Science.gov

Sample records for reformer processes

  1. Reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsche, R.T.; Pope, G.N.

    1981-01-06

    A process for reforming a naphtha feedstock is disclosed. The reforming process is effected at reforming conditions in contact with a catalyst comprising a platinum group metal component and a group iv-a metal component composited with an alumina support wherein said support is prepared by admixing an alpha alumina monohydrate with an aqueous ammoniacal solution having a ph of at least about 7.5 to form a stable suspension. A salt of a strong acid, e.g., aluminum nitrate, is commingled with the suspension to form an extrudable paste or dough. On extrusion, the extrudate is dried and calcined to form said alumina support.

  2. Naphtha reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, K.R.; Houston, R.J.; Hughes, T.R.; Jacobson, R.L.

    1984-07-17

    In a process for reforming light naphtha with a bimetallic or multimetallic reforming catalyst, such as a platinum-rhenium-halogen catalyst, at conventional reforming conditions, wherein the catalyst is used for an extended continuous on-stream period, the aromatics selectivity of the catalyst is rapidly increased by contacting the naphtha and hydrogen with the catalyst at increased severity operating conditions, such as a reduced pressure less than 90% of the normal reforming pressure, during an initial portion of the on-stream period.

  3. Catalytic reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Oyekau, S.O.; Swan, G.A.

    1984-03-13

    A process wherein, in a series of reforming zones, or reactors, each of which contains a bed, or beds of catalyst, the catalyst in the leading reforming zones is constituted of supported platinum and a relatively low concentration of rhenium, and the catalyst in the last reforming zone, or reactor of the series, is constituted of platinum and a relatively high concentration of rhenium. The amount of rhenium relative to the platinum in the last reforming zone, or reactor is present in an atomic or weight ratio of rhenium:platinum of at least about 1.5:1; preferably at least about 2:1, and more preferably ranges from about 2:1 to about 3:1. The beds of catalyst are contacted with a hydrocarbon or naphtha feed and hydrogen at reforming conditions to produce a hydrocarbon, or naphtha product of improved octane, and the product is withdrawn.

  4. Multizone naphtha reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, B.

    1987-05-05

    This patent describes a catalytic reforming process for conversion of a naphtha hydrocarbon at reforming conditions having at least two segregated catalyst zones. The improvement comprises contacting the hydrocarbon in a first zone with a first catalyst comprising tin and at least one platinum group metal deposited on a solid catalyst support followed by contacting in a second zone with a second catalyst comprising at least one metal selected from the group consisting of platinum group metals deposited on a solid catalyst support.

  5. Catalytic reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, W.C. Jr.

    1986-04-01

    This patent describes a process for reforming a paraffinic naphtha feed by introducing the feed, with hydrogen, into a reactor charged with a platinum-containing reforming catalyst, the paraffinic hydrocarbon naphtha feed containing from about 30 to about 100 wt. percent paraffinic hydrocarbons, from about 10 to about 70 wt. percent naphthenes, and from about 5 to about 30 wt. percent aromatics, of which less than about 5 wt. percent are C/sub 8/+ aromatics, and reacting the feed at reforming conditions. The improvement described here consists of: adding to the blend introduced to the reactor sufficient C/sub 8/+ aromatics to increase the C/sub 8/+ aromatics concentration of the feed introduced into the reactor to a level above about 5 wt. percent C/sub 8/+ aromatics; to increase C/sub 5/+ liquid vis-a-vis the paraffinic naphtha feed otherwise similar except that no C/sub 8/+ aromatics are added, similarly reformed.

  6. Catalytic reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Swan, G.A.

    1982-09-07

    A process, or procedure, is disclosed for the start-up of reforming units, particularly those employing highly active sulfur-sensitive polymetallic, promoted noble metal containing catalysts. On start -up of a reforming unit, a sulfur-containing naphtha feed is fed at reforming conditions over a platinum-catalyst containing lead reactor of a series while bypassing subsequent reactors of the series, the product therefrom is separated into hydrogen-containing gas and C5+ liquid fractions, the hydrogen-containing gas fraction is desulfurized and dried and recycled to the platinum-catalyst containing lead reactor and, after sufficient hydrogen has been generated for operation of a hydrofiner which is used to hydrodesulfurize the naphtha feed for the reformer, product from the platinum-catalyst containing lead reactor is fed to subsequent reactors of the series which contain the more sulfur-sensitive catalysts.

  7. Catalyst reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Swan, G.A. III

    1989-05-23

    This patent describes a process for catalytically reforming a gasoline boiling range naphtha, with hydrogen, in a semi-regenerative or semi-cyclic reforming process unit comprised of serially connected reactors, inclusive of a lead reactor and one or more downstream reactors, the last of which is the tail reactor, each of which contains a halogenated reforming catalyst comprised of a halide, a Group VIII noble metal, and an inorganic oxide support, the improvement which comprises continuously injecting into each downstream reactor a mixture of water and halide at a water to halide ratio from about 20:1 to about 60:1 wherein the specific ratio of water to halide for each individual downstream reactor is chosen so as to maintain the level of halide on catalyst in each downstream reactor from about 0.5 to 1.5 wt. % based on the total weight of the catalyst.

  8. Catalytic reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Absil, R.P.; Huss, A. Jr.; McHale, W.D.; Partridge, R.D.

    1989-06-13

    This patent describes a catalytic reforming process which comprises contacting a naphtha range feed with a low acidity extrudate comprising an intermediate and/or a large pore acidic zeolite bound with a low acidity refractory oxide under reforming conditions to provide a reaction product of increased aromatic content, the extrudate having been prepared with at least an extrusion-facilitating amount of a low acidity refractory oxide in colloidal form and containing at least one metal species selected from the platinum group metals.

  9. Catalytic reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Markley, G.E.

    1984-04-03

    A process wherein, in a series of reforming zones, employing one or a series of reactors, each of which contains a bed, or beds of catalyst, the catalyst in the rearward most reforming zones is constituted of supported platinum and a relatively high concentration of rhenium, and the catalyst in the forward most reforming zone is constituted of platinum, or platinum and a relatively low concentration of a promoter metal, especially rhenium. In the rearward reaction zones, at least 40 percent, and preferably from 40 percent to about 90 percent, based on the total weight of catalyst in the reactor, or reactors of the unit, is constituted of a rhenium promoted platinum catalyst, the weight ratio of rhenium:platinum of which at least about 1.5:1, and preferably 2:1, or greater. The beds of catalyst are contacted at start-of-run temperatures ranging from about 875/sup 0/ F. to about 935/sup 0/ F. with a hydrocarbon or naphtha feed, and hydrogen, at reforming conditions to produce a hydrocarbon, or naphtha product of improved octane, and the product is withdrawn.

  10. Catalytic reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, W.E.; Markley, G.E.

    1984-04-03

    A process wherein, in a series of reforming zones, employing one or a series of reactors, each of which contains a bed, or beds of catalyst, the catalyst in the rearward most reforming zones is constituted of supported platinum and a relatively high concentration of rhenium, and the catalyst in the forward most reforming zone is constituted of platinum, or platinum and a relatively low concentration of a promoter metal, especially rhenium. In the rearward reaction zones, at least 40 percent, and preferably from 40 percent to about 90 percent, based on the total weight of catalyst in the reactor, or reactors of the unit, is constituted of a rhenium promoted platinum catalyst, the weight ratio of rhenium: plantinum of which at least about 1.5:1, a preferably 2:1, or greater. The beds of catalyst are contacted with a hydrocarbon or naphtha feed, and hydrogen, at reforming conditions to produce a hydrocarbon, or naphtha product of improved octane, and the product is withdrawn.

  11. Catalytic reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Swan, G.A.; Baird, W.C. Jr.

    1986-09-23

    In a process for improving the octane quality of a naphtha in a reforming unit comprised of a plurality of serially connected reactors, inclusive of one or more lead reactors and a tail reactor, each of which contains a platinum or platinum-rhenium catalyst, the naphtha flowing in sequence from one reactor of the series to another and contacting the catalyst at reforming conditions in the presence of hydrogen, the improvement is described which consists of: providing the tail reactor with a platinum-rhenium catalyst to which iridium has been added in amount sufficient to increase the C/sub 5/+ liquid yield via-a-vis a similar process utilizing in the tall reactor a platinum-rhenium catalyst to which no iridium has been added.

  12. Catalytic reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, W.E.; Markley, G.E.

    1984-04-03

    A process wherein, in a series of reforming zones, or reactors, each of which contains a bed, or beds of catalyst, the catalyst in the rearward most reforming zones is constituted of a high rhenium, platinum rhenium catalyst, viz., a catalyst comprising supported platinum and a relatively high concentration of rhenium relative to the platinum, and preferably the catalyst in the forwardmost reforming zone, or reactor of the series, is constituted of platinum, or platinum and a relatively low concentration of rhenium relative to the platinum. At least 30 percent, preferably from 40 percent to about 90 percent, of the rearward most reactors of the unit, or even 100 percent, based on the total weight of the catalyst in all of the reactors of the unit, contain a high rhenium, platinum rhenium catalyst, the weight ratio of rhenium:platinum being at least about 1.5:1. The beds of catalyst are contacted with a hydrocarbon or naphtha feed, and hydrogen, and the reaction continued for a period of at least 700 hours, preferably from about 700 hours to about 2750 hours, while conducting the reaction at temperatures ranging from about 850/sup 0/ F. to about 950/sup 0/ F. (E.I.T.), at pressures ranging from about 150 psig to about 350 psig, and at gas rates ranging from about 2500 SCF/B to about 4500 SCF/B.

  13. Catalytic reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Schorfheide, J.J.

    1986-09-23

    This patent describes a process for improving the octane quality of a naphtha in a reforming unit comprised of serially connected reactors, inclusive of a lead reactor and one or more subsequent reactors. Each of the reactors contains a sulfur-sensitive polymetallic platinum-containing catalyst which contains sulfur in concentration ranging from 0.03 to about 0.2 percent, based on the weight of the catalyst, and coke in concentration ranging up to about 10 percent, based on the weight of the catalyst, naphtha and hydrogen being introduced into the lead reactor and flowing in sequence from one reactor to the next subsequent reactor of the series contacting the catalyst at reforming conditions, the improvement described here comprising. introducing sulfur to the tail reactor of the series and maintaining therein, as a component of the naphtha, sulfur in concentration ranging from 0.5 wppm to about 20 wppm, based on the weight of the naphtha feed, while maintaining the concentration of sulfur in the feed naphtha entering the lead reactor below 0.5 wppm.

  14. Integrated reforming/aromatization process

    SciTech Connect

    Harandi, M.N.; Owen, H.

    1990-06-26

    This patent describes an integrated process for increasing the gasoline yield from a catalytic reforming process. It comprises: charging a naphtha boiling range feedstream to a catalytic reforming reaction zone under reforming conversion conditions; withdrawing a reactor effluent stream from the reforming reaction zone; separating the reactor effluent stream into a hydrogen-rich gas stream and an unstabilized reformate stream; further separating the unstabilized reformate in a fractionator into an overhead stream containing C{sub 4} - components and a bottom stream containing C{sub 6} + components; charging the fractionator overhead stream to a catalytic aromatization zone under aromatization conversion conditions; withdrawing an aromatization zone effluent stream from the aromatization zone; cooling the aromatization zone effluent stream; separating the cooled aromatization zone effluent steam into a C{sub 4} - stream and a C{sub 5} + stream; and refluxing the C{sub 5} + aromatic gasoline stream to the fractionation zone.

  15. Catalytic reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Baird Jr., W. C.; Mauldin, C. H.

    1985-09-17

    A start-up procedure wherein a halogenated rhenium-containing catalyst, to improve its performance in reforming naphtha feeds, is contacted with water, added with the hydrogen and said feed. During the start-up period, preferably on initiation of the start-up period after aromatics production has begun, a naphtha feed, hydrogen and water are passed cocurrently through the several reactors of a reforming unit and reacted over the halogenated rhenium-containing catalyst. Water is generally added with the naphtha and hydrogen, preferably to the initial reactor of the series of reactors of the reforming unit, in concentration ranging from about 100 vppm of hydrogen to about 10,000 vppm of hydrogen, preferably from about 100 vppm to about 5000 vppm of hydrogen.

  16. Reforming the Interagency Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    conflict environment. In his work entitled “Toward an American Way of War,” Antulio J . Echevarria II best sums up the problems of OIF post- 46...Echevarria II, Antulio J . "Toward an American Way of War." Ed. Strategic Studies Institute, March 2004. 26 51 Chapter 4 Summary of Problems with the...legislation to improve the interagency process and continue enhancing interservice interoperability, Joint Forces Staff College., 5-6 23 Rast, Vicki J

  17. Hydrocarbon cracking and reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Le, Q.N.; Schipper, P.H.; Owen, H.

    1992-03-31

    This patent describes a process for upgrading paraffinic naphtha to high octane fuel. It comprises: contacting a fresh naphtha feedstock stream containing a major amount of C{sub 7+} alkanes and naphthenes with medium pore acid cracking catalyst under low pressure selective cracking conditions effective to produce 4-C5 isoalkene and C4-C5 isoalkane, the cracking catalyst being substantially free of hydrogenation-dehydrogenation metal components and having an acid cracking activity less than 15; separating cracking effluent to obtain an olefinic fraction rich in C4-C5 isoalkene and a C6+ fraction; etherifying the C4-C5 isoalkene fraction by catalytic reaction with lower alkanol to produce tertiary-alkyl ether product; and reforming the C6+ fraction to provide high octane gasoline components.

  18. AFT Chief Promises Due-Process Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The president of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), Randi Weingarten, is putting the sensitive issue of due process on the education reform table, with a pledge to work with districts to streamline the often-cumbersome procedures for dismissing teachers who fail to improve their performance after receiving help and support. She has also…

  19. Budgeting and Acquisition Business Process Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-07

    reform issues . He has authored more than one hundred journal articles and book chapters on topics including national defense budgeting and policy...programming and budgeting cycles, while still preserving the decisions made in the on-year cycle through the off-year by limiting reconsideration of...POM were eliminated and replaced by a process of longer-term budgeting. In traditional budgeting, budget submitting offices (BSOs) have to answer

  20. Synergize fuel and petrochemical processing plans with catalytic reforming

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    Depending on the market, refiner`s plans to produce clean fuels and higher value petrochemicals will weigh heavily on the catalytic reformer`s flexibility. It seems that as soon as a timely article related to catalytic reforming operations is published, a new {open_quotes}boutique{close_quotes} gasoline fuel specification is slapped on to existing fuel standards, affecting reformer operations and processing objectives. Just as importantly, the petrochemical market (such as aromatics) that refiners are targeting, can be very fickle. That`s why process engineers have endeavored to maintain an awareness of the flexibility that technology suppliers are building into modern catalytic reformers.

  1. The Interagency Process--Analysis and Reform Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-15

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT THE INTERAGENCY PROCESS — ANALYSIS AND REFORM RECOMMENDATIONS by Lieutenant Colonel John E. O’Neil IV United States... Process -- Analysis and Reform Recommendations 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) John O’Neil 5d. PROJECT...ANSI Std Z39-18 ABSTRACT AUTHOR: Lieutenant Colonel John E. O’Neil IV TITLE: The Interagency Process — Analysis and Reform Recommendations FORMAT

  2. New process model proves accurate in tests on catalytic reformer

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Ancheyta-Juarez, J. )

    1994-07-25

    A mathematical model has been devised to represent the process that takes place in a fixed-bed, tubular, adiabatic catalytic reforming reactor. Since its development, the model has been applied to the simulation of a commercial semiregenerative reformer. The development of mass and energy balances for this reformer led to a model that predicts both concentration and temperature profiles along the reactor. A comparison of the model's results with experimental data illustrates its accuracy at predicting product profiles. Simple steps show how the model can be applied to simulate any fixed-bed catalytic reformer.

  3. Use of biofuels to produce hydrogen (reformation processes).

    PubMed

    Ramírez de la Piscina, Pilar; Homs, Narcís

    2008-11-01

    This tutorial review deals with the catalytic reformation of ethanol and glycerol to produce hydrogen that can be used as an energy carrier in a fuel cell. Both the worldwide production of ethanol in large amounts to be used as a biofuel and that of glycerol as a by-product in biodiesel manufacture are presented. The catalytic reformation processes of both ethanol and glycerol are contemplated, including thermodynamic and kinetic aspects. Catalysts are analyzed as a function of operation conditions, selectivity and stability.

  4. Professional Development and School Restructuring: Mutual Processes of Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, John; Hamer, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    For five years the authors have facilitated professional development leading to restructuring and reform at Ravine Junior High (RJH). As they present their work with colleagues from RJH, people ask them how did they get teacher buy-in. They answered that they don't get teachers to buy-in, they get teachers to drive the process. At RJH, they…

  5. The Master Teacher: Role and Responsibilities in the Reform Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClean, Wilma A.

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of the study is to determine the opinions of educators about the "master teacher" concept within the school system. The concept of the "master teacher" refers to the ideological approach used to implement a "master teacher" initiative or programme in the school reform process. The primary school…

  6. Pedagogical reforms of digital signal processing education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Michael

    The future of the engineering discipline is arguably predicated heavily upon appealing to the future generation, in all its sensibilities. The greatest burden in doing so, one might rightly believe, lies on the shoulders of the educators. In examining the causal means by which the profession arrived at such a state, one finds that the technical revolution, precipitated by global war, had, as its catalyst, institutions as expansive as the government itself to satisfy the demand for engineers, who, as a result of such an existential crisis, were taught predominantly theoretical underpinnings to address a finite purpose. By contrast, the modern engineer, having expanded upon this vision and adapted to an evolving society, is increasingly placed in the proverbial role of the worker who must don many hats: not solely a scientist, yet often an artist; not a businessperson alone, but neither financially naive; not always a representative, though frequently a collaborator. Inasmuch as change then serves as the only constancy in a global climate, therefore, the educational system - if it is to mimic the demands of the industry - is left with an inherent need for perpetual revitalization to remain relevant. This work aims to serve that end. Motivated by existing research in engineering education, an epistemological challenge is molded into the framework of the electrical engineer with emphasis on digital signal processing. In particular, it is investigated whether students are better served by a learning paradigm that tolerates and, when feasible, encourages error via a medium free of traditional adjudication. Through the creation of learning modules using the Adobe Captivate environment, a wide range of fundamental knowledge in signal processing is challenged within the confines of existing undergraduate courses. It is found that such an approach not only conforms to the research agenda outlined for the engineering educator, but also reflects an often neglected reality

  7. Energy and exergy analysis of an ethanol reforming process for solid oxide fuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Tippawan, Phanicha; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2014-04-01

    The fuel processor in which hydrogen is produced from fuels is an important unit in a fuel cell system. The aim of this study is to apply a thermodynamic concept to identify a suitable reforming process for an ethanol-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Three different reforming technologies, i.e., steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming, are considered. The first and second laws of thermodynamics are employed to determine an energy demand and to describe how efficiently the energy is supplied to the reforming process. Effect of key operating parameters on the distribution of reforming products, such as H2, CO, CO2 and CH4, and the possibility of carbon formation in different ethanol reformings are examined as a function of steam-to-ethanol ratio, oxygen-to-ethanol ratio and temperatures at atmospheric pressure. Energy and exergy analysis are performed to identify the best ethanol reforming process for SOFC applications.

  8. Catalytic Reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Little, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    Don Little's Catalytic Reforming deals exclusively with reforming. With the increasing need for unleaded gasoline, the importance of this volume has escalated since it combines various related aspects of reforming technology into a single publication. For those with no practical knowledge of catalytic reforming, the chemical reactions, flow schemes and how the cat reformer fits into the overall refinery process will be of interest. Contents include: Catalytic reforming in refinery processing: How catalytic reformers work - chemical reactions; Process design; The catalyst, process variables and unit operation; Commercial processes; BTX operation; Feed preparation; naphtha hydrotreating and catalytic reforming; Index.

  9. Thermodynamic analysis of tar reforming through auto-thermal reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Nurhadi, N. Diniyati, Dahlia; Efendi, M. Ade Andriansyah; Istadi, I.

    2015-12-29

    Fixed bed gasification is a simple and suitable technology for small scale power generation. One of the disadvantages of this technology is producing tar. So far, tar is not utilized yet and being waste that should be treated into a more useful product. This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of tar conversion into gas producer through non-catalytic auto-thermal reforming technology. Tar was converted into components, C, H, O, N and S, and then reacted with oxidant such as mixture of air or pure oxygen. Thus, this reaction occurred auto-thermally and reached chemical equilibrium. The sensitivity analysis resulted that the most promising process performance occurred at flow rate of air was reached 43% of stoichiometry while temperature of process is 1100°C, the addition of pure oxygen is 40% and preheating of oxidant flow is 250°C. The yield of the most promising process performance between 11.15-11.17 kmol/h and cold gas efficiency was between 73.8-73.9%.The results of this study indicated that thermodynamically the conversion of tar into producer gas through non-catalytic auto-thermal reformingis more promising.

  10. From Schools to Community Learning Centers: A Program Evaluation of a School Reform Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magolda, Peter; Ebben, Kelsey

    2007-01-01

    This manuscript reports on a program evaluation of a school reform initiative conducted in an Ohio city. The paper describes, interprets, and evaluates this reform process aimed at transforming schools into community learning centers. The manuscript also describes and analyzes the initiative's program evaluation process. Elliot Eisner's [(1998).…

  11. Reformer-pressure swing adsorption process for the production of carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Fuderer, A.

    1988-02-23

    An improved process for the production of carbon monoxide by the steam reforming of hydrocarbons is described comprising: (a) catalytically reacting a fluid hydrocarbon feed stream with steam in a steam reformer; (b) passing the reformer effluent containing hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide from the steam reformer, without scrubbing to remove the carbon dioxide content thereof, to a pressure swing adsorption system having at least four adsorbent beds, each bed of which, on a cyclic basis, undergoes a processing sequence; (c) recycling the carbon dioxide-rich stream to the steam reformer for reaction with additional quantities of the hydrocarbon feed stream being passed to the stream reformer to form additional quantities of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, with product recovery being enhanced and the need for employing a carbon dioxide wash system being obviated.

  12. Policy process for health sector reforms: a case study of Punjab Province (Pakistan).

    PubMed

    Tarin, Ehsanullah; Green, Andrew; Omar, Maye; Shaw, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The health sector in the Punjab (Pakistan) faces many problems, and, the government introduced reforms during 1993-2000. This paper explores the policy process for the reforms. A case study method was used and, to assist this, a conceptual framework was developed. Analysis of four initiatives indicated that there were deviations from the government guidelines and that the policy processes used were weak. The progress of different reforms was affected by a variety of factors: the immaturity of the political process and civil society, which together with innate conservatism and resistance to change on the part of the bureaucracy resulted in weak strategic sectoral leadership and a lack of clear purpose underpinning the reforms. It also resulted in weaknesses in preparation of the detail of reforms leading to poor implementation. The study suggests a need for broadening the stakeholders' base, building the capacity of policy-makers in policy analysis and strengthening the institutional basis of policymaking bodies.

  13. Safety concerns and suggested design approaches to the HTGR Reformer process concept

    SciTech Connect

    Green, R.C.

    1981-09-01

    This report is a safety review of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer Application Study prepared by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates (GCRA) of La Jolla, California. The objective of this review was to identify safety concerns and suggests design approaches to minimize risk in the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer (HTGR-R) process concept.

  14. Systems, Ideologies and History: A Three-Dimensional Absence in the Study of Assessment Reform Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flórez Petour, María Teresa

    2015-01-01

    This paper makes the case for the need to study assessment reform processes from a broader and more complex perspective that takes the historical, ideological and systemic aspects of assessment policies into account. It draws on a larger study to demonstrate how the understanding of Assessment for Learning (AfL) reforms is enriched by such a…

  15. The Process of Educational Reform in Spain: Where Is Don Quixote?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llamas, Jose Manuel Coronel

    1994-01-01

    Describes educational reform efforts in Spain since 1970, when a new General Law for Education was adopted. The reform process now suffers from delays in developing new courses and teaching cycles. The country's economic crisis is creating a decline in funding for new programs, while the education ministry insists on working to improve teaching…

  16. Educational Reform Implementation: A Co-Constructed Process. Research Report 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datnow, Amanda; Hubbard, Lea; Mehan, Hugh

    This research report argues for viewing the complex, often messy process of school reform implementation as a "conditional matrix" coupled with qualitative research. As illustration, two studies (of six reform efforts in one county and of implementation of an untracking program in Kentucky) are reported. Preliminary analysis reveals that…

  17. Team-Based Professional Development: A Process for School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witmer, Judith T.; Melnick, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    In this book, the authors provide an overview of adult learning and its impact on professional development. The chapters provide a theoretical foundation along with practical advice on implementing team-based professional development among educators within school districts which will lead to true systemic reform. The following seven chapters are…

  18. Power and process: The politics of electricity sector reform in Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gore, Christopher David

    In 2007, Uganda had one of the lowest levels of access to electricity in the world. Given the influence of multilateral and bilateral agencies in Uganda; the strong international reputation and domestic influence of its President; the country's historic achievements in public sector and economic reform; and the intimate connection between economic performance, social well-being and access to electricity, the problems with Uganda's electricity sector have proven deeply frustrating and, indeed, puzzling. Following increased scholarly attention to the relationship between political change, policymaking, and public sector reform in sub-Saharan Africa and the developing world generally, this thesis examines the multilevel politics of Uganda's electricity sector reform process. This study contends that explanations for Uganda's electricity sector reform problems generally, and hydroelectric dam construction efforts specifically, must move beyond technical and financial factors. Problems in this sector have also been the result of a model of reform (promoted by the World Bank) that failed adequately to account for the character of political change. Indeed, the model of reform that was promoted and implemented was risky and it was deeply antagonistic to domestic and international civil society organizations. In addition, it was presented as a linear, technical, apolitical exercise. Finally the model was inconsistent with key principles the Bank itself, and public policy literature generally, suggest are needed for success. Based on this analysis, the thesis contends that policymaking and reform must be understood as deeply political processes, which not only define access to services, but also participation in, and exclusion from, national debates. Future approaches to reform and policymaking must anticipate the complex, multilevel, non-linear character of 'second-generation' policy issues like electricity, and the political and institutional capacity needed to increase

  19. High activity, high yield tin modified platinum-iridium catalysts, and reforming process utilizing such catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, W.C. Jr.; Swan, G.A. III; Boyle, J.P.

    1993-06-22

    A process is described for improving the octane quality of a naphtha which comprises reforming said naphtha at reforming conditions wherein said reforming conditions are defined as follows: over a catalyst which includes from about 0.1 percent to about 1.0 percent platinum, from about 0.1 percent to about 1.0 percent iridium, and from about 0.02 percent to about 0.4 percent tin, wherein each of said metals is composited with and uniformly dispersed throughout an inorganic oxide support.

  20. Comparative study of two theoretical models of methane and ethane steam reforming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brus, Grzegorz; Kaczmarczyk Marcin Tomiczek, Robert; Mozdzierz, Marcin

    2016-09-01

    From the chemical point of view the reforming process of heavy hydrocarbons such as Associated Petroleum Gas (APG) is very complex. One of the main issue is a set of undesired chemical reactions that causes deposition of solid carbon and consequently block catalytic property of a reactor. The experimental investigation is crucial to design APG reforming reactors. However, the experiment needs to be preceded by careful thermodynamical analysis to design safe operation conditions. In case of small number of reactants and reactions such as in case of steam reforming of pure methane, the problem can be solved by treating each equilibrium reaction constant as an element of the system of non-linear equations. The system of equations can be solved by Newton-Raphson method. However in case of large number of reactants and reaction, such as in case of APG reforming this method is inefficient. A large number of strongly non-linear equations leads often to converge problem. In this paper the authors suggest to use different approach called Parametric Equation Method. In this method a system of non-linear equations is replaced by a set of single non-linear equations solved separately. The methods were used to simulate steam reforming of methane-ethane rich fuel. The results of computations from both methods were juxtaposed and comparative study were conducted. Finally safe operation conditions for steam reforming of methane-ethane fuel were calculated and presented.

  1. Health Reform in Ceará: the process of decentralisation in the 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Medeiros, Regianne Leila Rolim; Atkinson, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to offer an overview of the health reform in Ceará focusing on the decentralisation process in the 1990s. The driving factor behind the Brazilian health reform movement was the necessity to reorganise the national health system and overcome inequalities. For the reformists, decentralisation, and together with it the idea of popular participation, is seen as essential to guarantee the fulfilment of the people’s needs and to incorporate their voice in the decision-making processes of the health system. In the state of Ceará, after the 1986 elections, health reform movement members took control over the management of the state Health Secretariat. This is the main cause of the acceleration of the decentralisation process with the transference of responsibility over the management of health care delivery to municipalities. PMID:25729333

  2. Health Reform in Ceará: the process of decentralisation in the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Regianne Leila Rolim; Atkinson, Sarah

    2009-06-30

    The objective of this article is to offer an overview of the health reform in Ceará focusing on the decentralisation process in the 1990s. The driving factor behind the Brazilian health reform movement was the necessity to reorganise the national health system and overcome inequalities. For the reformists, decentralisation, and together with it the idea of popular participation, is seen as essential to guarantee the fulfilment of the people's needs and to incorporate their voice in the decision-making processes of the health system. In the state of Ceará, after the 1986 elections, health reform movement members took control over the management of the state Health Secretariat. This is the main cause of the acceleration of the decentralisation process with the transference of responsibility over the management of health care delivery to municipalities.

  3. The conversion of anaerobic digestion waste into biofuels via a novel Thermo-Catalytic Reforming process.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Johannes; Meyer, Johannes; Ouadi, Miloud; Apfelbacher, Andreas; Binder, Samir; Hornung, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Producing energy from biomass and other organic waste residues is essential for sustainable development. Fraunhofer UMSICHT has developed a novel reactor which introduces the Thermo-Catalytic Reforming (TCR®) process. The TCR® is a process which can convert any type of biomass and organic feedstocks into a variety of energy products (char, bio-oil and permanent gases). The aim of this work was to demonstrate this technology using digestate as the feedstock and to quantify the results from the post reforming step. The temperature of a post reformer was varied to achieve optimised fuel products. The hydrogen rich permanent gases produced were maximised at a post reforming temperature of 1023 K. The highly de-oxygenated liquid bio-oil produced contained a calorific value of 35.2 MJ/kg, with significantly improved fuel physical properties, low viscosity and acid number. Overall digestate showed a high potential as feedstock in the Thermo-Catalytic Reforming to produce pyrolysis fuel products of superior quality.

  4. Production of synthetic fuels using syngas from a steam hydrogasification and reforming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Arun Satheesh Kumar

    This thesis is aimed at the research, optimization and development of a thermo-chemical process aimed at the production of synthesis gas (mixture of H2 and CO) with a flexible H2 to CO ratio using coupled steam hydrogasification and steam reforming processes. The steam hydrogasification step generates a product gas containing significant amounts of methane by gasifying a carbonaceous feed material with steam and internally generated H2. This product gas is converted to synthesis gas with an excess H2 to CO using the steam reformer. Research involving experimental and simulation work has been conducted on steam hydrogasification, steam reforming and the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The Aspen Plus simulation tool has been used to develop a process model that can perform heat and mass balance calculations of the whole process using built-in reactor modules and an empirical FT model available in the literature. This model has been used to estimate optimum feed ratios and process conditions for specific feedstocks and products. Steam hydrogasification of coal and wood mixtures of varying coal to wood ratios has been performed in a stirred batch reactor. The carbon conversion of the feedstocks to gaseous products is around 60% at 700°C and 80% at 800°C. The coal to wood ratio of the feedstock does not exert a significant influence on the carbon conversion. The rates of formation of CO, CO 2 and CH4 during gasification have been calculated based on the experimental results using a simple kinetic model. Experimental research on steam reforming has been performed. It has been shown that temperature and the feed CO2/CH4 ratio play a dominant role in determining the product gas H2/CO ratio. Reforming of typical steam hydrogasification product-gas stream has been investigated over a commercial steam reforming catalyst. The results demonstrate that the combined use of steam hydrogasification process with a reformer can generate a synthesis gas with a predetermined H2/CO ratio

  5. Developing an energy efficient steam reforming process to produce hydrogen from sulfur-containing fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simson, Amanda

    Hydrogen powered fuel cells have the potential to produce electricity with higher efficiency and lower emissions than conventional combustion technology. In order to realize the benefits of a hydrogen fuel cell an efficient method to produce hydrogen is needed. Currently, over 90% of hydrogen is produced from the steam reforming of natural gas. However, for many applications including fuel cell vehicles, the use of a liquid fuel rather than natural gas is desirable. This work investigates the feasibility of producing hydrogen efficiently by steam reforming E85 (85% ethanol/15% gasoline), a commercially available sulfur-containing transportation fuel. A Rh-Pt/SiO2-ZrO2 catalyst has demonstrated good activity for the E85 steam reforming reaction. An industrial steam reforming process is often run less efficiently, with more water and at higher temperatures, in order to prevent catalyst deactivation. Therefore, it is desirable to develop a process that can operate without catalyst deactivation at more energy efficient conditions. In this study, the steam reforming of a sulfur-containing fuel (E85) was studied at near stoichiometric steam/carbon ratios and at 650C, conditions at which catalyst deactivation is normally measured. At these conditions the catalyst was found to be stable steam reforming a sulfur-free E85. However, the addition of low concentrations of sulfur significantly deactivated the catalyst. The presence of sulfur in the fuel caused catalyst deactivation by promoting ethylene which generates surface carbon species (coke) that mask catalytic sites. The amount of coke increased during time on stream and became increasingly graphitic. However, the deactivation due to both sulfur adsorption and coke formation was reversible with air treatment at 650°C. However, regenerations were found to reduce the catalyst life. Air regenerations produce exotherms on the catalyst surface that cause structural changes to the catalyst. During regenerations the

  6. Process and apparatus for the production of hydrogen by steam reforming of hydrocarbon

    DOEpatents

    Sircar, Shivaji; Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond; Nataraj, Shankar

    2000-01-01

    In the steam reforming of hydrocarbon, particularly methane, under elevated temperature and pressure to produce hydrogen, a feed of steam and hydrocarbon is fed into a first reaction volume containing essentially only reforming catalyst to partially reform the feed. The balance of the feed and the reaction products of carbon dioxide and hydrogen are then fed into a second reaction volume containing a mixture of catalyst and adsorbent which removes the carbon dioxide from the reaction zone as it is formed. The process is conducted in a cycle which includes these reactions followed by countercurrent depressurization and purge of the adsorbent to regenerate it and repressurization of the reaction volumes preparatory to repeating the reaction-sorption phase of the cycle.

  7. Development and life evaluation of a steam reforming process for PAFC

    SciTech Connect

    Nagase, S.; Takami, S.; Masuda, M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper reports a life evaluation method for a carbon monoxide (CO) shift process in the steam reforming process for PAFC. A CO shift reactor simulation was developed to evaluate the whole performance of the CO shift process. The calculation results of the simulation almost coincide with the experimental data obtained from a demonstration plant. By evaluating and grasping the sintering trend of the catalyst, and by simulation calculation of the reactor, it became possible to evaluate the performance at targeted operation hours.

  8. Efficient utilization of greenhouse gas in a gas-to-liquids process combined with carbon dioxide reforming of methane.

    PubMed

    Ha, Kyoung-Su; Bae, Jong Wook; Woo, Kwang-Jae; Jun, Ki-Won

    2010-02-15

    A process model for a gas-to-liquids (GTL) process mainly producing Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic oils has been developed to assess the effects of reforming methods, recycle ratio of unreacted syngas mixture on the process efficiency and the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. The reforming unit of our study is composed of both steam reforming of methane (SRM) and carbon dioxide reforming of methane (CDR) to form syngas, which gives composition flexibility, reduction in GHG emission, and higher cost-competitiveness. With recycling, it is found that zero emission of CO(2) from the process can be realized and the required amount of natural gas (NG) can be significantly reduced. This GTL process model has been built by using Aspen Plus software, and it is mainly composed of a feeding unit, a reforming unit, an FT synthesis unit, several separation units and a recycling unit. The composition flexibility of the syngas mixture due to the two different types of reforming reactions raises an issue that in order to attain the optimized feed composition of FT synthesis the amount of flow rate of each component in the fresh feed mixture should be determined considering the effects of the recycle and its split ratio. In the FT synthesis unit, the 15 representative reactions for the chain growth and water gas shift on the cobalt-based catalyst are considered. After FT synthesis, the unreacted syngas mixture is recycled to the reforming unit or the FT synthesis unit or both to enhance process efficiency. The effect of the split ratio, the recycle flow rate to the FT reactor over the recycle flow rate to the reforming unit, on the efficiency of the process was also investigated. This work shows that greater recycle to the reforming unit is less effective than that to the FT synthesis unit from the standpoint of the net heat efficiency of the process, since the reforming reactions are greatly endothermic and greater recycle to the reformer requires more energy.

  9. Introduction. This Issue: A Focus on Educational Reform and the Role of Research in the Reform Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donmoyer, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Highlights several articles that raise questions about the role of research in educational reform. These articles argue over the use of National Assessment of Educational Progress results for accountability purposes; and the advisability of using cost-benefit analysis in critiquing educational reform proposals, and particularly, in evaluating the…

  10. Negotiating Reform: Implementing Process Standards in Culturally Responsive Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Jeff; Hauk, Shandy; Neumann, Andrew M.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the guiding ideas behind our culturally responsive approach to teacher professional development and an overview of how those tenets inform, tacitly and directly, our efforts to realize the promise of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' five Process Standards. A review of the primary obstacles teachers face in…

  11. An Overview and Analysis of Processes of Programmatic and Curricular Reform in Teacher Education in Anglophone Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Ardra L.

