage, regardless of etiology. The turning to communication through art in lieu of language deficits reflects a biological survival strategy. Creativity in art, and in other domains, is most likely dependent on intact and healthy knowledge and semantic conceptual systems, which are represented in several pathways in the cortex. It is adversely affected when these systems are dysfunctional, for congenital reasons (savant autism) or because of acquired brain damage (stroke, dementia, Parkinson’s), whereas inherent artistic talent and skill appear less affected. Clues to the neural substrates of general creativity and specific art creativity can be gleaned from considering that art is produced spontaneously mainly by humans, that there are unique neuroanatomical and neurofunctional organizations in the human brain, and that there are biological antecedents of innovation in animals. PMID:24917807

  10. SNAB: A New Advanced Level Biology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Of all the sciences, biology has probably made the most rapid progress in recent years and the need for this to be reflected in a new Advanced Level biology course has long been recognised in the UK. After wide-ranging consultation and successful piloting in over 50 schools and colleges in England and Wales, the new Salters-Nuffield Advanced…

  11. Physical Theory in Biology: An Interdisciplinary Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, Charles J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary course which explores the relationships between physics and biology in terms of their conceptual structures and mathematical frameworks. Highlights the course content, its system of cross-disciplinary literature resources, and several innovative aspects of the method used for evaluating students. (Author/GA)

  12. Biological Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Within the framework of global biogeochemical cycles and ocean productivity, there are two areas that will be of particular interest to biological oceanography in the 1990s. The first is the mapping in space time of the biomass and productivity of phytoplankton in the world ocean. The second area is the coupling of biological and physical processes as it affects the distribution and growth rate of phytoplankton biomass. Certainly other areas will be of interest to biological oceanographers, but these two areas are amenable to observations from satellites. Temporal and spatial variability is a regular feature of marine ecosystems. The temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton biomass and productivity which is ubiquitous at all time and space scales in the ocean must be characterized. Remote sensing from satellites addresses these problems with global observations of mesocale (2 to 20 days, 10 to 200 km) features over a long period of time.

  13. Biological preconcentrator

    DOEpatents

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Huber, Dale L.

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  14. Biological monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.

    1984-06-01

    Recent research is reviewed from books, international committees and symposia which describes the usefulness of biological monitoring for exposure to such compounds as organometallic chemicals, carbon monoxide and cyanide. The types of analyses include the following measurements: the concentration of the chemical in various biological media such as blood, urine, and expired air; the concentration of metabolites of the individual chemical in the same media; and determination of nonadverse biological changes resulting from the reaction of the organism to exposure. A main goal of such monitoring is to ensure that the current or past levels of worker exposure are safe, so that such exposure does not involve an unacceptable health risk. It considers routes other than absorption by the lungs and is a good method for evaluating individual exposures.

  15. Biological rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halberg, F.

    1975-01-01

    An overview is given of basic features of biological rhythms. The classification of periodic behavior of physical and psychological characteristics as circadian, circannual, diurnal, and ultradian is discussed, and the notion of relativistic time as it applies in biology is examined. Special attention is given to circadian rhythms which are dependent on the adrenocortical cycle. The need for adequate understanding of circadian variations in the basic physiological indicators of an individual (heart rate, body temperature, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, etc.) to ensure the effectiveness of prophylactic and therapeutic measures is stressed.

  16. Diagnosing Organizational Innovation: Measuring the Capacity for Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cropley, David H.; Cropley, Arthur J.; Chiera, Belinda A.; Kaufman, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Organizational innovation involves reconciling many contradictions or paradoxes. Dividing the process of innovation into phases ranging from Activation to Validation and examining each phase in terms of the six Ps of creativity offers a framework for making sense of these contradictions. The Innovation Phase Assessment Instrument (IPAI) was…

  17. Developing Communities of Innovation by Identifying Innovation Champions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coakes, Elayne; Smith, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose that a form of communities of practice (CoP), a community of innovation (CoInv), is the best support for sustainable innovation. It aims to outline a method for identifying champions of innovation in organisation. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on extant research to argue that…

  18. Everyday Innovation: Ten Practical Tips for Fostering Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkins, Michael

    2006-01-01

    For educators to be successful in teaching students to step up and become tomorrow's innovators, they must become innovators themselves. Enter school leadership. This article provides 10 practical steps any superintendent, principal, or other administrator can take to help make that happen: (1) Go on record; (2) Model innovation; (3) Pollinate;…

  19. The Bradford Papers. Vol. III. Proceedings from the 1982 Institute on Innovations in Camping and Outdoor Education with Persons Who are Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Gary M., Ed.

    Third in a series of papers resulting from the Annual Institute on Innovations in Camping and Outdoor Education with Persons Who are Disabled, this volume consists of 12 articles reflecting innovative efforts to bring exciting outdoor based programs to persons with disabilities. Addressing leadership training, innovative program approaches, and…

  20. Nurturing the Innovative Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, James J.

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the innovative minority. Gifted students differ from the average students. There are those who argue that the differences are a matter merely of quantitative degree reference studies of IQ scores, or SAT scores, which are clearly quantitative scales, and point out that gifted students appear at the top level of these scales…

  1. Realistic Approach to Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Garth C.

    Part of the Omaha police in-service training program was devoted to innovative approaches to solving police department problems and improving community relations. The sessions were an attempt to use the brainstorming technique to elicit new solutions to everyday problems faced by the rank-and-file members of the police department. The report…

  2. Innovation Abstracts, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document is a series of short papers (47) on topics of interest to community college instructors and practitioners. The topics covered in the papers include: study and writing tips for students, teaching strategies and tips, descriptions of innovative programs, using technology in teaching and learning, interacting with students, and…

  3. Equality, Innovation and Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Offers some ideas concerning promotion of gender equality and diversity within European Union-funded programs and activities. Reviews efforts since the 1970s to foster equal access in European schools and universities, examines some principles of innovation and entrepreneurship, and considers stages in diversity policy development. (DB)

  4. Innovation in Administrator Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Don

    An innovative administrator preparation program based on guidelines established by national boards and commissions is described in this paper. The California State University, Fresno, administrator education curriculum was reorganized by faculty and an advisory committee of 11 superintendents to meet the needs of local school districts. The…

  5. Federal Barriers to Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Raegen; Lake, Robin

    2012-01-01

    With educational outcomes inadequate, resources tight, and students' academic needs growing more complex, America's education system is certainly ready for technological innovation. And technology itself is ripe to be exploited. Devices harnessing cheap computing power have become smart and connected. Voice recognition, artificial intelligence,…

  6. Solar Innovator | Alta Devices

    ScienceCinema

    Mattos, Laila; Le, Minh

    2016-07-12

    Selected to participate in the Energy Department's SunShot Initiative, Alta Devices produces solar cells that convert sunlight into electricity at world record-breaking levels of efficiency. Through its innovative solar technology Alta is helping bring down the cost of solar. Learn more about the Energy Department's efforts to advance solar technology at energy.gov/solar .

  7. Investing in Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Governors Association, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Investing in Innovation" provides a snapshot of trends in the states and identifies a wide range of strategies now employed. California's big investments, such as $3 billion for stem cell research, have already grabbed national headlines. But states like Arizona, Indiana and North Dakota, which haven't historically been big research and…

  8. Innovations in Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at historical and recent innovations in law. The first article examines the code of laws developed by the ancient Hebrews which influenced Roman law, English law, and the U.S. Declaration of Independence and Constitution. The second article explores Thomas Jefferson's writing of the Declaration of…

  9. School Libraries and Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Kevin G.

    2015-01-01

    School library programs have measured success by improved test scores. But how do next-generation school libraries demonstrate success as they strive to be centers of innovation and creativity? These libraries offer solutions for school leaders who struggle to restructure existing systems built around traditional silos of learning (subjects and…

  10. Educating for Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, R. Keith

    2006-01-01

    In the last several decades many of the world's most developed countries have shifted from an industrial economy to a knowledge economy, one based on the creation of knowledge, information, and innovation. Educational researchers have paid very little scholarly attention to this economic shift, although it has substantial implications. After all,…

  11. Inclusive Services Innovation Configuration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdheide, Lynn R.; Reschly, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Teacher preparation to deliver inclusive services to students with disabilities is increasingly important because of changes in law and policy emphasizing student access to, and achievement in, the general education curriculum. This innovation configuration identifies the components of inclusive services that should be incorporated in teacher…

  12. 2006 Campus Technology Innovators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campus Technology, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article features the winners of this year's "Campus Technology Innovator" competition. The winners are: (1) Drexel University, Pennsylvania (outsourcing); (2) Darton College, Georgia (3D); (3) Minnesota State Colleges and Universities (ePortfolios); (4) University of Michigan (the Web); (5) University of Tennessee College of Veterinary…

  13. Solar Innovator | Alta Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Mattos, Laila; Le, Minh

    2012-01-01

    Selected to participate in the Energy Department's SunShot Initiative, Alta Devices produces solar cells that convert sunlight into electricity at world record-breaking levels of efficiency. Through its innovative solar technology Alta is helping bring down the cost of solar. Learn more about the Energy Department's efforts to advance solar technology at energy.gov/solar .

  14. Innovation during a Drought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielden, Derrick

    1981-01-01

    The author presents a number of innovative adult education projects which are being developed despite reduced budgets. These include the use of volunteers in language teaching, training for part-time teachers through a self-running staff development program, new course models, and a television program on entrepreneurship. (CT)

  15. Readings in Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gryskiewicz, Stanley S., Ed.; Hills, David A., Ed.

    This book was created to place side by side the ideas of researchers and practitioners concerned with organizational innovation. Included are 18 papers: (1) "Social Environments That Kill Creativity" (Teresa Amabile); (2) "High Creativity versus Low Creativity: What Makes the Difference?" (Teresa Amabile and Sharon Sensabaugh); (3) "Creativity and…

  16. 2007 Campus Technology Innovators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campus Technology, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article profiles the winners of this year's competition for outstanding technology innovation on US college and university campuses. The winners are: (1) Rice University, Texas (virtualized networks); (2) Drexel University, Pennsylvania (rich media); (3) Harvard Business School, Massachusetts (network management); (4) Louisiana State…

  17. Tradition and Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katter, Eldon, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    "The articles in this issue were selected because, in one way or another, they all touched on the notion of tradition and innovation." Storytelling and tribal dances are examples of past, traditional methods of passing cultural knowledge from elders to youth. Contemporary youth have replaced tradtional rites of passage with their own inventions…

  18. 2008 Campus Technology Innovators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campus Technology, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This article features the 14 winners of the 2008 Campus Technology Innovators. This article offers an insider's view of the winners' campus technology initiatives, their project leads, and vendor partners jointly recognized for a unique ability to advance teaching, learning, administration, and operation on North American college and university…

  19. Tradition and Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Honors programs and colleges are sources of innovation and risk-taking, but they often maintain some roots in the origins of their home institutions. From its founding in 1913, when a small group of businessmen gathered to formally study business, to 2015 when that Evening School of Commerce had grown to a vibrant 32,000-student research…

  20. Science and Technological Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Ernest

    1979-01-01

    This article is based on a presentation at the 1979 conference of the Education Group of The Institute of Physics which was held in Cambridge, England. It discusses the interaction between science and technological innovation using a historical approach: the development of microelectronics. (HM)

  1. Drive Innovation Faster.

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, Douglas K.

    2005-08-01

    Authored article by Doug Lemon. An expert opinion/thought piece on how PNNL approaches R&D projects, incorporating IP protection earlier in the process of innovation to shorten the development timeline. Article cites example of SMART program to illustrate point.

  2. Innovation Can Be Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cankar, Stanka Setnikar; Cankar, Franc

    2013-01-01

    A two-year project was organised to promote creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship for young people in eight Slovenian regions. The project's aim was to train teacher-mentors, who then trained pupils and worked with them and local community representatives to carry out projects. The paper presents the findings of a project that monitored the…

  3. TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS AND SOCIETY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MORSE, DEAN; WARNER, AARON W.

