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Sample records for reflex receptive fields

  1. Development of a data acquisition and analysis system for nociceptive withdrawal reflex and reflex receptive fields in humans.

    PubMed

    Biurrun Manresa, Jose A; Hansen, John; Andersen, Ole K

    2010-01-01

    A system for data acquisition and analysis of nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) and reflex receptive field (RRF) is introduced. The system is constituted by hardware and software components. The hardware consists of devices commonly used for electrical stimulation and electromyographic and kinematic data recording. The software comprises two different programs: Wirex, a stand-alone program developed in LabView for data acquisition, and Reflex Lab, a Matlab-based toolbox for data analysis. These programs were developed to maximize the potential of the hardware, turning it into a complete stimulation system capable of automatic quantification of NWR and RRF. In this article, a brief review of NWR and RRF analysis is presented, the system features are described in detail and its present and future applications are discussed.

  2. A new objective method for acquisition and quantification of reflex receptive fields.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Michael Brun; Manresa, José Biurrun; Andersen, Ole Kæseler

    2015-03-01

    The nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) is a polysynaptic spinal reflex correlated with pain perception. Assessment of this objective physiological measure constitutes the core of existing methods for quantification of reflex receptive fields (RRFs), which however still suffer from a certain degree of subjective involvement. This article proposes a strictly objective methodology for RRF quantification based on automated identification of NWR thresholds (NWR-Ts). Nociceptive withdrawal reflex thresholds were determined for 10 individual stimulation sites using an interleaved up-down staircase method. Reflexes were detected from electromyography by evaluation of interval peak z scores and application of conduction velocity analysis. Reflex receptive field areas were quantified from interpolated mappings of NWR-Ts and compared with existing RRF quantifications. A total of 3 repeated measures were performed in 2 different sessions to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the various quantifications, using coefficients of repeatability (CRs) and hypothetical sample sizes. The novel quantifications based on identification of NWR-Ts showed a similar level of reliability within and between sessions, whereas existing quantifications all demonstrated worse between-session than within-session reliability. The NWR-T-based quantifications required a smaller sample size than any of the existing RRF measures to detect a clinically relevant effect in a crossover study design involving more than 1 session. Of all measures, quantification from mapping of inversed NWR-Ts demonstrated superior reliability both within (CR, 0.25) and between sessions (CR, 0.28). The study presents a more reliable and robust quantification of the RRF to be used as biomarker of pain hypersensitivity in clinical and experimental research.

  3. Discriminative ability of reflex receptive fields to distinguish patients with acute and chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Müller, Monika; Biurrun Manresa, José A; Treichel, Fabienne; Agten, Christoph A; Heini, Paul; Andersen, Ole K; Curatolo, Michele; Jüni, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Low back pain has a life time prevalence of 70% to 85%. Approximately 10% to 20% of all patients experience recurrent episodes or develop chronic low back pain. Sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics explain the transition from acute to chronic low back pain only to a limited extent. Altered central pain processing may be a contributing mechanism. The measurement of reflex receptive fields (RRF) is a novel method to assess altered central pain processing. The RRF area denotes the area of the foot sole from which spinal nociceptive reflexes can be elicited. It was shown to be enlarged in patients with acute and chronic low back pain compared with pain-free individuals. The aim of the study was to explore the discriminative ability of the RRF to distinguish patients with acute and chronic low back pain with the hypothesis that enlarged RRF are associated with chronic low back pain. We included 214 patients with either acute or chronic low back pain and compared RRF between groups in both univariable and multivariable analyses adjusted for different sociodemographic and clinical characteristics possibly associated with the transition to chronic pain. We found a mean difference between patients with acute and chronic low back pain of -0.01 (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.06 to 0.04) in the crude, -0.02 (95% CI, -0.08 to 0.04) in the age and sex adjusted, and -0.02 (95% CI, -0.09 to 0.05) in the fully adjusted model. Our results suggest that the enlargement of RRF area may not be associated with the transition from acute to chronic low back pain.

  4. Mapping receptive fields in primary visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ringach, Dario L

    2004-01-01

    Nearly 40 years ago, in the pages of this journal, Hubel and Wiesel provided the first description of receptive fields in the primary visual cortex of higher mammals. They defined two classes of cortical cells, ‘simple’ and ‘complex’, based on neural responses to simple visual stimuli. The notion of a hierarchy of receptive fields, where increasingly intricate receptive fields are constructed from more elementary ones, was introduced. Since those early days we have witnessed the birth of quantitative methods to map receptive fields and mathematical descriptions of simple and complex cell function. Insights gained from these models, along with new theoretical concepts, are refining our understanding of receptive field structure and the underlying cortical circuitry. Here, I provide a brief historical account of the evolution of receptive field mapping in visual cortex along with the associated conceptual advancements, and speculate on the shape novel theories of the cortex may take as a result these measurements. PMID:15155794

  5. Central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields

    PubMed Central

    Kozlov, Andrei S.; Gentner, Timothy Q.

    2016-01-01

    High-level neurons processing complex, behaviorally relevant signals are sensitive to conjunctions of features. Characterizing the receptive fields of such neurons is difficult with standard statistical tools, however, and the principles governing their organization remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate multiple distinct receptive-field features in individual high-level auditory neurons in a songbird, European starling, in response to natural vocal signals (songs). We then show that receptive fields with similar characteristics can be reproduced by an unsupervised neural network trained to represent starling songs with a single learning rule that enforces sparseness and divisive normalization. We conclude that central auditory neurons have composite receptive fields that can arise through a combination of sparseness and normalization in neural circuits. Our results, along with descriptions of random, discontinuous receptive fields in the central olfactory neurons in mammals and insects, suggest general principles of neural computation across sensory systems and animal classes. PMID:26787894

  6. Mismatch Receptive Fields in Mouse Visual Cortex.

    PubMed

    Zmarz, Pawel; Keller, Georg B

    2016-11-23

    In primary visual cortex, a subset of neurons responds when a particular stimulus is encountered in a certain location in visual space. This activity can be modeled using a visual receptive field. In addition to visually driven activity, there are neurons in visual cortex that integrate visual and motor-related input to signal a mismatch between actual and predicted visual flow. Here we show that these mismatch neurons have receptive fields and signal a local mismatch between actual and predicted visual flow in restricted regions of visual space. These mismatch receptive fields are aligned to the retinotopic map of visual cortex and are similar in size to visual receptive fields. Thus, neurons with mismatch receptive fields signal local deviations of actual visual flow from visual flow predicted based on self-motion and could therefore underlie the detection of objects moving relative to the visual flow caused by self-motion. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  7. Idealized Computational Models for Auditory Receptive Fields

    PubMed Central

    Lindeberg, Tony; Friberg, Anders

    2015-01-01

    We present a theory by which idealized models of auditory receptive fields can be derived in a principled axiomatic manner, from a set of structural properties to (i) enable invariance of receptive field responses under natural sound transformations and (ii) ensure internal consistency between spectro-temporal receptive fields at different temporal and spectral scales. For defining a time-frequency transformation of a purely temporal sound signal, it is shown that the framework allows for a new way of deriving the Gabor and Gammatone filters as well as a novel family of generalized Gammatone filters, with additional degrees of freedom to obtain different trade-offs between the spectral selectivity and the temporal delay of time-causal temporal window functions. When applied to the definition of a second-layer of receptive fields from a spectrogram, it is shown that the framework leads to two canonical families of spectro-temporal receptive fields, in terms of spectro-temporal derivatives of either spectro-temporal Gaussian kernels for non-causal time or a cascade of time-causal first-order integrators over the temporal domain and a Gaussian filter over the logspectral domain. For each filter family, the spectro-temporal receptive fields can be either separable over the time-frequency domain or be adapted to local glissando transformations that represent variations in logarithmic frequencies over time. Within each domain of either non-causal or time-causal time, these receptive field families are derived by uniqueness from the assumptions. It is demonstrated how the presented framework allows for computation of basic auditory features for audio processing and that it leads to predictions about auditory receptive fields with good qualitative similarity to biological receptive fields measured in the inferior colliculus (ICC) and primary auditory cortex (A1) of mammals. PMID:25822973

  8. A computational theory of visual receptive fields.

    PubMed

    Lindeberg, Tony

    2013-12-01

    A receptive field constitutes a region in the visual field where a visual cell or a visual operator responds to visual stimuli. This paper presents a theory for what types of receptive field profiles can be regarded as natural for an idealized vision system, given a set of structural requirements on the first stages of visual processing that reflect symmetry properties of the surrounding world. These symmetry properties include (i) covariance properties under scale changes, affine image deformations, and Galilean transformations of space-time as occur for real-world image data as well as specific requirements of (ii) temporal causality implying that the future cannot be accessed and (iii) a time-recursive updating mechanism of a limited temporal buffer of the past as is necessary for a genuine real-time system. Fundamental structural requirements are also imposed to ensure (iv) mutual consistency and a proper handling of internal representations at different spatial and temporal scales. It is shown how a set of families of idealized receptive field profiles can be derived by necessity regarding spatial, spatio-chromatic, and spatio-temporal receptive fields in terms of Gaussian kernels, Gaussian derivatives, or closely related operators. Such image filters have been successfully used as a basis for expressing a large number of visual operations in computer vision, regarding feature detection, feature classification, motion estimation, object recognition, spatio-temporal recognition, and shape estimation. Hence, the associated so-called scale-space theory constitutes a both theoretically well-founded and general framework for expressing visual operations. There are very close similarities between receptive field profiles predicted from this scale-space theory and receptive field profiles found by cell recordings in biological vision. Among the family of receptive field profiles derived by necessity from the assumptions, idealized models with very good qualitative

  9. Auditory Spatial Receptive Fields Created by Multiplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña, José Luis; Konishi, Masakazu

    2001-04-01

    Examples of multiplication by neurons or neural circuits are scarce, although many computational models use this basic operation. The owl's auditory system computes interaural time (ITD) and level (ILD) differences to create a two-dimensional map of auditory space. Space-specific neurons are selective for combinations of ITD and ILD, which define, respectively, the horizontal and vertical dimensions of their receptive fields. A multiplication of separate postsynaptic potentials tuned to ITD and ILD, rather than an addition, can account for the subthreshold responses of these neurons to ITD-ILD pairs. Other nonlinear processes improve the spatial tuning of the spike output and reduce the fit to the multiplicative model.

  10. Invariance of visual operations at the level of receptive fields

    PubMed Central

    Lindeberg, Tony

    2013-01-01

    The brain is able to maintain a stable perception although the visual stimuli vary substantially on the retina due to geometric transformations and lighting variations in the environment. This paper presents a theory for achieving basic invariance properties already at the level of receptive fields. Specifically, the presented framework comprises (i) local scaling transformations caused by objects of different size and at different distances to the observer, (ii) locally linearized image deformations caused by variations in the viewing direction in relation to the object, (iii) locally linearized relative motions between the object and the observer and (iv) local multiplicative intensity transformations caused by illumination variations. The receptive field model can be derived by necessity from symmetry properties of the environment and leads to predictions about receptive field profiles in good agreement with receptive field profiles measured by cell recordings in mammalian vision. Indeed, the receptive field profiles in the retina, LGN and V1 are close to ideal to what is motivated by the idealized requirements. By complementing receptive field measurements with selection mechanisms over the parameters in the receptive field families, it is shown how true invariance of receptive field responses can be obtained under scaling transformations, affine transformations and Galilean transformations. Thereby, the framework provides a mathematically well-founded and biologically plausible model for how basic invariance properties can be achieved already at the level of receptive fields and support invariant recognition of objects and events under variations in viewpoint, retinal size, object motion and illumination. The theory can explain the different shapes of receptive field profiles found in biological vision, which are tuned to different sizes and orientations in the image domain as well as to different image velocities in space-time, from a requirement that the

  11. Mechanisms Underlying Development of Visual Maps and Receptive Fields

    PubMed Central

    Huberman, Andrew D.; Feller, Marla B.; Chapman, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of synaptic connections in the visual system are remarkably precise. These connections dictate the receptive field properties of individual visual neurons and ultimately determine the quality of visual perception. Spontaneous neural activity is necessary for the development of various receptive field properties and visual feature maps. In recent years, attention has shifted to understanding the mechanisms by which spontaneous activity in the developing retina, lateral geniculate nucleus, and visual cortex instruct the axonal and dendritic refinements that give rise to orderly connections in the visual system. Axon guidance cues and a growing list of other molecules, including immune system factors, have also recently been implicated in visual circuit wiring. A major goal now is to determine how these molecules cooperate with spontaneous and visually evoked activity to give rise to the circuits underlying precise receptive field tuning and orderly visual maps. PMID:18558864

  12. Highly selective receptive fields in mouse visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Niell, Cristopher M; Stryker, Michael P

    2008-07-23

    Genetic methods available in mice are likely to be powerful tools in dissecting cortical circuits. However, the visual cortex, in which sensory coding has been most thoroughly studied in other species, has essentially been neglected in mice perhaps because of their poor spatial acuity and the lack of columnar organization such as orientation maps. We have now applied quantitative methods to characterize visual receptive fields in mouse primary visual cortex V1 by making extracellular recordings with silicon electrode arrays in anesthetized mice. We used current source density analysis to determine laminar location and spike waveforms to discriminate putative excitatory and inhibitory units. We find that, although the spatial scale of mouse receptive fields is up to one or two orders of magnitude larger, neurons show selectivity for stimulus parameters such as orientation and spatial frequency that is near to that found in other species. Furthermore, typical response properties such as linear versus nonlinear spatial summation (i.e., simple and complex cells) and contrast-invariant tuning are also present in mouse V1 and correlate with laminar position and cell type. Interestingly, we find that putative inhibitory neurons generally have less selective, and nonlinear, responses. This quantitative description of receptive field properties should facilitate the use of mouse visual cortex as a system to address longstanding questions of visual neuroscience and cortical processing.

  13. Ontogenesis of receptive fields in the rabbit striate cortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathers, L. H.; Chow, K. L.; Spear, P. D.; Grobstein, P.

    1974-01-01

    The development of receptive fields in rabbit pups was investigated by measuring their responses to various light stimuli and to electric shock delivered to the optic nerve head. The pups ranged in age from three to twenty-five days, allowing correlation of findings with maturation. The data, classified according to relation with symmetric or asymmetric field types, strongly suggest that retina maturation is the key factor in the rate of development in central visual pathways, and that central synaptic connections are made before the onset of retinal activity.

  14. [Striate receptive fields mapped with single and bipartite stimuli].

    PubMed

    Lazareva, N A; Shevelev, I A; Saltykov, K A; Novikova, R V; Tikhomirov, A S; Sharaev, G A; Tsutskiridze, D Iu; Eĭdeland, P V

    2008-01-01

    In 22 acute experiments with anesthetized and immobilized adult cats, 364 maps of receptive fields (RF) of 47 striate neurons were obtained by means of single local stimuli flashed at different parts of the visual field, or with additional asynchronous activation of the RF excitatory center with oscillating bar of the optimal orientation. Under bipartite stimulation, considerable and significant decrease in the square and weight of the central excitatory RF zone was revealed in more then 75% of the studied cells. Additional excitatory zones appeared in 54% of cases, or the square and weight of the excitatory zones substantially increased, and inhibitory zones developed in 90% of cases. These effects were correlated with the degree of increase in the background firing during transition from the mode of mapping with single stimulation to that with bipartite stimulation. The mechanism and possible functional role of cooperative excitatory and inhibitory intracortical interactions in organization of receptive fields and detection of features of a visual image are discussed.

  15. Bilateral receptive fields of cells in rat Sm1 cortex.

    PubMed

    Armstrong-James, M; George, M J

    1988-01-01

    Single cells in the primary somatosensory (Sm1) cortex were investigated for responses to bilateral hindpaw stimulation in Wistar rats anaesthetised by continuous intravenous administration of Althesin. Fifty-one percent of cells sampled (N = 134) responded to equivalent punctate mechanical stimuli delivered to both the contralateral and ipsilateral hindpaws under light anaesthesia. The distribution by cortical depth of cells with receptive fields (RFs) on both hindpaws was not significantly different from cells which had only contralateral RFs. No cell was found with a purely ipsilateral RF. For 86% of cells tested (N = 44) the ipsilateral RF was partly or completely homologous with areas within the contralateral RF. The sizes of ipsilateral RFs were smaller on 66% of occasions when tested against their contralateral RFs. Modal latencies to ipsilateral mechanical stimulation were longer than to contralateral stimulation (34.1 +/- 9.1 ms (S.D) cf. 26.4 +/- 7.2 ms, N = 44). Ipsilateral RFs were lost for 77% of cells tested following a 33% increase in anaesthetic infusion rate. Conditioning mechanical stimuli applied to the centre receptive field (CRF) on the ipsilateral hindpaw reduced or abolished a cell's responses to equivalent test stimuli applied to it's contralateral CRF with C-T intervals of 20-200 ms. Conditioning stimuli applied to the CRF contralateral to the cell reduced or abolished responses to test stimuli on the cell's ipsilateral CRF using C-T intervals of 0-900 ms. Responses in one cortex to stimulation of the ipsilateral hindpaw were unaffected by elimination of responses from the same hindpaw in the opposite contralateral Sm1 cortex, where responses had been suppressed by topical Lignocaine administration. Retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase from hindpaw Sm1 cortex labelled many cells in homolateral thalamus, but failed to label cells in the entire forebrain contralateral to the injection site. It is concluded that direct crossed

  16. Optimum spatiotemporal receptive fields for vision in dim light.

    PubMed

    Klaus, Andreas; Warrant, Eric J

    2009-04-22

    Many nocturnal insects depend on vision for daily life and have evolved different strategies to improve their visual capabilities in dim light. Neural summation of visual signals is one strategy to improve visual performance, and this is likely to be especially important for insects with apposition compound eyes. Here we develop a model to determine the optimum spatiotemporal sampling of natural scenes at gradually decreasing light levels. Image anisotropy has a strong influence on the receptive field properties predicted to be optimal at low light intensities. Spatial summation between visual channels is predicted to extend more strongly in the direction with higher correlations between the input signals. Increased spatiotemporal summation increases signal-to-noise ratio at low frequencies but sacrifices signal-to-noise ratio at higher frequencies. These results, while obtained from a model of the insect visual system, are likely to apply to visual systems in general.

  17. Network Receptive Field Modeling Reveals Extensive Integration and Multi-feature Selectivity in Auditory Cortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Willmore, Ben D. B.; Cui, Zhanfeng; Schnupp, Jan W. H.; King, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Cortical sensory neurons are commonly characterized using the receptive field, the linear dependence of their response on the stimulus. In primary auditory cortex neurons can be characterized by their spectrotemporal receptive fields, the spectral and temporal features of a sound that linearly drive a neuron. However, receptive fields do not capture the fact that the response of a cortical neuron results from the complex nonlinear network in which it is embedded. By fitting a nonlinear feedforward network model (a network receptive field) to cortical responses to natural sounds, we reveal that primary auditory cortical neurons are sensitive over a substantially larger spectrotemporal domain than is seen in their standard spectrotemporal receptive fields. Furthermore, the network receptive field, a parsimonious network consisting of 1–7 sub-receptive fields that interact nonlinearly, consistently better predicts neural responses to auditory stimuli than the standard receptive fields. The network receptive field reveals separate excitatory and inhibitory sub-fields with different nonlinear properties, and interaction of the sub-fields gives rise to important operations such as gain control and conjunctive feature detection. The conjunctive effects, where neurons respond only if several specific features are present together, enable increased selectivity for particular complex spectrotemporal structures, and may constitute an important stage in sound recognition. In conclusion, we demonstrate that fitting auditory cortical neural responses with feedforward network models expands on simple linear receptive field models in a manner that yields substantially improved predictive power and reveals key nonlinear aspects of cortical processing, while remaining easy to interpret in a physiological context. PMID:27835647

  18. Network Receptive Field Modeling Reveals Extensive Integration and Multi-feature Selectivity in Auditory Cortical Neurons.

    PubMed

    Harper, Nicol S; Schoppe, Oliver; Willmore, Ben D B; Cui, Zhanfeng; Schnupp, Jan W H; King, Andrew J

    2016-11-01

    Cortical sensory neurons are commonly characterized using the receptive field, the linear dependence of their response on the stimulus. In primary auditory cortex neurons can be characterized by their spectrotemporal receptive fields, the spectral and temporal features of a sound that linearly drive a neuron. However, receptive fields do not capture the fact that the response of a cortical neuron results from the complex nonlinear network in which it is embedded. By fitting a nonlinear feedforward network model (a network receptive field) to cortical responses to natural sounds, we reveal that primary auditory cortical neurons are sensitive over a substantially larger spectrotemporal domain than is seen in their standard spectrotemporal receptive fields. Furthermore, the network receptive field, a parsimonious network consisting of 1-7 sub-receptive fields that interact nonlinearly, consistently better predicts neural responses to auditory stimuli than the standard receptive fields. The network receptive field reveals separate excitatory and inhibitory sub-fields with different nonlinear properties, and interaction of the sub-fields gives rise to important operations such as gain control and conjunctive feature detection. The conjunctive effects, where neurons respond only if several specific features are present together, enable increased selectivity for particular complex spectrotemporal structures, and may constitute an important stage in sound recognition. In conclusion, we demonstrate that fitting auditory cortical neural responses with feedforward network models expands on simple linear receptive field models in a manner that yields substantially improved predictive power and reveals key nonlinear aspects of cortical processing, while remaining easy to interpret in a physiological context.

  19. Larger Extrastriate Population Receptive Fields in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Elaine J.; de Haas, Benjamin; White, Sarah J.; Rees, Geraint

    2014-01-01

    Previous behavioral research suggests enhanced local visual processing in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Here we used functional MRI and population receptive field (pRF) analysis to test whether the response selectivity of human visual cortex is atypical in individuals with high-functioning ASDs compared with neurotypical, demographically matched controls. For each voxel, we fitted a pRF model to fMRI signals measured while participants viewed flickering bar stimuli traversing the visual field. In most extrastriate regions, perifoveal pRFs were larger in the ASD group than in controls. We observed no differences in V1 or V3A. Differences in the hemodynamic response function, eye movements, or increased measurement noise could not account for these results; individuals with ASDs showed stronger, more reliable responses to visual stimulation. Interestingly, pRF sizes also correlated with individual differences in autistic traits but there were no correlations with behavioral measures of visual processing. Our findings thus suggest that visual cortex in ASDs is not characterized by sharper spatial selectivity. Instead, we speculate that visual cortical function in ASDs may be characterized by extrastriate cortical hyperexcitability or differential attentional deployment. PMID:24523560

  20. Topographical estimation of visual population receptive fields by FMRI.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangkyun; Papanikolaou, Amalia; Keliris, Georgios A; Smirnakis, Stelios M

    2015-02-03

    Visual cortex is retinotopically organized so that neighboring populations of cells map to neighboring parts of the visual field. Functional magnetic resonance imaging allows us to estimate voxel-based population receptive fields (pRF), i.e., the part of the visual field that activates the cells within each voxel. Prior, direct, pRF estimation methods(1) suffer from certain limitations: 1) the pRF model is chosen a-priori and may not fully capture the actual pRF shape, and 2) pRF centers are prone to mislocalization near the border of the stimulus space. Here a new topographical pRF estimation method(2) is proposed that largely circumvents these limitations. A linear model is used to predict the Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent (BOLD) signal by convolving the linear response of the pRF to the visual stimulus with the canonical hemodynamic response function. PRF topography is represented as a weight vector whose components represent the strength of the aggregate response of voxel neurons to stimuli presented at different visual field locations. The resulting linear equations can be solved for the pRF weight vector using ridge regression(3), yielding the pRF topography. A pRF model that is matched to the estimated topography can then be chosen post-hoc, thereby improving the estimates of pRF parameters such as pRF-center location, pRF orientation, size, etc. Having the pRF topography available also allows the visual verification of pRF parameter estimates allowing the extraction of various pRF properties without having to make a-priori assumptions about the pRF structure. This approach promises to be particularly useful for investigating the pRF organization of patients with disorders of the visual system.

  1. Neurophysiological and simulation studies of striate cortex receptive field maps: the role of intracortical interneuronal interactions.

    PubMed

    Lazareva, N A; Saltykov, K A; Shevelev, I A; Tikhomirov, A S; Novikova, R V; Tsutskiridze, D Yu

    2007-07-01

    Acute experiments on 27 adult anesthetized and immobilized cats investigated 101 on and off receptive fields in 67 neurons in visual cortex field 17 by mapping using single local stimuli presented sequentially at different parts of the visual field, as well as in combination with additional stimulation of the center of the receptive field. Both classical and combined mapping identified receptive fields with single receptive zones (63.4% and 29.3% respectively), along with fields consisting of several (2-5) excitatory and/or inhibitory zones (36.6% and 70.7%). We provide the first report of receptive fields with horseshoe, cross, and T shapes. Simulations of horizontal interneuronal interactions in the visual cortex responsible for the multiplicity of excitatory and inhibitory zones of receptive fields were performed. A role for cooperative interactions of neurons in this effect was demonstrated. The possible functional role of receptive fields of different types in extracting the features of visual images is discussed.

  2. Effects of spike-triggered negative feedback on receptive-field properties.

    PubMed

    Urdapilleta, Eugenio; Samengo, Inés

    2015-04-01

    Sensory neurons are often described in terms of a receptive field, that is, a linear kernel through which stimuli are filtered before they are further processed. If information transmission is assumed to proceed in a feedforward cascade, the receptive field may be interpreted as the external stimulus' profile maximizing neuronal output. The nervous system, however, contains many feedback loops, and sensory neurons filter more currents than the ones representing the transduced external stimulus. Some of the additional currents are generated by the output activity of the neuron itself, and therefore constitute feedback signals. By means of a time-frequency analysis of the input/output transformation, here we show how feedback modifies the receptive field. The model is applicable to various types of feedback processes, from spike-triggered intrinsic conductances to inhibitory synaptic inputs from nearby neurons. We distinguish between the intrinsic receptive field (filtering all input currents) and the effective receptive field (filtering only external stimuli). Whereas the intrinsic receptive field summarizes the biophysical properties of the neuron associated to subthreshold integration and spike generation, only the effective receptive field can be interpreted as the external stimulus' profile maximizing neuronal output. We demonstrate that spike-triggered feedback shifts low-pass filtering towards band-pass processing, transforming integrator neurons into resonators. For strong feedback, a sharp resonance in the spectral neuronal selectivity may appear. Our results provide a unified framework to interpret a collection of previous experimental studies where specific feedback mechanisms were shown to modify the filtering properties of neurons.

  3. Temporal response of protein-based artificial ganglion cell receptive field (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada-Shudo, Yoshiko

    2016-10-01

    We propose ganglion cell receptive-field-type filters with the use of the photoreceptor protein bacteriorhodopsin. Visual image processing is possible with the use of only one sensing element. We also demonstrate that our difference of Gaussians (DOG) filter, which mimics on-center off-suround ganglion cell receptive fields, has the function of a Laplacian filter and can act as an edge detecor. The X-type receptive field responses obtained by the filter, for a variety of stimuli, are compared with available electrophysiological recodings.

  4. State-space receptive fields of semicircular canal afferent neurons in the bullfrog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulin, M. G.; Hoffman, L. F.

    2001-01-01

    Receptive fields are commonly used to describe spatial characteristics of sensory neuron responses. They can be extended to characterize temporal or dynamical aspects by mapping neural responses in dynamical state spaces. The state-space receptive field of a neuron is the probability distribution of the dynamical state of the stimulus-generating system conditioned upon the occurrence of a spike. We have computed state-space receptive fields for semicircular canal afferent neurons in the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). We recorded spike times during broad-band Gaussian noise rotational velocity stimuli, computed the frequency distribution of head states at spike times, and normalized these to obtain conditional pdfs for the state. These state-space receptive fields quantify what the brain can deduce about the dynamical state of the head when a single spike arrives from the periphery. c2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Receptive fields of retinal bipolar cells are mediated by heterogeneous synaptic circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ai-Jun; Wu, Samuel M.

    2009-01-01

    Center-surround antagonistic receptive field (CSARF) organization is the basic synaptic circuit that serves as elementary building blocks for spatial information processing in the visual system. Cells with such receptive fields converge into higher-order visual neurons to form more complex receptive fields. Retinal bipolar cells (BCs) are the first neurons along the visual pathway that exhibit CSARF organization. BCs have been classified according to their response polarities and rod/cone inputs, and they project signals to target cells at different sublaminae of the inner plexiform layer. On the other hand, CSARFs of various types of BCs have been assumed be organized the same way. Here we examined center and surround responses of over 250 salamander BCs, and demonstrated that different types of BCs exhibit different patterns of dye coupling, receptive field center size, surround response strength, and conductance changes associated with center and surround responses. We show that BC receptive field center sizes varied with the degree of BC-BC coupling, and that surround responses of different BCs are mediated by different combinations of five lateral synaptic pathways mediated by the horizontal cells and amacrine cells. The finding of heterogeneous receptive field circuitry fundamentally challenges the common assumption that CSARFs of different subtypes of visual neurons are mediated by the same synaptic pathways. BCs carrying different visual signals use different synaptic circuits to process spatial information, allowing shape and contrast computation be differentially modulated by various lighting and adaptation conditions. PMID:19158304

  6. Chromatic sensitivity and spatial organization of LGN neurone receptive fields in cat: cone-rod interaction

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, P.

    1972-01-01

    1. The results described are for detailed analyses of fifty-four isolated LGN units, in response to monochromatic stimuli presented against achromatic, mid-mesopic backgrounds. Forty-seven were positively identified cells from the A-laminae; the remaining seven were fibres from the optic radiation. 2. Cells are classified according to firing pattern. Phasic cells respond almost exclusively with a discharge transient. Tonic cells, by contrast, give a maintained component in addition. In general, tonic cells possess higher spontaneous firing frequencies than phasic cells and the antagonistic surrounds of their receptive fields are more potent. In other respects the two classes appear to be functionally similar. 3. All cells within the A-laminae receive input involving both rods and 556 nm cones. 4. The spatial organization of geniculate receptive fields, unlike retinal fields, is little different for cone and rod vision. In the infrequent instances where a change is apparent, it is small and can go in either direction: rod fields are then on balance slightly larger than cone fields. 5. The locus of maximum sensitivity for the receptive field surround is described by a circle, concentric with the field centre; it is invariant with respect to stimulus geometry, or changeover from cone to rod vision. 6. This result implies that the receptive field surround mechanism does not extend through the field centre. It supports the notion that the centre and surround of each geniculate cell receptive field are mediated by discrete retinal inputs. PMID:4561483

  7. Crossed receptive field components and crossed dendrites in cat sacrocaudal dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Gladfelter, W E; Millecchia, R J; Pubols, L M; Sonty, R V; Ritz, L A; Covalt-Dunning, D; Culberson, J; Brown, P B

    1993-10-01

    The hypothesis that sacrocaudal dorsal horn neurons with crossed receptive field components on the tail have dendrites which cross to the contralateral dorsal horn was tested in a combined electrophysiological and morphological study. Dorsal horn cells in the sacrocaudal spinal cord of anesthetized cats were penetrated with horseradish peroxidase-filled microelectrodes. After mapping their low threshold mechanoreceptive fields, cells were iontophoretically injected with horseradish peroxidase. A sample of 16 well-stained cells was obtained in laminae III and IV. Cells with receptive fields crossing the dorsal midline of the tail (n = 8) had somata in the lateral ipsilateral dorsal horn, and some of these cells (5/8) had dendrites which crossed to the lateral contralateral dorsal horn. Cells with receptive fields spanning the ventral midline (n = 2) were located near the center of the fused dorsal horn, and one of these had bilateral dendrites in this region. Cells with receptive fields on the lateral tail, crossing neither the dorsal nor the ventral midline (n = 6), had cell bodies in the middle of the ipsilateral dorsal horn; half had only ipsilateral dendrites, and half had crossed dendritic branches. Although the relationship between cell receptive field (RF) location (RF center, expressed as distance from tips of toes) and mediolateral location of the cell body was statistically significant, the correlation between crossed RF components and crossed dendritic branches was not significant.

  8. Nonlinear Hebbian Learning as a Unifying Principle in Receptive Field Formation

    PubMed Central

    Gerstner, Wulfram

    2016-01-01

    The development of sensory receptive fields has been modeled in the past by a variety of models including normative models such as sparse coding or independent component analysis and bottom-up models such as spike-timing dependent plasticity or the Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro model of synaptic plasticity. Here we show that the above variety of approaches can all be unified into a single common principle, namely nonlinear Hebbian learning. When nonlinear Hebbian learning is applied to natural images, receptive field shapes were strongly constrained by the input statistics and preprocessing, but exhibited only modest variation across different choices of nonlinearities in neuron models or synaptic plasticity rules. Neither overcompleteness nor sparse network activity are necessary for the development of localized receptive fields. The analysis of alternative sensory modalities such as auditory models or V2 development lead to the same conclusions. In all examples, receptive fields can be predicted a priori by reformulating an abstract model as nonlinear Hebbian learning. Thus nonlinear Hebbian learning and natural statistics can account for many aspects of receptive field formation across models and sensory modalities. PMID:27690349

  9. Attention operates uniformly throughout the classical receptive field and the surround

    PubMed Central

    Verhoef, Bram-Ernst; Maunsell, John HR

    2016-01-01

    Shifting attention among visual stimuli at different locations modulates neuronal responses in heterogeneous ways, depending on where those stimuli lie within the receptive fields of neurons. Yet how attention interacts with the receptive-field structure of cortical neurons remains unclear. We measured neuronal responses in area V4 while monkeys shifted their attention among stimuli placed in different locations within and around neuronal receptive fields. We found that attention interacts uniformly with the spatially-varying excitation and suppression associated with the receptive field. This interaction explained the large variability in attention modulation across neurons, and a non-additive relationship among stimulus selectivity, stimulus-induced suppression and attention modulation that has not been previously described. A spatially-tuned normalization model precisely accounted for all observed attention modulations and for the spatial summation properties of neurons. These results provide a unified account of spatial summation and attention-related modulation across both the classical receptive field and the surround. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17256.001 PMID:27547989

  10. Natural image sequences constrain dynamic receptive fields and imply a sparse code.

    PubMed

    Häusler, Chris; Susemihl, Alex; Nawrot, Martin P

    2013-11-06

    In their natural environment, animals experience a complex and dynamic visual scenery. Under such natural stimulus conditions, neurons in the visual cortex employ a spatially and temporally sparse code. For the input scenario of natural still images, previous work demonstrated that unsupervised feature learning combined with the constraint of sparse coding can predict physiologically measured receptive fields of simple cells in the primary visual cortex. This convincingly indicated that the mammalian visual system is adapted to the natural spatial input statistics. Here, we extend this approach to the time domain in order to predict dynamic receptive fields that can account for both spatial and temporal sparse activation in biological neurons. We rely on temporal restricted Boltzmann machines and suggest a novel temporal autoencoding training procedure. When tested on a dynamic multi-variate benchmark dataset this method outperformed existing models of this class. Learning features on a large dataset of natural movies allowed us to model spatio-temporal receptive fields for single neurons. They resemble temporally smooth transformations of previously obtained static receptive fields and are thus consistent with existing theories. A neuronal spike response model demonstrates how the dynamic receptive field facilitates temporal and population sparseness. We discuss the potential mechanisms and benefits of a spatially and temporally sparse representation of natural visual input.

  11. A new nonconvex variational approach for sensory neurons receptive field estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drogoul, A.; Aubert, G.; Cessac, B.; Kornprobst, P.

    2016-10-01

    Determining the receptive field of a visual sensory neuron is crucial to characterize the region of the visual field and the stimuli this neuron is sensitive to. We propose a new method to estimate receptive fields by a nonconvex variational approach, thus relaxing the simplifying and unrealistic assumption of convexity made by standard approaches. The method consists of solving a relaxed discrete energy minimization problem using a proximal alternating algorithm. We compare our approach with the classical spike-triggered-average technique on simulated data, considering a typical retinal ganglion cell as ground truth. Results show a high improvement in terms of accuracy and convergence with respect to the duration of the experiment.

  12. A Novel Nonparametric Approach for Neural Encoding and Decoding Models of Multimodal Receptive Fields.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Rahul; Chen, Zhe; Kloosterman, Fabian; Wilson, Matthew A; Sarma, Sridevi V

    2016-07-01

    Pyramidal neurons recorded from the rat hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, such as place and grid cells, have diverse receptive fields, which are either unimodal or multimodal. Spiking activity from these cells encodes information about the spatial position of a freely foraging rat. At fine timescales, a neuron's spike activity also depends significantly on its own spike history. However, due to limitations of current parametric modeling approaches, it remains a challenge to estimate complex, multimodal neuronal receptive fields while incorporating spike history dependence. Furthermore, efforts to decode the rat's trajectory in one- or two-dimensional space from hippocampal ensemble spiking activity have mainly focused on spike history-independent neuronal encoding models. In this letter, we address these two important issues by extending a recently introduced nonparametric neural encoding framework that allows modeling both complex spatial receptive fields and spike history dependencies. Using this extended nonparametric approach, we develop novel algorithms for decoding a rat's trajectory based on recordings of hippocampal place cells and entorhinal grid cells. Results show that both encoding and decoding models derived from our new method performed significantly better than state-of-the-art encoding and decoding models on 6 minutes of test data. In addition, our model's performance remains invariant to the apparent modality of the neuron's receptive field.

  13. Receptive field properties of rod-driven horizontal cells in the skate retina

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The large receptive fields of retinal horizontal cells result primarily from extensive intercellular coupling via gap (electrical) junctions; thus, the extent of the receptive field provides an index of the degree to which the cells are electrically coupled. For rod-driven horizontal cells in the dark-adapted skate retina, a space constant of 1.18 +/- 0.15 mm (SD) was obtained from measurements with a moving slit stimulus, and a comparable value (1.43 +/- 0.55 mm) was obtained with variation in spot diameter. These values, and the extensive spread of a fluorescent dye (Lucifer Yellow) from the site of injection to neighboring cells, indicate that the horizontal cells of the all-rod retina of skate are well coupled electrically. Neither the receptive field properties nor the gap-junctional features of skate horizontal cells were influenced by the adaptive state of the retina: (a) the receptive field organization was unaffected by light adaptation, (b) similar dye coupling was seen in both dark- and light-adapted retinae, and (c) no significant differences were found in the gap-junctional particle densities measured in dark- and light-adapted retinas, i.e., 3,184 +/- 286/microns 2 (n = 8) and 3,073 +/- 494/microns 2 (n = 11), respectively. Moreover, the receptive fields of skate horizontal cells were not altered by either dopamine, glycine, GABA, or the GABAA receptor antagonists bicuculline and picrotoxin. We conclude that the rod-driven horizontal cells of the skate retina are tightly coupled to one another, and that the coupling is not affected by photic and pharmacological conditions that are known to modulate intercellular coupling between cone-driven horizontal cells in other species. PMID:1359000

  14. Nonlinear Y-Like Receptive Fields in the Early Visual Cortex: An Intermediate Stage for Building Cue-Invariant Receptive Fields from Subcortical Y Cells.

    PubMed

    Gharat, Amol; Baker, Curtis L

    2017-01-25

    Many of the neurons in early visual cortex are selective for the orientation of boundaries defined by first-order cues (luminance) as well as second-order cues (contrast, texture). The neural circuit mechanism underlying this selectivity is still unclear, but some studies have proposed that it emerges from spatial nonlinearities of subcortical Y cells. To understand how inputs from the Y-cell pathway might be pooled to generate cue-invariant receptive fields, we recorded visual responses from single neurons in cat Area 18 using linear multielectrode arrays. We measured responses to drifting and contrast-reversing luminance gratings as well as contrast modulation gratings. We found that a large fraction of these neurons have nonoriented responses to gratings, similar to those of subcortical Y cells: they respond at the second harmonic (F2) to high-spatial frequency contrast-reversing gratings and at the first harmonic (F1) to low-spatial frequency drifting gratings ("Y-cell signature"). For a given neuron, spatial frequency tuning for linear (F1) and nonlinear (F2) responses is quite distinct, similar to orientation-selective cue-invariant neurons. Also, these neurons respond to contrast modulation gratings with selectivity for the carrier (texture) spatial frequency and, in some cases, orientation. Their receptive field properties suggest that they could serve as building blocks for orientation-selective cue-invariant neurons. We propose a circuit model that combines ON- and OFF-center cortical Y-like cells in an unbalanced push-pull manner to generate orientation-selective, cue-invariant receptive fields.

  15. Investigation of the asymmetric distributions of RF transmission and reception fields at high static field.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hidehiro

    2012-01-01

    When radiofrequency (RF) transmission field represents B(1)(+), the reception field represents B(1)(-)*. The distribution of those maps demonstrates asymmetric features at high field magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Both maps are in mirror symmetry to one another. Almost symmetric distribution of the B(1) field was expected on the laboratory frame in a symmetric sample loaded inside the RF coil designed to achieve a homogeneous B(1) field. Then, a simple change was made in the coordinate transformation equation of RF fields between the rotating and laboratory frames in both linear and quadrature modes to investigate the source of this feature of asymmetry. The magnitude of rotating frame components, B(1)(+) and B(1)(-), consists of the magnitude and the phase difference of the laboratory frame components. The rotating frame components differ in the sign of the sinusoidal phase difference. B(1)(+) is equal to B(1)(-) at lower field because phase changes that depend on position can be ignored. At higher fields, the magnitude component has a symmetric profile, and distribution in the phase component is antisymmetric. Thus, the distributions of B(1)(+) and B(1)(-) maps demonstrate mirror symmetry. Maps of magnitude and phase components were examined in the laboratory frame. Their maps were computed from B(1)(+) and B(1)(-) maps of the human brain and of a spherical saline phantom measured at 4.7T. It was concluded from these analytical and experimental results that the asymmetric and mirror symmetric distributions in B(1)(+) and B(1)(-) are derived from the phase difference in the laboratory frame.

  16. Synaptic and Network Mechanisms of Sparse and Reliable Visual Cortical Activity during Nonclassical Receptive Field Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Bilal; Krause, Matthew R.; Duque, Alvaro; Yu, Yuguo; Touryan, Jonathan; Mazer, James A.; McCormick, David A.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY During natural vision, the entire visual field is stimulated by images rich in spatiotemporal structure. Although many visual system studies restrict stimuli to the classical receptive field (CRF), it is known that costimulation of the CRF and the surrounding nonclassical receptive field (nCRF) increases neuronal response sparseness. The cellular and network mechanisms underlying increased response sparseness remain largely unexplored. Here we show that combined CRF + nCRF stimulation increases the sparseness, reliability, and precision of spiking and membrane potential responses in classical regular spiking (RSC) pyramidal neurons of cat primary visual cortex. Conversely, fast-spiking interneurons exhibit increased activity and decreased selectivity during CRF + nCRF stimulation. The increased sparseness and reliability of RSC neuron spiking is associated with increased inhibitory barrages and narrower visually evoked synaptic potentials. Our experimental observations were replicated with a simple computational model, suggesting that network interactions among neuronal subtypes ultimately sharpen recurrent excitation, producing specific and reliable visual responses. PMID:20152117

  17. Teaching Critical Reflexivity in Short-Term International Field Courses: Practices and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    This study critiques the use of critical reflexivity in short-term international field courses. Critical reflexivity's benefits include preparing students for professional research, deepening their learning, and giving the chance to see how student perspectives on fieldwork sites are influenced by their own identity and positionality. I use an…

  18. Receptive field focus of visual area V4 neurons determines responses to illusory surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Michele A.; Schmid, Michael C.; Peters, Andrew J.; Saunders, Richard C.; Leopold, David A.; Maier, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Illusory figures demonstrate the visual system’s ability to infer surfaces under conditions of fragmented sensory input. To investigate the role of midlevel visual area V4 in visual surface completion, we used multielectrode arrays to measure spiking responses to two types of visual stimuli: Kanizsa patterns that induce the perception of an illusory surface and physically similar control stimuli that do not. Neurons in V4 exhibited stronger and sometimes rhythmic spiking responses for the illusion-promoting configurations compared with controls. Moreover, this elevated response depended on the precise alignment of the neuron’s peak visual field sensitivity (receptive field focus) with the illusory surface itself. Neurons whose receptive field focus was over adjacent inducing elements, less than 1.5° away, did not show response enhancement to the illusion. Neither receptive field sizes nor fixational eye movements could account for this effect, which was present in both single-unit signals and multiunit activity. These results suggest that the active perceptual completion of surfaces and shapes, which is a fundamental problem in natural visual experience, draws upon the selective enhancement of activity within a distinct subpopulation of neurons in cortical area V4. PMID:24085849

  19. Signal-tuned Gabor functions as models for stimulus-dependent cortical receptive fields.

    PubMed

    Torreão, José R A; Victer, Silvia M C; Amaral, Marcos S

    2014-05-01

    We propose and analyze a model, based on signal-tuned Gabor functions, for the receptive fields and responses of V1 cells. Signal-tuned Gabor functions are gaussian-modulated sinusoids whose parameters are obtained from a given, spatial, or spectral "tuning" signal. These functions can be proven to yield exact representations of their tuning signals and have recently been proposed as the kernels of a variant Gabor transform-the signal-tuned Gabor transform (STGT)-which allows the accurate detection of spatial and spectral events. Here we show that by modeling the receptive fields of simple and complex cells as signal-tuned Gabor functions and expressing their responses as STGTs, we are able to replicate the properties of these cells when tested with standard grating and slit inputs, at the same time emulating their stimulus-dependent character as revealed by recent neurophysiological studies.

  20. Responses and Receptive Fields of Amacrine Cells and Ganglion Cells in the Salamander Retina

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ai-Jun; Wu, Samuel M.

    2013-01-01

    Retinal amacrine cells (ACs) and ganglion cells (GCs) have been shown to display large morphological diversity, and here we show that four types of ACs and three types of GCs exhibit physiologically-distinguishable properties. They are the sustained ON ACs; sustained OFF ACs; transient ON-OFF ACs; transient ON-OFF ACs with wide receptive fields; sustained ON-center/OFF-surround GCs; sustained OFF-center/ON-surround GCs and transient ON-OFF GCs. By comparing response waveforms, receptive fields and relative rod/cone inputs of ACs and GCs with the corresponding parameters of various types of the presynaptic bipolar cells (BCs), we analyze how different types of BCs mediate synaptic inputs to various ACs and GCs. Although more types of third-order retinal neurons may be identified by more refined classification criteria, our observations suggest that many morphologically-distinct ACs and GCs share very similar physiological responses. PMID:20085780

  1. Attentional modulation of MT neurons with single or multiple stimuli in their receptive fields

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joonyeol; Maunsell, John H.R.

    2010-01-01

    Descriptions of how attention modulates neuronal responses suggest that the strength of its effects depends on stimulus conditions. Attention to an isolated stimulus in the receptive field of an individual neuron typically produces a moderate enhancement of the cell's response, but neuronal responses are often strongly modulated when attention is shifted between multiple stimuli that lie within the receptive field. However, previous reports have not compared these stimulus effects under equivalent conditions, so differences in task difficulty could have been responsible for much of the difference. Consequently, the quantitative effects of stimulus conditions have remained unknown, and it has not been possible to address the question of whether the differences that have been observed could be explained by a single mechanism. We measured the attentional modulation of the responses of 70 single neurons in area MT of two rhesus monkeys using a task design that kept attention stable across different stimulus configurations. We found that attentional modulation was indeed much stronger when more than one stimulus was within the receptive field. Nevertheless, the broad range of attentional modulations seen across the different conditions could be readily explained by single mechanism. The neurophysiological data from all stimulus conditions were well fit by a model in which attention acts through a response normalization mechanism (Lee and Maunsell, 2009). Collectively, these results validate previous impressions of the effects of stimulus configuration on attentional modulation, and add support to hypothesis that attention modulation depends on a response normalization mechanism. PMID:20181602

  2. Local signals from beyond the receptive fields of striate cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Müller, James R; Metha, Andrew B; Krauskopf, John; Lennie, Peter

    2003-08-01

    We examined in anesthetized macaque how the responses of a striate cortical neuron to patterns inside the receptive field were altered by surrounding patterns outside it. The changes in a neuron's response brought about by a surround are immediate and transient: they arise with the same latency as the response to a stimulus within the receptive field (this argues for a source locally in striate cortex) and become less effective as soon as 27 ms later. Surround signals appeared to exert their influence through divisive interaction (normalization) with those arising in the receptive field. Surrounding patterns presented at orientations slightly oblique to the preferred orientation consistently deformed orientation tuning curves of complex (but not simple) cells, repelling the preferred orientation but without decreasing the discriminability of the preferred grating and ones at slightly oblique orientations. By reducing responsivity and changing the tuning of complex cells locally in stimulus space, surrounding patterns reduce the correlations among responses of neurons to a particular stimulus, thus reducing the redundancy of image representation.

  3. Distinct subcomponents of mouse retinal ganglion cell receptive fields are differentially altered by light adaptation.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Cameron S; Sabharwal, Jasdeep; Seilheimer, Robert L; Wu, Samuel M

    2017-02-01

    The remarkable dynamic range of vision is facilitated by adaptation of retinal sensitivity to ambient lighting conditions. An important mechanism of sensitivity adaptation is control of the spatial and temporal window over which light is integrated. The retina accomplishes this by switching between parallel synaptic pathways with differing kinetics and degrees of synaptic convergence. However, the relative shifts in spatial and temporal integration are not well understood - particularly in the context of the antagonistic spatial surround. Here, we resolve these issues by characterizing the adaptation-induced changes to spatiotemporal integration in the linear receptive field center and surround of mouse retinal ganglion cells. While most ganglion cells lose their antagonistic spatial surround under scotopic conditions, a strong surround is maintained in a subset. We then applied a novel technique that allowed us to analyze the receptive field as a triphasic temporal filter in the center and a biphasic filter in the surround. The temporal tuning of the surround was relatively maintained across adaptation conditions compared to the center, which greatly increased its temporal integration. Though all phases of the center's triphasic temporal response slowed, some shifted significantly less. Additionally, adaptation differentially shifted ON and OFF pathway temporal tuning, reducing their asymmetry under scotopic conditions. Finally, spatial integration was significantly increased by dark adaptation in some cells while it decreased it in others. These findings provide novel insight into how adaptation adjusts visual information processing by altering fundamental properties of ganglion cell receptive fields, such as center-surround antagonism and space-time integration.

  4. Neurons in Primate Visual Cortex Alternate between Responses to Multiple Stimuli in Their Receptive Field

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kang; Kozyrev, Vladislav; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Treue, Stefan; Ditlevsen, Susanne; Bundesen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental question concerning representation of the visual world in our brain is how a cortical cell responds when presented with more than a single stimulus. We find supportive evidence that most cells presented with a pair of stimuli respond predominantly to one stimulus at a time, rather than a weighted average response. Traditionally, the firing rate is assumed to be a weighted average of the firing rates to the individual stimuli (response-averaging model) (Bundesen et al., 2005). Here, we also evaluate a probability-mixing model (Bundesen et al., 2005), where neurons temporally multiplex the responses to the individual stimuli. This provides a mechanism by which the representational identity of multiple stimuli in complex visual scenes can be maintained despite the large receptive fields in higher extrastriate visual cortex in primates. We compare the two models through analysis of data from single cells in the middle temporal visual area (MT) of rhesus monkeys when presented with two separate stimuli inside their receptive field with attention directed to one of the two stimuli or outside the receptive field. The spike trains were modeled by stochastic point processes, including memory effects of past spikes and attentional effects, and statistical model selection between the two models was performed by information theoretic measures as well as the predictive accuracy of the models. As an auxiliary measure, we also tested for uni- or multimodality in interspike interval distributions, and performed a correlation analysis of simultaneously recorded pairs of neurons, to evaluate population behavior. PMID:28082892

  5. Division of labor in frontal eye field neurons during presaccadic remapping of visual receptive fields

    PubMed Central

    Shin, SooYoon

    2012-01-01

    Our percept of visual stability across saccadic eye movements may be mediated by presaccadic remapping. Just before a saccade, neurons that remap become visually responsive at a future field (FF), which anticipates the saccade vector. Hence, the neurons use corollary discharge of saccades. Many of the neurons also decrease their response at the receptive field (RF). Presaccadic remapping occurs in several brain areas including the frontal eye field (FEF), which receives corollary discharge of saccades in its layer IV from a collicular-thalamic pathway. We studied, at two levels, the microcircuitry of remapping in the FEF. At the laminar level, we compared remapping between layers IV and V. At the cellular level, we compared remapping between different neuron types of layer IV. In the FEF in four monkeys (Macaca mulatta), we identified 27 layer IV neurons with orthodromic stimulation and 57 layer V neurons with antidromic stimulation from the superior colliculus. With the use of established criteria, we classified the layer IV neurons as putative excitatory (n = 11), putative inhibitory (n = 12), or ambiguous (n = 4). We found that just before a saccade, putative excitatory neurons increased their visual response at the RF, putative inhibitory neurons showed no change, and ambiguous neurons increased their visual response at the FF. None of the neurons showed presaccadic visual changes at both RF and FF. In contrast, neurons in layer V showed full remapping (at both the RF and FF). Our data suggest that elemental signals for remapping are distributed across neuron types in early cortical processing and combined in later stages of cortical microcircuitry. PMID:22815407

  6. Enlargement of the receptive field size to low intensity mechanical stimulation in the rat spinal nerve ligation model of neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, R; Kontinen, V K; Matthews, E; Williams, E; Dickenson, A H

    2000-06-01

    One characteristic of plasticity after peripheral tissue or nerve damage is receptive field reorganization, and enlargement of receptive field size has been suggested to occur in certain models of neuropathic pain. The aim of the present study was to explore whether enlargement of neuronal receptive fields could contribute to the mechanical allodynia found on the ipsilateral paw in the spinal nerve ligation model of neuropathy. After ligation of L(5)-L(6) spinal nerves, all rats developed behavioral signs of mechanical allodynia, while the sham-operated control group displayed no such changes. The characteristics of the evoked responses of the neurones recorded in the dorsal horn of the rats were similar between the spinal nerve ligation, the sham operated control group, and the nonoperated control group, except for spontaneous activity, which was significantly increased in the spinal nerve ligation group. The mean size of the receptive field on the ipsilateral hindpaw, mapped using low-intensity stimulation with 9-g von Frey hair, was significantly increased in the spinal nerve ligation group, as compared to the sham-operated group. No significant difference was seen with 15- or 75-g von Frey hairs. The distribution of the receptive fields over the plantar surface of the paw was similar between the study groups. The enlargement of receptive field for non-noxious touch could be an indication of central sensitization in this model.

  7. Cutaneous receptive fields and topography of mossy fibres and climbing fibres projecting to cat cerebellar C3 zone

    PubMed Central

    Garwicz, Martin; Jörntell, Henrik; Ekerot, Carl-Fredrik

    1998-01-01

    The topographical organization of mossy fibre input to the forelimb area of the paravermal C3 zone in cerebellar lobules IV and V was investigated in barbiturate-anaesthetized cats and compared with the previously described microzonal organization of climbing fibre input to the same part of the cortex. Recordings were made in the Purkinje cell and granule cell layers from single climbing fibre and mossy fibre units, respectively, and the organization of cutaneous receptive fields was assessed for both types of afferents.Based on spatial characteristics, receptive fields of single mossy fibres could be systematized into ten classes and a total of thirty-two subclasses, mainly in accordance with a scheme previously used for classification of climbing fibres. Different mossy fibres displayed a substantial range of sensitivity to natural peripheral stimulation, responded preferentially to phasic or tonic stimuli and were activated by brushing of hairs or light tapping of the skin.Overall, mossy fibres to any given microzone had receptive fields resembling the climbing fibre receptive field defining that microzone. However, compared with the climbing fibre input, the mossy fibre input had a more intricate topographical organization. Mossy fibres with very similar receptive fields projected to circumscribed cortical regions, with a specific termination not only in the mediolateral, but also in some cases in the rostrocaudal and dorsoventral, dimensions of the zone. On the other hand, mossy fibre units with non-identical, albeit usually similar, receptive fields were frequently found in the same microelectrode track. PMID:9729638

  8. Nonlinear population receptive field changes in human area V5/MT+ of healthy subjects with simulated visual field scotomas

    PubMed Central

    Papanikolaou, Amalia; Keliris, Georgios A.; Lee, Sangkyun; Logothetis, Nikos K.; Smirnakis, Stelios M.

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive controversy over whether the adult visual cortex is able to reorganize following visual field loss (scotoma) as a result of retinal or cortical lesions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) methods provide a useful tool to study the aggregate receptive field properties and assess the capacity of the human visual cortex to reorganize following injury. However, these methods are prone to biases near the boundaries of the scotoma. Retinotopic changes resembling reorganization have been observed in the early visual cortex of normal subjects when the visual stimulus is masked to simulate retinal or cortical scotomas. It is not known how the receptive fields of higher visual areas, like hV5/MT+, are affected by partial stimulus deprivation. We measured population receptive field (pRF) responses in human area V5/MT+ of 5 healthy participants under full stimulation and compared them with responses obtained from the same area while masking the left superior quadrant of the visual field (“artificial scotoma” or AS). We found that pRF estimations in area hV5/MT+ are nonlinearly affected by the AS. Specifically, pRF centers shift towards the AS, while the pRF amplitude increases and the pRF size decreases near the AS border. The observed pRF changes do not reflect reorganization but reveal important properties of normal visual processing under different test-stimulus conditions. PMID:26146195

  9. 3-D components of a biological neural network visualized in computer generated imagery. I - Macular receptive field organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Muriel D.; Cutler, Lynn; Meyer, Glenn; Lam, Tony; Vaziri, Parshaw

    1990-01-01

    Computer-assisted, 3-dimensional reconstructions of macular receptive fields and of their linkages into a neural network have revealed new information about macular functional organization. Both type I and type II hair cells are included in the receptive fields. The fields are rounded, oblong, or elongated, but gradations between categories are common. Cell polarizations are divergent. Morphologically, each calyx of oblong and elongated fields appears to be an information processing site. Intrinsic modulation of information processing is extensive and varies with the kind of field. Each reconstructed field differs in detail from every other, suggesting that an element of randomness is introduced developmentally and contributes to endorgan adaptability.

  10. Short-term expansion of receptive fields in rat primary somatosensory cortex after hindpaw digit denervation.

    PubMed

    Byrne, J A; Calford, M B

    1991-11-29

    The immediate effect of changing the driving cutaneous input to locations within primary somatosensory cortex (SI) was examined by denervating one or more digits of the rat hindpaw by amputation or local anesthesia. When all or part of a receptive field of a cluster of neurons was denervated, it was found that the cortical location recorded from gained responsiveness to cutaneous stimulation of hindpaw areas bordering the denervated region. In 22 of the 29 animals studied this expansion took place within 5 min of the denervation.