    This study examines the process of programmatic and curricular reform in teacher education at Anglophone universities across Canada. The first phase of research involved gathering preliminary information about how teacher education institutions were responding to calls for reform, gauging the nature and extent of these efforts and processes…

  12. Case Studies of Teachers' Perceptions and Their Enactment Processes When Implementing Multiple Reforms in Urban High School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samaniego, Kimberly Anne OBrien

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to improve student performance on high-stakes assessments in mathematics place teachers in the epicenter of multiple reform expectations. While studies have documented how teachers implement single reforms, very little is known about teachers' implementation processes when multiple expectations are imposed. With a focus on how…

  13. An Analysis of Possible Federal Budget Process Reforms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    continued by Hamil- ton’s successor, Oliver Wolcott, until 1801, when Jefferson became president. The conflict between Hamilton and Jefferson is repre...winnars or losers. It was efficient process and procedure that was % often elusive. Arthur Smithies , in The Budgetary Prqcess i-n the UtniUd States: 17...argument turns on how to achieve the bal- ance. However, not everyone agrees that deficits are evil. According to Arthur Smithies in 1946, In fact

  14. Optimization of bio-ethanol autothermal reforming and carbon monoxide removal processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markova, D.; Bazbauers, G.; Valters, K.; Alhucema Arias, R.; Weuffen, C.; Rochlitz, L.

    Experimental investigation of bio-ethanol autothermal reforming (ATR) and water-gas shift (WGS) processes for hydrogen production and regression analysis of the data is performed in the study. The main goal was to obtain regression relations between the most critical dependent variables such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide and methane content in the reformate gas and independent factors such as air-to-fuel ratio (λ), steam-to-carbon ratio (S/C), inlet temperature of reactants into reforming process (T ATRin), pressure (p) and temperature (T ATR) in the ATR reactor from the experimental data. Purpose of the regression models is to provide optimum values of the process factors that give the maximum amount of hydrogen. The experimental ATR system consisted of an evaporator, an ATR reactor and a one-stage WGS reactor. Empirical relations between hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane content and the controlling parameters downstream of the ATR reactor are shown in the work. The optimization results show that within the considered range of the process factors the maximum hydrogen concentration of 42 dry vol. % and yield of 3.8 mol mol -1 of ethanol downstream of the ATR reactor can be achieved at S/C = 2.5, λ = 0.20-0.23, p = 0.4 bar, T ATRin = 230 °C, T ATR = 640 °C.

  15. Catalytic reforming catalyst with modified pore size distribution and a process using the same

    SciTech Connect

    Unmuth, E.E.; Fleming, B.A.

    1987-05-12

    This patent describes a catalytic reforming process for conversion of a naptha hydrocarbon at reforming conditions using a catalyst comprising at least one catalytic metal and alumina. The improvement comprises using a catalyst having the following properties in combination: a surface area above about 250 M/sup 2//gram of catalyst; a pore volume above about 0.44 cc/gram of catalyst in pores having diameters of from about 30 angstroms to about 38,000 angstroms; and a pore volume distribution wherein about 70 percent or less of the pore volume is in pores having diameters of from about 30 angstroms to about 400 angstroms. About 30 percent or more pore volume is in pores having diameters of from about 400 angstroms to about 38,000 angstroms.

  16. Startup procedure for reforming catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    McHale, W.D.; Schoennagel, H.J.

    1984-08-14

    Process for reforming a hydrocarbon charge under reforming conditions in a reforming zone containing a sulfur-sensitive metal containing reforming catalyst wherein over-cracking of the charge stock and excessive temperature rise in the reforming zone is suppressed by pre-conditioning the catalyst, prior to contact with the charge, with a reformate of specified octane number and aromatics content.

  17. Reform of abortion law in Uruguay: context, process and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Wood, Susan; Abracinskas, Lilián; Correa, Sonia; Pecheny, Mario

    2016-11-01

    In October 2012, a new law was approved in Uruguay that allows abortion on demand during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, 14 weeks in the case of rape, and without a time limit when the woman's health is at risk or in the case of foetal anomalies. This paper analyses this legal reform. It is based on 27 individual and group interviews with key informants, and on review of primary documents and the literature. The factors explaining the reform include: secular values in society, favourable public opinion, a persistent feminist movement, effective coalition building, particular party politics, and a vocal public health sector. The content of the new law reflects the tensions between a feminist perspective of women's rights and public health arguments that stop short of fully recognizing women's autonomy. The Uruguayan reform shows that, even in Latin America, abortion can be addressed politically without electoral cost to the parties that promote it. On the other hand, the prevailing public health rationale and conditionalities built into the law during the negotiation process resulted in a law that cannot be interpreted as a full recognition of women's rights, but rather as a modified protectionist approach that circumscribes women's autonomy.

  18. Catalytic reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Aldag, A.W. Jr.

    1986-01-28

    This patent describes a process for the catalytic reforming of a feedstock which contains at least one reformable organic compound. The process consists of contacting the feedstock under suitable reforming conditions with a catalyst composition selected from the group consisting of a catalyst. The catalyst essentially consists of zinc oxide and a spinel structure alumina. Another catalyst consists essentially of a physical mixture of zinc titanate and a spinel structure alumina in the presence of sufficient added hydrogen to substantially prevent the formation of coke. Insufficient zinc is present in the catalyst composition for the formation of a bulk zinc aluminate.

  19. Learning Disabilities and Early Intervention Strategies: How To Reform the Special Education Referral and Identification Process. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education Reform of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This document presents the transcript of a hearing before the House Subcommittee on Education Reform concerning learning disabilities and early intervention strategies, specifically possible reforms of the special education referral and identification process as part of the reauthorization process of the Individuals with Disabilities Education…

  20. South African health financing reform 2000-2010: understanding the agenda-setting process.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Timesh D; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene

    2013-03-01

    Governments around the world are struggling to address persistent disparities in health care access. However, this priority competes with many others for support in moving onto and up the political agenda. In this paper, a novel method of agenda-setting analysis is developed by merging and modifying the Hall and Kingdon models. As a case study, this method is used to explore how health financing reform reached the policy agenda in South Africa between the years 2000 and 2010. Certain factors are identified that could have determined the agenda-setting process: a change in government, increase in the cost of private medical schemes, and increase in support for reform from various stakeholders. Further analysis, using a conceptual framework of interacting trends and shocks, identifies the growing middle class, the private sector, and workers unions as powerful actors and outlines further factors that may have contributed to the process: a broad political shift in the second half of the decade and the changing prioritisation of HIV/AIDS. Study findings have relevance to academics and policy makers in South Africa and beyond.

  1. Study of nickel catalysts for hydrogen production in sorption enhanced reforming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Lario, Ana L.; Aznar, María; Grasa, Gemma S.; García, Tomás; Murillo, Ramón

    2013-11-01

    The performance of Ni based catalysts to be used in Sorption Enhanced Reforming (SER) is assessed. For this aim, both their activity at low temperature and their behavior during multiple oxidation-reduction cycles in steam methane reforming are studied. Ni catalysts supported on α-Al2O3, Si3N4 and NiAl2O4, with different amounts of Ni (0-50% NiO), are compared by testing their activity in a fixed bed micro-reactor. While Ni/Si3N4 catalysts do not show an appropriate performance at low temperature, Ni/α-Al2O3 and Ni/NiAl2O4 present a significant activity, close to equilibrium data, at the typical SER conditions. The best experimental results are attained for 20% NiO/α-Al2O3 and 10% NiO/NiAl2O4 catalysts that show an activity close to the equilibrium for steam to methane ratio of 4.5. Higher amounts of NiO in both catalysts do not reveal an improvement in conversion results. In addition, both 20% NiO/α-Al2O3 and 10% NiO/NiAl2O4 catalysts show a good reforming activity after oxidation-reduction cycles at typical SER temperatures. The observed trend to carbon deposition on the catalyst surface for the studied supports is Si3N4 > Al2O3 > NiAl2O4, being negligible when NiAl2O4 support is used. These results suggested that 10% NiO/NiAl2O4 and 20% NiO/Al2O3 catalysts could be perfect candidates to be used in SER process.

  2. The good, the bad, and the ugly: how the due process clause may limit comprehensive health care reform.

    PubMed

    Singleton, J Paul

    2011-01-01

    This article examines atopic which has receivedlittle attention from the media or other scholarly publications: The due process concerns that arise when engaging in comprehensive federal health care reform and regulation. First, the article provides a background discussion detailing the factors necessitating health care reform in the United States. Second, it analyzes whether a constitutionally protected right to make personal health care decisions exists under the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments' Due Process Clauses. Finally, the article analyzes the susceptibility of government-sponsored health care-specifically proposals which include a public option-to due process challenges and makes suggestions to avoid any potential fundamental rights violations.

  3. The Project in Intergroup Education and Sarason's Modal Process of Change: A Historical Exemplar of Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevier, Brian R.

    2008-01-01

    In 1971, Seymour Sarason published his now classic book on educational reform entitled, The Culture of the School and the Problem of Change. In the text, Sarason devotes an entire chapter to what he terms the modal process of change. The characteristics of this process, unfortunately, remain salient in today's educational climate. The Project in…

  4. The Bologna Process as a Reform Initiative in Higher Education in the Balkan Countries: The Case of Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damian, Radu Mircea

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the Bologna process in Romania. The historical context covers the last years of the communist regime through 1989. From 1990 free elections of university leadership, the foundation of private universities and new democratic legislation, and projects for reforming higher education funded by different sources…

  5. Bringing Women into Computer Engineering: Curriculum Reform Processes at Two Institutes of Technology. Linkoping Studies in Education and Psychology Dissertations, No. 60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salminen-Karlsson, Minna

    This study examined curricular reform processes at two Swedish institutes of technology through a gender perspective, relating them to two social theories the reproduction theory of Bourdieu and Passeron and the gender contract theory of Yvonne Hirdman. The aim of the reform process was to make educational programs in computer engineering more…

  6. From Formulation to Realisation: The Process of Swedish Reform in Advanced Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindell, Mats

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to consider the complexities of planning and implementation of a reform in the Swedish system of higher vocational education and training (VET). The study object of this article is the Swedish reform with advanced vocational education (AVE). The two main questions the study aims to address are: "What are the main…

  7. The Teacher Education Reform Process in Ethiopia: Some Consequences on Educators and Its Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessema, Kedir Assefa

    2007-01-01

    With the emergence of the discourse of TESO, teacher education in Ethiopia has been struggling to change rhetoric and practice by reaffirming a managerially driven reform performance. The terrain is now characterized by fresh, but globally dominant rhetoric. Salient in the emerging discourse is reform mottos and agendas such as "active…

  8. A Novel Slurry-Based Biomass Reforming Process Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Emerson, Sean C.; Davis, Timothy D.; Peles, A.; She, Ying; Sheffel, Joshua; Willigan, Rhonda R.; Vanderspurt, Thomas H.; Zhu, Tianli

    2011-09-30

    This project was focused on developing a catalytic means of producing H2 from raw, ground biomass, such as fast growing poplar trees, willow trees, or switch grass. The use of a renewable, biomass feedstock with minimal processing can enable a carbon neutral means of producing H2 in that the carbon dioxide produced from the process can be used in the environment to produce additional biomass. For economically viable production of H2, the biomass is hydrolyzed and then reformed without any additional purification steps. Any unreacted biomass and other byproduct streams are burned to provide process energy. Thus, the development of a catalyst that can operate in the demanding corrosive environment and presence of potential poisons is vital to this approach. The concept for this project is shown in Figure 1. The initial feed is assumed to be a >5 wt% slurry of ground wood in dilute base, such as potassium carbonate (K2CO3). Base hydrolysis and reforming of the wood is carried out at high but sub-critical pressures and temperatures in the presence of a solid catalyst. A Pd alloy membrane allows the continuous removal of pure , while the retentate, including methane is used as fuel in the plant. The project showed that it is possible to economically produce H2 from woody biomass in a carbon neutral manner. Technoeconomic analyses using HYSYS and the DOE's H2A tool [1] were used to design a 2000 ton day-1 (dry basis) biomass to hydrogen plant with an efficiency of 46% to 56%, depending on the mode of operation and economic assumptions, exceeding the DOE 2012 target of 43%. The cost of producing the hydrogen from such a plant would be in the range of $1/kg H2 to $2/kg H2. By using raw biomass as a feedstock, the cost of producing hydrogen at large biomass consumption rates is more cost effective than steam reforming of hydrocarbons or biomass gasification and can achieve the overall cost goals of the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program. The complete conversion of wood to

  9. Processing real-world waste plastics by pyrolysis-reforming for hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunfei; Nahil, Mohamad A; Miskolczi, Norbert; Huang, Jun; Williams, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    Producing both hydrogen and high-value carbon nanotubes (CNTs) derived from waste plastics is reported here using a pyrolysis-reforming technology comprising a two-stage reaction system, in the presence of steam and a Ni-Mn-Al catalyst. The waste plastics consisted of plastics from a motor oil container (MOC), commercial waste high density polyethylene (HDPE) and regranulated HDPE waste containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The results show that hydrogen can be produced from the pyrolysis-reforming process, but also carbon nanotubes are formed on the catalyst. However, the content of 0.3 wt.% polyvinyl chloride in the waste HDPE (HDPE/PVC) has been shown to poison the catalyst and significantly reduce the quantity and purity of CNTs. The presence of sulfur has shown less influence on the production of CNTs in terms of quantity and CNT morphologies. Around 94.4 mmol H2 g(-1) plastic was obtained for the pyrolysis-reforming of HDPE waste in the presence of the Ni-Mn-Al catalyst and steam at a reforming temperature of 800 °C. The addition of steam in the process results in an increase of hydrogen production and reduction of carbon yield; in addition, the defects of CNTs, for example, edge dislocations were found to be increased with the introduction of steam (from Raman analysis).

  10. Dry reforming of methane to syngas: a potential alternative process for value added chemicals-a techno-economic perspective.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Kartick; Sasmal, Sankar; Badgandi, Srikant; Chowdhury, Dipabali Roy; Nair, Vinod

    2016-11-01

    During the past decade, there has been increasing global concern over the rise of anthropogenic CO2 emission into the Earth's atmosphere (J Air Waste Manage Assoc 53:645-715, 2003). The utilization of CO2 to produce any valuable product is need of the hour. The production of syngas from CO2 and CH4 seems to be one of the promising alternatives in terms of industrial utilization, as it offers several advantages: (a) mitigation of CO2, (b) transformation of natural gas and CO2 into valuable syngas, and (c) producing syngas with H2/CO ratio 1 which may further be used for the production of valuable petrochemicals (J Air Waste Manage Assoc 53:645-715, 2003). A conceptual design for the production of synthesis gas by dry reforming of methane is presented here. An economic assessment of this process with an integrated methanol production section as a case was conceptualized and compared with the conventional steam methane reforming route to produce methanol. The economic study indicated that dry reforming of natural gas/methane is a competitive process with lower operating and capital costs in comparison with steam reforming assuming negligible cost of CO2 import.

  11. Recovery of C/sub 3/. sqrt. hydrocarbon conversion products and net excess hydrogen in a catalytic reforming process

    SciTech Connect

    Degraff, R.R.; Peters, K.D.

    1982-12-21

    This invention relates to a hydrocarbon conversion process effected in the presence of hydrogen, especially a hydrogenproducing hydrocarbon conversion process. More particularly, this invention relates to the catalytic reforming of a naphtha feedstock, and is especially directed to an improved recovery of the net excess hydrogen, and to an improved recovery of a C/sub 3/..sqrt.. normally gaseous hydrocarbon conversion product and a C/sub 5/..sqrt.. hydrocarbon conversion product boiling in the gasoline range.

  12. Steam Reforming Solidification of Cesium and Strontium Separations Product from Advanced Aqueous Processing of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Julia L. Tripp; T. G. Garn; R. D. Boardman; J. D. Law

    2006-02-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative program is conducting research on aqueous separations processes for the nuclear fuel cycle. This research includes development of solvent extraction processes for the separation of cesium and strontium from dissolved spent nuclear fuel solutions to reduce the short-term decay heat load. The cesium/strontium strip solution from candidate separation processes will require treatment and solidification for managed storage. Steam reforming is currently being investigated for stabilization of these streams because it can potentially destroy the nitrates and organics present in these aqueous, nitrate-bearing solutions, while converting the cesium and strontium into leach-resistant aluminosilicate minerals, such as pollucite. These ongoing experimental studies are being conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of steam reforming for this application.

  13. Naphtha reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Marschner, F.; Renner, H.J.

    1982-04-01

    Most synthesis gases - mixtures of CO and H/sub 2/ - are produced from natural gas. However, a considerable percentage is also produced from naphtha. Syngas via naphtha is economical when natural gas is unavailable and when low hydrogen content syngas is needed. The discussion covers the following topics - catalytic steam reforming; naphtha qualities; process description; desulfurization reactors; rich gas reactors; tubular reactors; fire box; burner and firing systems; reformer tubes; inlet header and outlet manifold systems; waste heat systems, heat exchangers, piping. 10 refs.

  14. Negotiating a space to teach science: Stories of community conversation and personal process in a school reform effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker, Heidi Bulmahn

    This is a qualitative study about elementary teachers in a school district who are involved in a science curricular reform effort. The teachers attempted to move from textbook-based science teaching to a more inquiry and process-based approach. I specifically explore how teachers negotiate their place within changes in pedagogy and curriculum and how this negotiation is enacted in the space of a teacher's own classroom. The account developed here is based on a two-year study. Presented are descriptions, analysis, and my own interpretations of teaching and conversations as teachers spoke with one another, with me and with children as they tried out the new science curriculum and pedagogies. I conclude that people interested in school reform should consider the following ideas as they work with teachers to implement pedagogical and curricular changes. (1) Teaching is a personal/individual process that takes place within a larger community. This leads to a complex context for working and making decisions. (2) Despite feeling that changes were imposed, teachers make the curriculum work for the needs in their own classroom. (3) Change is a process that teachers view as part of their work. Teachers expect that they will adapt curriculum and make it work for the children in their classes and for themselves. I suggest that those who advocate various reform efforts in teaching and curriculum should consider the spaces that teachers create as they become a part of the change process including intellectual, physical, and emotional ones. In my stories I assert: teachers create their own spaces for making changes in pedagogy and curriculum and they do this as a complex negotiation of external demands (such as their community, relationships with colleagues, and state standards) and their own values and interpretations. The ways that teachers implement the change process is a personal one, and because it is a personal process, school reform efforts largely depend on the teachers

  15. Efficient utilization of greenhouse gases in a gas-to-liquids process combined with CO2/steam-mixed reforming and Fe-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chundong; Jun, Ki-Won; Ha, Kyoung-Su; Lee, Yun-Jo; Kang, Seok Chang

    2014-07-15

    Two process models for carbon dioxide utilized gas-to-liquids (GTL) process (CUGP) mainly producing light olefins and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthetic oils were developed by Aspen Plus software. Both models are mainly composed of a reforming unit, an F-T synthesis unit and a recycle unit, while the main difference is the feeding point of fresh CO2. In the reforming unit, CO2 reforming and steam reforming of methane are combined together to produce syngas in flexible composition. Meanwhile, CO2 hydrogenation is conducted via reverse water gas shift on the Fe-based catalysts in the F-T synthesis unit to produce hydrocarbons. After F-T synthesis, the unreacted syngas is recycled to F-T synthesis and reforming units to enhance process efficiency. From the simulation results, it was found that the carbon efficiencies of both CUGP options were successfully improved, and total CO2 emissions were significantly reduced, compared with the conventional GTL processes. The process efficiency was sensitive to recycle ratio and more recycle seemed to be beneficial for improving process efficiency and reducing CO2 emission. However, the process efficiency was rather insensitive to split ratio (recycle to reforming unit/total recycle), and the optimum split ratio was determined to be zero.

  16. Design Thinking: A Process for Developing and Implementing Lasting District Reform. Knowledge Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, challenges such as how to sustain district reform, how to build a leadership pipeline, how to create an integrated project, or how to best intervene with struggling students would be resolved with a team of "experts" developing a solution in isolation of the stakeholders involved. By contrast, design thinking centers on the…

  17. Policy-Making for Education Reform in Developing Countries: Contexts and Processes. Volume 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, James H.; Cummings, William K.

    2005-01-01

    Here is the first book in a two-volume series designed to help those working, or preparing to work, as education change agents in developing countries. Each volume describes an approach to education reform that is: (1) Political and empirical; (2) A series of choices rather than a single best approach; (3) Implementation-centered; and (4)…

  18. Modular pebble-bed reactor reforming plant design for process heat

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, D.E.; Cowan, C.L.; Davis, C.R.; El Sheikh, K.A.; Hui, M.M.; Lipps, A.J.; Wu, T.

    1982-09-01

    This report describes a preliminary design study of a Modular Pebble-Bed Reactor System Reforming (MPB-R) Plant. The system uses one pressure vessel for the reactor and a second pressure vessel for the components, i.e., reformer, steam generator and coolant circulator. The two vessels are connected by coaxial pipes in an arrangement known as the side-by-side (SBS). The goal of the study is to gain an understanding of this particular system and to identify any technical issues that must be resolved for its application to a modular reformer plant. The basic conditions for the MPB-R were selected in common with those of the current study of the MRS-R in-line prismatic fuel concept, specifically, the module core power of 250 MWt, average core power density of 4.1 w/cc, low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel with a /sup 235/U content of 20% homogeneously mixed with thorium, and a target burnup of 80,000 MWD/MT. Study results include the pebble-bed core neutronics and thermal-hydraulic calculations. Core characteristics for both the once-through-then-out (OTTO) and recirculation of fuel sphere refueling schemes were developed. The plant heat balance was calculated with 55% of core power allotted to the reformer.

  19. Efficient hydrogen production from ethanol and glycerol by vapour-phase reforming processes with new cobalt-based catalysts.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Evandro Brum; de la Piscina, Pilar Ramírez; Homs, Narcís

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate biohydrogen production from biofuel-reforming processes using new multi-component bulk-type cobalt-based catalysts. The addition of different components to improve the catalytic performance was studied. Monometallic cobalt catalyst and catalysts containing Ru (ca. 1%) and/or Na (ca. 0.5%) were characterized and tested in the 623-673 K temperature range in ethanol steam reforming (ESR) with a steam/carbon ratio (S/C) of 3. The catalysts showed a high performance for hydrogen production and, except for H(2) and CO(2), only small amounts of by-products were obtained, depending on the temperature and the catalyst used. The catalyst containing both Ru and Na (Co-Ru(Na)) showed the best catalytic behavior in ESR. It operated stably for at least 12 days under cycles of oxidative steam reforming of glycerol/ethanol mixtures (S/C=2) and activation under O(2).

  20. Reforming Science: Structural Reforms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Science has a critical role to play in addressing humanity's most important challenges in the twenty-first century. However, the contemporary scientific enterprise has developed in ways that prevent it from reaching maximum effectiveness and detract from the appeal of a research career. To be effective, the methodological and culture reforms discussed in the accompanying essay must be accompanied by fundamental structural reforms that include a renewed vigorous societal investment in science and scientists. PMID:22184420

  1. Non-catalytic recuperative reformer

    SciTech Connect

    Khinkis, Mark J.; Kozlov, Aleksandr P.; Kurek, Harry

    2015-12-22

    A non-catalytic recuperative reformer has a flue gas flow path for conducting hot flue gas from a thermal process and a reforming mixture flow path for conducting a reforming mixture. At least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path is embedded in the flue gas flow path to permit heat transfer from the hot flue gas to the reforming mixture. The reforming mixture flow path contains substantially no material commonly used as a catalyst for reforming hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., nickel oxide, platinum group elements or rhenium), but instead the reforming mixture is reformed into a higher calorific fuel via reactions due to the heat transfer and residence time. In a preferred embodiment, extended surfaces of metal material such as stainless steel or metal alloy that are high in nickel content are included within at least a portion of the reforming mixture flow path.

  2. Health Care Reform: Out Greatest Opportunity...Ever!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keigher, Sharon M.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses inevitability of health care reform in United States, considers the reform process itself, and explains the plan of the President's Task Force on National Health Care Reform. Also considers the prospects for Congressional response to reform proposals. (NB)

  3. MPC improves reformer control

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, C.S.; Noh, K.K.; Yi, S.; Kim, J.S.; Song, H.K.; Hyun, J.C.

    1995-04-01

    A model predictive control strategy was applied to a synthesis gas reformer of Samsung-BP Chemicals in Korea that produces carbon monoxide and hydrogen from naphtha. A strongly endothermic reaction occurs in a catalytic reformer, and reformer outlet temperature is considered to have the most significant effect on product composition. The newly developed reformer is known to be a cost-effective process operating at high reaction temperatures and low steam-to-carbon ratio, but its drawback is temperature control difficulty due to the use of offgas as a part of the fuel. Without smooth control of the reformer outlet temperature, stable operation of the downstream separation units cannot be expected. Therefore, it is a great challenge to apply a model predictive control technique for tight control of reformer outlet temperature. The paper describes model predictive control, the process advanced control project, computer system architecture, analysis of operating condition, control structure, sampling rate, and disturbance estimation.

  4. Reformation of tissue balls from tentacle explants of coral Goniopora lobata: self-organization process and response to environmental stresses.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qiongxuan; Liu, Tao; Tang, Xianming; Dong, Bo; Guo, Huarong

    2017-02-01

    Coral has strong regeneration ability, which has been applied for coral production and biodiversity protection via tissue ball (TB) culture. However, the architecture, morphological processes, and effects of environmental factors on TB formation have not been well investigated. In this study, we first observed TB formation from the cutting tentacle of scleractinia coral Goniopora lobata and uncovered its inner organization and architecture by confocal microscopy. We then found that the cutting tentacle TB could self-organize and reform a solid TB (sTB) in the culture media. Using chemical drug treatment and dissection manipulation approaches, we demonstrated that the mechanical forces for bending and rounding of the cutting fragments came from the epithelial cells, and the cilia of epithelial cell played indispensable roles for the rounding process. Environmental stress experiments showed that high temperature, not CO2-induced acidification, affected TB and sTB formation. However, the combination of high temperature and acidification caused additional severe effects on sTB reformation. Our studies indicate that coral TB has strong regeneration ability and therefore could serve as a new model to further explore the molecular mechanism of TB formation and the effects of environmental stresses on coral survival and regeneration.

  5. Reforming with polymetallic catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, W.C. Jr.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes a process for catalytically reforming, with hydrogen, a hydrocarbon naphtha feed at reforming conditions, the improvement comprising contacting the naphtha feed, and hydrogen, with a halogenated, supported platinum-rhenium catalyst promoted with iridium agglomerated to exhibit a crystallinity greater than 50 percent, as measured by X-ray.

  6. Property rights and water markets in Australia: An evolutionary process toward institutional reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pigram, John J.

    1993-04-01

    In the past decade far-reaching reforms have taken place in the Australian water industry. Extensive restructuring of water administration has been accompanied by increased evidence of willingness by public agencies to consider alternative institutional arrangements to the traditional regulatory approach to water allocation and use. In irrigated agriculture, a market-based system linked to enforceable property rights to water is seen as preferable to rule-based management of water resources. However, significant social and economic considerations and political realities constrain the unfettered operation of water markets. The challenge facing the irrigation industry in Australia is to put in place institutional arrangements which reflect the most appropriate mix of incentive-based and regulatory mechanisms for water management.

  7. The role of strategic health planning processes in the development of health care reform policies: a comparative study of Eritrea, Mozambique and Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Green, Andrew; Collins, Charles; Stefanini, Angelo; Ferrinho, Paulo; Chapman, Glyn; Hagos, Besrat; Adams, Yussuf; Omar, Mayeh

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on comparative analysis of health planning and its relationship with health care reform in three countries, Eritrea, Mozambique and Zimbabwe. The research examined strategic planning in each country focusing in particular on its role in developing health sector reforms. The paper analyses the processes for strategic planning, the values that underpin the planning systems, and issues related to resources for planning processes. The resultant content of strategic plans is assessed and not seen to have driven the development of reforms; whilst each country had adopted strategic planning systems, in all three countries a more complex interplay of forces, including influences outside both the health sector and the country, had been critical forces behind the sectoral changes experienced over the previous decade. The key roles of different actors in developing the plans and reforms are also assessed. The paper concludes that a number of different conceptions of strategic planning exist and will depend on the particular context within which the health system is placed. Whilst similarities were discovered between strategic planning systems in the three countries, there are also key differences in terms of formality, timeframes, structures and degrees of inclusiveness. No clear leadership role for strategic planning in terms of health sector reforms was discovered. Planning appears in the three countries to be more operational than strategic.

  8. One Teacher's Identity, Emotions, and Commitment to Change: A Case Study into the Cognitive-Affective Processes of a Secondary School Teacher in the Context of Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Veen, Klaas; Sleegers, Peter; van de Ven, Piet-Hein

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a cognitive social-psychological theoretical framework on emotions, derived from Richard Lazarus, to understand how teachers' identity can be affected in a context of reforms. The emphasis of this approach is on the cognitive-affective processes of individual teachers, enabling us to gain a detailed understanding of what…

  9. The Ghosts of Higher Education Reform: On the Organisational Processes Surrounding Policy Borrowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brøgger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The Bologna Process is one of the most extensive examples of policy borrowing processes. Based on qualitative data, this article argues in favour of studying part of this process as "global smallness", centring on the organisational effects of the implementation of a globalised curriculum. Through Derrida's notion on hauntology,…

  10. Reform, Inequalities of Process and the Transformative Potential of Communities of Practice in the Pre-School Sector of England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Donald

    2011-01-01

    The integration of care and education across pre-school sectors of several European countries is currently a key policy priority. In England this necessitates reform aimed at re-modelling a traditionally hierarchical and divided workforce. Drawing on research with early years professionals, this article explores the micro-politics of reform with a…

  11. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations of hydrogen production from the combined processes of dimethyl ether steam reforming and partial oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semelsberger, Troy A.; Borup, Rodney L.

    Thermodynamic analyses of producing a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed from the combined processes of dimethyl ether (DME) partial oxidation and steam reforming were investigated as a function of oxygen-to-carbon ratio (0.00-2.80), steam-to-carbon ratio (0.00-4.00), temperature (100 °C-600 °C), pressure (1-5 atm) and product species. Thermodynamically, dimethyl ether processed with air and steam generates hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds; however, the hydrogen concentration is less than that for pure DME steam reforming. Results of the thermodynamic processing of dimethyl ether indicate the complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide for temperatures greater than 200 °C, oxygen-to-carbon ratios greater than 0.00 and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure (P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure has negligible effects on the hydrogen content. Thermodynamically, dimethyl ether can produce concentrations of hydrogen and carbon monoxide of 52% and 2.2%, respectively, at a temperature of 300 °C, and oxygen-to-carbon ratio of 0.40, a pressure of 1 atm and a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.50. The order of thermodynamically stable products (excluding H 2, CO, CO 2, DME, NH 3 and H 2O) in decreasing mole fraction is methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol and methyl-ethyl ether; trace amounts of formaldehyde, formic acid and methanol are observed. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide are also thermodynamically favored products. Ammonia is favored at low temperatures in the range of oxygen-to-carbon ratios of 0.40-2.50 regardless of the steam-to-carbon ratio employed. The maximum ammonia content (i.e., 40%) occurs at an oxygen-to-carbon ratio of 0.40, a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.00 and a temperature of 100 °C. Hydrogen cyanide is favored at high temperatures and low oxygen-to-carbon ratios with a maximum of 3.18% occurring at an oxygen-to-carbon ratio of 0.40 and a steam

  12. Regional Higher Education Reform Initiatives in Africa: A Comparative Analysis with the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woldegiorgis, Emnet Tadesse; Jonck, Petronella; Goujon, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Europe's Bologna Process has been identified as a pioneering approach in regional cooperation with respect to the area of higher education. To address the challenges of African higher education, policymakers are recommending regional cooperation that uses the Bologna Process as a model. Based on these recommendations, the African Union Commission…

  13. Acquisition Reform: DOD Should Streamline Its Decision-Making Process for Weapon Systems to Reduce Inefficiencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    a more streamlined milestone decision process for some classified programs. Commercial companies we examined—Boeing, Caterpillar , Cummins, Honda...two months to complete the milestone decision process. Commercial companies we examined—Boeing, Caterpillar , Cummins, Honda, and Motorola... Caterpillar Inc. ( Caterpillar ), a leading manufacturer of construction and mining equipment, diesel and natural gas engines, and industrial gas

  14. The production of pure pressurised hydrogen by the reformer-steam iron process in a fixed bed reactor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestl, Stephan; Voitic, Gernot; Lammer, Michael; Marius, Bernhard; Wagner, Julian; Hacker, Viktor

    2015-04-01

    In this paper a fixed bed chemical looping process for the decentralised production of pure pressurised hydrogen for fuel cell applications is described. CH4 is converted to a syngas using conventional steam reforming. The syngas is directly used for the reduction of an iron based oxygen carrier. A consecutive oxidation step using steam leads to the formation of pure pressurised hydrogen. A thermodynamic analysis was performed in order to investigate feasible conditions for the syngas generation and reduction step. Experiments using pure hydrogen as well as an artificial syngas mixture showed the feasibility of the process for the production of pressurised hydrogen. A stable hydrogen production at a pressure of 8-11 bar(g) was achieved and only minor impurities of 700 ppm of carbon dioxide but no signs of carbon monoxide were detected in the produced hydrogen. Although the active surface decreased from 7.5 m2 g-1 to 0.9 m2 g-1 only moderate losses of reactivity were measured in the fixed bed reactor. Thermogravimetric analysis showed a loss of 9% of reactive material over nine cycles, presumably due to sintering effects.

  15. Reforming catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Givens, E.N.; Plank, C.J.; Rosinski, E.J.

    1980-03-04

    Crystalline aluminosilicate zeolites are mixed with conventional reforming catalysts to produce new catalytic compositions with high catalytic activity and selectivity and excellent aging characteristics. These new catalytic compositions may be utilized alone or in conjunction with conventional reforming catalysts. The acidic activity of the total catalyst system is controlled within defined limits. When so controlled the utility of these catalyst systems in reforming hydrocarbon mixtures is to reduce the C1 and C2 concentrations in reformer gas product, while increasing the C3 and C4 concentrations and maintaining high liquid yield at high octane numbers.

  16. Reformer Fuel Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suder, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Today's form of jet engine power comes from what is called a gas turbine engine. This engine is on average 14% efficient and emits great quantities of green house gas carbon dioxide and air pollutants, Le. nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides. The alternate method being researched involves a reformer and a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Reformers are becoming a popular area of research within the industry scale. NASA Glenn Research Center's approach is based on modifying the large aspects of industry reforming processes into a smaller jet fuel reformer. This process must not only be scaled down in size, but also decrease in weight and increase in efficiency. In comparison to today's method, the Jet A fuel reformer will be more efficient as well as reduce the amount of air pollutants discharged. The intent is to develop a 10kW process that can be used to satisfy the needs of commercial jet engines. Presently, commercial jets use Jet-A fuel, which is a kerosene based hydrocarbon fuel. Hydrocarbon fuels cannot be directly fed into a SOFC for the reason that the high temperature causes it to decompose into solid carbon and Hz. A reforming process converts fuel into hydrogen and supplies it to a fuel cell for power, as well as eliminating sulfur compounds. The SOFC produces electricity by converting H2 and CO2. The reformer contains a catalyst which is used to speed up the reaction rate and overall conversion. An outside company will perform a catalyst screening with our baseline Jet-A fuel to determine the most durable catalyst for this application. Our project team is focusing on the overall research of the reforming process. Eventually we will do a component evaluation on the different reformer designs and catalysts. The current status of the project is the completion of buildup in the test rig and check outs on all equipment and electronic signals to our data system. The objective is to test various reformer designs and catalysts in our test rig to determine the most

  17. When Process Becomes Policy: The Paradox of Kentucky State Reform for Exemplary Teachers of Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Shelby A.; McIver, Monette C.

    1999-01-01

    An exemplary teacher who perfected portfolio writing techniques with his seventh-graders fears that abandoning KIRIS (Kentucky Instructional Results Information System) for a more conventional testing system will discourage students' riskier ventures. Talented teachers must balance teaching writing as an artistic process with meeting concrete…

  18. The Bologna Process as a Reform Initiative in Higher Education in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucin, Pero; Prijic Samarzija, Snjezana

    2011-01-01

    In the past decade, the Croatian higher education system has been under intensive transformation, one mostly driven by an increased demand for postsecondary education and by the process of Croatia's accession to the European Union. Although there had already been a constant need and pressure for the transformation of tertiary education…

  19. Reform of the EIA process in Indonesia: improving the role of public involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Purnama, Dadang

    2003-07-01

    The implementation of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) as a planning tool has been utilised for a relatively long time in Indonesia. It was introduced formally through the Act No. 4/1982. Supporting regulation was established in 1986 when Government Regulation No. 29 was enacted. After developing the EIA system for 14 years, Indonesia finally recognized the importance of emphasizing public involvement in the EIA guidelines of 2000. EIA in the previous Indonesian regulations, i.e. Regulation No. 29/1986 and No. 51/1993, did not have provisions for direct public involvement. The Indonesian Government Regulation No. 27/1999 is currently accommodating the above issue. Guidelines for public announcement and public involvement have been introduced in a decree issued by the Head of Indonesia's Environmental Impact Management Agency No. KepDal 08/2000. This was officially enacted on 7 November 2000 in response to the demand for more public involvement, an issue that was ambiguous in the previous legislation. This paper discusses: the implementation of the new guidelines; what has been achieved; and the challenges during implementation. While the paper focuses its review on the Indonesian EIA system, Indonesia's experience is relevant to many other developing countries that are starting to adopt public involvement in their decision-making processes.

  20. 2009 PILOT SCALE FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING TESTING USING THE THOR (THERMAL ORGANIC REDUCTION) PROCESS: ANALYTICAL RESULTS FOR TANK 48H ORGANIC DESTRUCTION - 10408

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.; Jantzen, C.; Burket, P.; Crawford, C.; Daniel, G.; Aponte, C.; Johnson, C.