    THE PAPERS AND DISCUSSIONS IN THIS BOOK REPRESENT THE DELIBERATIONS OF THE 1964-65 COLUMBIA SEMINAR OF TECHNOLOGY AND SOCIAL CHANGE IN WHICH, DURING REGULAR MONTHLY MEETINGS THROUGHOUT THE ACADEMIC YEAR, A DIVERSE GROUP OF PHYSICAL SCIENTISTS, SOCIAL SCIENTISTS, BUSINESS LEADERS, AND PUBLIC OFFICIALS ATTEMPED TO RELATE TECHNOLOGY TO INNOVATION AND…

  4. Theme: Innovative Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, David M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "Risking the Future" (Coffey); "Breaking Tradition" (Paynton); "Sustainable Farm Plan Activity" (Vahoviak et al.); "Curriculum Integration and Ornamental Horticulture" (Clark); "Ties That Bind" (Barden et al.); "Building Capacity for an Innovative Elementary Agriscience Curriculum" (Trexler); "Aquaculture Is Agriculture" (Mooring, Hoyle);…

  5. Interactive Reflective Logs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Cynthia Minchew; Deaton, Benjamin E.; Leland, Katina

    2010-01-01

    The authors created an interactive reflective log (IRL) to provide teachers with an opportunity to use a journal approach to record, evaluate, and communicate student understanding of science concepts. Unlike a traditional journal, the IRL incorporates prompts to encourage students to discuss their understanding of science content and science…

  6. Renew, Reflect, and Refresh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    Is that the sound of the last bus leaving the schoolyard? Or the staff's collective sigh of relief? School's out. Now it's time to nurture the lifelong learner deep inside with a summer reading list that will allow teachers to renew, reflect, and refresh. The National Science Education Standards reminds us, "Becoming an effective science teacher…

  7. Reflections: Children and Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Cianciolo, Patricia J.

    1980-01-01

    Six educational leaders--Patricia J. Cianciolo, Lee Bennett Hopkins, Nancy Larrick, Alan C. Purves, Morton Schindel, and James R. Squire--offer reflections on signficiant developments in children's literature during the 1970s, their hopes for the 1980s, and references that constitute required reading for elementary language arts teachers. (ET)

  8. Lights, Camera, Reflection!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mourlam, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    There are many ways to critique teaching, but few are more effective than video. Personal reflection through the use of video allows one to see what really happens in the classrooms--good and bad--and provides a visual path forward for improvement, whether it be in one's teaching, work with a particular student, or learning environment. This…

  9. Reflections on 1972

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Ramon A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author reflects on the events that took place in the year 1972. The author was a junior at the University of New Mexico back then, refusing to eat or buy grapes and lettuce, picketing grocers who did not carry United Farm Workers of America produce. He and his buddies cast their votes against granting Richard Nixon a second…

  10. Clinical Linguistics: Conversational Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crystal, David

    2013-01-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference…

  11. Reflections, 15 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, George

    2016-01-01

    George Knox reflects on his 15-year career as president of Labette Community College in Parsons, Kansas. Knox writes that, as a first-time president coming into a brand new system, he was very fortunate to have many seasoned presidents and mentors in Kansas and from the American Association of Community Colleges' (AACC) Presidents Academy. He says…

  12. Reflections on "La Esperanza"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortez, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The author was recently asked to reflect on her "educational journey." As far as she can remember she has been hungry to learn. A friend once described her as having "hambres atrasadas," which he described as a kind of "hunger nipping at her heels." It goes back, of course, to her parents: Her father's and her early journeys scavenging the Wyoming…

  13. Reflecting on Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Rudolf V.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a two-day optics laboratory activity that investigates the scientific phenomenon of reflection, which students are generally familiar with but usually have not studied in depth. This investigation can be used on its own or as part of a larger unit on optics. This lesson encourages students to think critically and…

  14. Reflecting on Writing Autobiography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begg, Andy

    2011-01-01

    The following reflections relate to the reasons for and an approach to an autobiographic task, the notions that underpin it, and some thoughts about the quality and value of such a project. The focus was on the ways one views curriculum change over time; and the intention was to provide an example that others may sense as either familiar or at…

  15. Reflective Database Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lars E.

    2009-01-01

    "Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…

  16. Reflection by Porro Prisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2010-04-01

    Students all know that reflection from a plane mirror produces an image that is reversed right to left and so cannot be read by anyone but Leonardo da Vinci, who kept his notes in mirror writing. A useful counter-example is the Porro prism, which produces an image that is not reversed.

  17. Reflecting through Peshkin's I's

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Reflection is an appropriate way of accounting for professional practice and is a standard way in which one can "become better acquainted with one's own story". Defining "subjectivity" as "the quality of an investigator that affects the results of observational investigation", Peshkin highlights the requirement for any observer of, or participant…

  18. First Amendment Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Offers seven reflections on the First Amendment and related issues by attorneys, a professor, project directors, and a university president. Highlights an activity where pairs of students prepare either a pro or con argument for each of the seven excerpts and then participate in a debate. (CMK)

  19. Reflections on "Higher Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Felix

    1974-01-01

    The elitist, professional, and philosophical elements of higher education are reflected upon with stress on the differences between higher education and higher learning, where education is concerned with giving wider groups a share in a broad image of man, and learning is concerned with increasing specialization. (JH)

  20. Adaptive evolution of complex innovations through stepwise metabolic niche expansion.

    PubMed

    Szappanos, Balázs; Fritzemeier, Jonathan; Csörgő, Bálint; Lázár, Viktória; Lu, Xiaowen; Fekete, Gergely; Bálint, Balázs; Herczeg, Róbert; Nagy, István; Notebaart, Richard A; Lercher, Martin J; Pál, Csaba; Papp, Balázs

    2016-01-01

    A central challenge in evolutionary biology concerns the mechanisms by which complex metabolic innovations requiring multiple mutations arise. Here, we propose that metabolic innovations accessible through the addition of a single reaction serve as stepping stones towards the later establishment of complex metabolic features in another environment. We demonstrate the feasibility of this hypothesis through three complementary analyses. First, using genome-scale metabolic modelling, we show that complex metabolic innovations in Escherichia coli can arise via changing nutrient conditions. Second, using phylogenetic approaches, we demonstrate that the acquisition patterns of complex metabolic pathways during the evolutionary history of bacterial genomes support the hypothesis. Third, we show how adaptation of laboratory populations of E. coli to one carbon source facilitates the later adaptation to another carbon source. Our work demonstrates how complex innovations can evolve through series of adaptive steps without the need to invoke non-adaptive processes. PMID:27197754

  1. Helicopter/Rover Innovation Project

    NASA Video Gallery

    This successful innovation project at the Johnson Space Center was born from some Orion engineers and then joined by engineers from other programs. The innovation teams creation can save funds and ...

  2. UK businesses bag innovation awards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Five UK firms have received innovation awards from the Institute of Physics (IOP), which publishes Physics World. Hallmarq Veterinary Imaging, Metrasens, M Squared Lasers, Silixa and Tracerco have all won an IOP award for developing new innovative products.

  3. The Epistemology of Innovator Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, W. C., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    This satire reports an imaginary research study which found three motivations for educational innovation: money, happiness, and garlic. The article facetiously traces the careers of three innovators: the director of an institute, a government official, and a popular writer. (SJL)

  4. Phenotypic Variability in Synthetic Biology Applications: Dealing with Noise in Microbial Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Bandiera, Lucia; Furini, Simone; Giordano, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    The stochasticity due to the infrequent collisions among low copy-number molecules within the crowded cellular compartment is a feature of living systems. Single cell variability in gene expression within an isogenic population (i.e., biological noise) is usually described as the sum of two independent components: intrinsic and extrinsic stochasticity. Intrinsic stochasticity arises from the random occurrence of events inherent to the gene expression process (e.g., the burst-like synthesis of mRNA and protein molecules). Extrinsic fluctuations reflect the state of the biological system and its interaction with the intra and extracellular environments (e.g., concentration of available polymerases, ribosomes, metabolites, and micro-environmental conditions). A better understanding of cellular noise would help synthetic biologists design gene circuits with well-defined functional properties. In silico modeling has already revealed several aspects of the network topology’s impact on noise properties; this information could drive the selection of biological parts and the design of reliably engineered pathways. Importantly, while optimizing artificial gene circuitry for industrial applications, synthetic biology could also elucidate the natural mechanisms underlying natural phenotypic variability. In this review, we briefly summarize the functional roles of noise in unicellular organisms and address their relevance to synthetic network design. We will also consider how noise might influence the selection of network topologies supporting reliable functions, and how the variability of cellular events might be exploited when designing innovative biotechnology applications. PMID:27092132

  5. Scaffolded biology.

    PubMed

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology. PMID:27287514

  6. Bottle Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jager, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Describes activities which utilize plastic drink bottles and are designed to foster the development of a wide range of biological and ecological concepts. Includes instructions for making a model compost column and presents a model that illustrates open versus closed ecosystems. (DDR)

  7. Biologic Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    ADAMS, KATHERINE T.

    2009-01-01

    The threat of new disease pandemics has spurred the development of biologic vaccines, which promise tremendous improvements in global and local health. Several lend themselves to the prevention or treatment of chronic diseases. But the uncertainties of whom to vaccinate raise the question of whether the health care system can make these promising products viable. PMID:22478749

  8. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Organized by topic is a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Described are experiments for measuring rate of water uptake in a shoot; questions to aid students in designing experiments; rise of overhead projection to demonstrate osmosis and blood cell counting; and microbial manufacture of vinegar. (CS)

  9. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Describes equipment, activities, and experiments useful in biology and environmental education instruction, including, among others, sampling in ecology using an overhead projector, the slide finder as an aid to microscopy, teaching kidney function, and teaching wildlife conservation-sand dune systems. (SK)

  10. Biology Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes nine biology experiments, including osmosis, genetics; oxygen content of blood, enzymes in bean seedlings, preparation of bird skins, vascularization in bean seedlings, a game called "sequences" (applied to review situations), crossword puzzle for human respiration, and physiology of the woodlouse. (CS)

  11. Scaffolded biology.

    PubMed

    Minelli, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology.

  12. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including water relation exercise on auxin-treated artichoke tuber tissue; aerobic respiration in yeast; an improved potometer; use of mobiles in biological classification, and experiments on powdery mildews and banana polyphenol oxidase. Includes reading lists…

  13. (Biological dosimetry)

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.J.

    1990-12-17

    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  14. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines a variety of laboratory procedures, techniques, and materials including construction of a survey frame for field biology, a simple tidal system, isolation and applications of plant protoplasts, tropisms, teaching lung structure, and a key to statistical methods for biologists. (DS)

  15. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents content information and/or laboratory procedures and experiments on different biology topics including small-scale cultivation of watercress and its use in water-culture experiments, microbiology of the phylloplane, use of mouthbrooders in science class, and the gene. (DC)

  16. Biology Notes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Science Review, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents information on the teaching of nutrition (including new information relating to many current O-level syllabi) and part 16 of a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Also includes a note on using earthworms as a source of material for teaching meiosis. (JN)

  17. Sverdrup's Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, J.

    2002-12-01

    Sverdrup's contribution to Biological Oceanography were more than merely substantial, they were of fundamental importance. His plan for the training of graduate students at Scripps did not recognize the traditional division of the basic disciplines into separate categories of physics, chemistry, biology and geology. He insisted that Oceanography was a multi-disciplinary subject and that all entering students should study all four subjects. Today this is not very unusual but it was in the early 50s when I took those courses. We biologists carried away from those courses an appreciation of the importance of both spatial and temporal scale. It was of clear relevance to problems of oceanic population and community biology. But there was still more to his biology. He is responsible for a very simple, but very elegant model of the regulation of oceanic primary productivity. The elements of this model are found today in the ten or so highly derivative models. He also published a map predicting global ocean productivity based on the ideas in the model plus some wonderfully intuitive thinking. This map does not differ strongly from those glorious false color ones being published today.

  18. Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  19. Cancer Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominiecki, Mary E.

    2004-01-01

    University of Colorado's Virtual Student Fellowship available at and developed by Bakemeier, Richard F. This website is designed to give students applying for a fellowship an overview of basic topics in biology and how they are used by cancer researchers to develop new treatments.

  20. 75 FR 59685 - Office of Innovation and Entrepreneurship; the National Advisory Council on Innovation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Office of Innovation and Entrepreneurship; the National Advisory Council on Innovation and Entrepreneurship: National Advisory Council on Innovation and Entrepreneurship AGENCY: Office of Innovation and... Committee on Innovation and Entrepreneurship will hold a meeting via conference call on Tuesday, October...

