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Sample records for refractory lateral epicondylitis

  1. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow

    PubMed Central

    Vaquero-Picado, Alfonso; Barco, Raul; Antuña, Samuel A.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, also known as ‘tennis elbow’, is a very common condition affecting mainly middle-aged patients. The pathogenesis remains unknown but there appears to be a combination of local tendon pathology, alteration in pain perception and motor impairment. The diagnosis is usually clinical but some patients may benefit from additional imaging for a specific differential diagnosis. The disease has a self-limiting course of between 12 and 18 months, but in some patients, symptoms can be persistent and refractory to treatment. Most patients are well-managed with non-operative treatment and activity modification. Many surgical techniques have been proposed for patients with refractory symptoms. New non-operative treatment alternatives with promising results have been developed in recent years. Cite this article: Vaquero-Picado A, Barco R, Antuña SA. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:391-397. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000049. PMID:28461918

  2. Lateral epicondylitis and beyond: imaging of lateral elbow pain with clinical-radiologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Kotnis, Nikhil A; Chiavaras, Mary M; Harish, Srinivasan

    2012-04-01

    The diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis is often straightforward and can be made on the basis of clinical findings. However, radiological assessment is valuable where the clinical picture is less clear or where symptoms are refractory to treatment. Demographics, aspects of clinical history, or certain physical signs may suggest an alternate diagnosis. Knowledge of the typical clinical presentation and imaging findings of lateral epicondylitis, in addition to other potential causes of lateral elbow pain, is necessary. These include entrapment of the posterior interosseous and lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerves, posterolateral rotatory instability, posterolateral plica syndrome, Panner's disease, osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum, radiocapitellar overload syndrome, occult fractures and chondral-osseous impaction injuries, and radiocapitellar arthritis. Knowledge of these potential masquerades of lateral epicondylitis and their characteristic clinical and imaging features is essential for accurate diagnosis. The goal of this review is to provide an approach to the imaging of lateral elbow pain, discussing the relevant anatomy, various causes, and discriminating factors, which will allow for an accurate diagnosis.

  3. Is posterior synovial plica excision necessary for refractory lateral epicondylitis of the elbow?

    PubMed

    Rhyou, In Hyeok; Kim, Kang Wook

    2013-01-01

    Arthroscopic treatments for lateral epicondylitis including débridement of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) origin (Baker technique) or resection of the radiocapitellar synovial plica reportedly improve symptoms. However the etiology of the disease and the role of the plica remain unclear. We asked if posterior radiocapitellar synovial plica excision made any additional improvement in pain or function after arthroscopic ECRB release. We retrospectively reviewed 38 patients who had arthroscopic treatment for refractory lateral epicondylitis between November 2003 and October 2009. Twenty patients (Group A) underwent the Baker technique and 18 patients (Group B) underwent a combination of the Baker technique and posterior synovial plica excision. The minimum followup was 36 months (mean, 46 months; range, 36-72 months) for Group A and 25 months (mean, 30 months; range, 25-36 months) for Group B. Postoperatively we obtained VAS pain and DASH scores for each group. Two years postoperatively, we found no differences in the VAS pain score or DASH: the mean VAS pain scores were 0.3 points in Group A and 0.4 points in Group B, and the DASH scores were 5.1 points and 6.1 points respectively. The addition of débridement of the posterior synovial fold did not appear to enhance either pain relief or function compared with the classic Baker technique without decortication.

  4. Pulsed radiofrequency on radial nerve under ultrasound guidance for treatment of intractable lateral epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Oh, Dae Seok; Kang, Tae Hyung; Kim, Hyae Jin

    2016-06-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a painful and functionally limiting disorder. Although lateral elbow pain is generally self-limiting, in a minority of people symptoms persist for a long time. When various conservative treatments fail, surgical approach is recommended. Surgical denervation of several nerves that innervate the lateral humeral epicondyle could be considered in patients with refractory pain because it denervates the region of pain. Pulsed radiofrequency is a minimally invasive procedure that improves chronic pain when applied to various neural tissues without causing any significant destruction and painful complication. This procedure is safe, minimally invasive, and has less risk of complications relatively compared to the surgical approach. The radial nerve can be identified as a target for pulsed radiofrequency lesioning in lateral epicondylitis. This innovative method of pulsed radiofrequency applied to the radial nerve has not been reported before. We reported on two patients with intractable lateral epicondylitis suffering from elbow pain who did not respond to nonoperative treatments, but in whom the ultrasound-guided pulsed radiofrequency neuromodulation of the radial nerve induced symptom improvement. After a successful diagnostic nerve block, radiofrequency probe adjustment around the radial nerve was performed on the lateral aspect of the distal upper arm under ultrasound guidance and multiple pulsed treatments were applied. A significant reduction in pain was reported over the follow-up period of 12 weeks.

  5. Common extensor origin release in recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis - role justified?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aim of our study was to analyse the efficacy of operative management in recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis of elbow. Forty patients included in this study were referred by general practitioners with a diagnosis of tennis elbow to the orthopaedic department at a district general hospital over a five year period. All had two or more steroid injections at the tender spot, without permanent relief of pain. All subsequently underwent simple fasciotomy of the extensor origin. Of forty patients thirty five had improvement in pain and function, two had persistent symptoms and three did not perceive any improvement. Twenty five had excellent, ten had well, two had fair and three had poor outcomes (recurrent problem; pain at rest and night). Two patients underwent revision surgery. Majority of the patients had improvement in pain and function following operative treatment. In this study, an extensor fasciotomy was demonstrated to be an effective treatment for refractory chronic lateral epicondylitis; however, further studies are warranted. PMID:20459701

  6. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow.

    PubMed

    Tosti, Rick; Jennings, John; Sewards, J Milo

    2013-04-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, or "tennis elbow," is a common musculotendinous degenerative disorder of the extensor origin at the lateral humeral epicondyle. Repetitive occupational or athletic activities involving wrist extension and supination are thought to be causative. The typical symptoms include lateral elbow pain, pain with wrist extension, and weakened grip strength. The diagnosis is made clinically through history and physical examination; however, a thorough understanding of the differential diagnosis is imperative to prevent unnecessary testing and therapies. Most patients improve with nonoperative measures, such as activity modification, physical therapy, and injections. A small percentage of patients will require surgical release of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon. Common methods of release may be performed via percutaneous, arthroscopic, or open approaches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk factors in lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow): a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Titchener, A G; Fakis, A; Tambe, A A; Smith, C; Hubbard, R B; Clark, D I

    2013-02-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common condition, but relatively little is known about its aetiology and associated risk factors. We have undertaken a large case-control study using The Health Improvement Network database to assess and quantify the relative contributions of some constitutional and environmental risk factors for lateral epicondylitis in the community. Our dataset included 4998 patients with lateral epicondylitis who were individually matched with a single control by age, sex, and general practice. The median age at diagnosis was 49 (interquartile range 42-56) years . Multivariate analysis showed that the risk factors associated with lateral epicondylitis were rotator cuff pathology (OR 4.95), De Quervain's disease (OR 2.48), carpal tunnel syndrome (OR 1.50), oral corticosteroid therapy (OR 1.68), and previous smoking history (OR 1.20). Diabetes mellitus, current smoking, trigger finger, rheumatoid arthritis, alcohol intake, and obesity were not found to be associated with lateral epicondylitis.

  8. LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS OF THE ELBOW

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Marcio; da Rocha Motta Filho, Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is a common condition that is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population. The word epicondylitis suggests inflammation, although histological analysis on the tissue fails to show any inflammatory process. The structure most commonly affected is the origin of the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the mechanism of injury is associated with overloading. Nonsurgical treatment is the preferred method, and this includes rest, physiotherapy, cortisone infiltration, platelet-rich plasma injections and use of specific immobilization. Surgical treatment is recommended when functional disability and pain persist. Both the open and the arthroscopic surgical technique with resection of the degenerated tendon tissue present good results in the literature. PMID:27047843

  9. [Social, demographic and laboral factors associated with the presence of lateral elbow epicondylitis].

    PubMed

    Zamudio-Muñoz, Laura Angélica; Urbiola-Verdejo, Marcos; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Pedro Miguel

    2011-01-01

    To determine the social and demographic factors associated with laboral activities and the presence of lateral epicondylitis of elbow in workers. We conducted an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional sampling for convenience. We included 34 patients with a diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis, both sexes between 20 and 55 years, with occupations requiring repetitive movements of the wrist. They answered a questionnaire with 21 questions. We applied descriptive statistic. Lateral epicondylitis occurs predominantly in women, aged 42.4 years with a schooling of 8.8 years; the main laboral activities were as cleaning staff (12%), packaging (12%) and mechanical (12%). Thirty five percent of participants made at least two breaks for health. Nine percent were exposed to low temperatures. Lateral epicondylitis is a condition that occurs in greater proportion in women. It is situated more frequently in the fifth decade of life. Epicondylitis has not been thoroughly studied in our environment, perhaps it is more prevalent in women who work at home.

  10. Transcatheter arterial embolization of abnormal vessels as a treatment for lateral epicondylitis refractory to conservative treatment: a pilot study with a 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Wataru; Okuno, Yuji; Matsumura, Noboru; Kaneko, Takao; Ikegami, Hiroyasu

    2017-08-01

    Abnormal vessels and accompanying nerves are possible sources of pain with lateral epicondylitis. The purpose of this study was to describe the safety and efficacy of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for lateral epicondylitis resistant to conservative treatment. This prospective study was conducted in 24 patients with lateral epicondylitis resistant to conservative treatments for more than 3 months, with a symptom duration longer than 6 months, and with moderate to severe pain who were treated with TAE between March 2013 and October 2014. Two patients were lost to follow-up, and the remaining 22 patients were followed up for 2 years after TAE. Abnormal vessels were identified in all of the patients. No major adverse events were observed. The Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand scores at baseline significantly decreased at 1, 3, 6, and 24 months after treatment (50.8 vs 23.4, 8.3, 5.3, and 2.7, respectively; all P < .001). There was a statistically significant (P < .001) change from baseline to the last observed value in all of the clinical parameters, including visual analog scale pain score, Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation score, and pain-free grip strength. Magnetic resonance images obtained 2 years after TAE showed an improvement in tendinosis and tear scores compared with baseline, and no patients showed bone marrow necrosis, obvious cartilage loss, or muscle atrophy. TAE could be one possible treatment option for patients with lateral epicondylitis that fails to improve with conservative treatments. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Platelet-rich plasma for chronic lateral epicondylitis: is one injection sufficient?

    PubMed

    Glanzmann, Michael C; Audigé, Laurent

    2015-12-01

    Chronic lateral epicondylitis is generally treated using nonsurgical methods including physiotherapy and infiltrations of cortisone or platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The latter is known for its simple application as well as associated low risk of adverse events, which lend to its widespread use in treating various musculoskeletal conditions. There is limited evidence on the effectiveness of PRP injections to optimally treat chronic lateral epicondylitis. This study explored the effectiveness of single or repeated injections for patients with symptoms that spanned 6 months or more and were unresponsive to alternate conservative measures. Patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis received PRP injections in 4-week intervals that were complemented with standardized physical therapy. Patient-reported outcomes based on the patient-rated elbow evaluation (PREE), quick disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (qDASH), and EuroQol (five dimensions) 3-level version (EQ5D3L) questionnaires were documented at each visit including 6 months after the first injection. These outcomes were compared between patients receiving 1 vs. 2 or 3 PRP injections. Sixty-two patients received one (n = 36) or more (n = 26) PRP injections. The mean baseline to 6-month follow-up scores of the PREE and qDASH questionnaires improved significantly from 54.0 to 23.0 and 50.3 to 20.7, respectively. The mean baseline EQ5D3L-visual analogue scale score improved from 62.5 to 82.9 by 6 months post-injection. These outcomes did not significantly differ between the patients who received varying numbers of injections. Patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis reported significant pain relief and gain in function as well as quality of life 6 months after localized PRP treatment. A single PRP injection may be sufficient.

  12. The effect of platelet-rich plasma on clinical outcomes in lateral epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zafar; Brooks, Roger; Kang, Sertaz-Niel; Weaver, Holly; Nunney, Ian; Tytherleigh-Strong, Graham; Rushton, Neil

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the evidence for application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in lateral epicondylitis. We carried out a systematic review of the current evidence on the effects of PRP in lateral epicondylitis on clinical outcomes. We performed a comprehensive search of the PubMed, Medline, Cochrane, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and Embase databases using various combinations of the commercial names of each PRP preparation and "lateral epicondylitis" (with its associated terms), looking specifically at human studies. Data validity was assessed and collected on clinical outcome. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 5 were randomized controlled trials. Two cohort studies showed that PRP improved clinical satisfaction scores. One case-control study showed that PRP yielded a significantly greater improvement in symptoms compared with bupivacaine. Two randomized controlled trials compared the effect of injections of PRP and blood. Only 1 of the studies noted a significant difference at the 6-week time point. Three randomized controlled trials compared corticosteroids with PRP. Two of the smaller trials, which had follow-up periods of 6 weeks and 3 months, showed no significant difference between treatment groups. The largest randomized controlled trial found that PRP had significant benefit compared with corticosteroids with regard to pain and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand scores at 1- and 2-year time points. This review highlights the limited but evolving evidence for the use of PRP in lateral epicondylitis; however, further research is required to understand the concentration and preparation that facilitate the best clinical outcome. Characterizing the timing of the intervention would optimize the health economics behind the decision to treat for the patient and health care provider. Level III, systematic review of Level I to III studies. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by

  13. Comparison of Local Injection of Platelet Rich Plasma and Corticosteroids in the Treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis of Humerus.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Raman; Kothari, S Y; Borah, Diganta

    2015-07-01

    Lateral epicondylitis or Tennis Elbow is one of the most common causes of upper extremity pain with various treatment options. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) offers a new option for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. This study was conducted with an aim to compare the efficacy of PRP versus methyl-prednisolone local injection in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Sixty five patients with lateral epicondylitis were included in the study and randomized into two groups. Group A was treated with single injection of 1ml PRP with absolute platelet count of at least 1 million platelets/ mm(3). Group B was treated with single injection of 1ml (40mg) methyl-prednisolone. Pain, grip strength and functional improvements were assessed using visual analogue scale, dynamometer and quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand scale respectively at baseline, 15 days, 1 month and 3 months. Sixty patients completed the follow up. All assessment parameters improved significantly in both the Groups at each follow up compared to baseline. At the end of three months group A showed significantly better improvement as compared to Group B. PRP and methyl-prenisolone both are effective in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. However, PRP is a superior treatment option for longer duration efficacy.

  14. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy without local anesthesia for chronic lateral epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Pettrone, Frank A; McCall, Brian R

    2005-06-01

    The use of extracorporeal shock wave therapy for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis is controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of extracorporeal shock wave therapy without local anesthesia to treat chronic lateral epicondylitis. One hundred and fourteen patients with a minimum six-month history of lateral epicondylitis that was unresponsive to conventional therapy were randomized into double-blind active treatment and placebo groups. The protocol consisted of three weekly treatments of either low-dose shock wave therapy without anesthetic or a sham treatment. Patients had a physical examination, including provocation testing and dynamometry, at one, four, eight, and twelve weeks and at six and twelve months after treatment. Radiographs, laboratory studies, and electrocardiograms were also evaluated prior to participation and at twelve weeks. A visual analog scale was used to evaluate pain, and an upper extremity functional scale was used to assess function. Crossover to active treatment was initiated for nonresponsive patients who had received the placebo and met the inclusion criteria after twelve weeks. A total of 108 of the 114 randomized patients completed all treatments and the twelve weeks of follow-up required by the protocol. Sixty-one patients completed one year of follow-up, whereas thirty-four patients crossed over to receive active treatment. A significant difference (p = 0.001) in pain reduction was observed at twelve weeks in the intent-to-treat cohort, with an improvement in the pain score of at least 50% seen in 61% (thirty-four) of the fifty-six patients in the active treatment group who were treated according to protocol compared with 29% (seventeen) of the fifty-eight subjects in the placebo group. This improvement persisted in those followed to one year. Functional activity scores, activity-specific evaluation, and the overall impression of the disease state all showed significant improvement as well (p < 0

  15. Deep Friction Massage Versus Steroid Injection in the Treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Yi, Rosemary; Bratchenko, Walter W; Tan, Virak

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of deep friction massage in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis by comparing outcomes with a control group treated with splinting and therapy and with an experimental group receiving a local steroid injection. A randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare outcomes after recruitment of consecutive patients presenting with lateral epicondylitis. Patients were randomized to receive one of 3 treatments: group 1: splinting and stretching, group 2: a cortisone injection, or group 3: a lidocaine injection with deep friction massage. Pretreatment and posttreatment parameters of visual analog scale (VAS) pain ratings, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores, and grip strength were measured. Outcomes were measured at early follow-up (6-12 weeks) and at 6-month follow-up. There was a significant improvement in VAS pain score in all treatment groups at early follow-up. DASH score and grip strength improved in the cortisone injection group and the deep friction massage group at early follow-up; these parameters did not improve in the splinting and stretching group. At 6-month follow-up, only patients in the deep friction massage group demonstrated a significant improvement in all outcome measures, including VAS pain score, DASH score, and grip strength. Deep friction massage is an effective treatment for lateral epicondylitis and can be used in patients who have failed other nonoperative treatments, including cortisone injection.

  16. Favorable Responsiveness of the Hand10 Questionnaire to Assess Treatment Outcomes for Lateral Epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Nishizuka, Takanobu; Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Kurimoto, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Michiro; Onishi, Tetsuro; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2018-06-01

    The aim of our study was to compare the responsiveness of the Hand10 questionnaire and the Pain visual analogue scale (VAS) for the assessment of lateral epicondylitis. The standardized response mean and effect size were used as indicators of responsiveness, measured at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. Among the 54 patients enrolled, 28 were treated using a forearm band, compress and stretching, with the other 26 patients treated using compress and stretching. The standardized response mean and the effect size were 1.18 and 1.38, respectively, of the Hand10 and 1.39 and 1.75, respectively, for the Pain VAS. The responsiveness of both tests was considered to be large, based on Cohen's classification of effect size, supporting the use of the Hand10 questionnaire to assess treatment outcomes for lateral epicondylitis.

  17. Percutaneous Soft Tissue Release for Treating Chronic Recurrent Myofascial Pain Associated with Lateral Epicondylitis: 6 Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ming-Ta; Chou, Li-Wei; Chen, Hsin-Shui; Kao, Mu-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the effectiveness of the percutaneous soft tissue release for the treatment of recurrent myofascial pain in the forearm due to recurrent lateral epicondylitis. Methods. Six patients with chronic recurrent pain in the forearm with myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) due to chronic lateral epicondylitis were treated with percutaneous soft tissue release of Lin's technique. Pain intensity (measured with a numerical pain rating scale), pressure pain threshold (measured with a pressure algometer), and grasping strength (measured with a hand dynamometer) were assessed before, immediately after, and 3 months and 12 months after the treatment. Results. For every individual case, the pain intensity was significantly reduced (P < 0.01) and the pressure pain threshold and the grasping strength were significantly increased (P < 0.01) immediately after the treatment. This significant effectiveness lasts for at least one year. Conclusions. It is suggested that percutaneous soft tissue release can be used for treating chronic recurrent lateral epicondylitis to avoid recurrence, if other treatment, such as oral anti-inflammatory medicine, physical therapy, or local steroid injection, cannot control the recurrent pain. PMID:23243428

  18. A Newly Designed Tennis Elbow Orthosis With a Traditional Tennis Elbow Strap in Patients With Lateral Epicondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Saremi, Hossein; Chamani, Vahid; Vahab-Kashani, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Lateral epicondylitis is a common cause of pain and upper limb dysfunction. The use of counterforce straps for treatment of lateral epicondylitis is widespread. This kind of orthosis can be modified to have a greater effect on relieving pain by reducing tension on the origin of the extensor pronator muscles. Objectives To determine the immediate effects of a newly designed orthosis on pain and grip strength in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Materials and Methods Twelve participants (six men and six women) were recruited (mean age = 41 ± 6.7 years) and evaluated for pain and grip strength in three sessions. A 48-hour break was taken between each session. The first session was without any orthosis, the second session was with the new modified tennis elbow orthosis, and the third session was with a conventional tennis elbow strap. Results Both counterforce straps were effective. However, significantly more improvement was observed in pain and grip strength after using the newly modified orthosis (P < 0.05). Conclusions The newly designed strap reduces pain more effectively and improves grip strength by causing greater localized pressure on two regions with different force applications (two component vectors versus one). PMID:28180116

  19. Management of Chronic Lateral Epicondylitis With Manual Therapy and Local Cryostimulation: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Richer, Nadia; Marchand, Andrée-Anne; Descarreaux, Martin

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of adding cryostimulation to manual therapy in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis. The control group (n = 19) was treated with manual therapy consisting of soft-tissue therapy and radial head mobilizations. The experimental group (n = 18) received cryostimulation in addition to manual therapy care similar to that for the control group. Both protocols consisted of 8 treatments over a 4-week period. Outcome measures included pain intensity (visual analog scale), pain-free grip strength (handheld dynamometer), and functional index (Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation questionnaire). Assessments were performed at baseline, postintervention, and 3-month follow-up. Adherence and dropout rates were also considered. Both groups exhibited significant improvements in pain intensity and functional index at postintervention assessments, which were maintained at follow-up. All participants attended the prescribed number of treatments, but 27% were lost at follow-up. Minor adverse events were reported after cryostimulation in 4 cases. This study indicated that it is feasible to complete a clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of adding cryostimulation to manual therapy in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis. On the basis of these preliminary data, the combination of cryostimulation and manual therapy care did not provide any additional benefits in both the short term and the long term. Manual myofascial point treatment and mobilization techniques yielded positive outcomes in chronic lateral epicondylitis. Further studies should focus on the sole therapeutic effect of cryostimulation in both patients with acute and those with chronic conditions.

  20. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous bone drilling for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sang Ho; Cha, Jang Gyu; Lee, Bo Ra

    2018-01-01

    To determine the clinical efficacy of sonographically-guided percutaneous bone drilling of the lateral epicondyle (LE) for the treatment of patients with LE. We included 24 patients with LE who reported pain in this study. All patients underwent sonographically-guided percutaneous bone drilling of the lateral epicondyle. Follow-up sonography and physical examinations were performed 1, 3 and 6 months after the procedure. The outcome measures included sonographic findings, visual analogue scale (VAS) score, maximum voluntary grip strength (MVGS) and patient-related tennis elbow evaluation (PRTEE) score. None of the patients had immediate complications during the procedure. The area of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) tears decreased significantly at 1 month and declined gradually over the remaining 5 months of the study (p < 0.001). The mean pain VAS score was significantly lower at 6 months than preoperatively (respectively; p < 0.001). The mean MVGS increased significantly between pretreatment and 6 months post-treatment (p < 0.001), whereas the PRTEE score decreased significantly during the same period (p < 0.001). Sonographically-guided percutaneous drilling is a quick and safe treatment option for LE that can be performed in an outpatient setting. • Percutaneous drilling of the lateral condyle is effective for the treatment of LE. • The area of ECRB tears can be measured by US-guided saline injection. • US-guided percutaneous drilling is a quick and safe treatment option for LE.

  1. Effectiveness of initial extracorporeal shock wave therapy on the newly diagnosed lateral or medial epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Seok; Kang, Sangkuk; Park, Noh Kyoung; Lee, Chan Woo; Song, Ho Sup; Sohn, Min Kyun; Cho, Kang Hee; Kim, Jung Hwan

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of initial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for patients newly diagnosed with lateral or medial epicondylitis, compared to local steroid injection. An analysis was conducted of twenty-two patients who were newly confirmed as lateral or medial epicondylitis through medical history and physical examination. The ESWT group (n=12) was treated once a week for 3 weeks using low energy (0.06-0.12 mJ/mm(2), 2,000 shocks), while the local steroid injection group (n=10) was treated once with triamcinolone 10 mg mixed with 1% lidocaine solution. Nirschl score and 100 point score were assessed before and after the treatments of 1st, 2nd, 4th and 8th week. And Roles and Maudsley score was assessed one and eight weeks after the treatments. Both groups showed significant improvement in Nirschl score and 100 point score during the entire period. The local steroid injection group improved more in Nirschl score at the first week and in 100 point score at the first 2 weeks, compared to those of the ESWT group. But the proportion of excellent and good grades of Roles and Maudsley score in the ESWT group increased more than that of local steroid injection group by the final 8th week. The ESWT group improved as much as the local steroid injection group as treatment for medial and lateral epicondylitis. Therefore, ESWT can be a useful treatment option in patients for whom local steroid injection is difficult.

  2. Epicondylitis in the athlete's elbow.

    PubMed

    Van Hofwegen, Christopher; Baker, Champ L; Baker, Champ L

    2010-10-01

    Epicondylitis is a diagnostic term that describes a pattern of pain and tenderness localized to the medial or lateral epicondyles of the distal humerus. The pathoanatomy, clinical presentation, and treatment of these disorders is described. Nonoperative treatment, operative techniques, postoperative care, and the results of treatment are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle electrolysis in chronic lateral epicondylitis: short-term and long-term results

    PubMed Central

    Valera-Garrido, Fermín; Minaya-Muñoz, Francisco; Medina-Mirapeix, Francesc

    2014-01-01

    Background Ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous needle electrolysis (PNE) is a novel minimally invasive approach which consists of the application of a galvanic current through an acupuncture needle. Objective To evaluate the clinical and ultrasonographic effectiveness of a multimodal programme (PNE, eccentric exercise (EccEx) and stretching) in the short term for patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis, and to determine whether the clinical outcomes achieved decline over time. Methods A one-way repeated measures study was performed in a clinical setting in 36 patients presenting with lateral epicondylitis. The patients received one session of US-guided PNE per week over 4–6 weeks, associated with a home programme of EccEx and stretching. The main outcome measures were severity of pain, disability (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire), structural tendon changes (US), hypervascularity and patients’ perceptions of overall outcome. Measurements at 6, 26 and 52 weeks follow-up included recurrence rates (increase in severity of pain or disability compared with discharge), perception of overall outcome and success rates. Results All outcome measures registered significant improvements between pre-intervention and discharge. Most patients (n=30, 83.3%) rated the overall outcome as ‘successful’ at 6 weeks. The ultrasonographic findings showed that the hypoechoic regions and hypervascularity of the extensor carpi radialis brevis changed significantly. At 26 and 52 weeks, all participants (n=32) perceived a ‘successful’ outcome. Recurrence rates were null after discharge and at follow-up at 6, 26 and 52 weeks. Conclusions Symptoms and degenerative structural changes of chronic lateral epicondylitis are reduced after US-guided PNE associated with EccEx and stretching, with encouragingly low recurrences in the mid to long term. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02085928. PMID:25122629

  4. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous needle electrolysis in chronic lateral epicondylitis: short-term and long-term results.

    PubMed

    Valera-Garrido, Fermín; Minaya-Muñoz, Francisco; Medina-Mirapeix, Francesc

    2014-12-01

    Ultrasound (US)-guided percutaneous needle electrolysis (PNE) is a novel minimally invasive approach which consists of the application of a galvanic current through an acupuncture needle. To evaluate the clinical and ultrasonographic effectiveness of a multimodal programme (PNE, eccentric exercise (EccEx) and stretching) in the short term for patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis, and to determine whether the clinical outcomes achieved decline over time. A one-way repeated measures study was performed in a clinical setting in 36 patients presenting with lateral epicondylitis. The patients received one session of US-guided PNE per week over 4-6 weeks, associated with a home programme of EccEx and stretching. The main outcome measures were severity of pain, disability (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire), structural tendon changes (US), hypervascularity and patients' perceptions of overall outcome. Measurements at 6, 26 and 52 weeks follow-up included recurrence rates (increase in severity of pain or disability compared with discharge), perception of overall outcome and success rates. All outcome measures registered significant improvements between pre-intervention and discharge. Most patients (n=30, 83.3%) rated the overall outcome as 'successful' at 6 weeks. The ultrasonographic findings showed that the hypoechoic regions and hypervascularity of the extensor carpi radialis brevis changed significantly. At 26 and 52 weeks, all participants (n=32) perceived a 'successful' outcome. Recurrence rates were null after discharge and at follow-up at 6, 26 and 52 weeks. Symptoms and degenerative structural changes of chronic lateral epicondylitis are reduced after US-guided PNE associated with EccEx and stretching, with encouragingly low recurrences in the mid to long term. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02085928. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  5. Acupuncture for lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow): study protocol for a randomized, practitioner-assessor blinded, controlled pilot clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyung-Min; Kim, Joo-Hee; Lee, Seunghoon; Shin, Mi-Suk; Kim, Tae-Hun; Park, Hyo-Ju; Lee, Min-Hee; Hong, Kwon-Eui; Lee, Seungdeok; Choi, Sun-Mi

    2013-06-14

    Lateral epicondylitis is the most frequent cause of pain around the elbow joint. It causes pain in the region of the elbow joint and results in dysfunction of the elbow and deterioration of the quality of life. The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of ipsilateral acupuncture, contralateral acupuncture and sham acupuncture on lateral epicondylitis. Forty-five subjects with lateral epicondylitis will be randomized into three groups: the ipsilateral acupuncture group, contralateral acupuncture group and the sham acupuncture group. The inclusion criteria will be as follows: (1) age between 19 and 65 years with pain due to one-sided lateral epicondylitis that persisted for at least four weeks, (2) with tenderness on pressure limited to regions around the elbow joint, (3) complaining of pain during resistive extension of the middle finger or the wrist, (4) with average pain of NRS 4 or higher during the last one week at a screening visit and (5) voluntarily agree to this study and sign a written consent. Acupuncture treatment will be given 10 times in total for 4 weeks to all groups. Follow up observations will be conducted after the completion of the treatment, 8 weeks and 12 weeks after the random assignment. Ipsilateral acupuncture group and contralateral acupuncture group will receive acupuncture on LI4, TE5, LI10, LI11, LU5, LI12 and two Ashi points. The sham acupuncture group will receive treatment on acupuncture points not related to the lateral epicondylitis using a non-invasive method. The needles will be maintained for 20 minutes. The primary outcome will be differences in the visual analogue scale (VAS) for elbow pain between the groups. The secondary outcome will be differences in patient-rated tennis elbow evaluation (PRTEE), pain-free/maximum grip strength (Dynamometer), pressure pain threshold, clinically relevant improvement, patient global assessment, and the EQ-5D. The data will be analyzed with the paired t-test and ANCOVA (P <0.05). The

  6. Acupuncture for lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow): study protocol for a randomized, practitioner-assessor blinded, controlled pilot clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lateral epicondylitis is the most frequent cause of pain around the elbow joint. It causes pain in the region of the elbow joint and results in dysfunction of the elbow and deterioration of the quality of life. The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of ipsilateral acupuncture, contralateral acupuncture and sham acupuncture on lateral epicondylitis. Methods/design Forty-five subjects with lateral epicondylitis will be randomized into three groups: the ipsilateral acupuncture group, contralateral acupuncture group and the sham acupuncture group. The inclusion criteria will be as follows: (1) age between 19 and 65 years with pain due to one-sided lateral epicondylitis that persisted for at least four weeks, (2) with tenderness on pressure limited to regions around the elbow joint, (3) complaining of pain during resistive extension of the middle finger or the wrist, (4) with average pain of NRS 4 or higher during the last one week at a screening visit and (5) voluntarily agree to this study and sign a written consent. Acupuncture treatment will be given 10 times in total for 4 weeks to all groups. Follow up observations will be conducted after the completion of the treatment, 8 weeks and 12 weeks after the random assignment. Ipsilateral acupuncture group and contralateral acupuncture group will receive acupuncture on LI4, TE5, LI10, LI11, LU5, LI12 and two Ashi points. The sham acupuncture group will receive treatment on acupuncture points not related to the lateral epicondylitis using a non-invasive method. The needles will be maintained for 20 minutes. The primary outcome will be differences in the visual analogue scale (VAS) for elbow pain between the groups. The secondary outcome will be differences in patient-rated tennis elbow evaluation (PRTEE), pain-free/maximum grip strength (Dynamometer), pressure pain threshold, clinically relevant improvement, patient global assessment, and the EQ-5D. The data will be analyzed with the paired t

  7. Does effectiveness of exercise therapy and mobilisation techniques offer guidance for the treatment of lateral and medial epicondylitis? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hoogvliet, Peter; Randsdorp, Manon S; Dingemanse, Rudi; Koes, Bart W; Huisstede, Bionka M A

    2013-11-01

    Owing to the change in paradigm of the histological nature of epicondylitis, therapeutic modalities as exercises such as stretching and eccentric loading and mobilisation are considered for its treatment. To assess the evidence for effectiveness of exercise therapy and mobilisation techniques for both medial and lateral epicondylitis. Searches in PubMed, Embase, Cinahl and Pedro were performed to identify relevant randomised clinical trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the methodological quality. One review and 12 RCTs, all studying lateral epicondylitis, were included. Different therapeutic regimes were evaluated: stretching, strengthening, concentric/eccentric exercises and manipulation of the cervical or thoracic spine, elbow or wrist. No statistical pooling of the results could be performed owing to heterogeneity of the included studies. Therefore, a best-evidence synthesis was used to summarise the results. Moderate evidence for the short-term effectiveness was found in favour of stretching plus strengthening exercises versus ultrasound plus friction massage. Moderate evidence for short-term and mid-term effectiveness was found for the manipulation of the cervical and thoracic spine as add-on therapy to concentric and eccentric stretching plus mobilisation of wrist and forearm. For all other interventions only limited, conflicting or no evidence was found. Although not yet conclusive, these results support the belief that strength training decreases symptoms in tendinosis. The short-term analgesic effect of manipulation techniques may allow more vigorous stretching and strengthening exercises resulting in a better and faster recovery process of the affected tendon in lateral epicondylitis.

  8. Effects of platelet-rich plasma on lateral epicondylitis of the elbow: prospective randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Palacio, Evandro Pereira; Schiavetti, Rafael Ramos; Kanematsu, Maiara; Ikeda, Tiago Moreno; Mizobuchi, Roberto Ryuiti; Galbiatti, José Antônio

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) infiltration in patients with lateral epicondylitis of the elbow, through analysis of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) questionnaires. Sixty patients with lateral epicondylitis of the elbow were prospectively randomized and evaluated after receiving infiltration of three milliliters of PRP, or 0.5% neocaine, or dexamethasone. For the scoring process, the patients were asked to fill out the DASH and PRTEE questionnaires on three occasions: on the day of infiltration and 90 and 180 days afterwards. Around 81.7% of the patients who underwent the treatment presented some improvement of the symptoms. The statistical tests showed that there was evidence that the cure rate was unrelated to the substance applied (p = 0.62). There was also intersection between the confidence intervals of each group, thus demonstrating that the proportions of patients whose symptoms improved were similar in all the groups. At a significance level of 5%, there was no evidence that one treatment was more effective than another, when assessed using the DASH and PRTEE questionnaires.

  9. The effects of KinesioTape on the treatment of lateral epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, Hassan; Soleimanifar, Manijeh; Arab, A M; Hamneshin Behbahani, Shirin

    Randomized clinical trial. KinesioTape (KT) is a noninvasive method to treat pain and muscular dysfunction. To investigate the effect of KT with and without tension on pain intensity, pain pressure threshold, grip strength and disability in individuals with lateral epicondylitis, and myofacial trigger points in forearm muscles. Thirty women with lateral epicondylitis and myofacial trigger point in forearm muscles were randomly assigned to KT with tension and placebo (KT without tension). The treatment was provided 3 times in one week, and outcome measures were assess pre-post treatment. The mean score of visual analogue scale (VAS) during activity decreased significantly from 6.4 and 6 pretest to 2.53 and 4.66 posttest, respectively, for the KT with and without tension groups. The mean score of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand decreased significantly from 16.82 and 22.79 pretest to 8.65 and 8.29 posttest, respectively, for the KT with and without tension groups. A paired t-test revealed a significant reduction in VAS during activity and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand before and after treatment in both groups (P < .05). Pain pressure threshold, grip strength, and VAS using an algometer revealed no significant differences. The study showed no significant difference in variables immediately after intervention. Improvements in functional disability were superior when KT was used with tension, than obtained with a placebo-no tension application. The application of KT produces an improvement in pain intensity and upper extremity disability in subjects with LE and MTP in forearm muscles, and KT with tension was more effective than placebo group. NA. 100-216. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Extracorporeal shock wave treatment for chronic lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow).

    PubMed

    Ho, C

    2007-01-01

    (1) Electrohydraulic, electromagnetic, or piezoelectric devices are used to translate energy into acoustic waves during extracorporeal shock wave treatment (ESWT) for chronic lateral epicondylitis (CLE) of the elbow (elbow tendonitis or tennis elbow). These waves may help to accelerate the healing process via an unknown mechanism. (2) Results from randomized controlled trials have been conflicting. Half of the studies showed statistically significant improvement in pain in the treatment group, and half of the studies had data showing no benefit over placebo for any measured outcomes. (3) Limited evidence shows that ESWT is cheaper than arthroscopic surgery, open surgery, and other conservative therapies, such as steroid infiltrations and physiotherapy, that continue for more than six weeks. (4) The lack of convincing evidence regarding its effectiveness does not support the use of ESWT for CLE.

  11. Comparison of the effects of sodium hyaluronate-chondroitin sulphate and corticosteroid in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis: a prospective randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Haci Bayram; Gumustas, Seyitali; Agir, Ismail; Uludag, Abuzer; Serbest, Sancar; Pepele, Demet; Ertem, Kadir

    2015-09-01

    Hyaluronic acid and glycosaminoglycans have shown positive effects in improving lateral epicondylitis and other tendinosis conditions. Therefore, we designed a prospective, randomized study to compare the effects of a combined sodium hyaluronate and chondroitin sulfate (HA + CS) injection versus a triamcinolone injection in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. In total, 57 consecutive patients with clinically diagnosed lateral epicondylitis were divided randomly into two groups. In the HA + CS group, 25 patients received a single injection of a solution containing an HA + CS combination and prilocaine HCl, while the 32 patients in the triamcinolone group received a single injection of a solution of triamcinolone and prilocaine HCl. We evaluated the pain and function outcome measures using the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) questionnaire at the beginning of the study, and 3 and 6 months after the injection. Additionally, the Minimum Clinically Important Difference values and percentage changes in the PRTEE subscale scores between the assessments were calculated. No serious adverse events were reported throughout the study. The mean pain and function scores for the HA + CS and triamcinolone groups had significantly improved at 3 months, but the mean function scores in the HA + CS group were statistically significantly better when compared to the triamcinolone group. At 6 months, both groups had significantly improved mean pain and function scores, compared to the baseline scores; however, the mean pain and function scores in the 6-month HA + CS treatment group were better than in the 6-month triamcinolone group. The relative change for the mean total score in the HA + CS group was much better when compared with the triamcinolone group, and the HA + CS treatment group showed clinically significant improvement when compared with triamcinolone group at 3 and 6 months. This study supports the idea that for a single injection treatment of patients with

  12. Ongoing positive effect of platelet-rich plasma versus corticosteroid injection in lateral epicondylitis: a double-blind randomized controlled trial with 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Gosens, Taco; Peerbooms, Joost C; van Laar, Wilbert; den Oudsten, Brenda L

    2011-06-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been shown to be a general stimulation for repair and 1-year results showed promising success percentages. This trial was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of PRP compared with corticosteroid injections in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis with a 2-year follow-up. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. The trial was conducted in 2 Dutch teaching hospitals. One hundred patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis were randomly assigned to a leukocyte-enriched PRP group (n = 51) or the corticosteroid group (n = 49). Randomization and allocation to the trial group were carried out by a central computer system. Patients received either a corticosteroid injection or an autologous platelet concentrate injection through a peppering needling technique. The primary analysis included visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) outcome scores. The PRP group was more often successfully treated than the corticosteroid group (P < .0001). Success was defined as a reduction of 25% on VAS or DASH scores without a reintervention after 2 years. When baseline VAS and DASH scores were compared with the scores at 2-year follow-up, both groups significantly improved across time (intention-to-treat principle). However, the DASH scores of the corticosteroid group returned to baseline levels, while those of the PRP group significantly improved (as-treated principle). There were no complications related to the use of PRP. Treatment of patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis with PRP reduces pain and increases function significantly, exceeding the effect of corticosteroid injection even after a follow-up of 2 years. Future decisions for application of PRP for lateral epicondylitis should be confirmed by further follow-up from this trial and should take into account possible costs and harms as well as benefits.

  13. The effect of platelet-rich plasma injection on lateral epicondylitis following failed conservative management.

    PubMed

    Brkljac, Milos; Kumar, Shyam; Kalloo, Dale; Hirehal, Kiran

    2015-12-01

    We assessed the effect PRP injection on pain and function in patients with lateral epicondylitis where conservative management had failed. We prospectively reviewed 34 patients. The mean follow-up was 26 weeks (range 6-114 weeks). We used the Oxford Elbow Score (OES) and progression to surgery to assess outcomes. 88.2% improved their OES. 8.8% reported symptom progression. One patient had no change. No patients suffered adverse reactions. Two patients underwent an open release procedure. One had the injection repeated. An injection of PRP improves pain and function in patients suffering from LE where conservative management has failed.

  14. Does Kinesiotaping improve pain and functionality in patients with newly diagnosed lateral epicondylitis?

    PubMed

    Eraslan, Leyla; Yuce, Deniz; Erbilici, Arzu; Baltaci, Gul

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to compare the short-term effects of kinesiotaping and extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) along with physiotherapy on pain, functionality, and grip strength in patients with newly diagnosed lateral epicondylitis undergoing rehabilitation. Forty-five voluntary patients (mean age 48 years) were randomly assigned to three groups. Patients in all groups received physiotherapy consisting of a cold pack and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation five times per week for a total of 15 sessions and a home exercise programme including stretching and eccentric strength exercises. In the second group, patients received kinesiotaping 5 days a week for 3 weeks. In the third group, ESWT was applied three times for 3 weeks. Patients were assessed by visual analogue scale for pain intensity, pain-free grip strength using a hand dynamometer, Cyriax Resisted Muscle Test, and Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation Scale. All measurements were collected at baseline and after treatment. There were no significant differences in the demographic characteristics of the patients in all groups at baseline. Intra-group analysis revealed that pain intensity decreased, whereas maximum grip strength and functionality increased in all groups at the end of the treatment (p < 0.05). Inter-group analysis revealed that the kinesiotaping group yielded better results in decreasing pain intensity than the other groups (p < 0.05). The kinesiotaping group (p < 0.001) and ESWT group (p = 0.002) yielded better results in improving functionality than the physiotherapy group. There were significant differences in recovering pain-free grip strength in the kinesiotaping group (p < 0.05). Kinesiotaping was found to be effective for decreasing pain intensity, recovering grip strength, and improving functionality in patients with lateral epicondylitis undergoing rehabilitation. Therapeutic study, Level II.

  15. Platelet-rich plasma versus corticosteroid injection for recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis: clinical and ultrasonographic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gautam, V K; Verma, Saurabh; Batra, Sahil; Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Arora, Sumit

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the clinical and ultrasonographic changes in the morphology and vascularity of the common extensor tendon after injecting platelet-rich plasma (PRP) or corticosteroid (CS) for recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis (LE). 30 patients aged 18 to 60 years with recalcitrant (>6 months) LE not responsive to oral medication or non-invasive treatment were randomised to receive PRP (n=15) or CS (n=15) injection. Patients were assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Scale (DASH) score, Oxford Elbow Score, modified Mayo Clinic performance index for the elbow (modified Mayo score), and hand grip strength. Ultrasonography was performed by a musculoskeletal ultrasonologist to evaluate for tear at the common extensor origin, oedema at the common extensor origin, cortical erosion, probe-induced tenderness, and thickness of the tendon. The VAS for pain, DASH score, Oxford Elbow Score, modified Mayo score, and hand grip strength all improved significantly from pre-injection to the 6-month follow-up in the PRP and CS groups. However, in the CS group, the scores generally peaked at 3 months and then deteriorated slightly at 6 months indicating recurrence of symptoms, which involved 46.7% of the CS patients. At 6 months, the number of patients positive for various ulrasonographic findings generally decreased. However, in the CS group, the number of patients with reduced thickness of the common extensor tendon increased from 2 to 12, and the number of patients with cortical erosion at the lateral epicondyle increased from 9 to 11. PRP appeared to enable biological healing of the lesion, whereas CS appeared to provide short-term, symptomatic relief but resulted in tendon degeneration.

  16. Percutaneous Needle Tenotomy for the Treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Mattie, Ryan; Wong, Joseph; McCormick, Zachary; Yu, Sloane; Saltychev, Mikhail; Laimi, Katri

    2017-06-01

    To analyze the literature to determine whether controlled studies on percutaneous tenotomy have been published, and if so, to systematically assess the efficacy of percutaneous tenotomy for the treatment of tendinosis at the lateral epicondyle of the elbow. Systematic review of the available literature. Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases were searched in November 2015, unrestricted by date. After the initial search, we excluded conference proceedings, theses, reviews, expert opinions, and publications written in languages other than English. Next, 2 independent reviewers screened all of the remaining records with regard to their titles and abstracts, and subsequently, the full texts of identified publications potentially relevant to the present study. Six articles focused on percutaneous tenotomy, none of which were controlled against a placebo or conservative treatment group. The absence of true randomized controlled trials created a great deal of heterogeneity between the studies; thus we could not include any of our studies in the intended final quantitative analysis with meta-analysis tools. We describe all 6 studies identified by this systematic review with a detailed analysis of the procedural methods, outcome measures, and conclusions of each study. Percutaneous tenotomy presents an alternative to surgical release of the common extensor tendon for the treatment of chronic tendinosis at the lateral epicondyle of the elbow. Current research supporting the efficacy of this procedure, however, is of low quality (level II to level IV). III. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cell-stimulation therapy of lateral epicondylitis with frequency-modulated low-intensity electric current.

    PubMed

    Aliyev, R M; Geiger, G

    2012-03-01

    In addition to the routine therapy, the patients with lateral epicondylitis included into experimental group were subjected to a 12-week cell-stimulation therapy with low-intensity frequency-modulated electric current. The control group received the same routine therapy and sham stimulation (the therapeutic apparatus was not energized). The efficiency of this microcurrent therapy was estimated by comparing medical indices before therapy and at the end of a 12-week therapeutic course using a 10-point pain severity numeric rating scale (NRS) and Roles-Maudsley pain score. The study revealed high therapeutic efficiency of cell-stimulation with low-intensity electric current resulting probably from up-regulation of intracellular transmitters, interleukins, and prostaglandins playing the key role in the regulation of inflammation.

  18. Positive effect of an autologous platelet concentrate in lateral epicondylitis in a double-blind randomized controlled trial: platelet-rich plasma versus corticosteroid injection with a 1-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Peerbooms, Joost C; Sluimer, Jordi; Bruijn, Daniël J; Gosens, Taco

    2010-02-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has shown to be a general stimulation for repair. Purpose To determine the effectiveness of PRP compared with corticosteroid injections in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. The trial was conducted in 2 teaching hospitals in the Netherlands. One hundred patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis were randomly assigned in the PRP group (n = 51) or the corticosteroid group (n = 49). A central computer system carried out randomization and allocation to the trial group. Patients were randomized to receive either a corticosteroid injection or an autologous platelet concentrate injection through a peppering technique. The primary analysis included visual analog scores and DASH Outcome Measure scores (DASH: Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand). Successful treatment was defined as more than a 25% reduction in visual analog score or DASH score without a reintervention after 1 year. The results showed that, according to the visual analog scores, 24 of the 49 patients (49%) in the corticosteroid group and 37 of the 51 patients (73%) in the PRP group were successful, which was significantly different (P <.001). Furthermore, according to the DASH scores, 25 of the 49 patients (51%) in the corticosteroid group and 37 of the 51 patients (73%) in the PRP group were successful, which was also significantly different (P = .005). The corticosteroid group was better initially and then declined, whereas the PRP group progressively improved. Treatment of patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis with PRP reduces pain and significantly increases function, exceeding the effect of corticosteroid injection. Future decisions for application of the PRP for lateral epicondylitis should be confirmed by further follow-up from this trial and should take into account possible costs and harms as well as benefits.

  19. Effect of simultaneous stretching of the wrist and finger extensors for lateral epicondylitis: a gross anatomical study of the tendinous origins of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and extensor digitorum communis.

    PubMed

    Shirato, Rikiya; Wada, Takuro; Aoki, Mitsuhiro; Iba, Kousuke; Kanaya, Kohei; Fujimiya, Mineko; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2015-11-01

    Pulling the wrist into flexion with the elbow in extension and forearm in pronation has been used as the stretching technique of wrist extensors for lateral epicondylitis. Simultaneous stretching of the fingers in addition to the wrist flexion has also been applied. However, the mechanism of this simultaneous stretching has not been clarified. This study is designed to clarify the mechanism underlying this simultaneous stretching technique based on the anatomical features of the origins of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) and extensor digitorum communis (EDC). Thirty-nine arms from formalin-embalmed Japanese human specimens were dissected. The features of the origins of the ECRB and EDC were macroscopically observed, and the locations of each origin on the lateral epicondyle were measured. The ECRB had a long and wide, purely tendinous origin which originated from the anterior slope of the lateral epicondyle. The tendinous origin of the index finger of the EDC (EDC-IF) arose from the posterior aspect of the ECRB tendinous origin, with a coexisting muscular portion observed at the level of the proximal forearm. The middle finger of the EDC (EDC-MF) had a short tendinous origin with an associated muscular portion and originated proximo-laterally to the origin of the ECRB on the lateral epicondyle. In addition, the muscular origin of the EDC-MF arose on the superficial and posterior aspect of the ECRB tendinous origin. In contrast, the ring and little fingers of the EDC originated from the tendinous septum of the extensor digiti minimi and extensor carpi ulnaris, and had no connection with the ECRB tendinous origin. On the basis of our anatomical findings, simultaneous stretching of the wrist extensors by wrist, index and middle fingers flexion could provide stretching force to both the tendinous origins of the ECRB and EDC through the EDC-IF and EDC-MF.

  20. Comparison of Effectiveness of Supervised Exercise Program and Cyriax Physiotherapy in Patients with Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis): A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Viswas, Rajadurai; Ramachandran, Rejeeshkumar; Korde Anantkumar, Payal

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To compare the effectiveness of supervised exercise program and Cyriax physiotherapy in the treatment of tennis elbow (lateral epicondylitis). Design. Randomized clinical trial. Setting. Physiotherapy and rehabilitation centre. Subjects. This study was carried out with 20 patients, who had tennis elbow (lateral epicondylitis). Intervention. Group A (n = 10) had received supervised exercise program. Group B (n = 10) was treated with Cyriax physiotherapy. All patients received three treatment sessions per week for four weeks (12 treatment sessions). Outcome measures. Pain was evaluated using a visual analogue scale (VAS), and functional status was evaluated by completion of the Tennis Elbow Function Scale (TEFS) which were recorded at base line and at the end of fourth week. Results. Both the supervised exercise program and Cyriax physiotherapy were found to be significantly effective in reduction of pain and in the improvement of functional status. The supervised exercise programme resulted in greater improvement in comparison to those who received Cyriax physiotherapy. Conclusion. The results of this clinical trial demonstrate that the supervised exercise program may be the first treatment choice for therapist in managing tennis elbow. PMID:22629225

  1. Efficacy of peloid therapy in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis: a randomized, controlled, single blind study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ökmen, Burcu Metin; Eröksüz, Rıza; Altan, Lale; Aksoy, Meliha Kasapoğlu

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of peloid on pain, functionality, daily life activities, and quality of life of lateral epicondylitis (LE) patients. In this randomized, controlled, single-blind study, 75 patients who were diagnosed with chronic LE were enrolled to the study. Patients were randomized into two groups using the random number table. The patients in the first group (group 1) ( n = 33), were given lateral epicondylitis band (LEB) (during the day for 6 weeks) + peloid therapy (five consecutive days a week for 2 weeks), and the second group (group 2) ( n = 32), received LEB treatment alone. The patients were assessed by using Patient Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) and Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). The data were obtained before treatment (W0), immediately after treatment (W2), and 1 month after treatment (W6). In analysis of the collected data, the Wilcoxon signed rank test for intra-group comparisons and Mann-Whitney U test for comparisons between groups were used. Both in groups 1 and 2, there was a statistically significant improvement in all the evaluation parameters at W2 and W6 when compared to W0 ( p < 0.05). In comparison of difference scores between groups, although there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups at W2 when compared to W0 ( p > 0.05), a statistically significant difference was found in favor of group 1 for all the evaluation parameters at W6 ( p < 0.05). Our results have shown that peloid treatment could be effective in providing improvement in pain relief, function, daily life activities, and quality of life in LE patients.

  2. Corticosteroid injection in early treatment of lateral epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, K L; Laskowski, E R; Idank, D M; McLean, T J; Egan, K S

    2001-10-01

    To analyze whether a corticosteroid injection in combination with rehabilitation early in the course of lateral epicondylitis (LE) alters the outcome up to 6 months after injection compared with a control injection and rehabilitation. Randomized, controlled, double-blind study. Sports medicine center in a tertiary care center. Subjects with a diagnosis of LE whose symptoms had been present less than 4 weeks were included. Subjects were recruited by word of mouth and through advertising. The 39 subjects who were recruited were 18 to 65 years old. 19 subjects were randomized to receive rehabilitation and a sham injection, and 20 were randomized to receive rehabilitation and a corticosteroid injection. At 4 and 8 weeks, they were reevaluated and their treatment programs were modified, if indicated. Outcome measurements were performed at baseline, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 6 months, and included a functional pain questionnaire and a visual analogue pain scale. Painless grip strength on the affected side and maximal grip strength bilaterally were measured at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in outcome between the two groups with the exception of an improvement in the visual analogue pain scale in the corticosteroid group from 8 weeks to 6 months. Outcome measurements in both groups improved significantly over time; more than 80% of subjects reported improvements from baseline to 6 months for all scales. A corticosteroid injection does not provide a clinically significant improvement in the outcome of LE, and rehabilitation should be the first line of treatment in patients with a short duration of symptoms.

  3. IMpact of Platelet Rich plasma OVer alternative therapies in patients with lateral Epicondylitis (IMPROVE): protocol for a multicenter randomized controlled study: a multicenter, randomized trial comparing autologous platelet-rich plasma, autologous whole blood, dry needle tendon fenestration, and physical therapy exercises alone on pain and quality of life in patients with lateral epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Chiavaras, Mary M; Jacobson, Jon A; Carlos, Ruth; Maida, Eugene; Bentley, Todd; Simunovic, Nicole; Swinton, Marilyn; Bhandari, Mohit

    2014-09-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, commonly known as tennis elbow, is the most common cause of lateral elbow pain and the second most frequently diagnosed musculoskeletal disorder in the neck and upper limb in a primary care setting. Many therapeutic options, including conservative, surgical, and minimally invasive procedures, have been advocated for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. Although numerous small studies have been performed to assess the efficacy of various treatments, there are conflicting results with no clear consensus on the optimal treatment. In an economic environment with limited health care resources, it is paramount that optimal cost-effective therapies with favorable patient-important outcomes be identified. This is a protocol paper which outlines a multicenter, multidisciplinary, single-blinded, four-arm randomized controlled trial, comparing platelet-rich plasma (PRP), whole blood injection, dry needle tendon fenestration, and sham injection with physical therapy alone for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. Patients are screened based on pre-established eligibility criteria and randomized to one of the four study groups using an Internet-based system. The patients are followed at 6-week, 12-week, 24-week, and 52-week time points to assess the primary and secondary outcomes of the study. The primary outcome is pain. Secondary outcomes include health-related quality of life and ultrasound appearance of the common extensor tendon. Two university centers (McMaster University and the University of Michigan) are currently recruiting patients. We have planned a sample size of 100 patients (25 patients per arm) to ensure over 80% power to detect a three-point difference in pain scores at 52 weeks of follow-up. This study has ethics approval from the McMaster University Research Ethics Board (REB# 12-146) and the University of Michigan Institutional Review Board (IRB# HUM00067750). Successful completion of this proposed study will significantly impact

  4. Comparative effectiveness of botulinum toxin versus non-surgical treatments for treating lateral epicondylitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Ching; Wu, Wei-Ting; Hsu, Yu-Chun; Han, Der-Sheng; Chang, Ke-Vin

    2018-02-01

    To explore the effectiveness of botulinum toxin compared with non-surgical treatments in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Data sources including PubMed, Scopus, Embase and Airity Library from the earliest record to February 2017 were searched. Study design, patients' characteristics, dosage/brand of botulinum toxin, injection techniques, and measurements of pain and hand grip strength were retrieved. The standardized mean differences (SMDs) in pain relief and grip strength reduction were calculated at the following time points: 2-4, 8-12, and 16 weeks or more after injection. Six randomized controlled trials (321 participants) comparing botulinum toxin with placebo or corticosteroid injections were included. Compared with placebo, botulinum toxin injection significantly reduced pain at all three time points (SMD, -0.729, 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.286 to -0.171; SMD, -0.446, 95% CI, -0.740 to -0.152; SMD, -0.543, 95% CI, -0.978 to -0.107, respectively). Botulinum toxin was less effective than corticosteroid at 2-4 weeks (SMD, 1.153; 95% CI, 0.568-1.737) and both treatments appeared similar in efficacy after 8 weeks. Different injection sites and dosage/brand did not affect effectiveness. Botulinum toxin decreased grip strength 2-4 weeks after injection, and high equivalent dose could extend its paralytic effects to 8-12 weeks. When treating lateral epicondylitis, botulinum toxin was superior to placebo and could last for 16 weeks. Corticosteroid and botulinum toxin injections were largely equivalent, except the corticosteroid injections were better at pain relief in the early stages and were associated with less weakness in grip in the first 12 weeks.