  11. Receptive field properties of trigeminothalamic neurons in the rostral trigeminal sensory nuclei of cats.

    PubMed

    Ro, J Y; Capra, N F

    1994-01-01

    This study described topographic and receptive field representation in the region of the rostral trigeminal nuclei, and evaluated whether thalamic neurons from the principal sensory nucleus relay muscle afferent information to the thalamus. Extracellular single-unit activity was recorded from anesthetized cats. Units were tested for responses to natural stimuli (i.e., air bursts, brushing, light pressure, and pinch) applied to the face and oral cavity, electrical stimulation of the masseter nerve, and ramp-and-hold movements of the jaw. The receptive fields and physiological properties for 110 units were studied; we were able to verify the recording site for 96 of these units. Most of the units had discrete receptive fields in the oral cavity, skin, hair, and masseter muscle. Only 2 units received convergent inputs. Stimulation of the ipsilateral and contralateral ventroposteromedial nucleus of the thalamus was performed to identify antidromically activated units. The results showed that the dorsal principal sensory nucleus received its input primarily from the oral cavity. Most of the units (85%) that were activated by antidromic stimulation from the ipsilateral thalamus were located in this nucleus. In contrast, 82% of the units that projected to the contralateral thalamus were located in the ventral principal sensory nucleus. A complete somatotopic representation of the ipsilateral face and oral cavity was observed in the ventral principal sensory nucleus. Although 24 units had muscle receptive fields, none were activated by stimulation of the ipsilateral thalamus, and only 1 responded to stimulation of the contralateral thalamus. Most of the units that were not antidromically driven were recorded outside of the cytoarchitectural boundaries of the principal sensory nucleus. Retrograde labeling of the rostral trigeminal nuclei indicated that most of the neurons in the dorsal principal sensory nucleus projected to the ipsilateral thalamus, whereas those in the

  12. Receptive Field Properties of the Macaque Second Somatosensory Cortex: Evidence for Multiple Functional Representations

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Paul J.; Lane, John W.; Thakur, Pramodsingh H.; Hsiao, Steven S.

    2007-01-01

    The detailed functional organization of the macaque second somatosensory cortex (SII) is not well understood. Here we report the results of a study of the functional organization of the SII hand region that combines microelectrode mapping using hand-held stimuli with single-unit recordings using a motorized, computer-controlled tactile oriented bar. The data indicate that the SII hand region extends ~10 mm in the anteroposterior (AP) dimension, primarily within the upper bank of the lateral sulcus. Furthermore, we find evidence that this region consists of multiple functional fields, with a central field containing neurons that are driven well by cutaneous stimuli, flanked by an anterior field and a posterior field that each contain neurons that are driven well by proprioceptive stimuli and less well by cutaneous stimuli. The anterior field extends ~4 –5 mm AP, the central field extends ~3– 4 mm, and the posterior field extends ~3 mm. Data from the motorized stimulator indicate that neurons in the central field are more responsive to oriented bars, more frequently exhibit orientation tuning, and have larger receptive fields than neurons in the anterior and posterior fields. We speculate that the three putative fields play different functional roles in tactile perception; the anterior and posterior fields process information that involves both proprioceptive and cutaneous input such as sensorimotor integration or stereognosis, whereas the central field processes primarily cutaneous information. PMID:15590936

  13. Structure of the excitatory receptive fields of infragranular forelimb neurons in the rat primary somatosensory cortex responding to touch.

    PubMed

    Tutunculer, Banu; Foffani, Guglielmo; Himes, B Timothy; Moxon, Karen A

    2006-06-01

    We quantitatively studied the excitatory receptive fields of 297 neurons recorded from the forelimb infragranular somatosensory cortex of the rat while touch stimuli were applied to discrete locations on the forelimbs. Receptive fields were highly heterogeneous, but they were regulated, on average, by an underlying spatio-temporal structure. We found the following. (i) Neurons responded with decreasing magnitude and increasing latency when the stimulus was moved from the primary location to secondary locations and to far ispilateral locations of their excitatory receptive fields, displaying smooth transitions from the primary location to secondary locations. (ii) Receptive field patterns revealed functional connectivity between the digits and ventral palm, which did not depend on whether the digits were stimulated dorsally or ventrally. (iii) The structure of the receptive fields (i.e. the neural responses to stimulation of secondary locations compared to the neural responses to stimulation of the primary location), reflected cortical (rather than body) distances. (iv) There was a functional separation between the forepaw and the rest of the forelimb. Namely: if the primary location was in the digits or palm, secondary locations were biased toward the digits and palm; if the primary location was in rest of the forelimb, secondary locations appeared equally distributed over forelimb, digits and palm. (v) More than 40% of neurons extended their receptive field to the ipsilateral forelimb, without any evident spatial organization. Overall, the stimuli evoked approximately 3 times more spikes from secondary responses than from primary responses. These results suggest that a rich repertoire of spatio-temporal responses is available for encoding tactile information. This highly distributed receptive field structure provides the electrophysiological architecture for studying organization and plasticity of cortical somatosensory processing.

  14. Receptive Field Properties of the Macaque Second Somatosensory Cortex: Nonlinear Mechanisms Underlying the Representation of Orientation Within a Finger Pad

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Pramodsingh H.; Fitzgerald, Paul J.; Lane, John W.; Hsiao, Steven S.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the position invariant receptive field properties of neurons in the macaque second somatosensory (SII) cortical region. Previously we reported that many SII region neurons show orientation tuning in the center of multiple finger pads of the hand and further that the tuning is similar on different pads, which can be interpreted as position invariance. Here we study the receptive field properties of a single finger pad for a subset (n = 61) of those 928 neurons, using a motorized oriented bar that we positioned at multiple locations across the pad. We calculate both vector fields and linear receptive fields of the finger pad to characterize the receptive field properties that give rise to the tuning, and we perform an additional regression analysis to quantify linearity, invariance, or both in individual neurons. We show that orientation tuning of SII region neurons is based on a variety of mechanisms. For some neurons, the tuning is explained by simple excitatory regions, simple inhibitory regions, or some combination of these structures. However, a large fraction of the neurons (n = 20 of 61, 33%) show position invariance that is not explained well by their linear receptive fields. Finding invariance within a finger pad, coupled with the previous result of similar tuning on different pads, indicates that some SII region neurons may exhibit similar tuning throughout large regions of the hand. We hypothesize that invariant neurons play an important role in tactile form recognition. PMID:17192440

  15. Understanding spike-triggered covariance using Wiener theory for receptive field identification

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, Roman A.; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.

    2015-01-01

    Receptive field identification is a vital problem in sensory neurophysiology and vision. Much research has been done in identifying the receptive fields of nonlinear neurons whose firing rate is determined by the nonlinear interactions of a small number of linear filters. Despite more advanced methods that have been proposed, spike-triggered covariance (STC) continues to be the most widely used method in such situations due to its simplicity and intuitiveness. Although the connection between STC and Wiener/Volterra kernels has often been mentioned in the literature, this relationship has never been explicitly derived. Here we derive this relationship and show that the STC matrix is actually a modified version of the second-order Wiener kernel, which incorporates the input autocorrelation and mixes first- and second-order dynamics. It is then shown how, with little modification of the STC method, the Wiener kernels may be obtained and, from them, the principal dynamic modes, a set of compact and efficient linear filters that essentially combine the spike-triggered average and STC matrix and generalize to systems with both continuous and point-process outputs. Finally, using Wiener theory, we show how these obtained filters may be corrected when they were estimated using correlated inputs. Our correction technique is shown to be superior to those commonly used in the literature for both correlated Gaussian images and natural images. PMID:26230978

  16. Visual receptive field properties of cells in the optic tectum of the archer fish.

    PubMed

    Ben-Tov, Mor; Kopilevich, Ivgeny; Donchin, Opher; Ben-Shahar, Ohad; Giladi, Chen; Segev, Ronen

    2013-08-01

    The archer fish is well known for its extreme visual behavior in shooting water jets at prey hanging on vegetation above water. This fish is a promising model in the study of visual system function because it can be trained to respond to artificial targets and thus to provide valuable psychophysical data. Although much behavioral data have indeed been collected over the past two decades, little is known about the functional organization of the main visual area supporting this visual behavior, namely, the fish optic tectum. In this article we focus on a fundamental aspect of this functional organization and provide a detailed analysis of receptive field properties of cells in the archer fish optic tectum. Using extracellular measurements to record activities of single cells, we first measure their retinotectal mapping. We then determine their receptive field properties such as size, selectivity for stimulus direction and orientation, tuning for spatial frequency, and tuning for temporal frequency. Finally, on the basis of all these measurements, we demonstrate that optic tectum cells can be classified into three categories: orientation-tuned cells, direction-tuned cells, and direction-agnostic cells. Our results provide an essential basis for future investigations of information processing in the archer fish visual system.

  17. Spectral-temporal receptive fields of nonlinear auditory neurons obtained using natural sounds.

    PubMed

    Theunissen, F E; Sen, K; Doupe, A J

    2000-03-15

    The stimulus-response function of many visual and auditory neurons has been described by a spatial-temporal receptive field (STRF), a linear model that for mathematical reasons has until recently been estimated with the reverse correlation method, using simple stimulus ensembles such as white noise. Such stimuli, however, often do not effectively activate high-level sensory neurons, which may be optimized to analyze natural sounds and images. We show that it is possible to overcome the simple-stimulus limitation and then use this approach to calculate the STRFs of avian auditory forebrain neurons from an ensemble of birdsongs. We find that in many cases the STRFs derived using natural sounds are strikingly different from the STRFs that we obtained using an ensemble of random tone pips. When we compare these two models by assessing their predictions of neural response to the actual data, we find that the STRFs obtained from natural sounds are superior. Our results show that the STRF model is an incomplete description of response properties of nonlinear auditory neurons, but that linear receptive fields are still useful models for understanding higher level sensory processing, as long as the STRFs are estimated from the responses to relevant complex stimuli.

  18. Colour and pattern selectivity of receptive fields in superior colliculus of marmoset monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Tailby, Chris; Cheong, Soon Keen; Pietersen, Alexander N; Solomon, Samuel G; Martin, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    The main subcortical visual targets of retinal output neurones (ganglion cells) are the parvocellular and magnocellular layers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in the thalamus. In addition, a small and heterogeneous collection of ganglion cell axons projects to the koniocellular layers of the LGN, to the superior colliculus (SC), and to other subcortical targets. The functional (receptive field) properties and target specificity of these non-parvocellular, non-magnocellular populations remain poorly understood. It is known that one population of koniocellular layer cells in the LGN (blue-On cells) receives dominant functional input from short-wavelength sensitive (S or ‘blue’) cones. Here we asked whether SC neurones also receive S cone inputs. We made extracellular recordings from single neurones (n = 38) in the SC of anaesthetised marmoset monkeys. Responses to drifting and flashed gratings providing defined levels of cone contrast were measured. The SC receptive fields we recorded were often binocular, showed ‘complex cell’ like responses (On–Off responses), strong bandpass spatial frequency tuning, direction selectivity, and many showed strong and rapid habituation to repeatedly presented stimuli. We found no evidence for dominant S cone input to any SC neurone recorded. These data suggest that S cone signals may reach cortical pathways for colour vision exclusively through the koniocellular division of the lateral geniculate nucleus. PMID:22687612

  19. Spatial structure of cone inputs to receptive fields in primate lateral geniculate nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, R. Clay; Shapley, Robert M.

    1992-04-01

    HUMAN colour vision depends on three classes of cone photoreceptors, those sensitive to short (S), medium (M) or long (L) wavelengths, and on how signals from these cones are combined by neurons in the retina and brain. Macaque monkey colour vision is similar to human, and the receptive fields of macaque visual neurons have been used as an animal model of human colour processing1. P retinal ganglion cells and parvocellular neurons are colour-selective neurons in macaque retina and lateral geniculate nucleus. Interactions between cone signals feeding into these neurons are still unclear. On the basis of experimental results with chromatic adaptation, excitatory and inhibitory inputs from L and M cones onto P cells (and parvocellular neurons) were thought to be quite specific2,3 (Fig. la). But these experiments with spatially diffuse adaptation did not rule out the 'mixed-surround' hypothesis: that there might be one cone-specific mechanism, the receptive field centre, and a surround mechanism connected to all cone types indiscriminately (Fig. le). Recent work has tended to support the mixed-surround hypothesis4-8. We report here the development of new stimuli to measure spatial maps of the linear L-, M- and S-cone inputs to test the hypothesis definitively. Our measurements contradict the mixed-surround hypothesis and imply cone specificity in both centre and surround.

  20. A three-dimensional spatiotemporal receptive field model explains responses of area MT neurons to naturalistic movies

    PubMed Central

    Nishimoto, Shinji; Gallant, Jack L.

    2012-01-01

    Area MT has been an important target for studies of motion processing. However, previous neurophysiological studies of MT have used simple stimuli that do not contain many of the motion signals that occur during natural vision. In this study we sought to determine whether views of area MT neurons developed using simple stimuli can account for MT responses under more naturalistic conditions. We recorded responses from macaque area MT neurons during stimulation with naturalistic movies. We then used a quantitative modeling framework to discover which specific mechanisms best predict neuronal responses under these challenging conditions. We find that the simplest model that accurately predicts responses of MT neurons consists of a bank of V1-like filters, each followed by a compressive nonlinearity, a divisive nonlinearity and linear pooling. Inspection of the fit models shows that the excitatory receptive fields of MT neurons tend to lie on a single plane within the three-dimensional spatiotemporal frequency domain, and suppressive receptive fields lie off this plane. However, most excitatory receptive fields form a partial ring in the plane and avoid low temporal frequencies. This receptive field organization ensures that most MT neurons are tuned for velocity but do not tend to respond to ambiguous static textures that are aligned with the direction of motion. In sum, MT responses to naturalistic movies are largely consistent with predictions based on simple stimuli. However, models fit using naturalistic stimuli reveal several novel properties of MT receptive fields that had not been shown in prior experiments. PMID:21994372

  1. A three-dimensional spatiotemporal receptive field model explains responses of area MT neurons to naturalistic movies.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Shinji; Gallant, Jack L

    2011-10-12

    Area MT has been an important target for studies of motion processing. However, previous neurophysiological studies of MT have used simple stimuli that do not contain many of the motion signals that occur during natural vision. In this study we sought to determine whether views of area MT neurons developed using simple stimuli can account for MT responses under more naturalistic conditions. We recorded responses from macaque area MT neurons during stimulation with naturalistic movies. We then used a quantitative modeling framework to discover which specific mechanisms best predict neuronal responses under these challenging conditions. We find that the simplest model that accurately predicts responses of MT neurons consists of a bank of V1-like filters, each followed by a compressive nonlinearity, a divisive nonlinearity, and linear pooling. Inspection of the fit models shows that the excitatory receptive fields of MT neurons tend to lie on a single plane within the three-dimensional spatiotemporal frequency domain, and suppressive receptive fields lie off this plane. However, most excitatory receptive fields form a partial ring in the plane and avoid low temporal frequencies. This receptive field organization ensures that most MT neurons are tuned for velocity but do not tend to respond to ambiguous static textures that are aligned with the direction of motion. In sum, MT responses to naturalistic movies are largely consistent with predictions based on simple stimuli. However, models fit using naturalistic stimuli reveal several novel properties of MT receptive fields that had not been shown in prior experiments.

  2. Spatiotemporal profiles of receptive fields of neurons in the lateral posterior nucleus of the cat LP-pulvinar complex

    PubMed Central

    Piché, Marilyse; Thomas, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    The pulvinar is the largest extrageniculate thalamic visual nucleus in mammals. It establishes reciprocal connections with virtually all visual cortexes and likely plays a role in transthalamic cortico-cortical communication. In cats, the lateral posterior nucleus (LP) of the LP-pulvinar complex can be subdivided in two subregions, the lateral (LPl) and medial (LPm) parts, which receive a predominant input from the striate cortex and the superior colliculus, respectively. Here, we revisit the receptive field structure of LPl and LPm cells in anesthetized cats by determining their first-order spatiotemporal profiles through reverse correlation analysis following sparse noise stimulation. Our data reveal the existence of previously unidentified receptive field profiles in the LP nucleus both in space and time domains. While some cells responded to only one stimulus polarity, the majority of neurons had receptive fields comprised of bright and dark responsive subfields. For these neurons, dark subfields' size was larger than that of bright subfields. A variety of receptive field spatial organization types were identified, ranging from totally overlapped to segregated bright and dark subfields. In the time domain, a large spectrum of activity overlap was found, from cells with temporally coinciding subfield activity to neurons with distinct, time-dissociated subfield peak activity windows. We also found LP neurons with space-time inseparable receptive fields and neurons with multiple activity periods. Finally, a substantial degree of homology was found between LPl and LPm first-order receptive field spatiotemporal profiles, suggesting a high integration of cortical and subcortical inputs within the LP-pulvinar complex. PMID:26289469

  3. The receptivity of women to courtship solicitation across the menstrual cycle: a field experiment.

    PubMed

    Gueguen, Nicolas

    2009-03-01

    Research has demonstrated that women's behaviors toward men or sexual interest are different across the menstrual cycle. However, this effect was only found on verbal interest and the receptivity of women to a courtship solicitation had never been tested before. In a field experiment, 455 (200 with normal cycles and 255 pill-users) 18-25-year-old women were approached by 20-year-old male-confederates who solicited them for their phone number. A survey was administered to the women solicited 1 min later in order to obtain information about the number of days since the onset of their last menses. It was found that women in their fertile phase, but not pill-users, agreed more favorably to the request than women in their luteal phase or in their menstrual phase.

  4. Statistical wiring of thalamic receptive fields optimizes spatial sampling of the retinal image

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Sommer, Friedrich T.; Hirsch, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary It is widely assumed that mosaics of retinal ganglion cells establish the optimal representation of visual space. However, relay cells in the visual thalamus often receive convergent input from several retinal afferents and, in cat, outnumber ganglion cells. To explore how the thalamus transforms the retinal image, we built a model of the retinothalamic circuit using experimental data and simple wiring rules. The model shows how the thalamus might form a resampled map of visual space with the potential to facilitate detection of stimulus position in the presence of sensor noise. Bayesian decoding conducted with the model provides support for this scenario. Despite its benefits, however, resampling introduces image blur, thus impairing edge perception. Whole-cell recordings obtained in vivo suggest that this problem is mitigated by arrangements of excitation and inhibition within the receptive field that effectively boost contrast borders, much like strategies used in digital image processing. PMID:24559681

  5. Large developing receptive fields using a distributed and locally reprogrammable address-event receiver.

    PubMed

    Bamford, Simeon A; Murray, Alan F; Willshaw, David J

    2010-02-01

    A distributed and locally reprogrammable address-event receiver has been designed, in which incoming address-events are monitored simultaneously by all synapses, allowing for arbitrarily large axonal fan-out without reducing channel capacity. Synapses can change the address of their presynaptic neuron, allowing the distributed implementation of a biologically realistic learning rule, with both synapse formation and elimination (synaptic rewiring). Probabilistic synapse formation leads to topographic map development, made possible by a cross-chip current-mode calculation of Euclidean distance. As well as synaptic plasticity in rewiring, synapses change weights using a competitive Hebbian learning rule (spike-timing-dependent plasticity). The weight plasticity allows receptive fields to be modified based on spatio-temporal correlations in the inputs, and the rewiring plasticity allows these modifications to become embedded in the network topology.

  6. Visual Population Receptive Fields in People with Schizophrenia Have Reduced Inhibitory Surrounds.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Elaine J; Tibber, Marc S; Schwarzkopf, D Sam; Shergill, Sukhwinder S; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Rees, Geraint; Dakin, Steven C

    2017-02-08

    People with schizophrenia (SZ) experience abnormal visual perception on a range of visual tasks, which have been linked to abnormal synaptic transmission and an imbalance between cortical excitation and inhibition. However, differences in the underlying architecture of visual cortex neurons, which might explain these visual anomalies, have yet to be reported in vivo Here, we probed the neural basis of these deficits using fMRI and population receptive field (pRF) mapping to infer properties of visually responsive neurons in people with SZ. We employed a difference-of-Gaussian model to capture the center-surround configuration of the pRF, providing critical information about the spatial scale of the pRFs inhibitory surround. Our analysis reveals that SZ is associated with reduced pRF size in early retinotopic visual cortex, as well as a reduction in size and depth of the inhibitory surround in V1, V2, and V4. We consider how reduced inhibition might explain the diverse range of visual deficits reported in SZ.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT People with schizophrenia (SZ) experience abnormal perception on a range of visual tasks, which has been linked to abnormal synaptic transmission and an imbalance between cortical excitation/inhibition. However, associated differences in the functional architecture of visual cortex neurons have yet to be reported in vivo We used fMRI and population receptive field (pRF) mapping to demonstrate that the fine-grained functional architecture of visual cortex in people with SZ differs from unaffected controls. SZ is associated with reduced pRF size in early retinotopic visual cortex largely due to reduced inhibitory surrounds. An imbalance between cortical excitation and inhibition could drive such a change in the center-surround pRF configuration and ultimately explain the range of visual deficits experienced in SZ.

  7. Visual Population Receptive Fields in People with Schizophrenia Have Reduced Inhibitory Surrounds

    PubMed Central

    Tibber, Marc S.; Schwarzkopf, D. Sam; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    People with schizophrenia (SZ) experience abnormal visual perception on a range of visual tasks, which have been linked to abnormal synaptic transmission and an imbalance between cortical excitation and inhibition. However, differences in the underlying architecture of visual cortex neurons, which might explain these visual anomalies, have yet to be reported in vivo. Here, we probed the neural basis of these deficits using fMRI and population receptive field (pRF) mapping to infer properties of visually responsive neurons in people with SZ. We employed a difference-of-Gaussian model to capture the center-surround configuration of the pRF, providing critical information about the spatial scale of the pRFs inhibitory surround. Our analysis reveals that SZ is associated with reduced pRF size in early retinotopic visual cortex, as well as a reduction in size and depth of the inhibitory surround in V1, V2, and V4. We consider how reduced inhibition might explain the diverse range of visual deficits reported in SZ. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT People with schizophrenia (SZ) experience abnormal perception on a range of visual tasks, which has been linked to abnormal synaptic transmission and an imbalance between cortical excitation/inhibition. However, associated differences in the functional architecture of visual cortex neurons have yet to be reported in vivo. We used fMRI and population receptive field (pRF) mapping to demonstrate that the fine-grained functional architecture of visual cortex in people with SZ differs from unaffected controls. SZ is associated with reduced pRF size in early retinotopic visual cortex largely due to reduced inhibitory surrounds. An imbalance between cortical excitation and inhibition could drive such a change in the center-surround pRF configuration and ultimately explain the range of visual deficits experienced in SZ. PMID:28025253

  8. Effects of cholinergic drugs on receptive field properties of rabbit retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Ariel, M.; Daw, N. W.

    1982-01-01

    1. Retinal ganglion cells were recorded extracellularly from the rabbit's eye in situ to study the effects of cholinergic drugs on receptive field properties. Physostigmine, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, and nicotine increased the spontaneous activity of nearly all retinal ganglion cell types. The effectiveness of physostigmine was roughly correlated with the neurone's inherent level of spontaneous activity. Brisk cells, having high rates of spontaneous firing, showed large increases in their maintained discharge, whereas sluggish cells, with few or no spontaneous spikes, showed small and sometimes transient increases in spontaneous activity during physostigmine. 2. The sensitivity of ganglion cells to spots of optimal size and position did not change substantially during the infusion of physostigmine. However, the responsiveness to light (number of spikes per stimulus above the spontaneous level) increased. This effect occurred with sluggish and more complex cells, rarely with brisk cells. 3. Another effect of physostigmine on sluggish and more complex cells was to make these cells `on—off'. The additional response to the inappropriate change in contrast had a long latency and lacked an initial transient burst. 4. Complex receptive field properties such as orientation sensitivity, radial grating inhibition, speed tuning and size specificity were also examined. These inhibitory properties were still present during infusion of physostigmine and, in most cases, the trigger feature of each cell type remained. 5. These results are consistent with pharmacological results on ACh release from the retina. There appear to be two types of release of ACh, having their most powerful influences on separate classes of cells. One release (transient), occurs at light onset and offset and acts primarily on sluggish and more complex ganglion cells; the other release (tonic) is not light-modulated and acts primarily on brisk cells. A wiring diagram for the ACh cells is

  9. Influence of Electrotonic Structure and Synaptic Mapping on the Receptive Field Properties of a Collision-Detecting Neuron

    PubMed Central

    Peron, Simon P.; Krapp, Holger G.; Gabbiani, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    The lobula giant movement detector (LGMD) is a visual interneuron of Orthopteran insects involved in collision avoidance and escape behavior. The LGMD possesses a large dendritic field thought to receive excitatory, retinotopic projections from the entire compound eye. We investigated whether the LGMD’s receptive field for local motion stimuli can be explained by its electrotonic structure and the eye’s anisotropic sampling of visual space. Five locust (Schistocerca americana) LGMD neurons were stained and reconstructed. We show that the excitatory dendritic field and eye can be fitted by ellipsoids having similar geometries. A passive compartmental model fit to electrophysiological data was used to demonstrate that the LGMD is not electrotonically compact. We derived a spike rate to membrane potential transform using intracellular recordings under visual stimulation, allowing direct comparison between experimental and simulated receptive field properties. By assuming a retinotopic mapping giving equal weight to each ommatidium and equally spaced synapses, the model reproduced the experimental data along the eye equator, though it failed to reproduce the receptive field along the ventral-dorsal axis. Our results illustrate how interactions between the distribution of synaptic inputs and the electrotonic properties of neurons contribute to shaping their receptive fields. PMID:17021031

  10. Receptive Field (RF) Properties of the Macaque Second Somatosensory Cortex: RF Size, Shape, and Somatotopic Organization

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Paul J.; Lane, John W.; Thakur, Pramodsingh H.; Hsiao, Steven S.

    2007-01-01

    The detailed structure of multidigit receptive fields (RFs) in somatosensory cortical areas such as the SII region has not been investigated previously using systematically controlled stimuli. Recently (Fitzgerald et al., 2004), we showed that the SII region comprises three adjoining fields: posterior, central, and anterior. Here we characterize the RF structures of the 928 neurons that were reported in that study using a motorized oriented bar that was indented into the 12 finger pads of digits 2–5. Most (81%) of the neurons were responsive to the oriented bar stimuli, and 81% of those neurons had RFs that spanned multiple digits. Furthermore, the RFs varied greatly in size, shape, and complexity. Some RFs contained only excitatory finger pads, some contained only inhibitory pads, and some contained both types of pads. A subset of the neurons (23%) showed orientation tuning within one or more pads. The RFs spread across different digits more than within individual digits, and the responsive finger pads for a given neuron tended to cluster together within the hand. Distal and lateral finger pads were better represented than proximal and medial finger pads. Furthermore, neurons in the posterior, central, and anterior SII region fields contained different proportions of RF types. These results collectively indicate that most SII region neurons are selective for different stimulus forms either within single finger pads or across multiple pads. We hypothesize that these RFs represent the kernels underlying the representation of tactile shape. PMID:16775136

  11. Heterogeneity in the spatial receptive field architecture of multisensory neurons of the superior colliculus and its effects on multisensory integration.

    PubMed

    Ghose, D; Wallace, M T

    2014-01-03

    Multisensory integration has been widely studied in neurons of the mammalian superior colliculus (SC). This has led to the description of various determinants of multisensory integration, including those based on stimulus- and neuron-specific factors. The most widely characterized of these illustrate the importance of the spatial and temporal relationships of the paired stimuli as well as their relative effectiveness in eliciting a response in determining the final integrated output. Although these stimulus-specific factors have generally been considered in isolation (i.e., manipulating stimulus location while holding all other factors constant), they have an intrinsic interdependency that has yet to be fully elucidated. For example, changes in stimulus location will likely also impact both the temporal profile of response and the effectiveness of the stimulus. The importance of better describing this interdependency is further reinforced by the fact that SC neurons have large receptive fields, and that responses at different locations within these receptive fields are far from equivalent. To address these issues, the current study was designed to examine the interdependency between the stimulus factors of space and effectiveness in dictating the multisensory responses of SC neurons. The results show that neuronal responsiveness changes dramatically with changes in stimulus location - highlighting a marked heterogeneity in the spatial receptive fields of SC neurons. More importantly, this receptive field heterogeneity played a major role in the integrative product exhibited by stimulus pairings, such that pairings at weakly responsive locations of the receptive fields resulted in the largest multisensory interactions. Together these results provide greater insight into the interrelationship of the factors underlying multisensory integration in SC neurons, and may have important mechanistic implications for multisensory integration and the role it plays in shaping

  12. Attentional Modulation of Receptive Field Structure in Area 7a of the Behaving Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Quraishi, Salma; Heider, Barbara; Siegel, Ralph M.

    2007-01-01

    Spatial attention modulates the activity of inferior parietal neurons. A statistically rigorous approach to classical retinotopic mapping was used to quantify the receptive fields of area 7a neurons under two attentional conditions. Measurements were made with retinal stimulation held constant and the locus of attention manipulated covertly. Both tasks required central fixation but differed in the locus of covert attention (either on the center fixation point, or on a peripheral square target in one of 25 locations). The neuron's identity over the recording session was confirmed using chaos theory to characterize unique temporal patterns. Sixty-six percent of the neurons changed prestimulus activity based on task state. Retinotopic mapping showed no evidence for foveal sparing. Attentional factors influenced visual responses for ∼30% of the neurons. Two types of modulation were equally observed. One group of cells had a multiplicative scaling of response, with equal instances of enhancement and suppression. A second group of cells had a complex interaction of visual and attentional signals, such that spatial tuning was subject to a non-linear modulation across the visual field based on attentional constraints. These two cell groups may have different roles in the shift of attention preceding motor behaviors and may underlie shifts in parietal retinotopic maps observed with intrinsic optical imaging. PMID:17077161

  13. Delayed inhibition in cortical receptive fields and the discrimination of complex stimuli.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Rajiv; Ergün, Ayla; Sen, Kamal

    2005-10-01

    Although auditory cortex is thought to play an important role in processing complex natural sounds such as speech and animal vocalizations, the specific functional roles of cortical receptive fields (RFs) remain unclear. Here, we study the relationship between a behaviorally important function: the discrimination of natural sounds and the structure of cortical RFs. We examine this problem in the model system of songbirds, using a computational approach. First, we constructed model neurons based on the spectral temporal RF (STRF), a widely used description of auditory cortical RFs. We focused on delayed inhibitory STRFs, a class of STRFs experimentally observed in primary auditory cortex (ACx) and its analog in songbirds (field L), which consist of an excitatory subregion and a delayed inhibitory subregion cotuned to a characteristic frequency. We quantified the discrimination of birdsongs by model neurons, examining both the dynamics and temporal resolution of discrimination, using a recently proposed spike distance metric (SDM). We found that single model neurons with delayed inhibitory STRFs can discriminate accurately between songs. Discrimination improves dramatically when the temporal structure of the neural response at fine timescales is considered. When we compared discrimination by model neurons with and without the inhibitory subregion, we found that the presence of the inhibitory subregion can improve discrimination. Finally, we modeled a cortical microcircuit with delayed synaptic inhibition, a candidate mechanism underlying delayed inhibitory STRFs, and showed that blocking inhibition in this model circuit degrades discrimination.

  14. Receptive field properties of neurons in the macaque anterior intraparietal area.

    PubMed

    Romero, Maria C; Janssen, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Visual object information is necessary for grasping. In primates, the anterior intraparietal area (AIP) plays an essential role in visually guided grasping. Neurons in AIP encode features of objects, but no study has systematically investigated the receptive field (RF) of AIP neurons. We mapped the RF of posterior AIP (pAIP) neurons in the central visual field, using images of objects and small line fragments that evoked robust responses, together with less effective stimuli. The RF sizes we measured varied between 3°(2)and 90°(2), with the highest response either at the fixation point or at parafoveal positions. A large fraction of pAIP neurons showed nonuniform RFs, with multiple local maxima in both ipsilateral and contralateral hemifields. Moreover, the RF profile could depend strongly on the stimulus used to map the RF. Highly similar results were obtained with the smallest stimulus that evoked reliable responses (line fragments measuring 1-2°). The nonuniformity and dependence of the RF profile on the stimulus in pAIP were comparable to previous observations in the anterior part of the lateral intraparietal area (aLIP), but the average RF of pAIP neurons was located at the fovea whereas the average RF of aLIP neurons was located parafoveally. Thus nonuniformity and stimulus dependence of the RF may represent general RF properties of neurons in the dorsal visual stream involved in object analysis, which contrast markedly with those of neurons in the ventral visual stream.

  15. Receptive field properties of neurons in the macaque anterior intraparietal area

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Visual object information is necessary for grasping. In primates, the anterior intraparietal area (AIP) plays an essential role in visually guided grasping. Neurons in AIP encode features of objects, but no study has systematically investigated the receptive field (RF) of AIP neurons. We mapped the RF of posterior AIP (pAIP) neurons in the central visual field, using images of objects and small line fragments that evoked robust responses, together with less effective stimuli. The RF sizes we measured varied between 3°2 and 90°2, with the highest response either at the fixation point or at parafoveal positions. A large fraction of pAIP neurons showed nonuniform RFs, with multiple local maxima in both ipsilateral and contralateral hemifields. Moreover, the RF profile could depend strongly on the stimulus used to map the RF. Highly similar results were obtained with the smallest stimulus that evoked reliable responses (line fragments measuring 1–2°). The nonuniformity and dependence of the RF profile on the stimulus in pAIP were comparable to previous observations in the anterior part of the lateral intraparietal area (aLIP), but the average RF of pAIP neurons was located at the fovea whereas the average RF of aLIP neurons was located parafoveally. Thus nonuniformity and stimulus dependence of the RF may represent general RF properties of neurons in the dorsal visual stream involved in object analysis, which contrast markedly with those of neurons in the ventral visual stream. PMID:26792887

  16. Emulating the Visual Receptive Field Properties of MST Neurons with a Template Model of Heading Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrone, John A.; Stone, Leland S.

    1997-01-01

    We have previously proposed a computational neural-network model by which the complex patterns of retinal image motion generated during locomotion (optic flow) can be processed by specialized detectors acting as templates for specific instances of self-motion. The detectors in this template model respond to global optic flow by sampling image motion over a large portion of the visual field through networks of local motion sensors with properties similar to neurons found in the middle temporal (MT) area of primate extrastriate visual cortex. The model detectors were designed to extract self-translation (heading), self-rotation, as well as the scene layout (relative distances) ahead of a moving observer, and are arranged in cortical-like heading maps to perform this function. Heading estimation from optic flow has been postulated by some to be implemented within the medial superior temporal (MST) area. Others have questioned whether MST neurons can fulfill this role because some of their receptive-field properties appear inconsistent with a role in heading estimation. To resolve this issue, we systematically compared MST single-unit responses with the outputs of model detectors under matched stimulus conditions. We found that the basic physiological properties of MST neurons can be explained by the template model. We conclude that MST neurons are well suited to support heading estimation and that the template model provides an explicit set of testable hypotheses which can guide future exploration of MST and adjacent areas within the primate superior temporal sulcus.

  17. Automatic mapping of visual cortex receptive fields: a fast and precise algorithm.

    PubMed

    Fiorani, Mario; Azzi, João C B; Soares, Juliana G M; Gattass, Ricardo

    2014-01-15

    An important issue for neurophysiological studies of the visual system is the definition of the region of the visual field that can modify a neuron's activity (i.e., the neuron's receptive field - RF). Usually a trade-off exists between precision and the time required to map a RF. Manual methods (qualitative) are fast but impose a variable degree of imprecision, while quantitative methods are more precise but usually require more time. We describe a rapid quantitative method for mapping visual RFs that is derived from computerized tomography and named back-projection. This method finds the intersection of responsive regions of the visual field based on spike density functions that are generated over time in response to long bars moving in different directions. An algorithm corrects the response profiles for latencies and allows for the conversion of the time domain into a 2D-space domain. The final product is an RF map that shows the distribution of the neuronal activity in visual-spatial coordinates. In addition to mapping the RF, this method also provides functional properties, such as latency, orientation and direction preference indexes. This method exhibits the following beneficial properties: (a) speed; (b) ease of implementation; (c) precise RF localization; (d) sensitivity (this method can map RFs based on few responses); (e) reliability (this method provides consistent information about RF shapes and sizes, which will allow for comparative studies); (f) comprehensiveness (this method can scan for RFs over an extensive area of the visual field); (g) informativeness (it provides functional quantitative data about the RF); and (h) usefulness (this method can map RFs in regions without direct retinal inputs, such as the cortical representations of the optic disc and of retinal lesions, which should allow for studies of functional connectivity, reorganization and neural plasticity). Furthermore, our method allows for precise mapping of RFs in a 30° by 30

  18. Analysis of auditory spatial receptive fields: An application of virtual auditory space technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Terry T.; Keller, Clifford H.; Euston, David R.; Spezio, Michael L.

    2002-05-01

    Virtual auditory space technology, typically used to simulate acoustical environments, also allows one to vary one sound localization cue independently of others. VAST was used to determine the contributions of interaural time and level differences (ITD, ILD) to the spatial receptive fields (RFs) of neurons in the owl's midbrain. The presentation of noise filtered so that only ITD varied evoked a response along a vertical strip of virtual space, called the ITD-alone RF. Conversely, when ITD was fixed at the cell's optimum and the ILD spectrum of each location was presented, the cell responded along a horizontal strip, called the ILD-alone RF. The spatial RF was at the intersection of the ITD and ILD-alone RFs. The cell's ILD tuning across frequency, combined with individualized head-related transfer functions, was transformed into an ILD-alone RF that predicted half the variance in the measured one. This discrepancy was due partly to the poor response of the neurons to tones, and a new method of inferring frequency-specific ILD tuning from responses to noise explained about 75% of the variance. By understanding how spatial RFs are constructed, it is possible to infer the neural image of complex auditory scenes containing multiple sources and echoes. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  19. Receptive-field changes induced by peripheral nerve stimulation in SI of adult cats.

    PubMed

    Recanzone, G H; Allard, T T; Jenkins, W M; Merzenich, M M

    1990-05-01

    1. Receptive fields (RFs) of neurons in the primary somatosensory (SI) cortex were defined before, during, and after electrical stimulation of myelinated fibers in the dorsal cutaneous branch of the ulnar nerve in adult pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized cats. 2. This stimulation resulted in an approximately threefold increase of SI multiunit RF sizes. Substantial changes were first recorded within 1-2 h of stimulation. RFs typically enlarged continuously over a several-hour stimulation period, then stabilized. 3. RF-area increases were observed within both the forepaw and hindpaw representational zones in the SI cortex contralateral to the stimulated forepaw nerve. RF sizes did not increase in the ipsilateral SI body surface representation or in sham-stimulation control animals. 4. Preliminary studies indicate that stimulation-induced changes can be halted and often reversed by the intravenous administration of the opiate antagonist naloxone. 5. These observations suggest a global naloxone-sensitive modulatory system that operates on large-diameter afferent inputs in the cat somatosensory system. The increases in RF size occur under nerve-stimulation conditions similar to those that result in the generation of widespread analgesia (Chung et al. 1984a,b; Gamble and Milne 1986; Toda and Ichioka 1978).

  20. Spatial structure of neuronal receptive field in awake monkey secondary visual cortex (V2)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lu; She, Liang; Chen, Ming; Liu, Tianyi; Lu, Haidong D.; Dan, Yang; Poo, Mu-ming

    2016-01-01

    Visual processing depends critically on the receptive field (RF) properties of visual neurons. However, comprehensive characterization of RFs beyond the primary visual cortex (V1) remains a challenge. Here we report fine RF structures in secondary visual cortex (V2) of awake macaque monkeys, identified through a projection pursuit regression analysis of neuronal responses to natural images. We found that V2 RFs could be broadly classified as V1-like (typical Gabor-shaped subunits), ultralong (subunits with high aspect ratios), or complex-shaped (subunits with multiple oriented components). Furthermore, single-unit recordings from functional domains identified by intrinsic optical imaging showed that neurons with ultralong RFs were primarily localized within pale stripes, whereas neurons with complex-shaped RFs were more concentrated in thin stripes. Thus, by combining single-unit recording with optical imaging and a computational approach, we identified RF subunits underlying spatial feature selectivity of V2 neurons and demonstrated the functional organization of these RF properties. PMID:26839410

  1. Learning Receptive Fields and Quality Lookups for Blind Quality Assessment of Stereoscopic Images.

    PubMed

    Shao, Feng; Lin, Weisi; Wang, Shanshan; Jiang, Gangyi; Yu, Mei; Dai, Qionghai

    2016-03-01

    Blind quality assessment of 3D images encounters more new challenges than its 2D counterparts. In this paper, we propose a blind quality assessment for stereoscopic images by learning the characteristics of receptive fields (RFs) from perspective of dictionary learning, and constructing quality lookups to replace human opinion scores without performance loss. The important feature of the proposed method is that we do not need a large set of samples of distorted stereoscopic images and the corresponding human opinion scores to learn a regression model. To be more specific, in the training phase, we learn local RFs (LRFs) and global RFs (GRFs) from the reference and distorted stereoscopic images, respectively, and construct their corresponding local quality lookups (LQLs) and global quality lookups (GQLs). In the testing phase, blind quality pooling can be easily achieved by searching optimal GRF and LRF indexes from the learnt LQLs and GQLs, and the quality score is obtained by combining the LRF and GRF indexes together. Experimental results on three publicly 3D image quality assessment databases demonstrate that in comparison with the existing methods, the devised algorithm achieves high consistent alignment with subjective assessment.

  2. Receptive fields of locust brain neurons are matched to polarization patterns of the sky.

    PubMed

    Bech, Miklós; Homberg, Uwe; Pfeiffer, Keram

    2014-09-22

    Many animals, including insects, are able to use celestial cues as a reference for spatial orientation and long-distance navigation [1]. In addition to direct sunlight, the chromatic gradient of the sky and its polarization pattern are suited to serve as orientation cues [2-5]. Atmospheric scattering of sunlight causes a regular pattern of E vectors in the sky, which are arranged along concentric circles around the sun [5, 6]. Although certain insects rely predominantly on sky polarization for spatial orientation [7], it has been argued that detection of celestial E vector orientation may not suffice to differentiate between solar and antisolar directions [8, 9]. We show here that polarization-sensitive (POL) neurons in the brain of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria can overcome this ambiguity. Extracellular recordings from POL units in the central complex and lateral accessory lobes revealed E vector tunings arranged in concentric circles within large receptive fields, matching the sky polarization pattern at certain solar positions. Modeling of neuronal responses under an idealized sky polarization pattern (Rayleigh sky) suggests that these "matched filter" properties allow locusts to unambiguously determine the solar azimuth by relying solely on the sky polarization pattern for compass navigation.

  3. Assessing the modified receptive field (MRF) theory: Evidence from Sinhalese-English bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Jayawardena, Ravini; Winskel, Heather

    2016-11-01

    The current study aimed to test the applicability of the modified receptive field (MRF) theory (Tydgat & Grainger, 2009) with English native speakers (Experiment 1) and Sinhalese native speakers (Experiment 2), who were skilled readers of both Sinhala and Roman scripts. A two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) procedure to measure identification accuracy for all positions in a string of five characters, which consisted of Roman script letters, Sinhala letters or symbols was conducted. For Roman script, the English and Sinhalese speakers displayed analogous results as in previous studies for Roman letters and symbols (i.e., an initial letter advantage and W-shaped function for Roman letters and a Λ-shaped function for symbols). In contrast for Sinhala script, the Sinhalese speakers displayed a strong linear function with accuracy for letter positions 1, 2 and 3 similarly advantaged. We propose that this characteristic pattern for Sinhala script has developed as a specialised adaptive mechanism to optimise the processing of letters when reading in this distinctive script.

  4. Testing the flexibility of the modified receptive field (MRF) theory: evidence from an unspaced orthography (Thai).

    PubMed

    Winskel, Heather; Perea, Manuel; Peart, Emma

    2014-07-01

    In the current study, we tested the generality of the modified receptive field (MRF) theory (Tydgat & Grainger, 2009) with English native speakers (Experiment 1) and Thai native speakers (Experiment 2). Thai has a distinctive alphabetic orthography with visually complex letters (ฝ ฟ or ผ พ) and nonlinear characteristics and lacks interword spaces. We used a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) procedure to measure identification accuracy for all positions in a string of five characters, which consisted of Roman script letters, Thai letters, or symbols. For the English speakers, we found a similar pattern of results as in previous studies (i.e., a dissociation between letters and symbols). In contrast, for the Thai participants, we found that the pattern for Thai letters, Roman letters and symbols displayed a remarkably similar linear trend. Thus, while we observed qualified support for the MRF theory, in that we found an advantage for initial position, this effect also applied to symbols (i.e., our data revealed a language-specific effect). We propose that this pattern for letters and symbols in Thai has developed as a specialized adaptive mechanism for reading in this visually complex and crowded nonlinear script without interword spaces.

  5. Improved contour detection model with spatial summation properties based on nonclassical receptive field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chuan; Xu, Guili; Cao, Yijun; Liang, Chenghua; Li, Ya

    2016-07-01

    The responses of cortical neurons to a stimulus in a classical receptive field (CRF) can be modulated by stimulating the non-CRF (nCRF) of neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1). In the very early stages (at around 40 ms), a neuron in V1 exhibits strong responses to a small set of stimuli. Later, however (after 100 ms), the neurons in V1 become sensitive to the scene's global organization. As per these visual cortical mechanisms, a contour detection model based on the spatial summation properties is proposed. Unlike in previous studies, the responses of the nCRF to the higher visual cortex that results in the inhibition of the neuronal responses in the primary visual cortex by the feedback pathway are considered. In this model, the individual neurons in V1 receive global information from the higher visual cortex to participate in the inhibition process. Computationally, global Gabor energy features are involved, leading to the more coherent physiological characteristics of the nCRF. We conducted an experiment where we compared our model with those proposed by other researchers. Our model explains the role of the mutual inhibition of neurons in V1, together with an approach for object recognition in machine vision.

  6. Electrical coupling, receptive fields, and relative rod/cone inputs of horizontal cells in the tiger salamander retina.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ai-Jun; Zhang, Jian; Wu, Samuel M

    2006-11-20

    Light responses, dendritic/axonal morphology, receptive field diameters, patterns of dye coupling, and relative rod/cone inputs of various types of horizontal cells (HCs) were studied using intracellular recording and Lucifer yellow/neurobiotin dye injection methods in the flatmount tiger salamander retina. Three physiologically and morphologically distinct types of HC entities were identified. 1) The A-type HCs are somas that do not bear axons, with average (+/-SE) soma diameters of 20.01 +/- 0.59 microm, relatively sparse and thick dendrites, and they resemble the A-type HC in mammals. The average receptive field diameter of these cells is 529.6 +/- 10.87 microm and they receive inputs predominantly from cones. 2) The B-type HCs are broad-field somas that bear thin and long axons, with average soma diameters of 17.67 +/- 0.38 microm, thinner dendrites of higher density, and they resemble the B-type HC in mammals. The average receptive field diameter of these cells is 1,633.55 +/- 37.34 microm and they receive mixed inputs from rods and cones. 3) The B-type HC axon terminals are broad-field, coarse axon terminal processes and they resemble the B-type HC axon terminal in rabbits. The average receptive field diameter of these axon terminals is 1,291.67 +/- 24.02 microm and they receive mixed inputs from rods and cones. All these types of HC are dye-coupled with adjacent HCs of the same type. Additionally, B-type HCs and axon terminals are dye-coupled with subpopulations of bipolar cells whose axon terminals ramify in the proximal half of the inner plexiform layer, raising the possibility that these HCs may send feedforward antagonistic surround responses to depolarizing bipolar cells through electrical synapses.

  7. A robust sub-pixel edge detection method of infrared image based on tremor-based retinal receptive field model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Kun; Yang, Hu; Chen, Xiaomei; Ni, Guoqiang

    2008-03-01

    Because of complex thermal objects in an infrared image, the prevalent image edge detection operators are often suitable for a certain scene and extract too wide edges sometimes. From a biological point of view, the image edge detection operators work reliably when assuming a convolution-based receptive field architecture. A DoG (Difference-of- Gaussians) model filter based on ON-center retinal ganglion cell receptive field architecture with artificial eye tremors introduced is proposed for the image contour detection. Aiming at the blurred edges of an infrared image, the subsequent orthogonal polynomial interpolation and sub-pixel level edge detection in rough edge pixel neighborhood is adopted to locate the foregoing rough edges in sub-pixel level. Numerical simulations show that this method can locate the target edge accurately and robustly.

  8. Spinal dorsal horn cell receptive field size is increased in adult rats following neonatal hindpaw skin injury.

    PubMed

    Torsney, Carole; Fitzgerald, Maria

    2003-07-01

    Local tissue damage in newborn rats can lead to changes in skin sensitivity that last into adulthood and this is likely to be due to plasticity of developing peripheral and central sensory connections. This study examines the functional connections of dorsal horn neurons in young and adult rats that have undergone local skin damage at birth. Newborn rat pups were halothane anaesthetised and received either a unilateral subcutaneous plantar injection of 1 % lambda-carrageenan or a unilateral plantar foot injury made by removal of 2 mm x 2 mm of skin. At 3 weeks, (postnatal day (P) 19-23) and 6 weeks (P40-44) in vivo extracellular recordings of single dorsal horn cells with plantar cutaneous receptive fields were made under urethane anaesthesia (2 g kg-1) and responses to mechanical and electrical stimulation of the skin were assessed. Following neonatal carrageenan inflammation, dorsal horn neuron properties and receptive field sizes at 3 weeks were the same as those of controls. In contrast, following neonatal skin injury, dorsal horn cell receptive field sizes were significantly greater than those of controls at 3 weeks (2.5-fold) and at 6 weeks (2.2-fold). Mechanical thresholds, mechanical response magnitudes and evoked responses to single and repeated A and C fibre stimulation remained unaffected. These results show that early skin injury can cause prolonged changes in central sensory connections that persist into adult life, long after the skin has healed. Enlarged dorsal horn neuron receptive field sizes provide a physiological mechanism for the persistent behavioural hypersensitivity that follows neonatal skin injury in rats and for the prolonged sensory changes reported in human infants after early pain and injury.

  9. Direct comparison of heat-evoked activity of nociceptive neurons in the dorsal horn with the hindpaw withdrawal reflex in the rat.

    PubMed

    Morgan, M M

    1998-01-01

    Although the sensory coding of nociceptive neurons in the dorsal horn has been studied extensively, surprisingly little is known about how these neurons contribute to nociceptive reflexes. The objective of the present study was to examine the characteristics of dorsal horn neurons capable of initiating hindpaw withdrawal. To this end, neural and reflex activity were measured simultaneously in response to noxious radiant heat applied to the hindpaw in lightly anesthetized rats. Subsets of both multireceptive (MR; 52/95) and nociceptive-specific (NS; 19/46) neurons showed a consistent burst of activity that preceded the reflex. However, when compared with NS neurons, MR neurons as a group were: more likely to be active before the reflex (55 vs. 41%); more active before the reflex (31 vs. 23 Hz); and active earlier (2.8 vs. 2.3 s before the reflex). Subsets of MR neurons were active before the reflex regardless of receptive field size or location in the dorsal horn. In contrast, NS neurons with small receptive fields or those located outside of superficial laminae were rarely active before the reflex and thus unlikely to be part of the reflex circuit. These results suggest that current classification schemes, in particular MR and NS categories, cannot be used as the sole criterion to predict involvement in nociceptive reflexes. However, simultaneous measurement of neural and reflex activity provides an opportunity to determine the characteristics of nociceptive neurons involved in withdrawal reflexes.

  10. Modulation of sensory suppression: implications for receptive field sizes in the human visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Kastner, S; De Weerd, P; Pinsk, M A; Elizondo, M I; Desimone, R; Ungerleider, L G

    2001-09-01

    Neurophysiological studies in monkeys show that when multiple visual stimuli appear simultaneously in the visual field, they are not processed independently, but rather interact in a mutually suppressive way. This suggests that multiple stimuli compete for neural representation. Consistent with this notion, we have previously found in humans that functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals in V1 and ventral extrastriate areas V2, V4, and TEO are smaller for simultaneously presented (i.e., competing) stimuli than for the same stimuli presented sequentially (i.e., not competing). Here we report that suppressive interactions between stimuli are also present in dorsal extrastriate areas V3A and MT, and we compare these interactions to those in areas V1 through TEO. To exclude the possibility that the differences in responses to simultaneously and sequentially presented stimuli were due to differences in the number of transient onsets, we tested for suppressive interactions in area V4, in an experiment that held constant the number of transient onsets. We found that the fMRI response to a stimulus in the upper visual field was suppressed by the presence of nearby stimuli in the lower visual field. Further, we excluded the possibility that the greater fMRI responses to sequential compared with simultaneous presentations were due to exogeneous attentional cueing by having our subjects count T's or L's at fixation, an attentionally demanding task. Behavioral testing demonstrated that neither condition interfered with performance of the T/L task. Our previous findings suggested that suppressive interactions among nearby stimuli in areas V1 through TEO were scaled to the receptive field (RF) sizes of neurons in those areas. Here we tested this idea by parametrically varying the spatial separation among stimuli in the display. Display sizes ranged from 2 x 2 degrees to 7 x 7 degrees and were centered at 5.5 degrees eccentricity. Based on the effects of display size

  11. Position shifts of fMRI-based population receptive fields in human visual cortex induced by Ponzo illusion.

    PubMed

    He, Dongjun; Mo, Ce; Wang, Yizhou; Fang, Fang

    2015-12-01

    Ponzo illusion is a well-known perceptual phenomenon in which the perceived sizes of visual objects are altered by visual depth cues created by converging lines at the horizon. One possible neural mechanism of the Ponzo illusion is the receptive field position shifts of V1 neurons, as supported by a recent monkey electrophysiological study (Ni et al. in Curr Biol 24(14):1653-1658, 2014). Here, we used fMRI-based population receptive field (pRF) mapping technique in combination of psychophysics to investigate this idea. We found that, relative to the close apparent depth in a 3D scene, the far apparent depth in the scene caused the pRF positions of voxels in V1-V3 to shift toward the fovea, in line with subjects' percept of the Ponzo illusion. Moreover, the pRF position shift in V1 significantly correlated with the magnitude of the Ponzo illusion across individual subjects. Our findings thus provide evidence for the close association between the perceived object size and the pRF position shift in human visual areas, especially in V1, lending further support for the receptive field position shift explanation for the Ponzo illusion.

  12. Increased WDR spontaneous activity and receptive field size in rats following a neuropathic or inflammatory injury: implications for mechanical sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Chu, Katharine L; Faltynek, Connie R; Jarvis, Michael F; McGaraughty, Steve

    2004-11-30

    Spontaneous activity and receptive field size for spinal wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons were measured and related to the mechanical allodynia in both neuropathic (L5-L6 ligation, 14 days post-injury) and complete Freund's adjuvant-inflamed rats (CFA, 2 days post-injury). The size of the WDR receptive field located on the hindpaw expanded significantly (p<0.01) following both modes of injury, with no difference between CFA and neuropathic animals. Likewise, the spontaneous firing of WDR neurons was significantly elevated following both the CFA (4.4+/-0.6 spikes/s, p<0.01) and neuropathic (3.2+/-0.3 spikes/s, p<0.05) injuries compared to naive (2.1+/-0.2 spikes/s) and sham-neuropathic (1.9+/-0.3 spikes/s) rats. Furthermore, the spontaneous WDR activity recorded from CFA rats was also significantly greater (p<0.05) than neuropathic rats. Mechanical allodynia, as measured by application of a von Frey hair stimulus, was observed from both CFA and neuropathic rats, however, the degree of sensitivity was significantly greater (p<0.01) for the CFA animals. These data suggest that the differences in mechanical sensitivity between CFA and neuropathic rats may be related to their respective changes in WDR spontaneous activity, but not to the changes in receptive field size, and is further demonstration of the importance of spontaneous WDR activity in determining mechanical sensitivity following injury.