  1. Shared learning in an interconnected world: innovations to advance global health equity.

    PubMed

    Binagwaho, Agnes; Nutt, Cameron T; Mutabazi, Vincent; Karema, Corine; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Gasana, Michel; Drobac, Peter C; Rich, Michael L; Uwaliraye, Parfait; Nyemazi, Jean Pierre; Murphy, Michael R; Wagner, Claire M; Makaka, Andrew; Ruton, Hinda; Mody, Gita N; Zurovcik, Danielle R; Niconchuk, Jonathan A; Mugeni, Cathy; Ngabo, Fidele; Ngirabega, Jean de Dieu; Asiimwe, Anita; Farmer, Paul E

    2013-01-01

    The notion of "reverse innovation"--that some insights from low-income countries might offer transferable lessons for wealthier contexts--is increasingly common in the global health and business strategy literature. Yet the perspectives of researchers and policymakers in settings where these innovations are developed have been largely absent from the discussion to date. In this Commentary, we present examples of programmatic, technological, and research-based innovations from Rwanda, and offer reflections on how the global health community might leverage innovative partnerships for shared learning and improved health outcomes in all countries.

  2. Shared learning in an interconnected world: innovations to advance global health equity.

    PubMed

    Binagwaho, Agnes; Nutt, Cameron T; Mutabazi, Vincent; Karema, Corine; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Gasana, Michel; Drobac, Peter C; Rich, Michael L; Uwaliraye, Parfait; Nyemazi, Jean Pierre; Murphy, Michael R; Wagner, Claire M; Makaka, Andrew; Ruton, Hinda; Mody, Gita N; Zurovcik, Danielle R; Niconchuk, Jonathan A; Mugeni, Cathy; Ngabo, Fidele; Ngirabega, Jean de Dieu; Asiimwe, Anita; Farmer, Paul E

    2013-01-01

    The notion of "reverse innovation"--that some insights from low-income countries might offer transferable lessons for wealthier contexts--is increasingly common in the global health and business strategy literature. Yet the perspectives of researchers and policymakers in settings where these innovations are developed have been largely absent from the discussion to date. In this Commentary, we present examples of programmatic, technological, and research-based innovations from Rwanda, and offer reflections on how the global health community might leverage innovative partnerships for shared learning and improved health outcomes in all countries. PMID:24119388

  3. Reflecting on Lab Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Jeffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    The National Science Education Standards (NSES) and the Biological Science Curriculum Study (BSCS) address the need for teachers to move classrooms toward an inquiry approach to learning. Currently, there is movement toward a new structure for science standards, the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). In this article, I will take the five…

  4. Innovation Learning in Comprehensive Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindfors, Eila; Hilmola, Antti

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this article is to clarify the concept of innovation and by presenting a research on the basic education outcome assessment data from an innovation learning perspective, answer to a question: Do students learn innovation in comprehensive education? The empirical information in this research is based on data collected in the national…

  5. Separations innovative concepts: Project summary

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, V.E.

    1988-05-01

    This project summary includes the results of 10 innovations that were funded under the US Department's Innovative Concept Programs. The concepts address innovations that can substantially reduce the energy used in industrial separations. Each paper describes the proposed concept, and discusses the concept's potential energy savings, market applications, technical feasibility, prior work and state of the art, and future development needs.

  6. Innovating Traditional Nursing Administration Challenges.

    PubMed

    Joseph, M Lindell; Fowler, Debra

    2016-03-01

    The evolving and complex practice environment calls for new mindsets among nurse leaders, academics, and nurse innovators to envision innovative ways to manage and optimize traditional tasks and processes in nursing administration. The purpose of this article is to present 3 case studies that used linear programming and simulation to innovate staffing enterprises, financial management of healthcare systems, and curricula development.

  7. Campus Technology Innovators Awards 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Meg; Raths, David

    2010-01-01

    Each year in judging the Campus Technology Innovators awards, the authors have the privilege of reading through hundreds of fascinating examples of technology innovation on campus. Nominated projects cover the gamut of technology areas, from assessment and advising to wireless and web 2.0. This article presents 11 innovator award winners of this…

  8. Innovation and Teaching in Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieuwenhuis, Loek F. M.

    2002-01-01

    Two case studies were conducted: (1) linear innovation through technology diffusion in Dutch agriculture and (2) knowledge sources and learning processes of Dutch farmer- entrepreneurs. Learning and innovation were central to entrepreneurship. Innovative learning involved balancing the chaos of uncertainty and the status quo of experience.…

  9. Innovating Traditional Nursing Administration Challenges.

    PubMed

    Joseph, M Lindell; Fowler, Debra

    2016-03-01

    The evolving and complex practice environment calls for new mindsets among nurse leaders, academics, and nurse innovators to envision innovative ways to manage and optimize traditional tasks and processes in nursing administration. The purpose of this article is to present 3 case studies that used linear programming and simulation to innovate staffing enterprises, financial management of healthcare systems, and curricula development. PMID:26906516

  10. Innovation in healthcare team feedback.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Christine; Beard, Leslie; Fonzo, Anthony Di; Tommaso, Michael Di; Mujawaz, Yaman; Serra-Julia, Marcel; Morra, Dante

    2011-01-01

    Healthcare delivery is evolving from individual, autonomous practice to collaborative team practice. However, barriers such as professional autonomy, time constraints and the perception of error as failure preclude learning behaviours that can facilitate organizational learning and improvement. Although experimentation, engaging in questions and feedback, discussing errors and reflecting on results can facilitate learning and promote effective performance, the cultural barriers within healthcare can prevent or inhibit this type of behaviour among teams. At the University Health Network's Centre for Innovation in Complex Care, we realize the need for a tool that facilitates learning behaviour and is sensitive to the risk-averse nature of the clinical environment. The vehicle for the Team Feedback Tool is a web-based application called Rypple (www.rypple.com), which allows team members to provide anonymous, rapid-fire feedback on team processes and performance. Rypple facilitates communication, elicits feedback and provokes discussion. The process enables follow-up face-to-face team discussions and encourages teams to create actionable solutions for incremental changes to enhance team health and performance. The Team Feedback Tool was implemented and piloted in general internal medicine at the University Health Network's Toronto General Hospital from early May 2009 to July 2009 to address the issues of teamwork and learning behaviour in the clinical environment. This article explores the opportunities and barriers associated with the implementation of the Team Feedback Tool. PMID:21841396

  11. Convergent Validity of Four Innovativeness Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Ronald E.

    1986-01-01

    Four scales of innovativeness were administered to two samples of undergraduate students: the Open Processing Scale, Innovativeness Scale, innovation subscale of the Jackson Personality Inventory, and Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory. Intercorrelations indicated the scales generally exhibited convergent validity. (GDC)

  12. Preeclampsia – Will Orphan Drug Status Facilitate Innovative Biological Therapies?

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Sinuhe

    2015-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the development of novel therapies to treat pregnancy-related disorders, such as preeclampsia, is hampered by the paucity of research funding. Hence, it is with great interest to become aware of at least three novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of this disorder: exploiting either the anticoagulant activity of antithrombin, the free radical scavenging activity of alpha-1-microglobulin, or the regenerative capacity of placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells. As these projects are being carried out by small biotech enterprises, the question arises of how they are able to fund such undertakings. A novel strategy adopted by two of these companies is that they successfully petitioned US and EU agencies in order that preeclampsia is accepted in the register of rare or orphan diseases. This provides a number of benefits including market exclusivity, assistance with clinical trials, and dedicated funding schemes. Other strategies to supplement meager research funds, especially to test novel approaches, could be crowdfunding, a venture that relies on intimate interaction with advocacy groups. In other words, preeclampsia meets Facebook. Perhaps similar strategies can be adopted to examine novel therapies targeting either the imbalance in pro- or anti-angiogenic growth factors, complement activation, reduced levels of placenta protein 13, or excessive neutrophil activation evident in preeclampsia. PMID:25767802

  13. Preeclampsia - will orphan drug status facilitate innovative biological therapies?

    PubMed

    Hahn, Sinuhe

    2015-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the development of novel therapies to treat pregnancy-related disorders, such as preeclampsia, is hampered by the paucity of research funding. Hence, it is with great interest to become aware of at least three novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of this disorder: exploiting either the anticoagulant activity of antithrombin, the free radical scavenging activity of alpha-1-microglobulin, or the regenerative capacity of placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells. As these projects are being carried out by small biotech enterprises, the question arises of how they are able to fund such undertakings. A novel strategy adopted by two of these companies is that they successfully petitioned US and EU agencies in order that preeclampsia is accepted in the register of rare or orphan diseases. This provides a number of benefits including market exclusivity, assistance with clinical trials, and dedicated funding schemes. Other strategies to supplement meager research funds, especially to test novel approaches, could be crowdfunding, a venture that relies on intimate interaction with advocacy groups. In other words, preeclampsia meets Facebook. Perhaps similar strategies can be adopted to examine novel therapies targeting either the imbalance in pro- or anti-angiogenic growth factors, complement activation, reduced levels of placenta protein 13, or excessive neutrophil activation evident in preeclampsia.

  14. Innovative quantum technologies for microgravity fundamental physics and biological research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kierk, I.; Israelsson, U.; Lee, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new technology program, within the fundamental physics research program, focusing on four quantum technology areas: quantum atomics, quantum optics, space superconductivity and quantum sensor technology, and quantum fluid based sensor and modeling technology.

  15. Innovative quantum technologies for microgravity fundamental physics and biological research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kierk, I. K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new technology program, within the fundamental physics, focusing on four quantum technology areas: quantum atomics, quantum optics, space superconductivity and quantum sensor technology, and quantum field based sensor and modeling technology.

  16. Innovation, Research and Professional Development in Higher Education: Learning from Our Own Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Leonor Margalef; Roblin, Natalie Pareja

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses an innovative experience carried out by a group of lecturers from the Psychopedagogy Faculty of the University of Alcala, involved in an action research process with the purpose of reflecting about our own practice and constructing alternative teaching strategies to facilitate students' reflective, autonomous and…

  17. Entrepreneurial Educators: A Narrative Study Examining Entrepreneurial Educators in Launching Innovative Practices for K-12 Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimmel, Ian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the entrepreneurial orientation reflected in the experiences of seasoned entrepreneurial educators as they reflect on the development of their innovative practices. The researcher used the Entrepreneurial Orientation of Lumpkin and Dess (1996) as a theoretical lens to accompany interpretive research…

  18. Crowding of biological motion stimuli.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Hanako; Watanabe, Katsumi; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    It is difficult to identify a target in the peripheral visual field when it is flanked by distractors. In the present study, we investigated this "crowding" effect for biological motion stimuli. Three walking biological motion stimuli were presented horizontally in the periphery with various distances between them, and observers reported the walking direction of the central figure. When the inter-walker distance was small, discriminating the direction became difficult. Moreover, the reported direction for the central target was not simply noisier, but reflected a degree of pooling of the three directions from the target and two flankers. However, when the two flanking distractors were scrambled walking biological motion stimuli, crowding was not seen. This result suggests that the crowding of biological motion stimuli occurs at a high-level of motion perception.

  19. Normal-reflection image

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, L.; Fehler, Michael C.

    2003-01-01

    Common-angle wave-equation migration using the double-square-root is generally less accurate than the common-shot migration because the wavefield continuation equation for thc former involves additional approximations compared to that for the latter. We present a common-angle wave-equation migration that has the same accuracy as common-shot wave-equation migration. An image obtained from common-angle migration is a four- to five-dimensional output volume for 3D cases. We propose a normal-reflection imaging condition for common-angle migration to produce a 3D output volume for 3D migration. The image is closely related to the normal-reflection coefficients at interfaces. This imaging condition will allow amplitude-preserving migration to generate an image with clear physical meaning.

  20. Trifid reflection nebulae

    SciTech Connect

    Lynds, B.T.; Oneil, E.J. Jr.