  5. Outcome of Boyd-McLeod procedure for recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis of elbow.

    PubMed

    Reddy, V R M; Satheesan, K S; Bayliss, N

    2011-08-01

    Various surgical procedures including percutaneous and open release and arthroscopic procedures have been described to treat recalcitrant tennis elbow. We present the outcome of Boyd-McLeod surgical procedure for tennis elbow resistant to non-operative treatment in twenty-seven patients (twenty-nine limbs). Boyd McLeod procedure involves excision of the proximal portion of the annular ligament, release of the origin of the extensor muscles, excision of the bursa if present, and excision of the synovial fringe. The average time interval from the onset of symptoms of tennis elbow until surgery was 28 months (range 8-72 months). Of those patients, 91% reported complete relief of symptoms with return to full normal activities including sports. Average post-operative time for return to professional/recreational activity was 5 weeks. One case developed pain secondary to ectopic bone formation after surgery, which settled after excision, and in another there was no pain relief with Boyd McLeod procedure. Two patients had scar tenderness that did not affect the final outcome. We conclude that Boyd-McLeod procedure is an effective treatment option in patients with resistant lateral epicondylitis.

  6. [MRI in chronic epicondylitis humeri radialis using 1.0 T equipment--contrast medium administration necessary?].

    PubMed

    Herber, S; Kalden, P; Kreitner, K F; Riedel, C; Rompe, J D; Thelen, M

    2001-05-01

    Evaluation of the diagnostic value and confidence of contrast-enhanced MR imaging in patients with lateral epicondylitis in comparison to clinical diagnosis. 42 consecutive patients with clinically proven chronic lateral epicondylitis and 10 elbow joints of healthy controls have been examined on a 1.0 T MR-unit. Criteria for inclusion in the prospective study were: persistent pain and a failed conservative therapy. The MR protocol included STIR sequence, a native, T2-weighted, fat-suppressed TSE sequence, and a Flash-2-D sequence. Also, fat-suppressed, T1-weighted SE sequences before and after administration of Gd-DTPA contrast media have been recorded. In 39/42 patients the STIR sequence showed an increased SI of the common extensor tendon. Increased MR signal of the lateral collateral ligament combined with a thickening and a partial rupture or a full thickness tear have been observed in 15/42 cases. A bone marrow edema at the lateral epicondilus was noticed in 6 of the studied patients and a joint effusion in 18/42 patients. After administration of contrast media we noticed an average increase of SI by about 150%. However, enhanced MR imaging did not provide additional information. In MR imaging of chronic epicondylitis administration of gadolinium-DTPA does not provide additional information.

  7. A CRITICAL REVIEW OF THE CURRENT CONSERVATIVE THERAPIES FOR TENNIS ELBOW (LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS)

    PubMed Central

    Viola, Leonardo

    1998-01-01

    The pathogenesis, pathology, natural course, and in particular the treatment of lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) remains controversial. An extensive review of the scientific literature with respect to the conservative treatment of tennis elbow, revealed that acceptable epidemiological techniques of the prospective randomised control trials or case controlled studies are scarce. While administration of steroid compounds has traditionally been the mainstay of conservative treatment of tennis elbow, the high recurrence rate of side effects and structural tissue changes associated with steroid therapy, leaves this modality as the most controversial approach in the treatment of tennis elbow. In contrast, in some studies evidence in favour of a role for classical acupuncture, ultrasound and low level laser as effective therapeutic means in the treatment of tennis elbow has been provided. As these modalities have not been associated with any side effects, in view of the ease of application, low cost and good curative effects, their increased application has been suggested by some authors. This proposition, however, remains rather conjectural until it could be convincingly substantiated by future studies with appropriate epidemiological design. PMID:17987156

  8. Joint capsule attachment to the extensor carpi radialis brevis origin: an anatomical study with possible implications regarding the etiology of lateral epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Nimura, Akimoto; Fujishiro, Hitomi; Wakabayashi, Yoshiaki; Imatani, Junya; Sugaya, Hiroyuki; Akita, Keiichi

    2014-02-01

    To identify the unique anatomical characteristic of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) origin and points of differentiation from other extensors and to clarify the specific relationship of the ECRB to the underlying structures. We studied the origin of each extensor macroscopically for its muscular and tendinous parts; to identify the relationship between the ECRB origin and the deeper structures, we also examined the attachment of the joint capsule under the ECRB origin. The ECRB simply originated as a tendon without any muscle, whereas other extensors originated as a mixture of tendon and muscle. At the anterior part of the ECRB origin, the thin attachment of the joint capsule (average width, 3.3 mm) lay deep to the ECRB and was distinct. However, at the posterodistal portion, the joint capsule, annular ligament, and supinator were intermingled and originated as a single wide sheet from the humerus (average width, 10.7 mm). The anterior part of the ECRB origin was delicate, because the ECRB origin was purely tendinous, and the attachment of the articular capsule was thin compared with that of the posterodistal attachment. This thin attachment could be an initial factor leading to the development of lateral epicondylitis. The results of the current study may enhance magnetic resonance imaging understanding and may help clarify the etiology of the lateral epicondylitis. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The strain index and TLV for HAL: risk of lateral epicondylitis in a prospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Garg, Arun; Kapellusch, Jay M; Hegmann, Kurt T; Thiese, Matthew S; Merryweather, Andrew S; Wang, Ying-Chih; Malloy, Elizabeth J

    2014-03-01

    This study's objective was to quantify exposure-response relationships between job physical exposure (JPE) and incidence of lateral epicondylitis (LE). A cohort of 536 workers was enrolled from 10 manufacturing facilities and followed monthly for 6 years to ascertain changes in JPE and health status. JPE was individually measured and quantified using the Strain Index (SI) and TLV for HAL. Worker demographics, medical history, psychosocial factors, and current musculoskeletal disorders were obtained. Fifty-six workers developed LE. In multivariate models JPE, age, family problems, and swimming were associated with increased risk of LE. SI showed an exposure-response relationship with maximum hazard ratio (HR) of 4.5(P = 0.04). TLV for HAL showed a non-statistically significant trend for increased risk of LE (P = 0.19). JPE is associated with increased risk of LE. The SI and TLV for HAL are useful metrics for estimating JPE. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Autologous tenocyte injection for the treatment of severe, chronic resistant lateral epicondylitis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Allan; Breidahl, William; Mackie, Katherine E; Lin, Zhen; Qin, An; Chen, Jimin; Zheng, Ming H

    2013-12-01

    Severe chronic lateral epicondylitis (LE) is associated with degenerative tendon changes, extracellular matrix breakdown, and tendon cell loss. On the basis of positive outcomes from preclinical studies, this study is the first clinical trial of autologous tenocyte injection (ATI) on severe tendinopathy associated with chronic LE. Autologous tenocyte injection is a safe and effective procedure that enables a reduction in pain and improvement in function in resistant LE. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Patients with severe refractory LE underwent clinical evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before intervention. A patellar tendon needle biopsy was performed under local anesthetic, and tendon cells were expanded by in vitro culture. Tenocytes used for the injection were characterized by flow cytometry and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Autologous tenocytes were injected into the site of tendinopathy identified at the origin of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon under ultrasound guidance on a single occasion. Patients underwent serial clinical evaluations and repeat MRI at 12 months after intervention. A total of 20 consecutive patients were included in the study. Three patients withdrew consent after enrollment and before ATI. No adverse event was reported at either biopsy or injection sites. Furthermore, no infection or excessive fibroblastic reaction was found in any patient at the injection site. Clinical evaluation revealed an improvement in mean visual analog scale scores, for a maximum pain score from 5.94 at the initial assessment to 0.76 at 12 months (P < .001). Mean quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) and grip strength scores also significantly improved over the 12-month follow-up (QuickDASH score, 45.88 [baseline] to 3.84; grip strength, 20.17 kg [baseline] to 37.38 kg; P < .001). With use of a validated MRI scoring system, the grade of tendinopathy at the common extensor origin improved significantly by

  11. MR imaging of patients with lateral epicondylitis of the elbow: is the common extensor tendon an isolated lesion?

    PubMed

    Qi, Liang; Zhu, Zheng-Feng; Li, Feng; Wang, Ren-Fa

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether an injury of the common extensor tendon (CET) is associated with other abnormalities in the elbow joint and find the potential relationships between these imaging features by using a high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty-three patients were examined with 3.0 T MR. Two reviewers were recruited for MR images evaluation. Image features were recorded in terms of (1) the injury degree of CET; (2) associated injuries in the elbow joint. Spearman's rank correlation analysis was performed to analyze the relationships between the injury degree of CET and associated abnormalities of the elbow joint, correlations were considered significant at p<0.05. Total 24 elbows in 23 patients were included. Various degrees of injuries were found in total 24 CETs (10 mild, 7 moderate and 7 severe). Associated abnormalities were detected in accompaniments of the elbow joints including ligaments, tendons, saccussynovialis and muscles. A significantly positive correlation (r = 0.877,p<0.01) was found in injuries of CET and lateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL). Injury of the CET is not an isolated lesion for lateral picondylitis, which is mostly accompanied with other abnormalities, of which the LUCL injury is the most commonly seen in lateral epicondylitis, and there is a positive correlation between the injury degree in CET and LUCL.

  12. Lateralizing value of unilateral relative ictal immobility in patients with refractory focal seizures--Looking beyond unilateral automatisms.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Priya; Kaul, Bhavna; Shukla, Garima; Srivastava, Achal; Singh, Mamta Bhushan; Goyal, Vinay; Behari, Madhuri; Suri, Ashish; Gupta, Aditya; Garg, Ajay; Gaikwad, Shailesh; Bal, C S

    2015-12-01

    Ictal motor phenomena play a crucial role in the localization of seizure focus in the management of refractory focal epilepsy. While the importance of unilateral automatisms is well established, little attention is paid to the contralateral relatively immobile limb. In cases where automatisms mimic clonic or dystonic movements and in the absence of previously well-established signs, unilateral relative ictal immobility (RII) is potentially useful as a lateralizing sign. This study was carried out to examine the lateralizing value of this sign and to define its characteristics among patients of refractory focal epilepsy. VEEGs of 69 consecutive patients of refractory focal epilepsy who had undergone epilepsy surgery at our center over last four years were reviewed and analyzed for the presence of RII. Unilateral RII was defined as a paucity of movement in one limb lasting for at least 10s while the contralateral limb showed purposive or semi-purposive movements (in the absence of tonic or dystonic posturing or clonic movements in the involved limb). The findings were seen in the light of VEEG, radiological and nuclear imaging data, and with post-surgical outcome. Unilateral RII as a lateralizing sign was found in 24 of 69 patients (34.78%), consisting of both temporal and extra temporal epilepsy, with 100% concordance with VEEG and MRI data. All patients demonstrating this sign had a good post-surgical outcome. RII, when well characterized is a frequent and reliable lateralizing sign in patients of refractory focal epilepsy. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Lateral Patellofemoral Ligament: An Anatomic Study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kalpit N; DeFroda, Steven F; Ware, James Kristopher; Koruprolu, Sarath C; Owens, Brett D

    2017-12-01

    Medial instability of the patellofemoral joint is a rare but known phenomenon that may result from an incompetent lateral patellofemoral ligament (LPFL). Surgical reconstruction of the LPFL has been described. However, anatomic details of the ligament have not been the subject of scrutiny. To describe the anatomic origin and insertion of the LPFL. Descriptive laboratory study. Ten fresh-frozen, unpaired human cadaveric knees (mean age, 57 years) were dissected to identify the LPFL. The dissection was carried out by elevating the iliotibial band to expose the deep capsular layer of the knee joint, followed by a medial parapatellar approach to the knee. Then the quadriceps and patellar tendons were sectioned, and the LPFL was isolated by visualization and palpation. The LPFL was dissected to reveal its origin and insertion; these were measured with respect to the lateral epicondyle and the superior-inferior axis of the lateral patella, respectively. On average, the LPFL had a variable point of origin in location as well as width about the lateral epicondyle. The LPFL originated, on average, 2.6 mm distal (range, 13.1 mm proximal to 11.4 mm distal) and 10.8 mm anterior (range, 7.3 mm posterior to 14.9 mm anterior) to the lateral epicondyle. The LPFL insertion on the patella was more reliably found to be about 45% (range, 23.7%-58.4%) of its lateral articular surface. The insertion on the patella was found to be in the middle third of the lateral patella. The LPFL has an origin that is variable but, on average, was found to be distal and anterior to the lateral epicondyle. The patella insertion was more reliably found to be in the middle third of the lateral patella. These anatomic relationships can help the surgeon reconstruct the LPFL in a more anatomic fashion. Surgeons who are tasked with reconstruction of the LPFL of a patient with idiopathic medial instability or a previous aggressive lateral release of the knee may reference this article to perform an anatomic

  14. [Design of a multicenter study for assessing the effectiveness of extracorporeal shockwave therapy in epicondylitis humeri radialis].

    PubMed

    Haake, M; Jensen, K; Prinz, H; Willenberg, T

    2000-01-01

    Previously published studies concerning, extracorporeal shock-wave therapy (ESWT) in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis do not fulfil the biometric standards of modern clinical research. The objective of the trial is to show that ESWT is effective in the treatment of chronic LE. A prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blinded, multicenter trial with an independent blinded observer was designed. The effectiveness of ESWT is evaluated by comparison with a control group in which sham-ESWT is performed, both under local anaesthesia. Outcome is determined on the basis of the Roles/Maudsley-Score. Inclusion criteria are a history of at least 6 months of LE and failure of conventional treatment. The therapy includes 3 sessions of low energy ESWT with 2000 impulses (energy flux density 0.07-0.09 mJ/mm2). Sample size is 272 patients. Randomisation started in October 1998 and is planned over a period of two and a half years. Only a randomised clinical trial with adequate control of placebo effects and observer bias can provide the required evidence for the efficiency of ESWT in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis of the elbow.

  15. Intra-articular findings in symptomatic minor instability of the lateral elbow (SMILE).

    PubMed

    Arrigoni, Paolo; Cucchi, Davide; D'Ambrosi, Riccardo; Butt, Usman; Safran, Marc R; Denard, Patrick; Randelli, Pietro

    2017-07-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is generally considered an extra-articular condition. The role of minor instability in the aetiology of lateral elbow pain has rarely been considered. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation of lateral ligamentous laxity with aspects of intra-articular lateral elbow pathology and investigate the role of minor instability in lateral elbow pain. Thirty-five consecutive patients aged between 20 and 60 years with recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis who had failed conservative therapy and had no previous trauma or overt instability, were included. The presence of three signs of lateral ligamentous patholaxity and five intra-articular findings were documented during arthroscopy. The relative incidence of each of these was calculated, and the correlation between patholaxity and intra-articular pathology was evaluated. At least one sign of lateral ligamentous laxity was observed in 48.6% of the studied cohort, and 85.7% demonstrated at least one intra-articular abnormal finding. Radial head ballottement was the most common sign of patholaxity (42.9%). Synovitis was the most common intra-articular aspect of pathology (77.1%), followed by lateral capitellar chondropathy (40.0%). A significant correlation was found between the presence of lateral ligamentous patholaxity signs and capitellar chondropathy (p = 0.0409), as well as anteromedial synovitis (p = 0.0408). Almost one half of patients suffering from recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis display signs of lateral ligamentous patholaxity, and over 85% demonstrate at least one intra-articular abnormality. The most frequent intra-articular findings are synovitis and lateral capitellar chondropathy, which correlate significantly with the presence of lateral ligamentous patholaxity. The fact that several patients demonstrated multiple intra-articular findings in relation to laxity provides support to a sequence of pathologic changes that may result from a symptomatic minor instability of

  16. Variation Among Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgeons When Treating Medial Epicondyle Fractures.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Meghan; Dua, Karan; O'Hara, Nathan N; Brighton, Brian K; Ganley, Theodore J; Hennrikus, William L; Herman, Martin J; Hyman, Joshua E; Lawrence, J Todd; Mehlman, Charles T; Noonan, Kenneth J; Otsuka, Norman Y; Schwend, Richard M; Shrader, M Wade; Smith, Brian G; Sponseller, Paul D; Abzug, Joshua M

    2017-10-18

    Medial epicondyle fractures are a common pediatric and adolescent injury accounting for 11% to 20% of elbow fractures in this population. This purpose of this study was to determine the variability among pediatric orthopaedic surgeons when treating pediatric medial epicondyle fractures. A discrete choice experiment was conducted to determine which patient and injury attributes influence the management of medial epicondyle fractures by pediatric orthopaedic surgeons. A convenience sample of 13 pediatric orthopaedic surgeons reviewed 60 case vignettes of medial epicondyle fractures that included elbow radiographs and patient/injury characteristics. Displacement was incorporated into the study model as a fixed effect. Surgeons were queried if they would treat the injury with immobilization alone or open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Statistical analysis was performed using a mixed effect regression model. In addition, surgeons filled out a demographic questionnaire and a risk assessment to determine if these factors affected clinical decision-making. Elbow dislocation and fracture displacement were the only attributes that significantly influenced surgeons to perform surgery (P<0.05). The presence of an elbow dislocation had the largest impact on surgeons when choosing operative care (β=-0.14; P=0.02). In addition, for every 1 mm increase in displacement, surgeons tended to favor ORIF by a factor of 0.09 (P<0.01). Sex, mechanism of injury, and sport participation did not influence decision-making. In total, 54% of the surgeons demonstrated a preference for ORIF for the included scenarios. On the basis of the personality Likert scale, participants were neither high-risk takers nor extremely risk adverse with an average-risk score of 2.24. Participant demographics did not influence decision-making. There is substantial variation among pediatric orthopaedic surgeons when treating medial epicondyle fractures. The decision to operate is significantly based on

  17. The Distal Humerus Axial View: Assessment of Displacement in Medial Epicondyle Fractures.

    PubMed

    Souder, Christopher D; Farnsworth, Christine L; McNeil, Natalie P; Bomar, James D; Edmonds, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    The assessment and treatment of childhood medial epicondyle humerus fractures continues to be associated with significant debate. Several studies demonstrate that standard radiographic views are unable to accurately portray the true displacement. Without reliable ways to assess the amount of displacement, how can we debate treatment and outcomes? This study introduces a novel imaging technique for the evaluation of medial epicondyle fractures. An osteotomy of a cadaveric humerus was performed to simulate a medial epicondyle fracture. Plain radiographs were obtained with the fracture fragment displaced anteriorly in 2-mm increments between 0 and 18 mm. Anteroposterior (AP), internal oblique (IR), lateral (LAT), and distal humerus axial (AXIAL) views were performed. Axial images were obtained by positioning the central ray above the shoulder at 15 to 20 degrees from the long axis of the humerus, centered on the distal humerus. Displacement (mm) was measured by 7 orthopaedic surgeons on digital radiographs. At 10 mm displacement, AP views underestimated displacement by 5.5±0.6 mm and IR views underestimated by 3.8±2.1 mm. On LAT views, readers were not able to visualize fragments with <10 mm displacement. Displacement ≥10 mm from LAT views was overestimated by 1 reader by up to 4.6 mm and underestimated by others by up to 18.0 mm. AXIAL images more closely estimated the true amount of displacement, with a mean 1.5±1.1 mm error in measurement for <10 mm displacement and a mean 0.8±0.7 mm error for displacements of ≥10 mm. AXIAL measurements correlated strongly with the actual displacement (r=0.998, P<0.05); AP measurements did not (r=0.655, P=0.55). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.257 for AP and IR measurements; ICC was 0.974 for AXIAL measurements. Standard imaging, consisting of AP, IR, and LAT radiographs, consistently underestimates the actual displacement of medial epicondyle humerus fractures. The newly described AXIAL projection more

  18. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy vs cryoultrasound therapy in the treatment of chronic lateral epicondylitis. One year follow up study

    PubMed Central

    Vulpiani, Maria Chiara; Nusca, Sveva Maria; Vetrano, Mario; Ovidi, Serena; Baldini, Rossella; Piermattei, Cristina; Ferretti, Andrea; Saraceni, Vincenzo Maria

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background the purpose of this study is to compare the therapeutic effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) to those of cryoultrasound (Cryo-US) therapy in chronic lateral epicondylitis during a 12-month period. Methods single-blinded, randomized, controlled study of 80 participants treated for chronic LE with 3 ESWT sessions at 48/72-hours intervals (n=40) or 12 Cryo-US therapy sessions (4 sessions per week) (n=40). VAS and satisfactory results, considered as the sum of excellent and good scores in the Roles and Maudsley score, were used as outcome measures at baseline and 3, 6 and 12 months post-treatment. Results the results show statistically significant differences in VAS between the two groups at 6 (p<0.001) and 12 months (p<0.001) in favour of the ESWT Group. At 12 months, a difference of more than 2 points in the VAS between the two groups is demonstrated in favour of the ESWT Group. Considering satisfactory results, significant differences between the two groups are observed at 6 (p=0.003) and 12 months (p <0.001) in favour of the ESWT Group where patients achieve a satisfactory rate over 50%. Conclusions ESWT has better clinical therapeutic results at 6- and 12-month follow-up as compared to Cryo-US therapy. Level of Evidence 1B. PMID:26605190

  19. Reliability of internal oblique elbow radiographs for measuring displacement of medial epicondyle humerus fractures: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Hilton P; Bastrom, Tracey P; Edmonds, Eric W

    2013-01-01

    Standard elbow radiographs (AP and lateral views) are not accurate enough to measure true displacement of medial epicondyle fractures of the humerus. The amount of perceived displacement has been used to determine treatment options. This study assesses the utility of internal oblique radiographs for measurement of true displacement in these fractures. A medial epicondyle fracture was created in a cadaveric specimen. Displacement of the fragment (mm) was set at 5, 10, and 15 in line with the vector of the flexor pronator mass. The fragment was sutured temporarily in place. Radiographs were obtained at 0 (AP), 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 degrees (lateral) of internal rotation, with the elbow in set positions of flexion. This was done with and without radio-opaque markers placed on the fragment and fracture bed. The 45 and 60 degrees internal oblique radiographs were then presented to 5 separate reviewers (of different levels of training) to evaluate intraobserver and interobserver agreement. Change in elbow position did not affect the perceived displacement (P=0.82) with excellent intraobserver reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient range, 0.979 to 0.988) and interobserver agreement of 0.953. The intraclass correlation coefficient for intraobserver reliability on 45 degrees internal oblique films for all groups ranged from 0.985 to 0.998, with interobserver agreement of 0.953. For predicting displacement, the observers were 60% accurate in predicting the true displacement on the 45 degrees internal oblique films and only 35% accurate using the 60 degrees internal oblique view. Standardizing to a 45 degrees internal oblique radiograph of the elbow (regardless of elbow flexion) can augment the treating surgeon's ability to determine true displacement. At this degree of rotation, the measured number can be multiplied by 1.4 to better estimate displacement. The addition of a 45 degrees internal oblique radiograph in medial humeral epicondyle fractures has good

  20. Refractory Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    von Tresckow, Bastian; Engert, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    Despite the advances in the treatment of Hodgkin Lymphoma, patients with refractory disease still have a poor prognosis. Hodgkin Lymphoma can be refractory at first diagnosis or might become refractory later in the course of treatment. Both situations represent a therapeutic challenge. Intensified chemotherapy with BEACOPP escalated has been evaluated in early unfavourable and advanced Hodgkin Lymphoma and led to an improved tumour control and reduced rates of refractory disease. Furthermore, there is growing evidence for the role of tandem autologous transplant in breaking refractory disease. For patients relapsing after autologous transplant, more recent analyses have reported outcome and defined risk factors. The antibody drug conjugate brentuximab vedotin is a new, highly effective therapeutic option for these patients. Dose-reduced allogeneic transplant is a therapeutic alternative for patients relapsing after autologous transplant, but induction of a remission is the prerequisite for a successful allogeneic transplant. Brentuximab vedotin has been evaluated as a bridge to allogeneic transplant for patients refractory to conventional treatment. Recent therapeutic advances have improved the prognosis of Hodgkin Lymphoma by prevention or successful treatment of refractory disease. The use of new drugs such as brentuximab vedotin will hopefully further increase the cure rates.

  1. Arthroscopic Debridement Versus Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection: A Prospective, Randomized, Comparative Study of Chronic Lateral Epicondylitis With a Nearly 2-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Merolla, Giovanni; Dellabiancia, Fabio; Ricci, Annamaria; Mussoni, Maria Pia; Nucci, Simonetta; Zanoli, Gustavo; Paladini, Paolo; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized study was to compare the efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections and arthroscopic lateral release in treating chronic lateral epicondylitis (LE). Patients who had a clinical diagnosis of LE confirmed by ultrasound (US) were included in this study. A total of 101 patients received arthroscopic release (n = 50) or US-guided PRP injections (n = 51). Outcomes were assessed using a visual analog scale for pain, the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE), and a calibrated hand dynamometer for grip strength. Both patient groups experienced significant improvement in all measures. Between-group comparisons showed a significantly higher value in the PRP group only for grip strength at week 8 (P = .0073); all other significant differences were in favor of arthroscopy: overall pain (P = .0021), night pain (P = .0013), and PRTEE score (P = .0013) at week 104 and grip strength at weeks 24, 52, and 104 (all P < .0001). Consumption of rescue pain medication was not significantly different between the groups. The present findings suggest that (1) PRP injections and arthroscopic extensor carpi radialis brevis release are both effective in the short and medium term; (2) PRP patients experienced a significant worsening of pain at 2 years; (3) arthroscopic release ensured better long-term outcomes in terms of pain relief and grip strength recovery; and (4) both procedures were safe and well accepted by patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II, prospective comparative study. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Platelet-rich plasma versus autologous blood versus steroid injection in lateral epicondylitis: systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Arirachakaran, Alisara; Sukthuayat, Amnat; Sisayanarane, Thaworn; Laoratanavoraphong, Sorawut; Kanchanatawan, Wichan; Kongtharvonskul, Jatupon

    2016-06-01

    Clinical outcomes between the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), autologous blood (AB) and corticosteroid (CS) injection in lateral epicondylitis are still controversial. A systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted with the aim of comparing relevant clinical outcomes between the use of PRP, AB and CS injection. Medline and Scopus databases were searched from inception to January 2015. A network meta-analysis was performed by applying weight regression for continuous outcomes and a mixed-effect Poisson regression for dichotomous outcomes. Ten of 374 identified studies were eligible. When compared to CS, AB injection showed significantly improved effects with unstandardized mean differences (UMD) in pain visual analog scale (VAS), Disabilities of Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH), Patient-Related Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) score and pressure pain threshold (PPT) of -2.5 (95 % confidence interval, -3.5, -1.5), -25.5 (-33.8, -17.2), -5.3 (-9.1, -1.6) and 9.9 (5.6, 14.2), respectively. PRP injections also showed significantly improved VAS and DASH scores when compared with CS. PRP showed significantly better VAS with UMD when compared to AB injection. AB injection has a higher risk of adverse effects, with a relative risk of 1.78 (1.00, 3.17), when compared to CS. The network meta-analysis suggested no statistically significant difference in multiple active treatment comparisons of VAS, DASH and PRTEE when comparing PRP and AB injections. However, AB injection had improved DASH score and PPT when compared with PRP injection. In terms of adverse effects, AB injection had a higher risk than PRP injection. This network meta-analysis provided additional information that PRP injection can improve pain and lower the risk of complications, whereas AB injection can improve pain, disabilities scores and pressure pain threshold but has a higher risk of complications. Level I evidence.

  3. Association between Epicondylitis and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Pooled Occupational Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Hegmann, Kurt T; Thiese, Matthew S; Kapellusch, Jay; Merryweather, Andrew; Bao, Stephen; Silverstein, Barbara; Wood, Eric M; Kendall, Richard; Foster, James; Drury, David L; Garg, Arun

    2017-05-30

    The pathophysiology of lateral epicondylitis (LE) is unclear. Recent evidence suggests some common musculoskeletal disorders may have a basis in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Thus, we examined CVD risks as potential LE risks. Workers (n = 1824) were enrolled in two large prospective studies and underwent structured interviews and physical examinations at baseline. Analysis of pooled baseline data assessed the relationships separately between a modified Framingham Heart Study CVD risk score and three prevalence outcomes of: 1) lateral elbow pain, 2) positive resisted wrist or middle finger extension, and 3) a combination of both symptoms and at least one resisted maneuver. Quantified job exposures, personal and psychosocial confounders were statistically controlled. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) were calculated. There was a strong relationship between CVD risk score and lateral elbow symptoms, resisted wrist or middle finger extension and LE after adjustment for confounders. The adjusted ORs for symptoms were as high as 3.81 (95% CI 2.11, 6.85), for positive examination with adjusted odds ratios as high as 2.85 (95% CI 1.59, 5.12) and for combined symptoms and physical examination 6.20 (95% CI 2.04, 18.82). Relationships trended higher with higher CVD risk scores. These data suggest a potentially modifiable disease mechanism for LE.

  4. Lateral epicondylosis and calcific tendonitis in a golfer: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Yuill, Erik A.; Lum, Grant

    2011-01-01

    Objective To detail the progress of a young female amateur golfer who developed chronic left arm pain while playing golf 8 months prior to her first treatment visit. Clinical Features Findings included pain slightly distal to the lateral epicondyle of the elbow, decreased grip strength, and positive orthopedic testing. Diagnostic ultrasound showed thickening of the common extensor tendon origin indicating lateral epicondylosis. Radiographs revealed an oval shaped calcified density in the soft tissue adjacent to the lateral humeral epicondyle, indicating calcific tendonitis of the common extensor tendon origin. Intervention and Outcome Conventional care was aimed at decreasing the repetitive load on the common extensor tendon, specifically the extensor carpi radialis brevis. Soft tissue techniques, exercises and stretches, and an elbow brace helped to reduce repetitive strain. Outcome measures included subjective pain ratings, and follow up imaging 10 weeks after treatment began. Conclusion A young female amateur golfer with chronic arm pain diagnosed as lateral epicondylosis and calcific tendonitis was relieved of her pain after 7 treatments over 10 weeks of soft tissue and physical therapy focusing specifically on optimal healing and decreasing the repetitive load on the extensor carpi radialis brevis. PMID:22131570

  5. Racquet string tension directly affects force experienced at the elbow: implications for the development of lateral epicondylitis in tennis players

    PubMed Central

    Mohandhas, Badri R; Makaram, Navnit; Drew, Tim S; Wang, Weijie; Arnold, Graham P

    2016-01-01

    Background Lateral epicondylitis (LE) occurs in almost half of all tennis players. Racket-string tension is considered to be an important factor influencing the development of LE. No literature yet exists that substantiates how string-tension affects force transmission to the elbow, as implicated in LE development. We establish a quantitative relationship between string-tension and elbow loading, analyzing tennis strokes using rackets with varying string-tensions. Methods Twenty recreational tennis players simulated backhand tennis strokes using three rackets strung at tensions of 200 N, 222 N and 245 N. Accelerometers recorded accelerations at the elbow, wrist and racket handle. Average peak acceleration was determined to correlate string-tension with elbow loading. Results Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed when average peak acceleration at the elbow at 200 N string-tension (acceleration of 5.58 m/s2) was compared with that at 222 N tension (acceleration of 6.83 m/s2) and 245 N tension (acceleration of 7.45 m/s2). The 200 N racket induced the least acceleration at the elbow. Conclusions Although parameters determining force transmission to the elbow during a tennis stroke are complex, the present study was able to control these parameters, isolating the effect of string-tension. Lower string-tensions transmit less force to the elbow in backhand strokes. Reducing string-tension should be considered favourably with respect to reducing the risk of developing LE. PMID:27583017

  6. HD-tDCS in refractory lateral frontal lobe epilepsy patients.

    PubMed

    Karvigh, Sanaz Ahmadi; Motamedi, Mahmoud; Arzani, Mahsa; Roshan, Javad Hasan Nia

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of the novel high definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) method on patients with refractory lateral frontal lobe epilepsy. The effects of HD-tDCS on working memory were also examined. 10 adult patients with intractable lateral frontal lobe epilepsy were studied. A central cathode electrode was placed on the epileptogenic zone according to LTM, and 20-min sessions of 2mA HD-tDCS were applied for 10 consecutive days. The primary endpoint was to make changes in the epileptiform discharges (EDs) during a 1-h EEG. Moreover, the seizure frequency based on seizure diary and neuropsychiatric parameters was evaluated. All patients tolerated HD-tDCS stimulation course without any adverse reaction. The frequency of EDs increased immediately and one month after the stimulation course by an average of 6.4% and 1.2%, respectively. However, these changes in the EDs frequency were not statistically significant (p-value >0.05). The mean seizure frequency changes showed decrement by an average of 17.9% immediately, and increment by an average of 38.1% one month after the HD-tDCS. These changes were not significant statistically (p-value >0.05). One patient experienced exacerbation of seizures during the stimulations hence dropped out of the study. Attention and working memory improved significantly immediately and one month after the HD-tDCS in all patients. Changes of EDs and mean seizure frequency caused by HD-tDCS were not statistically significant for the whole group; however, this method could improve the patients' working memory scores. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of and referred pain from myofascial trigger points in the forearm muscles in patients with lateral epicondylalgia.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Carnero, Josué; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; de la Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2007-05-01

    Referred pain and pain characteristics evoked from the extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor digitorum communis, and brachioradialis muscles was investigated in 20 patients with lateral epicondylalgia (LE) and 20-matched controls. Both groups were examined for the presence of myofascial trigger points (TrPs) in a blinded fashion. The quality and location of the evoked referred pain, and the pressure pain threshold (PPT) at the lateral epicondyle on the right upper extremity (symptomatic side in patients, and dominant-side on controls) were recorded. Several lateral elbow pain parameters were also evaluated. Within the patient group, the elicited referred pain by manual exploration of 13 out of 20 (65%) extensor carpi radialis brevis muscles, 12/20 (70%) extensor carpi radialis longus muscles, 10/20 (50%) brachioradialis muscles, and 5/20 (25%) extensor digitorum communis muscles, shares similar pain patterns as their habitual lateral elbow and forearm pain. The mean number of muscles with TrPs for each patient was 2.9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1,4] of which 2 (95% CI 1,3) were active, and 0.9 (95% CI 0,2) were latent TrPs. Control participants only had latent TrPs (mean: 0.4; 95% CI 0,2). TrP occurrence between the 2 groups was significantly different for active TrPs (P<0.001), but not for latent TrPs (P>0.05). The referred pain pattern was larger in patients than in controls, with pain referral to the lateral epicondyle (proximally) and to the dorso-lateral aspect of the forearm in the patients, and confined to the dorso-lateral aspect of the forearm in the controls. Patients with LE showed a significant (P<0.001) lower PPT (mean: 2.1 kg/cm; 95% CI 0.8, 4 kg/cm) as compared with controls (mean: 4.5 kg/cm; 95% CI 3, 7 kg/cm). Within the patient group, PPT at the lateral epicondyle was negatively correlated with both the total number of TrPs (rs=-0.63; P=0.003) and the number of active TrPs (rs=-0.5; P=0.02): the greater the

  8. Pharmacotherapy for Refractory and Super-Refractory Status Epilepticus in Adults.

    PubMed

    Holtkamp, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Patients with prolonged seizures that do not respond to intravenous benzodiazepines and a second-line anticonvulsant suffer from refractory status epilepticus and those with seizures that do not respond to continuous intravenous anesthetic anticonvulsants suffer from super-refractory status epilepticus. Both conditions are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A strict pharmacological treatment regimen is urgently required, but the level of evidence for the available drugs is very low. Refractory complex focal status epilepticus generally does not require anesthetics, but all intravenous non-anesthetizing anticonvulsants may be used. Most descriptive data are available for levetiracetam, phenytoin and valproate. Refractory generalized convulsive status epilepticus is a life-threatening emergency, and long-term clinical consequences are eminent. Administration of intravenous anesthetics is mandatory, and drugs acting at the inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor such as midazolam, propofol and thiopental/pentobarbital are recommended without preference for one of those. One in five patients with anesthetic treatment does not respond and has super-refractory status epilepticus. With sustained seizure activity, excitatory N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are increasingly expressed post-synaptically. Ketamine is an antagonist at this receptor and may prove efficient in some patients at later stages. Neurosteroids such as allopregnanolone increase sensitivity at GABA A receptors; a Phase 1/2 trial demonstrated safety and tolerability, but randomized controlled data failed to demonstrate efficacy. Adjunct ketogenic diet may contribute to termination of difficult-to-treat status epilepticus. Randomized controlled trials are needed to increase evidence for treatment of refractory and super-refractory status epilepticus, but there are multiple obstacles for realization. Hitherto, prospective multicenter registries for pharmacological

  9. Incarcerated medial epicondyle fracture following pediatric elbow dislocation: 11 cases.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Seth D; Flanagin, Brody A; Bohl, Daniel D; DeLuca, Peter A; Smith, Brian G

    2014-09-01

    To describe outcomes after surgical management of pediatric elbow dislocation with incarceration of the medial epicondyle. We conducted a retrospective case review of 11 consecutive children and adolescents with an incarcerated medial epicondyle fracture after elbow dislocation. All patients underwent open reduction internal fixation using a similar technique. We characterized outcomes at final follow-up. Average follow-up was 14 months (range, 4-56 mo). All patients had clinical and radiographic signs of healing at final follow-up. There was no radiographic evidence of loss of reduction at intervals or at final follow-up. There were no cases of residual deformity or valgus instability. Average final arc of elbow motion was 4° to 140°. All patients had forearm rotation from 90° supination to 90° pronation. Average Mayo elbow score was 99.5. Four of 11 patients had ulnar nerve symptoms postoperatively and 1 required a second operation for ulnar nerve symptoms. In addition, 1 required a second operation for flexion contracture release with excision of heterotopic ossification. Three patients had ulnar nerve symptoms at final follow-up. Two of these had mild paresthesia only and 1 had both mild paresthesia and weakness. Our results suggest that open reduction internal fixation of incarcerated medial epicondyle fractures after elbow dislocation leads to satisfactory motion and function; however, the injury carries a high risk for complications, particularly ulnar neuropathy. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Return to competitive sports after medial epicondyle fractures in adolescent athletes: results of operative and nonoperative treatment.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, J Todd R; Patel, Neeraj M; Macknin, Jonathan; Flynn, John M; Cameron, Danielle; Wolfgruber, Hayley C; Ganley, Theodore J

    2013-05-01

    The optimal treatment of medial epicondyle fractures in pediatric athletes remains unclear. To evaluate the outcomes of operative and nonoperative management of medial epicondyle fractures in young athletes. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. The records of all children with fractures of the medial epicondyle over a 5-year period, with a minimum 2 years of follow-up at a pediatric tertiary referral center, were reviewed. Patients with intra-articular entrapment of the fracture fragment or ulnar nerve entrapment were excluded. Treatment decisions were made primarily based on injury mechanism and elbow laxity or instability. Patients were contacted and asked to complete a modified Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire. Complete data with 2-year follow-up were available for 20 athletes: 6 treated nonoperatively and 14 treated operatively. At the latest follow-up, both groups achieved excellent DASH scores. Half of each cohort required physical therapy, and 6 of 14 patients who received operative treatment reported numbness. All patients were either very or completely satisfied with their treatment. Fourteen patients were overhead athletes (8 treated operatively, 6 nonoperatively). Excellent DASH scores were achieved in both groups, and all overhead athletes were able to return to their sport at the next appropriate level. Seven patients were baseball pitchers and sustained a fracture while throwing (4 treated operatively, 3 nonoperatively). None felt their performance was limited after treatment, and excellent DASH scores were achieved in both groups. These data demonstrate that nonoperative treatment can be successful in young athletes with low-energy medial epicondyle avulsions, a stable elbow, and minimal fracture displacement. Surgical management can be successful in athletes who sustain more significant trauma, who have elbow laxity or instability, or who have significant fracture fragment displacement after a fracture of the medial

  11. Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection With Percutaneous Needling for Recalcitrant Lateral Epicondylitis: Comparison of Tenotomy and Fenestration Techniques.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Michael P; Motto, Michael A; Lewis, Sarah; Jacoby, Sidney M; Culp, Randall W; Lee Osterman, A; Kane, Patrick M

    2017-12-01

    Recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis (LE) is a common debilitating condition, with numerous treatment options of varying success. An injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been shown to improve LE, although it is unclear whether the method of needling used in conjunction with a PRP injection is of clinical importance. To determine whether percutaneous needle tenotomy is superior to percutaneous needle fenestration when each is combined with a PRP injection for the treatment of recalcitrant LE. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 93 patients with recalcitrant LE were treated with a PRP injection and percutaneous needle fenestration (n = 45) or percutaneous needle tenotomy (n = 48) over a 5-year study interval. Preoperative patient data, including visual analog scale for pain (VAS-P), Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH), and Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) scores and grip strength, were obtained from a chart review and compared with postoperative values obtained prospectively. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of complications, need for additional interventions, return to work, and patient satisfaction. At a mean follow-up of 40 months, significant improvements in VAS-P (mean, -6.1; 95% CI, -6.8 to -5.5; P < .0001), QuickDASH (mean, -46; 95% CI, -52 to -40; P < .0001), and PRTEE (mean, -57; 95% CI, -64 to -50; P < .0001) scores and grip strength (mean, +6.1 kg; 95% CI, 4.9 to 7.3; P < .0001) were observed across the entire study cohort, with no significant differences noted between the fenestration and tenotomy groups. Nine of 45 patients (22%) underwent additional procedures to treat recurrent symptoms in the fenestration group compared with 5 of 48 patients (10%) in the tenotomy group ( P = .05). No complications occurred in any patients, and no patients expressed dissatisfaction with their treatment course. A PRP injection with concomitant percutaneous needling is an effective treatment for recalcitrant

  12. The effect of oscillating-energy manual therapy on lateral epicondylitis: a randomized, placebo-control, double-blinded study.

    PubMed

    Nourbakhsh, Mohammad Reza; Fearon, Frank J

    2008-01-01

    Symptoms of lateral epicondylitis (LE) are attributed to degenerative changes and inflammatory reactions in the common extensor tendon induced by microscopic tears in the tissue after repetitive or overload functions of the wrist and hand extensor muscles. Conventional treatments, provided on the premise of inflammatory basis of LE, have shown 39-80% failure rate. An alternative approach suggests that symptoms of LE could be due to active tender points developed in the origin of hand and wrist extensor muscles after overuse or repetitive movements. Oscillating-energy Manual Therapy (OEMT), also known as V-spread, is a craniosacral manual technique that has been clinically used for treating tender points over the suture lines in the skull. Considering symptoms of LE may result from active tender points, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of OEMT on pain, grip strength, and functional abilities of subjects with chronic LE. Twenty-three subjects with chronic LE (>3mo) between ages of 24 and 72 years participated in this study. Before their participation, all subjects were screened to rule out cervical and other pathologies that could possibly contribute to their lateral elbow pain. Subjects who met the inclusion criteria were randomized into treatment and placebo treatment groups by a second (treating) therapist. Subjects were blinded to their group assignment. Subjects in the treatment group received OEMT for six sessions. During each treatment session, first a tender point was located through palpation. After proper hand placement, the therapist focused the direction of the oscillating energy on the localized tender point. Subjects in the placebo group underwent the same procedure, but the direction of the oscillating energy was directed to an area above or below the tender points, not covering the affected area. Jamar Dynamometer, Patient Specific Functional Scale (PSFS), and Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) were used to measure grip strength

  13. Intra-Articular Entrapment of the Medial Epicondyle following a Traumatic Fracture Dislocation of the Elbow in an Adult

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Youssef G.; Joukhadar, Nabih I.

    2018-01-01

    Medial epicondyle entrapment after an acute fracture dislocation of the elbow is a common finding in the pediatric population, but a rare finding in adults. We present a case of an adult patient diagnosed with a traumatic fracture dislocation of the elbow joint with intra-articular entrapment of the medial epicondyle. After initial evaluation, closed reduction was done. Stability testing after reduction showed an unstable joint; thus, open reduction and internal fixation was decided. PMID:29666736

  14. Treatment of the external epicondylitis of the humerus with a magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degen, I. L.

    1974-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of a constant and varying magnetic field on epicondylitis of the humerus is studied on ninety patients. Good results are obtained from the treatment (recovery of 80%, considerable improvement in 14.5%). The method is recommended for clinical application.

  15. Natural course in tennis elbow--lateral epicondylitis after all?

    PubMed

    Zeisig, Eva

    2012-12-01

    Tennis elbow is a common and difficult-to-treat condition largely because of lack of evidence. The natural history is unknown, but the condition is described as self-limiting. The objective of this case report is to describe the natural course of two control participants (pain free), who later developed tennis elbow, patient history, clinical findings, and ultrasound and colour Doppler examination before, during and after a period of tennis elbow.

  16. Gemcitabine and capecitabine as third- or later-line therapy for refractory advanced colorectal cancer: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Mercedes; Reboredo, Margarita; Mendez, Juan Carlos; Quintero, Guillermo; Pellón, María Luz; Romero, Carlos; Jorge, Mónica; Montes, Ana Fernández; Valladares-Ayerbes, Manuel; Ramos, Manuel; Varela, Silvia; Alonso, Miguel Ángel

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate gemcitabine plus capecitabine as third-line or later-line therapy in patients with refractory advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) who maintain a good performance status (PS). We retrospectively evaluated patients who had failed at least two lines of therapy or had contraindication to standard therapy and received gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m(2), d1 biweekly) plus capecitabine (1,700 mg/m(2)/day, d1-7 every two weeks) in a compassionate use program. Thirty-nine patients were enrolled. The majority (85%) had ECOG PS 1. Gemcitabine plus capecitabine was administered as third- and fourth-line in 49% and 23% of patients, respectively; and as fifth-line or later-line in 28%. A clinical benefit of 21% was found. The median progression-free survival and overall survival were 3.0 and 7.3 months, respectively. Toxicity was mild to moderate, with no reported grade 4 toxicities. Gemcitabine plus capecitabine was safe and well-tolerated. While the efficacy of this regimen was modest in terms of response, the survival data were acceptable and consistent with previous publications on this setting.

  17. The effect of corticosteroid versus platelet-rich plasma injection therapies for the management of lateral epicondylitis: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Nafa, Walid; Munro, Wendy

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Lateral epicondylitis is a common musculoskeletal disorder of the upper limb. Corticosteroid injection has been widely used as a major mode of treatment. However, better understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease led to a major change in treating the disease, with new options including platelet-rich plasma (PRP) are currently used. Objectives/research aim: To systematically evaluate the effect of corticosteroid versus PRP injections for the treatment of LE. Hypothesis: PRP injections provide longer-term therapeutic effect and less rate of complications compared to corticosteroid injection. Level of evidence: Level 2 evidence (4 included studies are of level 1 evidence, 1 study of level 2 evidence). Design: Systematic Review (according to PRISMA guidelines). Methods: Eleven databases used to search for relevant primary studies comparing the effects of corticosteroid and PRP injections for the treatment of LE. Quality appraisal of studies performed using Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0, CASP Randomised Controlled Trial Checklist, and SIGN Methodology Checklist 2. Results: 732 papers were identified. Five randomised controlled trials (250 Patients) met the inclusion criteria. Clinical findings: Corticosteroid injections provided rapid symptomatic improvement with maximum effect at 6/8/8 weeks before symptoms recurrence, whereas PRP showed slower ongoing improvements up to 24/52/104 weeks(3 studies). Corticosteroid showed more rapid symptomatic improvement of symptoms compared to PRP up to the study end-point of 3 months(1 study). Comparable therapeutic effects of corticosteroid and PRP were observed at 6 weeks(1 study). Ultrasonographic Findings: (1) Doppler activity decreased more significantly in patients who received corticosteroid compared to PRP. (2) Reduced tendon thickness and more patients with cortical erosion noted in corticosteroid group whereas increased tendon thickness and less number of

  18. Central Diabetes Insipidus in Refractory Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-associated Vasculitis.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Keiji; Morishita, Michiko; Watanabe, Haruki; Sada, Ken-Ei; Katsuyama, Takayuki; Miyawaki, Yoshia; Katsuyama, Eri; Narazaki, Mariko; Tatebe, Noriko; Watanabe, Katsue; Kawabata, Tomoko; Wada, Jun

    2017-11-01

    We herein describe two cases of refractory antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) complicated with diabetes insipidus (DI) possibly related to hypertrophic pachymeningitis (HP). One patient had microscopic polyangiitis and HP, which were refractory to cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, rituximab, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and mizoribine. Remission was finally achieved with the use of etanercept, but DI occurred 5 years later. The other patient had granulomatosis with polyangiitis, which that was refractory to cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, MMF, and rituximab. DI subsequently developed, but was successfully treated with etanercept. Dura mater hypertrophy was macroscopically observed in the latter case.

  19. The diagnostic validity of musculoskeletal ultrasound in lateral epicondylalgia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dones, Valentin C; Grimmer, Karen; Thoirs, Kerry; Suarez, Consuelo G; Luker, Julie

    2014-03-03

    Ultrasound is considered a reliable, widely available, non-invasive and inexpensive imaging technique for assessing soft tissue involvement in Lateral epicondylalgia. Despite the number of diagnostic studies for Lateral Epicondylalgia, there is no consensus in the current literature on the best abnormal ultrasound findings that confirm lateral epicondylalgia. Eligible studies identified by searching electronic databases, scanning reference lists of articles and chapters on ultrasound in reference books, and consultation of experts in sonography. Three reviewers (VCDIII, KP, KW) independently searched the databases using the agreed search strategy, and independently conducted all stages of article selection. Two reviewers (VCDIII, KP) then screened titles and abstracts to remove obvious irrelevance. Potentially relevant full text publications which met the inclusion criteria were reviewed by the primary investigator (VCDIII) and another reviewer (CGS). Among the 15 included diagnostic studies in this review, seven were Level II diagnostic accuracy studies for chronic lateral epicondylalgia based on the National Health and Medical Research Council Hierarchy of Evidence. Based from the pooled sensitivity of abnormal ultrasound findings with homogenous results (p > 0.05), the hypoechogenicity of the common extensor origin has the best combination of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. It is moderately sensitive [Sensitivity: 0.64 (0.56-0.72)] and highly specific [Specificity: 0.82 (0.72-0.90)] in determining elbows with lateral epicondylalgia. Additionally, bone changes on the lateral epicondyle [Sensitivity: 0.56 (0.50-0.62)] were moderately sensitive to chronic LE. Conversely, neovascularity [Specificity: 1.00 (0.97-1.00)], calcifications [Specificity: 0.97 (0.94-0.99)] and cortical irregularities [Specificity: 0.96 (0.88-0.99)] have strong specificity for chronic lateral epicondylalgia. There is insufficient evidence supporting the use of Power Doppler

  20. Tennis elbow

    MedlinePlus

    Epitrochlear bursitis; Lateral epicondylitis; Epicondylitis - lateral; Tendonitis - elbow ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 25. Biundo JJ. Bursitis, tendinitis, and other periarticular disorders and sports medicine. ...

  1. Central Diabetes Insipidus in Refractory Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-associated Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Keiji; Morishita, Michiko; Watanabe, Haruki; Sada, Ken-Ei; Katsuyama, Takayuki; Miyawaki, Yoshia; Katsuyama, Eri; Narazaki, Mariko; Tatebe, Noriko; Watanabe, Katsue; Kawabata, Tomoko; Wada, Jun

    2017-01-01

    We herein describe two cases of refractory antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) complicated with diabetes insipidus (DI) possibly related to hypertrophic pachymeningitis (HP). One patient had microscopic polyangiitis and HP, which were refractory to cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, rituximab, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and mizoribine. Remission was finally achieved with the use of etanercept, but DI occurred 5 years later. The other patient had granulomatosis with polyangiitis, which that was refractory to cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, MMF, and rituximab. DI subsequently developed, but was successfully treated with etanercept. Dura mater hypertrophy was macroscopically observed in the latter case. PMID:28943556

  2. [Clinical observation on external humeral epicondylitis treated with back-rotation traction].

    PubMed

    Fu, Rui-yang; Wang, Ya-ling; Gu, Zhong-zhong; Wang, Bao-hu; Zhu, Qi; Li, Ye; Wang, En-ping

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical effect of manipulation on external humeral epicondylitis, and to explore the functional mechanism and ideal treatment. Eighty-six patients who had been treated with acupuncture, obturation and needle-knife were divided into routine group and treatment group randomly. In routine group, there were 42 cases (male 13, female 29, means 40.8 years); and in treatment group there were 44 cases (male 16, female 28, means 41.2 years). There's no further treatment for the routine group after the therapy above, while the treatment group was added with back-rotation traction manipulation. Taking Verhaar therapy effect appraisal system of tennis-ball elbow to evaluate elbow function. After 7 days of therapy, the results were excellent in 13 cases, good in 16, fair in 4, poor in 9 in the routine group; and excellent in 38, good in 4 and fair in 2 in treatment group; and the effect in the treatment group were better than that of the routine group (P < 0.010). Half a year later, in the routine group 38 cases recurrenced and in the treatment group 10 cases recurrenced. Making manipulation after routine acupuncture, local obturation and needle-knife has active meaning to remove trauma inflammation, prevent re-conglutination, promote recovery and prevent recurrence.

  3. Simultaneous bilateral elbow dislocation with bilateral medial epicondyle fractures in a 13-year-old female gymnast with hyperlaxity

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Stefan; Dunne, Ben; Whitewood, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral simultaneous elbow dislocations are extremely rare and have only been described in 12 cases. In the paediatric population unilateral elbow dislocations are rare with 3–6% of all elbow injuries and there are only few studies describing this injury exclusively in children. There is only one case report of a paediatric patient who sustained a simultaneous bilateral elbow dislocation with medial epicondyle fractures. We present a second paediatric case of simultaneous bilateral elbow dislocation with associated displaced bilateral medial epicondyle fractures in a gymnast with joint hyperlaxity (3 of 5 Wynne-Davies criteria) treated with closed reduction and short-term immobilisation (3 weeks). The patient returned to full trampoline gymnastics between 4 and 5 months postinjury and made an uneventful recovery. PMID:23234820

  4. Anatomic and isometric points on femoral attachment site of popliteus muscle-tendon complex for the posterolateral corner reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jae-Hyuk; Lim, Hong Chul; Bae, Ji Hoon; Fernandez, Harry; Bae, Tae Soo; Wang, Joon Ho

    2011-10-01

    Descriptive laboratory study. The femoral anatomic insertion site and the optimal isometric point of popliteus tendon for posterolateral reconstruction are not well known. Purpose of this study was to determine the relative relationship between the femoral anatomic insertion and isometric point of popliteus muscle-tendon complex with the lateral epicondyle of femur. Thirty unpaired cadaveric knees were dissected to determine the anatomic femoral insertion of the popliteus tendon. The distance and the angle from the lateral epicondyle of femur to the center of the anatomic insertion of the popliteus tendon were measured using digital caliper and goniometer. Eight unpaired fresh cadaveric knees were examined to determine the optimal isometric point of femoral insertion of popliteus tendon using computer-controlled motion capture analysis system (Motion Analysis, CA, USA). Distances from targeted tibial tunnel for popliteus tendon reconstruction to the 35 points gained on the lateral surface of femur were recorded at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120° knee flexion. A point with the least excursion (<2.0 mm) was determined as the isometric point. The center of anatomic insertion points and the optimal isometric point for the main fibers of popliteus tendon were found to be posterior and distal to the lateral epicondyle of femur. The distance from the lateral epicondyle of femur to the center of anatomic femoral insertion of popliteus tendon was 11.3 ± 1.2 mm (mean ± SD). The angle between long axis of femur and the line from lateral epicondyle of femur to anatomic femoral insertion of popliteus tendon was 31.4 ± 5.3°. The isometric points for the femoral insertion of popliteus muscle-tendon complex were situated posterior and distal to the lateral epicondyle in all 8 knees. The distance between the least excursion point and the lateral epicondyle was calculated as 10.4 ± 1.7 mm. The angle between the long axis of femur and the line from lateral epicondyle of

  5. Ultrasonographic assessment of tendon thickness, Doppler activity and bony spurs of the elbow in patients with lateral epicondylitis and healthy subjects: a reliability and agreement study.