    2009-12-28

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) must empty the contents of Tank 48H, a 1.3 million gallon Type IIIA HLW storage tank, to return this tank to service. The tank contains organic compounds, mainly potassium tetraphenylborate that cannot be processed downstream until the organic components are destroyed. The THOR{reg_sign} Treatment Technologies (TTT) Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) technology, herein after referred to as steam reforming, has been demonstrated to be a viable process to remove greater than 99.9% of the organics from Tank 48H during various bench scale and pilot scale tests. These demonstrations were supported by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) and the Department of Energy (DOE) has concurred with the SRR recommendation to proceed with the deployment of the FBSR technology to treat the contents of Tank 48H. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed and proved the concept with non-radioactive simulants for SRR beginning in 2003. By 2008, several pilot scale campaigns had been completed and extensive crucible testing and bench scale testing were performed in the SRNL Shielded Cells using Tank 48H radioactive sample. SRNL developed a Tank 48H non-radioactive simulant complete with organic compounds, salt, and metals characteristic of those measured in a sample of the radioactive contents of Tank 48H. FBSR Pilot Scaled Testing with the Tank 48H simulant has demonstrated the ability to remove greater than 98% of the nitrites and greater than 99.5% of the nitrates from the Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily alkali carbonate. The alkali carbonate is soluble and, thus, amenable to pumping as a liquid to downstream facilities for processing. The FBSR technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration (ESTD) pilot scale steam reformer at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. Additional ESTD tests were completed in 2008 and in 2009 that further demonstrated the

  1. Evaluate reformer performance at a glance

    SciTech Connect

    Nag, A.

    1996-02-01

    Catalytic reforming is becoming increasingly important in replacing octane lost as the removal of lead from worldwide gasoline pools continues. A method has been developed that can quickly evaluate the performance of any catalytic reformer. The catalytic naphtha reforming process primarily involves three well-known reactions. These are aromatization of naphthenes, cyclization of paraffins and hydrocracking of paraffins. Hydrogen is produced in the process of aromatization and dehydrocyclization of paraffins. Reformer performance is normally evaluated with a reformate analysis (PONA) and yield of C{sub 5{sup +}} reformate. This method of quick evaluation of reformer performance is based upon the main assumption that the increase in hydrocarbon moles in the process is equal to the number of C{single_bond}C bond ruptures and one mole of hydrogen is absorbed to saturate the same. This new method calculates aromatization efficiency, paraffin conversion, aromatic selectivity and finally the paraffin, naphthene and aromatic content of C{sub 5{sup +}} reformate.

  2. Challenges of Standards-Based Reform: The Example of California's Science Content Standards and Textbook Adoption Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchini, Julie A.; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2003-01-01

    Debates the strengths and limitations of standards-based science education reform in the United States. Examines California science content standards and critiques it and the ways that such standards narrowly frame science education for the state's teachers and students. Suggests awareness of the challenges in using standards to achieve education…

  3. The School-to-College Transition in the Context of Educational Reform: Student Retention and the State Policy Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, John F.; Petrosko, Joseph; Taylor, Hal

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of state-level educational reform in Kentucky on college student retention. By tracking the educational progress of students who graduated from high school in a large school district and who subsequently enrolled in a research university in the same metropolitan area, the study reveals that the accountability…

  4. Reforming of sulfur-containing charge stock

    SciTech Connect

    McHale, W.D.; Schoennagel, H.

    1981-06-30

    A process is disclosed for reforming a hydrocarbon charge under reforming conditions in a reforming zone wherein added sulfur is introduced into said zone to counteract excessive hydrocracking of said charge utilizing a catalyst consisting essentially of a minor proportion of platinum on a support and a minor proportion of iridium on a separate support.

  5. General Education Reform: Opportunities for Institutional Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuess, Scott M., Jr.; Mitchell, Nancy D.

    2011-01-01

    General education reform provides strategic opportunities for departments. This article analyzes reform at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, illustrating how departments could use the reform process to clarify their strategic planning, align with institutional goals, and steer the university closer to departmental objectives. (Contains 1 table.)

  6. Chile's health sector reform: lessons from four reform periods.

    PubMed

    de la Jara, J J; Bossert, T

    1995-01-01

    This paper applies an interdisciplinary approach to analyze the process of health reform in four significant periods in Chilean history: (1) the consolidation of state responsibility for public health in the 1920s, (2) the creation of the state-run National Health Service in the 1950s, (3) the decentralization of primary care and privatization of health insurance in the 1980s, and (4) the strengthening of the mixed public-private market in the 1990s. Building on the authors' separate disciplines, the paper examines the epidemiological, political and economic contexts of these reforms to test simple hypotheses about how these factors shape reform adoption and implementation. The analysis underlines: (1) the importance of epidemiological data as an impetus to public policy; (2) the inhibiting role of economic recession in adoption and implementation of reforms: and (3) the importance of the congruence of reforms with underlying political ideology in civil society. The paper also tests several hypotheses about the reform processes themselves, exploring the role of antecedents, interest groups, and consensus-building in the policy process. It found that incremental processes building on antecedent trends characterize most reform efforts. However, interest group politics and consensus building were found to be complex processes that are not easily captured by the simple hypotheses that were tested. The interdisciplinary approach is found to be a promising form of analysis and suggests further theoretical and empirical issues to be explored.

  7. Public health law reform.

    PubMed

    Gostin, L O

    2001-09-01

    Public health law reform is necessary because existing statutes are outdated, contain multiple layers of regulation, and are inconsistent. A model law would define the mission and functions of public health agen cies, provide a full range of flexible powers, specify clear criteria and procedures for activities, and provide protections for privacy and against discrimination. The law reform process provides an opportunity for public health agencies to draw attention to their resource needs and achievements and to form ties with constituency groups and enduring relations with the legislative branch of government. Ultimately, the law should become a catalyst, rather than an impediment, to reinvigorating the public health system.

  8. Public Health Law Reform

    PubMed Central

    Gostin, Lawrence O.

    2001-01-01

    Public health law reform is necessary because existing statutes are outdated, contain multiple layers of regulation, and are inconsistent. A model law would define the mission and functions of public health agencies, provide a full range of flexible powers, specify clear criteria and procedures for activities, and provide protections for privacy and against discrimination. The law reform process provides an opportunity for public health agencies to draw attention to their resource needs and achievements and to form ties with constituency groups and enduring relations with the legislative branch of government. Ultimately, the law should become a catalyst, rather than an impediment, to reinvigorating the public health system. PMID:11527757

  9. Papers on Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Open Court Publishing Co., La Salle, IL.

    The following papers collected in this publication were presented for discussion at the Open Court Editorial Advisory Board Meeting in 1970. "Testing, Grades, Standards" by Jacques Barzun discusses the relationship between these three elements and the process of education and of performance evaluation. In "The Limits of Reform in Education" James…

  10. Computers and School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Ernest; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses ways in which computers can be used to help school reform by shifting the emphasis from information transmission to information processing. Highlights include creating learning communities that extend beyond the classroom; educationally oriented computer networks; Professional Development Schools for curriculum development; and new…

  11. Slab reformer

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, F.R.; DeZubay, E.A.; Murray, A.P.; Vidt, E.J.

    1984-02-07

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations are disclosed particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant. 14 figs.

  12. Slab reformer

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, Francis R.; DeZubay, Egon A.; Murray, Alexander P.; Vidt, Edward J.

    1985-03-12

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot combustion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  13. Slab reformer

    DOEpatents

    Spurrier, Francis R.; DeZubay, Egon A.; Murray, Alexander P.; Vidt, Edward J.

    1984-02-07

    Slab-shaped high efficiency catalytic reformer configurations particularly useful for generation of fuels to be used in fuel cell based generation systems. A plurality of structures forming a generally rectangular peripheral envelope are spaced about one another to form annular regions, an interior annular region containing a catalytic bed and being regeneratively heated on one side by a hot comubstion gas and on the other side by the gaseous products of the reformation. An integrally mounted combustor is cooled by impingement of incoming oxidant.

  14. Health care reforms.

    PubMed

    Marušič, Dorjan; Prevolnik Rupel, Valentina

    2016-09-01

    In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country.

  15. Health care reforms

    PubMed Central

    Prevolnik Rupel, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In large systems, such as health care, reforms are underway constantly. The article presents a definition of health care reform and factors that influence its success. The factors being discussed range from knowledgeable personnel, the role of involvement of international experts and all stakeholders in the country, the importance of electoral mandate and governmental support, leadership and clear and transparent communication. The goals set need to be clear, and it is helpful to have good data and analytical support in the process. Despite all debates and experiences, it is impossible to clearly define the best approach to tackle health care reform due to a different configuration of governance structure, political will and state of the economy in a country. PMID:27703543

  16. Rethinking Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, James C.

    2010-01-01

    As president of Miami University of Ohio from 1996 until 2006, James C. Garland redefined the public institution as a "semi-private" university by implementing the same tuition for both in-state and out-of-state students. Students from Ohio with need received large scholarships--but those who could afford to pay more did so. The reform,…

  17. Reform Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoloye, E. Ayotunde

    1981-01-01

    Focuses on issues in evaluating educational change. Topics include what should be evaluated, management of reform and evaluation, evaluation as a threat, attitudes toward evaluation, factors in drawing up an evaluation plan, management information systems, evaluation techniques, financing evaluation, and indicators of success. (KC)

  18. Toothless Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smarick, Andy

    2010-01-01

    To many education reformers, the passage of the federal government's massive stimulus plan, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), appeared to be a final bright star falling into alignment. The ARRA seemed to complete the constellation: an astounding $100 billion of new federal funds--nearly twice the annual budget of the U.S.…

  19. Integration of Methane Steam Reforming and Water Gas Shift Reaction in a Pd/Au/Pd-Based Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Process Intensification

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Dominguez, Bernardo; Mardilovich, Ivan P.; Ma, Liang-Chih; Ma, Rui; Dixon, Anthony G.; Kazantzis, Nikolaos K.; Ma, Yi Hua

    2016-01-01

    Palladium-based catalytic membrane reactors (CMRs) effectively remove H2 to induce higher conversions in methane steam reforming (MSR) and water-gas-shift reactions (WGS). Within such a context, this work evaluates the technical performance of a novel CMR, which utilizes two catalysts in series, rather than one. In the process system under consideration, the first catalyst, confined within the shell side of the reactor, reforms methane with water yielding H2, CO and CO2. After reforming is completed, a second catalyst, positioned in series, reacts with CO and water through the WGS reaction yielding pure H2O, CO2 and H2. A tubular composite asymmetric Pd/Au/Pd membrane is situated throughout the reactor to continuously remove the produced H2 and induce higher methane and CO conversions while yielding ultrapure H2 and compressed CO2 ready for dehydration. Experimental results involving (i) a conventional packed bed reactor packed (PBR) for MSR, (ii) a PBR with five layers of two catalysts in series and (iii) a CMR with two layers of two catalysts in series are comparatively assessed and thoroughly characterized. Furthermore, a comprehensive 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to explore further the features of the proposed configuration. The reaction was studied at different process intensification-relevant conditions, such as space velocities, temperatures, pressures and initial feed gas composition. Finally, it is demonstrated that the above CMR module, which was operated for 600 h, displays quite high H2 permeance and purity, high CH4 conversion levels and reduced CO yields. PMID:27657143

  20. Applications of solar reforming technology

    SciTech Connect

    Spiewak, I.; Tyner, C.E.; Langnickel, U.

    1993-11-01

    Research in recent years has demonstrated the efficient use of solar thermal energy for driving endothermic chemical reforming reactions in which hydrocarbons are reacted to form synthesis gas (syngas). Closed-loop reforming/methanation systems can be used for storage and transport of process heat and for short-term storage for peaking power generation. Open-loop systems can be used for direct fuel production; for production of syngas feedstock for further processing to specialty chemicals and plastics and bulk ammonia, hydrogen, and liquid fuels; and directly for industrial processes such as iron ore reduction. In addition, reforming of organic chemical wastes and hazardous materials can be accomplished using the high-efficiency destruction capabilities of steam reforming. To help identify the most promising areas for future development of this technology, we discuss in this paper the economics and market potential of these applications.

  1. Reforming catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, W.C. Jr.; Swan, G.A.

    1991-11-19

    This patent describes a catalyst useful for reforming a naphtha feed at high severity reforming conditions. It comprises the metals, platinum, rhenium and iridium on a refractory porous inorganic oxide support, the support consisting essentially of alumina, wherein the concentration by weight of each of the metals platinum and rhenium is at least 0.1 percent and iridium at least 0.15 percent and at least one of the metals is present in a concentration of at least 0.3 percent, and the sum-total; concentration of the metals is greater than 0.9 percent, and wherein each catalyst particle contains all three of the metals platinum, rhenium and iridium. This patent also describes this composition wherein the catalyst contains from about 0.1 percent to about 3 percent of a halogen and from about 0.05 percent to about 0.02 percent sulfur.

  2. Noble metal reforming of naphtha

    SciTech Connect

    Bonacci, J.C.; Patterson, J.R.

    1981-09-29

    Conventional noble metal reforming to upgrade the octane number of petroleum naphtha is an endothermic reaction which is carried out in a series of reactors with intermediate furnace heating of the petroleum fraction being upgraded. This specification discloses a process and apparatus configuration to increase the octane number of the reformate at a minimum liquid yield loss by cooling the first reforming stage effluent and then contacting the cooled effluent with a zsm-5 type zeolite catalyst prior to the first intermediate furnace heating.

  3. Catalytic reforming catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Buss, W.C.; Kluksdahl, H.E.

    1980-12-09

    An improved catalyst, having a reduced fouling rate when used in a catalytic reforming process, said catalyst comprising platinum disposed on an alumina support wherein the alumina support is obtained by removing water from aluminum hydroxide produced as a by-product from a ziegler higher alcohol synthesis reaction, and wherein the alumina is calcined at a temperature of 1100-1400/sup 0/F so as to have a surface area of 165 to 215 square meters per gram.

  4. New model accurately predicts reformate composition

    SciTech Connect

    Ancheyta-Juarez, J.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E. )

    1994-01-31

    Although naphtha reforming is a well-known process, the evolution of catalyst formulation, as well as new trends in gasoline specifications, have led to rapid evolution of the process, including: reactor design, regeneration mode, and operating conditions. Mathematical modeling of the reforming process is an increasingly important tool. It is fundamental to the proper design of new reactors and revamp of existing ones. Modeling can be used to optimize operating conditions, analyze the effects of process variables, and enhance unit performance. Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo has developed a model of the catalytic reforming process that accurately predicts reformate composition at the higher-severity conditions at which new reformers are being designed. The new AA model is more accurate than previous proposals because it takes into account the effects of temperature and pressure on the rate constants of each chemical reaction.

  5. Teachers' Sense of Self amid Adaptation to Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Berg, G.; Schulze, S.

    2014-01-01

    Education has been subject to a process of continuous educational reforms. The aim of this study was to explore teachers' abilities to adapt to these reforms and to find out how this process of continual reform related to their identities as teachers. The study used a narrative research approach. The data for this research were based on the…

  6. Novel Reforming Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Pfefferle, Lisa D; Haller, Gary L

    2012-10-16

    Aqueous phase reforming is useful for processing oxygenated hydrocarbons to hydrogen and other more useful products. Current processing is hampered by the fact that oxide based catalysts are not stable under high temperature hydrothermal conditions. Silica in the form of structured MCM-41 is thermally a more stable support for Co and Ni than conventional high surface area amorphous silica but hydrothermal stability is not demonstrated. Carbon nanotube supports, in contrast, are highly stable under hydrothermal reaction conditions. In this project we show that carbon nanotubes are stable high activity/selectivity supports for the conversion of ethylene glycol to hydrogen.

  7. Can ICT Reform Public Agencies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Arild; Løvdal, Einar

    This study examines the reorganisation of the administration of admission to higher education in Norway, which has also included the development of a nationwide, ICT-based case handling system. This reform process was initiated out of the need to provide politicians with information for control and regulatory purposes, and the reform resulted in a centralised management information system. This system, however, has evolved into a coordinated but also partly locally delegated decision-making instrument which processes most of the applications for admission to higher education in Norway.

  8. Vocational Education and Training Reform in Estonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report on vocational education and training (VET) reform in Estonia is one of a series of country reports by the European Training Foundation on the reform process in partner countries. Chapter 1 provides basic data on the country. Chapter 2 describes the present situation and recent developments in VET. It covers main features of the…

  9. Vocational Education and Training Reform in Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report on vocational education and training (VET) reform in Poland is one of a series of country reports by the European Training Foundation on the reform process in partner countries. Chapter 1 provides basic data on the country. Chapter 2 describes the present situation and recent developments in VET. It covers main features of the…

  10. Vocational Education and Training Reform in Latvia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report on vocational education and training (VET) reform in Latvia is one of a series of country reports by the European Training Foundation on the reform process in partner countries. Chapter 1 provides basic data on the country. Chapter 2 describes the present situation and recent developments in VET. It covers main features of the…

  11. Curriculum Reform: The Crisis in Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyton, Edith

    1984-01-01

    Education currently faces a crisis in curriculum reform which presents a danger to pedagogical programs. Changes in teacher education programs should be based on research and should be accomplished by a reflective and rational process. Methods of reform are explored. (DF)

  12. Higher Education Reform in Italy: An Institutional Analysis and a First Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaira, Massimiliano

    2003-01-01

    Presents an analytical description of the recent reform process in higher education in Italy, with descriptions of the former governance and organizational structure, the reforming process and main features of the reforms instituted, and a provisional appraisal of the reforms to this point. (SLD)

  13. The Process of General Education Reform from a Faculty Perspective at a Research-Extensive University: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hachtmann, Frauke

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a theory for institutional change that explains the process and implementation of "Achievement-Centered Education" (ACE) from the faculty perspective. ACE is a new general education program at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, a public, doctoral/research-extensive institution. A constant…

  14. Lessons Learned? School Leadership and Curriculum Reform in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Siu Yin Annie

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the processes of implementing curriculum reform in schools. Specifically, it investigates how schools learn lessons from previous experiences of reform and apply them when challenged by new reforms. The context for this study is Hong Kong's New Secondary School Curriculum (NSSC), with particular reference to the subject of…

  15. Integrated solar reforming for thermochemical energy transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozenman, T.

    1987-12-01

    This report presents a design study of two reforming processes as applied to the concept of solar thermochemical energy transport. Conceptual designs were carried out for steam-methane and CO2-methane reforming plants. A solar central receiver reformer was designed as an integrated reactor with the chemical reaction tubes placed inside the receiver cavity. The two plant designs were compared for their energy efficiency and capital cost. The CO2 reforming plant design results in higher energy efficiency but requires a catalyst which is still in an experimental stage of development. A third design was performed as a modification of the steam reforming plant utilizing a Direct Contact system, in which the process steam is generated by utilizing the heat of condensation. This system resulted in the highest energy efficiency. A comparison of the capital cost of these three plant designs shows them to be equivalent within the estimation accuracy of 25 percent.

  16. China's Health Reform Update.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gordon G; Vortherms, Samantha A; Hong, Xuezhi

    2017-03-20

    China experienced both economic and epistemological transitions within the past few decades, greatly increasing demand for accessible and affordable health care. These shifts put significant pressure on the existing outdated, highly centralized bureaucratic system. Adjusting to growing demands, the government has pursued a new round of health reforms since the late 2000s; the main goals are to reform health care financing, essential drug policies, and public hospitals. Health care financing reform led to universal basic medical insurance, whereas the public hospital reform required more complex measures ranging from changes in regulatory, operational, and service delivery settings to personnel management. This article reviews these major policy changes and the literature-based evidence of the effects of reforms on cost, access, and quality of care. It then highlights the outlook for future reforms. We argue that a better understanding of the unintended consequences of reform policies and of how practitioners' and patients' interests can be better aligned is essential for reforms to succeed.

  17. Steam Hydrocarbon Cracking and Reforming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The interactive methods of steam hydrocarbon reforming and cracking of the oil and chemical industries are scrutinized, with special focus on their resemblance and variations. The two methods are illustrations of equilibrium-controlled and kinetically-controlled processes, the analysis of which involves theories, which overlap and balance each…

  18. History and Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Robert L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Features comments from Robert L. Hampel, William R. Johnson, Diane Ravitch, and David N. Plank on David Tyack and Larry Cuban's book, "Tinkering toward Utopia: A Century of Public School Reform." The book argues that educational reformers in the 20th century have attempted large-scale systemic reforms instituted from the top down. (MJP)

  19. Sputnik Reform Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Charles E.

    1985-01-01

    Educational reforms being called for in the 1980's are compared to reforms of the 1950's. The Sputnik-inspired quest for quality called for reform in the content and structure of basic subjects. Current reports say that what educators are doing in the basic subjects is ok, but they need to do more. (RM)

  20. Anchors for Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alok, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Education reforms, considering their significance, deserve better methods than mere "trial and error." This article conceptualizes a network of six anchors for education reforms: education policy, education system, curriculum, pedagogy, assessment, and teacher education. It establishes the futility to reform anchors in isolation and…

  1. School Reform Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mid-Continent Research for Education and Learning, Aurora, CO.

    This manual is designed to help schools make successful school reform a reality. It provides the background and perspectives necessary for a school constituency to understand the current climate of education reform in the United States and what is known about successful school reform. The manual also provides inquiry-based techniques for…

  2. Modern Processes of Hydrocarbon Migration and Re-Formation of Oil and Gas Fields (Based on the Results of Monitoring and Geochemical Studies)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikova, Irina; Salakhidinova, Gulmira; Nosova, Fidania; Pronin, Nikita; Ostroukhov, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Special geochemical studies of oils allowed to allocate a movable migration component of oils in the industrial oil deposits. In the field the migration component of oils varies in different parts of the field. The largest percentage of the light migration component (gas condensate of the oil) was detected in the central part of the Kama-Kinel troughs system. Monitoring of the composition of water, oil and gas (condensate light oil component) in the sedimentary cover and ni crystalline basement led to the conclusion of modern migration of hydrocarbons in sedimentary cover. This proves the existence of the modern processes of formation and reformation of oil and gas fields. This presentation is dedicated to the problem of definition of geochemical criteria of selection of hydrocarbons deposit reformation zone in the sample wells of Minibaevskaya area of Romashkinskoye field. While carrying out this work we examined 11 samples of oil from the Upper Devonian Pashiysky horizon. Four oil samples were collected from wells reckoned among the "anomalous" zones that were marked out according to the results of geophysical, oil field and geological research. Geochemical studies of oils were conducted in the laboratory of geochemistry of the Kazan (Volga-region) Federal University. The wells where the signs of hydrocarbons influx from the deep zones of the crust were recorded are considered to be "anomalous". A number of scientists connect this fact to the hypothesis about periodic influx of deep hydrocarbons to the oil deposits of Romashkinskoye field. Other researchers believe that the source rocks of the adjacent valleys sedimentary cover generate gases when entering the main zone of gas formation, which then migrate up the section and passing through the previously formed deposits of oil, change and "lighten" their composition. Regardless of the point of view on the source of the hydrocarbons, the study of the process of deposits refilling with light hydrocarbons is an

  3. Advancing tuberculosis control within reforming health systems.

    PubMed

    Weil, D E

    2000-07-01

    In developing nations, diverse health reform programs are affecting the design, financing and delivery of health care services as well as public health practice. This paper summarizes the characteristics of major reform strategies seeking to improve efficiency, equity and quality. Opportunities and risks for tuberculosis control are identified, as are responses in managing the reform transition. Recommendations are provided to advance tuberculosis control in this dynamic environment. These include participation in the planning process; demonstration of synergy between reform objectives and tuberculosis control; articulation of core functions to be protected; technical, managerial and leadership capacity-building; documentation of effects and best practices; and collaboration with those pursuing other public health priorities and reform analysis.

  4. International Perspectives on Education and Society. Volume 4, Educational Reform in International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Val D., Ed.; Yogev, Abraham, Ed.

    National educational reform must be interpreted from a broader sociopolitical vantage point. Following the introduction, "The Change Process and Educational Reform" by Val D. Rust, the four papers in part 1 are devoted primarily to conceptual issues related to educational reform. They include: (1) "Problems of Educational Reforms in a Changing…

  5. Global Citizenship and National (Re)formations: Analysis of Citizenship Education Reform in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, many European education systems have embarked on a process of education policy and curriculum reform related to citizenship education. This article explores citizenship education reform in the context of Spain. It considers how and to what extent Spain's 2006 citizenship education addressed issues of national and global…

  6. An update on catalytic reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, D.H.; Moser, M.D.; Haizmann, R.S.

    1996-10-01

    The UOP Platforming process is a catalytic reforming process in widespread use throughout the petroleum and petrochemical industries. Since the first unit went onstream in 1949, the process has become a standard feature in refineries worldwide. Over the years, significant improvements have been made in process catalysts and process design. The most recent improvement is the combination of a catalyst called R-72 with a new patented flow scheme, R-72 staged loading, which gives significantly higher yields and provides increased catalyst stability. In this article, the authors describe two types of Platforming processes and the new R-72 staged loading scheme.

  7. Road to reform

    SciTech Connect

    South, D.

    1997-04-01

    The power sector is actively exploring and pursuing the myriad opportunities that exist under the concessions and independent power plant laws recently enacted by the Brazilian legislature. While Brazil has not yet finalized the necessary implementing regulations, it has taken positive steps to reform its infrastructure, develop proactive fiscal policies and address the problem of inflation. The author goes on to discuss issues unique to the situation of Brazil as they relate to the ability of foreign companies to break into the business sector, in particular the power generation field. Many rules are in the process of change, but there still remains uncertainties which cloud the question as to the economic viability of investments in the power generation field.

  8. Strengthening health systems by health sector reforms

    PubMed Central

    Senkubuge, Flavia; Modisenyane, Moeketsi; Bishaw, Tewabech

    2014-01-01

    Background The rising burden of disease and weak health systems are being compounded by the persistent economic downturn, re-emerging diseases, and violent conflicts. There is a growing recognition that the global health agenda needs to shift from an emphasis on disease-specific approaches to strengthening of health systems, including dealing with social, environmental, and economic determinants through multisectoral responses. Methods A review and analysis of data on strengthening health sector reform and health systems was conducted. Attention was paid to the goal of health and interactions between health sector reforms and the functions of health systems. Further, we explored how these interactions contribute toward delivery of health services, equity, financial protection, and improved health. Findings Health sector reforms cannot be developed from a single global or regional policy formula. Any reform will depend on the country's history, values and culture, and the population's expectations. Some of the emerging ingredients that need to be explored are infusion of a health systems agenda; development of a comprehensive policy package for health sector reforms; improving alignment of planning and coordination; use of reliable data; engaging ‘street level’ policy implementers; strengthening governance and leadership; and allowing a holistic and developmental approach to reforms. Conclusions The process of reform needs a fundamental rather than merely an incremental and evolutionary change. Without radical structural and systemic changes, existing governance structures and management systems will continue to fail to address the existing health problems. PMID:24560261

  9. Separately supported polymetallic reforming catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Kresge, C. T.; Krishnamurthy, S.; McHale, W. D.

    1985-01-15

    There is provided, in accordance with the present invention, a catalyst composition made up of a mixture of two components, one component comprising a minor proportion of platinum and rhenium on a support and the second component comprising a minor proportion of iridium and rhenium on a separate support. A process for reforming a charge stock, such as naphtha, utilizing such catalyst is also provided.

  10. Small Schools Reform Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Beth M.; Berghoff, Beth

    2013-01-01

    This study explored complicated personal narratives of school reform generated by participants in response to a particular small schools reform initiative. Narrative data was dialogically generated in interviews with nine past participants of an urban high school conversion project planned and implemented over a span of five years toward the goal…

  11. Prison Reform and Indians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Charles

    1976-01-01

    Briefly describing the history of prison reform and the American Indian, this article argues that the "professed" humanitarian philosophy of the reformers would not have been extended to "peoples languishing in prison or sequestered on reservations had it not been expedient for the business interests of the larger society". (JC)

  12. Thinking about Tax Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boskin, Michael J.

    1985-01-01

    Providing pre-college teachers with an analysis of tax reform is the primary goal of this publication. The present tax system is both inefficient and inequitable. Three goals of tax reform proposals are detailed: (1) fairness--the dimensions of horizontal equity, or equal treatment of equals however defined, and vertical equity, reflecting the…

  13. School Reform. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue addresses school reform, focusing on accountability, attrition, public-supported private education, equitable education, and schoolwide reform. "School-Student Performance and Accountability" (Jose A. Cardenas) discusses what constitutes good performance in school; the shifting emphasis among the input, output, and…

  14. Reform Disconnection in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Allan; Qian, Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    This article examines many of the frustrations associated with implementing education reforms in mainland Chinese schools. Our basic argument is that when taken individually, many of the recent reforms are beneficial, but when parceled together and thrust hastily at schools, they are unwieldy and disconnected. We suggest that the inability of the…

  15. Educational Reform in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksit, Necmi

    2007-01-01

    There are a number of reform initiatives underway in Turkey but some of these, which are concerned with curricular and structural changes, have encountered serious difficulties. This paper begins with a brief summary of school effectiveness and school improvement research guiding many educational reforms. It then gives some information about…

  16. Steam Methane Reformation Testing for Air-Independent Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mwara, Kamwana N.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, NASA has been looking into utilizing landers that can be propelled by LOX-CH (sub 4), to be used for long duration missions. Using landers that utilize such propellants, also provides the opportunity to use solid oxide fuel cells as a power option, especially since they are able to process methane into a reactant through fuel reformation. One type of reformation, called steam methane reformation, is a process to reform methane into a hydrogen-rich product by reacting methane and steam (fuel cell exhaust) over a catalyst. A steam methane reformation system could potentially use the fuel cell's own exhaust to create a reactant stream that is hydrogen-rich, and requires less internal reforming of the incoming methane. Also, steam reformation may hold some advantages over other types of reforming, such as partial oxidation (PROX) reformation. Steam reformation does not require oxygen, while up to 25 percent can be lost in PROX reformation due to unusable CO (sub 2) reformation. NASA's Johnson Space Center has conducted various phases of steam methane reformation testing, as a viable solution for in-space reformation. This has included using two different types of catalysts, developing a custom reformer, and optimizing the test system to find the optimal performance parameters and operating conditions.

  17. Plasma catalytic reforming of methane

    SciTech Connect

    Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Rabinovich, A.; Alexeev, N.

    1998-08-01

    Thermal plasma technology can be efficiently used in the production of hydrogen and hydrogen-rich gases from methane and a variety of fuels. This paper describes progress in plasma reforming experiments and calculations of high temperature conversion of methane using heterogeneous processes. The thermal plasma is a highly energetic state of matter that is characterized by extremely high temperatures (several thousand degrees Celsius) and high degree of dissociation and substantial degree of ionization. The high temperatures accelerate the reactions involved in the reforming process. Hydrogen-rich gas (50% H{sub 2}, 17% CO and 33% N{sub 2}, for partial oxidation/water shifting) can be efficiently made in compact plasma reformers. Experiments have been carried out in a small device (2--3 kW) and without the use of efficient heat regeneration. For partial oxidation/water shifting, it was determined that the specific energy consumption in the plasma reforming processes is 16 MJ/kg H{sub 2} with high conversion efficiencies. Larger plasmatrons, better reactor thermal insulation, efficient heat regeneration and improved plasma catalysis could also play a major role in specific energy consumption reduction and increasing the methane conversion. A system has been demonstrated for hydrogen production with low CO content ({approximately} 1.5%) with power densities of {approximately} 30 kW (H{sub 2} HHV)/liter of reactor, or {approximately} 10 m{sup 3}/hr H{sub 2} per liter of reactor. Power density should further increase with increased power and improved design.

  18. Reforming Science: Methodological and Cultural Reforms

    PubMed Central

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C.

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary science has brought about technological advances and an unprecedented understanding of the natural world. However, there are signs of dysfunction in the scientific community as well as threats from diverse antiscience and political forces. Incentives in the current system place scientists under tremendous stress, discourage cooperation, encourage poor scientific practices, and deter new talent from entering the field. It is time for a discussion of how the scientific enterprise can be reformed to become more effective and robust. Serious reform will require more consistent methodological rigor and a transformation of the current hypercompetitive scientific culture. PMID:22184414

  19. Health reform through tax reform: a primer.

    PubMed

    Furman, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Tax incentives for employer-sponsored insurance and other medical spending cost about $200 billion annually and have pervasive effects on coverage and costs. This paper surveys a range of proposals to reform health care, either by adding new tax incentives or by limiting or replacing the existing tax incentives. Replacing the current tax preference for insurance with an income-related, refundable tax credit has the potential to expand coverage and reduce inefficient spending at no net federal cost. But such an approach by itself would entail substantial risks, so complementary reforms to the insurance market are essential to ensure success.

  20. Reforming Victoria's primary health and community service sector: rural implications.

    PubMed

    Alford, K

    2000-01-01

    In 1999 the Victorian primary care and community support system began a process of substantial reform, involving purchasing reforms and a contested selection process between providers in large catchment areas across the State. The Liberal Government's electoral defeat in September 1999 led to a review of these reforms. This paper questions the reforms from a rural perspective. They were based on a generic template that did not consider rural-urban differences in health needs or other differences including socio-economic status, and may have reinforced if not aggravated rural-urban differences in the quality of and access to primary health care in Victoria.

  1. Partial oxidation fuel reforming for automotive power systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, S.; Chalk, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Kumar, R.; Milliken, J.

    1999-09-07

    For widespread use of fuel cells to power automobiles in the near future, it is necessary to convert gasoline or other transportation fuels to hydrogen on-board the vehicle. Partial oxidation reforming is particularly suited to this application as it eliminates the need for heat exchange at high temperatures. Such reformers offer rapid start and good dynamic performance. Lowering the temperature of the partial oxidation process, which requires the development of a suitable catalyst, can increase the reforming efficiency. Catalytic partial oxidation (or autothermal) reformers and non-catalytic partial oxidation reformers developed by various organizations are presently undergoing testing and demonstration. This paper summarizes the process chemistries as well as recent test data from several different reformers operating on gasoline, methanol, and other fuels.

  2. Summary of Consultations on Child Care Reform = Sommaire des consultations sur la reforme des services de garde d'enfants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Community and Social Services, Toronto.

    This document contains the English and French language versions of a report summarizing the results of a public consultation process on the subject of child care reform in Ontario, Canada. The process began with province-wide distribution of a public document called "Setting the Stage" which outlined a child care reform agenda as a focus…

  3. Reforming Educational Reform: A Democratic Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, J.

    2005-05-01

    This essay examines the status of educational reform in the United States as represented by the current Bush administration's program titled "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB). Employing the techniques of critical theory and logical analysis, contemporary reform efforts are compared with other, more progressive, educational reform movements in an effort to gain perspective and conceptual "traction" as it were, in differentiating such movements. Criteria are established for the assessment and evaluation of reform movements. These are employed in judging the efficacy of NCLB's aim, content, and methods, as well as the results of its program following four years of implementation. The merits of the centrality of standardized testing, pre-ordained curricular content, and exclusively didactic teaching methodologies are criticized, along with the extra-school societal forces which ordain these and determine their prominence in the NCLB program. The essentialism adopted by NCLB is, moreover, evaluated in the light of pragmatic, phenomenological, and postmodern educational theory. Arguing that the school is always and inevitably an instrument of societal forces, interests, and groups, it is contended that these not only be acknowledged, but that avenues be formalized for a thorough going and continuous educational "conversation," to borrow Rorty's term, for an amicable resolution of the issues of education's aim(s), content, and methods.

  4. Political Processes in Prison Education; A History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Howard S.

    1996-01-01

    Political processes that shaped the introduction of Mutual Welfare Leagues in New York prisons at the turn of the century demonstrate politicians' indifference to reforms, conflicts between reformers, and the blurring of distinctions between reformers and politicians when reformers engage in political activities in order to initiate reform. (SK)

  5. Zeolites for reforming catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Kao, J.L.; Nadler, M.; Potter, M.J.; Martir, R.V.

    1991-01-22

    This patent describes a reforming catalyst exhibiting enhanced selectivity, activity, and activity maintenance. It comprises: zeolite crystals having a pH within the range of 9.4 to 10.0, wherein the pH is determined by measuring pH of supernatent liquid from a mixture of one part of the zeolite crystals with ten parts of dionized water by weight, and comprising exchangeable cations and at least one catalytically active metal selected from the group consisting of Group VII of the Periodic Table of Elements, tin and germanium. This patten also describes a process for treating zeolite to have a pH within a range effective in imparting enhanced activity, selectivity and activity maintenance to catalysts loaded onto the zeolite. The process comprising washing zeolite with an aqueous liquid in a manner so as to result with zeolite having a pH within the pH range of 9.4 to 10.0. The PH of supernatent liquid from a mixture of one part of the zeolite crystals with ten parts of dionized water by weight.

  6. Becoming Good American Schools: The Struggle for Civic Virtue in Education Reform. The Jossey-Bass Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Jeannie; Quartz, Karen Hunter; Ryan, Steve; Lipton, Martin

    Education reform based on technical and rational processes often short-circuits reform because it is uncontentious, abstract, and provides educators with no legitimate ways to question the marketplace values and policies that drive much contemporary school reform. The perspective referred to as "betterment" is an alternative reform that…

  7. Education Reforms: Lessons from History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Thomas C.

    2005-01-01

    Policy makers in education have long embraced reform. Unfortunately, education reforms have consistently been plagued by the reformers' lack of knowledge and appreciation of the history of education. Accordingly, the latest reform, touted as a panacea, meets with failure, and the search for the magic elixir begins anew. The ahistorical nature of…

  8. Advances in the chemistry of catalytic reforming of naphtha

    SciTech Connect

    Anabtawi, J.A.; Redwan, D.S.; Al-Jarallah, A.M.; Aitani, A.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Catalytic reforming of naphtha remains the key process for production of high octane gasoline and aromatics (BTX) which are used as petrochemicals feedstocks. The increased demand for these products has led refiners to investigate ways for improving the performance of the reforming process and its catalysts. Moreover, in order to comply with environmental restrictions, the reduction in lead content would require further increase in the reformate octane number. In response to these requirements, refiners and catalyst manufacturers are examining the role of the catalysts in improving the selectivity to aromatics and in octane enhancement. By understanding the chemistry and the mechanism of the reforming process, higher performance catalysts with longer life on stream and lower cost can be developed. This review covers recent developments in reforming catalysts, process reaction chemistry and mechanism. It also highlights prospective areas of research.