    1986-11-01

    CCD frames of reflected starlight in the blue continuum, 4693 A, associated with the Trifid emission nebulae have been used to deduce the optical depth, albedo, and phase function of the dust grains. The northern component of the Trifid, centered on the supergiant HD 164514, apparently has grains of higher albedo than those associated with the southern O star HD 164492A. IRAS data add further arguments to the assumption that the northern reflection nebula is illuminated by the supergiant, and that the dust grains surrounding the O star have a higher grain temperature. The entire complex is probably part of the Sgr OB I association and the short lifetime of the association puts constraints on the manner in which the properties of the grains can be modified by associated young stars. 26 references.

  1. The Trifid reflection nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynds, Beverly T.; Oneil, Earl J., Jr.

    1986-11-01

    CCD frames of reflected starlight in the blue continuum, λ 4693, associated with the Trifid emission nebulae have been used to deduce the optical depth, albedo, and phase function of the dust grains. The northern component of the Trifid, centered on the supergiant HD 164514, apparently has grains of higher albedo than those associated with the southern O star HD 164492A. IRAS data add further arguments to the assumption that the northern reflection nebula is illuminated by the supergiant and that the dust grains surrounding the O star have a higher grain temperature. The entire complex is probably part of the Sgr OB I association and the short lifetime of the association puts constraints on the manner in which the properties of the grains can be modified by associated young stars.

  2. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    PubMed

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  3. Landsat surface reflectance data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Landsat satellite data have been produced, archived, and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey since 1972. Users rely on these data for historical study of land surface change and require consistent radiometric data processed to the highest science standards. In support of the guidelines established through the Global Climate Observing System, the U.S. Geological Survey has embarked on production of higher-level Landsat data products to support land surface change studies. One such product is Landsat surface reflectance.

  4. Innovation in Health Care Delivery.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Alok D; Schroeder, Gregory D; West, Michael E; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2016-02-01

    As reimbursement transitions from a volume-based to a value-based system, innovation in health care delivery will be needed. The process of innovation begins with framing the problem that needs to be solved along with the strategic vision that has to be achieved. Similar to scientific testing, a hypothesis is generated for a new solution to a problem. Innovation requires conducting a disciplined form of experimentation and then learning from the process. This manuscript will discuss the different types of innovation, and the key steps necessary for successful innovation in the health care field.

  5. Teaching Innovation Through Undergraduate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenberger, John R.

    2012-02-01

    A three-year investigation into the use of ongoing research programs to incubate innovative behavior among undergraduates is underway. Inspired by the 2005 report, Rising Above the Gathering Storm, this investigation embraces the claim that more innovation in the US should help arrest the current slippage in US competitiveness. Believing that the development of approaches to teach innovation is timely, physicists at Lawrence University are employing a five-step strategy that spans ten summer weeks to boost innovative attitudes and behavior among physics majors. We are also attempting to inculcate fifteen character traits associated with successful innovators. Recent progress in this investigation will be discussed.

  6. Computational Systems Biology

    SciTech Connect

    McDermott, Jason E.; Samudrala, Ram; Bumgarner, Roger E.; Montogomery, Kristina; Ireton, Renee

    2009-05-01

    mRNA) and metabolomics. With such tools, research to consider systems as a whole are being conceived, planned and implemented experimentally on an ever more frequent and wider scale. The other is the growth of computational processing power and tools. Methods to analyze large data sets of this kind are often computationally demanding and, as is the case in other areas, the field has benefited from continuing improvements in computational hardware and methods. The field of computational biology is very much like a telescope with two sequential lenses: one lens represents the biological data and the other represents a computational and/or mathematical model of the data. Both lenses must be properly coordinated to yield an image that reflects biological reality. This means that the design parameters for both lenses must be designed in concert to create a system that yields a model of the organism that provides both predictive and mechanistic information. The chapters in this book describe the construction of subcomponents of such a system. Computational systems biology is a rapidly evolving field and no single group of investigators has yet developed a compete system that integrates both data generation and data analysis in such a way so as to allow full and accurate modeling of any single biological organism. However, the field is rapidly moving in that direction. The chapters in this book represent a snapshot of the current methods being developed and used in the area of computational systems biology. Each method or database described within represents one or more steps on the path to a complete description of a biological system. How these tools will evolve and ultimately be integrated is an area of intense research and interest. We hope that readers of this book will be motivated by the chapters within and become involved in this exciting area of research.

  7. IKK Biology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fei; Xia, Yifeng; Parker, Aaron S.; Verma, Inder M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB (IκB) kinase (IKK) complex is the master regulator of the NF-κB signaling pathway. The activation of the IKK complex is a tightly regulated, highly stimulus-specific, and target-specific event that is essential for the plethora of functions attributed to NF-κB. More recently, NF-κB independent roles of IKK members have brought increased complexity to its biological function. This review highlights some of the major advances in the studies of the process of IKK activation and the biological roles of IKK family members, with a focus on NF-κB independent functions. Understanding these complex processes is essential for targeting IKK for therapeutics. PMID:22435559

  8. Blazing the Innovation Trail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhamer, B.

    2000-05-01

    Over the years, IDEAS has pioneered the education and public outreach arena in astronomy and space science. As a result, a collection of innovative education and public outreach programs has emerged across the United States. These programs have taken astronomy and space science information and, through new, sometimes unusual, but mostly creative processes, transformed it into engaging activities and lessons that not only grab the interest of the students but helps them understand concepts and principals in astronomy and space science. This poster session will bring some of these innovative programs to the AAS community to show some of the things being done in education and public outreach. We will also present some techniques on developing program evaluations.

  9. Teaching Reflection Seismic Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forel, D.; Benz, T.; Pennington, W. D.

    2004-12-01

    Without pictures, it is difficult to give students a feeling for wave propagation, transmission, and reflection. Even with pictures, wave propagation is still static to many. However, when students use and modify scripts that generate wavefronts and rays through a geologic model that they have modified themselves, we find that students gain a real feeling for wave propagation. To facilitate teaching 2-D seismic reflection data processing (from acquisition through migration) to our undergraduate and graduate Reflection Seismology students, we use Seismic Un*x (SU) software. SU is maintained and distributed by Colorado School of Mines, and it is freely available (at www.cwp.mines.edu/cwpcodes). Our approach includes use of synthetic and real seismic data, processing scripts, and detailed explanation of the scripts. Our real data were provided by Gregory F. Moore of the University of Hawaii. This approach can be used by any school at virtually no expense for either software or data, and can provide students with a sound introduction to techniques used in processing of reflection seismic data. The same software can be used for other purposes, such as research, with no additional expense. Students who have completed a course using SU are well equipped to begin using it for research, as well. Scripts for each processing step are supplied and explained to the students. Our detailed description of the scripts means students do not have to know anything about SU to start. Experience with the Unix operating system is preferable but not necessary -- our notes include Computer Hints to help the beginner work with the Unix operating system. We include several examples of synthetic model building, acquiring shot gathers through synthetic models, sorting shot gathers to CMP gathers, gain, 1-D frequency filtering, f-k filtering, deconvolution, semblance displays and velocity analysis, flattening data (NMO), stacking the CMPs, and migration. We use two real (marine) data sets. One

  10. Crusts: biological

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, Jayne; Elias, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Biological soil crusts, a community of cyanobacteria, lichens, mosses, and fungi, are an essential part of dryland ecosystems. They are critical in the stabilization of soils, protecting them from wind and water erosion. Similarly, these soil surface communities also stabilized soils on early Earth, allowing vascular plants to establish. They contribute nitrogen and carbon to otherwise relatively infertile dryland soils, and have a strong influence on hydrologic cycles. Their presence can also influence vascular plant establishment and nutrition.

  11. Ethical issues in surgical innovation.

    PubMed

    Miller, Megan E; Siegler, Mark; Angelos, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Innovation is responsible for most advances in the field of surgery. Innovative approaches to solving clinical problems have significantly decreased morbidity and mortality for many surgical procedures, and have led to improved patient outcomes. While innovation is motivated by the surgeon's expectation that the new approach will be beneficial to patients, not all innovations are successful or result in improved patient care. The ethical dilemma of surgical innovation lies in the uncertainty of whether a particular innovation will prove to be a "good thing." This uncertainty creates challenges for surgeons, patients, and the healthcare system. By its very nature, innovation introduces a potential risk to patient safety, a risk that may not be fully known, and it simultaneously fosters an optimism bias. These factors increase the complexity of informed consent and shared decision making for the surgeon and the patient. Innovative procedures and their associated technology raise issues of cost and resource distribution in the contemporary, financially conscious, healthcare environment. Surgeons and institutions must identify and address conflicts of interest created by the development and application of an innovation, always preserving the best interest of the patient above the academic or financial rewards of success. Potential strategies to address the challenges inherent in surgical innovation include collecting and reporting objective outcomes data, enhancing the informed consent process, and adhering to the principles of disclosure and professionalism. As surgeons, we must encourage creativity and innovation while maintaining our ethical awareness and responsibility to patients.

  12. Marine biology

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  13. Innovations in mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Branson, Richard D; Johannigman, Jay A

    2009-07-01

    New features of mechanical ventilators are frequently introduced, including new modes, monitoring techniques, and triggering techniques. But new rarely translates into any measureable improvement in outcome. We describe 4 new techniques and attempt to define what is a new invention versus what is innovative-a technique that significantly improves a measurable variable. We describe and review the literature on automated weaning, automated measurement of functional residual capacity, neural triggering, and novel displays of respiratory mechanics. PMID:19558743

  14. Small Business Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of QASE RT is to enable system analysts and software engineers to evaluate performance and reliability implications of design alternatives. The program resulted from two Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) projects. After receiving a description of the system architecture and workload from the user, QASE RT translates the system description into simulation models and executes them. Simulation provides detailed performance evaluation. The results of the evaluations are service and response times, offered load and device utilizations and functional availability.

  15. Small Business Innovations (MISER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lightwave Electronics Corporation, Mountain View, CA, developed the Series 120 and 122 non-planner diode pumped ring lasers based on a low noise ring laser with voltage tuning that they delivered to Jet Propulsion Laboratory under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The voltage tuning feature allows "phase-locking" the lasers, making them "electronic," similar to radio and microwave electronic oscillators. The Series 120 and 122 can be applied to fiber sensing, coherent communications and laser radar.

  16. Small Business Innovations (Photodetector)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Epitaxx, Inc. of Princeton, NJ, developed the Epitaxx Near Infrared Room Temperature Indium-Gallium-Arsenide (InGaAs) Photodetector based on their Goddard Space Flight Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract work to develop a linear detector array for satellite imaging applications using InGaAs alloys that didn't need to be cooled to (difficult and expensive) cryogenic temperatures. The photodetectors can be used for remote sensing, fiber optic and laser position-sensing applications.

  17. The biology of growth.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Noël

    2008-01-01

    Variability in human growth is not only in the timing of critical periods within the whole pattern of growth but also in the magnitude and rate of change coincident with the period. In addition, for a radical change in, e.g., height to occur there must also be changes in the anatomical parts that make up total height and these changes are themselves variable. Acceleration, for instance in height velocity, may be the result of different changes in the length of the spine, femur, and/or tibia, each of which may contribute differently to the total process. In addition, not only may the process be variable within a single child, it may also be variable between different children of the same or opposite sexes. The mathematical and statistical problems arising from the seemingly simple process of an increase in height are thus complex. In order to review the biology of human growth this contribution will discuss the principles of growth that are fundamental to our ability to interpret the response of the child to factors that might modify the genetically programmed pattern of growth from conception to maturity. In this way the biology of human growth will be described by a set of phenomena that reflect the actions of biological control mechanisms. These mechanisms are subject to genetic and environmental influences and their expression is characterised by variation in timing, magnitude, and duration. PMID:18196941

  18. Patients as partners in innovation.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Sean J; Katz, Aviva

    2015-06-01

    As the culture of medical practice has evolved, so has the relationship between the physician and patient. This is decidedly true with regards to the introduction of innovative therapies, especially in the surgical arena. A critical challenge is identifying and defining innovative therapy. Is the proposed treatment an incremental change, a research proposal, or more commonly someplace in between? This gray area creates a transition zone commonly referred to as innovative therapy. Given the complexities of the current landscape of innovation, innovation therapy committees may provide a mechanism to help to guide both physicians and patients through such difficult topics as the process of informed consent, managing conflicts of interest, and how to evaluate the outcomes of innovative therapies. As surgical innovation remains critical to the advancement of care, it must occur in a transparent partnership with patients, under the eye of guiding entities, aimed at ultimately improving outcomes and care. PMID:25976152

  19. Towards a bioethics of innovation.

    PubMed

    Lipworth, Wendy; Axler, Renata

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, it has become almost axiomatic that biomedical research and clinical practice should be 'innovative'-that is, that they should be always evolving and directed towards the production, translation and implementation of new technologies and practices. While this drive towards innovation in biomedicine might be beneficial, it also raises serious moral, legal, economic and sociopolitical questions that require further scrutiny. In this article, we argue that biomedical innovation needs to be accompanied by a dedicated 'bioethics of innovation' that attends systematically to the goals, process and outcomes of biomedical innovation as objects of critical inquiry. Using the example of personalised or precision medicine, we then suggest a preliminary framework for a bioethics of innovation, based on the research policy initiative of 'Responsible Innovation'. We invite and encourage critiques of this framework and hope that this will provoke a challenging and enriching new bioethical discourse.