    PubMed

    Krogh, T P; Fredberg, U; Christensen, R; Stengaard-Pedersen, K; Ellingsen, T

    2013-10-01

    Tennis elbow, also known as lateral epicondylitis (LE), is a common disorder often assessed by ultrasound. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ultrasonographic outcomes and methods used in LE research and clinical practice. This study was designed as an intra- and interobserver reliability and agreement study. Ultrasonographic examination of the common extensor tendon of the elbow was performed. The intraobserver study examined tendon thickness twice in 20 right elbows from 20 healthy individuals at an interval of 7 to 12 days. The interobserver study examined tendon thickness, color Doppler activity, and bony spurs in 18 right elbows in 9 healthy individuals and 9 patients with LE. Two trained rheumatologists performed the interobserver examinations with the same scanner on the same day. The main outcomes were intra- and interclass correlation (ICC) and agreement. In the intraobserver study, the ICC with regard to tendon thickness ranged from 0.76 to 0.81, depending on the measurement techniques used. The agreement ranged from 0.06 to 0.13 mm. In the interobserver study, the tendon thickness ICC ranged from 0.45 to 0.65 and the agreement ranged from -0.17 to 0.13 mm. The ICC for color Doppler activity was 0.93, with agreement in 14/18 (78 %) of the cases. A perfect reliability was demonstrated for bony spurs, with an ICC of 1 and exact agreement in 18/18 (100 %) of the cases. Good to excellent reliability was obtained for all measurements. The ultrasonographic techniques evaluated in this trial can be recommended for use in both research and clinical practice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Systematic diagnosis and therapy of lateral elbow pain with emphasis on elbow instability.

    PubMed

    Kniesel, Bettina; Huth, Jochen; Bauer, Gerhard; Mauch, Frieder

    2014-12-01

    In recalcitrant epicondylitis innumerable operative techniques have been published, nevertheless a certain percentage of patients remains symptomatic after operative treatment. We developed an individual, systematic diagnostic pathway including arthroscopic assessment of elbow stability to identify the optimal and respectively less invasive therapy. We so far included 40 patients with recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis (mean age 46 ± 11). 5 patients had previous surgery. In all patients, we did an elbow arthroscopy and a systematic arthroscopic stability testing. 25 patients were treated exclusively arthroscopically once instability was excluded. In 13 patients with slight instability, we did an open debridement of the lateral tendon complex and local refixation. Two patients with severe instability were treated with open debridement and additional stabilization of the LUCL with a trizeps graft. With a minimum follow-up of 1 year, we assessed the DASH score and subjective patient satisfaction. Mean follow-up was 24 ± 12 months, mean duration of symptoms before surgery was 19 ± 18 months. The mean DASH score at follow-up was 22 ± 19.36 patients reported symptoms improvement, 34 patients would repeat surgery given the same situation; in 30 cases, patients expectations had been fulfilled. We did not observe any intraoperative complications or infections. One patient developed joint stiffness requiring reoperation. Using a systematic diagnostic pathway including assessment of elbow stability and consecutive individualized, respectively, less invasive surgical procedure we acquired high patients satisfaction and good clinical outcome with a low complication rate. Level III.

  7. [External stability of the elbow after surgical treatment of epicondylitis. Presentation of a case].

    PubMed

    Llop-Corbacho, A; Romero-Ruiz, J; Denia-Alarcón, N

    2014-01-01

    Elbow instability is a difficult to diagnose condition in certain cases, and could lead to some problems that limit daily functioning, such as joint blocks, bumps, projections, muscle weakness, and persistent pain. A case is presented of a patient with a clinical picture of epicondylitis, with a previous history of a fall on the affected arm. As there was no improvement after performing conventional non-aggressive treatment, surgery was performed on the affected tendon. The outcome of this was persistent pain and clinical instability of the elbow that ended up requiring surgery to reconstruct the ligament over the external complex. In follow-up 6 months after the operation, the clinical instability had disappeared, but there was still external discomfort and a 30° extension deficit. When faced with a picture of epicondylitis with a previous injury that does not respond to conventional therapies, it is important to take into account the possibility of an underlying elbow instability, ruling this out with a correct physical examination and, where necessary, with the appropriate complementary tests. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Efficacy of tennis elbow (epicondylitis humeri radialis) treatment in CBR "Praxis".

    PubMed

    Pecar, Dzemal; Avdić, Dijana

    2009-02-01

    Tennis elbow (Epicondylitis humeri radialis) is the most frequent reason that patients with elbow pain report to a physician. The exact cause of elbow pain is still unclear. However, it is certainly causally connected with connective intersection between forearm muscle and bone in the elbow region. In this paper, we analyzed patients that, over the period of 15 years, reported to "Praxis" clinic for elbow pain treatment (Epicondylitis humeri radialis). Of the total number of 228 patients, 126 were male, 101 female while one patient was younger than 14. Initial analysis established that average overall health condition grade was 2,87 at the onset of treatment. Following the treatment completion that grade was 4,48. Of the total number of 223 patients who were treated by combined method of manipulation and local corticosteroid instillation, eight patients received physical therapy as well. Thus, surgical treatment was not necessary in any patient. The patients' treatment included: 1. Application of manipulative methods in order to reestablish mobility in the "blocked" radio-humeral and the upper radio-ulnar joints. 2. Local instillation of corticosteroid depot in order to control inflammation (enthesitis) and thus, eliminate pain and establish physiological conditions for functioning of joint and local structures. Unlike conservative method which includes initial immobilization due to irritation and inflammation development prevention with concomitant analgesic and antirheumatic therapy, initial application of manipulation with reinstatement of joint mobility instead of immobilization with subsequent instillation of steroid preparations achieves functional restitution and fast reinstatement of full working ability, as a rule.

  9. Vitamin B6 deficiency: a potential cause of refractory seizures in adults.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Anthony T; Thomas, Sheela; Stawicki, Stanislaw P; Whitmill, Melissa L; Steinberg, Steven M; Cook, Charles H

    2011-03-01

    In children, vitamin B(6) (pyridoxine) deficiency has been described as a cause of seizures that are refractory to conventional antiepileptic medications. We describe the clinical presentation of 3 adults with refractory seizures (later diagnosed with vitamin B(6) deficiency) that resolved after pyridoxine treatment. Case series. Tertiary care surgical intensive care unit. In the first case, a 54-year-old male with history of alcoholic cirrhosis developed new-onset seizures refractory to phenytoin and levetiracetam 8 days after liver transplantation. In the second case, a 59-year-old male with hepatitis C infection developed intracranial hemorrhage and new-onset seizures refractory to phenytoin, levetiracetam, and pentobarbital. The third patient is a 78-year-old male with a history of alcohol dependence who was admitted for an intraventricular bleed and developed new onset of refractory seizures. Intravenous pyridoxine followed by oral pyridoxine. In all 3 cases, seizures persisted despite escalation of conventional antiepileptic medications but resolved within 2 days of pyridoxine supplementation. In each case, low serum pyridoxal 5'-phosphate concentrations normalized with pyroxidine administration. Although refractory seizures caused by vitamin B(6) deficiency are rare in adults, it should be considered in critically ill adult patients with refractory seizures.

  10. Selective arterial embolization with gelatin particles for refractory knee hemarthrosis.

    PubMed

    Yamagami, Takuji; Yoshimatsu, Rika; Miura, Hiroshi; Arai, Yuji; Terauchi, Ryu; Nakagawa, Shuji; Yamada, Kei

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of selective arterial embolization for refractory knee hemarthrosis. Transcatheter arterial embolization for refractory knee hemarthrosis was performed on five female patients (median age, 77 years; range, 71-80 years) between May 2009 and September 2012. Selective arterial embolization of the feeding artery was performed using a 2.5 F microcatheter coaxially advanced from a 5 F catheter with its tip positioned in the superficial femoral artery. One- or two-millimeter gelatin particles were used as embolic agents. In all patients, transarterial embolization performed successfully after arteriography showed nontumorous staining around the knee joint. The feeding arteries were the lateral superior genicular artery in all five patients, the lateral inferior genicular artery in four patients, the medial superior genicular artery in one patient, the medial inferior genicular artery in one patient, the middle genicular artery in one patient, and the descending genicular artery in one patient. In all five patients, staining was remarkably diminished around the knee joint after the embolization procedure. No complication was observed. The hemarthrosis improved after the embolization, and the postoperative course has been uneventful with no recurrence in any patient. These results suggest that selective arterial embolization for refractory hemarthrosis of the knee is safe and useful.

  11. Spent refractory reuse

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, J.P.; Kwong, K.S.; Clark, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    The Albany Research Center is conducting work on spent refractory recycling/alternate use, including a review of refractory usage and current recycling/disposal practices. Research has focused on the hazardous nature of some spent refractory materials, with emphasis on lead pickup. Information on the issues associated with the reuse of spent refractories will be presented, including those associated with hazardous materials.

  12. Diclofenac Patch for Treatment of Mild to Moderate Tendonitis or Bursitis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2008-08-05

    Rotator Cuff Tendonitis; Bicipital Tendonitis; Subdeltoid Bursitis of the Shoulder; Subacromial Bursitis of the Shoulder; Medial Epicondylitis of the Elbow; Lateral Epicondylitis of the Elbow; DeQuervain's Tenosynovitis of the Wrist

  13. EFFICACY OF TENNIS ELBOW (EPICONDYLITIS HUMERI RADIALIS) TREATMENT IN CBR “PRAXIS”

    PubMed Central

    Pecar, Džemal; Avdić, Dijana

    2009-01-01

    Tennis elbow (Epicondylitis humeri radialis) is the most frequent reason that patients with elbow pain report to a physician. The exact cause of elbow pain is still unclear. However, it is certainly causally connected with connective intersection between forearm muscle and bone in the elbow region. In this paper, we analyzed patients that, over the period of 15 years, reported to “Praxis” clinic for elbow pain treatment (Epicondylitis humeri radialis). Of the total number of 228 patients, 126 were male, 101 female while one patient was younger than 14. Initial analysis established that average overall health condition grade was 2,87 at the onset of treatment. Following the treatment completion that grade was 4,48. Of the total number of 223 patients who were treated by combined method of manipulation and local corticosteroid instillation, eight patients received physical therapy as well. Thus, surgical treatment was not necessary in any patient. The patients’ treatment included: Application of manipulative methods in order to reestablish mobility in the “blocked” radio-humeral and the upper radio-ulnar joints. Local instillation of corticosteroid depot in order to control inflammation (enthesitis) and thus, eliminate pain and establish physiological conditions for functioning of joint and local structures. Unlike conservative method which includes initial immobilization due to irritation and inflammation development prevention with concomitant analgesic and antirheumatic therapy, initial application of manipulation with reinstatement of joint mobility instead of immobilization with subsequent instillation of steroid preparations achieves functional restitution and fast reinstatement of full working ability, as a rule. PMID:19284391

  14. Understanding refractory failures

    SciTech Connect

    Bases, G.J.

    2006-01-15

    Compared to most pieces of a power plant, refractory costs very little to install. Yet, if improperly manufactured, specified, stored, mixed installed, cured, or dried, refractory may cause problems that can significantly decrease a plant's operating efficiency and flexibility. Like Rodney Dangerfield, refractory design and installation deserve more respect. 4 photos.

  15. Surgical management of canine refractory retrobulbar abscesses: six cases.

    PubMed

    Tremolada, G; Milovancev, M; Culp, W T N; Bleedorn, J A

    2015-11-01

    To report the clinical presentation, surgical treatment and outcomes of dogs with retrobulbar abscesses refractory to intra-oral lancing and antibiotics. Medical records from January 2006 through September 2014 were reviewed and dogs with retrobulbar abscesses failing treatment with antibiotics and intra-oral lancing were included. Clinicopathologic, imaging and surgical details were extracted from the medical records. Referring veterinarians and owners were interviewed via telephone for follow-up data. A total of six dogs were included in the study. The most common clinical signs were pain upon opening of the mouth, exophthalmos and prolapsed nictitans. Computed tomography was performed in five dogs, ultrasound in four and magnetic resonance imaging in one. Imaging identified an abscess in all dogs, with a suspected foreign body in four dogs. Surgical approach was a modified lateral orbitotomy in five dogs. No foreign body was identified during surgery in all dog. All dogs surviving to discharge did not have recurrence of clinical signs (follow-up time range: 27 to 95 months). Dogs with retrobulbar abscesses refractory to standard therapy can experience long-term resolution of clinical signs with surgical treatment, most commonly via a modified lateral orbitotomy. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  16. Refractory Materials for Flame Deflector Protection System Corrosion Control: Refractory Ceramics Literature Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark; Perusich, Stephen; Whitten, Mary C.; Trejo, David; Zidek, Jason; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Ceramics can be defmed as a material consisting of hard brittle properties produced from inorganic and nonmetallic minerals made by firing at high temperatures. These materials are compounds between metallic and nonmetallic elements and are either totally ionic, or predominately ionic but having some covalent character. This definition allows for a large range of materials, not all applicable to refractory applications. As this report is focused on potential ceramic materials for high temperature, aggressive exposure applications, the ceramics reviewed as part of this report will focus on refractory ceramics specifically designed and used for these applications. Ceramic materials consist of a wide variety of products. Callister (2000) 1 characterized ceramic materials into six classifications: glasses, clay products, refractories, cements, abrasives, and advanced ceramics. Figure 1 shows this classification system. This review will focus mainly on refractory ceramics and cements as in general, the other classifications are neither applicable nor economical for use in large structures such as the flame trench. Although much work has been done in advanced ceramics over the past decade or so, these materials are likely cost prohibitive and would have to be fabricated off-site, transported to the NASA facilities, and installed, which make these even less feasible. Although the authors reviewed the literature on advanced ceramic refractories 2 center dot 3 center dot 4 center dot 5 center dot 6 center dot 7 center dot 8 center dot 9 center dot 10 center dot 11 center dot 12 after the review it was concluded that these materials should not be ' the focus of this report. A review is in progress on materials and systems for prefabricated refractory ceramic panels, but this review is focusing more on typical refractory materials for prefabricated systems, which could make the system more economically feasible. Refractory ceramics are used for a wide variety of applications

  17. [Extracorporeal photochemotherapy in therapy-refractory subacute lupus].

    PubMed

    Richard, M A; Saadallah, S; Lefevre, P; Poullin, P; Buscaylet, S; Grob, J J

    2002-01-01

    Extracorporeal photopheresis is a leukapheresis therapy that uses psoralen and ultraviolet A irradiation. We report the case of a woman with a refractory sub acute lupus which dramatically but transitionally responded to extracorporeal photopheresis. This women, born in 1960, developed erythematous and squamous patches located on face and neckline, associated with hyperpigmented and atrophic lesions on the arms and shoulders. Investigations confirmed the diagnosis of subacute lupus without systemic disease. All lesions progressed, despite all conventional therapies leading to major aesthetic prejudice. Extracorporeal photopheresis was initiated, and after two months, all lesions, including atrophic and healing lesions had regressed, but laboratory abnormalities did not change. Extracorporeal photopheresis was well tolerated. However, treatment was discontinued nine months later, since the cutaneous lesions relapsed. Extracorporeal photopheresis could be efficient in the treatment of cutaneous autoimmune diseases through several immunomodulatory mechanisms. Extracorporeal photopheresis is a potent alternative agent in the therapy of refractory dermatological diseases

  18. Treatment of Refractory and Super-refractory Status Epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Rai, Samhitha; Drislane, Frank W

    2018-06-19

    Refractory and super-refractory status epilepticus (SE) are serious illnesses with a high risk of morbidity and even fatality. In the setting of refractory generalized convulsive SE (GCSE), there is ample justification to use continuous infusions of highly sedating medications-usually midazolam, pentobarbital, or propofol. Each of these medications has advantages and disadvantages, and the particulars of their use remain controversial. Continuous EEG monitoring is crucial in guiding the management of these critically ill patients: in diagnosis, in detecting relapse, and in adjusting medications. Forms of SE other than GCSE (and its continuation in a "subtle" or nonconvulsive form) should usually be treated far less aggressively, often with nonsedating anti-seizure drugs (ASDs). Management of "non-classic" NCSE in ICUs is very complicated and controversial, and some cases may require aggressive treatment. One of the largest problems in refractory SE (RSE) treatment is withdrawing coma-inducing drugs, as the prolonged ICU courses they prompt often lead to additional complications. In drug withdrawal after control of convulsive SE, nonsedating ASDs can assist; medical management is crucial; and some brief seizures may have to be tolerated. For the most refractory of cases, immunotherapy, ketamine, ketogenic diet, and focal surgery are among several newer or less standard treatments that can be considered. The morbidity and mortality of RSE is substantial, but many patients survive and even return to normal function, so RSE should be treated promptly and as aggressively as the individual patient and type of SE indicate.

  19. Comparison Between Steroid and 2 Different Sites of Botulinum Toxin Injection in the Treatment of Lateral Epicondylalgia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Active Drug-Controlled Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yao-Hong; Kuan, Ta-Shen; Chen, Kuan-Lin; Lien, Wei-Chih; Hsieh, Pei-Chun; Hsieh, I-Chieh; Chiu, Szu-Hao; Lin, Yu-Ching

    2017-01-01

    To compare the effects of 2 different injection sites of low doses of botulinum toxin type A with steroid in treating lateral epicondylalgia. Double-blind, randomized, active drug-controlled trial. Tertiary medical center. Patients with lateral epicondylalgia for >6 months were recruited from a hospital-based outpatient population (N=26). A total of 66 patients were approached, and 40 were excluded. No participant withdrew because of adverse effects. Patients were randomly assigned into 3 groups: (1) botulinum toxin epic group (n=8), who received 20U of botulinum toxin injection into the lateral epicondyle; (2) botulinum toxin tend group (n=7), who received 20U of botulinum toxin injected into tender points of muscles; and (3) steroid group (n=11), who received 40mg of triamcinolone acetonide injected into the lateral epicondyle. A visual analog scale, a dynamometer, and the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation were used to evaluate the perception of pain, maximal grip strength, and functional status, respectively. Outcome measures were assessed before intervention and at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks after treatment. The primary outcome measure was a visual analog scale. At 4 weeks after injection, the steroid group was superior to the botulinum toxin tend group in improvement on the visual analog scale (P=.006), grip strength (P=.03), and Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (P=.02). However, these differences were not observed at the 8-, 12-, and 16-week follow-up assessments. There was no significant difference between the steroid and botulinum toxin epic groups. Injections with botulinum toxin and steroid effectively reduced pain and improved upper limb function in patients with lateral epicondylalgia for at least 16 weeks. The onset of effect was earlier in the steroid and botulinum toxin epic groups than in the botulinum toxin tend group. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Improved refractory performance through partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Linck, F.E.; Peters, D.

    1995-12-31

    From the early designs and construction of Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boilers, many improvements have been made based upon observations of performance. Included in these improvements have been the refractory linings. The early refractory linings were subjected to extreme fluctuations in temperatures as the units experienced up and down conditions. As the designs were improved refractory failures were mostly due to the operating conditions and other mechanical stresses rather than continual shutdowns and startups. More recent problems observed with refractory linings are localized areas of high erosion, corrosion and cracking which result in hot spots and eventual shutdowns for repair.more » Today the objective of refractory suppliers and installers is to strive towards planned shutdowns rather than emergency shutdowns. This can be accomplished through partnerships between operations, material suppliers and installers. In essence, the concept is a cooperative effort between these groups to solve the variety of refractory problems in order to achieve longer refractory lining performance and less chance for emergency shutdowns. The reliability of the refractory lining is dependent on the successful combination of the material selected, proper design and the installation of the refractory material. Where these three elements combine, the lining has the best chance of performing its intended purpose.« less

  1. Effect of elbow and forearm position on contact pressure between the extensor origin and the lateral side of the capitellum.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshitaka; Aoki, Mitsuhiro; Izumi, Tomoki; Wada, Takuro; Fujimiya, Mineko; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Bone-to-tendon contact in the origin of the common extensor tendons is considered to be one of the causes of lateral epicondylitis. Some factors, including elbow and forearm position, varus stress to the elbow, or contraction of the wrist extensor tendons, are considered to affect this bone-to-tendon contact. However, no studies have evaluated the effect of the elbow and forearm position on bone-tendon interface. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of the position of the elbow and forearm on the contact pressure of the tendinous origin of the common wrist and finger extensors. We used 8 fresh cadaveric upper extremities. Contact pressure between the origin of the common extensor tendons and the lateral side of the capitellum was measured with a pressure sensor and was compared among various conditions, including elbow flexion angle (0°, 30°, 60°, and 90°), forearm rotation position (neutral and 81.5° pronation position), and varus stress load of the elbow (none, gravity on the forearm, and gravity on the forearm +1.96 Nm). Contact pressure was also measured during tension force of the extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, and extensor digitorum communis by 0, 9.8, and 19.6 N. Contact pressure was significantly increased with the elbow extension position, forearm pronation position, and varus stress to the elbow under tension of the extensor carpi radialis longus or extensor carpi radialis brevis. This study provides data about the amount of contact pressure between bone and tendon at the origin of the common extensor tendons in the elbow. This information may lead to a better understanding of, and better treatment for, lateral epicondylitis. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Clinical and etiological profile of refractory rickets from western India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rajesh R; Patil, Shailesh; Rao, Sudha

    2013-07-01

    To present clinical and etiological profile of refractory rickets from Mumbai. Case records of 36 patients presenting over 2½ y with refractory rickets were evaluated with respect to clinical presentation, biochemical, radiological features and where needed, ophthalmological examination, ultrasonography and special tests on blood and urine. Twenty three (63 %) patients had renal tubular acidosis (RTA)-distal RTA in 20 and proximal RTA in 3 patients; 5 (14 %) had vitamin D dependent rickets (VDDR I in 2 and VDDR II in 3 patients), 4 (11 %) had chronic renal failure (CRF) and 2 each (6 %) had hypophosphatemic rickets and chronic liver disease as cause of refractory rickets. A significant proportion of patients with RTA and VDDR showed skeletal changes of rickets in the first 2 y of life, while those with hypophosphatemic rickets presented later. Patients with hypophosphatemic rickets had predominant involvement of lower limbs, normal blood calcium and PTH levels and phosphorus leak in urine. All patients with RTA presented with failure to thrive, polyuria and marked rickets; blood alkaline phosphatase levels being normal in almost 50 % patients. Three (75 %) patients with rickets due to CRF had GFR < 30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and hyperphosphatemia. Patients with cirrhosis due to biliary atresia had rickets inspite of taking high dose of vitamin D orally. Refractory rickets is a disorder of multiple etiologies; a good history and clinical examination supplemented with appropriate investigations helps to determine its cause.

  3. Calcific periarthritis of the elbow presenting as acute tennis elbow.

    PubMed

    Jawad, F; Jawad, A S M

    2014-01-01

    A 28-year-old woman presented with sudden acute lateral epicondylitis. There was no history of preceding trauma or repetitive use of the arm. Because of the acute onset and signs of acute inflammation, an X-ray was arranged. The X-ray showed a hyperdense calcified elongated globule distal to the lateral epicondyle. A diagnosis of calcific periarthritis (calcium apatite) of the elbow was made. Calcific periarthritis has rarely been reported as a cause of acute elbow pain.

  4. The application of mechanical diagnosis and therapy in lateral epicondylalgia

    PubMed Central

    Maccio, Joseph R.; Fink, Sarah; Yarznbowicz, Richard; May, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background lateral epicondylalgia (LE) is a musculoskeletal diagnosis that causes pain and dysfunction in the lateral aspect of the elbow. Mechanical diagnosis and therapy (MDT) is an orthopaedic classification and treatment system based on mechanical and symptomatic response to repeated and sustained end-range movement. There has been no investigation of the association between MDT and patients diagnosed with LE. Case description this report presents three patients matching the currently accepted diagnostic criteria for LE, two with a diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) from a medical doctor. These patients were classified and treated by a diplomat of MDT and two third-year doctoral students of physical therapy using MDT. Outcomes short- and long-term (one year) outcomes were excellent, demonstrating rapid abolishment of symptoms and return to prior levels of function in 3–6 visits between 11–59 days. Patients demonstrated the ability to prevent and manage reoccurrence of symptoms independently without seeking further health care. Discussion this case series raises questions about whether or not the pathologies traditionally associated with the aetiology of LE are actually at fault. Moreover, it raises questions about the utility of special tests typically utilized to identify those structures. The series provides preliminary evidence that MDT may be capable of providing effective short- and long-term outcomes in the management of LE. Level of Evidence: 4 PMID:27559286

  5. Comparison of male reproductive success in malaria-refractory and susceptible strains of Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Voordouw, Maarten J; Koella, Jacob C; Hurd, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    Background In female mosquitoes that transmit malaria, the benefits of being refractory to the Plasmodium parasite are balanced by the immunity costs in the absence of infection. Male mosquitoes, however, gain no advantage from being refractory to blood-transmitted parasites, so that any costs associated with an enhanced immune system in the males limit the evolution of female refractoriness and has practical implications for the release of transgenic males. Methods Aspects of the male cost of carrying Plasmodium-refractory genes were estimated by comparing the males' immune response and reproductive success among strains of Anopheles gambiae that had been selected for refractoriness or extreme susceptibility to the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis. The refractory males had a stronger melanization response than males from the susceptible line. Four traits were used as correlates of a male's reproductive success: the proportion of females that were inseminated by a fixed number of males in a cage within a fixed time frame, the proportion of females with motile sperm in their spermathecae, the proportion of ovipositing females, and the mean number of eggs per batch. Results Although there were significant differences among groups of males in sperm motility and oviposition success, these differences in male reproductive success were not associated with the refractory or susceptible male genotypes. Contrary to expectation, females mated to early emerging refractory males laid significantly more eggs per batch than females mated to later emerging susceptible males. Sperm motility and oviposition success were strongly correlated suggesting that variation in sperm motility influences female oviposition and ultimately male reproductive success. Conclusion An increased melanization response in male A. gambiae does not diminish male reproductive success under the experimental protocol used in this study. That refractory males induced ovipositing females

  6. Chromia refractory brick with carbon treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing

    The disclosure provides a refractory brick system comprising a chromia refractory brick for operation in the slagging environment of an air-cooled gasifier. The chromia refractory brick comprises a ceramically-bonded porous chromia refractory having a porosity greater than 9% and having carbon deposits residing within the pores. The brick may be further comprised of Al.sub.2O.sub.3. The air-cooled gasifier generates a liquefied slag in contact with the refractory brick and generally operates at temperatures between 1250.degree. C. and 1575.degree. C. and pressures between 300 psi to 1000 psi, with oxygen partial pressures generally between 10.sup.-4 and 10.sup.-10 atm. The refractory brick performsmore » without substantial chromium carbide or chromium metal formation in the low oxygen partial pressure environment. The inclusion of carbon without chromium carbide formation provides for significant mitigation of slag penetration and significantly reduced refractory wear.« less

  7. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Lateral epicondylitis surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... Soon after surgery, severe pain will decrease, but you may have mild soreness for 3 to 6 months.

  8. Nonvisual spatial navigation fMRI lateralizes mesial temporal lobe epilepsy in a patient with congenital blindness.

    PubMed

    Toller, Gianina; Adhimoolam, Babu; Grunwald, Thomas; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; König, Kristina; Jokeit, Hennric

    2015-01-01

    Nonvisual spatial navigation functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) may help clinicians determine memory lateralization in blind individuals with refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). We report on an exceptional case of a congenitally blind woman with late-onset left MTLE undergoing presurgical memory fMRI. To activate mesial temporal structures despite the lack of visual memory, the patient was requested to recall familiar routes using nonvisual multisensory and verbal cues. Our findings demonstrate the diagnostic value of a nonvisual fMRI task to lateralize MTLE despite congenital blindness and may therefore contribute to the risk assessment for postsurgical amnesia in rare cases with refractory MTLE and accompanying congenital blindness.

  9. It's time to change perspective! New diagnostic tools for lateral elbow pain.

    PubMed

    Arrigoni, P; Cucchi, D; Menon, A; Randelli, P

    2017-12-01

    The presence of intra-articular findings that may complement the extra-articular pathology in lateral epicondilytis has been suggested, and a role for minor instability of the elbow as part of the causative process of this disease has been postulated. This study was designed to describe two new clinical tests, aimed at detecting intra-articular pathology in patients affected by recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis and investigate their diagnostic performance. Ten patients suffering of atraumatic lateral elbow pain unresponsive to conservative treatment were considered in this study. Two clinical tests were developed and administrated prior to arthroscopy: Supination and Antero-Lateral pain Test (SALT); Posterior Elbow Pain by Palpation-Extension of the Radiocapitellar joint (PEPPER). Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and accuracy of SALT and PEPPER as diagnostic tests for seven intra-articular findings were calculated. In 90% of the patients, at least one test was positive. All patients with signs of lateral ligamentous patholaxity or intra-articular abnormal findings had a positive response to at least one of the two tests. SALT proved to have a high sensitivity but a low specificity and is accurate in detecting the presence of intra-articular abnormal findings, especially synovitis. PEPPER test was sensible, specific and accurate in the detection of radial head chondropathy. Two new diagnostic tests (SALT and PEPPER) were specifically designed to evoke pain from intra-articular structures. These tests could be a valid support in the diagnostic algorithm of recalcitrant lateral elbow pain. Positive findings may be indicative of a minor instability of the lateral elbow condition. Diagnostic study, development of diagnostic criteria on basis of consecutive patients, level II.

  10. Arthroscopic R-LCL plication for symptomatic minor instability of the lateral elbow (SMILE).

    PubMed

    Arrigoni, Paolo; Cucchi, Davide; D'Ambrosi, Riccardo; Menon, Alessandra; Aliprandi, Alberto; Randelli, Pietro

    2017-07-01

    Minor instability has been proposed as a possible aetiology of lateral elbow pain. This study presents the results of the arthroscopic plication of the radial component of the lateral collateral ligament (R-LCL) to reduce minor instability of the lateral elbow. Twenty-seven patients with recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis who had failed conservative therapy and who had no previous trauma or overt instability, were included. R-LCL plication was performed in the presence of at least one sign of lateral ligamentous patholaxity and one intra-articular abnormal finding. Single-assessment numeric evaluation (SANE), Oxford Elbow Score (OES), quickDASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, Hand), patient satisfaction and post-operative range of motion were evaluated. SANE improved from a median of 30 [2-40] points pre-operatively to 90 [80-100] at final follow-up (p < 0.0001), and 96.3% patients obtained good or excellent subjective results. Post-operative median quickDASH was 9.1 [0-25] points and OES 42 [34-48]. Median post-operative flexion was 145°, and extension was 0°. Post-operative flexion was restrained in seven patients and extension in eight patients; 59% of patients reached full ROM at final follow-up. R-LCL plication produces subjective satisfaction and positive clinical results in patients presenting with a symptomatic minor instability of the lateral elbow (SMILE) at 2-year median follow-up. A slight limitation in range of motion is a possible undesired consequence of this intervention. Retrospective case series, Level IV.

  11. Refractory metals for ARPS AMTEC cells

    SciTech Connect

    Svedberg, R.C.; Sievers, R.C.

    1998-07-01

    Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) cells for the Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (ARPS) program are being developed with refractory metals and alloys as the basic structural materials. AMTEC cell efficiency increases with cell operating temperature. For space applications, long term reliability and high efficiency are essential and refractory metals were selected because of their high temperature strength, low vapor pressure, and compatibility with sodium. However, refractory metals are sensitive to oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen contamination and refractory metal cells cannot be processed in air. Because of this sensitivity, new manufacturing and processing techniques are being developed. In addition to structuralmore » elements, development of other refractory metal components for the AMTEC cells, such as the artery and evaporator wicks, pinchoff tubes and feedthroughs are required. Changes in cell fabrication techniques and processing procedures being implemented to manufacture refractory metal cells are discussed.« less

  12. Tennis elbow surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Lateral epicondylitis - surgery; Lateral tendinosis - surgery; Lateral tennis elbow - surgery ... Surgery to repair tennis elbow is often an outpatient surgery. This means you will not stay in the hospital overnight. You will be given ...

  13. Synthesis of refractory materials

    DOEpatents

    Holt, Joseph B.

    1984-01-01

    Refractory metal nitrides are synthesized during a combustion process utilizing a solid source of nitrogen. For this purpose, a metal azide is employed. The azide is combusted with a transition metal of the IIIB, IVB group, or a rare earth metal, and ignited to produce the refractory material.

  14. Synthesis of refractory materials

    DOEpatents

    Holt, J.B.

    Refractory metal nitrides are synthesized during a combustion process utilizing a solid source of nitrogen. For this purpose, a metal azide is employed. The azide is combusted with a transition metal of the IIIB, IVB group, or a rare earth metal, and ignited to produce the refractory material.

  15. MR imaging of the elbow in the injured athlete.

    PubMed

    Wenzke, Daniel R

    2013-03-01

    This article summarizes key MR imaging findings in common athletic elbow injuries including little leaguer's elbow, Panner disease, osteochondritis dissecans, olecranon stress fracture, occult fracture, degenerative osteophyte formation, flexor-pronator strain, ulnar collateral ligament tear, lateral ulnar collateral ligament and radial collateral ligament tear, lateral epicondylitis, medial epicondylitis, biceps tear, bicipitoradial bursitis, triceps tear, olecranon bursitis, ulnar neuropathy, posterior interosseous nerve syndrome, and radial tunnel syndrome. The article also summarizes important technical considerations in elbow MR imaging that enhance image quality and contribute to the radiologist's success. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Management of refractory epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Muñana, Karen R

    2013-05-01

    The term refractory epilepsy is utilized in veterinary medicine to describe a condition in which an animal with epilepsy fails to attain satisfactory seizure control or suffers intolerable side effects despite appropriate therapy with conventional antiepileptic drugs. Refractory epilepsy is an important problem in small animal practice as it occurs in approximately one-third of dogs with epilepsy. Consequently, there is much interest in identifying ways to more effectively treat this population of animals. More than a dozen new antiepileptic drugs have been approved for humans over the last 2 decades, and several of these drugs, including gabapentin, zonisamide, levetiracetam, and pregabalin, have been evaluated for the treatment of refractory seizures in veterinary patients. Nonmedical methods to treat poorly controlled epilepsy are also being explored. The 2 alternative forms of therapy that have shown the most promise in humans with epilepsy are electrical stimulation of the brain and dietary modification, both of which have also been evaluated in dogs. This overview summarizes the available data on pharmacologic as well as nonmedical treatment options for dogs and cats with refractory epilepsy. Although many forms of therapy are currently being utilized in clinical practice, our knowledge of the safety and efficacy of these treatments is limited. Additional randomized controlled trials are needed to better evaluate these novel therapies for refractory epilepsy in dogs and cats. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Talimogene Laherparepvec and Nivolumab in Treating Patients With Refractory Lymphomas or Advanced or Refractory Non-melanoma Skin Cancers

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-25

    Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma; Adnexal Carcinoma; Apocrine Carcinoma; Eccrine Porocarcinoma; Extraocular Cutaneous Sebaceous Carcinoma; Hidradenocarcinoma; Keratoacanthoma; Malignant Sweat Gland Neoplasm; Merkel Cell Carcinoma; Microcystic Adnexal Carcinoma; NK-Cell Lymphoma, Unclassifiable; Non-Melanomatous Lesion; Paget Disease; Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Primary Cutaneous Mucinous Carcinoma; Refractory Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Mature T-Cell and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Mycosis Fungoides; Refractory Primary Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Sezary Syndrome; Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma; Skin Basal Cell Carcinoma; Skin Basosquamous Cell Carcinoma; Skin Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Spiradenocarcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Origin; Stage III Skin Cancer; Stage IV Skin Cancer; Sweat Gland Carcinoma; Trichilemmocarcinoma; Vulvar Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  18. Testing Requirements for Refractory Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Montgomery, Eliza M.

    2011-01-01

    Launch Pads 39A and 39B currently use refractory material (Fondu Fyre) in the flame trenches. This material was initially approved for the Saturn program. This material had a lifetime of 10 years according to the manufacturer, and it has been used for over 40 years. As a consequence, the Fondu Fyre at Launch Complex 39 requires repair subsequent to almost every launch. A review of the literature indicates that the gunned Fondu Fyre refractory product (WA-1G) was never tested prior to use. With the recent severe damage to the flame trenches, a new refractory material is sought to replace Fondu Fyre. In order to replace Fondu Fyre, a methodology to test and evaluate refractory products was developed. This paper outlines this methodology and discusses current testing requirements, as well as the laboratory testing that might be required. Furthermore, this report points out the necessity for subscale testing, the locations where this testing can be performed, and the parameters that will be necessary to qualify a product. The goal is to identify a more durable refractory material that has physical, chemical, and thermal properties suitable to withstand the harsh environment of the launch pads at KSC.

  19. Testing Requirements for Refractory Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Montgomery, Eliza M.

    2010-01-01

    Launch Pads 39A and 39B currently use refractory material (Fondu Fyre) in the flame trenches. This material was initially approved for the Saturn program. This material had a lifetime of 10 years according to the manufacturer, and it has been used for over 40 years. As a consequence, the Fondu Fyre at Launch Complex 39 requires repair subsequent to almost every launch. A review of the literature indicates that the gunned Fondu Fyre refractory product (WA-1G) was never tested prior to use. With the recent severe damage to the flame trenches, a new refractory material is sought to replace Fondu Fyre. In order to replace Fondu Fyre, a methodology to test and evaluate refractory products was developed. This paper outlines this methodology and discusses current testing requirements, as well as the laboratory testing that might be required. Furthermore, this report points out the necessity for subscale testing, the locations where this testing can be performed, and the parameters that will be necessary to qualify a product. The goal is to identify a more durable refractory material that has physical, chemical, and thermal properties suitable to withstand the harsh environment of the launch pads at KSC.

  20. Testing Requirements for Refractory Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.; Sampson, Jeffrey W,; Montgomery, Eliza M.

    2012-01-01

    Launch Pads 39A and 39B currently use refractory material (Fondu Fyre) in the flame trenches. This material was initially approved for the Saturn program. This material had a lifetime of 10years according to the manufacturer, and it has been used for over 40 years. As a consequence, the Fondu Fyre at Launch Complex 39 requires repair subsequent to almost every launch. A review of the literature indicates that the gunned Fondu Fyre refractory product (WA-1 G) was never tested prior to use. With the recent severe damage to the flame trenches, a new refractory material is sought to replace Fondu Fyre. In order to replace Fondu Fyre, a methodology to test and evaluate refractory products was developed. This paper outlines this methodology and discusses current testing requirements, as well as the laboratory testing that might be required. Furthermore, this report points out the necessity for subscale testing, the locations where this testing can be performed, and the parameters that will be necessary to qualify a product. The goal is to identify a more durable refractory material that has physical, chemical, and thermal properties suitable to withstand the harsh environment of the launch pads at KSC.

  1. Overestimation of femoral tunnel length during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using the retrograde outside-in drilling technique.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Ken; Osaki, Kanji; Nishikawa, Kazutaka; Matsubara, Hirokazu; Tashiro, Yasutaka; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2016-08-01

    When the femoral tunnel socket is reamed in an oblique direction from the wall of inter-condylar notch in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, the tunnel length can be shorter at the periphery than at the centre. Because surgeons can manipulate the direction of tunnel in the outside-in femoral tunnel drilling technique, this length mismatch would vary depending on the direction of the tunnel. The purpose of this study was to investigate this length mismatch when reamed in various directions. In total of thirteen points were defined as femoral drilling entry points on concentric lines with 0, 1, 2, and 3 cm radius from the lateral epicondyle of a three-dimensional bone model from 40 subjects. Femoral tunnel drilling was simulated on the models by connecting the centre of the ACL footprint with each defined point on the lateral femoral surface. The mismatch length was measured between the centre and the shortest peripheral side of the tunnel socket. When the distance between the drilling entry point on the lateral femoral surface and the lateral epicondyle was increased to anterior proximal direction, there was a significant increase in the mismatch length. The mismatch length became more than 2 mm when the entry point was located more than 2 cm away from the lateral epicondyle. When the drilling entry point is set far away from the lateral epicondyle, a significant increase was observed in tunnel length mismatch between the centre of the tunnel and its shortest peripheral side. Because the tunnel length is measured with a guide pin introduced at the centre of the tunnel before reaming in retrograde outside-in technique, this length mismatch could cause an overestimation of the tunnel length. Surgeons should recognise this mismatch when preparing the length of graft and socket to optimise the graft insertion length into the socket.

  2. Refractoriness in Sustained Visuo-Manual Control: Is the Refractory Duration Intrinsic or Does It Depend on External System Properties?

    PubMed Central

    van de Kamp, Cornelis; Gawthrop, Peter J.; Gollee, Henrik; Loram, Ian D.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have previously adopted the double stimulus paradigm to study refractoriness in human neuromotor control. Currently, refractoriness, such as the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) has only been quantified in discrete movement conditions. Whether refractoriness and the associated serial ballistic hypothesis generalises to sustained control tasks has remained open for more than sixty years. Recently, a method of analysis has been presented that quantifies refractoriness in sustained control tasks and discriminates intermittent (serial ballistic) from continuous control. Following our recent demonstration that continuous control of an unstable second order system (i.e. balancing a ‘virtual’ inverted pendulum through a joystick interface) is unnecessary, we ask whether refractoriness of substantial duration (∼200 ms) is evident in sustained visual-manual control of external systems. We ask whether the refractory duration (i) is physiologically intrinsic, (ii) depends upon system properties like the order (0, 1st, and 2nd) or stability, (iii) depends upon target jump direction (reversal, same direction). Thirteen participants used discrete movements (zero order system) as well as more sustained control activity (1st and 2nd order systems) to track unpredictable step-sequence targets. Results show a substantial refractory duration that depends upon system order (250, 350 and 550 ms for 0, 1st and 2nd order respectively, n = 13, p<0.05), but not stability. In sustained control refractoriness was only found when the target reverses direction. In the presence of time varying actuators, systems and constraints, we propose that central refractoriness is an appropriate control mechanism for accommodating online optimization delays within the neural circuitry including the more variable processing times of higher order (complex) input-output relations. PMID:23300430

  3. Emergency Surgery for Refractory Status Epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Botre, Abhijeet; Udani, Vrajesh; Desai, Neelu; Jagadish, Spoorthy; Sankhe, Milind

    2017-08-15

    Management of refractory status epilepticus in children is extremely challenging. Two children with medically refractory status epilepticus, both of whom had lesional pathology on MRI and concordant data on EEG and PET scan. Emergency hemispherotomy performed in both patients. A complete, sustained seizure freedom obtained postoperatively. Emergency surgery is a treatment option in selected cases of drug refractory status epilepticus with lesional pathology and concordant data.

  4. Updates in Refractory Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Mahulikar, Advait; Suchdev, Kushak; Shah, Aashit

    2018-01-01

    Refractory status epilepticus is defined as persistent seizures despite appropriate use of two intravenous medications, one of which is a benzodiazepine. It can be seen in up to 40% of cases of status epilepticus with an acute symptomatic etiology as the most likely cause. New-onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) is a recently coined term for refractory status epilepticus where no apparent cause is found after initial testing. A large proportion of NORSE cases are eventually found to have an autoimmune etiology needing immunomodulatory treatment. Management of refractory status epilepticus involves treatment of an underlying etiology in addition to intravenous anesthetics and antiepileptic drugs. Alternative treatment options including diet therapies, electroconvulsive therapy, and surgical resection in case of a focal lesion should be considered. Short-term and long-term outcomes tend to be poor with significant morbidity and mortality with only one-third of patients reaching baseline neurological status. PMID:29854452

  5. Abemaciclib in Children With DIPG or Recurrent/Refractory Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-07-14

    Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma; Brain Tumor, Recurrent; Solid Tumor, Recurrent; Neuroblastoma, Recurrent, Refractory; Ewing Sarcoma, Recurrent, Refractory; Rhabdomyosarcoma, Recurrent, Refractory; Osteosarcoma, Recurrent, Refractory; Rhabdoid Tumor, Recurrent, Refractory

  6. SINTERED REFRACTORY MASS

    DOEpatents

    Williams, A.E.

    1955-09-01

    A method is given for joining sintered masses of refractory compounds. It consists in maintaining the masses in contact with each other by application of a moderate pressure, while they are at sintering temperature. The sintered masses are subjected to am applied pressure of about 1/2 to 1 ton per square inch of the surface in contact for about 10 minutes, and the temperature employed may be fropn about 1400 deg C to 2000 deg C. Refractory oxides to which the invention may be applied are beryllia, alumina, thoria, and magnesia.

  7. Refractory status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sanjay P; Agarwal, Shubhi; Faulkner, M

    2014-01-01

    Refractory status epilepticus is a potentially life-threatening medical emergency. It requires early diagnosis and treatment. There is a lack of consensus upon its semantic definition of whether it is status epilepticus that continues despite treatment with benzodiazepine and one antiepileptic medication (AED), i.e., Lorazepam + phenytoin. Others regard refractory status epilepticus as failure of benzodiazepine and 2 antiepileptic medications, i.e., Lorazepam + phenytoin + phenobarb. Up to 30% patients in SE fail to respond to two antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and 15% continue to have seizure activity despite use of three drugs. Mechanisms that have made the treatment even more challenging are GABA-R that is internalized during status epilepticus and upregulation of multidrug transporter proteins. All patients of refractory status epilepticus require continuous EEG monitoring. There are three main agents used in the treatment of RSE. These include pentobarbital or thiopental, midazolam and propofol. RSE was shown to result in mortality in 35% cases, 39.13% of patients were left with severe neurological deficits, while another 13% had mild neurological deficits. PMID:24791086

  8. Refractory inclusions in the Ornans C30 chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, A. M.

    1985-01-01

    Several types of metedorites contain unusual objects 10 micrometers to 2 centimeters across that are enriched in refractory elements such as calcium, aluminum and titanium. These objects, commonly known as refractory inclusions, are most abundant in the meteorites known as carbonaceous chondrites. The refractory inclusions that have been found in the Ornans metedorite, a member of a little-studied group of carbonaceous chondrites are described. Some refractory inclusions in Ornans resemble those found in other meteorites, while others are unlike any seen before. The unusual inclusions in Ornans contain minerals with extraordinary enrichments in highly refractory elements.

  9. Short-term evaluation of arthroscopic management of tennis elbow; including resection of radio-capitellar capsular complex.

    PubMed

    Babaqi, AbdulRahman A; Kotb, Mohammed M; Said, Hatem G; AbdelHamid, Mohamed M; ElKady, Hesham A; ElAssal, Maher A

    2014-06-01

    There has been controversy regarding the pathogenesis and treatment of lateral epicondylitis. Different surgical techniques for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis prescribed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term outcomes of arthroscopic management including resection of the radio-capitellar capsular complex, using different validated scores. In this study, arthroscopic resection of a capsular fringe complex was done beside debridement of the undersurface of Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis (ECRB). Thirty-one patients with recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis for a minimum of 6 months had surgery. In all patients, a collar-like band of radio-capitellar capsular complex was found to impinge on the radial head and subluxate into the radio-capitellar joint with manipulation under direct vision. Outcomes were assessed using Mayo Elbow Performance Index (MEPI), the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE), and the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH), beside visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and satisfaction criteria. After arthroscopic surgery, overall satisfaction was extremely positive, over the 31 patients, 93.5% of the patients are satisfied. The mean score for pain improved from 8.64 to 1.48 points. The total PRTEE improved from 55.53 to 10.39 points. The mean MEPI score was improved from 61.82 to 94.10 points. DASH score also improved from 24.46 to 4.81 points. All improvements are statistically significant (P < 0.05). Arthroscopic release of ECRB in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis is a reproducible method with a marked improvement in function within a short period, with special consideration for resection of radio-capitellar capsular complex.

  10. Management of refractory anti-phospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Scoble, Tina; Wijetilleka, Sonali; Khamashta, Munther A

    2011-09-01

    Anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune prothrombotic disorder characterised by the predisposition to venous and/or arterial thrombosis and obstetric morbidity. Management of APS centres on attenuating the procoagulant state whilst balancing the risks of anticoagulant therapy. Cases of recurrent thromboses and obstetric complications occur despite optimum therapy. Alternative therapies for refractory cases are subject to disparity among clinicians due to the current lack of clinical evidence present. This review aims to address the current management strategies for refractory thrombotic and obstetric cases and future therapeutic interventions. The role and current clinical evidence of using long term low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) as an alternative to warfarin therapy for refractory thromboses is evaluated. Potential alternatives for thromboses including statins, hydroxychloroquine, Rituximab are reviewed as well as the additional avenues to target in the future as the pathogenic mechanisms of APS are unveiled. The optimal management for refractory obstetric APS cases is subject to controversy. This review focuses and assesses the current evidence for the uses of low dose prednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin and hydroxycholoroquine in obstetric cases. The treatment modalities for the management of refractory APS require further clinical evidence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Tennis elbow: a biomechanical and therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Schnatz, P; Steiner, C

    1993-07-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, one of the most common lesions of the arm, affects some 50% of tennis players. This condition poses a problem in clinical management because treatment is dependent not only on proper medical therapy but also on correction of the improper on-court biomechanics. The most common flaw is a late contact on the backhand groundstroke, forcing the player to extend the wrist with the extensor muscles. This action predisposes to trauma of the tendon fibers at the lateral epicondyle. Understanding the biomechanics will better prepare the physician to advise the patient and to communicate with a tennis teaching professional to facilitate long-term relief.

  12. Supra-recommendation Treatment of Super-refractory Status Epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Devashish Dhiren; Dash, Gopal Krishna

    2016-06-01

    A 28-year old female was admitted with recurrent seizures following 2 days of febrile illness, after which she developed status epilepticus. Midazolam and later thiopentone infusions were started after failure of regular intravenous antiepileptics. Burst suppression was achieved at doses of 3 mg/kg/hr for midazolam and 6 mg/kg/hr of thiopentone. Adjunctive medications included methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin and acyclovir. Imaging and biochemical parameters were normal. She required 3 cycles of midazolam and 2 cycles of thiopentone for complete cessation of seizures. She recovered with mild attentional and recent memory deficits on follow up. Treatment of super-refractory status epilepticus requires individualized regimens and may need doses beyond conventional limits. To the best of our knowledge, there is no such reported case from India.

  13. REFRACTORY COATING FOR GRAPHITE MOLDS

    DOEpatents

    Stoddard, S.D.

    1958-06-24

    Refractory coating for graphite molds used in the casting of uranium is described. The coating is an alumino-silicate refractory composition which may be used as a mold surface in solid form or as a coating applied to the graphite mold. The composition consists of a mixture of ball clay, kaolin, alumina cement, alumina, water, sodium silicate, and sodium carbonate.

  14. Transmission electron microscopy of a refractory inclusion from the Allende meteorite - Anatomy of a pyroxene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doukhan, N.; Doukhan, J. C.; Poirier, J. P.

    1991-06-01

    A crystal of clinopyroxene from the coarse-grained refractory inclusion Egg 6 of the Allende meteorite has been studied in detail by transmission electron microscopy. The pyroxene crystal contains euhedral, dislocation-free inclusions of pure spinel MgAl2O4, without any topotactic relation to the host. Extensive dislocation walls at equilibrium, characteristic of high-temperature anneal, are present in the crystal. Alteration products are occasionaly observed at the spinel-pyroxene interface close to regions where dislocation walls decorated with bubbles (or voids) are present. The bubbles, often in the shape of tubes along the dislocation lines, are thought to be due to the precipitation of a fluid migrating along the dislocations. The observations are compatible with crystallization of the refractory inclusions from the melt and with the existence of a later stage of metasomatism.

  15. Rhizomucor variabilis var. regularior and Hormographiella aspergillata infections in a leukemic bone marrow transplant recipient with refractory neutropenia.

    PubMed

    Abuali, Mayssa M; Posada, Roberto; Del Toro, Gustavo; Roman, Elizabeth; Ramani, Rama; Chaturvedi, Sudha; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; LaBombardi, Vincent J

    2009-12-01

    Rhizomucor variabilis and Hormographiella aspergillata rarely cause human infections. This report details a fatal case of a 14-year-old female with leukemia posthematopoietic cell transplant and relapse with refractory pancytopenia. The patient first developed an R. variabilis var. regularior palate infection and later developed a cutaneous H. aspergillata infection while on posaconazole and caspofungin therapy.

  16. Refractory lining for electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Blander, Milton; Cook, Glenn M.

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus for processing a metallic fluid containing iron oxide, container for a molten metal including an electrically conductive refractory disposed for contact with the molten metal which contains iron oxide, an electrolyte in the form of a basic slag on top of the molten metal, an electrode in the container in contcat with the slag electrically separated from the refractory, and means for establishing a voltage across the refractory and the electrode to reduce iron oxide to iron at the surface of the refractory in contact with the iron oxide containing fluid. A process is disclosed for refining an iron product containing not more than about 10% by weight oxygen and not more than about 10% by weight sulfur, comprising providing an electrolyte of a slag containing one or more of calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silica or alumina, providing a cathode of the iron product in contact with the electrolyte, providing an anode in contact with the electrolyte electrically separated from the cathode, and operating an electrochemical cell formed by the anode, the cathode and the electrolyte to separate oxygen or sulfur present in the iron product therefrom.

  17. Diagnostic ultrasound imaging for lateral epicondylalgia: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Heales, Luke James; Broadhurst, Nathan; Mellor, Rebecca; Hodges, Paul William; Vicenzino, Bill

    2014-11-01

    Lateral epicondylalgia (LE) is clinically diagnosed as pain over the lateral elbow that is provoked by gripping. Usually, LE responds well to conservative intervention; however, those who fail such treatment require further evaluation, including musculoskeletal ultrasound. Previous studies of musculoskeletal ultrasound have methodological flaws, such as lack of assessor blinding and failure to control for participant age, sex, and arm dominance. The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic use of blinded ultrasound imaging in people with clinically diagnosed LE compared with that in a control group matched for age, sex, and arm dominance. Participants (30 with LE and 30 controls) underwent clinical examination as the criterion standard test. Unilateral LE was defined as pain over the lateral epicondyle, which was provoked by palpation, resisted wrist and finger extension, and gripping. Controls without symptoms were matched for age, sex, and arm dominance. Ultrasound investigations were performed by two sonographers using a standardized protocol. Grayscale images were assessed for signs of tendon pathology and rated on a four-point ordinal scale. Power Doppler was used to assess neovascularity and rated on a five-point ordinal scale. The combination of grayscale and power Doppler imaging revealed an overall sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 47%. The positive and negative likelihood ratios for combined grayscale and power Doppler imaging were 1.69 and 0.21, respectively. Although ultrasound imaging helps confirm the absence of LE, when findings are negative for tendinopathic changes, the high prevalence of tendinopathic changes in pain-free controls challenges the specificity of the measure. The validity of ultrasound imaging to confirm tendon pathology in clinically diagnosed LE requires further study with strong methodology.