  13. Primate area V1: Largest response gain for receptive fields in the straight-ahead direction

    PubMed Central

    Przybyszewski, Andrzej W.; Kagan, Igor; Snodderly, D. Max

    2014-01-01

    Although neuronal responses in behaving monkeys are typically studied while the monkey fixates straight ahead, it is known that eye position modulates responses of visual neurons. The modulation has been found to enhance neuronal responses when the receptive field is placed in the straight-ahead position for neurons receiving input from the peripheral, but not the central retina [1]. We studied the effect of eye position on the responses of V1 complex cells receiving input from the central retina (1.1–5.7° eccentricity) while minimizing the effect of fixational eye movements. Contrast response functions were obtained separately with drifting light and dark bars. Data were fit with the Naka-Rushton equation: r(c)=Rmax∗cn/(cn+c50n)+s, where r(c) is mean spike rate at contrast c, Rmax the maximum response, c50 the contrast that elicits half of Rmax and s the spontaneous activity. Contrast sensitivity as measured by c50 was not affected by eye position. For dark bars there was a statistically significant decline in the normalized Rmax with increasing deviation from straight-ahead. Data for bright bars showed a similar trend with a less rapid decline. Our results indicate neurons representing the central retina show a bias for the straight-ahead position resulting from modulation of the response gain without an accompanying modulation of contrast sensitivity. The modulation is especially obvious for dark stimuli, which might be useful for directing attention to hazardous situations such as dark holes, or shadows concealing important objects (Supplement 1: Video Abstract, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/WNR/A295). PMID:25055141

  14. Matching Pursuit Analysis of Auditory Receptive Fields' Spectro-Temporal Properties

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Jörg-Hendrik; Kollmeier, Birger; Anemüller, Jörn

    2017-01-01

    Gabor filters have long been proposed as models for spectro-temporal receptive fields (STRFs), with their specific spectral and temporal rate of modulation qualitatively replicating characteristics of STRF filters estimated from responses to auditory stimuli in physiological data. The present study builds on the Gabor-STRF model by proposing a methodology to quantitatively decompose STRFs into a set of optimally matched Gabor filters through matching pursuit, and by quantitatively evaluating spectral and temporal characteristics of STRFs in terms of the derived optimal Gabor-parameters. To summarize a neuron's spectro-temporal characteristics, we introduce a measure for the “diagonality,” i.e., the extent to which an STRF exhibits spectro-temporal transients which cannot be factorized into a product of a spectral and a temporal modulation. With this methodology, it is shown that approximately half of 52 analyzed zebra finch STRFs can each be well approximated by a single Gabor or a linear combination of two Gabor filters. Moreover, the dominant Gabor functions tend to be oriented either in the spectral or in the temporal direction, with truly “diagonal” Gabor functions rarely being necessary for reconstruction of an STRF's main characteristics. As a toy example for the applicability of STRF and Gabor-STRF filters to auditory detection tasks, we use STRF filters as features in an automatic event detection task and compare them to idealized Gabor filters and mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs). STRFs classify a set of six everyday sounds with an accuracy similar to reference Gabor features (94% recognition rate). Spectro-temporal STRF and Gabor features outperform reference spectral MFCCs in quiet and in low noise conditions (down to 0 dB signal to noise ratio). PMID:28232791

  15. Two Types of Receptive Field Dynamics in Area V4 at the Time of Eye Movements?

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Till S.; Zirnsak, Marc; Marquis, Michael; Hamker, Fred H.; Moore, Tirin

    2017-01-01

    How we perceive the world as stable despite the frequent disruptions of the retinal image caused by eye movements is one of the fundamental questions in sensory neuroscience. Seemingly convergent evidence points towards a mechanism which dynamically updates representations of visual space in anticipation of a movement (Wurtz, 2008). In particular, receptive fields (RFs) of neurons, predominantly within oculomotor and attention related brain structures (Duhamel et al., 1992; Walker et al., 1995; Umeno and Goldberg, 1997), are thought to “remap” to their future, post-movement location prior to an impending eye movement. New studies (Neupane et al., 2016a,b) report observations on RF dynamics at the time of eye movements of neurons in area V4. These dynamics are interpreted as being largely dominated by a remapping of RFs. Critically, these observations appear at odds with a previous study reporting a different type of RF dynamics within the same brain structure (Tolias et al., 2001), consisting of a shrinkage and shift of RFs towards the movement target. Importantly, RFs have been measured with different techniques in those studies. Here, we measured V4 RFs comparable to Neupane et al. (2016a,b) and observe a shrinkage and shift of RFs towards the movement target when analyzing the immediate stimulus response (Zirnsak et al., 2014). When analyzing the late stimulus response (Neupane et al., 2016a,b), we observe RF shifts resembling remapping. We discuss possible causes for these shifts and point out important issues which future studies on RF dynamics need to address. PMID:28377700

  16. Dynamic stimulation evokes spatially focused receptive fields in bat auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Susanne; Schuller, Gerd; Firzlaff, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    Bats can orient and hunt for prey in complete darkness using echolocation. Due to the pulse-like character of call emission they receive a stroboscopic view of their environment. During target approach, bats adjust their emitted echolocation calls to the specific requirements of the dynamically changing environmental and behavioral context. In addition to changes of the spectro-temporal call features, the spatial focusing of the beam of the sonar emissions onto the target is a conspicuous feature during target tracking. The neural processes underlying the complex sensory-motor interactions during target tracking are not well understood. In this study, we used a two-tone-pulse paradigm with 81 combinations of inter-aural intensity differences and six inter-pulse intervals in a passive hearing task to tackle the question of how transient changes in the azimuthal position of successive sounds are encoded by neurons in the auditory cortex of the bat Phyllostomus discolor. In a population of cortical neurons (11%, 24 of 217), spatial receptive fields were focused to a small region of frontal azimuthal positions during dynamic stimulation with tone-pulse pairs at short inter-pulse intervals. The response of these neurons might be important for the behaviorally observed locking of the sonar beam onto a selected target during the later stages of target tracking. Most interestingly, the majority of these neurons (88%, 21 of 24) were located in the posterior dorsal part of the auditory cortex. This cortical subfield might thus be specifically involved in the analysis of dynamic acoustic scenes.

  17. Cat retinal ganglion cell receptive-field alterations after 6-hydroxydopamine induced dopaminergic amacrine cell lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, G.W.; Smith, E.L. III

    1985-06-01

    Optic tract single-unit recordings were used to study ganglion cell response functions of the intact cat eye after 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioning of the dopaminergic amacrine cell (AC) population of the inner retina. The impairment of the dopaminergic AC was verified by high pressure-liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection of endogenous dopamine content and by (/sup 3/H)dopamine high-affinity uptake; the dopaminergic ACs of the treated eyes demonstrated reduced endogenous dopamine content and reduced (/sup 3/H)dopamine uptake compared with that of their matched controls. Normal appearing (/sup 3/H)GABA and (/sup 3/H)-glycine uptake in the treated retinas suggests the absence of any nonspecific action of the 6-OHDA on the neural retina. The impairment of the dopaminergic AC population was found to alter a number of response properties in off-center ganglion cells, but this impairment had only a modest effect on the on-center cells. An abnormally high proportion of the off-center ganglion cells in the 6-OHDA treated eyes possessed nonlinear, Y-type receptive fields. These cells also possessed shift-responses of greater than normal amplitude, altered intensity-response functions, reduced maintained activities, and more transient center responses. Of the on-center type cells, only the Y-type on-center cells were affected by 6-OHDA, possessing higher than normal maintained activities and altered intensity-response functions. The on-center X-cells were unaffected by 6-OHDA treatment. The dopaminergic AC of the photopically adapted cat retina therefore modulates a number of ganglion cell response properties and within the limits of this study is most prominent in off-center ganglion cell circuitry.

  18. Visual Receptive Field Properties of Neurons in the Mouse Lateral Geniculate Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Subhojit; Schultz, Simon R.

    2016-01-01

    The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is increasingly regarded as a “smart-gating” operator for processing visual information. Therefore, characterizing the response properties of LGN neurons will enable us to better understand how neurons encode and transfer visual signals. Efforts have been devoted to study its anatomical and functional features, and recent advances have highlighted the existence in rodents of complex features such as direction/orientation selectivity. However, unlike well-researched higher-order mammals such as primates, the full array of response characteristics vis-à-vis its morphological features have remained relatively unexplored in the mouse LGN. To address the issue, we recorded from mouse LGN neurons using multisite-electrode-arrays (MEAs) and analysed their discharge patterns in relation to their location under a series of visual stimulation paradigms. Several response properties paralleled results from earlier studies in the field and these include centre-surround organization, size of receptive field, spontaneous firing rate and linearity of spatial summation. However, our results also revealed “high-pass” and “low-pass” features in the temporal frequency tuning of some cells, and greater average contrast gain than reported by earlier studies. In addition, a small proportion of cells had direction/orientation selectivity. Both “high-pass” and “low-pass” cells, as well as direction and orientation selective cells, were found only in small numbers, supporting the notion that these properties emerge in the cortex. ON- and OFF-cells showed distinct contrast sensitivity and temporal frequency tuning properties, suggesting parallel projections from the retina. Incorporating a novel histological technique, we created a 3-D LGN volume model explicitly capturing the morphological features of mouse LGN and localising individual cells into anterior/middle/posterior LGN. Based on this categorization, we show that the ON

  19. Population receptive field analysis of the primary visual cortex complements perimetry in patients with homonymous visual field defects.

    PubMed

    Papanikolaou, Amalia; Keliris, Georgios A; Papageorgiou, T Dorina; Shao, Yibin; Krapp, Elke; Papageorgiou, Eleni; Stingl, Katarina; Bruckmann, Anna; Schiefer, Ulrich; Logothetis, Nikos K; Smirnakis, Stelios M

    2014-04-22

    Injury to the primary visual cortex (V1) typically leads to loss of conscious vision in the corresponding, homonymous region of the contralateral visual hemifield (scotoma). Several studies suggest that V1 is highly plastic after injury to the visual pathways, whereas others have called this conclusion into question. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure area V1 population receptive field (pRF) properties in five patients with partial or complete quadrantic visual field loss as a result of partial V1+ or optic radiation lesions. Comparisons were made with healthy controls deprived of visual stimulation in one quadrant ["artificial scotoma" (AS)]. We observed no large-scale changes in spared-V1 topography as the V1/V2 border remained stable, and pRF eccentricity versus cortical-distance plots were similar to those of controls. Interestingly, three observations suggest limited reorganization: (i) the distribution of pRF centers in spared-V1 was shifted slightly toward the scotoma border in 2 of 5 patients compared with AS controls; (ii) pRF size in spared-V1 was slightly increased in patients near the scotoma border; and (iii) pRF size in the contralesional hemisphere was slightly increased compared with AS controls. Importantly, pRF measurements yield information about the functional properties of spared-V1 cortex not provided by standard perimetry mapping. In three patients, spared-V1 pRF maps overlapped significantly with dense regions of the perimetric scotoma, suggesting that pRF analysis may help identify visual field locations amenable to rehabilitation. Conversely, in the remaining two patients, spared-V1 pRF maps failed to cover sighted locations in the perimetric map, indicating the existence of V1-bypassing pathways able to mediate useful vision.

  20. Nonlinear and extra-classical receptive field properties and the statistics of natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Zetzsche, C; Röhrbein, F

    2001-08-01

    -stopping, complex-cell properties and extra-classical receptive field properties, but the 'ideal' complex cells seem only to occur with PCA. Thus, a combination of ON/OFF nonlinearities with an integrated PCA-ICA strategy seems necessary to exploit the statistical properties of natural images.

  1. Optical wide field monitor AROMA-W using multiple digital single-lens reflex cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Ichiro; Tsunashima, Kosuke; Tatsuhito, Takeda; Saori, Ono; Kazutaka, Yamaoka; Yoshida, Atsumasa

    2010-12-01

    We have developed and operated the automatic optical observation device Aoyama Gakuin University Robotic Optical Monitor for Astrophysical objects - Wide field (AROMA-W). It covers a large field of view of about 45 degrees W 30 degrees at a time by the multiple digital single-lens reflex cameras, and provides photometric data in four bands with a limiting V magnitude of about 12-13 magnitude (20 seconds, 3 sigma level). The automatic analysis pipeline which can analyze in parallel with observation has been constructed so far. It can draw the light curves of all stars in the field of view of AROMA-W. We are aiming at the simultaneous observation of the transients (e.g., X-ray nova, Supernova, GRB) that MAXI discovered by using the AROMA-W. We report the developmental status, the observational results of AROMA-W and a possibility of the simultaneous observation to the X-ray transients discovered with MAXI.

  2. Möbius-strip-like columnar functional connections are revealed in somato-sensory receptive field centroids

    PubMed Central

    Wright, James Joseph; Bourke, Paul David; Favorov, Oleg Vyachesslavovich

    2014-01-01

    Receptive fields of neurons in the forelimb region of areas 3b and 1 of primary somatosensory cortex, in cats and monkeys, were mapped using extracellular recordings obtained sequentially from nearly radial penetrations. Locations of the field centroids indicated the presence of a functional system in which cortical homotypic representations of the limb surfaces are entwined in three-dimensional Möbius-strip-like patterns of synaptic connections. Boundaries of somatosensory receptive field in nested groups irregularly overlie the centroid order, and are interpreted as arising from the superposition of learned connections upon the embryonic order. Since the theory of embryonic synaptic self-organization used to model these results was devised and earlier used to explain findings in primary visual cortex, the present findings suggest the theory may be of general application throughout cortex and may reveal a modular functional synaptic system, which, only in some parts of the cortex, and in some species, is manifest as anatomical ordering into columns. PMID:25400552

  3. Functional Characterization of the Extra-Classical Receptive Field in Macaque V1: Contrast, Orientation, and Temporal Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Christopher A.; Joshi, Siddhartha; Xing, Dajun; Shapley, Robert M.; Hawken, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Neurons in primary visual cortex, V1, very often have extra-classical receptive fields (eCRFs). The eCRF is defined as the region of visual space where stimuli cannot elicit a spiking response but can modulate the response of a stimulus in the classical receptive field (CRF). We investigated the dependence of the eCRF on stimulus contrast and orientation in macaque V1 cells for which the laminar location was determined. The eCRF was more sensitive to contrast than the CRF across the whole population of V1 cells with the greatest contrast differential in layer 2/3. We confirmed that many V1 cells experience stronger suppression for collinear than orthogonal stimuli in the eCRF. Laminar analysis revealed that the predominant bias for collinear suppression was found in layers 2/3 and 4b. The laminar pattern of contrast and orientation dependence suggests that eCRF suppression may derive from different neural circuits in different layers, and may be comprised of two distinct components: orientation-tuned and untuned suppression. On average tuned suppression was delayed by about 25 milliseconds compared to the onset of untuned suppression. Therefore, response modulation by the eCRF develops dynamically and rapidly in time. PMID:23554504

  4. Photoreceptor projections and receptive fields in the dorsal rim area and main retina of the locust eye.

    PubMed

    Schmeling, Fabian; Tegtmeier, Jennifer; Kinoshita, Michiyo; Homberg, Uwe

    2015-05-01

    In many insect species, photoreceptors of a small dorsal rim area of the eye are specialized for sensitivity to the oscillation plane of polarized skylight and, thus, serve a role in sky compass orientation. To further understand peripheral mechanisms of polarized-light processing in the optic lobe, we have studied the projections of photoreceptors and their receptive fields in the main eye and dorsal rim area of the desert locust, a model system for polarization vision analysis. In both eye regions, one photoreceptor per ommatidium, R7, has a long visual fiber projecting through the lamina to the medulla. Axonal fibers from R7 receptors of the dorsal rim area have short side branches throughout the depth of the dorsal lamina and maintain retinotopic projections to the dorsal medulla following the first optic chiasma. Receptive fields of dorsal rim photoreceptors are considerably larger (average acceptance angle 33°) than those of the main eye (average acceptance angle 2.04°) and, taken together, cover almost the entire sky. The data challenge previous reports of two long visual fibers per ommatidium in the main eye of the locust and provide data for future analysis of peripheral networks underlying polarization opponency in the locust brain.

  5. Reducing contralateral SI activity reveals hindlimb receptive fields in the SI forelimb-stump representation of neonatally amputated rats.

    PubMed

    Pluto, Charles P; Chiaia, Nicolas L; Rhoades, Robert W; Lane, Richard D

    2005-09-01

    In adult rats that sustained forelimb amputation on the day of birth, >30% of multiunit recording sites in the forelimb-stump representation of primary somatosensory cortex (SI) also respond to cutaneous hindlimb stimulation when cortical GABA(A+B) receptors are blocked (GRB). This study examined whether hindlimb receptive fields could also be revealed in forelimb-stump sites by reducing one known source of excitatory input to SI GABAergic neurons, the contralateral SI cortex. Corpus callosum projection neurons connect homotopic SI regions, making excitatory contacts onto pyramidal cells and interneurons. Thus in addition to providing monosynaptic excitation in SI, callosal fibers can produce disynaptic inhibition through excitatory synapses with inhibitory interneurons. Based on the latter of these connections, we hypothesized that inactivating the contralateral (intact) SI forelimb region would "unmask" normally suppressed hindlimb responses by reducing the activity of SI GABAergic neurons. The SI forelimb-stump representation was first mapped under normal conditions and then during GRB to identify stump/hindlimb responsive sites. After GRB had dissipated, the contralateral (intact) SI forelimb region was mapped and reversibly inactivated with injections of 4% lidocaine, and selected forelimb-stump sites were retested. Contralateral SI inactivation revealed hindlimb responses in approximately 60% of sites that were stump/hindlimb responsive during GRB. These findings indicate that activity in the contralateral SI contributes to the suppression of reorganized hindlimb receptive fields in neonatally amputated rats.

  6. Infant reflexes

    MedlinePlus

    ... in other age groups. These include: Moro reflex Sucking reflex (sucks when area around mouth is touched) ... side that was stroked and begin to make sucking motions. PARACHUTE REFLEX This reflex occurs in slightly ...

  7. Relationship between mechano-receptive fields of dorsal horn convergent neurons and the response to noxious immersion of the ipsilateral hindpaw in rats.

    PubMed

    McGaraughty, S; Henry, J L

    1997-04-01

    This study examines the relationship between mechano-receptive fields (inhibitory and excitatory, located on the ipsilateral hindpaw) of convergent dorsal horn neurons, and the responses of the neurons to noxious immersion of an entire paw in noxious hot water. In pentobarbital anesthetized rats with intact spinal cords and in unanesthetized decerebrate-spinalized rats, rat hindpaws were immersed in 50 degrees C water for 10 s after the mechano-receptive fields had been delineated using 5-s noxious pinches. Convergent neurons were either excited or inhibited by noxious immersion of the hindpaw. In both groups, a significant association (chi2, P < 0.01) was found between the make-up of the mechano-receptive field and the response of the neuron to immersion. Immersion-inhibited neurons (intact = 27, spinalized = 13), always had both an excitatory and an inhibitory mechano-receptive field on the same hindpaw. Additionally, when the hindpaw was removed from the noxious water, these immersion-inhibited cells displayed a strong afterdischarge which was immediately inhibited once the paw was reimmersed. Pinch-induced and immersion-induced inhibition were found in both spinalized and intact rats suggesting spinal mechanisms were sufficient to mediate this effect. The majority of immersion-excited cells showed only an excitatory mechano-receptive field on the hindpaw (intact rats = 18/23 or 78.3%, spinalized rats = 24/36 or 66.7%). However, other immersion-excited cells had both an inhibitory and an excitatory mechano-receptive field on the hindpaw (intact rats = 5/23 or 21.7%, spinalized rats = 12/36 or 33.3%). The response of a convergent neuron, which has its excitatory receptive field located on a paw, to noxious immersion of the entire paw can be predicted by the make-up of the mechano-receptive fields. Additionally, since noxious paw immersion affects ipsilateral convergent neurons in two opposite manners, it suggests that other effects, such as heterotopic actions

  8. Responses to visual contours: spatio-temporal aspects of excitation in the receptive fields of simple striate neurones

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, P. O.; Coombs, J. S.; Henry, G. H.

    1971-01-01

    1. The properties of the receptive fields of simple cells in the cat striate cortex have been studied by preparing average response histograms both to moving slits of light of different width and to single light-dark edges or contours. 2. The movement of a narrow (< 0·3°) slit across the receptive field gives rise to average response histograms that are either unimodal, bimodal or multimodal. A slit of light has leading (light) and trailing (dark) edges. By increasing the width of the slit it was shown that a discharge peak in the histogram coincides with the passage of one or other of the two edges over a particular region (discharge centre) in the receptive field. Each edge has its own discharge centre which is fired when the edge has the correct orientation and direction of movement. 3. The discharge centres in forty-three simple cell receptive fields were located by using one or more of the following stimuli for each cell: (i) slits of different width; (ii) single light and dark edges; (iii) a wide (3°) slit moved over a range of different velocities. The same locations were obtained when all three procedures were used on the same cell. 4. Most cells (79%) discharged to both edges though not necessarily in the same direction of movement. The majority (72%) fired in only one direction and most commonly (51%) the cells responded to both edges in this one direction. In only 16% of cells did both types of edge excite in both directions of movement. When the one type of edge, light or dark, was considered, 84% of the cells were direction selective and, for these cells, the other edge fired only in the same direction (51%), in both directions (7%), only in the opposite direction (5%) or not at all (21%). 5. Cells responding in one direction with a unimodal average response histogram may be responding to both edges, the two responses being concealed in the one discharge peak. The two discharge centres are then either nearly coincident or, more usually, slightly

  9. Responses of Leaky Integrate-and-Fire Neurons to a Plurality of Stimuli in Their Receptive Fields.

    PubMed

    Li, Kang; Bundesen, Claus; Ditlevsen, Susanne

    2016-12-01

    A fundamental question concerning the way the visual world is represented in our brain is how a cortical cell responds when its classical receptive field contains a plurality of stimuli. Two opposing models have been proposed. In the response-averaging model, the neuron responds with a weighted average of all individual stimuli. By contrast, in the probability-mixing model, the cell responds to a plurality of stimuli as if only one of the stimuli were present. Here we apply the probability-mixing and the response-averaging model to leaky integrate-and-fire neurons, to describe neuronal behavior based on observed spike trains. We first estimate the parameters of either model using numerical methods, and then test which model is most likely to have generated the observed data. Results show that the parameters can be successfully estimated and the two models are distinguishable using model selection.

  10. Contrasting patterns of receptive field plasticity in the hippocampus and the entorhinal cortex: an adaptive filtering approach.

    PubMed

    Frank, Loren M; Eden, Uri T; Solo, Victor; Wilson, Matthew A; Brown, Emery N

    2002-05-01

    Neural receptive fields are frequently plastic: a neural response to a stimulus can change over time as a result of experience. We developed an adaptive point process filtering algorithm that allowed us to estimate the dynamics of both the spatial receptive field (spatial intensity function) and the interspike interval structure (temporal intensity function) of neural spike trains on a millisecond time scale without binning over time or space. We applied this algorithm to both simulated data and recordings of putative excitatory neurons from the CA1 region of the hippocampus and the deep layers of the entorhinal cortex (EC) of awake, behaving rats. Our simulation results demonstrate that the algorithm accurately tracks simultaneous changes in the spatial and temporal structure of the spike train. When we applied the algorithm to experimental data, we found consistent patterns of plasticity in the spatial and temporal intensity functions of both CA1 and deep EC neurons. These patterns tended to be opposite in sign, in that the spatial intensity functions of CA1 neurons showed a consistent increase over time, whereas those of deep EC neurons tended to decrease, and the temporal intensity functions of CA1 neurons showed a consistent increase only in the "theta" (75-150 msec) region, whereas those of deep EC neurons decreased in the region between 20 and 75 msec. In addition, the minority of deep EC neurons whose spatial intensity functions increased in area over time fired in a significantly more spatially specific manner than non-increasing deep EC neurons. We hypothesize that this subset of deep EC neurons may receive more direct input from CA1 and may be part of a neural circuit that transmits information about the animal's location to the neocortex.

  11. Receptive Field Vectors of Genetically-Identified Retinal Ganglion Cells Reveal Cell-Type-Dependent Visual Functions.

    PubMed

    Katz, Matthew L; Viney, Tim J; Nikolic, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    Sensory stimuli are encoded by diverse kinds of neurons but the identities of the recorded neurons that are studied are often unknown. We explored in detail the firing patterns of eight previously defined genetically-identified retinal ganglion cell (RGC) types from a single transgenic mouse line. We first introduce a new technique of deriving receptive field vectors (RFVs) which utilises a modified form of mutual information ("Quadratic Mutual Information"). We analysed the firing patterns of RGCs during presentation of short duration (~10 second) complex visual scenes (natural movies). We probed the high dimensional space formed by the visual input for a much smaller dimensional subspace of RFVs that give the most information about the response of each cell. The new technique is very efficient and fast and the derivation of novel types of RFVs formed by the natural scene visual input was possible even with limited numbers of spikes per cell. This approach enabled us to estimate the 'visual memory' of each cell type and the corresponding receptive field area by calculating Mutual Information as a function of the number of frames and radius. Finally, we made predictions of biologically relevant functions based on the RFVs of each cell type. RGC class analysis was complemented with results for the cells' response to simple visual input in the form of black and white spot stimulation, and their classification on several key physiological metrics. Thus RFVs lead to predictions of biological roles based on limited data and facilitate analysis of sensory-evoked spiking data from defined cell types.

  12. Receptive Field Vectors of Genetically-Identified Retinal Ganglion Cells Reveal Cell-Type-Dependent Visual Functions

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Matthew L.; Viney, Tim J.; Nikolic, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    Sensory stimuli are encoded by diverse kinds of neurons but the identities of the recorded neurons that are studied are often unknown. We explored in detail the firing patterns of eight previously defined genetically-identified retinal ganglion cell (RGC) types from a single transgenic mouse line. We first introduce a new technique of deriving receptive field vectors (RFVs) which utilises a modified form of mutual information (“Quadratic Mutual Information”). We analysed the firing patterns of RGCs during presentation of short duration (~10 second) complex visual scenes (natural movies). We probed the high dimensional space formed by the visual input for a much smaller dimensional subspace of RFVs that give the most information about the response of each cell. The new technique is very efficient and fast and the derivation of novel types of RFVs formed by the natural scene visual input was possible even with limited numbers of spikes per cell. This approach enabled us to estimate the 'visual memory' of each cell type and the corresponding receptive field area by calculating Mutual Information as a function of the number of frames and radius. Finally, we made predictions of biologically relevant functions based on the RFVs of each cell type. RGC class analysis was complemented with results for the cells’ response to simple visual input in the form of black and white spot stimulation, and their classification on several key physiological metrics. Thus RFVs lead to predictions of biological roles based on limited data and facilitate analysis of sensory-evoked spiking data from defined cell types. PMID:26845435

  13. Stimulus size and intensity alter fundamental receptive-field properties of mouse retinal ganglion cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sagdullaev, Botir T; McCall, Maureen A

    2005-01-01

    The receptive field (RF) of most retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is comprised of an excitatory center and an antagonistic surround. Interactions between these RF elements shape most of the visual responses of RGCs. To begin to investigate center-surround interactions of mouse RGCs quantitatively, we characterized their responses in an in vivo preparation to a variety of spot and full-field stimuli. When RGCs were stimulated with a spot that matched the cell's RF center diameter (optimal spot), all RGCs could be categorized as either ON- or OFF-center. In all RGCs, full-field stimulation significantly reduced both the peak and the mean firing rates evoked with an optimal spot stimulus. Full-field stimulation revealed differences in other response properties between ON- and OFF-center RGCs. With a full-field stimulus, the duration of the OFF-center RGCs response was reduced making them more transient, while the duration of the ON-center RGCs increased making them more sustained. Of most interest, full-field stimulation altered the RF center response sign in approximately half of the OFF-center RGCs, which became either OFF/ON or ON only. In contrast, all ON-center and the other OFF-center cells conserved their RF response sign in the presence of the full-field stimulus. We propose that sign-altering OFF-center RGCs possess an additional RF surround mechanism that underlies this alteration in their response. Of general interest these results suggest that the sole use of full-field stimulation to categorize visual response properties of RGCs does not adequately reflect their RF organization and, therefore, is not an optimal strategy for their classification.

  14. Differences between Spectro-Temporal Receptive Fields Derived from Artificial and Natural Stimuli in the Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Laudanski, Jonathan; Edeline, Jean-Marc; Huetz, Chloé

    2012-01-01

    Spectro-temporal properties of auditory cortex neurons have been extensively studied with artificial sounds but it is still unclear whether they help in understanding neuronal responses to communication sounds. Here, we directly compared spectro-temporal receptive fields (STRFs) obtained from the same neurons using both artificial stimuli (dynamic moving ripples, DMRs) and natural stimuli (conspecific vocalizations) that were matched in terms of spectral content, average power and modulation spectrum. On a population of auditory cortex neurons exhibiting reliable tuning curves when tested with pure tones, significant STRFs were obtained for 62% of the cells with vocalizations and 68% with DMR. However, for many cells with significant vocalization-derived STRFs (STRFvoc) and DMR-derived STRFs (STRFdmr), the BF, latency, bandwidth and global STRFs shape differed more than what would be predicted by spiking responses simulated by a linear model based on a non-homogenous Poisson process. Moreover STRFvoc predicted neural responses to vocalizations more accurately than STRFdmr predicted neural response to DMRs, despite similar spike-timing reliability for both sets of stimuli. Cortical bursts, which potentially introduce nonlinearities in evoked responses, did not explain the differences between STRFvoc and STRFdmr. Altogether, these results suggest that the nonlinearity of auditory cortical responses makes it difficult to predict responses to communication sounds from STRFs computed from artificial stimuli. PMID:23209771

  15. Push-Pull Receptive Field Organization and Synaptic Depression: Mechanisms for Reliably Encoding Naturalistic Stimuli in V1

    PubMed Central

    Kremkow, Jens; Perrinet, Laurent U.; Monier, Cyril; Alonso, Jose-Manuel; Aertsen, Ad; Frégnac, Yves; Masson, Guillaume S.

    2016-01-01

    Neurons in the primary visual cortex are known for responding vigorously but with high variability to classical stimuli such as drifting bars or gratings. By contrast, natural scenes are encoded more efficiently by sparse and temporal precise spiking responses. We used a conductance-based model of the visual system in higher mammals to investigate how two specific features of the thalamo-cortical pathway, namely push-pull receptive field organization and fast synaptic depression, can contribute to this contextual reshaping of V1 responses. By comparing cortical dynamics evoked respectively by natural vs. artificial stimuli in a comprehensive parametric space analysis, we demonstrate that the reliability and sparseness of the spiking responses during natural vision is not a mere consequence of the increased bandwidth in the sensory input spectrum. Rather, it results from the combined impacts of fast synaptic depression and push-pull inhibition, the later acting for natural scenes as a form of “effective” feed-forward inhibition as demonstrated in other sensory systems. Thus, the combination of feedforward-like inhibition with fast thalamo-cortical synaptic depression by simple cells receiving a direct structured input from thalamus composes a generic computational mechanism for generating a sparse and reliable encoding of natural sensory events. PMID:27242445

  16. Sparse Spectro-Temporal Receptive Fields Based on Multi-Unit and High-Gamma Responses in Human Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Jenison, Rick L.; Reale, Richard A.; Armstrong, Amanda L.; Oya, Hiroyuki; Kawasaki, Hiroto; Howard, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Spectro-Temporal Receptive Fields (STRFs) were estimated from both multi-unit sorted clusters and high-gamma power responses in human auditory cortex. Intracranial electrophysiological recordings were used to measure responses to a random chord sequence of Gammatone stimuli. Traditional methods for estimating STRFs from single-unit recordings, such as spike-triggered-averages, tend to be noisy and are less robust to other response signals such as local field potentials. We present an extension to recently advanced methods for estimating STRFs from generalized linear models (GLM). A new variant of regression using regularization that penalizes non-zero coefficients is described, which results in a sparse solution. The frequency-time structure of the STRF tends toward grouping in different areas of frequency-time and we demonstrate that group sparsity-inducing penalties applied to GLM estimates of STRFs reduces the background noise while preserving the complex internal structure. The contribution of local spiking activity to the high-gamma power signal was factored out of the STRF using the GLM method, and this contribution was significant in 85 percent of the cases. Although the GLM methods have been used to estimate STRFs in animals, this study examines the detailed structure directly from auditory cortex in the awake human brain. We used this approach to identify an abrupt change in the best frequency of estimated STRFs along posteromedial-to-anterolateral recording locations along the long axis of Heschl’s gyrus. This change correlates well with a proposed transition from core to non-core auditory fields previously identified using the temporal response properties of Heschl’s gyrus recordings elicited by click-train stimuli. PMID:26367010

  17. [Effectiveness of perforated film mulching on maize field in rainfall reception and soil ventilation].

    PubMed

    Chi, Baoliang; Huang, Xuefang; Zhang, Dongmei

    2006-04-01

    To improve the light rain availability and soil ventilation in semi-arid area, this paper studied the effectiveness of perforated plastic film mulching on maize field. The results showed that perforated plastic film mulching had the benefits of receiving rainfall and supplementing soil moisture. Soil CO2 content increased with increasing area of mulching, and was lower under perforated plastic film mulching than under common plastic film mulching. A negative correlation was observed between maize root vitality and soil CO2 content. The maize yield under perforated film mulching was 8.98% higher than that under common film mulching.

  18. A study on reception electrodes for the vital-sign monitor using near-field intra-body communication enhanced by spread spectrum technique.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takumi; Shimatani, Yuichi; Kyoso, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    As a novel vital sign monitor, we have developed wireless ECG monitoring system with Near-field intra-body communication (NF-IBC) technique. However, it was hard to ensure communication reliability because transmission channel is noisy and unstable. In order to solve the problem, we utilize spread spectrum (SS), which is known as robust communication technique even through poor transmission channel. In previous study, we have already developed an ECG monitor using NF-IBC enhanced by SS. In this paper, we evaluated on structure of the reception electrode for reliable communication. Based on the evaluations with bit error rate, we suggested the reception electrode structure which can keep the communication reliability. As the results we considered that we can expand the reception electrode up to 2.25 m(2). Moreover, we proposed the structure of the reception electrodes that can keep the communication reliability. Finally we suggested how to use the SS NF-IBC vital-sign monitor in room that larger than 2.25 m(2), and we had shown the practicability of the systems.

  19. Weak edge enhancement based on contextual modulation of non-classical receptive field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Jie; Cai, Chao

    2015-12-01

    Edges and contours of an object contain a lot of information, so the detection and extraction of saliency edges and contours in the image become one of the most active issues in the research field of automatic target recognition. Weak edge enhancement plays an important role in contour detection. Based on psychophysical and physiological findings, a contour detection method which focuses on weak edge enhancement and inspired by the visual mechanism in the primary visual cortex (V1) is proposed in this paper. The method is divided in three steps. Firstly, the response of every single visual neuron in V1 is computed by local energy. Secondly, the local contrast which corresponds to the CRF is computed. If the local contrast in the image is below the low contrast threshold, expand NCRF to change the spatially modulatory range by increasing the NCRF radius. Thirdly, the facilitation and suppression (the contextual influence) on a neuron through horizontal interactions are obtained by using a spatially unified modulating function. We tested it on synthetic images and encouraging results were acquired.

  20. Emulating the visual receptive-field properties of MST neurons with a template model of heading estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrone, J. A.; Stone, L. S.

    1998-01-01

    We have proposed previously a computational neural-network model by which the complex patterns of retinal image motion generated during locomotion (optic flow) can be processed by specialized detectors acting as templates for specific instances of self-motion. The detectors in this template model respond to global optic flow by sampling image motion over a large portion of the visual field through networks of local motion sensors with properties similar to those of neurons found in the middle temporal (MT) area of primate extrastriate visual cortex. These detectors, arranged within cortical-like maps, were designed to extract self-translation (heading) and self-rotation, as well as the scene layout (relative distances) ahead of a moving observer. We then postulated that heading from optic flow is directly encoded by individual neurons acting as heading detectors within the medial superior temporal (MST) area. Others have questioned whether individual MST neurons can perform this function because some of their receptive-field properties seem inconsistent with this role. To resolve this issue, we systematically compared MST responses with those of detectors from two different configurations of the model under matched stimulus conditions. We found that the characteristic physiological properties of MST neurons can be explained by the template model. We conclude that MST neurons are well suited to support self-motion estimation via a direct encoding of heading and that the template model provides an explicit set of testable hypotheses that can guide future exploration of MST and adjacent areas within the superior temporal sulcus.

  1. Rapid mapping of visual receptive fields by filtered back projection: application to multi-neuronal electrophysiology and imaging.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jamie; Ding, Huayu; Seibel, Sofie H; Esposti, Federico; Lagnado, Leon

    2014-11-15

    Neurons in the visual system vary widely in the spatiotemporal properties of their receptive fields (RFs), and understanding these variations is key to elucidating how visual information is processed. We present a new approach for mapping RFs based on the filtered back projection (FBP), an algorithm used for tomographic reconstructions. To estimate RFs, a series of bars were flashed across the retina at pseudo-random positions and at a minimum of five orientations. We apply this method to retinal neurons and show that it can accurately recover the spatial RF and impulse response of ganglion cells recorded on a multi-electrode array. We also demonstrate its utility for in vivo imaging by mapping the RFs of an array of bipolar cell synapses expressing a genetically encoded Ca(2+) indicator. We find that FBP offers several advantages over the commonly used spike-triggered average (STA): (i) ON and OFF components of a RF can be separated; (ii) the impulse response can be reconstructed at sample rates of 125 Hz, rather than the refresh rate of a monitor; (iii) FBP reveals the response properties of neurons that are not evident using STA, including those that display orientation selectivity, or fire at low mean spike rates; and (iv) the FBP method is fast, allowing the RFs of all the bipolar cell synaptic terminals in a field of view to be reconstructed in under 4 min. Use of the FBP will benefit investigations of the visual system that employ electrophysiology or optical reporters to measure activity across populations of neurons.

  2. Receptive Field Properties of the Macaque Second Somatosensory Cortex: Representation of Orientation on Different Finger Pads

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Paul J.; Lane, John W.; Thakur, Pramodsingh H.; Hsiao, Steven S.

    2007-01-01

    Orientation tuning has been studied extensively in the visual system, but little is known about it in the somatosensory system. Here we investigate tuning in the second somatosensory (SII) region using a motorized stimulator that presented a small oriented bar to the 12 finger pads of digits 2–5 (D2–D5) of the macaque monkey. A subset (23%; n = 218) of the 928 SII region neurons [the same 928 neurons studied by Fitzgerald et al. (2004, 2006)] exhibited tuning, and most of these were tuned on one or two finger pads. All eight 22.5° separated orientations were represented as the preferred orientation of multiple neurons, although not necessarily in equal numbers. A measure of bandwidth indicated that tuning in the SII region is sharp and is similar to the tuning observed in visual cortical areas. In addition, two-dimensional Gaussians that were fit to the tuning curves had very high r2 values, indicating that most tuning curves are both unimodal and symmetrical with respect to their preferred orientation. Most tuned neurons had additional untuned pads, although the responsiveness of these pads tended to be less than the responsiveness of tuned pads. Neurons with multiple tuned pads tended to have similar preferred orientations on their tuned pads, which can be interpreted as evidence for integration of information across fingers or as a form of positional invariance. Finally, comparison of the tuning properties showed that there are small but significant differences between the posterior, central, and anterior fields of the SII region. PMID:16775135

  3. Tactile orientation perception: an ideal observer analysis of human psychophysical performance in relation to macaque area 3b receptive fields

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Ryan M.; Staibano, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    The ability to resolve the orientation of edges is crucial to daily tactile and sensorimotor function, yet the means by which edge perception occurs is not well understood. Primate cortical area 3b neurons have diverse receptive field (RF) spatial structures that may participate in edge orientation perception. We evaluated five candidate RF models for macaque area 3b neurons, previously recorded while an oriented bar contacted the monkey's fingertip. We used a Bayesian classifier to assign each neuron a best-fit RF structure. We generated predictions for human performance by implementing an ideal observer that optimally decoded stimulus-evoked spike counts in the model neurons. The ideal observer predicted a saturating reduction in bar orientation discrimination threshold with increasing bar length. We tested 24 humans on an automated, precision-controlled bar orientation discrimination task and observed performance consistent with that predicted. We next queried the ideal observer to discover the RF structure and number of cortical neurons that best matched each participant's performance. Human perception was matched with a median of 24 model neurons firing throughout a 1-s period. The 10 lowest-performing participants were fit with RFs lacking inhibitory sidebands, whereas 12 of the 14 higher-performing participants were fit with RFs containing inhibitory sidebands. Participants whose discrimination improved as bar length increased to 10 mm were fit with longer RFs; those who performed well on the 2-mm bar, with narrower RFs. These results suggest plausible RF features and computational strategies underlying tactile spatial perception and may have implications for perceptual learning. PMID:26354318

  4. Tactile orientation perception: an ideal observer analysis of human psychophysical performance in relation to macaque area 3b receptive fields.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ryan M; Staibano, Phillip; Goldreich, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    The ability to resolve the orientation of edges is crucial to daily tactile and sensorimotor function, yet the means by which edge perception occurs is not well understood. Primate cortical area 3b neurons have diverse receptive field (RF) spatial structures that may participate in edge orientation perception. We evaluated five candidate RF models for macaque area 3b neurons, previously recorded while an oriented bar contacted the monkey's fingertip. We used a Bayesian classifier to assign each neuron a best-fit RF structure. We generated predictions for human performance by implementing an ideal observer that optimally decoded stimulus-evoked spike counts in the model neurons. The ideal observer predicted a saturating reduction in bar orientation discrimination threshold with increasing bar length. We tested 24 humans on an automated, precision-controlled bar orientation discrimination task and observed performance consistent with that predicted. We next queried the ideal observer to discover the RF structure and number of cortical neurons that best matched each participant's performance. Human perception was matched with a median of 24 model neurons firing throughout a 1-s period. The 10 lowest-performing participants were fit with RFs lacking inhibitory sidebands, whereas 12 of the 14 higher-performing participants were fit with RFs containing inhibitory sidebands. Participants whose discrimination improved as bar length increased to 10 mm were fit with longer RFs; those who performed well on the 2-mm bar, with narrower RFs. These results suggest plausible RF features and computational strategies underlying tactile spatial perception and may have implications for perceptual learning.

  5. Color opponent receptive fields self-organize in a biophysical model of visual cortex via spike-timing dependent plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Eguchi, Akihiro; Neymotin, Samuel A.; Stringer, Simon M.

    2014-01-01

    Although many computational models have been proposed to explain orientation maps in primary visual cortex (V1), it is not yet known how similar clusters of color-selective neurons in macaque V1/V2 are connected and develop. In this work, we address the problem of understanding the cortical processing of color information with a possible mechanism of the development of the patchy distribution of color selectivity via computational modeling. Each color input is decomposed into a red, green, and blue representation and transmitted to the visual cortex via a simulated optic nerve in a luminance channel and red–green and blue–yellow opponent color channels. Our model of the early visual system consists of multiple topographically-arranged layers of excitatory and inhibitory neurons, with sparse intra-layer connectivity and feed-forward connectivity between layers. Layers are arranged based on anatomy of early visual pathways, and include a retina, lateral geniculate nucleus, and layered neocortex. Each neuron in the V1 output layer makes synaptic connections to neighboring neurons and receives the three types of signals in the different channels from the corresponding photoreceptor position. Synaptic weights are randomized and learned using spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP). After training with natural images, the neurons display heightened sensitivity to specific colors. Information-theoretic analysis reveals mutual information between particular stimuli and responses, and that the information reaches a maximum with fewer neurons in the higher layers, indicating that estimations of the input colors can be done using the output of fewer cells in the later stages of cortical processing. In addition, cells with similar color receptive fields form clusters. Analysis of spiking activity reveals increased firing synchrony between neurons when particular color inputs are presented or removed (ON-cell/OFF-cell). PMID:24659956

  6. Caring Reflexivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rallis, Sharon F.; Rossman, Gretchen B.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a brief summary of the seven articles in this special issue through the lens of the concept of "caring reflexivity". In joining "caring" and "reflexivity", we deepen the conversation about what constitutes reflexivity, encouraging an explicit focus on the relational. Revisiting the first article,…

  7. Receptive field scatter, topography and map variability in different layers of the hindpaw representation of rat somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Haupt, S Shuichi; Spengler, Friederike; Husemann, Robert; Dinse, Hubert R

    2004-04-01

    We recorded neurons extracellularly in layers II/III, IV, and V of the hindpaw representation of primary somatosensory cortex in anesthetized rats and studied laminar features of receptive fields (RFs) and representational maps. On average, RFs were smallest in layer IV and largest in layer V; however, for individual penetrations we found substantial deviations from this rule. Within the hindpaw representation, a distinct rostrocaudal gradient of RF size was present in all layers. While layer V RFs were generally largest independent of this gradient, layer IV RFs recorded caudally representing the proximal portions of the paw were larger than layer II/III RFs recorded rostrally representing the digits. The individual scatter of the locations of RFs across laminar groups was in the range of several millimeters, corresponding to about 25% of the average RF diameter. The cutaneous representations of the hindpaw in extragranular layers were confined to the areal extent defined by responsive sites in layer IV. Comparison between RFs determined quantitatively and by handplotting showed a reliable correspondence. Repeated measurements of RFs revealed spontaneous fluctuations of RF size of no more than 5% of the initial condition over an observation period of several hours. The topography and variability of cortical maps of the hindpaw representation were studied with a quantitative interpolation method taking into account the geometric centers of RFs and the corresponding cortical recording sites. On average, the overall topography in terms of preservation of neighborhood relations was present in all layers, although some individual maps showed severe distortions of topography. Factors contributing to map variability were overall position of the representation on the cortical surface, internal topography and spatial extent. Interindividual variability of map layout was always highest in the digit representations. Local topographic orderliness was lowest in layer V, but

  8. Effect of electrical water bath stunning on physical reflexes of broilers: evaluation of stunning efficacy under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Girasole, M; Marrone, R; Anastasio, A; Chianese, Antonio; Mercogliano, R; Cortesi, M L

    2016-05-01

    The effects of different amounts and frequencies of stunning sine wave alternating current were investigated under field conditions. Seven hundred and fifty broilers were stunned in an electrical water bath with an average root mean square (RMS) current of 150, 200, and 250 mA and frequencies of 200, 400, 600, 800, and 1,200 Hz. The occurrence of corneal reflex, spontaneous eye blinking, and a positive response to a painful stimulus were monitored and recorded immediately after the stunning and at 20 s post-stun. Statistical analysis showed that the electrical stunning frequency (P=0.0004), the stunning RMS current (P<0.0001) and the interaction between stunning frequency and stunning current (P<0.0001) had a significant effect on the occurrence of animals experiencing an abolition of corneal reflex at 20 s post-stun.At a current of 150 mA, the probability of a successful stun was over 90% at 200 Hz, approximately 40% at 400 Hz, and below 5% for frequencies greater than 600 Hz. So, stunning at frequencies greater than 600 Hz cannot be recommended when a RMS current of 150 mA is applied. The maximum probability of a successful stun was obtained for a current level of 200 mA at 400 Hz and for a current level of 250 mA at 400 and 600 Hz, whereas the stunning treatments at 1,200 Hz provided the lowest probability of a successful stun. Assessment of spontaneous eye blinking and responses to comb pinching confirmed the indications coming from the analysis of corneal reflex.

  9. A survey of spinal dorsal horn neurones encoding the spatial organization of withdrawal reflexes in the rat.

    PubMed

    Schouenborg, J; Weng, H R; Kalliomäki, J; Holmberg, H

    1995-01-01

    The withdrawal reflex pathways to hindlimb muscles have an elaborate spatial organization in the rat. In short, the distribution of sensitivity within the cutaneous receptive field of a single muscle has a spatial pattern that is a mirror image of the spatial pattern of the withdrawal of the skin surface ensuing on contraction in the respective muscle. In the present study, a search for neurones encoding the specific spatial input-output relationship of withdrawal reflexes to single muscles was made in the lumbosacral spinal cord in halothane/nitrous oxide-anaesthetized rats. The cutaneous receptive fields of 147 dorsal horn neurones in the L4-5 segments receiving a nociceptive input and a convergent input from A and C fibres from the hindpaw were studied. The spatial pattern of the response amplitude within the receptive fields of 118 neurones was quantitatively compared with those of withdrawal reflexes to single muscles. Response patterns exhibiting a high similarity to those of withdrawal reflexes to single muscles were found in 27 neurones located in the deep dorsal horn. Twenty-six of these belonged to class 2 (responding to tactile and nociceptive input) and one belonged to class 3 (responding only to nociceptive input). None of the neurones tested (n = 20) with reflex-like response patterns could be antidromically driven from the upper cervical cord, suggesting that they were spinal interneurones. With some overlap, putative interneurones of the withdrawal reflexes to the plantar flexors of the digits, the plantar flexors of the ankle, the pronators, the dorsiflexors of the ankle, and a flexor of the knee, were found in succession in a mediolateral direction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Moro reflex

    MedlinePlus

    ... Causes This is a normal reflex present in newborn infants. Absence of the Moro reflex in an infant ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Infant and Newborn Care Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., ...

  11. Local sensitivity to stimulus orientation and spatial frequency within the receptive fields of neurons in visual area 2 of macaque monkeys.

    PubMed

    Tao, X; Zhang, B; Smith, E L; Nishimoto, S; Ohzawa, I; Chino, Y M

    2012-02-01

    We used dynamic dense noise stimuli and local spectral reverse correlation methods to reveal the local sensitivities of neurons in visual area 2 (V2) of macaque monkeys to orientation and spatial frequency within their receptive fields. This minimized the potentially confounding assumptions that are inherent in stimulus selections. The majority of neurons exhibited a relatively high degree of homogeneity for the preferred orientations and spatial frequencies in the spatial matrix of facilitatory subfields. However, about 20% of all neurons showed maximum orientation differences between neighboring subfields that were greater than 25 deg. The neurons preferring horizontal or vertical orientations showed less inhomogeneity in space than the neurons preferring oblique orientations. Over 50% of all units also exhibited suppressive profiles, and those were more heterogeneous than facilitatory profiles. The preferred orientation and spatial frequency of suppressive profiles differed substantially from those of facilitatory profiles, and the neurons with suppressive subfields had greater orientation selectivity than those without suppressive subfields. The peak suppression occurred with longer delays than the peak facilitation. These results suggest that the receptive field profiles of the majority of V2 neurons reflect the orderly convergence of V1 inputs over space, but that a subset of V2 neurons exhibit more complex response profiles having both suppressive and facilitatory subfields. These V2 neurons with heterogeneous subfield profiles could play an important role in the initial processing of complex stimulus features.

  12. Selective disruption of one Cartesian axis of cortical maps and receptive fields by deficiency in ephrin-As and structured activity.

    PubMed

    Cang, Jianhua; Niell, Cristopher M; Liu, Xiaorong; Pfeiffenberger, Cory; Feldheim, David A; Stryker, Michael P

    2008-02-28

    The topographic representation of visual space is preserved from retina to thalamus to cortex. We have previously shown that precise mapping of thalamocortical projections requires both molecular cues and structured retinal activity. To probe the interaction between these two mechanisms, we studied mice deficient in both ephrin-As and retinal waves. Functional and anatomical cortical maps in these mice were nearly abolished along the nasotemporal (azimuth) axis of the visual space. Both the structure of single-cell receptive fields and large-scale topography were severely distorted. These results demonstrate that ephrin-As and structured neuronal activity are two distinct pathways that mediate map formation in the visual cortex and together account almost completely for the formation of the azimuth map. Despite the dramatic disruption of azimuthal topography, the dorsoventral (elevation) map was relatively normal, indicating that the two axes of the cortical map are organized by separate mechanisms.

  13. Brain activations evoked by tactile stimulation varies with the intensity and not with number of receptive fields stimulated: An fMRI study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez Garzón, Y. T.; Pasaye, E. H.; Barrios, F. A.

    2014-11-01

    Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) it is possible to study the functional anatomy of primary cortices. Cortical representations in the primary somatosensory cortex have shown discrepancies between activations related to the same body region in some studies; these differences have been more pronounced for lower limb representations. The aim of this study was to observe the influence of the tactile stimulus intensity in somatosensory cortical responses using fMRI. Based in the sensitivity and pain threshold of each subject, we used Von Frey filaments for stimulate 12 control subject in three receptive fields on the right thigh. One filament near to sensitivity threshold (VFS), other close to pain threshold (VFP) and one intermediate filament between the two previous thresholds (VFI). The tactile stimulation with VFS produced no activation on SI, while that the contralateral SI was activated by stimulation with VFI in 5 subjects and with the stimulation of VFP in all subjects. Second level statistical analysis showed significant differences between SI activations related to the stimulation with VFP and VFI (VFP > VFI), in the comparison between the applied different intensities, a small cluster of activation was observed on SI for the unique possible contrast (VFP > VFI). The time course per trial for each subject was extracted and averaged to extract the activation in the contralateral SI and compared across the stimulus modalities, between the sites of field receptive stimulated and the intensities used. The time course of tactile stimulus responses revealed a consistent single peak of activity per cycle (30 s), approximately 12 s after the onset of the stimulus, with exception of the VFI stimulation,_which showed the peak at 10 s. Thus, our results indicate that the cortical representation of a tactile stimulus with fMRI is modulated for the intensity of the stimulus applied.

  14. Developmental differences in peripheral glabrous skin mechanosensory nerve receptive field and intracellular electrophysiologic properties: phenotypic characterization in infant and juvenile rats.

    PubMed

    Boada, M Danilo; Gutierrez, Silvia; Houle, Timothy; Eisenach, James C; Ririe, Douglas G

    2011-12-01

    Developmental differences in peripheral neuron characteristics and functionality exist. Direct measurement of active and passive electrophysiologic and receptive field characteristics of single mechanosensitive neurons in glabrous skin was performed and phenotypic characterization of fiber subtypes was applied to analyze developmental differences in peripheral mechanosensitive afferents. After Institutional approval, male Sprague-Dawley infant (P7: postnatal day 7) and juvenile (P28) rats were anesthetized and single cell intracellular electrophysiology was performed in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) soma of mechanosensitive cells with receptive field (RF) in the glabrous skin of the hindpaw. Passive and active electrical properties of the cells and RF size and characteristics determined. Fiber subtype classification was performed and developmental differences in fiber subtype properties analyzed. RF size was smaller at P7 for both low and high threshold mechanoreceptor (LTMR and HTMR) with no differences between A- and C-HTMR (AHTMR and CHTMR). The RF size was also correlated to anatomic location on glabrous skin, toes having smaller RF. Conduction velocity (CV) was adequate at P28 for AHTMR and CHTMR classification, but not at P7. Only width of the action potential at half height (D50) was significantly different between HTMR at P7, while D50, CV and amplitude of the AP were significant for HTMR at P28. RF size is determined in part by the RF distribution of the peripheral neuron. Developmental differences in RF size occur with larger RF sizes occurring in younger animals. This is consistent with RF size differences determined by measuring RF in the spinal cord, except the peripheral RF is much smaller, more refined, and in some cases pinpoint. Developmental differences make CV alone unreliable for neuron classification. Utilizing integration of all measured parameters allows classification of neurons into subtypes even at the younger ages. This will prove

  15. Effects of voltage perturbation of the lingual receptive field on chorda tympani responses to Na+ and K+ salts in the rat: implications for gustatory transduction

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Taste sensory responses from the chorda tympani nerve of the rat were recorded with the lingual receptive field under current or voltage clamp. Consistent with previous results (Ye, Q., G. L. Heck, and J. A. DeSimone. 1993. Journal of Neurophysiology. 70:167-178), responses to NaCl were highly sensitive to lingual voltage clamp condition. This can be attributed to changes in the electrochemical driving force for Na+ ions through apical membrane transducer channels in taste cells. In contrast, responses to KCl over the concentration range 50-500 mM were insensitive to the voltage clamp condition of the receptive field. These results indicate the absence of K+ conductances comparable to those for Na+ in the apical membranes of taste cells. This was supported by the strong anion dependence of K salt responses. At zero current clamp, the potassium gluconate (KGlu) threshold was > 250 mM, and onset kinetics were slow (12 s to reach half-maximal response). Faster onset kinetics and larger responses to KGlu occurred at negative voltage clamp (-50 mV). This indicates that when K+ ion is transported as a current, and thereby uncoupled from gluconate mobility, its rate of delivery to the K+ taste transducer increases. Analysis of conductances shows that the paracellular pathway in the lingual epithelium is 28 times more permeable to KCl than to KGlu. Responses to KGlu under negative voltage clamp were not affected by agents that are K+ channel blockers in other systems. The results indicate that K salt taste transduction is under paracellular diffusion control, which limits chemoreception efficiency. We conclude that rat K salt taste occurs by means of a subtight junctional transducer for K+ ions with access limited by anion mobility. The data suggest that this transducer is not cation selective which also accounts for the voltage and amiloride insensitive part of the response to NaCl. PMID:7876827

  16. Teaching Receptive Language Skills

    PubMed Central

    Grow, Laura; LeBlanc, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Receptive language refers to responding appropriately to another person's spoken language. Most curricula dedicate a proportion of early intervention to developing receptive language skills. The specific terms used to refer to the receptive language programs and the recommendations for teaching such skills vary considerably across the early intervention curricula. The present paper will provide a conceptual analysis of the desired controlling variables for different receptive language programs, teaching recommendations, a brief review of the literature to substantiate the teaching recommendations, and a discussion of the potential negative effects of deviating from the recommendations. PMID:25729507

  17. Symmetry of the Pupillary Light Reflex and Its Relationship to Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness and Visual Field Defect

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Dolly S.; Boland, Michael V.; Arora, Karun S.; Supakontanasan, Wasu; Chen, Bei Bei; Friedman, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the relationship between the pupillary light reflex (PLR) and visual field (VF) mean deviation (MD) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness. Methods. A total of 148 patients with glaucoma (mean age 67 ± 11, 49% female) and 71 controls (mean age 60 ± 10, 69% female) were included in this study. Using a pupillometer, we recorded and analyzed pupillary responses at varied stimulus patterns (full field, superonasal and inferonasal quadrant arcs). We compared the responses between the two eyes, compared responses to stimuli in the superonasal and inferonasal fields within each eye, and calculated the absolute PLR value of each individual eye. We assessed the relationship among PLR, MD, and RNFL thickness using the Pearson correlation coefficient. For analyses performed at the level of individual eyes, we used multilevel modeling to account for between-eye correlations within individuals. Results. For every 0.3 log unit difference in between-eye asymmetry of PLR, there was an average 2.6-dB difference in visual field MD (correlation coefficient R = 0.83, P < 0.001) and a 3.2-μm difference in RNFL thickness between the two eyes (R = 0.67, P < 0.001). Greater VF damage and thinner RNFL for each individual eye were associated with smaller response amplitude, slower velocity, and longer time to peak constriction and dilation after adjusting for age and sex (all P < 0.001). However, within-eye asymmetry of PLR between superonasal and inferonasal stimulation was not associated with corresponding within-eye differences in VF or RNFL. Conclusions. As measured by this particular device, the PLR is strongly correlated with VF functional testing and measurements of RNFL thickness. PMID:23860751

  18. Reception and office organisation.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, M D

    1989-05-20

    The reception area is central to efficient administrative procedures and is the embodiment of the style of a practice as regularly seen by every patient. Planning a reception office is not difficult but it should be done carefully to ensure that it is efficient and cost effective. In the second of his articles on practice management, Michael Wilkinson looks at the essentials.

  19. A systematic analysis of neurons with large somatosensory receptive fields covering multiple body regions in the secondary somatosensory area of macaque monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Toda, T.; Hihara, S.; Tanaka, M.; Iriki, A.; Iwamura, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Previous neurophysiological studies performed in macaque monkeys have revealed complex somatosensory responses in the secondary somatosensory area (SII), such as large receptive fields (RFs), as well as bilateral ones. However, systematic analyses of neurons with large RFs have not been performed. In the present study, we recorded single-unit activities in SII of awake macaque monkeys to investigate systematically large RFs by dividing the whole body into four body regions (head, trunk, forelimb, and hindlimb). Recorded neurons were classified into two types, according to whether the RFs were confined to one body region: single (n = 817) and combined (n = 282) body-region types. These two types were distinct in terms of the percentage of bilateral RFs: 55% in the single-region type and 90% in the combined type, demonstrating that two types of RF enlargement occur simultaneously in the combined type, namely, RF convergence from different body regions and RF convergence from both hemibodies. Among the combined-type RFs, two tendencies of RF convergence were found: 1) the distal parts of the limbs (i.e., hand and foot) and the mouth are interconnected, and 2) the trunk RFs extend continuously toward the distal parts of the limb and head to cover the entire body surface. Our distribution analysis on unfolded maps clarified that neurons having RFs with these two tendencies were distributed within specific subregions in SII. PMID:27559139

  20. Facilitating Reflexivity in Preservice Science Teacher Education Using Video Analysis and Cogenerative Dialogue in Field-Based Methods Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siry, Christina; Martin, Sonya N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to preservice science teacher education coupling video analysis with dialogue as tools for fostering teachers' ability to notice and reflexively interpret events captured during teaching practicum with the intent of transforming classroom practice. In this approach, video becomes a tool with which teachers connect…

  1. Common-mode differential-mode (CMDM) method for double-nuclear MR signal excitation and reception at ultrahigh fields.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yong; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Xie, Zhentian; Wang, Chunsheng; Vigneron, Daniel B

    2011-11-01

    Double-tuned radio-frequency (RF) coils for heteronuclear mangentic resonance (MR) require sufficient electromagnetic isolation between the two resonators operating at two Larmor frequencies and independent tuning in order to attain highly efficient signal acquisition at each frequency. In this work, a novel method for double-tuned coil design at 7T based on the concept of common-mode differential-mode (CMDM) was developed and tested. Common mode (CM) and differential mode (DM) currents exist within two coupled parallel transmission lines, e.g., microstrip lines, yielding two different current distributions. The electromagnetic (EM) fields of the CM and DM are orthogonal to each other, and thus, the two modes are intrinsically EM decoupled. The modes can be tuned independently to desired frequencies, thus satisfying the requirement of dual-frequency MR applications. To demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed CMDM technique, CMDM surface coils and volume coils using microstrip transmission line for (1)H and (13)C MRI/MRSI were designed, constructed, and tested at 7T. Bench test results showed that the isolations between the two frequency channels of the CMDM surface coil and volume coil were better than -30 and -25 dB, respectively. High quality MR phantom images were also obtained using the CMDM coils. The performance of the CMDM technique was validated through a comparison with the conventional two-pole design method at 7T. The proposed CMDM technique can be also implemented by using other coil techniques such as lumped element method, and can be applied to designing double-tuned parallel imaging coil arrays. Furthermore, if the two resonant modes of a CMDM coil were tuned to the same frequency, the CMDM coil becomes a quadrature coil due to the intrinsic orthogonal field distribution of CM and DM.