  20. Patients as partners in innovation.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Sean J; Katz, Aviva

    2015-06-01

    As the culture of medical practice has evolved, so has the relationship between the physician and patient. This is decidedly true with regards to the introduction of innovative therapies, especially in the surgical arena. A critical challenge is identifying and defining innovative therapy. Is the proposed treatment an incremental change, a research proposal, or more commonly someplace in between? This gray area creates a transition zone commonly referred to as innovative therapy. Given the complexities of the current landscape of innovation, innovation therapy committees may provide a mechanism to help to guide both physicians and patients through such difficult topics as the process of informed consent, managing conflicts of interest, and how to evaluate the outcomes of innovative therapies. As surgical innovation remains critical to the advancement of care, it must occur in a transparent partnership with patients, under the eye of guiding entities, aimed at ultimately improving outcomes and care.

  1. Cholesteric liquid crystals with a broad light reflection band.

    PubMed

    Mitov, Michel

    2012-12-11

    The cholesteric-liquid-crystalline structure, which concerns the organization of chromatin, collagen, chitin, or cellulose, is omnipresent in living matter. In technology, it is found in temperature and pressure sensors, supertwisted nematic liquid crystal displays, optical filters, reflective devices, or cosmetics. A cholesteric liquid crystal reflects light because of its helical structure. The reflection is selective - the bandwidth is limited to a few tens of nanometers and the reflectance is equal to at most 50% for unpolarized incident light, which is a consequence of the polarization-selectivity rule. These limits must be exceeded for innovative applications like polarizer-free reflective displays, broadband polarizers, optical data storage media, polarization-independent devices, stealth technologies, or smart switchable reflective windows to control solar light and heat. Novel cholesteric-liquid-crystalline architectures with the related fabrication procedures must therefore be developed. This article reviews solutions found in living matter and laboratories to broaden the bandwidth around a central reflection wavelength, do without the polarization-selectivity rule and go beyond the reflectance limit. PMID:23090724

  2. Biosecurity and Open-Source Biology: The Promise and Peril of Distributed Synthetic Biological Technologies.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nicholas G; Selgelid, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    In this article, we raise ethical concerns about the potential misuse of open-source biology (OSB): biological research and development that progresses through an organisational model of radical openness, deskilling, and innovation. We compare this organisational structure to that of the open-source software model, and detail salient ethical implications of this model. We demonstrate that OSB, in virtue of its commitment to openness, may be resistant to governance attempts.

  3. A roadmap for innovation.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Timothy J

    2014-06-01

    Medicine has historically advanced during conflict, but military medical services have consistently regressed during peace. As over a decade of campaigning in Iraq and Afghanistan draws to a close, securing the legacy of hard won clinical lessons and retaining flexibility to adapt to new patterns of illness and injury during contingency is critical. Central to sustaining exceptional outcomes for future operations and to maintaining the current position of the Defence Medical Services as providers of clinical excellence is retaining the capability to innovate. This capability must extend across the spectrum of clinical innovation-concepts, guidelines, equipment (invention and adoption), curricula (design, assessment and refinement), research and Defence diplomacy. To achieve this requires a strategy, a 'roadmap', with a clear vision, end state and centres of gravity (core strengths that must be protected). The direction for innovation will be guided by emergent analysis of the future character of military medicine. Success will be determined by ensuring the conditions are met to protect and enhance the existing 'winning culture'. PMID:24554526

  4. Radically innovative steelmaking technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szekely, Julian

    1980-09-01

    The steel industry is faced with serious problems caused by the increasing cost of energy, labor and capital and by tough overseas competition, employing new highly efficient process plants. The very high cost of capital and of capital equipment renders the construction of new green field site plants, exemplifying the best available technology economically unattractive. For this reason, over the long term the development radically innovative steelmaking technologies appears to be the only satisfactory resolution of this dilemma. The purpose of this article is to present a critical review of some of the radically innovative steelmaking technologies that have been proposed during the past few years and to develop the argument that these indeed do deserve serious consideration at the present time. It should be stressed, however, that these innovative technologies can be implemented only as part of a carefully conceived long range plan, which contains as a subset short term solutions, such as trigger prices improved investment credits, and so forth and intermediate term solutions, such as more extensive use of continuous casting, external desulfurization and selective modernization in general.

  5. Small Business Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    A Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract resulted in a series of commercially available lasers, which have application in fiber optic communications, difference frequency generation, fiber optic sensing and general laboratory use. Developed under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, the Phase Doppler Particles Analyzer is a non-disruptive, highly accurate laser-based method of determining particle size, number density, trajectory, turbulence and other information about particles passing through a measurement probe volume. The system consists of an optical transmitter and receiver, signal processor and computer with data acquisition and analysis software. A variety of systems are offered for applications including spray characterization for paint, and agricultural and other sprays. The Microsizer, a related product, is used in medical equipment manufacturing and analysis of contained flows. High frequency components and subsystems produced by Millitech Corporation are marketed for both research and commercial use. These systems, which operate in the upper portion of the millimeter wave, resulted from a number of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) projects. By developing very high performance mixers and multipliers, the company has advanced the state of the art in sensitive receiver technology. Components are used in receivers and transceivers for monitoring chlorine monoxides, ozone, in plasma characterization and in material properties characterization.

  6. Epidemiology, austerity, and innovation.

    PubMed

    Samet, Jonathan M; Ness, Roberta B

    2012-05-15

    In considering the state of epidemiologic research, these are the "best" and the "worst" of times-the "best" from the perspective of scientific opportunities and the "worst" from the perspective of funding. In this commentary, the authors address this time of funding austerity from the points of view of individual researchers and research institutions. For researchers, the new tools of "-omics," large databases, communication by means of the World Wide Web, and global access offer ever-expanding scientific opportunities. The authors comment on research directions for which there is an enhanced likelihood of funding success: clinical and translational research, outcomes and effectiveness research, and global health research. The authors emphasize the need to be innovative and not bound by the conventional. For institutions, the authors suggest attention to innovation and impact, social networking, and finding the "right size" for training programs. Academic institutions also need to invest, supporting researchers and their ideas. Epidemiologists need to be true to their mission and prove that they can use innovation to advance health and welfare in a measurable way. Doing so will ensure that over the long term, epidemiologic research will remain a cornerstone for advancing population health.

  7. Seismic reflection imaging, accounting for primary and multiple reflections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wapenaar, Kees; van der Neut, Joost; Thorbecke, Jan; Broggini, Filippo; Slob, Evert; Snieder, Roel

    2015-04-01

    Imaging of seismic reflection data is usually based on the assumption that the seismic response consists of primary reflections only. Multiple reflections, i.e. waves that have reflected more than once, are treated as primaries and are imaged at wrong positions. There are two classes of multiple reflections, which we will call surface-related multiples and internal multiples. Surface-related multiples are those multiples that contain at least one reflection at the earth's surface, whereas internal multiples consist of waves that have reflected only at subsurface interfaces. Surface-related multiples are the strongest, but also relatively easy to deal with because the reflecting boundary (the earth's surface) is known. Internal multiples constitute a much more difficult problem for seismic imaging, because the positions and properties of the reflecting interfaces are not known. We are developing reflection imaging methodology which deals with internal multiples. Starting with the Marchenko equation for 1D inverse scattering problems, we derived 3D Marchenko-type equations, which relate reflection data at the surface to Green's functions between virtual sources anywhere in the subsurface and receivers at the surface. Based on these equations, we derived an iterative scheme by which these Green's functions can be retrieved from the reflection data at the surface. This iterative scheme requires an estimate of the direct wave of the Green's functions in a background medium. Note that this is precisely the same information that is also required by standard reflection imaging schemes. However, unlike in standard imaging, our iterative Marchenko scheme retrieves the multiple reflections of the Green's functions from the reflection data at the surface. For this, no knowledge of the positions and properties of the reflecting interfaces is required. Once the full Green's functions are retrieved, reflection imaging can be carried out by which the primaries and multiples are

  8. Innovations in the management of Wilms' tumor.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Joseph M; Lorenzo, Armando J; Bowlin, Paul R; Koyle, Martin A

    2014-08-01

    Advances in the management of Wilms' tumor have been dramatic over the past half century, not in small part due to the institution of multimodal therapy and the formation of collaborative study groups. While different opinions exist in the management of Wilms' tumors depending on where one lives and practices, survival rates have surpassed 90% across the board in Western societies. With more children surviving into adulthood, the concerns about morbidity have reached the forefront and now represent as much a consideration as oncologic outcomes these days. Innovations in treatment are on the horizon in the form of potential tumor markers, molecular biological means of testing for chemotherapeutic responsiveness, and advances in the delivery of chemotherapy for recurrent or recalcitrant tumors. Other technological innovations are being applied to childhood renal tumors, such as minimally invasive and nephron-sparing approaches. Risk stratification also allows for children to forego potentially unnecessary treatments and their associated morbidities. Wilms' tumor stands as a great example of the gains that can be made through protocol-driven therapy with strenuous outcomes analyses. These gains continue to spark interest in minimization of morbidity, while avoiding any compromise in oncologic efficacy. While excitement and innovation are important in the advancement of treatment delivery, we must continue to temper this enthusiasm and carefully evaluate options in order to continue to provide the highest standard of care in the management of this now highly curable disease.

  9. Innovations in the management of Wilms’ tumor

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Joseph M.; Lorenzo, Armando J.; Bowlin, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in the management of Wilms’ tumor have been dramatic over the past half century, not in small part due to the institution of multimodal therapy and the formation of collaborative study groups. While different opinions exist in the management of Wilms’ tumors depending on where one lives and practices, survival rates have surpassed 90% across the board in Western societies. With more children surviving into adulthood, the concerns about morbidity have reached the forefront and now represent as much a consideration as oncologic outcomes these days. Innovations in treatment are on the horizon in the form of potential tumor markers, molecular biological means of testing for chemotherapeutic responsiveness, and advances in the delivery of chemotherapy for recurrent or recalcitrant tumors. Other technological innovations are being applied to childhood renal tumors, such as minimally invasive and nephron-sparing approaches. Risk stratification also allows for children to forego potentially unnecessary treatments and their associated morbidities. Wilms’ tumor stands as a great example of the gains that can be made through protocol-driven therapy with strenuous outcomes analyses. These gains continue to spark interest in minimization of morbidity, while avoiding any compromise in oncologic efficacy. While excitement and innovation are important in the advancement of treatment delivery, we must continue to temper this enthusiasm and carefully evaluate options in order to continue to provide the highest standard of care in the management of this now highly curable disease. PMID:25083165

  10. Biofeedback: A Classroom Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Faith

    1975-01-01

    Describes the use of biofeedback machines in biology classes which provide students with an awareness of their own brain waves and as a device to demonstrate the fact that the body responds readily to the mind. (BR)

  11. Innovation strategies for generic drug companies: moving into supergenerics.

    PubMed

    Ross, Malcolm S F

    2010-04-01

    Pharmaceutical companies that market generic products generally are not regarded as innovators, but rather as companies that produce copies of originator products to be launched at patent expiration. However, many generics companies have developed excellent scientific innovative skills in an effort to circumvent the defense patents of originator companies. More patents per product, in terms of both drug substances (process patents and polymorph patents) and formulations, are issued to generics companies than to companies that are traditionally considered to be 'innovators'. This quantity of issued patents highlights the technical knowledge and skill sets that are available in generics companies. In order to adopt a completely innovative model (ie, the development of NCEs), a generics company would require a completely new set of skills in several fields, including a sufficient knowledge base, project and risk management experience, and capability for clinical data evaluation. However, with relatively little investment, generics companies should be able to progress into the so-called 'supergeneric' drug space - an area of innovation that reflects the existing competencies of both innovative and generics companies. PMID:20373253

  12. Innovation strategies for generic drug companies: moving into supergenerics.

    PubMed

    Ross, Malcolm S F

    2010-04-01

    Pharmaceutical companies that market generic products generally are not regarded as innovators, but rather as companies that produce copies of originator products to be launched at patent expiration. However, many generics companies have developed excellent scientific innovative skills in an effort to circumvent the defense patents of originator companies. More patents per product, in terms of both drug substances (process patents and polymorph patents) and formulations, are issued to generics companies than to companies that are traditionally considered to be 'innovators'. This quantity of issued patents highlights the technical knowledge and skill sets that are available in generics companies. In order to adopt a completely innovative model (ie, the development of NCEs), a generics company would require a completely new set of skills in several fields, including a sufficient knowledge base, project and risk management experience, and capability for clinical data evaluation. However, with relatively little investment, generics companies should be able to progress into the so-called 'supergeneric' drug space - an area of innovation that reflects the existing competencies of both innovative and generics companies.