  18. Distributed Fiber Optic Sensor for On-Line Monitoring of Coal Gasifier Refractory Health

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Anbo; Yu, Zhihao

    This report summarizes technical progress on the program “Distributed Fiber Optic Sensor for On-Line Monitoring of Coal Gasifier Refractory Health,” funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The scope of work entails analyses of traveling grating generation technologies in an optical fiber, as well as the interrogation of the gratings to infer a distributed temperature along the fiber, for the purpose of developing a real-time refractory health condition monitoring technology for coal gasifiers. Duringmore » the project period, which is from 2011-2015, three different sensing principles were studied, including four-wave mixing (FWM), coherent optical time-domain reflectometer (C-OTDR) and Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA). By comparing the three methods, the BOTDA was selected for further development into a complete bench-top sensing system for the proposed high-temperature sensing application. Based on the input from Eastman Chemical, the industrial collaborator on this project, a cylindrical furnace was designed and constructed to simulate typical gasifier refractory temperature conditions in the laboratory, and verify the sensor’s capability to fully monitor refractory conditions on the back-side at temperatures up to 1000°C. In the later stages of the project, the sensing system was tested in the simulated environment for its sensing performance and high-temperature survivability. Through theoretical analyses and experimental research on the different factors affecting the sensor performance, a sensor field deployment strategy was proposed for possible future sensor field implementations.« less

  19. Deep transverse friction massage for treating lateral elbow or lateral knee tendinitis.

    PubMed

    Loew, Laurianne M; Brosseau, Lucie; Tugwell, Peter; Wells, George A; Welch, Vivian; Shea, Beverley; Poitras, Stephane; De Angelis, Gino; Rahman, Prinon

    2014-11-08

    Background Deep transverse friction massage, one of several physical therapy interventions suggested for the management of tendinitis pain, was first demonstrated in the 1930s by Dr James Cyriax, a renowned orthopedic surgeon in England. Its goal is to prevent abnormal fibrous adhesions and abnormal scarring. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2001.Objectives To assess the benefits and harms of deep transverse friction massage for treating lateral elbow or lateral knee tendinitis.Search methods We searched the following electronic databases: the specialized central registry of the Cochrane Field of Physical and Related Therapies,the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL),MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Clinicaltrials.gov, and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), up until July 2014. The reference lists of these trials were consulted for additional studies.Selection criteria All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing deep transverse friction massage with control or other active interventions for study participants with two eligible types of tendinitis (ie, extensor carpi radialis tendinitis (lateral elbow tendinitis, tennis elbow or lateral epicondylitis or lateralis epicondylitis humeri) and iliotibial band friction syndrome (lateral knee tendinitis)) were selected. Only studies published in English and French languages were included.Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed the studies on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results of individual trials were extracted from the included study using extraction forms prepared by two independent review authors before the review was begun.Data were cross-checked by a third review author. Risk of bias of the included studies was assessed using the "Risk of bias"tool of The Cochrane Collaboration. A pooled analysis was performed using

  20. Control for monitoring thickness of high temperature refractory

    DOEpatents

    Caines, M.J.

    1982-11-23

    This invention teaches an improved monitoring device for detecting the changes in thickness of high-temperature refractory, the device consists of a probe having at least two electrically conductive generally parallel elements separated by a dielectric material. The probe is implanted or embedded directly in the refractory and is elongated to extend in line with the refractory thickness to be measured. Electrical inputs to the conductive elements provide that either or both the electrical conductance or capacitance can be found, so that charges over lapsed time periods can be compared in order to detect changes in the thickness of the refractory.

  1. Properties of Refractory Concrete in Tension and Compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Refractory concrete on the LC-39A Flame Deflector has been damaged during multiple Space Shuttle launches (e.g. STS-124, STS-126, STS-119, and STS-125, STS-127). These events have prompted a better understanding of the system via an analytical model of the Flame Deflector assembly to include the Fondu Fyre refractory concrete. This model requires test data inputs of the refractory concrete's mechanical properties, which include stress versus strain curves in tension and compression, modulus of elasticity, and Poisson's ratio. Sections of Fondu Fyre refractory concrete removed from the LC-39A Flame Deflector were provided for this testing.

  2. Rhizomucor variabilis var. regularior and Hormographiella aspergillata Infections in a Leukemic Bone Marrow Transplant Recipient with Refractory Neutropenia ▿

    PubMed Central

    Abuali, Mayssa M.; Posada, Roberto; Del Toro, Gustavo; Roman, Elizabeth; Ramani, Rama; Chaturvedi, Sudha; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; LaBombardi, Vincent J.

    2009-01-01

    Rhizomucor variabilis and Hormographiella aspergillata rarely cause human infections. This report details a fatal case of a 14-year-old female with leukemia posthematopoietic cell transplant and relapse with refractory pancytopenia. The patient first developed an R. variabilis var. regularior palate infection and later developed a cutaneous H. aspergillata infection while on posaconazole and caspofungin therapy. PMID:19846651

  3. Modification of surface properties of copper-refractory metal alloys

    DOEpatents

    Verhoeven, John D.; Gibson, Edwin D.

    1993-10-12

    The surface properties of copper-refractory metal (CU-RF) alloy bodies are modified by heat treatments which cause the refractory metal to form a coating on the exterior surfaces of the alloy body. The alloys have a copper matrix with particles or dendrites of the refractory metal dispersed therein, which may be niobium, vanadium, tantalum, chromium, molybdenum, or tungsten. The surface properties of the bodies are changed from those of copper to that of the refractory metal.

  4. Surgical anatomy of the radial nerve at the elbow.

    PubMed

    Artico, M; Telera, S; Tiengo, C; Stecco, C; Macchi, V; Porzionato, A; Vigato, E; Parenti, A; De Caro, R

    2009-02-01

    An anatomical study of the brachial portion of the radial nerve with surgical implications is proposed. Thirty specimens of arm from 20 fresh cadavers (11 male, 9 female) were used to examine the topographical relations of the radial nerve with reference to the following anatomical landmarks: acromion angle, medial and lateral epicondyles, point of division between the lateral and long heads of the triceps brachii, lateral intermuscular septum, site of division of the radial nerve into its superficial and posterior interosseous branches and entry and exit point of the posterior interosseous branch into the supinator muscle. The mean distances between the acromion angle and the medial and lateral levels of crossing the posterior aspect of the humerus were 109 (+/-11) and 157 (+/-11) mm, respectively. The mean length and calibre of the nerve in the groove were 59 (+/-4) and 6 (+/-1) mm, respectively. The division of the lateral and long heads of the triceps was found at a mean distance of 126 (+/-13) mm from the acromion angle. The mean distances between the lateral point of crossing the posterior aspect of the humerus and the medial and lateral epicondyles were 125 (+/-13) and 121 (+/-13) mm, respectively. The mean distance between the lateral point of crossing the posterior aspect of the humerus and the entry point in the lateral intermuscular septum (LIS) was 29 (+/-6) mm. The mean distances between the entry point of the nerve in the LIS and the medial and lateral epicondyles were 133 (+/-14) and 110 (+/-23) mm, respectively. Our study provides reliable and objective data of surgical anatomy of the radial nerve which should be always kept in mind by surgeons approaching to the surgery of the arm, in order to avoid iatrogenic injuries.

  5. Response properties of the refractory auditory nerve fiber.

    PubMed

    Miller, C A; Abbas, P J; Robinson, B K

    2001-09-01

    The refractory characteristics of auditory nerve fibers limit their ability to accurately encode temporal information. Therefore, they are relevant to the design of cochlear prostheses. It is also possible that the refractory property could be exploited by prosthetic devices to improve information transfer, as refractoriness may enhance the nerve's stochastic properties. Furthermore, refractory data are needed for the development of accurate computational models of auditory nerve fibers. We applied a two-pulse forward-masking paradigm to a feline model of the human auditory nerve to assess refractory properties of single fibers. Each fiber was driven to refractoriness by a single (masker) current pulse delivered intracochlearly. Properties of firing efficiency, latency, jitter, spike amplitude, and relative spread (a measure of dynamic range and stochasticity) were examined by exciting fibers with a second (probe) pulse and systematically varying the masker-probe interval (MPI). Responses to monophasic cathodic current pulses were analyzed. We estimated the mean absolute refractory period to be about 330 micros and the mean recovery time constant to be about 410 micros. A significant proportion of fibers (13 of 34) responded to the probe pulse with MPIs as short as 500 micros. Spike amplitude decreased with decreasing MPI, a finding relevant to the development of computational nerve-fiber models, interpretation of gross evoked potentials, and models of more central neural processing. A small mean decrement in spike jitter was noted at small MPI values. Some trends (such as spike latency-vs-MPI) varied across fibers, suggesting that sites of excitation varied across fibers. Relative spread was found to increase with decreasing MPI values, providing direct evidence that stochastic properties of fibers are altered under conditions of refractoriness.

  6. Refractory Degradation by Slag Attack in Coal Gasification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    REFRACTORY DEGRADATION BY SLAG ATTACK IN COAL GASIFICATION Jinichiro Nakano 1,2 , Sridhar Seetharaman 1,2 , James Bennett 3 , Kyei-Sing...and two synthetic slags (coal and petcoke). Pulverized slag samples were placed at specific microstructure locations on refractory substrates and...heated to 1500 ºC at log(Po2) = -9, using a high-speed heating chamber. Cross-sections of the slag /refractory interface indicated unique slag

  7. Spatial memory for asymmetrical dot locations predicts lateralization among patients with presurgical mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Franklin C; Hirsch, Lawrence J; Spencer, Dennis D

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the ability of an asymmetrical dot location memory test (Brown Location Test, BLT) and two verbal memory tests (Verbal Selective Reminding Test (VSRT) and California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition (CVLT-II)) to correctly lateralize left (LTLE) or right (RTLE) mesial temporal lobe epilepsy that was confirmed with video-EEG. Subjects consisted of 16 patients with medically refractory RTLE and 13 patients with medically refractory LTLE who were left hemisphere language dominant. Positive predictive values for lateralizing TLE correctly were 87.5% for the BLT, 72.7% for the VSRT, and 80% for the CVLT-II. Binary logistic regression indicated that the BLT alone correctly classified 76.9% of patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy and 87.5% of patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy. Inclusion of the verbal memory tests improved this to 92.3% of patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy and 100% correct classification of patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy. Though of a limited sample size, this study suggests that the BLT alone provides strong laterality information which improves with the addition of verbal memory tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanical solution for a mechanical problem: Tennis elbow.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, Bruce

    2013-07-18

    Lateral epicondylitis is a relatively common clinical problem, easily recognized on palpation of the lateral protuberance on the elbow. Despite the "itis" suffix, it is not an inflammatory process. Therapeutic approaches with topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids and anesthetics have limited benefit, as would be expected if inflammation is not involved. Other approaches have included provision of healing cytokines from blood products or stem cells, based on the recognition that this repetitive effort-derived disorder represents injury. Noting calcification/ossification of tendon attachments to the lateral epicondyle (enthesitis), dry needling, radiofrequency, shock wave treatments and surgical approaches have also been pursued. Physiologic approaches, including manipulation, therapeutic ultrasound, phonophoresis, iontophoresis, acupuncture and exposure of the area to low level laser light, has also had limited success. This contrasts with the benefit of a simple mechanical intervention, reducing the stress on the attachment area. This is based on displacement of the stress by use of a thin (3/4-1 inch) band applied just distal to the epicondyle. Thin bands are required, as thick bands (e.g., 2-3 inch wide) simply reduce muscle strength, without significantly reducing stress. This approach appears to be associated with a failure rate less than 1%, assuming the afflicted individual modifies the activity that repeatedly stresses the epicondylar attachments.

  9. Nivolumab in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Peripheral T-cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-27

    Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm; Hepatosplenic T-Cell Lymphoma; HTLV-1 Infection; NK-Cell Lymphoma, Unclassifiable; Primary Systemic Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma, ALK-Negative; Recurrent Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Recurrent Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Enteropathy-Associated T-Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides; Refractory Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma; Refractory Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Refractory Enteropathy-Associated T-Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Mycosis Fungoides; Refractory Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma, Not Otherwise Specified

  10. Refractory organic matter in coastal salt marshes-effect on C sequestration calculations.

    PubMed

    Leorri, Eduardo; Zimmerman, Andrew R; Mitra, Siddhartha; Christian, Robert R; Fatela, Francisco; Mallinson, David J

    2018-08-15

    The age and ability of salt marshes to accumulate and sequester carbon is often assessed using the carbon isotopic signatures (Δ 14 C and δ 13 C) of sedimentary organic matter. However, transfers of allochthonous refractory carbon (C RF ) from the watershed to marshes would not represent new C sequestration. To better understand how refractory carbon (C RF ) inputs affect assessments of marsh age and C sequestration, Δ 14 C and δ 13 C of both total organic carbon (TOC), C RF , and non-C RF organic matter fractions were measured in salt marshes from four contrasting systems on the North Atlantic coast. To our knowledge, no salt marsh sediment study has considered refractory or allochthonous carbon in carbon budget calculations or the impact on chronologies. Stable and radiogenic isotope data suggest that while TOC was dominated by autochthonous plant inputs, C RF was dominated by locally recycled or allochthonous C, the delivery of which was controlled by the size and slope of each watershed. Steep-gradient rivers analyzed delivered Δ 14 C-depleted C RF to their estuarine marshes, while the site located in the low-gradient river was associated with larger C RF content. Finally, the marsh isolated from riverine input contained the least fraction of TOC as C RF . Laterally transported C RF caused only a small offset in Δ 14 C in relation to TOC in low-gradient systems (average Δ 14 C offset was -44.4 and -24.2‰ at each location). However, the presence of allochthonous Δ 14 C-depleted C RF in sediments of steep-gradient rivers led to large overestimates of the time of organic matter deposition (i.e. apparent age was older than the 'true' time of deposition) (Δ 14 C offset ranged from -170.6 to -528.9‰). Further, reliance on TOC or loss on ignition analyses to calculate C sequestration by marshes might produce overestimates of at least as much as 10 to 20% since neither account for the lateral transport of allochthonous carbon. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B

  11. Development of refractories and related products for steel melting, finishing, and casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnov, A. N.

    2013-06-01

    The transformation of the consumption of refractories for the production, out-of-furnace treatment, and casting of steel is considered. The main trends in developing the refractory market are shown to be a significant decrease in the specific consumption of refractories per 1 t liquid steel and the predominant application of refractories based on magnesia raw materials and fused corundum for the working layers of melting units, ladles, and tundishes. The main trend in decreasing the specific costs of refractories is the development of refractories based on alternative sources of raw materials, which are cheaper and more available for refractory manufacturers.

  12. Catalytic, hollow, refractory spheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Lee, Mark C. (Inventor); Kendall, Jr., James M. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Improved, heterogeneous, refractory catalysts are in the form of gas-impervious, hollow, thin-walled spheres (10) suitable formed of a shell (12) of refractory such as alumina having a cavity (14) containing a gas at a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. The wall material may be itself catalytic or a catalytically active material coated onto the sphere as a layer (16), suitably platinum or iron, which may be further coated with a layer (18) of activator or promoter. The density of the spheres (30) can be uniformly controlled to a preselected value within .+-.10 percent of the density of the fluid reactant such that the spheres either remain suspended or slowly fall or rise through the liquid reactant.

  13. Non-CI refractory lithophile abundances in bulk planetary materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauphas, N.

    2015-12-01

    Refractory inclusions in meteorites show evidence for fractionation of refractory lithophile elements relative to one another. For bulk planetary materials, it is most often assumed that refractory lithophile elements (e.g., Ca, Al, Ti, REEs) are in proportions similar to CI carbonaceous chondrites, which is taken to be a proxy for solar composition. A diagnostic feature of REE patterns in refractory inclusions in meteorites is the presence of thulium anomalies, arising from the fact that this heavy REE is more volatile than the highly refractory HREEs surrounding it (Tm/Tm* is defined relative to either Er-Yb or Er-Lu). Tm anomalies thus represent an excellent diagnostic tool to test the assumption that refractory lithophile elements have uniform relative abundances at a bulk planetary scale. Prior to this work, high precision Tm measurements were lacking because it is mono-isotopic and as such is not amenable to high-precision single spike measurements. We have developed a multi-collector REE abundance measurement technique to measure all REEs at high precision, including the mono-isotopic ones. This technique was used to revise the abundance of CI and PAAS REE abundances (Pourmand et al. 2012) and the CI composition agrees well with an independent study (Barrat et al. 2012). The same technique was applied to measure REE patterns in 41 chondrites as well as terrestrial rocks (Dauphas and Pourmand, 2015). Our results reveal the presence of Tm anomalies of about -4.5 % in terrestrial rocks, enstatite and ordinary chondrites, relative to carbonaceous chondrites including CIs. This demonstrates that the assumption that refractory lithophile elements are in constant proportions among planetary bodies is unwarranted. It also shows that carbonaceous chondrites cannot be a major constituent of the Earth. The presence of Tm anomalies in meteorites and terrestrial rocks suggests that either (i) the material in the inner part of the solar system was formed from a gas

  14. Refractory of Furnaces to Reduce Environmental Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanzawa, Shigeru

    2011-10-01

    The energy load of furnaces used in the manufacturing process of ceramics is quite large. Most of the environmental impact of ceramics manufacturing is due to the CO2 produced from this high energy load. To improve this situation, R&D has focused on furnace systems and techniques of control in order to reduce energy load. Since furnaces are comprised of refractory, consideration of their mechanical and thermal characteristics is important. Herein are described several refractory types which were chosen through comparison of the characteristics which contribute to heat capacity reduction, heat insulating reinforcement and high emissivity, thereby improving thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency to the ceramic articles. One selected refractory material which will reduce the environmental impact of a furnace, chosen considering low heat capacity and high emissivity characteristics, is SiC. In this study, thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency improvement and its effect on ceramic articles in the furnace and oxidation behaviour were investigated at 1700K. A high density SiC refractory, built into the furnace at construction, has relatively high oxidation durability and has the ability to reduce environmental impact-CO2 by 10 percent by decreasing the furnace's energy load. However, new oxidation prevention techniques for SiC will be necessary for long-term use in industrial furnaces, because passive to active oxidation transition behaviour of commercial SiC refractory is coming to close ideal.

  15. Refractory ceramic fibers

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Refractory ceramic fibers ; CASRN Not found Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  16. Refractory thermowell for continuous high temperature measurement of molten metal

    DOEpatents

    Thiesen, Todd J.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for the continuous high temperature measurement of materials in vessels lined with rammed or cast refractory materials. A refractory housing member is integral with the refractory lining of the vessel and contains a plurality of high temperature sensing means, such as thermocouples. A face of the housing is flush with the refractory lining and contacts the high temperature material contained in the vessel. Continuous temperature measurement is achieved by a means which is coupled to the thermocouples for indicating the temperature.

  17. Pembrolizumab for Refractory Metastatic Myxofibrosarcoma: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Song, Haa-Na; Kang, Min Gyu; Park, Jeong Rang; Hwang, Jin-Yong; Kang, Jung Hun; Lee, Won Seop; Lee, Gyeong-Won

    2018-01-22

    Myxofibrosarcoma is a rare tumor, refractory to cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Pembrolizumab is an innovative immunotherapy drug consisting of programmed death ligand receptor-1 (PD-L1) antibody proven to be useful for numerous types of cancer cells. A patient had been diagnosed with metastatic myxofibrosarcoma, refractory to radiotherapy and conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. The patient achieved a partial response during palliative chemotherapy with pembrolizumab for 14 cycles. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report demonstrating the efficacy of pembrolizumab for refractory myxofibrosarcoma.

  18. Diagnosis and management of refractory celiac disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Labidi, Asma; Serghini, Meriem; Karoui, Sami; Boubaker, Jalel; Filali, Azza

    2013-01-01

    Refractory celiac disease is defined by persisting malabsorptive symptoms in spite of a strict gluten free diet for at least 6 to 12 months. Alternatives to gluten free diet seem to be still controversial. To describe the clinical and epidemiologic aspects of refractory celiac disease, and to identify therapeutic options in this condition. Systematic review and critical analysis of observational studies, clinical trials and case reports that focused on diagnosis and management of refractory celiac disease. Refractory celiac disease can be classified as type 1 or type 2 according to the phenotype of intraepithelial lymphocytes. Great complications such as enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma may occur in a subgroup of these patients mainly in refractory celiac disease type 2. Curative therapies are still lacking. Refractory celiac disease remains a diagnosis of exclusion. Its prognosis remains still dismal by the absence yet of curative therapies. However, some new treatments seem to hold promise during few cohort-studies.

  19. An Index to Objectively Score Supraglottic Abnormalities in Refractory Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Good, James T.; Rollins, Donald R.; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Lommatzsch, Steven E.; Carolan, Brendan J.; Stubenrauch, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with refractory asthma frequently have elements of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) with potential aspiration contributing to their poor control. We previously reported on a supraglottic index (SGI) scoring system that helps in the evaluation of LPR with potential aspiration. However, to further the usefulness of this SGI scoring system for bronchoscopists, a teaching system was developed that included both interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility. Methods: Five pulmonologists with expertise in fiber-optic bronchoscopy but novice to the SGI participated. A training system was developed that could be used via Internet interaction to make this learning technique widely available. Results: By the final testing, there was excellent interreader agreement (κ of at least 0.81), thus documenting reproducibility in scoring the SGI. For the measure of intrareader consistency, one reader was arbitrarily selected to rescore the final test 4 weeks later and had a κ value of 0.93, with a 95% CI of 0.79 to 1.00. Conclusions: In this study, we demonstrate that with an organized educational approach, bronchoscopists can develop skills to have highly reproducible assessment and scoring of supraglottic abnormalities. The SGI can be used to determine which patients need additional intervention to determine causes of LPR and gastroesophageal reflux. Identification of this problem in patients with refractory asthma allows for personal, individual directed therapy to improve asthma control. PMID:24202552

  20. Transient bradycardia induced by thiopentone sodium: a unique challenge in the management of refractory status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sushma; Nair, Pradeep P; Murgai, Aditya; Selvaraj, Raja J

    2013-01-01

    Thiopentone sodium is one of the important drugs in the armamentarium for terminating refractory status epilepticus, a neurological emergency. We report a case of thiopentone-related bradycardia during the management of the new onset refractory status epilepticus in a young man, which was circumvented by prophylactic insertion of temporary pacemaker while thiopentone infusion was continued. A systematic approach was employed to manage the status epilepticus, including infusion of thiamine and glucose followed by antiepileptic drugs. The patient was ventilated and infused with lorazepam, phenytoin, sodium valproate, levetiracetam and midazolam followed by thiopentone sodium. With the introduction of thiopentone the seizures could be controlled but the patient developed severe bradycardia and junctional rhythm. The bradycardia disappeared when thiopentone was withdrawn and reappeared when the drug was reintroduced. Propofol infusion was tried with no respite in seizures. Later thiopentone sodium was reintroduced after inserting temporary cardiac pacemaker. Seizure was controlled and patient was weaned off the ventilator. PMID:24130206

  1. Transient bradycardia induced by thiopentone sodium: a unique challenge in the management of refractory status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sushma; Nair, Pradeep P; Murgai, Aditya; Selvaraj, Raja J

    2013-10-15

    Thiopentone sodium is one of the important drugs in the armamentarium for terminating refractory status epilepticus, a neurological emergency. We report a case of thiopentone-related bradycardia during the management of the new onset refractory status epilepticus in a young man, which was circumvented by prophylactic insertion of temporary pacemaker while thiopentone infusion was continued. A systematic approach was employed to manage the status epilepticus, including infusion of thiamine and glucose followed by antiepileptic drugs. The patient was ventilated and infused with lorazepam, phenytoin, sodium valproate, levetiracetam and midazolam followed by thiopentone sodium. With the introduction of thiopentone the seizures could be controlled but the patient developed severe bradycardia and junctional rhythm. The bradycardia disappeared when thiopentone was withdrawn and reappeared when the drug was reintroduced. Propofol infusion was tried with no respite in seizures. Later thiopentone sodium was reintroduced after inserting temporary cardiac pacemaker. Seizure was controlled and patient was weaned off the ventilator.

  2. Apatinib in refractory radiation-induced brain edema

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wei Guo; Weng, Yi Ming; Dong, Yi; Li, Xiang Pan; Song, Qi-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Apatinib is a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, which has observed to be effective and safe in refractory radiation-induced brain edema, like Avastin did. Till now, there is no case report after apatinib came in the market. Patient concerns: Two patients who received brain radiotherapy developed clinical manifestations of brain edema, including dizziness, headache, limb activity disorder, and so on. Diagnoses: Two patients were both diagnosed as refractory radiation-induced brain edema. Interventions: Two patients received apatinib (500 mg/day) for 2 and 4 weeks. Outcomes: Two patients got symptomatic improvements from apatinib in different degrees. Magnetic resonance imaging after apatinib treatments showed that compared with pre-treatment imaging, the perilesional edema reduced dramatically. However, the toxicity of apatinib was controllable and tolerable. Lessons: Apatinib can obviously relieve the symptoms of refractory radiation-induced brain edema and improve the quality of life, which offers a new method for refractory radiation-induced brain edema in clinical practices. But that still warrants further investigation in the prospective study. PMID:29145238

  3. Refractoriness to immunochemotherapy in follicular lymphoma: Predictive factors and outcome.

    PubMed

    Sorigue, Marc; Mercadal, Santiago; Alonso, Sara; Fernández-Álvarez, Ruben; García, Olga; Moreno, Miriam; Pomares, Helena; Alcoceba, Miguel; González-García, Esther; Motlló, Cristina; González-Barca, Eva; Martin, Alejandro; Sureda, Anna; Caballero, Dolores; Ribera, Josep-María; Sancho, Juan-Manuel

    2017-12-01

    Follicular lymphoma is characterized by a good response to immunochemotherapy (ICT). However, a small percentage of patients responds poorly to treatment and seems to have a worse outcome. This study attempted to identify the predictive factors and outcome of refractoriness to first-line ICT. All patients diagnosed with stage II to IV follicular lymphoma between 2002 and 2014 and treated with first-line ICT in 4 Spanish institutions were analyzed. Those with no response or progression or relapse within 6 months of first-line response assessment were considered ICT refractory. Three hundred forty-three patients were included (median age 58 years, 48% male), of whom 53 (15%) were ICT refractory. On multivariate analysis, high-risk follicular lymphoma international prognostic index (FLIPI) score, B symptoms, and elevated β2-microglobulin were correlated with refractoriness, and refractoriness, high-risk FLIPI score, and β2-microglobulin were correlated with overall survival (OS). Compared with ICT-sensitive, ICT-refractory patients had a higher incidence of histological transformation (5-year cumulative incidence 25% [14%-39%] vs. 6% [3%-10%], P < .001), a higher rate of refractoriness to second-line therapy (16/33 [48%] vs. 13/57 [23%], P = .01), and a lower OS (5-year OS probability 38% [95% CI 23%-53%] vs. 87% [82%-92%%], P < .001). In conclusion, refractoriness to ICT was seen in 15% of patients and was predicted by high-FLIPI scores, B symptoms, and elevated serum β2-micrglobulin. Immunochemotherapy-refractory patients had a worse prognosis than ICT-sensitive patients, and current treatment options for this subgroup are not satisfactory. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Reaction Behaviors of Al-Killed Medium-Manganese Steel with Different Refractories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lingzhong; Deng, Zhiyin; Zhu, Miaoyong

    2018-03-01

    In order to understand the reaction mechanism between medium-manganese steel and different refractories, some laboratory experiments were carried out at 1873 K (1600 °C). Three types of refractory plates (Al2O3, MgO, and MgO·Al2O3) were used. The results show that Mn in liquid medium-manganese steel does not react easily with the Al2O3 refractory, but can react with the MgO refractory to generate a (Mn, Mg)O layer at the boundary between the refractory plate and liquid steel. After the formation of (Mn, Mg)O, a layer of (Mn, Mg)O·Al2O3 spinel is also formed at the edge of the MgO refractory. Similar to the MgO refractory, the dissolved Mn can react with the MgO·Al2O3 refractory as well, and a layer of (Mn, Mg)O·Al2O3 was also detected after reaction. It was found that the formation of (Mn, Mg)O·Al2O3 at the edge of the refractory is a source of (Mn, Mg)O·Al2O3 inclusions in liquid steel. The flush-off of the (Mn, Mg)O·Al2O3 layer would result in the formation of (Mn, Mg)O·Al2O3 inclusions.

  5. Reaction Behaviors of Al-Killed Medium-Manganese Steel with Different Refractories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lingzhong; Deng, Zhiyin; Zhu, Miaoyong

    2018-06-01

    In order to understand the reaction mechanism between medium-manganese steel and different refractories, some laboratory experiments were carried out at 1873 K (1600 °C). Three types of refractory plates (Al2O3, MgO, and MgO·Al2O3) were used. The results show that Mn in liquid medium-manganese steel does not react easily with the Al2O3 refractory, but can react with the MgO refractory to generate a (Mn, Mg)O layer at the boundary between the refractory plate and liquid steel. After the formation of (Mn, Mg)O, a layer of (Mn, Mg)O·Al2O3 spinel is also formed at the edge of the MgO refractory. Similar to the MgO refractory, the dissolved Mn can react with the MgO·Al2O3 refractory as well, and a layer of (Mn, Mg)O·Al2O3 was also detected after reaction. It was found that the formation of (Mn, Mg)O·Al2O3 at the edge of the refractory is a source of (Mn, Mg)O·Al2O3 inclusions in liquid steel. The flush-off of the (Mn, Mg)O·Al2O3 layer would result in the formation of (Mn, Mg)O·Al2O3 inclusions.

  6. Refractory materials in comet samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joswiak, D. J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Nguyen, A. N.; Messenger, S.

    2017-08-01

    Transmission electron microscope examination of more than 250 fragments, >1 μm from comet Wild 2 and a giant cluster interplanetary dust particle (GCP) of probable cometary origin has revealed four new calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), an amoeboid olivine aggregate (AOA), and an additional AOA or Al-rich chondrule (ARC) object. All of the CAIs have concentric mineral structures and are composed of spinel + anorthite cores surrounded by Al,Ti clinopyroxenes and are similar to two previous CAIs discovered in Wild 2. All of the cometary refractory objects are of moderate refractory character. The mineral assemblages, textures, and bulk compositions of the comet CAIs are similar to nodules in fine-grained, spinel-rich inclusions (FGIs) found in primitive chondrites and like the nodules may be nebular condensates that were altered via solid-gas reactions in the solar nebula. Oxygen isotopes collected on one Wild 2 CAI also match FGIs. The lack of the most refractory inclusions in the comet samples may reflect the higher abundances of small moderately refractory CAI nodules that were produced in the nebula and the small sample sizes collected. In the comet samples, approximately 2-3% of all fragments larger than 1 μm, by number, are CAIs and nearly 50% of all bulbous Stardust tracks contain at least one CAI. We estimate that 0.5 volume % of Wild 2 material and 1 volume % of GCP is in the form of CAIs. ARCs and AOAs account for <1% of the Wild 2 and GCP grains by number.

  7. Identification of platelet refractoriness in oncohematologic patients

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Aline Aparecida; Zulli, Roberto; Soares, Sheila; de Castro, Vagner; Moraes-Souza, Helio

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify the occurrence and the causes of platelet refractoriness in oncohematologic patients. INTRODUCTION: Platelet refractoriness (unsatisfactory post-transfusion platelet increment) is a severe problem that impairs the treatment of oncohematologic patients and is not routinely investigated in most Brazilian services. METHODS: Forty-four episodes of platelet concentrate transfusion were evaluated in 16 patients according to the following parameters: corrected count increment, clinical conditions and detection of anti-platelet antibodies by the platelet immunofluorescence test (PIFT) and panel reactive antibodies against human leukocyte antigen class I (PRA-HLA). RESULTS: Of the 16 patients evaluated (median age: 53 years), nine (56%) were women, seven of them with a history of pregnancy. An unsatisfactory increment was observed in 43% of the transfusion events, being more frequent in transfusions of random platelet concentrates (54%). Platelet refractoriness was confirmed in three patients (19%), who presented immunologic and non-immunologic causes. Alloantibodies were identified in eight patients (50%) by the PIFT and in three (19%) by the PRA-HLA. Among alloimmunized patients, nine (64%) had a history of transfusion, and three as a result of pregnancy (43%). Of the former, two were refractory (29%). No significant differences were observed, probably as a result of the small sample size. CONCLUSION: The high rate of unsatisfactory platelet increment, refractoriness and alloimmunization observed support the need to set up protocols for the investigation of this complication in all chronically transfused patients, a fundamental requirement for the guarantee of adequate management. PMID:21437433

  8. Refractory rheumatoid vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashok; Goel, Anshul; Lapsiwala, Mehul; Singhal, Suman

    2016-01-01

    Systemic rheumatoid vasculitis (SRV) can develop in rheumatoid arthritis of long duration and high disease activity. It most commonly manifests as cutaneous vasculitis and mononeuritis multiplex. This can involve any organ of the body and carries very high mortality. We report a case of a young male who had rheumatoid arthritis for the past 15 years and became refractory to standard drugs and anti-TNF agents. He subsequently developed SRV, which started as mononeuritis multiplex. Disease progressed to result in gangrene of hands and feet despite receiving intravenous cyclophosphamide. Intravenous immunoglobulin and rituximab also could not provide any response. Prolonged ICU stay resulted in critical care neuromyopathy. Central nervous system vasculitis developed even after repeated infusions of intravenous immunoglobulins and at last he died of complications. In this case report, we have presented rare and chronic protracted presentation of rheumatoid vasculitis involving skin, nerves, brain and testis, which was refractory to the recommended therapies. PMID:28031844

  9. Mechanical solution for a mechanical problem: Tennis elbow

    PubMed Central

    Rothschild, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a relatively common clinical problem, easily recognized on palpation of the lateral protuberance on the elbow. Despite the “itis” suffix, it is not an inflammatory process. Therapeutic approaches with topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids and anesthetics have limited benefit, as would be expected if inflammation is not involved. Other approaches have included provision of healing cytokines from blood products or stem cells, based on the recognition that this repetitive effort-derived disorder represents injury. Noting calcification/ossification of tendon attachments to the lateral epicondyle (enthesitis), dry needling, radiofrequency, shock wave treatments and surgical approaches have also been pursued. Physiologic approaches, including manipulation, therapeutic ultrasound, phonophoresis, iontophoresis, acupuncture and exposure of the area to low level laser light, has also had limited success. This contrasts with the benefit of a simple mechanical intervention, reducing the stress on the attachment area. This is based on displacement of the stress by use of a thin (3/4-1 inch) band applied just distal to the epicondyle. Thin bands are required, as thick bands (e.g., 2-3 inch wide) simply reduce muscle strength, without significantly reducing stress. This approach appears to be associated with a failure rate less than 1%, assuming the afflicted individual modifies the activity that repeatedly stresses the epicondylar attachments. PMID:23878775

  10. Forming Refractory Insulation On Copper Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Setlock, J.; Roberts, G.

    1995-01-01

    Alternative insulating process forms flexible coat of uncured refractory insulating material on copper wire. Coated wire formed into coil or other complex shape. Wire-coating apparatus forms "green" coat on copper wire. After wire coiled, heating converts "green" coat to refractory electrical insulator. When cured to final brittle form, insulating material withstands temperatures above melting temperature of wire. Process used to make coils for motors, solenoids, and other electrical devices to be operated at high temperatures.

  11. Refractory myasthenia gravis - clinical profile, comorbidities and response to rituximab.

    PubMed

    Sudulagunta, Sreenivasa Rao; Sepehrar, Mona; Sodalagunta, Mahesh Babu; Settikere Nataraju, Aravinda; Bangalore Raja, Shiva Kumar; Sathyanarayana, Deepak; Gummadi, Siddharth; Burra, Hemanth Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an antibody mediated autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by fatigable muscle weakness. A proportion of myasthenia gravis patients are classified as refractory due to non responsiveness to conventional treatment. This retrospective study was done to evaluate clinical profile, epidemiological, laboratory, and features of patients with MG and mode of management using rituximab and complications. Methods: Data of myasthenia gravis patients admitted or presented to outpatient department (previous medical records) with MG between January 2008 and January 2016 were included. A total of 512 patients fulfilled the clinical and diagnostic criteria of myasthenia gravis of which 76 patients met the diagnostic certainty for refractory myasthenia gravis and were evaluated. Results: Out of 76 refractory MG patients, 53 (69.73%) patients fulfilled all the three defined criteria. The median age of onset of the refractory MG group was 36 years with a range of 27-53 years. In our study 25 patients (32.89%) belonged to the age group of 21-30 years. Anti-MuSK antibodies were positive in 8 non-refractory MG patients (2.06%) and 36 refractory MG patients (47.36%). Mean HbA 1C was found to be 8.6±2.33. The dose of administered prednisone decreased by a mean of 59.7% ( p =3.3x10 -8 ) to 94.6% ( p =2.2x10 -14 ) after the third cycle of rituximab treatment. Conclusion: The refractory MG patients are most commonly female with an early age of onset, anti-MuSK antibodies, and thymomas. Refractory MG patients have higher prevalence and poor control (HbA 1C >8%) of diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia probably due to increased steroid usage. Rituximab is very efficient in treatment of refractory MG with adverse effects being low.

  12. Refractory Oxide Coatings on Sic Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kang N.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Miller, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    Silicon carbide with a refractory oxide coating is potentially a very attractive ceramic system. It offers the desirable mechanical and physical properties of SiC and the environmental durability of a refractory oxide. The development of a thermal shock resistant plasma-sprayed mullite coating on SiC is discussed. The durability of the mullite/SiC in oxidizing, reducing, and molten salt environments is discussed. In general, this system exhibits better behavior than uncoated SiC. Areas for further developments are discussed.

  13. High temperature barrier coatings for refractory metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, G. A.; Walech, T.

    1995-01-01

    Improvements in high temperature oxidation resistant metal coating technology will allow NASA and commercial entities to develop competitive civil space transport and communication systems. The success of investigations completed in this program will have a positive impact on broadening the technology base for high temperature materials. The work reported herein describes processes and procedures for successfully depositing coherent oxidation barrier coatings on refractory metals to prevent degradation under very severe operating environments. Application of the new technology developed is now being utilized in numerous Phase 3 applications through several prominent aerospace firms. Major achievements have included: (1) development of means to deposit thick platinum and rhodium coatings with lower stress and fewer microcracks than could be previously achieved; (2) development of processes to deposit thick adherent coatings of platinum group metals on refractory substrates that remain bonded through high temperature excursions and without need for intermediate coatings (bonding processes unique to specific refractory metals and alloys have been defined; (3) demonstration that useful alloys of refractory and platinum coatings can be made through thermal diffusion means; (4) demonstration that selected barrier coatings on refractory substrates can withstand severe oxidizing environments in the range of 1260 deg and 1760 deg C for long time periods essential to the life requirements of the hardware; and (5) successful application of the processes and procedures to prototype hardware. The results of these studies have been instrumental in improved thermal oxidation barrier coatings for the NASP propulsion system. Other Phase 3 applications currently being exploited include small uncooled thrusters for spacecraft and microsatellite maneuvering systems.

  14. Geological controls on refractory ore in an orogenic gold deposit, Macraes mine, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, B. S.; Craw, D.; Ryan, C. G.

    2005-07-01

    The Macraes mine is hosted in an orogenic (mesothermal) gold deposit in metasedimentary rocks of the Otago Schist belt. Much gold occurs within altered schist with minimal silica-addition, and this study focuses on altered schist ore types. The unmineralized host schists are chemically and mineralogically uniform in composition, but include two end-member rock types: feldspathic schist and micaceous schist. Both rock types have undergone hydrothermal alteration along a shallow-dipping foliation-parallel shear zone, but their different rheological properties have affected the style of mineralisation. Micaceous schist has been extensively recrystallized and hydrothermally altered during ductile deformation, to form ores characterized by abundant, disseminated millimetre-scale pyrite cubes (typically 1 2 wt% S) and minor silicification. The earliest pyrite contained Ni and/or As in solid solution and no gold was imaged in these pyrites or later arsenopyrite grains. The ore type is refractory and gold recovery by cyanide leaching is less than 50%, with lowest recovery in rocks that have been less affected by later brittle deformation. In contrast, hydrothermally altered feldspathic schist is characterized by mineralised black microshears and veinlets formed during shear-zone related brittle deformation. Microsheared ore has relatively low sulphur content (<0.7 wt%) and muscovite has been illitised during hydrothermal alteration. Pyrite and arsenopyrite in microshears are fractured and deformed, and contain 1 10 μm blebs of gold. Later pyrite veinlets also contain micron- to submicron-scale inclusions of sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena, and gold (≤10 microns). Gold in microsheared ore is more readily recoverable than in the refractory ore, although encapsulation of the fine gold grains inhibits cyanidation. Both microsheared ore and disseminated pyritic ore pass laterally into mineralised black shears, which contain hydrothermal graphite and late-stage cataclastic

  15. Endocytic pathway mediates refractoriness of insect Bactrocera dorsalis to RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoxue; Dong, Xiaolong; Zou, Cong; Zhang, Hongyu

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful and convenient tool for sequence-specific gene silencing, and it is triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). RNAi can be easily achieved in many eukaryotes by either injecting or feeding dsRNAs. This mechanism has demonstrated its potential in fundamental research on genetics, medicine and agriculture. However, the possibility that insects might develop refractoriness to RNAi remains unexplored. In this study, we report that the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, became refractory to RNAi using orally administered dsRNA targeting endogenous genes. Furthermore, refractoriness to RNAi is not gene-specific, and its duration depends on the dsRNA concentration. RNAi blockage requires the endocytic pathway. Fluorescence microscopy indicated that in RNAi refractory flies, dsRNA uptake is blocked. Genes involved in the entry of dsRNAs into cells, including chc, cog3, light and others, are down-regulated in RNAi refractory flies. Increasing the endocytic capacity by improving F-actin polymerization disrupts RNAi refractoriness after both primary and secondary dsRNA exposures. Our results demonstrate that an insect can become refractory to RNAi by preventing the entry of dsRNA into its cells. PMID:25731667

  16. Endocytic pathway mediates refractoriness of insect Bactrocera dorsalis to RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoxue; Dong, Xiaolong; Zou, Cong; Zhang, Hongyu

    2015-03-03

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful and convenient tool for sequence-specific gene silencing, and it is triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). RNAi can be easily achieved in many eukaryotes by either injecting or feeding dsRNAs. This mechanism has demonstrated its potential in fundamental research on genetics, medicine and agriculture. However, the possibility that insects might develop refractoriness to RNAi remains unexplored. In this study, we report that the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, became refractory to RNAi using orally administered dsRNA targeting endogenous genes. Furthermore, refractoriness to RNAi is not gene-specific, and its duration depends on the dsRNA concentration. RNAi blockage requires the endocytic pathway. Fluorescence microscopy indicated that in RNAi refractory flies, dsRNA uptake is blocked. Genes involved in the entry of dsRNAs into cells, including chc, cog3, light and others, are down-regulated in RNAi refractory flies. Increasing the endocytic capacity by improving F-actin polymerization disrupts RNAi refractoriness after both primary and secondary dsRNA exposures. Our results demonstrate that an insect can become refractory to RNAi by preventing the entry of dsRNA into its cells.

  17. Assessment and Management of Treatment-Refractory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Children

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Michael H.; Storch, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the assessment and treatment of treatment-refractory pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). METHOD A PubMed search was conducted to identify controlled trials in pediatric OCD. Additionally, practice guidelines for the treatment of adults and children were further reviewed for references in treatment-refractory OCD across the lifespan. RESULTS Pharmacotherapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and cognitive-behavioral therapy are effective treatments for pediatric OCD. Evidence suggests that CBT is additionally effective even in pediatric patients with refractory OCD symptoms. Antipsychotic augmentation, raising SSRI dosage, and several glutamate-modulating agents have some evidence of efficacy in adults with treatment-refractory OCD but have not been studied in pediatric populations. CONCLUSION Several pharmacological treatment options exist for children with refractory OCD symptoms. However, little evidence-based data exist to guide treatment for our most challenging pediatric OCD patients. Further research is needed to evaluate the efficacy/side-effect profile of commonly used interventions in treatment-refractory pediatric OCD. PMID:25791142

  18. Elbow arthroscopy: setup, portal placement, and simple procedures.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Christopher S; Vitale, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Elbow arthroscopy has become an accepted treatment for numerous elbow conditions, including loose bodies, lateral epicondylitis, contractures, painful osteophytes, synovitis, osteochondritis dissecans, synovial plica, and osteoarthritis. It is absolutely necessary that the treating surgeon have complete knowledge of elbow anatomy. Three options exist for patient positioning: supine, prone, and lateral decubitus. Standard arthroscopic probes, grasping forceps, punches, and motorized shavers and burrs are used in the procedure. Retractors are essential for visualizing, exposing, and protecting nerves. Specially designed capsular biters can be used to develop a plane between the capsule and the surrounding soft tissues to facilitate capsulotomy and capsulectomy. Among elbow arthroscopists, the sequence of portal placement varies; however, there is little variation in the exact location of portal placement because of neurovascular constraints. Loose body removal and extensor carpi radialis brevis release for lateral epicondylitis are common procedures suitable for the beginning arthroscopist. For beginning and advanced procedures, the surgeon's skill and competence must be at a level consistent with the procedure to avoid complications.

  19. Refractory Wear Mechanisms in the Nonferrous Metal Industry: Testing and Modeling Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregurek, D.; Ressler, A.; Reiter, V.; Franzkowiak, A.; Spanring, A.; Prietl, T.

    2013-11-01

    Nonferrous pyrometallurgical processes today operate at a high intensity requiring the best standards for the furnace refractory systems. From one plant to another, there is a range of process conditions such as temperature, slag chemistry, and feed types, and each of these parameters can influence refractory life. It is generally understood that process changes at plants can impact refractory life. The ability to test and understand refractory responses to a wide range of furnace operating conditions is therefore important. The RHI Technology Centre in Leoben, Austria is well equipped with laboratory and pilot plant facilities to evaluate refractory suitability over the range of conditions encountered in modern nonferrous pyrometallurgical systems. This article describes refractory testing at the RHI Technology Centre of the impact of two metallurgical slags on a number of different RHI test bricks. The slags were a fayalite slag and a calcium ferrite slag supplied by two smelter plants. High-temperature corrosion tests were carried out in a 250-mm-diameter induction furnace and a 165-mm-diameter short rotary kiln; each unit was lined with a number of refractory bricks and tested against attack by the particular slag. After testing, the refractory bricks were subjected to several laboratory tests to determine the extent of corrosion. Optimal refractory choices for the customers' plants were developed based on the test results.

  20. The Use Of Phosphates To Reduce Slag Penetration In Cr203-Based Refractories

    DOEpatents

    Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Dogan, Cynthia P.; Bennett, James P.; Chinn, Richard E.; Petty, Arthur V.

    2004-11-09

    A high-chromium refractory material that provides improved resistance to coal slag penetration is presented. The refractory mixture comprises a blend of chromium oxide, aluminum oxide and phosphates. The refractory mixture may be blended with an aggregate and cured. In addition a phosphorous oxide may be blended with chromium oxide and aluminum oxide and additionally an aggregate. The refractory mixture reduces the rate of coal slag penetration into the surface of the cured refractory.

  1. Cytomegalovirus reactivation in patients with refractory checkpoint inhibitor-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Cindy; Rooms, Isabelle; Fiedler, Melanie; Reis, Henning; Milsch, Laura; Herz, Saskia; Livingstone, Elisabeth; Zimmer, Lisa; Schmid, Kurt Werner; Dittmer, Ulf; Schadendorf, Dirk; Schilling, Bastian

    2017-11-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors can cause severe immune-related adverse events, with immune-related diarrhea and colitis (irColitis) being among the most frequent ones. While the majority of patients with irColitis respond well to corticosteroid treatment ± other immunomodulatory drugs such as infliximab, some patients do not show resolution of their symptoms. In the present study, we analysed the frequency of therapy-refractory irColitis, the underlying cause, and useful diagnostic approaches. Between 2006 and 2016, 370 patients with metastatic malignant melanoma were treated with checkpoint inhibitors at the Department of Dermatology at the University Hospital Essen. All patients were identified for whom diarrhea and/or colitis was documented in the digital patient records. Patients who did not respond to standard immunosuppressive therapy within 2 weeks were classified as refractory. Demographic and clinical data of all patients were collected. We identified 41 patients with irColitis, the majority occurring during treatment with ipilimumab. Amongst these, 5 (12.2%) were refractory to standard immunomodulatory treatment with corticosteroids and infliximab. Therapy-refractory cases tended to show more severe inflammation in colonic biopsies (p = 0.04). In all therapy-refractory cases cytomegalovirus (CMV) was detectable. CMV-DNA in colonic biopsies and in plasma was significantly more often detectable in therapy-refractory cases (in colonic biopsies p = 0.005, in plasma: p = 0.002). Presence of serum CMV IgM and positive immunohistochemical stainings of colon biopsies for CMV were also associated with refractory colitis (p=0.021; p = 0.053). This report on CMV reactivation during management of checkpoint inhibitor-induced colitis emphasises the need for repetitive diagnostic measures in treatment-refractory irColitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Immunomodulatory therapy in refractory/recurrent ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao-Yu; Lai, Chyong-Huey; Yang, Lan-Yan; Tang, Yun-Hsin; Chou, Hung-Hsueh; Chang, Chee-Jen; Lin, Cheng-Tao

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the efficacy and toxicity of immunomodulatory therapy (IMT) alone or as an add-on to palliative/salvage chemotherapy in patients with refractory/recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). We retrospectively analyzed the efficacy and toxicity of IMT in 15 patients with refractory/recurrent EOC who had previously received multiple chemotherapy regimens. The median age of the patients was 56 years (range, 41-75 years). Three patients were platinum-sensitive, two were platinum-resistant, and the remaining 10 patients were refractory to platinum-based front-line chemotherapy. IMT consisted of picibanil (OK-432) on Day 1, interleukin-2 and/or interferon-α on Day 2 administered by subcutaneous injection (every week or 2-weekly). Five patients never received metronomic oral cyclophosphamide. After IMT, three patients achieved partial remission (PR, lasting for 11 months, ≥ 12 months, and 16 months), and six patients had stable disease (SD). The disease stabilizing rate (PR+SD) was 60% (3/3 in platinum-sensitive and 6/12 in platinum-resistant/refractory patients). The absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) at 1 month after IMT was significantly higher in the PR+SD group (median 1242.0/μL) than in the progression group (median 325.0/μL) (p = 0.012). No ≥ Grade 3 toxicities were observed. The median post-IMT survival time was 12 months (range, 2-39 months). IMT alone or add-on to palliative/salvage chemotherapy for refractory/recurrent EOC achieves a substantial disease stabilizing rate without severe toxicity, which might be a potential option in selected patients. The ALC 1 month after IMT could be an early indicator to disease stabilization. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Composition and process for making an insulating refractory material

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, A.; Swansiger, T.G.

    1998-04-28

    A composition and process are disclosed for making an insulating refractory material. The composition includes calcined alumina powder, flash activated alumina powder, an organic polymeric binder and a liquid vehicle which is preferably water. Starch or modified starch may also be added. A preferred insulating refractory material made with the composition has a density of about 2.4--2.6 g/cm{sup 3} with reduced thermal conductivity, compared with tabular alumina. Of importance, the formulation has good abrasion resistance and crush strength during intermediate processing (commercial sintering) to attain full strength and refractoriness.

  4. Dependency of Calcium Alternans on Ryanodine Receptor Refractoriness

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Lacalle, Enric; Cantalapiedra, Inma R.; Peñaranda, Angelina; Cinca, Juan; Hove-Madsen, Leif; Echebarria, Blas

    2013-01-01

    Background Rapid pacing rates induce alternations in the cytosolic calcium concentration caused by fluctuations in calcium released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). However, the relationship between calcium alternans and refractoriness of the SR calcium release channel (RyR2) remains elusive. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate how ryanodine receptor (RyR2) refractoriness modulates calcium handling on a beat-to-beat basis using a numerical rabbit cardiomyocyte model. We used a mathematical rabbit cardiomyocyte model to study the beat-to-beat calcium response as a function of RyR2 activation and inactivation. Bi-dimensional maps were constructed depicting the beat-to-beat response. When alternans was observed, a novel numerical clamping protocol was used to determine whether alternans was caused by oscillations in SR calcium loading or by RyR2 refractoriness. Using this protocol, we identified regions of RyR2 gating parameters where SR calcium loading or RyR2 refractoriness underlie the induction of calcium alternans, and we found that at the onset of alternans both mechanisms contribute. At low inactivation rates of the RyR2, calcium alternans was caused by alternation in SR calcium loading, while at low activation rates it was caused by alternation in the level of available RyR2s. Conclusions/Significance We have mapped cardiomyocyte beat-to-beat responses as a function of RyR2 activation and inactivation, identifying domains where SR calcium load or RyR2 refractoriness underlie the induction of calcium alternans. A corollary of this work is that RyR2 refractoriness due to slow recovery from inactivation can be the cause of calcium alternans even when alternation in SR calcium load is present. PMID:23390511

  5. Melatonin and childhood refractory epilepsy--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Paprocka, Justyna; Dec, Renata; Jamroz, Ewa; Marszał, Elzbieta

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess diurnal melatonin secretion in children with refractory epilepsy (N=74) as compared to children without epileptic seizures (N=37) and to compare melatonin secretion in children with focal and generalized refractory epilepsy. In the study group 4 subgroups were defined: children with focal symptomatic epilepsy, focal cryptogenic epilepsy, generalized symptomatic epilepsy, and generalized cryptogenic epilepsy. Melatonin level was measured every 3 hours using the RIA method. Analysis of diurnal melatonin secretion indicated a lower level of the hormone in patients with refractory epilepsy. The daily rhythm of melatonin secretion in the study group was maintained, with a peak shift of melatonin secretion especially visible in the subgroup with generalized symptomatic refractory epilepsy in the age group between 6 months and 3 years of age. The hypothesis may be formed that a lowered level of melatonin in the study group in relation to the comparison group is the consequence of the natural course of epilepsy or is influenced by antiepileptic drugs.

  6. Ibrutinib in Treating Patients With Refractory or Relapsed Lymphoma After Donor Stem Cell Transplant

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-03

    Blastoid Variant Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Follicular Lymphoma; Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Mantle Cell Lymphoma

  7. Refractory materials from lunar resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabes, B. D.; Poisl, W. H.

    1991-01-01

    Refractories - materials which are able to withstand extremely high temperatures - are sure to be an important part of any processing facility or human outpost which is built on Mars. Containers for processing lunar oxygen will need high temperature components. Fabrication of structural material from lunar resources need both containment vessels to hold high temperature melts and molds in which to form the final shapes. Certainly, it would be desirable to fabricate such vessels and molds on the Moon, rather than carrying them up from the Earth. At first glance, this might appear to be a trivial task, since the Moon's surface consists of a variety of refractory compositions. To turn the regolith into a useful fire brick or mold, however, will require water or other binders and additives which are likely to be in extremely short supply on the Moon. The steps needed to make fire bricks and molds for lunar-derived structural materials are examined, pointing out the critical steps and resources which will be needed. While these processes and applications may seem somewhat mundane, it is emphasized that it is precisely these rudimentary processes which must be mastered before discussing making aerobrakes, and other fancier refractories from lunar resources.

  8. Method of making a composite refractory material

    DOEpatents

    Morrow, M.S.; Holcombe, C.E.

    1995-09-26

    A composite refractory material is prepared by combining boron carbide with furan resin to form a mixture containing about 8 wt. % furan resin. The mixture is formed into a pellet which is placed into a grit pack comprising an oxide of an element such as yttrium to form a sinterable body. The sinterable body is sintered under vacuum with microwave energy at a temperature no greater than 2000 C to form a composite refractory material.

  9. Refractory myasthenia gravis – clinical profile, comorbidities and response to rituximab

    PubMed Central

    Sudulagunta, Sreenivasa Rao; Sepehrar, Mona; Sodalagunta, Mahesh Babu; Settikere Nataraju, Aravinda; Bangalore Raja, Shiva Kumar; Sathyanarayana, Deepak; Gummadi, Siddharth; Burra, Hemanth Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an antibody mediated autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by fatigable muscle weakness. A proportion of myasthenia gravis patients are classified as refractory due to non responsiveness to conventional treatment. This retrospective study was done to evaluate clinical profile, epidemiological, laboratory, and features of patients with MG and mode of management using rituximab and complications. Methods: Data of myasthenia gravis patients admitted or presented to outpatient department (previous medical records) with MG between January 2008 and January 2016 were included. A total of 512 patients fulfilled the clinical and diagnostic criteria of myasthenia gravis of which 76 patients met the diagnostic certainty for refractory myasthenia gravis and were evaluated. Results: Out of 76 refractory MG patients, 53 (69.73%) patients fulfilled all the three defined criteria. The median age of onset of the refractory MG group was 36 years with a range of 27–53 years. In our study 25 patients (32.89%) belonged to the age group of 21–30 years. Anti-MuSK antibodies were positive in 8 non-refractory MG patients (2.06%) and 36 refractory MG patients (47.36%). Mean HbA1C was found to be 8.6±2.33. The dose of administered prednisone decreased by a mean of 59.7% (p=3.3x10–8) to 94.6% (p=2.2x10–14) after the third cycle of rituximab treatment. Conclusion: The refractory MG patients are most commonly female with an early age of onset, anti-MuSK antibodies, and thymomas. Refractory MG patients have higher prevalence and poor control (HbA1C >8%) of diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia probably due to increased steroid usage. Rituximab is very efficient in treatment of refractory MG with adverse effects being low. PMID:27790079

  10. Spent refractory reuse as a slag conditioning additive in the EAF

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, James P.; Kwong, Kyei-Sing; Krabbe, Rick

    2000-01-01

    Refractories removed from service in EAF applications are typically landfilled. A joint USDOE and Steel Manufacturers Association program involving industrial cooperators is evaluating spent refractory recycling/reuse. A review of current recycling practices and a review of progress towards controlling EAF slag chemistry and properties with the additions of basic spent refractories will be discussed.

