Science.gov

Sample records for reformer processes

  1. Integrated reforming/aromatization process

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.

    1990-06-26

    This patent describes an integrated process for increasing the gasoline yield from a catalytic reforming process. It comprises: charging a naphtha boiling range feedstream to a catalytic reforming reaction zone under reforming conversion conditions; withdrawing a reactor effluent stream from the reforming reaction zone; separating the reactor effluent stream into a hydrogen-rich gas stream and an unstabilized reformate stream; further separating the unstabilized reformate in a fractionator into an overhead stream containing C{sub 4} - components and a bottom stream containing C{sub 6} + components; charging the fractionator overhead stream to a catalytic aromatization zone under aromatization conversion conditions; withdrawing an aromatization zone effluent stream from the aromatization zone; cooling the aromatization zone effluent stream; separating the cooled aromatization zone effluent steam into a C{sub 4} - stream and a C{sub 5} + stream; and refluxing the C{sub 5} + aromatic gasoline stream to the fractionation zone.

  2. AFT Chief Promises Due-Process Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The president of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), Randi Weingarten, is putting the sensitive issue of due process on the education reform table, with a pledge to work with districts to streamline the often-cumbersome procedures for dismissing teachers who fail to improve their performance after receiving help and support. She has also…

  3. Synergize fuel and petrochemical processing plans with catalytic reforming

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    Depending on the market, refiner`s plans to produce clean fuels and higher value petrochemicals will weigh heavily on the catalytic reformer`s flexibility. It seems that as soon as a timely article related to catalytic reforming operations is published, a new {open_quotes}boutique{close_quotes} gasoline fuel specification is slapped on to existing fuel standards, affecting reformer operations and processing objectives. Just as importantly, the petrochemical market (such as aromatics) that refiners are targeting, can be very fickle. That`s why process engineers have endeavored to maintain an awareness of the flexibility that technology suppliers are building into modern catalytic reformers.

  4. Optimization of Ethanol Autothermal Reforming Process with Chemical Equilibrium Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markova, D.; Valters, K.; Bažbauers, G.

    2009-01-01

    The dependence of carbon formation, hydrogen yield and efficiency of the ethanol autothermal reforming process on critical process factors is studied in the work by using chemical equilibrium calculations with a process simulation model made in the ChemCAD environment. The studied process factors are carbon-to-steam ratio S/C, air-to-fuel ratio λ and temperature in the reactor TATR. Since the goal of the reforming process is to achieve possibly higher values of H2 concentration in the reforming gas, by operating reformer at the maximum efficiency at the same time, the optimization of the reforming process was done by using objective functions which include hydrogen yield and the amount of heat supplied to the process. As a result it was found that the maximum process efficiency, which is defined as the ratio of obtained hydrogen energy to the energy supplied to the process in the studied range of process factors is 0,61, and this value can be achieved at λ value of 0,1, S/C values of 2,5-3 and temperatures in the reactor TATR 680 - 695°C. Hydrogen yield under these conditions is 4,41-4,55 mol/molC2H5OH.

  5. Cognitive Processes in Spelling and Their Relevance to Spelling Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frith, Uta

    Cognitive psychology has provided an information processing model that distinguishes between input processes such as listening to speech or reading and output processes such as speaking or writing. It is useful for spelling reformers to consider reading (input) and writing (output) processes separately, because the demands of the reader and of the…

  6. The Master Teacher: Role and Responsibilities in the Reform Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClean, Wilma A.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study is to determine the opinions of educators about the "master teacher" concept within the school system. The concept of the "master teacher" refers to the ideological approach used to implement a "master teacher" initiative or programme in the school reform process. The primary school chosen for this research study…

  7. Pedagogical reforms of digital signal processing education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Michael

    The future of the engineering discipline is arguably predicated heavily upon appealing to the future generation, in all its sensibilities. The greatest burden in doing so, one might rightly believe, lies on the shoulders of the educators. In examining the causal means by which the profession arrived at such a state, one finds that the technical revolution, precipitated by global war, had, as its catalyst, institutions as expansive as the government itself to satisfy the demand for engineers, who, as a result of such an existential crisis, were taught predominantly theoretical underpinnings to address a finite purpose. By contrast, the modern engineer, having expanded upon this vision and adapted to an evolving society, is increasingly placed in the proverbial role of the worker who must don many hats: not solely a scientist, yet often an artist; not a businessperson alone, but neither financially naive; not always a representative, though frequently a collaborator. Inasmuch as change then serves as the only constancy in a global climate, therefore, the educational system - if it is to mimic the demands of the industry - is left with an inherent need for perpetual revitalization to remain relevant. This work aims to serve that end. Motivated by existing research in engineering education, an epistemological challenge is molded into the framework of the electrical engineer with emphasis on digital signal processing. In particular, it is investigated whether students are better served by a learning paradigm that tolerates and, when feasible, encourages error via a medium free of traditional adjudication. Through the creation of learning modules using the Adobe Captivate environment, a wide range of fundamental knowledge in signal processing is challenged within the confines of existing undergraduate courses. It is found that such an approach not only conforms to the research agenda outlined for the engineering educator, but also reflects an often neglected reality

  8. Energy and exergy analysis of an ethanol reforming process for solid oxide fuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Tippawan, Phanicha; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2014-04-01

    The fuel processor in which hydrogen is produced from fuels is an important unit in a fuel cell system. The aim of this study is to apply a thermodynamic concept to identify a suitable reforming process for an ethanol-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Three different reforming technologies, i.e., steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming, are considered. The first and second laws of thermodynamics are employed to determine an energy demand and to describe how efficiently the energy is supplied to the reforming process. Effect of key operating parameters on the distribution of reforming products, such as H2, CO, CO2 and CH4, and the possibility of carbon formation in different ethanol reformings are examined as a function of steam-to-ethanol ratio, oxygen-to-ethanol ratio and temperatures at atmospheric pressure. Energy and exergy analysis are performed to identify the best ethanol reforming process for SOFC applications.

  9. Energy and exergy analysis of an ethanol reforming process for solid oxide fuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Tippawan, Phanicha; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2014-04-01

    The fuel processor in which hydrogen is produced from fuels is an important unit in a fuel cell system. The aim of this study is to apply a thermodynamic concept to identify a suitable reforming process for an ethanol-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Three different reforming technologies, i.e., steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming, are considered. The first and second laws of thermodynamics are employed to determine an energy demand and to describe how efficiently the energy is supplied to the reforming process. Effect of key operating parameters on the distribution of reforming products, such as H2, CO, CO2 and CH4, and the possibility of carbon formation in different ethanol reformings are examined as a function of steam-to-ethanol ratio, oxygen-to-ethanol ratio and temperatures at atmospheric pressure. Energy and exergy analysis are performed to identify the best ethanol reforming process for SOFC applications. PMID:24561628

  10. Thermodynamic analysis of tar reforming through auto-thermal reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Nurhadi, N. Diniyati, Dahlia; Efendi, M. Ade Andriansyah; Istadi, I.

    2015-12-29

    Fixed bed gasification is a simple and suitable technology for small scale power generation. One of the disadvantages of this technology is producing tar. So far, tar is not utilized yet and being waste that should be treated into a more useful product. This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of tar conversion into gas producer through non-catalytic auto-thermal reforming technology. Tar was converted into components, C, H, O, N and S, and then reacted with oxidant such as mixture of air or pure oxygen. Thus, this reaction occurred auto-thermally and reached chemical equilibrium. The sensitivity analysis resulted that the most promising process performance occurred at flow rate of air was reached 43% of stoichiometry while temperature of process is 1100°C, the addition of pure oxygen is 40% and preheating of oxidant flow is 250°C. The yield of the most promising process performance between 11.15-11.17 kmol/h and cold gas efficiency was between 73.8-73.9%.The results of this study indicated that thermodynamically the conversion of tar into producer gas through non-catalytic auto-thermal reformingis more promising.

  11. Safety concerns and suggested design approaches to the HTGR Reformer process concept

    SciTech Connect

    Green, R.C.

    1981-09-01

    This report is a safety review of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer Application Study prepared by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates (GCRA) of La Jolla, California. The objective of this review was to identify safety concerns and suggests design approaches to minimize risk in the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer (HTGR-R) process concept.

  12. Systems, Ideologies and History: A Three-Dimensional Absence in the Study of Assessment Reform Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flórez Petour, María Teresa

    2015-01-01

    This paper makes the case for the need to study assessment reform processes from a broader and more complex perspective that takes the historical, ideological and systemic aspects of assessment policies into account. It draws on a larger study to demonstrate how the understanding of Assessment for Learning (AfL) reforms is enriched by such a…

  13. Educational Reform Implementation: A Co-Constructed Process. Research Report 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datnow, Amanda; Hubbard, Lea; Mehan, Hugh

    This research report argues for viewing the complex, often messy process of school reform implementation as a "conditional matrix" coupled with qualitative research. As illustration, two studies (of six reform efforts in one county and of implementation of an untracking program in Kentucky) are reported. Preliminary analysis reveals that the…

  14. Power and process: The politics of electricity sector reform in Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gore, Christopher David

    In 2007, Uganda had one of the lowest levels of access to electricity in the world. Given the influence of multilateral and bilateral agencies in Uganda; the strong international reputation and domestic influence of its President; the country's historic achievements in public sector and economic reform; and the intimate connection between economic performance, social well-being and access to electricity, the problems with Uganda's electricity sector have proven deeply frustrating and, indeed, puzzling. Following increased scholarly attention to the relationship between political change, policymaking, and public sector reform in sub-Saharan Africa and the developing world generally, this thesis examines the multilevel politics of Uganda's electricity sector reform process. This study contends that explanations for Uganda's electricity sector reform problems generally, and hydroelectric dam construction efforts specifically, must move beyond technical and financial factors. Problems in this sector have also been the result of a model of reform (promoted by the World Bank) that failed adequately to account for the character of political change. Indeed, the model of reform that was promoted and implemented was risky and it was deeply antagonistic to domestic and international civil society organizations. In addition, it was presented as a linear, technical, apolitical exercise. Finally the model was inconsistent with key principles the Bank itself, and public policy literature generally, suggest are needed for success. Based on this analysis, the thesis contends that policymaking and reform must be understood as deeply political processes, which not only define access to services, but also participation in, and exclusion from, national debates. Future approaches to reform and policymaking must anticipate the complex, multilevel, non-linear character of 'second-generation' policy issues like electricity, and the political and institutional capacity needed to increase

  15. Eyewitness Identification Reform: Data, Theory, and Due Process.

    PubMed

    Clark, Steven E

    2012-05-01

    Some commentators view my analyses (Clark, 2012, this issue) as an important step forward in assessing the costs and benefits of eyewitness identification reform. Others suggest that the trade-off between correct identifications lost and false identifications avoided is well-known; that the expected utility model is misspecified; and that the loss of correct identifications due to the use of reformed eyewitness identification procedures is irrelevant to policy decisions, as those correct identifications are the illegitimate product of suggestion and lucky guesses. Contrary to these criticisms, the loss of correct identifications has not been adequately considered in theoretical or policy matters, criticisms regarding the various utilities do not substantively change the nature of the trade-off, and the dismissal of lost correct identifications is based not on data but on an outdated theory of recognition memory. PMID:26168466

  16. Eyewitness Identification Reform: Data, Theory, and Due Process.

    PubMed

    Clark, Steven E

    2012-05-01

    Some commentators view my analyses (Clark, 2012, this issue) as an important step forward in assessing the costs and benefits of eyewitness identification reform. Others suggest that the trade-off between correct identifications lost and false identifications avoided is well-known; that the expected utility model is misspecified; and that the loss of correct identifications due to the use of reformed eyewitness identification procedures is irrelevant to policy decisions, as those correct identifications are the illegitimate product of suggestion and lucky guesses. Contrary to these criticisms, the loss of correct identifications has not been adequately considered in theoretical or policy matters, criticisms regarding the various utilities do not substantively change the nature of the trade-off, and the dismissal of lost correct identifications is based not on data but on an outdated theory of recognition memory.

  17. Narratives of change and reform processes: global and local transactions in French psychiatric hospital reform after the Second World War.

    PubMed

    Henckes, Nicolas

    2009-02-01

    As with the rest of biomedicine, psychiatry has, since the Second World War, developed under the strong influence of the transnational accumulation of a whole series of practices and knowledge. Anthropology has taught us to pay attention to the transactions between local-level actors and those operating at the global level in the construction of this new world of medicine. This article examines the role played by the recommendations of the WHO Expert Committee of Mental Health in the reform of the French mental health system during the 1950s. Rooted in the experience of practitioners and administrators participating in the process of reforming local psychiatric systems, the recommendations of the WHO Expert Committee developed a new vision of regulating psychiatry, based on professionalism and an idea of a normativity of the doctor-patient relation. This article shows how, by mobilizing the WHO reports' recommendations, French administrators and doctors succeeded in creating a typically French object: "the psychiatric sector", founded on elaborating a new mandate for the psychiatric profession. The article thus questions the deinstitutionalization model as an explanation of transformations of the structure of the French psychiatry system in the post-war period.

  18. The conversion of anaerobic digestion waste into biofuels via a novel Thermo-Catalytic Reforming process.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Johannes; Meyer, Johannes; Ouadi, Miloud; Apfelbacher, Andreas; Binder, Samir; Hornung, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Producing energy from biomass and other organic waste residues is essential for sustainable development. Fraunhofer UMSICHT has developed a novel reactor which introduces the Thermo-Catalytic Reforming (TCR®) process. The TCR® is a process which can convert any type of biomass and organic feedstocks into a variety of energy products (char, bio-oil and permanent gases). The aim of this work was to demonstrate this technology using digestate as the feedstock and to quantify the results from the post reforming step. The temperature of a post reformer was varied to achieve optimised fuel products. The hydrogen rich permanent gases produced were maximised at a post reforming temperature of 1023 K. The highly de-oxygenated liquid bio-oil produced contained a calorific value of 35.2 MJ/kg, with significantly improved fuel physical properties, low viscosity and acid number. Overall digestate showed a high potential as feedstock in the Thermo-Catalytic Reforming to produce pyrolysis fuel products of superior quality.

  19. The conversion of anaerobic digestion waste into biofuels via a novel Thermo-Catalytic Reforming process.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Johannes; Meyer, Johannes; Ouadi, Miloud; Apfelbacher, Andreas; Binder, Samir; Hornung, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Producing energy from biomass and other organic waste residues is essential for sustainable development. Fraunhofer UMSICHT has developed a novel reactor which introduces the Thermo-Catalytic Reforming (TCR®) process. The TCR® is a process which can convert any type of biomass and organic feedstocks into a variety of energy products (char, bio-oil and permanent gases). The aim of this work was to demonstrate this technology using digestate as the feedstock and to quantify the results from the post reforming step. The temperature of a post reformer was varied to achieve optimised fuel products. The hydrogen rich permanent gases produced were maximised at a post reforming temperature of 1023 K. The highly de-oxygenated liquid bio-oil produced contained a calorific value of 35.2 MJ/kg, with significantly improved fuel physical properties, low viscosity and acid number. Overall digestate showed a high potential as feedstock in the Thermo-Catalytic Reforming to produce pyrolysis fuel products of superior quality. PMID:26190827

  20. Developing an energy efficient steam reforming process to produce hydrogen from sulfur-containing fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simson, Amanda

    Hydrogen powered fuel cells have the potential to produce electricity with higher efficiency and lower emissions than conventional combustion technology. In order to realize the benefits of a hydrogen fuel cell an efficient method to produce hydrogen is needed. Currently, over 90% of hydrogen is produced from the steam reforming of natural gas. However, for many applications including fuel cell vehicles, the use of a liquid fuel rather than natural gas is desirable. This work investigates the feasibility of producing hydrogen efficiently by steam reforming E85 (85% ethanol/15% gasoline), a commercially available sulfur-containing transportation fuel. A Rh-Pt/SiO2-ZrO2 catalyst has demonstrated good activity for the E85 steam reforming reaction. An industrial steam reforming process is often run less efficiently, with more water and at higher temperatures, in order to prevent catalyst deactivation. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a process that can operate without catalyst deactivation at more energy efficient conditions. In this study, the steam reforming of a sulfur-containing fuel (E85) was studied at near stoichiometric steam/carbon ratios and at 650C, conditions at which catalyst deactivation is normally measured. At these conditions the catalyst was found to be stable steam reforming a sulfur-free E85. However, the addition of low concentrations of sulfur significantly deactivated the catalyst. The presence of sulfur in the fuel caused catalyst deactivation by promoting ethylene which generates surface carbon species (coke) that mask catalytic sites. The amount of coke increased during time on stream and became increasingly graphitic. However, the deactivation due to both sulfur adsorption and coke formation was reversible with air treatment at 650°C. However, regenerations were found to reduce the catalyst life. Air regenerations produce exotherms on the catalyst surface that cause structural changes to the catalyst. During regenerations the

  1. The Bologna Process and the New Reforms of Russian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davydov, Iu. S.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents the different opinions of specialists on The Bologna Process. The Bologna Process was brought into being by society's transition to a new stage of development, in which education and knowledge are becoming the decisive engines of progress. With the aim of creating a unified educational space, the Bologna Process was begun in…

  2. The Reform Process of Portuguese Higher Education Institutions: From Collegial to Managerial Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckmann, Sofia; Carvalho, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Portuguese public higher education institutions have been undergoing a major reform process since 2007. The most noticeable changes were introduced by Law 62/2007, which gave higher education institutions the option to choose between two different institutional models (foundational and public institute), and allowed the implementation of new…

  3. Reform Process in the University of Buenos Aires: Perspective of the Professional Fields of Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Camilloni, Alicia W.; Fernandez, Marcela; Zadunaisky, Diana

    The University of Buenos Aires (UBA) is committed to a reform process which involves, among others, the curricular axis. The work described in this paper is part of the activities specially concerned with the studies of engineering. Seventy-five professionals were invited to discuss new possible patterns for the perspective of the professional…

  4. Process and apparatus for the production of hydrogen by steam reforming of hydrocarbon

    DOEpatents

    Sircar, Shivaji; Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond; Nataraj, Shankar

    2000-01-01

    In the steam reforming of hydrocarbon, particularly methane, under elevated temperature and pressure to produce hydrogen, a feed of steam and hydrocarbon is fed into a first reaction volume containing essentially only reforming catalyst to partially reform the feed. The balance of the feed and the reaction products of carbon dioxide and hydrogen are then fed into a second reaction volume containing a mixture of catalyst and adsorbent which removes the carbon dioxide from the reaction zone as it is formed. The process is conducted in a cycle which includes these reactions followed by countercurrent depressurization and purge of the adsorbent to regenerate it and repressurization of the reaction volumes preparatory to repeating the reaction-sorption phase of the cycle.

  5. Development and life evaluation of a steam reforming process for PAFC

    SciTech Connect

    Nagase, S.; Takami, S.; Masuda, M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper reports a life evaluation method for a carbon monoxide (CO) shift process in the steam reforming process for PAFC. A CO shift reactor simulation was developed to evaluate the whole performance of the CO shift process. The calculation results of the simulation almost coincide with the experimental data obtained from a demonstration plant. By evaluating and grasping the sintering trend of the catalyst, and by simulation calculation of the reactor, it became possible to evaluate the performance at targeted operation hours.

  6. European Education Reform and Its Impact on Curriculum and Admissions: Implications of the Bologna Process on United States Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roper, Steven D.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the European-wide educational reform known as the Bologna Process in order to provide an understanding of the methodology that will be used by European countries to assess course credit hours as well as degree programs. The Bologna Process is culmination of years of educational reform within the European Union (EU) and more…

  7. Efficient utilization of greenhouse gas in a gas-to-liquids process combined with carbon dioxide reforming of methane.

    PubMed

    Ha, Kyoung-Su; Bae, Jong Wook; Woo, Kwang-Jae; Jun, Ki-Won

    2010-02-15

    A process model for a gas-to-liquids (GTL) process mainly producing Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic oils has been developed to assess the effects of reforming methods, recycle ratio of unreacted syngas mixture on the process efficiency and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. The reforming unit of our study is composed of both steam reforming of methane (SRM) and carbon dioxide reforming of methane (CDR) to form syngas, which gives composition flexibility, reduction in GHG emission, and higher cost-competitiveness. With recycling, it is found that zero emission of CO(2) from the process can be realized and the required amount of natural gas (NG) can be significantly reduced. This GTL process model has been built by using Aspen Plus software, and it is mainly composed of a feeding unit, a reforming unit, an FT synthesis unit, several separation units and a recycling unit. The composition flexibility of the syngas mixture due to the two different types of reforming reactions raises an issue that in order to attain the optimized feed composition of FT synthesis the amount of flow rate of each component in the fresh feed mixture should be determined considering the effects of the recycle and its split ratio. In the FT synthesis unit, the 15 representative reactions for the chain growth and water gas shift on the cobalt-based catalyst are considered. After FT synthesis, the unreacted syngas mixture is recycled to the reforming unit or the FT synthesis unit or both to enhance process efficiency. The effect of the split ratio, the recycle flow rate to the FT reactor over the recycle flow rate to the reforming unit, on the efficiency of the process was also investigated. This work shows that greater recycle to the reforming unit is less effective than that to the FT synthesis unit from the standpoint of the net heat efficiency of the process, since the reforming reactions are greatly endothermic and greater recycle to the reformer requires more energy.

  8. Process Improvements to Reform Patient Flow in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Whatley, Shawn D; Leung, Alexander K; Duic, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Emergency departments (ED) function to diagnose, stabilize, manage and dispose patients as efficiently as possible. Although problems may be suspected at triage, ED physician input is required at each step of the patient journey through the ED, from diagnosis to disposition. If we want timely diagnosis, appropriate treatment and great outcomes, then ED processes should connect patients and physicians as quickly as possible. This article discusses the key concepts of ED patient flow, value and efficiency. Based on these fundamentals, it describes the significant impact of ED process improvements implemented on measures of ED efficiency at a large community ED in Ontario, Canada. PMID:27133605

  9. Process Improvements to Reform Patient Flow in the Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Whatley, Shawn D; Leung, Alexander K; Duic, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Emergency departments (ED) function to diagnose, stabilize, manage and dispose patients as efficiently as possible. Although problems may be suspected at triage, ED physician input is required at each step of the patient journey through the ED, from diagnosis to disposition. If we want timely diagnosis, appropriate treatment and great outcomes, then ED processes should connect patients and physicians as quickly as possible. This article discusses the key concepts of ED patient flow, value and efficiency. Based on these fundamentals, it describes the significant impact of ED process improvements implemented on measures of ED efficiency at a large community ED in Ontario, Canada.

  10. An Overview and Analysis of Processes of Programmatic and Curricular Reform in Teacher Education in Anglophone Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Ardra L.

    This study examines the process of programmatic and curricular reform in teacher education at Anglophone universities across Canada. The first phase of research involved gathering preliminary information about how teacher education institutions were responding to calls for reform, gauging the nature and extent of these efforts and processes…

  11. Case Studies of Teachers' Perceptions and Their Enactment Processes When Implementing Multiple Reforms in Urban High School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samaniego, Kimberly Anne OBrien

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to improve student performance on high-stakes assessments in mathematics place teachers in the epicenter of multiple reform expectations. While studies have documented how teachers implement single reforms, very little is known about teachers' implementation processes when multiple expectations are imposed. With a focus on how…

  12. Sulfur passivated reforming process lowers syngas H sub 2 /CO ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Udengaard, N.R. )

    1992-03-09

    This paper reports that a decision by Sterling Chemicals Inc. to exit the methanol business in 1980 created a product slate that favored a decrease in the molar H{sub 2}.CO ratio from 2.7 to 1.8 in synthesis gas produced there. This paper reports that this made it necessary eventually to develop an economical way of achieving the changed product slate without hurting the economics of carbon monoxide, blend gas, and hydrogen production. The answer was the sulfur passivated reforming (Sparg) process. It was first commercialized at Sterling's Texas City, Tex., plant in 1987. In the years since, it has proven to be both economical and reliable.

  13. Learning Disabilities and Early Intervention Strategies: How To Reform the Special Education Referral and Identification Process. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education Reform of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This document presents the transcript of a hearing before the House Subcommittee on Education Reform concerning learning disabilities and early intervention strategies, specifically possible reforms of the special education referral and identification process as part of the reauthorization process of the Individuals with Disabilities Education…

  14. Reforms of the pre-graduate curriculum for medical students: the Bologna process and beyond.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Pierre-André

    2012-01-01

    For several years, all five medical faculties of Switzerland have embarked on a reform of their training curricula for two reasons: first, according to a new federal act issued in 2006 by the administration of the confederation, faculties needed to meet international standards in terms of content and pedagogic approaches; second, all Swiss universities and thus all medical faculties had to adapt the structure of their curriculum to the frame and principles which govern the Bologna process. This process is the result of the Bologna Declaration of June 1999 which proposes and requires a series of reforms to make European Higher Education more compatible and comparable, more competitive and more attractive for Europeans students. The present paper reviews some of the results achieved in the field, focusing on several issues such as the shortage of physicians and primary care practitioners, the importance of public health, community medicine and medical humanities, and the implementation of new training approaches including e-learning and simulation. In the future, faculties should work on several specific challenges such as: students' mobility, the improvement of students' autonomy and critical thinking as well as their generic and specific skills and finally a reflection on how to improve the attractiveness of the academic career, for physicians of both sexes. PMID:23254322

  15. The Bologna Process as a Reform Initiative in Higher Education in the Balkan Countries: The Case of Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damian, Radu Mircea

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Bologna process in Romania. The historical context covers the last years of the communist regime through 1989. From 1990 free elections of university leadership, the foundation of private universities and new democratic legislation, and projects for reforming higher education funded by different sources…

  16. Higher Education Reform in Germany: How the Aims of the Bologna Process Can Be Simultaneously Supported and Missed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkel, Olaf

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide information about the current reform of higher education in Germany, which can be described as German reading of the Bologna process, about the problems and deficits occurring in this area, and about ways to correct unwelcome developments. Design/methodology/approach: The paper starts with a review…

  17. Bringing Women into Computer Engineering: Curriculum Reform Processes at Two Institutes of Technology. Linkoping Studies in Education and Psychology Dissertations, No. 60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salminen-Karlsson, Minna

    This study examined curricular reform processes at two Swedish institutes of technology through a gender perspective, relating them to two social theories the reproduction theory of Bourdieu and Passeron and the gender contract theory of Yvonne Hirdman. The aim of the reform process was to make educational programs in computer engineering more…

  18. Impact of the Bologna Process and German Higher Education Reforms on Professorial Work and Role Definition at the University of Potsdam: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hairston, Christen Cullum

    2013-01-01

    The Bologna Process and German higher education reforms over the past decade have created significant waves of change at German universities. This case study focuses on the enduring impact of both the Bologna Process and German higher education reforms on how professors experience their work and define their roles during the winter term 2011-12 at…

  19. From Formulation to Realisation: The Process of Swedish Reform in Advanced Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindell, Mats

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to consider the complexities of planning and implementation of a reform in the Swedish system of higher vocational education and training (VET). The study object of this article is the Swedish reform with advanced vocational education (AVE). The two main questions the study aims to address are: "What are the main driving…

  20. Middle Grades Reform in California: Regional Processes: Interim Evaluation. Technical Report 2. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Jana Kay

    The California agenda for middle-grade reform is based on 10 regional networks, each composed of 1 foundation school and approximately 10 partnership schools. The second in a series of program evaluations, Technical Report 2 presents regional level information on the first 2 years of implementation of the middle-grade reform proposals, 1988-89 and…

  1. A Novel Slurry-Based Biomass Reforming Process Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Emerson, Sean C.; Davis, Timothy D.; Peles, A.; She, Ying; Sheffel, Joshua; Willigan, Rhonda R.; Vanderspurt, Thomas H.; Zhu, Tianli

    2011-09-30

    This project was focused on developing a catalytic means of producing H2 from raw, ground biomass, such as fast growing poplar trees, willow trees, or switch grass. The use of a renewable, biomass feedstock with minimal processing can enable a carbon neutral means of producing H2 in that the carbon dioxide produced from the process can be used in the environment to produce additional biomass. For economically viable production of H2, the biomass is hydrolyzed and then reformed without any additional purification steps. Any unreacted biomass and other byproduct streams are burned to provide process energy. Thus, the development of a catalyst that can operate in the demanding corrosive environment and presence of potential poisons is vital to this approach. The concept for this project is shown in Figure 1. The initial feed is assumed to be a >5 wt% slurry of ground wood in dilute base, such as potassium carbonate (K2CO3). Base hydrolysis and reforming of the wood is carried out at high but sub-critical pressures and temperatures in the presence of a solid catalyst. A Pd alloy membrane allows the continuous removal of pure , while the retentate, including methane is used as fuel in the plant. The project showed that it is possible to economically produce H2 from woody biomass in a carbon neutral manner. Technoeconomic analyses using HYSYS and the DOE's H2A tool [1] were used to design a 2000 ton day-1 (dry basis) biomass to hydrogen plant with an efficiency of 46% to 56%, depending on the mode of operation and economic assumptions, exceeding the DOE 2012 target of 43%. The cost of producing the hydrogen from such a plant would be in the range of $1/kg H2 to $2/kg H2. By using raw biomass as a feedstock, the cost of producing hydrogen at large biomass consumption rates is more cost effective than steam reforming of hydrocarbons or biomass gasification and can achieve the overall cost goals of the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program. The complete conversion of wood to

  2. Processing real-world waste plastics by pyrolysis-reforming for hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunfei; Nahil, Mohamad A; Miskolczi, Norbert; Huang, Jun; Williams, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    Producing both hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes (CNTs) derived from waste plastics is reported here using a pyrolysis-reforming technology comprising a two-stage reaction system, in the presence of steam and a Ni-Mn-Al catalyst. The waste plastics consisted of plastics from a motor oil container (MOC), commercial waste high density polyethylene (HDPE) and regranulated HDPE waste containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The results show that hydrogen can be produced from the pyrolysis-reforming process, but also carbon nanotubes are formed on the catalyst. However, the content of 0.3 wt.% polyvinyl chloride in the waste HDPE (HDPE/PVC) has been shown to poison the catalyst and significantly reduce the quantity and purity of CNTs. The presence of sulfur has shown less influence on the production of CNTs in terms of quantity and CNT morphologies. Around 94.4 mmol H2 g(-1) plastic was obtained for the pyrolysis-reforming of HDPE waste in the presence of the Ni-Mn-Al catalyst and steam at a reforming temperature of 800 °C. The addition of steam in the process results in an increase of hydrogen production and reduction of carbon yield; in addition, the defects of CNTs, for example, edge dislocations were found to be increased with the introduction of steam (from Raman analysis).

  3. Processing real-world waste plastics by pyrolysis-reforming for hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunfei; Nahil, Mohamad A; Miskolczi, Norbert; Huang, Jun; Williams, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    Producing both hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes (CNTs) derived from waste plastics is reported here using a pyrolysis-reforming technology comprising a two-stage reaction system, in the presence of steam and a Ni-Mn-Al catalyst. The waste plastics consisted of plastics from a motor oil container (MOC), commercial waste high density polyethylene (HDPE) and regranulated HDPE waste containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The results show that hydrogen can be produced from the pyrolysis-reforming process, but also carbon nanotubes are formed on the catalyst. However, the content of 0.3 wt.% polyvinyl chloride in the waste HDPE (HDPE/PVC) has been shown to poison the catalyst and significantly reduce the quantity and purity of CNTs. The presence of sulfur has shown less influence on the production of CNTs in terms of quantity and CNT morphologies. Around 94.4 mmol H2 g(-1) plastic was obtained for the pyrolysis-reforming of HDPE waste in the presence of the Ni-Mn-Al catalyst and steam at a reforming temperature of 800 °C. The addition of steam in the process results in an increase of hydrogen production and reduction of carbon yield; in addition, the defects of CNTs, for example, edge dislocations were found to be increased with the introduction of steam (from Raman analysis). PMID:24283272

  4. [Importance of health information systems in the process of reform and reconstruction of health care].

    PubMed

    Ridanović, Z

    1998-01-01

    Reform and reconstruction of health care system can not be carried out without health information systems and modern information and communication technologies. In other hand, health information system of The Federation of BiH must be an object of both reform and reconstruction. This thesis points out that reform of health information system is a crucial priorities in order to improve and fasten reform. There is a paradigmatic question: who provides service, to whom, what is the price, and what is the final solution? In order to answer this question, an integral health information system that will be computer supported is necessary. For integral work and information exchange, computers must be connected and follow the same operating procedures. Benefits of an integral health information system, as well as impact factors for its implementation are discussed in the paper. PMID:9623089

  5. CFD analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell with internal reforming: Coupled interactions of transport, heterogeneous catalysis and electrochemical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janardhanan, Vinod M.; Deutschmann, Olaf

    Direct internal reforming in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) results in increased overall efficiency of the system. Present study focus on the chemical and electrochemical process in an internally reforming anode supported SOFC button cell running on humidified CH 4 (3% H 2 O). The computational approach employs a detailed multi-step model for heterogeneous chemistry in the anode, modified Butler-Volmer formalism for the electrochemistry and Dusty Gas Model (DGM) for the porous media transport. Two-dimensional elliptic model equations are solved for a button cell configuration. The electrochemical model assumes hydrogen as the only electrochemically active species. The predicted cell performances are compared with experimental reports. The results show that model predictions are in good agreement with experimental observation except the open circuit potentials. Furthermore, the steam content in the anode feed stream is found to have remarkable effect on the resulting overpotential losses and surface coverages of various species at the three-phase boundary.

  6. Design Thinking: A Process for Developing and Implementing Lasting District Reform. Knowledge Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, challenges such as how to sustain district reform, how to build a leadership pipeline, how to create an integrated project, or how to best intervene with struggling students would be resolved with a team of "experts" developing a solution in isolation of the stakeholders involved. By contrast, design thinking centers on the…

  7. Education "Decentralization" Processes in Mexico and Nicaragua: Legislative versus Ministry-Led Reform Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershberg, Alec Ian

    1999-01-01

    Like most countries that have implemented some form of decentralization policy, Mexico followed a strategy of legislation first and actual reform second. Nicaragua, on the other hand, moved toward school-based management and significant changes in governance and finance with little legal framework. Benefits and pitfalls of the two national…

  8. Efficient utilization of greenhouse gases in a gas-to-liquids process combined with CO2/steam-mixed reforming and Fe-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chundong; Jun, Ki-Won; Ha, Kyoung-Su; Lee, Yun-Jo; Kang, Seok Chang

    2014-07-15

    Two process models for carbon dioxide utilized gas-to-liquids (GTL) process (CUGP) mainly producing light olefins and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthetic oils were developed by Aspen Plus software. Both models are mainly composed of a reforming unit, an F-T synthesis unit and a recycle unit, while the main difference is the feeding point of fresh CO2. In the reforming unit, CO2 reforming and steam reforming of methane are combined together to produce syngas in flexible composition. Meanwhile, CO2 hydrogenation is conducted via reverse water gas shift on the Fe-based catalysts in the F-T synthesis unit to produce hydrocarbons. After F-T synthesis, the unreacted syngas is recycled to F-T synthesis and reforming units to enhance process efficiency. From the simulation results, it was found that the carbon efficiencies of both CUGP options were successfully improved, and total CO2 emissions were significantly reduced, compared with the conventional GTL processes. The process efficiency was sensitive to recycle ratio and more recycle seemed to be beneficial for improving process efficiency and reducing CO2 emission. However, the process efficiency was rather insensitive to split ratio (recycle to reforming unit/total recycle), and the optimum split ratio was determined to be zero.

  9. Reforming Science: Structural Reforms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Science has a critical role to play in addressing humanity's most important challenges in the twenty-first century. However, the contemporary scientific enterprise has developed in ways that prevent it from reaching maximum effectiveness and detract from the appeal of a research career. To be effective, the methodological and culture reforms discussed in the accompanying essay must be accompanied by fundamental structural reforms that include a renewed vigorous societal investment in science and scientists. PMID:22184420

  10. Non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    SciTech Connect

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.; Kurek, Harry

    2015-12-22

    A non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot flue gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is embedded in the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot flue gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, extended surfaces of metal material such as stainless steel or metal alloy that are high in nickel content are included within at least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path.

  11. Performance and economic assessments of a solid oxide fuel cell system with a two-step ethanol-steam-reforming process using CaO sorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tippawan, Phanicha; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2016-02-01

    The hydrogen production process is known to be important to a fuel cell system. In this study, a carbon-free hydrogen production process is proposed by using a two-step ethanol-steam-reforming procedure, which consists of ethanol dehydrogenation and steam reforming, as a fuel processor in the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) system. An addition of CaO in the reformer for CO2 capture is also considered to enhance the hydrogen production. The performance of the SOFC system is analyzed under thermally self-sufficient conditions in terms of the technical and economic aspects. The simulation results show that the two-step reforming process can be run in the operating window without carbon formation. The addition of CaO in the steam reformer, which runs at a steam-to-ethanol ratio of 5, temperature of 900 K and atmospheric pressure, minimizes the presence of CO2; 93% CO2 is removed from the steam-reforming environment. This factor causes an increase in the SOFC power density of 6.62%. Although the economic analysis shows that the proposed fuel processor provides a higher capital cost, it offers a reducing active area of the SOFC stack and the most favorable process economics in term of net cost saving.