  2. The visual development of hand-centered receptive fields in a neural network model of the primate visual system trained with experimentally recorded human gaze changes

    PubMed Central

    Galeazzi, Juan M.; Navajas, Joaquín; Mender, Bedeho M. W.; Quian Quiroga, Rodrigo; Minini, Loredana; Stringer, Simon M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Neurons have been found in the primate brain that respond to objects in specific locations in hand-centered coordinates. A key theoretical challenge is to explain how such hand-centered neuronal responses may develop through visual experience. In this paper we show how hand-centered visual receptive fields can develop using an artificial neural network model, VisNet, of the primate visual system when driven by gaze changes recorded from human test subjects as they completed a jigsaw. A camera mounted on the head captured images of the hand and jigsaw, while eye movements were recorded using an eye-tracking device. This combination of data allowed us to reconstruct the retinal images seen as humans undertook the jigsaw task. These retinal images were then fed into the neural network model during self-organization of its synaptic connectivity using a biologically plausible trace learning rule. A trace learning mechanism encourages neurons in the model to learn to respond to input images that tend to occur in close temporal proximity. In the data recorded from human subjects, we found that the participant’s gaze often shifted through a sequence of locations around a fixed spatial configuration of the hand and one of the jigsaw pieces. In this case, trace learning should bind these retinal images together onto the same subset of output neurons. The simulation results consequently confirmed that some cells learned to respond selectively to the hand and a jigsaw piece in a fixed spatial configuration across different retinal views. PMID:27253452

  3. More Gamma More Predictions: Gamma-Synchronization as a Key Mechanism for Efficient Integration of Classical Receptive Field Inputs with Surround Predictions

    PubMed Central

    Vinck, Martin; Bosman, Conrado A.

    2016-01-01

    During visual stimulation, neurons in visual cortex often exhibit rhythmic and synchronous firing in the gamma-frequency (30–90 Hz) band. Whether this phenomenon plays a functional role during visual processing is not fully clear and remains heavily debated. In this article, we explore the function of gamma-synchronization in the context of predictive and efficient coding theories. These theories hold that sensory neurons utilize the statistical regularities in the natural world in order to improve the efficiency of the neural code, and to optimize the inference of the stimulus causes of the sensory data. In visual cortex, this relies on the integration of classical receptive field (CRF) data with predictions from the surround. Here we outline two main hypotheses about gamma-synchronization in visual cortex. First, we hypothesize that the precision of gamma-synchronization reflects the extent to which CRF data can be accurately predicted by the surround. Second, we hypothesize that different cortical columns synchronize to the extent that they accurately predict each other’s CRF visual input. We argue that these two hypotheses can account for a large number of empirical observations made on the stimulus dependencies of gamma-synchronization. Furthermore, we show that they are consistent with the known laminar dependencies of gamma-synchronization and the spatial profile of intercolumnar gamma-synchronization, as well as the dependence of gamma-synchronization on experience and development. Based on our two main hypotheses, we outline two additional hypotheses. First, we hypothesize that the precision of gamma-synchronization shows, in general, a negative dependence on RF size. In support, we review evidence showing that gamma-synchronization decreases in strength along the visual hierarchy, and tends to be more prominent in species with small V1 RFs. Second, we hypothesize that gamma-synchronized network dynamics facilitate the emergence of spiking output that

  4. Receptive Field Structures for Recognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    that such statistics might be useful for pattern recognition is not new, indeed Julesz (Julesz 1975) suggested that ‘ needle statistics’ could be useful...Gaussians to be manipulated independently of either one’s spatial constant (Figure 4) In so doing, we lose the ability to create ‘ steerable ’ filters...the goal of sensory coding?" Neural Computation 6: 559-601. Freeman, W. T. and E. H. Adelson (1991). "The design and use of steerable filters

  5. The Reception Learning Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Joseph D.

    This report suggests that research in education, as well as the design of instruction, can be importantly influenced by the paradigm that guides the work. The application of a paradigm to educational research is illustrated, and two paradigms (reception learning and discovery learning) are contrasted. Finally, it is suggested that all educational…

  6. Supersonic Leading Edge Receptivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maslov, Anatoly A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes experimental studies of leading edge boundary layer receptivity for imposed stream disturbances. Studies were conducted in the supersonic T-325 facility at ITAM and include data for both sharp and blunt leading edges. The data are in agreement with existing theory and should provide guidance for the development of more complete theories and numerical computations of this phenomena.

  7. Diversity Networking Reception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-03-01

    Join us at the APS Diversity Reception to relax, network with colleagues, and learn about programs and initiatives for women, underrepresented minorities, and LGBT physicists. You'll have a great time meeting friends in a supportive environment and making connections.

  8. Reflexives in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kishida, Maki

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to reconsider reflexives in Japanese through the following three steps: (a) separation of genuine reflexive elements from elements that are confounded as reflexives, (b) classification of reflexive anaphors into subtypes based on their semantic difference, and (c) classification of predicates that occur with…

  9. The nasocardiac reflex.

    PubMed

    Baxandall, M L; Thorn, J L

    1988-06-01

    The oculocardiac reflex is well described and recognised in anaesthesia. The nasocardiac reflex is less well-known. We describe a clinical manifestation of this reflex and describe the relevant anatomy. This reflex may be obtunded during general anaesthesia. during general anaesthesia.

  10. Reflexives in Veracruz Huastec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constable, Peter G.

    A study examines various Huastec clause types that are reflexive in some sense, including ordinary reflexives, which involve co-reference. Two mutually exclusive morphosyntactic devices are used in Huastec: reflexive pronouns and verbal morphology. In this way, Huastec is like various European languages. Clauses involving reflexive pronouns and…

  11. Cell-type-specific sub- and suprathreshold receptive fields of layer 4 and layer 2/3 pyramids in rat primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Medini, P

    2011-09-08

    Connectivity of cortical pyramidal neurons is layer-specific in the primary visual cortex (V1) and this is thought to be reflected in different receptive field (RF) properties of layer 4 and layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons (L4Ps and L2/3Ps, respectively). However, it remains unclear how the two cell populations convert incoming visually driven synaptic inputs into action potential (AP) outputs. Here I compared postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) and AP responses of L4Ps and L2/3Ps in the binocular portion of rat V1 by intrinsic optical imaging (IOI)-targeted whole-cell recordings followed by anatomical identification and dendritic reconstructions. L2/3Ps had about 2-fold longer dendritic branches and a higher number of branch points and endings in their apical portions. Functionally, L2/3Ps had more hyperpolarized resting potentials and lower rates of spontaneous APs (medians: 0.07 vs. 0.60 AP/s). PSP responses to optimally oriented moving bars were comparable in terms of amplitude (16.0±0.9 vs. 17.3±1.1 mV for L2/3Ps and L4Ps, respectively), reliability and size of the RF. The modulated component of subthreshold responses of L4Ps to optimal sinusoidal drifting gratings was larger and their PSP onset latency in response to bars flashed in the cell's RF center were shorter (60 vs. 86 ms). In contrast to the similarities of PSP responses to moving bars, AP responses of L2/3Ps were more sparse (medians: 0.7 vs. 2.9 APs/stimulus passage), less reliable, but sharper in terms of angular size. Based on the differences of subthreshold inputs, I conclude that L4Ps may receive mostly thalamic inputs, whereas L2/3Ps may receive both thalamic and cortical inputs from layer 4. The comparable subthreshold responses to moving bars are converted by L2/3Ps into sparser but sharper AP outputs possibly by cell-type-specific AP-generating mechanisms or differences in visually driven inhibitory inputs.

  12. Portraying Reflexivity in Health Services Research.

    PubMed

    Rae, John; Green, Bill

    2016-09-01

    A model is proposed for supporting reflexivity in qualitative health research, informed by arguments from Bourdieu and Finlay. Bourdieu refers to mastering the subjective relation to the object at three levels-the overall social space, the field of specialists, and the scholastic universe. The model overlays Bourdieu's levels of objectivation with Finlay's three stages of research (pre-research, data collection, and data analysis). The intersections of these two ways of considering reflexivity, displayed as cells of a matrix, pose questions and offer prompts to productively challenge health researchers' reflexivity. Portraiture is used to show how these challenges and prompts can facilitate such reflexivity, as illustrated in a research project.

  13. The Limits of Institutional Reflexivity in Bulgarian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slantcheva, Snejana

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the notion of institutional reflexivity. Its theoretical framework is based on the views of a group of sociologists--Anthony Giddens, Ulrich Beck, Scott Lash--who developed the concept of reflexive modernization. The article applies the notion of institutional reflexivity to the field of higher education and reviews the…

  14. Interior view of Gold Star Mothers' reception room from southeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of Gold Star Mothers' reception room from southeast. Note door to current office area on left. - Flanders Field American Cemetery & Memorial, Superintendent's Quarters, Wortegemseweg 117, Waregem, West Flanders (Belgium)

  15. Interior view of Gold Star Mothers' reception room from northwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of Gold Star Mothers' reception room from northwest. Note c. 1935 furniture and fireplace with early electric grate. - Flanders Field American Cemetery & Memorial, Superintendent's Quarters, Wortegemseweg 117, Waregem, West Flanders (Belgium)

  16. Embodied Self-Reflexivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagis, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on G. H. Mead and Merleau-Ponty, this paper aims to extend our understanding of self-reflexivity beyond the notion of a discursive, abstract, and symbolic process. It offers a framework for embodied self-reflexivity, which anchors the self in the reflexive capacity of bodily sensations. The data consist of two years of ethnographic…

  17. Whether radial receptive field organization of the fourth extrastriate crescent (area V4A) gives special advantage for analysis of the optic flow. Comparison with the first crescent (area V2).

    PubMed

    Levichkina, E V; Loshkarev, A A; Rodionova, E I; Popova, E P; Pigarev, I N

    2007-09-01

    Recently, elongated comet-shaped receptive fields were discovered in the fourth extrastriate crescent (area V4A) of cats and monkeys. It was shown that the long axes of these receptive fields were oriented radially toward the centre of the retina. Such unusual "radial" organization of this extrastriate area led to the assumption that these neurons may contribute to the analysis of optic flow. To investigate this assumption we recorded activity of neurons in the V4A of cats during real motion in depth toward or away from a stationary visual scene. Responses of neurons in area V4A were compared with activity of neurons in area V2 under similar conditions of stimulation. Area V2 is known to be sensitive to motion but does not have radial organization. It was found that a substantial number of visual neurons in both areas did not fire at all when cats were exposed to motion in depth. Nevertheless, neurons with selective activation to direction of motion in depth were identified, but comparable numbers were found in both areas studied. We conclude that radial organization of the fourth extrastriate crescent does not provide any special advantage for the analysis of optic flow information.

  18. The Dynamics of the Stapedial Acoustic Reflex.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Sherrin Mary

    , and their effect upon the contralateral reflex arc from the site of the superior olivary complex to the motoneurones innervating the stapedius, account for the difference between the contralateral and ipsilateral reflex thresholds and dynamic characteristics. In the past two years the measurement technique used for the experimental work has developed from an audiological to a neurological diagnostic tool. This has enabled the results from the study to be applied in the field for valuable biomechanical and neurological explanations of the reflex response. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  19. Predicting Volleyball Serve-Reception.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Ana; Zaal, Frank T J M; Fonseca, Sofia; Araújo, Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Serve and serve-reception performance have predicted success in volleyball. Given the impact of serve-reception on the game, we aimed at understanding what it is in the serve and receiver's actions that determines the selection of the type of pass used in serve-reception and its efficacy. Four high-level volleyball players received jump-float serves from four servers in two reception zones-zone 1 and 5. The ball and the receiver's head were tracked with two video cameras, allowing 3D world-coordinates reconstruction. Logistic-regression models were used to predict the type of pass used (overhand or underhand) and serve-reception efficacy (error, out, or effective) from variables related with the serve kinematics and related with the receiver's on-court positioning and movement. Receivers' initial position was different when in zone 1 and 5. This influenced the serve-related variables as well as the type of pass used. Strong predictors of using an underhand rather than overhand pass were higher ball contact of the server, reception in zone 1, receiver's initial position more to the back of the court and backward receiver movement. Receiver's larger longitudinal displacements and an initial position more to the back of the court had a strong relationship with the decreasing of the serve-reception efficacy. Receivers' positioning and movement were the factors with the largest impact on the type of pass used and the efficacy of the reception. Reception zone affected the variance in the ball's kinematics (with the exception of the ball's lateral displacement), as well as in the receivers' positioning (distances from the net and from the target). Also the reception zone was associated with the type of pass used by the receiver but not with reception efficacy. Given volleyball's rotation rule, the receiver needs to master receiving in the different reception zones; he/she needs to adapt to the diverse constraints of each zone to maintain performance efficacy. Thus, being

  20. Predicting Volleyball Serve-Reception

    PubMed Central

    Paulo, Ana; Zaal, Frank T. J. M.; Fonseca, Sofia; Araújo, Duarte

    2016-01-01

    Serve and serve-reception performance have predicted success in volleyball. Given the impact of serve-reception on the game, we aimed at understanding what it is in the serve and receiver's actions that determines the selection of the type of pass used in serve-reception and its efficacy. Four high-level volleyball players received jump-float serves from four servers in two reception zones—zone 1 and 5. The ball and the receiver's head were tracked with two video cameras, allowing 3D world-coordinates reconstruction. Logistic-regression models were used to predict the type of pass used (overhand or underhand) and serve-reception efficacy (error, out, or effective) from variables related with the serve kinematics and related with the receiver's on-court positioning and movement. Receivers' initial position was different when in zone 1 and 5. This influenced the serve-related variables as well as the type of pass used. Strong predictors of using an underhand rather than overhand pass were higher ball contact of the server, reception in zone 1, receiver's initial position more to the back of the court and backward receiver movement. Receiver's larger longitudinal displacements and an initial position more to the back of the court had a strong relationship with the decreasing of the serve-reception efficacy. Receivers' positioning and movement were the factors with the largest impact on the type of pass used and the efficacy of the reception. Reception zone affected the variance in the ball's kinematics (with the exception of the ball's lateral displacement), as well as in the receivers' positioning (distances from the net and from the target). Also the reception zone was associated with the type of pass used by the receiver but not with reception efficacy. Given volleyball's rotation rule, the receiver needs to master receiving in the different reception zones; he/she needs to adapt to the diverse constraints of each zone to maintain performance efficacy. Thus

  1. The neonatal acoustic reflex.

    PubMed

    Weatherby, L A; Bennett, M J

    1980-01-01

    Probe tones from 220 Hz to 2 000 Hz were used to measure the static and dynamic acoustic impedance of 44 neonates. Acoustic reflex thresholds to broad band noise were obtained from every neonate tested when employing the higher frequency probe tones. The reflex threshold levels measured are similar to those of adults. The static impedance values are discussed to give a possible explanation of why reflex thresholds cannot be detected using conventional 220 Hz impedance bridges.

  2. Accelerating Reflexivity? An Ethno-Theater Interpretation of a Pre-Service Teacher Literacy Methods Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Jenifer Jasinski; King, James R.; Kozdras, Deborah; Minick, Vanessa; Welsh, James L.

    2012-01-01

    During a teaching methods field experience, we initiated several processes to facilitate pre-service teachers' reflection, empowerment, and performance as they learned to teach students. Through an ethno-theater presentation and subsequent revisions to an ethno-theater script, we turned the reflective lens on ourselves as we discovered instances…

  3. Enhanced AIS receiver design for satellite reception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clazzer, Federico; Lázaro, Francisco; Plass, Simon

    2016-12-01

    The possibility to detect Automatic Identification System (AIS) messages from low earth orbit (LEO) satellites paves the road for a plurality of new and unexplored services. Besides worldwide tracking of vessels, maritime traffic monitoring, analysis of vessel routes employing big data, and oceans monitoring are just few of the fields, where satellite-aided AIS is beneficial. Designed for ship-to-ship communication and collision avoidance, AIS satellite reception performs poorly in regions with a high density of vessels. This calls for the development of advanced satellite AIS receivers able to improve the decoding capabilities. In this context, our contribution focuses on the introduction of a new enhanced AIS receiver design and its performance evaluation. The enhanced receiver makes use of a coherent receiver for the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) region, while for medium to high SNRs, a differential Viterbi receiver is used. Additional novelty of our work is in the exploitation of previously decoded packets from one vessel that is still under the LEO reception range, to improve the vessel detection probability. The assessment of the performance against a common receiver is done making the use of a simple and tight model of the medium access (MAC) layer and the multi-packet reception (MPR) matrix for physical layer (PHY) representation. Performance results show the benefits of such enhanced receiver, especially when it is bundled with successive interference cancellation (SIC).

  4. Bourdieu and Science Studies: Toward a Reflexive Sociology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Two of Bourdieu's fundamental contributions to science studies--the reflexive analysis of the social and human sciences and the concept of an intellectual field--are used to frame a reflexive study of the history and social studies of science and technology as an intellectual field in the United States. The universe of large, Ph.D.-granting…

  5. Boundary layer receptivity and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, D. C.

    1993-01-01

    Receptivity processes initiate natural instabilities in a boundary layer. The instabilities grow and eventually break down to turbulence. Consequently, receptivity questions are a critical element of the analysis of the transition process. Success in modeling the physics of receptivity processes thus has a direct bearing on technological issues of drag reduction. The means by which transitional flows can be controlled is also a major concern: questions of control are tied inevitably to those of receptivity. Adjoint systems provide a highly effective mathematical method for approaching many of the questions associated with both receptivity and control. The long term objective is to develop adjoint methods to handle increasingly complex receptivity questions, and to find systematic procedures for deducing effective control strategies. The most elementary receptivity problem is that in which a parallel boundary layer is forced by time-harmonic sources of various types. The characteristics of the response to such forcing form the building blocks for more complex receptivity mechanisms. The first objective of this year's research effort was to investigate how a parallel Blasius boundary layer responds to general direct forcing. Acoustic disturbances in the freestream can be scattered by flow non-uniformities to produce Tollmien-Schlichting waves. For example, scattering by surface roughness is known to provide an efficient receptivity path. The present effort is directed towards finding a solution by a simple adjoint analysis, because adjoint methods can be extended to more complex problems. In practice, flows are non-parallel and often three-dimensional. Compressibility may also be significant in some cases. Recent developments in the use of Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE) offer a promising possibility. By formulating and solving a set of adjoint parabolized equations, a method for mapping the efficiency with which external forcing excites the three

  6. Paraspinal muscle reflex dynamics.

    PubMed

    Granata, K P; Slota, G P; Bennett, B C

    2004-02-01

    Neuromuscular control of spinal stability may be represented as a control system wherein the paraspinal muscle reflex acts as feedback response to kinetic and kinematic disturbances of the trunk. The influence of preparatory muscle recruitment for the control of spinal stability has been previously examined, but there are few reported studies that characterize paraspinal reflex gain as feedback response. In the current study, the input-output dynamics of paraspinal reflexes were quantified by means of the impulse response function (IRF), with trunk perturbation force representing the input signal and EMG the output signal. Surface EMGs were collected from the trunk muscles in response to a brief anteriorly directed impact force applied to the trunk of healthy participants. Reflex behavior was measured in response to three levels of force impulse, 6.1, 9.2 and 12.0 Ns, and two different levels of external trunk flexion preload, 0 and 110 N anterior force. Reflex EMG was quantifiable in response to 91% of the perturbations. Mean reflex onset latency was 30.7+/-21.3 ms and reflex amplitude increased with perturbation amplitude. Impulse response function gain, G(IRF), was defined as the peak amplitude of the measured IRF and provided a consistent measure of response behavior. EMG reflex amplitude and G(IRF) increased with force impulse. Mean G(IRF) was 2.27+/-1.31% MVC/Ns and demonstrated declining trend with flexion preload. Results agree with a simple systems model of the neuromechanical feedback behavior. The relative contribution of the reflex dynamics to spinal stability must be investigated in future research.

  7. On Reflexive Data Models

    SciTech Connect

    Petrov, S.

    2000-08-20

    An information system is reflexive if it stores a description of its current structure in the body of stored information and is acting on the base of this information. A data model is reflexive, if its language is meta-closed and can be used to build such a system. The need for reflexive data models in new areas of information technology applications is argued. An attempt to express basic notions related to information systems is made in the case when the system supports and uses meta-closed representation of the data.

  8. Temporal development of anticipatory reflex modulation to dynamical interactions during arm movement.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Toshitaka; Gomi, Hiroaki

    2009-10-01

    It is known that somatosensory reflex during voluntary arm movement is modulated anticipatorily according to given tasks or environments. However, when and how reflex amplitude is set remains controversial. Is the reflex modulation completed preparatorily before movement execution or does it vary with the movement? Is the reflex amplitude coded in a temporal manner or in a spatial (or state-dependent) manner? Here we studied these issues while subjects performed planar reaching movements with upcoming opposite (rightward/leftward) directions of force fields. Somatosensory reflex responses of shoulder muscles induced by a small force perturbation were evaluated at several points before the arm encountered predictable force fields after movement start. We found that the shoulder flexor reflex responses were generally higher for the rightward than for the leftward upcoming force fields, whereas the extensor reflex responses were higher for the leftward force field. This reflex amplitude depending on the upcoming force field direction became prominent as the reflex was evoked closer to the force fields, indicating continuous changes in reflex modulation during movement. An additional experiment further showed that the reflex modulation developed as a function of the temporal distance to the force fields rather than the spatial distance. Taken together, the results suggest that, in the force field interaction task, somatosensory reflex amplitude during the course of movement is set anticipatorily on the basis of an estimate of the time-to-contact rather than the state-to-contact, to upcoming dynamical interaction during voluntary movement.

  9. Reflex operculoinsular seizures.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Handsun; Tran, Thi Phuoc Yen; Pétrin, Myriam; Boucher, Olivier; Mohamed, Ismail; Bouthillier, Alain; Nguyen, Dang Khoa

    2016-03-01

    Activation of specific cortical territories by certain stimuli is known to trigger focal seizures. We report three cases of well documented operculo-insular reflex seizures, triggered by somatosensory stimuli in two and loud noises in the third. Limited operculoinsular resection resulted in an excellent outcome for all. We discuss these observations in regard to the literature on reflex epilepsy and known functions of the insula. [Published with video sequences online].

  10. The Receptive Side of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hruska, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    When observing teachers in action, one is likely to witness explaining, modeling, managing, guiding, and encouraging. These expressive behaviors constitute a directive force moving outward from teacher to students. Though less visible to an outside observer, teaching also requires receptive skills, the ability to take in information by being fully…

  11. Endometrial receptivity array: Clinical application

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Nalini

    2015-01-01

    Human implantation is a complex process requiring synchrony between a healthy embryo and a functionally competent or receptive endometrium. Diagnosis of endometrial receptivity (ER) has posed a challenge and so far most available tests have been subjective and lack accuracy and a predictive value. Microarray technology has allowed identification of the transcriptomic signature of the window of receptivity window of implantation (WOI). This technology has led to the development of a molecular diagnostic tool, the ER array (ERA) for diagnosis of ER. Use of this test in patients with recurrent implantation failure (RIF) has shown that the WOI is displaced in a quarter of these patients and use of a personalized embryo transfer (pET) on the day designated by ERA improves reproductive performance. Our results in the Indian population revealed an endometrial factor in 27.5% RIF patients, which was significantly greater than the non-RIF group 15% (P = 0.04). After pET, the overall ongoing pregnancy rate was 42.4% and implantation rate was 33%, which was at par with our in-vitro fertilization results over 1-year. We also performed ERA in patients with persistently thin endometrium, and it was reassuring to find that the endometrium in 75% of these patients was receptive despite being 6 mm or less. A pregnancy rate of 66.7% was achieved in this group. Though larger studies are required to validate these results ERA has become a useful tool in our diagnostic armamentarium for ER. PMID:26538853

  12. Facilitation of a nociceptive flexion reflex in man by nonnoxious radiant heat produced by a laser.

    PubMed

    Plaghki, L; Bragard, D; Le Bars, D; Willer, J C; Godfraind, J M

    1998-05-01

    Electromyographic recordings were made in healthy volunteers from the knee-flexor biceps femoris muscle of the nociceptive RIII reflex elicited by electrical stimulation of the cutaneous sural nerve. The stimulus intensity was adjusted to produce a moderate pricking-pain sensation. The test responses were conditioned by a nonnoxious thermal (receptive field of the sural nerve. This stimulus was delivered by a CO2 laser stimulator and consisted of a 100-ms pulse of heat with a beam diameter of 20 mm. Its power was 22.7 +/- 4.2 W (7.2 mJ/mm2), and it produced a sensation of warmth. The maximum surface temperature reached at the end of the period of stimulation was calculated to be 7 degrees C above the actual reference temperature of the skin (32 degrees C). The interval between the laser (conditioning) and electrical (test) stimuli was varied from 50 to 3, 000 ms in steps of 50 ms. It was found that the nociceptive flexion reflex was facilitated by the thermal stimulus; this modulation occurred with particular conditioning-test intervals, which peaked at 500 and 1,100 ms with an additional late, long-lasting phase between 1,600 and 2,300 ms. It was calculated that the conduction velocities of the cutaneous afferent fibers responsible for facilitating the RIII reflex, fell into three ranges: one corresponding to A delta fibers (3.2 m/s) and two in the C fiber range (1.3 and 0.7 m/s). It is concluded that information emanating from warm receptors and nociceptors converges. In this respect, the present data show, for the first time, that in man, conditioning nonnociceptive warm thermoreceptive A delta and C fibers results in an interaction at the spinal level with a nociceptive reflex. This interaction may constitute a useful means whereby signals add together to trigger flexion reflexes in defensive reactions and other basic motor behaviors. It also may contribute to hyperalgesia in inflammatory processes. The methodology used

  13. Experimenting With Baroreceptor Reflexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckberg, Dwain L.; Goble, Ross L.

    1988-01-01

    Carotid arteries stimulated by pressure or suction on neck. Baro-Cuff is silicone-rubber chamber that fits on front of subject's neck. Electronic system, stepping motor, bellows, and umbilical tube furnish controlled pressure to chamber. Pressure sensor provides feedback to microprocessor in electronic system. Developed to study blood-pressure-reflex responses of astronauts in outer space. Useful for terrestrial studies of patients with congestive heart failure, chronic diabetes mellitus, and other conditions in which blood-pressure-reflex controls behave abnormally.

  14. The inhibitory control reflex.

    PubMed

    Verbruggen, Frederick; Best, Maisy; Bowditch, William A; Stevens, Tobias; McLaren, Ian P L

    2014-12-01

    Response inhibition is typically considered a hallmark of deliberate executive control. In this article, we review work showing that response inhibition can also become a 'prepared reflex', readily triggered by information in the environment, or after sufficient training, or a 'learned reflex' triggered by the retrieval of previously acquired associations between stimuli and stopping. We present new results indicating that people can learn various associations, which influence performance in different ways. To account for previous findings and our new results, we present a novel architecture that integrates theories of associative learning, Pavlovian conditioning, and executive response inhibition. Finally, we discuss why this work is also relevant for the study of 'intentional inhibition'.

  15. Measuring bilingual children's receptive vocabularies.

    PubMed

    Umbel, V M; Pearson, B Z; Fernández, M C; Oller, D K

    1992-08-01

    Receptive vocabulary of Hispanic children in Miami was tested in both English and Spanish with complementary standardized tests, the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-R) and the Test de Vocabulario en Imágenes Peabody (TVIP-H). 105 bilingual first graders, of middle to high socioeconomic status relative to national norms, were divided according to the language(s) spoken in their homes. Both groups, whether they spoke only Spanish in the home (OSH) or both English and Spanish in the home (ESH), performed near the mean of 100 in Spanish receptive vocabulary (TVIP-H means 97.0 and 96.5); in contrast, ESH group children scored more than 1 SD higher in English than OSH group children (PPVT-R means 88.0 and 69.7, respectively). It appears, therefore, that learning 2 languages at once does not harm receptive language development in the language of origin, while it does lay the groundwork for superior performance in the majority language. Furthermore, an analysis of translation equivalents, items shared by both tests, shows that a statistically significant portion of bilingual children's lexical knowledge does not overlap in their 2 languages and is therefore not reflected in single-language scores.

  16. Reflexivity in Pigeons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Mary M.; Urcuioli, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    A recent theory of pigeons' equivalence-class formation (Urcuioli, 2008) predicts that reflexivity, an untrained ability to match a stimulus to itself, should be observed after training on two "mirror-image" symbolic successive matching tasks plus identity successive matching using some of the symbolic matching stimuli. One group of pigeons was…

  17. Design and Reflexivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Toorn, Jan

    1994-01-01

    Argues that design, despite frequently well-intentioned ethical starting-points, has become generalized and rudimentary in its substantive and instrumental choices, and naive in its thinking about its own public role. Argues for a "mental ecology," for a multidimensional realistic reflexivity, which makes possible the recuperation of a…

  18. Primitive reflexes in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Vreeling, F W; Verhey, F R; Houx, P J; Jolles, J

    1993-01-01

    A standardised protocol for the examination of 15 primitive reflexes in which the amplitude and the persistence were scored separately, was applied to 25 patients with Parkinson's disease and an equal number of healthy matched control subjects. Most reflexes were found considerably more often in the patients than in the control subjects, especially the snout, the glabellar tap, and its variant, the nasopalpebral reflex. Only the mouth open finger spread reflex was present more often in the control subjects. For all reflexes except this last, the scores for amplitude and persistence of the reflexes for the control group never exceeded the scores for the patient group. Reflexes persisted more often in the patients than in the control subjects. Parkinsonism alone can explain a large number of primitive reflexes, irrespective of the severity or duration of the disease. In contrast, the number of reflexes was related more closely to cognitive scales. It is concluded that such reflexes may be helpful in diagnosing Parkinson's disease. In addition, a standardised protocol for eliciting and scoring is essential for the study of these reflexes in parkinsonism and other neuropsychiatric conditions. PMID:8270937

  19. Spinal reflexes in brain death.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Yesim; Çiftçi, Yeliz; Incesu, Tülay Kurt; Seçil, Yaprak; Akhan, Galip

    2014-12-01

    Spontaneous and reflex movements have been described in brain death and these unusual movements might cause uncertainties in diagnosis. In this study we evaluated the presence of spinal reflexes in patients who fulfilled the criteria for brain death. Thirty-two (22 %) of 144 patients presented unexpected motor movements spontaneously or during examinations. These patients exhibited the following signs: undulating toe, increased deep tendon reflexes, plantar responses, Lazarus sign, flexion-withdrawal reflex, facial myokymia, neck-arm flexion, finger jerks and fasciculations. In comparison, there were no significant differences in age, sex, etiology of brain death and hemodynamic laboratory findings in patients with and without reflex motor movement. Spinal reflexes should be well recognized by physicians and it should be born in mind that brain death can be determined in the presence of spinal reflexes.

  20. Mentalis muscle related reflexes.

    PubMed

    Gündüz, Ayşegül; Uyanık, Özlem; Ertürk, Özdem; Sohtaoğlu, Melis; Kızıltan, Meral Erdemir

    2016-05-01

    The mentalis muscle (MM) arises from the incisive fossa of the mandible, raises and protrudes the lower lip. Here, we aim to characterize responses obtained from MM by supraorbital and median electrical as well as auditory stimuli in a group of 16 healthy volunteers who did not have clinical palmomental reflex. Reflex activities were recorded from the MM and orbicularis oculi (O.oc) after supraorbital and median electrical as well as auditory stimuli. Response rates over MM were consistent after each stimulus, however, mean latencies of MM response were longer than O.oc responses by all stimulation modalities. Shapes and amplitudes of responses from O.oc and MM were similar. Based on our findings, we may say that MM motoneurons have connections with trigeminal, vestibulocochlear and lemniscal pathways similar to other facial muscles and electrophysiological recording of MM responses after electrical and auditory stimulation is possible in healthy subjects.

  1. Corporeal reflexivity and autism.

    PubMed

    Ochs, Elinor

    2015-06-01

    Ethnographic video recordings of high functioning children with autism or Aspergers Syndrome in everyday social encounters evidence their first person perspectives. High quality visual and audio data allow detailed analysis of children's bodies and talk as loci of reflexivity. Corporeal reflexivity involves displays of awareness of one's body as an experiencing subject and a physical object accessible to the gaze of others. Gaze, demeanor, actions, and sotto voce commentaries on unfolding situations indicate a range of moment-by-moment reflexive responses to social situations. Autism is associated with neurologically based motor problems (e.g. delayed action-goal coordination, clumsiness) and highly repetitive movements to self-soothe. These behaviors can provoke derision among classmates at school. Focusing on a 9-year-old girl's encounters with peers on the playground, this study documents precisely how autistic children can become enmeshed as unwitting objects of stigma and how they reflect upon their social rejection as it transpires. Children with autism spectrum disorders in laboratory settings manifest diminished understandings of social emotions such as embarrassment, as part of a more general impairment in social perspective-taking. Video ethnography, however, takes us further, into discovering autistic children's subjective sense of vulnerability to the gaze of classmates.

  2. Adductor T reflex abnormalities in patients with decreased patellar reflexes.

    PubMed

    Tataroglu, Cengiz; Deneri, Ersin; Ozkul, Ayca; Sair, Ahmet; Yaycioglu, Soner

    2009-08-01

    The adductor reflex (AR) is a tendon reflex that has various features that differ from other tendon reflexes. This reflex was tested in different disorders presenting with diminished patellar reflexes such as diabetic lumbosacral radiculoplexus neuropathy (DLRPN), L2-L4 radiculopathy, and distal symmetric diabetic neuropathy (diabetic PNP). The AR and crossed-AR (elicited by tapping the contralateral patellar tendon) were recorded using concentric needle electrodes. Additionally, the patellar T reflex (vm-TR) and vastus medialis H reflex (vm-HR) were recorded using surface electrodes. AR was recorded in only one out of eight patients with DLRPN, but it was recorded in 21 out of 22 patients with L2-L4 radiculopathy (95.5%). Of these reflexes, only AR showed prolonged latency in the L2-L4 radiculopathy group. The latencies of AR, vm-TR, and vm-HR were prolonged in patients with diabetic PNP. We conclude that AR can be useful in the differential diagnosis of some lower motor neuron disorders that present with patellar reflex disturbance. Muscle Nerve 40: 264-270, 2009.

  3. Laryngeal and respiratory protective reflexes.

    PubMed

    Altschuler, S M

    2001-12-03

    Swallowing is a complex motor behavior that relies on an interneuronal network of premotor neurons (PMNs) to organize the sequential activity of motor neurons that are active during the buccopharyngeal and esophageal phases. Swallowing PMNs are highly interconnected to multiple areas of the brain stem and the central nervous system and provide a potential anatomic substrate integration of swallowing activity with airway protective reflexes. Because these neurons have synaptic contact with both afferent inputs and motor neurons and exhibit a true central activity, they appear to constitute the swallowing central pattern generator. We studied the viscerotopic organization of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), the nucleus ambiguus (NA), the dorsal motor nucleus (DMN), and the hypoglossal nucleus (XII) using cholera toxin horseradish peroxidase (CT-HRP), a sensitive antegrade and retrograde tracer that effectively labels afferent terminal fields within the NTS as well as swallowing motor neurons and their dendritic fields within the NA, DMN, and XII. We used CT-HRP to provide a comprehensive description of the dendritic architecture of NA motor neurons innervating swallowing muscles. We also conducted studies using pseudorabies virus (PRV), a swine alpha-herpesvirus, to map central neural circuits after injection in the peripheral or central nervous systems. One attenuated vaccine strain, Bartha PRV, has preferential affinity for sites of afferent synaptic contact on the cell body and dendrites and a reactive gliosis that effectively isolates the infected neurons and provides a barrier to the nonspecific spread to adjacent neurons. The findings provide a basis for the central integration of swallowing and respiratory protective reflexes.

  4. [Human physiology: images and practices of the reflex].

    PubMed

    Wübben, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    The essay examines the function of visualizations and practices in the formation of the reflex concept from Thomas Willis to Marshall Hall. It focuses on the specific form of reflex knowledge that images and practices can contain. In addition, the essay argues that it is through visual representations and experimental practices that technical knowledge is transferred to the field of human reflex physiology. When using technical metaphors in human physiology authors often seem to feel obliged to draw distinctions between humans, machines and animals. On closer scrutiny, these distinctions sometimes fail to establish firm borders between the human and the technical.

  5. Analysing responses to climate change through the lens of reflexivity.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Debra

    2012-12-01

    Sociologists are increasingly directing attention toward social responses to climate change. As is true of any new field of inquiry, theoretical frameworks guiding the research to date have room for improvement. One advance could be achieved through closer engagement with Reflexivity Theory, particularly the work of Margaret Archer, who asks just how individuals come to give attention to certain problems, and formulate responses to them. Individuals vary significantly in regard to their understanding of and concern for anthropogenic climate change, and these standpoints in turn influence commitment to mitigation and adaptation. The emergent social interactions among all such agents in turn influence the morphogenetic trajectories through which social structures will evolve, but the role of 'meta-reflexives' is particularly crucial. Identifying pathways of individual climate change reflexivity can make a valuable contribution to our understanding of the potential for and nature of collective responses. In this paper, I explore climate change reflexivity, with particular attention to climate change meta-reflexives, through a qualitative analysis of personal interviews with residents of two small communities in Alberta, Canada. Applying Reflexivity Theory to this context articulates dimensions of reflexive processing not elaborated in current theoretical treatments, including future outlook and comfort with uncertainty, among others.

  6. [Laryngeal and larynx-associated reflexes].

    PubMed

    Ptok, M; Kühn, D; Miller, S; Jungheim, M; Schroeter, S

    2016-06-01

    The laryngeal adductor reflex and the pharyngoglottal closure reflex protect the trachea and lower respiratory tract against the entrance of foreign material. The laryngeal expiration reflex and the cough reflex serve to propel foreign material, which has penetrated in the cranial direction. The inspiration reflex, the sniff reflex, and the swallowing reflex are further larynx-associated reflexes. In patients with dysphagia the laryngeal adductor reflex can be clinically tested with air pulses. The water swallow test serves to show the integrity of the cough reflex. The sniff reflex is useful to test the abduction function of the vocal folds. Future studies should address laryngeal reflexes more specifically, both for a better understanding of these life-supporting mechanisms and to improve diagnostic procedures in patients with impaired laryngeal function.

  7. Patterning of somatosympathetic reflexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerman, I. A.; Yates, B. J.

    1999-01-01

    In a previous study, we reported that vestibular nerve stimulation in the cat elicits a specific pattern of sympathetic nerve activation, such that responses are particularly large in the renal nerve. This patterning of vestibulosympathetic reflexes was the same in anesthetized and decerebrate preparations. In the present study, we report that inputs from skin and muscle also elicit a specific patterning of sympathetic outflow, which is distinct from that produced by vestibular stimulation. Renal, superior mesenteric, and lumbar colonic nerves respond most strongly to forelimb and hindlimb nerve stimulation (approximately 60% of maximal nerve activation), whereas external carotid and hypogastric nerves were least sensitive to these inputs (approximately 20% of maximal nerve activation). In contrast to vestibulosympathetic reflexes, the expression of responses to skin and muscle afferent activation differs in decerebrate and anesthetized animals. In baroreceptor-intact animals, somatosympathetic responses were strongly attenuated (to <20% of control in every nerve) by increasing blood pressure levels to >150 mmHg. These findings demonstrate that different types of somatic inputs elicit specific patterns of sympathetic nerve activation, presumably generated through distinct neural circuits.

  8. Developmental adaptation of withdrawal reflexes to early alteration of peripheral innervation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, H; Schouenborg, J

    1996-09-01

    1. In adult decerebrate spinal rats whose plantar nerves (PLN) had been transected at either postnatal day 1 (P1) or P21 the nociceptive withdrawal reflexes (NWR) of musculi extensor digitorum longus (EDL), peroneus longus (PER) and semitendinosus (ST) were characterized with respect to receptive field (RF) organization, magnitude and time course, using electromyography. Thermal (short CO2 laser pulses) and mechanical (calibrated pinch) stimulation were used. The innervation patterns in normal and lesioned adult rats were assessed by acute nerve lesions. 2. The spatial organization of the mean mechano- and thermonociceptive RFs of all the muscles studied was similar to normal in both P1- and P21-lesioned rats, although in some P21-lesioned rats atypical EDL RFs were encountered. 3. In P1-lesioned rats thermo-NWR of PER and EDL had normal magnitudes, while mechano-NWR were reduced. In P21-lesioned rats both thermo- and mechano-NWR of these muscles had reduced magnitudes. Except for thermo-NWR of ST in P1-lesioned rats, which were increased, NWR of ST had normal magnitudes in both P1- and P21-lesioned rats. The time course of thermonociceptive NWR of the muscles studied were near normal in both P1- and P21-lesioned rats. 4. Acute nerve lesions in adult P1-lesioned rats revealed an essentially abolished contribution to NWR from the PLN. Instead, the contribution to NWR from other hindpaw nerves, such as the superficial and deep peroneal nerves, was dramatically increased. By contrast, in P21-lesioned rats, the regenerated PLN contributed significantly to the NWR. 5. It is concluded that despite profound alterations of plantar hindpaw innervation induced by early PLN transection the cutaneous nociceptive input to NWR attained an essentially normal spatial organization. An experience-dependent mechanism is suggested to be instrumental in adapting the reflex connectivity to the peripheral innervation.

  9. Reflexive Planning for Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, Margaret A.; Kemp, Candace L.; French, Susan; Gafni, Amiram; Joshi, Anju; Rosenthal, Carolyn J.; Davies, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    Informed by Giddens' (1991) concept of "reflexive life" planning and the notion of later life as a time of increasing social and financial risk, this research explores the idea of "reflexive planning for later life". We utilize a conceptual model that incorporates three types of planning for later life: public protection, self-insurance, and…

  10. Teaching Reflexivity in Qualitative Interviewing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, Ping-Chun

    2008-01-01

    Reflexivity has gained paramount status in qualitative inquiry. It is central to debates on subjectivity, objectivity, and, ultimately, the scientific foundation of social science knowledge and research. Although much work on doing reflexivity by researchers and practitioners has been published, scholars have only recently begun to explore how one…

  11. Adrenoceptors and colocolonic inhibitory reflex.

    PubMed

    Hughes, S F; Scott, S M; Pilot, M A; Williams, N S

    1999-12-01

    The colocolonic inhibitory reflex is characterized by inhibition of proximal colonic motility induced by distal colonic distension. The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying neural mechanisms of this reflex, in vivo, using an isolated loop of canine colon. In five beagle dogs, motility was recorded from an exteriorized colonic loop via a serosal strain gauge connected to a digital data logger and chart recorder. Inflation of a balloon in the distal colon resulted in inhibition of motility in the isolated loop. Inhibition of motor activity persisted following injection of propranolol (100 microg/kg intravenously), a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, but was abolished following administration of the alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine (200 microg/kg intravenously). This study confirms that the colocolonic inhibitory reflex is mediated via the extrinsic nerves to the colon. As the reflex was abolished by alpha2-, but not beta-adrenoceptor blockade, this indicates that the reflex pathway involves alpha2-adrenoceptors.

  12. [Reflex seizures, cinema and television].

    PubMed

    Olivares-Romero, Jesús

    2015-12-16

    In movies and television series are few references to seizures or reflex epilepsy even though in real life are an important subgroup of total epileptic syndromes. It has performed a search on the topic, identified 25 films in which they appear reflex seizures. Most seizures observed are tonic-clonic and visual stimuli are the most numerous, corresponding all with flashing lights. The emotions are the main stimuli in higher level processes. In most cases it is not possible to know if a character suffers a reflex epilepsy or suffer reflex seizures in the context of another epileptic syndrome. The main conclusion is that, in the movies, the reflex seizures are merely a visual reinforcing and anecdotal element without significant influence on the plot.

  13. Encouraging Reflexivity in Urban Geography Fieldwork: Study Abroad Experiences in Singapore and Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Fieldwork in urban geography courses can encourage reflexivity among students regarding the cities they encounter. This article outlines how student reflexivity was encouraged within a new international field research course in Singapore and Malaysia. Drawing on examples from students' field exercises written during an intensive and occasionally…

  14. Solar Power Satellite Microwave Transmission and Reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    Numerous analytical and experimental investigations related to SPS microwave power transmission and reception are reported. Aspects discussed include system performance, phase control, power amplifiers, radiating elements, rectenna, solid state configurations, and planned program activities.

  15. Satellite sound broadcasting system, portable reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golshan, Nasser; Vaisnys, Arvydas

    1990-01-01

    Studies are underway at JPL in the emerging area of Satellite Sound Broadcast Service (SSBS) for direct reception by low cost portable, semi portable, mobile and fixed radio receivers. This paper addresses the portable reception of digital broadcasting of monophonic audio with source material band limited to 5 KHz (source audio comparable to commercial AM broadcasting). The proposed system provides transmission robustness, uniformity of performance over the coverage area and excellent frequency reuse. Propagation problems associated with indoor portable reception are considered in detail and innovative antenna concepts are suggested to mitigate these problems. It is shown that, with the marriage of proper technologies a single medium power satellite can provide substantial direct satellite audio broadcast capability to CONUS in UHF or L Bands, for high quality portable indoor reception by low cost radio receivers.

  16. Estimating rice yield related traits and quantitative trait loci analysis under different nitrogen treatments using a simple tower-based field phenotyping system with modified single-lens reflex cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naito, Hiroki; Ogawa, Satoshi; Valencia, Milton Orlando; Mohri, Hiroki; Urano, Yutaka; Hosoi, Fumiki; Shimizu, Yo; Chavez, Alba Lucia; Ishitani, Manabu; Selvaraj, Michael Gomez; Omasa, Kenji

    2017-03-01

    Application of field based high-throughput phenotyping (FB-HTP) methods for monitoring plant performance in real field conditions has a high potential to accelerate the breeding process. In this paper, we discuss the use of a simple tower based remote sensing platform using modified single-lens reflex cameras for phenotyping yield traits in rice under different nitrogen (N) treatments over three years. This tower based phenotyping platform has the advantages of simplicity, ease and stability in terms of introduction, maintenance and continual operation under field conditions. Out of six phenological stages of rice analyzed, the flowering stage was the most useful in the estimation of yield performance under field conditions. We found a high correlation between several vegetation indices (simple ratio (SR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), transformed vegetation index (TVI), corrected transformed vegetation index (CTVI), soil-adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) and modified soil-adjusted vegetation index (MSAVI)) and multiple yield traits (panicle number, grain weight and shoot biomass) across a three trials. Among all of the indices studied, SR exhibited the best performance in regards to the estimation of grain weight (R2 = 0.80). Under our tower-based field phenotyping system (TBFPS), we identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for yield related traits using a mapping population of chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) and a single nucleotide polymorphism data set. Our findings suggest the TBFPS can be useful for the estimation of yield performance during early crop development. This can be a major opportunity for rice breeders whom desire high throughput phenotypic selection for yield performance traits.

  17. The Reflexive Suffix -V in Hualapai.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohn, Joong-Sun

    1995-01-01

    Like many other languages, Hualapai employs the reflexive suffix for several different grammatical purposes. Unlike those languages, however, constructions with a reflexive marker in Hualapai are usually not ambiguous with respect to the expected meanings. This paper identifies four functions that the reflexive suffix may have: reflexive,…

  18. Proprioceptive reflexes in patients with reflex sympathetic dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Schouten, A C; Van de Beek, W J T; Van Hilten, J J; Van der Helm, F C T

    2003-07-01

    Reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) is a syndrome that frequently follows an injury and is characterized by sensory, autonomic and motor features of the affected extremities. One of the more common motor features of RSD is tonic dystonia, which is caused by impairment of inhibitory interneuronal spinal circuits. In this study the circuits that modulate the gain of proprioceptive reflexes of the shoulder musculature are quantitatively assessed in 19 RSD patients, 9 of whom presented with dystonia. The proprioceptive reflexes are quantified by applying two types of force disturbances: (1) disturbances with a fixed low frequency and a variable bandwidth and (2) disturbances with a small bandwidth around a prescribed centre frequency. Compared to controls, patients have lower reflex gains for velocity feedback in response to the disturbances around a prescribed centre frequency. Additionally, patients with dystonia lack the ability to generate negative reflex gains for position feedback, for these same disturbances. Proprioceptive reflexes to the disturbances with a fixed low frequency and variable bandwidth present no difference between patients and controls. Although dystonia in the RSD patients was limited to the distal musculature, the results suggest involvement of interneuronal circuits that mediate postsynaptic inhibition of the motoneurons of the proximal musculature.

  19. The vestibulosympathetic reflex in humans: neural interactions between cardiovascular reflexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Chester A.; Monahan, Kevin D.

    2002-01-01

    1. Over the past 5 years, there has been emerging evidence that the vestibular system regulates sympathetic nerve activity in humans. We have studied this issue in humans by using head-down rotation (HDR) in the prone position. 2. These studies have clearly demonstrated increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and calf vascular resistance during HDR. These responses are mediated by engagement of the otolith organs and not the semicircular canals. 3. However, differential activation of sympathetic nerve activity has been observed during HDR. Unlike MSNA, skin sympathetic nerve activity does not increase with HDR. 4. Examination of the vestibulosympathetic reflex with other cardiovascular reflexes (i.e. barorereflexes and skeletal muscle reflexes) has shown an additive interaction for MSNA. 5. The additive interaction between the baroreflexes and vestibulosympathetic reflex suggests that the vestibular system may assist in defending against orthostatic challenges in humans by elevating MSNA beyond that of the baroreflexes. 6. In addition, the further increase in MSNA via otolith stimulation during isometric handgrip, when arterial pressure is elevated markedly, indicates that the vestibulosympathetic reflex is a powerful activator of MSNA and may contribute to blood pressure and flow regulation during dynamic exercise. 7. Future studies will help evaluate the importance of the vestibulosympathetic reflex in clinical conditions associated with orthostatic hypotension.

  20. Jaw stretch reflexes in children.

    PubMed

    Finan, Donald S; Smith, Anne

    2005-07-01

    The substantial morphological transformations that occur during human development present the nervous system with a considerable challenge in terms of motor control. Variability of skilled motor performance is a hallmark of a developing system. In adults, the jaw stretch reflex contributes to the functional stability of the jaw. We have investigated the response properties of the jaw stretch reflex in two groups of young children and a group of young adults. Response latencies increased with development, and all age groups produced stimulus-magnitude-dependent increases in reflex gain and resulting biting force. Reflex gain was largest for the older children (9-10 years), yet net increases in resulting biting force were comparable across age groups. These data and earlier experiments suggest that oral sensorimotor pathways mature throughout childhood in concert with the continued acquisition of complex motor skills.

  1. Reflex Principles of Immunological Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Ulf; Tracey, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    The reasoning that neural reflexes maintain homeostasis in other body organs, and that the immune system is innervated, prompted a search for neural circuits that regulate innate and adaptive immunity. This elucidated the inflammatory reflex, a prototypical reflex circuit that maintains immunological homeostasis. Molecular products of infection or injury activate sensory neurons traveling to the brainstem in the vagus nerve. The arrival of these incoming signals generates action potentials that travel from the brainstem to the spleen and other organs. This culminates in T cell release of acetylcholine, which interacts with α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 nAChR) on immunocompetent cells to inhibit cytokine release in macrophages. Herein is reviewed the neurophysiological basis of reflexes that provide stability to the immune system, the neural- and receptor-dependent mechanisms, and the potential opportunities for developing novel therapeutic devices and drugs that target neural pathways to treat inflammatory diseases. PMID:22224768

  2. Vestibulo-spinal reflex mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.

    1981-01-01

    The specific objectives of experiments designed to investigate postural reflex behavior during sustained weightlessness are discussed. The first is to investigate, during prolonged weightlessness with Hoffmann response (H-reflex) measurement procedures, vestibulo-spinal reflexes associated with vestibular (otolith) responses evoked during an applied linear acceleration. This objective includes not only an evaluation of otolith-induced changes in a major postural muscle but also an investigation with this technique of the adaptive process of the vestibular system and spinal reflex mechanisms to this unique environment. The second objective is to relate space motion sickness to the results of this investigation. Finally, a return to the vestibulo-spinal and postural reflexes to normal values following the flight will be examined. The flight experiment involves activation of nerve tissue (tibial N) with electrical shock and the recording of resulting muscle activity (soleus) with surface electrodes. Soleus/spinal H-reflex testing procedures will be used in conjuction with linear acceleration through the subject's X-axis.

  3. Learning reflexively from a health promotion professional development program in Canada.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Marie-Claude; Richard, Lucie; Brousselle, Astrid; Beaudet, Nicole

    2014-09-01

    In recent decades, reflexivity has received much attention in the professional education and training literature, especially in the public health and health promotion fields. Despite general agreement on the importance of reflexivity, there appears to be no consensus on how to assess reflexivity or to conceptualize the different forms developed among professionals and participants of training programs. This paper presents an analysis of the reflexivity outcomes of the Health Promotion Laboratory, an innovative professional development program aimed at supporting practice changes among health professionals by fostering competency development and reflexivity. More specifically, this paper explores the difference between two levels of reflexivity (formative and critical) and highlights some implications of each for practice. Data were collected through qualitative interviews with participants from two intervention sites. Results showed that involvement in the Health Promotion Laboratory prompted many participants to modify their vision of their practice and professional role, indicating an impact on reflexivity. In many cases, new understandings seem to have played a formative function in enabling participants to improve their practice and their role as health promoters. The reflective process also served a critical function culminating in a social and moral understanding of the impacts on society of the professionals' practices and roles. This type of outcome is greatly desired in health promotion, given the social justice and equity concerns of this field of practice. By redefining the theoretical concept of reflexivity on two levels and discussing their impacts on practice, this study supports the usefulness of both levels of reflexivity.

  4. Reflexivity and the Politics of Knowledge: Researchers as "Brokers" and "Translators" of Educational Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sriprakash, Arathi; Mukhopadhyay, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    This paper interrogates the ways in which "reflexivity" has proliferated as a normative methodological discourse in the field of international and comparative education. We argue that the dominant approach to reflexivity foregrounds the standpoints of researchers and their subjects in a way that does not attend to the situated,…

  5. Acoustic receptivity of compressible boundary layers: Receptivity by way of surface-temperature variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhari, Meelan

    1994-01-01

    The Goldstein-Ruban theory has been extended within the framework of Zavol'skii et al. to study the acoustic receptivity of compressible boundary layers. We consider the receptivity produced in a region of localized, small-amplitude variation in the surface temperature and compare it with the receptivity that is induced through a similar mechanism by a variation in the suction velocity at the surface. It is found that the orientation of the acoustic wave can have a significant impact on the receptivity process, with the maximum receptivity at a given sound-pressure level being produced by upstream oriented acoustic waves. At sufficiently low Mach numbers, the variation of receptivity with the acoustic-wave orientation can be predicted analytically and is the same for both surface suction and surface heating. However, as a result of the acoustic refraction across the mean boundary layer, the above dependence can become rather complex and, also, dependent on the type of surface nonuniformity. The results also suggest that the receptivity caused by temperature nonuniformities may turn out to be more significant than that produced by the mean-flow perturbations associated with strip suction.

  6. Sneeze reflex: facts and fiction.

    PubMed

    Songu, Murat; Cingi, Cemal

    2009-06-01

    Sneezing is a protective reflex, and is sometimes a sign of various medical conditions. Sneezing has been a remarkable sign throughout the history. In Asia and Europe, superstitions regarding sneezing extend through a wide range of races and countries, and it has an ominous significance. Although sneezing is a protective reflex response, little else is known about it. A sneeze (or sternutation) is expulsion of air from the lungs through the nose and mouth, most commonly caused by the irritation of the nasal mucosa. Sneezing can further be triggered through sudden exposure to bright light, a particularly full stomach and physical stimulants of the trigeminal nerve, as a result of central nervous system pathologies such as epilepsy, posterior inferior cerebellar artery syndrome or as a symptom of psychogenic pathologies. In this first comprehensive review of the sneeze reflex in the English literature, we aim to review the pathophysiology, etiology, diagnosis, treatment and complications of sneezing.

  7. Poor Reception for Broadcast Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Robert D. B.

    1976-01-01

    Noting reports of 17,251 college juniors and seniors majoring in radio-television broadcasting and only 141,500 employees now working in the field, the author discusses the causes and implications including the value of the radio-TV degree and the cost of broadcast education. (JT)

  8. Chamber of Commerce reception for Dr. Lucas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Dr. William R. Lucas, Marshall's fourth Center Director (1974-1986), delivers a speech in front of a picture of the lunar landscape with Earth looming in the background while attending a Huntsville Chamber of Commerce reception honoring his achievements as Director of Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  9. Testing the Receptive Skills: Some Basic Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Randall L.

    1984-01-01

    Reacts to Michael Canale's paper, "Considerations in the Testing of Reading and Listening Proficiency," concentrating on three areas: (1) the nature of the receptive skills and the requirements of a valid instrument to measure them, (2) the design features that are consistent with his test design principles, and (3) adaptive testing…

  10. Practical Considerations in Receptive Skills Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liskin-Gasparro, Judith E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses Michael Canale's paper, "Considerations in the Testing of Reading and Listening Proficiency," focusing on the third section, "Suggestions for improvements in receptive language testing." Considers such areas as: (1) level descriptions for academic use, (2) item and item types, and (3) validation. (SED)

  11. Simulated Critical Differences for Speech Reception Thresholds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Ellen Raben; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Critical differences state by how much 2 test results have to differ in order to be significantly different. Critical differences for discrimination scores have been available for several decades, but they do not exist for speech reception thresholds (SRTs). This study presents and discusses how critical differences for SRTs can be…

  12. An integral sunshade for optical reception antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, E. L.

    1988-01-01

    Optical reception antennas (telescopes) must be capable of receiving communications even when the deep-space laser source is located within a small angle of the Sun. Direst sunlight must not be allowed to shine on the primary reflector of an optical reception antenna, because too much light would be scattered into the signal detectors. A conventional sunshade that does not obstruct the antenna aperture would have to be about five times longer than its diameter in order to receive optical communications at a solar elongation of 12 degrees without interference. Such a long sunshade could not be accommodated within the dome of any existing large-aperture astronomical facility, and providing a new dome large enough would be prohibitively expensive. It is also desirable to reduce the amount of energy a space-based large-aperture optical reception facility would expend orienting a structure with such a sizable moment of inertia. Since a large aperture optical reception antenna will probably have a hexagonally segmented primary reflector, a sunshade consisting of hexagonal tubes can be mounted in alignment with the segmentation without producing any additional geometric obstruction. An analysis of the duration and recurrence of solar-conjunction communications outages (caused when a deep-space probe near an outer planet appears to be closer to the Sun than a given minimum solar elongation), and the design equations for the integral sunshade are appended.