  11. Robotic pancreas drainage procedure for chronic pancreatitis: robotic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy (Puestow procedure).

    PubMed

    Khan, Adeel S; Siddiqui, Imran; Vrochides, Dionisios; Martinie, John B

    2018-01-01

    Lateral pancreaticojejunostomy (LPJ), also known as the Puestow procedure, is a complex surgical procedure reserved for patients with refractory chronic pancreatitis (CP) and a dilated pancreatic duct. Traditionally, this operation is performed through an open incision, however, recent advancements in minimally invasive techniques have made it possible to perform the surgery using laparoscopic and robotic techniques with comparable safety. Though we do not have enough data yet to prove superiority of one over the other, the robotic approach appears to have an advantage over the laparoscopic technique in better visualization through 3-dimensional (3D) imaging and availability of wristed instruments for more precise actions, which may translate into superior outcomes. This paper is a description of our technique for robotic LPJ in patients with refractory CP. Important principles of patient selection, preoperative workup, surgical technique and post-operative management are discussed. A short video with a case presentation and highlights of the important steps of the surgery is included.

  12. Robotic pancreas drainage procedure for chronic pancreatitis: robotic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy (Puestow procedure)

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Adeel S.; Siddiqui, Imran; Vrochides, Dionisios

    2018-01-01

    Lateral pancreaticojejunostomy (LPJ), also known as the Puestow procedure, is a complex surgical procedure reserved for patients with refractory chronic pancreatitis (CP) and a dilated pancreatic duct. Traditionally, this operation is performed through an open incision, however, recent advancements in minimally invasive techniques have made it possible to perform the surgery using laparoscopic and robotic techniques with comparable safety. Though we do not have enough data yet to prove superiority of one over the other, the robotic approach appears to have an advantage over the laparoscopic technique in better visualization through 3-dimensional (3D) imaging and availability of wristed instruments for more precise actions, which may translate into superior outcomes. This paper is a description of our technique for robotic LPJ in patients with refractory CP. Important principles of patient selection, preoperative workup, surgical technique and post-operative management are discussed. A short video with a case presentation and highlights of the important steps of the surgery is included. PMID:29780718

  13. Lenalidomide in Treating Young Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Solid Tumors or Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-10

    Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts; Refractory Anemia With Ringed Sideroblasts; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  14. Defining refractory migraine: results of the RHSIS Survey of American Headache Society members.

    PubMed

    Schulman, Elliott A; Peterlin, B Lee; Lake, Alvin E; Lipton, Richard B; Hanlon, Alexandra; Siegel, Sherry; Levin, Morris; Goadsby, Peter J; Markley, Herbert G

    2009-04-01

    To gauge consensus regarding a proposed definition for refractory migraine proposed by Refractory Headache Special Interest Section, and where its use would be most appropriate. Headache experts have long recognized that a subgroup of headache sufferers remains refractory to treatment. Although different groups have proposed criteria to define refractory migraine, the definition remains controversial. The Refractory Headache Special Interest Section of the American Headache Society developed a definition through a consensus process, assisted by a literature review and initial membership survey. A 12-item questionnaire was distributed at the American Headache Society meeting in 2007 during a platform session and at the Refractory Headache Special Interest Section symposium. The same questionnaire was subsequently sent to all American Headache Society members via e-mail. A total of 151 responses from AHS members form the basis of this report. The survey instrument was designed using Survey Monkey. Frequencies and percentages of the survey were used to describe survey responses. American Headache Society members agreed that a definition for refractory migraine is needed (91%) that it should be added to the International Classification of Headache Disorders-2 (86%), and that refractory forms of non-migraine headache disorders should be defined (87%). Responders believed a refractory migraine definition would be of greatest value in selecting patients for clinical drug trials. The current refractory migraine definition requires a diagnosis of migraine, interference with function or quality of life despite modification of lifestyle factors, and adequate trials of acute and preventive medicines with established efficacy. The proposed criteria for the refractory migraine definition require failing 2 preventive medications to meet the threshold for failure. Although 42% of respondents agreed with the working definition of refractory migraine, 43% favored increasing the

  15. Method of making a composite refractory material

    DOEpatents

    Morrow, Marvin S.; Holcombe, Cressie E.

    1995-01-01

    A composite refractory material is prepared by combining boron carbide with furan resin to form a mixture containing about 8 wt. % furan resin. The mixture is formed into a pellet which is placed into a grit pack comprising an oxide of an element such as yttrium to form a sinterable body. The sinterable body is sintered under vacuum with microwave energy at a temperature no greater than 2000.degree. C. to form a composite refractory material.

  16. Office Procedures in Refractory Chronic Rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Thamboo, Andrew; Patel, Zara M

    2017-02-01

    Office procedures in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) can be considered before and after medical management, as well as before and after surgical management. This article focuses specifically on refractory CRS, meaning those patients who have failed medical and surgical management already. The options available in the management of refractory CRS depend on the personnel, equipment, and instrumentation available in the office setting; surgeon experience; and patient suitability and tolerability. This article provides readers with possible procedural options that can be done in their clinics with indications, patient selection, potential complications, and postoperative considerations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Composition and process for making an insulating refractory material

    DOEpatents

    Pearson, Alan; Swansiger, Thomas G.

    1998-04-28

    A composition and process for making an insulating refractory material. The composition includes calcined alumina powder, flash activated alumina powder, an organic polymeric binder and a liquid vehicle which is preferably water. Starch or modified starch may also be added. A preferred insulating refractory material made with the composition has a density of about 2.4-2.6 g/cm.sup.3 with reduced thermal conductivity, compared with tabular alumina. Of importance, the formulation has good abrasion resistance and crush strength during intermediate processing (commercial sintering) to attain full strength and refractoriness, good abrasion resistance and crush strength.

  18. Resistant and Refractory Hypertension: Antihypertensive Treatment Resistance vs Treatment Failure

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Mohammed; Dudenbostel, Tanja; Calhoun, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Resistant or difficult to treat hypertension is defined as high blood pressure that remains uncontrolled with 3 or more different antihypertensive medications, including a diuretic. Recent definitions also include controlled blood pressure with use of 4 or more medications as also being resistant to treatment. Recently, refractory hypertension, an extreme phenotype of antihypertensive treatment failure has been defined as hypertension uncontrolled with use of 5 or more antihypertensive agents, including a long-acting thiazide diuretic and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. Patients with resistant vs refractory hypertension share similar characteristics and comorbidities, including obesity, African American race, female sex, diabetes, coronary heart disease, chronic kidney disease, and obstructive sleep apnea. Patients with refractory vs resistant hypertension tend to be younger and are more likely to have been diagnosed with congestive heart failure. Refractory hypertension might also differ from resistant hypertension in terms of underlying cause. Preliminary evidence suggests that refractory hypertension is more likely to be neurogenic in etiology (ie, heightened sympathetic tone), vs a volume-dependent hypertension that is more characteristic of resistant hypertension in general. PMID:26514749

  19. Psychological factors at work and musculoskeletal disorders: a one year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Bugajska, Joanna; Zołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota; Jędryka-Góral, Anna; Gasik, Robert; Hildt-Ciupińska, Katarzyna; Malińska, Marzena; Bedyńska, Sylwia

    2013-12-01

    The etiology of musculoskeletal disorders is complex, with physical and psychosocial working conditions playing an important role. This study aimed to determine the relationship between psychosocial work conditions, such as psychological job demands, decision latitude, social support and job insecurity and musculoskeletal complains (MSCs) and (repetitive strain injuries (RSIs) in a 1-year prospective study. The job content questionnaire, the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire and provocation tests were used to study 725 employees aged 20-70 years. Pain in the lower back (58 % of subjects), neck (57 %), wrists/hands (47 %) and upper back (44 %) was most frequent. The carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) (33.6 %), rotator cuff tendinitis (15.4 %), Guyon's canal syndrome (13.4 %), lateral epicondylitis (7.6 %), medial epicondylitis (5.3 %), tendinitis of forearm-wrist extensors (7.8 %) and tendinitis of forearm-wrist flexors (7.3 %) were the most frequent RSIs. Logistic analysis showed that increased psychological job demands statistically significantly increased the probability of lateral and medial epicondylitis, and increased control (decision latitude) statistically significantly decreased the risk of CTS. There was no relationship between job insecurity, social support and the studied RSIs. Psychosocial factors at work predict prevalence of MSCs and RSIs, irrespectively of demographic factors, e.g., age or gender, and organizational and physical factors.

  20. Refractory lining system for high wear area of high temperature reaction vessel

    DOEpatents

    Hubble, David H.; Ulrich, Klaus H.

    1998-01-01

    A refractory-lined high temperature reaction vessel comprises a refractory ring lining constructed of refractory brick, a cooler, and a heat transfer medium disposed between the refractory ring lining and the cooler. The refractory brick comprises magnesia (MgO) and graphite. The heat transfer medium contacts the refractory brick and a cooling surface of the cooler, and is composed of a material that accommodates relative movement between the refractory brick and the cooler. The brick is manufactured such that the graphite has an orientation providing a high thermal conductivity in the lengthwise direction through the brick that is higher than the thermal conductivity in directions perpendicular to the lengthwise direction. The graphite preferably is flake graphite, in the range of about 10 to 20 wt %, and has a size distribution selected to provide maximum brick density. The reaction vessel may be used for performing a reaction process including the steps of forming a layer of slag on a melt in the vessel, the slag having a softening point temperature range, and forming a protective frozen layer of slag on the interior-facing surface of the refractory lining in at least a portion of a zone where the surface contacts the layer of slag, the protective frozen layer being maintained at or about the softening point of the slag.

  1. Refractory lining system for high wear area of high temperature reaction vessel

    DOEpatents

    Hubble, D.H.; Ulrich, K.H.

    1998-04-21

    A refractory-lined high temperature reaction vessel comprises a refractory ring lining constructed of refractory brick, a cooler, and a heat transfer medium disposed between the refractory ring lining and the cooler. The refractory brick comprises magnesia (MgO) and graphite. The heat transfer medium contacts the refractory brick and a cooling surface of the cooler, and is composed of a material that accommodates relative movement between the refractory brick and the cooler. The brick is manufactured such that the graphite has an orientation providing a high thermal conductivity in the lengthwise direction through the brick that is higher than the thermal conductivity in directions perpendicular to the lengthwise direction. The graphite preferably is flake graphite, in the range of about 10 to 20 wt %, and has a size distribution selected to provide maximum brick density. The reaction vessel may be used for performing a reaction process including the steps of forming a layer of slag on a melt in the vessel, the slag having a softening point temperature range, and forming a protective frozen layer of slag on the interior-facing surface of the refractory lining in at least a portion of a zone where the surface contacts the layer of slag, the protective frozen layer being maintained at or about the softening point of the slag. 10 figs.

  2. Refractory lining system for high wear area of high temperature reaction vessel

    DOEpatents

    Hubble, D.H.; Ulrich, K.H.

    1998-09-22

    A refractory-lined high temperature reaction vessel comprises a refractory ring lining constructed of refractory brick, a cooler, and a heat transfer medium disposed between the refractory ring lining and the cooler. The refractory brick comprises magnesia (MgO) and graphite. The heat transfer medium contacts the refractory brick and a cooling surface of the cooler, and is composed of a material that accommodates relative movement between the refractory brick and the cooler. The brick is manufactured such that the graphite has an orientation providing a high thermal conductivity in the lengthwise direction through the brick that is higher than the thermal conductivity in directions perpendicular to the lengthwise direction. The graphite preferably is flake graphite, in the range of about 10 to 20 wt %, and has a size distribution selected to provide maximum brick density. The reaction vessel may be used for performing a reaction process including the steps of forming a layer of slag on a melt in the vessel, the slag having a softening point temperature range, and forming a protective frozen layer of slag on the interior-facing surface of the refractory lining in at least a portion of a zone where the surface contacts the layer of slag, the protective frozen layer being maintained at or about the softening point of the slag. 10 figs.

  3. White-Coat Effect Is Uncommon in Patients With Refractory Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Mohammed; Judd, Eric K; Oparil, Suzanne; Calhoun, David A

    2017-09-01

    Refractory hypertension is a recently described phenotype of antihypertensive treatment failure defined as uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) despite the use of ≥5 different antihypertensive agents, including chlorthalidone and spironolactone. Recent studies indicate that refractory hypertension is uncommon, with a prevalence of ≈5% to 10% of patients referred to a hypertension specialty clinic for uncontrolled hypertension. The prevalence of white-coat effect, that is, uncontrolled automated office BP ≥135/85 mm Hg and controlled out-of-office BP <135/85 mm Hg, by awake ambulatory BP monitor in hypertensive patients overall is ≈30% to 40%. The prevalence of white-coat effect among patients with refractory hypertension has not been previously reported. In this prospective evaluation, consecutive patients referred to the University of Alabama at Birmingham Hypertension Clinic for uncontrolled hypertension were enrolled. Refractory hypertension was defined as uncontrolled automated office BP ≥135/85 mm Hg with the use of ≥5 antihypertensive agents, including chlorthalidone and spironolactone. Automated office BP measurements were based on 6 serial readings, done automatically with the use of a BpTRU device unobserved in the clinic. Out-of-office BP measurements were done by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitor. Thirty-four patients were diagnosed with refractory hypertension, of whom 31 had adequate ambulatory BP monitor readings. White-coat effect was present in only 2 patients, or 6.5% of the 31 patients with refractory hypertension, suggesting that white-coat effect is largely absent in patients with refractory hypertension. These findings suggest that white-coat effect is not a common cause of apparent lack of BP control in patients failing maximal antihypertensive treatment. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for refractory septic shock in adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Taek Kyu; Yang, Jeong Hoon; Jeon, Kyeongman; Choi, Seung-Hyuk; Choi, Jin-Ho; Gwon, Hyeon-Cheol; Chung, Chi Ryang; Park, Chi Min; Cho, Yang Hyun; Sung, Kiick; Suh, Gee Young

    2015-02-01

    The role of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) remains controversial in adult patients with refractory septic shock. We sought to describe the clinical outcomes of adult patients supported by ECMO during septic shock refractory to conventional treatment. We analysed consecutive adult patients with refractory septic shock, assisted by an ECMO system between January 2005 and December 2013 in a single-centre registry. The primary outcome was survival to hospital discharge. A total of 32 patients (21 males) received ECMO support for refractory septic shock. Of these, 14 patients (43.8%) had undergone cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and 7 patients (21.9%) did not achieve the return of spontaneous circulation until initiation of ECMO flow. ECMO was weaned off successfully in 13 patients (40.6%) and 7 patients (21.9%) survived to hospital discharge. The survivors had lower peak lactate (4.5 vs 15.1 mmol/l, P = 0.03), lower Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment day 3 score (15 vs 18, P = 0.01) and higher peak troponin I (32.8 vs 3.7 ng/ml, P = 0.02) than the non-survivors. None of the patients (31.3%) in whom ECMO was initiated more than 30.5 h after onset of septic shock, survived. In multivariable-adjusted models, CPR [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 4.61; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.55-13.69; P = 0.006] was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality after ECMO in patients with refractory septic shock. Higher peak troponin I > 15 ng/ml (adjusted HR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.12-0.97; P = 0.04) was associated with a lower risk of in-hospital mortality. Survival to hospital discharge remained low in adult patients with refractory septic shock despite ECMO support. Our findings suggest that implantation of ECMO during refractory septic shock could be considered in patients with severe myocardial injury but should be avoided in patients who have received CPR. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio

  5. Molecular-level dynamics of refractory dissolved organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niggemann, J.; Gerdts, G.; Dittmar, T.

    2012-04-01

    Refractory dissolved organic matter (DOM) accounts for most of the global oceanic organic carbon inventory. Processes leading to its formation and factors determining its stability are still largely unknown. We hypothesize that refractory DOM carries a universal molecular signature. Characterizing spatial and temporal variability in this universal signature is a key to understanding dynamics of refractory DOM. We present results from a long-term study of the DOM geo-metabolome in the open North Sea. Geo-metabolomics considers the entity of DOM as a population of compounds, each characterized by a specific function and reactivity in the cycling of energy and elements. Ten-thousands of molecular formulae were identified in DOM by ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry analysis (FT-ICR-MS, Fourier-Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry). The DOM pool in the North Sea was influenced by a complex interplay of processes that produced, transformed and degraded dissolved molecules. We identified a stable fraction in North Sea DOM with a molecular composition similar to deep ocean DOM. Molecular-level changes in this stable fraction provide novel information on dynamics and interactions of refractory DOM.

  6. Prefabricated Refractory Panels for Use in KSC's Flame Deflectors: A Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Maria; Trejo, David

    2010-01-01

    The launch complexes at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) have been used to launch space vehicles for the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs. NASA is currently designing and developing a new space vehicle. The launch complexes have been in service for a significant duration and the aggressive conditions of the Florida coast and the launches have resulted in failures within the launch complexes. Of particular interests is the performance of the refractory lining that covers the steel base structure for the diversion of the exhaust from the launched vehicles (i.e., the flame deflectors). An unprotected steel base structure would likely experience loss of strength and possible failure when subjected to the high temperatures during launches. The refractory lining is critical for successful launches. The refractory material currently used in the flame trenches was developed in 1959 and is the only refractory material approved for use in these facilities. Significant effort and costs are expended in repairing the lining system after each launch. NASA is currently performing a comprehensive research program to assess and develop refractory materials for improved performance in the flame trenches. However, one challenge associated with the use of refractory materials in the flame trench is that the materials should be cured, dried, and fired to maximize their properties and characteristics. Because of the large size of the deflectors and trenches, drying and firing of the lining system is difficult, if not impossible. Most refractory materials are dried and fired before use. Because the refractory materials used for the deflector lining cannot be dried and fired, the full potential of the materials are not being realized. A system that could use refractory materials that could be cured, dried, and sintered in a controlled environment would likely improve the performance of the lining system. This report evaluates the feasibility of fabricating and placing prefabricated

  7. Characterization of refractory brick based on local raw material from Lampung Province - Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Muhammad; Suryana, Yayat I.; Isnugroho, Kusno; Aji, Bramantyo B.; Birawidha, David C.; Hendronursito, Yusup

    2018-04-01

    Refractories are non-metallic inorganic materials that are difficult to melt at high temperatures and used in high-temperature casting industries. Refractories are classified into their constituent mineral feed stocks, refractories having typical plot properties commonly called fire bricks. In the manufacture of refractory bricks that exist in the market during the use of mangrove materials derived from abroad that is from China. In this research the refractory brick materials used are quartz sand, feldspart, kaolin, bentonite, and ball clay. All materials come from local Lampung Province - Indonesia. The experiment, there are 7 kinds of experimental composition, made of plot shape with size 230 mm, 65 mm in thickness, 114 mm height mould using manual press machine with 10 tons power and burning at 1400°C for 5 hours. Refractory brick product is done by physical test in the form of porosity, specific gravity, compressive strength and XRF and SEM characteristics. The result of XRF characteristic of refractory brick composition of 1 to 5 compared to the refractory brick type SK 34 in the market and the result of composition 1 is a composition close to refractory brick composition type SK 34 namely SiO2 is 54.21 %, Al2O3 is 25.38 % and test Physical of Bulk density is 2.25 g/cm3, porosity is 18.98 % and compressive strength is 325 kg/cm2.

  8. Illness identity in young adults with refractory epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Luyckx, Koen; Oris, Leen; Raymaekers, Koen; Rassart, Jessica; Moons, Philip; Verdyck, Ludo; Mijnster, Teus; Mark, Ruth E

    2018-03-01

    Refractory epilepsy is an intrusive condition with important implications for daily functioning in emerging and young adulthood. The present study examined the degree to which refractory epilepsy is integrated in one's identity, and examined how such a sense of illness identity was related to health-related quality of life (HRQOL). A total of 121 18- to 40-year-old patients with refractory epilepsy (56.2% women) completed self-report questionnaires assessing the four illness identity states of acceptance, enrichment, engulfment, and rejection (Illness Identity Questionnaire (IIQ)); HRQOL (Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory - 31); and seizure frequency and severity (Liverpool Seizure Severity Scale (LSSS)). Illness identity scores were compared with a sample of 191 patients with a nonneurological chronic disease (congenital heart disease). Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to assess the predictive value of illness identity for HRQOL when simultaneously controlling for demographic and clinical features. Patients with refractory epilepsy scored higher on rejection and engulfment and lower on acceptance when compared with patients with congenital heart disease. Further, seizure severity and number of medication side-effects were positively related to engulfment and negatively to acceptance. Finally, when simultaneously controlling for various demographic and clinical variables, illness identity significantly predicted HRQOL (with engulfment being the strongest and most consistent predictor). The extent to which patients with refractory epilepsy succeed in integrating their illness into their identity may have important implications for HRQOL. Clinicians should be especially attentive for signs that patients feel engulfed by their epilepsy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Commercial off-the-Shelf (COTS) Refractory Material Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Kolody, Mark R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Back, Teddy; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Perusich, Stephen; Bucherl, Cori

    2009-01-01

    Fondu Fyre (FF) is currently the only refractory material qualified for use in the flame trench at KSC's Shuttle Launch Pads 39A and 39B. However, the material is not used as it was qualified and has undergone increasingly frequent and severe degradation due to the launch blasts. This degradation is costly as well as dangerous for launch infrastructure, crew and vehicle. FF is applied at the pad via the gunnite process, where wetted refractory material is sprayed onto a steel grid mounted on a support structure. The water content in this process can be manually adjusted by operators, causing distinct visual and physical discrepancies among repair areas. Since the application process is unlikely to change for new refractory materials, it is important to understand the effects of water content on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) refractory materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the FF with respect to various water contents as well as heat treatments, to simulate aging and exposure to the blast. Initial results indicated that different water contents and heat treatments result in distinct differences in crushing strength, apparent porosity and bulk density. However, water content became an insignificant factor in both crush strength and porosity when FF was cured to at least 1500 deg. Additionally, inspection of the material's surface microstructure by scanning electron microscopy indicated distinguishable characteristics for different heat treatment levels. Results from this study will help guide future studies on the development and identification of new refractory materials.

  10. Ketogenic diet treatment for pediatric super-refractory status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Appavu, Brian; Vanatta, Lisa; Condie, John; Kerrigan, John F; Jarrar, Randa

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to study whether ketogenic diet (KD) therapy leads to resolution of super-refractory status epilepticus in pediatric patients without significant harm. A retrospective review was performed at Phoenix Children's Hospital on patients with super-refractory status epilepticus undergoing ketogenic diet therapy from 2011 to 2015. Ten children with super-refractory status epilepticus, ages 2-16 years, were identified. 4/10 patients had immune mediated encephalitis, including Rasmussen encephalitis, anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis, and post-infectious mycoplasma encephalitis. Other etiologies included Lennox Gastaut Syndrome, non-ketotic hyperglycinemia, PCDH19 and GABRG2 genetic epilepsy, New Onset Refractory Status Epilepticus, and Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome. 4/10 patients' EEG features suggested focal with status epilepticus, and 6/10 suggested generalized with status epilepticus. Median hospital length was 61days and median ICU length was 27days. The median number of antiepileptic medications prior to diet initiation was 3.0 drugs, and the median after ketogenic diet treatment was 3.5 drugs. Median duration of status epilepticus prior to KD was 18days. 9/10 patients had resolution of super-refractory status epilepticus in a median of 7days after diet initiation. 8/9 patients were weaned off anesthesia within 15days of diet initiation, and within 1day of achieving ketonuria. 1/10 patients experienced side effects on the diet requiring supplementation. Most patients achieved resolution of status epilepticus on KD therapy, suggesting it could be an effective therapy that can be utilized early in the treatment of children with super refractory status epilepticus. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Platelet-rich plasma injection reduces pain in patients with recalcitrant epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Hechtman, Keith S; Uribe, John W; Botto-vanDemden, Angie; Kiebzak, Gary M

    2011-01-01

    Thirty patients (31 elbows) with epicondylitis unresponsive to nonsurgical treatment (including steroid injection) for >6 months received a single treatment of platelet-rich plasma injected with a peppering technique. Patients were followed using a 5-subcategory visual analog scale (VAS) for pain (0, no pain; 10, worst possible pain), modified American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons assessment survey, and VAS for patient satisfaction (0, not at all satisfied; 10, very satisfied). Successful treatment was defined as a 25% decrease in worst pain at follow-up with no intervention after 1 year. Two patients (2 elbows) elected for surgery 1 month postinjection. Of the remaining 29 elbows followed, 28 had a 25% reduction in worst pain at ≥1 follow-up visits, for an overall success rate of 90% (28 of 31 elbows). Mean scores for worst pain at baseline, 3 months, and last follow-up (patients with at least 6 months of follow-up; 25±14 months) were 7.2±1.6 (n=30 elbows), 4.0±2.2 (n=23), and 1.1±1.7 (n=26), respectively (P<.01 or less comparing follow-up scores to baseline using each patient as his or her own control). Patient satisfaction scores improved from 5.1±2.5 at 1 month to 9.1±1.9 at last follow-up (P<.01). Only 1 patient reported no improvement after 6 months. Results suggest that a single platelet-rich plasma injection can improve pain and function scores, thus avoiding surgery. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Synthetic Coal Slag Infiltration into Varying Refractory Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Tetsuya K; Thomas, Hugh; Bennett, James P

    The infiltrations of synthetic coal slag into 99%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 85%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–15%SiO{sub 2}, and 90%Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}–10%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} refractories with a temperature gradient induced along the penetration direction were compared to one another. The infiltrating slag was synthesized with a composition that is representative of an average of the ash contents from U S coal feedstock. Experiments were conducted with a hot-face temperature of 1450°C in a CO/CO{sub 2} atmosphere. Minimal penetration was observed in the 90%Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}–10%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} material because interactions between the refractory and the slag produced a protective layer of FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4},more » which impeded slag flow into the bulk of the refractory. After 5 h, the 99%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample exhibited an average penetration of 12.7 mm whereas the 85%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–15%SiO{sub 2} sample showed 3.8 mm. Slag infiltrated into the 99%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 85%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–15%SiO{sub 2} refractory systems by dissolving the respective refractories' matrix materials, which consist of fine Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles and an amorphous alumino-silicate phase. Due to enrichment in SiO{sub 2}, a network-former, infiltration into the 85%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–15%SiO{sub 2} system yielded a higher viscosity slag and hence, a shallower penetration depth. The results suggest that slag infiltration can be limited by interactions with the refractory through the formation of either a solid layer that physically impedes fluid flow or a more viscous slag that retards infiltration.« less

  13. Pevonedistat and Ibrutinib in Treating Participants With Relapsed or Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-20

    B-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Follicular Lymphoma; Refractory Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Refractory Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Refractory Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Richter Syndrome

  14. IMPROVED CORROSION RESISTANCE OF ALUMINA REFRACTORIES

    SciTech Connect

    John P. Hurley; Patty L. Kleven

    2001-09-30

    The initial objective of this project was to do a literature search to define the problems of refractory selection in the metals and glass industries. The problems fall into three categories: Economic--What do the major problems cost the industries financially? Operational--How do the major problems affect production efficiency and impact the environment? and Scientific--What are the chemical and physical mechanisms that cause the problems to occur? This report presents a summary of these problems. It was used to determine the areas in which the EERC can provide the most assistance through bench-scale and laboratory testing. The final objective of thismore » project was to design and build a bench-scale high-temperature controlled atmosphere dynamic corrosion application furnace (CADCAF). The furnace will be used to evaluate refractory test samples in the presence of flowing corrodents for extended periods, to temperatures of 1600 C under controlled atmospheres. Corrodents will include molten slag, steel, and glass. This test should prove useful for the glass and steel industries when faced with the decision of choosing the best refractory for flowing corrodent conditions.« less

  15. Angiotensin II in Refractory Septic Shock.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, Elio; Gleeson, Patrick J; Annoni, Filippo; Agosta, Sara; Orlando, Sergio; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Velissaris, Dimitrios; Scolletta, Sabino

    2017-05-01

    Refractory septic shock is defined as persistently low mean arterial blood pressure despite volume resuscitation and titrated vasopressors/inotropes in patients with a proven or suspected infection and concomitant organ dysfunction. Its management typically requires high doses of catecholamines, which can induce significant adverse effects such as ischemia and arrhythmias. Angiotensin II (Ang II), a key product of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, is a vasopressor agent that could be used in conjunction with other vasopressors to stabilize critically ill patients during refractory septic shock, and reduce catecholamine requirements. However, very few clinical data are available to support Ang II administration in this setting. Here, we review the current literature on this topic to better understand the role of Ang II administration during refractory septic shock, differentiating experimental from clinical studies. We also consider the potential role of exogenous Ang II administration in specific organ dysfunction and possible pitfalls with Ang II in sepsis. Various issues remain unresolved and future studies should investigate important topics such as: the optimal dose and timing of Ang II administration, a comparison between Ang II and the other vasopressors (epinephrine; vasopressin), and Ang II effects on microcirculation.

  16. Carbon transfer from magnesia-graphite ladle refractories to ultra-low carbon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Andrew Arthur

    Ultra-low carbon steels are utilized in processes which require maximum ductility. Increases in interstitial carbon lower the ductility of steel; therefore, it is important to examine possible sources of carbon. The refractory ladle lining is one such source. Ladle refractories often contain graphite for its desirable thermal shock and slag corrosion resistance. This graphite is a possible source of carbon increase in ultra-low carbon steels. The goal of this research is to understand and evaluate the mechanisms by which carbon transfers to ultra-low carbon steel from magnesia-graphite ladle refractory. Laboratory dip tests were performed in a vacuum induction furnace under an argon atmosphere to investigate these mechanisms. Commercial ladle refractories with carbon contents between 4-12 wt% were used to investigate the effect of refractory carbon content. Slag-free dip tests and slag-containing dip tests with varying MgO concentrations were performed to investigate the influence of slag. Carbon transfer to the steel was controlled by steel penetrating into the refractory and dissolving carbon in dip tests where no slag was present. The rate limiting step for this mechanism is convective mass transport of carbon into the bulk steel. No detectable carbon transfer occurred in dip tests with 4 and 6 wt%C refractories without slag because no significant steel penetration occurred. Carbon transfer was controlled by the corrosion of refractory by slag in dip tests where slag was present.

  17. HIGH TEMPERATURE REFRACTORY COATING FOR GRAPHITE MOLDS

    DOEpatents

    Stoddard, S.D.

    1958-10-21

    An improved foundry mold coating for use with graphite molds used in the casting of uranium is presented. The refractory mold coating serves to keep the molten uranium from contact with graphite of the mold and thus prevents carbon pickup by the molten metal. The refractory coating is made by dry mixing certain specific amounts of aluminum oxide, bentonite, Tennessee ball clay, and a soluble silicate salt. Water is then added to the mixture and the suspension thus formed is applied by spraying onto the mold.

  18. Lenalidomide and Ibrutinib in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-02

    Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Follicular Lymphoma; Refractory Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Refractory Mantle Cell Lymphoma

  19. Nivolumab and Lenalidomide in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Non-Hodgkin or Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-01-25

    Grade 3a Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Refractory Burkitt Lymphoma; Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Follicular Lymphoma; Refractory Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Refractory Mantle Cell Lymphoma

  20. Alisertib and Romidepsin in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory B-Cell or T-Cell Lymphomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-02

    High Grade B-Cell Lymphoma With MYC and BCL2 or BCL6 Rearrangements; MYC Positive; Recurrent B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Mature T- and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Burkitt Lymphoma; Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Follicular Lymphoma; Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Mature T-Cell and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

  1. [Surgical management of refractory dysphagia and aspiration].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Li, Wuyi; Liu, Jianhan; Xu, Chunxiao; Yang, Dahai; Huo, Hong; Tian, Xu; Zhang, Zhuhua; Chen, Yu

    2015-02-01

    To explore the methods and results of surgical management for refractory dysphagia and aspiration. The clinical data of 24 refractory dysphagia and aspiration patients who accepted surgical management were retrospectively analysed. Twenty-four refractory dysphagia and aspiration patients accepted 26 operations between 2001 and 2014. Of the 26 operations, 17 were cricopharyngeal myectomy (CPM), 6 were scarectomy, 3 were laryngeal-tracheal separation. No severe complications occurred. Assessments of dysphagia were completed in 18 operations before and after operation. Aspiration scores of videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) were 4.50 [4.00;7.00] vs 2.00 [1.00; 3.25], P = 0.000; swallow dysfunction scroes of VFSS were 5.00 [4.00; 12.00] vs 1.00 [1.50; 10.00], P = 0.001; aspiration scores of fibroptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) were 4.00 [5.00; 7.00] vs 2.00 [1.75; 3.00], P = 0.000. But the surgical results for post radiotherapy dysphagia were not successful (n = 5): aspiration scores of VFSS were 7.00 [6.50; 8.00] vs 6.00 [2.00; 7.50], P = 0.109;swallow dysfunction scroes of VFSS were 12.00 [10.50; 12.00] vs 12.00 [7.50; 12.00], P = 0.180;aspiration scores of FEES were 7.00 [6.50; 8.00] vs 6.00 [2.00; 7.50], P = 0.109. Surgical management was effective for refractory dysphagia and aspiration, but the surgical indication selection should be strict.

  2. Refractory Research Group - U.S. DOE, Albany Research Center [Institution Profile

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, James P.

    2004-09-01

    The refractory research group at the Albany Research Center (ARC) has a long history of conducting materials research within the U.S. Bureau of Mines, and more recently, within the U.S. Dept. of Energy. When under the U.S. Bureau of Mines, research was driven by national needs to develop substitute materials and to conserve raw materials. This mission was accomplished by improving refractory material properties and/or by recycling refractories using critical and strategic materials. Currently, as a U.S. Dept of Energy Fossil Energy field site, research is driven primarily by the need to assist DOE in meeting its vision to developmore » economically and environmentally viable technologies for the production of electricity from fossil fuels. Research at ARC impacts this vision by: • Providing information on the performance characteristics of materials being specified for the current generation of power systems; • Developing cost-effective, high performance materials for inclusion in the next generation of fossil power systems; and • Solving environmental emission and waste problems related to fossil energy systems. A brief history of past refractory research within the U.S. Bureau of Mines, the current refractory research at ARC, and the equipment and capabilities used to conduct refractory research at ARC will be discussed.« less

  3. Pembrolizumab and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-22

    Lymphocyte-Rich Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Lymphocyte-Depleted Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Mixed Cellularity Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Nodular Sclerosis Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Lymphocyte-Depleted Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Mixed Cellularity Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Nodular Sclerosis Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma

  4. Autologous hematopoietic stem cells for refractory Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    DiNicola, C A; Zand, A; Hommes, D W

    2017-05-01

    Autologous hematopoietic stem cells are gaining ground as an effective and safe treatment for treating severe refractory Crohn's disease (CD). Autologous hematopoietic stem cell therapy (AHSCT) induces resetting of the immune system by de novo regeneration of T-cell repertoire and repopulation of epithelial cells by bone-marrow derived cells to help patients achieve clinical and endoscopic remission. Areas covered: Herein, the authors discuss the use of AHSCT in treating patients with CD. Improvements in disease activity have been seen in patients with severe autoimmune disease and patients with severe CD who underwent AHSCT for a concomitant malignant hematological disease. Clinical and endoscopic remission has been achieved in patients treated with AHSCT for CD. The only randomized trial published to date, the ASTIC Trial, did not support further use of AHSCT to treat CD. Yet, critics of this trial have deemed AHSCT as a promising treatment for severe refractory CD. Expert opinion: Even with the promising evidence presented for HSCT for refractory CD, protocols need to be refined through the collaboration of GI and hemato-oncology professionals. The goal is to incorporate safe AHSCT and restore tolerance by delivering an effective immune 'cease fire' as a treatment option for severe refractory CD.

  5. Refractory gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Liu, Julia J; Saltzman, John R

    2009-10-01

    Refractory gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is described when reflux symptoms have not responded to 4-8 weeks of proton pump inhibitor therapy and occurs in a heterogeneous mixture of patients. The causes of refractory GORD include inadequate acid suppression, non-acid gastro-oesophageal reflux, and non-reflux causes of GORD symptoms including achalasia, gastroparesis and functional heartburn. Upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy should initially be performed to identify the presence of oesophagitis, and exclude other diagnoses including eosinophilic oesophagitis and peptic ulcer disease. Patients with refractory symptoms but with a normal upper endoscopy are more difficult to diagnose and may require ambulatory pH monitoring, impedance testing, oesophageal motility tests and gastric emptying scans. The primary goal of treatment is symptom reduction and eventual elimination, which can be achieved with proper identification of the underlying cause of the symptoms.

  6. An observational study on outcome of hemispherotomy in children with refractory epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Manas; Krishnan, Shyam Sundar; Vooturi, Sudhindra; Vadapalli, Rammohan; Somayajula, Shanmukhi; Jayalakshmi, Sita

    2016-12-01

    The current study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcome of hemispherotomy in children with refractory hemispherical epilepsy. Retrospective analysis of data in twenty one children aged ≤12 years who underwent hemispherotomy and had at least two years post surgery follow-up was performed. Sixteen children underwent Delalande's vertical para-sagittal hemispherotomy (VPH), while lateral peri-insular functional hemispherotomy was performed in the rest. The average age of onset for epilepsy in the study population was 2.9 ± 2.4 years; the average duration of epilepsy was 4.0 ± 2.9 years. The mean age at surgery of the study population was 6.8 ± 2.8 years. Six (28.5%) children were girls. Gliosis due to presumed childhood infarct was most common etiology, observed in 13 (62.0%) of the children, followed by Rasmussen's encephalitis in six (28.5%). There was no significant difference between the surgery groups for the reported acute post operative seizures (APOS) (20.0% vs. 25.0%; p = 1.000). At last follow up 90.5% patients were seizure free; there was no difference between the groups for seizure freedom (60.0% vs. 87.5%; p = 0.228). When analyzed for outcome between the etiologies, seizure freedom was similar for gliosis due to infarct (76.9%), Rassmussens encephalitis (83.3%) and malformations of cortical development (MCD) (100.0%). Moreover, improved quality of life in epilepsy (QOLIE) scores was observed in 80.0% of the lateral peri-insular functional hemispherotomy group and 87.5% children in VPH group at the last follow-up. Gliosis due to presumed childhood infarct was the leading cause of medically refractory epilepsy caused by hemispheric lesions in the current study. Encouragingly, hemispherotomy offers seizure freedom (in 90.5% patients) and improvement in QOLIE scores at two years follow up. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Method of coating graphite tubes with refractory metal carbides

    DOEpatents

    Wohlberg, C.

    1973-12-11

    A method of coating graphite tubes with a refractory metal carbide is described. An alkali halide is reacted with a metallic oxide, the metallic portion being selected from the IVth or Vth group of the Periodic Table, the resulting salt reacting in turn with the carbon to give the desired refractory metal carbide coating. (Official Gazette)

  8. New-onset refractory status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Foreman, Brandon P.; Alvarez, Vincent; Cabrera Kang, Christian; Probasco, John C.; Jongeling, Amy C.; Meyers, Emma; Espinera, Alyssa; Haas, Kevin F.; Schmitt, Sarah E.; Gerard, Elizabeth E.; Gofton, Teneille; Kaplan, Peter W.; Lee, Jong W.; Legros, Benjamin; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Westover, Brandon M.; LaRoche, Suzette M.; Hirsch, Lawrence J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to determine the etiology, clinical features, and predictors of outcome of new-onset refractory status epilepticus. Methods: Retrospective review of patients with refractory status epilepticus without etiology identified within 48 hours of admission between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2013, in 13 academic medical centers. The primary outcome measure was poor functional outcome at discharge (defined as a score >3 on the modified Rankin Scale). Results: Of 130 cases, 67 (52%) remained cryptogenic. The most common identified etiologies were autoimmune (19%) and paraneoplastic (18%) encephalitis. Full data were available in 125 cases (62 cryptogenic). Poor outcome occurred in 77 of 125 cases (62%), and 28 (22%) died. Predictors of poor outcome included duration of status epilepticus, use of anesthetics, and medical complications. Among the 63 patients with available follow-up data (median 9 months), functional status improved in 36 (57%); 79% had good or fair outcome at last follow-up, but epilepsy developed in 37% with most survivors (92%) remaining on antiseizure medications. Immune therapies were used less frequently in cryptogenic cases, despite a comparable prevalence of inflammatory CSF changes. Conclusions: Autoimmune encephalitis is the most commonly identified cause of new-onset refractory status epilepticus, but half remain cryptogenic. Outcome at discharge is poor but improves during follow-up. Epilepsy develops in most cases. The role of anesthetics and immune therapies warrants further investigation. PMID:26296517

  9. Reliability study of refractory gate gallium arsenide MESFETS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, J. C. W.; Portnoy, W. M.

    1981-01-01

    Refractory gate MESFET's were fabricated as an alternative to aluminum gate devices, which have been found to be unreliable as RF power amplifiers. In order to determine the reliability of the new structures, statistics of failure and information about mechanisms of failure in refractory gate MESFET's are given. Test transistors were stressed under conditions of high temperature and forward gate current to enhance failure. Results of work at 150 C and 275 C are reported.

  10. Reliability study of refractory gate gallium arsenide MESFETS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, J. C. W.; Portnoy, W. M.

    Refractory gate MESFET's were fabricated as an alternative to aluminum gate devices, which have been found to be unreliable as RF power amplifiers. In order to determine the reliability of the new structures, statistics of failure and information about mechanisms of failure in refractory gate MESFET's are given. Test transistors were stressed under conditions of high temperature and forward gate current to enhance failure. Results of work at 150 C and 275 C are reported.

  11. Refractories for high alkali environments

    SciTech Connect

    Rau, A.W.; Cloer, F.

    1996-12-31

    Information on refractories for high alkali environments is outlined. Information is presented on: product gallery; alkali attack; chemical reactions; basic layout of alkali cup test; criteria for rating alkali cup test samples; and basic layout of physical properties test.

  12. Refractory coeliac disease in a country with a high prevalence of clinically-diagnosed coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Ilus, T; Kaukinen, K; Virta, L J; Huhtala, H; Mäki, M; Kurppa, K; Heikkinen, M; Heikura, M; Hirsi, E; Jantunen, K; Moilanen, V; Nielsen, C; Puhto, M; Pölkki, H; Vihriälä, I; Collin, P

    2014-02-01

    Refractory coeliac disease (RCD) is thought to be a rare disorder, but the accurate prevalence is unknown. We aimed to identify the prevalence of and the risk factors for developing RCD in a Finnish population where the clinical detection rate of coeliac disease is high. The study involved 11 hospital districts in Finland where the number of treated RCD patients (n = 44), clinically diagnosed coeliac disease patients (n = 12 243) and adult inhabitants (n = 1.7 million) was known. Clinical characteristics at diagnosis of coeliac disease between the RCD patients and patients with uncomplicated disease were compared. The prevalence of RCD was 0.31% among diagnosed coeliac disease patients and 0.002% in the general population. Of the enrolled 44 RCD patients, 68% had type I and 23% type II; in 9% the type was undetermined. Comparing 886 patients with uncomplicated coeliac disease with these 44 patients that developed RCD later in life, the latter were significantly older (median 56 vs 44 years, P < 0.001), more often males (41% vs. 24%, P = 0.012) and seronegative (30% vs. 5%, P < 0.001) at the diagnosis of coeliac disease. Patients with evolving RCD had more severe symptoms at the diagnosis of coeliac disease, including weight loss in 36% (vs. 16%, P = 0.001) and diarrhoea in 54% (vs. 38%, P = 0.050). Refractory coeliac disease is very rare in the general population. Patients of male gender, older age, severe symptoms or seronegativity at the diagnosis of coeliac disease are at risk of future refractory coeliac disease and should be followed up carefully. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Lightweight alumina refractory aggregate. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Swansiger, T.G.; Pearson, A.

    1996-07-16

    Objective was to develop a lightweight, high alumina refractory aggregate for use in various high performance insulating (low thermal conductivity) refractory applications (e.g., in the aluminium, glass, cement, and iron and steel industries). A new aggregate process was developed through bench and pilot-scale experiments involving extrusion of a blend of calcined and activated alumina powders and organic extrusion aids and binders. The aggregate, with a bulk density approaching 2.5 g/cc, exhibited reduced thermal conductivity and adequate fired strength compared to dense tabular aggregate. Refractory manufacturers were moderately enthusiastic over the results. Alcoa prepared an economic analysis for producing lightweight aggregate,more » based on a retrofit of this process into existing Alcoa production facilities. However, a new, competing lightweight aggregate material was developed by another company; this material (Plasmal{trademark})had a significantly more favorable cost base than the Alcoa/DOE material, due to cheap raw materials and fewer processing steps. In late 1995, Alcoa became a distributor of Plasmal. Alcoa estimated that {ge}75% of the market originally envisioned for the Alcoa/DOE aggregate would be taken by Plasmal. Hence, it was decided to terminate the contract without the full- scale demonstration.« less

  14. Reuse of ultrafine mineral wool production waste in the manufacture of refractory concrete.

    PubMed

    Stonys, R; Kuznetsov, D; Krasnikovs, A; Škamat, J; Baltakys, K; Antonovič, V; Černašėjus, O

    2016-07-01

    The paper deals with the mineral wool production waste (cupola dust - CD), presents CD characterization and aims to reuse CD in production of refractory concrete with calcium aluminate cement. The study of CD covers its chemical, phase and thermal analyses along with the morphological study and determination of particles size distribution. Zeta-potential, electrical conductivity and pH values of CD suspension are presented in the paper as well. Commercial microsilica additive in refractory concrete has been replaced with cupola dust. Compositions of refractory concrete have been prepared by incorporating 1%, 2% and 3% of CD. The bulk density, ultrasonic wave velocity, cold crushing strength and thermal shock resistance of the created refractory concrete have been determined. Based on experimental results, it has been found that cupola dust may be used for the production of refractory concrete. The environmental impact related to the CD reuse in refractory concrete production has been evaluated as well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. When myasthenia gravis is deemed refractory: clinical signposts and treatment strategies

    PubMed Central

    Mantegazza, Renato; Antozzi, Carlo

    2018-01-01

    The prognosis for patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) has improved significantly over the past half century, including substantial reductions in mortality and morbidity. However, approximately 10% of patients fails to respond adequately to current therapies and are considered treatment refractory, or treatment intolerant, and up to 80% have disease that fails to achieve complete stable remission. Although patients with autoantibodies to muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (anti-MuSK positive) are more likely to become treatment refractory than those with autoantibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (anti-AChR positive), each of these serotypes is substantially represented in the refractory MG population. Other risk factors for becoming treatment refractory include history of thymoma or thymectomy and female sex. A modified treatment algorithm for MG is proposed: patients who have disease that fails to respond to the stepwise approach to therapy, are treatment intolerant, or who require chronic rescue measures despite ongoing therapy, should be considered treatment refractory and emerging therapies should be considered. Three emerging monoclonal antibody-based therapies are discussed: the anti-B-cell agent rituximab; the terminal complement activation inhibitor eculizumab; and belimumab, which targets B-cell activating factor. Increased understanding of molecular pathophysiology and accurate antibody subtyping in MG should lead to the use of new therapeutic agents and successful management of treatment-refractory patients. PMID:29403543

  16. Evaluation of Alternative Refractory Materials for the Main Flame Deflectors at KSC Launch Complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Trejo, David; Rutkowsky, Justin

    2006-01-01

    The deterioration of the refractory materials used to protect the KSC launch complex steel base structures from the high temperatures during launches results in frequent and costly repairs and safety hazards. KSC-SPEC-P-0012, Specification for Refractory Concrete, is ineffective in qualifying refractory materials. This study of the specification and of alternative refractory materials recommends a complete revision of the specification and further investigation of materials that were found to withstand the environment of the Solid Rocket Booster main flame deflector better than the refractory materials in current use in terms of compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of rupture, shrinkage, and abrasion.

  17. Fibrous refractory composite insulation. [shielding reusable spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, D. B.; Goldstein, H. E.; Smith, M. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A refractory composite insulating material was prepared from silica fibers and aluminosilicate fibers in a weight ratio ranging from 1:19 to 19:1, and about 0.5 to 30% boron oxide, based on the total fiber weight. The aluminosilicate fiber and boron oxide requirements may be satisfied by using aluminoborosilicate fibers and, in such instances, additional free boron oxide may be incorporated in the mix up to the 30% limit. Small quantities of refractory opacifiers, such as silicon carbide, may be also added. The composites just described are characterized by the absence of a nonfibrous matrix.

  18. N of 1, two contemporary arm, randomised controlled clinical trial for bilateral epicondylitis: a new study design

    PubMed Central

    Fante, Claudia Del; Perotti, Cesare; Pavesi, Claudio Francesco; Coscia, Davide; Scotti, Valeria; Tinelli, Carmine

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the use of a novel study design in analysis of bilateral elbow pain. Design N of 1, two contemporary arm, open label, randomised controlled clinical trial. Setting A clinical epidemiologist at a university hospital in Pavia, Italy. Participants Two elbows with epicondylitis. Interventions Autologous platelet lysate versus “wait and see” strategy. Main outcome measures Visual analogue scale for pain on elbow extension and resisted wrist extension. Results Over six months’ follow-up, the patient experienced bilateral improvement in pain, but higher in the treated arm, with a drop in visual analogue scale for pain from 28 to 4 for right (control) arm (drop of 24 points) and from 67 to 10.5 for left (treated) arm (drop of 56.5 points). Conclusions Platelet lysate might (or might not) work. Competing interests and lack of blinding might be relevant issues in the interpretation of trial results. However, the new study design can be applied to a number of conditions such as bilateral sport or trauma injuries, bilateral otitis, or any condition affecting chiral organs or limbs. PMID:22187187

  19. Therapeutic burst-suppression coma in pediatric febrile refractory status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jainn-Jim; Chou, Cheng-Che; Lan, Shih-Yun; Hsiao, Hsiang-Ju; Wang, Yu; Chan, Oi-Wa; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Wang, Huei-Shyong; Lin, Kuang-Lin

    2017-09-01

    Evidence for the beneficial effect of therapeutic burst-suppression coma in pediatric patients with febrile refractory status epilepticus is limited, and the clinical outcomes of this treatment strategy are largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the outcomes of therapeutic burst-suppression coma in a series of children with febrile refractory status epilepticus. We retrospectively reviewed consecutive pediatric patients with febrile refractory status epilepticus admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit between January 2000 and December 2013. The clinical characteristics were analyzed. Thirty-five patients (23 boys; age range: 1-18years) were enrolled, of whom 28 (80%) developed super-refractory status epilepticus. All of the patients received the continuous administration of intravenous antiepileptic drugs for febrile refractory status epilepticus, and 26 (74.3%) achieved therapeutic burst-suppression coma. All of the patients received mechanical ventilatory support, and 26 (74.3%) received inotropic agents. Eight (22.9%) patients died within 1month. The neurologically functional outcomes at 6months were good in six (27.3%) of the 22 survivors, of whom two returned to clinical baseline. The patients with therapeutic burst-suppression coma were significantly associated with hemodynamic support than the patients with electrographic seizures control (p=0.03), and had a trend of higher 1-month mortality rate, worse 6months outcomes, and a longer duration of hospitalization. Our results suggest that therapeutic burst-suppression coma to treat febrile refractory status epilepticus may lead to an increased risk of hemodynamic instability and a trend of worse outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Elbow Synovial Fold Syndrome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    inflammation are not present. In the first reported cases of this syndrome, diagnosis was made by arthroscopy after the patient had failed all non...osteoarthritis, and snapping triceps tendon. Lateral epicondylitis appears to be the leading mis-diagnosis before proper imaging or arthroscopy is

  1. Refractory metal shielding /insulation/ increases operating range of induction furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ebihara, B. T.

    1965-01-01

    Thermal radiation shield contains escaping heat from an induction furnace. The shield consists of a sheet of refractory metal foil and a loosely packed mat of refractory metal fibers in a concentric pattern. This shielding technique can be used for high temperature ovens, high temperature fluid lines, and chemical reaction vessels.

  2. Alkali metal-refractory metal biphase electrode for AMTEC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Roger M. (Inventor); Bankston, Clyde P. (Inventor); Cole, Terry (Inventor); Khanna, Satish K. (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Wheeler, Bob L. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An electrode having increased output with slower degradation is formed of a film applied to a beta-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE). The film comprises a refractory first metal M.sup.1 such as a platinum group metal, suitably platinum or rhodium, capable of forming a liquid or a strong surface adsorption phase with sodium at the operating temperature of an alkali metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC) and a second refractory metal insoluble in sodium or the NaM.sup.1 liquid phase such as a Group IVB, VB or VIB metal, suitably tungsten, molybdenum, tantalum or niobium. The liquid phase or surface film provides fast transport through the electrode while the insoluble refractory metal provides a structural matrix for the electrode during operation. A trilayer structure that is stable and not subject to deadhesion comprises a first, thin layer of tungsten, an intermediate co-deposited layer of tungsten-platinum and a thin surface layer of platinum.

  3. Alloy design for intrinsically ductile refractory high-entropy alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh, Saad; Shafeie, Samrand; Hu, Qiang; Ahlström, Johan; Persson, Christer; Veselý, Jaroslav; Zýka, Jiří; Klement, Uta; Guo, Sheng

    2016-10-01

    Refractory high-entropy alloys (RHEAs), comprising group IV (Ti, Zr, Hf), V (V, Nb, Ta), and VI (Cr, Mo, W) refractory elements, can be potentially new generation high-temperature materials. However, most existing RHEAs lack room-temperature ductility, similar to conventional refractory metals and alloys. Here, we propose an alloy design strategy to intrinsically ductilize RHEAs based on the electron theory and more specifically to decrease the number of valence electrons through controlled alloying. A new ductile RHEA, Hf0.5Nb0.5Ta0.5Ti1.5Zr, was developed as a proof of concept, with a fracture stress of close to 1 GPa and an elongation of near 20%. The findings here will shed light on the development of ductile RHEAs for ultrahigh-temperature applications in aerospace and power-generation industries.

  4. Propofol Infusion Syndrome in Refractory Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Woo Sub; Gwak, Hye Min; Seo, Dae-Won

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Propofol is used for treating refractory status epilepticus, which has high rate of mortality. Propofol infusion syndrome is a rare but often fatal syndrome, characterized by lactic acidosis, lipidemia, and cardiac failure, associated with propofol infusion over prolonged periods of time. We investigated the clinical factors that characterize propofol infusion syndrome to know the risk of them in refractory status epilepticus. Methods: This retrospective observation study was conducted in Samsung medical center from Jan. 2005 to Dec. 2009. Thirty two patients (19 males, 13 females, aged between 16 and 64 years), with refractory status epilepsy were included. Their clinical findings and treatment outcomes were evaluated retrospectively. We divided our patients into established status epilepticus (ESE) and refractory status epilepticus (RSE). And then the patients with RSE was further subdivided into propofol treatment group (RSE-P) and the other anesthetics treatment group (RSE-O). We analyzed the clinical characteristics by comparison of the groups. Results: There were significant differences of hypotension and lipid change between ESE and RSE (p<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between RSE-P and RSE-O groups. The hospital days were longer in RSE than in ESE (p=0.012) and treatment outcome was also worse in RSE than in ESE (p=0.007) but there were no significant differences of hospital stays and treatment outcome between RSE-P and RSE-O. Conclusions: RSE is very critical disease with high mortality, which may show as many clinical changes as propofol infusion syndrome. Therefore propofol infusion syndrome might be considered as one of the clinical manifestations of RSE. PMID:24649467

  5. Anthropometric Indices in Children With Refractory Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Aminzadeh, Vahid; Dalili, Setila; Ashoorian, Yalda; Kohmanaee, Shahin; Hassanzadeh Rad, Afagh

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the effect of body mass index (BMI) on reducing the risk of refractory seizure due to lipoid tissue factors. This matched case-control study, consisted of cases (Patients with refractory epilepsy) and controls (Healthy children) referred to 17 Shahrivar Hospital, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Guilan, Iran during 2013-2014. Data were gathered by a form including demographic characteristics, type of epilepsy, predominant time of epilepsy, therapeutic approach, frequency of epilepsy, time of disease onset and anthropometric indices. We measured anthropometric indices and transformed them into Z-scores. Data were reported by descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) and analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient, paired t test and multinomial regression analysis test using SPSS 19. There was no significant difference between sex groups regarding anthropometric indices. Generalized and focal types of epilepsies were noted on 57.5% and 38.75% of patients, respectively. Daytime epilepsies happened in 46.25% of patients and 33.75% noted no predominant time for epilepsies. Clinicians indicated poly-therapy for the majority of patients (92.5%). The most common onset times for epilepsies were 36-72 months for 32.5% of patients. Lower onset time indicated lower frequency of refractory epilepsies. Although, there was significant difference between Zheight and predominant time of epilepsies but no significant relation was found between types of epilepsies and frequency of epilepsies with anthropometric indices. Using multivariate regression analysis by backward LR, Zweight and birth weight were noted as the predicting factors of refractory epilepsies. This effect may be because of leptin. Therefore, researchers recommend further investigations regarding this issue in children with epilepsy.