  13. Reflections on Rodent Implantation.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jeeyeon M; Dey, Sudhansu K

    2015-01-01

    Embryo implantation is a complex process involving endocrine, paracrine, autocrine, and juxtacrine modulators that span cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The quality of implantation is predictive for pregnancy success. Earlier observational studies formed the basis for genetic and molecular approaches that ensued with emerging technological advances. However, the precise sequence and details of the molecular interactions involved have yet to be defined. This review reflects briefly on aspects of our current understanding of rodent implantation as a tribute to Roger Short's lifelong contributions to the field of reproductive physiology. PMID:26450495

  14. Bioinspiration: applying mechanical design to experimental biology.

    PubMed

    Flammang, Brooke E; Porter, Marianne E

    2011-07-01

    The production of bioinspired and biomimetic constructs has fostered much collaboration between biologists and engineers, although the extent of biological accuracy employed in the designs produced has not always been a priority. Even the exact definitions of "bioinspired" and "biomimetic" differ among biologists, engineers, and industrial designers, leading to confusion regarding the level of integration and replication of biological principles and physiology. By any name, biologically-inspired mechanical constructs have become an increasingly important research tool in experimental biology, offering the opportunity to focus research by creating model organisms that can be easily manipulated to fill a desired parameter space of structural and functional repertoires. Innovative researchers with both biological and engineering backgrounds have found ways to use bioinspired models to explore the biomechanics of organisms from all kingdoms to answer a variety of different questions. Bringing together these biologists and engineers will hopefully result in an open discourse of techniques and fruitful collaborations for experimental and industrial endeavors.

  15. Context, Cognition, and Biology in Applied Behavior Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Edward K.

    Behavior analysts are having their professional identities challenged by the roles that cognition and biology are said to play in the conduct and outcome of applied behavior analysis and behavior therapy. For cogniphiliacs, cognition and biology are central to their interventions because cognition and biology are said to reflect various processes,…

  16. Reflected Deck Plan, Reflected Roof Plan, Deck Plan Bridgeport ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Reflected Deck Plan, Reflected Roof Plan, Deck Plan - Bridgeport Covered Bridge, Spanning South Fork of Yuba River at bypassed section of Pleasant Valley Road (originally Virginia Turnpike) in South Yuba River State Park , Bridgeport, Nevada County, CA

  17. Longitudinal Section AA; Reflected Deck Plan; Reflected Ceiling Plan ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Longitudinal Section A-A; Reflected Deck Plan; Reflected Ceiling Plan - Shoreham Railroad Bridge, Former Addison County Railroad (later, Rutland Railroad, Addison Branch), spanning Lemon Fair River above Richville Pond, west of East Shoreham Road, Shoreham, Addison County, VT

  18. Learning about reflection.

    PubMed

    Smith, A

    1998-10-01

    An understanding of the nature and function of reflection in recognizing and developing nursing knowledge is a key concern. This paper describes a longitudinal study investigating the ways in which undergraduate student nurses reflected about practice as they progressed through a 3-year programme in adult nursing. The method was qualitative, with data gained from written critical incidents based on practice experiences and classroom discussions, and analysed using the constant comparative method. Findings revealed the range of issues students perceived as most important, and to some extent, changes in levels of thinking. A strong theme occurring throughout related to the complexity of learning what it means to be a professional and, in consequence, what they learn about themselves. Students' preoccupation with emotional aspects of learning and nursing care was evident. They had difficulty in disentangling 'personal' and 'professional' involvement but later data indicates that they had begun to learn to differentiate between involvement as a general characteristic of nursing practice and a overwhelming personal attachment. They generally use their own and each others' experiences to examine meaning, in preference to formal theoretical explanations although there is evidence students moved from acceptance of information to the questioning and critiquing of arguments and professional assumptions, particularly concerning their relevance and appropriateness for practice.

  19. Quantitative Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Marvin E.; Aalderink, Bernard J.; Padoan, Roberto; de Bruin, Gerrit; Steemers, Ted A.G.

    2008-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging is a non-destructive optical analysis technique that can for instance be used to obtain information from cultural heritage objects unavailable with conventional colour or multi-spectral photography. This technique can be used to distinguish and recognize materials, to enhance the visibility of faint or obscured features, to detect signs of degradation and study the effect of environmental conditions on the object. We describe the basic concept, working principles, construction and performance of a laboratory instrument specifically developed for the analysis of historical documents. The instrument measures calibrated spectral reflectance images at 70 wavelengths ranging from 365 to 1100 nm (near-ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared). By using a wavelength tunable narrow-bandwidth light-source, the light energy used to illuminate the measured object is minimal, so that any light-induced degradation can be excluded. Basic analysis of the hyperspectral data includes a qualitative comparison of the spectral images and the extraction of quantitative data such as mean spectral reflectance curves and statistical information from user-defined regions-of-interest. More sophisticated mathematical feature extraction and classification techniques can be used to map areas on the document, where different types of ink had been applied or where one ink shows various degrees of degradation. The developed quantitative hyperspectral imager is currently in use by the Nationaal Archief (National Archives of The Netherlands) to study degradation effects of artificial samples and original documents, exposed in their permanent exhibition area or stored in their deposit rooms.

  20. Product and technology innovation: what can biomimicry inspire?

    PubMed

    Lurie-Luke, Elena

    2014-12-01

    Biomimicry (bio- meaning life in Greek, and -mimesis, meaning to copy) is a growing field that seeks to interpolate natural biological mechanisms and structures into a wide range of applications. The rise of interest in biomimicry in recent years has provided a fertile ground for innovation. This review provides an eco-system based analysis of biomimicry inspired technology and product innovation. A multi-disciplinary framework has been developed to accomplish this analysis and the findings focus on the areas that have been most strikingly affected by the application of biomimicry and also highlight the emerging trends and opportunity areas.

  1. Drug discovery in the next decade: innovation needed ASAP.

    PubMed

    Bennani, Youssef L

    2011-09-01

    Pharmaceutical companies must find a better way to increase their output of truly new drugs for the benefit of patients and for their business survival. Here, I highlight a general perspective from within pharmaceutical research as it pertains to research advances in chemistry, biology, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and toxicology that, if well integrated, stands to put the industry on a productive path. In addition, I provide a complementary perspective on the corporate culture aspect of innovation. I also introduce a new concept, termed 'innovation ASAP' (iASAP; asking powerful questions, seeking the outliers, accepting defeat and populating astutely) and provide support for it using examples of several successful drugs. PMID:21704185

  2. Drug discovery in the next decade: innovation needed ASAP.

    PubMed

    Bennani, Youssef L

    2012-02-01

    Pharmaceutical companies must find a better way to increase their output of truly new drugs for the benefit of patients and for their business survival. Here, I highlight a general perspective from within pharmaceutical research as it pertains to research advances in chemistry, biology, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and toxicology that, if well integrated, stands to put the industry on a productive path. In addition, I provide a complementary perspective on the corporate culture aspect of innovation. I also introduce a new concept, termed 'innovation ASAP' (iASAP; asking powerful questions, seeking the outliers, accepting defeat and populating astutely) and provide support for it using examples of several successful drugs. PMID:22178889

  3. Product and technology innovation: what can biomimicry inspire?

    PubMed

    Lurie-Luke, Elena

    2014-12-01

    Biomimicry (bio- meaning life in Greek, and -mimesis, meaning to copy) is a growing field that seeks to interpolate natural biological mechanisms and structures into a wide range of applications. The rise of interest in biomimicry in recent years has provided a fertile ground for innovation. This review provides an eco-system based analysis of biomimicry inspired technology and product innovation. A multi-disciplinary framework has been developed to accomplish this analysis and the findings focus on the areas that have been most strikingly affected by the application of biomimicry and also highlight the emerging trends and opportunity areas. PMID:25316672

  4. Monitoring Earth's Climate with Shortwave Hyperspectral Reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilewskie, Peter

    The Sun provides nearly all the energy that fuels the dynamical, chemical, and biological processes in the Earth system. Absorbed solar radiation, the difference between incoming and reflected sunlight, defines Earth’s equilibrium temperature and, along with the emitted infrared radiation, determines the climate state of the planet. The transfer of solar radiation through the atmosphere is modulated by wavelength-specific interactions that are unique for given surface types and the intervening atmospheric gases and condensed species. Reflected radiation that exits the Earth’s atmosphere carries with it the complex fingerprint of the Earth system state. How this signal varies temporally, spatially, and spectrally is a measure of those processes within the Earth system that affect climate change. Despite its importance to the basic energy balance between Earth and the solar-terrestrial environment in which it resides, a precise record of the nature of reflected solar spectral radiation over all climate-relevant time scales remains elusive. A primary goal of a climate observing system is to obtain climate benchmark data records with sufficient accuracy for identifying climate variability on decadal time scales and longer, and with sufficient information content to attribute change to underlying causes. Until recently, detecting climate change signatures in reflected solar radiance has been hindered by instrument accuracy and stability, insufficient spectral coverage and resolution, and inherent sampling limitations from low-Earth orbit observations. This talk will discuss the challenges to monitoring the shortwave energy budget from space. I will present new studies on methods to separate the various contributions in the top-of-atmosphere outgoing shortwave radiance using existing satellite (SCIAMACHY) data and explore methods to enhance trend detection in hyperspectral reflectance time series. Finally, I look ahead to the requirements for a climate observing

  5. Innovation and robustness in complex regulatory gene networks

    PubMed Central

    Ciliberti, S.; Martin, O. C.; Wagner, A.

    2007-01-01

    The history of life involves countless evolutionary innovations, a steady stream of ingenuity that has been flowing for more than 3 billion years. Very little is known about the principles of biological organization that allow such innovation. Here, we examine these principles for evolutionary innovation in gene expression patterns. To this end, we study a model for the transcriptional regulation networks that are at the heart of embryonic development. A genotype corresponds to a regulatory network of a given topology, and a phenotype corresponds to a steady-state gene expression pattern. Networks with the same phenotype form a connected graph in genotype space, where two networks are immediate neighbors if they differ by one regulatory interaction. We show that an evolutionary search on this graph can reach genotypes that are as different from each other as if they were chosen at random in genotype space, allowing evolutionary access to different kinds of innovation while staying close to a viable phenotype. Thus, although robustness to mutations may hinder innovation in the short term, we conclude that long-term innovation in gene expression patterns can only emerge in the presence of the robustness caused by connected genotype graphs. PMID:17690244

  6. Reflection: Journals and Reflective Questions: A Strategy for Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Maggie

    2004-01-01

    Reflective journals have been used widely in teacher education programs to promote reflective thinking (Freidus, 1998; Carter & Francis, 2000; Yost, Senter & Forlenzo-Bailey, 2000). Smyth (1992) advocated that posing a series of questions to be answered in written journals could enhance reflective thinking. It was for this reason that…

  7. Reflecting on Reflective Practice: (Re)Visiting Dewey and Schon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Thomas S. C.