  12. School Reform. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue addresses school reform, focusing on accountability, attrition, public-supported private education, equitable education, and schoolwide reform. "School-Student Performance and Accountability" (Jose A. Cardenas) discusses what constitutes good performance in school; the shifting emphasis among the input, output, and process of…

  13. Steam reforming of glycerol over Pt-MCM-41 synthesized in a one-step process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Yan, Feng-Wen; Guo, Cun-Yue; Yuan, Guo-Qing

    2012-12-01

    Pt-MCM-41 materials were synthesized by a simple method via simultaneous self-assembling and Pt incorporation using cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) as a structure directing agent. Structural characterization of the sample was carried out by N2 sorption, XRD and TEM measurements. The highly ordered structure of MCM-41 was not appreciably affected by the formation of the Pt particles. Unlike related results, the Pt nanoparticles were incorporated into the mesopores and embedded into the pore walls as framework. The Pt-MCM-41 sample was tested as a catalyst in the steam reforming of glycerol in which it exhibited moderate activity, high selectivity to hydrogen, and very low selectivity to light alkanes.

  14. Property rights and water markets in Australia: An evolutionary process toward institutional reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigram, John J.

    1993-04-01

    In the past decade far-reaching reforms have taken place in the Australian water industry. Extensive restructuring of water administration has been accompanied by increased evidence of willingness by public agencies to consider alternative institutional arrangements to the traditional regulatory approach to water allocation and use. In irrigated agriculture, a market-based system linked to enforceable property rights to water is seen as preferable to rule-based management of water resources. However, significant social and economic considerations and political realities constrain the unfettered operation of water markets. The challenge facing the irrigation industry in Australia is to put in place institutional arrangements which reflect the most appropriate mix of incentive-based and regulatory mechanisms for water management.

  15. Teacher Education Reforms in Albania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Drawing on insights from Albanian teacher educators and government representatives, this paper examines processes of change and types of reform (modernization, structural, and systemic reform) in Albania. It also discusses the initial implementation of one of the reforms, which was directed at the balance and role of school experiences, analyzing…

  16. The role of strategic health planning processes in the development of health care reform policies: a comparative study of Eritrea, Mozambique and Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Green, Andrew; Collins, Charles; Stefanini, Angelo; Ferrinho, Paulo; Chapman, Glyn; Hagos, Besrat; Adams, Yussuf; Omar, Mayeh

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on comparative analysis of health planning and its relationship with health care reform in three countries, Eritrea, Mozambique and Zimbabwe. The research examined strategic planning in each country focusing in particular on its role in developing health sector reforms. The paper analyses the processes for strategic planning, the values that underpin the planning systems, and issues related to resources for planning processes. The resultant content of strategic plans is assessed and not seen to have driven the development of reforms; whilst each country had adopted strategic planning systems, in all three countries a more complex interplay of forces, including influences outside both the health sector and the country, had been critical forces behind the sectoral changes experienced over the previous decade. The key roles of different actors in developing the plans and reforms are also assessed. The paper concludes that a number of different conceptions of strategic planning exist and will depend on the particular context within which the health system is placed. Whilst similarities were discovered between strategic planning systems in the three countries, there are also key differences in terms of formality, timeframes, structures and degrees of inclusiveness. No clear leadership role for strategic planning in terms of health sector reforms was discovered. Planning appears in the three countries to be more operational than strategic.

  17. Process for reforming naphthene and paraffin-containing hydrocarbons in the naphtha boiling range and isomerizing C sub 5 -C sub 6 normal paraffin feedstock to produce a high octane gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Dalson, M.H.

    1990-05-08

    This patent describes a process for reforming a naphthenic and paraffin-containing hydrocarbon feedstock to produce a reformate product having an increased octane rating by contacting the feedstock with a reforming catalyst in the presence of hydrogen at reforming conditions in a reforming zone, the reforming zone including a naphtha dehydrogenation zone and a paraffin dehydrocyclization zone wherein heated, pressurized hydrogen is added to the effluent stream from the naphtha dehydrogenation zone prior to charging the effluent stream to the paraffin dehydrocyclization zone to produce a first product stream comprising a gasoline range reformate product having an RON octane rating of at least about 90 and hydrogen wherein the reformate product is separated from the hydrogen in a reformate separation zone. It comprises: charging at least a portion of the heated, pressurized hydrogen with a C{sub 5}-C{sub 6} n-paraffin feedstock to an isomerization zone containing an isomerization catalyst at isomerization conditions to produce a second product stream containing an isomerized C{sub 5}-C{sub 6} product and passing the second product stream to the reformate separation zone and recovering at least a major portion of the isomerized C{sub 5}-C{sub 6} product with the reformate product.

  18. The Ghosts of Higher Education Reform: On the Organisational Processes Surrounding Policy Borrowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brøgger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The Bologna Process is one of the most extensive examples of policy borrowing processes. Based on qualitative data, this article argues in favour of studying part of this process as "global smallness", centring on the organisational effects of the implementation of a globalised curriculum. Through Derrida's notion on hauntology,…

  19. Reform, Inequalities of Process and the Transformative Potential of Communities of Practice in the Pre-School Sector of England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Donald

    2011-01-01

    The integration of care and education across pre-school sectors of several European countries is currently a key policy priority. In England this necessitates reform aimed at re-modelling a traditionally hierarchical and divided workforce. Drawing on research with early years professionals, this article explores the micro-politics of reform with a…

  20. Regional Higher Education Reform Initiatives in Africa: A Comparative Analysis with the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woldegiorgis, Emnet Tadesse; Jonck, Petronella; Goujon, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Europe's Bologna Process has been identified as a pioneering approach in regional cooperation with respect to the area of higher education. To address the challenges of African higher education, policymakers are recommending regional cooperation that uses the Bologna Process as a model. Based on these recommendations, the African Union Commission…

  1. Dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Yatish T.; Gardner, Todd H.

    2014-09-25

    Developments in catalyst technology for the dry reforming of hydrocarbon feedstocks are reviewed for methane, higher hydrocarbons and alcohols. Thermodynamics, mechanisms and the kinetics of dry reforming are also reviewed. The literature on Ni catalysts, bi-metallic Ni catalysts and the role of promoters on Ni catalysts is critically evaluated. The use of noble and transitional metal catalysts for dry reforming is discussed. The application of solid oxide and metal carbide catalysts to dry reforming is also evaluated. Finally, various mechanisms for catalyst deactivation are assessed. This review also examines the various process related issues associated with dry reforming such as its application and heat optimization. Novel approaches such as supercritical dry reforming and microwave assisted dry reforming are briefly expanded upon.

  2. The Bologna Process as a Reform Initiative in Higher Education in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucin, Pero; Prijic Samarzija, Snjezana

    2011-01-01

    In the past decade, the Croatian higher education system has been under intensive transformation, one mostly driven by an increased demand for postsecondary education and by the process of Croatia's accession to the European Union. Although there had already been a constant need and pressure for the transformation of tertiary education…

  3. The Process of General Education Reform from a Faculty Perspective: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hachtmann, Frauke

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explain the process and implementation of an outcomes-based general education program at a public, doctoral/research-extensive institution from the perspective of faculty. The theory that emerged explains how different causal, intervening, and contextual conditions interact with and affect the phenomenon of general…

  4. Reformer Fuel Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suder, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Today's form of jet engine power comes from what is called a gas turbine engine. This engine is on average 14% efficient and emits great quantities of green house gas carbon dioxide and air pollutants, Le. nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. The alternate method being researched involves a reformer and a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Reformers are becoming a popular area of research within the industry scale. NASA Glenn Research Center's approach is based on modifying the large aspects of industry reforming processes into a smaller jet fuel reformer. This process must not only be scaled down in size, but also decrease in weight and increase in efficiency. In comparison to today's method, the Jet A fuel reformer will be more efficient as well as reduce the amount of air pollutants discharged. The intent is to develop a 10kW process that can be used to satisfy the needs of commercial jet engines. Presently, commercial jets use Jet-A fuel, which is a kerosene based hydrocarbon fuel. Hydrocarbon fuels cannot be directly fed into a SOFC for the reason that the high temperature causes it to decompose into solid carbon and Hz. A reforming process converts fuel into hydrogen and supplies it to a fuel cell for power, as well as eliminating sulfur compounds. The SOFC produces electricity by converting H2 and CO2. The reformer contains a catalyst which is used to speed up the reaction rate and overall conversion. An outside company will perform a catalyst screening with our baseline Jet-A fuel to determine the most durable catalyst for this application. Our project team is focusing on the overall research of the reforming process. Eventually we will do a component evaluation on the different reformer designs and catalysts. The current status of the project is the completion of buildup in the test rig and check outs on all equipment and electronic signals to our data system. The objective is to test various reformer designs and catalysts in our test rig to determine the most

  5. Reform of the EIA process in Indonesia: improving the role of public involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Purnama, Dadang

    2003-07-01

    The implementation of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) as a planning tool has been utilised for a relatively long time in Indonesia. It was introduced formally through the Act No. 4/1982. Supporting regulation was established in 1986 when Government Regulation No. 29 was enacted. After developing the EIA system for 14 years, Indonesia finally recognized the importance of emphasizing public involvement in the EIA guidelines of 2000. EIA in the previous Indonesian regulations, i.e. Regulation No. 29/1986 and No. 51/1993, did not have provisions for direct public involvement. The Indonesian Government Regulation No. 27/1999 is currently accommodating the above issue. Guidelines for public announcement and public involvement have been introduced in a decree issued by the Head of Indonesia's Environmental Impact Management Agency No. KepDal 08/2000. This was officially enacted on 7 November 2000 in response to the demand for more public involvement, an issue that was ambiguous in the previous legislation. This paper discusses: the implementation of the new guidelines; what has been achieved; and the challenges during implementation. While the paper focuses its review on the Indonesian EIA system, Indonesia's experience is relevant to many other developing countries that are starting to adopt public involvement in their decision-making processes.

  6. Bringing electricity reform to the Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Fe Villamejor-Mendoza, Maria

    2008-12-15

    Electricity reforms will not translate to competition overnight. But reforms are inching their way forward in institutions and stakeholders of the Philippine electricity industry, through regulatory and competition frameworks, processes, and systems promulgated and implemented. (author)

  7. Orthopaedic Surgery Under National Health Reform: An Analysis of Power, Process, Adaptation, and Leadership: AOA Critical Issues.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Charles D; Adair, Daniel; Bozic, Kevin J; Manning, Blaine T; Saleh, Jamal K; Saleh, Khaled J

    2014-07-01

    Morrison argued that demography, economy, and technology drive the evolution of industries from a formative first-generation state ("First Curve") to a radically different way of doing things ("Second Curve") that is marked by new skills, strategies, and partners. The current health-reform movement in the United States reflects these three key evolutionary trends: surging medical needs of an aging population, dramatic expansion of Medicare spending, and care delivery systems optimized through powerful information technology. Successful transition from a formative first-generation state (First Curve) to a radically different way of doing things (Second Curve) will require new skills, strategies, and partners. In a new world that is value-driven, community-centric (versus hospital-centric), and prevention-focused, orthopaedic surgeons and health-care administrators must form new alliances to reduce the cost of care and improve durable outcomes for musculoskeletal problems. The greatest barrier to success in the Second Curve stems not from lack of empirical support for integrated models of care, but rather from resistance by those who would execute them. Porter's five forces of competitive strategy and the behavioral analysis of change provide insights into the predictable forms of resistance that undermine clinical and economic success in the new environment of care. This paper analyzes the components that will differentiate orthopaedic care provision for the Second Curve. It also provides recommendations for future-focused orthopaedic surgery and health-care administrative leaders to consider as they design newly adaptive, mutually reinforcing, and economically viable musculoskeletal care processes that drive the level of orthopaedic care that our nation deserves-at a cost that it can afford. PMID:24990985

  8. Orthopaedic Surgery Under National Health Reform: An Analysis of Power, Process, Adaptation, and Leadership: AOA Critical Issues.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Charles D; Adair, Daniel; Bozic, Kevin J; Manning, Blaine T; Saleh, Jamal K; Saleh, Khaled J

    2014-07-01

    Morrison argued that demography, economy, and technology drive the evolution of industries from a formative first-generation state ("First Curve") to a radically different way of doing things ("Second Curve") that is marked by new skills, strategies, and partners. The current health-reform movement in the United States reflects these three key evolutionary trends: surging medical needs of an aging population, dramatic expansion of Medicare spending, and care delivery systems optimized through powerful information technology. Successful transition from a formative first-generation state (First Curve) to a radically different way of doing things (Second Curve) will require new skills, strategies, and partners. In a new world that is value-driven, community-centric (versus hospital-centric), and prevention-focused, orthopaedic surgeons and health-care administrators must form new alliances to reduce the cost of care and improve durable outcomes for musculoskeletal problems. The greatest barrier to success in the Second Curve stems not from lack of empirical support for integrated models of care, but rather from resistance by those who would execute them. Porter's five forces of competitive strategy and the behavioral analysis of change provide insights into the predictable forms of resistance that undermine clinical and economic success in the new environment of care. This paper analyzes the components that will differentiate orthopaedic care provision for the Second Curve. It also provides recommendations for future-focused orthopaedic surgery and health-care administrative leaders to consider as they design newly adaptive, mutually reinforcing, and economically viable musculoskeletal care processes that drive the level of orthopaedic care that our nation deserves-at a cost that it can afford.

  9. 2009 PILOT SCALE FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING TESTING USING THE THOR (THERMAL ORGANIC REDUCTION) PROCESS: ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR TANK 48H ORGANIC DESTRUCTION - 10408

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.; Jantzen, C.; Burket, P.; Crawford, C.; Daniel, G.; Aponte, C.; Johnson, C.

    2009-12-28

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) must empty the contents of Tank 48H, a 1.3 million gallon Type IIIA HLW storage tank, to return this tank to service. The tank contains organic compounds, mainly potassium tetraphenylborate that cannot be processed downstream until the organic components are destroyed. The THOR{reg_sign} Treatment Technologies (TTT) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) technology, herein after referred to as steam reforming, has been demonstrated to be a viable process to remove greater than 99.9% of the organics from Tank 48H during various bench scale and pilot scale tests. These demonstrations were supported by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) and the Department of Energy (DOE) has concurred with the SRR recommendation to proceed with the deployment of the FBSR technology to treat the contents of Tank 48H. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed and proved the concept with non-radioactive simulants for SRR beginning in 2003. By 2008, several pilot scale campaigns had been completed and extensive crucible testing and bench scale testing were performed in the SRNL Shielded Cells using Tank 48H radioactive sample. SRNL developed a Tank 48H non-radioactive simulant complete with organic compounds, salt, and metals characteristic of those measured in a sample of the radioactive contents of Tank 48H. FBSR Pilot Scaled Testing with the Tank 48H simulant has demonstrated the ability to remove greater than 98% of the nitrites and greater than 99.5% of the nitrates from the Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily alkali carbonate. The alkali carbonate is soluble and, thus, amenable to pumping as a liquid to downstream facilities for processing. The FBSR technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration (ESTD) pilot scale steam reformer at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. Additional ESTD tests were completed in 2008 and in 2009 that further demonstrated the

  10. Integration of Methane Steam Reforming and Water Gas Shift Reaction in a Pd/Au/Pd-Based Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Process Intensification.

    PubMed

    Castro-Dominguez, Bernardo; Mardilovich, Ivan P; Ma, Liang-Chih; Ma, Rui; Dixon, Anthony G; Kazantzis, Nikolaos K; Ma, Yi Hua

    2016-09-19

    Palladium-based catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs) effectively remove H₂ to induce higher conversions in methane steam reforming (MSR) and water-gas-shift reactions (WGS). Within such a context, this work evaluates the technical performance of a novel CMR, which utilizes two catalysts in series, rather than one. In the process system under consideration, the first catalyst, confined within the shell side of the reactor, reforms methane with water yielding H₂, CO and CO₂. After reforming is completed, a second catalyst, positioned in series, reacts with CO and water through the WGS reaction yielding pure H₂O, CO₂ and H₂. A tubular composite asymmetric Pd/Au/Pd membrane is situated throughout the reactor to continuously remove the produced H₂ and induce higher methane and CO conversions while yielding ultrapure H₂ and compressed CO₂ ready for dehydration. Experimental results involving (i) a conventional packed bed reactor packed (PBR) for MSR, (ii) a PBR with five layers of two catalysts in series and (iii) a CMR with two layers of two catalysts in series are comparatively assessed and thoroughly characterized. Furthermore, a comprehensive 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to explore further the features of the proposed configuration. The reaction was studied at different process intensification-relevant conditions, such as space velocities, temperatures, pressures and initial feed gas composition. Finally, it is demonstrated that the above CMR module, which was operated for 600 h, displays quite high H₂ permeance and purity, high CH₄ conversion levels and reduced CO yields.

  11. Integration of Methane Steam Reforming and Water Gas Shift Reaction in a Pd/Au/Pd-Based Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Process Intensification.

    PubMed

    Castro-Dominguez, Bernardo; Mardilovich, Ivan P; Ma, Liang-Chih; Ma, Rui; Dixon, Anthony G; Kazantzis, Nikolaos K; Ma, Yi Hua

    2016-01-01

    Palladium-based catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs) effectively remove H₂ to induce higher conversions in methane steam reforming (MSR) and water-gas-shift reactions (WGS). Within such a context, this work evaluates the technical performance of a novel CMR, which utilizes two catalysts in series, rather than one. In the process system under consideration, the first catalyst, confined within the shell side of the reactor, reforms methane with water yielding H₂, CO and CO₂. After reforming is completed, a second catalyst, positioned in series, reacts with CO and water through the WGS reaction yielding pure H₂O, CO₂ and H₂. A tubular composite asymmetric Pd/Au/Pd membrane is situated throughout the reactor to continuously remove the produced H₂ and induce higher methane and CO conversions while yielding ultrapure H₂ and compressed CO₂ ready for dehydration. Experimental results involving (i) a conventional packed bed reactor packed (PBR) for MSR, (ii) a PBR with five layers of two catalysts in series and (iii) a CMR with two layers of two catalysts in series are comparatively assessed and thoroughly characterized. Furthermore, a comprehensive 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to explore further the features of the proposed configuration. The reaction was studied at different process intensification-relevant conditions, such as space velocities, temperatures, pressures and initial feed gas composition. Finally, it is demonstrated that the above CMR module, which was operated for 600 h, displays quite high H₂ permeance and purity, high CH₄ conversion levels and reduced CO yields. PMID:27657143

  12. The School-to-College Transition in the Context of Educational Reform: Student Retention and the State Policy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, John F.; Petrosko, Joseph; Taylor, Hal

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of state-level educational reform in Kentucky on college student retention. By tracking the educational progress of students who graduated from high school in a large school district and who subsequently enrolled in a research university in the same metropolitan area, the study reveals that the accountability…

  13. Curriculum Reform: Discovering the Void

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaDuca, Anthony

    1972-01-01

    Contends that intensive activity and rapid change in curriculum reform is at an end; that areas of urban and vocational education in the reform process have been ignored; and that the level of knowledge in curriculum and instruction has not advanced. Appeals for exploratory research to establish the foundation for constructing a theory of…

  14. Whole Language: Reform and Resistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Mark A.; Commins, Nancy L.

    1993-01-01

    The issue of educational reform and the role of the teacher in the reform process is discussed, using whole language as an example. It is argued that whole-language teachers must develop a theoretical framework that not only informs their views but also provides an understanding of systems and systems change. (Contains 28 references.) (Author/LB)

  15. General Education Reform: Opportunities for Institutional Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuess, Scott M., Jr.; Mitchell, Nancy D.

    2011-01-01

    General education reform provides strategic opportunities for departments. This article analyzes reform at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, illustrating how departments could use the reform process to clarify their strategic planning, align with institutional goals, and steer the university closer to departmental objectives. (Contains 1 table.)

  16. Slab reformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spurrier, Francis R. (Inventor); DeZubay, Egon A. (Inventor); Murray, Alexander P. (Inventor); Vidt, Edward J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot comubstion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  17. Slab reformer

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, Francis R.; DeZubay, Egon A.; Murray, Alexander P.; Vidt, Edward J.

    1985-03-12

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  18. Slab reformer

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, Francis R.; DeZubay, Egon A.; Murray, Alexander P.; Vidt, Edward J.

    1984-02-07

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot comubstion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  19. Slab reformer

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, F.R.; DeZubay, E.A.; Murray, A.P.; Vidt, E.J.

    1984-02-07

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations are disclosed particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant. 14 figs.

  20. Health care reforms

    PubMed Central

    Prevolnik Rupel, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country. PMID:27703543

  1. Rethinking Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, James C.

    2010-01-01

    As president of Miami University of Ohio from 1996 until 2006, James C. Garland redefined the public institution as a "semi-private" university by implementing the same tuition for both in-state and out-of-state students. Students from Ohio with need received large scholarships--but those who could afford to pay more did so. The reform, which…

  2. Toothless Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smarick, Andy

    2010-01-01

    To many education reformers, the passage of the federal government's massive stimulus plan, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), appeared to be a final bright star falling into alignment. The ARRA seemed to complete the constellation: an astounding $100 billion of new federal funds--nearly twice the annual budget of the U.S.…

  3. What Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    A teacher explores the recent educational reform movement and discusses the studies of schools done by Sociologist Christopher Jencks in the 1970s. An important idea that can be extrapolated from Jencks' studies is that schools should function more like families than factories. This would empower teachers and make schooling more equitable,…

  4. Integration of Methane Steam Reforming and Water Gas Shift Reaction in a Pd/Au/Pd-Based Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Process Intensification

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Dominguez, Bernardo; Mardilovich, Ivan P.; Ma, Liang-Chih; Ma, Rui; Dixon, Anthony G.; Kazantzis, Nikolaos K.; Ma, Yi Hua

    2016-01-01

    Palladium-based catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs) effectively remove H2 to induce higher conversions in methane steam reforming (MSR) and water-gas-shift reactions (WGS). Within such a context, this work evaluates the technical performance of a novel CMR, which utilizes two catalysts in series, rather than one. In the process system under consideration, the first catalyst, confined within the shell side of the reactor, reforms methane with water yielding H2, CO and CO2. After reforming is completed, a second catalyst, positioned in series, reacts with CO and water through the WGS reaction yielding pure H2O, CO2 and H2. A tubular composite asymmetric Pd/Au/Pd membrane is situated throughout the reactor to continuously remove the produced H2 and induce higher methane and CO conversions while yielding ultrapure H2 and compressed CO2 ready for dehydration. Experimental results involving (i) a conventional packed bed reactor packed (PBR) for MSR, (ii) a PBR with five layers of two catalysts in series and (iii) a CMR with two layers of two catalysts in series are comparatively assessed and thoroughly characterized. Furthermore, a comprehensive 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to explore further the features of the proposed configuration. The reaction was studied at different process intensification-relevant conditions, such as space velocities, temperatures, pressures and initial feed gas composition. Finally, it is demonstrated that the above CMR module, which was operated for 600 h, displays quite high H2 permeance and purity, high CH4 conversion levels and reduced CO yields. PMID:27657143

  5. Reformation process of the neuronal template for nestmate-recognition cues in the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Sara Diana; Brandstaetter, Andreas Simon; Kleineidam, Christoph Johannes

    2007-09-01

    Ants use cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC-profiles) as multicomponent recognition cues to identify colony members (nestmates). Recognition cues (label) are thought to be perceived during ant-ant encounters and compared to a neuronal template that represents the colony label. Over time, the CHC-profile may change, and the template is adjusted accordingly. A phenotype mismatch between label and template, as happens with CHC-profiles of foreign workers (non-nestmates), frequently leads to aggressive behavior. We investigated the template reformation in workers of the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus by masking their antennae with postpharyngeal gland (PPG) extracts from nestmates or non-nestmates. The behavioral response of manipulated workers encountering unmanipulated workers was measured independently after 2 and after 15 h. After 2 h of incubation, workers treated with either of the two PPG-extracts showed low aggression towards nestmates and high aggression towards non-nestmates. In contrast, after 15 h of incubation, workers treated with non-nestmate PPG-extract showed low aggression towards both nestmates and non-nestmates. The slow (>2 h) adjustment of the template indicates a reformation localized in the central nervous system rather than in chemosensory neurons. In addition, our data show that template adjustment to a new CHC-profile does not impair the assessment of the old CHC-profile as nestmate label.

  6. Reformation process of the neuronal template for nestmate-recognition cues in the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Sara Diana; Brandstaetter, Andreas Simon; Kleineidam, Christoph Johannes

    2007-09-01

    Ants use cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC-profiles) as multicomponent recognition cues to identify colony members (nestmates). Recognition cues (label) are thought to be perceived during ant-ant encounters and compared to a neuronal template that represents the colony label. Over time, the CHC-profile may change, and the template is adjusted accordingly. A phenotype mismatch between label and template, as happens with CHC-profiles of foreign workers (non-nestmates), frequently leads to aggressive behavior. We investigated the template reformation in workers of the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus by masking their antennae with postpharyngeal gland (PPG) extracts from nestmates or non-nestmates. The behavioral response of manipulated workers encountering unmanipulated workers was measured independently after 2 and after 15 h. After 2 h of incubation, workers treated with either of the two PPG-extracts showed low aggression towards nestmates and high aggression towards non-nestmates. In contrast, after 15 h of incubation, workers treated with non-nestmate PPG-extract showed low aggression towards both nestmates and non-nestmates. The slow (>2 h) adjustment of the template indicates a reformation localized in the central nervous system rather than in chemosensory neurons. In addition, our data show that template adjustment to a new CHC-profile does not impair the assessment of the old CHC-profile as nestmate label. PMID:17639411

  7. Applications of solar reforming technology

    SciTech Connect

    Spiewak, I.; Tyner, C.E.; Langnickel, U.

    1993-11-01

    Research in recent years has demonstrated the efficient use of solar thermal energy for driving endothermic chemical reforming reactions in which hydrocarbons are reacted to form synthesis gas (syngas). Closed-loop reforming/methanation systems can be used for storage and transport of process heat and for short-term storage for peaking power generation. Open-loop systems can be used for direct fuel production; for production of syngas feedstock for further processing to specialty chemicals and plastics and bulk ammonia, hydrogen, and liquid fuels; and directly for industrial processes such as iron ore reduction. In addition, reforming of organic chemical wastes and hazardous materials can be accomplished using the high-efficiency destruction capabilities of steam reforming. To help identify the most promising areas for future development of this technology, we discuss in this paper the economics and market potential of these applications.

  8. Reforming Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donmoyer, Robert, Ed.; Merryfield, Merry M., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue highlights the diversity of reform initiatives in order to provide a deep understanding of the complexities associated with educational reform in general and the reform of science education in particular. Systemic reform initiatives at the national and state levels along with locally-inspired efforts at reform are outlined.…

  9. Benzene upgrading reformer integration

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.

    1990-08-21

    This patent describes a continuous process for providing an integrated product recovery system for a primary catalytic hydrocarbon reforming reactor and a secondary catalytic olefins oligomerization-alkylation reactor. It comprises: withdrawing reformer effluent from primary reformer reactor; separating in a primary separation zone the reformer effluent into a primary overhead stream comprising noncondensible light paraffins and a primary bottoms stream comprising C{sub 6} to C{sub 8} aromatic hydrocarbons; withdrawing oligomerization effluent from secondary oligomerization-alkylation reactor; separating in a secondary separation zone the oligomerization effluent into a secondary overhead stream; adding the primary bottoms stream and the secondary bottoms stream to the fractionation column; withdrawing from the top of the fractionation column a stream comprising C{sub 4} {minus} hydrocarbons; withdrawing from the bottom of the fractionation column a stream comprising C{sub 5} + hydrocarbons; adding the C{sub 5} + hydrocarbon stream to the reboiler unit; withdrawing from the reboiler unit a vapor stream comprising benzene and a liquid stream comprising C{sub 5} + hydrocarbons boiling in the gasoline range; adding at least a portion of the vapor stream comprising benzene to the secondary catalytic olefins oligomerization-alkylation reactor; and adding a light olefins feedstream.

  10. Law reform, politics and mental health.

    PubMed

    Kirby, M D

    1983-03-01

    A major problem of democratic government is to get lawmakers to address controversial and sensitive subjects such as mental health law reform. By reference to current and past projects in the Australian Law Reform Commission, its Chairman outlines the way in which permanent law reform agencies can mobilise expert and community opinion to help the lawmaking process address sufficiently the needs of law reform. After outlining briefly the history of mental health law reform in English-speaking countries, the author suggests that moves for reform tend to come in 'cycles' or 'waves'. This is especially so in federations such as Australia. Reforms introduced in South Australia in 1976 are now working their way into the laws of other jurisdictions of Australia, where mental health law is basically a state concern. The reforms deal with such matters as legal representation for persons involuntarily committed and stricter definitions of circumstances for and objectives of hospitalisation of the mentally ill. Some comments are offered on new approaches to the defence of insanity in criminal trials following the jury verdict in the Hinkley case arising out of an attempt on the life of a President of the United States. The implications of this and other cases for the 'anti-psychiatry' movement are referred to and discussed. The author concludes with comments on the implications of mental health law reform for democracies. He suggests a law for law reform agencies in reconciling needs for law reform and community tolerance of change.

  11. A case study of health sector reform in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The impact of conflict on population health and health infrastructure has been well documented; however the efforts of the international community to rebuild health systems in post-conflict periods have not been systematically examined. Based on a review of relevant literature, this paper develops a framework for analyzing health reform in post-conflict settings, and applies this framework to the case study of health system reform in post-conflict Kosovo. The paper examines two questions: first, the selection of health reform measures; and second, the outcome of the reform process. It measures the success of reforms by the extent to which reform achieved its objectives. Through an examination of primary documents and interviews with key stakeholders, the paper demonstrates that the external nature of the reform process, the compressed time period for reform, and weak state capacity undermined the ability of the success of the reform program. PMID:20398389

  12. Teachers' Sense of Self amid Adaptation to Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Berg, G.; Schulze, S.

    2014-01-01

    Education has been subject to a process of continuous educational reforms. The aim of this study was to explore teachers' abilities to adapt to these reforms and to find out how this process of continual reform related to their identities as teachers. The study used a narrative research approach. The data for this research were based on the…

  13. Swedish Educational Policy and Reforms--Intention versus Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odin, Bjorn

    1987-01-01

    Swedish school reform since the 1970s has involved a shift in policy and underlying values throughout the entire implementation process. Educational reform has broken into loosely connected fragments with relevant reform makers at all educational levels. Despite a newly decentralized process, observed changes are not really structural. Includes…

  14. Reforming Again: Now Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Ronald W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Educational reform responds to local and national pressures to improve educational outcomes, and reform efforts cycle as similar pressures recur. Currently, reform efforts focus on teachers, even though confidence in a host of American social institutions is dropping. One of the most widespread reforms regarding teachers is the…

  15. Novel Reforming Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Pfefferle, Lisa D; Haller, Gary L

    2012-10-16

    Aqueous phase reforming is useful for processing oxygenated hydrocarbons to hydrogen and other more useful products. Current processing is hampered by the fact that oxide based catalysts are not stable under high temperature hydrothermal conditions. Silica in the form of structured MCM-41 is thermally a more stable support for Co and Ni than conventional high surface area amorphous silica but hydrothermal stability is not demonstrated. Carbon nanotube supports, in contrast, are highly stable under hydrothermal reaction conditions. In this project we show that carbon nanotubes are stable high activity/selectivity supports for the conversion of ethylene glycol to hydrogen.

  16. Vocational Education and Training Reform in Latvia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report on vocational education and training (VET) reform in Latvia is one of a series of country reports by the European Training Foundation on the reform process in partner countries. Chapter 1 provides basic data on the country. Chapter 2 describes the present situation and recent developments in VET. It covers main features of the…

  17. Vocational Education and Training Reform in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report on vocational education and training (VET) reform in Poland is one of a series of country reports by the European Training Foundation on the reform process in partner countries. Chapter 1 provides basic data on the country. Chapter 2 describes the present situation and recent developments in VET. It covers main features of the…

  18. Noteworthy Perspectives on Comprehensive School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-Continent Regional Educational Lab., Aurora, CO.

    This publication is intended to help schools develop and implement comprehensive reform initiatives. It provides an overview of comprehensive school reform and offers suggestions for selecting and implementing research-based instruction, which includes a step-by-step process for selecting and adopting research-based instructional methods that are…

  19. Curriculum Reform: The Crisis in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyton, Edith

    1984-01-01

    Education currently faces a crisis in curriculum reform which presents a danger to pedagogical programs. Changes in teacher education programs should be based on research and should be accomplished by a reflective and rational process. Methods of reform are explored. (DF)

  20. Educational Reform: The Players and the Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, Steve

    Substantive arguments on school reform may be disguising a hidden debate over the process and politics of such reform--a debate over who should be responsible for educating our youth, the parties responsible for the current difficulties, and how severe these difficulties are. This document attempts to identify the attitudes that drive this hidden…

  1. The Process of General Education Reform from a Faculty Perspective at a Research-Extensive University: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hachtmann, Frauke

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a theory for institutional change that explains the process and implementation of "Achievement-Centered Education" (ACE) from the faculty perspective. ACE is a new general education program at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, a public, doctoral/research-extensive institution. A constant comparative…

  2. Science Curriculum Reform as a Socioculturally Anchored Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia G., Carlos M.

    2011-01-01

    In this essay I elaborate on three ideas that emerged from reading the work of Sylvie Barma. These points are in response to curriculum reform and the use of activity theory: (a) curriculum reform as a public policy; (b) a reflection about the process followed by teacher implementation of that reform in a biology classroom; and (c) the sense of…

  3. [Controversial matters of arrangement of dental assistance within the framework of healthcare system reform and ways to increase of efficiency of diagnosing destructive processes in apical periodont].

    PubMed

    ZHero, N I

    2014-01-01

    In conditions of reform of primary level of medical sanitary assistance a tendency for decrease of availability of dental care for population has been revealed. Increase in number of complicated cases of typical dental diseases, inter alia, destructive affection of apical periodont. An examination of 347 patients with apical periodontitis has been held. For the purpose of improvement of differential diagnostics of radicular cysts and periapical granulomas as well as choice of adequate method of treatment postprocessing of digital dental roentgenograms has been used. 241 granulomas, 106 cysts (simplex and complex) and cystogranulomas--have been diagnosed. For improvement of visualization of destruction zone of alveolar bone possibilities of digital processing of image have been utilized. Postprocessing of digital roentgenograms significantly supplemented results of visual examination and excluded impact of subjective factor in composition of diagnostic conclusion. Upon results of examination of histograms of optical density of radiographic image of pathological zone signs of specific for granulomas, cysts and have been detected. Diagnostic conclusion coincides with results of pathomorphological study.

  4. [Controversial matters of arrangement of dental assistance within the framework of healthcare system reform and ways to increase of efficiency of diagnosing destructive processes in apical periodont].

    PubMed

    ZHero, N I

    2014-01-01

    In conditions of reform of primary level of medical sanitary assistance a tendency for decrease of availability of dental care for population has been revealed. Increase in number of complicated cases of typical dental diseases, inter alia, destructive affection of apical periodont. An examination of 347 patients with apical periodontitis has been held. For the purpose of improvement of differential diagnostics of radicular cysts and periapical granulomas as well as choice of adequate method of treatment postprocessing of digital dental roentgenograms has been used. 241 granulomas, 106 cysts (simplex and complex) and cystogranulomas--have been diagnosed. For improvement of visualization of destruction zone of alveolar bone possibilities of digital processing of image have been utilized. Postprocessing of digital roentgenograms significantly supplemented results of visual examination and excluded impact of subjective factor in composition of diagnostic conclusion. Upon results of examination of histograms of optical density of radiographic image of pathological zone signs of specific for granulomas, cysts and have been detected. Diagnostic conclusion coincides with results of pathomorphological study. PMID:25796822

  5. Steam Hydrocarbon Cracking and Reforming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The interactive methods of steam hydrocarbon reforming and cracking of the oil and chemical industries are scrutinized, with special focus on their resemblance and variations. The two methods are illustrations of equilibrium-controlled and kinetically-controlled processes, the analysis of which involves theories, which overlap and balance each…

  6. When School Reform Goes Wrong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noddings, Nel

    2007-01-01

    In this much-needed volume, Nel Noddings uses her extensive experience at every level of schooling to challenge the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). Noddings invites readers to think critically about the ideas underlying NCLB, the reform movement that shaped it, and the processes it has put into play. She considers such questions as: Is money the…

  7. Anchors for Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alok, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Education reforms, considering their significance, deserve better methods than mere "trial and error." This article conceptualizes a network of six anchors for education reforms: education policy, education system, curriculum, pedagogy, assessment, and teacher education. It establishes the futility to reform anchors in isolation and anticipates…

  8. Beyond Reform: Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Jill

    2007-01-01

    The Coalition of Essential Schools (CES) is not a reform movement. To reform is to make a thing again; reformation implies a stasis that doesn't deliver enough for the educational future. This issue of Horace demonstrates that Essential schools and the districts and networks that support them are at various points in the journey of transformation,…

  9. Sputnik Reform Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Charles E.

    1985-01-01

    Educational reforms being called for in the 1980's are compared to reforms of the 1950's. The Sputnik-inspired quest for quality called for reform in the content and structure of basic subjects. Current reports say that what educators are doing in the basic subjects is ok, but they need to do more. (RM)

  10. Petroleum refinery process and apparatus for the production of alkyl aromatic hydrocarbons from fuel gas and catalytic reformate

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Kushnerick, J.D.; Owen, H.