  9. Failure of the Croatian Higher Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurelic, Zoran; Rodin, Siniša

    2012-01-01

    The authors analyse the reasons for Croatian higher education reform since 2003, as well as its consequences. The main proposition of the paper is that the implementation of the Bologna Process in Croatia has failed due to a fundamental misunderstanding of the goals of the process, a lack of correspondence between the cycles of higher education…

  10. Catalytic reforming of naphtha fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, K.C.; Vorhis, F.H.

    1980-09-16

    Production of motor gasoline and a btx-enriched reformate by fractionating a naphtha feedstock into a mid-boiling btxprecursor fraction, a relatively high-boiling fraction and a relatively low-boiling fraction; catalytically reforming the btxprecursor fraction in a first reforming zone; combining the relatively high-boiling and low-boiling fractions and catalytically reforming the combined fractions in a second reforming zone.

  11. NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

  12. NETL - Fuel Reforming Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-12

    Research using NETL's Fuel Reforming Facilities explores catalytic issues inherent in fossil-energy related applications, including catalyst synthesis and characterization, reaction kinetics, catalyst activity and selectivity, catalyst deactivation, and stability.

  13. Defense Spending and Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-02

    Background paper on SIPRI military expenditure data Public Notice, “ Spending and Defending Defense spending has become a highly......Budget; Finance Reform; Military Spending ; Defense Spending ; Budget Cuts 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  14. On-board reforming of biodiesel and bioethanol for high temperature PEM fuel cells: Comparison of autothermal reforming and steam reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Stefan; Wörner, Antje

    2011-03-01

    In the 21st century biofuels will play an important role as alternative fuels in the transportation sector. In this paper different reforming options (steam reforming (SR) and autothermal reforming (ATR)) for the on-board conversion of bioethanol and biodiesel into a hydrogen-rich gas suitable for high temperature PEM (HTPEM) fuel cells are investigated using the simulation tool Aspen Plus. Special emphasis is placed on thermal heat integration. Methyl-oleate (C19H36O2) is chosen as reference substance for biodiesel. Bioethanol is represented by ethanol (C2H5OH). For the steam reforming concept with heat integration a maximum fuel processing efficiency of 75.6% (76.3%) is obtained for biodiesel (bioethanol) at S/C = 3. For the autothermal reforming concept with heat integration a maximum fuel processing efficiency of 74.1% (75.1%) is obtained for biodiesel (bioethanol) at S/C = 2 and λ = 0.36 (0.35). Taking into account the better dynamic behaviour and lower system complexity of the reforming concept based on ATR, autothermal reforming in combination with a water gas shift reactor is considered as the preferred option for on-board reforming of biodiesel and bioethanol. Based on the simulation results optimum operating conditions for a novel 5 kW biofuel processor are derived.

  15. Bringing Home the Bacon: The Politics of Rural School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Jonathan P.

    1983-01-01

    Self-interested political, corporate, and education leaders have undermined recent West Virginia court decisions mandating educational reform. Three implications are: (1) principals, teachers, parents, and students must be equal partners in the educaiton reform process; (2) a constituency for rural children is needed; and (3) rural educators must…

  16. Voluntary Self-Control: Education Reform as a Governmental Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pongratz, Ludwig A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper takes the vigorous political debate unleashed in Germany by the results of the PISA study as a stimulus to take a closer look at the strategic aims and effects of the current education reforms, of which the PISA study is only one example. It shows that the reform measures underpin a powerful process of normalisation. In this context,…

  17. Reforming naphtha with boron-containing large-pore zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Zones, S.I.; Holtermann, D.L.; Rainis, A.

    1992-05-19

    This patent describes a catalytic reforming process. It comprises contacting a hydrocarbonaceous feedstream under catalytic reforming conditions with a composition comprising larger-pore borosilicate zeolites having a pore size greater than 6 and less than 8 angstroms containing less that 1000 parts per million aluminum.

  18. Toward State Tax Reform: Lessons from State Tax Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Therese J.; Rio, Jessica E.

    This paper reviews recent state tax-commission recommendations in selected states and identifies critical factors for the success of state tax-reform commissions. The paper focuses on factors linked to the process of forming a commission and generating the necessary consensus to enact tough reforms. It describes and compares comprehensive studies…

  19. On the road to reform: a sociocultural interpretation of reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensah, Felicia Moore

    2011-09-01

    In this paper I discuss how reform in science education is interpreted by Barma as she recounts the story of Catherine, a grade 9 biology teacher, who reforms her teaching practices in response to a national curriculum reform in Quebec, Canada. Unlike some cases in response to reform, this case is hopeful and positive. Also in this paper, I address some familiar areas that must be considered when teachers undertake curriculum reform and how science educators may fulfill the role of facilitator and advocate in the support of teachers on the road to reform. The commentary focuses on how Barma retells the story through the lens of activity theory.

  20. Reforming Science and Mathematics Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-09-01

    Since 1991, the National Science Foundation has signed cooperative agreements with 26 states to undertake ambitious and comprehensive initiatives to reform science, mathematics, and technology education. Collectively, those agreements are known as the State Systemic Initiatives (SSI's). Two complimentary programs, The Urban and Rural Systemic Initiatives (USI's and RSI's), address similar reforms in the nation's largest cities and poorest rural areas. The SSI Program departs significantly from past NSF practice in several ways. The funding is for a longer term and is larger in amount, and the NSF is taking a more activist role, seeking to leverage state and private funds and promote the coordination of programs within states. The Initiatives also have a stronger policy orientation than previous NSF programs have had. The NSF strategy is a reflection of the growing and widely held view that meaningful reforms in schools are most likely to be achieved through state initiatives that set clear and ambitious learning goals and standards; align all of the available policy levers in support of reform; stimulate school-level initiatives; and mobilize human and financial resources to support these changes. Two premises underlie systemic reform: (1) all children can meet significantly higher standards if they are asked to do so and given adequate opportunities to master the content, and (2) state and local policy changes can create opportunities by giving schools strong and consistent signals about the changes in practice and performance that are expected. Because this is an enormous investment of Federal resources that is intended to bring about deep, systemic improvement in the nation's ability to teach science and mathematics effectively, the NSF has contracted with a consortium of independent evaluators to conduct a review of the program. The first of the SSI's were funded in 1991, sufficiently long ago to begin to formulate some initial impressions of their impact. Take

  1. Understanding University Reform in Japan through the Prism of the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Roger

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at current university reforms in Japan through two slightly different social science prisms: how social science methodologies and theories can help us understand those reforms better and how social science teaching in universities will be affected by the current reform processes. (Contains 3 tables and 7 notes.)

  2. The Adoption Features of Government Initiatives for the Curriculum Reform in Hong Kong Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Ping-Man; Cheung, Alan

    2015-01-01

    This article is one of a series of papers generated from the Curriculum Reform study in Hong Kong with the purpose of understanding the impact of government's role in the change process of the reform. This paper specifically examines the 17 government initiatives in the Curriculum Reform in terms of their adoption percentages of schools from…

  3. Understanding Educational Reform in Global Context: Economy, Ideology, and the State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Mark B., Ed.

    This book presents a set of national case studies on educational reform of higher education that views reform as processes of ideological and social struggles. The titles and authors are as follows: "Educational Reform: Social Struggles, the State and the World Economic System" (Mark B. Ginsburg, et al.); "Restructuring Education…

  4. Harmony and Disharmony in an Educational Reform Concert: Towards a Parsons' Inspired Dynamic Model of Tuning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpay, Thérèse; Luttenberg, Johan; Veugelers, Wiel; Pieters, Jules

    2013-01-01

    In large-scale educational reforms, many actors play their roles. The diversity of contributions and lack of harmonization prove to be frequently found to cause educational reform failures. Many explanations for these failures focus on differences between the actors and on differences in their contributions to the reform process. In this article,…

  5. Instructional Leadership in Indonesian School Reform: Overcoming the Problems to Move Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sofo, Francesco; Fitzgerald, Robert; Jawas, Umiati

    2012-01-01

    The paper reviews the research on instructional leadership and, through identifying problems emerging in Indonesian school reform, suggests some sustainable solutions. There are some discrepancies in the processes of Indonesia's school reform, and the objectives of the national education reform do not seem to have been reflected in the actual…

  6. Key Factors Associated with the Effective Implementation and Impact of California's Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, David D.

    This study focused on the implementation of "top-down" California state-initiated reform in secondary schools and the impact of that process on several outcomes: student academic achievement and the capacity of the organization to carry out ongoing reform. The research was part of a broader study of secondary school reform and how the…

  7. Ecuador's silent health reform.

    PubMed

    De Paepe, Pierre; Echeverría Tapia, Ramiro; Aguilar Santacruz, Edison; Unger, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Health sector reform was implemented in many Latin American countries in the 1980s and 1990s, leading to reduced public expenditure on health, limitations on public provision for disease control, and a minimum package of services, with concomitant growth of the private sector. At first sight, Ecuador appeared to follow a different pattern: no formal reform was implemented, despite many plans to reform the Ministry of Health and social health insurance. The authors conducted an in-depth review and analysis of published and gray literature on the Ecuadorian health sector from 1990 onward. They found that although neoliberal reform of the health sector was not openly implemented, many of its typical elements are present: severe reduction of public budgets, "universal" health insurance with limited coverage for targeted groups, and contracting out to private providers. The health sector remains segmented and fragmented, explaining the population's poor health status. The leftist Correa government has prepared an excellent long-term plan to unite services of the Ministry of Health and social security, but implementation is extremely slow. In conclusion, the health sector in Ecuador suffered a "silent" neoliberal reform. President Correa's progressive government intends to reverse this, increasing public budgets for health, but hesitates to introduce needed radical changes.

  8. Comprehensive Solutions for Urban Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgore, Sally

    2005-01-01

    The comprehensive school reform (CSR) models build consistency throughout a district while addressing the needs of individual schools. The high-quality CSR programs offer a most effective option for urban education reform.

  9. Evaluating Educational Reform: An International Casebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Rolland G.

    Over 400 references relating to the theory and practice of educational reform in developed and developing nations comprise this annotated bibliography. Three objectives are to (1) provide a compilation of the literature on national educational change efforts; (2) stimulate nonbiased inquiry into causes, processes, and outcomes of educational…

  10. Political Transformations and Higher Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozma, Tamas

    2008-01-01

    The Bologna process is a comprehensive concept for European higher education reforms of the 20th and 21st centuries. However, it means something else in Central European countries than it does in the rest of Europe. It has been combined in Central Europe with a major social change referred to as the "political transformation" (Johnson…

  11. On the Reform of Russian Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mironov, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    The "modernization" of Russian education is linked to the functioning of the entire social system of Russia, and reforms are proving difficult and contradictory. The use of the Unified State Examination in Russia, plus participation in the Bologna process, is causing concern about the ability of education to meet the needs of the…

  12. Chicago School Reform and the Production Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valente, Michael E.

    The passage of the Chicago (Illinois) School Reform Act introduced a model of schools called the production model. This model defines the structures of the school by its inputs, throughputs (or production process), and outputs. The production model produces quantitative reports describing the fiscal condition and the quality of output, thus…

  13. Reforming Science Education. Social Perspectives & Personal Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger W.

    Science education reform is an ongoing process. In recent years many have begun to look not only to teachers for change, but they are also insisting on the involvement of administrators, parents, community members, and some business organizations to bring about this change. This book presents facts and insights regarding science education reform…

  14. Reforming Systems: Realizing the Fourth Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Alma

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines how the work of Andy Hargreaves has significantly and substantially informed our understanding of educational change, particularly systemwide change, by drawing upon his most recent research and writing to consider what is known about the process of successful, large-scale reform. It focuses on some of the "fallacies of…

  15. Policy and Workforce Reform in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunter, Helen M.

    2008-01-01

    Current workforce reform, known as Remodelling the School Workforce, is part of an enduring policy process where there have been tensions between public and private sector structures and cultures. I show that the New Right and New Labour governments who have built and configured site based performance management over the past quarter of a century…

  16. Technology and Reform-Based Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dani, Danielle E.; Koenig, Kathleen M.

    2008-01-01

    Current reforms in science education call for the integration of digital technologies into science teaching, advocating that students learn science content and processes through technology. In this article, we provide practical examples, situated within the literature, of how digital technologies can be used to support the development and…

  17. Knowledge Regimes and Contradictions in Education Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aasen, Petter; Prøitz, Tine Sophie; Sandberg, Nina

    2014-01-01

    The article outlines a theoretical framework for understanding education policy and education reforms based on the concept of knowledge regimes. The concept refers to understandings and definitions of governance and procedural aspects, manners of governing and curriculum issues, thus it comprises contents, structures, and processes of education…

  18. Working on reform. How workers' compensation medical care is affected by health care reform.

    PubMed Central

    Himmelstein, J; Rest, K

    1996-01-01

    The medical component of workers' compensation programs-now costing over $24 billion annually-and the rest of the nation's medical care system are linked. They share the same patients and providers. They provide similar benefits and services. And they struggle over who should pay for what. Clearly, health care reform and restructuring will have a major impact on the operation and expenditures of the workers' compensation system. For a brief period, during the 1994 national health care reform debate, these two systems were part of the same federal policy development and legislative process. With comprehensive health care reform no longer on the horizon, states now are tackling both workers' compensation and medical system reforms on their own. This paper reviews the major issues federal and state policy makers face as they consider reforms affecting the relationship between workers' compensation and traditional health insurance. What is the relationship of the workers' compensation cost crisis to that in general health care? What strategies are being considered by states involved in reforming the medical component of workers compensation? What are the major policy implications of these strategies? Images p13-a p14-a p15-a p16-a p18-a p19-a p20-a p22-a p24-a PMID:8610187

  19. Prospects for Health Care Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastner, Theodore

    1992-01-01

    This editorial reviews areas of health care reform including managed health care, diagnosis-related groups, and the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale for physician services. Relevance of such reforms to people with developmental disabilities is considered. Much needed insurance reform is not thought to be likely, however. (DB)

  20. Kudzu, Rabbits, and School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodlad, John I.

    2002-01-01

    Essay on school reform argues that quality teachers are key to successful reform, not reform rhetoric by state governors and U.S. Presidents. Asserts that primary mission of schooling is to provide students an educational apprenticeship in democracy. Qualified, caring, competent teachers are essential to accomplish this mission. (PKP)

  1. The Effects of Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez-Martinez, Claudio-Rafael; Giron, Graciela; De-La-Luz-Arellano, Ivan; Ayon-Bañuelos, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Educational reform implies questions of social production and of state regulation that are the key words in educational reform, education and educational policies. These reforms are always on the political agenda of countries and involve international organisms, since education is a vehicle of development for social progress. A point of departure…

  2. Globalization, Citizenship and Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the notions of globalization as embodied in Japanese educational reforms during the 1980s and 1990s. Modern institutional discourses of educational reform in Japan have shifted over time and all of these reform movements have been constructed by particular social and historical trajectories. Generally speaking, it has been…

  3. Reformers for the production of hydrogen from methanol and alternative fuels for fuel cell powered vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this study was (i) to assess the present state of technology of reformers that convert methanol (or other alternative fuels) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell, and (ii) to identify the R D needs for developing reformers for transportation applications. Steam reforming and partial oxidation are the two basic types of fuel reforming processes. The former is endothermic while the latter is exothermic. Reformers are therefore typically designed as heat exchange systems, and the variety of designs used includes shell-and-tube, packed bed, annular, plate, and cyclic bed types. Catalysts used include noble metals and oxides of Cu, Zn, Cr, Al, Ni, and La. For transportation applications a reformer must be compact, lightweight, and rugged. It must also be capable of rapid start-up and good dynamic performance responsive to fluctuating loads. A partial oxidation reformer is likely to be better than a steam reformer based on these considerations, although its fuel conversion efficiency is expected to be lower than that of a steam reformer. A steam reformer better lends itself to thermal integration with the fuel cell system; however, the thermal independence of the reformer from the fuel cell stack is likely to yield much better dynamic performance of the reformer and the fuel cell propulsion power system. For both steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming, research is needed to develop compact, fast start-up, and dynamically responsive reformers. For transportation applications, steam reformers are likely to prove best for fuel cell/battery hybrid power systems, and partial oxidation reformers are likely to be the choice for stand-alone fuel cell power systems.

  4. Reformers for the production of hydrogen from methanol and alternative fuels for fuel cell powered vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Myles, K.M.

    1992-08-01

    The objective of this study was (i) to assess the present state of technology of reformers that convert methanol (or other alternative fuels) to a hydrogen-rich gas mixture for use in a fuel cell, and (ii) to identify the R&D needs for developing reformers for transportation applications. Steam reforming and partial oxidation are the two basic types of fuel reforming processes. The former is endothermic while the latter is exothermic. Reformers are therefore typically designed as heat exchange systems, and the variety of designs used includes shell-and-tube, packed bed, annular, plate, and cyclic bed types. Catalysts used include noble metals and oxides of Cu, Zn, Cr, Al, Ni, and La. For transportation applications a reformer must be compact, lightweight, and rugged. It must also be capable of rapid start-up and good dynamic performance responsive to fluctuating loads. A partial oxidation reformer is likely to be better than a steam reformer based on these considerations, although its fuel conversion efficiency is expected to be lower than that of a steam reformer. A steam reformer better lends itself to thermal integration with the fuel cell system; however, the thermal independence of the reformer from the fuel cell stack is likely to yield much better dynamic performance of the reformer and the fuel cell propulsion power system. For both steam reforming and partial oxidation reforming, research is needed to develop compact, fast start-up, and dynamically responsive reformers. For transportation applications, steam reformers are likely to prove best for fuel cell/battery hybrid power systems, and partial oxidation reformers are likely to be the choice for stand-alone fuel cell power systems.

  5. The Reformation of Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Louis

    The necessity for reforming public education is evidenced in part by the failures of past programs and in part by the requirements of the future. The anti-school mood of the present is forcing a more realistic evaluation of the potentiality education possesses in counteracting the disintegrative forces of family breakdown, individual deprivation,…

  6. Children and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Richard E., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of "The Future of Children" examines whether programs implemented by the federal welfare reform law accomplished the goal of reducing the number of children growing up in poor, single-parent families and whether these programs benefited children. This examination coincides with debates in Congress on the reauthorization of the…

  7. Educational Reform in Louisiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxcy, Spencer J.; Maxcy, Doreen O.

    1993-01-01

    Although education has appealed to southern governors as a catapult to historical recognition, future governors should consider Louisiana Governor Buddy Roemer's ill-fated educational reform plan for Louisiana State University's College of Education, particularly its teacher evaluation and internship program. Public education seems a low-priority…

  8. Educational Reforms in Yugoslavia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kintzer, Frederick C.

    1978-01-01

    Yugoslavia's educational system had to be completely rebuilt after World War II to ensure the nation's full and rapid competition in the postwar world. The reforms are discussed in light of the political, social, and economic structure of Yugoslavia. (Author/LBH)

  9. Mastering School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goens, George A.; Clover, Sharon I. R.

    School organizations must become responsive and flexible to address rapidly changing social, economic, and demographic conditions. Reform attempts to date have not worked because they were layered on old structures and perceptions in a fragmented, piecemeal fashion. The fundamental transformation of education that is required demands a paradigm…

  10. Prisons and Sentencing Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Jim

    1983-01-01

    Reviews current themes in sentencing and prison policy. The eight articles of this special issue discuss selective incapacitation, prison bed allocation models, computer-scored classification systems, race and gender relations, commutation, parole, and a historical review of sentencing reform. (JAC)

  11. The buzz on reform.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, E A

    1994-01-01

    Mr. Bouchard bravely travels through the maze of lingo and anagrams spawned by recent attempts at healthcare reform. This comprehensive list of terminology and definitions, which provides considerable detail and analysis, will be invaluable to anyone trying to understand current trends.

  12. Welfare Reform and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitler, Marianne P.; Gelback, Jonah B.; Hoynes, Hilary W.

    2005-01-01

    A study of the effect of state and federal welfare reforms over the period 1990-2000 on health insurance coverage and healthcare utilization by single women aged between 20-45 is presented. It is observed that Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 which replaced the Aid to Families with Dependent Children program of 1990s with…

  13. Scaling up Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Jon D. H.; Richards, Evan; Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Ding, Lin; Beichner, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    The SCALE-UP (Student-Centered Activities for Large Enrollment for Undergraduate Programs) project was developed to implement reforms designed for small classes into large physics classes. Over 50 schools across the country, ranging from Wake Technical Community College to Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), have adopted it for classes of…

  14. Reforming Underperforming High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MDRC, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Urban high schools are in trouble--high dropout rates, low student academic achievement, and graduates who are unprepared for college are just some of the disappointing indicators. However, recent research points to a select number of approaches to improving student outcomes and reforming underperforming schools--from particular ways of creating…

  15. Examining Comprehensive School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aladjem, Daniel K., Ed.; Borman, Kathryn M., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Urban school reformers for decades have tried to improve educational outcomes for underserved and disadvantaged students, with the assistance of constantly evolving federal and state policies. In recent years, education policies have shifted from targeting individual students to developing universal standards for teaching and learning, and…

  16. Educational Reform: Who Benefits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffy, Betty E.

    1994-01-01

    Uses Blau and Scott concept of "cui bono" to describe who has benefited from 1990 Kentucky Education Reform Act. In eyes of legislators, everyone would benefit, and the economically depressed state would prosper. As implementation of KERA progresses, it is becoming increasingly clear that mandated changes may be structural and may…

  17. Teenagers and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, Paul

    This report examines the extent to which welfare reform is changing adolescent behaviors that lead to welfare dependency. It begins by discussing the provisions in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 that require teenagers to stay in school and live with a parent, concluding that relatively little can be…

  18. Reform on the Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Janet; Otte, Michelle; Fair, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Aurora (Colorado) Public Schools responded to the Colorado State Model Content Standards for Reading and Writing and the accountability measures attached to the state assessments by implementing the Aurora Achievement Initiative in 2001. Originating from literature on best practices and large-scale school reform, the goal of the districtwide…

  19. Purification of reformer streams by catalytic hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Polanek, P.J.; Hooper, H.M.; Mueller, J.; Walter, M.; Emmrich, G.

    1996-12-01

    Catalytic Reforming is one of the most important processes to produce high grade motor gasolines. Feedstocks are mainly gasoline and naphtha streams from the crude oil distillation boiling in the range of 212 F to 350 F. By catalytic reforming the octane number of these gasoline components is increased from 40--60 RON to 95--100 RON. Besides isomerization and dehydrocyclization reactions mainly formation of aromatics by dehydrogenation of naphthenes occur. Thus, catalytic reformers within refineries are an important source of BTX--aromatics (benzene, toluene, xylenes). Frequently, high purity aromatics are recovered from these streams using modern extractive distillation or liquid extraction processes, e.g. the Krupp-Koppers MORPHYLANE{reg_sign} process. Aromatics product specifications, notably bromine index and acid wash color, have obligated producers to utilize clay treatment to remove trace impurities of diolefins and/or olefins. The conventional clay treatment is a multiple vessel batch process which periodically requires disposal of the spent clay in a suitable environmental manner. BASF, in close cooperation with Krupp-Koppers, has developed a continuous Selective Catalytic Hydrogenation Process (SCHP) as an alternative to clay treatment which is very efficient, cost effective and environmentally compatible. In the following the main process aspects including the process scheme catalyst and operating conditions is described.

  20. A reformer to generate hydrogen for distributed power applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, J.A.; Kumar, R.V.; West, J.; Lyon, R.K.

    1998-07-01

    The generation of power using fuel cells is a promising technology for distributed electric power generation applications. Steam reforming of fossil fuels remains the most thermodynamically efficient means for production of hydrogen. Unfortunately, current steam reforming technology achieves high efficiencies only at very large scales, and remains impractical at the small production rates needed for small- to medium-size distributed power applications. A novel reformer process, called unmixed reforming, or UMR, has been developed for the conversion of hydrocarbon fuels (natural gas, diesel, gasoline) to hydrogen. The reformer promises high thermodynamic efficiency as heat is generated right on the catalytic bed unlike conventional reforming. The controlled combustion on the reforming catalyst using a patented technology called unmixed combustion provides the heat for the endothermic reforming reaction. The reformer generates a high-purity hydrogen product stream, which can then be used by fuel cells with minimal processing. The unmixed reformer is a packed-bed consisting of finely divided nickel supported on a ceramic matrix mixed with a calcium oxide bearing matrix such as dolomite. UMR consists of three process steps. During the first step air is passed over the packed-bed reactor to oxidize the nickel. The heat released during the oxidation reaction raises the temperature of the bed and decomposes the dolomite releasing carbon dioxide into a vent gas stream. In the subsequent step fuel passed over the packed-bed reduces the NiO back to Ni and further increases the temperature. In the final step, fuel and steam react to produce hydrogen through conventional steam reforming chemistry. The calcium oxide captures some of the carbon dioxide formed during the reforming reaction and thus shifts the reforming reactions to higher conversions, hence improving the purity of the hydrogen product stream. Although product hydrogen concentrations may be 75--85%, the CO content

  1. Multi-fuel reformers for fuel cells used in transportation. Multi-fuel reformers: Phase 1 -- Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    DOE has established the goal, through the Fuel Cells in Transportation Program, of fostering the rapid development and commercialization of fuel cells as economic competitors for the internal combustion engine. Central to this goal is a safe feasible means of supplying hydrogen of the required purity to the vehicular fuel cell system. Two basic strategies are being considered: (1) on-board fuel processing whereby alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol or natural gas stored on the vehicle undergo reformation and subsequent processing to produce hydrogen, and (2) on-board storage of pure hydrogen provided by stationary fuel processing plants. This report analyzes fuel processor technologies, types of fuel and fuel cell options for on-board reformation. As the Phase 1 of a multi-phased program to develop a prototype multi-fuel reformer system for a fuel cell powered vehicle, the objective of this program was to evaluate the feasibility of a multi-fuel reformer concept and to select a reforming technology for further development in the Phase 2 program, with the ultimate goal of integration with a DOE-designated fuel cell and vehicle configuration. The basic reformer processes examined in this study included catalytic steam reforming (SR), non-catalytic partial oxidation (POX) and catalytic partial oxidation (also known as Autothermal Reforming, or ATR). Fuels under consideration in this study included methanol, ethanol, and natural gas. A systematic evaluation of reforming technologies, fuels, and transportation fuel cell applications was conducted for the purpose of selecting a suitable multi-fuel processor for further development and demonstration in a transportation application.

  2. Diesel reforming for SOFC auxiliary power units

    SciTech Connect

    Borup, R. L.; Parkinson, W. J. ,; Inbody, M. A.; Tafoya, J. I.; Guidry, D. R.

    2004-01-01

    The use of a solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to provide auxiliary power for heavy duty trucks can increase fuel efficiency and reduce emissions by reducing engine idling time. The logical fuel of choice for a truck SOFC APU is diesel fuel, as diesel is the fuel of choice for these vehicles. SOFC's that directly oxidize hydrocarbon fuels have lower power densities than do SOFC's that operate from hydrocarbon reformate, and since the SOFC is a costly component, maximizing the fuel cell power density provides benefits in reducing the overall APU system cost. Thus current SOFC APU systems require the reformation of higher hydrocarbons for the most efficient and cost effect fuel cell system. The objective of this research is to develop the technology to enable diesel reforming for SOFC truck APU applications. Diesel fuel can be reformed into a H{sub 2} and CO-rich fuel feed stream for a SOFC by autothermal reforming (ATR), a combination of catalytic partial oxidation (CPOx), and steam reforming (SR). The typical autothermal reformer is an adiabatic, heterogeneous catalytic reactor and the challenges in its design, operation and durability on diesel fuel are manifold. These challenges begin with the vaporization and mixing of diesel fuel with air and steam where fuel pyrolysis can occur and improper mixing leads to hot and cold spots, which contribute to carbon formation and incomplete fuel conversion. The exotherm of the partial oxidation reaction can generate temperatures in excess of 800 C, a temperature at which catalysts rapidly sinter, thus reducing their lifetime. The temperature rise can be reduced by the steam reforming endotherm, but this requires the addition of water along with proper design to balance the kinetic rates. Carbon formation during operation and startup can lead to catalyst deactivation and fouling of downstream components, thus reducing durability of the fuel processor. Water addition helps to reduce carbon formation, but a key issue is the source

  3. Fuel Cell/Reformers Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center is interested in developing Solid Oxide Fuel Cell for use in aerospace applications. Solid oxide fuel cell requires hydrogen rich feed stream by converting commercial aviation jet fuel in a fuel processing process. The grantee's primary research activities center on designing and constructing a test facility for evaluating injector concepts to provide optimum feeds to fuel processor; collecting and analyzing literature information on fuel processing and desulfurization technologies; establishing industry and academic contacts in related areas; providing technical support to in-house SOFC-based system studies. Fuel processing is a chemical reaction process that requires efficient delivery of reactants to reactor beds for optimum performance, i.e., high conversion efficiency and maximum hydrogen production, and reliable continuous operation. Feed delivery and vaporization quality can be improved by applying NASA's expertise in combustor injector design. A 10 KWe injector rig has been designed, procured, and constructed to provide a tool to employ laser diagnostic capability to evaluate various injector concepts for fuel processing reactor feed delivery application. This injector rig facility is now undergoing mechanical and system check-out with an anticipated actual operation in July 2004. Multiple injector concepts including impinging jet, venturi mixing, discrete jet, will be tested and evaluated with actual fuel mixture compatible with reforming catalyst requirement. Research activities from September 2002 to the closing of this collaborative agreement have been in the following areas: compiling literature information on jet fuel reforming; conducting autothermal reforming catalyst screening; establishing contacts with other government agencies for collaborative research in jet fuel reforming and desulfurization; providing process design basis for the build-up of injector rig facility and individual injector design.

  4. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    1999-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  5. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-17

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  6. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

    1999-08-24

    A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

  7. Methanol partial oxidation reformer

    DOEpatents

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Krumpelt, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A partial oxidation reformer comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell.

  8. The Beida Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kewen, Shu

    2004-01-01

    Beida is always linked with a sort of fervor, a sort of moral behavior. Although it is not a world-class university, its connections with China's contemporary and modern history make it a great school. The direct motive behind the reform and the mapping out of its system is the pursuit of a sort of efficiency, but it is possible that what will be…

  9. Thermally efficient melting and fuel reforming for glass making

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Michael S.; Painter, Corning F.; Pastore, Steven P.; Roth, Gary S.; Winchester, David C.

    1991-01-01

    An integrated process for utilizing waste heat from a glass making furnace. The hot off-gas from the furnace is initially partially cooled, then fed to a reformer. In the reformer, the partially cooled off-gas is further cooled against a hydrocarbon which is thus reformed into a synthesis gas, which is then fed into the glass making furnace as a fuel. The further cooled off-gas is then recycled back to absorb the heat from the hot off-gas to perform the initial cooling.

  10. Prevention in Poland: health care system reform.

    PubMed Central

    Sheahan, M D

    1995-01-01

    Despite the political and economic reforms that have swept Eastern Europe in the past 5 years, there has been little change in Poland's health care system. The Ministry of Health and Social Welfare has targeted preventive care as a priority, yet the enactment of legislation to meet this goal has been slow. The process of reform has been hindered by political stagnation, economic crisis, and a lack of delineation of responsibility for implementing the reforms. Despite the delays in reform, recent developments indicate that a realistic, sustainable restructuring of the health care system is possible, with a focus on preventive services. Recent proposals for change have centered on applying national goals to limited geographic areas, with both local and international support. Regional pilot projects to restructure health care delivery at a community level, local health education and disease prevention initiatives, and a national training program for primary care and family physicians and nurses are being planned. Through regionalization, an increase in responsibility for both the physician and the patient, and redefinition of primary health care and the role of family physicians, isolated local movements and pilot projects have shown promise in achieving these goals, even under the current budgetary constraints. PMID:7610217

  11. Health system reform in the United States

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, John E

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the United States adopted its first-ever comprehensive set of health system reforms in the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Implementation of the law, though politically contentious and controversial, has now reached a stage where reversal of most elements of the law is no longer feasible. The controversial portions of the law that expand affordable health insurance coverage to most U.S. citizens and legal residents do not offer any important lessons for the global community. The portions of the law seeking to improve the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of medical care as delivered in the U.S., hold lessons for the global community as all nations struggle to gain greater value from the societal resources they invest in medical care for their peoples. Health reform is an ongoing process of planning, legislating, implementing, and evaluating system changes. The U.S. set of delivery system reforms has much for reformers around the globe to assess and consider. PMID:24596894

  12. Similarities, Divergence, and Incapacity in the Bologna Process Reform Implementation by the Former-Socialist Countries: The Self-Defeat of State Regulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltys, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative analysis describes the socialist legacy in the governance of higher education within the former Soviet-led member countries that entered the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) between 2001 and 2010. In joining the EHEA these countries signed on for the Bologna Process (BP), but are not members of the European Union. The…

  13. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  14. Steam reformer with catalytic combustor

    DOEpatents

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1990-03-20

    A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

  15. [Health reform in the USA].

    PubMed

    Ganduglia, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    The United States of America passed early this year the bill enforcing their health reform. this reform aims at achieving universal insurance, cost containment and improving quality of care. The debate around this reform has been long and unable to arrive to an agreement between the parts. Even if the expansion in the medical coverage system does not reduce to zero the current degree of inaccessibility to the health system, these achievements could be considered a very important first step. Nonetheless, chances are that this reform will continue being as polemic as the negotiations previous to its conception.

  16. Health reform: a bipartisan view.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jim; Castle, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This optimistic assessment of the prospects for health reform from senior Democratic and Republican congressmen spells out several reasons why reform can be achieved early in the first year of the Obama administration. Political and policy factors suggest that President-elect Barack Obama is in a much better position than his predecessors to achieve comprehensive health reform, including universal coverage. The Obama administration will have to overcome numerous obstacles and resistance to enact reform. Still, after decades of frustration and disappointment, policymakers should set aside their differences and enable the United States to join the ranks of developed nations by making sure every American has health insurance.

  17. Final Report DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-03ER83817 Integrated Reactor Design for Hydrogen Production from Biomass-Sourced Reactants Streams Using the Aqueous-Phase Carbohydrate Reforming (ACR) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Randy D. Cortright

    2005-05-04

    In this Phase I Small Business Innovation research project Virent Energy Systems (Virent) attempted to demonstrate the feasibility of generating high yields of hydrogen by developing the appropriate reactor system for the novel liquid-phase reforming of aqueous-phase carbohydrate streams derived from biomass. In this project platinum-based catalysts were initially utilized to establish the technical feasibility of reactor design for reforming carbohydrates found in biomass to hydrogen.

  18. Steam reforming of commercial ultra-low sulphur diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boon, Jurriaan; van Dijk, Eric; de Munck, Sander; van den Brink, Ruud

    Two main routes for small-scale diesel steam reforming exist: low-temperature pre-reforming followed by well-established methane steam reforming on the one hand and direct steam reforming on the other hand. Tests with commercial catalysts and commercially obtained diesel fuels are presented for both processes. The fuels contained up to 6.5 ppmw sulphur and up to 4.5 vol.% of biomass-derived fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). Pre-reforming sulphur-free diesel at around 475 °C has been tested with a commercial nickel catalyst for 118 h without observing catalyst deactivation, at steam-to-carbon ratios as low as 2.6. Direct steam reforming at temperatures up to 800 °C has been tested with a commercial precious metal catalyst for a total of 1190 h with two catalyst batches at steam-to-carbon ratios as low as 2.5. Deactivation was neither observed with lower steam-to-carbon ratios nor for increasing sulphur concentration. The importance of good fuel evaporation and mixing for correct testing of catalysts is illustrated. Diesel containing biodiesel components resulted in poor spray quality, hence poor mixing and evaporation upstream, eventually causing decreasing catalyst performance. The feasibility of direct high temperature steam reforming of commercial low-sulphur diesel has been demonstrated.

  19. Reforming Welfare in America. Book Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Edward T., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews three books on welfare reform: "The Poverty of Welfare Reform" (Joel F. Handler); "The Politics of Welfare Reform" (Donald F. Norris, Lyke Thompson, editors); and "Living on the Edge: The Realities of Welfare in America" (Mark Robert Rank). (JOW)

  20. The politics of health sector reform in developing countries: three cases of pharmaceutical policy.

    PubMed

    Reich, M R

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the political dynamics of health sector reform in poor countries, through a comparative study of pharmaceutical policy reform in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and the Philippines. The paper first reviews five reasons why policy reform is political. It then presents three political economic models of the policy reform process: the political will, political factions, and political survival models. Next, the paper describes the three cases of national pharmaceutical policy reform, and identifies common conditions that made these reforms politically feasible. The paper's analysis suggests that health sector reform is feasible at certain definable, and perhaps predictable, political moments, especially in the early periods of new regimes. The most important and manipulable political factors are: political timing, which provides opportunities for policy entrepreneurs to introduce their ideas into public debate, and political management of group competition, which allows leaders to control the political effects of distributional consequences and protect the regime's stability. A strong and narrow political coalition improves the capacity of political leaders to resist the pressures of concentrated economic costs (both inside and outside national boundaries). The paper argues that for reform to succeed, policy-makers need effective methods to analyze relevant political conditions and shape key political factors in favor of policy reform. The method of Political Mapping is briefly introduced as a technique that can help policy-makers in analyzing and managing the political dimensions of policy reform and in improving the political feasibility of reform.