    2012-01-01

    Since the author began work in reflective practice, at first informally in the late 1970s and then more formally in the mid-1980s, he has always looked at reflective practice as a compass of sorts to guide teachers when they may be seeking direction as to what they are doing in their classrooms. The metaphor of reflection as a compass enables…

  8. Biomaterial science meets computational biology.

    PubMed

    Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Little, J Paige; Pettet, Graeme J; Loessner, Daniela

    2015-05-01

    There is a pressing need for a predictive tool capable of revealing a holistic understanding of fundamental elements in the normal and pathological cell physiology of organoids in order to decipher the mechanoresponse of cells. Therefore, the integration of a systems bioengineering approach into a validated mathematical model is necessary to develop a new simulation tool. This tool can only be innovative by combining biomaterials science with computational biology. Systems-level and multi-scale experimental data are incorporated into a single framework, thus representing both single cells and collective cell behaviour. Such a computational platform needs to be validated in order to discover key mechano-biological factors associated with cell-cell and cell-niche interactions.

  9. Ultraviolet plumage reflectance distinguishes sibling bird species.

    PubMed

    Bleiweiss, Robert

    2004-11-23

    Realistic studies of plumage color need to consider that many birds can see near-UV light, which normal humans cannot perceive. Although previous investigations have revealed that UV-based plumage reflectance is an important component of various intraspecific social signals, the contribution of UV signals to inter-specific divergence and speciation in birds remains largely unexplored. I describe an avian example of an interspecific phenomenon in which related sympatric species that appear similar to humans (sibling species) differ dramatically in the UV. Both UV video images and physical reflectance spectra indicate that the dorsal plumage of the tanager Anisognathus notabilis has a strong UV-limited reflectance band that readily distinguishes this species from its sibling congener Anisognathus flavinuchus. The main human-visible distinction between A. notabilis (olive back) and coexisting A. flavinuchus (black back) also occurs among different geographic populations of A. flavinuchus. Notably, however, olive- and black-backed taxa interbreed (differentiated populations of A. flavinuchus) unless the additional UV distinction is present (A. notabilis vs. A. flavinuchus). Thus, UV-based reflectance can be an essential component of plumage divergence that relates to reproductive isolation, a key attribute of biological species.

  10. Depth-resolved measurements with elliptically polarized reflectance spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Maria J.; Sokolov, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    The ability of elliptical polarized reflectance spectroscopy (EPRS) to detect spectroscopic alterations in tissue mimicking phantoms and in biological tissue in situ is demonstrated. It is shown that there is a linear relationship between light penetration depth and ellipticity. This dependence is used to demonstrate the feasibility of a depth-resolved spectroscopic imaging using EPRS. The advantages and drawbacks of EPRS in evaluation of biological tissue are analyzed and discussed. PMID:27446712

  11. A New ICT Curriculum for Primary Education in Flanders: Defining and Predicting Teachers' Perceptions of Innovation Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderlinde, Ruben; van Braak, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Teachers play a pivotal role in implementing educational innovations and realising curriculum change. Consequently, their perceptions of innovations and curricula content are of crucial importance. In this study, teachers' perceptions of the new ICT curriculum in Flanders are examined. This curriculum reflects Flemish society's underlying vision…

  12. Understanding innovators' experiences of barriers and facilitators in implementation and diffusion of healthcare service innovations: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Healthcare service innovations are considered to play a pivotal role in improving organisational efficiency and responding effectively to healthcare needs. Nevertheless, healthcare organisations encounter major difficulties in sustaining and diffusing innovations, especially those which concern the organisation and delivery of healthcare services. The purpose of the present study was to explore how healthcare innovators of process-based initiatives perceived and made sense of factors that either facilitated or obstructed the innovation implementation and diffusion. Methods A qualitative study was designed. Fifteen primary and secondary healthcare organisations in the UK, which had received health service awards for successfully generating and implementing service innovations, were studied. In-depth, semi structured interviews were conducted with the organisational representatives who conceived and led the development process. The data were recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. Results Four main themes were identified in the analysis of the data: the role of evidence, the function of inter-organisational partnerships, the influence of human-based resources, and the impact of contextual factors. "Hard" evidence operated as a proof of effectiveness, a means of dissemination and a pre-requisite for the initiation of innovation. Inter-organisational partnerships and people-based resources, such as champions, were considered an integral part of the process of developing, establishing and diffusing the innovations. Finally, contextual influences, both intra-organisational and extra-organisational were seen as critical in either impeding or facilitating innovators' efforts. Conclusions A range of factors of different combinations and co-occurrence were pointed out by the innovators as they were reflecting on their experiences of implementing, stabilising and diffusing novel service initiatives. Even though the innovations studied were of various

  13. Accelerated Innovation Pilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Opportunities: I. Engage NASA team (examples) a) Research and technology calls . provide suggestions to AES, HRP, OCT. b) Use NASA@Work to solicit other ideas; (possibly before R+D calls). II. Stimulate collaboration (examples) a) NHHPC. b) Wharton Mack Center for Technological Innovation (Feb 2013). c) International ] DLR ] :envihab (July 2013). d) Accelerated research models . NSF, Myelin Repair Foundation. III. Engage public Prizes (open platform: InnoCentive, yet2.com, NTL; Rice Business Plan, etc.) IV. Use same methods to engage STEM.

  14. Innovations in bereavement education.

    PubMed

    Wright, Patricia Moyle

    2011-08-01

    Advanced practice nursing students provide care for clients and families in numerous settings where they will encounter end-of-life issues. Thus, graduate nursing education should include information on current trends in thanatology, such as the debate over the proposed complicated grief criteria and the paradigmatic shift toward evidence-based grief theory. In this article, an innovative approach to teaching bereavement content to graduate nursing students during a 3-hour class is presented. The assignments were developed specifically for adult learners with clinical experience. Students' responses to the learning activities and recommendations for modifications of the teaching methods are presented.

  15. Small Business Innovations (Helicopters)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The amount of engine power required for a helicopter to hover is an important, but difficult, consideration in helicopter design. The EHPIC program model produces converged, freely distorted wake geometries that generate accurate analysis of wake-induced downwash, allowing good predictions of rotor thrust and power requirements. Continuum Dynamics, Inc., the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) company that developed EHPIC, also produces RotorCRAFT, a program for analysis of aerodynamic loading of helicopter blades in forward flight. Both helicopter codes have been licensed to commercial manufacturers.

  16. Small Business Innovations (Cryostat)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    General Pneumatics Corporation, Scottsdale, AZ, developed an anti- clogging cryostat that liquifies gases by expansion for high pressure through a nozzle to produce cryorefrigeration based on their Kennedy Space Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) work to develop a Joule-Thomson (JT) expansion valve that is less susceptible to clogging by particles or condensed contaminants in the flow than a non-contaminating compressor in a closed cycle Linde-Hampson cryocooler used to generate cryogenic cooling for infrared sensors, super conductors, supercooled electronics and cryosurgery.

  17. Opening the door to innovation

    PubMed Central

    Schuurman, Janine; Graus, Yvo F; Labrijn, Aran F; Ruuls, Sigrid R; Parren, Paul WHI

    2014-01-01

    Open innovation is the new buzz, with initiatives popping up left and right. Here, we give a personal perspective on a very successful, knowledge-driven innovation initiated in an academia- industry alliance, which culminated in technology platforms that enable the generation of therapeutic antibodies with novel properties. To start, we provide a general background on open innovation in the drug development field. PMID:24784437

  18. Reflections on conformal spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyungrok; Kravchuk, Petr; Ooguri, Hirosi

    2016-04-01

    We use modular invariance and crossing symmetry of conformal field theory to reveal approximate reflection symmetries in the spectral decompositions of the partition function in two dimensions in the limit of large central charge and of the four-point function in any dimension in the limit of large scaling dimensions Δ0 of external operators. We use these symmetries to motivate universal upper bounds on the spectrum and the operator product expansion coefficients, which we then derive by independent techniques. Some of the bounds for four-point functions are valid for finite Δ0 as well as for large Δ0. We discuss a similar symmetry in a large spacetime dimension limit. Finally, we comment on the analogue of the Cardy formula and sparse light spectrum condition for the four-point function.

  19. Innovative moments in grief therapy: reconstructing meaning following perinatal death.

    PubMed

    Alves, Daniela; Mendes, Inês; Gonçalves, Miguel M; Neimeyer, Robert A

    2012-10-01

    This article presents an intensive analysis of a good outcome case of constructivist grief therapy with a bereaved mother, using the Innovative Moments Coding System (IMCS). Inspired by M. White and D. Epston's narrative therapy, the IMCS conceptualizes therapeutic change as resulting from the elaboration and expansion of unique outcomes (or as we prefer, innovative moments), referring to experiences not predicted by the problematic or dominant self-narrative. The IMCS identifies and tracks the occurrence of 5 different types of innovative moments: action, reflection, protest, re-conceptualization, and performing change. Results documented the process of meaning reconstruction over the 6 sessions of treatment, and demonstrated the feasibility and reliability of analyzing narrative change in this form of grief therapy, opening it to comparison with other approaches. PMID:24563928

  20. Innovation in Course Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knipe, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Initial teacher education programs offered at Australian universities tend to qualify graduates to teach in the age-related contexts of early childhood/primary or secondary, a model that has reflected the organisational evolution of schools. Greater flexibility is required in the design of teacher preparation courses in order to produce graduates…

  1. Biological membranes

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Biological membranes allow life as we know it to exist. They form cells and enable separation between the inside and outside of an organism, controlling by means of their selective permeability which substances enter and leave. By allowing gradients of ions to be created across them, membranes also enable living organisms to generate energy. In addition, they control the flow of messages between cells by sending, receiving and processing information in the form of chemical and electrical signals. This essay summarizes the structure and function of membranes and the proteins within them, and describes their role in trafficking and transport, and their involvement in health and disease. Techniques for studying membranes are also discussed. PMID:26504250

  2. Structures for Facilitating Student Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this article is to describe a continuum of levels of reflection. It briefly focuses on Deanna Kuhn's research into the development of scientific thinking and Robert Kegan's Object-Subject Theory of Development applied to the problems of inspiring students to be able to reflect. Assignments for improving students' ability to reflect are…

  3. Reflections From a Fresnel Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeports, David

    2005-01-01

    Reflection of light by a convex Fresnel lens gives rise to two distinct images. A highly convex inverted real reflective image forms on the object side of the lens, while an upright virtual reflective image forms on the opposite side of the lens. I describe here a set of laser experiments performed upon a Fresnel lens. These experiments provide…

  4. Reflective writing and nursing education.

    PubMed

    Craft, Melissa

    2005-02-01

    Reflective writing is a valued tool for teaching nursing students and for documentation, support, and generation of nursing knowledge among experienced nurses. Expressive or reflective writing is becoming widely accepted in both professional and lay publications as a mechanism for coping with critical incidents. This article explores reflective writing as a tool for nursing education.

  5. Small Business Innovations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Under an Army Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant, Symbiotics, Inc. developed a software system that permits users to upgrade products from standalone applications so they can communicate in a distributed computing environment. Under a subsequent NASA SBIR grant, Symbiotics added additional tools to the SOCIAL product to enable NASA to coordinate conventional systems for planning Shuttle launch support operations. Using SOCIAL, data may be shared among applications in a computer network even when the applications are written in different programming languages. The product was introduced to the commercial market in 1993 and is used to monitor and control equipment for operation support and to integrate financial networks. The SBIR program was established to increase small business participation in federal R&D activities and to transfer government research to industry. InQuisiX is a reuse library providing high performance classification, cataloging, searching, browsing, retrieval and synthesis capabilities. These form the foundation for software reuse, producing higher quality software at lower cost and in less time. Software Productivity Solutions, Inc. developed the technology under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) projects funded by NASA and the Army and is marketing InQuisiX in conjunction with Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). The SBIR program was established to increase small business participation in federal R&D activities and to transfer government research to industry.