    1991-02-12

    This paper describes a process for the production of gasoline. It comprises: contacting a feed stream comprising C{sub 4}{sup {minus}} olefin hydrocarbons with a feed stream comprising C{sub 6} to C{sub 8} aromatic hydrocarbons at an aromatic to olefin weight ratio of 5:1 to 20:1 over a fluidized zeolite catalyst at a temperature of 350{degrees} to 900{degrees}F a pressure of 20 to 650 psig in a riser reactor having multiple olefin feed injection points to alkylate the C{sub 6}-C{sub 8} aromatics with the olefins to form C{sub 7} to C{sub 11} alkyl aromatic hydrocarbon gasoline products, wherein the multiple olefin feed injection points are spaced along the height of the riser reactor and the aforethe aromatic to olefin weight ratio is maintained throughout the riser reactor and withdrawing a portion of the catalyst from the riser for regeneration of the catalyst the withdrawn catalyst containing only a minor amount of deposited coke.

  11. Modern Processes of Hydrocarbon Migration and Re-Formation of Oil and Gas Fields (Based on the Results of Monitoring and Geochemical Studies)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikova, Irina; Salakhidinova, Gulmira; Nosova, Fidania; Pronin, Nikita; Ostroukhov, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Special geochemical studies of oils allowed to allocate a movable migration component of oils in the industrial oil deposits. In the field the migration component of oils varies in different parts of the field. The largest percentage of the light migration component (gas condensate of the oil) was detected in the central part of the Kama-Kinel troughs system. Monitoring of the composition of water, oil and gas (condensate light oil component) in the sedimentary cover and ni crystalline basement led to the conclusion of modern migration of hydrocarbons in sedimentary cover. This proves the existence of the modern processes of formation and reformation of oil and gas fields. This presentation is dedicated to the problem of definition of geochemical criteria of selection of hydrocarbons deposit reformation zone in the sample wells of Minibaevskaya area of Romashkinskoye field. While carrying out this work we examined 11 samples of oil from the Upper Devonian Pashiysky horizon. Four oil samples were collected from wells reckoned among the "anomalous" zones that were marked out according to the results of geophysical, oil field and geological research. Geochemical studies of oils were conducted in the laboratory of geochemistry of the Kazan (Volga-region) Federal University. The wells where the signs of hydrocarbons influx from the deep zones of the crust were recorded are considered to be "anomalous". A number of scientists connect this fact to the hypothesis about periodic influx of deep hydrocarbons to the oil deposits of Romashkinskoye field. Other researchers believe that the source rocks of the adjacent valleys sedimentary cover generate gases when entering the main zone of gas formation, which then migrate up the section and passing through the previously formed deposits of oil, change and "lighten" their composition. Regardless of the point of view on the source of the hydrocarbons, the study of the process of deposits refilling with light hydrocarbons is an

  12. International Perspectives on Education and Society. Volume 4, Educational Reform in International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Val D., Ed.; Yogev, Abraham, Ed.

    National educational reform must be interpreted from a broader sociopolitical vantage point. Following the introduction, "The Change Process and Educational Reform" by Val D. Rust, the four papers in part 1 are devoted primarily to conceptual issues related to educational reform. They include: (1) "Problems of Educational Reforms in a Changing…

  13. Stories of Reform in Science Education: Commentary on Opp(reg)ressive Policies and Tempered Radicals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tytler, Russell

    2010-01-01

    This response to the two papers (by Rodriguez and Carlone et al.) on science education reform acknowledges first the coherence of the arguments presented around four reform narratives; that of the process of becoming science-enthusiastic, the nature of beliefs of science reform teachers, the barriers to reform, and the institutional expressions of…

  14. Key Factors Associated with the Effective Implementation and Impact of California's Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, David D.

    This study focused on the implementation of "top-down" California state-initiated reform in secondary schools and the impact of that process on several outcomes: student academic achievement and the capacity of the organization to carry out ongoing reform. The research was part of a broader study of secondary school reform and how the reforms led…

  15. Children of Reform: The Impact of High-Stakes Education Reform on Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher Pierce

    2010-01-01

    High-stakes standards-based accountability reforms are changing teacher education. A key set of participants in this process who have been affected by these reforms are the teacher candidates. Many were educated almost entirely in high-stakes education systems. Yet, little is known about how their experiences as students affect their conceptions…

  16. Global Citizenship and National (Re)formations: Analysis of Citizenship Education Reform in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, many European education systems have embarked on a process of education policy and curriculum reform related to citizenship education. This article explores citizenship education reform in the context of Spain. It considers how and to what extent Spain's 2006 citizenship education addressed issues of national and global…

  17. Road to reform

    SciTech Connect

    South, D.

    1997-04-01

    The power sector is actively exploring and pursuing the myriad opportunities that exist under the concessions and independent power plant laws recently enacted by the Brazilian legislature. While Brazil has not yet finalized the necessary implementing regulations, it has taken positive steps to reform its infrastructure, develop proactive fiscal policies and address the problem of inflation. The author goes on to discuss issues unique to the situation of Brazil as they relate to the ability of foreign companies to break into the business sector, in particular the power generation field. Many rules are in the process of change, but there still remains uncertainties which cloud the question as to the economic viability of investments in the power generation field.

  18. [Health reform and its political component: a feasibility analysis].

    PubMed

    González Rossetti, A; Mogollón, O

    2002-01-01

    The political dimension of the health reform is a fundamental aspect that not only influences the project's feasibility, but also its form and content. Therefore the study of the political aspects involved in the health reform process is essential to determine the political feasibility of the reform. Based on the case studies of Colombia and Mexico, this study concentrates on the State's capability to promote health reform projects successfully. It specifically focuses on those elements that seek to improve the political feasibility of formulating, legislating and implementing reform proposals. The relevant variables under study are: the institutional context in which the reform initiatives develop; the political dynamic of the reform process; and the characteristics and strategies of the teams in charge of leading the reforms (change teams). The similarities in the political strategies used by the teams in charge of the health reform, and those of similar technocratic teams in charge of economic reform, stand out as one the study's main findings. It is argued that, although these strategies were effective in bringing about the creation of new actors in the health sector such as private organizations for the financing and provision of health services, they did not have the same impact on the transformation of the old actors the health ministries and the social security institutes, therefore considerably limiting the scope of the reforms.

  19. [Reform of psychiatry in Spain].

    PubMed

    Pedrosa Gil, F; Luderer, H J

    2000-11-01

    Since the 1980's psychiatric care in Spain changed considerably (Reforma psiquiátrica española). In the course of this reform, many positive results were achieved. An extensive community network of mental health centres was build up which resulted in the majority of psychiatric patients being integrated in the Spanish general health care system and making a better organized mental health care structure possible. New legislation also improved the care and civil rights of patients. An analysis of the experiences of the Spanish psychiatric reform shows that the tendency to retain the old mental hospitals, alongside the other institutions still exists. The process of deinstitutionalization and the original aims of the psychiatric reform cannot only be satisfied by the closure of large psychiatric hospitals as during the reform new aspects and problems as well the great complexity of the task have become apparent. This article together with the details of the Spanish sources gives the German public a good overview of the developments in Spanish psychiatry.

  20. Strengthening health systems by health sector reforms

    PubMed Central

    Senkubuge, Flavia; Modisenyane, Moeketsi; Bishaw, Tewabech

    2014-01-01

    Background The rising burden of disease and weak health systems are being compounded by the persistent economic downturn, re-emerging diseases, and violent conflicts. There is a growing recognition that the global health agenda needs to shift from an emphasis on disease-specific approaches to strengthening of health systems, including dealing with social, environmental, and economic determinants through multisectoral responses. Methods A review and analysis of data on strengthening health sector reform and health systems was conducted. Attention was paid to the goal of health and interactions between health sector reforms and the functions of health systems. Further, we explored how these interactions contribute toward delivery of health services, equity, financial protection, and improved health. Findings Health sector reforms cannot be developed from a single global or regional policy formula. Any reform will depend on the country's history, values and culture, and the population's expectations. Some of the emerging ingredients that need to be explored are infusion of a health systems agenda; development of a comprehensive policy package for health sector reforms; improving alignment of planning and coordination; use of reliable data; engaging ‘street level’ policy implementers; strengthening governance and leadership; and allowing a holistic and developmental approach to reforms. Conclusions The process of reform needs a fundamental rather than merely an incremental and evolutionary change. Without radical structural and systemic changes, existing governance structures and management systems will continue to fail to address the existing health problems. PMID:24560261

  1. Thinking about Tax Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boskin, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Providing pre-college teachers with an analysis of tax reform is the primary goal of this publication. The present tax system is both inefficient and inequitable. Three goals of tax reform proposals are detailed: (1) fairness--the dimensions of horizontal equity, or equal treatment of equals however defined, and vertical equity, reflecting the…

  2. Small Schools Reform Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Beth M.; Berghoff, Beth

    2013-01-01

    This study explored complicated personal narratives of school reform generated by participants in response to a particular small schools reform initiative. Narrative data was dialogically generated in interviews with nine past participants of an urban high school conversion project planned and implemented over a span of five years toward the goal…

  3. Reform: To What End?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The author looks at school reform in light of his experiences documenting effective public education in classrooms across the United States. Observing in an inner-city 1st grade classroom, he sees a teacher who is knowledgeable, resourceful, and particularly effective with her students. He notes that none of the current high-profile reform ideas…

  4. Educational Reform in Oklahoma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butorac, Marylin M.; First, Patricia F.

    1994-01-01

    Oklahoma's answer to the cry for reform and involvement in education emerged as House Bill 1017, a comprehensive $223 million school reform and tax act. This article reviews the HR 1017 story, focusing on its legislative enactment history and offering a content analysis of mandated changes in finance, personnel, governance, student assessment,…

  5. Tax Reform & University Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John Holt

    This brochure discusses the implications of the Tax Reform Act of 1969 for university and college development officers charged with the responsibility for solicitation of gifts, bequests and grants from foundations. The solicitation of deferred gifts, bequests and grants from foundations is discussed in chapter one in relation to tax reform and…

  6. Reforming Science: Methodological and Cultural Reforms

    PubMed Central

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary science has brought about technological advances and an unprecedented understanding of the natural world. However, there are signs of dysfunction in the scientific community as well as threats from diverse antiscience and political forces. Incentives in the current system place scientists under tremendous stress, discourage cooperation, encourage poor scientific practices, and deter new talent from entering the field. It is time for a discussion of how the scientific enterprise can be reformed to become more effective and robust. Serious reform will require more consistent methodological rigor and a transformation of the current hypercompetitive scientific culture. PMID:22184414

  7. Plasma catalytic reforming of methane

    SciTech Connect

    Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Rabinovich, A.; Alexeev, N.

    1998-08-01

    Thermal plasma technology can be efficiently used in the production of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich gases from methane and a variety of fuels. This paper describes progress in plasma reforming experiments and calculations of high temperature conversion of methane using heterogeneous processes. The thermal plasma is a highly energetic state of matter that is characterized by extremely high temperatures (several thousand degrees Celsius) and high degree of dissociation and substantial degree of ionization. The high temperatures accelerate the reactions involved in the reforming process. Hydrogen-rich gas (50% H{sub 2}, 17% CO and 33% N{sub 2}, for partial oxidation/water shifting) can be efficiently made in compact plasma reformers. Experiments have been carried out in a small device (2--3 kW) and without the use of efficient heat regeneration. For partial oxidation/water shifting, it was determined that the specific energy consumption in the plasma reforming processes is 16 MJ/kg H{sub 2} with high conversion efficiencies. Larger plasmatrons, better reactor thermal insulation, efficient heat regeneration and improved plasma catalysis could also play a major role in specific energy consumption reduction and increasing the methane conversion. A system has been demonstrated for hydrogen production with low CO content ({approximately} 1.5%) with power densities of {approximately} 30 kW (H{sub 2} HHV)/liter of reactor, or {approximately} 10 m{sup 3}/hr H{sub 2} per liter of reactor. Power density should further increase with increased power and improved design.

  8. Steam Methane Reformation Testing for Air-Independent Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mwara, Kamwana N.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, NASA has been looking into utilizing landers that can be propelled by LOX-CH (sub 4), to be used for long duration missions. Using landers that utilize such propellants, also provides the opportunity to use solid oxide fuel cells as a power option, especially since they are able to process methane into a reactant through fuel reformation. One type of reformation, called steam methane reformation, is a process to reform methane into a hydrogen-rich product by reacting methane and steam (fuel cell exhaust) over a catalyst. A steam methane reformation system could potentially use the fuel cell's own exhaust to create a reactant stream that is hydrogen-rich, and requires less internal reforming of the incoming methane. Also, steam reformation may hold some advantages over other types of reforming, such as partial oxidation (PROX) reformation. Steam reformation does not require oxygen, while up to 25 percent can be lost in PROX reformation due to unusable CO (sub 2) reformation. NASA's Johnson Space Center has conducted various phases of steam methane reformation testing, as a viable solution for in-space reformation. This has included using two different types of catalysts, developing a custom reformer, and optimizing the test system to find the optimal performance parameters and operating conditions.

  9. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation. Phase 1: Multi-fuel reformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    DOE has established the goal, through the Fuel Cells in Transportation Program, of fostering the rapid development and commercialization of fuel cells as economic competitors for the internal combustion engine. Central to this goal is a safe feasible means of supplying hydrogen of the required purity to the vehicular fuel cell system. Two basic strategies are being considered: (1) on-board fuel processing whereby alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol or natural gas stored on the vehicle undergo reformation and subsequent processing to produce hydrogen, and (2) on-board storage of pure hydrogen provided by stationary fuel processing plants. This report analyzes fuel processor technologies, types of fuel and fuel cell options for on-board reformation. As the Phase 1 of a multi-phased program to develop a prototype multi-fuel reformer system for a fuel cell powered vehicle, the objective of this program was to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-fuel reformer concept and to select a reforming technology for further development in the Phase 2 program, with the ultimate goal of integration with a DOE-designated fuel cell and vehicle configuration. The basic reformer processes examined in this study included catalytic steam reforming (SR), non-catalytic partial oxidation (POX) and catalytic partial oxidation (also known as Autothermal Reforming, or ATR). Fuels under consideration in this study included methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. A systematic evaluation of reforming technologies, fuels, and transportation fuel cell applications was conducted for the purpose of selecting a suitable multi-fuel processor for further development and demonstration in a transportation application.

  10. Partial oxidation fuel reforming for automotive power systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, S.; Chalk, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Kumar, R.; Milliken, J.

    1999-09-07

    For widespread use of fuel cells to power automobiles in the near future, it is necessary to convert gasoline or other transportation fuels to hydrogen on-board the vehicle. Partial oxidation reforming is particularly suited to this application as it eliminates the need for heat exchange at high temperatures. Such reformers offer rapid start and good dynamic performance. Lowering the temperature of the partial oxidation process, which requires the development of a suitable catalyst, can increase the reforming efficiency. Catalytic partial oxidation (or autothermal) reformers and non-catalytic partial oxidation reformers developed by various organizations are presently undergoing testing and demonstration. This paper summarizes the process chemistries as well as recent test data from several different reformers operating on gasoline, methanol, and other fuels.

  11. On the Road to Reform: A Sociocultural Interpretation of Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mensah, Felicia Moore

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I discuss how reform in science education is interpreted by Barma as she recounts the story of Catherine, a grade 9 biology teacher, who reforms her teaching practices in response to a national curriculum reform in Quebec, Canada. Unlike some cases in response to reform, this case is hopeful and positive. Also in this paper, I…

  12. Summary of Consultations on Child Care Reform = Sommaire des consultations sur la reforme des services de garde d'enfants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Community and Social Services, Toronto.

    This document contains the English and French language versions of a report summarizing the results of a public consultation process on the subject of child care reform in Ontario, Canada. The process began with province-wide distribution of a public document called "Setting the Stage" which outlined a child care reform agenda as a focus for…

  13. Becoming Good American Schools: The Struggle for Civic Virtue in Education Reform. The Jossey-Bass Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Jeannie; Quartz, Karen Hunter; Ryan, Steve; Lipton, Martin

    Education reform based on technical and rational processes often short-circuits reform because it is uncontentious, abstract, and provides educators with no legitimate ways to question the marketplace values and policies that drive much contemporary school reform. The perspective referred to as "betterment" is an alternative reform that stresses…

  14. Combining steam-methane reforming, water-gas shift, and CO{sub 2} removal in a single-step process for hydrogen production. Final report for period March 15, 1997 - December 14, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Alejandro Lopez Ortiz; Bhaskar Balasubramanian; Douglas P. Harrison

    2001-02-01

    The objective of the research project was to determine the feasibility of a simpler, more energy-efficient process for the production of 95+% H{sub 2} from natural gas, and to collect sufficient experimental data on the effect of reaction parameters to guide additional larger-scale process development. The overall objectives were accomplished. 95+% H{sub 2} was produced in a single reaction step by adding a calcium-based CO{sub 2} acceptor to standard Ni-based reforming catalyst. The spent acceptor was successfully regenerated and used in a number of reaction steps with only moderate loss in activity as the number of cycles increased. Sufficient experimental data were collected to guide further larger-scale experimental work designed to investigate the economic feasibility of the process.

  15. Catalytic reforming methods

    DOEpatents

    Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

    2013-05-14

    A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

  16. Atuarfitsialak: Greenland's Cultural Compatible Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyatt, Tasha R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, Greenlandic reform leaders launched a comprehensive, nation-wide reform to create culturally compatible education. Greenland's reform work spans the entire educational system and includes preschool through higher education. To assist their efforts, reform leaders adopted the Standards for Effective Pedagogy developed at the Center for…

  17. Reforming Schools: The Collective Doubting Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Chen; Ganon-Shilon, Sherry

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The ongoing challenge to sustain educational reforms requires a learning process through which doubt is induced as a means of fostering productive school change. The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of doubt as well as the doubting process and its importance to the school community, particularly with regard to educational…

  18. NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

  19. Ritualism, Privilege, and Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hefferlin, JB Lon

    1970-01-01

    Revised version of paper given at National Conference on Higher Education in March 1970, on the need to break away from routine and ritual in higher education insitutions and establish educational and institutional reforms. (IR)

  20. NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-12

    Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

  1. Health care reform and changes: the Malaysian experience.

    PubMed

    Merican, Mohd Ismail; bin Yon, Rohaizat

    2002-01-01

    Health care reform is an intentional, sustained and systematic process of structural change to one or more health subsystems to improve efficiency, effectiveness, patient choices and equity. Health care all over the world is continuously reforming with time. Health care reform has become an increasingly important agenda for policy change in both developed and developing countries including Malaysia. This paper provides an overview of the Malaysian health care system, its achievements, and issues and challenges leading to ongoing reform towards a more efficient and equitable health care system that possess a better quality of life for the population.

  2. On-board reforming of biodiesel and bioethanol for high temperature PEM fuel cells: Comparison of autothermal reforming and steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Stefan; Wörner, Antje

    2011-03-01

    In the 21st century biofuels will play an important role as alternative fuels in the transportation sector. In this paper different reforming options (steam reforming (SR) and autothermal reforming (ATR)) for the on-board conversion of bioethanol and biodiesel into a hydrogen-rich gas suitable for high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cells are investigated using the simulation tool Aspen Plus. Special emphasis is placed on thermal heat integration. Methyl-oleate (C19H36O2) is chosen as reference substance for biodiesel. Bioethanol is represented by ethanol (C2H5OH). For the steam reforming concept with heat integration a maximum fuel processing efficiency of 75.6% (76.3%) is obtained for biodiesel (bioethanol) at S/C = 3. For the autothermal reforming concept with heat integration a maximum fuel processing efficiency of 74.1% (75.1%) is obtained for biodiesel (bioethanol) at S/C = 2 and λ = 0.36 (0.35). Taking into account the better dynamic behaviour and lower system complexity of the reforming concept based on ATR, autothermal reforming in combination with a water gas shift reactor is considered as the preferred option for on-board reforming of biodiesel and bioethanol. Based on the simulation results optimum operating conditions for a novel 5 kW biofuel processor are derived.

  3. The Revolution Revisited: Effective Schools and Systemic Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Barbara O.; Bullard, Pamela

    A basic tenet of the effective-schools movement is that all children can master the basic skills needed to be successful in school. Today, the twin notions of equity and excellence strongly drive the school-reform movement. This book examines the effective-schools movement as a school-reform philosophy and renewal process for the present and…

  4. Get Over It! Education Reform Is Dead. Now What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Caren

    This book shares what one educator learned as a teacher and administrator in public and private schools and business, examining where the country is in the process of reforming public education and suggesting that it is tired out from so many reform efforts. It notes that new programs often suffocate under the latest federal, state, or district…

  5. Curriculum Reform in Contemporary China: Seven Goals and Six Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Fuquan

    2004-01-01

    Curriculum developers and scholars in China are facing a set of inter-related issues around the goals and the strategies of curriculum reform. This paper argues that there are, as in every process of curriculum development, seven goals to be addressed within China's curriculum reform: (1) the establishment of a new curriculum philosophy or ideal;…

  6. On the road to reform: a sociocultural interpretation of reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensah, Felicia Moore

    2011-09-01

    In this paper I discuss how reform in science education is interpreted by Barma as she recounts the story of Catherine, a grade 9 biology teacher, who reforms her teaching practices in response to a national curriculum reform in Quebec, Canada. Unlike some cases in response to reform, this case is hopeful and positive. Also in this paper, I address some familiar areas that must be considered when teachers undertake curriculum reform and how science educators may fulfill the role of facilitator and advocate in the support of teachers on the road to reform. The commentary focuses on how Barma retells the story through the lens of activity theory.

  7. Medical liability reform crisis 2008.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Stuart L

    2009-02-01

    The crisis of medical liability has resulted in drastic increases in insurance premiums and reduced access for patients to specialty care, particularly in areas such as obstetrics/gynecology, neurosurgery, and orthopaedic surgery. The current liability environment neither effectively compensates persons injured from medical negligence nor encourages addressing system errors to improve patient safety. The author reviews trends across the nation and reports on the efforts of an organization called "Doctors for Medical Liability Reform" to educate the public and lawmakers on the need for solutions to the chaotic process of adjudicating medical malpractice claims in the United States. PMID:18989732

  8. Reforming Science and Mathematics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-09-01

    Since 1991, the National Science Foundation has signed cooperative agreements with 26 states to undertake ambitious and comprehensive initiatives to reform science, mathematics, and technology education. Collectively, those agreements are known as the State Systemic Initiatives (SSI's). Two complimentary programs, The Urban and Rural Systemic Initiatives (USI's and RSI's), address similar reforms in the nation's largest cities and poorest rural areas. The SSI Program departs significantly from past NSF practice in several ways. The funding is for a longer term and is larger in amount, and the NSF is taking a more activist role, seeking to leverage state and private funds and promote the coordination of programs within states. The Initiatives also have a stronger policy orientation than previous NSF programs have had. The NSF strategy is a reflection of the growing and widely held view that meaningful reforms in schools are most likely to be achieved through state initiatives that set clear and ambitious learning goals and standards; align all of the available policy levers in support of reform; stimulate school-level initiatives; and mobilize human and financial resources to support these changes. Two premises underlie systemic reform: (1) all children can meet significantly higher standards if they are asked to do so and given adequate opportunities to master the content, and (2) state and local policy changes can create opportunities by giving schools strong and consistent signals about the changes in practice and performance that are expected. Because this is an enormous investment of Federal resources that is intended to bring about deep, systemic improvement in the nation's ability to teach science and mathematics effectively, the NSF has contracted with a consortium of independent evaluators to conduct a review of the program. The first of the SSI's were funded in 1991, sufficiently long ago to begin to formulate some initial impressions of their impact. Take

  9. Instructional Leadership in Indonesian School Reform: Overcoming the Problems to Move Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sofo, Francesco; Fitzgerald, Robert; Jawas, Umiati

    2012-01-01

    The paper reviews the research on instructional leadership and, through identifying problems emerging in Indonesian school reform, suggests some sustainable solutions. There are some discrepancies in the processes of Indonesia's school reform, and the objectives of the national education reform do not seem to have been reflected in the actual…

  10. General Education Reform as Organizational Change: The Importance of Integrating Cultural and Structural Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awbrey, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    General education reform is one of the most difficult challenges facing higher education institutions because general education is embedded in organizational culture. This paper examines the reform of general education as a process of organizational change and illustrates how deeper, more sustainable reform may be achieved by integrating cultural…

  11. The Adoption Features of Government Initiatives for the Curriculum Reform in Hong Kong Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Ping-Man; Cheung, Alan

    2015-01-01

    This article is one of a series of papers generated from the Curriculum Reform study in Hong Kong with the purpose of understanding the impact of government's role in the change process of the reform. This paper specifically examines the 17 government initiatives in the Curriculum Reform in terms of their adoption percentages of schools from…

  12. Understanding Educational Reform in Global Context: Economy, Ideology, and the State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Mark B., Ed.

    This book presents a set of national case studies on educational reform of higher education that views reform as processes of ideological and social struggles. The titles and authors are as follows: "Educational Reform: Social Struggles, the State and the World Economic System" (Mark B. Ginsburg, et al.); "Restructuring Education and the State in…

  13. Understanding University Reform in Japan through the Prism of the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Roger

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at current university reforms in Japan through two slightly different social science prisms: how social science methodologies and theories can help us understand those reforms better and how social science teaching in universities will be affected by the current reform processes. (Contains 3 tables and 7 notes.)

  14. Loud Thunder, Small Raindrops: The Reform Movement and the Press in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starck, Kenneth; Xu, Yu

    Economic change in China is coming about through wide-ranging economic reforms, is taking place at an unprecedented pace, and is affecting the lives of many of the inhabitants of the world's most populous nation. However, the attempts to reform the political process have been slow, like the attempts to reform the Chinese press. The Chinese press…

  15. Ecuador's silent health reform.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, Pierre; Echeverría Tapia, Ramiro; Aguilar Santacruz, Edison; Unger, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Health sector reform was implemented in many Latin American countries in the 1980s and 1990s, leading to reduced public expenditure on health, limitations on public provision for disease control, and a minimum package of services, with concomitant growth of the private sector. At first sight, Ecuador appeared to follow a different pattern: no formal reform was implemented, despite many plans to reform the Ministry of Health and social health insurance. The authors conducted an in-depth review and analysis of published and gray literature on the Ecuadorian health sector from 1990 onward. They found that although neoliberal reform of the health sector was not openly implemented, many of its typical elements are present: severe reduction of public budgets, "universal" health insurance with limited coverage for targeted groups, and contracting out to private providers. The health sector remains segmented and fragmented, explaining the population's poor health status. The leftist Correa government has prepared an excellent long-term plan to unite services of the Ministry of Health and social security, but implementation is extremely slow. In conclusion, the health sector in Ecuador suffered a "silent" neoliberal reform. President Correa's progressive government intends to reverse this, increasing public budgets for health, but hesitates to introduce needed radical changes.

  16. Comprehensive Solutions for Urban Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgore, Sally

    2005-01-01

    The comprehensive school reform (CSR) models build consistency throughout a district while addressing the needs of individual schools. The high-quality CSR programs offer a most effective option for urban education reform.

  17. Technology and Reform-Based Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dani, Danielle E.; Koenig, Kathleen M.

    2008-01-01

    Current reforms in science education call for the integration of digital technologies into science teaching, advocating that students learn science content and processes through technology. In this article, we provide practical examples, situated within the literature, of how digital technologies can be used to support the development and…

  18. On the Reform of Russian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mironov, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    The "modernization" of Russian education is linked to the functioning of the entire social system of Russia, and reforms are proving difficult and contradictory. The use of the Unified State Examination in Russia, plus participation in the Bologna process, is causing concern about the ability of education to meet the needs of the…

  19. Policy and Workforce Reform in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Helen M.

    2008-01-01

    Current workforce reform, known as Remodelling the School Workforce, is part of an enduring policy process where there have been tensions between public and private sector structures and cultures. I show that the New Right and New Labour governments who have built and configured site based performance management over the past quarter of a century…

  20. Knowledge Regimes and Contradictions in Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aasen, Petter; Prøitz, Tine Sophie; Sandberg, Nina

    2014-01-01

    The article outlines a theoretical framework for understanding education policy and education reforms based on the concept of knowledge regimes. The concept refers to understandings and definitions of governance and procedural aspects, manners of governing and curriculum issues, thus it comprises contents, structures, and processes of education…

  1. Reforming Science Education. Social Perspectives & Personal Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    Science education reform is an ongoing process. In recent years many have begun to look not only to teachers for change, but they are also insisting on the involvement of administrators, parents, community members, and some business organizations to bring about this change. This book presents facts and insights regarding science education reform…

  2. Political Transformations and Higher Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozma, Tamas

    2008-01-01

    The Bologna process is a comprehensive concept for European higher education reforms of the 20th and 21st centuries. However, it means something else in Central European countries than it does in the rest of Europe. It has been combined in Central Europe with a major social change referred to as the "political transformation" (Johnson 1996).…

  3. Reforming Systems: Realizing the Fourth Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Alma

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines how the work of Andy Hargreaves has significantly and substantially informed our understanding of educational change, particularly systemwide change, by drawing upon his most recent research and writing to consider what is known about the process of successful, large-scale reform. It focuses on some of the "fallacies of…

  4. Health insurance reform: labor versus health perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Walid; Awar, May

    2012-01-01

    The Ministry of Labor (MOL) has submitted to the Council of Ministers a social security reform plan. The Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) considers that health financing should be dealt with as part of a more comprehensive health reform plan that falls under its prerogatives. While a virulent political discussion is taking place, major stakeholders' inputs are very limited and civil society is totally put away from the whole policy making process. The role of the media is restricted to reproducing political disputes, without meaningful substantive debate. This paper discusses health insurance reform from labor market as well as public health perspectives, and aims at launching a serious public debate on this crucial issue that touches the life of every citizen.

  5. Working on reform. How workers' compensation medical care is affected by health care reform.

    PubMed Central

    Himmelstein, J; Rest, K

    1996-01-01

    The medical component of workers' compensation programs-now costing over $24 billion annually-and the rest of the nation's medical care system are linked. They share the same patients and providers. They provide similar benefits and services. And they struggle over who should pay for what. Clearly, health care reform and restructuring will have a major impact on the operation and expenditures of the workers' compensation system. For a brief period, during the 1994 national health care reform debate, these two systems were part of the same federal policy development and legislative process. With comprehensive health care reform no longer on the horizon, states now are tackling both workers' compensation and medical system reforms on their own. This paper reviews the major issues federal and state policy makers face as they consider reforms affecting the relationship between workers' compensation and traditional health insurance. What is the relationship of the workers' compensation cost crisis to that in general health care? What strategies are being considered by states involved in reforming the medical component of workers compensation? What are the major policy implications of these strategies? Images p13-a p14-a p15-a p16-a p18-a p19-a p20-a p22-a p24-a PMID:8610187

  6. The Effects of Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez-Martinez, Claudio-Rafael; Giron, Graciela; De-La-Luz-Arellano, Ivan; Ayon-Bañuelos, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Educational reform implies questions of social production and of state regulation that are the key words in educational reform, education and educational policies. These reforms are always on the political agenda of countries and involve international organisms, since education is a vehicle of development for social progress. A point of departure…

  7. Kudzu, Rabbits, and School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodlad, John I.

    2002-01-01

    Essay on school reform argues that quality teachers are key to successful reform, not reform rhetoric by state governors and U.S. Presidents. Asserts that primary mission of schooling is to provide students an educational apprenticeship in democracy. Qualified, caring, competent teachers are essential to accomplish this mission. (PKP)

  8. Globalization, Citizenship and Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the notions of globalization as embodied in Japanese educational reforms during the 1980s and 1990s. Modern institutional discourses of educational reform in Japan have shifted over time and all of these reform movements have been constructed by particular social and historical trajectories. Generally speaking, it has been…

  9. The Latest Chapter in Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imber, Michael

    2003-01-01

    As David Tyack and Larry Cuban demonstrate in "Tinkering Toward Utopia," the history of U.S. education reforms is that of mixed success and failure. Characteristics of reforms that take hold in schools include those that involve building new facilities, are easy to administer, and are legally mandated. Another major school reform initiative, the…

  10. Reforming Technical and Technological Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David N.

    1993-01-01

    Review of technical and technological educational reform in Brazil, Canada, Germany, Great Britain, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and Sweden shows that reform takes time to complete effectively, long-term approaches are needed, and reform is linked to industrial development, regional cooperation, and decentralized decision making. (SK)

  11. Reforming the Undergraduate Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanderPol, Diane; Brown, Jeanne M.; Iannuzzi, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The higher education literature abounds with reports and studies calling for reform in undergraduate education. An alphabet soup of higher education associations creates or advocates desired learning outcomes for postsecondary education and endorses approaches for student learning. This article shows connections between some of the major…

  12. Prisons and Sentencing Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Jim

    1983-01-01

    Reviews current themes in sentencing and prison policy. The eight articles of this special issue discuss selective incapacitation, prison bed allocation models, computer-scored classification systems, race and gender relations, commutation, parole, and a historical review of sentencing reform. (JAC)

  13. Reforming Underperforming High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MDRC, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Urban high schools are in trouble--high dropout rates, low student academic achievement, and graduates who are unprepared for college are just some of the disappointing indicators. However, recent research points to a select number of approaches to improving student outcomes and reforming underperforming schools--from particular ways of creating…

  14. Educational Reform in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Nicholas

    1975-01-01

    Recommendations for the reform of the administrative structure, curriculum and methods, and equality of Thailand's educational system are provided. This journal is available from the Unesco Regional Office for Education in Asia, Darakarn Building, 920 Sukhumvit Road, P.O. Box 1425, Bangkok, Thailand.

  15. Children and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of "The Future of Children" examines whether programs implemented by the federal welfare reform law accomplished the goal of reducing the number of children growing up in poor, single-parent families and whether these programs benefited children. This examination coincides with debates in Congress on the reauthorization of the Personal…

  16. Welfare Reform and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…

  17. Reform and Resistance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hefferlin, JB Lon

    This article is the 7th in a series of AAHE research reports. It summarizes research that has been done on academic reform and the resistance to it and speculates what this research implies for future practice. Academic or curricular change is first of all organizational change and colleges and universities are organized and run in such a way as…

  18. Examining Comprehensive School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aladjem, Daniel K., Ed.; Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Urban school reformers for decades have tried to improve educational outcomes for underserved and disadvantaged students, with the assistance of constantly evolving federal and state policies. In recent years, education policies have shifted from targeting individual students to developing universal standards for teaching and learning, and…

  19. The Stuttgart Reform Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bienert, F.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews curriculum reform being implemented at the Library School of Stuttgart for students planning to work in public libraries. Components of the new curriculum include core courses in library science, electives in special areas of librarianship, seminars in chosen subject disciplines, and field work in libraries and government agencies. (LRW)

  20. Reforming using erionite catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Liers, J.; Meusinger, J.; Moesch, A. ); Reschetilowski, W. )

    1993-08-01

    The advantage of reforming on erionite catalysts is a product with high octane numbers and low amounts of aromatics. This advantage seems to be slight at reaction pressures lower than 25 bar. But it is possible to compensate for the influence of pressure by varying the erionite content within the catalyst and the reaction temperature. When reforming on Pt/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] catalysts, the following reactions take place: dehydrocyclization of paraffins to naphthenes, dehydrogenation of naphthenes to aromatics, isomerication of normal paraffins remains in the product, lowering its octane number. By using a Ni/H-erionite catalyst, the octane rating can be increased by 3 to 7 numbers through selective hydrocracking of n-alkanes in the reformate. Erionite catalysts favor shape-selective hydrocracking of normal paraffins and the formation of cyclopentane derivatives lowering the content of aromatics during reforming reactions. Reducing the reaction pressure decreases hydrocracking activity and cyclopentane formation. These results can be interpreted in terms of thermodynamic restrictions and deactivation.