  1. Fuel Reformer Nozzle Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, Ming-Chia D.

    2003-01-01

    The fellowship work this summer will be in support of the development of a fuel mixer for a liquid fuel reformer that is upstream of a fuel cell. Tasks for the summer shall consist of design of a fuel mixer, setup of the laser diagnostics for determining the degree of fuel mixing, and testing of the fuel mixer. The fuel mixer shall be a venturi section with fuel injected at or near the throat, and an air swirler upstream of the venturi. Data to determine the performance of the mixer shall be taken using a Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA).

  2. Implementing Comprehensive Reform: Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes the challenges and practical barriers community colleges face when implementing comprehensive reform, exploring how reforms are leading to some improvements but not often scaled improvements.

  3. Climate policy: Reforming emissions trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2014-08-01

    Courageous steps are required to reform the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme. To this end, an independent carbon authority has been proposed -- this is a move in the right direction, but should be part of a much broader discussion about reforming emissions trading.

  4. Teachers' Perspectives on Evaluation Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Morgaen L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite growing momentum to reform teacher evaluation in order to increase its impact on teachers' practice and persistence in the profession, very little research examines how current reforms influence teachers' attitudes or reported instructional practices. Do the new evaluation systems lead to enhancements in teachers' instruction overall? And…

  5. The Latest Chapter in Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imber, Michael

    2003-01-01

    As David Tyack and Larry Cuban demonstrate in "Tinkering Toward Utopia," the history of U.S. education reforms is that of mixed success and failure. Characteristics of reforms that take hold in schools include those that involve building new facilities, are easy to administer, and are legally mandated. Another major school reform…

  6. Engaging Teachers in Ed Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steans, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Teacher engagement is crucial to the success of education reforms. Not only can teachers serve as policymakers' eyes and ears on the ground, sharing firsthand knowledge of challenges in the classroom, but their advocacy can be instrumental to passing smart, sensible policies, and their buy-in can make or break reform implementation. Ongoing…

  7. Emotional Intelligence and Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neophytou, Lefkios

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the notion of educational reform and discusses Emotional Intelligence (EI) in the context of the modernist-postmodernist debate. It is argued that through the application of EI into contemporary societies a new wave of reform emerges that provides science with normative power over the emotional world of individuals. This…

  8. International Handbook of Educational Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter W., Jr., Ed.; And Others

    This book provides an overview of education reform in 27 countries. Following the introduction by Peter W. Cookson, Jr., Alan R. Sadovnik, and Susan F. Semel, part 1 offers national case studies of educational reform in the 1980s. Chapters include: (2) "Argentina" (Ana Munoz-Sandoval); (3) "Australia" (Richard Teese); (4) "Brazil" (Robert Cowen…

  9. Reforming Teacher Education in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardman, Frank; Abd-Kadir, Jan; Tibuhinda, Audax

    2012-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that in order to improve the quality of education in primary schools in developing countries there is a need to place pedagogy and its training implications at the centre of teacher education reform. Like many countries in Eastern and Southern Africa, Tanzania has introduced various initiatives and reforms to improve the…

  10. Rural Dimensions of Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Bruce A., Ed.; Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Whitener, Leslie A., Ed.

    The 16 chapters in this five-part book, each by different authors, trace the effects of welfare reform (mandated by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996), upon poor people in rural areas of the United States. The book begins with an introduction called "As the Dust Settles: Welfare Reform and Rural…

  11. Educational Reform and Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Ann M., Ed.

    This document contains six studies that were commissioned for the National Assessment of Vocational Education. "Introduction" (Ann M. Milne) provides an overview of the reforms of the 1980s. "The Impact of Educational Reform on Vocational Education" (Marion Asche, Donald E. Elson, Ann Echols, Arthur Williams) examines primary…

  12. School Reform: Past and Present.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Franklin

    United States educational history is full of uncertain reform attempts beginning with colonial New England's school reform goal of salvation in this world as a preparation for eternal life in the next. A more practical type of education characterized the Early National Period. Monitorial schools and communal schools, as in New Harmony, Indiana,…

  13. Higher Education and School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Shirley M.

    1993-01-01

    Higher education has related asynchronously to recent cycles in social movements affecting school reform. Current efforts in Oregon illustrate this pattern in public colleges. Although higher education is not likely to overcome its skepticism of reform dynamics, there is both reason and potential for promising alliances with schools. (Author/MSE)

  14. George's Complaint: Reforming the Dragon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buxton, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The evangelical tone and history of American culture has long been identified as a force for anti-intellectualism. The metaphors of educational reform are a demonstration of how this plays out. The very nature of the positivist social science research used to support proposed reform is anti-intellectual and feeds a debate that favors extremes over…

  15. Framing divorce reform: media, morality, and the politics of family.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michele; Coltrane, Scott

    2007-03-01

    No-fault statutes changed divorce from an adversarial system pitting victims against victimizers, with the state acting as enforcer of marital norms, to a private decision between unhappily married but legally blameless partners. Divorce reform following no-fault primarily focused on making divorce more fair for the parties involved. Over the last several decades, divorce reform has transitioned from making divorce better to making marriage healthier. The good divorce has slipped from policy attention, elevating the potential for restigmatization of divorced couples and their children. We trace the trajectory of media framing of divorce reform discourse in three general circulation newspapers from the start of the no-fault revolution, noting how media framing parallels and naturalizes the transition in divorce reform policy. We conclude by observing the prevalence of divorce and the related need for therapists to be cognizant of this naturalization process, thereby keeping the good divorce as a goal for those who desire to end their marriages.

  16. Welfare reform at 15 and the state of policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Pimpare, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a review of welfare reform evaluation studies, summarizing research that has generated a consensus among mainstream policy analysts that the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) has had few effects beyond caseload reductions and increases in employment. Given that supporters and opponents alike expected the law to have profound consequences, the article considers two ways to explain this surprising outcome, showing that (1) quantitative policy analysis has been ill equipped to capture the PRWORA's effects and (2) expectations were nonetheless wrong because they failed to appreciate how thoroughly Aid to Families with Dependent Children had already been eroded in the decades prior to its reform. Welfare reform was not the beginning of a process of policy change; it was the end of one. In response to these findings, the article describes how a more critical perspective on reform matters for social work researchers, advocates, and practitioners.

  17. Assessment and Educational Reform: Doing More than Polishing Brass on the Titanic, a Call for Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackman, Andrew

    This exploration of evaluation strategies for systemic educational reform considers whether there is a way to design an assessment and delivery system that can accomplish the goals of the total educational process. A basic question that must be addressed in systemic reform is the role of education in the socialization processes of society. Beyond…

  18. Curriculum Reform, Challenges, and Coping Strategies in the Ethiopian Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mebratu, Belete; Hoot, James

    2005-01-01

    Ethiopia is a nation of more than 70 million people characterized by diverse ethnic, linguistic, and religious groups. Since the early 1990s Ethiopia has entered into the process of transformation towards a more civil society. This transformational process has led to numerous socioeconomic and political policy reforms. Central to reforms in the…

  19. Flawed Implementation or Inconsistent Logics? Lessons from Higher Education Reform in Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Marta A.

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates two competing explanations of why reforms associated with the Bologna process brought disappointing results in Ukraine. The lack of anticipated benefits from the reforms may stem either from a flawed implementation of the Bologna process, or from more fundamental differences between the models of higher education…

  20. A MEMS methanol reformer heated by decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taegyu; Hwang, Jin Soo; Kwon, Sejin

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication and evaluation of a micro methanol reformer complete with a heat source. The micro system consists of the steam reforming reactor of methanol, the catalytic decomposition reactor of hydrogen peroxide, and a heat exchanger between the two reactors. In the present study, catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is used as a process to supply heat to the reforming reactor. The decomposition process of hydrogen peroxide produces water vapor and oxygen as a product that can be used efficiently to operate the reformer/PEMFC system. Cu/ZnO was selected as a catalyst for methanol steam reforming and Pt for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Incipient wetness method was used to load catalysts on a porous support. Catalyst loaded supports were inserted in the cavity made on the glass wafer. The performance of the methanol steam reforming system was measured at various test conditions and the optimum operation condition was sought. At the optimum condition, the hydrogen selectivity was 86.4% and the thermal efficiency was 44.8%. The product gas included 74.1% H(2), 24.5% CO(2) and 1.4% CO and the total volume production rate was 23.5 ml min(-1). This amount of hydrogen can produce 1.5 W of power on a typical PEMFC.

  1. Fractionation of reformate: A new variant of gasoline production technology

    SciTech Connect

    Karakuts, V.N.; Tanatarov, M.A.; Telyashev, G.G.

    1995-07-01

    The Novo-Ufa Petroleum Refinery is the largest domestic producer of the unique high-octane unleaded automotive gasolines AI-93 and AI-95 and the aviation gasolines B-91/115 and B-92. The base component for these gasolines is obtained by catalytic reforming of wide-cut naphtha; this basic component is usually blended with certain other components that are expensive and in short supply: toluene, xylenes, and alkylate. For example, the unleaded gasoline AI-93 has been prepared by blending reformate, alkylate, and toluene in a 65:20:15 weight ratio; AI-95 gasoline by blending alkylate and xylenes in an 80:20 weight ratio; and B-91/115 gasoline by compounding a reformate obtained with light straight-run feed, plus alkylate and toluene, in a 55:35:10 weight ratio. Toluene and xylenes have been obtained by process schemes that include the following consecutive processes: redistillation of straight-run naphtha cuts to segregate the required narrow fraction; catalytic reforming (Platforming) of the narrow toluene-xylene straight-run fraction; azeotropic distillation of the reformate to recover toluene and xylenes. A new technology based on the use of reformate fractions is proposed.

  2. Large-Scale Curriculum Reform in Finland--Exploring the Interrelation between Implementation Strategy, the Function of the Reform, and Curriculum Coherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pietarinen, Janne; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Soini, Tiina

    2017-01-01

    The study aims to gain a better understanding of the national large-scale curriculum process in terms of the used implementation strategies, the function of the reform, and the curriculum coherence perceived by the stakeholders accountable in constructing the national core curriculum in Finland. A large body of school reform literature has shown…

  3. IFP solutions for revamping catalytic reforming units

    SciTech Connect

    Gendler, J.L.; Domergue, B.; Mank, L.

    1996-12-01

    The decision-making process for the refiner considering a revamp of a catalytic reforming unit comprises many factors. These may be grouped in two broad areas: technical and economic. This paper presents the results of a study performed by IFP that illustrates catalytic reforming unit revamp options. Three IFP processes are described and operating conditions, expected yields, and economic data are presented. The following options are discussed: base case Conventional, fixed-bed, semi-regenerative catalytic reformer; Case 1--revamp using IFP Dualforming technology; Case 2--revamp using IFP Dualforming Plus technology; and Case 3--revamp to IFP Octanizing technology. The study illustrates various options for the refiner to balance unit performance improvements with equipment, site, and economic constraints. The study was performed assuming design feedrate of 98.2 tons/hour (20,000 BPSD) in all cases. Because of the increased need for octane in many refineries, the study assumed that operating severity was set at a design value of 100 research octane number clear (RON). In all of the cases in this study, it was assumed that the existing recycle compressor was reused. Operating pressure differences between the cases is discussed separately. Also, in all cases, a booster compressor was included in order to return export hydrogen pressure to that of the conventional unit.

  4. Autothermal reforming catalyst having perovskite structure

    DOEpatents

    Krumpel, Michael; Liu, Di-Jia

    2009-03-24

    The invention addressed two critical issues in fuel processing for fuel cell application, i.e. catalyst cost and operating stability. The existing state-of-the-art fuel reforming catalyst uses Rh and platinum supported over refractory oxide which add significant cost to the fuel cell system. Supported metals agglomerate under elevated temperature during reforming and decrease the catalyst activity. The catalyst is a perovskite oxide or a Ruddlesden-Popper type oxide containing rare-earth elements, catalytically active firs row transition metal elements, and stabilizing elements, such that the catalyst is a single phase in high temperature oxidizing conditions and maintains a primarily perovskite or Ruddlesden-Popper structure under high temperature reducing conditions. The catalyst can also contain alkaline earth dopants, which enhance the catalytic activity of the catalyst, but do not compromise the stability of the perovskite structure.

  5. The Bologna Process in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballarino, Gabriele; Perotti, Loris

    2012-01-01

    Italy was among the promoters of the Bologna Process and the early adopters of the reform. If one looks at its impact on the formal structure of curricula and study programmes, the reform undertaken under the Bologna banner seems to have been one of the major educational reforms ever achieved in Italy. This article describes how the Bologna…

  6. Reforming Our Expectations about Juvenile Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Pamela F.; Baille, Daphne M.

    2010-01-01

    Typing the term "juvenile justice reform" into a Google[TM] search will result in 60 pages of entries. But what is meant by juvenile justice reform? What does it look like? How will one know when it is achieved? This article defines juvenile justice reform, discusses the principles of effective reform, and describes the practice of…

  7. Evaluation of Health Care System Reform in Hubei Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Shuping; Wang, Zhenkun; Yu, Chuanhua

    2014-01-01

    This study established a set of indicators for and evaluated the effects of health care system reform in Hubei Province (China) from 2009 to 2011 with the purpose of providing guidance to policy-makers regarding health care system reform. The resulting indicators are based on the “Result Chain” logic model and include the following four domains: Inputs and Processes, Outputs, Outcomes and Impact. Health care system reform was evaluated using the weighted TOPSIS and weighted Rank Sum Ratio methods. Ultimately, the study established a set of indicators including four grade-1 indicators, 16 grade-2 indicators and 76 grade-3 indicators. The effects of the reforms increased year by year from 2009 to 2011 in Hubei Province. The health status of urban and rural populations and the accessibility, equity and quality of health services in Hubei Province were improved after the reforms. This sub-national case can be considered an example of a useful approach to the evaluation of the effects of health care system reform, one that could potentially be applied in other provinces or nationally. PMID:24566052

  8. Evaluation of health care system reform in Hubei Province, China.

    PubMed

    Sang, Shuping; Wang, Zhenkun; Yu, Chuanhua

    2014-02-21

    This study established a set of indicators for and evaluated the effects of health care system reform in Hubei Province (China) from 2009 to 2011 with the purpose of providing guidance to policy-makers regarding health care system reform. The resulting indicators are based on the "Result Chain" logic model and include the following four domains: Inputs and Processes, Outputs, Outcomes and Impact. Health care system reform was evaluated using the weighted TOPSIS and weighted Rank Sum Ratio methods. Ultimately, the study established a set of indicators including four grade-1 indicators, 16 grade-2 indicators and 76 grade-3 indicators. The effects of the reforms increased year by year from 2009 to 2011 in Hubei Province. The health status of urban and rural populations and the accessibility, equity and quality of health services in Hubei Province were improved after the reforms. This sub-national case can be considered an example of a useful approach to the evaluation of the effects of health care system reform, one that could potentially be applied in other provinces or nationally.

  9. New Lessons for Districtwide Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullan, Micheal; Bertani, Al; Quinn, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    Successful district level institutions share ten principles for successful reforms. The crucial components of change for effective leadership include a collective moral purpose, capacity building, ongoing learning, and demanding culture among others.

  10. What Next in School Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the current state of education reform in the United Kingdom and uses the BBC film "The Choir to explore alternative ways of improving the quality of learning and teaching in schools.

  11. Can Education Reform Canada's Criminals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, D. K.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the development of the existing correctional programs in Canada's prisons, some theories of criminality, and two competing views on the best way to reform criminals today. Also gives a short review of penitentiary education programs. (RK)

  12. Campaign 2008: healthcare reform revisited.

    PubMed

    Wilensky, Gail R

    2008-10-01

    *An important lesson to be learned from the failed efforts at healthcare reform of the early 1990s is that successful reform cannot be an all-or-nothing proposition. *The McCain and Obama healthcare plans have some elements in common, but they also have important differences. *Whoever wins the election will face the challenge of persuading Congress to go along with his proposal.

  13. [Reforms and demographic crisis].

    PubMed

    Velichkovskiĭ, B T

    2002-01-01

    During reformation years all basic medical and demographic indices have undergone negative changes in Russia. Since 1992 there has been a steady-state decrease in the population due to the fact that mortality rates are extremely greater than birth ones. In 2001, the Russian population reduced in number by nearly a million. The birth rates are twice less than that requires for a simple reproduction of generations. Extremely high death rates remain among the population, in able-bodied males. The main reasons for the demographic crisis are the negative consequences of the implemented reforms rather than the transition from traditional to the new present-day reproduction of the population. It is problematic now to correct the situation via active migration of Russian-speaking persons. This requires enormous funds to provide comers with jobs and dwelling. It is unreal to diminish annual departure of 100 thousand persons, mainly young educated professionals from the country, though it is joust not only a demographic, but a strategic problem. In 2001 there was a some rise in birth rates. But this is the most illusive way of solving the demographic crisis. Just in the USSR, the high educational level of the population, the socioeconomic emancipation of females and progress in medicine gave rise to the transition to the present-day reproduction of the population, which is characterized by low birth and death rates. So the population is unlikely to be replenished by high birth rates. The main way of overcoming the demographic crisis is to reduce mortality and not to allow young people to die prematurely. For this it is necessary to know the biological mechanisms responsible for extremely high mortality. It is most likely to be due to breakdown in the dynamic stereotype of higher nervous performance, as stated by I. P. Pavlov. Today it is insufficient to control alcoholism, traumatism, and smoking by healthy lifestyle propaganda in order to reduce death rates in Russian. All

  14. Heat exchanger for fuel cell power plant reformer

    DOEpatents

    Misage, Robert; Scheffler, Glenn W.; Setzer, Herbert J.; Margiott, Paul R.; Parenti, Jr., Edmund K.

    1988-01-01

    A heat exchanger uses the heat from processed fuel gas from a reformer for a fuel cell to superheat steam, to preheat raw fuel prior to entering the reformer and to heat a water-steam coolant mixture from the fuel cells. The processed fuel gas temperature is thus lowered to a level useful in the fuel cell reaction. The four temperature adjustments are accomplished in a single heat exchanger with only three heat transfer cores. The heat exchanger is preheated by circulating coolant and purge steam from the power section during startup of the latter.

  15. Regulation reform slows down

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-29

    Regulatory reformers in Congress are easing off the accelerator as they recognize that some of their more far-reaching proposals lack sufficient support to win passage. Last week the proposed one-year moratorium on new regulations was set back in the Senate by it main sponsor, Sen. Non Nickles (R., OK), who now seeks to replace it with a more moderate bill. Nickel`s substitute bill would give Congress 45 days after a regulation is issued to decide whether to reject it. It also retroactively allows for review of 80 regulations issued since last November 9, 1994. Asked how his new proposal is superior to a moratorium, which is sharply opposed by the Clinton Administration, Nickles says he thinks it is better because its permanent. The Chemical Manufacturer`s Association (CMA) has not publicly made a regulatory moratorium a top priority, but has quietly supported it by joining with other industry groups lobbying on the issue. A moratorium would halt EPA expansion of the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) and alloys the delisting of several TRI chemicals.

  16. Education as Recovery: Neoliberalism, School Reform, and the Politics of Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Graham B.

    2015-01-01

    Building upon critical education policy studies of crisis, disaster, and reform, this essay develops a theory of "recovery" that further elaborates the nature and operation of "crisis politics" in neoliberal education reform. Recovery is an integral process in capital accumulation, exploiting material, and subjective…

  17. Implementation of the K-12 Education Reform in Qatar's Schools. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellman, Gail L.; Ryan Gery W.; Karam, Rita; Constant, Louay; Salem, Hanine; Gonzalez, Gabriella; Orr, Nate; Goldman, Charles A.; Al-Thani, Hessa; Al-Obaidli, Kholode

    2009-01-01

    The leadership of Qatar is greatly invested in its K-12 education reform, "Education for a New Era," because it views education as the key to the nation's economic and social progress. This study, one of a number of RAND studies that trace and document the reform process in Qatar, was designed to assess progress made in the first years…

  18. Change without Reform: The Case of Stanford University School of Medicine, 1908-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuban, Larry

    1997-01-01

    The nine-decade history of the Stanford University of Medicine (California) and its history of teaching human anatomy illustrate the recurring processes of curricular and instructional reforms in medical education and the ways in which these reform efforts do not disturb the traditional preclinical/clinical model of medical education. (SLD)

  19. "We Think That's the Future": Curriculum Reform Initiatives in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pegg, Ann

    2014-01-01

    This international research considered two key questions: (1) What self-scrutiny, strategies, planning and processes do universities with a successfully reformed curriculum undertake?; and (2) How do these universities measure and evaluate the impact of whole curriculum reform in relation to learning and teaching and the student experience?…

  20. India's Social Development in a Decade of Reforms: 1990-91/1999-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Amal Kanti

    2008-01-01

    The economic reforms initiated in India in 1991 have brought about visible upliftment of economic conditions of the country. This paper examines if the economic process is associated with an enhancement of India's social development in equal measure in the reform decade of nineties. Ray (1989) considered thirteen social indicators of India and…

  1. Collaborative Observation. Putting Classroom Instruction at the Center of School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Karen H.; March, Judith K.

    This book joins instructional design as the axis of school reform with collaborative observation as the proven method to sustain teacher growth and renewal. The acronym COMPASS (Collaborative Observation for Monitoring Practices to Achieve Sustained School reform) is used. The book details a four-part observation process, each component of which…

  2. Politics, Modernisation and Educational Reform in Russia: From Past to Present. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The chapters in this volume give an account of the process of modernisation and educational reform in Russia, variously considering the cultural and political dilemmas provoked by democratisation, the structural and policy challenges associated with the reform of higher and vocational education, and the deep divisions exposed as socio-cultural…

  3. The Community College's Role in P-16 Education Reform. In Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasch, Erika

    2004-01-01

    For at least 20 years, America has been engaged in the process of school reform, the most recent of which is the P-16 education reform movement. However, the phenomenon of two- and four-year colleges working closely with schools is clearly not new. A divide has developed between the educational levels, resulting in a lack of collaboration among…

  4. Current Developments in School Education in Turkey: Education "Reforms" and Teacher Trade Union Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buyruk, Halil

    2015-01-01

    Education "reforms"' have been accelerated in the last decade in Turkey. Teachers, as the main actors of the education system, have developed a variety of responses to the reforms implemented in the field of education, both individually and collectively. They give directions to the change process in education by means of their trade…

  5. Stewardship as a Means to Create Organizational Reform: A View into Minnesota 4-H Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skuza, Jennifer A.; Freeman, Dorothy M.; Bremseth, Tamara J.; Doering, Shirley A.; Quinlan, Robert B.; Morreim, Patricia A.; Deidrick, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Minnesota 4-H Youth Development (MN 4-H) used stewardship as a means to create organizational reform to address the public use of the 4-H name and emblem in terms of risk management, real estate and equipment, and finances. A task force implemented a participatory process with colleagues and stakeholders to build and implement the reform effort.…

  6. The Reception of the Educational Decentralization and Curricular Reform among the Hungarian Teachers from Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Péter, Lilla

    2008-01-01

    Choosing of the theme was determined by the Central-Eastern European educational reforms, the role of the educators in the process of changing in the educational system and the enlargement of the social demands towards the schools. The aim of our the research is on the connection between the educational reforms and the educators. Partly, it is due…

  7. The Modern Mathematics Reform Movement in Brazil and Its Consequences for Brazilian Mathematics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Ambrosio, Beatriz Silva

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the conclusions drawn from an investigation of the modern mathematics reform movement in Brazil. The main focus is the dissemination of reform ideology to the Brazilian mathematics education community and the outcomes resulting from misinterpretations of the intended curriculum during the implementation process. (Author/JJK)

  8. Council of Medical Specialty Societies: Committed to Continuing Medical Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Walter J.

    2005-01-01

    The Council of Medical Specialty Societies (CMSS) recognizes the need for continuing medical education (CME) reform and intends to be actively engaged in that process. While recognizing that CME reform must involve many organizations, the CMSS and particularly the 23 societies that make up the CMSS are in a position to affect many of the needed…

  9. Reform of the Method for Evaluating the Teaching of Medical Linguistics to Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hongkui; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Longlu

    2014-01-01

    Explorating reform of the teaching evaluation method for vocational competency-based education (CBE) curricula for medical students is a very important process in following international medical education standards, intensify ing education and teaching reforms, enhancing teaching management, and improving the quality of medical education. This…

  10. Reforming and Assessing Undergraduate Science Instruction Using Collaborative Action-Based Research Teams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krockover, Gerald H.; Shepardson, Daniel P.; Adams, Paul E.; Eichinger, David; Nakhleh, Mary

    2002-01-01

    Describes a reform effort for the undergraduate curriculum utilizing action-based research teams that developed, implemented, and assessed constructivist approaches to teaching undergraduate science content. Results indicate that the collaborative action-based research process was effective in contributing to the reform of undergraduate teaching.…

  11. Methane/steam reforming kinetics for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achenbach, E.; Riensche, E.

    Experiments have been carried out to determine the kinetics of the methane/steam reforming process at anode materials of a solid oxide fuel cell. A nickel cermet was applied consisting of 80 wt.% ZrO 2 and 20 wt.% Ni. The temperature was varied from 700 to 940 °C, the CH 4 partial pressure from 0.11 to 0.33 bar, and the system pressure from 1.1 to 2.8 bar. The influence of the ratio H 2O/CH 4 was studied, in particular, by increasing this quantity from 2.6 to 8. The tests showed that, within the accuracy of the data, no effect of the H 2O partial pressure on the catalytic reforming process could be observed. Due to the high conversion rates of CH 4 at high temperatures, however, mass-transfer effects occurred, that must be taken into account when evaluating the steam-reforming data.

  12. Tri-reforming and combined reforming of methane for producing syngas with desired hydrogen/carbon monoxide ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wei

    This dissertation is an exploratory study of a new process concept for direct production of synthesis gas (CO + H2) with desired H 2/CO ratios (1.5--2.0) for methanol synthesis and F-T synthesis, using CO2 together with steam and unconverted O2 in flue gas from fossil fuel-fired electric power plants to react with methane or natural gas. This new process is called tri-reforming, referring to simultaneous CO2-steam-O2 reforming of methane or natural gas. This study included (1) The investigation of carbon formation in the tri-reforming process. For comparison, carbon formation in the combined reforming and CO2 reforming reaction was studied as well. (2) The effect of reaction conditions and feed compositions on equilibrium composition (e.g. H2/CO ratio) and equilibrium conversions in the tri-reforming process. (3) The role of catalysts in the tri-reforming process, especially the effect of catalysts on CO2 conversion in the presence of H 2O and O2. It was clearly evidenced from this study that CO in the product stream is probably the major source of carbon over Ni/Al2O3 in the equimolar CO2-CH4 reforming at 650°C and 1 atm. Addition of either O2 or H2O into the CO 2 reforming reaction system can suppress carbon formation. It was demonstrated that carbon-free operation can be achieved in the tri-reforming process. A thermodynamic comparison of tri-reforming with feed compositions of (H2O+CO2+0.5O2)/CH4 (mol ratio) = 1 showed that O2 improves equilibrium CH4 conversion, yet greatly decreases equilibrium CO2 conversion. H2O in tri-reforming has a significant effect on the H2/CO ratio in the products, while O2 has a minor effect. A kinetic study and catalytic performance tests indicated that the support in a supported catalyst has a significant role in enhancing CO2 conversion to CO in the presence of H2O and O2 in tri-reforming. The Ni/MgO catalyst showed superior performance with close to equilibrium CH4 and CO2 conversions at 850°C, 1 atm, and 32,000 ml

  13. Biomass to hydrogen via fast pyrolysis and catalytic steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Chornet, E.; Wang, D.; Montane, D.

    1995-09-01

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass results in a pyrolytic oil which is a mixture of (a) carbohydrate-derived acids, aldehydes and polyols, (b) lignin-derived substituted phenolics, and (c) extractives-derived terpenoids and fatty acids. The conversion of this pyrolysis oil into H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} is thermodynamically favored under appropriate steam reforming conditions. Our efforts have focused in understanding the catalysis of steam reforming which will lead to a successful process at reasonable steam/carbon ratios arid process severities. The experimental work, carried out at the laboratory and bench scale levels, has centered on the performance of Ni-based catalysts using model compounds as prototypes of the oxygenates present in the pyrolysis oil. Steam reforming of acetic acid, hydroxyacetaldehyde, furfural and syringol has been proven to proceed rapidly within a reasonable range of severities. Time-on-stream studies are now underway using a fixed bed barometric pressure reactor to ascertain the durability of the catalysts and thus substantiate the scientific and technical feasibility of the catalytic reforming option. Economic analyses are being carried out in parallel to determine the opportunity zones for the combined fast pyrolysis/steam reforming approach. A discussion on the current state of the project is presented.

  14. Let's make a deal: trading malpractice reform for health reform.

    PubMed

    Sage, William M; Hyman, David A

    2014-01-01

    Physician leadership is required to improve the efficiency and reliability of the US health care system, but many physicians remain lukewarm about the changes needed to attain these goals. Malpractice liability-a sore spot for decades-may exacerbate physician resistance. The politics of malpractice have become so lawyer-centric that recognizing the availability of broader gains from trade in tort reform is an important insight for health policy makers. To obtain relief from malpractice liability, physicians may be willing to accept other policy changes that more directly improve access to care and reduce costs. For example, the American Medical Association might broker an agreement between health reform proponents and physicians to enact federal legislation that limits malpractice liability and simultaneously restructures fee-for-service payment, heightens transparency regarding the quality and cost of health care services, and expands practice privileges for other health professionals. There are also reasons to believe that tort reform can make ongoing health care delivery reforms work better, in addition to buttressing health reform efforts that might otherwise fail politically.

  15. The hospital of the future in China: China's reform of public hospitals and trends from industrialized countries.

    PubMed

    Barber, Sarah L; Borowitz, Michael; Bekedam, Henk; Ma, Jin

    2014-05-01

    Hospitals compose a large share of total health spending in most countries, and thus have been the target of reforms to improve efficiency and reduce costs. In China, the government implemented national health care reform to improve access to essential services and reduce high out-of-pocket medical spending. A key component is the comprehensive reform of public hospitals on a pilot basis, although it remains one of the least understood aspects of health care reform in China. This article outlines the main goals of the reform of public hospitals in China, progress to date and the direction of reform between now and 2015. Then, we review experiences from industrialized countries and discuss the applicability to the Chinese reform process. Based on the policy directions focusing on efficiency and quality, and reflecting on how hospital systems in other countries have responded, the article concludes that the hospital of the future in China operates at county level. Barriers to realizing this are discussed.

  16. Woody biomass and RPF gasification using reforming catalyst and calcium oxide.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Jun; Kawamoto, Katsuya; Fukushima, Ryutaro; Tanaka, Shingo

    2011-05-01

    This study focused on steam gasification and reforming of waste biomass using a reforming catalyst. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the durability of a commercial Ni reforming catalyst and the effect of CaO on the reforming behavior, and to clarify detailed factors of catalytic performance, as well as the effect of operating parameters on the characteristics of produced gas composition. Moreover, catalyst regeneration was carried out and the behavior of catalytic activity based on gas composition was investigated. Using a fluidized bed gasifier and a fixed bed reformer, gasification and reforming of waste biomass were carried out. Commercial Ni-based catalyst and calcined limestone (CaO) were applied to the reforming reaction. Temperature of the gasifier and reformer was almost 1023K. Ratio of steam to carbon in the feedstock [molmol(-1)] and equivalence ratio (i.e., ratio of actual to theoretical amount of oxygen) [-] were set at about 2 and 0.3, respectively. The feed rate of the feedstock into the bench-scale gasifier was almost 15kgh(-1). The results of waste biomass gasification confirmed the improvement in H(2) composition by the CO(2) absorption reaction using the reforming catalyst and CaO. In addition, CaO proved to be especially effective in decreasing the tar concentration in the case of woody biomass gasification. Catalytic activity was maintained by means of catalyst regeneration processing by hydrogen reduction after air oxidation when woody biomass was used as feedstock.

  17. Reforming Preschools and Schools.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Greg J; Magnuson, Katherine; Murnane, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    Compared with their higher-income counterparts, children growing up in low-income families in the United States typically complete less schooling, report worse health, and work and earn less in adulthood. Moreover, changes in the American economy over the last 40 years have raised the level of skills and qualifications that children need to obtain a good middle-class job, as well as making it much more difficult for children from low-income families to attend schools that support their learning of these skills. We first review strategies used in the past to improve K-12 schooling-including investing more money, introducing more accountability, and putting in place new governance structures (eg, charter schools)-and show why these strategies have been relatively ineffective. Drawing on the research literature and case studies, we then describe education reform strategies for prekindergarten programs and for elementary, middle, and high schools that may help meet these challenges. All of the initiatives described in our case studies provide ample opportunities for teachers and school leaders to improve their skills through coaching and other professional development activities; incorporate sensible systems of accountability, including requiring teachers to open their classrooms to the scrutiny of colleagues and school leaders and to work with their colleagues to improve their teaching practices; and incorporate high academic standards, such as those described in the Common Core State Standards. By focusing directly on improving teaching and promoting learning, these successful initiatives have boosted the achievement of low-income children. They show that it is indeed possible to make a real difference in the life chances of low-income children.

  18. Are Educational Governance Reforms in a Post-Conflict Society Conforming to Global Standards? Examining the Application of Education Convergence Theory in an Internationally Supervised and Politicized Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komatsu, Taro

    2016-01-01

    This article examines whether and to what extent educational reforms in a post-conflict society conform to "global (regional) standards," and explores the meaning of inconsistencies observed in the process of global reform transfer. Among the nations of the world, nowhere is the influence of external forces on educational reforms more…

  19. Translating Globalization and Democratization into Local Policy: Educational Reform in Hong Kong and Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Wing-Wah

    2004-11-01

    The past two decades have witnessed three important international trends: an increase in the number of democratic states; economic globalization; and educational reforms in light of the challenges of the new millennium. A great deal of research has addressed educational change in relation to either globalization or democratization, but little has been said about the complex interactions among all three processes. In view of recent educational reforms in Hong Kong and Taiwan, the present contribution examines the local nature of education policy in a globalized age. It challenges those globalization theories which minimize the role of the state and exaggerate the power of globalization over local factors. In particular, it explores how the governments of these two Chinese societies have employed democratization to generate and legitimate reform proposals and have used economic globalization to justify educational reforms. The study concludes by discussing the complex interrelations of these processes, including tensions between global and local concerns in educational reform.

  20. [Health care reform in the Obama administration: difficulties of reaching a similar agreement in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Belmartino, Susana

    2014-04-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of the processes leading to health care reform in Argentina and in the USA. The core of the analysis centers on the ideological references utilized by advocates of the reform and the decision-making processes that support or undercut such proposals. The analysis begins with a historical summary of the issue in each country. The political process that led to the sanction of the Obama reform is then described. The text defends a hypothesis aiming to show that deficiencies in the institutional capacities of Argentina's decision-making bodies are a severe obstacle to attaining substantial changes in this area within the country.

  1. Internal reforming characteristics of cermet supported solid oxide fuel cell using yttria stabilized zirconia fed with partially reformed methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momma, Akihiko; Takano, Kiyonami; Tanaka, Yohei; Negishi, Akira; Kato, Ken; Nozaki, Ken; Kato, Tohru; Ichigi, Takenori; Matsuda, Kazuyuki; Ryu, Takashi

    In order to investigate the internal reforming characteristics in a cermet supported solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) using YSZ as the electrolyte, the concentration profiles of the gaseous species along the gas flow direction in the anode were measured. Partially reformed methane using a pre-reformer kept at a constant temperature is supplied to the center of the cell which is operated with a seal-less structure at the gas outlet. The anode gas is sucked in via silica capillaries to the initially evacuated gas tanks. The process is simultaneously carried out using five sampling ports. The sampled gas is analyzed by a gas chromatograph. Most of the measurements are made at the cell temperature (T cell) of 750 °C and at various temperatures of the pre-reformer (T ref) with various fuel utilizations (U f) of the cell. The composition of the fuel at the inlet of the anode was confirmed to be almost the same as that theoretically calculated assuming equilibrium at the temperature of the pre-reformer. The effect of internal reforming in the anode is clearly observed as a steady decrease in the methane concentration along the flow axis. The effect of the water-gas shift reaction is also observed as a decrease in the CO 2 concentration and an increase of CO concentration around the gas inlet region, as the water-gas shift reaction inversely proceeds when T cell is higher than T ref. The diffusion of nitrogen from the seal-less outermost edge is observed, and the diffusion is confirmed to be more significant as U f decreases. The observations are compared with the results obtained by the SOFC supported by lanthanum gallate electrolyte. With respect to the internal reforming performance, the cell investigated here is found to be more effective when compared to the previously reported electrolyte supported cell.

  2. Catalytic reforming using group VIII noble metal high silica faujasites

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, D.E.; Ghosh, A.K

    1989-05-23

    A process is described for reforming a naphtha feed stock utilizing a catalytic faujasite zeolite composition, which comprises contacting the feed stock at reforming conditions and in the presence of hydrogen with the catalytic zeolite having a faujasite structure and having a SiO/sub 2//Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ ratio between about 10 and 80 and containing a Group VIII noble metal dispersed therein so as to have a dispersion of hydrogen to metal of about 0.1 to 1, as measured by hydrogen chemisorption.

  3. Health care reform: informing difficult choices.

    PubMed

    Maynard, A; Bloor, K

    1995-01-01

    During the last decade, policy makers in a large number of countries have attempted various reforms of their health care systems. Health care reform has been described as a 'global epidemic' (Klein, 1993). All health care reforms consist of very complex policy choices, some of which are examined in this article. After an introductory exploration of ideological issues, the objectives of health care reformers are considered. Three major policy objectives of health care reform are examined: cost containment; efficiency; and, equity. Three types of reform which have been advocated are also considered: public planning; market regulation; and provider-advocated reforms such as a 'basic package' with copayments and alternative means of finance. Finally, appropriate features of efficient health care reform are suggested, addressing explicit policy goals.