  6. Practical aspects of the use of phosphate binding materials in refractory mixtures, mortars and putties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soltysik, B.; Pawelek, A.; Witkowska, E.

    1983-01-01

    Phosphate binders, particularly acidic phosphates of Al and Cr, are used for binding Al silicate refractories used for lining of burners, SiC refractories, and refractory mortars. The binders have apparent d. 2.13-2.18 g/cu cm, porosity 21.4-23.8%, compressive strength 223 71 kg/ sq cm, total shrinkage 0.2-0.8%, and refractoriness 1240 deg.

  7. PROCESS OF PRODUCING REFRACTORY URANIUM OXIDE ARTICLES

    DOEpatents

    Hamilton, N.E.

    1957-12-01

    A method is presented for fabricating uranium oxide into a shaped refractory article by introducing a uranium halide fluxing reagent into the uranium oxide, and then mixing and compressing the materials into a shaped composite mass. The shaped mass of uranium oxide and uranium halide is then fired at an elevated temperature so as to form a refractory sintered article. It was found in the present invention that the introduction of a uraninm halide fluxing agent afforded a fluxing action with the uranium oxide particles and that excellent cohesion between these oxide particles was obtained. Approximately 90% of uranium dioxide and 10% of uranium tetrafluoride represent a preferred composition.

  8. Apatinib in refractory radiation-induced brain edema: A case report.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wei Guo; Weng, Yi Ming; Dong, Yi; Li, Xiang Pan; Song, Qi-Bin

    2017-11-01

    Apatinib is a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, which has observed to be effective and safe in refractory radiation-induced brain edema, like Avastin did. Till now, there is no case report after apatinib came in the market. Two patients who received brain radiotherapy developed clinical manifestations of brain edema, including dizziness, headache, limb activity disorder, and so on. Two patients were both diagnosed as refractory radiation-induced brain edema. Two patients received apatinib (500 mg/day) for 2 and 4 weeks. Two patients got symptomatic improvements from apatinib in different degrees. Magnetic resonance imaging after apatinib treatments showed that compared with pre-treatment imaging, the perilesional edema reduced dramatically. However, the toxicity of apatinib was controllable and tolerable. Apatinib can obviously relieve the symptoms of refractory radiation-induced brain edema and improve the quality of life, which offers a new method for refractory radiation-induced brain edema in clinical practices. But that still warrants further investigation in the prospective study.

  9. Early prediction of medication refractoriness in children with idiopathic epilepsy based on scalp EEG analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lung-Chang; Ouyang, Chen-Sen; Chiang, Ching-Tai; Yang, Rei-Cheng; Wu, Rong-Ching; Wu, Hui-Chuan

    2014-11-01

    Refractory epilepsy often has deleterious effects on an individual's health and quality of life. Early identification of patients whose seizures are refractory to antiepileptic drugs is important in considering the use of alternative treatments. Although idiopathic epilepsy is regarded as having a significantly lower risk factor of developing refractory epilepsy, still a subset of patients with idiopathic epilepsy might be refractory to medical treatment. In this study, we developed an effective method to predict the refractoriness of idiopathic epilepsy. Sixteen EEG segments from 12 well-controlled patients and 14 EEG segments from 11 refractory patients were analyzed at the time of first EEG recordings before antiepileptic drug treatment. Ten crucial EEG feature descriptors were selected for classification. Three of 10 were related to decorrelation time, and four of 10 were related to relative power of delta/gamma. There were significantly higher values in these seven feature descriptors in the well-controlled group as compared to the refractory group. On the contrary, the remaining three feature descriptors related to spectral edge frequency, kurtosis, and energy of wavelet coefficients demonstrated significantly lower values in the well-controlled group as compared to the refractory group. The analyses yielded a weighted precision rate of 94.2%, and a 93.3% recall rate. Therefore, the developed method is a useful tool in identifying the possibility of developing refractory epilepsy in patients with idiopathic epilepsy.

  10. Productivity costs in patients with refractory chronic rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Rudmik, Luke; Smith, Timothy L; Schlosser, Rodney J; Hwang, Peter H; Mace, Jess C; Soler, Zachary M

    2014-09-01

    Disease-specific reductions in patient productivity can lead to substantial economic losses to society. The purpose of this study was to: 1) define the annual productivity cost for a patient with refractory chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and 2) evaluate the relationship between degree of productivity cost and CRS-specific characteristics. Prospective, multi-institutional, observational cohort study. The human capital approach was used to define productivity costs. Annual absenteeism, presenteeism, and lost leisure time was quantified to define annual lost productive time (LPT). LPT was monetized using the annual daily wage rates obtained from the 2012 U.S. National Census and the 2013 U.S. Department of Labor statistics. A total of 55 patients with refractory CRS were enrolled. The mean work days lost related to absenteeism and presenteeism were 24.6 and 38.8 days per year, respectively. A total of 21.2 household days were lost per year related to daily sinus care requirements. The overall annual productivity cost was $10,077.07 per patient with refractory CRS. Productivity costs increased with worsening disease-specific QoL (r = 0.440; p = 0.001). Results from this study have demonstrated that the annual productivity cost associated with refractory CRS is $10,077.07 per patient. This substantial cost to society provides a strong incentive to optimize current treatment protocols and continue evaluating novel clinical interventions to reduce this cost. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Productivity Costs in Patients with Refractory Chronic Rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Rudmik, Luke; Smith, Timothy L.; Schlosser, Rodney J.; Hwang, Peter H.; Mace, Jess C.; Soler, Zachary M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Disease-specific reductions in patient productivity can lead to substantial economic losses to society. The purpose of this study was to: 1) define the annual productivity cost for a patient with refractory chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and 2) evaluate the relationship between degree of productivity cost and CRS-specific characteristics. Study Design Prospective, multi-institutional, observational cohort study. Methods The human capital approach was used to define productivity costs. Annual absenteeism, presenteeism, and lost leisure time was quantified to define annual lost productive time (LPT). LPT was monetized using the annual daily wage rates obtained from the 2012 US National Census and the 2013 US Department of Labor statistics. Results A total of 55 patients with refractory CRS were enrolled. The mean work days lost related to absenteeism and presenteeism was 24.6 and 38.8 days per year, respectively. A total of 21.2 household days were lost per year related to daily sinus care requirements. The overall annual productivity cost was $10,077.07 per patient with refractory CRS. Productivity costs increased with worsening disease-specific QoL (r=0.440; p=0.001). Conclusion Results from this study have demonstrated that the annual productivity cost associated with refractory CRS is $10,077.07 per patient. This substantial cost to society provides a strong incentive to optimize current treatment protocols and continue evaluating novel clinical interventions to reduce this cost. PMID:24619604

  12. [Dust and silica exposure on metallurgical furnace maintenance using refractory materials].

    PubMed

    Garattini, S; Barbieri, P G; Bottone, F; Brunelli, E; Carminati, F; Chiari, R; Sarnico, M

    2012-01-01

    In the metallurgical industries the silica risk has long been known, particularly for the refractoryes maintenance workers. The maintenance of furnaces, ladles and tundisches refractory linings, on the current organization of production, is provided by companies under contract. The information available about the characterization of risk for this group of workers are at present inadequate. The study investigates the exposure to dust, also containing free crystalline silica (SLC), through the analysis of samples of commercial products used in the reconstruction of refractory linings of furnaces, ladles and tundisches, materials from the demolition of refractory articles and dust from work areas. It also presents the results of an environmental investigation conducted during the demolition and reconstruction of the refractory in three steel mills. The Authors, by the numerous inspections and the systematic survey of working conditions, have formulated a SLC risk profile and some proposals for prevention.

  13. Cross refractoriness between sodium metabisulphite and exercise induced asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Pavord, I.; Lazarowicz, H.; Inchley, D.; Baldwin, D.; Knox, A.; Tattersfield, A.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Exercise and inhaled sodium metabisulphite are thought to cause bronchoconstriction in asthma through different mechanisms. The response to both stimuli becomes refractory with repeat challenge. The mechanism of refractoriness is unclear, although depletion of mast cell derived mediators or neurotransmitters has been suggested. Recent studies suggest a common mechanism involving release of inhibitory prostaglandins. If this is true, exercise and sodium metabisulphite induced bronchoconstriction should show cross refractoriness. METHODS--Thirteen subjects with mild asthma and previously established exercise and sodium metabisulphite induced bronchoconstriction performed two sodium metabisulphite challenges (giving a single dose previously shown to cause a 20% fall in FEV1) on one study day, and two exercise tests on another. The second challenge proceeded after recovery (FEV1 > 95% baseline) from the first. Subjects then attended on two further occasions when an exercise test was performed after sodium metabisulphite and a sodium metabisulphite challenge after exercise. RESULTS--When expressed as the percentage reduction in the area under the change in percentage FEV1 curve over 20 minutes (AUC) the response to exercise was reduced by a mean 62.3% (95% CI 46.5% to 78.1%) following a first exercise challenge, and by 50.7% (95% CI 27.8% to 73.6%) following a sodium metabisulphite challenge. The response to a sodium metabisulphite challenge was reduced by a mean of 80.2% (95% CI 68.9% to 91.5%) when it followed a sodium metabisulphite challenge, and by 37.3% (95% CI 15.1% to 59.5%) following an exercise challenge. CONCLUSION--This study shows some cross refractoriness between exercise and sodium metabisulphite induced bronchoconstriction, in keeping with a partially shared mechanism of refractoriness. PMID:8202881

  14. Launch Pad Flame Trench Refractory Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Bucherl, Cori; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark; Perusich, Steve; Whitten, Mary

    2010-01-01

    The launch complexes at NASA's John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are critical support facilities for the successful launch of space-based vehicles. These facilities include a flame trench that bisects the pad at ground level. This trench includes a flame deflector system that consists of an inverted, V-shaped steel structure covered with a high temperature concrete material five inches thick that extends across the center of the flame trench. One side of the "V11 receives and deflects the flames from the orbiter main engines; the opposite side deflects the flames from the solid rocket boosters. There are also two movable deflectors at the top of the trench to provide additional protection to shuttle hardware from the solid rocket booster flames. These facilities are over 40 years old and are experiencing constant deterioration from launch heat/blast effects and environmental exposure. The refractory material currently used in launch pad flame deflectors has become susceptible to failure, resulting in large sections of the material breaking away from the steel base structure and creating high-speed projectiles during launch. These projectiles jeopardize the safety of the launch complex, crew, and vehicle. Post launch inspections have revealed that the number and frequency of repairs, as well as the area and size of the damage, is increasing with the number of launches. The Space Shuttle Program has accepted the extensive ground processing costs for post launch repair of damaged areas and investigations of future launch related failures for the remainder of the program. There currently are no long term solutions available for Constellation Program ground operations to address the poor performance and subsequent failures of the refractory materials. Over the last three years, significant liberation of refractory material in the flame trench and fire bricks along the adjacent trench walls following Space Shuttle launches have resulted in extensive investigations of

  15. Microwave Measurement of Refractory Materials at High-Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharkovsky, S.; Zoughi, R.; Smith, J.; Davis, B.; Limmer, R.

    2009-03-01

    Knowledge of the electrical behavior of refractory materials may enable the development and optimization of microwave nondestructive techniques to detect and evaluate changes in their physical properties while the materials are in service. This paper presents the results of a limited and preliminary investigation in which two refractory materials (dense chrome and dense zircon) were subjected to increasing temperature in a furnace and in which a frequency-modulated continuous-wave radar operating in the frequency range of 8-18 GHz radar was used to evaluate their attenuation properties.

  16. Surgical disconnection of patent paraumbilical vein in refractory hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Mamada, Yasuhiro; Taniai, Nobuhiko; Bando, Koichi; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Kakinuma, Daisuke; Kanda, Tomohiro; Akimaru, Koho; Tajiri, Takashi

    2008-06-01

    Refractory hepatic encephalopathy (HE) frequently develops in patients with cirrhosis and portal-systemic shunt. Recently, patients with refractory HE associated with portal-systemic shunt have been treated with interventional radiology. We describe a promising new treatment for portal-systemic shunt, ligation of the patent paraumbilical vein (PUV) after partial splenic embolization, in patients with refractory HE. Four patients with cirrhosis (3 women and 1 man; mean age, 56 years) and refractory HE due to a patent PUV were studied. Patency of the PUV had recurred in 1 patient after primary occlusion by interventional radiological procedures. The Child-Pugh class was B in 2 patients and C in 2. Before the present treatment, all patients had been hospitalized at least 3 times because of recurrent HE. Partial splenic embolization was performed in all patients to decrease portal venous pressure before surgery. Surgical ligation of the patent PUV was performed under epidural anesthesia. The patent PUV was carefully skeletonized and doubly ligated. Esophageal varices were evaluated with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy before and after surgery. The mean follow-up duration was 15.8 months. After ligation, there were no clinically significant complications. Esophageal varices were unchanged. The serum ammonia level was higher before surgery (162.3 +/- 56.4 mug/dL, mean +/- SD) than after surgery (41.8 +/- 20.2 mug/dL; p=0.0299). No patient had symptoms of HE. Ligation of the patent PUV is an effective treatment for patients with refractory HE.

  17. Refractory and Resistant Hypertension: Antihypertensive Treatment Failure versus Treatment Resistance

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Resistant hypertension has for many decades been defined as difficult-to-treat hypertension in order to identify patients who may benefit from special diagnostic and/or therapeutic considerations. Recently, the term "refractory hypertension" has been proposed as a novel phenotype of antihypertensive failure, that is, patients whose blood pressure cannot be controlled with maximal treatment. Early studies of this phenotype indicate that it is uncommon, affecting less than 5% of patients with resistant hypertension. Risk factors for refractory hypertension include obesity, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and especially, being of African origin. Patients with refractory are at high cardiovascular risk based on increased rates of known heart disease, prior stroke, and prior episodes of congestive heart failure. Mechanisms of refractory hypertension need exploration, but early studies suggest a possible role of heightened sympathetic tone as evidenced by increased office and ambulatory heart rates and higher urinary excretion of norepinephrine compared to patients with controlled resistant hypertension. Important negative findings argue against refractory hypertension being fluid dependent as is typical of resistant hypertension, including aldosterone levels, dietary sodium intake, and brain natriuretic peptide levels being similar or even less than patients with resistant hypertension and the failure to control blood pressure with use of intensive diuretic therapy, including both a long-acting thiazide diuretic and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. Further studies, especially longitudinal assessments, are needed to better characterize this extreme phenotype in terms of risk factors and outcomes and hopefully to identify effective treatment strategies. PMID:27721847

  18. Treatment of Refractory Idiopathic Supraorbital Neuralgia Using Percutaneous Pulsed Radiofrequency.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fang; Lu, Jingjing; Ji, Nan

    2018-02-26

    No ideal therapeutic method currently exists for refractory idiopathic supraorbital neuralgia patients who do not respond to conservative therapy, including medications and nerve blocks. Pulsed radiofrequency is a neuromodulation technique that does not produce sequelae of nerve damage after treatment. However, the efficacy of percutaneous pulsed radiofrequency for the treatment of refractory idiopathic supraorbital neuralgia is still not clear. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pulsed radiofrequency treatment of the supraorbital nerve for refractory supraorbital neuralgia patients. We prospectively investigated the long-term effects of ultrasound-guided percutaneous pulsed radiofrequency in the treatment of 22 refractory idiopathic supraorbital neuralgia patients. A reduction in the verbal pain numeric rating scale score of more than 50% was used as the standard of effectiveness. The effectiveness rates at different time points within 2 years were calculated. After a single pulsed radiofrequency treatment, the effectiveness rate at 1 and 3 months was 77%, and the rates at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years were 73%, 64%, and 50%, respectively. Except for a small portion of patients (23%) who experienced mild upper eyelid ecchymosis that gradually disappeared after approximately 2 weeks, no obvious complications were observed. In conclusion, the results of our study demonstrate that for patients with refractory idiopathic supraorbital neuralgia, percutaneous pulsed radiofrequency may be an effective and safe treatment choice. © 2018 World Institute of Pain.

  19. Comparison of Refractory Performance in Black Liquor Gasifiers and a Smelt Test System

    SciTech Connect

    Peascoe, RA

    2001-09-25

    Prior laboratory corrosion studies along with experience at the black liquor gasifier in New Bern, North Carolina, clearly demonstrate that serious material problems exist with the gasifier's refractory lining. Mullite-based and alumina-based refractories used at the New Bern facility suffered significant degradation even though they reportedly performed adequately in smaller scale systems. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's involvement in the failure analysis, and the initial exploration of suitable replacement materials, led to the realization that a simple and reliable, complementary method for refractory screening was needed. The development of a laboratory test system and its suitability for simulating the environment ofmore » black liquor gasifiers was undertaken. Identification and characterization of corrosion products were used to evaluate the test system as a rapid screening tool for refractory performance and as a predictor of refractory lifetime. Results from the test systems and pl ants were qualitatively similar.« less

  20. A new appraisal of iodine refractory thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Vaisman, Fernanda; Carvalho, Denise P; Vaisman, Mario

    2015-12-01

    Thyroid cancer incidence is increasing all over the world - mostly due to an increase in the detection of small tumors that were previously undetected. A small percentage of these tumors lose the ability to uptake and/or to respond to radioiodine (RAI) therapy, especially in metastatic patients. There are several new therapeutic options that have emerged in the last 5 years to treat RAI refractory thyroid cancer patients, however, it is very important to properly identify RAI refractory patients and to clarify those appropriate for these treatments. In this review, we discuss the RAI refractory definitions and the criteria that have been suggested based on RAI uptake in the post therapy scan, as well as the response after RAI therapy and the possible molecular mechanisms involved in this process. We offer a review of the therapeutic options available at the moment and the therapeutic considerations based on a patient's individualized personal characteristics, primary tumor histology, tumor burden and location and velocity of lesion growth. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  1. Catalytic, hollow, refractory spheres, conversions with them

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor); Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Lee, Mark C. (Inventor); Kendall, Jr., James M. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Improved, heterogeneous, refractory catalysts are in the form of gas-impervious, hollow, thin-walled spheres (10) suitable formed of a shell (12) of refractory such as alumina having a cavity (14) containing a gas at a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure. The wall material may be itself catalytic or a catalytically active material coated onto the sphere as a layer (16), suitably platinum or iron, which may be further coated with a layer (18) of activator or promoter. The density of the spheres (30) can be uniformly controlled to a preselected value within .+-.10 percent of the density of the fluid reactant such that the spheres either remain suspended or slowly fall or rise through the liquid reactant.

  2. Brentuximab vedotin (SGN-35) in patients with transplant-naive relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Sasse, Stephanie; Rothe, Achim; Goergen, Helen; Eichenauer, Dennis A; Lohri, Andreas; Kreher, Stephan; Jäger, Ulrich; Bangard, Christopher; Kuhnert, Georg; Böll, Boris; von Tresckow, Bastian; Engert, Andreas

    2013-10-01

    Only limited data are available on the role of brentuximab vedotin (SGN-35) in transplant-naive relapsed or refractory patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). We thus retrospectively analyzed 14 patients with primary refractory or relapsed HL who were treated with brentuximab vedotin as single agent in a named patient program, who had not received prior high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) due to refractory disease (n = 9), comorbidity (n = 4) and unknown reasons (n = 1). Brentuximab vedotin resulted in an overall response rate of 71% (10/14) with five complete responses (CRs). Five of those patients with refractory disease and four patients with relevant comorbidity responded. Consolidating ASCT (n = 4) or allogeneic SCT (n = 1) was performed in five patients. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 9 months and the median overall survival (OS) was not reached. These data indicate the therapeutic efficacy of brentuximab vedotin in chemotherapy-refractory transplant-naive patients with HL.

  3. Clinical Investigation of Refractory Chronic Subdural Hematoma: A Comparison of Clinical Factors Between Single and Repeated Recurrences.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Hanayama, Hiroaki; Okada, Takashi; Sakurai, Yasuo; Minami, Hiroaki; Masuda, Atsushi; Tominaga, Shogo; Miyaji, Katsuya; Yamaura, Ikuya; Yoshida, Yasuhisa; Yoshida, Kozo

    2017-11-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is sometimes refractory, and this is troublesome for neurosurgeons. Although many studies have reported risk factors or treatments in efforts to prevent recurrence, those have focused on single recurrence, and few cumulative data are available to analyze refractory CSDH. We defined refractory CSDH as ≥2 recurrences, then analyzed and compared clinical factors between patients with single recurrence and those with refractory CSDH in a cohort study, to clarify whether patients with refractory CSDH experience different or more risk factors than patients with single recurrence, and whether burr-hole irrigation with closed-system drainage reduces refractory CSDH. Seventy-five patients had at least 1 recurrence, with single recurrence in 62 patients and ≥2 recurrences in 13 patients. In comparing clinical characteristics, patients with refractory CSDH were significantly younger (P = 0.04) and showed shorter interval to first recurrence (P < 0.001). Organized CSDH was also significantly associated with refractory CSDH (P = 0.02). Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified first recurrence interval <1 month (odds ratio, 6.66, P < 0.001) and age <71 years (odds ratio, 4.16, P < 0.001) as independent risk factors for refractory CSDH. On the other hand, burr-hole irrigation with closed-system drainage did not reduce refractory CSDH. When patients with risk factors for refractory CSDH experience recurrence, alternative surgical procedures may be considered as the second surgery, because burr-hole irrigation with closed-system drainage did not reduce refractory CSDH in our study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Method of nitriding refractory metal articles

    DOEpatents

    Tiegs, Terry N.; Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.; Omatete, Ogbemi O.; Young, Albert C.

    1994-01-01

    A method of nitriding a refractory-nitride forming metal or metalloid articles and composite articles. A consolidated metal or metalloid article or composite is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article or composite is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article or composite is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid or composite to an article or composite of refractory nitride. In addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

  5. Method of nitriding refractory metal articles

    DOEpatents

    Tiegs, T.N.; Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Omatete, O.O.; Young, A.C.

    1994-03-15

    A method of nitriding a refractory-nitride forming metal or metalloid articles and composite articles. A consolidated metal or metalloid article or composite is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article or composite is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article or composite is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid or composite to an article or composite of refractory nitride. In addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

  6. Clinical features and course of refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts associated with marked thrombocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Broseus, Julien; Florensa, Lourdes; Zipperer, Esther; Schnittger, Susanne; Malcovati, Luca; Richebourg, Steven; Lippert, Eric; Cermak, Jaroslav; Evans, Jyoti; Mounier, Morgane; Raya, José Maria; Bailly, François; Gattermann, Norbert; Haferlach, Torsten; Garand, Richard; Allou, Kaoutar; Besses, Carlos; Germing, Ulrich; Haferlach, Claudia; Travaglino, Erica; Luno, Elisa; Pinan, Maria Angeles; Arenillas, Leonor; Rozman, Maria; Perez Sirvent, Maria Luz; Favre, Bernardine; Guy, Julien; Alonso, Esther; Ahwij, Nuhri; Jerez, Andrés; Hermouet, Sylvie; Maynadié, Marc; Cazzola, Mario; Girodon, François

    2012-01-01

    Background Refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts associated with marked thrombocytosis was proposed as a provisional entity in the 2001 World Health Organization classification of myeloid neoplasms and also in the 2008 version, but its existence as a single entity is contested. We wish to define the clinical features of this rare myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm and to compare its clinical outcome with that of refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts and essential thrombocythemia. Design and Methods We conducted a collaborative retrospective study across Europe. Our database included 200 patients diagnosed with refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts and marked thrombocytosis. For each of these patients, each patient diagnosed with refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts was matched for age and sex. At the same time, a cohort of 454 patients with essential thrombocythemia was used to compare outcomes of the two diseases. Results In patients with refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts and marked thrombocytosis, depending on the Janus Kinase 2 V617F mutational status (positive or negative) or platelet threshold (over or below 600×109/L), no difference in survival was noted. However, these patients had shorter overall survival and leukemia-free survival with a lower risk of thrombotic complications than did patients with essential thrombocythemia (P<0.001) but better survival (P<0.001) and a higher risk of thrombosis (P=0.039) than patients with refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts. Conclusions The clinical course of refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts and marked thrombocytosis is better than that of refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts and worse than that of essential thrombocythemia. The higher risk of thrombotic events in this disorder suggests that anti-platelet therapy might be considered in this subset of patients. From a clinical point of view, it appears to be important to consider refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts and

  7. Surgery for Retrocalcaneal Bursitis: A Tendon-splitting versus a Lateral Approach

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, John A.; Suero, Eduardo; O’Loughlin, Padhraig F.

    2008-01-01

    For patients with refractory retrocalcaneal bursitis (Haglund’s syndrome), the most effective surgical approach has not been defined. We asked whether patients undergoing the tendon-splitting approach and the lateral approach would have comparably effective relief of pain for both types of calcaneal ostectomies. We retrospectively reviewed 30 patients (31 feet) who underwent the tendon-splitting approach and compared their results with 32 previous patients (35 feet) who had a lateral incision. Minimum followup was 12 months (mean, 16 months; range, 12–23 months) for the tendon-splitting group and 15 months (mean, 51 months; range, 15–109 months) for the lateral group. The mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score improved from 43 points preoperatively to 81 points (range, 8–100 points) postoperatively in the tendon-splitting group and from 54 points to 86 points (range, 55–100 points) in the lateral group. The mean physical component score of the Short Form-36, version 2, at followup was 52 (range, 22–61) in the tendon-splitting group and 49 (range, 34–63) in the lateral group. The median return to normal function was 4.1 months (range, 3–13 months) in the tendon-splitting group and 6.4 months (range, 4–20 months) in the lateral group. Both approaches to calcaneal ostectomy provided symptomatic pain relief. However, patients in the tendon-splitting group returned to normal function quicker than patients in the lateral group. Level of Evidence: Level III, retrospective comparative study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18465183

  8. Barrier Coatings for Refractory Metals and Superalloys

    SciTech Connect

    SM Sabol; BT Randall; JD Edington

    2006-02-23

    In the closed working fluid loop of the proposed Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP), there is the potential for reaction of core and plant structural materials with gas phase impurities and gas phase transport of interstitial elements between superalloy and refractory metal alloy components during service. Primary concerns are surface oxidation, interstitial embrittlement of refractory metals and decarburization of superalloys. In parallel with kinetic investigations, this letter evaluates the ability of potential coatings to prevent or impede communication between reactor and plant components. Key coating requirements are identified and current technology coating materials are reviewed relative to these requirements.more » Candidate coatings are identified for future evaluation based on current knowledge of design parameters and anticipated environment. Coatings were identified for superalloys and refractory metals to provide diffusion barriers to interstitial transport and act as reactive barriers to potential oxidation. Due to their high stability at low oxygen potential, alumina formers are most promising for oxidation protection given the anticipated coolant gas chemistry. A sublayer of iridium is recommended to provide inherent diffusion resistance to interstitials. Based on specific base metal selection, a thin film substrate--coating interdiffusion barrier layer may be necessary to meet mission life.« less

  9. Nanostructured refractory thin films for solar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollier, E.; Dunoyer, N.; Dellea, O.; Szambolics, H.

    2014-08-01

    Selective solar absorbers are key elements of all solar thermal systems. Solar thermal panels and Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) systems aim respectively at producing heat and electricity. In both cases, a surface receives the solar radiation and is designed to have the highest optical absorption (lowest optical reflectivity) of the solar radiation in the visible wavelength range where the solar intensity is the highest. It also has a low emissivity in the infrared (IR) range in order to avoid radiative thermal losses. Current solutions in the state of the art usually consist in deposited interferential thin films or in cermets [1]. Structured surfaces have been proposed and have been simulated because they are supposed to be more efficient when the solar radiation is not normal to the receiving surface and because they could potentially be fabricated with refractory materials able to sustain high operating temperatures. This work presents a new method to fabricate micro/nanostructured surfaces on molybdenum (refractory metal with a melting temperature of 2623°C). This method now allows obtaining a refractory selective surface with an excellent optical selectivity and a very high absorption in the visible range. This high absorption performance was obtained by achieving a double structuration at micro and nano scales thanks to an innovative process flow.

  10. Simulation of meso-damage of refractory based on cohesion model and molecular dynamics method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jiuling; Shang, Hehao; Zhu, Zhaojun; Zhang, Guoxing; Duan, Leiguang; Sun, Xinya

    2018-06-01

    In order to describe the meso-damage of the refractories more accurately, and to study of the relationship between the mesostructured of the refractories and the macro-mechanics, this paper takes the magnesia-carbon refractories as the research object and uses the molecular dynamics method to instead the traditional sequential algorithm to establish the meso-particles filling model including small and large particles. Finally, the finite element software-ABAQUS is used to conducts numerical simulation on the meso-damage evolution process of refractory materials. From the results, the process of initiation and propagation of microscopic interface cracks can be observed intuitively, and the macroscopic stress-strain curve of the refractory material is obtained. The results show that the combination of molecular dynamics modeling and the use of Python in the interface to insert the cohesive element numerical simulation, obtaining of more accurate interface parameters through parameter inversion, can be more accurate to observe the interface of the meso-damage evolution process and effective to consider the effect of the mesostructured of the refractory material on its macroscopic mechanical properties.

  11. Highly Refractory Porous Ceramics,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-14

    some cases is not desirable. A uniform distribution of tem- peratures in the melting ch the use of thermally insulating materials, i. e. stability of...materials with micropores that a are inaccessible to penetration by sl s and other melts , which appears, how- ever, to be a very difficult problem...requirements for refractoriness, chemical stability, etc. In accordance with GOST 5040-68, maximum temperatures were established for the melting chamber

  12. Super-Refractory Status Epilepticus: Report of a Case and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Lapenta, Leonardo; Frisullo, Giovanni; Vollono, Catello; Brunetti, Valerio; Giannantoni, Nadia Mariagrazia; Sandroni, Claudio; Di Lella, Giuseppe; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2015-10-01

    Super-refractory status epilepticus (SE; ie, SE continuing or recurring despite 24 hours of general anesthesia) is a severe condition with high percentage of mortality and morbidity. Usually, this condition occurs because of serious brain damage; nevertheless, some patients develop super-refractory SE without identifiable etiology. Although not uncommonly encountered in neurointensive care, scientific data on this condition are still lacking in terms of treatment and prognosis. Herein, we report a case of super-refractory SE with recovery after 50 days, despite electroencephalographic (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signs traditionally related to poor prognosis. A review of the literature on super-refractory SE is also presented. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2014.

  13. Autologous Stem Cell Transplant Followed by Donor Stem Cell Transplant in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-02-12

    Prolymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; T-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; T-Cell Prolymphocytic Leukemia

  14. Interactions of Alumina-Based and Magnesia-Based Refractories with Iron Melts and Slags: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, R.; Sohn, H. Y.

    2018-06-01

    A novel flash ironmaking technology (FIT) based on the direct reduction of iron ore concentrate with a reductant gas (such as hydrogen, natural gas, coal gas, or a combination thereof) in a flash furnace is being developed at the University of Utah. This technology which is undergoing large-scale laboratory testing aims at overcoming the limitations of blast furnace ironmaking by bypassing the problematic pelletization/sintering and cokemaking steps.[1-5] Refractory selection is expected to play an important step in the development of FIT and its proposed scale-up. For nominating an appropriate refractory for the FIT, understanding the interactions of candidate refractories with iron/iron oxide and slags under H2/CO/CO2/H2O environments is necessary. This work is undertaken to review the existing literature on the interactions of important refractories with iron melts and relevant slags with an emphasis on two of the most commonly used refractories in ironmaking and steelmaking applications: the alumina-based refractories (used widely in blast furnace operations) and the magnesia-based refractories (used extensively in primary as well as secondary steelmaking). First, a comprehensive review on the interactions of alumina-based refractories with iron melts and slags has been done. Next the existing literature on the interactions of magnesia-based refractories with iron melts and relevant slags has been reviewed. Summaries have been included after each section and sub-section along with comments and critical insights from the authors. Finally, in the concluding remarks the differences in operating conditions between existing iron and steelmaking practices and the novel FIT have been highlighted. On the basis of these differences, it has been argued that the results and conclusions available from previous studies on refractory-metal-slag interactions are of little significance to flash ironmaking. Thus

  15. Tioguanine in the treatment of refractory coeliac disease--a single centre experience.

    PubMed

    Tack, G J; van Asseldonk, D P; van Wanrooij, R L J; van Bodegraven, A A; Mulder, C J

    2012-08-01

    Refractory coeliac disease type I is a complicated form of coeliac disease characterised by primary or secondary resistance to a gluten-free diet with persisting or reoccurring intestinal villous atrophy and symptoms of malabsorption. Besides corticosteroids, azathioprine has been advocated for the treatment of refractory coeliac disease type I. However, tioguanine (TG) might be better tolerated and more efficacious owing to a simpler metabolism towards bioactivation. To evaluate tolerability and effectiveness of the nonconventional thiopurine derivative TG in refractory coeliac disease type I. Refractory coeliac disease type I patients treated with TG between June 2001 and November 2010 with a follow-up period of at least 1 year were included. Adverse events, laboratory values, 6-thioguanine nucleotide concentrations and rates of both clinical and histological response were evaluated at baseline and during follow-up. Twelve adult refractory coeliac disease type I patients were included. The median TG treatment duration was 14 months. Ten patients tolerated TG treatment on the long term, whereas two patients withdrew treatment due to adverse events. No nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver was observed. During follow-up clinical and histological response was observed in 83% and 78%, respectively. Corticosteroid dependency decreased by 50%. Tioguanine appears to be a convenient drug for the treatment of refractory coeliac disease type I based on higher histological and similar clinical response rates as compared with historical conventional therapies. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Evaluation of nutritional status in children with refractory epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Bertoli, S; Cardinali, S; Veggiotti, P; Trentani, C; Testolin, G; Tagliabue, A

    2006-01-01

    Background children affected by refractory epilepsy could be at risk of malnutrition because of feeding difficulties (anorexia, chewing, swallowing difficulties or vomiting) and chronic use of anticonvulsants, which may affect food intake and energy metabolism. Moreover, their energy requirement may be changed as their disabilities would impede normal daily activities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate nutritional status, energy metabolism and food intake in children with refractory epilepsy. Methods 17 children with refractory epilepsy (13 boys and 4 girls; mean age 9 ± 3,2 years; Body Mass Index 15,7 ± 3,6) underwent an anthropometric assessment, body composition evaluation by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, detailed dietetic survey and measurement of resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry. Weight-for-age, height-for-age (stunting) and weight-for-height (wasting) were estimated compared to those of a reference population of the same age. Results 40% of children were malnourished and 24% were wasted. The nutritional status was worse in the more disabled children. Dietary intake resulted unbalanced (18%, 39%, 43% of total daily energy intake derived respectively from protein, lipid and carbohydrate). Adequacy index [nutrient daily intake/recommended allowance (RDA) × 100] was < 60% for calcium iron and zinc. Conclusion many children with refractory epilepsy would benefit from individual nutritional assessment and management as part of their overall care. PMID:16640779

  17. Evaluation of nutritional status in children with refractory epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Bertoli, S; Cardinali, S; Veggiotti, P; Trentani, C; Testolin, G; Tagliabue, A

    2006-04-26

    children affected by refractory epilepsy could be at risk of malnutrition because of feeding difficulties (anorexia, chewing, swallowing difficulties or vomiting) and chronic use of anticonvulsants, which may affect food intake and energy metabolism. Moreover, their energy requirement may be changed as their disabilities would impede normal daily activities. The aim of the present study was to evaluate nutritional status, energy metabolism and food intake in children with refractory epilepsy. 17 children with refractory epilepsy (13 boys and 4 girls; mean age 9 +/- 3,2 years; Body Mass Index 15,7 +/- 3,6) underwent an anthropometric assessment, body composition evaluation by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, detailed dietetic survey and measurement of resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry. Weight-for-age, height-for-age (stunting) and weight-for-height (wasting) were estimated compared to those of a reference population of the same age. 40% of children were malnourished and 24% were wasted. The nutritional status was worse in the more disabled children. Dietary intake resulted unbalanced (18%, 39%, 43% of total daily energy intake derived respectively from protein, lipid and carbohydrate). Adequacy index [nutrient daily intake/recommended allowance (RDA) x 100] was < 60% for calcium iron and zinc. many children with refractory epilepsy would benefit from individual nutritional assessment and management as part of their overall care.

  18. Pre-fired, refractory block slag dams for wet bottom furnace floors

    SciTech Connect

    Vihnicka, R.S.; Meskimen, R.L.

    1998-12-31

    Slagging (wet bottom), utility boilers count on a refractory coating over the furnace floor tube structure for protection from corrosion damage from both the harsh, hot gas atmosphere from the burning fuel and the acidic coal slag. To protect and extend the life of this protective refractory coating the boiler original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) utilized a water-cooled monkey ring or slag chill ring (typically a 6--8 inch high ring of small diameter tubes) surrounding the slag tap locations on most wet bottom furnace floors (both utility and package boilers). The old water-cooled tube ring was such a high maintenance item,more » however, that it`s use has been discontinued in all but the most extreme environments throughout both utility and industrial applications. Where the use of the ring was discontinued, there has been a corresponding shortening of life on the protective floor refractory coatings (high maintenance cost), further aggravated by recent OSHA restrictions limiting the use of chrome oxide refractory materials in these types of boilers. This paper describes the developmental process and the final resultant product (a non-watercooled, slag dam made from pre-fired refractory shapes), undertaken by the inventors. Derived operational benefits a concept 2 project, with NO{sub x} Title 4 and Title 1 significance (which is currently underway) will also be detailed.« less

  19. Effectiveness of intravenous levetiracetam as an adjunctive treatment in pediatric refractory status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jon Soo; Lee, Jeong Ho; Ryu, Hye Won; Lim, Byung Chan; Hwang, Hee; Chae, Jong-Hee; Choi, Jieun; Kim, Ki Joong; Hwang, Yong Seung; Kim, Hunmin

    2014-08-01

    Intravenous levetiracetam (LEV) has been shown to be effective and safe in treating adults with refractory status epilepticus (SE). We sought to investigate the efficacy and safety of intravenous LEV for pediatric patients with refractory SE. We performed a retrospective medical-record review of pediatric patients who were treated with intravenous LEV for refractory SE. Clinical information regarding age, sex, seizure type, and underlying neurological status was collected. We evaluated other anticonvulsants that were used prior to administration of intravenous LEV and assessed loading dose, response to treatment, and any adverse events from intravenous LEV administration. Fourteen patients (8 boys and 6 girls) received intravenous LEV for the treatment of refractory SE. The mean age of the patients was 4.4 ± 5.5 years (range, 4 days to 14.6 years). Ten of the patients were neurologically healthy prior to the refractory SE, and the other 4 had been previously diagnosed with epilepsy. The mean loading dose of intravenous LEV was 26 ± 4.6 mg/kg (range, 20-30 mg/kg). Seizure termination occurred in 6 (43%) of the 14 patients. In particular, 4 (57%) of the 7 patients younger than 2 years showed seizure termination. No immediate adverse events occurred during or after infusions. The current study demonstrated that the adjunctive use of intravenous LEV was effective and well tolerated in pediatric patients with refractory SE, even in patients younger than 2 years. Intravenous LEV should be considered as an effective and safe treatment option for refractory SE in pediatric patients.

  20. A Phase 1-2 Multi-Center Study Evaluating Axicabtagene Ciloleucel in Subjects With Refractory Aggressive Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (ZUMA-1)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-18

    Refractory Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Primary Mediastinal B Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Transformed Follicular Lymphoma; Relapsed/Refractory Transplant Ineligible Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma; Relapsed/Refractory Transplant Ineligible Primary Mediastinal B Cell Lymphoma; Relapsed/Refractory Transplant Ineligible Transformed Follicular Lymphoma; Relapsed/Refractory Large B Cell Lymphoma Including DLBCL, PMBCL, TFL and HGBCL After Two Systemic Lines of Therapy" in Phase 2 Expanded Cohorts

  1. 40 CFR 471.50 - Applicability; description of the refractory metals forming subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... refractory metals forming subcategory. 471.50 Section 471.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS NONFERROUS METALS FORMING AND METAL POWDERS POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Refractory Metals Forming Subcategory § 471.50 Applicability; description of the...

  2. Compatibility of refractory materials for nuclear reactor poison control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Metal-clad poison rods have been considered for the control system of an advanced space power reactor concept studied at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Such control rods may be required to operate at temperatures of about 140O C. Selected poison materials (including boron carbide and the diborides of zirconium, hafnium, and tantalum) were subjected to 1000-hour screening tests in contact with candidate refractory metal cladding materials (including tungsten and alloys of tantalum, niobium, and molybdenum) to assess the compatibility of these materials combinations at the temperatures of interest. Zirconium and hafnium diborides were compatible with refractory metals at 1400 C, but boron carbide and tantalum diboride reacted with the refractory metals at this temperature. Zirconium diboride also showed promise as a reaction barrier between boron carbide and tungsten.

  3. [Surgery of refractory ischemic arrhythmia].

    PubMed

    Viganò, M; Graffigna, A; Salerno, G

    1992-03-01

    Since June 1980, 138 patients have undergone surgical treatment for refractory ventricular tachycardia due to ischemic heart disease. Electrically guided surgical ablation (EGSA) of the focus was performed in 117 patients, while 14 patients underwent application of automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (AICD), and 8 patients underwent heart transplantation. During the whole period considered, among the EGSA patients an operative mortality of 13 patients was observed (11.4%), with a late mortality of another 14 patients (13.4%). Two early and six late recurrences were described, and 4 cases of sudden or unexplained death, with 2 cases clearly due to an arrhythmic event. Multivariate analysis showed preoperative ejection fraction lower than 25% as a powerful predictor of early mortality (32% vs 0%). Actuarial survival rate of patients with LVEF lower than 25% was 67 +/- 12% vs 95 +/- 2% at one year and 37 +/- 25% vs 94 +/- 8% at 8 years. A high operative mortality was then observed in patients who underwent aneurysmectomy alone or visually guided procedures as compared to electrically guided procedures (75% or 3 deaths out of 4 patients vs 8.5% or 10 out of 113 patients, respectively). Patients who received an AICD with or without associated procedures showed 1 case of in-hospital mortality and no late mortality; in 6 patients at least one shock was delivered; in two patients the AICD was implanted during an EGSA procedure, due to multiple or difficult origins of the arrhythmias. Of patients who underwent heart transplantation one case of later mortality was observed due to malignancy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Single-side renal sympathetic denervation to treat malignant refractory hypertension in a solitary kidney patient.

    PubMed

    Ribichini, Flavio; Ferrara, Angela; Pighi, Michele; Pesarini, Gabriele; Gambaro, Alessia; Valvo, Enrico; Lupo, Antonio; Vassanelli, Corrado

    2014-12-01

    Renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) is emerging as a new therapeutic option for patients with severe hypertension refractory to medical therapy. Patients affected by renovascular or anatomical abnormalities have hitherto been systematically excluded from clinical trials with RSD because of concern about safety and the unknown efficacy of the procedure in this subgroup of patients. We describe the management of a case of RSD in a single-kidney patient with refractory hypertension; the patient had had a previous surgical right nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma that subsequently required no other oncologic treatment. After multidisciplinary assessment, the patient underwent RSD. The procedure was performed through a 6F femoral access using the Symplicity™ RSD system (Medtronic, Mountain View, CA, USA). Radiofrequency was applied to the renal artery wall in 6 different points under general sedation with midazolam to control back pain caused by the procedure, that was performed without periprocedural complications. The patient was discharged 2 days later after a control of the vascular access site and routine biochemical examinations. The following 9-month follow up showed a significant reduction in blood pressure and stable renal function, without signs of renal damage. Our report confirms the feasibility of RSD in this delicate context, without evident negative effects on kidney function and with a significant reduction in blood pressure. Future studies are needed to fully clarify the value of RSD in single-kidney patients.

  5. The effect of various sintering temperature on used refractory towards its physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudibyo; Wulandari, Y. R.; Amin, M.; Azhar

    2018-01-01

    The used magnesia refractory from the kiln of cement industry was successfully recycled to new refractory using Kaolin as an adhesive. In this work, the temperatures of sintering were varied from 1000°C to 1500°C. The result shows that the increment temperature effects in sintering process will enhance refractory physical properties such as bulk density, cold crushing strength or pressure strength and thermal conductivity. Meanwhile, the porosity was decreased as the increase of the sintering temperature.

  6. Revision with Totally Hand-Sewn Gastrojejunostomy and Vagotomy for Refractory Marginal Ulcer after Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Chang, Po-Chih; Huang, Chih-Kun; Rajan, Mahendra; Hsin, Ming-Che

    2016-05-01

    Marginal ulcer is not infrequent after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and could result in undesirable complications, such as intractability, bleeding, or perforation. Those patients who failed medical therapy, regarded as refractory marginal ulcers, may be considered as candidates for revisional surgery. Herein, we make a video presentation of a laparoscopic revisional procedure for refractory marginal ulcer. A 29-year-old morbidly obese woman (initial body mass index 37.1 kg/m(2)), a non-smoker, presented with persistent epigastric pain 3 months after initial laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass at another institution. After an exhaustive work-up there, only the gastroendoscopy revealed a marginal ulcer and she underwent medical treatment (proton pump inhibitor and sucralfate) for 3 months, but the patient's symptom aggravated and the serial gastroendoscopies still confirmed the marginal ulcer without obvious resolution after a total of 4 months proton pump inhibitor therapy, suggesting failure of medical treatment and intractability. Laparoscopic revisional procedure with totally hand-sewn gastrojejunostomy and vagotomy was performed to relieve her intractable condition. The procedure took 130 min, without any intra-operative complications. Blood loss was 80 mL. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course, and the postoperative hospital stay was 3 days. She was relieved of her symptoms after this revisional surgery, and a subsequent gastroendoscopy 15 months later showed no marginal ulcers. Though long-term follow-up is needed to draw a definite conclusion, totally hand-sewn gastrojejunostomy and vagotomy remains a practicable revisional procedure to relieve refractory marginal ulcers.

  7. Corrosion resistance of ceramic refractories to simulated waste glasses at high temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Xing, S.B.; Lin, Y.; Mohr, R.K.

    1996-08-01

    In many vitrification processes, refractory materials are used to contain the waste glass melt. The corrosive nature of the high-temperature melt consumes the waste feed materials but also limits refractory life. As vitrification is applied to more diverse waste streams, and particularly in higher-temperature applications, increasingly severe demands are placed on the refractory materials. A variety of potential refractory materials including Fused-cast AZS, Monofrax K3, Monofrax E, and the Corhart refractories ER1195, ER2161, C1215, C1215Z, Rechrome, and T1186, were subjected to corrosion testing at 1,450 C using the ASTM C-621 procedure. A series of simulated waste glasses was used whichmore » included F, Cl, S, Cu, Zn, Pb; these minor components were found to cause significant, and in some cases drastic, increases in corrosion rates. The corrosion tests were conducted over a range of time intervals extending to 144 hrs in order to investigate the kinetics of the corrosion processes. The change of the concentrations of constituents in the glass was monitored by compositional analysis of glass samples and correlated to the observed extent of corrosion; typically, components of the material under test increase with time while key minor components, such as Co and Pb, decrease. The rate of corrosion of high-zirconia refractories was slowed considerably by adding zirconia to the waste glass composition; this has the added benefit of improving the aqueous leach resistance of the waste form that is produced.« less

  8. Low-Chrome/Chrome Free Refractories for Slagging Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, J.P.; Kwong, K.-S.; Powell, C.P.

    2007-01-01

    Gasifiers are containment vessels used to react carbon-containing materials with oxygen and water, producing syngas (CO and H2) that is used in chemical and power production. It is also a potential source of H2 in a future hydrogen economy. Air cooled slagging gasifiers are one type of gasifier, operating at temperatures from 1275-1575º C and at pressures of 400 psi or higher. They typically use coal or petroleum coke as the carbon source, materials which contain ash impurities that liquefy at the gasification temperatures, producing liquid slag in quantities of 100 or more tons/day, depending on the carbon fed ratemore » and the percent ash present in the feedstock. The molten slag is corrosive to refractory linings, causing chemical dissolution and spalling. The refractory lining is composed of chrome oxide, alumina, and zirconia; and is replaced every 3-24 months. Gasifier users would like greater on-line availability and reliability of gasifier liners, something that has impacted gasifier acceptance by industry. Research is underway at NETL to improve refractory service life and to develop a no-chrome or low-chrome oxide alternative refractory liner. Over 250 samples of no- or low-chrome oxide compositions have been evaluated for slag interactions by cup testing; with potential candidates for further studies including those with ZrO2, Al2O3, and MgO materials. The development of improved liner materials is necessary if technologies such as IGCC and DOE’s Near Zero Emissions Advanced Fossil Fuel Power Plant are to be successful and move forward in the marketplace.« less

  9. Compatibility Studies of Various Refractory Materials in Contact with Molten Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonnell, T.; Leipold, M. H.; Hagan, M.

    1978-01-01

    The production of low cost, efficient solar cells for terrestrial electric power generation involves the manipulation of molten silicon with a present need for noncontaminating, high temperature refractories to be used as containment vessels, ribbon-production dies, and dip-coated substrates. Studies were conducted on the wetting behavior and chemical/physical interactions between molten silicon and various refractory materials.

  10. Ascorbic Acid and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-23

    High Grade B-Cell Lymphoma With MYC and BCL2 or BCL6 Rearrangements; Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Lymphoma; Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Lymphoma

  11. Long term results in refractory tennis elbow using autologous blood.

    PubMed

    Gani, Naseem Ul; Khan, Hayat Ahmad; Kamal, Younis; Farooq, Munir; Jeelani, Hina; Shah, Adil Bashir

    2014-10-27

    Tennis elbow (TE) is one of the commonest myotendinosis. Different treatment options are available and autologous blood injection has emerged as the one of the acceptable modalities of treatment. Long term studies over a larger group of patients are however lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these patients on longer durations. One-hundred and twenty patients of TE, who failed to respond to conventional treatment including local steroid injections were taken up for this prospective study over the period from year 2005 to 2011 and were followed up for the minimum of 3 years (range 3-9 years). Two mL of autologous blood was taken from the ipsilateral limb and injected into the lateral epicondyle. The effectiveness of the procedure was assessed by Pain Rating Sscale and Nirschl Staging, which was monitored before the procedure, at first week, monthly for first three months, at 6 months and then 3 monthly for first year, six monthly for next 2 years and then yearly. Statistical analysis was done and a P value of <0.05 was taken as significant. The patients (76 females and 44 males) were evaluated after procedure. The mean age group was 40.67±8.21. The mean follow up was 5.7±1.72 (range 3 to 9 years). The mean pain score and Nirschl stage before the procedure was 3.3±0.9 and 6.2±0.82 respectively. At final follow up the pain score and Nirschl were 1.1±0.9 and 1.5±0.91 respectively. Autologous blood injection was found to be one of the modalities for treatment of TE. Being cheap, available and easy method of treatment, it should be considered as a treatment modality before opting for the surgery. Universal guidelines for the management of tennis elbow should be made as there is lot of controversy regarding the treatment.

  12. VSV-hIFNbeta-NIS in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma, Acute Myeloid Leukemia, or T-cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-12

    Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides; Recurrent Plasma Cell Myeloma; Recurrent T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma; Refractory Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Mycosis Fungoides; Refractory Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Refractory Plasma Cell Myeloma; Refractory T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

  13. Clinical outcomes of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in refractory uveitis.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Geremias, M; Carreño, E; Epps, S J; Lee, R W J; Dick, A D

    2015-04-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy has multiple mechanisms of immunomodulatory action. We wished therefore to assess its efficacy in a spectrum of patients with refractory uveitis. Retrospective review of clinical charts was conducted to document response to IVIg treatment in consecutive patients with treatment-refractory uveitis. Main outcome measures were control of intraocular inflammation, visual acuity, progression of the disease, and complications. Four (two male) patients, with a mean age at the beginning of the treatment of 47 years (range: 39-64), were included in the study. Indication for treatment was patients with active non-infectious uveitis refractory to steroids and immunomodulatory therapy. All patients received a course of 0.5 g/kg per day of IVIg for three consecutive days, repeating this course at a mean of 11 week (range: 2-39 weeks) intervals when indicated clinically. The median duration of the IVIg therapy was 7 months (range: 3-14 months). In three patients treatment resulted in stabilisation and prevention of progression of the disease, and additionally in two patients it facilitated a decrease in prednisolone dose. Treatment failed to induce long-term remission in one patient with recurrence of macular oedema. IVIg was well tolerated with neither immediate nor longer-term adverse events observed. In three out of four cases IVIg was an effective adjunctive therapy and well tolerated for the management of treatment-refractory uveitis.

  14. Proteome-wide analysis of Anopheles culicifacies mosquito midgut: new insights into the mechanism of refractoriness.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Sonam; Rawal, Ritu; Kadian, Kavita; Singh, Jagbir; Adak, Tridibesh; Sharma, Arun

    2018-05-08

    Midgut invasion, a major bottleneck for malaria parasites transmission is considered as a potential target for vector-parasite interaction studies. New intervention strategies are required to explore the midgut proteins and their potential role in refractoriness for malaria control in Anopheles mosquitoes. To better understand the midgut functional proteins of An. culicifacies susceptible and refractory species, proteomic approaches coupled with bioinformatics analysis is an effective means in order to understand the mechanism of refractoriness. In the present study, an integrated in solution- in gel trypsin digestion approach, along with Isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-Liquid chromatography/Mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and data mining were performed to identify the proteomic profile and differentially expressed proteins in Anopheles culicifacies susceptible species A and refractory species B. Shot gun proteomics approaches led to the identification of 80 proteins in An. culicifacies susceptible species A and 92 in refractory species B and catalogue was prepared. iTRAQ based proteomic analysis identified 48 differentially expressed proteins from total 130 proteins. Of these, 41 were downregulated and 7 were upregulated in refractory species B in comparison to susceptible species A. We report that the altered midgut proteins identified in naturally refractory mosquitoes are involved in oxidative phosphorylation, antioxidant and proteolysis process that may suggest their role in parasite growth inhibition. Furthermore, real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of few proteins indicated higher expression of iTRAQ upregulated protein in refractory species than susceptible species. This study elucidates the first proteome of the midguts of An. culicifacies sibling species that attempts to analyze unique proteogenomic interactions to provide insights for better understanding of the mechanism of refractoriness. Functional implications

  15. Refractory metal particles in refractory inclusions in the Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuchs, L. H.; Blander, M.

    1980-01-01

    SEM and X-ray analysis were used to study refractory metal particles in five calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions in the Allende meteorite, and a complex variety of compositions and large departures from equilibrium were found. It is suggested that these particles could have been primordial condensates which were isolated from the nebula and from each other at different times by cocondensing oxides. Selective diffusion and/or oxidation of the more oxidizable metals (Mo, W, Fe, and Ni), phase segregations into different alloy phases (fcc, bcc, hcp, and, possibly, ordered phases), and the formation of metastable condensates could have been involved in the genesis of these materials

  16. Medial elbow pain

    PubMed Central

    Barco, Raul; Antuña, Samuel A.