  1. Reforming Teacher Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Susan Freeman; Gardner, Catherine D.

    2010-01-01

    A recent Google search for information regarding performance pay in education produced 6.1 million results. This number should come as no surprise given the current level of interest in incentives as a popular reform option in public education. Supporters believe pay-for-performance programs encourage less effective teachers to improve and will…

  2. Educational Reform in Louisiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxcy, Spencer J.; Maxcy, Doreen O.

    1993-01-01

    Although education has appealed to southern governors as a catapult to historical recognition, future governors should consider Louisiana Governor Buddy Roemer's ill-fated educational reform plan for Louisiana State University's College of Education, particularly its teacher evaluation and internship program. Public education seems a low-priority…

  3. Scaling up Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Jon D. H.; Richards, Evan; Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Ding, Lin; Beichner, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The SCALE-UP (Student-Centered Activities for Large Enrollment for Undergraduate Programs) project was developed to implement reforms designed for small classes into large physics classes. Over 50 schools across the country, ranging from Wake Technical Community College to Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have adopted it for classes of…

  4. Reform on the Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Janet; Otte, Michelle; Fair, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Aurora (Colorado) Public Schools responded to the Colorado State Model Content Standards for Reading and Writing and the accountability measures attached to the state assessments by implementing the Aurora Achievement Initiative in 2001. Originating from literature on best practices and large-scale school reform, the goal of the districtwide…

  5. Comprehensive School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertling, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    This issue reviews publications that provide school leaders with guidance in determining how to choose and implement the schoolwide program that is best for their school. American Institutes for Research's "An Educator's Guide to Schoolwide Reform" provides educators with comprehensive profiles and evaluations of 24 of the leading schoolwide…

  6. Purification of reformer streams by catalytic hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Polanek, P.J.; Hooper, H.M.; Mueller, J.; Walter, M.; Emmrich, G.

    1996-12-01

    Catalytic Reforming is one of the most important processes to produce high grade motor gasolines. Feedstocks are mainly gasoline and naphtha streams from the crude oil distillation boiling in the range of 212 F to 350 F. By catalytic reforming the octane number of these gasoline components is increased from 40--60 RON to 95--100 RON. Besides isomerization and dehydrocyclization reactions mainly formation of aromatics by dehydrogenation of naphthenes occur. Thus, catalytic reformers within refineries are an important source of BTX--aromatics (benzene, toluene, xylenes). Frequently, high purity aromatics are recovered from these streams using modern extractive distillation or liquid extraction processes, e.g. the Krupp-Koppers MORPHYLANE{reg_sign} process. Aromatics product specifications, notably bromine index and acid wash color, have obligated producers to utilize clay treatment to remove trace impurities of diolefins and/or olefins. The conventional clay treatment is a multiple vessel batch process which periodically requires disposal of the spent clay in a suitable environmental manner. BASF, in close cooperation with Krupp-Koppers, has developed a continuous Selective Catalytic Hydrogenation Process (SCHP) as an alternative to clay treatment which is very efficient, cost effective and environmentally compatible. In the following the main process aspects including the process scheme catalyst and operating conditions is described.

  7. Reforming Science and Mathematics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-09-01

    Since 1991, the National Science Foundation has signed cooperative agreements with 26 states to undertake ambitious and comprehensive initiatives to reform science, mathematics, and technology education. Collectively, those agreements are known as the State Systemic Initiatives (SSI's). Two complimentary programs, The Urban and Rural Systemic Initiatives (USI's and RSI's), address similar reforms in the nation's largest cities and poorest rural areas. The SSI Program departs significantly from past NSF practice in several ways. The funding is for a longer term and is larger in amount, and the NSF is taking a more activist role, seeking to leverage state and private funds and promote the coordination of programs within states. The Initiatives also have a stronger policy orientation than previous NSF programs have had. The NSF strategy is a reflection of the growing and widely held view that meaningful reforms in schools are most likely to be achieved through state initiatives that set clear and ambitious learning goals and standards; align all of the available policy levers in support of reform; stimulate school-level initiatives; and mobilize human and financial resources to support these changes. Two premises underlie systemic reform: (1) all children can meet significantly higher standards if they are asked to do so and given adequate opportunities to master the content, and (2) state and local policy changes can create opportunities by giving schools strong and consistent signals about the changes in practice and performance that are expected. Because this is an enormous investment of Federal resources that is intended to bring about deep, systemic improvement in the nation's ability to teach science and mathematics effectively, the NSF has contracted with a consortium of independent evaluators to conduct a review of the program. The first of the SSI's were funded in 1991, sufficiently long ago to begin to formulate some initial impressions of their impact. Take

  8. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation. Multi-fuel reformers: Phase 1 -- Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    DOE has established the goal, through the Fuel Cells in Transportation Program, of fostering the rapid development and commercialization of fuel cells as economic competitors for the internal combustion engine. Central to this goal is a safe feasible means of supplying hydrogen of the required purity to the vehicular fuel cell system. Two basic strategies are being considered: (1) on-board fuel processing whereby alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol or natural gas stored on the vehicle undergo reformation and subsequent processing to produce hydrogen, and (2) on-board storage of pure hydrogen provided by stationary fuel processing plants. This report analyzes fuel processor technologies, types of fuel and fuel cell options for on-board reformation. As the Phase 1 of a multi-phased program to develop a prototype multi-fuel reformer system for a fuel cell powered vehicle, the objective of this program was to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-fuel reformer concept and to select a reforming technology for further development in the Phase 2 program, with the ultimate goal of integration with a DOE-designated fuel cell and vehicle configuration. The basic reformer processes examined in this study included catalytic steam reforming (SR), non-catalytic partial oxidation (POX) and catalytic partial oxidation (also known as Autothermal Reforming, or ATR). Fuels under consideration in this study included methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. A systematic evaluation of reforming technologies, fuels, and transportation fuel cell applications was conducted for the purpose of selecting a suitable multi-fuel processor for further development and demonstration in a transportation application.

  9. Fuel Cell/Reformers Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is interested in developing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for use in aerospace applications. Solid oxide fuel cell requires hydrogen rich feed stream by converting commercial aviation jet fuel in a fuel processing process. The grantee's primary research activities center on designing and constructing a test facility for evaluating injector concepts to provide optimum feeds to fuel processor; collecting and analyzing literature information on fuel processing and desulfurization technologies; establishing industry and academic contacts in related areas; providing technical support to in-house SOFC-based system studies. Fuel processing is a chemical reaction process that requires efficient delivery of reactants to reactor beds for optimum performance, i.e., high conversion efficiency and maximum hydrogen production, and reliable continuous operation. Feed delivery and vaporization quality can be improved by applying NASA's expertise in combustor injector design. A 10 KWe injector rig has been designed, procured, and constructed to provide a tool to employ laser diagnostic capability to evaluate various injector concepts for fuel processing reactor feed delivery application. This injector rig facility is now undergoing mechanical and system check-out with an anticipated actual operation in July 2004. Multiple injector concepts including impinging jet, venturi mixing, discrete jet, will be tested and evaluated with actual fuel mixture compatible with reforming catalyst requirement. Research activities from September 2002 to the closing of this collaborative agreement have been in the following areas: compiling literature information on jet fuel reforming; conducting autothermal reforming catalyst screening; establishing contacts with other government agencies for collaborative research in jet fuel reforming and desulfurization; providing process design basis for the build-up of injector rig facility and individual injector design.

  10. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-17

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  11. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  12. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  13. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-24

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  14. A miniature fuel reformer system for portable power sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolanc, Gregor; Belavič, Darko; Hrovat, Marko; Hočevar, Stanko; Pohar, Andrej; Petrovčič, Janko; Musizza, Bojan

    2014-12-01

    A miniature methanol reformer system has been designed and built to technology readiness level exceeding a laboratory prototype. It is intended to feed fuel cells with electric power up to 100 W and contains a complete setup of the technological elements: catalytic reforming and PROX reactors, a combustor, evaporators, actuation and sensing elements, and a control unit. The system is engineered not only for performance and quality of the reformate, but also for its lightweight and compact design, seamless integration of elements, low internal electric consumption, and safety. In the paper, the design of the system is presented by focussing on its miniaturisation, integration, and process control.

  15. Thermally efficient melting and fuel reforming for glass making

    DOEpatents

    Chen, M.S.; Painter, C.F.; Pastore, S.P.; Roth, G.S.; Winchester, D.C.

    1991-10-15

    An integrated process is described for utilizing waste heat from a glass making furnace. The hot off-gas from the furnace is initially partially cooled, then fed to a reformer. In the reformer, the partially cooled off-gas is further cooled against a hydrocarbon which is thus reformed into a synthesis gas, which is then fed into the glass making furnace as a fuel. The further cooled off-gas is then recycled back to absorb the heat from the hot off-gas to perform the initial cooling. 2 figures.

  16. Thermally efficient melting and fuel reforming for glass making

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Michael S.; Painter, Corning F.; Pastore, Steven P.; Roth, Gary S.; Winchester, David C.

    1991-01-01

    An integrated process for utilizing waste heat from a glass making furnace. The hot off-gas from the furnace is initially partially cooled, then fed to a reformer. In the reformer, the partially cooled off-gas is further cooled against a hydrocarbon which is thus reformed into a synthesis gas, which is then fed into the glass making furnace as a fuel. The further cooled off-gas is then recycled back to absorb the heat from the hot off-gas to perform the initial cooling.

  17. Health system reform in the United States

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, John E

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the United States adopted its first-ever comprehensive set of health system reforms in the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Implementation of the law, though politically contentious and controversial, has now reached a stage where reversal of most elements of the law is no longer feasible. The controversial portions of the law that expand affordable health insurance coverage to most U.S. citizens and legal residents do not offer any important lessons for the global community. The portions of the law seeking to improve the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of medical care as delivered in the U.S., hold lessons for the global community as all nations struggle to gain greater value from the societal resources they invest in medical care for their peoples. Health reform is an ongoing process of planning, legislating, implementing, and evaluating system changes. The U.S. set of delivery system reforms has much for reformers around the globe to assess and consider. PMID:24596894

  18. The Sights and Sounds of School Reform: A Collaborative Research View of School Reform Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Bradford L.; Peel, Henry A.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the results of a three-year collaborative research project documenting the effectiveness of the school reform process. The study describes efforts of the Consortium for the Advancement of Public Education in Southeast North Carolina (CAPE) to support schools as they change. Areas showing the most improvement included participative…

  19. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    DOEpatents

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1990-03-20

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  20. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  1. The 2015 hospital treatment choice reform in Norway: Continuity or change?

    PubMed

    Ringard, Ånen; Saunes, Ingrid Sperre; Sagan, Anna

    2016-04-01

    In several European countries, including Norway, polices to increase patient choice of hospital provider have remained high on the political agenda. The main reason behind the interest in hospital choice reforms in Norway has been the belief that increasing choice can remedy the persistent problem of long waiting times for elective hospital care. Prior to the 2013 General Election, the Conservative Party campaigned in favour of a new choice reform: "the treatment choice reform". This article describes the background and process leading up to introduction of the reform in the autumn of 2015. It also provides a description of the content and discusses possible implications of the reform for patients, providers and government bodies. In sum, the reform contains elements of both continuity and change. The main novelty of the reform lies in the increased role of private for-profit healthcare providers. PMID:27005300

  2. Development of a Rapid-Start On-Board Automotive Steam Reformer

    SciTech Connect

    Whyatt, Greg A.; Fischer, Christopher M.; Davis, James M.

    2004-04-29

    The paper reports on the status of efforts to engineer a microchannel steam reforming system to enable a rapid cold start capability. The steam reformer is intended to be coupled with a WGS and PROX reactor to provide reformate to a PEM fuel cell for an automotive propulsion application. A compact and efficient microchannel steam reformer was previously developed that required ~15 minutes to accomplish a cold start. The objective of the current work was to reduce this start time to <30 seconds without sacrificing steady-state efficiency. The paper describes the changes made in the reforming system to enable cold start capability and presents data on reformate flow and temperature transients during cold start testing. The results demonstrate that the system is capable of producing reformate within 22 seconds after a cold start. A strategy for integrating the system with a WGS and PROX reactor to provide a rapid start fuel processing system is described.

  3. Final Report DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-03ER83817 Integrated Reactor Design for Hydrogen Production from Biomass-Sourced Reactants Streams Using the Aqueous-Phase Carbohydrate Reforming (ACR) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Randy D. Cortright

    2005-05-04

    In this Phase I Small Business Innovation research project Virent Energy Systems (Virent) attempted to demonstrate the feasibility of generating high yields of hydrogen by developing the appropriate reactor system for the novel liquid-phase reforming of aqueous-phase carbohydrate streams derived from biomass. In this project platinum-based catalysts were initially utilized to establish the technical feasibility of reactor design for reforming carbohydrates found in biomass to hydrogen.

  4. [Neoliberal health sector reforms in Latin America: unprepared managers and unhappy workers].

    PubMed

    Ugalde, Antonio; Homedes, Nuria

    2005-03-01

    This work analyzes the neoliberal health sector reforms that have taken place in Latin America, the preparation of health care workers for the reforms, the reforms' impacts on the workers, and the consequences that the reforms have had on efficiency and quality in the health sector. The piece also looks at the process of formulating and implementing the reforms. The piece utilizes secondary sources and in-depth interviews with health sector managers in Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, and Mexico. Neoliberal reforms have not solved the human resources problems that health sector evaluations and academic studies had identified as the leading causes of health system inefficiency and low-quality services that existed before the reforms. The reforms worsened the situation by putting new pressures on health personnel, in terms of both the lack of necessary training to face the challenges that came with the reforms and efforts to take away from workers the rights and benefits that they had gained during years of struggles by unions, and to replace them with temporary contracts, reduced job security, and lower benefits. The secrecy with which the reforms were developed and applied made workers even more unified. In response, unions opposed the reforms, and in some countries they were able to delay the reforms. The neoliberal reforms have not improved the efficiency or quality of health systems in Latin America despite the resources that have been invested. Nor have the neoliberal reforms supported specific changes that have been applied in the public sector and that have demonstrated their ability to solve important health problems. These specific changes have produced better results than the neoliberal reforms, and at a lower cost.

  5. Catalytic autothermal reforming increases fuel cell flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.; Voecks, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    To give a better understanding of autothermal reforming (ATR), a process which offers an advantageous alternative to steam reforming for H/sub 2/ production for fuel cells because of the wider range of fuels which can be converted, the conversion of individual fuel components was studied. Attempts have been made to characterize the chemical reactions of light and heavy paraffins and aromatics in ATR. Results of studies to determine the effects of operating parameters on the carbon-forming tendency of each hydrocarbon type are reported. The catalyst used for the ATR process was three-layers of supported nickel catalysts, Norton NC-100 spheres in the top zone, cylindrical G-56B tablets in the bottom one, and either ICI 46-I or ICI 46-4 Raschig rings in the middle zone. A summary of the experimental studies of the ATR of n-hexane, n-tetradecane, benzene, and benzene solutions of naphthalene is presented. (BLM)

  6. Steam reforming of commercial ultra-low sulphur diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, Jurriaan; van Dijk, Eric; de Munck, Sander; van den Brink, Ruud

    Two main routes for small-scale diesel steam reforming exist: low-temperature pre-reforming followed by well-established methane steam reforming on the one hand and direct steam reforming on the other hand. Tests with commercial catalysts and commercially obtained diesel fuels are presented for both processes. The fuels contained up to 6.5 ppmw sulphur and up to 4.5 vol.% of biomass-derived fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). Pre-reforming sulphur-free diesel at around 475 °C has been tested with a commercial nickel catalyst for 118 h without observing catalyst deactivation, at steam-to-carbon ratios as low as 2.6. Direct steam reforming at temperatures up to 800 °C has been tested with a commercial precious metal catalyst for a total of 1190 h with two catalyst batches at steam-to-carbon ratios as low as 2.5. Deactivation was neither observed with lower steam-to-carbon ratios nor for increasing sulphur concentration. The importance of good fuel evaporation and mixing for correct testing of catalysts is illustrated. Diesel containing biodiesel components resulted in poor spray quality, hence poor mixing and evaporation upstream, eventually causing decreasing catalyst performance. The feasibility of direct high temperature steam reforming of commercial low-sulphur diesel has been demonstrated.

  7. Sounds of silence : what happened to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's hazardous waste recycling program reform?

    SciTech Connect

    Puder, M. G.; Environmental Assessment

    2000-01-01

    This article traces the EPA's project of hazardous waste recycling program reform and explores the potential reasons for its breakdown. Part I provides a snapshot of the current regulatory framework for hazardous waste recycling. Part II overviews driving forces behind regulatory reform processes. Part III describes the evolution of the various phases of EPA's recycling reform attempts. Finally, Part IV presents findings and perspectives.

  8. Harmony and Disharmony in an Educational Reform Concert: Towards a Parsons' Inspired Dynamic Model of Tuning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpay, Thérèse; Luttenberg, Johan; Veugelers, Wiel; Pieters, Jules

    2013-01-01

    In large-scale educational reforms, many actors play their roles. The diversity of contributions and lack of harmonization prove to be frequently found to cause educational reform failures. Many explanations for these failures focus on differences between the actors and on differences in their contributions to the reform process. In this article,…

  9. Reforming Welfare in America. Book Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Edward T., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews three books on welfare reform: "The Poverty of Welfare Reform" (Joel F. Handler); "The Politics of Welfare Reform" (Donald F. Norris, Lyke Thompson, editors); and "Living on the Edge: The Realities of Welfare in America" (Mark Robert Rank). (JOW)

  10. Catalytic autothermal reforming of hydrocarbon fuels for fuel cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Krumpelt, M.; Krause, T.; Kopasz, J.; Carter, D.; Ahmed, S.

    2002-01-11

    Fuel cell development has seen remarkable progress in the past decade because of an increasing need to improve energy efficiency as well as to address concerns about the environmental consequences of using fossil fuel for producing electricity and for propulsion of vehicles [1]. The lack of an infrastructure for producing and distributing H{sub 2} has led to a research effort to develop on-board fuel processing technology for reforming hydrocarbon fuels to generate H{sub 2} [2]. The primary focus is on reforming gasoline, because a production and distribution infrastructure for gasoline already exists to supply internal combustion engines [3]. Existing reforming technology for the production of H{sub 2} from hydrocarbon feedstocks used in large-scale manufacturing processes, such as ammonia synthesis, is cost prohibitive when scaled down to the size of the fuel processor required for transportation applications (50-80 kWe) nor is it designed to meet the varying power demands and frequent shutoffs and restarts that will be experienced during normal drive cycles. To meet the performance targets required of a fuel processor for transportation applications will require new reforming reactor technology developed to meet the volume, weight, cost, and operational characteristics for transportation applications and the development of new reforming catalysts that exhibit a higher activity and better thermal and mechanical stability than reforming catalysts currently used in the production of H{sub 2} for large-scale manufacturing processes.

  11. Common morality and moral reform.

    PubMed

    Wallace, K A

    2009-01-01

    The idea of moral reform requires that morality be more than a description of what people do value, for there has to be some measure against which to assess progress. Otherwise, any change is not reform, but simply difference. Therefore, I discuss moral reform in relation to two prescriptive approaches to common morality, which I distinguish as the foundational and the pragmatic. A foundational approach to common morality (e.g., Bernard Gert's) suggests that there is no reform of morality, but of beliefs, values, customs, and practices so as to conform with an unchanging, foundational morality. If, however, there were revision in its foundation (e.g., in rationality), then reform in morality itself would be possible. On a pragmatic view, on the other hand, common morality is relative to human flourishing, and its justification consists in its effectiveness in promoting flourishing. Morality is dependent on what in fact does promote human flourishing and therefore, could be reformed. However, a pragmatic approach, which appears more open to the possibility of moral reform, would need a more robust account of norms by which reform is measured.

  12. George's Complaint: Reforming the Dragon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buxton, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The evangelical tone and history of American culture has long been identified as a force for anti-intellectualism. The metaphors of educational reform are a demonstration of how this plays out. The very nature of the positivist social science research used to support proposed reform is anti-intellectual and feeds a debate that favors extremes over…

  13. Reforming Teacher Education in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardman, Frank; Abd-Kadir, Jan; Tibuhinda, Audax

    2012-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that in order to improve the quality of education in primary schools in developing countries there is a need to place pedagogy and its training implications at the centre of teacher education reform. Like many countries in Eastern and Southern Africa, Tanzania has introduced various initiatives and reforms to improve the…

  14. International Handbook of Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter W., Jr., Ed.; And Others

    This book provides an overview of education reform in 27 countries. Following the introduction by Peter W. Cookson, Jr., Alan R. Sadovnik, and Susan F. Semel, part 1 offers national case studies of educational reform in the 1980s. Chapters include: (2) "Argentina" (Ana Munoz-Sandoval); (3) "Australia" (Richard Teese); (4) "Brazil" (Robert Cowen…

  15. Engaging Teachers in Ed Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steans, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Teacher engagement is crucial to the success of education reforms. Not only can teachers serve as policymakers' eyes and ears on the ground, sharing firsthand knowledge of challenges in the classroom, but their advocacy can be instrumental to passing smart, sensible policies, and their buy-in can make or break reform implementation. Ongoing…

  16. Reform in Polish Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojcicka, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The article presents the essential concept of reforms, implemented in Poland's education system since the early 1990s and some of their outcomes. Special attention is paid to one particular aspect of the reforms, i.e. structural diversification of the system, leading to diversification of education levels and corresponding diplomas. The article…

  17. Teachers' Perspectives on Evaluation Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Morgaen L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite growing momentum to reform teacher evaluation in order to increase its impact on teachers' practice and persistence in the profession, very little research examines how current reforms influence teachers' attitudes or reported instructional practices. Do the new evaluation systems lead to enhancements in teachers' instruction overall? And…

  18. School Reform: Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    United States educational history is full of uncertain reform attempts beginning with colonial New England's school reform goal of salvation in this world as a preparation for eternal life in the next. A more practical type of education characterized the Early National Period. Monitorial schools and communal schools, as in New Harmony, Indiana,…

  19. Compensation Reform in the Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laine, Sabrina; Potemski, Amy; Rowland, Cortney

    2010-01-01

    One of the most frequently discussed topics in education reform circles is teacher pay--how much money teachers make, for what work and who decides teachers' salaries. Over time, educator pay reform has included many different reward structures and goes by as many different names, such as merit pay, performance pay and differentiated pay. The…

  20. Emotional Intelligence and Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neophytou, Lefkios

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the notion of educational reform and discusses Emotional Intelligence (EI) in the context of the modernist-postmodernist debate. It is argued that through the application of EI into contemporary societies a new wave of reform emerges that provides science with normative power over the emotional world of individuals. This…

  1. Rural Dimensions of Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Bruce A., Ed.; Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Whitener, Leslie A., Ed.

    The 16 chapters in this five-part book, each by different authors, trace the effects of welfare reform (mandated by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996), upon poor people in rural areas of the United States. The book begins with an introduction called "As the Dust Settles: Welfare Reform and Rural…

  2. Pension Reform in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Sun, Li

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes China's pension arrangement and notes that China has recently established a universal non-contributory pension plan covering urban non-employed workers and all rural residents, combined with the pension plan covering urban employees already in place. Further, in the latest reform, China has discontinued the special pension plan for civil servants and integrated this privileged welfare class into the urban old-age pension insurance program. With these steps, China has achieved a degree of universalism and integration of its pension arrangement unprecedented in the non-Western world. Despite this radical pension transformation strategy, we argue that the current Chinese pension arrangement represents a case of "incomplete" universalism. First, its benefit level is low. Moreover, the benefit level varies from region to region. Finally, universalism in rural China has been undermined due to the existence of the "policy bundle." Additionally, we argue that the 2015 pension reform has created a situation in which the stratification of Chinese pension arrangements has been "flattened," even though it remains stratified to some extent. PMID:26549002

  3. The Chilean health system: 20 years of reforms.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Annick

    2002-01-01

    The Chilean health care system has been intensively reformed in the past 20 years. Reforms under the Pinochet government (1973-1990) aimed mainly at the decentralization of the system and the development of a private sector. Decentralization involved both a deconcentration process and the devolution of primary health care to municipalities. The democratic governments after 1990 chose to preserve the core organization but introduced reforms intended to correct the system's failures and to increase both efficiency and equity. The present article briefly explains the current organization of the Chilean health care system. It also reviews the different reforms introduced in the past 20 years, from the Pinochet regime to the democratic governments. Finally, a brief discussion describes the strengths and weaknesses of the system, as well as the challenges it currently faces.

  4. Flawed Implementation or Inconsistent Logics? Lessons from Higher Education Reform in Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Marta A.

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates two competing explanations of why reforms associated with the Bologna process brought disappointing results in Ukraine. The lack of anticipated benefits from the reforms may stem either from a flawed implementation of the Bologna process, or from more fundamental differences between the models of higher education…

  5. Assessment and Educational Reform: Doing More than Polishing Brass on the Titanic, a Call for Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, Andrew

    This exploration of evaluation strategies for systemic educational reform considers whether there is a way to design an assessment and delivery system that can accomplish the goals of the total educational process. A basic question that must be addressed in systemic reform is the role of education in the socialization processes of society. Beyond…

  6. The OPtimising HEalth LIterAcy (Ophelia) process: study protocol for using health literacy profiling and community engagement to create and implement health reform

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Health literacy is a multi-dimensional concept comprising a range of cognitive, affective, social, and personal skills and attributes. This paper describes the research and development protocol for a large communities-based collaborative project in Victoria, Australia that aims to identify and respond to health literacy issues for people with chronic conditions. The project, called Ophelia (OPtimising HEalth LIterAcy) Victoria, is a partnership between two universities, eight service organisations and the Victorian Government. Based on the identified issues, it will develop and pilot health literacy interventions across eight disparate health services to inform the creation of a health literacy response framework to improve health outcomes and reduce health inequalities. Methods/Design The protocol draws on many inputs including the experience of the partners in previous co-creation and roll-out of large-scale health-promotion initiatives. Three key conceptual models/discourses inform the protocol: intervention mapping; quality improvement collaboratives, and realist synthesis. The protocol is outcomes-oriented and focuses on two key questions: ‘What are the health literacy strengths and weaknesses of clients of participating sites?’, and ‘How do sites interpret and respond to these in order to achieve positive health and equity outcomes for their clients?’. The process has six steps in three main phases. The first phase is a needs assessment that uses the Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ), a multi-dimensional measure of health literacy, to identify common health literacy needs among clients. The second phase involves front-line staff and management within each service organisation in co-creating intervention plans to strategically respond to the identified local needs. The third phase will trial the interventions within each site to determine if the site can improve identified limitations to service access and/or health outcomes. Discussion

  7. Reforming Practice or Modifying Reforms?: Elementary Teachers' Response to the Tools of Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Leigh K.; Southerland, Sherry A.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the interaction between internally constructed and externally imposed aspects of the teaching context may be the missing link between calls for school reform and teachers' interpretation and implementation of that reform. Although the context of the local school culture has a profound impact on teachers, there are other external…

  8. IFP solutions for revamping catalytic reforming units

    SciTech Connect

    Gendler, J.L.; Domergue, B.; Mank, L.

    1996-12-01

    The decision-making process for the refiner considering a revamp of a catalytic reforming unit comprises many factors. These may be grouped in two broad areas: technical and economic. This paper presents the results of a study performed by IFP that illustrates catalytic reforming unit revamp options. Three IFP processes are described and operating conditions, expected yields, and economic data are presented. The following options are discussed: base case Conventional, fixed-bed, semi-regenerative catalytic reformer; Case 1--revamp using IFP Dualforming technology; Case 2--revamp using IFP Dualforming Plus technology; and Case 3--revamp to IFP Octanizing technology. The study illustrates various options for the refiner to balance unit performance improvements with equipment, site, and economic constraints. The study was performed assuming design feedrate of 98.2 tons/hour (20,000 BPSD) in all cases. Because of the increased need for octane in many refineries, the study assumed that operating severity was set at a design value of 100 research octane number clear (RON). In all of the cases in this study, it was assumed that the existing recycle compressor was reused. Operating pressure differences between the cases is discussed separately. Also, in all cases, a booster compressor was included in order to return export hydrogen pressure to that of the conventional unit.

  9. Autothermal reforming catalyst having perovskite structure

    DOEpatents

    Krumpel, Michael; Liu, Di-Jia

    2009-03-24

    The invention addressed two critical issues in fuel processing for fuel cell application, i.e. catalyst cost and operating stability. The existing state-of-the-art fuel reforming catalyst uses Rh and platinum supported over refractory oxide which add significant cost to the fuel cell system. Supported metals agglomerate under elevated temperature during reforming and decrease the catalyst activity. The catalyst is a perovskite oxide or a Ruddlesden-Popper type oxide containing rare-earth elements, catalytically active firs row transition metal elements, and stabilizing elements, such that the catalyst is a single phase in high temperature oxidizing conditions and maintains a primarily perovskite or Ruddlesden-Popper structure under high temperature reducing conditions. The catalyst can also contain alkaline earth dopants, which enhance the catalytic activity of the catalyst, but do not compromise the stability of the perovskite structure.

  10. The Bologna Process in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballarino, Gabriele; Perotti, Loris

    2012-01-01

    Italy was among the promoters of the Bologna Process and the early adopters of the reform. If one looks at its impact on the formal structure of curricula and study programmes, the reform undertaken under the Bologna banner seems to have been one of the major educational reforms ever achieved in Italy. This article describes how the Bologna…

  11. The politics of local hospital reform: a case study of hospital reorganization following the 2002 Norwegian hospital reform

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The Norwegian hospital reform of 2002 was an attempt to make restructuring of hospitals easier by removing politicians from the decision-making processes. To facilitate changes seen as necessary but politically difficult, the central state took over ownership of the hospitals and stripped the county politicians of what had been their main responsibility for decades. This meant that decisions regarding hospital structure and organization were now being taken by professional administrators and not by politically elected representatives. The question raised here is whether this has had any effect on the speed of restructuring of the hospital sector. Method The empirical part is a case study of the restructuring process in Innlandet Hospital Trust (IHT), which was one of the largest enterprise established after the hospital reform and where the vision for restructuring was clearly set. Different sources of qualitative data are used in the analysis. These include interviews with key actors, observational data and document studies. Results The analysis demonstrates how the new professional leaders at first acted in accordance with the intentions of the hospital reform, but soon chose to avoid the more ambitious plans for restructuring the hospital structure and in fact reintroduced local politics into the decision-making process. The analysis further illustrates how local networks and engagement of political representatives from all levels of government complicated the decision-making process surrounding local structural reforms. Local political representatives teamed up with other actors and created powerful networks. At the same time, national politicians had incentives to involve themselves in the processes as supporters of the status quo. Conclusion Because of the incentives that faced political actors and the controversial nature of major hospital reforms, the removal of local politicians and the centralization of ownership did not necessarily facilitate

  12. Reforming Our Expectations about Juvenile Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Pamela F.; Baille, Daphne M.

    2010-01-01

    Typing the term "juvenile justice reform" into a Google[TM] search will result in 60 pages of entries. But what is meant by juvenile justice reform? What does it look like? How will one know when it is achieved? This article defines juvenile justice reform, discusses the principles of effective reform, and describes the practice of juvenile…

  13. A reforming accountability: GPs and health reform in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, K

    1997-01-01

    Over the last ten years or so, many countries have undertaken public sector reforms. As a result of these changes, accounting has come to play a more important role. However, many of the studies have only discussed the reforms at a conceptual level and have failed to study how the reforms have been implemented and operated in practice. Based on the work of Lipsky (1980) and Gorz (1989), it can be argued that those affected by the reforms have a strong incentive to subvert the reforms. This prediction is explored via a case study of general practitioner (GP) response to the New Zealand health reforms. The creation of Independent Practice Associations (IPAs) allowed the State to impose contractual-accountability and to cap their budget exposure for subsidies. From the GP's perspective, the IPAs absorbed the changes initiated by the State, and managed the contracting, accounting and budgetary administration responsibilities that were created. This allowed individual GPs to continue practising as before and provided some collective protection against the threat of state intrusion into GP autonomy. The creation of IPAs also provided a new way to manage the professional/financial tension, the contradiction between the professional motivation noted by Gorz (1989) and the need to earn a living. PMID:10175302

  14. A reforming accountability: GPs and health reform in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, K

    1997-01-01

    Over the last ten years or so, many countries have undertaken public sector reforms. As a result of these changes, accounting has come to play a more important role. However, many of the studies have only discussed the reforms at a conceptual level and have failed to study how the reforms have been implemented and operated in practice. Based on the work of Lipsky (1980) and Gorz (1989), it can be argued that those affected by the reforms have a strong incentive to subvert the reforms. This prediction is explored via a case study of general practitioner (GP) response to the New Zealand health reforms. The creation of Independent Practice Associations (IPAs) allowed the State to impose contractual-accountability and to cap their budget exposure for subsidies. From the GP's perspective, the IPAs absorbed the changes initiated by the State, and managed the contracting, accounting and budgetary administration responsibilities that were created. This allowed individual GPs to continue practising as before and provided some collective protection against the threat of state intrusion into GP autonomy. The creation of IPAs also provided a new way to manage the professional/financial tension, the contradiction between the professional motivation noted by Gorz (1989) and the need to earn a living.

  15. A View from the Field: Substantial Curriculum Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    Through a process involving identification of priorities and implementation of strategic initiatives to address them, the University of Missouri at Kansas City School of Dentistry has begun a process of curriculum reform. Several stages of reevaluation and the need for sensitivity and patience are anticipated, but a better environment for learning…

  16. What Next in School Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the current state of education reform in the United Kingdom and uses the BBC film "The Choir to explore alternative ways of improving the quality of learning and teaching in schools.

  17. Misrecognition and science education reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Carol B.

    2012-09-01

    In this forum, I expand upon Teo and Osborne's discussion of teacher agency and curriculum reform. I take up and build upon their analysis to further examine one teacher's frustration in enacting an inquiry-based curriculum and his resulting accommodation of an AP curriculum. In this way I introduce the concept of misrecognition (Bourdieu and Passeron 1977) to open up new ways of thinking about science inquiry and school reform.

  18. Campaign 2008: healthcare reform revisited.

    PubMed

    Wilensky, Gail R

    2008-10-01

    *An important lesson to be learned from the failed efforts at healthcare reform of the early 1990s is that successful reform cannot be an all-or-nothing proposition. *The McCain and Obama healthcare plans have some elements in common, but they also have important differences. *Whoever wins the election will face the challenge of persuading Congress to go along with his proposal.

  19. Campaign 2008: healthcare reform revisited.

    PubMed

    Wilensky, Gail R

    2008-10-01

    *An important lesson to be learned from the failed efforts at healthcare reform of the early 1990s is that successful reform cannot be an all-or-nothing proposition. *The McCain and Obama healthcare plans have some elements in common, but they also have important differences. *Whoever wins the election will face the challenge of persuading Congress to go along with his proposal. PMID:18839667

  20. Healthcare reform in China: making sense of a policy experiment?

    PubMed

    Millar, Ross; Jian, Weiyan; Mannion, Russell; Miller, Robin

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore recent healthcare reform in China. Reflecting on the current literature, the viewpoint argues that greater attention should be paid to healthcare reform in China as a public policy process, particularly one that is built on policy experimentation. Design/methodology/approach - The viewpoint argues that while recent efforts to understand the impact of reform have brought significant understanding of key issues and processes, such interest tends to focus on pragmatic concerns rather than pose wider theoretical and methodological questions about the nature and pace of reform. Findings - The authors suggest that the lens of public policy is particular relevant and insightful given what has been documented elsewhere regarding China's unique policy process characterised by "policy experimentation". The authors discuss how a policy experiment perspective can provide a useful heuristic for understanding healthcare reform in China. Originality/value - The viewpoint concludes by outlining possible applications of this approach and looks forward at the emerging research agenda in this area. PMID:27119389

  1. Healthcare reform in China: making sense of a policy experiment?

    PubMed

    Millar, Ross; Jian, Weiyan; Mannion, Russell; Miller, Robin

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore recent healthcare reform in China. Reflecting on the current literature, the viewpoint argues that greater attention should be paid to healthcare reform in China as a public policy process, particularly one that is built on policy experimentation. Design/methodology/approach - The viewpoint argues that while recent efforts to understand the impact of reform have brought significant understanding of key issues and processes, such interest tends to focus on pragmatic concerns rather than pose wider theoretical and methodological questions about the nature and pace of reform. Findings - The authors suggest that the lens of public policy is particular relevant and insightful given what has been documented elsewhere regarding China's unique policy process characterised by "policy experimentation". The authors discuss how a policy experiment perspective can provide a useful heuristic for understanding healthcare reform in China. Originality/value - The viewpoint concludes by outlining possible applications of this approach and looks forward at the emerging research agenda in this area.

  2. Health reform requires policy capacity

    PubMed Central

    Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Denis, Jean-Louis; Brown, Lawrence D.; Helms, David

    2015-01-01

    Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility. PMID:25905476

  3. Health reform requires policy capacity.

    PubMed

    Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Denis, Jean-Louis; Brown, Lawrence D; Helms, David

    2015-04-17

    Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility.