  13. Comprehensive Hearing Impaired Reception Program; Spring, 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxman, Wendy G.

    This document presents a description and evaluation of the Comprehensive Hearing Impaired Reception Program (CHIRP). This program was designed to improve effective communication skills for hearing handicapped students whose native language was not English, and whose language deficiencies prevented them from effective participation in the learning…

  14. Receptive Multilingualism in the Swiss Army

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthele, Raphael; Wittlin, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a particular context where receptive multilingualism at work can be observed is discussed. The Swiss armed forces underwent a series of quite dramatic downsizing measures, which lead to a situation with increased amount of mixed groups and linguistically mixed situations regarding the first/native language of officers and the…

  15. Language, gay pornography, and audience reception.

    PubMed

    Leap, William L

    2011-01-01

    Erotic imagery is an important component of gay pornographic cinema, particularly, where work of audience reception is concerned. However, to assume the audience engagement with the films is limited solely to the erotic realm is to underestimate the workings of ideological power in the context and aftermath of reception. For example, the director of the film under discussion here (Men of Israel; Lucas, 2009b) intended to present an erotic celebration of the nation-state. Yet, most viewers ignore the particulars of context in their comments about audience reception, placing the "Israeli" narrative within a broader framework, using transnational rather than film-specific criteria to guide their "reading" of the Israeli-centered narrative. This article uses as its entry point the language that viewers employ when describing their reactions to Men of Israel on a gay video club's Web site; this article shows how the work of audience reception may draw attention to a film's erotic details while invoking social and political messages that completely reframe the film's erotic narrative.

  16. Integral sunshade for an optical reception antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, Edwin L.

    1991-01-01

    Optical reception antennas (telescopes) must be capable of receiving communications even when the deep-space laser source is located within a small angle of the sun. Direct sunlight must not be allowed to shine on the primary reflector of an optical reception antenna, because too much light would be scattered into the signal detectors. A conventional sunshade that does not obstruct the antenna aperture would have to be about five times longer than its diameter in order to receive optical communications at a solar elongation of 12 degrees without interference. Such a long sunshade could not be accommodated within the dome of any existing large-aperture astronomical facility, and providing a new dome large enough would be prohibitively expensive. It is also desirable to reduce the amount of energy a space-based large-aperture optical reception facility would expend orienting a structure with such a sizable moment of inertia. Since a large aperture optical reception antenna will probably have a hexagonally segmented primary reflector, a sunshade consisting of hexagonal tubes can be mounted in alignment with the segmentation without producing any additional geometric obstruction. An analysis of the duration and recurrence of solar-conjunction communications outages (caused when a deep-space probe near an outer planet appears to be closer to the sun than a given minimum solar elongation), and the design equations for the integral sunshade are appended.

  17. Evidence for restricted central convergence of cutaneous afferents on an excitatory reflex pathway to medial gastrocnemius motoneurons.

    PubMed

    LaBella, L A; McCrea, D A

    1990-08-01

    1. We previously reported that excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) produced by low-threshold electrical stimulation of the caudal cutaneous sural nerve (CCS) occur preferentially and with the shortest central latencies in the medial gastrocnemius (MG) portion of the triceps surae motor nuclei. The present study employs the spatial facilitation technique to assess interneuronal convergence on the short-latency excitatory pathway from CCS to MG by several other ipsilateral hindlimb afferents [the lateral cutaneous sural (LCS), caudal cutaneous femoral (CCF), saphenous (SAPH), superficial peroneal (SP), posterior tibial (TIB), and posterior articular (Joint) nerves]. 2. Spatial facilitation of CCF EPSPs in MG motoneurons was demonstrated with conditioning stimulation of the LCS, CCF, SAPH, SP, and TIB nerves, but was most readily and consistently observed with CCF conditioning. Facilitation of CCS and CCF EPSPs was obtained in individual MG motoneurons with a wide range of condition-test intervals. 3. CCF EPSPs in MG motoneurons produced by twice threshold (2T) afferent stimulation had a mean latency of 4.8 ms and often appeared as slowly rising, asynchronous potentials. On the other hand, 2T CCS EPSPs had a mean latency of 2.8 ms and appeared as sharper rising, less variable depolarizations. The optimum condition-test interval for facilitation of CCS and CCF EPSPs was found to be 5.2 ms on average, with CCS stimulation delayed from that of CCF. The longer latency of CCF EPSPs and the finding that the minimum condition-test interval was on the order of 3.9 ms suggests that convergence occurs late in the excitatory CCF pathway to MG motoneurons. 4. Convergence between excitatory pathways to MG from CCF and CCS afferents is discussed with regard to the original observations of Hagbarth on the location of cutaneous receptive fields and excitation of ankle extensors. In addition, evidence for the segregation of these specialized reflex pathways from those involved

  18. The history of examination of reflexes.

    PubMed

    Boes, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    In the late 1800s, Wilhelm Erb, Joseph Babinski, William Gowers, and others helped develop the neurologic examination as we know it today. Erb was one of the first to emphasize a detailed and systematic neurologic exam and was co-discoverer of the muscle stretch reflex, Gowers began studying the knee jerk shortly after it was described, and Babinski focused on finding reliable signs that could differentiate organic from hysterical paralysis. These physicians and others emphasized the bedside examination of reflexes, which have been an important part of the neurologic examination ever since. This review will focus on the history of the examination of the following muscle stretch and superficial/cutaneous reflexes: knee jerk, jaw jerk, deep abdominal reflexes, superficial abdominal reflexes, plantar reflex/Babinski sign, and palmomental reflex. The history of reflex grading will also be discussed.

  19. Caught in Uncertain Futures, Now: A Reflexive Moment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Reynaldo, III

    2016-01-01

    This reflexive vignette reveals the emotional risks of ethnographic work by a Chicano researcher, educator, and advocate doing work in the Texas-Mexico Borderlands, caught at the intersection of vulnerable Latina/o youth and their possible futures. Data in this creative piece are derived from field notes of one classroom observation from an…

  20. Reflexivity: a methodological tool in the knowledge translation process?

    PubMed

    Alley, Sarah; Jackson, Suzanne F; Shakya, Yogendra B

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge translation is a dynamic and iterative process that includes the synthesis, dissemination, exchange, and application of knowledge. It is considered the bridge that closes the gap between research and practice. Yet it appears that in all areas of practice, a significant gap remains in translating research knowledge into practical application. Recently, researchers and practitioners in the field of health care have begun to recognize reflection and reflexive exercises as a fundamental component to the knowledge translation process. As a practical tool, reflexivity can go beyond simply looking at what practitioners are doing; when approached in a systematic manner, it has the potential to enable practitioners from a wide variety of backgrounds to identify, understand, and act in relation to the personal, professional, and political challenges they face in practice. This article focuses on how reflexive practice as a methodological tool can provide researchers and practitioners with new insights and increased self-awareness, as they are able to critically examine the nature of their work and acknowledge biases, which may affect the knowledge translation process. Through the use of structured journal entries, the nature of the relationship between reflexivity and knowledge translation was examined, specifically exploring if reflexivity can improve the knowledge translation process, leading to increased utilization and application of research findings into everyday practice.

  1. [Clinical relevance of cardiopulmonary reflexes in anesthesiology].

    PubMed

    Guerri-Guttenberg, R A; Siaba-Serrate, F; Cacheiro, F J

    2013-10-01

    The baroreflex, chemoreflex, pulmonary reflexes, Bezold-Jarisch and Bainbridge reflexes and their interaction with local mechanisms, are a demonstration of the richness of cardiovascular responses that occur in human beings. As well as these, the anesthesiologist must contend with other variables that interact by attenuating or accentuating cardiopulmonary reflexes such as, anesthetic drugs, surgical manipulation, and patient positioning. In the present article we review these reflexes and their clinical relevance in anesthesiology.

  2. A Hierarchy of Temporal Receptive Windows in Human Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, Uri; Yang, Eunice; Vallines, Ignacio; Heeger, David J.; Rubin, Nava

    2008-01-01

    Real-world events unfold at different time scales and, therefore, cognitive and neuronal processes must likewise occur at different time scales. We present a novel procedure that identifies brain regions responsive to sensory information accumulated over different time scales. We measured functional magnetic resonance imaging activity while observers viewed silent films presented forward, backward, or piecewise-scrambled in time. Early visual areas (e.g., primary visual cortex and the motion-sensitive area MT+) exhibited high response reliability regardless of disruptions in temporal structure. In contrast, the reliability of responses in several higher brain areas, including the superior temporal sulcus (STS), precuneus, posterior lateral sulcus (LS), temporal parietal junction (TPJ), and frontal eye field (FEF), was affected by information accumulated over longer time scales. These regions showed highly reproducible responses for repeated forward, but not for backward or piecewise-scrambled presentations. Moreover, these regions exhibited marked differences in temporal characteristics, with LS, TPJ, and FEF responses depending on information accumulated over longer durations (~36 s) than STS and precuneus (~12 s). We conclude that, similar to the known cortical hierarchy of spatial receptive fields, there is a hierarchy of progressively longer temporal receptive windows in the human brain. PMID:18322098

  3. 33 CFR 158.420 - Reception facilities: Capacity and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reception facilities: Capacity and exceptions. 158.420 Section 158.420 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... GARBAGE Criteria for Adequacy of Reception Facilities: Garbage § 158.420 Reception facilities:...

  4. 33 CFR 158.420 - Reception facilities: Capacity and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reception facilities: Capacity and exceptions. 158.420 Section 158.420 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... GARBAGE Criteria for Adequacy of Reception Facilities: Garbage § 158.420 Reception facilities:...

  5. 33 CFR 158.420 - Reception facilities: Capacity and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reception facilities: Capacity and exceptions. 158.420 Section 158.420 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... GARBAGE Criteria for Adequacy of Reception Facilities: Garbage § 158.420 Reception facilities:...

  6. 33 CFR 158.420 - Reception facilities: Capacity and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reception facilities: Capacity and exceptions. 158.420 Section 158.420 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... GARBAGE Criteria for Adequacy of Reception Facilities: Garbage § 158.420 Reception facilities:...

  7. 33 CFR 158.420 - Reception facilities: Capacity and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reception facilities: Capacity and exceptions. 158.420 Section 158.420 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... GARBAGE Criteria for Adequacy of Reception Facilities: Garbage § 158.420 Reception facilities:...

  8. Reflexive aerostructures: increased vehicle survivability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margraf, Thomas W.; Hemmelgarn, Christopher D.; Barnell, Thomas J.; Franklin, Mark A.

    2007-04-01

    Aerospace systems stand to benefit significantly from the advancement of reflexive aerostructure technologies for increased vehicle survivability. Cornerstone Research Group Inc. (CRG) is developing lightweight, healable composite systems for use as primary load-bearing aircraft components. The reflexive system is comprised of piezoelectric structural health monitoring systems, localized thermal activation systems, and lightweight, healable composite structures. The reflexive system is designed to mimic the involuntary human response to damage. Upon impact, the structural health monitoring system will identify the location and magnitude of the damage, sending a signal to a discrete thermal activation control system to resistively heat the shape memory polymer (SMP) matrix composite above activation temperature, resulting in localized shape recovery and healing of the damaged areas. CRG has demonstrated SMP composites that can recover 90 percent of flexural yield stress and modulus after postfailure healing. During the development, CRG has overcome issues of discrete activation, structural health monitoring integration, and healable resin systems. This paper will address the challenges associated with development of a reflexive aerostructure, including integration of structural health monitoring, discrete healing, and healable shape memory resin systems.

  9. Hormonal control of sexual receptivity in cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Schal, C; Chiang, A S

    1995-09-29

    Many animals exhibit specific behaviors associated with sexual receptivity only when they are reproductively competent. In insects with gonadal maturation cycles, these behaviors usually coincide with ovarian maturation. In the cockroach Blattella germanica, juvenile hormone (JH), produced by the corpora allata (CA), regulates female reproductive physiology. Various experimental manipulations, including ablation of the CA, therapy with JH analogs, CA denervation, ovariectomy, and changing nutrient quality, coupled with time-lapse video recording, support the hypothesis that JH also controls female sexual receptivity. A re-examination of the role of the CA in the maturation of male sexual readiness shows that, while sexual behavior develops in the absence of JH in both B. germanica and Supella longipalpa, JH accelerates the expression of sexual readiness.

  10. Dual-Antenna Microwave Reception Without Switching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartop, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    Receiver remains connected to both antennas, transmitter switched to connect it to one or other. Combination of hybrid junction, circulators, and filter provides simultaneous reception paths from both antennas without significantly altering radiation patterns of antennas. Communication system considered for use in spacecraft and in which mechanical switch permitted on downlink but not on uplink. Applicable to terrestrial microwave communication stations subject to dual-antenna requirements.

  11. A Methodology for Conus APOE Reception Planning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    interplay between water supply and vegetation if the system definition is at the cellular level. APPLICATION TO RECEPTION PLANNING The first task facing...LENGTH DEVIATION LEIT - .-- -ITI TIE 1 28.2076 15.8294 lCJ 29.3621 2 AWAIT 49.2355 33.5638 3 AWAIT 0.0000 0.0000 4 AWAIT 0.0000 0.0000 1 0 0.0000 5 AWAIT

  12. Eugen Bleuler 150: Bleuler's reception of Freud.

    PubMed

    Dalzell, Thomas G

    2007-12-01

    On the 150th anniversary of Eugen Bleuler's birth, this article examines his reception of Sigmund Freud and his use of Freudian theory to understand the symptoms of schizophrenia. In addition, in contrast to earlier interpretations of Bleuler's relationship with Freud in terms of an eventual personal and theoretical incompatibility, the article demonstrates that, although Bleuler did distance himself from the psychoanalytic movement, he remained consistent in his views on Freud's theories.

  13. Receptive vocabulary analysis in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Loveall, Susan J; Channell, Marie Moore; Phillips, B Allyson; Abbeduto, Leonard; Conners, Frances A

    2016-08-01

    The present study is an in-depth examination of receptive vocabulary in individuals with Down syndrome (DS) in comparison to control groups of individuals of similar nonverbal ability with typical development (TD) and non-specific etiology intellectual disability (ID). Verb knowledge was of particular interest, as it is known to be a predictor of later syntactic development. Fifty participants with DS, aged 10-21 years, 29 participants with ID, 10-21 years, and 29 participants with TD, 4-9 years, completed measures of receptive vocabulary (PPVT-4), nonverbal ability (Leiter-R), and phonological memory (Nonword Repetition subtest of the CTOPP). Groups were compared on percentage correct of noun, verb and attribute items on the PPVT-4. Results revealed that on verb items, the participants with ID performed significantly better than both participants with DS and TD, even when overall receptive vocabulary ability and phonological memory were held constant. Groups with DS and TD showed the same pattern of lexical knowledge, performing better on nouns than both verbs and attributes. In contrast, the group with ID performed similarly on nouns and verbs, but worse on attributes.

  14. Vestibular reflexes of otolith origin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Victor J.

    1988-01-01

    The vestibular system and its role in the maintenance of posture and in motion sickness is investigated using cats as experimental subjects. The assumption is that better understanding of the physiology of vestibular pathways is not only of intrinsic value, but will help to explain and eventually alleviate the disturbances caused by vestibular malfunction, or by exposure to an unusual environment such as space. The first project deals with the influence on the spinal cord of stimulation of the vestibular labyrinth, particularly the otoliths. A second was concerned with the properties and neural basis of the tonic neck reflex. These two projects are related, because vestibulospinal and tonic neck reflexes interact in the maintenance of normal posture. The third project began with an interest in mechanisms of motion sickness, and eventually shifted to a study of central control of respiratory muscles involved in vomiting.

  15. Toward reflexive climate adaptation research

    DOE PAGES

    Preston, Benjamin L.; Rickards, Lauren; Fünfgeld, Hartmut; ...

    2015-06-22

    Climate adaptation research is expanding very quickly within an increasingly reflexive society where the relationship between academia and other social institutions is in a state of flux. Tensions exist between the two dominant research orientations of research about and research for adaptation. In particular, the research community is challenged to develop processes for successfully executing transdisciplinary research for adaptation when academic institutions and researchers are largely structured around traditional, disciplinary expertise and funding models. One tool for helping to manage this tension is a third, more reflexive, orientation toward adaptation research that is emerging in the literature. Finally, this newmore » ‘research on adaptation research’ promises to help enhance understanding of the research enterprise itself and how it can become more adaptive.« less

  16. Toward reflexive climate adaptation research

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, Benjamin L.; Rickards, Lauren; Fünfgeld, Hartmut; Keenan, Rodney J.

    2015-06-22

    Climate adaptation research is expanding very quickly within an increasingly reflexive society where the relationship between academia and other social institutions is in a state of flux. Tensions exist between the two dominant research orientations of research about and research for adaptation. In particular, the research community is challenged to develop processes for successfully executing transdisciplinary research for adaptation when academic institutions and researchers are largely structured around traditional, disciplinary expertise and funding models. One tool for helping to manage this tension is a third, more reflexive, orientation toward adaptation research that is emerging in the literature. Finally, this new ‘research on adaptation research’ promises to help enhance understanding of the research enterprise itself and how it can become more adaptive.

  17. Reflex origin of parkinsonian tremor.

    PubMed

    Burne, J A

    1987-08-01

    The 8-Hz wrist tremor seen in normal subjects results from an oscillation in the spinal stretch reflex arc but the resting 4-Hz tremor of Parkinson's disease is believed to result from synchronization of motor unit activity by periodic descending inputs driven by an oscillator which resides within the brain. Accelerometer and smoothed EMG (0.8 to 16.0-Hz pass) recordings of resting tremor were taken from the upper limbs of 10 volunteers with Parkinson's disease for several different limb positions and while the limb was fixed to prevent tremor movements. The smoothed EMG and accelerometer records produced a complex periodic waveform with prominent 4- and 8-Hz components. Spectral analysis of both records produced large peaks at those frequencies which were harmonically related. The appearance of the regular tremor waveform in accelerometer and smoothed EMG records was greatly altered by changes in limb posture in all patients. Fixing of the shoulder and elbow joints only, also altered the smoothed EMG waveform and reduced the tremor amplitude. Fixing of the entire limb removed all signs of synchronization of motor unit activity in raw and smoothed EMG records. Similarly, the prominent 4- and 8-Hz peaks, found in the smoothed EMG power spectra from trembling muscles, were eliminated if the limb was effectively prevented from trembling. These experiments showed that the synchronization of motor unit activity at Parkinson's tremor frequency is wholly dependent on the oscillation in limb position and thus proprioceptive reflex activity. It is suggested that the known properties of the 4-Hz resting tremor of Parkinson's disease can be attributed to a flip-flop oscillation involving the mutually inhibitory connections between the spinal stretch reflexes of antagonist muscles. The supraspinal contribution to the tremor may thus be confined to an "aperiodic" descending facilitation of spinal reflex pathways.

  18. [Foot reflex zone massage].

    PubMed

    Kesselring, A

    1994-01-01

    Foot reflexology is defined as massage of zones on the feet which correspond to different parts of the body. A medline-search yielded no literature in the field of foot reflexology. Indications for and results of foot reflexology have been extrapolated from case-descriptions and two pilot studies with small samples. One study (Lafuente et al.) found foot reflexology to be as helpful to patients with headaches as medication (flunarizine), yet foot reflexology was fraught with less side-effects than medication. In a second study (Eichelberger et al.) foot reflexology was used postoperatively on gynecological patients. The intervention group showed a lesser need for medication to enhance bladder tonus than did the control group. The literature describes foot reflexology as enhancing urination, bowel movements and relaxation.

  19. A method of reflexive balancing in a pragmatic, interdisciplinary and reflexive bioethics.

    PubMed

    Ives, Jonathan

    2014-07-01

    In recent years there has been a wealth of literature arguing the need for empirical and interdisciplinary approaches to bioethics, based on the premise that an empirically informed ethical analysis is more grounded, contextually sensitive and therefore more relevant to clinical practice than an 'abstract' philosophical analysis. Bioethics has (arguably) always been an interdisciplinary field, and the rise of 'empirical' (bio)ethics need not be seen as an attempt to give a new name to the longstanding practice of interdisciplinary collaboration, but can perhaps best be understood as a substantive attempt to engage with the nature of that interdisciplinarity and to articulate the relationship between the many different disciplines (some of them empirical) that contribute to the field. It can also be described as an endeavour to explain how different disciplinary approaches can be integrated to effectively answer normative questions in bioethics, and fundamental to that endeavour is the need to think about how a robust methodology can be articulated that successfully marries apparently divergent epistemological and metaethical perspectives with method. This paper proposes 'Reflexive Bioethics' (RB) as a methodology for interdisciplinary and empirical bioethics, which utilizes a method of 'Reflexive Balancing' (RBL). RBL has been developed in response to criticisms of various forms of reflective equilibrium, and is built upon a pragmatic characterization of Bioethics and a 'quasi-moral foundationalism', which allows RBL to avoid some of the difficulties associated with RE and yet retain the flexible egalitarianism that makes it intuitively appealing to many.

  20. Generalized versus partial reflex seizures: a review.

    PubMed

    Italiano, Domenico; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Gasparini, Sara; Spina, Edoardo; Mondello, Stefania; Labate, Angelo; Gambardella, Antonio; Aguglia, Umberto

    2014-08-01

    In this review we assess our currently available knowledge about reflex seizures with special emphasis on the difference between "generalized" reflex seizures induced by visual stimuli, thinking, praxis and language tasks, and "focal" seizures induced by startle, eating, music, hot water, somatosensory stimuli and orgasm. We discuss in particular evidence from animal, clinical, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies supporting the concept that "generalized" reflex seizures, usually occurring in the setting of IGE, should be considered as focal seizures with quick secondary generalization. We also review recent advances in genetic and therapeutic approach of reflex seizures.

  1. Development of the Stretch Reflex in the Newborn: Reciprocal Excitation and Reflex Irradiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myklebust, Barbara M.; Gottlieb, Gerald L.

    1993-01-01

    When tendon jerk reflexes were tested in seven newborns from one- to three-days old, stretch reflex responses in all major muscle groups of the lower limb were elicited. This "irradiation of reflexes" is a normal phenomenon in newborns, with the pathway becoming suppressed during normal maturation. In individuals with cerebral palsy,…

  2. Receptivity to Bariatric Surgery in Qualified Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Michael; Wharton, Sean; Macpherson, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Bariatric surgery has been shown to be an effective intervention for weight loss and diabetes management. Despite this, many patients qualified for bariatric surgery are not interested in undergoing the procedure. The objective of this study is to determine the factors influencing receptivity to bariatric surgery among those who qualify for the procedure. Methods. Patients attending a publicly funded weight management clinic who qualified for bariatric surgery were asked to complete an elective questionnaire between February 2013 and April 2014. Results. A total of 371 patients (72% female) completed the questionnaire. Only 87 of 371 (23%) participants were interested in bariatric surgery. Individuals interested in bariatric surgery had a higher BMI (48.0 versus 46.2 kg/m2, P = 0.03) and believed that they would lose more weight with surgery (51 versus 44 kg, P = 0.0069). Those who scored highly on past weight loss success and financial concerns were less likely to be interested in bariatric surgery, whereas those who scored highly on high receptivity to surgery and positive social support were more likely to be interested in bariatric surgery. Conclusion. Although participants overestimated the effect of bariatric surgery on weight loss, most were still not interested in bariatric surgery. PMID:27516900

  3. Structural cure for reflex syncope?

    PubMed

    Sulke, Neil; Eysenck, William; Badiani, Sveeta; Furniss, Stephen

    2016-01-20

    The ROX Coupler is a device that allows creation of a central arteriovenous anastomosis at the iliac level. The device has been shown to improve exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and is CE marked for the treatment of resistant and uncontrolled hypertension. Reflex syncope is a challenging clinical condition with limited proven therapeutic options. We describe the resolution of symptoms and tilt table response of a patient who underwent insertion of a ROX Coupler to treat hypertension, and also incidentally had pre-existing vasodepressor syncope.

  4. The Anion Paradox in Sodium Taste Reception: Resolution by Voltage-Clamp Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Qing; Heck, Gerard L.; Desimone, John A.

    1991-11-01

    Sodium salts are potent taste stimuli, but their effectiveness is markedly dependent on the anion, with chloride yielding the greatest response. The cellular mechanisms that mediate this phenomenon are not known. This "anion paradox" has been resolved by considering the field potential that is generated by restricted electrodiffusion of the anion through paracellular shunts between taste-bud cells. Neural responses to sodium chloride, sodium acetate, and sodium gluconate were studied while the field potential was voltage-clamped. Clamping at electronegative values eliminated the anion effect, whereas clamping at electropositive potentials exaggerated it. Thus, field potentials across the lingual epithelium modulate taste reception, indicating that the functional unit of taste reception includes the taste cell and its paracellular microenvironment.

  5. Parameters influencing plasma column potential in a reflex discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liziakin, G. D.; Gavrikov, A. V.; Murzaev, Y. A.; Usmanov, R. A.; Smirnov, V. P.

    2016-12-01

    Distribution of electrostatic potential in direct current reflex discharge plasma has been studied experimentally. Measurements have been conducted by the single floating probe method. The influence of 0-0.2 T magnetic field, 1-200 mTorr pressure, 0-2 kV discharge voltage, and electrodes geometry on plasma column electrostatic potential was investigated. The possibility for the formation of a preset potential profile required for the realization of plasma separation of spent nuclear fuel was demonstrated.

  6. Multi-Reception Strategy with Improved SNR for Multichannel MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bing; Li, Ye; Wang, Chunsheng; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2012-01-01

    A multi-reception strategy with extended GRAPPA is proposed in this work to improve MR imaging performance at ultra-high field MR systems with limited receiver channels. In this method, coil elements are separated to two or more groups under appropriate grouping criteria. Those groups are enabled in sequence for imaging first, and then parallel acquisition is performed to compensate for the redundant scan time caused by the multiple receptions. To efficiently reconstruct the data acquired from elements of each group, a specific extended GRAPPA was developed. This approach was evaluated by using a 16-element head array on a 7 Tesla whole-body MRI scanner with 8 receive channels. The in-vivo experiments demonstrate that with the same scan time, the 16-element array with twice receptions and acceleration rate of 2 can achieve significant SNR gain in the periphery area of the brain and keep nearly the same SNR in the center area over an eight-element array, which indicates the proposed multi-reception strategy and extended GRAPPA are feasible to improve image quality for MRI systems with limited receive channels. This study also suggests that it is advantageous for a MR system with N receiver channels to utilize a coil array with more than N elements if an appropriate acquisition strategy is applied. PMID:22879921

  7. Autonomic reflexes in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Lagercrantz, H; Edwards, D; Henderson-Smart, D; Hertzberg, T; Jeffery, H

    1990-01-01

    Some autonomic nervous reflexes often tested in adult medicine have been studied in 21 preterm infants (25-37 gestational weeks). The aim was to develop such tests for preterm infants and see if there were any differences in babies with recurrent apnea and bradycardia and babies who had been exposed to sympathicolytic drugs before birth. To test sympathetic nervous activity the peripheral vascular resistance was measured before and during 45 degrees of head-up tilting. To test parasympathetic nervous activity the degree of bradycardia was measured in response to cold face test (application of an ice-cube on the fore-head) and laryngeal stimulation with saline. Finally the heart rate changes after a sudden noise (85 dB) were studied as an indicator of both sympathetic and vagal activity. The peripheral resistance was found to be relatively low in these preterm infants, particularly in some infants tested at the postnatal age of about two months. Heart rate and mean blood pressure did not change during tilting, while the peripheral resistance increased significantly mainly due to lowered limb blood flow. The median decrease of the heart rate during the cold face test was 20.0% and during laryngeal receptor stimulation 23.7%. The sudden noise usually caused a biphasic heart rate response. An autonomic nervous reflex score was calculated and found to be negative (parasympathetic) in infants with recurrent prolonged apnea and bradycardia and positive in infants with clinical signs of increased sympathetic nervous activity.

  8. The grasp and other primitive reflexes

    PubMed Central

    Schott, J; Rossor, M

    2003-01-01

    Primitive reflexes are typically present in childhood, suppressed during normal development, and may reappear with diseases of the brain, particularly those affecting the frontal lobes. In this review we discuss some historical aspects surrounding these reflexes, how they might be elicited and interpreted, and their potential clinical utility in modern neurological practice. PMID:12700289

  9. Creating a Complex Schedule with "REFLEX."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kren, George M.; Christakes, George

    1991-01-01

    Discusses "REFLEX," a software package for scheduling. Explores the program's applications in preparing a departmental class schedule. Explains that "REFLEX" includes a filter function and some attributes of a spreadsheet but lacks the ability to interact with other databases. Concludes that the program can make scheduling…

  10. Developmental Stages in Receptive Grammar Acquisition: A Processability Theory Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buyl, Aafke; Housen, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This study takes a new look at the topic of developmental stages in the second language (L2) acquisition of morphosyntax by analysing receptive learner data, a language mode that has hitherto received very little attention within this strand of research (for a recent and rare study, see Spinner, 2013). Looking at both the receptive and productive…

  11. A Study of the Tactual and Visual Reception of Fingerspelling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Charlotte M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The study examined the ability of five deaf-blind subjects to receive fingerspelled materials through the tactual sense, and of six deaf subjects to receive fingerspelling through the visual sense. Results found highly accurate tactual reception at normal rates and suggested that rates for visual reception are limited by the rate of manual…

  12. Cross-National Policy Borrowing: Understanding Reception and Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner-Khamsi, Gita

    2014-01-01

    The article examines two key concepts in research on policy borrowing and lending that are often used to explain why and how educational reforms travel across national boundaries: reception and translation. The studies on reception analyse the political, economic, and cultural reasons that account for the attractiveness of a reform from elsewhere.…

  13. 33 CFR 158.320 - Reception facilities: Capacity, and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reception facilities: Capacity, and exceptions. 158.320 Section 158.320 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Residue § 158.320 Reception facilities: Capacity, and exceptions. (a) Except as allowed in paragraph...

  14. 33 CFR 158.320 - Reception facilities: Capacity, and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reception facilities: Capacity, and exceptions. 158.320 Section 158.320 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Residue § 158.320 Reception facilities: Capacity, and exceptions. (a) Except as allowed in paragraph...

  15. 33 CFR 158.320 - Reception facilities: Capacity, and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reception facilities: Capacity, and exceptions. 158.320 Section 158.320 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Residue § 158.320 Reception facilities: Capacity, and exceptions. (a) Except as allowed in paragraph...

  16. 33 CFR 158.320 - Reception facilities: Capacity, and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reception facilities: Capacity, and exceptions. 158.320 Section 158.320 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Residue § 158.320 Reception facilities: Capacity, and exceptions. (a) Except as allowed in paragraph...

  17. 33 CFR 158.320 - Reception facilities: Capacity, and exceptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reception facilities: Capacity, and exceptions. 158.320 Section 158.320 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Residue § 158.320 Reception facilities: Capacity, and exceptions. (a) Except as allowed in paragraph...

  18. The Comparative Reception of Darwinism: A Brief History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    The subfield of Darwin studies devoted to comparative reception coalesced around 1971 with the planning of a conference on the subject, at the University of Texas at Austin held in April 1972. The original focus was western Europe, Russia and the United States. Subsequently a spate of studies on the Italian reception added to the Eurocentric…

  19. [Arterial pressure dynamics in patients during prosthetic stomatological reception].

    PubMed

    Serov, P G

    2009-01-01

    During prosthetic stomatological reception with the help of portable arterial pressure monitor Kardiotechnika-04AD-01 there were examined patients with normal blood pressure and arterial hypertension. The data were received confirming dependence of arterial pressure lifting with personal anxiety level. Conclusion was drown that close patient's examination was necessary before prosthetic stomatological reception.

  20. Teacher Empowerment and Receptivity in Curriculum Reform in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, John Chi-Kin; Yin, Hong-Biao; Zhang, Zhong-Hua; Jin, Yu-Le

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the relationships between teacher empowerment, teacher receptivity toward, and perceived outcomes of, a system-wide curriculum change, particularly national curriculum reform in basic education in China. The results of a survey of 1,646 teachers from six provinces indicate that teachers were positive in their receptivity and…

  1. Bone conduction reception: head sensitivity mapping.

    PubMed

    McBride, Maranda; Letowski, Tomasz; Tran, Phuong

    2008-05-01

    This study sought to identify skull locations that are highly sensitive to bone conduction (BC) auditory signal reception and could be used in the design of military radio communication headsets. In Experiment 1, pure tone signals were transmitted via BC to 11 skull locations of 14 volunteers seated in a quiet environment. In Experiment 2, the same signals were transmitted via BC to nine skull locations of 12 volunteers seated in an environment with 60 decibels of white background noise. Hearing threshold levels for each signal per location were measured. In the quiet condition, the condyle had the lowest mean threshold for all signals followed by the jaw angle, mastoid and vertex. In the white noise condition, the condyle also had the lowest mean threshold followed by the mastoid, vertex and temple. Overall results of both experiments were very similar and implicated the condyle as the most effective location.

  2. Discerning lived spirituality: the reception of otherness.

    PubMed

    Walton, Martin Neal

    2013-06-01

    A previous article focused on an analysis of prominent conceptualizations of spirituality in health care. The encompassing character of those approaches was viewed as problematic because too little attention is paid to the distinctiveness and particularities of spiritual experience. This article argues that the criteria gleaned from the prior analysis provide an impetus for a constructive discernment proposal of lived spirituality. The experience of otherness is provides a central clue to an understanding of spirituality particularly by two key terms, receptivity and transformation, as central characterizations of lived spirituality. These terms are investigated as they embrace operational potential for chaplaincy care. The article concludes with a reflection on chaplaincy care as it relates to spiritual practice.

  3. The reception of relativity in China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Danian

    2007-09-01

    Having introduced the theory of relativity from Japan, the Chinese quickly and enthusiastically embraced it during the May Fourth Movement, virtually without controversy. This unique passion for and openness to relativity, which helped advance the study of theoretical physics in China in the 1930s, was gradually replaced by imported Soviet criticism after 1949. During the Cultural Revolution, radical Chinese ideologues sponsored organized campaigns against Einstein and relativity, inflicting serious damage on Chinese science and scientific education. China's economic reforms in the late 1970s empowered scientists and presented them with the opportunity to rehabilitate Einstein and call for social democracy. Einstein has since become the symbol in China of the unity of science and democracy, the two eminent objectives of the May Fourth Movement that remain to be achieved in full. Using the reception of relativity as a case study, the essay also discusses issues involving the historical study of modern Chinese science.

  4. Receptivity to Roughness, Acoustic, and Vortical Disturbances in Supersonic Boundary Layers Over Swept Wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakumar, Ponnampalam; King, Rudolph A.

    2011-01-01

    The receptivity and interaction of stationary and traveling crossflow instability of three-dimensional supersonic boundary layers over a swept biconvex wing with a blunt leading edge are numerically investigated for a freestream Mach number of 3. The steady and unsteady flow fields are obtained by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations. The receptivity of the boundary layer to surface roughness, freestream acoustic waves, and freestream vorticity waves are numerically investigated. The initial amplitudes of the stationary vortices generated by 1 micron roughness elements is about 2000 times larger than the initial amplitudes of the traveling disturbances generated by vortical disturbances. The interaction of stationary and traveling disturbances was investigated by solving the equations with both surface roughness and vortical disturbances. When the initial amplitudes of the stationary disturbances are large compared to the traveling disturbances, the stationary vortex dominates the perturbation field. When the amplitudes are comparable, the traveling vortex prevails and the stationary vortex is suppressed.

  5. Toward a critical ethical reflexivity: phenomenology and language in Maurice Merleau-Ponty.

    PubMed

    Murray, Stuart J; Holmes, Dave

    2013-07-01

    Working within the tradition of continental philosophy, this article argues in favour of a phenomenological understanding of language as a crucial component of bioethical inquiry. The authors challenge the 'commonsense' view of language, in which thinking appears as prior to speaking, and speech the straightforward vehicle of pre-existing thoughts. Drawing on Maurice Merleau-Ponty's (1908-1961) phenomenology of language, the authors claim that thinking takes place in and through the spoken word, in and through embodied language. This view resituates bioethics as a matter of bodies that speak. It also refigures the meaning of ethical self-reflexion, and in so doing offers an alternative view on reflexivity and critique. Referring to the Kantian critical tradition and its reception by Hannah Arendt and Michel Foucault, we advance a position we call 'critical ethical reflexivity'. We contend that Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology of language offers valuable insight into ethical reflexivity and subject formation. Moreover, his understanding of language may foster new qualitative empirical research in bioethics, lead to more nuanced methods for interpreting personal narratives, and promote critical self-reflexion as necessary for bioethical inquiry.

  6. Tonic blood pressure modulates the relationship between baroreceptor cardiac reflex sensitivity and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Del Paso, Gustavo A Reyes; González, M Isabel; Hernández, José Antonio; Duschek, Stefan; Gutiérrez, Nicolás

    2009-09-01

    This study explored the effects of tonic blood pressure on the association between baroreceptor cardiac reflex sensitivity and cognitive performance. Sixty female participants completed a mental arithmetic task. Baroreceptor reflex sensitivity was assessed using sequence analysis. An interaction was found, indicating that the relationship between baroreceptor reflex sensitivity and cognitive performance is modulated by blood pressure levels. Reflex sensitivity was inversely associated to performance indices in the subgroup of participants with systolic blood pressure above the mean, whereas the association was positive in participants with systolic values below the mean. These results are in accordance with the findings in the field of pain perception and suggest that tonic blood pressure modulates the inhibitory effects of baroreceptor stimulation on high central nervous functions.

  7. The tripartite origins of the tonic neck reflex: Gesell, Gerstmann, and Magnus.

    PubMed

    Shevell, Michael

    2009-03-03

    The standard neurologic examination of the newborn and infant includes the elicitation of the tonic neck reflex. Normally present, its persistence is suggestive of neurologic dysfunction and a prognostic marker highly suggestive of an adverse outcome. Working in different fields, with different approaches and largely independently, three leaders of early 20th century neurosciences (Rudolf Magnus, Josef Gerstmann, and Arnold Gesell) elaborated different aspects of this primitive reflex. Magnus provided the first description in an animal model utilizing a meticulously prepared decerebrate cat correctly identifying the reflex's reliance on proprioceptors in the neck and processing in the upper cervical segment. Gerstmann first described its occurrence in the setting of neurologic disease, providing a meticulous written description in an early description of the index case of what would later be eponymously designated Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome. Gesell initially described the reflex's fundamental occurrence in normal young infants, highlighting its adaptive role in early development and its persistence as a hallmark of neurologic pathology.

  8. Communication in nuclear emergency preparedness: a closer look at information reception.

    PubMed

    Perko, Tanja; van Gorp, Baldwin; Turcanu, Catrinel; Thijssen, Peter; Carle, Benny

    2013-11-01

    Preparedness of the general population plays a key role in the effective implementation of protective actions in case of a nuclear emergency (e.g., evacuation or intake of iodine tablets). In this context, a good communication of emergency management actors with the public along the entire cycle of preparedness-response-recovery is of paramount importance. This article aims at providing a better understanding of the way people process communicated messages and the factors that may influence how they do this. In particular, it investigates information reception as part of the information processing in precrisis communication. As a case study, the precrisis communication context was chosen, as it has been tackled to a lesser extent in the literature. The empirical data used for this study originated from a large-scale opinion survey in Belgium. One topic in this survey addressed the information campaign for the distribution of iodine tablets, in the context of preparedness for nuclear emergencies. The findings of this study demonstrate that systematic predictors have a stronger influence on information reception, as compared to heuristic predictors. The latter are only to a minor extent involved in the reception of emergency preparedness information. The hypothesized pattern--that more specific knowledge about the field relates to a higher reception of information--was confirmed for precrisis communication. Contrary to expectations, results showed that people with a high perception of radiation risks were less attentive to information about protective actions. People with little confidence in authorities were also more likely to have a low reception of information.

  9. History of the cushing reflex.

    PubMed

    Fodstad, Harald; Kelly, Patrick J; Buchfelder, Michael

    2006-11-01

    Increasing systolic and pulse pressure with bradycardia and respiratory irregularity are signs of increased intracranial pressure, leading to cerebral herniation and fatal brainstem compression. This phenomenon, the vasopressor response, is generally known as the Cushing reflex based on Harvey Cushing's experimental work in Europe in 1901 and 1902. However, similar experiments had been carried out decades earlier by others, notably Paul Cramer, Ernst von Bergmann, Ernst von Leyden, Georg Althann, Friedrich Jolly, Friedrich Pagenstecher, Henri Duret, Bernard Naunyn, and Julius Schreiber. Cushing initially failed to give credit to the work of these predecessors. Nonetheless, he studied the brain's reaction to compression more carefully than previous researchers and offered an improved explanation of the pathophysiology of the phenomenon named after him.

  10. Achilles tendon reflex measuring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szebeszczyk, Janina; Straszecka, Joanna

    1995-06-01

    The examination of Achilles tendon reflex is widely used as a simple, noninvasive clinical test in diagnosis and pharmacological therapy monitoring in such diseases as: hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, diabetic neuropathy, the lower limbs obstructive angiopathies and intermittent claudication. Presented Achilles tendon reflect measuring system is based on the piezoresistive sensor connected with the cylinder-piston system. To determinate the moment of Achilles tendon stimulation a detecting circuit was used. The outputs of the measuring system are connected to the PC-based data acquisition board. Experimental results showed that the measurement accuracy and repeatability is good enough for diagnostics and therapy monitoring purposes. A user friendly, easy-to-operate measurement system fulfills all the requirements related to recording, presentation and storing of the patients' reflexograms.

  11. Cutaneous reflex modulation and self-induced reflex attenuation in cerebellar patients.

    PubMed

    Hoogkamer, Wouter; Van Calenbergh, Frank; Swinnen, Stephan P; Duysens, Jacques

    2015-02-01

    Modulation of cutaneous reflexes is important in the neural control of walking, yet knowledge about underlying neural pathways is still incomplete. Recent studies have suggested that the cerebellum is involved. Here we evaluated the possible roles of the cerebellum in cutaneous reflex modulation and in attenuation of self-induced reflexes. First we checked whether leg muscle activity during walking was similar in patients with focal cerebellar lesions and in healthy control subjects. We then recorded cutaneous reflex activity in leg muscles during walking. Additionally, we compared reflexes after standard (computer triggered) stimuli with reflexes after self-induced stimuli for both groups. Biceps femoris and gastrocnemius medialis muscle activity was increased in the patient group compared with the control subjects, suggesting a coactivation strategy to reduce instability of gait. Cutaneous reflex modulation was similar between healthy control subjects and cerebellar patients, but the latter appeared less able to attenuate reflexes to self-induced stimuli. This suggests that the cerebellum is not primarily involved in cutaneous reflex modulation but that it could act in attenuation of self-induced reflex responses. The latter role in locomotion would be consistent with the common view that the cerebellum predicts sensory consequences of movement.

  12. Cutaneous reflex modulation and self-induced reflex attenuation in cerebellar patients

    PubMed Central

    Van Calenbergh, Frank; Swinnen, Stephan P.; Duysens, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of cutaneous reflexes is important in the neural control of walking, yet knowledge about underlying neural pathways is still incomplete. Recent studies have suggested that the cerebellum is involved. Here we evaluated the possible roles of the cerebellum in cutaneous reflex modulation and in attenuation of self-induced reflexes. First we checked whether leg muscle activity during walking was similar in patients with focal cerebellar lesions and in healthy control subjects. We then recorded cutaneous reflex activity in leg muscles during walking. Additionally, we compared reflexes after standard (computer triggered) stimuli with reflexes after self-induced stimuli for both groups. Biceps femoris and gastrocnemius medialis muscle activity was increased in the patient group compared with the control subjects, suggesting a coactivation strategy to reduce instability of gait. Cutaneous reflex modulation was similar between healthy control subjects and cerebellar patients, but the latter appeared less able to attenuate reflexes to self-induced stimuli. This suggests that the cerebellum is not primarily involved in cutaneous reflex modulation but that it could act in attenuation of self-induced reflex responses. The latter role in locomotion would be consistent with the common view that the cerebellum predicts sensory consequences of movement. PMID:25392164

  13. The Reflexes of the Fundus Oculi

    PubMed Central

    Ballantyne, A. J.

    1940-01-01

    The fundus reflexes reveal, in a manner not yet completely understood, the texture and contour of the reflecting surfaces and the condition of the underlying tissues. In this way they may play an important part in the biomicroscopy of the eye. The physiological reflexes are seen at their best in the eyes of young subjects, in well-pigmented eyes, with undilated pupils and with emmetropic refraction. Their absence during the first two decades, or their presence after the forties, their occurrence in one eye only, their appearance, disappearance or change of character should suggest the possibility of some pathological state. The investigation and interpretation of the reflexes are notably assisted by comparing the appearances seen with long and short wave lights such as those of the sodium and mercury vapour lamps, in addition to the usual ophthalmoscopic lights. Most of the surface reflexes disappear in the light of the sodium lamp, sometimes revealing important changes in the deeper layers of the retina and choroid. The physiological reflexes, chiefly formed on the surface of the internal limiting membrane, take the forms of the familiar watered silk or patchy reflexes, the peri-macular halo, the fan reflex in the macular depression and the reflex from the foveal pit. The watered silk or patchy reflexes often show a delicate striation which follows the pattern of the nerve-fibre layer, or there may be a granular or criss-cross texture. Reflexes which entirely lack these indications of “texture” should be considered as possibly pathological. This applies to the “beaten metal” reflexes and to those formed on the so-called hyaloid membrane. The occurrence of physiological reflexes in linear form is doubtful, and the only admittedly physiological punctate reflexes are the so-called Gunn's dots. Surface reflexes which are broken up into small points or flakes are pathological, and are most frequently seen in the central area of the fundus in cases of pigmentary

  14. Distributed acoustic receptivity in laminar flow control configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhari, Meelan

    1992-01-01

    A model problem related to distributed receptivity to free-stream acoustic waves in laminar flow control (LFC) configurations is studied, within the Orr-Sommerfield framework, by a suitable extension of the Goldstein-Ruban theory for receptivity due to localized disturbances on the airfoil surface. The results, thus, complement the earlier work on the receptivity produced by local variations in the surface suction and/or surface admittance. In particular, we show that the cumulative effect of the distributed receptivity can be substantially larger than that of a single, isolated suction strip or slot. Furthermore, even if the receptivity is spread out over very large distances, the most effective contributions come from a relatively short region in vicinity of the lower branch of the neutral stability curve. The length scale of this region is intermediate to that of the mean of these two length scales. Finally, it is found that the receptivity is effectively dominated by a narrow band of Fourier components from the wall-suction and admittance distributions, roughly corresponding to a detuning of less than ten percent with respect to the neutral instability wavenumber at the frequency under consideration. The results suggest that the drop-off in receptivity magnitudes away from the resonant wavenumber is nearly independent of the frequency parameter.

  15. The Savannah hypotheses: origin, reception and impact on paleoanthropology.

    PubMed

    Bender, Renato; Tobias, Phillip V; Bender, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The reconstruction of the human past is a complex task characterized by a high level of interdisciplinarity. How do scientists from different fields reach consensus on crucial aspects of paleoanthropological research? The present paper explores this question through an historical analysis of the origin, development, and reception of the savannah hypotheses (SHs). We show that this model neglected to investigate crucial biological aspects which appeared to be irrelevant in scenarios depicting early hominins evolving in arid or semi-arid open plains. For instance, the exploitation of aquatic food resources and other aspects of hominin interaction with water were largely ignored in classical paleoanthropology. These topics became central to alternative ideas on human evolution known as aquatic hypotheses. Since the aquatic model is commonly regarded as highly controversial, its rejection led to a stigmatization of the whole spectrum of topics around water use in non-human hominoids and hominins. We argue that this bias represents a serious hindrance to a comprehensive reconstruction of the human past. Progress in this field depends on clear differentiation between hypotheses proposed to contextualize early hominin evolution in specific environmental settings and research topics which demand the investigation of all relevant facets of early hominins' interaction with complex landscapes.

  16. Receptive field characteristics under electrotactile stimulation of the fingertip.

    PubMed

    Warren, Jay P; Bobich, Lisa R; Santello, Marco; Sweeney, James D; Tillery, Stephen I Helms

    2008-08-01

    Skin on human fingertips has high concentrations of mechanoreceptors, which are used to provide fine resolution tactile representations of our environment. Here, we explore the ability to discriminate electrotactile stimulation at four sites on the fingertip. Electrical stimulation was delivered to arrays of electrodes centered on the index fingertip (volar aspect). Accuracy of discrimination was tested by examining electrode size, interelectrode spacing, and stimulation frequency as primary factors. Electrical stimulation was delivered at 2 mA with the pulse width modulated to be at (or above) perceptual threshold at 25 and 75 Hz and an average pulse width of 1.03 ms (+/- 0.70 ms standard deviation). Discrimination of the stimulated locations under this stimulation paradigm was significantly above chance level in all cases. Subjects' ability to discriminate stimulus location was not significantly influenced by electrode size or stimulation frequency when considered as separate factors. However, increased electrode spacing significantly increased subjects' ability to discriminate the location of the stimulated electrode. Further analysis revealed that errors were only significantly reduced along the medial-lateral direction with increasing interelectrode spacing. These results suggest that the electrotactile stimulus localization on the fingertip has some directional dependency, in addition to its dependency on interelectrode spacing. The neural mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are discussed in relation to electrical stimulus transduction characteristics of tactile mechanoreceptors.

  17. Changes in the Achilles tendon reflexes following Skylab missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, J. T.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Johnson, R. L.; Hordinsky, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Postflight measurements of Achilles tendon reflex duration on Skylab crewmen indicate a state of disequilibrium between the flexor and extensor muscle groups with an initial decrease in reflex duration. As the muscles regain strength and mass there occurs an overcompensation reflected by increased reflex duration. Finally, when a normal neuromuscular state is reached the reflex duration returns to baseline value.

  18. "IN ALL ITS HIDEOUS AND APPALLING NAKEDNESS AND TRUTH": THE RECEPTION OF SOME ANATOMICAL COLLECTIONS IN GEORGIAN AND VICTORIAN ENGLAND.

    PubMed

    Talairach-Vielmas, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the reception of some anatomical collections in Georgian and Victorian England. Both private medical museums and public anatomical museums reflected the central role played by anatomy in medical knowledge and education in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. However, because they were associated with death and sexuality, anatomical museums were both products of enlightenment science and potentially immoral loci likely to corrupt young and innocent women. But, as this article shows, the reasons behind the hostile receptions of some collections varied throughout the centuries, revealing in so doing the gradual professionalization of the medical field and growing monopoly of medical professionals over medical knowledge.

  19. Numerical Studies of Boundary-Layer Receptivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Helen L.

    1995-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the acoustic receptivity process on a semi-infinite flat plate with a modified-super-elliptic (MSE) leading edge are performed. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved in stream-function/vorticity form in a general curvilinear coordinate system. The steady basic-state solution is found by solving the governing equations using an alternating direction implicit (ADI) procedure which takes advantage of the parallelism present in line-splitting techniques. Time-harmonic oscillations of the farfield velocity are applied as unsteady boundary conditions to the unsteady disturbance equations. An efficient time-harmonic scheme is used to produce the disturbance solutions. Buffer-zone techniques have been applied to eliminate wave reflection from the outflow boundary. The spatial evolution of Tollmien-Schlichting (T-S) waves is analyzed and compared with experiment and theory. The effects of nose-radius, frequency, Reynolds number, angle of attack, and amplitude of the acoustic wave are investigated. This work is being performed in conjunction with the experiments at the Arizona State University Unsteady Wind Tunnel under the direction of Professor William Saric. The simulations are of the same configuration and parameters used in the wind-tunnel experiments.

  20. Receptive females mitigate costs of sexual conflict.

    PubMed

    Harano, T

    2015-02-01

    Males typically gain fitness from multiple mating, whereas females often lose fitness from numerous mating, potentially leading to sexual conflict over mating. This conflict is expected to favour the evolution of female resistance to mating. However, females may incur male harassment if they refuse to copulate; thus, greater female resistance may increase costs imposed by males. Here, I show that the evolution of resistance to mating raises fitness disadvantages of interacting with males when mating is harmful in female adzuki bean beetles, Callosobruchus chinensis. Females that were artificially selected for higher and lower remating propensity evolved to accept and resist remating, respectively. Compared with females that evolved to accept remating, females that evolved to resist it suffered higher fitness costs from continuous exposure to males. The costs of a single mating measured by the effect on longevity did not differ among selection line females. This study indicates that receptive rather than resistant females mitigate the fitness loss resulting from sexual conflict, suggesting that even though mating is harmful, females can evolve to accept additional mating.

  1. Relationship of Postural Reflexes to Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rider, Barbara A.

    1972-01-01

    The fact that the children with learning disorders had significantly more abnormal reflexes than did the normal children lends empirical support to the theory of minimal neurological impairment as a factor in the etiology of learning disabilities. (Author)

  2. Demonstrating the Stretch Reflex: A Mechanical Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batavia, Mitchell; McDonough, Andrew L.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the concept of stretch reflexes to students using a mechanical model. The model provides a dynamic multisensory experience using movement, light, and sound. Describes the construction design. (SAH)

  3. The legacy of care as reflexive learning

    PubMed Central

    García, Marta Rodríguez; Moya, Jose Luis Medina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to analyze whether the tutor's use of reflexive strategies encourages the students to reflect. The goal is to discover what type of strategies can help to achieve this and how tutors and students behave in the practical context. Method: a qualitative and ethnographic focus was adopted. Twenty-seven students and 15 tutors from three health centers participated. The latter had received specific training on reflexive clinical tutoring. The analysis was developed through constant comparisons of the categories. Results: the results demonstrate that the tutors' use of reflexive strategies such as didactic questioning, didactic empathy and pedagogical silence contributes to encourage the students' reflection and significant learning. Conclusions: reflexive practice is key to tutors' training and students' learning. PMID:27305180

  4. Sacculo-ocular reflex connectivity in cats.

    PubMed

    Isu, N; Graf, W; Sato, H; Kushiro, K; Zakir, M; Imagawa, M; Uchino, Y

    2000-04-01

    The otolith system contributes to the vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) when the head moves linearly in the horizontal plane or tilts relative to gravity. The saccules are thought to detect predominantly accelerations along the gravity vector. Otolith-induced vertical eye movements following vertical linear accelerations are attributed to the saccules. However, information on the neural circuits of the sacculo-ocular system is limited, and the effects of saccular inputs on extraocular motoneurons remain unclear. In the present study, synaptic responses to saccular-nerve stimulation were recorded intracellularly from identified motoneurons of all twelve extraocular muscles. Experiments were successfully performed in eleven cats. Individual motoneurons of the twelve extraocular muscles--the bilateral superior recti (SR), inferior recti (IR), superior obliques (SO), inferior obliques (IO), lateral recti (LR), and medial recti (MR) were identified antidromically following bipolar stimulation of their respective nerves. The saccular nerve was selectively stimulated by a pair of tungsten electrodes after removing the utricular nerve and the ampullary nerves of the semicircular canals. Stimulus intensities were determined from the stimulus-response curves of vestibular N1 field potentials in order to avoid current spread. Intracellular recordings were performed from 129 extraocular motoneurons. The majority of the neurons showed no response to saccular-nerve stimulation. In 17 (30%) of 56 extraocular motoneurons related to vertical eye movements (bilateral SR and IR), depolarizing and/or hyperpolarizing postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) were observed in response to saccular-nerve stimulation. The latencies of PSPs ranged from 2.3 to 8.9 ms, indicating that the extraocular motoneurons received neither monosynaptic nor disynaptic inputs from saccular afferents. The majority of the latencies of the depolarization, including depolarization-hyperpolarization, were in the range of 2

  5. On the Second Language Acquisition of Spanish Reflexive Passives and Reflexive Impersonals by French- and English-Speaking Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Annie

    2006-01-01

    This study, a partial replication of Bruhn de Garavito (1999a; 1999b), investigates the second language (L2) acquisition of Spanish reflexive passives and reflexive impersonals by French- and English-speaking adults at an advanced level of proficiency. The L2 acquisition of Spanish reflexive passives and reflexive impersonals by native French and…

  6. Acute provoked reflex seizures induced by thinking.

    PubMed

    Nevler, Naomi; Gandelman-Marton, Revital

    2012-11-01

    Thinking epilepsy is a rare form of reflex epilepsy that can be induced by specific cognitive tasks, and occurs mainly in idiopathic generalized epilepsies. We report a case of complex partial seizures triggered by thinking in a young man with acute bacterial meningitis and a remote head injury. This case illustrates that thinking-induced reflex seizures can be partial and can be provoked by an acute brain insult.

  7. Neuromuscular consequences of reflexive covert orienting.

    PubMed

    Corneil, Brian D; Munoz, Douglas P; Chapman, Brendan B; Admans, Tania; Cushing, Sharon L

    2008-01-01

    Visual stimulus presentation activates the oculomotor network without requiring a gaze shift. Here, we demonstrate that primate neck muscles are recruited during such reflexive covert orienting in a manner that parallels activity recorded from the superior colliculus (SC). Our results indicate the presence of a brainstem circuit whereby reflexive covert orienting is prevented from shifting gaze, but recruits neck muscles, predicting that similarities between SC and neck muscle activity should extend to other cognitive processes that are known to influence SC activity.

  8. Torso flexion modulates stiffness and reflex response.

    PubMed

    Granata, K P; Rogers, E

    2007-08-01

    Neuromuscular factors that contribute to spinal stability include trunk stiffness from passive and active tissues as well as active feedback from reflex response in the paraspinal muscles. Trunk flexion postures are a recognized risk factor for occupational low-back pain and may influence these stabilizing control factors. Sixteen healthy adult subjects participated in an experiment to record trunk stiffness and paraspinal muscle reflex gain during voluntary isometric trunk extension exertions. The protocol was designed to achieve trunk flexion without concomitant influences of external gravitational moment, i.e., decouple the effects of trunk flexion posture from trunk moment. Systems identification analyses identified reflex gain by quantifying the relation between applied force disturbances and time-dependent EMG response in the lumbar paraspinal muscles. Trunk stiffness was characterized from a second order model describing the dynamic relation between the force disturbances versus the kinematic response of the torso. Trunk stiffness increased significantly with flexion angle and exertion level. This was attributed to passive tissue contributions to stiffness. Reflex gain declined significantly with trunk flexion angle but increased with exertion level. These trends were attributed to correlated changes in baseline EMG recruitment in the lumbar paraspinal muscles. Female subjects demonstrated greater reflex gain than males and the decline in reflex gain with flexion angle was greater in females than in males. Results reveal that torso flexion influences neuromuscular factors that control spinal stability and suggest that posture may contribute to the risk of instability injury.