  4. Healthy Competition and Unsound Comparison: Reforming Educational Competition in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    It is frequently claimed that the "competition state" responds to external competition by making competition increasingly central to its internal processes as well. This article discusses education reform in Singapore as departing from the opposite position. In Singapore "excessive" competition in education is now targeted by…

  5. Reform of Higher Education in Russia: Habitus Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babintsev, Valentin P.; Sapryka, Viktor ?.; Serkina, Yana I.; Ushamirskaya, Galina F.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses changes that actually occur in the Russian Higher Education in the process of reform. The thesis that the functioning of the educational system increasingly detects formal rationality, not focused on the senses, and their imitation. It is noted that the Russian system of higher education refers to a specific type, which can…

  6. International Perspectives on Educational Reform and Policy Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, David S. G., Ed.; O'Neill, Marnie H., Ed.

    This book focuses on educational change processes in the context of larger scale educational reform. The first of 2 volumes, the book contains 11 chapters that examine the historical, social, and economic forces at work in the formulation and implementation of educational policy. The chapters present different cross-cultural experiences of…

  7. Arts Integration as School Reform: Exploring How Teachers Experience Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lackey, Lara; Huxhold, Dianna

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the perceptions and experiences of general elementary educators as they engage in a school reform process that requires them to learn and implement an arts infused curriculum intended to raise student achievement on standardized tests in non-arts subjects. This qualitative study reveals not only how one arts-based school…

  8. Attending to the Noise: Applying Chaos Theory to School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertheimer, Richard; Zinga, Mario

    The Common Knowledge: Pittsburgh (CK:P), a technology-based project, introduced the Internet into all levels of the Pittsburgh Public Schools during 1993-97. This is a case study of the ideology, strategies, and process of the CK:P project describes the project's activities, examines the project in light of school-reform literature, and uses its…

  9. Place Matters: Mathematics Education Reform in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau Anderson, Celia

    2014-01-01

    While mathematics education research has often focused at the level of the classroom (Rousseau Anderson & Tate, 2008), there are emerging calls for attention to shift from individual classrooms to consider the process of reform at the school or district level. Investigating the role of the institution and conditions of the organization becomes…

  10. Sexism in School Textbooks Prepared under Education Reform in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esen, Yasemin

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the new textbooks prepared under the framework of the "curriculum reform" realized in Turkey , as part of the EU harmonization process, in terms of gender representation. For this purpose, illustrations in the new ABC, Life Studies and Social Studies textbooks prepared under the new program were…

  11. New Public Management in Educational Reform in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solhaug, Trond

    2011-01-01

    The article focuses on the similarities and differences in using new public management (NPM) administrative arrangements in educational policy as they have been presented in the educational reform process carried out this millennium by two governments in Norway: the Centre-Conservative government and the current Red-Green coalition government.…

  12. Higher Education Reforms and Unintended Consequences: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krücken, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Higher education in Europe has undergone remarkable transformations over the last two decades. Germany is a very interesting case in point here. While the country was labeled as a laggard in the process, over the last decade the pace of higher education reforms in Germany has grown considerably. This paper will focus on the by now visible effects…

  13. The Higher Education System in Macedonia: Overview, Reforms, and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stojanov, Georgi; Angeloska-Galevska, Natasha

    2006-01-01

    The system of higher education in Macedonia is undergoing the largest reform process since the mid-1940s. The context is rather turbulent. Fourteen years after Macedonia's separation from the Yugoslav Federation, this small country now deals with an unstable political situation (the Kosovo question) and awaits an answer from Brussels (expected in…

  14. Meeting the Challenges of Welfare Reform: Programs with Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweedie, Jack; Christian, Steve; Groginsky, Scott; Reichert, Dana; Brown, Amy

    As a result of federal legislation aimed at welfare reform, states have been transforming welfare in new ways. Critical questions remain, however, and policymakers must continue to develop new ideas and implement programs from other states. This book contributes to the learning process among states by sharing program innovations and analyses to…

  15. Reexamining Military Acquisition Reform: Are We There Yet?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Pre-Solicitation Phase Communication Integrated Product and Process Development Joint Government/Industry IPTs Multi-Year Contracting Oral ...There Has Been a Lot of Activity, but Nothing Really New .............................. 48 External Communities Do Not Provide Support...Reform? ..................................... 54 Expand Understanding and Buy-In Beyond the PM Community ........................ 55 Make Fundamental

  16. Acquisition Reform: Three Big Ideas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-19

    Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Three Acq Reform Big Ideas 5 /19/2015 2 (1) Competing Capability Needs Among Services...to sponsor and users • Not required to be an acquisition expert • Tenure not as important Summary: 3 Big Ideas 5 /19/2015 19 (1) Competing...Acquisition Reform Three Big Ideas The provocative views expressed here are not those of the Department of Defense, DAU, or perhaps even the

  17. Attrition resistant fluidizable reforming catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Parent, Yves O.; Magrini, Kim; Landin, Steven M.; Ritland, Marcus A.

    2011-03-29

    A method of preparing a steam reforming catalyst characterized by improved resistance to attrition loss when used for cracking, reforming, water gas shift and gasification reactions on feedstock in a fluidized bed reactor, comprising: fabricating the ceramic support particle, coating a ceramic support by adding an aqueous solution of a precursor salt of a metal selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pt, Pd, Ru, Rh, Cr, Co, Mn, Mg, K, La and Fe and mixtures thereof to the ceramic support and calcining the coated ceramic in air to convert the metal salts to metal oxides.

  18. Steam methane reforming in molten carbonate salt. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, D.C.

    1996-05-01

    This report documents the work accomplished on the project {open_quotes}Steam Methane Reforming in Molten Carbonate Salt.{close_quotes}. This effort has established the conceptual basis for molten carbonate-based steam reforming of methane. It has not proceeded to prototype verification, because corrosion concerns have led to reluctance on the part of large hydrogen producers to adopt the technology. Therefore the focus was shifted to a less corrosive embodiment of the same technology. After considerable development effort it was discovered that a European company (Catalysts and Chemicals Europe) was developing a similar process ({open_quotes}Regate{close_quotes}). Accordingly the focus was shifted a second time, to develop an improvement which is generic to both types of reforming. That work is still in progress, and shows substantial promise.

  19. Producing Clean Syngas via Catalytic Reforming for Fuels Production

    SciTech Connect

    Magrini, K. A.; Parent, Y.; Jablonski, W.; Yung, M.

    2012-01-01

    Thermochemical biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals can be achieved through gasification to syngas. The biomass derived raw syngas contains the building blocks of carbon monoxide and hydrogen as well as impurities such as tars, light hydrocarbons, and hydrogen sulfide. These impurities must be removed prior to fuel synthesis. We used catalytic reforming to convert tars and hydrocarbons to additional syngas, which increases biomass carbon utilization. In this work, nickel based, fluidizable tar reforming catalysts were synthesized and evaluated for tar and methane reforming performance with oak and model syngas in two types of pilot scale fluidized reactors (recirculating and recirculating regenerating). Because hydrogen sulfide (present in raw syngas and added to model syngas) reacts with the active nickel surface, regeneration with steam and hydrogen was required. Pre and post catalyst characterization showed changes specific to the syngas type used. Results of this work will be discussed in the context of selecting the best process for pilot scale demonstration.

  20. [Human resources for health in Chile: the reform's pending challenge].

    PubMed

    Méndez, Claudio A

    2009-09-01

    Omission of human resources from health policy development has been identified as a barrier in the health sector reform's adoption phase. Since 2002, Chile's health care system has been undergoing a transformation based on the principles of health as a human right, equity, solidarity, efficiency, and social participation. While the reform has set forth the redefinition of the medical professions, continuing education, scheduled accreditation, and the introduction of career development incentives, it has not considered management options tailored to the new setting, a human resources strategy that has the consensus of key players and sector policy, or a process for understanding the needs of health care staff and professionals. However, there is still time to undo the shortcomings, in large part because the reform's implementation phase only recently has begun. Overcoming this challenge is in the hands of the experts charged with designing public health strategies and policies.

  1. Selective rhenium recovery from spent reforming catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Angelidis, T.N.; Rosopoulou, D.; Tzitzios, V.

    1999-05-01

    Reforming catalysts (0.3% Pt, 0.3% Re) are used extensively in industry for the improvement of the octane number of fuels. After deactivation the catalysts are treated for the recovery of Pt and Re. The aim of this study was to simplify the conventional recovery process by the application of a slight alkali solution (NaHCO{sub 3}) for the selective dissolution of Re. The process was tested in batch and packed column reactors with crushed and uncrushed catalyst extrudes. The influence on the reaction yield of NaHCO{sub 3} concentration, pH, temperature and space velocity was examined and the optimum conditions were determined. The Re dissolution process seemed to follow first-order kinetics, and the recovery yield was up to 97% for crushed and up to 87% for uncrushed catalyst samples.

  2. Method of steam reforming methanol to hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Beshty, Bahjat S.

    1990-01-01

    The production of hydrogen by the catalyzed steam reforming of methanol is accomplished using a reformer of greatly reduced size and cost wherein a mixture of water and methanol is superheated to the gaseous state at temperatures of about 800.degree. to about 1,100.degree. F. and then fed to a reformer in direct contact with the catalyst bed contained therein, whereby the heat for the endothermic steam reforming reaction is derived directly from the superheated steam/methanol mixture.

  3. Security Force Assistance and Security Sector Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    development, and planning, 63 Shultz: Security Force Assistance and Security Sector Reform budgeting and management are critical in reforming a defense...and Security Sector Reform Richard H. Shultz, Jr. JSOU Report 13-5 September 2013 Joint Special Operations University 7701 Tampa Point Boulevard...Assistance and Security Sector Reform 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK

  4. Reformers and Reform: Towards Free Public Libraries in Victoria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Donald

    2007-01-01

    The "Victorian Free Library Service Board Act" of 1946 was the culmination of a long campaign to replace the mechanics' institute model of library provision with free libraries funded by state and local government. Given that library reform required legislation by the state government, this paper is mainly concerned with the political…

  5. Principles of Reform and Reforming Principal Training: A Theoretical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Lars G.; Ginsberg, Rick

    1995-01-01

    Examines reform debates in educational administration training programs using a theoretical framework derived from Thomas Kuhn's notion of paradigm. Most administrator training programs in the United States are characterized as hybrid/preparadigm departments unlikely to undertake fundamental changes. Using a collaborative school leadership program…

  6. Oncology payment reform to achieve real health care reform.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Mark B; Thoumi, Andrea I

    2015-05-01

    Cancer care is transforming, moving toward increasingly personalized treatment with the potential to save and improve many more lives. Many oncologists and policymakers view current fee-for-service payments as an obstacle to providing more efficient, high-quality cancer care. However, payment reforms create new uncertainties for oncologists and may be challenging to implement. In this article, we illustrate how accountable care payment reforms that directly align payments with quality and cost measures are being implemented and the opportunities and challenges they present. These payment models provide more flexibility to oncologists and other providers to give patients the personalized care they need, along with more accountability for demonstrating quality improvements and overall cost or cost growth reductions. Such payment reforms increase the importance of person-level quality and cost measures as well as data analysis to improve measured performance. We describe key features of quality and cost measures needed to support accountable care payment reforms in oncology. Finally, we propose policy recommendations to move incrementally but fundamentally to payment systems that support higher-value care in oncology.

  7. The National School Reform Faculty: Reforming Schools from the Inside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Horizons, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In the Winter 2005 issue of "educational HORIZONS," Charles Glenn wrote that schools designed in a perfect system of educational diversity and choice could nonetheless end up as "uninspired carbon copies produced by educators without the foggiest idea of how to do anything differently." Most school reform tries to avoid that fate with various…

  8. Policy Imperative, Management Challenge: A Case Study in College of Education Reform from Kwara State in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Harold G.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, Kwara State in Nigeria embarked on a process of college of education reform. This article explores the strategic and managerial issues associated with that process. It sets out the policy imperative for reform within the context of an urgent need to improve the quality of education in Nigeria and traces progress over a four year period,…

  9. Benchmarks for Success in High School Education: Putting Data to Work in School-to-Career Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberger, Susan; Keough, Robert; Almeida, Cheryl

    This book describes an effort by Jobs for the Future (JFF) to help communities keep their school-to-career reform efforts on track through a process of goal setting and measurement that sets realistic and achievable reforms while still building toward fundamental educational change. The process is called "benchmarking," and those involved must:…

  10. Whatever Happened to Undergraduate Reform? Carnegie Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchese, Theodore J.

    2006-01-01

    The author asks whether higher education reform has run out of new things to say. The final two decades of the twentieth century were a remarkable period for innovation in undergraduate education. Many of higher education's earlier waves of reform had focused on curricular issues, on what should be taught. The new reformers by and large ignored…

  11. Method for improving reformer yield selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Ramella, A.; Wang, H. Y.

    1985-11-05

    Yield selectivity of a multibed catalytic reformer operating below design capacity is enhanced by adjusting inlet temperature of at least one catalyst bed to nearquenching conditions while adjusting the inlet temperature of at least one catalyst bed to favor yield selective reforming reactions. Significant increases in C/sub 5/+ yields are obtained without any modification of the reforming unit.

  12. Considerations for Education Reform in British Columbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Countries around the world refer to twenty-first century education as essential to maintaining personal and national economic advantage and draw on this discourse to advocate for and embark on educational reform. This paper examines issues around education reform, particularly in British Columbia. It argues that reformers should give careful…

  13. School Reform--Does It Really Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunting, Carolyn

    1999-01-01

    Looks at different waves of school reform beginning with Sputnik in the 1950s. Examines influences in today's reform, including industrial influences and school choice. Argues that the origins and outcomes of school reform have more to do with what is happening outside the school than within it, and that schools must think beyond objective indices…

  14. Globalization and Educational Reform in Contemporary Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie; Zhang, Sheng Ping

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the notions of globalization as embodied in Japanese educational reforms. Modern institutional discourses of educational reform in Japan have shifted over time and all of these reform movements have been constructed by particular social and historical trajectories. Generally speaking, it has been taken for granted that the…

  15. Governance Reform at China's "985 Project" Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qingnian, Xiong; Duanhong, Zhang; Hong, Liu

    2011-01-01

    Higher education reform in China is deepening, and the governance reform taking place at the 985 Project universities over the past decade has displayed a shift from government driven to internally driven, from adaptive to proactive, and from localized to systemic. This reflects the overall status of governance reform in China's higher education.…

  16. Leadership Lessons from Comprehensive School Reforms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joseph, Ed.; Datnow, Amanda, Ed.

    This volume explores the role of leadership in comprehensive school reform (CSR). It consists of 12 chapters: (1) "The Development of Comprehensive School Reform" (Joseph Murphy and Amanda Datnow); (2) "Expeditionary Learning Schools: Tenacity, Leadership, and School Reform" (Greg Farrell); (3) "The Modern Red School…

  17. Assessing Students' Conceptions of Reform Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Star, Jon R.; Hoffmann, Amanda J.

    As the use of National Science Foundation (NSF)-sponsored, reform- oriented mathematics curricula has become more prevalent across the U.S., an increasing number of researchers are attempting to study the "impact" of reform. In particular, mathematics educators are interested in determining whether reforms are having the desired effects on…

  18. 49 CFR 260.13 - Credit reform.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Credit reform. 260.13 Section 260.13... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.13 Credit reform. The Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990, 2 U.S.C. 661, requires Federal agencies to set aside the subsidy cost of new...

  19. 49 CFR 260.13 - Credit reform.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Credit reform. 260.13 Section 260.13... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.13 Credit reform. The Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990, 2 U.S.C. 661, requires Federal agencies to set aside the subsidy cost of new...

  20. 49 CFR 260.13 - Credit reform.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Credit reform. 260.13 Section 260.13... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.13 Credit reform. The Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990, 2 U.S.C. 661, requires Federal agencies to set aside the subsidy cost of new...

  1. 49 CFR 260.13 - Credit reform.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Credit reform. 260.13 Section 260.13... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.13 Credit reform. The Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990, 2 U.S.C. 661, requires Federal agencies to set aside the subsidy cost of new...

  2. 49 CFR 260.13 - Credit reform.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Credit reform. 260.13 Section 260.13... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Overview § 260.13 Credit reform. The Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990, 2 U.S.C. 661, requires Federal agencies to set aside the subsidy cost of new...

  3. Systemic Reform--Monitoring Its Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Soleil

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses a series of questions that state policymakers can use to assess the systemic nature of their education reform efforts. Suggestions are offered for identifying the evidence of scope, coherence, and balance of reform. To assess the scope of reform, a first step is to determine if the performance-based standards provide the…

  4. History and Politics in State Accountability Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Thomas W.; Sunshine, Phyllis M.

    The formation of hypotheses and generation of a theory to explain and predict the outcomes of educational reforms based on the concept of school reform cycles is the purpose of this paper. Two complementary hypotheses are proposed to explain the success or failure of educational reforms. The first hypothesis is based on an inverse relationship…

  5. Child Care Reform Consultation Infopack = Consultation sur la reforme des services de garde d'enfants. Trousse d'information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of Community and Social Services, Toronto.

    This information packet presented here in both the English and French language versions, summarizes the results of a public consultation on the subject of child care reform in Ontario, Canada. The packet consists of: (1) a table that describes the six modes of consultation that were used in the consultation process (public meetings, round table…

  6. The new institutionalist approaches to health care reform: lessons from reform experiences in Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Sitek, Michał

    2010-08-01

    This article discusses the applicability of the new institutionalism to the politics of health care reform in postcommunist Central Europe. The transition to a market economy and democracy after the fall of communism has apparently strengthened the institutional approaches. The differences in performance of transition economies have been critical to the growing understanding of the importance of institutions that foster democracy, provide security of property rights, help enforce contracts, and stimulate entrepreneurship. From a theoretical perspective, however, applying the new institutionalist approaches has been problematic. The transitional health care reform exposes very well some inherent weaknesses of existing analytic frameworks for explaining the nature and mechanisms of institutional change. The postcommunist era in Central Europe has been marked by spectacular and unprecedented radical changes, in which the capitalist system was rebuilt in a short span of time and the institutions of democracy became consolidated. Broad changes to welfare state programs were instituted as well. However, the actual results of the reform processes represent a mix of change and continuity, which is a challenge for the theories of institutional change.

  7. Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane to Syngas by Thermal Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yanpeng; Nie, Yong; Wu, Angshan; Ji, Dengxiang; Yu, Fengwen; Ji, Jianbing

    2012-03-01

    Experiments were conducted on syngas preparation from dry reforming of methane by carbon dioxide with a DC arc plasma at atmospheric pressure. In all experiments, nitrogen gas was used as the working gas for thermal plasma to generate a high-temperature jet into a horizontal tube reactor. A mixture of methane and carbon dioxide was fed vertically into the jet. In order to obtain a higher conversion rate of methane and carbon dioxide, chemical energy efficiency and fuel production efficiency, parametric screening studies were conducted, in which the volume ratio of carbon dioxide to methane in fed gases and the total flux of fed gases were taken into account. Results showed that carbon dioxide reforming of methane to syngas by thermal plasma exhibited a larger processing capacity, higher conversion of methane and carbon dioxide and higher chemical energy efficiency and fuel production efficiency. In addition, thermodynamic simulation for the reforming process was conducted. Experimental data agreed well with the thermodynamic results, indicating that high thermal efficiency can be achieved with the thermal plasma reforming process.

  8. Educational Reform: An Ironic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyle, Eric; Wallace, Mike

    2007-01-01

    This article adopts "irony" as a frame for understanding some of the consequences of the reform movement in the UK. A distinction is drawn between the ironies that are endemic in all organizations and rooted in ambiguities and dilemmas, and the ironies that specifically flow from the disjunction between central policies and the…

  9. Reforming the Educational Administration Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miklos, Erwin

    This paper discusses the conceptual reform of university-based graduate level administrator preparation programs. The functionalist, interpretative, and critical approaches to social science have important implications for the study of motivation, decision-making, communication and leadership. Interpretative and critical approaches must be woven…

  10. Coking characteristics of reforming catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Mieville, R.L.

    1986-08-01

    Coking rates were measured for two different ..gamma..-aluminas, each with and without platinum, under near commercial conditions using a gravimetric reactor. Coke on catalyst was characterized by a Temperature-Programmed Oxidation (TPO) technique. With a naphtha feed, coke formed on both aluminas at rates related to the respective population of ..cap alpha..-sites as measured by IR. For the corresponding Pt on alumina catalysts, coke, as measured by TPO, predominantly formed on sites associated with alumina (alumina coke), while coke associated with Pt (Pt coke), was relatively minor. With a n-heptane feed, under the same conditions, coke formation on both aluminas was much less than with the naphtha feed. However, the corresponding Pt on alumina catalysts generated comparatively more coke with a higher proportion associated with Pt. A correspondence between this proportion of Pt coke and the decline in reforming activity was observed. It is postulated that most of the coke produced during naphtha reforming with an active catalyst is formed by a reaction between ..cap alpha..-sites on alumina and certain components in the feed via a polymerization mechanism. This type of coke has minimal effect on the reforming reactivity of the catalyst. However, in n-heptane reforming, about 50% of the coke also results from precursors formed from reactions with Pt. In either case, coke associated with Pt appears to be the probable cause of deactivation. 22 references.

  11. Quantum Leap: Vocational Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Cecil L.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses recent technological advances, especially in computers and telecommunications, and their impact on the workplace. Highlights the need for educational reform in vocational/technical programs reflecting a systems-oriented approach rooted in the sciences. Discusses the future role of the private sector in education. (HB)

  12. The Human Face of Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Because resistance is inevitable, the primary task of managing change is motivational, not technical. Implementation depends on five change dimensions: reform content, faculty willingness and capacity for change, the school's organizational strength, support and training, and leadership. Innovation is fostered by clarity and focus, participation,…

  13. School Reform in the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trusty, Francis M.

    Eight issues affecting the ability of the schools to meet the public's expectations and concerns are explored in this address. It examines problems, proposed solutions, barriers to change, and possibilities for reform in each of the eight areas. The topics considered are (1) school organization, the need for flexible structuring, and enhancement…

  14. Cultural Narcissism and Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pajak, Edward F.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: Scholars have described American culture in recent decades as narcissistic, manifested by displays of self-absorption tantamount to a pathological syndrome that has reached epidemic proportions. An education reform movement that is highly critical of public schools, teachers, and students has simultaneously emerged, espousing a…

  15. DBAE and Art Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, W. Dwaine

    1997-01-01

    Uses Stanley Pogrow's (1996) ideas on reforms and why they often fail as a frame against which a number of controversies associated with Discipline-Based Art Education (DBAE) are examined. Describes some myths used to characterize DBAE's philosophical, cultural, and curricular orientations; contrasts them with dimensions of reality identified by…

  16. Tax Reform and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franck, Gail

    1987-01-01

    The effect of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 on college and university revenues and expenditures is reviewed. Institutional revenues are derived primarily from five sources: tuition, charitable contributions, debt financing, endowment income, and governmental appropriations. The effect of the new law on family and student income, savings, student…

  17. Integrated reformer and shift reactor

    DOEpatents

    Bentley, Jeffrey M.; Clawson, Lawrence G.; Mitchell, William L.; Dorson, Matthew H.

    2006-06-27

    A hydrocarbon fuel reformer for producing diatomic hydrogen gas is disclosed. The reformer includes a first reaction vessel, a shift reactor vessel annularly disposed about the first reaction vessel, including a first shift reactor zone, and a first helical tube disposed within the first shift reactor zone having an inlet end communicating with a water supply source. The water supply source is preferably adapted to supply liquid-phase water to the first helical tube at flow conditions sufficient to ensure discharge of liquid-phase and steam-phase water from an outlet end of the first helical tube. The reformer may further include a first catalyst bed disposed in the first shift reactor zone, having a low-temperature shift catalyst in contact with the first helical tube. The catalyst bed includes a plurality of coil sections disposed in coaxial relation to other coil sections and to the central longitudinal axis of the reformer, each coil section extending between the first and second ends, and each coil section being in direct fluid communication with at least one other coil section.

  18. Educational Reform: Issues and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Review, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Reviews trends in different countries regarding educational reform at the primary and secondary levels in terms of educational quality, funding, teacher salaries, class size, and decentralization. Suggests that, even in Japan and other industrialized nations, there is movement away from the constraints of a uniform system. (SK)

  19. Reform and Resistance at Oxford

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, both Harvard and Oxford Universities have been rattled by reform-minded--some say brash--leaders determined to question the status quo. At Harvard, President Lawrence H. Summers proved too controversial for his own good and is scheduled to step down this month after five contentious years in office. But at Oxford, John Hood, who…

  20. Teacher Education Reform. Essay Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner-Khamsi, Gita

    1999-01-01

    Reviews three books that examine teacher-education reform from an international comparative perspective: "The Crisis in Teacher Education: A European Concern," by Anthony Adams and Witold Tulasiewicz; "Global Perspectives on Teacher Education," edited by Colin Brock; and "Learning and Teaching in an International Context:…

  1. Free-Market School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrington-Lueker, Donna

    1997-01-01

    In Uxbridge, Massachusetts, a small working-class mill town, free-market reform rhetoric has become reality. The tiny district has adopted controversial changes, such as giving vouchers to parents of Title I students, reimbursing home-schooling parents, lengthening the school day and year, adopting flexible scheduling, allowing credit for Internet…

  2. Lifelong Learning and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Colin

    1999-01-01

    An alternative perspective on lifelong learning locates it in culture, civil society, and leisure/consumption lifestyles. Distinctions between education and learning and markets and quasi-markets are used to explore policy models. The relationship to welfare reform policies is discussed. (Author/SK)

  3. Misrecognition and Science Education Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Carol B.

    2012-01-01

    In this forum, I expand upon Teo and Osborne's discussion of teacher agency and curriculum reform. I take up and build upon their analysis to further examine one teacher's frustration in enacting an inquiry-based curriculum and his resulting accommodation of an AP curriculum. In this way I introduce the concept of misrecognition (Bourdieu and…

  4. Five Obstacles to Grading Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Educators seeking to reform grading must combat five long-held traditions that stand as formidable obstacles to change: (1) Grades should provide the basis for differentiating students; (2) grade distributions should resemble a bell-shaped curve; (3) grades should be based on students' standing among classmates; (4) poor grades prompt students to…

  5. School Reform Meets Administrative Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Antoinette B.; And Others

    Maryland's Challenge Grant Program was designed to bring systemic change to schools with relatively low performance levels. This paper presents findings of an ethnographic study that examined the workings of an educational reform effort across several levels of administration. Specifically, the study explored conditions that facilitated and…

  6. Experimental studies on hydrogen generation by methane autothermal reforming over nickel-based catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. M.

    This paper presents the experimental studies on the hydrogen generation by methane autothermal reforming method. An experimental system was built in-house for this study. The temperature profile along the axis of the reformer was measured and discussed. The peak temperature of the reformer appeared in the part of 1/4 to 2/4 of the reformer length from inlet to outlet. The maximum hydrogen yield, hydrogen mole numbers generated per mole of methane consumed of 2.71, was achieved at molar oxygen-to-carbon ratio of 1.68 and molar steam-to-carbon ratio of 2.5. Under this condition, the energy conversion efficiency of the reforming process reached 81.4% based on the lower heating values.

  7. [Impact of health care reform on human resources and employment management].

    PubMed

    Brito Quintana, P E

    2000-01-01

    According to those in charge of health sector reform, human resources are the key component of health sector reform processes and offer health services their greatest competitive advantage. With the help of the Observatory for Human Resources within Health Sector Reform promoted by the Pan American Health Organization and other groups, countries of the Region of the Americas have now begun to gather, in a methodical fashion, tangible evidence of the decisive importance of human resources within health sector reform initiatives and particularly of the impact of these initiatives on health personnel. This mutual influence is the main theme of this article, which explores the most disturbing aspects of health sector reform from a human resources perspective, including job instability and conflicting interests of employers and employees.

  8. Performance of a Diesel, JP-8 Reformer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-27

    reforming practical fuels to generate a hydrogen rich reformate gas that can be directly used by the fuel cells. To reduce logistics problem, the Army has...decomposition, as well as liquid fuel reforming [7], preferential oxidation of CO and water gas shift reactors in fuel processors [8]. 3. FUEL REFORMER ...and H2O:C ratios was studied with both JP-8 and diesel. The reformate gas was analyzed by a GC at various S:C and O:C ratios, inlet temperatures

  9. Human resources: the Cinderella of health sector reform in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Homedes, Núria; Ugalde, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Human resources are the most important assets of any health system, and health workforce problems have for decades limited the efficiency and quality of Latin America health systems. World Bank-led reforms aimed at increasing equity, efficiency, quality of care and user satisfaction did not attempt to resolve the human resources problems that had been identified in multiple health sector assessments. However, the two most important reform policies – decentralization and privatization – have had a negative impact on the conditions of employment and prompted opposition from organized professionals and unions. In several countries of the region, the workforce became the most important obstacle to successful reform. This article is based on fieldwork and a review of the literature. It discusses the reasons that led health workers to oppose reform; the institutional and legal constraints to implementing reform as originally designed; the mismatch between the types of personnel needed for reform and the availability of professionals; the deficiencies of the reform implementation process; and the regulatory weaknesses of the region. The discussion presents workforce strategies that the reforms could have included to achieve the intended goals, and the need to take into account the values and political realities of the countries. The authors suggest that autochthonous solutions are more likely to succeed than solutions imported from the outside. PMID:15659241

  10. [Governance and health: the rise of the managerialism in public sector reform].

    PubMed

    Denis, Jean L; Lamothe, Lise; Langley, Ann; Stéphane, Guérard

    2010-01-01

    The article examines various healthcare systems reform projects in Canada and some Canadian provinces and reveals some tendencies in governance renewal. The analisis is based on the hypothesis that reform is an exercise aiming at the renewal of governance conception and practices. In renewing governance, reform leaders hope to use adequate and effective levers to attain announced reform objectives. The article shows that the conceptions and operational modalities of governance have changed over time and that they reveal tensions inherent to the transformation and legitimation process of public healthcare systems. The first section discusses the relationships between reform and change. The second section defines the conception of gouvernance used for the analisis. Based on a content analisis of the various reform reports, the third section reveals the evolution of the conception of governance in healthcare systems in Canada. In order to expose the new tendencies, ideologies and operational principles at the heart of the reform projects are analysed. Five ideologies are identified: the democratic ideology, the "population health" ideology, the business ideology, the managerial ideology and the ideology of equity and humanism. This leads to a discussion on the dominant influence of the managerial ideology in the current reform projects.

  11. Catalytic glycerol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect

    Dan, Monica Mihet, Maria Lazar, Mihaela D.

    2015-12-23

    Hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming combine two major advantages: (i) using glycerol as raw material add value to this by product of bio-diesel production which is obtained in large quantities around the world and have a very limited utilization now, and (ii) by implication of water molecules in the reaction the efficiency of hydrogen generation is increased as each mol of glycerol produces 7 mol of H{sub 2}. In this work we present the results obtained in the process of steam reforming of glycerol on Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized through different methods: N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR. The catalytic study was performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure by varying the reaction conditions: steam/carbon ratio (1-9), gas flow (35 ml/min -133 ml/min), temperature (450-650°C). The gaseous fraction of the reaction products contain: H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}. The optimum reaction conditions as resulted from this study are: temperature 550°C, Gly:H{sub 2}O ratio 9:1 and Ar flow 133 ml/min. In these conditions the glycerol conversion to gaseous products was 43% and the hydrogen yield was 30%.

  12. Catalytic glycerol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Monica; Mihet, Maria; Lazar, Mihaela D.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming combine two major advantages: (i) using glycerol as raw material add value to this by product of bio-diesel production which is obtained in large quantities around the world and have a very limited utilization now, and (ii) by implication of water molecules in the reaction the efficiency of hydrogen generation is increased as each mol of glycerol produces 7 mol of H2. In this work we present the results obtained in the process of steam reforming of glycerol on Ni/Al2O3. The catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized through different methods: N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR. The catalytic study was performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure by varying the reaction conditions: steam/carbon ratio (1-9), gas flow (35 ml/min -133 ml/min), temperature (450-650°C). The gaseous fraction of the reaction products contain: H2, CH4, CO, CO2. The optimum reaction conditions as resulted from this study are: temperature 550°C, Gly:H2O ratio 9:1 and Ar flow 133 ml/min. In these conditions the glycerol conversion to gaseous products was 43% and the hydrogen yield was 30%.

  13. Mexico`s economic reform: Energy and the Constitution

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, L.

    1993-12-31

    Oil is a fundamental component of nationhood in Mexico. The 1938 expropriation of oil resources concluded a process of internal political consolidation and thus became the most important symbol of nationalism. Mexico has been undergoing a process of economic reform that has altered the country`s economic structure and has subjected it to international competition. Oil in particular and energy in general have been left untouched. There is recognition that without an equal reform of the energy industry, the potential for success will be significantly limited. While the Constitution allows private investment in the industry--with the exception of the resource properties themselves--the Regulatory Law bans any private participation. Because of its political sensitivity, however, amending the law in order to reform the oil industry will necessitate a domestic initiative rather than foreign pressure. In this perspective, NAFTA served to slow and postpone the reform of the industry, rather than the opposite. Once NAFTA is well in place, the industry will have to face competition.

  14. Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    Under DOE Contract No. DE-AR21-95MC32091, Steam Reforming of Low-Level Mixed Waste, ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 500- lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area published April 1997.1 The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfidly tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium- contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (>99.9999oA) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radlonuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Cost studies have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  15. Mixture preparation by cool flames for diesel-reforming technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, L.; Lucka, K.; Köhne, H.

    The separation of the evaporation from the high-temperature reaction zone is crucial for the reforming process. Unfavorable mixtures of liquid fuels, water and air lead to degradation by local hot spots in the sensitive catalysts and formation of unwanted by-products in the reformer. Furthermore, the evaporator has to work with dynamic changes in the heat transfer, residence times and educt compositions. By using exothermal pre-reactions in the form of cool flames it is possible to realize a complete and residue-free evaporation of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures. The conditions whether cool flames can be stabilised or not is related to the heat release of the pre-reactions in comparison to the heat losses of the system. Examinations were conducted in a flow reactor at atmospheric pressure and changing residence times to investigate the conditions under which stable cool flame operation is possible and auto-ignition or quenching occurs. An energy balance of the evaporator should deliver the values of heat release by cool flames in comparison to the heat losses of the system. The cool flame evaporation is applied in the design of several diesel-reforming processes (thermal and catalytic partial oxidation, autothermal reforming) with different demands in the heat management and operation range (air ratio λ, steam-to-carbon ratio, SCR). The results are discussed at the end of this paper.

  16. The Immigration Reform Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Som, Sonya Olds; Momblanco, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at recent government actions that have contributed to the immigration debate, and then considers a number of the key issues: (1) Should the United States grant some sort of legal process, or "amnesty," to undocumented workers already in the U.S. who wish to seek permanent residency and, perhaps, citizenship?; (2) What…

  17. Norms in tension: democracy and efficiency in Bangladeshi health and population sector reform.

    PubMed

    Shiffman, Jeremy; Wu, Yonghong

    2003-11-01

    Spurred on by donors, a number of developing countries are in the midst of fundamental health and population sector reform. Focused on the performance-oriented norms of efficiency and effectiveness, reformers have paid insufficient attention to the process-oriented norms of sovereignty and democracy. As a result, citizens of sovereign states have been largely excluded from the deliberative process. This paper draws on political science and public administration theory to evaluate the Bangladeshi reform experience. It does so with reference to the norms of efficiency, effectiveness, sovereignty and democracy as a means of making explicit the values that need to be considered in order to make health and population sector reform a fair process.

  18. Solar Reforming of Carbon Dioxide to Produce Diesel Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis Schuetzle; Robert Schuetzle

    2010-12-31

    This project focused on the demonstration of an innovative technology, referred to as the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer, which utilizes waste CO2 as a feedstock for the efficient and economical production of synthetic diesel fuel using solar thermal energy as the primary energy input. The Sunexus technology employs a two stage process for the conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel. A solar reforming system, including a specially designed reactor and proprietary CO2 reforming catalyst, was developed and used to convert captured CO2 rich gas streams into syngas (primarily hydrogen and carbon monoxide) using concentrated solar energy at high conversion efficiencies. The second stage of the system (which has been demonstrated under other funding) involves the direct conversion of the syngas into synthetic diesel fuel using a proprietary catalyst (Terra) previously developed and validated by Pacific Renewable Fuels and Chemicals (PRFC). The overall system energy efficiency for conversion of CO2 to diesel fuel is 74%, due to the use of solar energy. The results herein describe modeling, design, construction, and testing of the Sunexus CO2 Solar Reformer. Extensive parametric testing of the solar reformer and candidate catalysts was conducted and chemical kinetic models were developed. Laboratory testing of the Solar Reformer was successfully completed using various gas mixtures, temperatures, and gas flow rates/space velocities to establish performance metrics which can be employed for the design of commercial plants. A variety of laboratory tests were conducted including dry reforming (CO2 and CH{sub 4}), combination dry/steam reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4} & H{sub 2}O), and tri-reforming (CO2, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}O & O{sub 2}). CH{sub 4} and CO2 conversions averaged 95-100% and 50-90% per reformer cycle, respectively, depending upon the temperatures and gas space velocities. No formation of carbon deposits (coking) on the catalyst was observed in any of these tests. A 16 ft. diameter

  19. Plasma-catalyzed fuel reformer

    DOEpatents

    Hartvigsen, Joseph J.; Elangovan, S.; Czernichowski, Piotr; Hollist, Michele

    2013-06-11

    A reformer is disclosed that includes a plasma zone to receive a pre-heated mixture of reactants and ionize the reactants by applying an electrical potential thereto. A first thermally conductive surface surrounds the plasma zone and is configured to transfer heat from an external heat source into the plasma zone. The reformer further includes a reaction zone to chemically transform the ionized reactants into synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A second thermally conductive surface surrounds the reaction zone and is configured to transfer heat from the external heat source into the reaction zone. The first thermally conductive surface and second thermally conductive surface are both directly exposed to the external heat source. A corresponding method and system are also disclosed and claimed herein.