  4. Heat exchanger for fuel cell power plant reformer

    DOEpatents

    Misage, Robert; Scheffler, Glenn W.; Setzer, Herbert J.; Margiott, Paul R.; Parenti, Jr., Edmund K.

    1988-01-01

    A heat exchanger uses the heat from processed fuel gas from a reformer for a fuel cell to superheat steam, to preheat raw fuel prior to entering the reformer and to heat a water-steam coolant mixture from the fuel cells. The processed fuel gas temperature is thus lowered to a level useful in the fuel cell reaction. The four temperature adjustments are accomplished in a single heat exchanger with only three heat transfer cores. The heat exchanger is preheated by circulating coolant and purge steam from the power section during startup of the latter.

  5. Regulation reform slows down

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-29

    Regulatory reformers in Congress are easing off the accelerator as they recognize that some of their more far-reaching proposals lack sufficient support to win passage. Last week the proposed one-year moratorium on new regulations was set back in the Senate by it main sponsor, Sen. Non Nickles (R., OK), who now seeks to replace it with a more moderate bill. Nickel`s substitute bill would give Congress 45 days after a regulation is issued to decide whether to reject it. It also retroactively allows for review of 80 regulations issued since last November 9, 1994. Asked how his new proposal is superior to a moratorium, which is sharply opposed by the Clinton Administration, Nickles says he thinks it is better because its permanent. The Chemical Manufacturer`s Association (CMA) has not publicly made a regulatory moratorium a top priority, but has quietly supported it by joining with other industry groups lobbying on the issue. A moratorium would halt EPA expansion of the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) and alloys the delisting of several TRI chemicals.

  6. The Limits of Teacher Education Reforms: School Subjects, Alchemies, and an Alternative Possibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popkewitz, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary U.S. schools and professional reforms call for teachers to have greater disciplinary and pedagogical knowledge for teaching school subjects. Reform efforts leave unexamined the rules and standards of "reason" that historically order school subjects. The notion of alchemy provides an analytic "tool" to consider the processes of…

  7. Politics, Modernisation and Educational Reform in Russia: From Past to Present. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The chapters in this volume give an account of the process of modernisation and educational reform in Russia, variously considering the cultural and political dilemmas provoked by democratisation, the structural and policy challenges associated with the reform of higher and vocational education, and the deep divisions exposed as socio-cultural…

  8. Education as Recovery: Neoliberalism, School Reform, and the Politics of Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Graham B.

    2015-01-01

    Building upon critical education policy studies of crisis, disaster, and reform, this essay develops a theory of "recovery" that further elaborates the nature and operation of "crisis politics" in neoliberal education reform. Recovery is an integral process in capital accumulation, exploiting material, and subjective…

  9. India's Social Development in a Decade of Reforms: 1990-91/1999-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Amal Kanti

    2008-01-01

    The economic reforms initiated in India in 1991 have brought about visible upliftment of economic conditions of the country. This paper examines if the economic process is associated with an enhancement of India's social development in equal measure in the reform decade of nineties. Ray (1989) considered thirteen social indicators of India and…

  10. An Unfulfilled Dream of an Urban Community School for Girls: A Failed Experiment in Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Kerri

    2013-01-01

    This research presents the qualitative case study of an urban community school initiative that began as an educational reform effort and that ultimately failed. The process of emergence for this school and factors leading to its collapse are described through participant interviews and document analysis. Nationally, policy reformers,…

  11. Exploring Motivational Factors for Educational Reform: Do International Comparisons Dictate Educational Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stachelek, AJ

    2010-01-01

    In mathematics education, utilizing international comparisons to support implementation of educational reforms has become increasingly common. With the advent of "Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study" (TIMSS), educational reform seems to have transitioned to a reactionary process rather than a calculated adaptation of…

  12. Accountability, Access, and Affordability as Key Challenges in the Reform of Croatian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidovic, Vlasta Vizek

    2008-01-01

    The first part of this paper addresses two broad aspects of the current reforms in Croatian higher education. The reforms are largely driven by the desire to achieve harmony with the European Area of Higher Education. Special attention is paid to presentation of the first experiences with implementation of the Bologna process in Croatia, which…

  13. Efficiency and Counter-Revolution: Connecting University and Civil Service Reform in the 1850s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Historians have often recognised important links between the processes of university and civil service reform in mid-nineteenth-century England. Yet such connections are usually seen as forming part of a wider project of modernising reform with any conservative or counter-revolutionary aims largely discounted. However, as this article suggests,…

  14. Examining Comprehensive School Reform in Schools Serving Native American Communities: Plan and Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilera, Dorothy

    The federally supported Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration (CSRD) Program provides a minimum of $50,000 to local schools to engage in a comprehensive change process facilitated by the development and adoption of a comprehensive school reform plan, including technical assistance from an external model developer. This report summarizes the…

  15. Council of Medical Specialty Societies: Committed to Continuing Medical Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Walter J.

    2005-01-01

    The Council of Medical Specialty Societies (CMSS) recognizes the need for continuing medical education (CME) reform and intends to be actively engaged in that process. While recognizing that CME reform must involve many organizations, the CMSS and particularly the 23 societies that make up the CMSS are in a position to affect many of the needed…

  16. "We Think That's the Future": Curriculum Reform Initiatives in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pegg, Ann

    2014-01-01

    This international research considered two key questions: (1) What self-scrutiny, strategies, planning and processes do universities with a successfully reformed curriculum undertake?; and (2) How do these universities measure and evaluate the impact of whole curriculum reform in relation to learning and teaching and the student experience?…

  17. The Impact of Accreditation on the Reform of Study Programmes in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suchanek, Justine; Pietzonka, Manuel; Kunzel, Rainer H. F.; Futterer, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    The Bologna Process put in motion a series of reforms for higher education. In Germany, the "Bologna reform" focused national standards and guidelines which served as criteria for obligatory programme accreditation by external bodies. This article reports on the results of an empirical study that examined the effects and limitations of…

  18. Faculty Perspectives on the "3+3+4" Curriculum Reform in Hong Kong: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Cecilia K. Y.; Luk, Lillian Y. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum reform in higher education has been taking place in many countries, with much attention paid to many such as the national-level Bologna process in Europe, institutional-level Melbourne Model in Australia and discipline-level Engineering Criteria 2000 (EC2000). This paper gives a detailed account of the reform initiatives taking place in…

  19. The Tension between Teacher Accountability and Flexibility: The Paradox of Standards-Based Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadelson, Louis S.; Fuller, Michael; Briggs, Pamela; Hammons, David; Bubak, Katie; Sass, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    The anticipated constraints imposed by the accountability process associated with standards-based reform on teachers' practice suggest a tension between teachers' desire for flexibility and the accountability mandates associated with reform initiatives. In particular, we posited that the teachers would negatively perceive the influence of…

  20. The Reception of the Educational Decentralization and Curricular Reform among the Hungarian Teachers from Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Péter, Lilla

    2008-01-01

    Choosing of the theme was determined by the Central-Eastern European educational reforms, the role of the educators in the process of changing in the educational system and the enlargement of the social demands towards the schools. The aim of our the research is on the connection between the educational reforms and the educators. Partly, it is due…

  1. Negotiating with Tradition: Curriculum Reform and Institutional Transition in a Conservatoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Celia

    2013-01-01

    The Royal Conservatoire of Scotland has recently transformed its curriculum through a process of curriculum reform. This has been a major institutional transition and has challenged many of the traditional practices of the conservatoire. Taking the global thinking on curriculum reform as its starting point, the conservatoire’s aspiration has been…

  2. Reform of the Method for Evaluating the Teaching of Medical Linguistics to Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hongkui; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Longlu

    2014-01-01

    Explorating reform of the teaching evaluation method for vocational competency-based education (CBE) curricula for medical students is a very important process in following international medical education standards, intensify ing education and teaching reforms, enhancing teaching management, and improving the quality of medical education. This…

  3. Current Developments in School Education in Turkey: Education "Reforms" and Teacher Trade Union Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buyruk, Halil

    2015-01-01

    Education "reforms"' have been accelerated in the last decade in Turkey. Teachers, as the main actors of the education system, have developed a variety of responses to the reforms implemented in the field of education, both individually and collectively. They give directions to the change process in education by means of their trade…

  4. Stewardship as a Means to Create Organizational Reform: A View into Minnesota 4-H Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skuza, Jennifer A.; Freeman, Dorothy M.; Bremseth, Tamara J.; Doering, Shirley A.; Quinlan, Robert B.; Morreim, Patricia A.; Deidrick, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Minnesota 4-H Youth Development (MN 4-H) used stewardship as a means to create organizational reform to address the public use of the 4-H name and emblem in terms of risk management, real estate and equipment, and finances. A task force implemented a participatory process with colleagues and stakeholders to build and implement the reform effort.…

  5. Reform in public health: where does it take nursing?

    PubMed

    Gibb, H

    1998-12-01

    The Australian healthcare system is undergoing changes that are impacting tangibly on professional nursing practice. While the evidence is clear that the changes pose a challenge to maintaining standards amidst resource cuts and restructuring, the processes through which these changes occur and the decisions which drive the reforms remain complex and largely obscure. This paper intends to stimulate further thinking and debate among nurses about the effects of these reforms on the conduct of practice, both in terms of our emerging discipline and our ability to conduct clinical nursing practice. It offers a way of understanding the policy 'reform' process through an application of policy analysis grounded in critical social theory. The discussion sets out to apply these analytical propositions to specific events that constitute examples of change in the nursing workplace, and to focus on the implications for nurses and health service clientele. PMID:10188487

  6. Verification of the Accountability Method as a Means to Classify Radioactive Wastes Processed Using THOR Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming at the Studsvik Processing Facility in Erwin, Tennessee, USA - 13087

    SciTech Connect

    Olander, Jonathan; Myers, Corey

    2013-07-01

    Studsviks' Processing Facility Erwin (SPFE) has been treating Low-Level Radioactive Waste using its patented THOR process for over 13 years. Studsvik has been mixing and processing wastes of the same waste classification but different chemical and isotopic characteristics for the full extent of this period as a general matter of operations. Studsvik utilizes the accountability method to track the movement of radionuclides from acceptance of waste, through processing, and finally in the classification of waste for disposal. Recently the NRC has proposed to revise the 1995 Branch Technical Position on Concentration Averaging and Encapsulation (1995 BTP on CA) with additional clarification (draft BTP on CA). The draft BTP on CA has paved the way for large scale blending of higher activity and lower activity waste to produce a single waste for the purpose of classification. With the onset of blending in the waste treatment industry, there is concern from the public and state regulators as to the robustness of the accountability method and the ability of processors to prevent the inclusion of hot spots in waste. To address these concerns and verify the accountability method as applied by the SPFE, as well as the SPFE's ability to control waste package classification, testing of actual waste packages was performed. Testing consisted of a comprehensive dose rate survey of a container of processed waste. Separately, the waste package was modeled chemically and radiologically. Comparing the observed and theoretical data demonstrated that actual dose rates were lower than, but consistent with, modeled dose rates. Moreover, the distribution of radioactivity confirms that the SPFE can produce a radiologically homogeneous waste form. The results of the study demonstrate: 1) the accountability method as applied by the SPFE is valid and produces expected results; 2) the SPFE can produce a radiologically homogeneous waste; and 3) the SPFE can effectively control the waste package

  7. Biomass to hydrogen via fast pyrolysis and catalytic steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Chornet, E.; Wang, D.; Montane, D.

    1995-09-01

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass results in a pyrolytic oil which is a mixture of (a) carbohydrate-derived acids, aldehydes and polyols, (b) lignin-derived substituted phenolics, and (c) extractives-derived terpenoids and fatty acids. The conversion of this pyrolysis oil into H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} is thermodynamically favored under appropriate steam reforming conditions. Our efforts have focused in understanding the catalysis of steam reforming which will lead to a successful process at reasonable steam/carbon ratios arid process severities. The experimental work, carried out at the laboratory and bench scale levels, has centered on the performance of Ni-based catalysts using model compounds as prototypes of the oxygenates present in the pyrolysis oil. Steam reforming of acetic acid, hydroxyacetaldehyde, furfural and syringol has been proven to proceed rapidly within a reasonable range of severities. Time-on-stream studies are now underway using a fixed bed barometric pressure reactor to ascertain the durability of the catalysts and thus substantiate the scientific and technical feasibility of the catalytic reforming option. Economic analyses are being carried out in parallel to determine the opportunity zones for the combined fast pyrolysis/steam reforming approach. A discussion on the current state of the project is presented.

  8. Reforming Preschools and Schools.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Greg J; Magnuson, Katherine; Murnane, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    Compared with their higher-income counterparts, children growing up in low-income families in the United States typically complete less schooling, report worse health, and work and earn less in adulthood. Moreover, changes in the American economy over the last 40 years have raised the level of skills and qualifications that children need to obtain a good middle-class job, as well as making it much more difficult for children from low-income families to attend schools that support their learning of these skills. We first review strategies used in the past to improve K-12 schooling-including investing more money, introducing more accountability, and putting in place new governance structures (eg, charter schools)-and show why these strategies have been relatively ineffective. Drawing on the research literature and case studies, we then describe education reform strategies for prekindergarten programs and for elementary, middle, and high schools that may help meet these challenges. All of the initiatives described in our case studies provide ample opportunities for teachers and school leaders to improve their skills through coaching and other professional development activities; incorporate sensible systems of accountability, including requiring teachers to open their classrooms to the scrutiny of colleagues and school leaders and to work with their colleagues to improve their teaching practices; and incorporate high academic standards, such as those described in the Common Core State Standards. By focusing directly on improving teaching and promoting learning, these successful initiatives have boosted the achievement of low-income children. They show that it is indeed possible to make a real difference in the life chances of low-income children.

  9. Reforming Preschools and Schools.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Greg J; Magnuson, Katherine; Murnane, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    Compared with their higher-income counterparts, children growing up in low-income families in the United States typically complete less schooling, report worse health, and work and earn less in adulthood. Moreover, changes in the American economy over the last 40 years have raised the level of skills and qualifications that children need to obtain a good middle-class job, as well as making it much more difficult for children from low-income families to attend schools that support their learning of these skills. We first review strategies used in the past to improve K-12 schooling-including investing more money, introducing more accountability, and putting in place new governance structures (eg, charter schools)-and show why these strategies have been relatively ineffective. Drawing on the research literature and case studies, we then describe education reform strategies for prekindergarten programs and for elementary, middle, and high schools that may help meet these challenges. All of the initiatives described in our case studies provide ample opportunities for teachers and school leaders to improve their skills through coaching and other professional development activities; incorporate sensible systems of accountability, including requiring teachers to open their classrooms to the scrutiny of colleagues and school leaders and to work with their colleagues to improve their teaching practices; and incorporate high academic standards, such as those described in the Common Core State Standards. By focusing directly on improving teaching and promoting learning, these successful initiatives have boosted the achievement of low-income children. They show that it is indeed possible to make a real difference in the life chances of low-income children. PMID:27044689

  10. Are Educational Governance Reforms in a Post-Conflict Society Conforming to Global Standards? Examining the Application of Education Convergence Theory in an Internationally Supervised and Politicized Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komatsu, Taro

    2016-01-01

    This article examines whether and to what extent educational reforms in a post-conflict society conform to "global (regional) standards," and explores the meaning of inconsistencies observed in the process of global reform transfer. Among the nations of the world, nowhere is the influence of external forces on educational reforms more…

  11. Patent reform in the US: what's at stake for pharmaceutical innovation?

    PubMed

    Yancey, Amy; Stewart, Charles Neal

    2010-05-01

    The current patent landscape in the US has not undergone major legislative reform since 1952. The US Senate version of the most recently proposed patent reform legislation puts forward a number of rule changes that could impact the pharmaceutical industry. Among the bill's major provisions are moving to a first-to-file system, changes to post-grant review and reexamination procedures, and damages reform. Various industries with a stake in patent reform have responded to the proposed changes. The need for balanced reform makes the stakes particularly high for the pharmaceutical industry which must invest a significant amount of time and money in the research and development process in exchange for already abbreviated patent lifetimes due to the lengthy clinical trial process.

  12. Translating Globalization and Democratization into Local Policy: Educational Reform in Hong Kong and Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Wing-Wah

    2004-11-01

    The past two decades have witnessed three important international trends: an increase in the number of democratic states; economic globalization; and educational reforms in light of the challenges of the new millennium. A great deal of research has addressed educational change in relation to either globalization or democratization, but little has been said about the complex interactions among all three processes. In view of recent educational reforms in Hong Kong and Taiwan, the present contribution examines the local nature of education policy in a globalized age. It challenges those globalization theories which minimize the role of the state and exaggerate the power of globalization over local factors. In particular, it explores how the governments of these two Chinese societies have employed democratization to generate and legitimate reform proposals and have used economic globalization to justify educational reforms. The study concludes by discussing the complex interrelations of these processes, including tensions between global and local concerns in educational reform.

  13. [Health care reform in the Obama administration: difficulties of reaching a similar agreement in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Belmartino, Susana

    2014-04-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of the processes leading to health care reform in Argentina and in the USA. The core of the analysis centers on the ideological references utilized by advocates of the reform and the decision-making processes that support or undercut such proposals. The analysis begins with a historical summary of the issue in each country. The political process that led to the sanction of the Obama reform is then described. The text defends a hypothesis aiming to show that deficiencies in the institutional capacities of Argentina's decision-making bodies are a severe obstacle to attaining substantial changes in this area within the country.

  14. Welfare reform and female headship.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, John M; Ribar, David C

    2004-05-01

    While much of the focus of recent welfare reforms has been on moving recipients from welfare to work, many reforms were also directed at decisions regarding living arrangements, pregnancy, marriage, and cohabitation. This article assesses the impact of welfare reform waivers and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) programs on women's decisions to become unmarried heads of families, controlling for confounding influences from local economic and social conditions. We pooled data from the 1990, 1992, 1993, and 1996 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, which span the period when many states began to adopt welfare waivers and to implement TANF, and estimated logit models of the incidence of female headship and state-stratified, Cox proportional hazard models of the rates of entry into and exit from headship. We found little consistent evidence that waivers affected female headship of families.

  15. Dancing with Bears: Lessons in the Dance of Reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Thomas A.

    2001-03-01

    The process of reforming the introductory calculus-based physics course amounts to a dance with a number of strange and potentially disturbing partners, a dance that in my experience has been full of unexpected twists, unintended consequences, and marvelous ironies. In this talk, I will explore some general lessons about things I have learned in more than 14 years of being an educational reformer and an author of an introductory text, including lessons in the Publishers' Reel, the Pre-Med Two-Step, the Lecturer's Backslide, the Adoption Polka, and more!

  16. School Finance Reform: Courts and Legislatures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Ronald D.

    1974-01-01

    This article examines how legal arguments advocating school finance reform do not provide an adequate basis for dealing with practical problems of implementing such policies. Guidelines for reform of fiscal policy are suggested. (DE)

  17. Testing of a small combustion turbine burning reformed methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Karpuk, M E; Schell, D J

    1984-02-01

    As part of ongoing research into high-efficiency alcohol fuels utilization at the Solar Energy Research Institute, as gas combustion turbine was modified for use with reformed methanol and tested. The reforming process for this application uses waste engine heat to convert methanol and steam in the presence of a catalyst into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. We modified the standard combustor of a Garrett Model GTCP85-397 combustion turbine to burn the hydrogen and carbon dioxide mixture. Heat exchangers to boil and reform a methanol and water mixture were sized, purchased, and connected to the turbine exhaust. Instrumentation was added to monitor turbine temperatures, pressures, and exhaust emissions. Turbine performance and emissions were measured at various loads with a distillate fuel and compared with performance on reformed methanol. Reformed alcohol yields a significant improvement in efficiency because waste heat is reclaimed as chemical energy in the fuel. The larger mass flowrate of fuel to the combustor increases power output, and emissions are substantially reduced. 5 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

  18. New Public Management in Educational Reform in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solhaug, Trond

    2011-01-01

    The article focuses on the similarities and differences in using new public management (NPM) administrative arrangements in educational policy as they have been presented in the educational reform process carried out this millennium by two governments in Norway: the Centre-Conservative government and the current Red-Green coalition government.…

  19. Teacher Tenure Reform: Problem Definition in Policy Formulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elrod, Ann L.

    When Colorado's Tenure Reform Bill, House Bill 1159, was signed into law, the work of teachers was not significantly changed. However, the law did make some significant inroads in the work of administrators and streamlined the due process accorded to teachers in the event that dismissal becomes necessary. This paper addresses whether the…

  20. Place Matters: Mathematics Education Reform in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau Anderson, Celia

    2014-01-01

    While mathematics education research has often focused at the level of the classroom (Rousseau Anderson & Tate, 2008), there are emerging calls for attention to shift from individual classrooms to consider the process of reform at the school or district level. Investigating the role of the institution and conditions of the organization becomes…

  1. Healthy Competition and Unsound Comparison: Reforming Educational Competition in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    It is frequently claimed that the "competition state" responds to external competition by making competition increasingly central to its internal processes as well. This article discusses education reform in Singapore as departing from the opposite position. In Singapore "excessive" competition in education is now targeted by…

  2. Arts Integration as School Reform: Exploring How Teachers Experience Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lackey, Lara; Huxhold, Dianna

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the perceptions and experiences of general elementary educators as they engage in a school reform process that requires them to learn and implement an arts infused curriculum intended to raise student achievement on standardized tests in non-arts subjects. This qualitative study reveals not only how one arts-based school…

  3. Higher Education Reforms and Unintended Consequences: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krücken, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Higher education in Europe has undergone remarkable transformations over the last two decades. Germany is a very interesting case in point here. While the country was labeled as a laggard in the process, over the last decade the pace of higher education reforms in Germany has grown considerably. This paper will focus on the by now visible effects…

  4. Teacher Education in Bhutan: Highlights and Challenges for Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanBalkom, W. Duffie; Sherman, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Bhutan is embarking on a comprehensive education reform process, with teachers and teacher education at the centre of a number of initiatives. This study describes the current state of affairs based on interviews with key informants and semi-structured focus groups in Bhutan. Several major themes emerged, including issues of quality of students…

  5. Reform of Higher Education in Russia: Habitus Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babintsev, Valentin P.; Sapryka, Viktor ?.; Serkina, Yana I.; Ushamirskaya, Galina F.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses changes that actually occur in the Russian Higher Education in the process of reform. The thesis that the functioning of the educational system increasingly detects formal rationality, not focused on the senses, and their imitation. It is noted that the Russian system of higher education refers to a specific type, which can…

  6. Thought Reform, Coercion, and Persuasion: A Phenomenological Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purnell, Sandra E.

    "Thought reform" is a calculated strategy of social action designed to convert individuals to another ideology through a long-term process, during which threat underlies all experiences. In this article, part of the "Freedom of Speech Newsletter," insights from a phenomenological view of rhetoric are used to explain the nature and impact of…

  7. Life After the Project: On Re-forming the Major.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repsher, Marilyn

    1995-01-01

    The Jacksonville University (Alabama) experience with reforming its mathematics major is described. The process, designed to meet student career needs while maintaining academic integrity, involved realignment of program objectives with student goals, which often did not include immediate graduate study. Other considerations included…

  8. Education and Empire: Democratic Reform in the Arab World?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Democracy and related concepts--human rights, active learning, civic participation, gender empowerment, and global citizenship--have become the international policy mantras of the post-Cold War era, or what many have labeled a neoimperial order. These bedrock principles of global educational reforms are supposed to contribute to processes of…

  9. Emergent Evaluation and Educational Reforms in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinic, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to characterize educational reforms in Latin America over the last 25 years, and the way they reflect the role, method, and use of evaluation processes. The main theoretical and methodological tensions that are created by the development of evaluations will be reviewed, concluding with the identification of some of the…

  10. Attending to the Noise: Applying Chaos Theory to School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertheimer, Richard; Zinga, Mario

    The Common Knowledge: Pittsburgh (CK:P), a technology-based project, introduced the Internet into all levels of the Pittsburgh Public Schools during 1993-97. This is a case study of the ideology, strategies, and process of the CK:P project describes the project's activities, examines the project in light of school-reform literature, and uses its…

  11. Attrition resistant fluidizable reforming catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Parent, Yves O.; Magrini, Kim; Landin, Steven M.; Ritland, Marcus A.

    2011-03-29

    A method of preparing a steam reforming catalyst characterized by improved resistance to attrition loss when used for cracking, reforming, water gas shift and gasification reactions on feedstock in a fluidized bed reactor, comprising: fabricating the ceramic support particle, coating a ceramic support by adding an aqueous solution of a precursor salt of a metal selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pt, Pd, Ru, Rh, Cr, Co, Mn, Mg, K, La and Fe and mixtures thereof to the ceramic support and calcining the coated ceramic in air to convert the metal salts to metal oxides.

  12. Narrativity and the mediation of health reform agendas.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Darrin; Chamberlain, Kerry

    2003-09-01

    Over the last two decades the repositioning of state-funded health systems and the increased use of private services have been the focus of extensive public debate. This paper explores the ways in which media coverage of healthcare reform is made sense of by lower socio-economic status (SES) audiences. We presented television documentaries to participants and analysed their accounts from focus group discussions following the viewing. We explore these discussions as shared social spaces within which participants work through the dilemmas posed by the reforms. In exploring reception as a storytelling process, we link audience and lay beliefs research and investigate how aspects of television coverage are appropriated by viewers to make sense of the causes and implications of healthcare reform. PMID:12919445

  13. Steam methane reforming in molten carbonate salt. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, D.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report documents the work accomplished on the project {open_quotes}Steam Methane Reforming in Molten Carbonate Salt.{close_quotes}. This effort has established the conceptual basis for molten carbonate-based steam reforming of methane. It has not proceeded to prototype verification, because corrosion concerns have led to reluctance on the part of large hydrogen producers to adopt the technology. Therefore the focus was shifted to a less corrosive embodiment of the same technology. After considerable development effort it was discovered that a European company (Catalysts and Chemicals Europe) was developing a similar process ({open_quotes}Regate{close_quotes}). Accordingly the focus was shifted a second time, to develop an improvement which is generic to both types of reforming. That work is still in progress, and shows substantial promise.

  14. Reel Reform: Documentaries Spur Debate about Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Three new American documentaries including "Waiting for Superman," "The Lottery, Race to Nowhere" and one British entry, "We are the People We've Been Waiting For," have animated school reform debates. Each of these documentaries seeks to disturb the entrenched thinking by claiming that our educational institutions are suffering from a malaise…

  15. La Reforme de l'enseignement superieur (Higher Education Reform).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorand, Christian

    1973-01-01

    This article attempts an analysis of the present-day French university system and an assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of the educational reforms which have been instituted since the upheaval of May 1968. Educational legislation relevant to the new directions in the French universities is discussed, as well as the organization of the…

  16. Oncology payment reform to achieve real health care reform.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Mark B; Thoumi, Andrea I

    2015-05-01

    Cancer care is transforming, moving toward increasingly personalized treatment with the potential to save and improve many more lives. Many oncologists and policymakers view current fee-for-service payments as an obstacle to providing more efficient, high-quality cancer care. However, payment reforms create new uncertainties for oncologists and may be challenging to implement. In this article, we illustrate how accountable care payment reforms that directly align payments with quality and cost measures are being implemented and the opportunities and challenges they present. These payment models provide more flexibility to oncologists and other providers to give patients the personalized care they need, along with more accountability for demonstrating quality improvements and overall cost or cost growth reductions. Such payment reforms increase the importance of person-level quality and cost measures as well as data analysis to improve measured performance. We describe key features of quality and cost measures needed to support accountable care payment reforms in oncology. Finally, we propose policy recommendations to move incrementally but fundamentally to payment systems that support higher-value care in oncology.

  17. The National School Reform Faculty: Reforming Schools from the Inside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Horizons, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In the Winter 2005 issue of "educational HORIZONS," Charles Glenn wrote that schools designed in a perfect system of educational diversity and choice could nonetheless end up as "uninspired carbon copies produced by educators without the foggiest idea of how to do anything differently." Most school reform tries to avoid that fate with various…

  18. Method of steam reforming methanol to hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Beshty, Bahjat S.

    1990-01-01

    The production of hydrogen by the catalyzed steam reforming of methanol is accomplished using a reformer of greatly reduced size and cost wherein a mixture of water and methanol is superheated to the gaseous state at temperatures of about 800.degree. to about 1,100.degree. F. and then fed to a reformer in direct contact with the catalyst bed contained therein, whereby the heat for the endothermic steam reforming reaction is derived directly from the superheated steam/methanol mixture.

  19. 49 CFR 260.13 - Credit reform.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Credit reform. 260.13 Section 260.13... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.13 Credit reform. The Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990, 2 U.S.C. 661, requires Federal agencies to set aside the subsidy cost of new...

  20. 49 CFR 260.13 - Credit reform.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Credit reform. 260.13 Section 260.13... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.13 Credit reform. The Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990, 2 U.S.C. 661, requires Federal agencies to set aside the subsidy cost of new...

  1. 49 CFR 260.13 - Credit reform.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Credit reform. 260.13 Section 260.13... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.13 Credit reform. The Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990, 2 U.S.C. 661, requires Federal agencies to set aside the subsidy cost of new...

  2. 49 CFR 260.13 - Credit reform.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Credit reform. 260.13 Section 260.13... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.13 Credit reform. The Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990, 2 U.S.C. 661, requires Federal agencies to set aside the subsidy cost of new...

  3. Assessing Students' Conceptions of Reform Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Star, Jon R.; Hoffmann, Amanda J.

    As the use of National Science Foundation (NSF)-sponsored, reform- oriented mathematics curricula has become more prevalent across the U.S., an increasing number of researchers are attempting to study the "impact" of reform. In particular, mathematics educators are interested in determining whether reforms are having the desired effects on…

  4. Whatever Happened to Undergraduate Reform? Carnegie Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchese, Theodore J.

    2006-01-01

    The author asks whether higher education reform has run out of new things to say. The final two decades of the twentieth century were a remarkable period for innovation in undergraduate education. Many of higher education's earlier waves of reform had focused on curricular issues, on what should be taught. The new reformers by and large ignored…

  5. Considerations for Education Reform in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Countries around the world refer to twenty-first century education as essential to maintaining personal and national economic advantage and draw on this discourse to advocate for and embark on educational reform. This paper examines issues around education reform, particularly in British Columbia. It argues that reformers should give careful…

  6. Leadership Lessons from Comprehensive School Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph, Ed.; Datnow, Amanda, Ed.

    This volume explores the role of leadership in comprehensive school reform (CSR). It consists of 12 chapters: (1) "The Development of Comprehensive School Reform" (Joseph Murphy and Amanda Datnow); (2) "Expeditionary Learning Schools: Tenacity, Leadership, and School Reform" (Greg Farrell); (3) "The Modern Red School House: Leadership in…

  7. 49 CFR 260.13 - Credit reform.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... appropriations, direct payment of a Credit Risk Premium by the Applicant or a non-Federal infrastructure partner... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Credit reform. 260.13 Section 260.13... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.13 Credit reform. The Federal Credit Reform...

  8. The Big Ideas behind Whole System Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Whole system reform means that every vital part of the system--school, community, district, and government--contributes individually and in concert to forward movement and success, using practice, not research, as the driver of reform. With this in mind, several "big ideas", based on successful implementation, informed Ontario's reform strategy:…

  9. School Reform--Does It Really Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunting, Carolyn

    1999-01-01

    Looks at different waves of school reform beginning with Sputnik in the 1950s. Examines influences in today's reform, including industrial influences and school choice. Argues that the origins and outcomes of school reform have more to do with what is happening outside the school than within it, and that schools must think beyond objective indices…

  10. Studies of Education Reform: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anson, Ron; Fox, Jim

    1995-01-01

    In 1990, Congress charged OERI with evaluating the nation's school-reform efforts. Representative planners subsequently called for research proposals in systemic reform, school-based management, uses of time, student assessment, curriculum reform, educator professionalism, school-to-work transition, early childhood education, parent and community…

  11. Globalization and Educational Reform in Contemporary Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie; Zhang, Sheng Ping

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the notions of globalization as embodied in Japanese educational reforms. Modern institutional discourses of educational reform in Japan have shifted over time and all of these reform movements have been constructed by particular social and historical trajectories. Generally speaking, it has been taken for granted that the…

  12. Systemic Reform--Monitoring Its Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Soleil

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses a series of questions that state policymakers can use to assess the systemic nature of their education reform efforts. Suggestions are offered for identifying the evidence of scope, coherence, and balance of reform. To assess the scope of reform, a first step is to determine if the performance-based standards provide the…

  13. Community Organizing as an Education Reform Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renee, Michelle; McAlister, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Community organizing for school reform offers an urgently needed alternative to traditional approaches to school change. Many current reforms fail to thrive due to lack of trust, understanding, or cultural relevance to the community being targeted. The high turnover of reformers (superintendents, principals, or outside organizations) in high-need…

  14. The Principal's Role in Urban School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlin, Philip M.

    1992-01-01

    Explores the principal's role in school reform. Attaching express legitimate power to the principal and ensuring that its effective and collaborative use is the most immediate route to reform. An autonomous, accountable, and achieving principal can function in a school reform setting like that of Chicago (Illinois). (SLD)

  15. Governance Reform at China's "985 Project" Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qingnian, Xiong; Duanhong, Zhang; Hong, Liu

    2011-01-01

    Higher education reform in China is deepening, and the governance reform taking place at the 985 Project universities over the past decade has displayed a shift from government driven to internally driven, from adaptive to proactive, and from localized to systemic. This reflects the overall status of governance reform in China's higher education.…

  16. Reformation and Resistance in American Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lucy Heim

    The American Nurses' Association's "First Position on Nursing" (1965), one instance of attempted reformation in American nursing education, recommends that nursing education should take place in institutions of higher education. Failures of this suggested reform seem to relate directly to the reform's incongruence with the continued or increased…

  17. Policy Imperative, Management Challenge: A Case Study in College of Education Reform from Kwara State in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Harold G.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, Kwara State in Nigeria embarked on a process of college of education reform. This article explores the strategic and managerial issues associated with that process. It sets out the policy imperative for reform within the context of an urgent need to improve the quality of education in Nigeria and traces progress over a four year period,…

  18. Policy Diffusion and Transfer and Teachers' Perceptions within the Bologna Reforms: The Armenia case of Higher Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakhanyan, Susanna; van Veen, Klaas; Bergen, T.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper seeks to understand how higher education policy from the European Community is defused and transferred to Armenia, a developing country. Particularly, this study aims to delve deeper in the actual implementation process of higher education reforms in Armenia through teachers' perceptions. The findings mainly reveal that teachers do long…

  19. Child Care Reform Consultation Infopack = Consultation sur la reforme des services de garde d'enfants. Trousse d'information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Community and Social Services, Toronto.

    This information packet presented here in both the English and French language versions, summarizes the results of a public consultation on the subject of child care reform in Ontario, Canada. The packet consists of: (1) a table that describes the six modes of consultation that were used in the consultation process (public meetings, round table…

  20. The new institutionalist approaches to health care reform: lessons from reform experiences in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Sitek, Michał

    2010-08-01

    This article discusses the applicability of the new institutionalism to the politics of health care reform in postcommunist Central Europe. The transition to a market economy and democracy after the fall of communism has apparently strengthened the institutional approaches. The differences in performance of transition economies have been critical to the growing understanding of the importance of institutions that foster democracy, provide security of property rights, help enforce contracts, and stimulate entrepreneurship. From a theoretical perspective, however, applying the new institutionalist approaches has been problematic. The transitional health care reform exposes very well some inherent weaknesses of existing analytic frameworks for explaining the nature and mechanisms of institutional change. The postcommunist era in Central Europe has been marked by spectacular and unprecedented radical changes, in which the capitalist system was rebuilt in a short span of time and the institutions of democracy became consolidated. Broad changes to welfare state programs were instituted as well. However, the actual results of the reform processes represent a mix of change and continuity, which is a challenge for the theories of institutional change.