  9. Reflex ring laser amplifier system

    DOEpatents

    Summers, M.A.

    1983-08-31

    The invention is a method and apparatus for providing a reflex ring laser system for amplifying an input laser pulse. The invention is particularly useful in laser fusion experiments where efficient production of high-energy and high power laser pulses is required. The invention comprises a large aperture laser amplifier in an unstable ring resonator which includes a combination spatial filter and beam expander having a magnification greater than unity. An input pulse is injected into the resonator, e.g., through an aperture in an input mirror. The injected pulse passes through the amplifier and spatial filter/expander components on each pass around the ring. The unstable resonator is designed to permit only a predetermined number of passes before the amplified pulse exits the resonator. On the first pass through the amplifier, the beam fills only a small central region of the gain medium. On each successive pass, the beam has been expanded to fill the next concentric non-overlapping region of the gain medium.

  10. 45. Everett, Weinreb, photographer DETAIL, CEMENT TILE PATTERN FROM RECEPTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Everett, Weinreb, photographer DETAIL, CEMENT TILE PATTERN FROM RECEPTION HALL LOOKING EAST ACROSS ARRIVAL LOBBY FLOOR - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Tracks & Shed, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 117. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, RECEPTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, RECEPTION AREA, DETAIL OF BUFFALO DOORKNOB (FRONTAL VIEW) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. 115. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, RECEPTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    115. INTERIOR, SIXTH FLOOR, WING 6100 WEST, SUITE 6000, RECEPTION AREA, DETAIL OF GRAINED RADIATOR CABINET - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. Views of the Apollo 11 Twentieth Anniversary Black Tie reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    View from the Apollo 11 Twentieth Anniversary Black Tie reception at the downtown Houston Hyatt Regency Hotel. Scene show NASA/JSC Director Aaron Cohen talking with NASA Administrator Richard H. Truly and his wife, Cody.

  14. Interior view, anteroom of the postmaster general's reception hall; shown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, anteroom of the postmaster general's reception hall; shown here are two of the six aluminum statues of postal delivery men - New Post Office Building, Twelfth Street and Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. Effective Receptivity Prediction in Three--Dimensional Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrinsky, Alex Y.; Collis, S. Scott

    2002-11-01

    While the Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE) have been used in the past to study stability and receptivity of boundary layers, it is unclear how effective they are in the highly nonparallel three-dimensional boundary-layers that occur near the leading edge of swept wings. In this talk, we compare results obtained using Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) with predictions based on PSE for Hiemenz flow subject to wall boundary excitations. After establishing the validity of PSE for stability prediction, we evaluate the Adjoint Parabolized Stability Equations (APSE) for receptivity prediction in Hiemenz flow by comparing with both adjoint Navier--Stokes and DNS as well as results from prior investigations. Along the way, we highlight some important implementational issues of the APSE method necessary to obtain correct receptivity predictions and conclude with general recommendations of when and how PSE and APSE methods should be used to yield accurate receptivity results.

  16. Receptivity to alcohol marketing predicts initiation of alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, Lisa; Feighery, Ellen C.; Schleicher, Nina C.; Fortmann, Stephen P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This longitudinal study examined the influence of alcohol advertising and promotions on the initiation of alcohol use. A measure of receptivity to alcohol marketing was developed from research about tobacco marketing. Recall and recognition of alcohol brand names were also examined. Methods Data were obtained from in-class surveys of 6th, 7th, and 8th graders at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Participants who were classified as never drinkers at baseline (n=1,080) comprised the analysis sample. Logistic regression models examined the association of advertising receptivity at baseline with any alcohol use and current drinking at follow-up, adjusting for multiple risk factors, including peer alcohol use, school performance, risk taking, and demographics. Results At baseline, 29% of never drinkers either owned or wanted to use an alcohol branded promotional item (high receptivity), 12% students named the brand of their favorite alcohol ad (moderate receptivity) and 59% were not receptive to alcohol marketing. Approximately 29% of adolescents reported any alcohol use at follow-up; 13% reported drinking at least 1 or 2 days in the past month. Never drinkers who reported high receptivity to alcohol marketing at baseline were 77% more likely to initiate drinking by follow-up than those were not receptive. Smaller increases in the odds of alcohol use at follow-up were associated with better recall and recognition of alcohol brand names at baseline. Conclusions Alcohol advertising and promotions are associated with the uptake of drinking. Prevention programs may reduce adolescents’ receptivity to alcohol marketing by limiting their exposure to alcohol ads and promotions and by increasing their skepticism about the sponsors’ marketing tactics. PMID:18155027

  17. Leading-edge receptivity for blunt-nose bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammerton, P. W.; Kerschen, E. J.

    1992-01-01

    Boundary-layer receptivity in the leading edge region for bodies with blunt leading edges is investigated in this research program. Receptivity theory provides the link between the unsteady disturbance environment in the freestream and the initial amplitudes of instability waves in the boundary layer. This is a critical problem which must be addressed in order to develop more accurate prediction methods for boundary-layer transition.

  18. Whole-body vibration-induced muscular reflex: Is it a stretch-induced reflex?

    PubMed Central

    Cakar, Halil Ibrahim; Cidem, Muharrem; Sebik, Oguz; Yilmaz, Gizem; Karamehmetoglu, Safak Sahir; Kara, Sadik; Karacan, Ilhan; Türker, Kemal Sıtkı

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Whole-body vibration (WBV) can induce reflex responses in muscles. A number of studies have reported that the physiological mechanisms underlying this type of reflex activity can be explained by reference to a stretch-induced reflex. Thus, the primary objective of this study was to test whether the WBV-induced muscular reflex (WBV-IMR) can be explained as a stretch-induced reflex. [Subjects and Methods] The present study assessed 20 healthy males using surface electrodes placed on their right soleus muscle. The latency of the tendon reflex (T-reflex) as a stretch-induced reflex was compared with the reflex latency of the WBV-IMR. In addition, simulations were performed at 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 Hz to determine the stretch frequency of the muscle during WBV. [Results] WBV-IMR latency (40.5 ± 0.8 ms; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 39.0–41.9 ms) was significantly longer than T-reflex latency (34.6 ± 0.5 ms; 95% CI: 33.6–35.5 ms) and the mean difference was 6.2 ms (95% CI of the difference: 4.7–7.7 ms). The simulations performed in the present study demonstrated that the frequency of the stretch signal would be twice the frequency of the vibration. [Conclusion] These findings do not support the notion that WBV-IMR can be explained by reference to a stretch-induced reflex. PMID:26310784

  19. Compressibility effects on the non-linear receptivity of boundary layers to dielectric barrier discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denison, Marie F. C.

    The reduction of drag and aerodynamic heating caused by boundary layer transition is of central interest for the development of hypersonic vehicles. Receptivity to flow perturbation in the form of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) wave growth often determines the first stage of the transition process, which can be delayed by depositing specific excitations into the boundary layer. Weakly ionized Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) actuators are being investigated as possible sources of such excitations, but little is known today about their interaction with high-speed flows. In this framework, the first part of the thesis is dedicated to a receptivity study of laminar compressible boundary layers over a flat plate by linear stability analysis following an adjoint operator formulation, under DBD representative excitations assumed independent of flow conditions. The second part of the work concentrates on the development of a coupled plasma-Navier and Stokes solver targeted at the study of supersonic flow and compressibility effects on DBD forcing and non-parallel receptivity. The linear receptivity study of quasi-parallel compressible flows reveals several interesting features such as a significant shift of the region of maximum receptivity deeper into the flow at high Mach number and strong wave amplitude reduction compared to incompressible flows. The response to DBD relevant excitation distributions and to variations of the base flow conditions and system length scales follows these trends. Observed absolute amplitude changes and relative sensitivity modifications between source types are related to the evolution of the offset between forcing peak profile and relevant adjoint mode maximum. The analysis highlights the crucial importance of designing and placing the actuator in a way that matches its force field to the position of maximum boundary layer receptivity for the specific flow conditions of interest. In order to address the broad time and length scale spectrum

  20. Numerical Simulation of Receptivity for a Transition Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collis, S. Scott; Joslin, R. D. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The cost of fuel to overcome turbulence induced viscous drag on a commercial airplane constitutes a significant fraction of the operating cost of an airline. Achieving laminar flow and maintaining it over a large portion of the wing can significantly reduce the viscous drag, and hence the cost. Design of such laminar-flow-control wings and their practical operation requires the ability to accurately and reliably predict the transition from laminar to turbulent flow. The transition process begins with the conversion of environmental and surface disturbances into the instability waves of the flow by a process called receptivity. The goal of the current research project has been to improve the prediction of transition through a better understanding of the physics of receptivity. The initial objective of this work was to investigate the specific stability and receptivity characteristics of a particular experimental investigation of boundary layer receptivity at NASA Langley. Some simulation results using direct solutions of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations which modeled this experiment where presented in the 1999 APS DFD meeting. However, based on these initial investigations, it became clear that to cover the vast receptivity parameter space required for a practical transition prediction tool, more efficient methods would be required. Thus, the focus of this research was shifted from modeling this particular experiment to formulating and developing new techniques that could efficiently yet accurately predict receptivity for a wide range of disturbance conditions.

  1. Receptivity of Hypersonic Boundary Layers to Acoustic and Vortical Disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakamar, P.; Kegerise, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    Boundary layer receptivity to two-dimensional acoustic disturbances at different incidence angles and to vortical disturbances is investigated by solving the Navier-Stokes equations for Mach 6 flow over a 7deg half-angle sharp-tipped wedge and a cone. Higher order spatial and temporal schemes are employed to obtain the solution. The results show that the instability waves are generated in the leading edge region and that the boundary layer is much more receptive to slow acoustic waves as compared to the fast waves. It is found that the receptivity of the boundary layer on the windward side (with respect to the acoustic forcing) decreases when the incidence angle is increased from 0 to 30 degrees. However, the receptivity coefficient for the leeward side is found to vary relatively weakly with the incidence angle. The maximum receptivity is obtained when the wave incident angle is about 20 degrees. Vortical disturbances also generate unstable second modes, however the receptivity coefficients are smaller than that for the acoustic waves. Vortical disturbances first generate the fast acoustic modes and they switch to the slow mode near the continuous spectrum.

  2. Support for non-locking parallel reception of packets belonging to a single memory reception FIFO

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong [Yorktown Heights, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Yorktown Heights, NY; Salapura, Valentina [Yorktown Heights, NY; Senger, Robert M [Yorktown Heights, NY; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard [Boeblingen, DE; Sugawara, Yutaka [Yorktown Heights, NY

    2011-01-27

    A method and apparatus for distributed parallel messaging in a parallel computing system. A plurality of DMA engine units are configured in a multiprocessor system to operate in parallel, one DMA engine unit for transferring a current packet received at a network reception queue to a memory location in a memory FIFO (rmFIFO) region of a memory. A control unit implements logic to determine whether any prior received packet destined for that rmFIFO is still in a process of being stored in the associated memory by another DMA engine unit of the plurality, and prevent the one DMA engine unit from indicating completion of storing the current received packet in the reception memory FIFO (rmFIFO) until all prior received packets destined for that rmFIFO are completely stored by the other DMA engine units. Thus, there is provided non-locking support so that multiple packets destined for a single rmFIFO are transferred and stored in parallel to predetermined locations in a memory.

  3. Variability in Hoffmann and tendon reflexes in healthy male subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Good, E.; Do, S.; Jaweed, M.

    1992-01-01

    There is a time dependent decrease in amplitude of H- and T-reflexes during Zero-G exposure and subsequently an increase in the amplitude of the H-reflex 2-4 hours after return to a 1-G environment. These alterations have been attributed to the adaptation of the human neurosensory system to gravity. The Hoffman reflex (H-reflex) is an acknowledged method to determine the integrity of the monosynaptic reflex arc. However deep tendon reflexes (DTR's or T-reflexes), elicited by striking the tendon also utilize the entire reflex arc. The objective of this study was to compare the variability in latency and amplitude of the two reflexes in healthy subjects. Methods: Nine healthy male subjects, 27-43 years in age, 161-175 cm in height plus 60-86 Kg in weight, underwent weekly testing for four weeks with a Dan-Tec EMG counterpoint EMG system. Subjects were studied prone and surface EMG electrodes were placed on the right and left soleus muscles. The H-reflex was obtained by stimulating the tibial nerve in the politeal fossa with a 0.2 msec square wave pulse delivered at 2 Hz until the maximum H-reflex was obtained. The T-reflex was invoked by tapping the achilles tendon with a self triggering reflex hammer connected to the EMG system. The latencies and amplitudes for the H- and T-reflexes were measured. Results: These data indicate that the amplitudes of these reflexes varied considerably. However, latencies to invoked responses were consistent. The latency of the T-reflex was approximately 3-5 msec longer than the H-reflex. Conclusion: The T-reflex is easily obtained, requires less time, and is more comfortable to perform. Qualitative data can be obtained by deploying self triggering, force plated reflex hammers both in the 1-G and Zero-G environment.

  4. Audiogenic reflex seizures in cats

    PubMed Central

    Lowrie, Mark; Bessant, Claire; Harvey, Robert J; Sparkes, Andrew; Garosi, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to characterise feline audiogenic reflex seizures (FARS). Methods An online questionnaire was developed to capture information from owners with cats suffering from FARS. This was collated with the medical records from the primary veterinarian. Ninety-six cats were included. Results Myoclonic seizures were one of the cardinal signs of this syndrome (90/96), frequently occurring prior to generalised tonic–clonic seizures (GTCSs) in this population. Other features include a late onset (median 15 years) and absence seizures (6/96), with most seizures triggered by high-frequency sounds amid occasional spontaneous seizures (up to 20%). Half the population (48/96) had hearing impairment or were deaf. One-third of cats (35/96) had concurrent diseases, most likely reflecting the age distribution. Birmans were strongly represented (30/96). Levetiracetam gave good seizure control. The course of the epilepsy was non-progressive in the majority (68/96), with an improvement over time in some (23/96). Only 33/96 and 11/90 owners, respectively, felt the GTCSs and myoclonic seizures affected their cat’s quality of life (QoL). Despite this, many owners (50/96) reported a slow decline in their cat’s health, becoming less responsive (43/50), not jumping (41/50), becoming uncoordinated or weak in the pelvic limbs (24/50) and exhibiting dramatic weight loss (39/50). These signs were exclusively reported in cats experiencing seizures for >2 years, with 42/50 owners stating these signs affected their cat’s QoL. Conclusions and relevance In gathering data on audiogenic seizures in cats, we have identified a new epilepsy syndrome named FARS with a geriatric onset. Further studies are warranted to investigate potential genetic predispositions to this condition. PMID:25916687

  5. Jaw, blink and corneal reflex latencies in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, E A; Ongerboer de Visser, B W; Barendswaard, E C; Arts, R J

    1985-01-01

    Jaw, blink and corneal reflexes, which all involve the trigeminal system, were recorded in 54 patients with multiple sclerosis; thirty-seven of these patients were classified as having definite multiple sclerosis and 17 as indefinite multiple sclerosis, according to Schumacher's criteria. The jaw reflex was abnormal less frequently than either of the other two reflexes, but in four cases it was the only abnormal reflex found. Testing a combination of two or three trigeminal reflexes did not yield a higher incidence of abnormalities than testing the blink or corneal reflex alone. Nine patients showed abnormal reflexes which were unexpected on the basis of clinical symptoms. The combined recordings demonstrate at least one abnormal reflex in 74% of the patients. The various types of reflex abnormalities reflect major damage to different parts of the trigeminal system and may therefore make an important contribution to the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. PMID:4087004

  6. A Binaural Cochlear Implant Sound Coding Strategy Inspired by the Contralateral Medial Olivocochlear Reflex

    PubMed Central

    Eustaquio-Martín, Almudena; Stohl, Joshua S.; Wolford, Robert D.; Schatzer, Reinhold; Wilson, Blake S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In natural hearing, cochlear mechanical compression is dynamically adjusted via the efferent medial olivocochlear reflex (MOCR). These adjustments probably help understanding speech in noisy environments and are not available to the users of current cochlear implants (CIs). The aims of the present study are to: (1) present a binaural CI sound processing strategy inspired by the control of cochlear compression provided by the contralateral MOCR in natural hearing; and (2) assess the benefits of the new strategy for understanding speech presented in competition with steady noise with a speech-like spectrum in various spatial configurations of the speech and noise sources. Design: Pairs of CI sound processors (one per ear) were constructed to mimic or not mimic the effects of the contralateral MOCR on compression. For the nonmimicking condition (standard strategy or STD), the two processors in a pair functioned similarly to standard clinical processors (i.e., with fixed back-end compression and independently of each other). When configured to mimic the effects of the MOCR (MOC strategy), the two processors communicated with each other and the amount of back-end compression in a given frequency channel of each processor in the pair decreased/increased dynamically (so that output levels dropped/increased) with increases/decreases in the output energy from the corresponding frequency channel in the contralateral processor. Speech reception thresholds in speech-shaped noise were measured for 3 bilateral CI users and 2 single-sided deaf unilateral CI users. Thresholds were compared for the STD and MOC strategies in unilateral and bilateral listening conditions and for three spatial configurations of the speech and noise sources in simulated free-field conditions: speech and noise sources colocated in front of the listener, speech on the left ear with noise in front of the listener, and speech on the left ear with noise on the right ear. In both bilateral and

  7. The trigeminocardiac reflex – a comparison with the diving reflex in humans

    PubMed Central

    Lemaitre, Frederic; Schaller, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    The trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR) has previously been described in the literature as a reflexive response of bradycardia, hypotension, and gastric hypermotility seen upon mechanical stimulation in the distribution of the trigeminal nerve. The diving reflex (DR) in humans is characterized by breath-holding, slowing of the heart rate, reduction of limb blood flow and a gradual rise in the mean arterial blood pressure. Although the two reflexes share many similarities, their relationship and especially their functional purpose in humans have yet to be fully elucidated. In the present review, we have tried to integrate and elaborate these two phenomena into a unified physiological concept. Assuming that the TCR and the DR are closely linked functionally and phylogenetically, we have also highlighted the significance of these reflexes in humans. PMID:25995761

  8. The reflex-diode HPM source on Aurora

    SciTech Connect

    Huttlin, G.A.; Bushell, M.S.; Conrad, D.B.; Davis, D.P.; Litz, M.S.; Ruth, B.G.; Agee, F.J. ); Ebersole, K.L.; Judy, D.C.; Lezcano, P.A.; Pereira, N.R.; Weidenheimer, D.M. )

    1990-06-01

    This paper describes the most recent in a series of experiments to develop the reflex diode as a source of microwaves on the Aurora relativistic electron-beam pulser. The authors have achieved an overall output for radial extraction of {approximately} 400 J in microwave bursts from {approximately} 100 to 150 ns at frequencies below 1 GHz. The diagnostics for radial extraction have included directional couplers, card calorimeters, and free-field sensors. The authors have varied the anode/cathode spacing, downstream microwave reflector, and a second anode foil, but, within the range of variations, no strong trends have been noted.

  9. [Nurse's daily reception in Family Health Units in Londrina, Paraná State].

    PubMed

    Nery, Sônia Regina; Nunes, Elisabete de Fátima Polo de Almeida; de Carvalho, Brígida Gimenez; Melchior, Regina; Baduy, Rossana Staevie; de Lima, Josiane Vivian Camargo

    2009-10-01

    This paper analyses the auxiliary nurses' perception on the work of the Family Health team regarding users' receptiveness as a technology in the relationship with patients and community in Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil. It is a qualitative research, which data was collected during a focal group. Thematic analysis of the content was performed for data analysis. Results show that auxiliary nurses have sensibility, are committed, and feel responsible for users' receptiveness, and recognize the importance of an integral and effective attention. They report knowing better the reality of the families' lives since the implementation of the Family Health Program, but highlight the fact that not all of them perform activities outside the unit. Contradictions have also been noted regarding the patients' rights provided by the Unified Health System, mainly about the universality of access. One of the reported difficulties was the increase of demand after the implementation of the Family Health Program. This situation presents itself as a challenge to change the attention model, and it is necessary to reorganize the process of work as well as to incorporate other fields of knowledge in order to promote the practice of receptiveness, and the integration of intra and extra activities at the unit.

  10. Volume production of negative ions in the reflex type ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Jimbo, K.

    1982-01-01

    The production of negative hydrogen ions is investigated in the reflex-type negative ion source. The extracted negative hydrogen currents of 9.7 mA (100 mA/cm/sup 2/) for H/sup -/ and of 4.1 mA (42 mA/cm/sup 2/) for D/sup -/ are obtained continuously. The impurity is less then 1%. An isotope effect of negative ion production is observed. When anomalous diffusion in the positive column was found by Lehnert and Hoh (1960), it was pointed out that the large particle loss produced by anomalous diffusion is compensated by the large particle production inside the plasma, i.e., the plasma tries to maintain itself. The self-sustaining property of the plasma is applied to the reflex-type negative ion source. Anomalous diffusion was artificially encouraged by changing the radial electric field inside the reflex discharge. The apparent encouragement of negative ion diffusion by the increase of density fluctuation amplitude is observed. Twice as much negative ion current was obtained with the artificial encouragement as without. It is found from the quasilinear theory that the inwardly directed radial electric field destabilizes the plasma in the reflex-type ion source. The nonlinear theory based on Yoshikawa method (1962) is extended, and the anomalous diffusion coefficient in a weakly ionized plasma is obtained. The electrostatic sheath trap, which increases the confinement of negative ions in the reflex-type ion source, is also discussed.

  11. Using ESO Reflex with Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järveläinen, P.; Savolainen, V.; Oittinen, T.; Maisala, S.; Ullgrén, M. Hook, R.

    2008-08-01

    ESO Reflex is a prototype graphical workflow system, based on Taverna, and primarily intended to be a flexible way of running ESO data reduction recipes along with other legacy applications and user-written tools. ESO Reflex can also readily use the Taverna Web Services features that are based on the Apache Axis SOAP implementation. Taverna is a general purpose Web Service client, and requires no programming to use such services. However, Taverna also has some restrictions: for example, no numerical types such integers. In addition the preferred binding style is document/literal wrapped, but most astronomical services publish the Axis default WSDL using RPC/encoded style. Despite these minor limitations we have created simple but very promising test VO workflow using the Sesame name resolver service at CDS Strasbourg, the Hubble SIAP server at the Multi-Mission Archive at Space Telescope (MAST) and the WESIX image cataloging and catalogue cross-referencing service at the University of Pittsburgh. ESO Reflex can also pass files and URIs via the PLASTIC protocol to visualisation tools and has its own viewer for VOTables. We picked these three Web Services to try to set up a realistic and useful ESO Reflex workflow. They also demonstrate ESO Reflex abilities to use many kind of Web Services because each of them requires a different interface. We describe each of these services in turn and comment on how it was used

  12. Neural reflexes in inflammation and immunity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian immune system and the nervous system coevolved under the influence of infection and sterile injury. Knowledge of homeostatic mechanisms by which the nervous system controls organ function was originally applied to the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and other body systems. Development of advanced neurophysiological and immunological techniques recently enabled the study of reflex neural circuits that maintain immunological homeostasis, and are essential for health in mammals. Such reflexes are evolutionarily ancient, dating back to invertebrate nematode worms that possess primitive immune and nervous systems. Failure of these reflex mechanisms in mammals contributes to nonresolving inflammation and disease. It is also possible to target these neural pathways using electrical nerve stimulators and pharmacological agents to hasten the resolution of inflammation and provide therapeutic benefit. PMID:22665702

  13. Laryngeal Reflexes: Physiology, Technique and Clinical Use

    PubMed Central

    Ludlow, Christy L.

    2015-01-01

    This review examines the current level of knowledge and techniques available for the study of laryngeal reflexes. Overall, the larynx is under constant control of several systems (including respiration, swallowing and cough) as well as sensory-motor reflex responses involving glossopharyngeal, pharyngeal, laryngeal and tracheobronchial sensory receptors. Techniques for the clinical assessment of these reflexes are emerging and need to be examined for sensitivity and specificity in identifying laryngeal sensory disorders. Quantitative assessment methods for the diagnosis of sensory reductions as well as sensory hypersensitivity may account for laryngeal disorders such as chronic cough, paradoxical vocal fold disorder and muscular tension dysphonia. The development of accurate assessment techniques could improve our understanding of the mechanisms involved in these disorders. PMID:26241237

  14. The stretch reflex and the contributions of C David Marsden

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Kalyan B.

    2017-01-01

    The stretch reflex or myotatic reflex refers to the contraction of a muscle in response to its passive stretching by increasing its contractility as long as the stretch is within physiological limits. For ages, it was thought that the stretch reflex was of short latency and it was synonymous with the tendon reflex, subserving the same spinal reflex arc. However, disparities in the status of the two reflexes in certain clinical situations led Marsden and his collaborators to carry out a series of experiments that helped to establish that the two reflexes had different pathways. That the two reflexes are dissociated has been proved by the fact that the stretch reflex and the tendon reflex, elicited by stimulation of the same muscle, have different latencies, that of the stretch reflex being considerably longer. They hypothesized that the stretch reflex had a transcortical course before it reached the spinal motor neurons for final firing. Additionally, the phenomenon of stimulus-sensitive cortical myoclonus lent further evidence to the presence of the transcortical loop where the EEG correlate preceded the EMG discharge. This concept has been worked out by later neurologists in great detail, and the general consensus is that indeed, the stretch reflex is endowed with a conspicuous transcortical component. PMID:28298835

  15. The stretch reflex and the contributions of C David Marsden.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Kalyan B

    2017-01-01

    The stretch reflex or myotatic reflex refers to the contraction of a muscle in response to its passive stretching by increasing its contractility as long as the stretch is within physiological limits. For ages, it was thought that the stretch reflex was of short latency and it was synonymous with the tendon reflex, subserving the same spinal reflex arc. However, disparities in the status of the two reflexes in certain clinical situations led Marsden and his collaborators to carry out a series of experiments that helped to establish that the two reflexes had different pathways. That the two reflexes are dissociated has been proved by the fact that the stretch reflex and the tendon reflex, elicited by stimulation of the same muscle, have different latencies, that of the stretch reflex being considerably longer. They hypothesized that the stretch reflex had a transcortical course before it reached the spinal motor neurons for final firing. Additionally, the phenomenon of stimulus-sensitive cortical myoclonus lent further evidence to the presence of the transcortical loop where the EEG correlate preceded the EMG discharge. This concept has been worked out by later neurologists in great detail, and the general consensus is that indeed, the stretch reflex is endowed with a conspicuous transcortical component.

  16. Interpretations of Incompressible Continuous Spectrum Receptivity Curves for Transient Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monschke, Jason; White, Edward

    2013-11-01

    Receptivity of transient disturbances to distributed surface roughness is not representable as a single value but is instead a complex-valued function with a different value for each continuous spectrum mode of the Orr-Sommerfeld/Squire equations. Specific characteristics of the curves give rise to streamwise vorticity of varying strength and at different locations within the boundary layer. The various combinations of streamwise vorticity and the initial streamwise velocity disturbance result in the many types of energy evolution seen in experiments and DNS. Following the work of Tumin [Phys. Fluids 15, 2525 (2003)], Denissen & White [Phys. Fluids 21, 114105 (2009)] developed a technique to decompose experimental measurements made downstream of a roughness array into the constituent continuous spectrum modes. These techniques provide for significant data reduction because receptivity curves encode the complete downstream evolution of the laminar boundary layer. Even though the decomposition uniquely characterizes receptivity to roughness, the small set of measured curves has hindered a systematic understanding of the physical meaning of roughness receptivity curves. Our findings help to associate specific receptivity-curve shapes with physically observable behavior. Supported by AFOSR under grant FA9550-11-1-0203.

  17. Receptivity of Supersonic Boundary Layers to Acoustic Disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, Mujeeb R.; Balakumar, P.

    2005-01-01

    Boundary layer receptivity to two-dimensional slow and fast acoustic waves is investigated by solving Navier-Stokes equations for Mach 4.5 flow over a flat plate with a finite-thickness leading edge. Higher order spatial and temporal schemes are employed to obtain the solution whereby the flat-plate leading edge region is resolved by providing a sufficiently refined grid. The results show that the instability waves are generated in the leading edge region and that the boundary-layer is much more receptive to slow acoustic waves (by almost a factor of 20) as compared to the fast waves. Hence, this leading-edge receptivity mechanism is expected to be more relevant in the transition process for high Mach number flows. The effect of acoustic wave incidence angle is also studied and it is found that the receptivity of the boundary layer on the windward side (with respect to the acoustic forcing) decreases by more than a factor of 4 when the incidence angle is increased from 0 to 45 deg. However, the receptivity coefficient for the leeward side is found to vary relatively weakly with the incidence angle. The effect of leading-edge thickness is also studied and bluntness is found to stabilize the boundary layer. The relative significance of fast acoustic waves is enhanced in the presence of bluntness.

  18. Descending Influences on Vestibulospinal and Vestibulosympathetic Reflexes

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Andrew A.; Miller, Derek M.; Yates, Bill J.

    2017-01-01

    This review considers the integration of vestibular and other signals by the central nervous system pathways that participate in balance control and blood pressure regulation, with an emphasis on how this integration may modify posture-related responses in accordance with behavioral context. Two pathways convey vestibular signals to limb motoneurons: the lateral vestibulospinal tract and reticulospinal projections. Both pathways receive direct inputs from the cerebral cortex and cerebellum, and also integrate vestibular, spinal, and other inputs. Decerebration in animals or strokes that interrupt corticobulbar projections in humans alter the gain of vestibulospinal reflexes and the responses of vestibular nucleus neurons to particular stimuli. This evidence shows that supratentorial regions modify the activity of the vestibular system, but the functional importance of descending influences on vestibulospinal reflexes acting on the limbs is currently unknown. It is often overlooked that the vestibulospinal and reticulospinal systems mainly terminate on spinal interneurons, and not directly on motoneurons, yet little is known about the transformation of vestibular signals that occurs in the spinal cord. Unexpected changes in body position that elicit vestibulospinal reflexes can also produce vestibulosympathetic responses that serve to maintain stable blood pressure. Vestibulosympathetic reflexes are mediated, at least in part, through a specialized group of reticulospinal neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla that project to sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord. However, other pathways may also contribute to these responses, including those that dually participate in motor control and regulation of sympathetic nervous system activity. Vestibulosympathetic reflexes differ in conscious and decerebrate animals, indicating that supratentorial regions alter these responses. However, as with vestibular reflexes acting on the limbs, little is known

  19. Charitable giving and reflexive individuals: How personal reflexivity mediates between structure and agency.

    PubMed

    Sanghera, Balihar

    2017-03-01

    This article examines how individuals are reflexive beings who interpret the world in relation to things that matter to them, and how charitable acts are evaluated and embedded in their lives with different degrees of meaning and importance. Rather than framing the discussion of charitable practices in terms of an altruism/egoism binary or imputing motivations and values to social structures, the article explains how reflexivity is an important and neglected dimension of social practices, and how it interacts with sympathy, sentiments and discourses to shape giving. The study also shows that there are different modes of reflexivity, which have varied effects on charity and volunteering.

  20. Charitable giving and reflexive individuals: How personal reflexivity mediates between structure and agency

    PubMed Central

    Sanghera, Balihar

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how individuals are reflexive beings who interpret the world in relation to things that matter to them, and how charitable acts are evaluated and embedded in their lives with different degrees of meaning and importance. Rather than framing the discussion of charitable practices in terms of an altruism/egoism binary or imputing motivations and values to social structures, the article explains how reflexivity is an important and neglected dimension of social practices, and how it interacts with sympathy, sentiments and discourses to shape giving. The study also shows that there are different modes of reflexivity, which have varied effects on charity and volunteering. PMID:28232772

  1. A Prototype Analysis of Spanish Indeterminate Reflexive Constructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turley, Jeffrey S.

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of the Spanish indeterminate reflexive construction, the impersonal reflexive, finds that prototype theory allows this subjectless Spanish construction to be included within the category of generally subject-bearing indeterminates in Romance languages. (MSE)

  2. Ascending SAG neurons control sexual receptivity of Drosophila females.

    PubMed

    Feng, Kai; Palfreyman, Mark T; Häsemeyer, Martin; Talsma, Aaron; Dickson, Barry J

    2014-07-02

    Mating induces pronounced changes in female reproductive behavior, typically including a dramatic reduction in sexual receptivity. In Drosophila, postmating behavioral changes are triggered by sex peptide (SP), a male seminal fluid peptide that acts via a receptor (SPR) expressed in sensory neurons (SPSNs) of the female reproductive tract. Here, we identify second-order neurons that mediate the behavioral changes induced by SP. These SAG neurons receive synaptic input from SPSNs in the abdominal ganglion and project to the dorsal protocerebrum. Silencing SAG neurons renders virgin females unreceptive, whereas activating them increases the receptivity of females that have already mated. Physiological experiments demonstrate that SP downregulates the excitability of the SPSNs, and hence their input onto SAG neurons. These data thus provide a physiological correlate of mating status in the female central nervous system and a key entry point into the brain circuits that control sexual receptivity.

  3. Studies of boundary-layer receptivity with parabolized stability equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbert, Thorwald; Lin, Nay

    1993-07-01

    Transition prediction with DNS or PSE requires specification of a model environment that affects the transition process through initial and boundary conditions. Usually, this environment is specified in terms of normal modes at an initial position. This specification is based on empiricism and is often inappropriate. To free the transition analysis from empiricism, it is necessary to specify the environment in more physical terms and to incorporate local and area-distributed receptivity as part of the analysis. In principle, the PSE are capable to deal with linear and nonlinear receptivity mechanisms. We demonstrate this capability by analyzing the origin of Klebanoff modes, their connection to Goertler vortices, and the forcing of cross-flow vortices in swept Hiemenz flow. Our study serves to refine the PSE and to extend their scope as a tool for studies on receptivity, stability, and transition.

  4. F response and H reflex analysis of physiological unity of gravity and antigravity muscles in man.

    PubMed

    García, H A; Fisher, M A

    1977-01-01

    Observational differences between reflex (H reflex) and antidromic (F response) activation of segmental motoneurons by a peripheral electrical stimulus are described. In contrast to H reflexes, the percentage of F responses found after a series of stimuli is directly related to the pick-up field of the recording electrode consistent with this response being due to the variable activation of a small fraction of the available motoneuron pool. Despite the differing physiological mechanisms, both F responses and H reflexes can be used to demonstrate similar relative "central excitatory states" for antigravity muscles (i.e. extensors in the lower extremity and flexors in the upper extremity) and their antagonist gravity muscles. H reflexes were elicited not only in their usual location in certain antigravity muscles but also in unusual locations by length/tension changes in agonist and antagonist groups as well as by passive stretch. The data argue for the physiological unity of similarly acting gravity and antigravity muscles as well as supporting a meaningful role of group II afferents in normal segmental motoneuron pool excitability.

  5. Boundary-layer receptivity of sound with roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saric, William S.; Hoos, Jon A.; Radeztsky, Ronald H.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental study of receptivity was carried out using an acoustical disturbance in the freestream. The receptivity was enhanced by using a uniform two-dimensional roughness strip (tape). The roughness strip generated the local adjustment in the flow needed to couple the long-wavelength sound wave with the short-wavelength T-S wave. The method proved to be highly sensitive, with slight changes in the forcing frequency or in the height of the 2D roughness element having a strong effect on the amplitude of the observed T-S wave.

  6. Theory of optimum radio reception methods in random noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutkin, L. S.

    1982-09-01

    The theory of optimum methods of reception of signals on the background of random noise, widely used in development of any radioelectronic systems and devices based on reception and transmission of information (radar and radio controlled, radio communications, radio telemetry, radio astronomy, television, and other systems), as well as electroacoustical and wire communications sytems, is presented. Optimum linear and nonlinear filtration, binary and comples signal detection and discrimination, estimation of signal parameters, receiver synthesis for incomplete a priori data, special features of synthesis with respect to certain quality indicators, and other problems are examined.

  7. Snout and Visual Rooting Reflexes in Infantile Autism. Brief Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minderaa, Ruud B.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The authors conducted extensive neurological evaluations of 42 autistic individuals and were surprised to discover a consistently positive snout reflex in most of them. Difficulties with assessing the reflex are noted. The authors then reassessed the Ss for a series of primitive reflexes which are interpreted as signs of diffuse cortical brain…

  8. 21 CFR 890.1450 - Powered reflex hammer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Powered reflex hammer. 890.1450 Section 890.1450...) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1450 Powered reflex hammer. (a) Identification. A powered reflex hammer is a motorized device intended for medical...

  9. 21 CFR 890.1450 - Powered reflex hammer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Powered reflex hammer. 890.1450 Section 890.1450...) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1450 Powered reflex hammer. (a) Identification. A powered reflex hammer is a motorized device intended for medical...

  10. 21 CFR 890.1450 - Powered reflex hammer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Powered reflex hammer. 890.1450 Section 890.1450...) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Diagnostic Devices § 890.1450 Powered reflex hammer. (a) Identification. A powered reflex hammer is a motorized device intended for medical...

  11. On Reflection: Is Reflexivity Necessarily Beneficial in Intercultural Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasco, Maribel

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how the concept of reflexivity is used in intercultural education. Reflexivity is often presented as a key learning goal in acquiring intercultural competence (ICC). Yet, reflexivity can be defined in different ways, and take different forms across time and space, depending on the concepts of selfhood that prevail and how…

  12. PIV Application to Fluid Dynamics of Bass Reflex Ports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Massimiliano; Esposito, Enrico; Tomasini, Enrico Primo

    A bass reflex (or vented or ported) loudspeaker system (BRS) is a particular type of loudspeaker enclosure that makes use of the combination of two second-order mechanic/acoustic devices, i.e., the driver and a Helmotz resonator, in order to create a new system with reinforced emission in the low frequency region. The resonator is composed by the box itself in which one or more ports are present with suitable shapes and dimensions. This category of loudspeaker presents several advantages compared to closed-box systems such as higher efficiency and power, smaller dimensions and reduced distortion at lower frequencies. Notwithstanding these advantages, they present some drawbacks like more complexity and unloading of the cone below the tuning frequency. Moreover, at high power levels the airflow in the port(s) may generate unwanted noises due to turbulence as well as distortion and acoustic compression. In this work we will present and compare a series of experiments conducted on two different bass reflex ports designs to assess their performance in terms of flow turbulence and sound-level compression at high input power levels. These issues are quite important in professional sound systems, where increasing power levels and sound clarity require exponentially growing cost and weight. For these reasons it is vital to optimize port design. To the knowledge of the authors there does not exist an accurate, nonintrusive experimental full-field study of air flows emitting from reflex ports in operating conditions. In this work, the experimental fluid dynamic investigation has been conducted by means of PIV and LDA techniques.

  13. Reflex Anuria After Renal Tumor Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Kervancioglu, Selim Sirikci, Akif; Erbagci, Ahmet

    2007-04-15

    We report a case of reflex anuria after transarterial embolization of a renal tumor. Anuria developed immediately after embolization and resolved 74 hr following the procedure. We postulate that reflux anuria in our case was related to mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors, or both, as these are stimulated by the occluded blood vessels, ischemia, and edema of the normal renal tissue of an embolized kidney.

  14. Acoustic reflex patterns in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Canale, Andrea; Albera, Roberto; Lacilla, Michelangelo; Canosa, Antonio; Albera, Andrea; Sacco, Francesca; Chiò, Adriano; Calvo, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate acoustic reflex testing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. Amplitude, latency, and rise time of stapedial reflex were recorded for 500 and 1000 Hz contralateral stimulus. Statistical analysis was performed by the Wilcoxon test and the level of significance was set at 5 %. Fifty-one amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and ten sex- and age-matched control subjects were studied. Patients were further divided in two groups: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-bulbar (38 cases, with bulbar signs at evaluation) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-spinal (13 cases, without bulbar signs at evaluation). Stapedial reflex was present in all patients. There was a statistically significant difference in the mean amplitude, latency, and rise time between the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients as compared with the controls. Amplitude was lower in both the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-bulbar and the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-spinal patients than in the controls (p < 0.05) and rise time was longer in both patient groups compared with the controls (p < 0.05). These results confirm the presence of abnormal acoustic reflex patterns in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis cases with bulbar signs and, moreover, suggesting a possible subclinical involvement of the stapedial motor neuron even in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-spinal patients. Amplitude and rise time seem to be good sensitive parameters for investigating subclinical bulbar involvement.

  15. Reflexive Learning: Stages towards Wisdom with Dreyfus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Ian

    2005-01-01

    The Dreyfus (2001) account of seven stages of learning is considered in the context of the Dreyfus (1980s) account of five stages of skill development. The two new stages, Mastery and Practical Wisdom, make more explicit certain themes implicit in the five-stage account. In this way Dreyfus (2001) encourages a more reflexive approach. The themes…

  16. Taking Control of Reflexive Social Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ristic, Jelena; Kingstone, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Attention is shifted reflexively to where other people are looking. It has been argued by a number of investigators that this social attention effect reflects the obligatory bottom-up activation of domain-specific modules within the inferior temporal (IT) cortex that are specialized for processing face and gaze information. However, it is also the…

  17. Perspective on the human cough reflex

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This review dissects the complex human cough reflex and suggests hypotheses about the evolutionary basis for the reflex. A mechanosensory-induced cough reflex conveys through branches of myelinated Aδ nerve fibers is not chemically reactive (i.e., capsaicin, bradykinin); possibly, its evolution is to prevent the harmful effects of aspiration of gastric or particulate contents into the lungs. This became necessary as the larynx moves closer to the opening of the esophagus as human ancestors adapt phonation over olfaction beginning less than 10 million years ago. The second type of cough reflex, a chemosensory type, is carried by unmyelinated C fibers. Supposedly, its origin dates back when prehistoric humans began living in close proximity to each other and were at risk for infectious respiratory diseases or irritant-induced lung injury. The mechanism for the latter type of cough is analogous to induced pain after tissue injury; and, it is controlled by the identical transient receptor potential vanilloid cation channel (TRPV1). The airways do not normally manifest nociceptive pain from a stimulus but the only consistent response that capsaicin and lung inflammation provoke in healthy human airways is cough. TRPA1, another excitatory ion channel, has been referred to as the "irritant receptor" and its activation also induces cough. For both types of cough, the motor responses are identical and via coordinated, precisely-timed and sequential respiratory events orchestrated by complex neuromuscular networking of the diaphragm, chest and abdominal respiratory muscles, the glottis and parts of the brain. PMID:22074326

  18. Biological Motion Cues Trigger Reflexive Attentional Orienting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Jinfu; Weng, Xuchu; He, Sheng; Jiang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    The human visual system is extremely sensitive to biological signals around us. In the current study, we demonstrate that biological motion walking direction can induce robust reflexive attentional orienting. Following a brief presentation of a central point-light walker walking towards either the left or right direction, observers' performance…

  19. Plasma quiescence in a reflex discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Jerde, L.; Friedman, S.; Carr, W.; Seidl, M.

    1980-02-01

    A thermionic cathode reflex discharge and the plasma it produces are studied. It is found that extremely quiescent plasmas can be produced when the electron-loss rate due to classical diffusion is equal to the ion-loss rate. Particle and power balances for the quiescent plasma are obtained, and the average electron energy loss per ion produced is determined.

  20. Reflexivity as a Learning Strategy in EFL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chi, Feng-ming

    Reflexivity, defined as the self-applied process of learning, the use of self and others as active signs in the learning process, is examined through relevant literature in English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) instruction. When EFL learners are encouraged to stand back and examine the way they learn and why they learn this way, reflexivity…

  1. A Testbed for Autonomous Reflexive Grasping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    written in C. The tactile sensor is neural network causes the reflex layer of the a 10 x 10 Tekscan sensor with an active area subsumption architecture to...Doctoral Thesis, March 1990. [9] J. G. Webster, Tactile Sensors for Robotics and Medicine, John Wiley & Sons, 1988 [10] Tekscan Inc., " Tekscan Corporate

  2. Reflexivity and the Researcher: An Illumination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Is reflexivity the condition of taking account of the personality and presence of the researcher within the investigation? Some argue that it is and it is necessary because self-examination is commonplace in society today. Improving and building are common goals, and within education we are committed to questioning in order to examine, build, and…

  3. Reception-Conversion Subsystem (RXCV) for microwave power transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    As part of a program to demonstrate the feasibility of power transmission from space, an approximately 25 sq m Reception-Conversion Subsystem was designed and tested. The device collects high power microwave energy, converts it into dc, and dissipates it in an instrumented demonstration load.

  4. Communication Based on Receptive Multilingualism: Advantages and Disadvantages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braunmüller, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    This paper tries to give answers for successful receptive multilingualism (RM) but also for its failure. It is mainly based on the results of two projects, one on inter-dialectal communication in the Baltic area during the era of the Hanseatic League and the other analyses inter-Scandinavian communication today. The main purpose of this survey is…

  5. A Psychometric Evaluation of the Cultural Receptivity in Fostering Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coakley, Tanya M.; Orme, John G.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The psychometric properties of a new measure of foster parents' openness toward participating in activities that promote children's cultural development are evaluated. The measure is titled the Cultural Receptivity in Fostering Scale (CRFS). Method: Data from 304 foster mothers who completed the CRFS and a battery of measures on…

  6. 33 CFR 158.410 - Reception facilities: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RECEPTION FACILITIES FOR OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, AND GARBAGE Criteria for... charge of a ship, a list of persons authorized by federal, state, or local law or regulation to transport... or license required by environmental and public health laws and regulations concerning...

  7. 33 CFR 158.410 - Reception facilities: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RECEPTION FACILITIES FOR OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, AND GARBAGE Criteria for... charge of a ship, a list of persons authorized by federal, state, or local law or regulation to transport... or license required by environmental and public health laws and regulations concerning...

  8. 33 CFR 158.410 - Reception facilities: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RECEPTION FACILITIES FOR OIL, NOXIOUS LIQUID SUBSTANCES, AND GARBAGE Criteria for... charge of a ship, a list of persons authorized by federal, state, or local law or regulation to transport... or license required by environmental and public health laws and regulations concerning...

  9. Power transmission and reception. An overview and perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietz, R. H.

    1980-07-01

    Systems definition and assessment of the microwave power transmission and reception (PTAR) system for the solar power satellite are surveyed. Five different options are discussed and the separate antenna concept using the linear beam klystron to convert from dc to RF energy is described in detail.

  10. Expressive versus Receptive Language Skills in Specific Reading Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stojanovik, Vesna; Riddell, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Despite ample research into the language skills of children with specific reading disorder no studies so far have investigated whether there may be a difference between expressive and receptive language skills in this population. Yet, neuro-anatomical models would predict that children who have specific reading disorder which is not associated…

  11. College Student Receptiveness to Various Alcohol Treatment Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epler, Amee J.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Loomis, Tiffany B.; O'Malley, Stephanie S.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Heavy episodic drinking remains a significant problem on college campuses. Although most interventions for college students are behavioral, pharmacological treatments, such as naltrexone, could provide additional options. Participants: The authors evaluated receptivity to various alcohol treatment options in a general population of…

  12. On the Reception of Foucauldian Ideas in Pedagogical Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrowicka, Helena

    2011-01-01

    The article is devoted to the presentation of the reception of Foucauldian ideas in Polish pedagogical research over the past twenty years. This movement of thought is described as an oscillation between heterotopia and utopia, autonomy and heteronomy, emancipation and repression. As results of this analysis indicate, Polish pedagogues are most…

  13. Language Production and Reception: A Processability Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinner, Patti

    2013-01-01

    Pienemann's Processability Theory (PT) predicts an order of emergence of morphosyntactic elements in second language (L2) production data. This research investigates whether the same order of emergence can be detected in L2 reception data, specifically, data from a timed audio grammaticality judgment task (GJT). The results from three related…

  14. Optimal Disturbances and Receptivity of 3D Boundary Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempelmann, David; Hanifi, Ardeshir; Henningson, Dan

    2009-11-01

    We will present spatial optimal disturbances in a Falkner-Skan-Cooke boundary layer and illuminate how these can be used to determine the receptivity of crossflow vortices to freestream disturbances. Optimal disturbances, which are obtained by solving a parabolized set of equations, initially take the form of vortices tilted against the direction of the mean crossflow shear. Further downstream they evolve into bended streaks and finally into crossflow disturbances. A large potential for initial non-modal growth becomes apparent where both the lift-up effect and the Orr-mechanism are identified as responsible physical mechanisms. We inquire if non-modal growth is related to a receptivity mechanism for modal instabilities in 3D boundary layers. We therefore use continuous modes from the Orr-Sommerfeld/Squire spectrum as a model for freestream turbulence and project them onto initial optimal disturbances in order to obtain receptivity coefficients. A parametric study concerning optimal growth and receptivity will be presented as well as a comparison to existing DNS and experimental data.

  15. Receptive Vocabulary Differences in Monolingual and Bilingual Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialystok, Ellen; Luk, Gigi

    2012-01-01

    English receptive vocabulary scores from 797 monolingual and 808 bilingual participants between the ages of 17 and 89 years old were aggregated from 20 studies to compare standard scores across language groups. The distribution of scores was unimodal for both groups but the mean score was significantly different, with monolinguals obtaining higher…

  16. Categorization Skills and Receptive Language Development in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerer, Judy A.; Sigman, Marian

    1987-01-01

    Assessment of category knowledge and receptive language skills of 16 autistic (3-6 years old), mentally retarded, and normal children indicated that the autistic children's knowledge of function, form, and color categories was comparable to that of the mental-age-matched mentally retarded and normal comparison groups. (Author/DB)

  17. The Cinderella of Communication Strategies: Reception Strategies in Interactive Listening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandergrift, Laurens

    1997-01-01

    Investigated the types of reception strategies and the frequency of their use by students of French as a second language at different levels of language proficiency, measured by an oral proficiency interview. A number of distinct strategies were identified: kinesics, global reprises, hypothesis testing in English and uptaking. Results are…

  18. Power transmission and reception. An overview and perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    Systems definition and assessment of the microwave power transmission and reception (PTAR) system for the solar power satellite are surveyed. Five different options are discussed and the separate antenna concept using the linear beam klystron to convert from dc to RF energy is described in detail.

  19. Real gas effects on receptivity to kinetic fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumin, Anatoli; Edwards, Luke

    2016-11-01

    Receptivity of high-speed boundary layers is considered within the framework of fluctuating hydrodynamics where stochastic forcing is introduced through fluctuating shear stress and heat flux stemming from kinetic fluctuations (thermal noise). The forcing generates unstable modes whose amplification downstream and may lead to transition. An example of high-enthalpy (16 . 53 MJ / kg) boundary layer at relatively low wall temperatures (Tw = 1000 K - 3000 K), free stream temperature (Te = 834 K), and low pressure (0 . 0433 atm) is considered. Dissociation at the chosen flow parameters is still insignificant. The stability and receptivity analyses are carried out using a solver for calorically perfect gas with effective Prandtl number and specific heats ratio. The receptivity phenomenon is unchanged by the inclusion of real gas effects in the mean flow profiles. This is attributed to the fact that the mechanism for receptivity to kinetic fluctuations is localized near the upper edge of the boundary layer. Amplitudes of the generated wave packets are larger downstream in the case including real gas effects. It was found that spectra in both cases include supersonic second Mack unstable modes despite the temperature ratio Tw /Te > 1 . Supported by AFOSR.

  20. Views of the Apollo 11 Twentieth Anniversary Black Tie reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Views of the Apollo 11 Twentieth Anniversary Black Tie reception at the downtown Houston Hyatt Regency Hotel. Views include former JSC Directors Robert Gilruth and Christopher C. Kraft Jr. reminiscing with keynote speaker Walter Cronkite (39934); Apollo astronauts Tom Stafford (left) and Neil Armstrong (right) talk with former Soviet cosmonaut Alexei Leonov (center) at the gala (39935).

  1. An Examination of Similarity Neighbourhoods in Young Children's Receptive Vocabularies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles-Luce, Jan; Luce, Paul A.

    1995-01-01

    Examines issues relating to similarity neighborhoods of words in children's lexicons. Young children's receptive vocabularies were analyzed for three-phoneme, four-phoneme and five-phoneme words. The pattern of the original results from Charles-Luce & Luce (1990) was replicated. (18 references) (Author/CK)

  2. Adolescent Weight Status and Receptivity to Food TV Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adachi-Mejia, Anna M.; Sutherland, Lisa A.; Longacre, Meghan R.; Beach, Michael L.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Gibson, Jennifer J.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between adolescent weight status and food advertisement receptivity. Design: Survey-based evaluation with data collected at baseline (initial and at 2 months), and at follow-up (11 months). Setting: New Hampshire and Vermont. Participants: Students (n = 2,281) aged 10-13 in 2002-2005. Main Outcome…

  3. Press room of the Crew reception Area, Lunar Receivng Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Room 190 of the Support and Administrative Facilities, Crew Reception Area (CRA), Lunar Receiving Laboratory, Bldg 37, Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston, Texas. The room is a debriefing room which facilitates indirect contact with the astronauts and CRA medical staff during quarantine periods. Also called the press room.

  4. Temperament, Relationships, and Young Children's Receptive Cooperation With Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanska, Grazyna; Aksan, Nazan; Carlson, Jennifer J.

    2005-01-01

    The authors studied receptive cooperation--a willing, eager stance toward parents--in 15-month-old children (N=101) in broadly ranging contexts. Children's anger proneness and parents' responsiveness (both observed at 7 months) and children's attachment security (assessed in Strange Situation at 15 months) were examined as predictors of children's…

  5. Boundary-Layer Receptivity and Integrated Transition Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan; Choudhari, Meelan

    2005-01-01

    The adjoint parabold stability equations (PSE) formulation is used to calculate the boundary layer receptivity to localized surface roughness and suction for compressible boundary layers. Receptivity efficiency functions predicted by the adjoint PSE approach agree well with results based on other nonparallel methods including linearized Navier-Stokes equations for both Tollmien-Schlichting waves and crossflow instability in swept wing boundary layers. The receptivity efficiency function can be regarded as the Green's function to the disturbance amplitude evolution in a nonparallel (growing) boundary layer. Given the Fourier transformed geometry factor distribution along the chordwise direction, the linear disturbance amplitude evolution for a finite size, distributed nonuniformity can be computed by evaluating the integral effects of both disturbance generation and linear amplification. The synergistic approach via the linear adjoint PSE for receptivity and nonlinear PSE for disturbance evolution downstream of the leading edge forms the basis for an integrated transition prediction tool. Eventually, such physics-based, high fidelity prediction methods could simulate the transition process from the disturbance generation through the nonlinear breakdown in a holistic manner.

  6. Concern About Hunger May Increase Receptivity to GMOs.

    PubMed

    Carter, B Elijah; Conn, Caitlin C; Wiles, Jason R

    2016-07-01

    Due to a phenomenon known as the 'backfire effect', intuition-based opinions can be inadvertently strengthened by evidence-based counterarguments. Students' views on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) may be subject to this effect. We explored the impact of an empathetically accessible topic, world hunger, on receptivity to GMO technology as an alternative to direct evidence-based approaches.

  7. Listen to Your Heart? Calling and Receptivity to Career Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrow, Shoshana R.; Tosti-Kharas, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This study explores calling in the context of career decision making. Specifically, the authors examine receptivity to advice that discourages individuals from pursuing a professional path in their calling's domain. The authors hypothesize that people with a strong calling will be more likely to ignore negative career advice. In Study 1, a…

  8. Making Sense of Science in the Reception Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glauert, Esme

    2005-01-01

    In the context of growing awareness of young children's capabilities, and debates about the nature of their reasoning in science, this study set out to explore the ways in which reception children make sense of classroom experiences in science. A particular challenge of the study was to develop appropriate and productive approaches to…

  9. A New Receptive Vocabulary Size Test for French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batista, Roselene; Horst, Marlise

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have developed several tests of receptive vocabulary knowledge suitable for use with learners of English, but options are few for learners of French. This situation motivated the authors to create a new vocabulary size measure for French, the "Test de la taille du vocabulaire" (TTV). The measure is closely modelled on…

  10. Joint Book Reading and Receptive Vocabulary: A Parallel Process Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meng, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to understand the reciprocal, bidirectional longitudinal relation between joint book reading and English receptive vocabulary. To address the research goals, a nationally representative sample of Head Start children, the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (2003 cohort), was used for analysis. The…

  11. Setting the Stage: Constraints on ILR Receptive Skills Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Pardee, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses foreign language testing methods, particularly of receptive skills, and how the choice of method for any particular government agency is subject to the constraints imposed by the following factors: (1) method of correction, (2) ease of production and number of exam versions required, (3) content of the test, and (4) administration of the…

  12. A Review of Recommendations for Sequencing Receptive and Expressive Language Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg; Carr, James E.

    2011-01-01

    We review recommendations for sequencing instruction in receptive and expressive language objectives in early and intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) programs. Several books recommend completing receptive protocols before introducing corresponding expressive protocols. However, this recommendation has little empirical support, and some…

  13. Specificity of reflex adaptation for task-relevant variability.

    PubMed

    Franklin, David W; Wolpert, Daniel M

    2008-12-24

    The motor system responds to perturbations with reflexes, such as the vestibulo-ocular reflex or stretch reflex, whose gains adapt in response to novel and fixed changes in the environment, such as magnifying spectacles or standing on a tilting platform. Here we demonstrate a reflex response to shifts in the hand's visual location during reaching, which occurs before the onset of voluntary reaction time, and investigate how its magnitude depends on statistical properties of the environment. We examine the change in reflex response to two different distributions of visuomotor discrepancies, both of which have zero mean and equal variance across trials. Critically one distribution is task relevant and the other task irrelevant. The task-relevant discrepancies are maintained to the end of the movement, whereas the task-irrelevant discrepancies are transient such that no discrepancy exists at the end of the movement. The reflex magnitude was assessed using identical probe trials under both distributions. We find opposite directions of adaptation of the reflex response under these two distributions, with increased reflex magnitudes for task-relevant variability and decreased reflex magnitudes for task-irrelevant variability. This demonstrates modulation of reflex magnitudes in the absence of a fixed change in the environment, and shows that reflexes are sensitive to the statistics of tasks with modulation depending on whether the variability is task relevant or task irrelevant.