    2017-01-01

    Medial elbow pain is uncommon when compared with lateral elbow pain. Medial epicondylitis is an uncommon diagnosis and can be confused with other sources of pain. Overhead throwers and workers lifting heavy objects are at increased risk of medial elbow pain. Differential diagnosis includes ulnar nerve disorders, cervical radiculopathy, injured ulnar collateral ligament, altered distal triceps anatomy or joint disorders. Children with medial elbow pain have to be assessed for ‘Little League elbow’ and fractures of the medial epicondyle following a traumatic event. This paper is primarily focused on the differential diagnosis of medial elbow pain with basic recommendations on treatment strategies. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:362-371. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160006 PMID:28932488

  17. Performance Assessment of Refractory Concrete Used on the Space Shuttle's Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trejo, David; Calle, Luz Marina; Halman, Ceki

    2005-01-01

    The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) maintains several facilities for launching space vehicles. During recent launches it has been observed that the refractory concrete materials that protect the steel-framed flame duct are breaking away from this base structure and are being projected at high velocities. There is significant concern that these projected pieces can strike the launch complex or space vehicle during the launch, jeopardizing the safety of the mission. A qualification program is in place to evaluate the performance of different refractory concretes and data from these tests have been used to assess the performance of the refractory concretes. However, there is significant variation in the test results, possibly making the existing qualification test program unreliable. This paper will evaluate data from past qualification tests, identify potential key performance indicators for the launch complex, and will recommend a new qualification test program that can be used to better qualify refractory concrete.

  18. Identifying risk factors for refractory febrile neutropenia in patients with lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Masaki; Tokunaga, Shoji; Ikegame, Satoshi; Harada, Eiji; Matsumoto, Takemasa; Uchino, Junji; Watanabe, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Yoichi

    2012-02-01

    Information about the development of febrile neutropenia in patients with solid tumors remains insufficient. In this study, we tried to identify the risk factors for refractory febrile neutropenia in patients with lung cancer. A total of 59 neutropenic fever episodes associated with anti-tumor chemotherapy for lung cancer were retrospectively analyzed. We compared patient characteristics according to their initial response to treatment with antibiotics. For 34 of 59 (58%) episodes a response to initial antibiotics was obtained whereas 25 of 59 (42%) were refractory to treatment. Multivariate analysis demonstrated independent risk factors for refractory febrile neutropenia with lung cancer. These risk factors were the severity of febrile neutropenia (odds ratio (OR) 6.11; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.85-20.14) and C-reactive protein more than 10 mg/dl (OR 4.39; 95% CI 1.22-15.74). These factors could predict outcome for patients with lung cancer who develop refractory febrile neutropenia.

  19. Development of high performance refractory fibers with enhanced insulating properties and longer service lifetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.C.; DePoorter, G.L.; Munoz, D.R.

    1991-02-01

    We have initiated a three phase investigation of the development of high performance refractory fibers with enhanced insulating properties and longer usable lifetimes. This report presents the results of the first phase of the study, performed from Aug. 1989 through Feb. 1991, which shows that significant energy saving are possible through the use of high temperature insulating fibers that better retain their efficient insulating properties during the service lifetime of the fibers. The remaining phases of this program include the pilot scale development and then full scale production feasibility development and evaluation of enhanced high temperature refractory insulting fibers. Thismore » first proof of principle phase of the program presents a summary of the current use patterns of refractory fibers, a laboratory evaluation of the high temperature performance characteristics of selected typical refractory fibers and an analysis of the potential energy savings through the use of enhanced refractory fibers. The current use patterns of refractory fibers span a wide range of industries and high temperature furnaces within those industries. The majority of high temperature fiber applications are in furnaces operating between 2000 and 26000{degrees}F. The fibers used in furnaces operating within this range provide attractive thermal resistance and low thermal storage at reasonable cost. A series of heat treatment studies performed for this phase of the program has shown that the refractory fibers, as initially manufactured, have attractive thermal conductivities for high temperature applications but the fibers go through rapid devitrification and subsequent crystal growth upon high temperature exposure. Development of improved fibers, maintaining the favorable characteristics of the existing as-manufactured fibers, could save between 1 and 4% of the energy consumed in high temperature furnaces using refractory fibers.« less

  20. Contingent capture of visual-spatial attention depends on capacity-limited central mechanisms: evidence from human electrophysiology and the psychological refractory period.

    PubMed

    Brisson, Benoit; Leblanc, Emilie; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2009-02-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that a lateralized distractor that matches the individual's top-down control settings elicits an N2pc wave, an electrophysiological index of the focus of visual-spatial attention, indicating that contingent capture has a visual-spatial locus. Here, we investigated whether contingent capture required capacity-limited central resources by incorporating a contingent capture task as the second task of a psychological refractory period (PRP) dual-task paradigm. The N2pc was used to monitor where observers were attending while they performed concurrent central processing known to cause the PRP effect. The N2pc elicited by the lateralized distractor that matched the top-down control settings was attenuated in high concurrent central load conditions, indicating that although involuntary, the deployment of visual-spatial attention occurring during contingent capture depends on capacity-limited central resources.

  1. Intravenous ketamine for subacute treatment of refractory chronic migraine: a case series.

    PubMed

    Lauritsen, Clinton; Mazuera, Santiago; Lipton, Richard B; Ashina, Sait

    2016-12-01

    Refractory migraine is a challenging condition with great impact on health related quality of life. Intravenous (IV) ketamine has been previously used to treat various refractory pain conditions. We present a series of patients with refractory migraine treated with intravenous ketamine in the hospital setting. Based on retrospective chart review, we identified six patients with refractory migraine admitted from 2010 through 2014 for treatment with intravenous ketamine. Ketamine was administered using a standard protocol starting with a dose of 0.1 mg/kg/hr and increased by 0.1 mg/kg/hr every 3 to 4 h as tolerated until the target pain score of 3/10 was achieved and maintained for at least 8 h. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores at time of hospital admission were obtained as well as average baseline VAS scores prior to ketamine infusion. A phone interview was conducted for follow-up of migraine response in the 3 to 6 months following ketamine infusion. The study sample had a median age of 36.5 years (range 29-54) and 83% were women. Pre-treatment pain scores ranged from 9 to 10. All patients achieved a target pain level of 3 or less for 8 h; the average ketamine infusion rate at target was 0.34 mg/kg/hour (range 0.12-0.42 mg/kg/hr). One patient reported a transient out-of-body hallucination following an increase in the infusion rate, which resolved after decreasing the rate. There were no other significant side effects. IV ketamine was safely administered in the hospital setting to patients with refractory chronic migraine. Treatment was associated with short term improvement in pain severity in 6 of 6 patients with refractory chronic migraine. Prospective placebo-controlled trials are needed to assess short term and long-term efficacy of IV ketamine in refractory chronic migraine.

  2. Palliative management of refractory dyspnea in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Uronis, Hope E; Currow, David C; Abernethy, Amy P

    2006-01-01

    COPD is a progressive illness with worldwide impact. Patients invariably reach a point at which they require palliative interventions. Dyspnea is the most distressing symptom experienced by these patients; when not relieved by traditional COPD management strategies it is termed “refractory dyspnea” and palliative approaches are required. The focus of care shifts from prolonging survival to reducing symptoms, increasing function, and improving quality of life. Numerous pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions can achieve these goals, though evidence supporting their use is variable. This review provides a summary of the options for the management of refractory dyspnea in COPD, outlining currently available evidence and highlighting areas for further investigation. Topics include oxygen, opioids, psychotropic drugs, inhaled furosemide, Heliox, rehabilitation, nutrition, psychosocial support, breathing techniques, and breathlessness clinics. PMID:18046866

  3. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for refractory recurrent pericarditis.

    PubMed

    del Fresno, M Rosa; Peralta, Julio E; Granados, Miguel Ángel; Enríquez, Eugenia; Domínguez-Pinilla, Nerea; de Inocencio, Jaime

    2014-11-01

    Recurrent pericarditis is a troublesome complication of idiopathic acute pericarditis and occurs more frequently in pediatric patients after cardiac surgery (postpericardiotomy syndrome). Conventional treatment with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, and colchicine is not always effective or may cause serious adverse effects. There is no consensus, however, on how to proceed in those patients whose disease is refractory to conventional therapy. In such cases, human intravenous immunoglobulin, immunosuppressive drugs, and biological agents have been used. In this report we describe 2 patients with refractory recurrent pericarditis after cardiac surgery who were successfully treated with 3 and 5 monthly high-dose (2 g/kg) intravenous immunoglobulin until resolution of the effusion. Our experience supports the effectiveness and safety of this therapy. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  4. Refractory Materials for Flame Deflector Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz M.; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.; Peruisich, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    Fondu Fyre (FF) is currently the only refractory material qualified for use in the flame trench at KSC's Shuttle Launch Pads 39A and 3913. However, the material is not used as it was qualified and has undergone increasingly frequent and severe degradation due to the launch blasts. This degradation is costly as well as dangerous for launch infrastructure, crew and vehicle. The launch environment at KSC is unique. The refractory material is subject to the normal seacoast environment, is completely saturated with water before launch, and is subjected to vibrations and aggressive heat/blast conditions during launch. This report presents results comparing two alternate materials, Ultra-Tek FS gun mix and Kruzite GR Plus, with Fondu Fyre. The materials were subjected to bulk density, porosity, compression strength, modulus of rupture and thermal shock tests. In addition, test specimens were exposed to conditions meant to simulate the launch environment at KSC to help better understand how the materials will perform once installed.

  5. Evaluation of olivine refractories for TES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, B. M.; Cochrane, R. L.; Palmour, H., III; Paisley, M. J.

    1982-02-01

    The principal objectives of this program are to (1) experimentally determine the degree of improvement in thermal and mechanical performance that can be obtained with an olivine thermal storage brick made of domestic materials using advanced processing techniques compared with state-of-the-art as represented by commercial European bricks, (2) conduct an assessment of existing German ceramic process technology and determine its adaptability to domestic raw materials and manufacturing practices, and (3) investigate, on a limited basis, method for further improvement of domestic-olivine brick. To date, accomplishments include (1) installation of improved, computer-based instrumentation, (2) the use of this system to determine performance characteristics of a set of heat storage refractories under cyclic use conditions, (3) acquisition of the services of a knowledgeable European consultant, (4) continued lab-scale process/property optimization studies, and (5) comparative testing of olivine-based and magnesite-based heat storage refractories in the calorimetric test facility at Purdue University.

  6. Refractory heartburn: comparison of intercellular space diameter in documented GERD vs. functional heartburn.

    PubMed

    Vela, Marcelo F; Craft, Brandon M; Sharma, Neeraj; Freeman, Janice; Hazen-Martin, Debra

    2011-05-01

    Refractory heartburn despite acid suppression may be explained by ongoing gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) or functional heartburn (FH), i.e., symptoms without evidence of GERD. Impedance-pH monitoring (impedance-pH) detects acid and nonacid reflux and is useful for evaluating acid-suppressed, refractory patients. Intercellular space diameter (ISD) of esophageal epithelium measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a marker of epithelial damage present in both erosive and nonerosive reflux disease. ISD has not been used to study refractory heartburn or FH. Our aim was to compare ISD in healthy controls and refractory heartburn patients with GERD and FH. In refractory heartburn patients (heartburn more than twice/week for at least 2 months despite proton pump inhibitor (PPI) b.i.d.), erosive esophagitis and/or abnormal impedance-pH (increased acid exposure or positive symptom index) defined GERD; normal esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)/impedance-pH defined FH. Asymptomatic, healthy controls had normal EGD and pH-metry. Mean ISD in each subject, determined by blinded TEM of esophageal biopsies, was the average of 100 measurements (10 measurements in each of 10 micrographs). In all, 11 healthy controls, 11 FH, and 15 GERD patients were studied. Mean ISD was significantly higher in GERD compared with controls (0.87 vs. 0.32 μm, P=0.003) and FH (0.87 vs. 0.42 μm, P=0.012). Mean ISD was similar in FH and controls (0.42 vs. 0.32 μm, P=0.1). The proportion of patients with abnormal ISD was significantly higher for GERD compared with FH (60 vs. 9%, P=0.014). ISD is increased in refractory heartburn patients with GERD but not those with FH. Our findings suggest that measurement of ISD by TEM might be a useful tool to distinguish GERD from FH in patients with refractory heartburn.

  7. Endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation in refractory glaucoma after osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis in Stevens-Johnson syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Forlini, Matteo; Adabache-Guel, Tania; Bratu, Adriana; Rossini, Paolo; Mingaine, Mpekethu Sam; Cavallini, Gian Maria; Forlini, Cesare

    2014-01-01

    To report successful treatment of refractive glaucoma in a patient submitted to osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis surgery for Stevens-Johnson syndrome. An interventional case report. The patient is a 62-year-old Indian man with known Stevens-Johnson syndrome since 1972 secondary to tetracycline therapy, with bilateral dry eye and corneal blindness. He underwent symblepharon release surgery with mucous membrane graft in both eyes. Osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis surgery was later performed on the left eye. He was submitted to 2 Ahmed valve implants to control secondary glaucoma but visual fields continued to worsen; hence, he underwent endoscopic 140° cyclophotocoagulation with a good control of IOP. Endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation as alternative treatment provides good results in refractory glaucoma after osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis surgery.

  8. [Platelet allo-antibodies identification strategies for preventing and managing platelet refractoriness].

    PubMed

    Basire, A; Picard, C

    2014-11-01

    Platelet refractoriness is a serious complication for patients receiving recurrent platelet transfusions, which can be explained by non-immune and immune causes. Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) allo-immunization, especially against HLA class I, is the major cause for immune platelet refractoriness. To a lesser extent, allo-antibodies against specific Human Platelet Antigen (HPA) are also involved. Pregnancy, transplantation and previous transfusions can lead to allo-immune reaction against platelet antigens. After transfusion, platelet count is decreased by accelerated platelet destruction related to antibodies fixation on incompatible platelet antigens. New laboratory tests for allo-antibodies identification were developed to improve sensibility and specificity, especially with the LUMINEX(®) technology. The good use and interpretation of these antibodies assays can improve strategies for platelet refractoriness prevention and management with a patient adapted response. Compatible platelets units can be selected according to their identity with recipient typing or immune compatibility regarding HLA or HPA antibodies or HLA epitope compatibility. Prospective studies are needed to further confirm the clinical benefit of new allo-antibodies identification methods and consensus strategies for immune platelet refractoriness management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Increasing Ketamine Use for Refractory Status Epilepticus in US Pediatric Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Keros, Sotirios; Buraniqi, Ersida; Alex, Byron; Antonetty, Annalee; Fialho, Hugo; Hafeez, Baria; Jackson, Michele C; Jawahar, Rachel; Kjelleren, Stephanie; Stewart, Elizabeth; Morgan, Lindsey A; Wainwright, Mark S; Sogawa, Yoshimi; Patel, Anup D; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Grinspan, Zachary M

    2017-06-01

    Ketamine is an emerging therapy for pediatric refractory status epilepticus. The circumstances of its use, however, are understudied. The authors described pediatric refractory status epilepticus treated with ketamine from 2010 to 2014 at 45 centers using the Pediatric Hospital Inpatient System database. For comparison, they described children treated with pentobarbital. The authors estimated that 48 children received ketamine and pentobarbital for refractory status epilepticus, and 630 pentobarbital without ketamine. Those receiving only pentobarbital were median age 3 [interquartile range 0-10], and spent 30 [18-52] days in-hospital, including 17 [9-28] intensive care unit (ICU) days; 17% died. Median cost was $148 000 [81 000-241 000]. The pentobarbital-ketamine group was older (7 [2-11]) with longer hospital stays (51 [30-93]) and more ICU days (29 [20-56]); 29% died. Median cost was $298 000 [176 000-607 000]. For 71%, ketamine was given ≥1 day after pentobarbital. Ketamine cases per half-year increased from 2 to 9 ( P < .05). Ketamine is increasingly used for severe pediatric refractory status epilepticus, typically after pentobarbital. Research on its effectiveness is indicated.

  10. Method for hot pressing irregularly shaped refractory articles

    DOEpatents

    Steinkamp, William E.; Ballard, Ambrose H.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for hot pressing irregularly haped refractory articles with these articles of varying thickness being provided with high uniform density and dimensional accuracy. Two partially pressed compacts of the refractory material are placed in a die cavity between displaceable die punches having compact-contacting surfaces of the desired article configuration. A floating, rotatable block is disposed between the compacts. The displacement of the die punches towards one another causes the block to rotate about an axis normal to the direction of movement of the die punches to uniformly distribute the pressure loading upon the compacts for maintaining substantially equal volume displacement of the powder material during the hot pressing operation.

  11. Laboratory Treated T Cells in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, or Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-24

    CD19-Positive Neoplastic Cells Present; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  12. Gamma knife radiosurgery for medically and surgically refractory prolactinomas.

    PubMed

    Pouratian, Nader; Sheehan, Jason; Jagannathan, Jay; Laws, Edward R; Steiner, Ladislau; Vance, Mary L

    2006-08-01

    Experience with gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for prolactinomas is limited because of the efficacy of medical and surgical intervention. Patients who are refractory to medical and/or surgical therapy may be treated with GKRS. We characterize the efficacy of GKRS for medically and surgically refractory prolactinomas. We reviewed our series of patients with prolactinomas who were treated with GKRS after failing medical and surgical intervention who had at least 1 year of follow-up. Twenty-three patients were included in analysis of endocrine outcomes (median and average follow-up of 55 and 58 mo, respectively) and 28 patients were included in analysis of imaging outcomes (median and average follow-up of 48 and 52 mo, respectively). Twenty-six percent of patients achieved a normal serum prolactin (remission) with an average time of 24.5 months. Remission was significantly associated with being off of a dopamine agonist at the time of GKRS and a tumor volume less than 3.0 cm3 (P < 0.05 for both). Long-term image-based volumetric control was achieved in 89% of patients. Complications included new pituitary hormone deficiencies in 28% of patients and cranial nerve palsy in two patients (7%). Clinical remission in 26% of treated patients is a modest result. However, because the GKRS treated tumors were refractory to other therapies and because complication rates were low, GKRS should be part of the armamentarium for treating refractory prolactinomas. Patients with tumors smaller than 3.0 cm3 and who are not receiving dopamine agonist at the time of treatment will likely benefit most.

  13. Penetration and Effectiveness of Micronized Copper in Refractory Wood Species

    PubMed Central

    Civardi, Chiara; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Schubert, Mark; Michel, Elisabeth; Butron, Maria Isabel; Boone, Matthieu N.; Dierick, Manuel; Van Acker, Joris; Wick, Peter; Schwarze, Francis W. M. R.

    2016-01-01

    The North American wood decking market mostly relies on easily treatable Southern yellow pine (SYP), which is being impregnated with micronized copper (MC) wood preservatives since 2006. These formulations are composed of copper (Cu) carbonate particles (CuCO3·Cu(OH)2), with sizes ranging from 1 nm to 250 μm, according to manufacturers. MC-treated SYP wood is protected against decay by solubilized Cu2+ ions and unreacted CuCO3·Cu(OH)2 particles that successively release Cu2+ ions (reservoir effect). The wood species used for the European wood decking market differ from the North American SYP. One of the most common species is Norway spruce wood, which is poorly treatable i.e. refractory due to the anatomical properties, like pore size and structure, and chemical composition, like pit membrane components or presence of wood extractives. Therefore, MC formulations may not suitable for refractory wood species common in the European market, despite their good performance in SYP. We evaluated the penetration effectiveness of MC azole (MCA) in easily treatable Scots pine and in refractory Norway spruce wood. We assessed the effectiveness against the Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungus Rhodonia placenta. Our findings show that MCA cannot easily penetrate refractory wood species and could not confirm the presence of a reservoir effect. PMID:27649315

  14. Penetration and Effectiveness of Micronized Copper in Refractory Wood Species.

    PubMed

    Civardi, Chiara; Van den Bulcke, Jan; Schubert, Mark; Michel, Elisabeth; Butron, Maria Isabel; Boone, Matthieu N; Dierick, Manuel; Van Acker, Joris; Wick, Peter; Schwarze, Francis W M R

    2016-01-01

    The North American wood decking market mostly relies on easily treatable Southern yellow pine (SYP), which is being impregnated with micronized copper (MC) wood preservatives since 2006. These formulations are composed of copper (Cu) carbonate particles (CuCO3·Cu(OH)2), with sizes ranging from 1 nm to 250 μm, according to manufacturers. MC-treated SYP wood is protected against decay by solubilized Cu2+ ions and unreacted CuCO3·Cu(OH)2 particles that successively release Cu2+ ions (reservoir effect). The wood species used for the European wood decking market differ from the North American SYP. One of the most common species is Norway spruce wood, which is poorly treatable i.e. refractory due to the anatomical properties, like pore size and structure, and chemical composition, like pit membrane components or presence of wood extractives. Therefore, MC formulations may not suitable for refractory wood species common in the European market, despite their good performance in SYP. We evaluated the penetration effectiveness of MC azole (MCA) in easily treatable Scots pine and in refractory Norway spruce wood. We assessed the effectiveness against the Cu-tolerant wood-destroying fungus Rhodonia placenta. Our findings show that MCA cannot easily penetrate refractory wood species and could not confirm the presence of a reservoir effect.

  15. Phosphates in some Missouri refractory clays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halley, Robert B.; Foord, Eugene E.; Keller, David J.; Keller, Walter D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes in detail phosphate minerals occurring in refractory clays of Missouri and their effect on the refractory degree of the clays. The minerals identified include carbonate-fluorapatite (francolite), crandallite, goyazite, wavellite, variscite and strengite. It is emphasized that these phosphates occur only in local isolated concentrations, and not generally in Missouri refractory clays.The Missouri fireclay region comprises 2 districts, northern and southern, separated by the Missouri River. In this region, clay constitutes a major part of the Lower Pennsylvanian Cheltenham Formation. The original Cheltenham mud was an argillic residue derived from leaching and dissolution of pre-Pennsylvanian carbonates. The mud accumulated on a karstic erosion surface truncating the pre-Cheltenham rocks. Fireclays of the northern district consist mainly of poorly ordered kaolinite, with variable but minor amounts of illite, chlorite and fine-grained detrital quartz. Clays of the southern district were subjected to extreme leaching that produced well-ordered kaolinite flint clays. Local desilication formed pockets of diaspore, or more commonly, kaolinite, with oolite-like nubs or burls of diaspore (“burley”" clay).The phosphate-bearing materials have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectral analysis (SEM-EDS) and chemical analysis. Calcian goyazite was identified in a sample of diaspore, and francolite in a sample of flint clay. A veinlet of wavellite occurs in flint clay at one locality, and a veinlet of variscite-strengite at another locality.The Missouri flint-clay-hosted francolite could not have formed in the same manner as marine francolite. The evidence suggests that the Cheltenham francolite precipitated from ion complexes in pore water, nearly simultaneously with crystallization of kaolinite flint clay from an alumina-silica gel. Calcian goyazite is an early diagenetic addition to its diaspore

  16. Refractory Pain Management in Amyloid-Associated Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Warner, Nafisseh S; Watson, James C; Bendel, Markus A; Moeschler, Susan M

    2018-05-01

    Systemic amyloidosis is a disease that often involves multiple organ systems, including the peripheral nervous system. Patients may present with severe, refractory neuropathic pain; however, the optimal treatment approach for pain for these patients remains unclear. A man with severe, refractory neuropathic pain in his bilateral upper and lower extremities and the trunk secondary to amyloid neuropathy is presented. Multiple medication trials, including neuropathic and opioid agents, produced considerable adverse effects and minimal relief. Scrambler therapy, a novel electrical stimulation modality, was used and was associated with substantial short-term but nonsustained benefit. Spinal cord stimulation was considered, but given his diffuse symptoms, it was deemed a less-than-optimal approach. Ultimately, an intrathecal drug delivery system was placed with infusion of hydromorphone, resulting in substantial pain reduction in all involved areas and with an improved adverse effect profile. This intervention resulted in immense improvement in the patient's quality of life, despite progression of his systemic amyloidosis. Severe pain in the setting of amyloid neuropathy is often difficult to treat. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of Scrambler therapy or an implanted intrathecal drug delivery system used for a patient with refractory amyloidosis-related neuropathic pain, resulting in substantial analgesic benefit and improved quality of life.

  17. Refractory Hypertension: Determination of Prevalence, Risk Factors and Comorbidities in a Large, Population-Based Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, David A.; Booth, John N.; Oparil, Suzanne; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Shimbo, Daichi; Lackland, Daniel T.; Howard, George; Safford, Monika M.; Muntner, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Refractory hypertension is an extreme phenotype of antihypertensive treatment failure. Participants in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study, a large (n=30,239), population-based cohort were evaluated to determine the prevalence of refractory hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities. Refractory hypertension was defined as uncontrolled blood pressure (systolic/diastolic ≥ 140/90 mm Hg) on ≥ 5 antihypertensive drug classes. Participants with resistant hypertension (systolic/diastolic ≥140/90 mm Hg on ≥ 3 or<140/90 mm Hg on ≥ 4 antihypertensive classes) and all treated hypertensive participants served as comparator groups. Of 14,809 REGARDS participants receiving antihypertensive treatment, 78 (0.5%) had refractory hypertension. The prevalence of refractory hypertension was 3.6% among participants with resistant hypertension(n=2,144) and 41.7% among participants on 5 or more antihypertensive drug classes. Among all hypertensive participants, African American race, male gender, living in the stroke belt or buckle, higher body mass index, lower heart rate, reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, diabetes and history of stroke and coronary heart disease were associated with refractory hypertension. Compared to resistant hypertension, prevalence ratios for refractory hypertension were increased for African Americans (3.00, 95% CI 1.68 – 5.37) and those with albuminuria (2.22, 95% CI 1.40 – 3.52) and diabetes (2.09, 95% CI 1.32 – 3.31). The median 10-year Framingham risk for coronary heart disease and stroke was higher among participants with refractory hypertension compared to either comparator group. These data indicate that while resistant hypertension is relatively common among treated hypertensive patients, true antihypertensive treatment failure is rare. PMID:24324035

  18. Management of severe and/or refractory epistaxis.

    PubMed

    García-Cabo, Patricia; Fernández-Vañes, Laura; Pedregal, Daniel; Menéndez Del Castro, Marta; Murias, Eduardo; Vega, Pedro; Llorente, José Luis; Rodrigo, Juan Pablo; López, Fernando

    2018-05-18

    The objective was to determine the results of the treatment of severe and/or refractory epistaxis requiring hospital admission. In addition, the results of arterial ligation versus embolization were compared. Sixty-three patients with severe and/or refractory epistaxis requiring hospital admission between August 2014 and December 2016 were included prospectively. Eleven patients (17%) underwent embolization, 5 (8%) endoscopy ligation and the remaining 47 (75%) underwent conservative treatment with tamponade. The mean age of the patients in which conservative measures were sufficient was 72 years, while the age of those treated with embolization was 71 years and of those who underwent surgery was 53 years. For the patients who underwent conservative treatment or surgery, the average stay was 6 days, compared to 9 days for those who underwent embolization. One patient suffered a hemispheric stroke after embolization. No post-surgical complications were observed. Most cases of severe and/or refractory epistaxis are resolved by conventional tamponade. Endoscopy ligation is associated with a decrease in hospital stay, without serious complications. It is advisable to have all the possible therapeutic options available, for which the presence of interventional radiologists and experienced surgeons is essential to avoid complications and decide the treatment to be performed individually for each patient. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Refractory thermal insulation for smooth metal surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    To protect rocket metal surfaces from engine exhaust heat, a refractory thermal insulation mixture, which adheres to smooth metals, has been developed. Insulation protection over a wide temperature range can be controlled by thickness of the applied mixture.

  20. [Early functional hemispherectomy in hemimegalencephaly associated to refractory epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Luiz Fernando; Melo, Renato Pacheco de; Cukiert, Arthur; Burattini, Jose Augusto; Mariani, Pedro Paulo; Brandão, Ródio; Ceda, Lauro; Baldauf, Cristine Mella; Argentoni, Meire; Forster, Cássio; Baise, Carla

    2004-12-01

    Hemimegalencephaly (HME) is a rare congenital brain malformation of unknown etiology. Patients with HME can present with an early onset epileptic syndrome which is often refractory to medical treatment and associated to impaired neurological development. Functional hemispherectomy (FH) has proven to be a valuable treatment alternative in patients with refractory epilepsy in this setting. Very few children operated under the age of 6 months and bearing HME and catastrophic epilepsy (CE) have been described in the literature. This study reports on 2 kids younger than 6 months with HME and CE submitted to FH with good clinical outcome.

  1. High Throughput Drug Sensitivity Assay and Genomics- Guided Treatment of Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-02-28

    Acute Leukemia of Ambiguous Lineage; Recurrent Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Refractory Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  2. Testing Consent Order on Refractory Ceramic Fibers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This notice announces that EPA has signed signed an enforceable testing consent order under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), 15 U.S.C. section 2601 at seq., with three of the primary producers of refractory ceramic fibers (RCF).

  3. The role of tendinitis in fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Genç, Hakan; Saracoğlu, Meryem; Duyur, Burcu; Erdem, Hatice Rana

    2003-08-30

    Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FS) is a common disease characterized by diffuse, widespread pain and multiple tender points. The syndrome has been subclassified as primary (PFS) and secondary (SFS) fibromyalgia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of common tendinitis (rotator cuff tendinitis, bicipital tendinitis, lateral epicondylitis, De-Quervain's tendinitis and pes anserinus tendinitis) in FS. Twenty female patients with PFS, 20 with SFS and 20 female controls, matched by age and body mass index, participated in the study. Existence of common tendinitis was evaluated with specific examination methods. Right and left rotator cuff tendinitis, pes anserinus tendinitis and left lateral epicondylitis were significantly more common in patients with PFS and SFS than in control subjects. As a result, considering the central hyperexcitability present in the fibromyalgia patients, concomitant pathologies such as tendinitis which lead to shoulder, arm, and leg pain must be evaluated. Follow up and therapy for the disease must be planned according to these factors which are not only probable symptoms of FS, but also leading causes for the occurrence and continuity of the pain in this disease.

  4. Brentuximab Vedotin and Lenalidomide in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory T-Cell Lymphomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-15

    CD30-Positive Neoplastic Cells Present; Folliculotropic Mycosis Fungoides; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides; Recurrent Primary Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Mycosis Fungoides; Refractory Primary Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Sezary Syndrome

  5. Refractory status epilepticus and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies in adults: presentation, treatment and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Khawaja, Ayaz M; Vines, Brannon L; Miller, David W; Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Amara, Amy W

    2016-03-01

    Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GAD-Abs) have been implicated in refractory epilepsy. The association with refractory status epilepticus in adults has been rarely described. We discuss our experience in managing three adult patients who presented with refractory status epilepticus associated with GAD-Abs. Case series with retrospective chart and literature review. Three patients without pre-existing epilepsy who presented to our institution with generalized seizures between 2013 and 2014 were identified. Seizures proved refractory to first and second-line therapies and persisted beyond 24 hours. Patient 1 was a 22-year-old female who had elevated serum GAD-Ab titres at 0.49 mmol/l (normal: <0.02) and was treated with multiple immuno- and chemotherapies, with eventual partial seizure control. Patient 2 was a 61-year-old black female whose serum GAD-Ab titre was 0.08 mmol/l. EEG showed persistent generalized periodic discharges despite maximized therapy with anticonvulsants but no immunotherapy, resulting in withdrawal of care and discharge to nursing home. Patient 3 was a 50-year-old black female whose serum GAD-Ab titre was 0.08 mmol/l, and was discovered to have pulmonary sarcoidosis. Treatment with steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin resulted in seizure resolution. Due to the responsiveness to immunotherapy, there may be an association between GAD-Abs and refractory seizures, including refractory status epilepticus. Causation cannot be established since GAD-Abs may be elevated secondary to concurrent autoimmune diseases or formed de novo in response to GAD antigen exposure by neuronal injury. Based on this report and available literature, there may be a role for immuno- and chemotherapy in the management of refractory status epilepticus associated with GAD-Abs.

  6. Stem cell transplantation as rescue therapy for refractory Crohn's disease: a sytematic review.

    PubMed

    Labidi, Asma; Serghini, Meriem; Ben Mustapha, Nadia; Fekih, Monia; Boubaker, Jalel; Filali, Azza

    2014-11-01

    Crohn's disease is a chronic relapsing- remitting affection. It has a strong immunologic component which represent the target of standard therapies including immunosppressants and biological therapies. However, many patients remain refracory or intolerant to these therapies. The aim of this review is to determine the effects of stem cell transplantation in patients with refractory Crohn's disease. Systematic review of observational studies, clinical trials and case reports that focused on the effectiveness and safety of stem cell transplantation in patients with refractory Crohn's disease. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation seems to be efficient in maintaining clinical and endoscopic remission in patients with Crohn's disease refractory or intolerant to current therapies. However, it has been associated to high morbidity and mortality due to chemotherapy. Mesenchymal stem cell transplantation could induce remission in patients with fistulising refractory Crohns disease with no severe side effects. Its impact on luminal Crohns disease is still controversial. Stem cell transplantation seems to hold promising in patients with refractory Crohn's disease. However, because of the high morbidity and mortality related to chemotherapy, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation should be used as last resort to control this disease. Effectiveness of mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in luminal Crohn's disease has yet to be proven.

  7. Modified Anterolateral Portals in Elbow Arthroscopy: A Cadaveric Study on Safety.

    PubMed

    Thon, Stephen; Gold, Peter; Rush, Lane; O'Brien, Michael J; Savoie, Felix H

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the proximity to the radial nerve on cadaveric specimens of 2 modified anterolateral portals used for elbow arthroscopy. Ten fresh cadaveric elbow specimens were prepared. Four-millimeter Steinman pins were inserted into 3 anterolateral portal sites in relation to the lateral epicondyle: (1) the standard distal anterolateral portal, (2) a modified direct anterolateral portal, and (3) a modified proximal anterolateral portal. These were defined as follows: direct portals 2 cm directly anterior to the lateral epicondyle, and proximal portals 2 cm proximal and 2 cm directly anterior to the lateral epicondyle. Each elbow was then dissected to reveal the course of the radial nerve. Digital photographs were taken of each specimen, and the distance from the Steinman pin to the radial nerve was measured. The modified proximal anterolateral and direct anterolateral portals were found to be a statistically significant distance from the radial nerve compare to the distal portal site (P = .011 and P = .0011, respectively). No significant difference was found in the proximity of the radial nerve between the modified proximal and direct anterolateral portals (P = .25). Inadequate imaging was found at a single portal site for the proximal site; 9 specimens were used for analysis of this portal with 10 complete specimens for the other 2 sites. In cadaveric analysis, both the modified proximal and direct lateral portals provide adequate distance from the radial nerve and may be safe for clinical use. In this study, the distal anterolateral portal was in close proximity of the radial nerve and may result in iatrogenic injury in the clinical setting. This is a cadaveric analysis of 2 modified portal locations at the anterolateral elbow for use in elbow arthroscopy. Further clinical studies are needed prior to determining their absolute safety in comparison to previously identified portal sites. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by

  8. Effects of Temperature, Oxygen Partial Pressure, and Materials Selection on Slag Infiltration into Porous Refractories for Entrained-Flow Gasifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Tetsuya Kenneth

    The penetration rate of molten mineral contents (slag) from spent carbonaceous feedstock into porous ceramic-oxide refractory linings is a critical parameter in determining the lifecycle of integrated gasification combined cycle energy production plants. Refractory linings that withstand longer operation without interruption are desirable because they can mitigate consumable and maintenance costs. Although refractory degradation has been extensively studied for many other high-temperature industrial processes, this work focuses on the mechanisms that are unique to entrained-flow gasification systems. The use of unique feedstock mixtures, temperatures from 1450 °C to 1600 °C, and oxygen partial pressures from 10-7 atm to 10-9 atm pose engineering challenges in designing an optimal refractory material. Experimentation, characterization, and modeling show that gasifier slag infiltration into porous refractory is determined by interactions between the slag and the refractory that either form a physical barrier that impedes fluid flow or induce an increased fluid viscosity that decelerates the velocity of the fluid body. The viscosity of the slag is modified by the thermal profile of the refractory along the penetration direction as well as reactions between the slag and refractory that alter the chemistry, and thereby the thermo-physical properties of the fluid. Infiltration experiments reveal that the temperature gradient inherently present along the refractory lining limits penetration. A refractory in near-isothermal conditions demonstrates deeper slag penetration as compared to one that experiences a steeper thermal profile. The decrease in the local temperatures of the slag as it travels deeper into the refractory increases the viscosity of the fluid, which in turn slows the infiltration velocity of fluid body into the pores of the refractory microstructure. With feedstock mixtures that exhibit high iron-oxide concentrations, a transition-metal-oxide, the oxygen

  9. Electrodeposition of Refractory Carbide Coatings.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-30

    refractory carbide coatings from molten salts is described. It consists of the simultaneous reduction of the appropriate metal species dissolved in the...Electrodeposition Molden salts 20. ASSTRACT (Continue an reve.e. 0g.. It necooom wed identify bp block nu.be) A novel method for electrodepositing...respectively. Electrolysis resulted in the formation of millimeter-size crystals on the walls of the graphite crucible which served as the cathode. Analysis of

  10. REFRACTORY DIE FOR EXTRUDING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.

    1959-08-11

    A die is presented for the extrusion of metals, said die being formed of a refractory complex oxide having the composition M/sub n/O/sub m/R/sub x/O/sub y/ where M is magnesium, zinc, manganese, or iron, R is aluminum, chromic chromium, ferric iron, or manganic manganese, and m, n, x, and y are whole numbers. Specific examples are spinel, magnesium aluminate, magnetite, magnesioferrite, chromite, and franklinite.

  11. The Influence of refractoriness upon comprehension of non-verbal auditory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Crutch, Sebastian J; Warrington, Elizabeth K

    2008-01-01

    An investigation of non-verbal auditory comprehension in two patients with global aphasia following stroke is reported. The primary aim of the investigation was to establish whether refractory access disorders can affect non-verbal input modalities. All previous reports of refractoriness, a cognitive syndrome characterized by response inconsistency, sensitivity to temporal factors and insensitivity to item frequency, have involved comprehension tasks which have a verbal component. Two main experiments are described. The first consists of a novel sound-to-picture and sound-to-word matching task in which comprehension of environmental sounds is probed under conditions of semantic relatedness and semantic unrelatedness. In addition to the two stroke patients, the performance of a group of 10 control patients with non-vascular pathology is reported, along with evidence of semantic relatedness effects in sound comprehension. The second experiment examines environmental sound comprehension within a repetitive probing paradigm which affords assessment of the effects of semantic relatedness, response consistency and presentation rate. It is demonstrated that the two stroke patients show a significant increase in error rate across multiple probes of the same set of sound stimuli, indicating the presence of refractoriness within this non-verbal domain. The implications of the results are discussed with reference to our current understanding of the mechanisms of refractoriness.

  12. Oral tranexamic acid lightens refractory melasma.

    PubMed

    Tan, Aaron Wei Min; Sen, Priya; Chua, Sze Hon; Goh, Boon Kee

    2017-08-01

    Melasma is a common acquired hyperpigmentary disorder, particularly among Asians and Hispanics, but its exact pathomechanism is poorly understood. Tranexamic acid has been found to lighten melasma by interfering with the interaction of melanocytes and keratinocytes by inhibiting the plasminogen/plasmin system. The aim was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of oral tranexamic acid in the treatment of melasma refractory to topical skin-lightening agents. This retrospective study analyses patients with melasma recruited from a tertiary dermatological centre in Singapore between 1 August 2009 and 31 March 2011. The patients chosen had refractory melasma treated with oral tranexamic acid 250 mg twice daily in addition to pre-existing combination topical therapy. Objective assessment using the physician's global assessment and melasma area and severity index (MASI) scores were performed based on a post-hoc analysis of photographic records by three independent physicians. A paired t-test was used to evaluate the changes in the MASI scores pre-therapy and post-treatment. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.05. Altogether 25 patients were treated with tranexamic acid for a mean period of 3.7 ± 0.33 months, in addition to combination topical therapy. Their mean age was 47.2 ± 1.61 years. The mean MASI scores after tranexamic acid treatment (2.7 ± 1.6) were significantly lower (P < 0.01) than those prior to treatment (8.8 ± 4.2). The mean improvement in scores was 69%. The follow-up period was up to 6 months. Low-dose oral tranexamic acid can serve as a safe and useful adjunct in the treatment of refractory melasma. © 2016 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  13. Refractory overactive bladder: Beyond oral anticholinergic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Glinski, Ronald W.; Siegel, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: In this review, we discuss the treatment of refractory overactive bladder (OAB) that has not adequately responded to medication therapy and we propose an appropriate care pathway to the treatment of OAB. We also attempt to address the cost of OAB treatments. Materials and Methods: A selective expert review of the current literature on the subject of refractory OAB using MEDLINE was performed and the data is summarized. We also review our experience in treating refractory OAB. The role and outcomes of various treatment options for refractory OAB are discussed and combined therapy with oral anticholinergics is explored. Emerging remedies including intravesical botulinum toxin injection and pudendal neuromodulation are also reviewed, along with conventional surgical options. Results: In general behavioral therapy, pelvic floor electrical stimulation, magnetic therapy and posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS), have shown symptom decreases in 50-80% of patients with OAB. Depending on the study, combination therapy with oral anticholinergics seems to improve efficacy of behavioral therapy and PTNS in approximately 10-30%. In multicenter, long-term randomized controlled trials, sacral neuromodulation has been shown to improve symptoms of OAB and OAB incontinence in up to 80% of the patients treated. Studies involving emerging therapies such as pudendal serve stimulation suggest that there may be a 15-20% increase in efficacy over sacral neuromodulation, but long-term studies are not yet available. Another emerging therapy, botulinum toxin, is also showing similar success in reducing OAB symptoms in 80-90% of patients. Surgical approaches, such as bladder augmentation, are a last resort in the treatment of OAB and are rarely used at this point unless upper tract damage is a concern and all other treatment options have been exhausted. Conclusion: The vast majority of OAB patients can be managed successfully by behavioral options with or without

  14. Successful treatment of refractory seizures with phenobarbital, propofol, and medetomidine following congenital portosystemic shunt ligation in a dog.

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, Dorothee C; Giordano, Paola; Kirby, Barbara M

    2016-11-01

    To report a case of refractory seizures following congenital portosystemic shunt (CPSS) ligation that regained normal neurologic and hepatic function with novel treatment. Medical care included constant rate infusions (CRI) of propofol and medetomidine in conjunction with phenobarbital and supportive intensive care. A 2-year-old neutered male Bichon Frise was diagnosed with a single extrahepatic CPSS based on typical clinical signs, laboratory data, abdominal ultrasound, and computed tomographic angiography. Following initiation of standard medical treatment, a complete surgical ligation of the CPSS was performed. Recovery was uneventful until postligation neurologic dysfunction developed 54 hours after surgery. Seizures were controlled with phenobarbital (6 mg/kg IM q 12 h) and propofol CRI (0.3-0.6 mg/kg/min). Attempts to wean the dog from the propofol CRI resulted in recurrence of seizure activity until the addition of medetomidine CRI (0.016 μg/kg/min) 76 hours after initiation of drug-induced coma allowed gradual discontinuation of the propofol CRI. The dog regained full neurologic and hepatic function and had no further seizure activity apart from a small number of seizure episodes 5 and 22 months later. Adjustments in antiepileptic treatment resulted in no further neurologic dysfunction at 27-month follow-up. This report highlights the potential benefit of medetomidine CRI for treatment of postattenuation refractory seizures, which to date have proven impossible to predict and difficult to treat with high mortality rates and persistent neurological deficits in surviving animals. Neuroprotective, drug-sparing, and anti-hypertensive features of medetomidine might improve outcome in postligation refractory seizures. Further investigation and clinical application of medetomidine CRI may improve outcome in this complication of CPSS attenuation. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  15. Development of a patient decision aid for people with refractory angina: protocol for a three-phase pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Refractory angina is a severe chronic disease, defined as angina which cannot be controlled by usual treatments for heart disease. This disease is frightening, debilitating, and difficult to manage. Many people suffering refractory have inadequate pain relief, continually revisit emergency departments for help, undergo repeated cardiac investigations, and struggle with obtaining appropriate care. There is no clear framework to help people understand the risks and benefits of available treatment options in Canada. Some treatments for refractory angina are invasive, while others are not covered by provincial health insurance plans. Effective care for refractory angina sufferers in Canada is critically underdeveloped; it is important that healthcare professionals and refractory angina sufferers alike understand the treatment options and their implications. This proposal builds on the recent Canadian practice guidelines for the management of refractory angina. We propose to develop a decision support tool in order to help people suffering from refractory angina make well-informed decisions about their healthcare and reduce their uncertainty about treatment options. Methods This project will be conducted in three phases: a) development of the support tool with input from clinical experts, the Canadian refractory angina guidelines, and people living with refractory angina, b) pilot testing of the usability of the tool, and c) formal preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness of the support tool to help people make informed decisions about treatment options. Discussion A decision support tool for refractory angina is needed and the available data suggest that by developing such a tool, we may be able to help refractory angina sufferers better understand their condition and the effectiveness of available treatment options (in their respective clinical settings) as well as their implications (e.g. risks vs. benefits). By virtue of this tool, we may also be able

  16. Methods and apparatus for reducing corrosion in refractory linings

    DOEpatents

    Poeppel, Roger B.; Greenberg, Sherman; Diercks, Dwight R.

    1987-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are provided for reducing corrosion in a refractory lining of a liquid-containing vessel used in direct steelmaking processes. The vessel operates at between about 1600.degree. C. and about 1800.degree. C. and an oxygen partial pressure of about 10.sup.-12 atmospheres, creating slag which is rich in FeO. The refractory lining includes a significant level of chromium oxide (Cr.sub.2 O.sub.3), and has small interconnected pores which may be filled with a gas mixture having a higher total pressure and oxygen partial pressure than the total pressure and oxygen partial pressure associted with the liquid against the lining of the vessel. The gas mixture is forced through the pores of the lining so that the pores are continuously filled with the mixture. In this manner, the gas mixture creates a blanket which increases the oxygen partial pressure at the lining enough to maintain the chromium in the lining in a selected valence state in which the chromium has decreased solubility in the FeO slag, thereby reducing corrosion by the FeO and increasing the useful life of the refractory lining.

  17. Morphometric brain characterization of refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder: diffeomorphic anatomic registration using exponentiated Lie algebra.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wanjie; Li, Bin; Huang, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Li, Fei; Wang, Lijuan; Chen, Taolin; Wang, Jinhui; Gong, Qiyong; Yang, Yanchun

    2013-10-01

    Few studies have used neuroimaging to characterize treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study sought to explore gray matter structure in patients with treatment-refractory OCD and compare it with that of healthy controls. A total of 18 subjects with treatment-refractory OCD and 26 healthy volunteers were analyzed by MRI using a 3.0-T scanner and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) was used to identify structural changes in gray matter associated with treatment-refractory OCD. A partial correlation model was used to analyze whether morphometric changes were associated with Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores and illness duration. Gray matter volume did not differ significantly between the two groups. Treatment-refractory OCD patients showed significantly lower gray matter density than healthy subjects in the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and mediodorsal thalamus (MD) and significantly higher gray matter density in the left dorsal striatum (putamen). These changes did not correlate with symptom severity or illness duration. Our findings provide new evidence of deficits in gray matter density in treatment-refractory OCD patients. These patients may show characteristic density abnormalities in the left PCC, MD and dorsal striatum (putamen), which should be verified in longitudinal studies. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Medical versus surgical treatment for refractory or recurrent peptic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Pallari, Elena

    2016-03-29

    Refractory peptic ulcers are ulcers in the stomach or duodenum that do not heal after eight to 12 weeks of medical treatment or those that are associated with complications despite medical treatment. Recurrent peptic ulcers are peptic ulcers that recur after healing of the ulcer. Given the number of deaths due to peptic ulcer-related complications and the long-term complications of medical treatment (increased incidence of fracture), it is unclear whether medical or surgical intervention is the better treatment option in people with recurrent or refractory peptic ulcers. To assess the benefits and harms of medical versus surgical treatment for people with recurrent or refractory peptic ulcer. We searched the specialised register of the Cochrane Upper GI and Pancreatic Diseases group, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, and trials registers until September 2015 to identify randomised trials and non-randomised studies, using search strategies. We also searched the references of included studies to identify further studies. We considered randomised controlled trials and non-randomised studies comparing medical treatment with surgical treatment in people with refractory or recurrent peptic ulcer, irrespective of language, blinding, or publication status for inclusion in the review. Two review authors independently identified trials and extracted data. We planned to calculate the risk ratio, mean difference, standardised mean difference, or hazard ratio with 95% confidence intervals using both fixed-effect and random-effects models with Review Manager 5 based on intention-to-treat analysis. We included only one non-randomised study published 30 years ago in the review. This study included 77 participants who had gastric ulcer and in whom medical therapy (histamine H2 receptor blockers, antacids, and diet) had failed after an average duration of treatment of 29 months. The

  19. Spontaneous growth of polarizing refractory metal ‘nano-fins’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, M. C.; Gentle, A. R.; Arnold, M. D.; Cortie, M. B.

    2018-03-01

    Traditional polymer polarizers degrade in harsh environments and at high temperatures, reducing the polarization effect. In contrast, polarizers produced with refractory metals have vastly improved thermal stability and resistance to harsh environments but are expensive to fabricate. Here we demonstrate prototype refractory metal wire grid polarizers produced by co-sputtering molybdenum and aluminum under specific conditions. Removal of the aluminum through selective dissolution enables the nanostructure array to transmit light. The polarization spans 500-1100 nm and the extinction ratio significantly increases to >100. Possessing broadband polarization and sufficient extinction ratios, the new polarizing film has potential applications in coatings for sunglasses, windows, pyrometers, scientific instruments, and LCD panels.

  20. Response to parenteral iron therapy distinguish unexplained refractory iron deficiency anemia from iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia.

    PubMed

    Akin, M; Sarbay, H; Guler, S; Balci, Y I; Polat, A

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated that response to parenteral iron therapy could be helpful in distinguishing the types of iron deficiency anemia. This study analyzed responses to IV iron sucrose therapy of 15 children with unexplained refractory iron deficiency anemia (URIDA). We compared the results at diagnosis, 6 weeks and 6 months after the therapy. Results were compared with responses of 11 patients' results with iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia (IRIDA) from our previous study. Six weeks after the start of treatment, ferritin, MCV, MCH and Hb values were in normal range in 10 patients. The increase in Hb, MCH, MCV, and ferritin values ranged 2.6-3.5 g/dL, 1.7-4.2 pg, 2-9 fL, and 13-25 ng/mL, respectively. In five patients, Hb, MCH, and MCV mean (range) values [11.2 g/dL (11-12.2), 24.5 pg (24-25.6), and 67 fL (65-70)] were nearly normal but ferritin mean (range) values [9.8 ng/mL (8-11)] were below normal. Six weeks after the start of treatment, Hb, MCH, MCV and ferritin values of patients with IRIDA were increased. The increase in Hb, MCH, MCV, and ferritin values ranged 0.8-2.7 g/dL, 1.7-4.2 pg, 2-9 fL, and 13-25 ng/mL, respectively. IRIDA is only partially responsive to parenteral iron supplementation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the response to intravenous iron therapy for the URIDA cases improved blood parameters more effectively than hereditary IRIDA. Response to parenteral iron therapy would be helpful to distinguish unexplained refractory IDA from hereditary IRIDA for clinicians who do not have access to hepcidin or TMPRS6 mutation analysis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Super-refractory status epilepticus in West China.

    PubMed

    Tian, L; Li, Y; Xue, X; Wu, M; Liu, F; Hao, X; Zhou, D

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to determine the general frequency, mortality, and risk factors of super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) versus non-refractory status epilepticus (NRSE) and refractory status epilepticus (RSE). This work is a retrospective study. Clinical data of patients who were diagnosed with status epilepticus (SE) in the neurological ward and neuro-intensive care unit of West China Hospital from January 2009 to December 2012 were collected and analyzed. A total of 98 patients were included in the study. The percentages of NRSE, RSE, and SRSE were 67.3%, 20.4%, and 12.2%, respectively. Convulsive SE was the main seizure type among the three groups. The most common cause of NRSE was related to epilepsy (EP). However, 67.7% of SRSE cases were caused by acute encephalitis. Moreover, 47% of SE and 40% of RSE cases had a history of EP, whereas only 8.3% of SRSE cases had such history (P < 0.01). The percentage of patients with STESS ≤2 was lowest in the SRSE group without statistical significance (P > 0.05). The general mortality of SE was 7.1%, whereas that of SRSE was 50%. During follow-up, most SRSE patients who survived have developed symptomatic EP. This study was the first to use the statistical percentage of SRSE. Approximately 12.2% of SE cases will result in SRSE, which is a challenging medical situation for doctors. Patients with first episodes and acute encephalitis were also prone to develop SRSE. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Traditional and Alternative Therapies for Refractory Angina.

    PubMed

    Kocyigit, Duygu; Gurses, Kadri Murat; Yalcin, Muhammed Ulvi; Tokgozoglu, Lale

    2017-01-01

    Refractory angina (RFA) is an unfavourable condition that is characterized with persistent angina due to reversible myocardial ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease that remains uncontrollable despite an optimal combination of pharmacological agents and revascularization. Despite significant advances in revascularization techniques and agents used in pharmacological therapy, there is still a significant population suffering from RFA and the global prevalence is even increasing. Anti- anginal treatment and secondary risk-factor modification are the traditional approaches for this group of patients. Furthermore, now there is still a large number of alternative treatment options. In order to review traditional and alternative treatment strategies in patients with RFA, we searched Pubmed for articles in English using the search terms "pharmacological therapy, refractory angina", "alternative therapy, refractory angina" between inception to June 2016. We also went through separately for each alternative treatment modality on Pubmed. To identify further articles, we handsearched related citations in review articles and commentaries. We also included data from the European Society of Cardiology (2013), and the Canadian Society of Cardiology/ Canadian Pain Society (2012) guidelines. Data show that besides traditional pharmacological agents, such as nitrates, beta- blockers or calcium channel blockers, novel antiischemic drugs and if symptoms persist, several non- invasive and/ or invasive alternative strategies may be considered. Impact of some pharmacological agents, such as rho- kinase inhibitors, and novel alternative treatment modalities, such as coronary sinus reducers, stem cell therapy, gene and protein therapy, on outcomes are still under investigation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Efficacy of Pregabalin in Childhood Refractory Partial Seizure

    PubMed Central

    Zamani, Gholamreza; Tavasoli, Alireza; Zare-Shahabadi, Ameneh; Rezaei, Nima; Ahmadvand, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Objective: About one third of partial seizures are refractory to treatment. Several anticonvulsant drugs have entered the market in recent decades but concerns about intolerance, drug interactions, and the safety of the drug are notable. One of these new anticonvulsants is pregabalin, a safe drug with almost no interaction with other antiepileptic drugs. Methods: In this open label clinical trial study, pregabalin was used for evaluation of its efficacy on reducing seizure frequency in 29 children suffering from refractory partial seizures. Average daily and weekly seizure frequency of the patients was recorded during a 6-week period (baseline period). Then, during a period of 2 weeks (titration period), pregabalin was started with a dose of 25-75 mg/d, using method of flexible dose, and was brought to maximum dose of drug that was intended in this study (450 mg/d) based on clinical response of the patients and seizure frequency. Then the patients were given the drug for 12 weeks and the average frequency of daily and weekly seizures were recorded again (treatment period). Findings : Reduction in seizure frequency in this study was 36% and the responder rate or number of patients who gained more than 50% reduction in seizure frequency was 51.7%. Conclusion: This study showed that pregabalin can be used with safety and an acceptable efficacy in treatment of childhood refractory partial seizures. PMID:25793053

  4. R-ICE and Lenalidomide in Treating Patients With First-Relapse/Primary Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-25

    CD20 Positive; Recurrent B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Mediastinal (Thymic) Large B-Cell Cell Lymphoma; Refractory B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Mediastinal (Thymic) Large B-Cell Cell Lymphoma; Transformed Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

  5. Obinutuzumab, Venetoclax, and Lenalidomide in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory B-cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-10-17

    B-Cell Lymphoma, Unclassifiable, With Features Intermediate Between Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma and Burkitt Lymphoma; Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Grade 3a Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Burkitt Lymphoma; Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Refractory Burkitt Lymphoma; Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Follicular Lymphoma; Transformed Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

  6. 2000-centiGray total lymphoid irradiation for refractory rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Trentham, D.E.; Belli, J.A.; Bloomer, W.D.