  1. The new institutionalist approaches to health care reform: lessons from reform experiences in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Sitek, Michał

    2010-08-01

    This article discusses the applicability of the new institutionalism to the politics of health care reform in postcommunist Central Europe. The transition to a market economy and democracy after the fall of communism has apparently strengthened the institutional approaches. The differences in performance of transition economies have been critical to the growing understanding of the importance of institutions that foster democracy, provide security of property rights, help enforce contracts, and stimulate entrepreneurship. From a theoretical perspective, however, applying the new institutionalist approaches has been problematic. The transitional health care reform exposes very well some inherent weaknesses of existing analytic frameworks for explaining the nature and mechanisms of institutional change. The postcommunist era in Central Europe has been marked by spectacular and unprecedented radical changes, in which the capitalist system was rebuilt in a short span of time and the institutions of democracy became consolidated. Broad changes to welfare state programs were instituted as well. However, the actual results of the reform processes represent a mix of change and continuity, which is a challenge for the theories of institutional change. PMID:21057098

  2. Tax Reform and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franck, Gail

    1987-01-01

    The effect of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 on college and university revenues and expenditures is reviewed. Institutional revenues are derived primarily from five sources: tuition, charitable contributions, debt financing, endowment income, and governmental appropriations. The effect of the new law on family and student income, savings, student…

  3. Five Obstacles to Grading Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Educators seeking to reform grading must combat five long-held traditions that stand as formidable obstacles to change: (1) Grades should provide the basis for differentiating students; (2) grade distributions should resemble a bell-shaped curve; (3) grades should be based on students' standing among classmates; (4) poor grades prompt students to…

  4. Trust & Ethics in School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCollough, Thomas E.

    This paper analyzes ideas that concern the concepts of truth and ethics in order to clarify the issues involved in education reform. Three levels exist in the idea of truth: sincerity, honesty, and the reality of persons. The reality of persons is the central idea of truth and truth at each of these levels is an issue in several ethical criteria…

  5. Group Polarization and Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, David; Magdaleno, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Although educational leaders may be optimistic about initiating change, lasting reforms are rare. The group polarization literature, although dated, provides an important explanation for a very current problem. The theory holds that when there are differences of opinion to begin with, a counter-conformity effect works among members of groups.…

  6. Free-Market School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1997-01-01

    In Uxbridge, Massachusetts, a small working-class mill town, free-market reform rhetoric has become reality. The tiny district has adopted controversial changes, such as giving vouchers to parents of Title I students, reimbursing home-schooling parents, lengthening the school day and year, adopting flexible scheduling, allowing credit for Internet…

  7. Teacher Education Reform. Essay Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner-Khamsi, Gita

    1999-01-01

    Reviews three books that examine teacher-education reform from an international comparative perspective: "The Crisis in Teacher Education: A European Concern," by Anthony Adams and Witold Tulasiewicz; "Global Perspectives on Teacher Education," edited by Colin Brock; and "Learning and Teaching in an International Context: Research, Theory and…

  8. Comprehensive Action Plan for Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of Vocational and Educational Services for Individuals with Disabilities.

    This document summarizes the plan of New York's Office of Vocational and Educational Services for Individuals with Disabilities (VESID) to reform its system of service delivery. It first describes activities begun in 1989 to improve the accessibility of vocational rehabilitation services to people with disabilities. The plan then details…

  9. Integrated reformer and shift reactor

    DOEpatents

    Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Clawson, Lawrence G.; Mitchell, William L.; Dorson, Matthew H.

    2006-06-27

    A hydrocarbon fuel reformer for producing diatomic hydrogen gas is disclosed. The reformer includes a first reaction vessel, a shift reactor vessel annularly disposed about the first reaction vessel, including a first shift reactor zone, and a first helical tube disposed within the first shift reactor zone having an inlet end communicating with a water supply source. The water supply source is preferably adapted to supply liquid-phase water to the first helical tube at flow conditions sufficient to ensure discharge of liquid-phase and steam-phase water from an outlet end of the first helical tube. The reformer may further include a first catalyst bed disposed in the first shift reactor zone, having a low-temperature shift catalyst in contact with the first helical tube. The catalyst bed includes a plurality of coil sections disposed in coaxial relation to other coil sections and to the central longitudinal axis of the reformer, each coil section extending between the first and second ends, and each coil section being in direct fluid communication with at least one other coil section.

  10. Reforming the Educational Administration Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miklos, Erwin

    This paper discusses the conceptual reform of university-based graduate level administrator preparation programs. The functionalist, interpretative, and critical approaches to social science have important implications for the study of motivation, decision-making, communication and leadership. Interpretative and critical approaches must be woven…

  11. EIA: Educational Reform or Repression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteith, Dianne S.

    A recent study (Cook, 1989) involving 58 randomly selected South Carolina elementary schools indicated that none of these schools could be characterized as having an "open climate." This paper suggests that this situation may have its origins in the educational reform movement of the 1980s, first ignited by the publication of "A Nation at Risk"…

  12. Education Reform: A Governor's View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Richard W.

    Enactment of South Carolina's Education Improvement Act of 1984 taught several lessons about successful education reform. The law provides for raising student performance by increasing academic standards; strengthening the teaching and testing of basic skills; elevating the teaching profession; improving leadership, management, and fiscal…

  13. Teacher Empowerment and School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornburg, Devin G.; Mungai, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Teachers in high-needs settings working with diverse populations are typically cited as a central element for school improvement yet are often described as resistant to such efforts. We sought to investigate the reasons behind teachers' views and beliefs about school reform within the context of collaboration and professional development, rather…

  14. Quantum Leap: Vocational Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Cecil L.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses recent technological advances, especially in computers and telecommunications, and their impact on the workplace. Highlights the need for educational reform in vocational/technical programs reflecting a systems-oriented approach rooted in the sciences. Discusses the future role of the private sector in education. (HB)

  15. Congress enacts health care reform.

    PubMed

    2010-03-01

    Health care reform at last: After nearly a century of effort by Presidents from Theodore Roosevelt on down, the Congress finally agreed on and President Barack Obama signed into law a system that covers most Americans, regulates sharp insurance practices, and embraces a paradigm shift from acute institutionally focused care to chronic disease management based on home and community-based care. PMID:20465039

  16. Cultural Narcissism and Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajak, Edward F.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: Scholars have described American culture in recent decades as narcissistic, manifested by displays of self-absorption tantamount to a pathological syndrome that has reached epidemic proportions. An education reform movement that is highly critical of public schools, teachers, and students has simultaneously emerged, espousing a…

  17. Routines and Mathematics Curriculum Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruckerhoff, Charles E.

    This article presentes ethnographic research observations of a project to support the Cleveland teachers' efforts to meet the new standards for mathematics and to empower themselves to make decisions about curriculum. The manner and extent to which the teachers became engaged in the effort to reform mathematics instruction for intermediate level…

  18. Steam Reforming of Hydrocarbon Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ming, Qimin; Healey, T; Allen, Lloyd; Irving, Patricia M.

    2002-12-01

    has developed a proprietary catalyst formulation for the fuel processor that is being developed for use with polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. The catalyst has been tested for the steam reforming of various hydrocarbons such as natural gas, iso-octane, retail gasoline, and hexadecane. A 300h continuous test has shown that the catalyst has very stable performance for steam reforming of iso-octane at 800?C with a steam/C ratio of 3.6. The same catalyst was also tested for steam reforming hexadecane (a surrogate of diesel) for 73h as well as natural gas for over 150h continuously, without deactivation or carbon deposition. Sulfur tolerance of the catalyst was tested using iso-octane containing various concentrations of sulfur. There was no catalyst deactivation after a 220h continuous test using iso-octane with 100ppm sulfur. For comparison, a nickel catalyst (12wt.% Ni/Al2O3) was also tested using different levels of sulfur in iso-octane. The results indicated that the InnovaTek catalyst has a substantially improved sulfur resistance compared to the nickel catalysts currently used for steam reforming. In addition, a variation of the catalyst was also used to reduce CO concentration to < 1% by water gas shift reaction.

  19. Misrecognition and Science Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Carol B.

    2012-01-01

    In this forum, I expand upon Teo and Osborne's discussion of teacher agency and curriculum reform. I take up and build upon their analysis to further examine one teacher's frustration in enacting an inquiry-based curriculum and his resulting accommodation of an AP curriculum. In this way I introduce the concept of misrecognition (Bourdieu and…

  20. Reform and Resistance at Oxford

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, both Harvard and Oxford Universities have been rattled by reform-minded--some say brash--leaders determined to question the status quo. At Harvard, President Lawrence H. Summers proved too controversial for his own good and is scheduled to step down this month after five contentious years in office. But at Oxford, John Hood, who…

  1. [Impact of health care reform on human resources and employment management].

    PubMed

    Brito Quintana, P E

    2000-01-01

    According to those in charge of health sector reform, human resources are the key component of health sector reform processes and offer health services their greatest competitive advantage. With the help of the Observatory for Human Resources within Health Sector Reform promoted by the Pan American Health Organization and other groups, countries of the Region of the Americas have now begun to gather, in a methodical fashion, tangible evidence of the decisive importance of human resources within health sector reform initiatives and particularly of the impact of these initiatives on health personnel. This mutual influence is the main theme of this article, which explores the most disturbing aspects of health sector reform from a human resources perspective, including job instability and conflicting interests of employers and employees.

  2. [Impact of health care reform on human resources and employment management].

    PubMed

    Brito Quintana, P E

    2000-01-01

    According to those in charge of health sector reform, human resources are the key component of health sector reform processes and offer health services their greatest competitive advantage. With the help of the Observatory for Human Resources within Health Sector Reform promoted by the Pan American Health Organization and other groups, countries of the Region of the Americas have now begun to gather, in a methodical fashion, tangible evidence of the decisive importance of human resources within health sector reform initiatives and particularly of the impact of these initiatives on health personnel. This mutual influence is the main theme of this article, which explores the most disturbing aspects of health sector reform from a human resources perspective, including job instability and conflicting interests of employers and employees. PMID:11026774

  3. [Psychiatric reform, federalism, and the decentralization of the public health in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Costa, Nilson do Rosário; Siqueira, Sandra Venâncio; Uhr, Deborah; Silva, Paulo Fagundes da; Molinaro, Alex Alexandre

    2011-12-01

    This study examines the relationships between Brazilian psychiatric reform, the adoption of the Centers for Psychosocial Care (CAPS) and the development of the Unified Health System (SUS). The adherence of municipal governments was a variable determinant for the spread of reform, especially due to the continental scale and fragmentation of the Brazilian federation. The article demonstrates the institutional stability of psychiatric reform in Brazil over two decades. The institutional nature of the decision-making process in the public arena has permitted the implementation of new organizational formats through imitation and financial incentives. The psychiatric reform was successful in defending the advantages of CAPS in relation to the asylum and hospital model dominant in past decades. The inductive policies, strengthened and upheld by Law 10.216/2001, transformed the agenda of psychiatric reform, limited to pioneering cities in a national public policy.

  4. [Theory and practice of the health systems reforms: the cases of Brazil and Mexico].

    PubMed

    Abrantes Pego, Raquel; Almeida, Celia

    2002-01-01

    This study focuses on the role of public health experts in the contemporary health sector reform process. The authors discuss the issue based on the case of Brazil and Mexico, where a group of public health specialists have oriented their participation to influence the conflict concerning health policy reform in the respective countries. One approach has been to develop a new cognitive framework for technical health sector reform projects viewed as policy proposals with technical content. The purpose is to demonstrate how these specialists have managed to influence the national debate over health sector reform when the technical and scientific discussion leaves the academic sphere and reaches the social and political realm. The authors contend that this occurs because such technical and scientific knowledge has been postulated (independently of its intrinsic value) as a political and ideological alternative platform for sustaining a health sector reform proposal which, once transformed into a policy project, has served to aggregate certain political and social forces.

  5. [Governance and health: the rise of the managerialism in public sector reform].

    PubMed

    Denis, Jean L; Lamothe, Lise; Langley, Ann; Stéphane, Guérard

    2010-01-01

    The article examines various healthcare systems reform projects in Canada and some Canadian provinces and reveals some tendencies in governance renewal. The analisis is based on the hypothesis that reform is an exercise aiming at the renewal of governance conception and practices. In renewing governance, reform leaders hope to use adequate and effective levers to attain announced reform objectives. The article shows that the conceptions and operational modalities of governance have changed over time and that they reveal tensions inherent to the transformation and legitimation process of public healthcare systems. The first section discusses the relationships between reform and change. The second section defines the conception of gouvernance used for the analisis. Based on a content analisis of the various reform reports, the third section reveals the evolution of the conception of governance in healthcare systems in Canada. In order to expose the new tendencies, ideologies and operational principles at the heart of the reform projects are analysed. Five ideologies are identified: the democratic ideology, the "population health" ideology, the business ideology, the managerial ideology and the ideology of equity and humanism. This leads to a discussion on the dominant influence of the managerial ideology in the current reform projects. PMID:20963305

  6. Human resources: the Cinderella of health sector reform in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Homedes, Núria; Ugalde, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Human resources are the most important assets of any health system, and health workforce problems have for decades limited the efficiency and quality of Latin America health systems. World Bank-led reforms aimed at increasing equity, efficiency, quality of care and user satisfaction did not attempt to resolve the human resources problems that had been identified in multiple health sector assessments. However, the two most important reform policies – decentralization and privatization – have had a negative impact on the conditions of employment and prompted opposition from organized professionals and unions. In several countries of the region, the workforce became the most important obstacle to successful reform. This article is based on fieldwork and a review of the literature. It discusses the reasons that led health workers to oppose reform; the institutional and legal constraints to implementing reform as originally designed; the mismatch between the types of personnel needed for reform and the availability of professionals; the deficiencies of the reform implementation process; and the regulatory weaknesses of the region. The discussion presents workforce strategies that the reforms could have included to achieve the intended goals, and the need to take into account the values and political realities of the countries. The authors suggest that autochthonous solutions are more likely to succeed than solutions imported from the outside. PMID:15659241

  7. Catalytic glycerol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Monica; Mihet, Maria; Lazar, Mihaela D.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming combine two major advantages: (i) using glycerol as raw material add value to this by product of bio-diesel production which is obtained in large quantities around the world and have a very limited utilization now, and (ii) by implication of water molecules in the reaction the efficiency of hydrogen generation is increased as each mol of glycerol produces 7 mol of H2. In this work we present the results obtained in the process of steam reforming of glycerol on Ni/Al2O3. The catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized through different methods: N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR. The catalytic study was performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure by varying the reaction conditions: steam/carbon ratio (1-9), gas flow (35 ml/min -133 ml/min), temperature (450-650°C). The gaseous fraction of the reaction products contain: H2, CH4, CO, CO2. The optimum reaction conditions as resulted from this study are: temperature 550°C, Gly:H2O ratio 9:1 and Ar flow 133 ml/min. In these conditions the glycerol conversion to gaseous products was 43% and the hydrogen yield was 30%.

  8. Catalytic glycerol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Dan, Monica Mihet, Maria Lazar, Mihaela D.

    2015-12-23

    Hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming combine two major advantages: (i) using glycerol as raw material add value to this by product of bio-diesel production which is obtained in large quantities around the world and have a very limited utilization now, and (ii) by implication of water molecules in the reaction the efficiency of hydrogen generation is increased as each mol of glycerol produces 7 mol of H{sub 2}. In this work we present the results obtained in the process of steam reforming of glycerol on Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized through different methods: N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR. The catalytic study was performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure by varying the reaction conditions: steam/carbon ratio (1-9), gas flow (35 ml/min -133 ml/min), temperature (450-650°C). The gaseous fraction of the reaction products contain: H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}. The optimum reaction conditions as resulted from this study are: temperature 550°C, Gly:H{sub 2}O ratio 9:1 and Ar flow 133 ml/min. In these conditions the glycerol conversion to gaseous products was 43% and the hydrogen yield was 30%.

  9. The Immigration Reform Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Som, Sonya Olds; Momblanco, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at recent government actions that have contributed to the immigration debate, and then considers a number of the key issues: (1) Should the United States grant some sort of legal process, or "amnesty," to undocumented workers already in the U.S. who wish to seek permanent residency and, perhaps, citizenship?; (2) What is the…

  10. Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    Under DOE Contract No. DE-AR21-95MC32091, Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste, ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 500- lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area published April 1997.1 The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfidly tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium- contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (>99.9999oA) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radlonuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Cost studies have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  11. Electricity market reforms: Institutional developments, investment dynamics and game modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineau, Pierre-Olivier

    advanced to support market reforms and an industry view of the actual strategic actions undertaken by important utilities. Legislative changes will be reviewed for different countries with a discussion on the assessment procedures for these reforms. A detailed example of the reform process in the Finnish electricity market is presented. The investment issue will emerge as an interesting challenge to focus on, due to its importance for the market. The second approach is more analytical and develops on the market equilibria that could result from the new structure. A dynamic model of investment for the electricity market is built and applied to the Finnish market. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  12. Plasma-catalyzed fuel reformer

    DOEpatents

    Hartvigsen, Joseph J.; Elangovan, S.; Czernichowski, Piotr; Hollist, Michele

    2013-06-11

    A reformer is disclosed that includes a plasma zone to receive a pre-heated mixture of reactants and ionize the reactants by applying an electrical potential thereto. A first thermally conductive surface surrounds the plasma zone and is configured to transfer heat from an external heat source into the plasma zone. The reformer further includes a reaction zone to chemically transform the ionized reactants into synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A second thermally conductive surface surrounds the reaction zone and is configured to transfer heat from the external heat source into the reaction zone. The first thermally conductive surface and second thermally conductive surface are both directly exposed to the external heat source. A corresponding method and system are also disclosed and claimed herein.

  13. Solar Reforming of Carbon Dioxide to Produce Diesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Schuetzle; Robert Schuetzle

    2010-12-31

    This project focused on the demonstration of an innovative technology, referred to as the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer, which utilizes waste CO2 as a feedstock for the efficient and economical production of synthetic diesel fuel using solar thermal energy as the primary energy input. The Sunexus technology employs a two stage process for the conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel. A solar reforming system, including a specially designed reactor and proprietary CO2 reforming catalyst, was developed and used to convert captured CO2 rich gas streams into syngas (primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide) using concentrated solar energy at high conversion efficiencies. The second stage of the system (which has been demonstrated under other funding) involves the direct conversion of the syngas into synthetic diesel fuel using a proprietary catalyst (Terra) previously developed and validated by Pacific Renewable Fuels and Chemicals (PRFC). The overall system energy efficiency for conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel is 74%, due to the use of solar energy. The results herein describe modeling, design, construction, and testing of the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer. Extensive parametric testing of the solar reformer and candidate catalysts was conducted and chemical kinetic models were developed. Laboratory testing of the Solar Reformer was successfully completed using various gas mixtures, temperatures, and gas flow rates/space velocities to establish performance metrics which can be employed for the design of commercial plants. A variety of laboratory tests were conducted including dry reforming (CO2 and CH{sub 4}), combination dry/steam reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4} & H{sub 2}O), and tri-reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}O & O{sub 2}). CH{sub 4} and CO2 conversions averaged 95-100% and 50-90% per reformer cycle, respectively, depending upon the temperatures and gas space velocities. No formation of carbon deposits (coking) on the catalyst was observed in any of these tests. A 16 ft. diameter

  14. Design and Operation of the Synthesis Gas Generator System for Reformed Propane and Glycerin Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickett, Derek Kyle

    Due to an increased interest in sustainable energy, biodiesel has become much more widely used in the last several years. Glycerin, one major waste component in biodiesel production, can be converted into a hydrogen rich synthesis gas to be used in an engine generator to recover energy from the biodiesel production process. This thesis contains information detailing the production, testing, and analysis of a unique synthesis generator rig at the University of Kansas. Chapter 2 gives a complete background of all major components, as well as how they are operated. In addition to component descriptions, methods for operating the system on pure propane, reformed propane, reformed glycerin along with the methodology of data acquisition is described. This chapter will serve as a complete operating manual for future students to continue research on the project. Chapter 3 details the literature review that was completed to better understand fuel reforming of propane and glycerin. This chapter also describes the numerical model produced to estimate the species produced during reformation activities. The model was applied to propane reformation in a proof of concept and calibration test before moving to glycerin reformation and its subsequent combustion. Chapter 4 first describes the efforts to apply the numerical model to glycerin using the calibration tools from propane reformation. It then discusses catalytic material preparation and glycerin reformation tests. Gas chromatography analysis of the reformer effluent was completed to compare to theoretical values from the numerical model. Finally, combustion of reformed glycerin was completed for power generation. Tests were completed to compare emissions from syngas combustion and propane combustion.

  15. Job satisfaction of village doctors during the new healthcare reforms in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Fang, Pengqian

    2016-04-01

    Objective China launched new healthcare reforms in 2009 and several policies targeted village clinics, which affected village doctors' income, training and duties. The aim of the present study was to assess village doctors' job satisfaction during the reforms and to explore factors affecting job satisfaction. Methods Using a stratified multistage cluster sampling process, 935 village doctors in Jiangxi Province were surveyed with a self-administered questionnaire that collected demographic information and contained a job satisfaction scale and questions regarding their work situation and individual perceptions of the new healthcare reforms. Descriptive analysis, Pearson's Chi-squared test and binary logistic regression were used to identify village doctors' job satisfaction and the factors associated with their job satisfaction. Results Only 12.72% of village doctors were either satisfied or very satisfied with their jobs and the top three items leading to dissatisfaction were pay and the amount of work that had to be done, opportunities for job promotion and work conditions. Marriage, income, intention to leave, satisfaction with learning and training, social status, relationship with patients and satisfaction with the new healthcare reforms were significantly associated with job satisfaction (P<0.05). Conclusions China is facing critical challenges with regard to village doctors because of their low job satisfaction. For future healthcare reforms, policy makers should pay more attention to appropriate remuneration and approaches that incentivise village doctors to achieve the goals of the health reforms. What is known about the topic? Village doctors act as gatekeepers at the bottom tier of the rural health system. However, the policies of the new healthcare reform initiatives in China were centred on improving the quality of care delivered to the rural population and reducing fast-growing medical costs. There have been limited studies on village doctors

  16. Modeling of On-Cell Reforming Reaction for Planar SOFC Stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Choongmo; Lim, Hyung-Tae; Hwang, Soon Cheol; Kim, Dohyung; Lai, Canhai; Koeppel, Brian J.; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-05-30

    Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stack is known to suffer thermal problem from high stack temperature during operation to generate high current. On-Cell Reforming (OCR) phenomenon is often used to reduce stack temperature by an endothermic reaction of steam-methane reforming process. RIST conducted single-cell experiment to validate modeling tool to simulate OCR performance including temperature measurement. 2D modeling is used to check reforming rate during OCR using temperature measurement data, and 3D modeling is used to check overall thermal performance including furnace boundary conditions.

  17. Nursing's agenda for health care reform: policy, politics, and power through professional leadership.

    PubMed

    Betts, V T

    1996-01-01

    This article is an eye witness account of nursing's participation in the health care reform debate from 1991 to 1994. In that debate, the nursing profession achieved high visibility and recognition for the cogency of its policy positions as developed in Nursing's Agenda for Health Care Reform and for its united voice through the leadership of the American Nurses Association, the Tricouncil for Nursing, and the Nursing Organization Liaison Forum. While comprehensive health care reform failed to pass the 103rd Congress, nursing and nurses gained much in the process of their participation.

  18. Paradigm shifts in Medicare reform.

    PubMed

    Jones, S B; Etheredge, L

    1996-04-01

    Reforms passed by Congress and vetoed by the president during the past year would have accelerated initiatives already transforming Medicare. Operating in a rapidly changing insurance marketplace, Medicare is shifting from a social insurance model toward a private individual insurance model-expanding the number and type of alternative health plans it offers-and growing numbers of beneficiaries are enrolling in these plans. Such reforms, especially if bolstered by legislative reforms that are likely to resurface after the November elections, will rewrite the social contract enacted more than 30 years ago. They require fundamental shifts in ways of thinking about the federal government's responsibilities; the Medicare program's management; relations between the Medicare program and doctors, hospitals, and other health care providers; and the role of beneficiaries in the Medicare program. The likely deferral of further legislative attempts to reform Medicare affords an opportunity to step back and consider these ongoing changes. It is not easy to describe paradigm shifts accurately, but there are advantages to trying. First, conceptual comparisons can allow public discussion to go beyond budget scorekeeping and media soundbites to consider how different the Medicare program will be if it evolves in the new ways being proposed. Second, a conceptual framework can assist health policy analysts to target what to watch for in tracking changes, to assess the tradeoffs involved, and to advise about the needs for refining legislation. This paper includes examples of what to watch for in tracking the implemented changes. The paradigm shifts are summarized below, then described individually in terms of directions of change along a number of continuums. Note that complete paradigm shifts, from one end of a continuum to the other, are seldom completely realized nor even far advanced. But Medicare's ongoing reforms, accelerated by legislative proposals, seem likely predecessors of

  19. Instructional changes based on cogenerative physics reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuels, Natan; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird

    2013-01-01

    We describe changes in a physics teacher's pedagogy and cultural awareness that resulted from her students' involvement in reforming their classroom. For this case study, we examined a veteran high school teacher's semester-long use of CMPLE (the Cogenerative Mediation Process for Learning Environments) in her Modeling Instruction classroom. CMPLE is a formative intervention designed to help students and instructors collaborate to change classroom dynamics, based on how closely the environment matches their learning preferences. Analysis of classroom videos, interviews, and other artifacts indicates that adapting the environment to align with the preferences of that shared culture affected the instructor in complex ways. We will trace her teaching practices and her self-described awareness of the culture of learning, to highlight notable changes. The teacher espoused deeper understanding of her students' physics learning experience, which she gained from including students in responding to their own individual and collective learning preferences.

  20. From Times of Transition to Adaptation: Background and Theoretical Approach to the Curriculum Reform in Estonia 1987-1996

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouk, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to research the important process of the history of the educational development of Estonia, the reform of the national school curriculum which began after the teacher's congress in 1987 and ended in 1996 when government approved the document. That reform was carried out in the context of thoroughgoing and dramatic…

  1. The Retrospection and Elicitation of China's Teacher Education Reform and Opening-Up More Than 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian-Ping, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Since implementation of reform and opening-up policy, China's teacher education has got significant success on policy design, legislation process, theory research, system reform, model innovation and teaching qualification system building. Teachers' educational background level has been increased. Teachers' professional ethics and teaching…

  2. The Human Dimension of Systemic Department-Level Change: A Change Agent's Retrospective on a Case of Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanasupa, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This paper represents a narrative of the process of department-level reform through the eyes of the initiating agent of change. Over the course of reform, our program has grown by 40%, primarily through retaining students. We exhibit a 10% net important rate of engineering students in the first two years of the curriculum relative to the college's…

  3. [Proposals for the reform of public health services in Catalonia].

    PubMed

    Villalbí, Joan R; Antó, Josep M; Pané, Olga; de Peray, Josep L

    2006-01-01

    In the year 2004 the government of Catalonia undertook a process to reform its public health services. In this context, it created a working groupinvolving experts from diverse backgrounds to analyse the reforms to be undertaken, the Scientific Committee for the Reform of Public Health in Catalonia. Its members produced eight documents on specific aspects of public health, from which a global report of the Committee was compiled by the end of 2005. This paper makes a synthesis of their production, and includes as an annex their recommendations and proposals. Public health policies should be structured around three main goal: the reduction of health inequalities, the control and removal of social and environmental risks, and effective improvements in quality of life. To reach them, common criteria are defined as main directions. These are based in favouring decentralization of public health services and their administration, linking public health activities with health care services, designing interventions with a population perspective, and reinforcing cross-sectional implications of public health. The work of this Committee is produced in the context of an international debate on the future of public health services and the disproportion between its contribution to health and well being and its resources and visibility. The Committee produced proposals and recommendations which can he grouped in five facets: consolidating a solid and coherent system, developing an organizational reform, defining a port-folio of services, adopting improvements in management, and taking into account cross sectional aspects relating to public health.

  4. Being a Player in Teacher Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Jerry L.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a letter to Governors from the president of the International Reading Association addressing an increased discussion about teacher preparation programs and calls for teacher education reform. (SG)

  5. Reforming health insurance in Argentina and Chile.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, A; Lloyd-Sherlock, P

    2000-12-01

    The paper examines the recent reforms of health insurance in Chile and Argentina. These partially replace social health insurance with individual insurance administered through the private sector. In Chile, reforms in the early 1980s allowed private health insurance funds to compete for affiliates with the social health insurance system. In Argentina, reforms in the 1990s aim to open up the union-administered social insurance system to competition both internally and from private insurers. The paper outlines the specific articulation of social and individual health insurance produced by these reforms, and discusses the implications for health insurance coverage, inequalities in access to healthcare, and health expenditures.

  6. Healthcare Reform 2010- a surgeon's perspective.

    PubMed

    Ullyot, Daniel J

    2010-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) was signed into law President Barack Obama in March 2010. From the standpoint of a clinical surgeon, Dan Ullyot examines healthcare reform of the US system and asks: What is healthcare reform? Do we need it? What would ideal reform look like? And to what extent does the PPACA approach ideal reform? This article is a primer for understanding the salient features of this complex piece of federal legislation, which will have an enormous influence on the lives of this generation and those of the future. PMID:21928185

  7. School Finance Reform: Analysis of the Ballot and Statutory Reform Proposals. Issue Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Legislature, Lansing, Senate Fiscal Agency.

    On December 24, 1994, the Michigan State Legislature passed a comprehensive school finance reform package for the K-12 education system. This document analyzes the school finance reform package and presents a comprehensive review of the issues affected by the proposed reforms. The first section reviews the overall financial components of the…

  8. Education Reform and Students At Risk. Volume I: Findings and Recommendations. Studies of Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Robert J.; Stringfield, Samuel C.

    Despite the widespread attention given to education reform, no substantial knowledge base has existed for identifying and implementing specific effective reforms. This document, the first of three volumes, presents findings of a study that sought to identify the essential mechanics of effective reforms for students at risk. The study also…

  9. Toward Reform in Land Reform: Coupling Local Control and Social Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geisler, Charles C.

    An alternative to the traditional land reform movement in the United States and the recent land use reform movement would result in a merging of social control with local control over land. Traditional land reformers perceive that land is a private commodity subject to fee-simple ownership and near absolute control over its use and disposition.…

  10. Enacting Reform-Based Science Materials: The Range of Teacher Enactments in Reform Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Rebecca M.; Krajcik, Joseph; Blumenfeld, Phyllis

    2005-01-01

    To promote large-scale science education reform, developers must create innovations that teachers can use to learn and enact new practices. As part of an urban systemic reform effort, science materials were designed to reflect desired reforms and to support teacher thinking by addressing necessary content, pedagogy, and pedagogical content…

  11. A Methanol Steam Reforming Micro Reactor for Proton Exchange Membrane Micro Fuel Cell System

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H G; Piggott, W T; Chung, J; Morse, J D; Havstad, M; Grigoropoulos, C P; Greif, R; Benett, W; Sopchak, D; Upadhye, R

    2003-07-28

    The heat, mass and momentum transfer from a fuel reforming packed bed to a surrounding silicon wafer has been simulated. Modeling showed quantitatively reasonable agreement with experimental data for fuel conversion efficiency, hydrogen production rate, outlet methanol mole fraction and outlet steam mole fraction. The variation in fuel conversion efficiency with the micro reformer thermal isolation can be used to optimize fuel-processing conditions for micro PEM fuel cells.

  12. The implications of health sector reform for human resources development.

    PubMed Central

    Alwan, Ala'; Hornby, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The authors argue that "health for all" is not achievable in most countries without health sector reform that incorporates a process of coordinated health and human resources development. They examine the situation in countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of the World Health Organization. Though advances have been made, further progress is inhibited by the limited adaptation of traditional health service structures and processes in many of these countries. National reform strategies are needed. These require the active participation of health professional associations and academic training institutions as well as health service managers. The paper indicates some of the initiatives required and suggests that the starting point for many countries should be a rigorous appraisal of the current state of human resources development in health. PMID:11884974

  13. In situ Gas Conditioning in Fuel Reforming for Hydrogen Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Bandi, A.; Specht, M.; Sichler, P.; Nicoloso, N.

    2002-09-20

    The production of hydrogen for fuel cell applications requires cost and energy efficient technologies. The Absorption Enhanced Reforming (AER), developed at ZSW with industrial partners, is aimed to simplify the process by using a high temperature in situ CO2 absorption. The in situ CO2 removal results in shifting the steam reforming reaction equilibrium towards increased hydrogen concentration (up to 95 vol%). The key part of the process is the high temperature CO2 absorbent. In this contribution results of Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) investigations on natural minerals, dolomites, silicates and synthetic absorbent materials in regard of their CO2 absorption capacity and absorption/desorption cyclic stability are presented and discussed. It has been found that the inert parts of the absorbent materials have a structure stabilizing effect, leading to an improved cyclic stability of the materials.

  14. Hydrocarbon Processing`s process design and optimization `96

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This paper compiles information on hydrocarbon processes, describing the application, objective, economics, commercial installations, and licensor. Processes include: alkylation, ammonia, catalytic reformer, crude fractionator, crude unit, vacuum unit, dehydration, delayed coker, distillation, ethylene furnace, FCCU, polymerization, gas sweetening, hydrocracking, hydrogen, hydrotreating (naphtha, distillate, and resid desulfurization), natural gas processing, olefins, polyethylene terephthalate, refinery, styrene, sulfur recovery, and VCM furnace.

  15. Negative Valve Overlap Reforming Chemistry in Low-Oxygen Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P; Steeper, Richard R.; Splitter, Derek A; Kalaskar, Vickey B; Pihl, Josh A; Daw, C Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Fuel injection into the negative valve overlap (NVO) period is a common method for controlling combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and other forms of advanced combustion. When fuel is injected into O2-deficient NVO conditions, a portion of the fuel can be converted to products containing significant levels of H2 and CO. Additionally, other short chain hydrocarbons are produced by means of thermal cracking, water-gas shift, and partial oxidation reactions. The present study experimentally investigates the fuel reforming chemistry that occurs during NVO. To this end, two very different experimental facilities are utilized and their results are compared. One facility is located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which uses a custom research engine cycle developed to isolate the NVO event from main combustion, allowing a steady stream of NVO reformate to be exhausted from the engine and chemically analyzed. The other experimental facility, located at Sandia National Laboratories, uses a dump valve to capture the exhaust from a single NVO event for analysis. Results from the two experiments are in excellent trend-wise agreement and indicate that the reforming process under low-O2 conditions produces substantial concentrations of H2, CO, methane, and other short-chain hydrocarbon species. The concentration of these species is found to be strongly dependent on fuel injection timing and injected fuel type, with weaker dependencies on NVO duration and initial temperature, indicating that NVO reforming is kinetically slow. Further, NVO reforming does not require a large energy input from the engine, meaning that it is not thermodynamically expensive. The implications of these results on HCCI and other forms of combustion are discussed in detail.

  16. Outlook for Soviet economic reform

    SciTech Connect

    Zycher, B.

    1990-12-01

    The central goal of the essay is presentation of the reasons for pessimism about the prospects for Soviet economic improvement in the short and medium terms. It first discusses some necessary conditions for real long-term growth in any economy; experience suggests that these underlying foundations will be difficult to attain in the Soviet context. Second, it turns to the short- and medium-term outlook for Soviet economic performance even if all the necessary policy changes and economic institutions were adopted. And, finally it addresses the Gorbachev reform program; this plan illustrates quite neatly the adverse constraints imposed by the past and the poor prospects for the future.

  17. Righting wrongs and reforming rights.

    PubMed

    Ivey, Laurie C

    2014-03-01

    Discusses issues faced by LGBT people, such as a lack of equal civil rights and the need for extra legal and financial protection for families because partners cannot be married. The author notes that, in our society, it is no longer acceptable to be racist, but it is still okay to be homophobic. The many campaigns against gay marriage and efforts in the legislature to prevent change toward equal civil rights and protections are prime examples. In our current political climate, two things are very clear: (a) homophobia is freely tolerated and (b) the times are changing as we inch closer to equal rights every day. We are "righting wrongs and reforming rights."

  18. The interface between health sector reform and human resources in health

    PubMed Central

    Rigoli, Felix; Dussault, Gilles

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between health sector reform and the human resources issues raised in that process has been highlighted in several studies. These studies have focused on how the new processes have modified the ways in which health workers interact with their workplace, but few of them have paid enough attention to the ways in which the workers have influenced the reforms. The impact of health sector reform has modified critical aspects of the health workforce, including labor conditions, degree of decentralization of management, required skills and the entire system of wages and incentives. Human resources in health, crucial as they are in implementing changes in the delivery system, have had their voice heard in many subtle and open ways – reacting to transformations, supporting, blocking and distorting the proposed ways of action. This work intends to review the evidence on how the individual or collective actions of human resources are shaping the reforms, by spotlighting the reform process, the workforce reactions and the factors determining successful human resources participation. It attempts to provide a more powerful way of predicting the effects and interactions in which different "technical designs" operate when they interact with the human resources they affect. The article describes the dialectic nature of the relationship between the objectives and strategies of the reforms and the objectives and strategies of those who must implement them. PMID:14613523

  19. Conservation and aid: designing more effective investments in natural resource governance reform.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Fred

    2009-10-01

    Biodiversity conservation outcomes are closely related to the rules and institutions governing resource use. Creating local incentives for conservation through more secure resource tenure is central to conservation outcomes on private and communal lands, where the preponderance of biodiversity occurs. Conservation efforts in sub-Saharan Africa are therefore centrally concerned with governance dynamics and institutional reform processes, such as the decentralization of property rights, and how best to achieve such reforms. Traditional mechanisms for financing conservation efforts in Africa rely heavily on funds channeled through multilateral and bilateral aid agencies. The history of development aid highlights a range of constraints these aid agencies face in terms of working toward more effective resource governance arrangements and promoting reforms. Government aid agencies possess incentives for promoting large-scale and short-term projects that maximize expenditure volumes and tend to define issues in technical rather than political terms. The history of development aid suggests that these and other characteristics of aid agencies impedes their ability to influence governance reform processes and that aid funding may discourage the adoption of reforms. Greater emphasis in African conservation financing needs to be placed on flexible, small-scale investments aligned to local interests and constituencies that prioritize innovation, learning, and experimentation. Additionally, more research is required that explores the linkages between conservation funding, donor decision-making processes, and governance reforms. PMID:19765032

  20. Solid oxide fuel cell steam reforming power system

    SciTech Connect

    Chick, Lawrence A.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2013-03-12

    The present invention is a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Reforming Power System that utilizes adiabatic reforming of reformate within this system. By utilizing adiabatic reforming of reformate within the system the system operates at a significantly higher efficiency than other Solid Oxide Reforming Power Systems that exist in the prior art. This is because energy is not lost while materials are cooled and reheated, instead the device operates at a higher temperature. This allows efficiencies higher than 65%.