  14. Impact of aging on long-term ocular reflex adaptation.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Castellanos, Nicolas; Winkelman, Beerend H J; Tolosa-Rodriguez, Leonardo; De Gruijl, Jornt R; De Zeeuw, Chris I

    2013-12-01

    Compensatory eye movements (CEMs) stabilize the field of view enabling visual sharpness despite self-induced motion or environmental perturbations. The vestibulocerebellum makes it possible to adapt these reflex behaviors to perform optimally under novel circumstances that are sustained over time. Because of this and the fact that the eye is relatively insensitive to fatigue and musculoskeletal aging effects, CEMs form an ideal motor system to assess aging effects on cerebellar motor learning. In the present study, we performed an extensive behavioral examination of the impact of aging on both basic CEMs and oculomotor-based learning paradigms spanning multiple days. Our data show that healthy aging has little to no effect on basic CEM performance despite sensory deterioration, suggesting a central compensatory mechanism. Young mice are capable of adapting their oculomotor output to novel conditions rapidly and accurately, even to the point of reversing the direction of the reflex entirely. However, oculomotor learning and consolidation capabilities show a progressive decay as age increases.

  15. Emotional scene content drives the saccade generation system reflexively.

    PubMed

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyönä, Jukka; Calvo, Manuel G

    2009-04-01

    The authors assessed whether parafoveal perception of emotional content influences saccade programming. In Experiment 1, paired emotional and neutral scenes were presented to parafoveal vision. Participants performed voluntary saccades toward either of the scenes according to an imperative signal (color cue). Saccadic reaction times were faster when the cue pointed toward the emotional picture rather than toward the neutral picture. Experiment 2 replicated these findings with a reflexive saccade task, in which abrupt luminosity changes were used as exogenous saccade cues. In Experiment 3, participants performed vertical reflexive saccades that were orthogonal to the emotional-neutral picture locations. Saccade endpoints and trajectories deviated away from the visual field in which the emotional scenes were presented. Experiment 4 showed that computationally modeled visual saliency does not vary as a function of scene content and that inversion abolishes the rapid orienting toward the emotional scenes. Visual confounds cannot thus explain the results. The authors conclude that early saccade target selection and execution processes are automatically influenced by emotional picture content. This reveals processing of meaningful scene content prior to overt attention to the stimulus.

  16. Modulation of the initial light reflex during affective picture viewing

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Robert R.; Bradley, Margaret M.; Lang, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    An initial reflexive constriction of the pupil to stimulation – the light reflex – is primarily modulated by brightness, but is attenuated when participants are under threat of shock (e.g. "fear-inhibited light reflex").The present study assessed whether the light reflex is similarly attenuated when viewing emotional pictures. Participants viewed erotic, violent, and neutral scenes that were matched in brightness; as an additional control, scrambled versions identical in brightness were also presented. Compared to viewing neutral scenes, the light reflex was reliably modulated by hedonic content, with significant attenuation both when viewing unpleasant, as well as pleasant, pictures. No differences in the light reflex were found among scrambled versions. Modulation of the initial light reflex is therefore not confined to a context of fear, and also is not indicative of differences in brightness when viewing pictures of natural scenes. PMID:24849784

  17. Modulation of the initial light reflex during affective picture viewing.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Robert R; Bradley, Margaret M; Lang, Peter J

    2014-09-01

    An initial reflexive constriction of the pupil to stimulation-the light reflex-is primarily modulated by brightness, but is attenuated when participants are under threat of shock (i.e., fear-inhibited light reflex). The present study assessed whether the light reflex is similarly attenuated when viewing emotional pictures. Pupil diameter was recorded while participants viewed erotic, violent, and neutral scenes that were matched in brightness; scrambled versions identical in brightness were also presented as an additional control. Compared to viewing neutral scenes, the light reflex was reliably modulated by hedonic content, with significant attenuation both when viewing unpleasant as well as pleasant pictures. No differences in the light reflex were found among scrambled versions. Thus, emotional modulation of the initial light reflex is not confined to a context of fear and is not indicative of brightness differences when viewing pictures of natural scenes.

  18. Receptivity of Flat-Plate Boundary Layer in a Non-Uniform Free Stream (Vorticity Normal to the Plate)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogan, M. N.; Shumilkin, V. G.; Ustinov, M. V.; Zhigulev, S. V.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of low speed leading edge boundary layer receptivity to free-stream vorticity produced by upstream wires normal to the leading edge are discussed. Data include parametric variations in leading edge configuration and details of the incident disturbance field including single and multiple wakes. The induced disturbance amplitude increases with increases in the leading edge diameter and wake interactions. Measurements agree with the theory of M. E. Goldstein.

  19. Light Multi-Reflex Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonkin, A.

    The purpose of this article is to call attention to the revolutionary idea of multi-reflection. This idea allows the design of new engines, space propulsion systems, storage of a beam and solar energy, transmission of energy over millions of kilometers, a new weapon, etc. This method and its main innovations were offered by the author in 1983 in the former USSR. Now the author shows in a series of articles the huge possibilities of this idea in many fields such as space, aviation, energy, energy transmission, beam amplification, light transformation and so on. This article considers the direct transfer of light beam energy to mechanical energy and back.

  20. Receptive and Expressive Language Skills in Children with Cri-du-Chat Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornish, K. M.; Munir, F.

    1998-01-01

    Receptive and expressive language skills were assessed in 13 British children (ages 4-14) with cri-du-chat syndrome. Results found a discrepancy between the children's chronological ages and their presumed language ages and a receptive-expressive discrepancy, with reduced expressive skills compared to receptive skills. Remediation that focuses on…

  1. Age Differences in the Reception of New Scientific Theories: The Case of Plate Tectonics Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messeri, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Reviews various evidences on the relationship between age and the reception of major innovations in science. Examines the possibility that age patterning of reception may vary over time. Reports the potential importance of age on the reception of ideas while rejecting the presumption that advanced age leads to increased resistance. (YP)

  2. Deaf Students' Receptive and Expressive American Sign Language Skills: Comparisons and Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents receptive and expressive American Sign Language skills of 85 students, 6 through 22 years of age at a residential school for the deaf using the American Sign Language Receptive Skills Test and the Ozcaliskan Motion Stimuli. Results are presented by ages and indicate that students' receptive skills increased with age and…

  3. Somatoautonomic reflexes in acupuncture therapy: A review.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Sae; Kagitani, Fusako; Sato-Suzuki, Ikuko

    2017-03-01

    Oriental therapies such as acupuncture, moxibustion, or Anma, have been used to treat visceral disorders since ancient times. In each of these therapies, stimulation of the skin or underlying muscles leads to excitation of afferent nerves. The sensory information is carried to the central nervous system, where it is transferred to autonomic efferents, thus affecting visceral functions. This neuronal pathway, known as the "somatoautonomic reflex", has been systematically studied by Sato and his colleagues for over a half century. Nearly all their studies were conducted in anesthetized animals, whereas human patients are conscious. Responses in patients or the events following therapeutic somatic stimulation may differ from those observed in anesthetized animals. In fact, it is increasingly apparent that the responses in patients and animals are not always coincident, and the differences have been difficult for clinicians to reconcile. We review the mechanism of the "somatoautonomic reflex" as described in anesthetized animals and then discuss how it can be applied clinically.

  4. Development of a quantitative reflex hammer for measurement of tendon stretch reflex.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyu-Jung; Hwang, Il-Kyu; Wertsch, Jacqueline J

    2002-09-01

    Quantification of tendon stretch reflex requires precise measurement of the tapping force of a reflex hammer. A quantitative reflex (QR) hammer consisting of two cut rubber pieces from a generic rubber reflex hammer and a uniaxial force transducer was constructed. Finite element stress analyses were conducted to estimate the natural frequency characteristics of the hammer and to find the stress distributions during the impact. Pendulum impact testing was conducted at four different heights to assess the calibration linearity and repeatability of the measurement. The QR hammer had a fundamental natural frequency of 515 Hz and showed minimal displacement and stress at the tip from the finite element simulation of the impact. The QR hammer also provided reliable and repeatable measurements as demonstrated with high coefficients of determination, exceeding 0.994 and small coefficients of variations, less than 4%. The calibration linearity was 0.64% compared with the reference force platform measurement. The QR hammer demonstrated sufficient accuracy and reliability for precise clinical assessment of tendon stretch reflexes.

  5. The spinal reflex cannot be perceptually separated from voluntary movements.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arko; Haggard, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Both voluntary and involuntary movements activate sensors in the muscles, skin, tendon and joints. As limb movement can result from a mixture of spinal reflexes and voluntary motor commands, the cortical centres underlying conscious proprioception might either aggregate or separate the sensory inputs generated by voluntary movements from those generated by involuntary movements such as spinal reflexes. We addressed whether healthy volunteers could perceive the contribution of a spinal reflex during movements that combined both reflexive and voluntary contributions. Volunteers reported the reflexive contribution in leg movements that were partly driven by the knee-jerk reflex induced by a patellar tendon tap and partly by voluntary motor control. In one condition, participants were instructed to kick back in response to a tendon tap. The results were compared to reflexes in a resting baseline condition without voluntary movement. In a further condition, participants were instructed to kick forwards after a tap. Volunteers reported the perceived reflex contribution by repositioning the leg to the perceived maximum displacement to which the reflex moved the leg after each tendon tap. In the resting baseline condition, the reflex was accurately perceived. We found a near-unity slope of linear regressions of perceived on actual reflexive displacement. Both the slope value and the quality of regression fit in individual volunteers were significantly reduced when volunteers were instructed to generate voluntary backward kicks as soon as they detected the tap. In the kick forward condition, kinematic analysis showed continuity of reflex and voluntary movements, but the reflex contribution could be estimated from electromyography (EMG) recording on each trial. Again, participants' judgements of reflexes showed a poor relation to reflex EMG, in contrast to the baseline condition. In sum, we show that reflexes can be accurately perceived from afferent information. However

  6. Cortical reflex myoclonus in Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guerrini, R; Bonanni, P; Parmeggiani, L; Santucci, M; Parmeggiani, A; Sartucci, F

    1998-04-01

    Rett syndrome (RS) is one of the most frequent causes of mental retardation in females. As there are no known biochemical, genetic, or morphological markers, diagnosis is based on clinical phenotype including severe dementia, autism, truncal ataxia/apraxia, loss of purposeful hand movements, breathing abnormalities, stereotypies, seizures, and extrapyramidal signs. Myoclonus, although reported in some series, has never been characterized. We studied 10 RS patients, age 3 to 20 years, and observed myoclonus in 9. Severity of myoclonus did not correlate with that of the other symptoms or with age. Multifocal, arrhythmic, and asynchronous jerks mainly involved distal limbs. Electromyographic bursts lasted 48 +/- 12 msec. Burst-locked electroencephalographic averaging generated a contralateral centroparietal premyoclonus transient preceding the burst by 34 +/- 7.2 msec. Motor evoked potentials showed normal latencies, indicating integrity of the corticospinal pathway. Somatosensory evoked potentials were enlarged. The C-reflex was hyperexcitable and markedly prolonged (62 +/- 4.3 msec), mainly due to increase in cortical relay time (28.4 +/- 4.5 msec). We conclude that RS patients show a distinctive pattern of cortical reflex myoclonus with prolonged intracortical delay of the long-loop reflex.

  7. Basic Gravitational Reflexes in the Larval Frog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cochran, Stephen L.

    1996-01-01

    This investigation was designed to determine how a primitive vertebrate, the bullfrog tadpole, is able to sense and process gravitational stimuli. Because of the phylogenetic similarities of the vestibular systems in all vertebrates, the understanding of the gravitational reflexes in this relatively simple vertebrate should elucidate a skeletal framework on a elementary level, upon which the more elaborate reflexes of higher vertebrates may be constructed. The purpose of this study was to understand how the nervous system of the larval amphibian processes gravitational information. This study involved predominantly electrophysiological investigations of the isolated, alert (forebrain removed) bullfrog tadpole head. The focus of these experiments is threefold: (1) to understand from whole extraocular nerve recordings the signals sent to the eye following static gravitational tilt of the head; (2) to localize neuronal centers responsible for generating these signals through reversible pharmacological ablation of these centers; and (3) to record intracellularly from neurons within these centers in order to determine the single neuron's role in the overall processing of the center. This study has provided information on the mechanisms by which a primitive vertebrate processes gravitational reflexes.

  8. Antenna Automation For NOAA Satellite Images Reception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahal, W. L.; Benabadji, N.; Belbachir, A. H.

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel, precise and efficient software tool (LAAR-TRACK) for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Satellites orbit determination. It's based on using orbital elements, which are given by the NORAD (North American Aerospace Defence) by taking into considerations orbital perturbations due to the atmospheric drag, the influence of the moon and the sun and the geopotential field. The LAAR-TRACK gives the azimuth and the elevation that must have the antenna for pointing in real time the LEO satellites. This software is loaded on a computer directly connected, via the parallel port, to the tracking interface that we have developed, and which will be detailed in this paper. By this way the antenna can be automatically directed for receiving NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) HRPT (High Resolution Picture Transmission) pictures.

  9. The acoustic reflex in children without an hermetic seal.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, H; Babecki, S; Thomas, C

    1980-01-01

    In clinical practice with children, the hermetic seal is either often not obtainable or is lost before acoustic reflex measures are obtained. In a recent study, Surr and Schuchman (Archives of Otolaryngology 102, 160--161, 1976.) found that in the majority of cases reflex thresholds could be measured in adults with normal middle ears in the absence of an hermetic seal. This study was designed to find out whether the conclusions of Surr and Schuchman could be extended to children. Sealed and unsealed reflexes were compared in 30 children, ages 3 to 7, with normal middle ears. Results indicated that: (1) approximately two-thirds of the children demonstrated reflexes in the unsealed condition; (2) differences between sealed and unsealed reflex thresholds were not clinically significant; (3) in most cases, unsealed reflexes were measurable at all frequencies or at none; (4) neither size of ear canal volume nor amplitude of the sealed reflex at 10 dB SL seemed to be related to the presence or absence of the unsealed reflex. It was concluded that reflex thresholds obtained in the absence of an hermetic seal may be considered valid but the absence of an unsealed reflex should not be considered diagnostically significant.

  10. Enhanced magnetic ionization in hydrogen reflex discharge plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Toader, E.I.; Covlea, V.N.

    2005-03-01

    The effect of enhanced magnetic ionization on the external and internal parameters of a high-density, low pressure reflex plasma source operating in hydrogen is studied. The Langmuir probe method and Druyvesteyn procedure coupled with suitable software are used to measure the internal parameters. The bulk plasma region is free of an electric field and presents a high degree of uniformity. The electron energy distribution function is bi-Maxwellian with a dip/shoulder structure around 5.5 eV, independent of external parameters and radial position. Due to the enhanced hollow cathode effect by the magnetic trapping of electrons, the electron density n{sub e} is as high as 10{sup 18} m{sup -3}, and the electron temperature T{sub e} is as low as a few tens of an electron volt, for dissipated energy of tens of Watts. The bulk plasma density scales with the dissipated power.

  11. Effects of Wall Cooling on Hypersonic Boundary Layer Receptivity Over a Cone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kara, K.; Balakumar, P.; Kandil, O. A.

    2008-01-01

    Effects of wall cooling on the receptivity process induced by the interaction of slow acoustic disturbances in the free-stream are numerically investigated for a boundary layer flow over a 5-degrees straight cone. The free-stream Mach number is 6.0 and the Reynolds number is 7.8x10(exp 6)/ft. Both the steady and unsteady solutions are obtained by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations using 5th-order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for space discretization and using 3rd-order total variation diminishing (T VD) Runge-K utta scheme for time integration. Computations are performed for a cone with nose radius of 0.001 inch for adiabatic wall temperature (T(sub aw)), 0.75*T(sub aw), 0.5*T(sub aw), 0.40*T(sub aw), 0.30*T(sub aw), and 0.20*T(sub aw). Once the mean flow field is computed, disturbances are introduced at the upstream end of the computational domain. Generation of instability waves from leading edge region and receptivity of boundary layer to slow acoustic waves are investigated. Computations showed that wall cooling has strong stabilization effect on the first mode disturbances as was observed in the experiments. T ransition location moved to upstream when wall cooling was applied It is also found that the boundary layer is much more receptive to fast acoustic wave (by almost a factor of 50). When simulations performed using the same forcing frequency growth of the second mode disturbances are delayed with wall cooling and they attained values two times higher than that of adiabatic case. In 0.20*T(sub aw) case the transition Reynolds number is doubled compared to adiabatic conditions. The receptivity coefficient for adiabatic wall case (804 R) is 1.5225 and for highly cooled cones (241, and 161 R); they are in the order of 10(exp -3).

  12. Direct broadcast satellite-audio, portable and mobile reception tradeoffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golshan, Nasser

    1992-03-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a systems tradeoffs study on direct broadcast satellite-radio (DBS-R). Based on emerging advanced subband and transform audio coding systems, four ranges of bit rates: 16-32 kbps, 48-64 kbps, 96-128 kbps and 196-256 kbps are identified for DBS-R. The corresponding grades of audio quality will be subjectively comparable to AM broadcasting, monophonic FM, stereophonic FM, and CD quality audio, respectively. The satellite EIRP's needed for mobile DBS-R reception in suburban areas are sufficient for portable reception in most single family houses when allowance is made for the higher G/T of portable table-top receivers. As an example, the variation of the space segment cost as a function of frequency, audio quality, coverage capacity, and beam size is explored for a typical DBS-R system.

  13. The Comparative Reception of Darwinism: A Brief History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glick, Thomas F.

    2010-06-01

    The subfield of Darwin studies devoted to comparative reception coalesced around 1971 with the planning of a conference on the subject, at the University of Texas at Austin held in April 1972. The original focus was western Europe, Russia and the United States. Subsequently a spate of studies on the Italian reception added to the Eurocentric focus. The center of activity then switched to Latin America where a group of scholars coalesced in the mid 1990s, seemingly related to the maturation of the history of science as a discrete discipline there somewhat earlier. When interest in Europe revived during the last decade, the center of gravity had moved both eastward, to the former Society bloc countries (a reflection of the institutionalization of the history of science there), and north to Scandinavia. Recently, interest in the topic has emerged in the Islamic World. The subtext of the expansion of this topic is modernization.

  14. Receptivity and control in non-parallel flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, D. C.

    1996-11-01

    The receptivity problem for non-parallel compressible flow over general airfoil geometries has been investigated using the adjoint parabolized stability equations (PSE). The excitation of TS waves by acoustic scattering due to localized surface suction is modeled, and compared with direct numerical simulations by Crouch & Spalart(Crouch, J.D. & Spalart, P.R., 1995. A study of non-parallel and nonlinear effects on the localized receptivity of boundary layers. J. Fluid Mech.,) Vol. 290.. The excitation of crossflow vortices on a NACA 64A010 airfoil at 53 degrees sweep in a Mach 1.5 flow is also investigated. The features of the boundary layer profile to which the vortex growth rate is most sensitive are identified. These sensitivity data can be exploited for the design of optimum laminar wings or flow-control systems.

  15. A 32 x 32 array for satellite reception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, P.; Ruggieri, M.

    1989-12-01

    The possible adoption of microstrip arrays in the 12 GHz direct satellite reception is investigated. An array synthesis is performed and the dependence of the performance on the number of radiating elements, the type of feeding network, and the fabrication materials is evaluated. A 32 x 32 element array is synthesized which shows the flexibility and great potential of planar arrays in end-user applications.

  16. A REVIEW OF RECOMMENDATIONS FOR SEQUENCING RECEPTIVE AND EXPRESSIVE LANGUAGE INSTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg; Carr, James E

    2011-01-01

    We review recommendations for sequencing instruction in receptive and expressive language objectives in early and intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) programs. Several books recommend completing receptive protocols before introducing corresponding expressive protocols. However, this recommendation has little empirical support, and some evidence exists that the reverse sequence may be more efficient. Alternative recommendations include teaching receptive and expressive skills simultaneously (M. L. Sundberg & Partington, 1998) and building learning histories that lead to acquisition of receptive and expressive skills without direct instruction (Greer & Ross, 2008). Empirical support for these recommendations also is limited. Future research should assess the relative efficiency of receptive-before-expressive, expressive-before-receptive, and simultaneous training with children who have diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders. In addition, further evaluation is needed of the potential benefits of multiple-exemplar training and other variables that may influence the efficiency of receptive and expressive instruction. PMID:22219535

  17. A review of recommendations for sequencing receptive and expressive language instruction.

    PubMed

    Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg; Carr, James E

    2011-01-01

    We review recommendations for sequencing instruction in receptive and expressive language objectives in early and intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) programs. Several books recommend completing receptive protocols before introducing corresponding expressive protocols. However, this recommendation has little empirical support, and some evidence exists that the reverse sequence may be more efficient. Alternative recommendations include teaching receptive and expressive skills simultaneously (M. L. Sundberg & Partington, 1998) and building learning histories that lead to acquisition of receptive and expressive skills without direct instruction (Greer & Ross, 2008). Empirical support for these recommendations also is limited. Future research should assess the relative efficiency of receptive-before-expressive, expressive-before-receptive, and simultaneous training with children who have diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders. In addition, further evaluation is needed of the potential benefits of multiple-exemplar training and other variables that may influence the efficiency of receptive and expressive instruction.

  18. Chronic Trigemino-Cardiac Reflex: An Underestimated Truth

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Tumul; Schaller, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    The trigemino-cardiac reflex (TCR) is a brainstem reflex that manifests as adverse cardiorespiratory events upon the stimulation of sensory branches of the fifth cranial nerve. This reflex is mainly investigated in different neurosurgical procedures and intervention. This reflex is commonly considered as an acute and mild physiological response. On the other hand, more devastating and chronic nature of this reflex is largely underreported and unknown. Therefore, this article aims to provide the comprehensive understanding of the chronic form of TCR, its manifestations, and management by literature search. Also, this paper would certainly impart a better diagnosis and understanding of TCR phenomenon by knowing the relatively less common form of a chronic TCR. This will help thousands and thousands of patients who are still in the phase of diagnosis and are suffering from vague symptoms related to this reflex. PMID:28194134

  19. The exercise pressor reflex and peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Stone, Audrey J; Kaufman, Marc P

    2015-03-01

    The exercise pressor reflex contributes to increases in cardiovascular and ventilatory function during exercise. These reflexive increases are caused by both mechanical stimulation and metabolic stimulation of group III and IV afferents with endings in contracting skeletal muscle. Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) have an augmented exercise pressor reflex. Recently, an animal model of PAD was established which allows further investigation of possible mechanisms involved in this augmented reflex. Earlier studies have identified ASIC3 channels, bradykinin receptors, P2X receptors, endoperoxide receptors, and thromboxane receptors as playing a role in evoking the exercise pressor reflex in healthy rats. This review focuses on recent studies using a rat model of PAD in order to determine possible mechanisms contributing to the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex seen in patients with this disease.

  20. Clinical investigations of receptive and expressive musical functions after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Rosslau, Ken; Steinwede, Daniel; Schröder, C.; Herholz, Sibylle C.; Lappe, Claudia; Dobel, Christian; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2015-01-01

    There is a long tradition of investigating various disorders of musical abilities after stroke. These impairments, associated with acquired amusia, can be highly selective, affecting only music perception (i.e., receptive abilities/functions) or expression (music production abilities), and some patients report that these may dramatically influence their emotional state. The aim of this study was to systematically test both the melodic and rhythmic domains of music perception and expression in left- and right-sided stroke patients compared to healthy subjects. Music perception was assessed using rhythmic and melodic discrimination tasks, while tests of expressive function involved the vocal or instrumental reproduction of rhythms and melodies. Our approach revealed deficits in receptive and expressive functions in stroke patients, mediated by musical expertise. Those patients who had experienced a short period of musical training in childhood and adolescence performed better in the receptive and expressive subtests compared to those without any previous musical training. While discrimination of specific musical patterns was unimpaired after a left-sided stroke, patients with a right-sided stroke had worse results for fine melodic and rhythmic analysis. In terms of expressive testing, the most consistent results were obtained from a test that required patients to reproduce sung melodies. This implies that the means of investigating production abilities can impact the identification of deficits. PMID:26124731

  1. Central brain neurons expressing doublesex regulate female receptivity in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chuan; Pan, Yufeng; Robinett, Carmen C; Meissner, Geoffrey W; Baker, Bruce S

    2014-07-02

    Drosophila melanogaster females respond to male courtship by either rejecting the male or allowing copulation. The neural mechanisms underlying these female behaviors likely involve the integration of sensory information in the brain. Because doublesex (dsx) controls other aspects of female differentiation, we asked whether dsx-expressing neurons mediate virgin female receptivity to courting males. Using intersectional techniques to manipulate the activities of defined subsets of dsx-expressing neurons, we found that activation of neurons in either the pCd or pC1 clusters promotes receptivity, while silencing these neurons makes females unreceptive. Furthermore, pCd and pC1 neurons physiologically respond to the male-specific pheromone cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA), while pC1 neurons also respond to male courtship song. The pCd and pC1 neurons expressing dsx in females do not express transcripts from the fruitless (fru) P1 promoter. Thus, virgin female receptivity is controlled at least in part by neurons that are distinct from those governing male courtship.

  2. GnRH antagonists may affect endometrial receptivity

    PubMed Central

    Rackow, Beth W.; Kliman, Harvey J.; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2009-01-01

    Study objective HOXA10 is an essential regulator of endometrial receptivity. To determine the effect of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists on endometrial receptivity we assessed endometrial HOXA10 expression in GnRH antagonist, GnRH agonist, and natural cycles. Design Prospective case-control study Setting University academic medical center Patients Nineteen subjects were included: 12 subjects underwent controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) with recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (rFSH) and used either a GnRH antagonist or a GnRH agonist; 7 control subjects underwent natural cycles. Interventions Pipelle endometrial biopsies were obtained 11 days after human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration or spontaneous luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in untreated cycles, respectively. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess HOXA10 protein expression in endometrial glands and stroma. Main outcome measure(s) Endometrial HOXA10 protein expression Results HOXA10 expression was significantly decreased in endometrial stromal cells in GnRH antagonist treated cycles compared with GnRH agonist treated cycles or natural cycle controls. There was no significant difference in glandular cell HOXA10 expression among the three groups. Conclusions Use of GnRH antagonists may be associated with impaired HOXA10 expression in endometrial stromal cells, and thus may affect endometrial receptivity. PMID:18410932

  3. Science Influence on Policy - A Transmission or Reception Problem? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    Unfortunately we can claim very little scientific influence on climate change policies, nationally or internationally. The weak to non-existent inclusion of green (‘climate-friendly’) practices and policies in various national economic stimulus plans represents a scientific communication failure and an opportunity lost. The ineffective and inconclusive results from the Copenhagen negotiations represent a similar and equally serious failure. When communications fail we can consider errors in transmission (from science) or in reception (by policymakers). As scientists we tend to find fault with the receivers, and to identify solutions that consist, in effect, of ‘turning up’ the transmission volume. I suggest that in fact most problems lie with the transmitters. Those problems consist of speaking in transmit (scientific) terms rather than reception (economic) terms, of ignoring the necessity of converting and comparing our predictions or assessments to real world examples and terms, of misunderstanding the considerable ability of the receivers to process uncertainty, of missing many opportunities to match our transmission technologies to the modern public reception capabilities, and, most fundamentally, of failing, in key opportunities, to transmit a clear message. During IPY we have confronted each of these failures, and at least learned what we did wrong.

  4. Clinical investigations of receptive and expressive musical functions after stroke.

    PubMed

    Rosslau, Ken; Steinwede, Daniel; Schröder, C; Herholz, Sibylle C; Lappe, Claudia; Dobel, Christian; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2015-01-01

    There is a long tradition of investigating various disorders of musical abilities after stroke. These impairments, associated with acquired amusia, can be highly selective, affecting only music perception (i.e., receptive abilities/functions) or expression (music production abilities), and some patients report that these may dramatically influence their emotional state. The aim of this study was to systematically test both the melodic and rhythmic domains of music perception and expression in left- and right-sided stroke patients compared to healthy subjects. Music perception was assessed using rhythmic and melodic discrimination tasks, while tests of expressive function involved the vocal or instrumental reproduction of rhythms and melodies. Our approach revealed deficits in receptive and expressive functions in stroke patients, mediated by musical expertise. Those patients who had experienced a short period of musical training in childhood and adolescence performed better in the receptive and expressive subtests compared to those without any previous musical training. While discrimination of specific musical patterns was unimpaired after a left-sided stroke, patients with a right-sided stroke had worse results for fine melodic and rhythmic analysis. In terms of expressive testing, the most consistent results were obtained from a test that required patients to reproduce sung melodies. This implies that the means of investigating production abilities can impact the identification of deficits.

  5. Habituation of reflexive and motivated behavior in mice with deficient BK channel function

    PubMed Central

    Typlt, Marei; Mirkowski, Magdalena; Azzopardi, Erin; Ruth, Peter; Pilz, Peter K. D.; Schmid, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Habituation is considered the most basic form of learning. It describes the decrease of a behavioral response to a repeated non-threatening sensory stimulus and therefore provides an important sensory filtering mechanism. While some neuronal pathways mediating habituation are well described, underlying cellular/molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. In general, there is an agreement that short-term and long-term habituation are based on different mechanisms. Historically, a distinction has also been made between habituation of motivated versus reflexive behavior. In recent studies in invertebrates the large conductance voltage- and calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel has been implicated to be a key player in habituation by regulating synaptic transmission. Here, we tested mice deficient for the pore forming α-subunit of the BK channel for short-term and long-term habituation of the acoustic startle reflex (reflexive behavior) and of the exploratory locomotor behavior in the open field box (motivated behavior). Short-term habituation of startle was completely abolished in the BK knock-out mice, whereas neither long-term habituation of startle nor habituation of motivated behavior was affected by the BK deficiency. Our results support a highly preserved mechanism for short-term habituation of startle across species that is distinct from long-term habituation mechanisms. It also supports the notion that there are different mechanisms underlying habituation of motivated behavior versus reflexive behavior. PMID:24312024

  6. Receptivity of Hypersonic Boundary Layers Due to Acoustic Disturbances over Blunt Cone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kara, K.; Balakumar, P.; Kandil, O. A.

    2007-01-01

    The transition process induced by the interaction of acoustic disturbances in the free-stream with boundary layers over a 5-degree straight cone and a wedge with blunt tips is numerically investigated at a free-stream Mach number of 6.0. To compute the shock and the interaction of shock with the instability waves the Navier-Stokes equations are solved in axisymmetric coordinates. The governing equations are solved using the 5th -order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) scheme for space discretization and using third-order total-variation-diminishing (TVD) Runge-Kutta scheme for time integration. After the mean flow field is computed, acoustic disturbances are introduced at the outer boundary of the computational domain and unsteady simulations are performed. Generation and evolution of instability waves and the receptivity of boundary layer to slow and fast acoustic waves are investigated. The mean flow data are compared with the experimental results. The results show that the instability waves are generated near the leading edge and the non-parallel effects are stronger near the nose region for the flow over the cone than that over a wedge. It is also found that the boundary layer is much more receptive to slow acoustic wave (by almost a factor of 67) as compared to the fast wave.

  7. Receptivity and Forced Response to Acoustic Disturbances in High-Speed Boundary Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakumar, P.; King, Rudolph A.; Chou, Amanda; Owens, Lewis R.; Kegerise, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Supersonic boundary-layer receptivity to freestream acoustic disturbances is investigated by solving the Navier-Stokes equations for Mach 3.5 flow over a sharp flat plate and a 7-deg half-angle cone. The freestream disturbances are generated from a wavy wall placed at the nozzle wall. The freestream acoustic disturbances radiated by the wavy wall are obtained by solving the linearized Euler equations. The results for the flat plate show that instability modes are generated at all the incident angles ranging from zero to highly oblique. However, the receptivity coefficient decreases by about 20 times when the incident angle increases from zero to a highly oblique angle of 68 degrees. The results for the cone show that no instability modes are generated when the acoustic disturbances impinge the cone obliquely. The results show that the perturbations generated inside the boundary layer by the acoustic disturbances are the response of the boundary layer to the external forcing. The amplitude of the forced disturbances inside the boundary layer are about 2.5 times larger than the incoming field for zero azimuthal wavenumber and they are about 1.5 times for large azimuthal wavenumbers.

  8. Reception conditions of low frequency (LF) transmitter signals onboard DEMETER micro-satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudjada, Mohammed Y.; Biagi, Pier F.; Sawas, Sami; Galopeau, Patrick H. M.; Besser, Bruno; Wolbang, Daniel; Prattes, Gustav; Eichelberger, Hans; Stangl, Günter; Parrot, Michel; Schwingenschuh, Konrad

    2014-05-01

    We analyze the flux density variation associated to low frequency (LF) broadcasting transmitters observed by the ICE electric field experiment onboard DEMETER micro-satellite. We select five stations localised around the Mediterranean and the black seas: Tipaza (252 kHz, 02°28'E, 36°33'N, Algeria), Roumoules (216 kHz, 06°08'E, 43°47'N, Monte Carlo), Polatli (180 kHz, 32°25'E, 39°45'N, Turkey), Nador (171 kHz, 02°55'W, 35°02'N, Morocco) and Brasov (153 kHz, 25°36'E,45°40', Romania). The detection of the LF transmitter signals by DEMETER micro-satellite is found to depend on the radiated power, the emitted frequency, and the orbit paths with regard to the location of the stations. This leads us to characterise the reception condition of the LF signals and to define time intervals where the detection probability is high. We firstly discuss the dependence of the reception conditions on the ionospheric disturbances due to the geomagnetic and solar activities, and we secondly attempt to estimate the global electric environment above the Mediterranean and the black seas.

  9. Molecular tracking of Salmonella spp. in chicken meat chain: from slaughterhouse reception to end cuts.

    PubMed

    Dias, Mariane Rezende; Cavicchioli, Valéria Quintana; Camargo, Anderson Carlos; Lanna, Frederico Germano Piscitelli Alvarenga; Pinto, Paulo Sérgio de Arruda; Bersot, Luciano Dos Santos; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2016-02-01

    Due to the importance of Salmonella spp. in poultry products, this study aimed to track its main contamination routes since slaughtering reception to processing of chicken end cuts. Samples from different steps of slaughtering and processing (n = 277) were collected from two chicken slaughterhouses (Sl1 and Sl2) located in Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and subjected to Salmonella spp. detection. The obtained isolates were subjected to serological identification and tested by PCR for specific Salmonella spp. genes (ompC and sifB). Also, Salmonella spp. isolates were subjected to XbaI macrorestriction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Sixty-eight samples were positive for Salmonella spp. and 172 isolates were obtained. Sl1 and Sl2 presented similar frequencies of Salmonella spp. positive samples during reception, slaughtering and processing (p > 0.05), except for higher frequencies in Sl1 for chicken carcasses after de-feathering and evisceration (p < 0.05). PFGE allowed the identification of cross contamination and persistence of Salmonella spp. strains in Sl1. The results highlighted the relevance of the initial steps of chicken slaughtering for Salmonella spp. contamination, and the pre-chilling of carcasses as an important controlling tool. In addition, the presence of Salmonella spp. in chicken end cuts samples represents a public health concern.

  10. Reflex Seizures Triggered by Diaper Change in Dravet Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Subki, Ahmed H; Alasmari, Aishah S; Jan, Fadi M; Moria, Feras A; Jan, Mohammed M

    2016-07-01

    Dravet syndrome (DS) is a severe epilepsy syndrome characterized by early onset of multiple types of seizures. We report the first case of reflex seizures triggered by diaper change in a girl at 9 months old and 2 years old with a mutation in the SCN1A gene causing DS. Reflex seizures have been reported in patients with DS provoked by increased body temperature or visual stimulation. The case we report widens the spectrum of triggers causing reflex seizures in children with DS. Cortical hyperexcitability resulting from the genetic defect explains the tendency to experience such reflex seizures.

  11. [Receptive music therapy with persons suffering from a physical handicap].

    PubMed

    Scholer, M

    2010-01-01

    Music therapy, as a part of arts therapies, is used as a therapeutical tool for restoring, maintaining and improving the mental, physical and emotional health of human beings. The main mission of receptive music therapy is not found on the performance level, but on the level of attentive and intimate music listening that is not passive at all, contributing to musical pleasure and to wellbeing. At first we introduce the basic vocabulary used in receptive music therapy, flow experience and the main dimensions (bio-psycho-social) influenced by stimulating music listening. We also present the aims of this psycho-pedagogical project: The focus lies on determining the sensitivity of physically handicapped persons to different music stimuli (music styles). In this case, we can talk of the degree of music reception. We worked in an institution for persons suffering from a physical handicap. The applied methodology is based on the psycho-musical survey by Verdeau-Paillès (1). This psychological record consists in a basic interview and a test of music listening performances leading to the construction of a summary graph and the final receptivity psychogram. An observational frame conceived by Schiltz (2) and adapted to the actual situation offers the possibility of making exact observations as to non-verbal and verbal variables during the therapeutical sessions. Thus, we can present the results of descriptive and non-parametric statistical procedures, but also the results of case studies. The statistical tests used were Wilcoxon's sign-rank test for a pre-post comparison of variables related to non-verbal and verbal behaviour (two different sessions of music therapy with similar contents) and Spearman's Rho which permitted us to compute the correlations between non-verbal expression and verbal communication (N=14). Finally we conclude that our patients considered their musical experience as very positive. The results of the personal interview and the psycho-musical survey

  12. Methodological Reflexivity: Towards Evolving Methodological Frameworks through Critical and Reflexive Deliberations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raven, Glenda

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author argues for a central and critical role for "reflexivity in research" with the aim of developing and strengthening not only everyone's understanding of what everyone does in environmental education research, but also how, and why everyone does it. In a narrative account of methodological issues that occurred…

  13. Multi-MA reflex triode research.

    SciTech Connect

    Swanekamp, Stephen Brian; Commisso, Robert J.; Weber, Bruce V.; Riordan, John C.; Allen, Raymond J.; Goyer, John R.; Murphy, Donald P.; Mikkelson, Kenneth A.; Harper-Slaboszewicz, Victor Jozef

    2010-08-01

    The Reflex Triode can efficiently produce and transmit medium energy (10-100 keV) x-rays. Perfect reflexing through thin converter can increase transmission of 10-100 keV x-rays. Gamble II experiment at 1 MV, 1 MA, 60 ns - maximum dose with 25 micron tantalum. Electron orbits depend on the foil thickness. Electron orbits from LSP used to calculate path length inside tantalum. A simple formula predicts the optimum foil thickness for reflexing converters. The I(V) characteristics of the diode can be understood using simple models. Critical current dominates high voltage triodes, bipolar current is more important at low voltage. Higher current (2.5 MA), lower voltage (250 kV) triodes are being tested on Saturn at Sandia. Small, precise, anode-cathode gaps enable low impedance operation. Sample Saturn results at 2.5 MA, 250 kV. Saturn dose rate could be about two times greater. Cylindrical triode may improve x-ray transmission. Cylindrical triode design will be tested at 1/2 scale on Gamble II. For higher current on Saturn, could use two cylindrical triodes in parallel. 3 triodes in parallel require positive polarity operation. 'Triodes in series' would improve matching low impedance triodes to generator. Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Physics of reflex triodes from Gamble II experiments (1 MA, 1 MV) - (a) Converter thickness 1/20 of CSDA range optimizes x-ray dose; (b) Simple model based on electron orbits predicts optimum thickness from LSP/ITS calculations and experiment; (c) I(V) analysis: beam dynamics different between 1 MV and 250 kV; (2) Multi-MA triode experiments on Saturn (2.5 MA, 250 kV) - (a) Polarity inversion in vacuum, (b) No-convolute configuration, accurate gap settings, (c) About half of current produces useful x-rays, (d) Cylindrical triode one option to increase x-ray transmission; and (3) Potential to increase Saturn current toward 10 MA, maintaining voltage and outer diameter - (a) 2 (or 3) cylindrical triodes in parallel, (b) Triodes

  14. Wh-filler-gap dependency formation guides reflexive antecedent search

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Michael; Ackerman, Lauren; Baumann, Peter; Potter, David; Yoshida, Masaya

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies on online sentence processing have shown that the parser can resolve non-local dependencies rapidly and accurately. This study investigates the interaction between the processing of two such non-local dependencies: wh-filler-gap dependencies (WhFGD) and reflexive-antecedent dependencies. We show that reflexive-antecedent dependency resolution is sensitive to the presence of a WhFGD, and argue that the filler-gap dependency established by WhFGD resolution is selected online as the antecedent of a reflexive dependency. We investigate the processing of constructions like (1), where two NPs might be possible antecedents for the reflexive, namely which cowgirl and Mary. Even though Mary is linearly closer to the reflexive, the only grammatically licit antecedent for the reflexive is the more distant wh-NP, which cowgirl. (1). Which cowgirl did Mary expect to have injured herself due to negligence? Four eye-tracking text-reading experiments were conducted on examples like (1), differing in whether the embedded clause was non-finite (1 and 3) or finite (2 and 4), and in whether the tail of the wh-dependency intervened between the reflexive and its closest overt antecedent (1 and 2) or the wh-dependency was associated with a position earlier in the sentence (3 and 4). The results of Experiments 1 and 2 indicate the parser accesses the result of WhFGD formation during reflexive antecedent search. The resolution of a wh-dependency alters the representation that reflexive antecedent search operates over, allowing the grammatical but linearly distant antecedent to be accessed rapidly. In the absence of a long-distance WhFGD (Experiments 3 and 4), wh-NPs were not found to impact reading times of the reflexive, indicating that the parser's ability to select distant wh-NPs as reflexive antecedents crucially involves syntactic structure. PMID:26500579

  15. Context-Specific Adaptation of Gravity-Dependent Vestibular Reflex Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, Mark J.

    1999-01-01

    Stabilization of the eyes and head during body movements is important for maintaining balance and keeping the images of objects stationary on our retinas. Impairment of this ability can lead to disorientation and reduced performance in sensorimotor tasks such as piloting of spacecraft. In the absence of a normal earth gravity field, the dynamics of head stabilization, and the interpretation of vestibular signals that sense gravity and linear acceleration, are subject to change. Transitions between different gravitoinertial force environments - as during different phases of space flight - provide an extreme test of the adaptive mechanisms that maintain these reflexive abilities. It is vitally important to determine human adaptive capabilities in such a circumstance, so that we can know to what extent the sensorimotor skills acquired in one gravity environment will transfer to others. Our work lays the foundation for understanding these capabilities, and for determining how we can aid the processes of adaptation and readaptation. An integrated set of experiments addresses this issue. We use the general approach of adapting some type of reflexive eye movement (saccades, the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (AVOR), the linear vestibulo-ocular reflex (LVOR)), or the vestibulo-collic reflex (VCR), to a particular change in gain or phase in one condition of gravitoiner-tial force, and adapting to a different gain or phase (or asking for no change) in a second gravitoinertial force condition, and then seeing if the gravitoinertial force itself - the context cue - can recall the previously learned adapted responses. The majority of the experiments in the laboratory use the direction of vertical gaze or the direction of gravity (head tilt) as the context cue. This allows us to study context-specificity in a ground-based setting. One set of experiments, to be performed in parabolic flight, specifically uses the magnitude of gravitoinertial force as a context cue. This is a

  16. Intelligibility in speech maskers with a binaural cochlear implant sound coding strategy inspired by the contralateral medial olivocochlear reflex.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Poveda, Enrique A; Eustaquio-Martín, Almudena; Stohl, Joshua S; Wolford, Robert D; Schatzer, Reinhold; Gorospe, José M; Ruiz, Santiago Santa Cruz; Benito, Fernando; Wilson, Blake S

    2017-02-07

    We have recently proposed a binaural cochlear implant (CI) sound processing strategy inspired by the contralateral medial olivocochlear reflex (the MOC strategy) and shown that it improves intelligibility in steady-state noise (Lopez-Poveda et al., 2016, Ear Hear 37:e138-e148). The aim here was to evaluate possible speech-reception benefits of the MOC strategy for speech maskers, a more natural type of interferer. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were measured in six bilateral and two single-sided deaf CI users with the MOC strategy and with a standard (STD) strategy. SRTs were measured in unilateral and bilateral listening conditions, and for target and masker stimuli located at azimuthal angles of (0°, 0°), (-15°, +15°), and (-90°, +90°). Mean SRTs were 2-5 dB better with the MOC than with the STD strategy for spatially separated target and masker sources. For bilateral CI users, the MOC strategy (1) facilitated the intelligibility of speech in competition with spatially separated speech maskers in both unilateral and bilateral listening conditions; and (2) led to an overall improvement in spatial release from masking in the two listening conditions. Insofar as speech is a more natural type of interferer than steady-state noise, the present results suggest that the MOC strategy holds potential for promising outcomes for CI users.

  17. Metabolic syndrome and the hepatorenal reflex

    PubMed Central

    Wider, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient hepatic O2 in animal and human studies has been shown to elicit a hepatorenal reflex in response to increased hepatic adenosine, resulting in stimulation of renal as well as muscle sympathetic nerve activity and activating the renin angiotensin system. Low hepatic ATP, hyperuricemia, and hepatic lipid accumulation reported in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients may reflect insufficient hepatic O2 delivery, potentially accounting for the sympathetic overdrive associated with MetS. This theoretical concept is supported by experimental results in animals fed a high fructose diet to induce MetS. Hepatic fructose metabolism rapidly consumes ATP resulting in increased adenosine production and hyperuricemia as well as elevated renin release and sympathetic activity. This review makes the case for the hepatorenal reflex causing sympathetic overdrive and metabolic syndrome in response to exaggerated splanchnic oxygen consumption from excessive eating. This is strongly reinforced by the fact that MetS is cured in a matter of days in a significant percentage of patients by diet, bariatric surgery, or endoluminal sleeve, all of which would decrease splanchnic oxygen demand by limiting nutrient contact with the mucosa and reducing the nutrient load due to the loss of appetite or dietary restriction. PMID:27656314

  18. Cough reflex sensitization from esophagus and nose.

    PubMed

    Hennel, Michal; Brozmanova, Mariana; Kollarik, Marian

    2015-12-01

    The diseases of the esophagus and nose are among the major factors contributing to chronic cough although their role in different patient populations is debated. Studies in animal models and in humans show that afferent C-fiber activators applied on esophageal or nasal mucosa do not initiate cough, but enhance cough induced by inhaled irritants. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that activation of esophageal and nasal C-fibers contribute to cough reflex hypersensitivity observed in chronic cough patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and chronic rhinitis, respectively. The afferent nerves mediating cough sensitization from the esophagus are probably the neural crest-derived vagal jugular C-fibers. In addition to their responsiveness to high concentration of acid typical for gastroesophageal reflux (pH < 5), esophageal C-fibers also express receptors for activation by weakly acidic reflux such as receptors highly sensitive to acid and receptors for bile acids. The nature of sensory pathways from the nose and their activators relevant for cough sensitization are less understood. Increased cough reflex sensitivity was also reported in many patients with GERD or rhinitis who do not complain of cough indicating that additional endogenous or exogenous factors may be required to develop chronic coughing in these diseases.

  19. Metabolic syndrome and the hepatorenal reflex

    PubMed Central

    Wider, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient hepatic O2 in animal and human studies has been shown to elicit a hepatorenal reflex in response to increased hepatic adenosine, resulting in the stimulation of renal as well as muscle sympathetic nerve activity and activating the renin angiotensin system. Low hepatic ATP, hyperuricemia, and hepatic lipid accumulation reported in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients may reflect insufficient hepatic O2 delivery, potentially accounting for the sympathetic overdrive associated with MetS. This theoretical concept is supported by experimental results in animals fed a high fructose diet to induce MetS. Hepatic fructose metabolism rapidly consumes ATP resulting in increased adenosine production and hyperuricemia as well as elevated renin release and sympathetic activity. This review makes the case for the hepatorenal reflex causing sympathetic overdrive and metabolic syndrome in response to exaggerated splanchnic oxygen consumption from excessive eating. This is strongly reinforced by the fact that MetS is cured in a matter of days in a significant percentage of patients by diet, bariatric surgery, or endoluminal sleeve, all of which would decrease splanchnic oxygen demand by limiting nutrient contact with the mucosa and reducing the nutrient load due to loss of appetite or dietary restriction. PMID:28168086

  20. Cough reflex sensitization from esophagus and nose

    PubMed Central

    Hennel, Michal; Brozmanova, Mariana; Kollarik, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The diseases of the esophagus and nose are among the major factors contributing to chronic cough although their role in different patient populations is debated. Studies in animal models and in humans show that afferent C-fiber activators applied on esophageal or nasal mucosa do not initiate cough, but enhance cough induced by inhaled irritants. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that activation of esophageal and nasal C-fibers contribute to cough reflex hypersensitivity observed in chronic cough patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and chronic rhinitis, respectively. The afferent nerves mediating cough sensitization from the esophagus are probably the neural crest-derived vagal jugular C-fibers. In addition to their responsiveness to high concentration of acid typical for gastroesophageal reflux (pH<5), esophageal C-fibers also express receptors for activation by weakly acidic reflux such as receptors highly sensitive to acid and receptors for bile acids. The nature of sensory pathways from the nose and their activators relevant for cough sensitization are less understood. Increased cough reflex sensitivity was also reported in many patients with GERD or rhinitis who do not complain of cough indicating that additional endogenous or exogenous factors may be required to develop chronic coughing in these diseases. PMID:26498387

  1. [Reflexes in brain-dead patients].

    PubMed

    Ulvik, A; Salvesen, R; Nielsen, E W

    1998-05-20

    We report on a patient who suffered an acute, extensive intracerebral haemorrhage, leading to symptoms of cerebral herniation within a few hours. The clinical diagnosis of brain death was made based on a neurological examination, and an apnoea test eight hours after the haemorrhage. A few hours later the diagnosis was changed, as several reflexes reappeared. After six days mechanical ventilation was withdrawn, as the brain damage was considered so serious as to render further therapy futile. It was considered unethical to sustain therapy for a possible organ donation at a later date. A review of relevant the literature, however, shows that brain-dead patients may exhibit such varying degrees of autonomic and spinal reflexes as to cause confusion, thus delaying the physician in making a diagnosis. Often, an opportunity for organ donation is lost. Based on this review, we believe that our patient was indeed brain dead when the first diagnosis was made, and that a cerebral angiography should have been performed. Because organ donation is an important issue, the diagnosis of brain death must be definitive.

  2. Nasonasal reflexes, the nasal cycle, and sneeze.

    PubMed

    Baraniuk, James N; Kim, Dennis

    2007-05-01

    The nasal mucosa is a complex tissue that interacts with its environment and effects local and systemic changes. Receptors in the nose receive signals from stimuli, and respond locally through afferent, nociceptive, type C neurons to elicit nasonasal reflex responses mediated via cholinergic neurons. This efferent limb leads to responses in the nose (eg, rhinorrhea, glandular hyperplasia, hypersecretion with mucosal swelling). Anticholinergic agents appear useful against this limb for symptomatic relief of a "runny nose." Chronic exposure to allergens can lead to hyperresponsiveness of the nasal mucosa. As a result, receptors upregulate specific ion channels to increase the sensitivity and potency of their reflex response. Nasal stimuli also affect distant parts of the body. Nerves in the sinus mucosa cause vasodilation; the lacrimal glands can be stimulated by nasal afferent triggers. Even the cardiopulmonary system can be affected via the trigeminal chemosensory system, where sensed irritants can lead to changes in tidal volume, respiratory rate, and blink frequency. The sneeze is an airway defense mechanism that removes irritants from the nasal epithelial surface. It is generally benign, but can lead to problems in certain circumstances. The afferent pathway involves histamine-mediated depolarization of H1 receptor-bearing type C trigeminal neurons and a complex coordination of reactions to effect a response.

  3. Airway reflexes, autonomic function, and cardiovascular responses.

    PubMed Central

    Widdicombe, J; Lee, L Y

    2001-01-01

    In this article, we review the cardiovascular responses to the inhalation of irritants and pollutants. Many sensory receptors in the respiratory system, from nose to alveoli, respond to these irritants and set up powerful reflex changes, including those in the cardiovascular system. Systemic hypotension or hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, bradycardia, tachycardia, and dysrhythmias have all been described previously. Most of the experiments have been acute and have been performed on anesthetized experimental animals. Experiments on humans suggest we have similar sensory systems and reflex responses. However, we must use caution when applying the animal results to humans. Most animal experiments, unlike those with humans, have been performed using general anesthesia, with irritants administered in high concentrations, and often to a restricted part of the respiratory tract. Species differences in the response to irritants are well established. We must be even more careful when applying the results of acute experiments in animals to the pathophysiologic changes observed in prolonged exposure to environmental pollution in humans. PMID:11544167

  4. Approaches to Reflexivity: Navigating Educational and Career Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyke, Martin; Johnston, Brenda; Fuller, Alison

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a critical appraisal of approaches to reflexivity in sociology. It uses data from social network research to argue that Archer's approach to reflexivity provides a valuable lens with which to understand how people navigate their education and career pathways. The paper is also critical of Archer's methodology and typology of…

  5. Ultimate concerns in late modernity: Archer, Bourdieu and reflexivity.

    PubMed

    Farrugia, David; Woodman, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Through a critique of Margaret Archer's theory of reflexivity, this paper explores the theoretical contribution of a Bourdieusian sociology of the subject for understanding social change. Archer's theory of reflexivity holds that conscious 'internal conversations' are the motor of society, central both to human subjectivity and to the 'reflexive imperative' of late modernity. This is established through critiques of Bourdieu, who is held to erase creativity and meaningful personal investments from subjectivity, and late modernity is depicted as a time when a 'situational logic of opportunity' renders embodied dispositions and the reproduction of symbolic advantages obsolete. Maintaining Archer's focus on 'ultimate concerns' in a context of social change, this paper argues that her theory of reflexivity is established through a narrow misreading and rejection of Bourdieu's work, which ultimately creates problems for her own approach. Archer's rejection of any pre-reflexive dimensions to subjectivity and social action leaves her unable to sociologically explain the genesis of 'ultimate concerns', and creates an empirically dubious narrative of the consequences of social change. Through a focus on Archer's concept of 'fractured reflexivity', the paper explores the theoretical necessity of habitus and illusio for understanding the social changes that Archer is grappling with. In late modernity, reflexivity is valorized just as the conditions for its successful operation are increasingly foreclosed, creating 'fractured reflexivity' emblematic of the complex contemporary interaction between habitus, illusio, and accelerating social change.

  6. Effects of Static Flexion-relaxation on Paraspinal Reflex Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Granata, Kevin P.; Rogers, Ellen; Moorhouse, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Background. Static trunk flexion working postures and disturbed trunk muscle reflexes are related to increased risk of low-back pain. Animal studies conclude that these factors may be related; passive tissue strain in spinal ligaments causes subsequent short-term changes in reflex. Although studies have documented changes in the myoelectric onset angle of flexion-relaxation following prolonged static flexion and cyclic flexion we could find no published evidence related to the human reflex response of the trunk extensor muscles following a period of static flexion-relaxation loading. Methods. Eighteen subjects maintained static lumbar flexion for 15 min. Paraspinal muscle reflexes were elicited both before and after the flexion-relaxation protocol using pseudorandom stochastic force disturbances while recording EMG. Reflex gain was computed from the peak value of the impulse response function relating input force perturbation to EMG response using time-domain deconvolution analyses. Findings. Reflexes showed a trend toward increased gain after the period of flexion-relaxation (P < 0.055) and were increased with trunk extension exertion (P < 0.021). Significant gender differences in reflex gain were observed (P < 0.01). Interpretations. Occupational activities requiring extended periods of trunk flexion contribute to changes in reflex behavior of the paraspinal muscles. Results suggest potential mechanisms by which flexed posture work may contribute to low-back pain. Significant gender differences indicate risk analyses should consider personal factors when considering neuromuscular behavior. PMID:15567532

  7. Role of stretch reflex in voluntary movements. [of human foot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottlieb, G. L.; Agarwal, G. C.

    1975-01-01

    The stretch reflex is often described as a spinal servomechanism, a device for assisting in the regulation of muscle length. Observation of the EMG response to mechanical interruption of voluntary movements fails to demonstrate a significant role for spinal reflexes at 40 msec latency. Two functional responses with latencies of 120 msec and 200 msec, implying supraspinal mediation, are observed.

  8. A Movement Account of Long-Distance Reflexives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeown, Rebecca Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This thesis examines reflexive pronouns, such as Icelandic "sig" (Cf. Thrainsson 2007), which may be bound from outside of an infinitive clause (which I call MD "medium distance" binding) in addition to being bound locally. I propose that such reflexives are linked to their antecedents via sisterhood followed by movement: the…

  9. Reflexivity in Teams: A Review and New Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Konradt, Udo; Otte, Kai-Philip; Schippers, Michaéla C; Steenfatt, Corinna

    2016-01-01

    Team reflexivity posits that the extent to which teams reflect upon and adapt their functioning is positively related to team performance. While remarkable progress has been made to provide evidence of this relationship, the underlying framework is missing elements of current theoretical streams for analyzing and describing teamwork, leaving the diversity of effects of team reflexivity often untouched. In this article, we present an update for this framework, by reviewing previous research on reflexivity, addressing gaps in the literature, and revising the original model by integrating feedback and dynamic team effectiveness frameworks for describing temporal developments of reflexivity. We furthermore propose a new dimensional structure for reflexivity, relying on prior work conceptualizing teams as information-processing systems that learn and advance through social-cognitive elements. Our model is therefore not only suitable for explaining the diverse set of relationships between team reflexivity on outcomes, but also provides valuable directions for viewing reflexivity as process that takes place during both transition and action phases of teamwork. We conclude with implications for managers, identify limitations, and propose an agenda for further research into this area. This article contributes an extended perspective relevant for further theory development and for effectively managing reflexivity in teams.

  10. Iris Pigmentation and Fractionated Reaction and Reflex Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Bruce D.; And Others

    Behavioral measures, fractionated reaction and reflex times by means of electromyography, were used to determine if the eye color differences are found in the central or peripheral regions of the nervous system. The purpose of this research was to determine the truth of the hypothesis that dark-eyed individuals have faster reflex and reaction time…

  11. Reflexive Management Learning: An Integrative Review and a Conceptual Typology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Richard J.; Cullen, John G.

    2012-01-01

    The scale and reach of the recent global financial has created a fresh wave of interest in exploring more sustainable forms of management. A central thrust behind this trend in the practice of management development and education has been the accentuation of reflexivity. There are many variations in how reflexivity is understood, and this article…

  12. [Value of blink reflex studies in neurosurgical problems].

    PubMed

    Jamjoom, Z; Nahser, H C; Nau, H E

    1983-09-01

    Blinking reflex studies were done in neurosurgical patients with processes in the posterior fossa and idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia. Alterations were found in space occupying, ischemic, and traumatic lesions of the trigemino-facial system. The analysis of the components of the blinking reflex can give hints to the site of the lesion and also to the prognosis of the underlying process.

  13. The proboscis extension reflex not elicited in Magachilid bees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) will reflexively extend their proboscis in response to antennal stimulation with sucrose solution. For decades, the proboscis extension reflex (PER) of honey bees has been used as a tool to further the understanding of their cognitive processes, such as learning and m...