  6. The innovation catalysts.

    PubMed

    Martin, Roger L

    2011-06-01

    A few years ago the software development company Intuit realized that it needed a new approach to galvanizing customers. The company's Net Promoter Score was faltering, and customer recommendations of new products were especially disappointing. Intuit decided to hold a two-day, off-site meeting for the company's top 300 managers with a focus on the role of design in innovation. One of the days was dedicated to a program called Design for Delight. The centerpiece of the day was a PowerPoint presentation by Intuit founder Scott Cook, who realized midway through that he was no Steve Jobs: The managers listened dutifully, but there was little energy in the room. By contrast, a subsequent exercise in which the participants worked through a design challenge by creating prototypes, getting feedback, iterating, and refining, had them mesmerized. The eventual result was the creation of a team of nine design-thinking coaches--"innovation catalysts"--from across Intuit who were made available to help any work group create prototypes, run experiments, and learn from customers. The process includes a "painstorm" (to determine the customer's greatest pain point), a "soljam" (to generate and then winnow possible solutions), and a "code-jam" (to write code "good enough" to take to customers within two weeks). Design for Delight has enabled employees throughout Intuit to move from satisfying customers to delighting them.

  7. The innovation catalysts.

    PubMed

    Martin, Roger L

    2011-06-01

    A few years ago the software development company Intuit realized that it needed a new approach to galvanizing customers. The company's Net Promoter Score was faltering, and customer recommendations of new products were especially disappointing. Intuit decided to hold a two-day, off-site meeting for the company's top 300 managers with a focus on the role of design in innovation. One of the days was dedicated to a program called Design for Delight. The centerpiece of the day was a PowerPoint presentation by Intuit founder Scott Cook, who realized midway through that he was no Steve Jobs: The managers listened dutifully, but there was little energy in the room. By contrast, a subsequent exercise in which the participants worked through a design challenge by creating prototypes, getting feedback, iterating, and refining, had them mesmerized. The eventual result was the creation of a team of nine design-thinking coaches--"innovation catalysts"--from across Intuit who were made available to help any work group create prototypes, run experiments, and learn from customers. The process includes a "painstorm" (to determine the customer's greatest pain point), a "soljam" (to generate and then winnow possible solutions), and a "code-jam" (to write code "good enough" to take to customers within two weeks). Design for Delight has enabled employees throughout Intuit to move from satisfying customers to delighting them. PMID:21714388

  8. Technology and the Nature of Man: Biological Considerations. An Occasional Paper on Man/Society/Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwood, Lauralee

    This seminar paper explores biological aspects of the man-technology relationship. From man's beginning and continuing into the future, technology is interwoven extensively in the biological fabric of man. Five facets of the biology-technology interaction are examined: (1) technological innovations enabling man to learn about his biological…

  9. Implementation and Assessment of a Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics Undergraduate Degree Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Daphne Q. -D.; Higgs, David C.; Statham, Anne; Schleiter, Mary Kay

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Wisconsin-Parkside has developed and implemented an innovative, multidisciplinary undergraduate curriculum in Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics (MBB). The objective of the MBB program is to give students a hands-on facility with molecular biology theories and laboratory techniques, an…

  10. Deuteration in Biological Neutron Reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Neutron reflectometry (NR) is uniquely positioned in structural biology, because of its ability to characterize biomolecular interfacial architectures like lipid membranes and membrane-associated proteins nondestructively and in their native environment. Mimicking biological processes, samples can be manipulated and their structural response can be measured. Specific deuteration is an integral part of biological NR as it is essential for resolving, for example, individual components of membrane-bound protein-protein complexes. Data analysis techniques have been developed in the past decade that extract the maximum structural detail from reflectivity data obtained from samples with complex deuteration schemes while avoiding overinterpretation. This is achieved by employing robust methods for the determination of modeling uncertainties. Integrative modeling approaches for NR are emerging as an essential part of the technique. PMID:26791980

  11. Predictability of some innovative behaviour in agricultural innovativeness.

    PubMed

    Das, P; Chakraborti, S; Gupta, T K

    1973-07-01

    An attempt is made to determine the relationship between a farmer's innovative behavior in the field of health, home, and family planning and his adoption of agricultural innovations. The study was carried out among all married farmers of the Muslim village of Padmerat in South Bengal territory. To measure the adoption behavior of the 196 farmers, 70 agricultural innovations were taken into account, 17 health practices, 10 family planning methods, and 22 home innovations. It was found that innovations in all 3 areas contributed toward agricultural innovative behavior, with family planning being the highest contributory, followed by home and health innovativeness. Together, these three can explain 62.15% of the total variation due to agricutural innovativeness. Income can explain another 16.91% of the variation, with the remaining part begin explained by other socioeconomic factors. It is recommended that agencies initiating programs to introduce technological change should work together to develop an integrated plan. This would bring better results at less cost.

  12. Job Stressors, Organizational Innovation Climate, and Employees' Innovative Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ren, Feifei; Zhang, Jinghuan

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to examine the influence of job stressors and organizational innovation climate on employees' innovative behavior. Data were obtained from 282 employees in 4 cities of China. Results indicated that the nature of stressors matters in predicting employees' idea generation. Specifically, stressors that employees tend to appraise…

  13. The value of innovation under value-based pricing

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Santiago G.; Ray, Joshua A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The role of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) in incentivizing innovation is controversial. Critics of CEA argue that its use for pricing purposes disregards the ‘value of innovation’ reflected in new drug development, whereas supporters of CEA highlight that the value of innovation is already accounted for. Our objective in this article is to outline the limitations of the conventional CEA approach, while proposing an alternative method of evaluation that captures the value of innovation more accurately. Method The adoption of a new drug benefits present and future patients (with cost implications) for as long as the drug is part of clinical practice. Incidence patients and off-patent prices are identified as two key missing features preventing the conventional CEA approach from capturing 1) benefit to future patients and 2) future savings from off-patent prices. The proposed CEA approach incorporates these two features to derive the total lifetime value of an innovative drug (i.e., the value of innovation). Results The conventional CEA approach tends to underestimate the value of innovative drugs by disregarding the benefit to future patients and savings from off-patent prices. As a result, innovative drugs are underpriced, only allowing manufacturers to capture approximately 15% of the total value of innovation during the patent protection period. In addition to including the incidence population and off-patent price, the alternative approach proposes pricing new drugs by first negotiating the share of value of innovation to be appropriated by the manufacturer (>15%?) and payer (<85%?), in order to then identify the drug price that satisfies this condition. Conclusion We argue for a modification to the conventional CEA approach that integrates the total lifetime value of innovative drugs into CEA, by taking into account off-patent pricing and future patients. The proposed approach derives a price that allows manufacturers to capture an agreed share

  14. Turning Regenerative Medicine Breakthrough Ideas and Innovations into Commercial Products.

    PubMed

    Bayon, Yves; Vertès, Alain A; Ronfard, Vincent; Culme-Seymour, Emily; Mason, Chris; Stroemer, Paul; Najimi, Mustapha; Sokal, Etienne; Wilson, Clayton; Barone, Joe; Aras, Rahul; Chiesi, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    The TERMIS-Europe (EU) Industry committee intended to address the two main critical issues in the clinical/commercial translation of Advanced Therapeutic Medicine Products (ATMP): (1) entrepreneurial exploitation of breakthrough ideas and innovations, and (2) regulatory market approval. Since January 2012, more than 12,000 publications related to regenerative medicine and tissue engineering have been accepted for publications, reflecting the intense academic research activity in this field. The TERMIS-EU 2014 Industry Symposium provided a reflection on the management of innovation and technological breakthroughs in biotechnology first proposed to contextualize the key development milestones and constraints of allocation of financial resources, in the development life-cycle of radical innovation projects. This was illustrated with the biofuels story, sharing similarities with regenerative medicine. The transition was then ensured by an overview of the key identified challenges facing the commercialization of cell therapy products as ATMP examples. Real cases and testimonies were then provided by a palette of medical technologies and regenerative medicine companies from their commercial development of cell and gene therapy products. Although the commercial development of ATMP is still at the proof-of-concept stage due to technology risks, changing policies, changing markets, and management changes, the sector is highly dynamic with a number of explored therapeutic approaches, developed by using a large diversity of business models, both proposed by the experience, pitfalls, and successes of regenerative medicine pioneers, and adapted to the constraint resource allocation and environment in radical innovation projects.

  15. Defining rewardable innovation in drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Jeffrey K; Ferner, Robin E; Hughes, Dyfrig A

    2012-03-30

    Implementing mechanisms for rewarding those who introduce innovative medicinal products requires a definition of 'rewardable innovation'. Here, we propose a definition of innovation with respect to medicinal products, accompanied by a ranking of the importance of different types of innovativeness, with the aim of providing a basis for rewarding such innovation.

  16. Building Innovative Vocational Education and Training Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callan, Victor

    2004-01-01

    Highly innovative organisations demonstrate six key characteristics. They create learning cultures which promote innovation as a core organisational capability; employ leaders who are "failure-tolerant"; identify innovators; reward people who propose innovative ideas; use partnerships; and, promote innovation through teams. This report analyses…

  17. Bidirectional reflectance of zinc oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, R.

    1973-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine original and useful information about the bidirection reflectance of zinc oxide. The bidirectional reflectance will be studied for the spectra between .25-2.5 microns and the hemisphere above the specimen. The following factors will be considered: (1) surface conditions; (2) specimen preparation; (3) specimen substrate, (4) polarization; (5) depolarization; (6) wavelength; and (7) angles of incident and reflection. The bidirectional reflectance will be checked by experimentally determined angular hemispherical measurements or hemispherical measurements will be used to obtain absolute bidirectional reflectance.

  18. Aligning for Innovation - Alignment Strategy to Drive Innovation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Hurel; Teltschik, David; Bussey, Horace, Jr.; Moy, James

    2010-01-01

    With the sudden need for innovation that will help the country achieve its long-term space exploration objectives, the question of whether NASA is aligned effectively to drive the innovation that it so desperately needs to take space exploration to the next level should be entertained. Authors such as Robert Kaplan and David North have noted that companies that use a formal system for implementing strategy consistently outperform their peers. They have outlined a six-stage management systems model for implementing strategy, which includes the aligning of the organization towards its objectives. This involves the alignment of the organization from the top down. This presentation will explore the impacts of existing U.S. industrial policy on technological innovation; assess the current NASA organizational alignment and its impacts on driving technological innovation; and finally suggest an alternative approach that may drive the innovation needed to take the world to the next level of space exploration, with NASA truly leading the way.

  19. Advancing Biological Understanding and Therapeutics Discovery with Small Molecule Probes

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Stuart L.; Kotz, Joanne D.; Li, Min; Aubé, Jeffrey; Austin, Christopher P.; Reed, John C.; Rosen, Hugh; White, E. Lucile; Sklar, Larry A.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Alexander, Benjamin R.; Bittker, Joshua A.; Clemons, Paul A.; de Souza, Andrea; Foley, Michael A.; Palmer, Michelle; Shamji, Alykhan F.; Wawer, Mathias J.; McManus, Owen; Wu, Meng; Zou, Beiyan; Yu, Haibo; Golden, Jennifer E.; Schoenen, Frank J.; Simeonov, Anton; Jadhav, Ajit; Jackson, Michael R.; Pinkerton, Anthony B.; Chung, Thomas D.Y.; Griffin, Patrick R.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Hodder, Peter S.; Roush, William R.; Roberts, Edward; Chung, Dong-Hoon; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Noah, James W.; Severson, William E.; Ananthan, Subramaniam; Edwards, Bruce; Oprea, Tudor I.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Hopkins, Corey R.; Wood, Michael R.; Stauffer, Shaun R.; Emmitte, Kyle A.

    2015-01-01

    Small-molecule probes can illuminate biological processes and aid in the assessment of emerging therapeutic targets by perturbing biological systems in a manner distinct from other experimental approaches. Despite the tremendous promise of chemical tools for investigating biology and disease, small-molecule probes were unavailable for most targets and pathways as recently as a decade ago. In 2005, the U.S. National Institutes of Health launched the decade-long Molecular Libraries Program with the intent of innovating in and broadening access to small-molecule science. This Perspective describes how novel small-molecule probes identified through the program are enabling the exploration of biological pathways and therapeutic hypotheses not otherwise testable. These experiences illustrate how small-molecule probes can help bridge the chasm between biological research and the development of medicines, but also highlight the need to innovate the science of therapeutic discovery. PMID:26046436

  20. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Fact Sheet Structural Biology Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is structural biology? Structural biology is a field of science focused ...