  1. Health sector reforms and human resources for health in Uganda and Bangladesh: mechanisms of effect

    PubMed Central

    Ssengooba, Freddie; Rahman, Syed Azizur; Hongoro, Charles; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus; Mustafa, Ahmed; Kielmann, Tara; McPake, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    that encourage positive responses among health workers b) the role of context has been underestimated and it is necessary to address broader systemic problems before initiating reform processes, c) reform programs need to incorporate active implementation research systems to learn the contextual dynamics and responses as well as have inbuilt program capacity for corrective measures d) health workers are key stakeholders in any reform process and should participate at all stages and e) some effects of reforms on the health workforce operate indirectly through levels of satisfaction voiced by communities utilising the services. PMID:17270042

  2. The Gateway Paper--context and configuration of the proposed health reforms in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nishtar, Sania

    2006-12-01

    As an opening of a dialogue on health reforms in Pakistan, the Gateway Paper presents a viewpoint on its proposed directions making a strong case for systems reforms, which need to scope beyond the healthcare system. Positioning the reform process to strengthen Pakistan's health policy cycle, the paper articulates a roadmap for a paradigm shift to achieve health outcomes in Pakistan with major structural reorganization within the health system. The proposed reform points in the four areas namely, reforms within the health sector, overarching measures, reconfiguration of health within an inter-sectoral scope and generating evidence for reforms. Reforms within the health sector focus on developing new models of service delivery and health financing which can enable the state to leverage the private sector outreach to deliver health-related public goods on the one hand and maximize the outreach of the State's health care delivery mechanisms through mainstreaming the role of the private sector on the other, albeit with safeguards. In addition, these call for strengthening the stewardship role to regulate these arrangements. The second area of reform focuses on overarching measures; these include developing frameworks for public-private partnerships which will enable the bringing together of organizations with the mandate to offer public goods and those that could facilitate this goal through the provision of resources, technical expertise or outreach; mainstreaming health into the country's social protection strategy in order to address issues of access and affordability for the poor and introducing civil service and public service reform focused on good governance, accountability, breakdown of institutional corruption which are critical to improving health outcomes. The third area of reform involves broadening health to its inter-sectoral scope, redefinition of objectives and targets within the health sector and garnering support from across the sectors to forester

  3. The Gateway Paper--context and configuration of the proposed health reforms in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nishtar, Sania

    2006-12-01

    As an opening of a dialogue on health reforms in Pakistan, the Gateway Paper presents a viewpoint on its proposed directions making a strong case for systems reforms, which need to scope beyond the healthcare system. Positioning the reform process to strengthen Pakistan's health policy cycle, the paper articulates a roadmap for a paradigm shift to achieve health outcomes in Pakistan with major structural reorganization within the health system. The proposed reform points in the four areas namely, reforms within the health sector, overarching measures, reconfiguration of health within an inter-sectoral scope and generating evidence for reforms. Reforms within the health sector focus on developing new models of service delivery and health financing which can enable the state to leverage the private sector outreach to deliver health-related public goods on the one hand and maximize the outreach of the State's health care delivery mechanisms through mainstreaming the role of the private sector on the other, albeit with safeguards. In addition, these call for strengthening the stewardship role to regulate these arrangements. The second area of reform focuses on overarching measures; these include developing frameworks for public-private partnerships which will enable the bringing together of organizations with the mandate to offer public goods and those that could facilitate this goal through the provision of resources, technical expertise or outreach; mainstreaming health into the country's social protection strategy in order to address issues of access and affordability for the poor and introducing civil service and public service reform focused on good governance, accountability, breakdown of institutional corruption which are critical to improving health outcomes. The third area of reform involves broadening health to its inter-sectoral scope, redefinition of objectives and targets within the health sector and garnering support from across the sectors to forester

  4. Mandate-based health reform and the labor market: Evidence from the Massachusetts reform.

    PubMed

    Kolstad, Jonathan T; Kowalski, Amanda E

    2016-05-01

    We model the labor market impact of the key provisions of the national and Massachusetts "mandate-based" health reforms: individual mandates, employer mandates, and subsidies. We characterize the compensating differential for employer-sponsored health insurance (ESHI) and the welfare impact of reform in terms of "sufficient statistics." We compare welfare under mandate-based reform to welfare in a counterfactual world where individuals do not value ESHI. Relying on the Massachusetts reform, we find that jobs with ESHI pay $2812 less annually, somewhat less than the cost of ESHI to employers. Accordingly, the deadweight loss of mandate-based health reform was approximately 8 percent of its potential size.

  5. Reforming Higher Education in Eastern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Bunt-Kokhuis, Sylvia G. M.

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of higher education in eastern Europe begins with a description of the major European programs promoting international mobility for students and scholars and then examines reform efforts in the former Soviet Union, Poland, and former East Germany. Critical factors in the success of reforms are outlined. (MSE)

  6. Imperatives of Lasting Public School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Truman M.

    This book considers the appropriateness of efforts for lasting and effective school reform, particularly focusing on the dissatisfaction many individuals feel about current reform efforts. Four related areas are discussed: (1) an overview of the American experience in education, its cornerstone and its sociological, economic, and philosophical…

  7. After Access: Canadian Education and Copyright Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geist, Michael

    2006-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of the Internet in the 1990s, the Canadian government developed a well-regarded strategy for addressing the emerging issues posed by the "information highway." The strategy featured legal reforms to address privacy and e-commerce, administrative reforms for the government online initiative, and connectivity programs such…

  8. What, After All, Should Beida Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liping, Sun

    2005-01-01

    As a person who worked for more than twenty years at Beida, I must say I entertain quite complicated feelings about Beida?s current reform. First of all, I am still somewhat in the fold, and it is inevitable that an emotional patina would be involved. More important, the university's reform itself is too complicated, or I should say that the…

  9. On Rhetorical Battleground, "Reform" Proves Potent Weapon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2011-01-01

    The rhetoric of education today tends to divide the world in two: between those who favor "reform" and those who don't. Many who consider themselves reformers say they stand in opposition to the "status quo." Some of them speak of the need to challenge the "education establishment," or the education bureaucracy. Many also describe their policies…

  10. The Sustainability of Inclusive School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sindelar, Paul T.; Shearer, Deirdre K.; Yendol-Hoppey, Diane; Liebert, Todd W.

    2006-01-01

    For over a decade, University of Florida researchers worked with middle schools in a large urban and suburban south Florida district, as they developed and then worked to sustain inclusive reform. One middle school, Socrates, was notably successful, having built its inclusion model on a foundation of previous reform and a school culture…

  11. State Reforms Threaten Remote Community Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Angela M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an ethnographic study of administrators, faculty, parents and community members in one remote Michigan school district. The purpose of the study is to describe and explain how Michigan's educational reform perspective--arguably similar to the education reform perspectives of many states--encountered the educational…

  12. Leadership, Responsibility, and Reform in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    1993-01-01

    Regards leadership as central to the success of the reform movement in science education. Defines leadership and introduces a model of leadership modified from the one developed by Edwin Locke and his associates. Provides an overview of the essential qualities of leadership occurring in science education. Discusses reforming science education and…

  13. Designing Meaningful Developmental Reform. Research Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaggars, Shanna Smith; Hodara, Michelle; Stacey, Georgia West

    2013-01-01

    This practitioner packet is designed to help community college administrators implement reforms to developmental education at their colleges. It reviews common impediments to developmental reform and presents data that supports directions colleges can take to create a system of developmental education that might serve students more effectively.…

  14. Historical Perspectives on the Current Education Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravitch, Diane, Ed.; Vinovskis, Maris, Ed.

    This document contains 14 individual papers by prominent scholars who provide a historical perspective on current educational reforms. The three essays in part 1 examine some of the major changes in educational development and reform. These include: (1) "Antiquarianism and American Education: Assimilation, Adjustment, Access" (Patricia Graham);…

  15. Methanol Steam Reformer on a Silicon Wafer

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H; Malen, J; Piggott, T; Morse, J; Sopchak, D; Greif, R; Grigoropoulos, C; Havstad, M; Upadhye, R

    2004-04-15

    A study of the reforming rates, heat transfer and flow through a methanol reforming catalytic microreactor fabricated on a silicon wafer are presented. Comparison of computed and measured conversion efficiencies are shown to be favorable. Concepts for insulating the reactor while maintaining small overall size and starting operation from ambient temperature are analyzed.

  16. Fuel cell integrated with steam reformer

    DOEpatents

    Beshty, Bahjat S.; Whelan, James A.

    1987-01-01

    A H.sub.2 -air fuel cell integrated with a steam reformer is disclosed wherein a superheated water/methanol mixture is fed to a catalytic reformer to provide a continuous supply of hydrogen to the fuel cell, the gases exhausted from the anode of the fuel cell providing the thermal energy, via combustion, for superheating the water/methanol mixture.

  17. Teacher Generations in an Era of Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Steen; Hansen, Dion Russelbak

    2009-01-01

    Danish upper-secondary school is currently undergoing remarkable changes. Comprehensive reforms and restructuring have transformed teacher roles and school organization. However, not all upper-secondary teachers welcome reform: on the one hand, they have to adopt norms, standards and values determined by colleagues, if they want to "fit in"; on…

  18. How Block Scheduling Reform Effects Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veal, William R.; Flinders, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Block scheduling has become an increasingly popular reform movement for schools, school districts, and principals to enact. Much of the decision making as to whether to implement some type of block scheduling has occurred without understanding the implications this type of reform has on teachers and their classroom practices. This paper reports on…

  19. Immigration Reform: An Analysis of Employer Sanctions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Estevan T.; And Others

    Recent immigration legislation has potential impacts on migrant education and Mexican American education. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 was passed after nine years of intense debate. The heart of so-called immigration reform is employer sanctions, which seek to restrict migration to the United States by prohibiting employers from…

  20. Leading Mathematics Reform and the Lost Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Janeen

    2010-01-01

    Queensland's primary school teachers have experienced change in every Key Learning Area in the last few years. This avalanche of curriculum reform is set to continue as schools prepare for the imminent release of the Australian national curriculum. This article reports on one school's approach to dealing with this avalanche of curriculum reform.…

  1. Smart, Bold Reform for Powerful Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the author has spent time in hundreds of high schools reviewing data; observing classes; learning about interventions and whole-school reforms; and speaking with principals, teachers, counselors, and students. She has also been a district leader in New York City responsible for high school reform that has achieved promising…

  2. German Spelling Reform: Kangaroos, Emus, and Cockatoos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlendorf, Harald

    1997-01-01

    The latest movement to reform German spelling is discussed, focusing on the need for greater consistency in spelling of words from other languages and the major changes proposed. Issues addressed include capitalization, specific idiosyncracies in German spelling, concerns related to computerization, public opinion, and the scope of the reform.…

  3. Distributed Leadership for ICT Reform in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, David; Ho, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examines distributed leadership in Information Communication Technology reform in a government school in Singapore. The study adopts a naturalistic inquiry approach, drawing upon a case study of the aforementioned school for much of its data. The study found that leadership for Information Communication Technology reform is distributed…

  4. Utah's Educational Reform Programs, 1991-93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    In November 1983, the Utah Education Reform Steering Committee issued the report "Education in Utah: A Call to Action." To meet Utah's double challenge of rapid growth and quality enhancement, the report stated that Utah needed to: (1) increase the allocation of financial resources to education; (2) demand reforms in many aspects of education; and…

  5. Understanding Parole Officers' Responses to Sanctioning Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Benjamin; Travis, Lawrence F., III; Makarios, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    There are constant calls for reform in the criminal justice system, but observers have often reported that criminal justice reform is an exceptionally challenging task. As with any organizational change, resistance to new policies, procedures, and practices comes from a variety of sources. The relatively broad discretionary authority vested in…

  6. Educational Reform and Renewal in Contemporary Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickman, William W.

    This study is one of a series of Office of Education publications on educational developments in other countries. It describes and analyzes in social, economic, and historical context the educational changes mandated in Spain by the Education Reform Law of 1970, one of contemporary Europe's most far-reaching plans for educational reform and…

  7. Alysha's Day: Progressive Pedagogy as School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Fran; Silin, Jonathan

    This paper argues that progressive pedagogy is a viable alternative to more limited basic skill approaches to school reform. Drawing on qualitative and quantitative data collected during the fourth year of a 7-year multi-site school reform initiative in a besieged urban district, the paper documents ways in which teachers have dramatically altered…

  8. Steam Reformer With Fibrous Catalytic Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed steam-reforming reactor derives heat from internal combustion on fibrous catalyst. Supplies of fuel and air to combustor controlled to meet demand for heat for steam-reforming reaction. Enables use of less expensive reactor-tube material by limiting temperature to value safe for material yet not so low as to reduce reactor efficiency.

  9. Welfare Reforms, Family Resources, and Child Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxson, Christina; Waldfogel, Jane

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of welfare reforms on several measures of child maltreatment. The authors use state-level data from 1990 to 1998 to examine whether recent welfare reforms have increased or reduced the incidence of reported and substantiated cases of maltreatment, the incidence of specific types of substantiated…

  10. Education Sector Reform: The Ugandan Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penny, Alan; Ward, Michael; Read, Tony; Bines, Hazel

    2008-01-01

    In 1998 the Government of Uganda (GoU) began implementing an ambitious reform programme called the Education Strategic Investment Plan (ESIP) in order to effect Universal Primary Education (UPE). This paper offers a perspective on how the GoU has met the challenge of financing education reform, addressed the need to improve the quality of basic…

  11. Reforming Administrator Preparation Programs. UCEA Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendel, Frederick C., Ed.

    This publication contains four chapters that examine the reform of administrator preparation programs. In "The Reform Paradigm: Exploring the Fuzzy Logic of Educational Administration," William Ammentorp and Thomas Morgan develop a model based on linguistic algorithms to understand qualitative policy formation and decision making. In "Student…

  12. Taking Stock of a Decade of Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Next, 2011

    2011-01-01

    School reformers have made forward strides in the last ten years, and public debate has acquired a bipartisan cast. But just how successful have reform efforts been? The editors of "Education Next" assess the movement's victories and challenges. Two essays are presented in this issue's "Forum": (1) "A Battle Begun, Not Won" (Paul E. Peterson,…

  13. Redesigning Teacher Salary Systems for Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firestone, William A.

    1994-01-01

    How changes in teacher pay can contribute to systemic educational reform and school restructuring is discussed, focusing on knowledge- and skill-based pay, job enlargement, and collective incentives. These alternatives have the potential to improve teacher motivation and support other reforms. (SLD)

  14. Latin American USOMs Seminar on Agrarian Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Cooperation Administration (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    This report of seminar proceedings discusses land reform policies and programs and their place in the economic development of Latin America. It analyzes experiences and current situations in Latin America, the United States, and elsewhere which shed light on the problems and possibilities of agrarian reform. An appraisal of existing physical,…

  15. Income Tax Reform and Agriculture: A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Five papers are provided from a symposium organized to present several economic studies relating to income tax structure and reform in agriculture. "Toward an Optimal Income Tax Policy for Southern and U.S. Agriculture" (Harold F. Breimyer) is a structured argument for comprehensive tax reform that increases the equity of the income tax system…

  16. Finding Jobs: Work and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, David E., Ed.; Blank, Rebecca M., Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers on labor market and welfare reform, with special emphasis on the demand for low-wage workers, wages and job characteristics in the less skilled labor market, public politics to increase employment and earnings of less skilled workers, and the impact of welfare reform. The following papers are included: "The Labor…

  17. Teacher Evaluation Reform: Focus, Feedback, and Fear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Morgaen L.

    2016-01-01

    How are teachers experiencing the more rigorous teacher evaluation systems that many states have mandated in recent years? Donaldson, who has studied teacher evaluation reform over the past eight years, shares insights from a study of 14 Connecticut districts that have implemented the state's 2012 teacher evaluation reforms. In surveys and…

  18. Relatorio: Reforma universitaria (Report: University Reform).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a report by 11 experts invited by the Ministry of Education and Culture to give their views on Brazilian university reforms. The introduction to the report states the principles underlying the proposals for reform adapted to the current social transformation in Brazil.…

  19. Strategic Leadership and School Reform in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Peiying

    2008-01-01

    This article examines school leadership in the context of Taiwanese educational reform since the mid-1990s. The goal of the inquiry is twofold: to explore the conflicts that school administrators have confronted in facilitating school reform and to analyze the strategic and innovative leadership practices that have facilitated improvements in…

  20. Land Reform and Social Change in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschman, Albert O.; And Others

    This conference report focuses on three major areas of interest: (1) land reform in Colombia, (2) social change in Popayan, and (3) implications for research in agrarian structure in Colombia. A case study dealing with Colombia's sequence of moves toward land reform over the last 40 years is reviewed. The impact of political factors and social…

  1. Determining Capacity within Systemic Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Century, Jeanne Rose

    The idea of "capacity" is particularly important in the reform of educational systems because the system can be both the initiator and the subject of change. In fact, the requirement for capacity is present at all levels of the system in systemic reform. In educational change, four types of capacity are generally considered: (1) human capacity;…

  2. Immigrants, Welfare Reform, and the Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Steven J.; Schoeni, Robert F.; Bao, Yuhua; Danielson, Caroline

    2004-01-01

    The welfare reform bill adopted in the United States in 1996 limited the eligibility of immigrants for several government assistance programs, and early projections estimated that nearly half of the savings associated with the reforms would come from these immigrant restrictions. Several studies have found that subsequent program participation…

  3. A Diffusion Approach to Study Leadership Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Jean-Marie, Gaetane

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to draw on elements of diffusion theory to understand leadership reform. Many diffusion studies examine the spread of an innovation across social units but the objective is to examine diffusion of a collective leadership model within school units. Specifically, the strength of reform diffusion is tested to account for…

  4. Educational Reform: A Self-Scrutinizing Memoir.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarason, Seymour B.

    In this book, the author candidly confronts errors he made of omission, commission, misplaced emphases, and watering down the depth and scope of his criticisms of the reform arena in his half-century involvement in educational reform. No other major figure in this arena has made public such a searching self-critique. Sharing his thoughts about the…

  5. Evaluating Multigrade School Reform in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes three multigrade school reforms in Latin America: (1) Colombia's "Escuela Nueva", (2) Guatemala's "Nueva Escuela Unitaria", and (3) Chile's MECE-Rural. Each reform endowed primary teachers and students with special training and instructional materials, and encouraged new kinds of instruction in rural classrooms, with the goal…

  6. DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES FOR SELECTING WASTE SAMPLES FOR THE BENCH STEAM REFORMER TEST

    SciTech Connect

    BANNING DL

    2010-08-03

    This document describes the data quality objectives to select archived samples located at the 222-S Laboratory for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing. The type, quantity and quality of the data required to select the samples for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing are discussed. In order to maximize the efficiency and minimize the time to treat Hanford tank waste in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, additional treatment processes may be required. One of the potential treatment processes is the fluid bed steam reformer (FBSR). A determination of the adequacy of the FBSR process to treat Hanford tank waste is required. The initial step in determining the adequacy of the FBSR process is to select archived waste samples from the 222-S Laboratory that will be used to test the FBSR process. Analyses of the selected samples will be required to confirm the samples meet the testing criteria.

  7. Public pension reform in Japan.

    PubMed

    Liu, L

    2000-01-01

    The March 2000 pension reform in Japan focused on the long-term financial sustainability of the country's two-tiered public pension system. The government opted for incremental changes in order to maintain pension solvency through 2060. Those changes could reduce future pension funding liability by an estimated one-third. Further, the decision to avoid structural reforms of its pension programs was based on fiscal considerations. Expanding general revenue funding for the first tier from the current share of one-third to cover the entire cost would require increases in the consumption tax that proved to be politically unacceptable. Fully privatizing the second, earnings-related tier would entail transition costs too great to bear at a time of rising budget deficits. In addition, the Japanese public generally supported the sharing of financial burden for public pension programs through a combination of benefit cuts, a raise in the pensionable age, and contribution rate increases. If current cost projections prove to be inaccurate, future pension reviews (scheduled every 5 years) will give the government further opportunity to fine-tune program changes.

  8. The Bologna Process in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orosz, Anna

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the author examines the implementation of the Bologna reforms in Croatian higher education. A number of initiatives were launched in Croatia in order to adjust to the Bologna process. Some doubts still accompany the reforms partly due to the vigorous central pressure and to the lack of initial communication. Since 2000, dialogue…

  9. Canadian health system reforms: lessons for Australia?

    PubMed

    Marchildon, Gregory P

    2005-02-01

    This paper analyses recent health reform agenda in Canada. From 1988 until 1997, the first phase of reforms focused on service integration through regionalisation and a rebalancing of services from illness care to prevention and wellness. The second phase, which has been layered onto the ongoing first phase, is concerned with fiscal sustainability from a provincial perspective, and the fundamental nature of the system from a national perspective. Despite numerous commissions and studies, some questions remain concerning the future direction of the public system. The Canadian reform experience is compared with recent Australian health reform initiatives in terms of service integration through regionalisation, primary care reform, Aboriginal health, the public-private debate, intergovernmental relations and the role of the federal government.

  10. Health financing and insurance reform in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah; Kress, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The government of Morocco approved two reforms in 2005 to expand health insurance coverage. The first is a payroll-based mandatory health insurance plan for public- and formal private-sector employees to extend coverage from the current 16 percent of the population to 30 percent. The second creates a publicly financed fund to cover services for the poor. Both reforms aim to improve access to high-quality care and reduce disparities in access and financing between income groups and between rural and urban dwellers. In this paper we analyze these reforms: the pre-reform debate, benefits covered, financing, administration, and oversight. We also examine prospects and future challenges for implementing the reforms. PMID:17630444

  11. Contextual Barriers to School Reform in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arco-Tirado, José L.; Fernández-Balboa, Juan-Miguel

    2003-11-01

    Over the past two decades, the Spanish educational system has undergone various legal reforms. However, judging by the low educational performance of Spanish students as reported by the OECD for the year 2001, it seems that additional reforms are necessary. Several factors may account for the failure of previous reforms to attain the desired results. These include: (a) educators' low expectations that further reforms will succeed, (b) lack of financial resources, (c) institutional lack of commitment to implement the structural and administrative changes called for and (d) the adoption of questionable theoretical models for making appropriate structural, curricular and educational decisions. This essay presents some suggestions for implementing a reform program that would bring about substantial changes in these areas.

  12. Study on the path of comprehensive reform and development of the People's Hospital of Shimian County.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing-Gui; Gao, Wan-Ming

    2014-04-01

    The People's Hospital of Shimian County is located in the underdeveloped agricultural county of western China with a population of 120,000. In light of the region's geographic location and cultural characteristics, the hospital has laid out a development strategy of becoming a regional healthcare service center-in Shimian and extends services to surrounding regions. Its reform process would start with the overhaul of the personnel system to rejuvenate the hospital's internal operation, and then move towards more comprehensive reforms on corporate governance structure and trans-regional integration of medical resources. On the basis of constructing a digital hospital, we would build an information platform to explore the 'Shimian model' of information-based healthcare reform through regional medical coordination and whole-sector oversight. An appropriate strategy and development roadmap, comprehensively internal and external reforms and persistent culture building, as well as the use of information technology will help put the hospital onto a track of fast and healthy development and in the right direction of healthcare reform that accords with our national circumstances. This article makes a review, summary and analysis of the process and further discusses about how to overhaul the healthcare system through reform and development. PMID:25333011

  13. Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  14. Failure of health care reform in the USA.

    PubMed

    Mechanic, D

    1996-01-01

    The failure of health reform in the USA reflects the individualism and lack of community responsibility of the American political culture, the power of interest groups, and the extraordinary process President Clinton followed in developing his highly elaborate plan. Despite considerable initial public support and a strong start, the reform effort was damaged by the cumbersome process, the complexity of the plan itself, and the unfamiliarity of key components such as alliances for pooled buying of health insurance. In addition, the alienation of important interest groups and the loss of presidential initiative in framing the public discussion as a result of international, domestic and personal issues contributed to the failure in developing public consensus. This paper considers an alternative strategy that would have built on the extension of the Medicare program as a way of exploring the possibilities and barriers to achieving health care reform. Such an approach would build on already familiar and popular pre-existing components. The massive losses in the most recent election and large budget cuts planned by the Republican majority makes it unlikely that gaps in insurance or comprehensiveness of coverage will be corrected in the foreseeable future.

  15. The reformation of liquid hydrocarbons in an aqueous discharge reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuming; Cha, Min Suk

    2015-06-01

    We present an aqueous discharge reactor for the reformation of liquid hydrocarbons. To increase a dielectric constant of a liquid medium, we added distilled water to iso-octane and n-dodecane. As expected, we found decreased discharge onset voltage and increased discharge power with increased water content. Results using optical emission spectroscopy identified OH radicals and O atoms as the predominant oxidative reactive species with the addition of water. Enriched CH radicals were also visualized, evidencing the existence of cascade carbon-carbon cleavage and dehydrogenation processes in the aqueous discharge. The gaseous product consisted primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and unsaturated hydrocarbons. The composition of the product was readily adjustable by varying the volume of water added, which demonstrated a significant difference in composition with respect to the tested liquid hydrocarbon. In this study, we found no presence of CO2 emissions or the contamination of the reactor by solid carbon deposition. These findings offer a new approach to the reforming processes of liquid hydrocarbons and provide a novel concept for the design of a practical and compact plasma reformer.

  16. Curriculum reform in baccalaureate nursing education: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Maryann O; Hickey, Mary T

    2009-01-01

    The debate surrounding the need for reform in nursing education has been heard for well over a decade. Recently, deficiencies in the quality of patient care, as well as patient safety issues, have led to calls for change in health professions education by nursing organizations and the Institute of Medicine (IOM). The rationale and scope of any proposed curricular revision or changes in teaching practices must be firmly grounded in a comprehensive review of the literature and based on current research findings. This article synthesizes the recent literature related to curriculum reform and innovation in nursing education. Four themes were identified in the literature: incorporating safety and quality in nursing education, re-designing conceptual frameworks, strategies to address content laden curricula, and teaching using alternative pedagogies. Synthesis of the recent literature in the field will assist faculty who are beginning the curriculum evaluation and revision process in their own schools.

  17. Anglo-Australian coronial law reform: the widening gap.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian

    2010-02-01

    The Coroners Act 2009 (UK) has made disappointingly little progress toward a modern, integrated, prevention-focused coronial system for the United Kingdom. The opportunities afforded by the Shipman scandal and an exhaustive consultation process have yielded remarkably little by way of substantive reform and professionalisation of what is an increasingly outmoded system for investigating death in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, By contrast, during 2008 and 2009 New South Wales, Queensland and Victoria have each built upon the reform initiatives of New Zealand's Coroners Act 2006 (NZ) to introduce important and innovative amendments to their coronial jurisdictions' capacity to investigate deaths. It is to be hoped that in due course the diversity of Australian coronial legislation will be addressed by nationally consistent legislation.

  18. Scientists researching teaching: Reforming science education and transforming practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Tarin Harrar

    Reforming science education is a multidimensional and complex undertaking. Of extreme importance is transforming how teachers teach. Answering the equity call of reform initiatives requires focusing on the underlying values and beliefs guiding teacher action and the promotion of inclusive practices (Brickhouse, 2001; Harding, 1994; Eisenhart, Finkel, & Marion, 1995; Mayberry & Rees, 1999; Rodriguez, 1997). Reform efforts within the last decade are being directed at college level science courses. Course and pedagogical transformations are particularly aimed at increasing the numbers of females and persons of color in science and improving the education of preservice teachers. Facilitating transformations toward these goals at the individual and program level is challenging work. This study explores and describes the conditions of the teacher change process toward an inclusive pedagogy. Two science professors affiliated with a reform collaborative were the main participants of the research. The professors, in collaboration with the primary researcher, engaged in assisted action research that lead to the identification and descriptions of their context and practical teaching theories. Among the questions explored were: "How does placing the professor in a position to conduct an assisted action research project help to foster teacher change conditions?" "How do the practical theories guiding the professors' teaching foster or impede inclusionary practice?" "What necessary conditions of the teacher change process toward an inclusive pedagogy emerged from the study?". Using case study and ethnographic qualitative research strategies for data collection and analysis, this study affords a unique perspective through which to consider why and how science professors change their practice. Data indicated that the assisted action research strategy fostered the conditions of teacher change. In addition, findings revealed that the professors shared a teacher and curriculum

  19. Multiple Aims in the Development of a Major Reform of the National Curriculum for Science in England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, Jim; Banner, Indira

    2011-03-01

    In the context of a major reform of the school science curriculum for 14-16-year-olds in England, we examine the aims ascribed to the reform, the stakeholders involved, and the roles of differing values and authority in its development. This reform includes an emphasis on socioscientific issues and the nature of science; curriculum trends of international relevance. Our analysis identifies largely 'instrumental' aims, with little emphasis on 'intrinsic' aims and associated values. We identify five broad categories of stakeholders focusing on different aims with, for example, a social, individual, political, or economic emphasis. We suggest that curriculum development projects reflecting largely social and individual aims were appropriated by other stakeholders to serve political and economic aims. We argue that a curriculum reform body representing all stakeholder interests is needed to ensure that multiple aims are considered throughout the curriculum reform process. Within such a body, the differentiated character of the science teaching community would need to be represented.

  20. Abortion law reform in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Upreti, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. PMID:24890742

  1. Reform in teaching preclinical pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Yu; Li, Kun; Yao, Hong; Xu, Xiao-Juan; Cai, Qiao-Lin

    2015-12-01

    Pathophysiology is a scientific discipline that studies the onset and progression of pathological conditions and diseases, and pathophysiology is one of the core courses in most preclinical medical curricula. In China, most medical schools house a Department of Pathophysiology, in contrast to medical schools in many developed countries. The staff in Chinese Departments of Pathophysiology generally consists of full-time instructors or lecturers who teach medical students. These lecturers are sometimes lacking in clinic knowledge and experiences. To overcome this, in recent years, we have been trying to bring new trends in teaching pathophysiology into our curriculum. Our purpose in writing this article was to share our experiences with our colleagues and peers worldwide in the hope that the insights we have gained in pathophysiology teaching will be of some value to educators who advocate teaching reform in medical schools.

  2. Righting wrongs and reforming rights.

    PubMed

    Ivey, Laurie C

    2014-03-01

    Discusses issues faced by LGBT people, such as a lack of equal civil rights and the need for extra legal and financial protection for families because partners cannot be married. The author notes that, in our society, it is no longer acceptable to be racist, but it is still okay to be homophobic. The many campaigns against gay marriage and efforts in the legislature to prevent change toward equal civil rights and protections are prime examples. In our current political climate, two things are very clear: (a) homophobia is freely tolerated and (b) the times are changing as we inch closer to equal rights every day. We are "righting wrongs and reforming rights." PMID:24684150

  3. Health care reform and the new economy.

    PubMed

    Starr, P

    2000-01-01

    The objectives and assumptions of health care reform have changed repeatedly during the past century and may now be entering a new historical phase as a result of the "new economy" rooted in information technology. In a high-growth context, proponents of reform may no longer feel obliged to bundle expanded coverage with tighter cost containment. At the same time, the new digital environment may facilitate innovations intended to inform and expand consumer choice and to improve quality. The new environment elevates "transparency" to a guiding principle. Health informatics has long been peripheral to reform and must now become more central. PMID:11192407

  4. The Research of Software Engineering Curriculum Reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Li-Qun; Han, Xie

    With the problem that software engineering training can't meet the needs of the community, this paper analysis some outstanding reasons in software engineering curriculum teaching, such as old teaching contents, weak in practice and low quality of teachers etc. We propose the methods of teaching reform as guided by market demand, update the teaching content, optimize the teaching methods, reform the teaching practice, strengthen the teacher-student exchange and promote teachers and students together. We carried out the reform and explore positive and achieved the desired results.

  5. Improving Instructional Capacity through School-Based Reform Coaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggins, Celine Toomey; Stoddard, Pamela; Cutler, Elisabeth

    This report presents the results of a study that examined the role and activities of reform coaches. Positions for reform coaches have been developed in a number of schools and districts in the San Francisco Bay Area through the Bay Area School Reform Collaborative (BASRC). The study examined the reform coach role, the functions it provides to the…

  6. Japanese University Reform--Hybridity in Governance and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Tom

    2011-01-01

    University reforms around the world reflect many of the ideas and measures associated with the New Public Management (NPM) reform wave that emerged in Australia and New Zealand in the early 1980s. However, they also display features of the post-NPM reforms introduced in the last decade. In this article I focus on university reforms in Japan,…

  7. Reform of Preservice Teacher Education: Doomed to Failure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Richard J.; Cruz, Josue, Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Reform of teacher education involves reformulation and reconceptualization, not a simple patch-up. Reform means moving away from the college-of-education, research-driven approach to the closer-to-the-source public schools. Reform-minded people must pursue long-term solutions, concentrate on reforming university-based teacher educators, and…

  8. University Governance Reforms: Potential Problems of More Autonomy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Tom

    2011-01-01

    University governance reforms are very much a reflection of the broader New Public Management reforms that are focusing on increasing efficiency in public organizations. The article deals with how university reform ideas of a generic nature, emphasizing that universities should be treated and reformed like any other public organizations, are…

  9. School Reform: How Are Teaching and Assessment Affected?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Margaret E.; Robichaux, Rebecca; Reed, Cynthia J.; McDonough, Sharon; Shannon, David; Gorrell, Jeff; Miller, Edith

    2002-01-01

    Identified the effects of reform initiatives on teaching, assessment, and homework practices. Surveys of teachers involved in reform projects indicated that reform significantly related to teaching approach, which mediated between reform and assessment and homework practices. There were significant links between grade level taught and homework…

  10. An attempt to minimize the temperature gradient along a plug-flow methane/steam reforming reactor by adopting locally controlled heating zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozdzierz, M.; Brus, G.; Sciazko, A.; Komatsu, Y.; Kimijima, S.; Szmyd, J. S.

    2014-08-01

    Plug flow reactors are very common in the chemical process industry, including methane/steam reforming applications. Their operation presents many challenges, such as a strong dependence of temperature and composition distribution on the inlet conditions. The strongly endothermic methane/steam reforming reaction might result in a temperature drop at the inlet of the reactor and consequently the occurrence of large temperature gradients. The strongly non-uniform temperature distribution due to endothermic chemical reaction can have tremendous consequences on the operation of the reactor, such as catalyst degradation, undesired side reactions and thermal stresses. To avoid such unfavorable conditions, thermal management of the reactor becomes an important issue. To carry out thermal management properly, detailed modeling and corresponding numerical analyses of the phenomena occurring inside the reforming system is required. This paper presents experimental and numerical studies on the methane/steam reforming process inside a plug-flow reactor. To optimize the reforming reactors, detailed data about the entire reforming process is required. In this study the kinetics of methane/steam reforming on the Ni/YSZ catalyst was experimentally investigated. Measurements including different thermal boundary conditions, the fuel flow rate and the steam- to-methane ratios were performed. The reforming rate equation derived from experimental data was used in the numerical model to predict gas composition and temperature distribution along the steam-reforming reactor. Finally, an attempt was made to control the temperature distribution by adopting locally controlled heating zones.

  11. Internal reforming fuel cell assembly with simplified fuel feed

    DOEpatents

    Farooque, Mohammad; Novacco, Lawrence J.; Allen, Jeffrey P.

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell assembly in which fuel cells adapted to internally reform fuel and fuel reformers for reforming fuel are arranged in a fuel cell stack. The fuel inlet ports of the fuel cells and the fuel inlet ports and reformed fuel outlet ports of the fuel reformers are arranged on one face of the fuel cell stack. A manifold sealing encloses this face of the stack and a reformer fuel delivery system is arranged entirely within the region between the manifold and the one face of the stack. The fuel reformer has a foil wrapping and a cover member forming with the foil wrapping an enclosed structure.