  14. Reflexivity and Self-Development of Competencies as Key Drivers in Individuals' Learning and Career Paths: Cases from Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomassini, Massimo; Zanazzi, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    The article is aimed at analysing the qualitative interviews (in the form of short life stories) carried out within the Learning and Career Paths (LCP) project in Italy. Theories, such as those of reflexivity, agency, self-construction, competencies, and transformation put forward by relevant authors in the sociological and educational field, are…

  15. Second-Wave White Teacher Identity Studies: Toward Complexity and Reflexivity in the Racial Conscientization of White Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jupp, James C.; Lensmire, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we introduce our special issue, "Second-Wave White Teacher Identity Studies: Toward Complexity and Reflexivity in the Racial Conscientization of White Teachers." We characterize white teacher identity studies as a developing field with important implications for education research and teacher education. Early work in…

  16. Approaching sign language test construction: adaptation of the German sign language receptive skills test.

    PubMed

    Haug, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    There is a current need for reliable and valid test instruments in different countries in order to monitor deaf children's sign language acquisition. However, very few tests are commercially available that offer strong evidence for their psychometric properties. A German Sign Language (DGS) test focusing on linguistic structures that are acquired in preschool- and school-aged children (4-8 years old) is urgently needed. Using the British Sign Language Receptive Skills Test, that has been standardized and has sound psychometric properties, as a template for adaptation thus provides a starting point for tests of a sign language that is less documented, such as DGS. This article makes a novel contribution to the field by examining linguistic, cultural, and methodological issues in the process of adapting a test from the source language to the target language. The adapted DGS test has sound psychometric properties and provides the basis for revision prior to standardization.

  17. The effects of receptive language training on articulation1

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Ronald A.; Baer, Donald M.

    1971-01-01

    The present study attempted to assess one condition of language exposure that might be operative in a normal environment, and experimentally determine its relevance to the acquisition of productive speech. The results demonstrated that the development of receptive language skills can be functionally related to productive speech. Specifically, the data indicated that exposure to words that have stimulus control over a subject's nonverbal pointing behavior can facilitate later articulation of those same words. Thus, this study draws attention to the fact that at least some classes of operants, in this case verbal, can be affected not only by their consequences, but by not obviously related antecedent events as well. PMID:16795305

  18. Personal suicidality in reception and identification with suicidal film characters.

    PubMed

    Till, Benedikt; Vitouch, Peter; Herberth, Arno; Sonneck, Gernot; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    The authors investigated the impact of suicidality on identity work during film exposure. Adults with low suicidality (n = 150) watched either It's My Party or The Fire Within, censored versions of these films not depicting the suicide, or the control film that concluded with a non-suicidal death. Baseline suicidality was measured with questionnaires before the movie. Identity work and identification with the protagonist were measured after the movie. Suicidality was directly associated with identity work during film dramas depicting suicide methods. The reception of suicide-related media content seems to partially depend on personal suicidality. Potential implications for suicide prevention are discussed.

  19. Reception of the stethoscope and Laënnec's book.

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, P J

    1981-01-01

    A study of contemporary book reviews and other notices enables us to trace the reception of the stethoscope and Laënnec's book between 1816 and 1826. It is quite clear from these that the stethoscope was welcomed with enthusiasm by most people who saw it as the first major diagnostic tool medicine had ever had. Laënnec's book was recognised as being the most important, interesting, accurate, and complete work on diseases of the chest that had ever been published. PMID:7031968

  20. [The dynamics of forming an active defensive reflex in cats].

    PubMed

    Fokin, V F

    1975-01-01

    Active defensive reflexes were elaborated in cats with pain stimulations of the forepaw by means of an electrical pricking device with a target attached to it. The elaboration was carried out during action of a flickering light used for the convenience of the EEG analysis. Repeated pain stimulation led to elaboration of an aggressive attacking reaction, chiefly manifested in the paw striking the target. At the beginning of the elaboration, passive-defensive reactions were manifest, which did not completely disappear even after formation of a stable attacking reflex. Two types of active defensive reflexes were elaborated: A-type reflex which helped the animal to get rid of the pain stimulation at the very beginning; B-type reflex which prevented the pain stimulation. The difference beteween these two types is discussed.

  1. Auditory startle reflex inhibited by preceding self-action.

    PubMed

    Kawachi, Yousuke; Matsue, Yoshihiko; Shibata, Michiaki; Imaizumi, Osamu; Gyoba, Jiro

    2014-01-01

    A startle reflex to a startle pulse is inhibited when preceded by a prestimulus. We introduced a key-press action (self-action) or an 85 dB noise burst as a prestimulus, followed by a 115 dB noise burst as a startle pulse. We manipulated temporal offsets between the prestimulus and the startle pulse from 30-1,500 ms to examine whether self-action modulates the startle reflex and the temporal properties of the modulatory effect. We assessed eyeblink reflexes by electromyography. Both prestimuli decreased reflexes compared to pulse-alone trials. Moreover, the temporal windows of inhibition were different between the types of prestimuli. A faster maximal inhibition and narrower temporal window in self-action trials suggest that preceding self-action inhibits the startle reflex and allows prediction of the coming pulse in different ways from auditory prestimuli.

  2. [Neurons of the rabbit visual cortex with simple and complex visual fields].

    PubMed

    Supin, A Ia

    1978-01-01

    The receptive filelds of orientation-selective neurons were studied in the rabbit visual cortex. Two mechanisms of the selectivity were found: the mutual inhibition between on- and off-regions of the receptive field (simple type) and the orientation-dependent inhibition within the uniform region of the receptive field. The non-selective neurons could exhibit the lateral inhibition within the uniform region of the receptive field also. It is supposed that both "simple" and "complex" cells originate from the non-selective units.

  3. Reflexivity over and above convention: the new orthodoxy in the sociology of personal life, formerly sociology of the family.

    PubMed

    Gilding, Michael

    2010-12-01

    There is a new orthodoxy in the field that was once understood as the sociology of the family, and is increasingly understood as the sociology of 'personal life', 'intimacy', 'relationships' and 'families'. The orthodoxy highlights the open-endedness of intimate relations at the expense of the family as an institution; that is, reflexivity over and above convention. This article argues that the new orthodoxy not only overstates reflexivity at the expense of convention, but abdicates understanding to frameworks grounded in biologistic and economistic understandings of human behaviour. The article makes its point through attention to three areas of research at odds with the new orthodoxy: paternity uncertainty, inheritance and family business. It then proposes that conceptualization of the family as an institutional regime gives due weight to the reflexive reconfiguration of family relationships and practices on the one hand, and their institutional embeddedness on the other.

  4. Reflex control of human jaw muscles.

    PubMed

    Türker, Kemal S

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss what is known about the reflex control of the human masticatory system and to propose a method for standardized investigation. Literature regarding the current knowledge of activation of jaw muscles, receptors involved in the feedback control, and reflex pathways is discussed. The reflexes are discussed under the headings of the stimulation conditions. This was deliberately done to remind the reader that under each stimulation condition, several receptor systems are activated, and that it is not yet possible to stimulate only one afferent system in isolation in human mastication experiments. To achieve a method for uniform investigation, we need to set a method for stimulation of the afferent pathway under study with minimal simultaneous activation of other receptor systems. This stimulation should also be done in an efficient and reproducible way. To substantiate our conviction to standardize the stimulus type and parameters, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of mechanical and electrical stimuli. For mechanical stimulus to be delivered in a reproducible way, the following precautions are suggested: The stimulus delivery system (often a probe attached to a vibrator) should be brought into secure contact with the area of stimulation. To minimize the slack between the probe, the area to be stimulated should be taken up by the application of pre-load, and the delivered force should be recorded in series. Electrical stimulus has advantages in that it can be delivered in a reproducible way, though its physiological relevance can be questioned. It is also necessary to standardize the method for recording and analyzing the responses of the motoneurons to the stimulation. For that, a new technique is introduced, and its advantages over the currently used methods are discussed. The new method can illustrate the synaptic potential that is induced in the motoneurons without the errors that are unavoidable in the current

  5. Complexity and reflexivity: two important issues for economic evaluation in health care.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Chantale

    2007-04-01

    Economic evaluations are analytic techniques to assess the relative costs and consequences of health care programmes and technologies. Their role is to provide rigorous data to inform the health care decision-making process. Economic evaluation may oversimplify complex health care decisions. These analyses often ignore important health consequences, contextual elements, relationships or other relevant modifying factors, which might not be appropriate in a multi-objective, multi-stakeholder issue. One solution would be to develop a new paradigm based on the issues of perspective and context. Complexity theory may provide a useful conceptual framework for economic evaluation in health care. Complexity thinking develops an awareness of issues including uncertainty, contextual issues, multiple perspectives, broader societal involvement, and transdisciplinarity. This points the economic evaluation field towards an accountability and epistemology based on pluralism and uncertainty, requiring new forms of lay-expert engagement and roles of lay knowledge into decision-making processes. This highlights the issue of reflexivity in economic evaluation in health care. A reflexive approach would allow economic evaluators to analyze how objective structures and subjective elements influence their practices. In return, this would point increase the integrity and reliability of economic evaluations. Reflexivity provides opportunities for critically thinking about the organization and activities of the intellectual field, and perhaps the potential of moving in new, creative directions. This paper argues for economic evaluators to have a less positivist attitude towards what is useful knowledge, and to use more imagination about the data and methodologies they use.

  6. The receptive-expressive gap in the vocabulary of young second-language learners: Robustness and possible mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Todd A.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Jarmulowicz, Linda; Ethington, Corinna A.

    2010-01-01

    Adults and children learning a second language show difficulty accessing expressive vocabulary that appears accessible receptively in their first language (L1). We call this discrepancy the receptive-expressive gap. Kindergarten Spanish (L1) - English (L2) sequential bilinguals were given standardized tests of receptive and expressive vocabulary in both Spanish and English. We found a small receptive-expressive gap in English but a large receptive-expressive gap in Spanish. We categorized children as having had high or low levels of English exposure based on demographic variables and found that the receptive-expressive gap persisted across both levels of English exposure. Regression analyses revealed that variables predicting both receptive and expressive vocabulary scores failed to predict the receptive-expressive gap. The results suggest that the onset of the receptive-expressive gap in L1 must have been abrupt. We discuss possible mechanisms underlying the phenomenon. PMID:22247648

  7. [Description of conditioned reflex elaboration in cats in response to electric stimulation of the hippocampal formation].

    PubMed

    Fomin, B A

    1981-01-01

    In six cats with chronically implanted brain electrodes conditioned running to the feeding trough was elaborated in response to electrical stimulation of the ventral hippocampal formation (VHF), which at first produced inhibition of running. The stages of conditioning were as follows: 1) inhibition of conditioned activity; 2) replacement of inhibition by more frequent runnings--generalization of the conditioned reflex; 3) enhancement of signal significance of VHF electrical stimulation and subsequent decrease of intersignal reactions. Conditioned reflex to electrical stimulation of CA1 field was elaborated slower than that to electrical stimulation of other VHF points. At the beginning of conditioning a periodic decrease of probability of conditioned reactions manifestation was observed, which is estimated as an additional characteristic of the hippocampus activity.

  8. Reflexivity, knowledge and ecological awareness: premises for responsible action in the hospital work environment.

    PubMed

    Camponogara, Silviamar; Ramos, Flávia Regina Sousa; Kirchhof, Ana Lucia Cardoso

    2009-01-01

    The article aims to analyze the interface of reflexivity, knowledge and ecologic awareness in the context of hospital work, based on data collected in a qualitative case study carried out at a public hospital. Field observation data and interviews are discussed in the light of sociologic and philosophic references. Workers expressed the interface between knowledge and action, in which there is a cycle of lack of knowledge, automatism in the actions and lack of environmental awareness, posing limits to individual awareness and to responsibility towards environmental preservation. Increased debate and education, including the environmental issue, are needed in the context of hospital work. Although hospital work is reflexively affected by the environmental problem, that does not guarantee the reorientation of practices and responsible action towards the environment.

  9. Lower esophageal sphincter relaxation reflex kinetics: effects of peristaltic reflexes and maturation in human premature neonates.

    PubMed

    Pena, Eneysis M; Parks, Vanessa N; Peng, Juan; Fernandez, Soledad A; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Shaker, Reza; Jadcherla, Sudarshan R

    2010-12-01

    We defined the sensory-motor characteristics of the lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (LESR) (stimulus threshold volume, response onset, and relaxation period, relaxation magnitude, nadir) during maturation in human neonates. We hypothesized that LESR kinetics differs during maturation and with peristaltic reflex type. Basal and adaptive esophageal motility testing was performed (N = 20 premature neonates) at 34.7 and 39.1 wk (time 1 and time 2). Effects of midesophageal provocation with graded stimuli (N = 1,267 stimuli, air and liquids) on LESR kinetics during esophagodeglutition response (EDR) and secondary peristalsis (SP) were analyzed by mixed models. Frequency of LESR with basal primary peristalsis were different during maturation (P = 0.03). During adaptive responses with maturation, 1) the frequencies of peristaltic reflexes and LESR were similar; 2) liquid stimuli resulted in a shorter LESR response latency and LESR nadir and greater LESR magnitude (all P < 0.05); 3) media differences were noted with LESR response latency (air vs. liquids, P < 0.02); and 4) infusion flow rate-LESR were different (P < 0.01 for air and liquids). Mechanistically, 1) frequency of LESR was greater during peristaltic reflexes at both times (vs. none, P < 0.0001); 2) LESR response latency, duration, and time to complete LESR were longer with EDR (all P < 0.05, vs. SP at time 2); and 3) graded stimulus volume LESR were different for air and liquids (P < 0.01). In conclusion, sensory-motor characteristics of LESR depend on the mechanosensitive properties of the stimulus (media, volume, flow), type of peristaltic reflex, and postnatal maturation. Maturation modulates an increased recruitment of inhibitory pathways that favor LESR.

  10. Airborne Antenna System for Minimum-Cycle-Slip GPS Reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, C. Wayne

    2009-01-01

    A system that includes a Global Positioning System (GPS) antenna and associated apparatus for keeping the antenna aimed upward has been developed for use aboard a remote-sensing-survey airplane. The purpose served by the system is to enable minimum- cycle-slip reception of GPS signals used in precise computation of the trajectory of the airplane, without having to restrict the airplane to maneuvers that increase the flight time needed to perform a survey. Cycle slip signifies loss of continuous track of the phase of a signal. Minimum-cycle-slip reception is desirable because maintaining constant track of the phase of the carrier signal from each available GPS satellite is necessary for surveying to centimeter or subcentimeter precision. Even a loss of signal for as short a time as a nanosecond can cause cycle slip. Cycle slips degrade the quality and precision of survey data acquired during a flight. The two principal causes of cycle slip are weakness of signals and multipath propagation. Heretofore, it has been standard practice to mount a GPS antenna rigidly on top of an airplane, and the radiation pattern of the antenna is typically hemispherical, so that all GPS satellites above the horizon are viewed by the antenna during level flight. When the airplane must be banked for a turn or other maneuver, the reception hemisphere becomes correspondingly tilted; hence, the antenna no longer views satellites that may still be above the Earth horizon but are now below the equatorial plane of the tilted reception hemisphere. Moreover, part of the reception hemisphere (typically, on the inside of a turn) becomes pointed toward ground, with a consequent increase in received noise and, therefore, degradation of GPS measurements. To minimize the likelihood of loss of signal and cycle slip, bank angles of remote-sensing survey airplanes have generally been limited to 10 or less, resulting in skidding or slipping uncoordinated turns. An airplane must be banked in order to make

  11. Potentiation by naloxone of pressor reflexes.

    PubMed Central

    Montastruc, J. L.; Montastruc, P.; Morales-Olivas, F.

    1981-01-01

    1 The effect of intravenous naloxone, and opiate antagonist, was studied on the pressor responses elicited by stimulation of afferent nerves (vagus and laryngeal superior nerves) in anaesthetized dogs. 2 Although naloxone (0.1 mg/kg i.v.) alone failed to modify basic blood pressure, the pressor responses induced by stimulation of either the vagus or laryngeal nerve were potentiated by naloxone. 3 Morphine (0.2 mg/kg i.v.) suppressed these two cardiovascular responses. These depressor effects of morphine were reversed by subsequent injection of naloxone (0.1 mg/kg i.v.). 4 The results suggest the involvement of endogenous opiate peptides in pressor reflexes elicited by stimulation of the afferent nerves. PMID:7272594

  12. Bremsstrahlung target optimization for reflex triodes

    SciTech Connect

    Swanekamp, S. B.; Weber, B. V.; Stephanakis, S. J.; Mosher, D.; Commisso, R. J.

    2008-08-15

    The anode (tantalum) foil thickness in a reflex triode was varied from 2.5 to 250 {mu}m to maximize the dose from bremsstrahlung produced by a 1 MV, 1 MA, 100 ns electron beam. Experiments and computer simulations show that the dose is maximized for a foil thickness of about 25 {mu}m, 1/18th of the electron range computed from the continuous slowing down approximation. For foils thicker than optimum, self-absorption in the foil attenuates 10-100 keV photons, reducing the dose. For foils thinner than optimum, the dose decreases as a result of electron migration to large radius. A simple formula that predicts the optimum thickness as a function of the beam current and voltage is derived that should be applicable to a large range of experimental parameters.

  13. Cultural Reflexivity in Health Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Aronowitz, Robert; Deener, Andrew; Keene, Danya; Schnittker, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Recent public health movements have invoked cultural change to improve health and reduce health disparities. We argue that these cultural discourses have sometimes justified and maintained health inequalities when those with power and authority designated their own social practices as legitimate and healthy while labeling the practices of marginalized groups as illegitimate or unhealthy. This “misrecognition,” which creates seemingly objective knowledge without understanding historical and social conditions, sustains unequal power dynamics and obscures the fact that what is deemed legitimate and healthy can be temporally, geographically, and socially relative. We use examples from research across multiple disciplines to illustrate the potential consequences of cultural misrecognition, highlight instances in which culture was invoked in ways that overcame misrecognition, and discuss how cultural reflexivity can be used to improve health research and practice. PMID:25905833

  14. The Chinchilla's vestibulo-ocular reflex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merwin, W. H., Jr.; Wall, Conrad, III; Tomko, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    The horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) was measured and characterized in seven adult chinchillas using 0.01 to 1.0 Hz angular velocity sinusoids. Gains were less than compensatory, and were variable from day to day, but phases were highly repeatable both within and between animals. The best fitting transfer function to the average data of all animals had a dominant time constant of 7.5 sec, and an adaptation operator with a time constant of 24.0 sec. There were certain nonlinearities in the horizontal VOR of this animal, and it was difficult to elicit a robust optokinetic response. Results are discussed in relation to similar measurements in other species.

  15. Vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B.; Randle, R. J.; Stewart, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Stimulation of the vestibular system by angular acceleration produces widespread sensory and motor effects. The present paper studies a motor effect which has not been reported in the literature, i.e., the influence of rotary acceleration of the body on ocular accommodation. The accommodation of 10 young men was recorded before and after a high-level deceleration to zero velocity following 30 sec of rotating. Accommodation was recorded continuously on an infrared optometer for 110 sec under two conditions: while the subjects observed a target set at the far point, and while they viewed the same target through a 0.3-mm pinhole. Stimulation by high-level rotary deceleration produced positive accommodation or a pseudomyopia under both conditions, but the positive accommodation was substantially greater and lasted much longer during fixation through the pinhole. It is hypothesized that this increase in accommodation is a result of a vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex.

  16. Sudomotor function in sympathetic reflex dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Birklein, F; Sittl, R; Spitzer, A; Claus, D; Neundörfer, B; Handwerker, H O

    1997-01-01

    Sudomotor functions were studied in 27 patients suffering from reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) according to the criteria established by Bonica (18 women, 9 men; mean age 50 +/- 12.3 years; median duration of disease 8 weeks, range 2-468 weeks). To measure local sweating rates, two small chambers (5 cm2) were affixed to corresponding areas of hairy skin on the affected and unaffected limbs. Dry nitrogen gas was passed through the chambers (270 ml/min) and evaporation was recorded at both devices with hygrometers. Thermoregulatory sweating (TST) was induced by raising body temperature (intake of 0.5 1 hot tea and infra-red irradiation). Local sweating was also induced through an axon reflex (QSART) by transcutaneous iontophoretic application of carbachol (5 min, 1 mA). In addition, skin temperature was measured on the affected and unaffected side by infra-red thermography. Mean skin temperature was significantly higher on the affected side (P < 0.003). In spite of the temperature differences, there was no difference in basal sweating on the affected and unaffected side. However, both methods of sudomotor stimulation lead to significantly greater sweating responses on the affected compared to the unaffected side (TST: P < 0.05, QSART: P < 0.004). Latency to onset of sweating was significantly shorter on the affected side under both test conditions (P < 0.04 and P < 0.003, respectively). Sweat responses were not correlated to absolute skin temperature but were probably related to the increased blood flow on the affected side. Our findings imply a differential disturbance of vasomotor and sudomotor mechanisms in affected skin. Whereas vasoconstrictor activity is apparently lowered, sudomotor output is either unaltered or may even be enhanced.

  17. The oculocardiac reflex in aponeurotic blepharoptosis surgery.

    PubMed

    Uda, Hirokazu; Sugawara, Yasusih; Sarukawa, Syunji; Sunaga, Ataru

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the oculocardiac reflex (OCR) and blepharoptosis surgery for safe eyelid surgery. Fifty-four consecutive patients with bilateral aponeurotic blepharoptosis were enrolled in this study. Changes in electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring were recorded during surgery. Preoperative pressing on the globe and intraoperative stretching of the levator aponeurosis were also carried out and the occurrence rate of the OCR was recorded. A positive OCR was observed in 12 patients (22.2%) in the preoperative globe-pressing test, whereas a positive OCR was observed in 22 patients (40.7%) in the levator-stretching test. The levator-stretching test did not indicate a significant difference in the rate of heart rate decrease with respect to laterality. No correlation was observed between age and the occurrence of OCR. On the other hand, there was a significant difference in the percentage of heart rate decrease between patients with positive OCR and negative OCR as determined in the globe-pressing test (mean = 13.1% vs. 5.4%). During the practical operative manoeuvre, no bradycardia was observed in any case. This study confirmed that a rapid and strong traction of levator aponeurosis induces the OCR regardless of laterality and age. Atraumatic and gentle handling are essential to prevent OCR. The preoperative globe-pressing test may be an index of the OCR in reflex-prone patients. Intraoperative ECG monitoring will be useful for early onset detection, although positive OCR was not observed in any patient during the practical surgical manoeuvre.

  18. Modification of cutaneous reflexes during visually guided walking.

    PubMed

    Ruff, Casey R; Miller, Andreas B; Delva, Mona L; Lajoie, Kim; Marigold, Daniel S

    2014-01-01

    Although it has become apparent that cutaneous reflexes can be adjusted based on the phase and context of the locomotor task, it is not clear to what extent these reflexes are regulated when locomotion is modified under visual guidance. To address this, we compared the amplitude of cutaneous reflexes while subjects performed walking tasks that required precise foot placement. In one experiment, subjects walked overground and across a horizontal ladder with narrow raised rungs. In another experiment, subjects walked and stepped onto a series of flat targets, which required different levels of precision (large vs. narrow targets). The superficial peroneal or tibial nerve was electrically stimulated in multiple phases of the gait cycle in each condition and experiment. Reflexes between 50 and 120 ms poststimulation were sorted into 10 equal phase bins, and the amplitudes were then averaged. In each experiment, differences in cutaneous reflexes between conditions occurred predominantly during swing phase when preparation for precise foot placement was necessary. For instance, large excitatory cutaneous reflexes in ipsilateral tibialis anterior were present in the ladder condition and when stepping on narrow targets compared with inhibitory responses in the other conditions, regardless of the nerve stimulated. In the ladder experiments, additional effects of walking condition were evident during stance phase when subjects had to balance on the narrow ladder rungs and may be related to threat and/or the unstable foot-surface interaction. Taken together, these results suggest that cutaneous reflexes are modified when visual feedback regarding the terrain is critical for successful walking.

  19. Reflex anuria: an old concept with new evidence.

    PubMed

    Hou, Weibin; Wen, Jin; Ji, Zhigang; Chen, Jian; Li, Hanzhong

    2014-02-01

    Reflex anuria (RA) was defined by Hull as cessation of urine output from both kidneys due to irritation or trauma to one kidney or its ureter, or severely painful stimuli to other organs. This is not a common concept among urologists or nephrologists even though it has been proposed for more than half a century. The phenomenon has not been thoroughly understood. But intrarenal arteriolar spasm and ureteral spasm have gained wide acceptance as the mechanisms of RA. The present review summarized papers published up to now on RA, in order to depict the general profile of the disease and to further elucidate the pathogenesis of RA. A classification system of RA was proposed as neurovascular reflex, ureterorenal reflex, radiated renovascular reflex, renoureteral reflex, ureteroureteral reflex and radiated ureteral reflex, based on the two assumed mechanisms and the stimulus' origins. All these types except renoureteral reflex had gained supporting evidence from animal experiments and/or clinical case reports. RA is a diagnosis of exclusion, only being considered after ruling out common and tangible etiologies such as ureteral calculi, acute tubular necrosis, renal vascular occlusion, hypovolemia, infection, etc. If the diagnosis has been established, treatment plan should be directed toward the mechanisms more than the causative factors. Abnormalities of the autonomic nerve system and congenital urogenital malformations incline people to RA. In summary, RA is a cessation of urine production caused by stimuli on kidney, ureter or other organs, through a mechanism of reflex spasm of intrarenal arterioles or ureters, leading to acute renal failure. It is a functional rather than parenchymal disease.

  20. Interindividual differences in H reflex modulation during normal walking.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Erik B; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul; Alkjaer, Tine; Aagaard, Per; Magnusson, S Peter

    2002-01-01

    Based on previous studies, at least two different types of soleus Hoffmann (H) reflex modulation were likely to be found during normal human walking. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to identify different patterns of modulation of the soleus H reflex and to examine whether or not subjects with different H reflex modulation would exhibit different walking mechanics and different EMG activity. Fifteen subjects walked across two force platforms at 4.5 km/h (+/-10%) while the movements were recorded on video. The soleus H reflex and EMG activity were recorded separately during treadmill walking at 4.5 km/h. Using a two-dimensional analysis joint angles, angular velocities, accelerations, linear velocities and accelerations were calculated, and net joint moments about the ankle, knee and hip joint were computed by inverse dynamics from the video and force plate data. Six subjects (group S) showed a suppressed H reflex during the swing phase, and 9 subjects (group LS) showed increasing reflex excitability during the swing phase. The plantar flexor dominated moment about the ankle joint was greater for group LS. In contrast, the extensor dominated moment about the knee joint was greater for the S group. The hip joint moment was similar for the groups. The EMG activity in the vastus lateralis and anterior tibial muscles was greater prior to heel strike for the S group. These data indicate that human walking exhibits at least two different motor patterns as evaluated by gating of afferent input to the spinal cord, by EMG activity and by walking mechanics. Increasing H reflex excitability during the swing phase appears to protect the subject against unexpected perturbations around heel strike by a facilitated stretch reflex in the triceps surae muscle. Alternatively, in subjects with a suppressed H reflex in the swing phase the knee joint extensors seem to form the primary protection around heel strike.

  1. Sacroiliac joint manipulation decreases the H-reflex.

    PubMed

    Murphy, B A; Dawson, N J; Slack, J R

    1995-03-01

    Joint manipulation is widely utilized clinically to decrease pain and increase the range of motion of joints displaying limited mobility. Evidence of efficacy is based on subjective reports of symptom improvement as well as on the results of clinical trials. Experiments were designed to determine whether or not sacroiliac joint manipulation affects the amplitude of the Hoffman (H) reflex. Surface EMG recordings of the reflex response to electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve in the popliteal fossa were made from the soleus muscle. The averaged amplitudes of H-reflexes were compared on both legs before and after either sacroiliac joint manipulation or a sham procedure. H-reflex amplitude was significantly decreased (12.9%) in the ipsilateral leg (p < 0.001) following a sacroiliac joint manipulation while there was no significant alteration following the sham intervention. There was no significant alteration in reflex excitability in the contralateral leg to the sacroiliac joint manipulation. To further investigate the mechanism of these reflex alterations, the local anaesthetic cream EMLA (Astra Pharmaceuticals) was applied to the skin overlying the sacroiliac joint and the experiments were repeated on a different group of subjects. This was intended to determine if excitation of cutaneous afferents was responsible for the reflex excitability changes. There was still a significant decrease in reflex excitability (10.6%) following sacroiliac joint manipulation (p < 0.001). These findings indicate that joint manipulation exerts physiological effects on the central nervous system, probably at the segmental level. The fact that the changes persisted in the presence of cutaneous anaesthesia suggests that the reflex changes are likely to be mediated by joint and/or muscle afferents.

  2. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy: skin blood flow, sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes and pain before and after surgical sympathectomy.

    PubMed

    Baron, R; Maier, C

    1996-10-01

    To examine the pathophysiological mechanisms of vascular disturbances and to assess the role of the sympathetic nervous system, 12 patients with reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) of the hand were studied using laser Doppler flowmetry. Cutaneous blood flow, skin resistance and skin temperature were measured at the affected and contralateral hands. Sympathetic vasoconstrictor reflexes were induced bilaterally by deep inspiration. Four patients were treated with unilateral surgical sympathectomy and pain and vascular changes were documented in follow-up investigations. (1) After acclimatization in cold environment (< or = 18 degrees C) blood flow and skin temperature were considerably lower on the affected side in 10 patients. No additional vasoconstrictor reflexes could be elicited. (2) After acclimatization in warm environment (22-24 degrees C) blood flow and skin temperature demonstrated no side differences in all cases. Vasoconstrictor responses were the same on both sides. (3) After sympathectomy vasoconstrictor reflexes were absent. Skin resistance was considerably higher on the affected side. In the first 4 weeks the affected hand was warmer and blood flow was higher compared with the healthy side. Thereafter, skin temperature and perfusion slowly decreased and the affected hand turned from warm to cold. Very regular high amplitude vasomotion waves occurred unilaterally. There were no signs of reinnervation. Two patients had long-term pain relief. We conclude as follows. (1) Side differences in skin temperature and blood flow are no static descriptors in RSD. They are dynamic values depending critically on environmental temperature. Therefore, they have to be interpreted with care when defining reliable diagnostic criteria. (2) Vascular disturbances in RSD are not due to constant overactivity of sympathetic vasoconstrictor neurons. Changes in vascular sensitivity to cold temperature and circulating catecholamines may be responsible for vascular abnormalities

  3. On the receptivity problem for Goertler vortices: Vortex motions induced by wall roughness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denier, James P.; Hall, Philip; Seddougui, Sharon

    1990-01-01

    The receptivity problem for Goertler vortices induced by wall roughness is investigated. The roughness is modelled by small amplitude perturbations to the curved wall over which the flow takes place. The amplitude of these perturbations is taken to be sufficiently small for the induced Goertler vortices to be described by linear theory. The roughness is assumed to vary in the spanwise direction on the boundary layer lengthscale, while in the flow direction the corresponding variation is on the lengthscale over which the wall curvature varies. In fact the latter condition can be relaxed to allow for a faster streamwise roughness variation so long as the variation does not become as fast as that in the spanwise direction. The function which describes the roughness is assumed to be such that its spanwise and streamwise dependences can be separated; this enables progress by taking Fourier or Laplace transforms where appropriate. The cases of isolated and distributed roughness elements are investigated and the coupling coefficient which relates the amplitude of the forcing and the induced vortex amplitude is found asymptotically in the small wavelength limit. It is shown that this coefficient is exponentially small in the latter limit so that it is unlikely that this mode can be stimulated directly by wall roughness. The situation at 0(1) wavelengths is quite different and this is investigated numerically for different forcing functions. It is found that an isolated roughness element induces a vortex field which grows within a wedge at a finite distance downstream of the element. However, immediately downstream of the obstacle the disturbed flow produced by the element decays in amplitude. The receptivity problem at larger Goertler numbers appropriate to relatively large wall curvature is discussed in detail.

  4. Development of sensory motor reflexes in 2 G exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Wubbels, Réne; Bouët, Valentine; de Jong, Herman; Gramsbergen, Albert

    2004-07-01

    During gestation and early postnatal development, the animal's size and weight rapidly increase. Within that period, gravity affects sensory and motor development. We studied age-dependent modifications of several types of motor reflexes in 5 groups of rats conceived, born and reared in hypergravity (HG; 2 g). These rats were transferred to normal gravity (NG; 1 g) at various postnatal days, and their behavioral reflexes were compared with a control group which was constantly kept under NG. HG induced a retarded development of vestibular dependent reflexes. Other types of motor behavior were not delayed.

  5. Primitive Reflexes and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Developmental Origins of Classroom Dysfunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Myra; Houghton, Stephen; Chapman, Elaine

    2004-01-01

    The present research studied the symptomatologic overlap of AD/HD behaviours and retention of four primitive reflexes (Moro, Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex [TLR], Asymmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex [ATNR], Symmetrical Tonic Neck Reflex [STNR]) in 109 boys aged 7-10 years. Of these, 54 were diagnosed with AD/HD, 34 manifested sub-syndromal coordination,…

  6. Ego receptivity and hypnotizability--two pilot studies: a brief communication.

    PubMed

    Goodman, L S; Holroyd, J

    1992-04-01

    Ego receptivity has been described as important for the psychotherapy process and as a characteristic of hypnosis (Deikman, 1974: Dosamantes-Alperson, 1979; Fromm, 1979). Receptivity also has been associated with a measure of absorption (Tellegen, 1981). In the first pilot study with 6 dance/movement therapy students, higher observer ratings of receptivity were associated with greater hypnotizability (r = .79, df = 4, p less than .05, 2-tailed test). In the second pilot study, the correlation was replicated (r = .51, df = 12, p = .06, 2-tailed test) with 14 dance/movement therapy students. In the second pilot study, receptivity did not correlate with absorption. Receptivity and absorption, however, accounted for 54% of hypnotizability population variance in a step-wise multiple regression. Receptivity accounted for a unique part of the variance after the effects of absorption were removed. It was concluded that receptivity should be explored as a potential predictor of hypnotizability, and that a reliable scaled measure of receptivity should be developed.

  7. The Reception of German Progressive Education in Russia: On Regularities of International Educational Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mchitarjan, Irina

    2015-01-01

    This article reports a historical case study of extensive educational transfer: the reception, adaptation, and use of German progressive education and German school reform ideas and practices in Russia at the beginning of the twentieth century. The reception of German educational ideas greatly enriched the theory and practice of the Russian school…

  8. Teaching Receptive Naming of Chinese Characters to Children with Autism by Incorporating Echolalia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Jin-Pang; Wu, Kit-I

    1997-01-01

    The facilitative effect of incorporating echolalia on teaching receptive naming of Chinese characters to four Hong Kong children (ages 8-10) with autism was assessed. Results from two experiments indicated echolalia was the active component contributing to the successful acquisition and maintenance of receptive naming of Chinese characters.…

  9. Perceived Context of Reception among Recent Hispanic Immigrants: Conceptualization, Instrument Development, and Preliminary Validation

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Seth J.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Villamar, Juan A.; Soto, Daniel W.; Pattarroyo, Monica; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Szapocznik, José

    2013-01-01

    Context of reception has been discussed widely in the sociological and anthropological literature, but no measures of this construct exist. We designed a measure of perceived context of reception and provide initial support for the factorial validity, internal consistency reliability, and incremental and discriminant validity of scores generated by this measure. A sample of 302 recent-immigrant Hispanic parent-adolescent dyads from Miami and Los Angeles completed the new perceived context of reception measure, as well as measures of perceived discrimination; Hispanic/American cultural practices, values, and identifications; and depressive symptoms. In Phase 1, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses extracted a factor for negative perceived context of reception. A subscale corresponding to this factor was used in Phase 2; for parents and adolescents, negative perceived context of reception and perceived discrimination were differentially associated with acculturation-related variables – suggesting discriminant validity between perceived discrimination and negative perceived context of reception. For adolescents at both sites and for parents in Los Angeles only, the negative perceived context of reception dimensions were significantly associated with depressive symptoms six months later, over and above the contribution made by perceived discrimination – suggesting incremental validity. Results are discussed in terms of perceived context of reception as a new and emerging construct. PMID:24099485

  10. Teacher Receptivity to System-Wide Curriculum Reform in the Initiation Stage: A Chinese Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Yun-Peng; Yin, Hong-Biao; Tang, Li-Fang; Liu, Li-Yan

    2009-01-01

    Few studies deal with teachers' receptivity in the initiation stage of educational change, especially in a non-western cultural context like Mainland China. This study aims at investigating teachers' receptivity to the system-wide curriculum reform of the senior secondary education in the initiation stage and understanding the factors influencing…

  11. Relationship between Selected Auditory and Visual Receptive Skills and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Lynda Carol

    To observe the relationship of auditory and visual receptive skills to achievement in reading, 80 eight-year-old children were given a diagnostic test battery which examined three receptive skills--attention to stimuli, discrimination, and memory--within three sensory modalities--auditory, visual, and auditory-visual. The control group consisted…

  12. Genome-Wide Association Study of Receptive Language Ability of 12-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlaar, Nicole; Meaburn, Emma L.; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Docherty, Sophia; Hanscombe, Ken B.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Price, Thomas S.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers have previously shown that individual differences in measures of receptive language ability at age 12 are highly heritable. In the current study, the authors attempted to identify some of the genes responsible for the heritability of receptive language ability using a "genome-wide association" approach. Method: The…

  13. Receptivity toward Immigrants in Rural Pennsylvania: Perceptions of Adult English as Second Language Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prins, Esther; Toso, Blaire Willson

    2012-01-01

    This article uses interview and questionnaire data to examine how adult English as a second language (ESL) providers in rural Pennsylvania perceive community receptivity toward immigrants and the factors they believe foster or hinder receptivity and immigrants' integration. ESL providers' depictions of local responses to immigrants ranged from…

  14. An Examination of College Students' Receptiveness to Alcohol-Related Information and Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Matthew M.; Jouriles, Ernest N.; Walters, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    This project examined the reliability and validity of a newly developed measure of college students' receptiveness to alcohol related information and advice. Participants were 116 college students who reported having consumed alcohol at some point in their lifetime. Participants completed a measure of receptiveness to alcohol-related…

  15. Receptive Vocabulary in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Cross-Sectional Developmental Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kover, Sara T.; McDuffie, Andrea S.; Hagerman, Randi J.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    In light of evidence that receptive language may be a relative weakness for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), this study characterized receptive vocabulary profiles in boys with ASD using cross-sectional developmental trajectories relative to age, nonverbal cognition, and expressive vocabulary. Participants were 49 boys with ASD…

  16. Effective Strategies for Turning Receptive Vocabulary into Productive Vocabulary in EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faraj, Avan Kamal Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Vocabulary acquisition has been a main concern of EFL English teachers and learners. There have been tons of research to examine the student's level of receptive vocabulary and productive vocabulary, but no research has conducted on how turning receptive vocabulary into productive vocabulary. This study has reported the impact of the teaching…

  17. Childhood Memories and Receptivity to Corrective Feedback in Group Supervision: Implications for Group Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Angela; Hulse-Killacky, Diana

    2005-01-01

    This article presents findings from an exploration into supervisees' perspectives on childhood memories and receptivity to corrective feedback in group supervision. Historically, students' receptivity to corrective feedback has not been explored relative to their childhood memories. Ten graduate students from four practicum groups participated in…

  18. The effectiveness of correcting codes in reception in the whole in additive normal white noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shtarkov, Y. M.

    1974-01-01

    Some possible criteria for estimating the effectiveness of correcting codes are presented, and the energy effectiveness of correcting codes is studied for symbol-by-symbol reception. Expressions for the energetic effectiveness of binary correcting codes for reception in the whole are produced. Asymptotic energetic effectiveness and finite signal/noise ratio cases are considered.

  19. 47 CFR 73.703 - Geographical zones and areas of reception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....703 Section 73.703 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES International Broadcast Stations § 73.703 Geographical zones and areas of reception. The zones or areas of reception to be served by international broadcasting stations shall...

  20. Pheromone reception in moths: from molecules to behaviors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Walker, William B; Wang, Guirong

    2015-01-01

    Male moths detect and find their mates using species-specific sex pheromones emitted by conspecific females. Olfaction plays a vital role in this behavior. Since the first discovery of an insect sex pheromone from the silkmoth Bombyx mori, great efforts have been spent on understanding the sensing of the pheromones in vivo. Much progress has been made in elucidating the molecular mechanisms that mediate chemoreception in insects in the past few decades. In this review, we focus on pheromone reception and detection in moths, from the molecular to the behavioral level. We trace the information pathway from the capture of pheromone by male antennae, binding and transportation to olfactory receptor neurons, receptor activation, signal transduction, molecule inactivation, through brain processing and behavioral response. We highlight the impact of recent studies and also provide our insights into pheromone processing.

  1. Receptance-based structural health monitoring approach for bridge structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, S. A.; Spencer, B. F., Jr.

    2009-03-01

    A number of structural health monitoring strategies have been proposed recently that can be implemented in smart sensor networks. Many are based on changes in the experimentally determined flexibility matrix for the structure under consideration. However, the flexibility matrix contains only static information; much richer information is potentially available by considering the dynamic flexibility, or receptance, of the structure. Recently, the stochastic dynamic DLV method was proposed based on the changes in the dynamic flexibility matrix employing centrally collected output-only measurements. This paper extends the stochastic dynamic DLV method so that it can be implemented on a decentralized network of smart sensors. New damage indices are derived that provide robustness estimates of damage location. The smart sensor network is emulated with wired sensors to demonstrate the potential of the proposed method. The efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated experimentally using a model truss structure.

  2. Numerical Study of Hypersonic Boundary-Layer Receptivity and Stability with Freestream Hotspot Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yuet

    This dissertation presents a numerical simulation study of linear hypersonic boundary-layer receptivity and stability over blunt compression cones with freestream hotspot perturbations. This study is conducted for freestream disturbances with broad, continuous frequency spectra over cones that have nose radii of 1, 0.5 and 0.1 mm under freestream conditions of Mach 6, 10 and 15. The simulations are carried out using the high-order shock-fitting finite-difference scheme developed by Zhong (1998), the results of which are shown to agree well with linear stability theory (LST) and experiments. The general receptivity mechanism is then studied by the simulation-LST comparisons under two parametric effects: nose bluntness and freestream Mach number. Among the new findings of the current study, the mechanisms of the receptivity process are found to be mainly caused by the fast acoustic waves that are generated behind the bow shock from the hotspot/shock interaction in the nose region. It is these fast acoustic waves that substantially enter the boundary layer and generate mode F through the synchronization of fast acoustic waves and mode F in the upstream part of the cone. Subsequently, the synchronization of modes F and S generates mode S, or the second mode, which eventually grows into a dominant level at the downstream part of the cone. Additionally, we have obtained the receptivity coefficients of mode S along the Branch-I neutral stability curve using a method that combines LST predicted N-factors and simulated disturbance amplitudes. These receptivity coefficients agree well with those obtained from the theoretical modal decomposition method. In addition to obtaining the general receptivity mechanism and receptivity coefficients, we have also studied the parametric effects of nose bluntness and freestream Mach number on boundary-layer receptivity and stability over cones. Specifically, our results have shown that nose bluntness reduces the boundary

  3. Facilitation of sexual receptivity in female mice through blockade of adrenal 11 beta-hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    de Catanzaro, D; Lee, P C; Kerr, T H

    1985-03-01

    Ovariectomized mice were given replacement estrogen and progesterone, and tested for sexual receptivity in the presence of mounting males after various pharmacological manipulations of adrenocortical hormone activity. In Experiment I, females received a chronic regimen of varied dosages of metyrapone, which blocks adrenal conversion of desoxycorticosterone to corticosterone. In each of three repeated measures, females given an intermediate dosage (800 micrograms/animal/injection) showed substantially higher levels of receptivity than those given vehicle injections or other dosages. In Experiment 2, corticosterone administration reversed the facilitatory action of metyrapone on receptivity. In Experiment 3, chronic administration of either desoxycorticosterone or progesterone failed to elevate receptivity. These findings suggest that corticosterone titer may play a role in modulating female receptivity in sexually inexperienced mice.

  4. Quantified reflex strategy using an iPod as a wireless accelerometer application.

    PubMed

    LeMoyne, Robert; Mastroianni, Timothy; Grundfest, Warren

    2012-01-01

    A primary aspect of a neurological evaluation is the deep tendon reflex, frequently observed through the patellar tendon reflex. The reflex response provides preliminary insight as to the status of the nervous system. A quantified reflex strategy has been developed, tested, and evaluated though the use of an iPod as a wireless accelerometer application integrated with a potential energy device to evoke the patellar tendon reflex. The iPod functions as a wireless accelerometer equipped with robust software, data storage, and the capacity to transmit the recorded accelerometer waveform of the reflex response wirelessly through email for post-processing. The primary feature of the reflex response acceleration waveform is the maximum acceleration achieved subsequent to evoking the patellar tendon reflex. The quantified reflex strategy using an iPod as a wireless accelerometer application yields accurate and consistent quantification of the reflex response.

  5. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome – Role of Trigeminocardiac Reflex: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gyaninder Pal; Chowdhury, Tumul; Bindu, Barkha; Schaller, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is an unexplained death in infants, which usually occurs during sleep. The cause of SIDS remains unknown and multifactorial. In this regard, the diving reflex (DR), a peripheral subtype of trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR), is also hypothesized as one of the possible mechanisms for this condition. The TCR is a well-established neurogenic reflex that manifests as bradycardia, hypotension, apnea, and gastric hypermotility. The TCR shares many similarities with the DR, which is a significant physiological adaptation to withstand hypoxia during apnea in many animal species including humans in clinical manifestation and mechanism of action. The DR is characterized by breath holding (apnea), bradycardia, and vasoconstriction, leading to increase in blood pressure. Several studies have described congenital anomalies of autonomic nervous system in the pathogenesis of SIDS such as hypoplasia, delayed neuronal maturation, or decreased neuronal density of arcuate nucleus, hypoplasia, and neuronal immaturity of the hypoglossal nucleus. The abnormalities of autonomic nervous system in SIDS may explain the role of TCR in this syndrome involving sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. We reviewed the available literature to identify the role of TCR in the etiopathogenesis of SIDS and the pathways and cellular mechanism involved in it. This synthesis will help to update our knowledge and improve our understanding about this mysterious, yet common condition and will open the door for further research in this field. PMID:27994573

  6. Reflexive Research Ethics in Fetal Tissue Xenotransplantation Research

    PubMed Central

    Panikkar, Bindu; Smith, Natasha; Brown, Phil

    2013-01-01

    For biomedical research in which the only involvement of the human subject is the provision of tissue or organ samples, a blanket consent, i.e. consent to use the tissue for anything researchers wish to do, is considered by many to be adequate for legal and IRB requirements. Alternatively, a detailed informed consent provides patients or study participants with more thorough information about the research topic. We document here the beliefs and opinions of the research staff on informed consent and the discussion-based reflexive research ethics process that we employed in our fetal tissue xenotransplantion research on the impact of environmental exposures on fetal development. Reflexive research ethics entails the continued adjustment of research practice according to relational and reflexive understandings of what might be beneficent or harmful. Such reflexivity is not solely an individual endeavor, but rather a collective relationship between all actors in the research process. PMID:23074992

  7. Nasal Reflexes: Implications for Exercise, Breathing, and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Baraniuk, James N.; Merck, Samantha J.

    2014-01-01

    Nasal patency, with both congestion and decongestion, is affected in a wide variety of reflexes. Stimuli that lead to nasal reflexes include exercise, alterations of body position, pressure, and temperature, neurological syndromes, and dentists. As anticipated, the vagal and trigeminal systems are closely integrated through nasobronchial and bronchonasal reflexes. However, perhaps of greater pathophysiological importance are the naso-hypopharyngea-laryngeal reflexes that become aggravated during sinusitis. None other than Sigmund Freud saw deeply beyond the facial adornment and recognized the deeper sexual tensions that can regulate nasal functions and psychoanalytical status. Wine, women and song are linked with airflow through the nose, the nose, that by any other name would still smell as sweetly. PMID:18417057

  8. Experimental study of oculocardiac reflex (OCR) with graded stimuli.

    PubMed

    Khurana, Indu; Sharma, Rajeev; Khurana, A K

    2006-01-01

    The present study was conducted to observe the effect of graded mechanical stimuli on occurrence of oculocardiac reflex (OCR). The experiments were carried out in twenty albino rabbits of either sex weighing between 1-2 kg. Changes in heart rate and/or cardiac rhythm (oculocardiac reflex) were studied by applying traction with progressively increasing weights to medial rectus muscle. Mean threshold value of square wave mechanical stimulus just sufficient to produce oculocardiac reflex was found to be 19 +/- 8.52 g. As the traction weights were progressively increased, more and more decrease in heart rate was observed. It was concluded that once the threshold value of stimulus was reached, the oculocardiac reflex showed a graded response with progressively increasing traction weights.

  9. Speech Performance, Dysphagia and Oral Reflexes in Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Russell J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The adequacy of biting, sucking, swallowing, and chewing as well as the presence or absence of nine infantile oral reflexes were assessed in 60 cerebral palsied individuals (ages 3 to 23). (Author/PHR)

  10. Reconsidering reflexivity: introducing the case for intellectual entrepreneurship.

    PubMed

    Cutcliffe, John R

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author reconsiders reflexivity and attempts to examine some unresolved issues by drawing particular attention to the relationship between reflexivity and certain related phenomena/processes: the researcher's a priori knowledge, values, beliefs; empathy within qualitative research; the presence and influence of the researcher's tacit knowledge, and May's "magic" in method. Given the limitations of some reflexive activity identified in this article, the author introduces the case for greater intellectual entrepreneurship within the context of qualitative research. He suggests that excessive emphasis on reflexive activity might inhibit intellectual entrepreneurship. Wherein intellectual entrepreneurship implies a conscious and deliberate attempt on the part of academics to explore the world of ideas boldly; to take more risks in theory development and to move away from being timid researchers.

  11. Response characteristics of the human torsional vestibuloocular reflex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The characteristics of the response dynamics of the human torsional vestibuloocular reflex were studied during controlled rotations about an earth-horizontal axis. The results extended the frequency range to 2 Hz and identified the nonlinearity of the amplitude response.

  12. [Red reflex: prevention way to blindness in childhood].

    PubMed

    de Aguiar, Adriana Sousa Carvalho; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão; Lúcio, Ingrid Martins Leite

    2007-01-01

    This study had as objective to investigate the result and the colour gradation of red reflex test in newborns (NB). It is a exploratory, quantitative study and the sample was 180 NB from maternity ward in Fortaleza-CE. From this, 156 showed result "no altered" and 24 "suspect". About the aspect of red reflex, 144 NB showed the same coloration in the two eyes, in 35 of this, the colour was red, in 33, orange reddish, in 46 orange colour, in 24 light yellow, in 6 yellow with whitish stains central. Of the suspect cases, the reflex was light yellow with whitish stains with lines. The nurse trained to accomplish the red reflex test can have important role at Neonatal Unit with actions about the prevention of ocular alterations in the childhood.

  13. FluidReflex Concentrator: From Elementary Unit to Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victoria, M.; Askins, S.; Domínguez, C.; Antón, I.; Sala, G.

    2011-12-01

    FluidReflex concentrator is a novel CPV design that uses a fluid dielectric to increase optical efficiency and improve module thermal behavior. An optical efficiency of 83.5% at 1035X has been measured when using an antireflection coating over the cell optimized for wide incidence angle and high reflectivity silver mirrors. In addition, first results for the FluidReflex prototype modules are presented in this article.

  14. Blink reflex in Parkinson's disease with levodopa-induced dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Iriarte, L M; Chacon, J; Madrazo, J; Chaparro, P

    1989-01-01

    We have studied the electrically evoked blink reflex (R1 and R2 components) in 40 parkinsonian patients with levodopa-induced dyskinesia (15 with facial dyskinesia, 13 with limb-truncal dyskinesia and 12 with mixed dyskinesia). R2 latencies (both ipsilateral and contralateral) were significantly prolonged in dyskinetic patients. These findings are indicative of decreased excitability of brainstem interneurones in the dyskinetic parkinsonians. We found no correlation between the neurophysiological pattern of blink reflex and the localization of dyskinesia.

  15. Mechanical Characteristics of Reflex Durign Upright Posture in Paralyzed Subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yongchul; Youm, Youngil; Lee, Bumsuk; Kim, Youngho; Choi, Hyeonki

    The characteristics of flexor reflexes have been investigated in the previous studies with human subjects who were seated or supine position. However, researchers did not describe how the spinal circuits are used in different hip angles for paralyzed subjects, such as the standing position with walker or cane. In upright posture the compatibility between a flexor reflex of leg and body balance is a special problem for lower limb injured subjects. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hip angle change on the flexor reflex evoked in standing paralyzed subjects supported by walker. In this study, six spinal cord injured and four stroke subjects were recruited through the inpatient physical therapy clinics of Korea national rehabilitation hospital. A single axis electronic goniometer was mounted on the lateral side of the hip joint of the impaired limb to record movements in the sagittal plane at this joint. The electronic goniometer was connected to a data acquisition system, through amplifiers to a computer. Since subject' posture influenced characteristics of the flexion reflex response, the subjects were supported in an upright posture by the help of parallelogram walder. Two series of tests were performed on each leg. The first series of the tests investigated the influence of hip angle during stationary standing posture on flexion reflex response. The hip angle was adjusted by the foot plate. The second examined the effect of the voluntary action of subject on swing motion during the gait. The electrically induced flexion reflex simultaneously produced the flexion of the hip, knee and dorsiflexion of the ankle enabling the swing phase of walking. Form the experimental results we observed that the reflex response of hip joint was largerwith the hip in the extended position than in the flexed position during standing posture. Under voluntary movement on flexion reflex during gaint, the peak hip angle induced by stimulation was

  16. Comparison between Experimental and Numerical Studies of a Reflex Triode

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents a comparison of experimental and simulated results of a reflex triode driven by a compact Marx system. The experimental setup...consists of a Marx system and a reflex triode together with a short output waveguide. A parametric study has been performed. The diagnostics used include...particle-in-cell simulation code MAGIC is used to numerically study the system described above. A 1D model of the Marx system has been designed and this is

  17. Nasocardiac reflex during aspiration and injection through a nasogastric tube: An infrequent occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Rudrashish; Kaur, Jasleen; Bajwa, Sukhminder Jit Singh

    2015-01-01

    Nasocardiac reflex is a relatively less discussed variant of trigeminovagal reflex where the afferent arc of the reflex is represented by any of the branches of the trigeminal nerves, and the efferent arc is via the vagus nerve. Elicitation of this reflex is commonly seen during surgical manipulation and is manifested as bradycardia or even asystole. We report a case where nasocardiac reflex was unusually observed in a patient when aspiration and injection were done through a nasogastric tube. PMID:25878434

  18. Modulation of trigeminal reflex excitability in migraine: effects of attention and habituation on the blink reflex.

    PubMed

    de Tommaso, Marina; Murasecco, Donatella; Libro, Giuseppe; Guido, Marco; Sciruicchio, Vittorio; Specchio, Luigi Maria; Gallai, Virgilio; Puca, Francomichele

    2002-06-01

    The modulation of trigeminal reflex excitability in migraine patients was evaluated during the asymptomatic phase by studying the effects of attention, habituation and preconditioning stimulus on the R2 and R3 components of the blink reflex (BR). Fifty patients suffering from migraine without aura, 20 affected by migraine with aura and 35 sex- and age-matched controls were selected. In subgroups of migraine with-aura and without-aura patients, and normal controls, the blink reflex was elicited during different cognitive situations: (a) spontaneous mental activity; (b) stimulus anticipation; (c) recognition of target numbers. In the remaining subjects, R2 and R3 habituation was evaluated by repetitive stimulation at 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 s intervals. The R2 and R3 recovery curves were also computed. A reduced R3 threshold with a normal pain threshold was found in migraine with-aura and without-aura patients; the R3 component was not significantly correlated with the pain thresholds in patients and controls. The R2 and R3 components were less influenced by the warning of the stimulus in migraine without-aura and migraine with-aura patients, in comparison with the control group. A slight increase of both R2 and R3 recovery after preconditioning stimulus was also observed in migraine patients, probably caused by a phenomenon of trigeminal hyperexcitability persisting after the last attack. The abnormal BR modulation by alerting expresses in migraine a dysfunction of adaptation capacity to environmental conditions, probably predisposing to migraine.

  19. Diving bradycardia is not correlated to the oculocardiac reflex.

    PubMed

    Folgering, H; Wijnheymer, P; Geeraedts, L

    1983-08-01

    Both facial immersion in cold water and pressure on the eyeball cause reflex bradycardia. These reflexes are called diving reflex and oculocardiac reflex, respectively. The latter is sometimes used in diving medicine to estimate the risk of severe diving bradycardia. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effects of both reflexes on heart rate in 15 subjects. All subjects performed four tests: (1) breath-holding (2) breath-holding and facial immersion in water of 10 degrees, 15 degrees, and 20 degrees C; (3) facial immersion in water and snorkeling; (4) application of pressure of 30, 50, and 70 mmHg on the eyeball. In seven subjects an additional test was done: (5) eyeball pressures during breath-holding. It was shown that the intensity of the oculocardiac reflex is not a good indication of the bradycardia that can be expected during diving. It is proposed that breath-holding with facial immersion in water of 20 degrees C or colder during at least 10 s is a more appropriate test to assess the possibility of severe diving bradycardia and cardiac arrhythmias.

  20. Effect of hypoxia and hypercapina on the airways defence reflexes.

    PubMed

    Tatár, M; Tarkanov, I A; Korpás, J; Kulik, A M

    1987-01-01

    In experiments on 10 adult anaesthetized cats (pentobarbital 30 mg.kg-1 i.p.) the effect of stimultaneous hypoxia and hypercapnia was studied on the defence respiratory reflexes of the airways. Expiratory reflex and cough were elicited by mechanical stimulation of the airways mucosa, and the obtained values were evaluated on basis of the intrapleural pressure. Inhalation of the hypoxic-hypercapnic gas mixture (11% + 7% CO2 in N2) for 15 minutes led to a significant decrease of respiratory frequency, tidal volume and PaCO2, while pHa and PaCO2 also decreased significantly together with the intensity of the expiratory reflex and that of cough. Recent studies, showed that in the course of the effect of hypoxia (11% O2) and of hypercapnia (5% CO2), cough intensity decreased, but the change was not significant. The decrease of the intensity of respiratory defence reflexes under hypoxic-hypercapnic conditions might have been due to the changes of centrally controlling structures, or to the effector part of the reflex arc, resulting from fatigue of the respiratory muscles. The possible effect of anaesthesia exerting a significant influence on the intensity and character of airways defence reflexes could not be excluded.