  20. Design and Operation of the Synthesis Gas Generator System for Reformed Propane and Glycerin Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickett, Derek Kyle

    Due to an increased interest in sustainable energy, biodiesel has become much more widely used in the last several years. Glycerin, one major waste component in biodiesel production, can be converted into a hydrogen rich synthesis gas to be used in an engine generator to recover energy from the biodiesel production process. This thesis contains information detailing the production, testing, and analysis of a unique synthesis generator rig at the University of Kansas. Chapter 2 gives a complete background of all major components, as well as how they are operated. In addition to component descriptions, methods for operating the system on pure propane, reformed propane, reformed glycerin along with the methodology of data acquisition is described. This chapter will serve as a complete operating manual for future students to continue research on the project. Chapter 3 details the literature review that was completed to better understand fuel reforming of propane and glycerin. This chapter also describes the numerical model produced to estimate the species produced during reformation activities. The model was applied to propane reformation in a proof of concept and calibration test before moving to glycerin reformation and its subsequent combustion. Chapter 4 first describes the efforts to apply the numerical model to glycerin using the calibration tools from propane reformation. It then discusses catalytic material preparation and glycerin reformation tests. Gas chromatography analysis of the reformer effluent was completed to compare to theoretical values from the numerical model. Finally, combustion of reformed glycerin was completed for power generation. Tests were completed to compare emissions from syngas combustion and propane combustion.

  1. The Politics of Military Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    choices for ayq CWagsm. DoD umratards that it is to its advntage to let Ontracts in as many Cogressional districts as possible. The chArt below...believe that alternative (e.g., social spending, debt reduction measures , or foreign aid) avenues for defense dollars should be pursued. Our research...underbudgeting and underfunding of new systems and their corresponding operation and maintenance accounts . 1 0 Reformers are convinced that DoD realizes

  2. A view on NHS reforms.

    PubMed

    Black, D

    1995-01-01

    The current 'reforms' of the NHS arose from concern over the increasing costs of health care; mistrust of the profession, including medicine and nursing; a contrasting excessive trust in the virtues of a managerial and mercantile culture; and possibly a desire to divert criticisms away from central government down to local agencies. The shape of the reforms largely reflected expedients which had been tried in the USA, with apparent neglect of the evidence that the system there had produced exceptionally costly and inequitable health care. With no prior evaluation in this country, and against much professional advice, the reforms were pushed through, and have caused problems. Massive managerial costs stemming from the artificial market have diverted resources, and also attention, from the care of patients. Doctors and nurses have tried to limit the damage, but limitation has its limits. To re-convert health care from a business to a service require abandoning the 'market', with its purchaser-provider split, and its imposition of a costly contractual framework on transactions which are in their nature clinical, not commercial.

  3. Job satisfaction of village doctors during the new healthcare reforms in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyan; Fang, Pengqian

    2016-04-01

    Objective China launched new healthcare reforms in 2009 and several policies targeted village clinics, which affected village doctors' income, training and duties. The aim of the present study was to assess village doctors' job satisfaction during the reforms and to explore factors affecting job satisfaction. Methods Using a stratified multistage cluster sampling process, 935 village doctors in Jiangxi Province were surveyed with a self-administered questionnaire that collected demographic information and contained a job satisfaction scale and questions regarding their work situation and individual perceptions of the new healthcare reforms. Descriptive analysis, Pearson's Chi-squared test and binary logistic regression were used to identify village doctors' job satisfaction and the factors associated with their job satisfaction. Results Only 12.72% of village doctors were either satisfied or very satisfied with their jobs and the top three items leading to dissatisfaction were pay and the amount of work that had to be done, opportunities for job promotion and work conditions. Marriage, income, intention to leave, satisfaction with learning and training, social status, relationship with patients and satisfaction with the new healthcare reforms were significantly associated with job satisfaction (P<0.05). Conclusions China is facing critical challenges with regard to village doctors because of their low job satisfaction. For future healthcare reforms, policy makers should pay more attention to appropriate remuneration and approaches that incentivise village doctors to achieve the goals of the health reforms. What is known about the topic? Village doctors act as gatekeepers at the bottom tier of the rural health system. However, the policies of the new healthcare reform initiatives in China were centred on improving the quality of care delivered to the rural population and reducing fast-growing medical costs. There have been limited studies on village doctors

  4. Achieving and Sustaining Universal Health Coverage: Fiscal Reform of the National Health Insurance in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lan, Jesse Yu-Chen

    2016-10-25

    The paper discusses the expansion of the universal health coverage (UHC) in Taiwan through the establishment of National Health Insurance (NHI), and the fiscal crisis it caused. Two key questions are addressed: How did the NHI gradually achieve universal coverage, and yet cause Taiwanese health spending to escalate to fiscal crisis? What measures have been taken to reform the NHI finance and achieve moderate success to date? The main argument of this paper is that the Taiwanese Government did try to implement various reforms to save costs and had moderate success, but the path-dependent process of reform does not allow increasing contribution rates significantly and thereby makes sustainability challenging.

  5. The Human Dimension of Systemic Department-Level Change: A Change Agent's Retrospective on a Case of Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanasupa, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This paper represents a narrative of the process of department-level reform through the eyes of the initiating agent of change. Over the course of reform, our program has grown by 40%, primarily through retaining students. We exhibit a 10% net important rate of engineering students in the first two years of the curriculum relative to the college's…

  6. The Retrospection and Elicitation of China's Teacher Education Reform and Opening-Up More Than 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tian-Ping, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Since implementation of reform and opening-up policy, China's teacher education has got significant success on policy design, legislation process, theory research, system reform, model innovation and teaching qualification system building. Teachers' educational background level has been increased. Teachers' professional ethics and teaching…

  7. Inside the Black Box of School Reform: Explaining the How and Why of Change at "Getting Results" Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDougall, Dennis; Saunders, William M.; Goldenberg, Claude

    2007-01-01

    This article reports key findings from a process-focused external evaluation that compared a subset of "Getting Results" project schools and comparison schools in order to understand the dynamics of school-wide reform efforts at these primary schools. Findings shed light on the "black box" of school reform and illuminate the…

  8. Comprehensive School Reform: Research-Based Strategies To Achieve High Standards. A Guidebook on School-Wide Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Sylvie van Heusden

    This guidebook provides a framework for planning schoolwide improvements. It is intended to help educators redesign schools, move beyond piecemeal reforms, and reconfigure entire academic programs to help every student meet challenging standards. The guidebook describes the context of comprehensive school reform and offers a process for conducting…

  9. From Times of Transition to Adaptation: Background and Theoretical Approach to the Curriculum Reform in Estonia 1987-1996

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouk, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to research the important process of the history of the educational development of Estonia, the reform of the national school curriculum which began after the teacher's congress in 1987 and ended in 1996 when government approved the document. That reform was carried out in the context of thoroughgoing and dramatic…

  10. The political economy of healthy system reform in Israel.

    PubMed

    Chernichovsky, D; Chinitz, D

    1995-01-01

    On June 15, 1994, the Israeli Parliament voted to enact the National Health Insurance bill (NHI). The bill marks the end of a process that lasted for virtually as long as Israel's almost 50 year history. Israel's attempts at health reform began long before the current spate of reforms in many Western countries. Faced with many of the same problems of access, equity and cost control common to many of its counterparts, Israel initiated a reform process based on the recommendations of a prominent State Commission of Inquiry into the Israeli Health System (the Netanyahu Commission) which reported to the Government in 1990. The Commission's proposals were based on a diagnosis indicating that the major problems of the system stem from the lack of clarity regarding the rights of citizens to health care, the lack of a clear allocation of responsibility and accountability among government, insurance or sick funds, and providers in the system, and undue centralization of system operations. This diagnosis led to three major planks for reform: (1) enactment of national health insurance legislation granting a basic package of care to each citizen and hence bringing most of the system's finance under public auspices; (2) divesting the Government from the organization, management and provision of care; hence integrating the management of preventive and psychiatric services provided by the government with the primary and other services provided by sick funds, and granting financial and operational independence to at least government hospitals; and (3) restructuring the Ministry of Health. As is often the case in public policy, more consensus surrounds the diagnosis than the solutions. As a result, nearly four years of implementation efforts have only recently resulted in a major breakthrough. In this paper we make an effort to outline the inherent weaknesses of the Israeli health care system that have led to the crisis in the mid 1980s, summarize the recommendations of the State

  11. Comprehensive reform to improve health system performance in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Frenk, Julio; González-Pier, Eduardo; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Lezana, Miguel A; Knaul, Felicia Marie

    2006-10-28

    Despite having achieved an average life expectancy of 75 years, much the same as that of more developed countries, Mexico entered the 21st century with a health system marred by its failure to offer financial protection in health to more than half of its citizens; this was both a result and a cause of the social inequalities that have marked the development process in Mexico. Several structural limitations have hampered performance and limited the progress of the health system. Conscious that the lack of financial protection was the major bottleneck, Mexico has embarked on a structural reform to improve health system performance by establishing the System of Social Protection in Health (SSPH), which has introduced new financial rules and incentives. The main innovation of the reform has been the Seguro Popular (Popular Health Insurance), the insurance-based component of the SSPH, aimed at funding health care for all those families, most of them poor, who had been previously excluded from social health insurance. The reform has allowed for a substantial increase in public investment in health while realigning incentives towards better technical and interpersonal quality. This paper describes the main features and initial results of the Mexican reform effort, and derives lessons for other countries considering health-system transformations under similarly challenging circumstances.

  12. [Comprehensive reform to improve health system performance in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Frenk, Julio; González-Pier, Eduardo; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Lezana, Miguel Angel; Knaul, Felicia Marie

    2007-01-01

    Despite having achieved an average life expectancy of 75 years, much the same as that of more developed countries, Mexico entered the 21st century with a health system mared by its failure to offer financial protection in health to more than half of its citizens; this was both a result and a cause of the social inequalities that have marked the development process in Mexico. Several structural limitations have hampered performance and limited the progress of the health system. Conscious that the lack of financial protection was the major bottleneck, Mexico has embarked on a structural reform to improve health system performance by establishing the System of Social Protection in Health (SSPH), which has introduced new financial rules and incentives. The main innovation of the reform has been the Seguro Popular (Popular Health Insurance), the insurance-based component of the SSPH, aimed at funding health care for all those families, most of them poor, who had been previously excluded from social health insurance. The reform has allowed for a substantial increase in public investment in health while realigning incentives towards better technical and interpersonal quality. This paper describes the main features and initial results of the Mexican reform effort, and derives lessons for other countries considering health-system transformations under similarly challenging circumstances.

  13. DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES FOR SELECTING WASTE SAMPLES FOR BENCH-SCALE REFORMER TREATABILITY STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    BANNING DL

    2011-02-11

    This document describes the data quality objectives to select archived samples located at the 222-S Laboratory for Bench-Scale Reforming testing. The type, quantity, and quality of the data required to select the samples for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing are discussed. In order to maximize the efficiency and minimize the time to treat Hanford tank waste in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, additional treatment processes may be required. One of the potential treatment processes is the fluidized bed steam reformer. A determination of the adequacy of the fluidized bed steam reformer process to treat Hanford tank waste is required. The initial step in determining the adequacy of the fluidized bed steam reformer process is to select archived waste samples from the 222-S Laboratory that will be used in a bench scale tests. Analyses of the selected samples will be required to confirm the samples meet the shipping requirements and for comparison to the bench scale reformer (BSR) test sample selection requirements.

  14. Implementing a Nation-Wide Mental Health Care Reform: An Analysis of Stakeholders' Priorities.

    PubMed

    Lorant, Vincent; Grard, Adeline; Nicaise, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    Belgium has recently reformed its mental health care delivery system with the goals to strengthen the community-based supply of care, care integration, and the social rehabilitation of users and to reduce the resort to hospitals. We assessed whether these different reform goals were endorsed by stakeholders. One-hundred and twenty-two stakeholders ranked, online, eighteen goals of the reform according to their priorities. Stakeholders supported the goals of social rehabilitation of users and community care but were reluctant to reduce the resort to hospitals. Stakeholders were averse to changes in treatment processes, particularly in relation to the reduction of the resort to hospitals and mechanisms for more care integration. Goals heterogeneity and discrepancies between stakeholders' perspectives and policy priorities are likely to produce an uneven implementation of the reform process and, hence, reduce its capacity to achieve the social rehabilitation of users.

  15. Toward immigration reform.

    PubMed

    Franken, Mark

    2005-01-01

    For the most part, immigrants in the United States do not have access to the very safety-net benefits supported by their taxes, nor to essential due-process rights, simply because they are not citizens or legal residents. Contemporary demographics of immigration and post-9/11 security concerns have colored our traditional hospitality as a nation of immigrants and made life more difficult for immigrants. The Catholic Church has a rich history of scriptural and social teaching that addresses the question of immigration. Stories of forced migration in the Pentateuch led to commandments regarding strangers and the responsibility to be welcoming. In the New Testament, we see that the Holy Family themselves were refugees. The Gospel of St. Matthew tells us that we will be judged by the way we respond to migrants and others in need. In Exsul Familia, Pope Pius XII reaffirms the commitment of the church to care for pilgrims, aliens, exiles, and migrants. In Ecclesia in America, Pope John Paul II states that the ultimate solution to illegal immigration is the elimination of global underdevelopment and that, in the meantime, the human rights of all migrants must be respected. In 2003, the bishops of Mexico and the United States jointly issued the pastoral letter Strangers No Longer: Together on the Journey of Hope. In this letter, the bishops say that U.S. immigration policy should protect the human rights and dignity of immigrants and asylum seekers. The bishops also offer a number of proposed public policy responses toward that end. To advance the principles contained in Strangers No Longer, the bishops have decided to mount a national campaign designed to unite and mobilize a growing network of Catholic organizations and individuals, as well as others of good faith. In addition, the campaign will seek to dispel myths and misperceptions about immigrants.

  16. Tidal Waves of School Reform: Types of Reforms, Government Controls, and Community Advocates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Samuel

    The more revolutionary, drastic education reform efforts are usually supported by new governmental legislation. This book offers three case studies of drastic reform carried out in Kentucky, Alberta, and Chicago. The reforms can be visualized in terms of how close they are to the alternative aims of expert guidance, social activism, and an…

  17. Education Reform and Students At Risk. Volume I: Findings and Recommendations. Studies of Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Robert J.; Stringfield, Samuel C.

    Despite the widespread attention given to education reform, no substantial knowledge base has existed for identifying and implementing specific effective reforms. This document, the first of three volumes, presents findings of a study that sought to identify the essential mechanics of effective reforms for students at risk. The study also…

  18. Measuring Reform Practices in Science and Mathematics Classrooms: The Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawada, Daiyo; Piburn, Michael D.; Judson, Eugene; Turley, Jeff; Falconer, Kathleen; Benford, Russell; Bloom, Irene

    2002-01-01

    Describes the Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol (RTOP), a 25-item classroom observation protocol that is standards-based, inquiry-oriented, and student-centered. Provides the definition for reform and the basis for evaluation of the Arizona Collaborative for Excellence in the Preparation of Teachers (ACEPT). Concludes that reform, as defined…

  19. Reforming Districts: How Districts Support School Reform. A Research Report. Document R-03-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Milbrey; Talbert, Joan

    2003-01-01

    School districts have participated in multiple rounds of education reform activity in the past few decades, yet few have made headway on system-wide school improvement. This paper addresses the questions of whether districts matter for school reform progress and what successful "reforming" districts do to achieve system change and to…

  20. Catalytic reforming with rhenium-platinum catalyst containing more rhenium than platinum

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, J.P.; Yarrington, R.M.

    1982-10-26

    A new reforming process employs a new rhenium-platinum catalytic composite having a rhenium to platinum weight ratio in the range of not less than 2 to about 5, whereby longer relative cycle length is obtained when reforming a naphtha having less than about 0.5 ppm by weight of sulfur than if the rhenium-platinum ratio is outside of such range.

  1. A Methanol Steam Reforming Micro Reactor for Proton Exchange Membrane Micro Fuel Cell System

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H G; Piggott, W T; Chung, J; Morse, J D; Havstad, M; Grigoropoulos, C P; Greif, R; Benett, W; Sopchak, D; Upadhye, R

    2003-07-28

    The heat, mass and momentum transfer from a fuel reforming packed bed to a surrounding silicon wafer has been simulated. Modeling showed quantitatively reasonable agreement with experimental data for fuel conversion efficiency, hydrogen production rate, outlet methanol mole fraction and outlet steam mole fraction. The variation in fuel conversion efficiency with the micro reformer thermal isolation can be used to optimize fuel-processing conditions for micro PEM fuel cells.

  2. Public service or commodity goods? Electricity reforms, access, and the politics of development in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanadan, Rebecca Hansing

    Since the 1990s, power sector reforms have become paramount in energy policy, catalyzing a debate in Africa about market-based service provision and the effects of reforms on access. My research seeks to move beyond the conceptual divide by grounding attention not in abstract 'market forces' but rather in how development institutions shape energy services and actually practice policy on the ground. Using the case of Tanzania, a country known for having instituted some of the most extensive reforms and a 'success story' in Africa, I find that reforms are creating large burdens and barriers for access and use of services, including: increasing costs, enforcement pressures, and measures to impose 'market' discipline. However, I also find that many of the most significant outcomes are not found in direct 'market' changes, but rather how reforms are selective, partial, and shaped by the wider needs and claims of the institutions driving reforms, so that questions of how reforms are implemented, how they are measured, and who tells the story become as important as the policies themselves. Using a multiple-arenas framework, including (i) a household and community level study of urban energy conditions, (ii) a study of service and management conditions at the national electric utility, (iii) an examination of the international policy process, and (iv) a study of the history of electricity services across colonial, post-independence, and reform periods, I show that African energy reforms are a technical and political project connecting energy to international investments, donor aid programs, and elite interests within national governments. Energy reforms also involve fundamental service changes that are reorganizing how the costs and benefits of energy systems are distributed, allocated, and managed. The effects of reform extend beyond formal services to have wide-reaching repercussions within natural resources, and uneven social dynamics on the ground. These features point

  3. Health system reform in former socialist countries of Europe.

    PubMed

    Ensor, T

    1993-01-01

    The health systems of all the former socialist countries of Europe are in the midst of far-reaching reform. The process is still in the early stages but certain patterns of finance and provision are beginning to emerge in a number of countries. All are implementing payroll-based social insurance while some are beginning to restrict entitlement to those contributing. There is a danger the process of restructuring will leave many without adequate insurance cover. Market solutions are being introduced in many countries to improve the efficiency of provision. Assuming the administrative cost is not too great, this may improve choice and quality of personal care. It is, however, unclear how far these solutions will tackle the fundamental public health problems endemic in these countries today. Those countries that have been slower to implement reform may benefit from learning from the successes and failures of the pioneers.

  4. The implications of health sector reform for human resources development.

    PubMed Central

    Alwan, Ala'; Hornby, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The authors argue that "health for all" is not achievable in most countries without health sector reform that incorporates a process of coordinated health and human resources development. They examine the situation in countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region of the World Health Organization. Though advances have been made, further progress is inhibited by the limited adaptation of traditional health service structures and processes in many of these countries. National reform strategies are needed. These require the active participation of health professional associations and academic training institutions as well as health service managers. The paper indicates some of the initiatives required and suggests that the starting point for many countries should be a rigorous appraisal of the current state of human resources development in health. PMID:11884974

  5. Production and the welfare state: the political context of reforms.

    PubMed

    Navarro, V

    1991-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the political context of reforms in the production process and in the welfare state. The theories of legitimation and Fordism are criticized for considering the capitalist class the main force behind the reforms. The working class and the process of class struggle are primarily responsible for changes in production and for the establishment of the welfare state. The author then shows that the changes in production and in the state that occurred after World War II were a response to political events triggered by labor's rebellions and capital's need to respond to those rebellions. Post-Fordism and the political practice that derives from it are criticized for their hasty dismissal of class and class practices by the dominated forces in society. The article ends by offering an alternative strategy for change.

  6. Technical and economic assessment of producing hydrogen by reforming syngas from the Battelle indirectly heated biomass gasifier

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.K.

    1995-08-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass by means of indirectly heated gasification and steam reforming was studied. A detailed process model was developed in ASPEN Plus{trademark} to perform material and energy balances. The results of this simulation were used to size and cost major pieces of equipment from which the determination of the necessary selling price of hydrogen was made. A sensitivity analysis was conducted on the process to study hydrogen price as a function of biomass feedstock cost and hydrogen production efficiency. The gasification system used for this study was the Battelle Columbus Laboratory (BCL) indirectly heated gasifier. The heat necessary for the endothermic gasification reactions is supplied by circulating sand from a char combustor to the gasification vessel. Hydrogen production was accomplished by steam reforming the product synthesis gas (syngas) in a process based on that used for natural gas reforming. Three process configurations were studied. Scheme 1 is the full reforming process, with a primary reformer similar to a process furnace, followed by a high temperature shift reactor and a low temperature shift reactor. Scheme 2 uses only the primary reformer, and Scheme 3 uses the primary reformer and the high temperature shift reactor. A pressure swing adsorption (PSA) system is used in all three schemes to produce a hydrogen product pure enough to be used in fuel cells. Steam is produced through detailed heat integration and is intended to be sold as a by-product.

  7. Improve syngas production using autothermal reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, T.S.; Primdahl, I.I. )

    1994-03-01

    Synthesis gas or syngas, i.e., mixtures of CO and H[sub 2], is a major route from hydrocarbons to many important bulk chemicals ranging from acetic acid to ammonia. Syngas conversion uses hydrocarbon feedstocks, steam, O[sub 2] and CO[sub 2], either separately or in combinations. Autothermal reforming (ATR) is a low-investment process using a simple reactor design. The process is soot-free due to burner design and fixed-bed catalyst. Developed in the late '50s, ATR's main application was for ammonia and methanol syntheses. In ammonia plants, hydrogen production was maximized by operating at high H[sub 2]O/C ratios ranging from 2.5 to 3.5 mole/mole. In methanol units, CO[sub 2] recycle adjusted the syngas composition. ATR is also used to co-produce CO and H[sub 2] as separate streams at H[sub 2]O/C ratios of 1.4 to 2.0 mole/mole. recent developments and optimizations allow cost-effective operation at very low H[sub 2]O/C feed ratios to produce CO-rich syngas. The paper describes the process, including feedstocks and reactor design, the chemical reactions, development and improvements to the process, test results, soot formation, burner design, burner testing, applications, thermodynamic calculations, industrial application, noncatalytic and catalytic partial oxidation, and future uses.

  8. 25 Point Implementation Plan to Reform Federal information Technology Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-09

    25 POINT IMPLEMENTATION PLAN TO REFORM FEDERAL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT Vivek Kundra U.S. Chief Information Officer DECEMBER 9, 2 010... information Technology Management 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...RefoRm fedeRal infoRmaTion TeChnology managemenT ii★ ★ C2 . Align the Budget Process with the Technology Cycle

  9. Creation of Scalable, Cartridge-Based Microreactor Reformers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-31

    based on the heat released from the exothermic reaction that is utilized to (i) drive the endothermic reaction and (ii) as sensible heat; as follows: E...applications) typically requires additional exothermic reactions (e.g. combustion) to provide sufficient heat to maintain required reforming temperatures and...uninsulating) upon thermal efficiency and reaction nrogressio-- ’ ^d endo- and exothermic process streams. In this section, model

  10. Reform and Non-Reform in Education: The Political Costs and Benefits of Reform Policies in France and Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Hans N.; Miyake, Eriko

    This paper examines how the perception and anticipation of political costs and benefits affects decisions about whether and how plans for educational reforms are to be pursued. Two case studies of major educational reform attempts are described: France and Japan. The study analyzes the two societies' underlying dilemmas, which manifest themselves…

  11. The interface between health sector reform and human resources in health.

    PubMed

    Rigoli, Felix; Dussault, Gilles

    2003-11-03

    The relationship between health sector reform and the human resources issues raised in that process has been highlighted in several studies. These studies have focused on how the new processes have modified the ways in which health workers interact with their workplace, but few of them have paid enough attention to the ways in which the workers have influenced the reforms.The impact of health sector reform has modified critical aspects of the health workforce, including labor conditions, degree of decentralization of management, required skills and the entire system of wages and incentives. Human resources in health, crucial as they are in implementing changes in the delivery system, have had their voice heard in many subtle and open ways - reacting to transformations, supporting, blocking and distorting the proposed ways of action.This work intends to review the evidence on how the individual or collective actions of human resources are shaping the reforms, by spotlighting the reform process, the workforce reactions and the factors determining successful human resources participation. It attempts to provide a more powerful way of predicting the effects and interactions in which different "technical designs" operate when they interact with the human resources they affect. The article describes the dialectic nature of the relationship between the objectives and strategies of the reforms and the objectives and strategies of those who must implement them.

  12. The interface between health sector reform and human resources in health

    PubMed Central

    Rigoli, Felix; Dussault, Gilles

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between health sector reform and the human resources issues raised in that process has been highlighted in several studies. These studies have focused on how the new processes have modified the ways in which health workers interact with their workplace, but few of them have paid enough attention to the ways in which the workers have influenced the reforms. The impact of health sector reform has modified critical aspects of the health workforce, including labor conditions, degree of decentralization of management, required skills and the entire system of wages and incentives. Human resources in health, crucial as they are in implementing changes in the delivery system, have had their voice heard in many subtle and open ways – reacting to transformations, supporting, blocking and distorting the proposed ways of action. This work intends to review the evidence on how the individual or collective actions of human resources are shaping the reforms, by spotlighting the reform process, the workforce reactions and the factors determining successful human resources participation. It attempts to provide a more powerful way of predicting the effects and interactions in which different "technical designs" operate when they interact with the human resources they affect. The article describes the dialectic nature of the relationship between the objectives and strategies of the reforms and the objectives and strategies of those who must implement them. PMID:14613523

  13. Righting wrongs and reforming rights.

    PubMed

    Ivey, Laurie C

    2014-03-01

    Discusses issues faced by LGBT people, such as a lack of equal civil rights and the need for extra legal and financial protection for families because partners cannot be married. The author notes that, in our society, it is no longer acceptable to be racist, but it is still okay to be homophobic. The many campaigns against gay marriage and efforts in the legislature to prevent change toward equal civil rights and protections are prime examples. In our current political climate, two things are very clear: (a) homophobia is freely tolerated and (b) the times are changing as we inch closer to equal rights every day. We are "righting wrongs and reforming rights."

  14. Teaching reforms required for Ayurveda

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Jayaprakash

    2010-01-01

    This article concerns the 20th century saga of Ayurvedic Education up to the current situation, based on a general appreciation of knowledge in Ayurveda. In this light, it considers how to improve quality of teaching and teachers. This is most important, because in education, teachers are the custodians of tradition and knowledge. As those most responsible for maintaining or restoring quality, teachers have very important roles to play. The article also treats ‘learning and teaching’: who should learn Ayurveda, and how to teach Ayurveda so that it continues from generation to generation, leading to the final area of onsideration, reforms in teaching Ayurveda, and future prospects. PMID:21836806

  15. Solid oxide fuel cell steam reforming power system

    DOEpatents

    Chick, Lawrence A.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Powell, Michael R.; Meinhardt, Kerry D.; Whyatt, Greg A.

    2013-03-12

    The present invention is a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Reforming Power System that utilizes adiabatic reforming of reformate within this system. By utilizing adiabatic reforming of reformate within the system the system operates at a significantly higher efficiency than other Solid Oxide Reforming Power Systems that exist in the prior art. This is because energy is not lost while materials are cooled and reheated, instead the device operates at a higher temperature. This allows efficiencies higher than 65%.

  16. Quality assurance guides health reform in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abubaker, W; Abdulrahman, M

    1996-01-01

    In November 1995, a World Bank mission went to Jordan to conduct a study of the health sector. The study recommended three strategies to reform the health sector: decentralization of Ministry of Health (MOH) management; improvement of clinical practices, quality of care, and consumer satisfaction; and adoption of treatment protocols and standards. The MOH chose quality assurance (QA) methods and quality management (QM) techniques to accomplish these reforms. The Monitoring and QA Directorate oversees QA applications within MOH. It also institutes and develops the capacity of local QA units in the 12 governorates. The QA units implement and monitor day-to-day QA activities. The QM approach encompasses quality principles: establish objectives; use a systematic approach; teach lessons learned and applicable research; use QA training to teach quality care, quality improvement, and patient satisfaction; educate health personnel about QM approaches; use assessment tools and interviews; measure the needs and expectations of local health providers and patients; ensure feedback on QA improvement projects; ensure valid and reliable data; monitor quality improvement efforts; standardize systemic data collection and outcomes; and establish and disseminate QA standards and performance improvement efforts. The Jordan QA Project has helped with the successful institutionalization of a QA system at both the central and local levels. The bylaws of the QA councils and committees require team participation in the decision-making process. Over the last two years, the M&QA Project has adopted 21 standards for nursing, maternal and child health care centers, pharmacies, and medications. The Balqa pilot project has developed 44 such protocols. Quality improvement (COUGH) studies have examined hyper-allergy, analysis of patient flow rate, redistribution of nurses, vaccine waste, and anemic pregnant women. There are a considerable number of on-going clinical and non-clinical COUGH studies

  17. Steam reforming of biodiesel by-product to make renewable hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Slinn, Matthew; Kendall, Kevin; Mallon, Christian; Andrews, James

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the viability of steam reforming the combined glycerol and water by-product streams of a biodiesel plant. A platinum alumina catalyst was used to optimise the operating conditions for glycerol steam reforming and mass spectroscopy was chosen to measure reformer gas yield. The problem is that glycerol steam reforming is relatively untested even with pure glycerol and the by-product quality may be too poor. The strategy was therefore to optimise the process using pure glycerol and compare the performance with by-product glycerol. To test catalyst degradation caused by carbon deposition, a Solid Oxide fuel cell (SOFC) was used as a separate reformer and electrical performance was measured to indicate carbon deposition. This is the first time a SOFC has been run on glycerol. The results showed that thermodynamic theory can be used to predict reformer performance. At high temperatures high gas yield can be reached (almost 100%) and selectivities of 70% (dry basis) obtained. The optimum conditions for glycerol reforming were 860 degrees C temperature (maximum tested), 0.12 mols/min glycerol flow per kg of catalyst and 2.5 steam/carbon ratio. Reforming catalysts lasted for several days of continuous operation with minimal degradation, 0.4% of feed deposited. By-product glycerol performed slightly worse with a lower yield and more carbon deposition, 2% of feed. The results show that glycerol steam reforming is a viable alternative use for glycerol and potentially a better option than purification.

  18. Ceramic oxygen transport membrane array reactor and reforming method

    DOEpatents

    Kelly, Sean M.; Christie, Gervase Maxwell; Robinson, Charles; Wilson, Jamie R.; Gonzalez, Javier E.; Doraswami, Uttam R.

    2016-11-08

    The invention relates to a commercially viable modular ceramic oxygen transport membrane reforming reactor configured using repeating assemblies of oxygen transport membrane tubes and catalytic reforming reactors.

  19. DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES FOR SELECTING WASTE SAMPLES FOR THE BENCH STEAM REFORMER TEST

    SciTech Connect

    BANNING DL

    2010-08-03

    This document describes the data quality objectives to select archived samples located at the 222-S Laboratory for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing. The type, quantity and quality of the data required to select the samples for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing are discussed. In order to maximize the efficiency and minimize the time to treat Hanford tank waste in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, additional treatment processes may be required. One of the potential treatment processes is the fluid bed steam reformer (FBSR). A determination of the adequacy of the FBSR process to treat Hanford tank waste is required. The initial step in determining the adequacy of the FBSR process is to select archived waste samples from the 222-S Laboratory that will be used to test the FBSR process. Analyses of the selected samples will be required to confirm the samples meet the testing criteria.

  20. Conflicts of Interest in Educational Reform Litigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhode, Deborah L.

    Most educational reform cases proceed as class actions in which there is no single aggrieved plaintiff with clearly identifiable views, but rather an aggregation of individuals, often with conflicting preferences. This paper explores the problems presented in educational reform class actions where plaintiffs disagree over the remedial objectives…

  1. [On reform of the international patent classification ].

    PubMed

    Nenakhov, G S; Bril', E M; Shpikalov, A M

    2006-01-01

    In this work, the data on reformed IPC are presented. In IPC the core and advanced levels of classification system are used. It is shown that the goal of the IPC reform is to make possible complete search using a single classification edition for all documents, regardless of their publication date.

  2. School Teachers' Experiences of Science Curriculum Reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryder, Jim; Banner, Indira

    2013-02-01

    We examine teachers' experiences of a major reform of the school science curriculum for 14-16-year olds in England. This statutory reform enhances the range of available science courses and emphasises the teaching of socio-scientific issues and the nature of science, alongside the teaching of canonical science knowledge. This paper examines teachers' experiences of the reform and the factors that condition these experiences. A designed sample of 22 teachers discussed their experiences of the reform within a semi-structured interview. Our analysis considers how the external and internal structures within which teachers work interact with the personal characteristics of teachers to condition their experiences of the curriculum reform. In many cases, personal/internal/external contexts of teachers' work align, resulting in an overall working context that is supportive of teacher change. However, in other cases, tensions within these contexts result in barriers to change. We also explore cases in which external curriculum reform has stimulated the development of new contexts for teachers' work. We argue that curriculum reformers need to recognise the inevitability of multiple teaching goals within a highly differentiated department and school workplace. We also show how experiences of curriculum reform can extend beyond the learning of new knowledge and associated pedagogies to involve challenges to teachers' professional identities. We argue for the extended use of teacher role models within local communities of practice to support such 'identity work'.

  3. The Sustainability of Inclusive School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sindelar, Paul T.; Shearer, Deirdre K.; Yendol-Hoppey, Diane; Liebert, Todd W.

    2006-01-01

    For over a decade, University of Florida researchers worked with middle schools in a large urban and suburban south Florida district, as they developed and then worked to sustain inclusive reform. One middle school, Socrates, was notably successful, having built its inclusion model on a foundation of previous reform and a school culture…

  4. Parents as Collaborators in Urban School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Toni Griego; Marti, Lillian

    Evaluation data are reported from two examples of a comprehensive approach to urban school reform that attempted to involve the full range of stakeholders, including parents, in school reform. The Edna McConnell Clark Foundation awarded grants to five urban school districts to improve middle schools by focusing on high expectations, high content,…

  5. German Spelling Reform: Kangaroos, Emus, and Cockatoos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohlendorf, Harald

    1997-01-01

    The latest movement to reform German spelling is discussed, focusing on the need for greater consistency in spelling of words from other languages and the major changes proposed. Issues addressed include capitalization, specific idiosyncracies in German spelling, concerns related to computerization, public opinion, and the scope of the reform.…

  6. Land Reform and Social Change in Colombia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschman, Albert O.; And Others

    This conference report focuses on three major areas of interest: (1) land reform in Colombia, (2) social change in Popayan, and (3) implications for research in agrarian structure in Colombia. A case study dealing with Colombia's sequence of moves toward land reform over the last 40 years is reviewed. The impact of political factors and social…

  7. Reform in American Public Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robles, Harriett J.

    This paper provides an overview of higher education reform movements in the United States. While some of the 18th and 19th century reforms in the country are described, the emphasis is on the 20th century. Early in this period, the debate over general education and the need for a required core curriculum was central. McCarthyism influenced higher…

  8. The Big Ideas behind Whole System Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Whole system reform means that every vital part of the system--school, community, district, and government--contributes individually and in concert to forward movement and success, using practice, not research, as the driver of reform. With this in mind, several "big ideas", based on successful implementation, informed Ontario's reform…

  9. A Diffusion Approach to Study Leadership Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Curt M.; Jean-Marie, Gaetane

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to draw on elements of diffusion theory to understand leadership reform. Many diffusion studies examine the spread of an innovation across social units but the objective is to examine diffusion of a collective leadership model within school units. Specifically, the strength of reform diffusion is tested to account for…

  10. Introduction to "The Politics of Educational Reforms"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Michael W.

    2016-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that education is a site of conflict. This essay examines the ideological positions that now dominate educational reforms and suggests a number of roles that critically democratic educators should play in confronting these reforms. It then details the contributions that the authors included in this special issue…

  11. Relatorio: Reforma universitaria (Report: University Reform).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio da Educacao e Cultura, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a report by 11 experts invited by the Ministry of Education and Culture to give their views on Brazilian university reforms. The introduction to the report states the principles underlying the proposals for reform adapted to the current social transformation in Brazil.…

  12. Latin American USOMs Seminar on Agrarian Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Cooperation Administration (Dept. of State), Washington, DC.

    This report of seminar proceedings discusses land reform policies and programs and their place in the economic development of Latin America. It analyzes experiences and current situations in Latin America, the United States, and elsewhere which shed light on the problems and possibilities of agrarian reform. An appraisal of existing physical,…

  13. Academic Health Centers and Health Care Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Stephen H.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the role of academic health centers in health care reform efforts looks at the following issues: balancing academic objectivity and social advocacy; managing sometimes divergent interests of centers, faculty, and society; and the challenge to develop infrastructure support for reform. Academic health centers' participation in…

  14. Health Care Reform: A Values Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popko, Kathleen

    1992-01-01

    Addresses the crisis in health care, considering costs, lack of access, and system ineffectiveness. Reviews "Setting Relationships Right," the Catholic Health Association's proposal for health care reform. Advocates educators' awareness of children's health needs and health care reform issues and support for the Every Fifth Child Act of…

  15. After Access: Canadian Education and Copyright Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geist, Michael

    2006-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of the Internet in the 1990s, the Canadian government developed a well-regarded strategy for addressing the emerging issues posed by the "information highway." The strategy featured legal reforms to address privacy and e-commerce, administrative reforms for the government online initiative, and connectivity…

  16. Finding Jobs: Work and Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Card, David E., Ed.; Blank, Rebecca M., Ed.