  12. "An army of reformed drunkards and clergymen": the medicalization of habitual drunkenness, 1857-1910.

    PubMed

    Chavigny, Katherine A

    2014-07-01

    Historians have recognized that men with drinking problems were not simply the passive subjects of medical reform and urban social control in Gilded Age and Progressive Era America but also actively shaped the partial medicalization of habitual drunkenness. The role played by evangelical religion in constituting their agency and in the historical process of medicalization has not been adequately explored, however. A post-Civil War evangelical reform culture supported institutions that treated inebriates along voluntary, religious lines and lionized former drunkards who publicly promoted a spiritual cure for habitual drunkenness. This article documents the historical development and characteristic practices of this reform culture, the voluntarist treatment institutions associated with it, and the hostile reaction that developed among medical reformers who sought to treat intemperance as a disease called inebriety. Those physicians' attempts to promote therapeutic coercion for inebriates as medical orthodoxy and to deprive voluntarist institutions of public recognition failed, as did their efforts to characterize reformed drunkards who endorsed voluntary cures as suffering from delusions arising from their disease. Instead, evangelical traditions continued to empower reformed drunkards to publicize their own views on their malady which laid the groundwork for continued public interest in alcoholics' personal narratives in the twentieth century. Meanwhile, institutions that accommodated inebriates' voluntarist preferences proliferated after 1890, marginalizing the medical inebriety movement and its coercive therapeutics. PMID:23417017

  13. "An army of reformed drunkards and clergymen": the medicalization of habitual drunkenness, 1857-1910.

    PubMed

    Chavigny, Katherine A

    2014-07-01

    Historians have recognized that men with drinking problems were not simply the passive subjects of medical reform and urban social control in Gilded Age and Progressive Era America but also actively shaped the partial medicalization of habitual drunkenness. The role played by evangelical religion in constituting their agency and in the historical process of medicalization has not been adequately explored, however. A post-Civil War evangelical reform culture supported institutions that treated inebriates along voluntary, religious lines and lionized former drunkards who publicly promoted a spiritual cure for habitual drunkenness. This article documents the historical development and characteristic practices of this reform culture, the voluntarist treatment institutions associated with it, and the hostile reaction that developed among medical reformers who sought to treat intemperance as a disease called inebriety. Those physicians' attempts to promote therapeutic coercion for inebriates as medical orthodoxy and to deprive voluntarist institutions of public recognition failed, as did their efforts to characterize reformed drunkards who endorsed voluntary cures as suffering from delusions arising from their disease. Instead, evangelical traditions continued to empower reformed drunkards to publicize their own views on their malady which laid the groundwork for continued public interest in alcoholics' personal narratives in the twentieth century. Meanwhile, institutions that accommodated inebriates' voluntarist preferences proliferated after 1890, marginalizing the medical inebriety movement and its coercive therapeutics.

  14. Educational reform and the public: Two case studies of Poland and Saskatchewan (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaproń, Danuta; Stephan, Werner

    1991-09-01

    The involvement of the public in educational reform processes in modern democratic societies primarily serves the purpose of politically legitimizing the reform agenda. This study examines the rationales implicitly or explicitly submitted to the public to explain why educational reforms in the two countries should be endorsed. Although differences in the political culture caution against a hasty comparison of the two case studies, a number of politico-economic similarities allow for a valid juxtaposition. In Poland the context of socio-political and economic renewal prompted the reformers to emphasize the human-capital model which heightened public awareness and participation in the debate surrounding the reform. Public involvement in Saskatchewan was negatively affected for mainly two reasons. First, the government evidently manipulated public input by various means and thereby appears to have predetermined the outcome. Second, the rationale for the reform, based on a free-market model, tightened the linkage between the needs of the labour market and the mandate of the schools. As a result, public interest and participation was greatly diminished.

  15. Health reform redux: learning from experience and politics.

    PubMed

    Ross, Johnathon S

    2009-05-01

    The 2008 presidential campaign season featured health care reform proposals. I discuss 3 approaches to health care reform and the tools for bringing about reform, such as insurance market reforms, tax credits, subsidies, individual and employer mandates, and public program expansions. I also discuss the politics of past and current health care reform efforts. Market-based reforms and mandates have been less successful than public program expansions at expanding coverage and controlling costs. New divisions among special interest groups increase the likelihood that reform efforts will succeed. Federal support for state efforts may be necessary to achieve national health care reform. History suggests that state-level success precedes national reform. History also suggests that an organized social movement for reform is necessary to overcome opposition from special interest groups.

  16. Health Reform Redux: Learning From Experience and Politics

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 presidential campaign season featured health care reform proposals. I discuss 3 approaches to health care reform and the tools for bringing about reform, such as insurance market reforms, tax credits, subsidies, individual and employer mandates, and public program expansions. I also discuss the politics of past and current health care reform efforts. Market-based reforms and mandates have been less successful than public program expansions at expanding coverage and controlling costs. New divisions among special interest groups increase the likelihood that reform efforts will succeed. Federal support for state efforts may be necessary to achieve national health care reform. History suggests that state-level success precedes national reform. History also suggests that an organized social movement for reform is necessary to overcome opposition from special interest groups. PMID:19299668

  17. Introducing a complex health innovation--primary health care reforms in Estonia (multimethods evaluation).

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat Ali; Menabde, Nata; Saluvere, Katrin; Jesse, Maris; Habicht, Jarno

    2006-11-01

    All post-Soviet countries are trying to reform their primary health care (PHC) systems. The success to date has been uneven. We evaluated PHC reforms in Estonia, using multimethods evaluation: comprising retrospective analysis of routine health service data from Estonian Health Insurance Fund and health-related surveys; documentary analysis of policy reports, laws and regulations; key informant interviews. We analysed changes in organisational structure, regulations, financing and service provision in Estonian PHC system as well as key informant perceptions on factors influencing introduction of reforms. Estonia has successfully implemented and scaled-up multifaceted PHC reforms, including new organisational structures, user choice of family physicians (FPs), new payment methods, specialist training for family medicine, service contracts for FPs, broadened scope of services and evidence-based guidelines. These changes have been institutionalised. PHC effectiveness has been enhanced, as evidenced by improved management of key chronic conditions by FPs in PHC setting and reduced hospital admissions for these conditions. Introduction of PHC reforms - a complex innovation - was enhanced by strong leadership, good co-ordination between policy and operational level, practical approach to implementation emphasizing simplicity of interventions to be easily understood by potential adopters, an encircling strategy to roll-out which avoided direct confrontations with narrow specialists and opposing stakeholders in capital Tallinn, careful change-management strategy to avoid health reforms being politicized too early in the process, and early investment in training to establish a critical mass of health professionals to enable rapid operationalisation of policies. Most importantly, a multifaceted and coordinated approach to reform - with changes in laws; organisational restructuring; modifications to financing and provider payment systems; creation of incentives to enhance

  18. European hospital reforms in times of crisis: aligning cost containment needs with plans for structural redesign?

    PubMed

    Clemens, Timo; Michelsen, Kai; Commers, Matt; Garel, Pascal; Dowdeswell, Barrie; Brand, Helmut

    2014-07-01

    Hospitals have become a focal point for health care reform strategies in many European countries during the current financial crisis. It has been called for both, short-term reforms to reduce costs and long-term changes to improve the performance in the long run. On the basis of a literature and document analysis this study analyses how EU member states align short-term and long-term pressures for hospital reforms in times of the financial crisis and assesses the EU's influence on the national reform agenda. The results reveal that there has been an emphasis on cost containment measures rather than embarking on structural redesign of the hospital sector and its position within the broader health care system. The EU influences hospital reform efforts through its enhanced economic framework governance which determines key aspects of the financial context for hospitals in some countries. In addition, the EU health policy agenda which increasingly addresses health system questions stimulates the process of structural hospital reforms by knowledge generation, policy advice and financial incentives. We conclude that successful reforms in such a period would arguably need to address both the organisational and financing sides to hospital care. Moreover, critical to structural reform is a widely held acknowledgement of shortfalls in the current system and belief that new models of hospital care can deliver solutions to overcome these deficits. Advancing the structural redesign of the hospital sector while pressured to contain cost in the short-term is not an easy task and only slowly emerging in Europe. PMID:24703855

  19. Introducing a complex health innovation--primary health care reforms in Estonia (multimethods evaluation).

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat Ali; Menabde, Nata; Saluvere, Katrin; Jesse, Maris; Habicht, Jarno

    2006-11-01

    All post-Soviet countries are trying to reform their primary health care (PHC) systems. The success to date has been uneven. We evaluated PHC reforms in Estonia, using multimethods evaluation: comprising retrospective analysis of routine health service data from Estonian Health Insurance Fund and health-related surveys; documentary analysis of policy reports, laws and regulations; key informant interviews. We analysed changes in organisational structure, regulations, financing and service provision in Estonian PHC system as well as key informant perceptions on factors influencing introduction of reforms. Estonia has successfully implemented and scaled-up multifaceted PHC reforms, including new organisational structures, user choice of family physicians (FPs), new payment methods, specialist training for family medicine, service contracts for FPs, broadened scope of services and evidence-based guidelines. These changes have been institutionalised. PHC effectiveness has been enhanced, as evidenced by improved management of key chronic conditions by FPs in PHC setting and reduced hospital admissions for these conditions. Introduction of PHC reforms - a complex innovation - was enhanced by strong leadership, good co-ordination between policy and operational level, practical approach to implementation emphasizing simplicity of interventions to be easily understood by potential adopters, an encircling strategy to roll-out which avoided direct confrontations with narrow specialists and opposing stakeholders in capital Tallinn, careful change-management strategy to avoid health reforms being politicized too early in the process, and early investment in training to establish a critical mass of health professionals to enable rapid operationalisation of policies. Most importantly, a multifaceted and coordinated approach to reform - with changes in laws; organisational restructuring; modifications to financing and provider payment systems; creation of incentives to enhance

  20. European hospital reforms in times of crisis: aligning cost containment needs with plans for structural redesign?

    PubMed

    Clemens, Timo; Michelsen, Kai; Commers, Matt; Garel, Pascal; Dowdeswell, Barrie; Brand, Helmut

    2014-07-01

    Hospitals have become a focal point for health care reform strategies in many European countries during the current financial crisis. It has been called for both, short-term reforms to reduce costs and long-term changes to improve the performance in the long run. On the basis of a literature and document analysis this study analyses how EU member states align short-term and long-term pressures for hospital reforms in times of the financial crisis and assesses the EU's influence on the national reform agenda. The results reveal that there has been an emphasis on cost containment measures rather than embarking on structural redesign of the hospital sector and its position within the broader health care system. The EU influences hospital reform efforts through its enhanced economic framework governance which determines key aspects of the financial context for hospitals in some countries. In addition, the EU health policy agenda which increasingly addresses health system questions stimulates the process of structural hospital reforms by knowledge generation, policy advice and financial incentives. We conclude that successful reforms in such a period would arguably need to address both the organisational and financing sides to hospital care. Moreover, critical to structural reform is a widely held acknowledgement of shortfalls in the current system and belief that new models of hospital care can deliver solutions to overcome these deficits. Advancing the structural redesign of the hospital sector while pressured to contain cost in the short-term is not an easy task and only slowly emerging in Europe.

  1. Using accountability for mental health to drive reform.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Sebastian P; Hickie, Ian B; McGorry, Patrick D; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Burns, Jane; Christensen, Helen; Mendoza, John; Rosen, Alan; Russell, Lesley M; Sinclair, Sally

    2015-10-19

    Greatly enhanced accountability can drive mental health reform. As extant approaches are ineffective, we propose a new approach. Australia spends around $7.6 billion on mental health services annually, but is anybody getting better? Effective accountability for mental health can reduce variation in care and increase effective service provision. Despite 20 years of rhetoric, Australia's approach to accountability in mental health is overly focused on fulfilling governmental reporting requirements rather than using data to drive reform. The existing system is both fragmented and outcome blind. Australia has failed to develop useful local and regional approaches to benchmarking in mental health. New approaches must address this gap and better reflect the experience of care felt by consumers and carers, as well as by service providers. There are important social priorities in mental health that must be assessed. We provide a brief overview of the existing system and propose a new, modest but achievable set of indicators by which to monitor the progress of national mental health reform. These indicators should form part of a new, system-wide process of continuous quality improvement in mental health care and suicide prevention. PMID:26465695

  2. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production via bioethanol steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zsolt; Cormos, Ana-Maria; Imre-Lucaci, Árpád; Cormos, Cǎlin C.

    2013-11-01

    In this article, a thermodynamic analysis for bioethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production is presented. Bioethanol is a newly proposed renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Reforming of bioethanol provides a promising method for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) takes place under the action of a metal catalyst capable of breaking C-C bonds into smaller molecules. A large domain for the water/bioethanol molar ratio as well as the temperature and average pressure has been used in the present work. The interval of investigated temperature was 100-800°C, the pressure was in the range of 1-10 bar and the molar ratio was between 3-25. The variations of gaseous species concentration e.g. H2, CO, CO2, CH4 were analyzed. The concentrations of the main products (H2 and CO) at lower temperature are smaller than the ones at higher temperature due to by-products formation (methane, carbon dioxide, acetylene etc.). The concentration of H2 obtained in the process using high molar ratio (>20) is higher than the one at small molar ratio (near stoichiometric). When the pressure is increased the hydrogen concentration decreases. The results were compared with literature data for validation purposes.

  3. Aligning payment reform and delivery innovation in emergency care.

    PubMed

    Pines, Jesse M; McStay, Frank; George, Meaghan; Wiler, Jennifer L; McClellan, Mark

    2016-08-01

    Current alternative payment models (APMs) that move away from traditional fee-for-service payment often have explicit goals to reduce utilization in episodic settings, such as emergency departments (ED). We apply the new HHS payment reform taxonomy to illustrate a pathway to success for EDs in APMs. Despite the unique challenges faced by EDs, a variety of category 2 and 3 APMs may be applicable to EDs in the short- and long term to improve efficiency and value. Full and partially capitated models create incentives for longitudinal and episodic ED providers and payers to unite to create interventions to reduce costs. However, prospective attribution remains a challenge for EDs because of exogenous demand, which makes it important for EDs to be one of the components of capitated payment along with longitudinal providers who can exert greater control on overall care demands. The goal of payment and delivery reforms in ED care is to improve population health across the continuum of acute and longitudinal care. In order to deliver cost-conscious care, ED providers will need additional resources, expanded information, and new processes and metrics to facilitate cost-conscious decisions. Improved availability of electronic information across settings, evidence generated from developing and testing acute care-specific payment models, and engaging acute care providers directly in reform efforts will help meet these goals. PMID:27541697

  4. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production via bioethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zsolt; Cormos, Ana-Maria; Imre-Lucaci, Árpád; Cormos, Călin C.

    2013-11-13

    In this article, a thermodynamic analysis for bioethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production is presented. Bioethanol is a newly proposed renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Reforming of bioethanol provides a promising method for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) takes place under the action of a metal catalyst capable of breaking C-C bonds into smaller molecules. A large domain for the water/bioethanol molar ratio as well as the temperature and average pressure has been used in the present work. The interval of investigated temperature was 100-800°C, the pressure was in the range of 1-10 bar and the molar ratio was between 3-25. The variations of gaseous species concentration e.g. H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} were analyzed. The concentrations of the main products (H{sub 2} and CO) at lower temperature are smaller than the ones at higher temperature due to by-products formation (methane, carbon dioxide, acetylene etc.). The concentration of H2 obtained in the process using high molar ratio (>20) is higher than the one at small molar ratio (near stoichiometric). When the pressure is increased the hydrogen concentration decreases. The results were compared with literature data for validation purposes.

  5. Four proposals for market-based health care system reform.

    PubMed

    Sumner, W

    1994-08-01

    A perfectly free, competitive medical market would not meet many social goals, such as universal access to health care. Micromanagement of interactions between patients and providers does not guarantee quality care and frequently undermines that relationship, to the frustration of all involved. Furthermore, while some North American health care plans are less expensive than others, none have reduced the medical inflation rate to equal the general inflation rate. Markets have always fixed uneven inflation rates in other domains. The suggested reforms could make elective interactions between patients and providers work more like a free market than did any preceding system. The health and life insurance plan creates cost-sensitive consumers, informed by a corporation with significant research incentives and abilities. The FFEB proposal encourages context-sensitive pricing, established by negotiation processes that weigh labor and benefit. Publication of providers' expected outcomes further enriches the information available to consumers and may reduce defensive medicine incentives. A medical career ladder would ease entry and exit from medical professions. These and complementary reforms do not specifically cap spending yet could have a deflationary impact on elective health care prices, while providing incentives to maintain quality. They accomplish these ends by giving more responsibility, information, incentives, and choice to citizens. We could provide most health care in a marketlike environment. We can incorporate these reforms in any convenient order and allow them to compete with alternative schemes. Our next challenge is to design, implement, and evaluate marketlike health care systems.

  6. The reorientation of market-oriented reforms in Swedish health-care.

    PubMed

    Harrison, M I; Calltorp, J

    2000-01-01

    Sweden was an important pioneer of market-oriented reform in publicly funded health-care systems. Yet by the mid-1990s the county councils, which fund and manage most health-care, had substantially scaled back reforms based on provider competition while continuing to constrain health budgets. As policy makers faced new issues, they turned increasingly to longer-term and more cooperative contracts to define relations between hospitals and the county councils. Growing regionalization of government and hospital mergers further reconfigured acute care and limited opportunities for competition between hospitals. We seek to explain this reorientation of market-oriented reforms between 1989 and 1996 in terms of shifts in the positions taken by powerful policy actors, and in particular by county council politicians. During this period, elections moved liberal and conservative politicians, who were the most enthusiastic supporters of market-oriented reform, in and out of control of most county governments. Meanwhile many Social Democratic politicians gradually turned from initial support of competitive reform toward opposition. Politicians and county administrators from all parties were particularly concerned about controlling health expenditures during a period of recession. In addition, the public, politicians in the counties and municipalities, and health professionals resisted steps that threatened health sector employment and would have allowed market mechanisms, rather than governments, to determine the prices and distribution of health services. During the years under study Sweden's market-oriented reforms followed a course of development similar to that taken by other management and policy fashions (Abrahamson E. Management fashion, Academy of Management Review 1996;21: 254-85). At first the reforms enjoyed uncritical support by a broad spectrum of stakeholders. Gradually participants in the reform process recognized inherent tensions among the goals of the reform

  7. Collegiality and Culture: General Education Curriculum Reform at Western Protestant University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubrow, Greg

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the process of general education curriculum reform at Western Protestant University (WPU), a pseudonym for a religiously affiliated liberal arts college in the western United States. The theoretical framework for describing the process comes from two areas: institutional culture and a typology of academic change developed by…

  8. School as an Experimenting Institution: An Approach to the Reform of Secondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Donald P.

    An introduction to a symposium on the development of adolescent schooling is followed by one of several presentations concerning current thinking about the problems involved in developing experimenting schools. The paper elaborates the basic propositions about modernization, the process of school reform seen as a process of social learning, and…

  9. Reforming the University Sector: Effects on Teaching Efficiency--Evidence from Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Dal Bianco, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we analyse the effects of teaching reforms in Italy. These were introduced in 1999, and changed the entire organization of university courses, where the Bachelor-Master (BA-MA) structure was adopted. The first step is to define the production process of higher education (HE). This process consists of several inputs (professors,…

  10. Performance Screens for School Improvement: The Case of Teacher Tenure Reform in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Susanna; Miller, Luke C.; Wyckoff, James

    2015-01-01

    Tenure is intended to protect teachers with demonstrated teaching skills against arbitrary or capricious dismissal. Critics of typical tenure processes argue that tenure assessments are superficial and rarely discern whether teachers in fact have the requisite teaching skills. A recent reform of the tenure process in New York City provides an…

  11. Between Competition Imperative and Europeanisation: The Case of Higher Education Reform in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dakowska, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    While the Europeanisation of Higher Education (HE) systems has triggered much debate, the relationship between European factors and domestic economic processes, has been less thoroughly analysed. This article analyses HE reforms in the light of two parallel processes, which have shaped this sector: the introduction of market mechanisms and a…

  12. The Discus Thrower: The Reading of Literature as a Metaphor for Curricular Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harste, Jerome C.; Leland, Christine H.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses what would happen if instruction were designed to parallel the thought processes readers use when they are interacting with literature. Suggests that an understanding of the thinking readers engage in can provide a foundation for a model of curricular reform. Discusses 10 such thought processes, which can lead to powerful educational…

  13. The Real Issue: Need for Tax Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, David

    1973-01-01

    The Rodriguez decision simply points up the fact that the answer to unequal educational opportunity is not to be found in the federal constitution but in the reform of property assessment and property taxation. (Author/JN)

  14. Physician payments under health care reform.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Abe; Shapiro, Adam Hale

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of major health insurance reform on payments made in the health care sector. We study the prices of services paid to physicians in the privately insured market during the Massachusetts health care reform. The reform increased the number of insured individuals as well as introduced an online marketplace where insurers compete. We estimate that, over the reform period, physician payments increased at least 11 percentage points relative to control areas. Payment increases began around the time legislation passed the House and Senate-the period in which their was a high probability of the bill eventually becoming law. This result is consistent with fixed-duration payment contracts being negotiated in anticipation of future demand and competition. PMID:25497755

  15. Device for cooling and humidifying reformate

    DOEpatents

    Zhao, Jian Lian; Northrop, William F.

    2008-04-08

    Devices for cooling and humidifying a reformate stream from a reforming reactor as well as related methods, modules and systems includes a heat exchanger and a sprayer. The heat exchanger has an inlet, an outlet, and a conduit between the inlet and the outlet. The heat exchanger is adapted to allow a flow of a first fluid (e.g. water) inside the conduit and to establish a heat exchange relationship between the first fluid and a second fluid (e.g. reformate from a reforming reactor) flowing outside the conduit. The sprayer is coupled to the outlet of the heat exchanger for spraying the first fluid exiting the heat exchanger into the second fluid.

  16. Calls for Spain to reform research system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stafford, Ned

    2014-09-01

    The Spanish government needs to adopt a major programme of structural reforms to the country’s research system, according to a report from the EU’s European Research Area and Innovation Committee.

  17. Electricity reform abroad and US investment

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    This report reviews and analyzes the recent electricity reforms in Argentina, Australia, and the United Kingdom (UK) to illustrate how different models of privatization and reform have worked in practice. This report also analyzes the motivations of the U.S. companies who have invested in the electricity industries in these countries, which have become the largest targets of U.S. foreign investment in electricity. Two calculations of foreign investment are used. One is the foreign direct investment series produced by the U.S. Department of Commerce. The other is based on transactions in electric utilities of the three countries. The electricity reform and privatization experiences reviewed may offer some insight as to how the U.S. electricity industry might develop as a result of recent domestic reform efforts and deregulation at the state and national levels. 126 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  18. The market and health sector reform.

    PubMed

    Collins, C; Hunter, D J; Green, A

    1994-01-01

    A new international orthodoxy has developed on health sector reform. The dominant theme of the orthodoxy is the alleged benefits of market style reforms for health development. This is shaping changes formulated, and being implemented, in the British NHS and other European health services (including Central and Eastern Europe), Latin America and a number of developing health systems in Africa and Asia. Sets out a ten-point description of the orthodoxy. Contends that the orthodoxy is showing distinct signs of restricting the analysis and development of health management and planning. This is a matter for considerable concern as the adoption of market-style reforms can generate unforeseen and, in some cases, negative consequences. There is clearly a need for strengthening management research and development as a basis for effective health sector reform.

  19. Rekindling reform--how goes business?

    PubMed

    Maher, Walter B

    2003-01-01

    Employers were a major cause of the failure of President Clinton's Health Security bill. This did not have to be so. The substantive and political factors that caused employers to turn against the Clinton Plan could prove instructive in the next reform effort. The unwillingness of employers who do provide benefits to engage seriously in the struggle over health care reform contributes to maintaining the status quo that penalizes them while rewarding employers who fail to provide coverage. The lessons that can be learned from the Clinton Plan debate, if heeded by both employers and health reform advocates, raise hope that key elements of the business community can play a positive role in the next comprehensive health reform effort.

  20. Dutch research reforms cause a stir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Calmthout, Martijn

    2015-02-01

    All 69 winners of the Spinoza prize - the highest award in Dutch science - have signed a petition against proposed reforms to the country's leading funding agency, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO).

  1. Priorities of the Russian health care reform.

    PubMed

    Shishkin, S

    1998-09-01

    The introduction of health insurance system has been the core of the Russian health care reform. It has coincided with the decentralization of the state administration. The reform has thus been decentralized, and the transition has been fragmentary and incomplete. As a result, the existing health financing system is eclectic and contradictory. Meanwhile, the reform has had a positive stabilizing influence on financing of health care under conditions of continued economic crisis. The new priorities of the reform should be to balance the financial flows and the state's obligations, and to increase the efficiency of the use of resources through encouragement of competition, assurance of transparency of public funding, development of health care planning, and shift from inpatient to outpatient care. PMID:9740643

  2. Development incentives for fossil fuel subsidy reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Michael; Chen, Claudine; Fuss, Sabine; Marxen, Annika; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2015-08-01

    Reforming fossil fuel subsidies could free up enough funds to finance universal access to water, sanitation, and electricity in many countries, as well as helping to cut global greenhouse-gas emissions.

  3. Evaluating Labour's market reforms, 2002-10.

    PubMed

    Mays, Nicholas; Tan, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Starting in 2002, the UK Labour government of 1997-2010 introduced a series of changes to the National Health Service (NHS) in England designed to increase individual NHS patient choice of place of elective hospital care and competition among public and private providers of elective hospital services for NHS-funded patients. In 2006, the Department of Health initiated the Health Reform Evaluation Programme (HREP) to assess the impact of the changes. The changes broadly had the effects that proponents had predicted but the effects were mostly modest. Most of the undesirable impacts feared by critics appeared not to have materialized to any discernible extent, at least by early in 2010. Labour's market appeared to have generated stronger incentives for quality and efficiency than its 1990 s predecessor with no obvious detriment to equity of access. However, this high level conclusion conceals a far more nuanced and complex picture of both the process of implementation and the impact of the changes, as the papers in this supplement drawn from the HREP show. PMID:22315473

  4. The new informatics of national healthcare reform.

    PubMed

    Manderscheid, R W; Henderson, M J

    1994-01-01

    The President's Health Security Act has succeeded in attracting America's attention. Several of its initiatives have been well-publicized and hotly debated in Congress. The act also includes a number of implications for healthcare informatics, and devotes an entire chapter to this subject, although this area has not received as much publicity. Every behavioral healthcare provider's information system would be significantly affected by enactment of the Health Security Act. Selected forms and data elements for the management and delivery of behavioral healthcare services would need to be standardized. Organizations of behavioral healthcare providers, managed care companies and purchasers would increasingly share selected patient and subscriber information in aggregated form, for a variety of purposes. As a result, tougher laws to protect patient data privacy will likely be forthcoming. The following article gives an overview of the informatics needs of the soon-to-be reformed American healthcare system, into which behavioral healthcare will be integrated. As part of the larger system, behavioral healthcare services and information systems will need to comply with the same guidelines and requirements, outlined below, as other healthcare providers. Preparation to meet the information demands of the evolving healthcare system will require adaptation of existing computerized information systems, utilization of new technology, consultation with the system's major shareholders and attention to continuous quality improvement processes.

  5. Health Care System Reforms in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wei

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes a critical but non-systematic review of recent health care system reforms in developing countries. The literature reports mixed results as to whether reforms improve the financial protection of the poor or not. We discuss the reasons for these differences by comparing three representative countries: Mexico, Vietnam, and China. First, the design of the health care system reform, as well as the summary of its evaluation, is briefly described for each country. Then, the discussion is developed along two lines: policy design and evaluation methodology. The review suggests that i) background differences, such as social development, poverty level, and population health should be considered when taking other countries as a model; ii) although demand-side reforms can be improved, more attention should be paid to supply-side reforms; and iii) the findings of empirical evaluation might be biased due to the evaluation design, the choice of outcome, data quality, and evaluation methodology, which should be borne in mind when designing health care system reforms. PMID:25170464

  6. Post-Hinckley insanity reform in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Reichlin, S M; Bloom, J D; Williams, M H

    1990-01-01

    The 1983 Oregon legislature responded to public pressure to narrow the application of the insanity defense by eliminating personality disordered individuals from consideration for an insanity verdict. This article examined the effects of the statutory change, and found no significant change in the frequency of insanity acquittals of personality disordered subjects between the three pre-reform years (n = 21) and the three post-reform years (n = 14). We also reviewed how the Psychiatric Security Review Board handled these patients once committed to their jurisdiction. We constructed a matched comparison group of psychotic acquittees and found that in the pre-reform years the personality disordered subjects spent less time in the system and less time in the hospital than the psychotic patients. However, in the post-reform years their time in the system and time in the hospital was the same as the psychotic controls. There were fewer decisions to discharge personality disordered patients from the system after the reform, although this difference may be due to factors other than the statutory reform itself. The conclusion is that narrowing the insanity defense is a worthy goal which may be difficult to achieve.

  7. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Grimble, Ralph E.

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

  8. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    DOEpatents

    Grimble, R.E.

    1988-03-08

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream 1 and spent fuel stream 2. Spent fuel stream 1 is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream 1 and exhaust stream 2, and exhaust stream 1 is vented. Exhaust stream 2 is mixed with spent fuel stream 2 to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells. 1 fig.

  9. A Novel Study of Methane-Rich Gas Reforming to Syngas and Its Kinetics over Semicoke Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guojie; Su, Aiting; Qu, Jiangwen; Du, Yannian

    2014-01-01

    A small-size gasification unit is improved through process optimization to simulate industrial United Gas Improvement Company gasification. It finds that the reaction temperature has important impacts on semicoke catalyzed methane gas mixture. The addition of water vapor can enhance the catalytic activity of reforming, which is due to the fact that addition of water vapor not only removes carbon deposit produced in the reforming and gasification reaction processes, but also participates in gasification reaction with semicoke to generate some active oxygen-containing functional groups. The active oxygen-containing functional groups provide active sites for carbon dioxide reforming of methane, promoting the reforming reaction. It also finds that the addition of different proportions of methane-rich gas can yield synthesis gas with different H2/CO ratio. The kinetics study shows that the semicoke can reduce the activation energy of the reforming reaction and promote the occurrence of the reforming reaction. The kinetics model of methane reforming under the conditions of steam gasification over semicoke is as follows: k-=5.02×103·pCH40.71·pH20.26·exp(−74200/RT). PMID:24959620

  10. Process for preparing a liquid fuel composition

    DOEpatents

    Singerman, Gary M.

    1982-03-16

    A process for preparing a liquid fuel composition which comprises liquefying coal, separating a mixture of phenols from said liquefied coal, converting said phenols to the corresponding mixture of anisoles, subjecting at least a portion of the remainder of said liquefied coal to hydrotreatment, subjecting at least a portion of said hydrotreated liquefied coal to reforming to obtain reformate and then combining at least a portion of said anisoles and at least a portion of said reformate to obtain said liquid fuel composition.

  11. [Reform of the Law DIN EN ISO 9001:2000. Commentary on the new requirements on quality management systems].

    PubMed

    Eckert, H; Böhmer, K

    2000-09-01

    Since January this year the German translation of the third draft to the reform of the DIN EN ISO 9000 is available. The draft reveals an approximation to the models of Business Excellence. Most important changes are a far stronger customer orientation, orientation on the processes and resource management. The norms DIN EN ISO 9002 and 9003 have been removed, ISO 8402 has been integrated in the reformed DIN EN ISO 9000. Apart from that the compatibility with other management systems has been improved. It was the aim of the reform to improve the applicability for all types of business, products and services.

  12. The effects of behavioral health reform on safety-net institutions: a mixed-method assessment in a rural state.

    PubMed

    Willging, Cathleen E; Sommerfeld, David H; Aarons, Gregory A; Waitzkin, Howard

    2014-03-01

    In July 2005, New Mexico initiated a major reform of publicly-funded behavioral healthcare to reduce cost and bureaucracy. We used a mixed-method approach to examine how this reform impacted the workplaces and employees of service agencies that care for low-income adults in rural and urban areas. Information technology problems and cumbersome processes to enroll patients, procure authorizations, and submit claims led to payment delays that affected the financial status of the agencies, their ability to deliver care, and employee morale. Rural employees experienced lower levels of job satisfaction and organizational commitment and higher levels of turnover intentions under the reform when compared to their urban counterparts.

  13. Progress and Problems in Reforming Public Language Examinations in Europe: Cameos from the Baltic States, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Slovenia, France and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckes, Thomas; Ellis, Melanie; Kalnberzina, Vita; Pizorn, Karmen; Springer, Claude; Szollas, Krisztina; Tsagari, Constance

    2005-01-01

    Contributions from seven European countries pinpoint major projects, problems, and prospects of reforming public language assessment procedures. Each country has faced unique problems in the reform process, yet there have also been several common themes emerging, such as a focus on multilingualism, communicative skills, standardization, reference…

  14. A School-University Partnership's Involvement in State Mandated Reform: The Impact of a Teacher-Based Professional Development Model on Teachers, or, "Caught in the Headlights!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laguardia, Armando; Grisham, Dana; Gallucci, Chrysan; Jamison, Shelli; Brink, Beverly; Peck, Cap

    This study examined teachers' experiences in the Washington state-mandated educational reform process, their pedagogical responses to the reform initiatives, and the way in which these were mediated by professional development activities such as those initiated by the Goals 2000 project. Five Washington teachers participated in this case study.…

  15. Policy Borrowing and Transfer, and Policy Convergence: Justifications for the Adoption of the Bologna Process in the CEMAC Region and the Cameroonian Higher Education System through the LMD Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eta, Elizabeth Agbor

    2015-01-01

    The borrowing and transfer of policies, ideas and practices from one system to another may in part explain the convergence of educational systems. Using text documents as research material, this paper examines the adoption and transfer of Bologna Process (BP) ideas in the Economic and Monetary Community of Central Africa (CEMAC) and in the…

  16. Syngas Generation from Organic Waste with Plasma Steam Reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, G.; Leal-Quiros, E.; Smith, R. A.; Elliott, J.; Unruh, D.

    2014-05-01

    A plasma steam reforming system to process waste is in the process of being set up at the University of California, Merced. The proposed concept will use two different plasma regimes, i.e. glow discharge and arc torches to process a percentage of the total liquid waste stream generated at the campus together with shredded local organic solid waste. One of the main advantages of the plasma technology to be utilized is that it uses graphite electrodes that can be fed to the reactor to achieve continuous operation, thus, electrode or nozzle life is not a concern. The waste to energy conversion process consists of two stages, one where a mixture of steam and hydrogen is generated from the liquid in a glow-discharge cell, and a second stage where the mixture of exhaust gases coming out of the first device are mixed with solid waste in a reactor operating in steam reforming mode interacting with a plasma torch to generate high-quality syngas. In this paper, the results of a thermodynamic model developed for the two stages are shown. The syngas composition obtained indicates that the fraction of CO2 present decreases with increasing temperature and the molar fractions of hydrogen and carbon monoxide become dominant. The fraction of water vapour present in the product gases coming out of the second stage needs to be condensed before the syngas can be utilized in a prime mover.

  17. Reforming Higher Education in "Transition": Between National and International Reform Initiatives--The Case of Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zgaga, Pavel; Miklavic, Klemen

    2011-01-01

    The article analyzes the last two decades of higher education reforms in Slovenia. During the "period of transition," they were led by national as well as international initiatives. At an early stage, the national initiatives were mainly based on criticisms of the last reform made by the former regime, although the generation of new ideas and…

  18. Michigan School Finance Reform. Analysis of the Enacted School Finance/Education Reform Package. Issue Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towne, George; And Others

    In March 1994, Michigan voters approved a ballot proposal that used a mixture of state and local taxes to fund the K-12 educational system. This document presents a comprehensive review of the issues affected by the reform. The enacted K-12 school-finance reform package made a major change in the way state aid was distributed to local school…

  19. Reinterpreting Urban School Reform: Have Urban Schools Failed, or Has the Reform Movement Failed Urban Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miron, Louis F., Ed.; St. John, Edward P., Ed.

    This collection of papers analyzes various urban school reform strategies. There are 13 chapters in five parts. After "Introduction: Rethinking Urban School Reform" (Louis F. Miron and Edward P. St. John), Part 1, "The Courts and Urban Schools," contains (1) "School Desegregation is Over in the Inner Cities: What Do We Do Now?" (Richard Fossey)…

  20. Collaboration and Leadership in Juvenile Detention Reform. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feely, Kathleen

    This report addresses governance and leadership prerequisites for implementing specific strategies essential to juvenile detention reform. Chapter 1, "Why Are Collaboration and Leadership Essential to Detention Reform?" discusses principles of collaboration and leadership that emerged from the Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative (JDAI).…