    This book contains 13 papers on labor market and welfare reform, with special emphasis on the demand for low-wage workers, wages and job characteristics in the less skilled labor market, public politics to increase employment and earnings of less skilled workers, and the impact of welfare reform. The following papers are included: "The Labor…

  17. What has Reform of Rape Legislation Wrought?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Wallace D.

    1981-01-01

    Compares the impact of common law and reform rape legislation on prosecution based on analysis of 445 forcible and statutory rape cases in King County, Washington. Concludes that the impact of the statutory reform has been mainly symbolic and educative for society at large, rather than instrumental for law enforcement. (Author/MJL)

  18. Teachers' Experiences of Science Curriculum Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, Jim; Banner, Indira; Homer, Matt

    2014-01-01

    We report on a three-year study of teachers' experiences of a major reform of the science National Curriculum for 14- to 16-year-olds in England. Teachers' responses to this curriculum reform were guided by: "personal" aims and biography; "internal" features of their workplace such as departmental collegiality; and…

  19. Distributed Leadership for ICT Reform in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, David; Ho, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examines distributed leadership in Information Communication Technology reform in a government school in Singapore. The study adopts a naturalistic inquiry approach, drawing upon a case study of the aforementioned school for much of its data. The study found that leadership for Information Communication Technology reform is distributed…

  20. Smart, Bold Reform for Powerful Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, the author has spent time in hundreds of high schools reviewing data; observing classes; learning about interventions and whole-school reforms; and speaking with principals, teachers, counselors, and students. She has also been a district leader in New York City responsible for high school reform that has achieved promising…

  1. Future Directions for School Finance Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirst, Michael W.

    This paper examines previous changes in school finance reform, makes some future projections about the direction finance reform might go, and indicates what strategies seem particulary effective. It begins at the Federal level by taking a look at the overall Federal budget picture and its implications for the Federal role. The author proposes that…

  2. Utah's Educational Reform Programs, 1991-93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    In November 1983, the Utah Education Reform Steering Committee issued the report "Education in Utah: A Call to Action." To meet Utah's double challenge of rapid growth and quality enhancement, the report stated that Utah needed to: (1) increase the allocation of financial resources to education; (2) demand reforms in many aspects of…

  3. Understanding Parole Officers' Responses to Sanctioning Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Benjamin; Travis, Lawrence F., III; Makarios, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    There are constant calls for reform in the criminal justice system, but observers have often reported that criminal justice reform is an exceptionally challenging task. As with any organizational change, resistance to new policies, procedures, and practices comes from a variety of sources. The relatively broad discretionary authority vested in…

  4. Income Tax Reform and Agriculture: A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Five papers are provided from a symposium organized to present several economic studies relating to income tax structure and reform in agriculture. "Toward an Optimal Income Tax Policy for Southern and U.S. Agriculture" (Harold F. Breimyer) is a structured argument for comprehensive tax reform that increases the equity of the income tax…

  5. Reforming Administrator Preparation Programs. UCEA Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendel, Frederick C., Ed.

    This publication contains four chapters that examine the reform of administrator preparation programs. In "The Reform Paradigm: Exploring the Fuzzy Logic of Educational Administration," William Ammentorp and Thomas Morgan develop a model based on linguistic algorithms to understand qualitative policy formation and decision making. In "Student…

  6. Designing Meaningful Developmental Reform. Research Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaggars, Shanna Smith; Hodara, Michelle; Stacey, Georgia West

    2013-01-01

    This practitioner packet is designed to help community college administrators implement reforms to developmental education at their colleges. It reviews common impediments to developmental reform and presents data that supports directions colleges can take to create a system of developmental education that might serve students more effectively.…

  7. Context of Educational Reforms Then and Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedere, Mohottige Upali

    2005-01-01

    Dr. C.W.W. Kannangara is identified by all Sri Lankans as the father of Free Education. He was the architect of the 1944 educational reforms in Sri Lanka which opened the doors of education for all and Sri Lanka has progressed well since then. Today after six decades, the context of 1944 reforms is much changed, yet Sri Lanka continues to provide…

  8. These Seven School "Reforms" Could Backfire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearman, Bill

    1987-01-01

    State legislation designed to help schools and students achieve "excellence" may spawn numerous unforeseen consequences. This article discusses seven potentially harmful reform ideas: extended school year, mimimum competency tests, reliance on standardized achievement tests, state-mandated courses or curricula, blue ribbon reform panels,…

  9. Welfare Reforms, Family Resources, and Child Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paxson, Christina; Waldfogel, Jane

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of welfare reforms on several measures of child maltreatment. The authors use state-level data from 1990 to 1998 to examine whether recent welfare reforms have increased or reduced the incidence of reported and substantiated cases of maltreatment, the incidence of specific types of substantiated…

  10. Education Sector Reform: The Ugandan Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penny, Alan; Ward, Michael; Read, Tony; Bines, Hazel

    2008-01-01

    In 1998 the Government of Uganda (GoU) began implementing an ambitious reform programme called the Education Strategic Investment Plan (ESIP) in order to effect Universal Primary Education (UPE). This paper offers a perspective on how the GoU has met the challenge of financing education reform, addressed the need to improve the quality of basic…

  11. Educational Reform and Renewal in Contemporary Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickman, William W.

    This study is one of a series of Office of Education publications on educational developments in other countries. It describes and analyzes in social, economic, and historical context the educational changes mandated in Spain by the Education Reform Law of 1970, one of contemporary Europe's most far-reaching plans for educational reform and…

  12. Taking Stock of a Decade of Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Next, 2011

    2011-01-01

    School reformers have made forward strides in the last ten years, and public debate has acquired a bipartisan cast. But just how successful have reform efforts been? The editors of "Education Next" assess the movement's victories and challenges. Two essays are presented in this issue's "Forum": (1) "A Battle Begun, Not Won" (Paul E. Peterson,…

  13. China's Recent Curriculum Reform: Progress and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Daming

    2006-01-01

    In China, the most recent curriculum reform of basic education began with the National Congress of Education held by the Chinese central government in 1999. Since the decision to implement well-rounded quality education nation-wide, which was made by the central government at that congress, curriculum reform has been emerging as a centerpiece of…

  14. Measuring Reculturing in National Reform Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kytle, Angel Wonycott; Bogotch, Ira E.

    2000-01-01

    Examines school reform efforts through a "reculturing," rather than a restructuring, lens, based on a sample of schools engaged with five reform models (Accelerated Schools, Coalition of Essential Schools, Comer's School Development Program, Effective Schools, and Success for All). A newly developed instrument enhances understanding of…

  15. Breaking the Consensus in Educational Policy Reform?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souto-Otero, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The paper contributes to the debate on the implementation of policy reforms developing a typology for implementation based on the initial agreement on means and goals at the time of reform design. It is argued that the volume and nature of knowledge gathering and stakeholder involvement required to gain approval of a policy and avoid the…

  16. Reforming Teacher Education: Something Old, Something New

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Sheila Nataraj; McCombs, Jennifer Sloan; Barney, Heather; Naftel, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Teacher education has been subject to both scathing criticism and innumerable efforts designed to reform it or to save it from being dismantled. One of the latest and most well funded efforts aimed at teacher education reform is boldly titled Teachers for a New Era (TNE). Eleven colleges and universities of various types nationwide were selected…

  17. Leading Mathematics Reform and the Lost Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Janeen

    2010-01-01

    Queensland's primary school teachers have experienced change in every Key Learning Area in the last few years. This avalanche of curriculum reform is set to continue as schools prepare for the imminent release of the Australian national curriculum. This article reports on one school's approach to dealing with this avalanche of curriculum reform.…

  18. On Rhetorical Battleground, "Reform" Proves Potent Weapon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2011-01-01

    The rhetoric of education today tends to divide the world in two: between those who favor "reform" and those who don't. Many who consider themselves reformers say they stand in opposition to the "status quo." Some of them speak of the need to challenge the "education establishment," or the education bureaucracy. Many also describe their policies…

  19. Teacher Management and Educational Reforms: Paradigm Shifts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Yin Cheong

    2009-01-01

    In the past 15 years, numerous reforms and initiatives in many countries in the Asia-Pacific region have aimed to change education and promote new learning to prepare the new generation for the future. Unfortunately, despite good intentions and huge investments of resources, many of these reforms have been found to be ineffective and…

  20. Immigration Reform: An Analysis of Employer Sanctions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Estevan T.; And Others

    Recent immigration legislation has potential impacts on migrant education and Mexican American education. The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 was passed after nine years of intense debate. The heart of so-called immigration reform is employer sanctions, which seek to restrict migration to the United States by prohibiting employers from…

  1. Teacher Evaluation Reform: Focus, Feedback, and Fear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Morgaen L.

    2016-01-01

    How are teachers experiencing the more rigorous teacher evaluation systems that many states have mandated in recent years? Donaldson, who has studied teacher evaluation reform over the past eight years, shares insights from a study of 14 Connecticut districts that have implemented the state's 2012 teacher evaluation reforms. In surveys and…

  2. Educational Reform: The Forgotten Half. Fastback 252.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauderdale, William Burt

    By examining the trends in equity and academic excellence, this monograph interprets America's history of educational reform. The first section, "The Legacy of Reform," analyzes themes after colonial times. William Penn and Benjamin Franklin advocated humanitarian, middle-class education following the American Revolution. By the late…

  3. Recent History of Schooling Reform in Manitoba.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Common, Dianne L.

    The social climate in Manitoba has led, in the past 25 years, to an expectation of school reform that has been translated into varieties of political action. However, most of the reforms, instituted by government policymakers, have fallen short of public expectations. This paper explores lessons to be taken from these experiences in school reform…

  4. Catalog of School Reform Models. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    This catalog describes 44 school-reform models. It was prepared for the U.S. Department of Education in direct response to the Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration program. The catalog's purpose is to aid schools, school districts, and states as they investigate external models that can be incorporated into comprehensive school-reform…

  5. Lessons in Reading Reform: Finding What Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Julian R.; Zau, Andrew C.; Koedel, Cory

    2010-01-01

    The San Diego Unified School District, the nation's eighth-largest, launched an ambitious program of literacy reforms in 2000 aimed at narrowing reading achievement gaps. Known as the Blueprint for Student Success, the program ran through 2005. The reforms succeeded in boosting the reading achievement of students who had been identified as lagging…

  6. Fuel cell integrated with steam reformer

    DOEpatents

    Beshty, Bahjat S.; Whelan, James A.

    1987-01-01

    A H.sub.2 -air fuel cell integrated with a steam reformer is disclosed wherein a superheated water/methanol mixture is fed to a catalytic reformer to provide a continuous supply of hydrogen to the fuel cell, the gases exhausted from the anode of the fuel cell providing the thermal energy, via combustion, for superheating the water/methanol mixture.

  7. Steam Reformer With Fibrous Catalytic Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed steam-reforming reactor derives heat from internal combustion on fibrous catalyst. Supplies of fuel and air to combustor controlled to meet demand for heat for steam-reforming reaction. Enables use of less expensive reactor-tube material by limiting temperature to value safe for material yet not so low as to reduce reactor efficiency.

  8. Rationing Education: Policy, Practice, Reform and Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillborn, David; Youdell, Deborah

    This book examines gender, racial/ethnic, and class inequalities in education, analyzing the impact of major reforms and exploring routine practices by which inequalities are reproduced and legitimized. It describes observations and interviews at two British secondary schools that show the costs of reform in terms of pressures on teachers and…

  9. Methanol Steam Reformer on a Silicon Wafer

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H; Malen, J; Piggott, T; Morse, J; Sopchak, D; Greif, R; Grigoropoulos, C; Havstad, M; Upadhye, R

    2004-04-15

    A study of the reforming rates, heat transfer and flow through a methanol reforming catalytic microreactor fabricated on a silicon wafer are presented. Comparison of computed and measured conversion efficiencies are shown to be favorable. Concepts for insulating the reactor while maintaining small overall size and starting operation from ambient temperature are analyzed.

  10. Catalytic reforming of heart cut fcc naphthas

    SciTech Connect

    Gerritsen, L.A.

    1985-03-01

    The anticipated lead phasedown in the USA and the growing demand for unleaded gasoline will require a higher gasoline pool octane number. One of the possibilities to achieve this increase of pool octane will be catalytic reforming of FCC naphtha. In this paper we evaluate the effects of FCC naphtha reforming on the reformer operation and gasoline pool volume for various lead phasedown scenarios. High-stability reforming catalysts, like TPR-8/CK-522 TRILOBE catalyst, will be required to maintain acceptable cycle lengths at the more severe reformer operating conditions. The properties and octane distribution of FCC naphtha are discussed, as well as its hydrotreating with high-active NiMo catalysts.

  11. Canadian health system reforms: lessons for Australia?

    PubMed

    Marchildon, Gregory P

    2005-02-01

    This paper analyses recent health reform agenda in Canada. From 1988 until 1997, the first phase of reforms focused on service integration through regionalisation and a rebalancing of services from illness care to prevention and wellness. The second phase, which has been layered onto the ongoing first phase, is concerned with fiscal sustainability from a provincial perspective, and the fundamental nature of the system from a national perspective. Despite numerous commissions and studies, some questions remain concerning the future direction of the public system. The Canadian reform experience is compared with recent Australian health reform initiatives in terms of service integration through regionalisation, primary care reform, Aboriginal health, the public-private debate, intergovernmental relations and the role of the federal government.

  12. Contextual Barriers to School Reform in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arco-Tirado, José L.; Fernández-Balboa, Juan-Miguel

    2003-11-01

    Over the past two decades, the Spanish educational system has undergone various legal reforms. However, judging by the low educational performance of Spanish students as reported by the OECD for the year 2001, it seems that additional reforms are necessary. Several factors may account for the failure of previous reforms to attain the desired results. These include: (a) educators' low expectations that further reforms will succeed, (b) lack of financial resources, (c) institutional lack of commitment to implement the structural and administrative changes called for and (d) the adoption of questionable theoretical models for making appropriate structural, curricular and educational decisions. This essay presents some suggestions for implementing a reform program that would bring about substantial changes in these areas.

  13. Results of the market-oriented reform in the Netherlands: a review.

    PubMed

    Maarse, Hans; Jeurissen, Patrick; Ruwaard, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    The market-oriented reform in the Dutch health care system is now in its 10th year. This article offers a concise overview of some of its effects thus far on health insurance, healthcare purchasing and healthcare provision. Furthermore, attention is given to its impact on healthcare expenditures, power and trust relationships as well as the relationship between the Minister of Health and the Dutch Healthcare Authority. The reform triggered various alterations in Dutch health care some occurring quickly (e.g. health insurance), others taking longer (e.g. purchasing). These developments suggest a process of gradual transformation. The reform has instigated controversy which is increasingly framed as a power conflict between insurers and providers. Weakened consumer trust in insurers threatens the legitimacy of the reform. The relationship between Minister and Healthcare Authority appears to be more intimate than the formal independent status of this regulatory agency would suggest.

  14. Examining the Role of Leadership in an Undergraduate Biology Institutional Reform Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Matz, Rebecca L.; Jardeleza, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education reform continues to be a national priority. We studied a reform process in undergraduate biology at a research-intensive university to explore what leadership issues arose in implementation of the initiative when characterized with a descriptive case study method. The data were drawn from transcripts of meetings that occurred over the first 2 years of the reform process. Two literature-based models of change were used as lenses through which to view the data. We find that easing the burden of an undergraduate education reform initiative on faculty through articulating clear outcomes, developing shared vision across stakeholders on how to achieve those outcomes, providing appropriate reward systems, and ensuring faculty have ample opportunity to influence the initiative all appear to increase the success of reform. The two literature-based models were assessed, and an extended model of change is presented that moves from change in STEM instructional strategies to STEM organizational change strategies. These lessons may be transferable to other institutions engaging in education reform. PMID:27856545

  15. HYDROGEN GENERATION FROM PLASMATRON REFORMERS: A PROMISING TECHNOLOGY FOR NOX ADSORBER REGENERATION AND OTHER AUTOMOTIVE APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Bromberg, L.; Crane, S; Rabinovich, A.; Kong, Y; Cohn, D; Heywood, J; Alexeev, N.; Samokhin, A.

    2003-08-24

    Plasmatron reformers are being developed at MIT and ArvinMeritor [1]. In these reformers a special low power electrical discharge is used to promote partial oxidation conversion of hydrocarbon fuels into hydrogen and CO. The partial oxidation reaction of this very fuel rich mixture is difficult to initiate. The plasmatron provides continuous enhanced volume initiation. To minimize electrode erosion and electrical power requirements, a low current, high voltage discharge with wide area electrodes is used. The reformers operate at or slightly above atmospheric pressure. Plasmatron reformers provide the advantages of rapid startup and transient response; efficient conversion of the fuel to hydrogen rich gas; compact size; relaxation or elimination of reformer catalyst requirements; and capability to process difficult to reform fuels, such as diesel and bio-oils. These advantages facilitate use of onboard hydrogen-generation technology for diesel exhaust after-treatment. Plasma-enhanced reformer technology can provide substantial conversion even without the use of a catalyst. Recent progress includes a substantial decrease in electrical power consumption (to about 200 W), increased flow rate (above 1 g/s of diesel fuel corresponding to approximately 40 kW of chemical energy), soot suppression and improvements in other operational features.. Plasmatron reformer technology has been evaluated for regeneration of NOx adsorber after-treatment systems. At ArvinMeritor tests were performed on a dual-leg NOx adsorber system using a Cummins 8.3L diesel engine both in a test cell and on a vehicle. A NOx adsorber system was tested using the plasmatron reformer as a regenerator and without the reformer i.e., with straight diesel fuel based regeneration as the baseline case. The plasmatron reformer was shown to improve NOx regeneration significantly compared to the baseline diesel case. The net result of these initial tests was a significant decrease in fuel penalty, roughly 50% at

  16. Failure of health care reform in the USA.

    PubMed

    Mechanic, D

    1996-01-01

    The failure of health reform in the USA reflects the individualism and lack of community responsibility of the American political culture, the power of interest groups, and the extraordinary process President Clinton followed in developing his highly elaborate plan. Despite considerable initial public support and a strong start, the reform effort was damaged by the cumbersome process, the complexity of the plan itself, and the unfamiliarity of key components such as alliances for pooled buying of health insurance. In addition, the alienation of important interest groups and the loss of presidential initiative in framing the public discussion as a result of international, domestic and personal issues contributed to the failure in developing public consensus. This paper considers an alternative strategy that would have built on the extension of the Medicare program as a way of exploring the possibilities and barriers to achieving health care reform. Such an approach would build on already familiar and popular pre-existing components. The massive losses in the most recent election and large budget cuts planned by the Republican majority makes it unlikely that gaps in insurance or comprehensiveness of coverage will be corrected in the foreseeable future.

  17. Steam reforming of low-level mixed waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    ThermoChem has successfully designed, fabricated and operated a nominal 90 pound per hour Process Development Unit (PDU) on various low-level mixed waste surrogates. The design, construction, and testing of the PDU as well as performance and economic projections for a 300-lb/hr demonstration and commercial system are described. The overall system offers an environmentally safe, non-incinerating, cost-effective, and publicly acceptable method of processing LLMW. The steam-reforming technology was ranked the No. 1 non-incineration technology for destruction of hazardous organic wastes in a study commissioned by the Mixed Waste Focus Area and published in April 1997. The ThermoChem steam-reforming system has been developed over the last 13 years culminating in this successful test campaign on LLMW surrogates. Six surrogates were successfully tested including a 750-hour test on material simulating a PCB- and Uranium-contaminated solid waste found at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The test results indicated essentially total (> 99.9999%) destruction of RCRA and TSCA hazardous halogenated organics, significant levels of volume reduction (> 400 to 1), and retention of radionuclides in the volume-reduced solids. Economic evaluations have shown the steam-reforming system to be very cost competitive with more conventional and other emerging technologies.

  18. [Changes necessary for continuing health reform: II. The "internal" change].

    PubMed

    Martín Martín, J; de Manuel Keenoy, E; Carmona López, G; Martínez Olmos, J

    1990-01-01

    The article desired organizational and managerial changes in Primary Health Care, so as to develop a sound and feasible social marketing strategy. Key elements that should be changed are: 1. Rigid and centralized administrative structures and procedures. 2. Incentives system centralized and dissociated from the managerial structure. 3. Primary Health Care management units immersed in political conflict. 4. Absence of alternative in the margin. Users cannot choose. 5. Lack of an internal marketing strategy. Several ways of internal markets simulation are assessed as potential means for internal change. The need for an administration reform leading to a less inflexible system in the Spanish national and regional health services in reviewed too. Three changes are considered essential: a) Payment systems in Primary Health Care. b) Modifications in the personnel contracts. c) Reform of the budgeting processes. Specific strategies in each of these issues are suggested, making emphasizing the need of their interrelationship and coherence.

  19. Social security reform in Latin America: policy challenges.

    PubMed

    Kay, Stephen J; Kritzer, Barbara E

    2002-01-01

    Over the last decade Latin American countries have served as the world's laboratory for pension systems based on individual retirement savings accounts. Some countries have adopted defined-contribution individual accounts as a replacement for state-run pension systems; other countries have embraced mixed systems of have made individual accounts optional and supplementary. This article outlines some of the most significant elements of recent Latin American pension reforms and examines some of the most serious policy challenges faced by governments implementing the new systems of individual accounts, including the need to reduce administrative costs, limit evasion, incorporate new categories of workers into the system, and improve competition in the pension fund industry. The authors conclude that there is no single Latin America model, and that reform itself has been and will continue to be an incremental process.

  20. Removal of CO from reformate for PEFC application.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. H. D.

    1998-09-14

    Polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) are being actively developed worldwide for transportation applications. The fuel gas generated from reforming hydrocarbon fuels contains small amounts of CO (0.5-1 vol%), even after the water-gas shift reaction. Carbon monoxide is preferentially adsorbed on the platinum electrocatalyst in the PEFC, thus blocking the access of H{sub 2} to the surface of the catalyst and resulting in the degradation of the cell performance. Therefore, the CO concentration in the PBFC reformate must be reduced to a tolerable level of {le} 100 ppm (1). Catalytic preferential oxidation (2), anode air bleed (3), or a combination of the two can be used to reduce CO to trace levels, but their use in a dynamically varying system is problematic. We are developing a sorption process based on the reversible complex-forming and dissociation reactions of CO with Cu(I). These reactions are well documented in patent and literature (4,5).

  1. Abortion law reforms in Colombia and Nicaragua: issue networks and opportunity contexts.

    PubMed

    Reuterswärd, Camilla; Zetterberg, Pär; Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi; Molyneux, Maxine

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses two instances of abortion law reform in Latin America. In 2006, after a decades-long impasse, the highly controversial issue of abortion came to dominate the political agenda when Colombia liberalized its abortion law and Nicaragua adopted a total ban on abortion. The article analyses the central actors in the reform processes, their strategies and the opportunity contexts. Drawing on Htun's (2003) framework, it examines why these processes concluded with opposing legislative outcomes. The authors argue for the need to understand the state as a non-unitary site of politics and policy, and for judicial processes to be seen as a key variable in facilitating gender policy reforms in Latin America. In addition, they argue that ‘windows of opportunity’ such as the timing of elections can be critically important in legislative change processes.

  2. Scientists researching teaching: Reforming science education and transforming practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Tarin Harrar

    Reforming science education is a multidimensional and complex undertaking. Of extreme importance is transforming how teachers teach. Answering the equity call of reform initiatives requires focusing on the underlying values and beliefs guiding teacher action and the promotion of inclusive practices (Brickhouse, 2001; Harding, 1994; Eisenhart, Finkel, & Marion, 1995; Mayberry & Rees, 1999; Rodriguez, 1997). Reform efforts within the last decade are being directed at college level science courses. Course and pedagogical transformations are particularly aimed at increasing the numbers of females and persons of color in science and improving the education of preservice teachers. Facilitating transformations toward these goals at the individual and program level is challenging work. This study explores and describes the conditions of the teacher change process toward an inclusive pedagogy. Two science professors affiliated with a reform collaborative were the main participants of the research. The professors, in collaboration with the primary researcher, engaged in assisted action research that lead to the identification and descriptions of their context and practical teaching theories. Among the questions explored were: "How does placing the professor in a position to conduct an assisted action research project help to foster teacher change conditions?" "How do the practical theories guiding the professors' teaching foster or impede inclusionary practice?" "What necessary conditions of the teacher change process toward an inclusive pedagogy emerged from the study?". Using case study and ethnographic qualitative research strategies for data collection and analysis, this study affords a unique perspective through which to consider why and how science professors change their practice. Data indicated that the assisted action research strategy fostered the conditions of teacher change. In addition, findings revealed that the professors shared a teacher and curriculum

  3. Reform in teaching preclinical pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Yu; Li, Kun; Yao, Hong; Xu, Xiao-Juan; Cai, Qiao-Lin

    2015-12-01

    Pathophysiology is a scientific discipline that studies the onset and progression of pathological conditions and diseases, and pathophysiology is one of the core courses in most preclinical medical curricula. In China, most medical schools house a Department of Pathophysiology, in contrast to medical schools in many developed countries. The staff in Chinese Departments of Pathophysiology generally consists of full-time instructors or lecturers who teach medical students. These lecturers are sometimes lacking in clinic knowledge and experiences. To overcome this, in recent years, we have been trying to bring new trends in teaching pathophysiology into our curriculum. Our purpose in writing this article was to share our experiences with our colleagues and peers worldwide in the hope that the insights we have gained in pathophysiology teaching will be of some value to educators who advocate teaching reform in medical schools.

  4. Abortion law reform in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Upreti, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma.

  5. Alaska public health law reform.

    PubMed

    Meier, Benjamin Mason; Hodge, James G; Gebbie, Kristine M

    2008-04-01

    The Turning Point Model State Public Health Act (Turning Point Act), published in September 2003, provides a comprehensive template for states seeking public health law modernization. This case study examines the political and policy efforts undertaken in Alaska following the development of the Turning Point Act. It is the first in a series of case studies to assess states' consideration of the Turning Point Act for the purpose of public health law reform. Through a comparative analysis of these case studies and ongoing legislative tracking in all fifty states, researchers can assess (1) how states codify the Turning Point Act into state law and (2) how these modernized state laws influence or change public health practice, leading to improved health outcomes.

  6. Welfare Reform and Substance Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Metsch, Lisa R; Pollack, Harold A

    2005-01-01

    The 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA) changed the nature, purpose, and financing of public aid. Researchers, administrators, and policymakers expressed special concern about the act's impact on low-income mothers with substance use disorders. Before PRWORA's passage, however, little was known about the true prevalence of these disorders among welfare recipients or about the likely effectiveness of substance abuse treatment interventions for welfare recipients. Subsequent research documented that substance abuse disorders are less widespread among welfare recipients than was originally thought and are less common than other serious barriers to self-sufficiency. This research also showed significant administrative barriers to the screening, assessment, and referral of drug-dependent welfare recipients. This article summarizes current research findings and examines implications for welfare reform reauthorization. PMID:15787954

  7. University Governance Reforms: Potential Problems of More Autonomy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Tom

    2011-01-01

    University governance reforms are very much a reflection of the broader New Public Management reforms that are focusing on increasing efficiency in public organizations. The article deals with how university reform ideas of a generic nature, emphasizing that universities should be treated and reformed like any other public organizations, are…

  8. Japanese University Reform--Hybridity in Governance and Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Tom

    2011-01-01

    University reforms around the world reflect many of the ideas and measures associated with the New Public Management (NPM) reform wave that emerged in Australia and New Zealand in the early 1980s. However, they also display features of the post-NPM reforms introduced in the last decade. In this article I focus on university reforms in Japan,…

  9. Reform of Preservice Teacher Education: Doomed to Failure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Richard J.; Cruz, Josue, Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Reform of teacher education involves reformulation and reconceptualization, not a simple patch-up. Reform means moving away from the college-of-education, research-driven approach to the closer-to-the-source public schools. Reform-minded people must pursue long-term solutions, concentrate on reforming university-based teacher educators, and…

  10. Reformer operation improved by feed sulfur removal

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Clung, R.G. )

    1990-10-08

    This paper reports how reduction of sulfur in catalytic reforming feeds below that typically obtainable with naphtha hydrotreating improves the reformer operation significantly. In evaluations of pilot-plant and commercial operations, high-rhenium content reforming catalysts have been used with low-sulfur naphtha feeds and have been shown to dramatically affect catalyst cycle length, gasoline yield, and stability. The consequences of insufficient removal of sulfur include shorter cycle length, more rapid reactor temperature rise to maintain octane, and as a result of that increase, more rapid catalyst deactivation.

  11. Performance of a Diesel, JP-8 Reformer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    oxidation of methane [5, 6], hydrogen peroxide decomposition, as well as liquid fuel reforming [7], preferential oxidation of CO and water gas shift... reformate gas that can be directly used by the fuel cells. To reduce logistics problem, the Army has one logistic fuel (Diesel or JP-8) policy. Diesel...and H2O:C ratios was studied with both JP-8 and diesel. The reformate gas was analyzed by a GC at various S:C and O:C ratios, inlet temperatures and

  12. The Research of Software Engineering Curriculum Reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Li-Qun; Han, Xie

    With the problem that software engineering training can't meet the needs of the community, this paper analysis some outstanding reasons in software engineering curriculum teaching, such as old teaching contents, weak in practice and low quality of teachers etc. We propose the methods of teaching reform as guided by market demand, update the teaching content, optimize the teaching methods, reform the teaching practice, strengthen the teacher-student exchange and promote teachers and students together. We carried out the reform and explore positive and achieved the desired results.

  13. After the Spring: Reforming Arab Armies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    UNITED STATES : • l i A~\\fYWAPRESS ’ Carli!<lc lh..fl".lcb, PA STItt: NGTII_.WI S OOM AFTER THE SPRING: REFORMING ARAB ARMIES Florence Gaub U.S...SUBTITLE After the Spring: Reforming Arab Armies 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...Studies Institute and U.S. Army War College Press AFTER THE SPRING: REFORMING ARAB ARMIES Florence Gaub September 2014 The views expressed in this report

  14. Internal reforming fuel cell assembly with simplified fuel feed

    DOEpatents

    Farooque, Mohammad; Novacco, Lawrence J.; Allen, Jeffrey P.

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell assembly in which fuel cells adapted to internally reform fuel and fuel reformers for reforming fuel are arranged in a fuel cell stack. The fuel inlet ports of the fuel cells and the fuel inlet ports and reformed fuel outlet ports of the fuel reformers are arranged on one face of the fuel cell stack. A manifold sealing encloses this face of the stack and a reformer fuel delivery system is arranged entirely within the region between the manifold and the one face of the stack. The fuel reformer has a foil wrapping and a cover member forming with the foil wrapping an enclosed structure.

  15. Silicon-based miniaturized-reformer for portable fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Oh Joong; Hwang, Sun-Mi; Ahn, Jin-Goo; Kim, Jae Jeong

    A micro-reformer was made by using silicon fabrication technology and a new catalyst loading method of 'fill-and-dry coating'. The techniques of silicon wet etching, bonding and thin-film deposition were applied in the micro-reformer process, and a commercial Cu-ZnO-Al 2O 3 catalyst served as the reforming catalyst. The volume of the single micro-reactor was 0.55 cm 3 and the micro-reformer stack, which consists of one vaporizer and two reformers, occupied 15 cm 3. Methanol solution was used as the reactant and the composition and feed rate were varied. The operating temperature of the reformer was in the range of 280-320 °C and was controlled by an electrical thin-film heater at a fixed vaporizer temperature of 150 °C. The product gas was composed of 75% H 2, 25% CO 2 and 2100 ppm CO. The maximum hydrogen production rate and conversion were about 200 cm 3 and 95% at 320 °C, respectively.

  16. Educational reform and the public: Two case studies of Poland and Saskatchewan (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaproń, Danuta; Stephan, Werner

    1991-09-01

    The involvement of the public in educational reform processes in modern democratic societies primarily serves the purpose of politically legitimizing the reform agenda. This study examines the rationales implicitly or explicitly submitted to the public to explain why educational reforms in the two countries should be endorsed. Although differences in the political culture caution against a hasty comparison of the two case studies, a number of politico-economic similarities allow for a valid juxtaposition. In Poland the context of socio-political and economic renewal prompted the reformers to emphasize the human-capital model which heightened public awareness and participation in the debate surrounding the reform. Public involvement in Saskatchewan was negatively affected for mainly two reasons. First, the government evidently manipulated public input by various means and thereby appears to have predetermined the outcome. Second, the rationale for the reform, based on a free-market model, tightened the linkage between the needs of the labour market and the mandate of the schools. As a result, public interest and participation was greatly diminished.

  17. "An army of reformed drunkards and clergymen": the medicalization of habitual drunkenness, 1857-1910.

    PubMed

    Chavigny, Katherine A

    2014-07-01

    Historians have recognized that men with drinking problems were not simply the passive subjects of medical reform and urban social control in Gilded Age and Progressive Era America but also actively shaped the partial medicalization of habitual drunkenness. The role played by evangelical religion in constituting their agency and in the historical process of medicalization has not been adequately explored, however. A post-Civil War evangelical reform culture supported institutions that treated inebriates along voluntary, religious lines and lionized former drunkards who publicly promoted a spiritual cure for habitual drunkenness. This article documents the historical development and characteristic practices of this reform culture, the voluntarist treatment institutions associated with it, and the hostile reaction that developed among medical reformers who sought to treat intemperance as a disease called inebriety. Those physicians' attempts to promote therapeutic coercion for inebriates as medical orthodoxy and to deprive voluntarist institutions of public recognition failed, as did their efforts to characterize reformed drunkards who endorsed voluntary cures as suffering from delusions arising from their disease. Instead, evangelical traditions continued to empower reformed drunkards to publicize their own views on their malady which laid the groundwork for continued public interest in alcoholics' personal narratives in the twentieth century. Meanwhile, institutions that accommodated inebriates' voluntarist preferences proliferated after 1890, marginalizing the medical inebriety movement and its coercive therapeutics.

  18. European hospital reforms in times of crisis: aligning cost containment needs with plans for structural redesign?

    PubMed

    Clemens, Timo; Michelsen, Kai; Commers, Matt; Garel, Pascal; Dowdeswell, Barrie; Brand, Helmut

    2014-07-01

    Hospitals have become a focal point for health care reform strategies in many European countries during the current financial crisis. It has been called for both, short-term reforms to reduce costs and long-term changes to improve the performance in the long run. On the basis of a literature and document analysis this study analyses how EU member states align short-term and long-term pressures for hospital reforms in times of the financial crisis and assesses the EU's influence on the national reform agenda. The results reveal that there has been an emphasis on cost containment measures rather than embarking on structural redesign of the hospital sector and its position within the broader health care system. The EU influences hospital reform efforts through its enhanced economic framework governance which determines key aspects of the financial context for hospitals in some countries. In addition, the EU health policy agenda which increasingly addresses health system questions stimulates the process of structural hospital reforms by knowledge generation, policy advice and financial incentives. We conclude that successful reforms in such a period would arguably need to address both the organisational and financing sides to hospital care. Moreover, critical to structural reform is a widely held acknowledgement of shortfalls in the current system and belief that new models of hospital care can deliver solutions to overcome these deficits. Advancing the structural redesign of the hospital sector while pressured to contain cost in the short-term is not an easy task and only slowly emerging in Europe.

  19. Introducing a complex health innovation--primary health care reforms in Estonia (multimethods evaluation).

    PubMed

    Atun, Rifat Ali; Menabde, Nata; Saluvere, Katrin; Jesse, Maris; Habicht, Jarno

    2006-11-01

    All post-Soviet countries are trying to reform their primary health care (PHC) systems. The success to date has been uneven. We evaluated PHC reforms in Estonia, using multimethods evaluation: comprising retrospective analysis of routine health service data from Estonian Health Insurance Fund and health-related surveys; documentary analysis of policy reports, laws and regulations; key informant interviews. We analysed changes in organisational structure, regulations, financing and service provision in Estonian PHC system as well as key informant perceptions on factors influencing introduction of reforms. Estonia has successfully implemented and scaled-up multifaceted PHC reforms, including new organisational structures, user choice of family physicians (FPs), new payment methods, specialist training for family medicine, service contracts for FPs, broadened scope of services and evidence-based guidelines. These changes have been institutionalised. PHC effectiveness has been enhanced, as evidenced by improved management of key chronic conditions by FPs in PHC setting and reduced hospital admissions for these conditions. Introduction of PHC reforms - a complex innovation - was enhanced by strong leadership, good co-ordination between policy and operational level, practical approach to implementation emphasizing simplicity of interventions to be easily understood by potential adopters, an encircling strategy to roll-out which avoided direct confrontations with narrow specialists and opposing stakeholders in capital Tallinn, careful change-management strategy to avoid health reforms being politicized too early in the process, and early investment in training to establish a critical mass of health professionals to enable rapid operationalisation of policies. Most importantly, a multifaceted and coordinated approach to reform - with changes in laws; organisational restructuring; modifications to financing and provider payment systems; creation of incentives to enhance

  20. Health Reform Redux: Learning From Experience and Politics

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 presidential campaign season featured health care reform proposals. I discuss 3 approaches to health care reform and the tools for bringing about reform, such as insurance market reforms, tax credits, subsidies, individual and employer mandates, and public program expansions. I also discuss the politics of past and current health care reform efforts. Market-based reforms and mandates have been less successful than public program expansions at expanding coverage and controlling costs. New divisions among special interest groups increase the likelihood that reform efforts will succeed. Federal support for state efforts may be necessary to achieve national health care reform. History suggests that state-level success precedes national reform. History also suggests that an organized social movement for reform is necessary to overcome opposition from special interest groups. PMID:19299668