    Because toxicity with the use of 3000 centiGray (cGy) of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) was observed in an earlier study, 2000-cGy treatments were delivered in a 2-portal format to 7 patients and in a modified 3-portal fashion to 6 patients, as part of a randomized, investigator-blinded trial of TLI treatment for refractory rheumatoid arthritis. Analysis of combined data from the 13 patients revealed statistically significant improvement in 5 clinical indicators of disease activity at the end of TLI and 6 and 12 months later, accompanied by T4-specific immunosuppression. Management considerations resulted in the introduction of prednisone therapy in 5 patients,more » methotrexate in 4, and azathioprine in 1 during the interval of 8-12 months post-TLI. Herpes zoster occurred in 5 patients prior to the initiation of this additional therapy. These data indicate that, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, a TLI dose of 2000 cGy is sufficient to produce measurable benefit that lasts for 6 months, and that the improvement can be maintained at 12 months by the use of prednisone and methotrexate.« less

  7. Dietary therapy is not the best option for refractory nonsurgical epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Vaccarezza, María Magdalena; Silva, Walter Horacio

    2015-09-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is currently a well-established treatment for patients with medically refractory, nonsurgical epilepsy. However, despite its efficacy, the KD is highly restrictive and constitutes a treatment with serious potential adverse effects, and often with difficulties in its implementation and compliance. Patients on the KD require strict follow-up and constant supervision by a medical team highly experienced in its management in order to prevent complications. Other alternative treatments for patients with refractory epilepsy include vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), new-generation antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), corpus callosotomy (CC), and responsive focal cortical stimulation (RNS). In this review, we explain not only the difficulties of the KD as a therapeutic option for refractory epilepsy but also the benefits of other therapeutic strategies, which, in many cases, have proven to have better efficacy than the KD itself. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  8. Stimulant-Responsive and Stimulant-Refractory Aggressive Behavior Among Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Blader, Joseph C.; Pliszka, Steven R.; Jensen, Peter S.; Schooler, Nina R.; Kafantaris, Vivian

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to examine factors that are associated with aggression that is responsive versus refractory to individualized optimization of stimulant monotherapy among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS Children who were aged 6 to 13 years and had ADHD, either oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, significant aggressive behavior, and a history of insufficient response to stimulants completed an open stimulant monotherapy optimization protocol. Stimulant titration with weekly assessments of behavior and tolerability identified an optimal regimen for each child. Families also received behavioral therapy. Parents completed the Retrospective-Modified Overt Aggression Scale (R-MOAS) at each visit. Children were classified as having stimulant-refractory aggression on the basis of R-MOAS ratings and clinician judgment. Differences that pertained to treatment, demographic, and psychopathology between groups with stimulant monotherapy–responsive and –refractory aggression were evaluated. RESULTS Aggression among 32 (49.3%) of 65 children was reduced sufficiently after stimulant dosage adjustment and behavioral therapy to preclude adjunctive medication. Those who responded to stimulant monotherapy were more likely to benefit from the protocol’s methylphenidate preparation (once-daily, triphasic release), showed a trend for lower average dosages, and received fewer behavioral therapy sessions than did children with stimulant-refractory aggression. Boys, especially those with higher ratings of baseline aggression and of depressive and manic symptoms, more often exhibited stimulant-refractory aggression. CONCLUSIONS Among children whose aggressive behavior develops in the context of ADHD and of oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder, and who had insufficient response to previous stimulant treatment in routine clinical care, systematic, well-monitored titration of stimulant monotherapy

  9. Dietary therapy is the best option for refractory nonsurgical epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Felton, Elizabeth A; Cervenka, Mackenzie C

    2015-09-01

    Ketogenic diet therapies for epilepsy have been described since the fifth century and published in scientific literature since the early 1900s. Since that time, the diet's popularity has waxed and waned as newer drugs and other treatments have been introduced. However, in recent years, dietary therapy for epilepsy has been increasingly accepted by physicians and desired by patients as an alternative to new drugs and neurostimulation. The introduction of less restrictive versions of the classic ketogenic diet, such as the modified Atkins diet (MAD), have led to increased numbers of adult patients with refractory epilepsy who are initiating dietary treatment. Approximately half of adults and children who start a ketogenic diet have a >50% seizure reduction, which is impressive given that these patients typically have medically refractory epilepsy. We believe that ketogenic dietary treatment is the best option for children and adults with refractory nonsurgical epilepsy due to its efficacy, rapid seizure reduction, synergistic effects with other antiseizure treatments, known and treatable side effects, potential to treat comorbid medical conditions, and worldwide availability. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  10. A Refractory Inclusion Returned by Stardust from Comet 81P/Wild 2

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, S B; Joswiak, D J; Ishii, H A

    2008-05-20

    Among the samples returned from comet 81P/Wild 2 by the Stardust spacecraft is a suite of particles from one impact track (Track 25) that are Ca-, Al-rich and FeO-free. We studied three particles from this track that range in size from 5.3 x 3.2 {micro}m to 15 x 10 {micro}m. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy show that they consist of very fine-grained (from {approx}0.5 to {approx}2 {micro}m) Al-rich, Ti-bearing and Ti-free clinopyroxene, Mg-Al spinel, anorthite, perovskite, and osbornite (TiN). In addition to these phases, the terminal particle, named 'Inti', also contains melilite. All of these phases, with the exception ofmore » osbornite, are common in refractory inclusions and are predicted to condense at high temperature from a gas of solar composition. Osbornite, though very rare, has also been found in meteoritic refractory inclusions, and could have formed in a region of the nebula where carbon became enriched relative to oxygen compared to solar composition. Compositions of Ti-pyroxene in Inti are similar, but not identical, to those of fassaite from Allende inclusions. Electron energy loss spectroscopy shows that Ti-rich pyroxene in Inti has Ti{sup 3+}/Ti{sup 4+} within the range of typical meteoritic fassaite, consistent with formation under reducing conditions comparable to those of a system of solar composition. Inti is {sup 16}O-rich, with {delta}{sup 18}O {approx} {delta}{sup 17}O {approx} 40{per_thousand}, like unaltered phases in refractory inclusions and refractory IDPs. With grain sizes, mineralogy, mineral chemistry, and an oxygen isotopic composition like those of refractory inclusions, we conclude that Inti is a refractory inclusion that formed in the inner solar nebula. Identification of a particle that formed in the inner Solar System among the comet samples demonstrates that there was transport of materials from the inner to the outer nebula, probably either in a bipolar outflow or by turbulence.« less

  11. A refractory inclusion returned by Stardust from comet 81P/Wild 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, S. B.; Joswiak, D. J.; Ishii, H. A.; Bradley, J. P.; Chi, M.; Grossman, L.; AlÉOn, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Fallon, S.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Matrajt, G.; McKeegan, K. D.

    2008-11-01

    Among the samples returned from comet 81P/Wild 2 by the Stardust spacecraft is a suite of particles from one impact track (Track 25) that are Ca-, Al-rich and FeO-free. We studied three particles from this track that range in size from 5.3 × 3.2 μ to 15 × 10 μ. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy show that they consist of very fine-grained (typically from ˜0.5 to ˜2 μ) Al-rich, Ti-bearing and Ti-free clinopyroxene, Mg-Al spinel and anorthite, with trace amounts of fine perovskite, FeNi metal and osbornite (TiN) grains. In addition to these phases, the terminal particle, named "Inti", also contains melilite. All of these phases, with the exception of osbornite, are common in refractory inclusions and are predicted to condense at high temperature from a gas of solar composition. Osbornite, though very rare, has also been found in meteoritic refractory inclusions, and could have formed in a region of the nebula where carbon became enriched relative to oxygen compared to solar composition. Compositions of Ti-pyroxene in Inti are similar, but not identical, to those of fassaite from Allende inclusions. Electron energy loss spectroscopy shows that Ti-rich pyroxene in Inti has Ti3+/Ti4+within the range of typical meteoritic fassaite, consistent with formation under reducing conditions comparable to those of a system of solar composition. Inti is 16O-rich, with δ18O?δ17O?-40%0, like unaltered phases in refractory inclusions and refractory IDPs. With grain sizes, mineralogy, mineral chemistry, and an oxygen isotopic composition like those of refractory inclusions, we conclude that Inti is a refractory inclusion that formed in the inner solar nebula. Identification of a particle that formed in the inner solar system among the comet samples demonstrates that there was transport of materials from the inner to the outer nebula, probably either in a bipolar outflow or by turbulence.

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation Questionnaire on lateral elbow tendinopathy for French-speaking patients.

    PubMed

    Kaux, Jean-François; Delvaux, François; Schaus, Jean; Demoulin, Christophe; Locquet, Médéa; Buckinx, Fanny; Beaudart, Charlotte; Dardenne, Nadia; Van Beveren, Julien; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Forthomme, Bénédicte; Bruyère, Olivier

    Translation and validation of algo-functional questionnaire. The lateral elbow tendinopathy is a common injury in tennis players and physical workers. The Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) Questionnaire was specifically designed to measure pain and functional limitations in patients with lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow). First developed in English, this questionnaire has since been translated into several languages. The aims of the study were to translate and cross-culturally adapt the PRTEE questionnaire into French and to evaluate the reliability and validity of this translated version of the questionnaire (PRTEE-F). The PRTEE was translated and cross-culturally adapted into French according to international guidelines. To assess the reliability and validity of the PRTEE-F, 115 participants were asked twice to fill in the PRTEE-F, and once the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (DASH) and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Internal consistency (using Cronbach's alpha), test-retest reliability (using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement and minimal detectable change), and convergent and divergent validity (using the Spearman's correlation coefficients respectively with the DASH and with some subscales of the SF-36) were assessed. The PRTEE was translated into French without any problems. PRTEE-F showed a good test-retest reliability for the overall score (ICC 0.86) and for each item (ICC 0.8-0.96) and a high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.98). The correlation analyses revealed high correlation coefficients between PRTEE-F and DASH (convergent validity) and, as expected, a low or moderate correlation with the divergent subscales of the SF-36 (discriminant validity). There was no floor or ceiling effect. The PRTEE questionnaire was successfully cross-culturally adapted into French. The PRTEE-F is reliable and valid for evaluating French-speaking patients with lateral elbow

  13. Haptoglobin genotypes and refractory hypertension in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Wobeto, Vânia Pereira Albuquerque; Pinho, Paula da Cunha; Souza, José Roberto M; Zaccariotto, Tânia Regina; Zonati, Maria de Fátima

    2011-10-01

    It has been suggested that haptoglobin polymorphism may influence the pathogenesis of microvascular and macrovascular complications in diabetic patients. This cross sectional study was carried out to investigate the existence or not of an association between haptoglobin genotypes and prevalence of ischemic cardiovascular events (stable angina, unstable angina and acute myocardial infarction), systemic arterial hypertension, refractory hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia in 120 type-2 diabetes mellitus patients followed up at Hospital de Clínicas da UNICAMP in Campinas, São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil. Haptoglobin genotyping was performed by allele-specific polymerase chain reactions. The frequencies of the haptoglobin genotypes were compared with the presence/absence of cardiovascular disease, systemic arterial hypertension, refractory hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia; systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements; plasma levels of glucose, cholesterol (total, high density lipoprotein-HDL and low density lipoprotein-LDL) and triglycerides; and serum creatinine levels. Although no association between haptoglobin genotype and the presence of cardiovascular disease could be identified, we found a significant excess of patients with Hp2-1 genotype among those with refractory hypertension, who also had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and total and LDL cholesterol levels. Our results suggest that type-2 diabetes mellitus patients with the Hp2-1 genotype may have higher chances of developing refractory hypertension. Further studies in other diabetic populations are required to confirm these findings.

  14. CAR-T cells and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for relapsed/refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Xi; Zhong, Jiang F; Zhang, Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has a low remission rate after chemotherapy, a high relapse rate and poor long-term survival even when allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is performed. Chimeric antigen receptors redirected T cells (CAR-T cells) can enhance disease remission with a favorable outcome for relapsed/refractory ALL, though some cases quickly relapsed after CAR-T cell treatment. Thus, treatment with CAR-T cells followed by allo-HSCT may be the best way to treat relapsed/refractory ALL. In this review, we first discuss the different types of CAR-T cells. We then discuss the treatment of relapsed/refractory ALL using only CAR-T cells. Finally, we discuss the use of CAR-T cells, followed by allo-HSCT, for the treatment of relapsed/refractory ALL.

  15. Durvalumab With or Without Lenalidomide in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Cutaneous or Peripheral T Cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-06

    Folliculotropic Mycosis Fungoides; Recurrent Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides; Refractory Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Mycosis Fungoides; Refractory Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Sezary Syndrome; Recurrent Mature T- and NK-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

  16. Patient with Gorlin syndrome and metastatic basal cell carcinoma refractory to smoothened inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gefei A; Li, Angela S; Chang, Anne Lynn S

    2014-08-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) in patients with Gorlin syndrome have been reported to be extremely sensitive to Smoothened (SMO) inhibitors, a novel targeted therapy against the Hedgehog pathway, because of characteristic mutations in these patients. A few cases of disease refractory to oral therapy with SMO inhibitors have been reported in patients with Gorlin syndrome and nonmetastatic BCCs, but refractory disease in distantly metastatic tumors has not been documented in this high-risk group. A man with Gorlin syndrome and innumerable cutaneous BCCs presented with biopsy-proven BCC in his lungs. After SMO inhibitor therapy, almost all of his cutaneous tumors shrank, but his lung metastases did not. These lung metastases remained refractory to treatment despite institution of a second SMO inhibitor. We report a case of Gorlin syndrome in a patient with metastatic BCC refractory to SMO inhibitors. Furthermore, clinical responses in this patient's cutaneous tumors did not parallel the responses in the distant site. However, serial imaging after diagnosis of metastatic disease can be critical to monitor for response to therapy.

  17. Classical management of refractory adult immune (idiopathic) thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    McMillan, R

    2002-03-01

    Treatment of chronic immune (idiopathic) thrombocytopenic purpura with corticosteroids and/or splenectomy results in safe platelet counts in over 70% of patients without additional treatment. Therapy of patients who are refractory to these two treatments may be difficult. The treatment approach to refractory ITP patients, described in this report, is arbitrarily divided into four levels: levels 1 through 3 represent treatments with increasing side effects; level 4 therapy may be tried when the others have failed. Patients undergoing these treatments may require concomitant intravenous gammaglobulin, high-dose corticosteroids or platelets, to maintain the platelet count in the setting of mucosal bleeding or severe thrombocytopenia. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Treatment of refractory status epilepticus with topiramate. Report of three cases].

    PubMed

    Soler, Bernardita; Godoy, Jaime; Mellado Talesnik, Patricio

    2009-07-01

    Refractory status epilepticus is a catastrophic illness of the central nervous system, with a mortality rate that reaches 50%. We report three patients admitted with refractory status epilepticus: a 24 year-old male that discontinued antiepileptic medications, a 46 year-old male with a focal epilepsy secondary to an encephalitis that discontinued medications due to gastrointestinal problems and a 59 year-old male with an ischemic encephalopathy AH were treated with topiramate, delivered through a nasogastric tube with a good response.

  19. Emissivity Results on High Temperature Coatings for Refractory Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohlhorst, Craig W.; Vaughn, Wallace L.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Lewis, Ronald K.; Rodriguez, Alvaro C.; Milhoan, James D.; Koenig, John R.

    2007-01-01

    The directional emissivity of various refractory composite materials considered for application for reentry and hypersonic vehicles was investigated. The directional emissivity was measured at elevated temperatures of up to 3400 F using a directional spectral radiometric technique during arc-jet test runs. A laboratory-based relative total radiance method was also used to measure total normal emissivity of some of the refractory composite materials. The data from the two techniques are compared. The paper will also compare the historical database of Reinforced Carbon-Carbon emissivity measurements with emissivity values generated recently on the material using the two techniques described in the paper.

  20. Toll-like receptor 2 expression in refractory periapical lesions.

    PubMed

    Desai, S V; Love, R M; Rich, A M; Seymour, G J

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the expression of TLR2 in refractory periapical lesions. Refractory periapical lesion biopsies were histopathologically and clinically categorized into asymptomatic periapical granuloma (n=10), symptomatic periapical granuloma (n=10) or periapical cyst (n=10) and prepared for immunohistochemical staining using antibodies to TLR2, CD3 and CD19 or staining with methyl green pyronin. Sections were viewed under light microscopy and the presence or absence of the target cells was correlated with the histopathological and clinical data. Additionally, TLR2 expression was quantified by counting TLR(+) cells. Various mononuclear inflammatory cells in the bacteria-induced periapical lesions were reactive to TLR2 antibody, with many showing morphological similarities to lymphocytes and plasma cells. Lymphocytes were the most numerous cells in the inflammatory infiltrate. In refractory periapical granuloma, CD3(+) T cells were more numerous, whereas in periapical cysts, CD19(+) B cells were more numerous. There was a statistically significant (P<0.05) higher expression of TLR2 in symptomatic periapical granuloma than asymptomatic periapical granuloma or periapical cyst. The presence of TLR-expressing cells in periapical granulomas and cysts provides further evidence that periapical cysts are likely to be sustained by the immune system via reaction to bacterial antigens. © 2011 International Endodontic Journal.

  1. Adalimumab for the treatment of refractory noninfectious paediatric uveitis.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Gallego, Alicia; Barral, Estefanía; Enríquez, Eugenia; Tejada, Pilar; Barceló, Ana; de Inocencio, Jaime

    2017-06-01

    To report the experience of our center with the use of adalimumab (ADA) for the treatment of severe refractory noninfectious paediatric uveitis. The study is a retrospective case series of all paediatric patients with refractory uveitis who were treated with ADA at the Paediatric Uveitis Unit of our center from 2008 to 2015. We present 12 patients (6 Juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis, 4 idiopathic panuveitis, 1 early-onset sarcoidosis-associated panuveitis, and 1 intermediate uveitis), with uveitis in 19/24 eyes. Once ADA therapy was started, all the patients presented improved activity according to Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature (SUN) criteria. Nine out of the 12 patients had structural damage before ADA could be started: cataract (n = 4), glaucoma (n = 2), cystic macular edema (n = 1), exudative retinal detachment (n = 1), and optic disk edema (n = 5). Visual acuity improved or maintained stable in 17/19 affected eyes, and only 2 eyes decreased its visual acuity because of structural damage, which was already present before ADA therapy. In our experience, ADA presents a good safety profile and is efficacious in the treatment of paediatric patients with different forms of refractory noninfectious uveitis.

  2. Synthesis of refractory materials

    DOEpatents

    Holt, Joseph B.

    1984-01-01

    Refractory metal nitrides are synthesized during a self-propagating combustion process utilizing a solid source of nitrogren. For this purpose, a metal azide is employed, preferably NaN.sub.3. The azide is combusted with Mg or Ca, and a metal oxide is selected from Groups III-A, IV-A, III-B, IV-B, or a rare earth metal oxide. The mixture of azide, Ca or Mg and metal oxide is heated to the mixture's ignition temperature. At that temperature the mixture is ignited and undergoes self-sustaining combustion until the starter materials are exhausted, producing the metal nitride.

  3. Synthesis of refractory materials

    DOEpatents

    Holt, J.B.

    1983-08-16

    Refractory metal nitrides are synthesized during a self-propagating combustion process utilizing a solid source of nitrogen. For this purpose, a metal azide is employed, preferably NaN/sub 3/. The azide is combusted with Mg or Ca, and a metal oxide is selected from Groups III-A, IV-A, III-B, IV-B, or a rare earth metal oxide. The mixture of azide, Ca or Mg and metal oxide is heated to the mixture's ignition temperature. At that temperature the mixture is ignited and undergoes self-sustaining combustion until the starter materials are exhausted, producing the metal nitride.

  4. Sub-micrometer refractory carbonaceous particles in the polar stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütze, Katharina; Wilson, James Charles; Weinbruch, Stephan; Benker, Nathalie; Ebert, Martin; Günther, Gebhard; Weigel, Ralf; Borrmann, Stephan

    2017-10-01

    Eleven particle samples collected in the polar stratosphere during SOLVE (SAGE III Ozone loss and validation experiment) from January until March 2000 were characterized in detail by high-resolution transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM/SEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. A total of 4202 particles (TEM = 3872; SEM = 330) were analyzed from these samples, which were collected mostly inside the polar vortex in the altitude range between 17.3 and 19.9 km. Particles that were volatile in the microscope beams contained ammonium sulfates and hydrogen sulfates and dominated the samples. Some particles with diameters ranging from 20 to 830 nm were refractory in the electron beams. Carbonaceous particles containing additional elements to C and O comprised from 72 to 100 % of the refractory particles. The rest were internal mixtures of these materials with sulfates. The median number mixing ratio of the refractory particles, expressed in units of particles per milligram of air, was 1.1 (mg air)-1 and varied between 0.65 and 2.3 (mg air)-1. Most of the refractory carbonaceous particles are completely amorphous, a few of the particles are partly ordered with a graphene sheet separation distance of 0.37 ± 0.06 nm (mean value ± standard deviation). Carbon and oxygen are the only detected major elements with an atomic O/C ratio of 0.11 ± 0.07. Minor elements observed include Si, S, Fe, Cr and Ni with the following atomic ratios relative to C: Si/C: 0.010 ± 0.011; S/C: 0.0007 ± 0.0015; Fe/C: 0.0052 ± 0.0074; Cr/C: 0.0012 ± 0.0017; Ni/C: 0.0006 ± 0.0011 (all mean values ± standard deviation).High-resolution element distribution images reveal that the minor elements are distributed within the carbonaceous matrix; i.e., heterogeneous inclusions are not observed. No difference in size, nanostructure and elemental composition was found between particles collected inside and outside the polar vortex. Based on chemistry and nanostructure

  5. Refractory Materials for Flame Deflector Protection System Corrosion Control: Similar Industries and/or Launch Facilities Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Coffman, Brekke E.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Kolody, Mark R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Perusich, Stephen A.; Trejo, David; Whitten, Mary C.; hide

    2009-01-01

    A trade study and litera ture survey of refractory materials (fi rebrick. refractory concrete. and si licone and epoxy ablatives) were conducted to identify candidate replacement materials for Launch Complexes 39A and 398 at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). In addition, site vis its and in terviews with industry expens and vendors of refractory materials were conducted. As a result of the si te visits and interviews, several products were identified for launch applications. Firebrick is costly to procure and install and was not used in the si tes studied. Refractory concrete is gunnable. adheres well. and costs less 10 install. Martyte. a ceramic fi lled epoxy. can protect structural stccl but is costly. difficullto apply. and incompatible with silicone ablatives. Havanex, a phenolic ablative material, is easy to apply but is costly and requires frequent replacement. Silicone ablatives are ineJ[pensive, easy to apply. and perl'onn well outside of direct rocket impingement areas. but refractory concrete and epoxy ablatives provide better protection against direcl rocket exhaust. None of the prodUCIS in this trade study can be considered a panacea for these KSC launch complexes. but the refractory products. individually or in combination, may be considered for use provided the appropriate testing requirements and specifications are met.

  6. Abatacept in the treatment of severe, longstanding, and refractory uveitis associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Tappeiner, Christoph; Miserocchi, Elisabetta; Bodaghi, Bahram; Kotaniemi, Kaisu; Mackensen, Friederike; Gerloni, Valeria; Quartier, Pierre; Lutz, Thomas; Heiligenhaus, Arnd

    2015-04-01

    Abatacept (ABA), a selective T cell costimulation modulator that binds to CD80 and CD86 on antigen-presenting cells, was investigated for its antiinflammatory effect in treating severe chronic uveitis associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Our retrospective study was conducted by members of the Multinational Interdisciplinary Working Group for Uveitis in Childhood (MIWGUC). Patients with JIA who are receiving ABA treatment for active uveitis were included. In all patients, uveitis had been refractory to previous topical and systemic corticosteroids, immunosuppressives, and at least 1 tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor. A standardized protocol was used to document uveitis (MIWGUC) and arthritis. Baseline visit and visits at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months before and after ABA start were evaluated. Primary outcome measure was defined as achievement of uveitis inactivity; secondary outcome measures were tapering of corticosteroid and/or immunosuppressive treatment, and occurrence of complications. In all, 21 patients (16 female) with active uveitis (n = 21) and arthritis (n = 18) were included (mean age 11.8 ± 3.6 yrs). In 7 of 18 patients with active arthritis at baseline, inactivity was achieved following ABA treatment. Uveitis inactivity was achieved in 11 patients, but recurred later in 8 of them, and remained active in another 10 cases. Systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppression were tapered in 3 patients, but uveitis recurred in all of them during further followup. Ocular complications secondary to uveitis were present in 17 patients at baseline, while 3 patients developed new ocular complications during followup. A sustained response to ABA was uncommon in patients with severe and refractory uveitis.

  7. Colonic exclusion and combined therapy for refractory constipation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hong-Yun; Xu, Ai-Zhong

    2006-12-28

    To investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of colonic exclusion and combined therapy for refractory constipation. Thirty-two patients with refractory constipation were randomly divided into treatment group (n = 14) and control group (n = 18). Fourteen patients in treatment group underwent colonic exclusion and end-to-side colorectal anastomosis. Eighteen patients in control group received subtotal colectomy and end-to-end colorectal anastomosis. The therapeutic effects of the operations were assessed by comparing the surgical time, incision length, volume of blood losses, hospital stay, recovery rate and complication incidence. All patients received long-term follow-up. All operations were successful and patients recovered fully after the operations. In comparison of treatment group and control group, the surgical time (h), incision length (cm), volume of blood losses (mL), hospital stay (d) were 87 +/- 16 min vs 194 +/- 23 min (t = 9.85), 10.4 +/- 0.5 cm vs 21.2 +/- 1.8 cm (t = 14.26), 79.5 +/- 31.3 mL vs 286.3 +/- 49.2 mL (t = 17.24), and 11.8 +/- 2.4 d vs 18.6 +/- 2.6 d (t = 6.91), respectively (P < 0.001 for all). The recovery rate and complication incidence were 85.7% vs 88.9% (P = 0.14 > 0.05), 21.4% vs 33.3% (P = 0.73 > 0.05), respectively. Colonic exclusion has better therapeutic efficacy on refractory constipation. It has many advantages such as shorter surgical time, smaller incision, fewer blood losses and shorter hospital stay.

  8. Severe and Refractory Hypertension in a Young Woman

    PubMed Central

    Cuadra, René H; White, William B

    2016-01-01

    Background Refractory hypertension in a young person is an uncommon clinical problem, but one that may be referred to hypertension specialists. Factitious hypertension is fortunately quite rare, but should be considered when evaluating patients who are refractory to numerous classes of antihypertensive therapies and have failed to achieve control despite input from multiple providers. Report of a Case A 19 year old woman was referred to us after failing to achieve blood pressure control by a primary physician and 2 subspecialists in nephrology and hypertension; she also had numerous emergency department visits for symptomatic and severe hypertension. Exhaustive diagnostic testing for secondary causes and witnessed medication dosing in an outpatient setting was unrevealing. Subsequent inpatient admission demonstrated normalization of BPs with small doses of intravenous antihypertensive agents. During the hospitalization, she was observed “pocketing” her oral medications in the buccal folds, and then discarding them in a trash container. Confrontation by psychiatrists and the hypertension specialists led to the admission that she had learned to start and stop beta-blockers and clonidine to induce severe, rebound hypertension. Discussion Factitious and induced hypertension is a rare cause of resistant or refractory hypertension. Nevertheless, hypertension specialists should suspect the diagnosis when there is a history of visits to multiple institutions and physicians, negative secondary workup, absence of overt target organ damage, history of psychiatric illness, and employment in the medical field. PMID:27160032

  9. Neuroimaging evaluation in refractory epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Granados, Ana M; Orejuela, Juan F

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe the application of neuroimaging analysis, compared to neuropsychological tests and video-electroencephalogram, for the evaluation of refractory epilepsy in a reference centre in Cali, Colombia. Methods Between March 2013 and November 2014, 29 patients, 19 men and 10 women, aged 9–65 years and with refractory epilepsy, were assessed by structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing tasks related to language, verbal and non-verbal memory. Also, volumetric evaluation was performed. A 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner was used in all cases. Results Neuroimaging evaluation identified 13 patients with mesial temporal sclerosis. The remaining patients were classified as: 10 patients with neoplastic masses, two patients with cortical atrophy, two patients with scarring lesions and two patients with non-structural aetiology. Among patients with mesial temporal sclerosis, comparison between techniques for lateralising the epileptogenic foci was made; the κ index between functional magnetic resonance imaging and hippocampi volumetry was κ = 1.00, agreement between neuroimaging and video-electroencephalogram was good (κ = 0.78) and comparison with a neuropsychological test was mild (κ = 0.24). Conclusions Neuroimaging studies allow the assessment of functional and structural damage related to epileptogenic lesions and foci, and are helpful to select surgical treatment, conduct intraoperative neuronavigation techniques, predict surgical deficits and evaluate patient recovery. PMID:26427897

  10. Fully covered self-expanding metallic stent placement for benign refractory esophageal strictures.

    PubMed

    Kahalekar, Vinit; Gupta, Deepak Trilokinath; Bhatt, Pratin; Shukla, Akash; Bhatia, Shobna

    2017-05-01

    Treatment options for benign refractory esophageal stricture are limited. We retrospectively analyzed data of 11 patients who underwent fully covered self-expanding metallic stent (FC-SEMS) placement for refractory benign esophageal stricture at our institute. Refractory benign esophageal stricture was defined as inability to dilate a stricture to a diameter of 14 mm after a minimum of five sessions at 2-week intervals or inability to maintain diameter of 14 mm for at least 4 weeks. Eleven patients with refractory benign esophageal stricture (corrosive-6, peptic-3, and post-sclerotherapy-2) underwent FC-SEMS placement. The stent was removed after 4-6 weeks as per manufacturer's recommendation. Patients were followed up for 1 year. Three patients with peptic strictures [length of stricture 2, 3, and 3 cm] and two patients with post-sclerotherapy stricture [length 2 and 1.5 cm] had complete response. Two of 6 patients with corrosive stricture (10 cm, 12 cm) developed recurrence of symptoms within 1 month of stent removal, and two after 2 months (8 cm, 3 cm). One patient with corrosive stricture (6 cm) had recurrence after 6 months, and responded to single session of dilatation. One patient with corrosive stricture was asymptomatic for last 12 months. Four stents were migrated. Four patients developed severe retrosternal pain following stent placement, which was managed with analgesics. There were no serious adverse events after placement of stent and removal of stent. Fully covered SEMS is safe and effective for refractory benign non-corrosive esophageal strictures.

  11. Vitamin D Supplementation for Prevention of Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis: Evaluation in Animal and Clinical Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Orthopaedics. Sargent School of Physical Therapy , Boston University, November 6, 2001, Boston, Massachusetts. 4. Foot and Ankle Injuries. Sargent School...of Physical Therapy , Boston University, November 13, 2001, Boston, Massachusetts. 39 5. Triceps Rupture and Reconstruction: Case Report and Review...treatment of de Quervain syndrome. J Hand Surg 38: 2247-2249, 2013. 57. Judson C, Wolf JM. Lateral epicondylitis: injection therapies . Orthop Clin

  12. Contextual processing in unpredictable auditory environments: the limited resource model of auditory refractoriness in the rhesus

    PubMed Central

    Gurnsey, Kate; Salisbury, Dean; Sweet, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Auditory refractoriness refers to the finding of smaller electroencephalographic (EEG) responses to tones preceded by shorter periods of silence. To date, its physiological mechanisms remain unclear, limiting the insights gained from findings of abnormal refractoriness in individuals with schizophrenia. To resolve this roadblock, we studied auditory refractoriness in the rhesus, one of the most important animal models of auditory function, using grids of up to 32 chronically implanted cranial EEG electrodes. Four macaques passively listened to sounds whose identity and timing was random, thus preventing animals from forming valid predictions about upcoming sounds. Stimulus onset asynchrony ranged between 0.2 and 12.8 s, thus encompassing the clinically relevant timescale of refractoriness. Our results show refractoriness in all 8 previously identified middle- and long-latency components that peaked between 14 and 170 ms after tone onset. Refractoriness may reflect the formation and gradual decay of a basic sensory memory trace that may be mirrored by the expenditure and gradual recovery of a limited physiological resource that determines generator excitability. For all 8 components, results were consistent with the assumption that processing of each tone expends ∼65% of the available resource. Differences between components are caused by how quickly the resource recovers. Recovery time constants of different components ranged between 0.5 and 2 s. This work provides a solid conceptual, methodological, and computational foundation to dissect the physiological mechanisms of auditory refractoriness in the rhesus. Such knowledge may, in turn, help develop novel pharmacological, mechanism-targeted interventions. PMID:27512021

  13. Chronopotentiometry of refractory metals, actinides and oxyanions in molten salts: A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1992-01-01

    The applications of chronopotentiometry to the study of electrochemical behavior of three technologically important areas of refractory metals, actinides, and oxyanions in molten salts are critically reviewed. Chronopotentiometry is a very versatile diagnostic tool to understand the reaction mechanism of the electrode processes for the electrochemical reduction/oxidation of these electroactive species in molten salt solutions. Well adherent, compact, and uniformly thick coatings of refractory metals may be electrodeposited from their solutions in molten salts.

  14. Pembrolizumab and Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma, Follicular Lymphoma, or Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-23

    Grade 3a Follicular Lymphoma; Grade 3b Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Mediastinal (Thymic) Large B-Cell Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Follicular Lymphoma; Refractory Mediastinal (Thymic) Large B-Cell Cell Lymphoma

  15. Two-Step Oxidation of Refractory Gold Concentrates with Different Microbial Communities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Hua; Xie, Jian-Ping; Li, Shou-Peng; Guo, Yu-Jie; Pan, Ying; Wu, Haiyan; Liu, Xin-Xing

    2016-11-28

    Bio-oxidation is an effective technology for treatment of refractory gold concentrates. However, the unsatisfactory oxidation rate and long residence time, which cause a lower cyanide leaching rate and gold recovery, are key factors that restrict the application of traditional bio-oxidation technology. In this study, the oxidation rate of refractory gold concentrates and the adaption of microorganisms were analyzed to evaluate a newly developed two-step pretreatment process, which includes a high temperature chemical oxidation step and a subsequent bio-oxidation step. The oxidation rate and recovery rate of gold were improved significantly after the two-step process. The results showed that the highest oxidation rate of sulfide sulfur could reach to 99.01 % with an extreme thermophile microbial community when the pulp density was 5%. Accordingly, the recovery rate of gold was elevated to 92.51%. Meanwhile, the results revealed that moderate thermophiles performed better than acidophilic mesophiles and extreme thermophiles, whose oxidation rates declined drastically when the pulp density was increased to 10% and 15%. The oxidation rates of sulfide sulfur with moderate thermophiles were 93.94% and 65.73% when the pulp density was increased to 10% and 15%, respectively. All these results indicated that the two-step pretreatment increased the oxidation rate of refractory gold concentrates and is a potential technology to pretreat the refractory sample. Meanwhile, owing to the sensitivity of the microbial community under different pulp density levels, the optimization of microbial community in bio-oxidation is necessary in industry.

  16. MgAl2O4 spinel refractory as containment liner for high-temperature alkali salt containing environments

    DOEpatents

    Peascoe-Meisner, Roberta A [Knoxville, TN; Keiser, James R [Oak Ridge, TN; Hemric, James G [Knoxville, TN; Hubbard, Camden R [Oak Ridge, TN; Gorog, J Peter [Kent, WA; Gupta, Amul [Jamestown, NY

    2008-10-21

    A method includes containing a high-temperature alkali salt containing environment using a refractory containment liner containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel. A method, includes forming a refractory brick containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel having an exterior chill zone defined by substantially columnar crystallization and an interior zone defined by substantially equiaxed crystallization; and removing at least a portion of the exterior chill zone from the refractory brick containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel by scalping the refractory brick containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel to define at least one outer surface having an area of substantially equiaxed crystallization. A product of manufacture includes a refractory brick containing MgAl.sub.2O.sub.4 spinel including an interior zone defined by substantially equiaxed crystallization; and at least one outer surface having an area of substantially equiaxed crystallization.

  17. Design and development of advanced castable refractory materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Robert Bruce

    New formulations of castable refractory composite materials were studied. This technology is used to produce low cost composite concrete structures designed for high temperature stability, superior wear resistance and improved strength. An in situ fired, castable cement installation is a heterogeneous structure divided into three zones according to the temperature history and microstructure. The properties of each zone depend on the predominant bonding mode between constituents. Each zone has a characteristic microstructure that influences the integrity of the monolith. The hot side may have a highly dense and developed network of ceramic bonds between constituent particles while the cold side may never reach temperatures sufficient to drive off free water. The thermal, structural and tribological properties depend on the microstructure and the type of bonding that holds the monolith together. The phase distributions are defined by sets of metastable phase conditions driven by the local hydrated chemistry, nearest neighbor oxide compounds, impurities and sintering temperature. Equilibrium phase diagrams were used to select optimum compositions based on higher melting point phases. The phase diagrams were also used to target high temperature phase fields that are stable over wide temperature and stoichiometric ranges. Materials selection of candidate hydraulic clinkers, high temperature oxides, and reinforcement phases were based on requirements for high temperature stability. The calcium aluminate (CaO-Al2O3) and calcium dialuminate (CaO-(Al2O3)2) are common refractory clinkers used in castable refractory cements. The thermodynamics and kinetics of cement hydrate formation are well studied and suited to become the building block of a design for a superior refractory castable cement. The inert oxides mixed with the calcium aluminate clinkers are magnesia (MgO), alumina (Al 2O3), spinel (MgAl2O4) and chromic (Cr2O3). The bulk of the experiments concentrated in the Al

  18. Corrosion assessment of refractory materials for high temperature waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Marra, J.C.; Congdon, J.W.; Kielpinski, A.L.

    1995-11-01

    A variety of vitrification technologies are being evaluated to immobilize radioactive and hazardous wastes following years of nuclear materials production throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The compositions and physical forms of these wastes are diverse ranging from inorganic sludges to organic liquids to heterogeneous debris. Melt and off-gas products can be very corrosive at the high temperatures required to melt many of these waste streams. Ensuring material durability is required to develop viable treatment processes. Corrosion testing of materials in some of the anticipated severe environments is an important aspect of the materials identification and selection process. Corrosionmore » coupon tests on typical materials used in Joule heated melters were completed using glass compositions with high salt contents. The presence of chloride in the melts caused the most severe attack. In the metal alloys, oxidation was the predominant corrosion mechanism, while in the tested refractory material enhanced dissolution of the refractory into the glass was observed. Corrosion testing of numerous different refractory materials was performed in a plasma vitrification system using a surrogate heterogeneous debris waste. Extensive corrosion was observed in all tested materials.« less

  19. Treatment of refractory chylothorax with externalized pleuroperitoneal shunts in children.

    PubMed

    Wolff, A B; Silen, M L; Kokoska, E R; Rodgers, B M

    1999-09-01

    Traditional therapy for refractory chylothorax in the pediatric population has included pleurodesis and thoracic duct ligation. These procedures are associated with high morbidity and questionable success rates. We retrospectively reviewed our experience with 15 patients who underwent treatment for chylous effusions using pleuroperitoneal shunts with exteriorized pump chambers. Mean patient age at time of shunt placement was 2.1 (0.1 to 11.5) years and the most common indication (7 of 15) was refractory chylothorax following surgical correction of congenital heart disease. Mean chylothorax duration before shunt placement was 76 (5 to 810) days and shunts were in place for an average of 104 (12 to 365) days. A total of 19 chylous effusions (pleural or pericardial) were treated with shunts. Nine of 11 right-sided chylothoraces, 5 of 6 left-sided chylothoraces, and 2 of 2 chylopericardia resolved with shunt therapy (84% total). Pleuroperitoneal shunting failed to clear the effusion in 3 children. There were six episodes of shunt malfunction that were repaired and two episodes of infection. Inguinal or umbilical hernia developed in 4 patients. Externalized pleuroperitoneal shunting is a safe, effective, and minimally invasive treatment for children with refractory chylous effusions.

  20. Clinical and Electrocardiographic Characteristics of Electrical Storms Due to Monomorphic Ventricular Tachycardia Refractory to Intravenous Amiodarone.

    PubMed

    Murata, Hiroshige; Miyauchi, Yasushi; Hayashi, Meiso; Iwasaki, Yu-Ki; Yodogawa, Kenji; Ueno, Akira; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Ippei; Uetake, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Kenta; Yamamoto, Teppei; Maruyama, Mitsunori; Akutsu, Koichi; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Keiji; Atarashi, Hirotsugu; Katoh, Takao; Shimizu, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    Few reports are available on the characteristics of electrical storms of ventricular tachycardia (VT storm) refractory to intravenous (IV) amiodarone. IV-amiodarone was administered to 60 patients with ventricular tachyarrhythmia between 2007 and 2012. VT storms, defined as 3 or more episodes of VT within 24 h, occurred in 30 patients (68±12 years, 7 female), with 12 having ischemic and 18 non-ischemic heart disease. We compared the clinical and electrocardiographic characteristics of the patients with VT storms suppressed by IV-amiodarone (Effective group) to those of patients not affected by the treatment (Refractory group). IV-amiodarone could not control recurrence of VT in 9 patients (30%). The Refractory group comprised 5 patients with acute myocardial infarctions. Although there was no difference in the VT cycle length, the QRS duration of both the VT and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) followed by VT was narrower in the Refractory group than in the Effective group (140±30 vs. 178±25 ms, P<0.01; 121±14 vs. 179±22 ms, P<0.01). In the Refractory group, additional administration of IV-mexiletine and/or Purkinje potential-guided catheter ablation was effective. IV-amiodarone-refractory VT exhibited a relatively narrow QRS tachycardia. The narrow triggering PVCs, suggesting a Purkinje fiber origin, may be treated by additional IV-mexiletine and endocardial catheter ablation.

  1. [Nursing management of a refractory cardiac death donor].

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Marion

    2016-09-01

    The nursing management of a refractory circulatory death donor is a new procedure which forms an integral part of patient care. It comprises technical and organisational aspects, and requires a conceptual, ethical and deontological effort. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. The Results of the Use of Ahmed Valve in Refractory Glaucoma Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bikbov, Mukharram Mukhtaramovich

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The treatment of refractory glaucoma (RG) is challenging. The commonly adopted strategy in RG treatment is a glaucoma drainage device (GDD) implantation, which despite its radical nature may not always provide the desired intraocular pressure (IOP) levels for a long term. This review is based on the scientific literature on Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation for refractory glaucoma. The technique of AGV implantation is described and data for both the types, FP7 and FP8 performance are presented. The outcome with adjunct antimetabolite and anti-VEGF drugs are also highlighted. An insight is given about experimental and histological examinations of the filtering bleb encapsulation. The article also describes various complications and measures to prevent them. How to cite this article: Bikbov MM, Khusnitdinov II. The Results of the Use of Ahmed Valve in Refractory Glaucoma Surgery. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(3):86-91. PMID:26997843

  3. Optimization of the Technological Synthesis of Refractory Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaidar, S. M.; Karelina, M. Yu.; Prikhod'ko, V. M.; Volkov, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The results of experimental studies, which are related to the regulation of the fractional composition of refractory compounds by roll milling in using controlled roll opening and unbalanced peripheral speeds of rollers, are reported. The content of prepared fine, middle, and coarse fractions is within 50-80%; in this case, the milling time of synthesis products is less than the time of ball milling by an order of magnitude. The application of roll milling for refining the products of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis can be most efficient in using together with heat-generating reactor to solve the main problem of self-propagating synthesis (SHS), which is a problem for recent several decades (the problem is the creation of intense automated production of refractory compounds in using continuous manufacturing cycle within a energotechnological system with the recovery of a great quantity of heat released during SHS).

  4. Clinical Outcomes and Quality of Life Following Surgical Treatment for Refractory Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shi-Yong; Yang, Xiao-Lin; Chen, Bing; Hou, Zhi; An, Ning; Yang, Mei-Hua; Yang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Surgery for refractory epilepsy is widely used but the efficacy of this treatment for providing a seizure-free outcome and better quality of life remains unclear. This study aimed to update current evidence and to evaluate the effects of surgery on quality of life in patients with refractory epilepsy. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature were conducted and selected studies included 2 groups of refractory epilepsy patients, surgical and nonsurgical. The studies were assessed using the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale. The primary outcome was the seizure-free rate. The secondary outcome was quality of life. Adverse events were also reviewed. After screening, a total of 20 studies were selected: 8 were interventional, including 2 randomized controlled trials, and 12 were observational. All of the studies comprised 1959 patients with refractory epilepsy. The seizure-free rates were significantly higher for patients who received surgery compared with the patients who did not; the combined odds ratio was 19.35 (95% CI = 12.10–30.95, P < 0.001). After adjusting for publication bias the combined odds ratio was 10.25 (95% CI = 5.84–18.00). In both the interventional and observational studies, patients treated surgically had a significantly better quality of life compared with the patients not treated surgically. Complications were listed in 3 studies and the rates were similar in surgical and nonsurgical patients. Our meta-analysis found that for patients with refractory epilepsy, surgical treatment appears to provide a much greater likelihood of seizure-free outcome than nonsurgical treatment, although there is a need for more studies, particularly randomized studies, to confirm this conclusion. Based on more limited data, surgical treatment also appeared to provide a better quality of life and did not seem to increase complications. PMID:25674741

  5. Chemical Fracturing of Refractory-Metal Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campana, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Localized reactions cause refractory-metal vessels to break up at predetermined temperatures. Device following concept designed to break up along predetermined lines into smaller pieces at temperature significantly below melting point of metal from which made. Possible applications include fire extinguishers that breakup to release extinguishing gas in enclosed areas, pressure vessels that could otherwise burst dangerously in fire, and self-destroying devices. Technique particularly suitable modification to already existing structures.

  6. Efficacy and tolerability of levetiracetam for pediatric refractory epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Kazuhiro; Sawaura, Noriko; Ogata, Tomomi; Makioka, Nishiki; Tomita, Keiko; Motojima, Toshino; Ida, Kuniko; Hazama, Kyoko; Arakawa, Hirokazu

    2017-03-01

    Levetiracetam has a high tolerability and is effective against various seizure types and epilepsy syndromes. However, no study has specifically evaluated the efficacy of levetiracetam in children with refractory epilepsy based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and the presence of intellectual disability (ID). We retrospectively evaluated levetiracetam efficacy and safety in 49 pediatric patients who met the following inclusion criteria: (1) diagnosis of refractory epilepsy with first-line antiepileptic (AED) treatment ⩾2years, (2) younger than 20years old, and (3) received oral levetiracetam treatment for ⩾6months. We assessed the relationships of these outcomes with MRI findings and ID status. Eighteen (37%) patients achieved a ⩾50% reduction in seizure frequency, and the majority (78%) had no remarkable side effects. Twenty-two (45%) patients had previously been treated with more than seven antiepileptic drugs prior to levetiracetam. Among 18 patients who achieved a ⩾50% reduction in seizure frequency, 13 and 5 had negative and positive MRI findings, and 9 and 9 had and did not have ID, respectively. Our findings suggest that even for intractable pediatric cases with symptomatic etiology (i.e., MRI lesion and ID), levetiracetam has favorable efficacy for refractory epilepsy with tolerable adverse effects. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Supra-Tenon Capsule Implantation of the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve in Refractory Pediatric Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Elhefney, Eman M; Al-Sharkawy, Hossam T; Kishk, Hanem M

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of supra-Tenon capsule implantation of an Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) as a measure to decrease the fibrotic potential of the Tenon capsule on bleb formation and its subsequent effect on intraocular pressure (IOP) control in children with refractory glaucoma. Mansoura Ophthalmic Centre, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt. A prospective interventional study. Twenty-two eyes of 12 children with refractory glaucoma underwent supra-Tenon capsule implantation of AGV. Ophthalmic examinations under general anesthesia including measurement of the corneal diameter and the IOP with Perkin's tonometer were performed preoperatively, on the first postoperative day, the first postoperative week, weekly for the first month, 2-weekly for the following 3 months, and monthly for at least 18 months. Postoperative complications and the number of glaucoma medications used preoperatively and postoperatively were recorded. The paired Student t test was used to compare preoperative and postoperative data. There were 12 eyes (54.6%) with refractory congenital glaucoma, 7 eyes (31.8%) with refractory pseudophakic glaucoma, and 3 eyes (13.6%) with refractory aphakic glaucoma. Patients included 10 male (83.3%) and 2 female (16.7%) children with a mean age of 16.3±9.7 months. The mean follow-up duration was 24.1±4.3 months. There was a statistically significant difference between the mean preoperative IOP (30.7±2.88 mm Hg) and the mean postoperative IOP (16.1±3.60 mm Hg) (t=16.22 and P=0.000, with a mean decrease in the IOP by 47.6%). The difference between the mean number of antiglaucoma medications before surgery (1.86±0.4) and after surgery (1.0±0.9) was also statistically significant (t=4.31 and P=0.000). Total success was achieved in 18 eyes (81.9%). Postoperative complications included tube exposure and slippage (10%), hypotony (10%), and hyphema (5%). Supra-Tenon capsule implantation of the AGV was successful in controlling the IOP with few

  8. Comorbidities in rotator cuff disease: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Titchener, Andrew G; White, Jonathan J E; Hinchliffe, Sally R; Tambe, Amol A; Hubbard, Richard B; Clark, David I

    2014-09-01

    Rotator cuff disease is a common condition in the general population, but relatively little is known about its associated risk factors. We have undertaken a large case-control study using The Health Improvement Network database to assess and to quantify the relative contributions of some constitutional and environmental risk factors for rotator cuff disease in the community. Our data set included 5000 patients with rotator cuff disease who were individually matched with a single control by age, sex, and general practice (primary care practice). The median age at diagnosis was 55 years (interquartile range, 44-65 years). Multivariate analysis showed that the risk factors associated with rotator cuff disease were Achilles tendinitis (odds ratio [OR] = 1.78), trigger finger (OR = 1.99), lateral epicondylitis (OR = 1.71), and carpal tunnel syndrome (OR = 1.55). Oral corticosteroid therapy (OR = 2.03), oral antidiabetic use (OR = 1.66), insulin use (OR = 1.77), and "overweight" body mass index of 25.1 to 30 (OR = 1.15) were also significantly associated. Current or previous smoking history, body mass index of greater than 30, any alcohol intake, medial epicondylitis, de Quervain syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, and rheumatoid arthritis were not found to be associated with rotator cuff disease. We have identified a number of comorbidities and risk factors for rotator cuff disease. These include lateral epicondylitis, carpal tunnel syndrome, trigger finger, Achilles tendinitis, oral corticosteroid use, and diabetes mellitus. The findings should alert the clinician to comorbid pathologic processes and guide future research into the etiology of this condition. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dynamics of occurrence of refractory coeliac disease and associated complications over 25 years.

    PubMed

    Eigner, W; Bashir, K; Primas, C; Kazemi-Shirazi, L; Wrba, F; Trauner, M; Vogelsang, H

    2017-01-01

    Refractory coeliac disease, enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma and small bowel adenocarcinoma are rare but prognostically important complications in coeliac disease. To analyse potential changes in occurrence of complicated coeliac disease over the last 25 years. One thousand one hundred and thirty eight patients were included and evaluated based on their time of first presentation at the Medical University of Vienna, Austria. Occurrences of refractory coeliac disease and associated malignancies were evaluated for 5-year intervals from January 1990 until December 2014 and were compared over time. 2.6% (n = 29) were diagnosed with refractory coeliac disease (females 65.6%, mean age at diagnosis 62.8 years). The proportion of those patients was 2.6%, 3.1%, 3.3%, 2.7% and 0.5% for the 5 year intervals from 1990 onwards. Thus, the number of refractory cases has been decreasing since 2000 (P = 0.024). The number of patients presenting with lymphoma (n = 7) was 0.6%, 0.4%, 1.1%, 0.8% and 0% from 1990 to 2014. Similarly the number of patients with adenocarcinoma (n = 4) decreased to 0% until 2014. Overall mortality in patients suffering from refractory disease was 48%. Of all patients diagnosed with lymphoma 71.4% died with a 5-year survival rate of 28.6%. Over the past 15 years the occurrence of complicated coeliac disease has been decreasing. This possibly reflects a higher awareness of coeliac disease and optimised diagnosis and treatment with avoidance of long-term immunological disease activity. Symptomatic disease and a delay in diagnosis are risk factors for refractory coeliac disease and related cancer. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Successful treatment with 308-nm monochromatic excimer light and subsequent tacrolimus 0.03% ointment in refractory plasma cell cheilitis.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Kazuhiro; Nakano, Shunji; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Ohata, Chika; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2013-06-01

    Plasma cell cheilitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that presents with erythema, erosions, ulcers and occasional nodules within the mucosa, including the lips. It is histopathologically characterized by dense plasma cell infiltration in the lamina propria of the mucous membranes. Several treatments for plasma cell cheilitis have been reported, including topical steroids, topical antibiotics or topical tacrolimus. However, 308-nm monochromatic excimer light (MEL) has never been reported as a treatment option, while it was reported to be very effective in treating erosive oral lichen planus. We report a 62-year-old man who had chronic plasma cell cheilitis on the lower lip, which was refractory to topical and systemic corticosteroid. The lesion and severe pain were significantly improved by the treatment with nine sessions of 308-nm MEL twice per week with a total dose of 1120 mJ/cm(2). However, the lesion gradually worsened after treatment frequency was reduced to once per month. Subsequent tacrolimus 0.03% ointment cleared the lesion completely in a month and no recurrence was observed a year later. Refractory plasma cell cheilitis and concomitant severe pain quickly responded to 308-nm MEL when administrated twice per week. Because the long interval between each MEL treatment seemed ineffective to improve the lesion, appropriate frequency and adequate total dose of MEL treatment may be necessary for a successful treatment. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  11. Primary pulmonary lymphoma mimicking a refractory lung abscess: A case report.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takeshi; Otsuka, Kojiro; Funayama, Yuki; Imai, Yukihiro; Tomii, Keisuke

    2015-04-01

    The current study presents a case of primary pulmonary lymphoma (PPL) mimicking refractory lung abscess that was diagnosed at autopsy. An 80-year-old male with clinically inapparent aspiration presented with a large cavitated mass and pleural effusion. A lung abscess and empyema was diagnosed, therefore, antibiotics were administered and the pleural effusion was drained. Various examinations, including a biopsy, yielded no specific diagnosis. The lesion was considered inoperable due to the poor general condition of the patient. Subsequently, the mass that had been diagnosed as a refractory lung abscess became enlarged and a repeat biopsy resulted in a diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The patient succumbed to sudden respiratory failure, and the final diagnosis of PPL was confirmed at autopsy. PPL is a rare disease that accounts for 0.45% of all pulmonary malignant tumors and is difficult to diagnose in inoperable cases. Therefore, patients with PPL who do not undergo surgery can be misdiagnosed and consequently treated inappropriately. PPL should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of a refractory lung abscess.

  12. Anterior Longitudinal Ligament Release From the Minimally Invasive Lateral Retroperitoneal Transpsoas Approach: Technical Note.

    PubMed

    Beckman, Joshua M; Marengo, Nicola; Murray, Gisela; Bach, Konrad; Uribe, Juan S

    2016-09-01

    The technique for minimally invasive anterior longitudinal ligament release is a major advancement in lateral access surgery. This method provides hypermobility of lumbar segments to allow for aggressive lordosis restoration while maintaining the benefits of indirect decompression and minimally invasive access. To provide video demonstration of the lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas approach with anterior longitudinal ligament sectioning. A detailed surgical technique of the minimally invasive anterior column release is described and illustrated in an elderly patient with adult spinal deformity and low back pain (visual analog scale, 8 of 10) refractory to conservative measures. The 3-foot standing radiographs demonstrated a lumbar lordosis of 54.4°, pelvic incidence of 63.7°, and pelvic tilt of 17.5°. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed generalized lumbar spondylosis and degenerative disc changes from L2 to L5. The patient underwent a multilevel minimally invasive deformity correction with an anterior longitudinal ligament release at the L3/L4 level through the lateral retroperitoneal transpsoas approach. Lumbar lordosis increased from 54.4° to 77° with a global improvement in sagittal vertical axis from 4.37 cm to 0 cm. Total blood loss was less than 25 mL, and there were no major neurological or vascular complications. The anterior longitudinal ligament release using the minimally invasive lateral approach allows for deformity correction without the morbidity and blood loss encountered by traditional open posterior approaches. However, the risk of major vascular/visceral complication warrants only experts in minimally invasive lateral surgery to attempt this technique.

  13. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Refractory Severe Respiratory Failure in Acute Interstitial Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-Venade, Gabriela; Lacerda-Príncipe, Nuno; Roncon-Albuquerque, Roberto; Paiva, José Artur

    2018-05-01

    Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) is a rare idiopathic interstitial lung disease with rapid progressive respiratory failure and high mortality. In the present report, three cases of AIP complicated by refractory respiratory failure supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are presented. One male and two female patients (ages 27-59) were included. Venovenous ECMO support was provided using miniaturized systems, with two-site femoro-jugular circuit configuration. Despite lung protective ventilation, prone position and neuromuscular blockade, refractory respiratory failure of unknown etiology supervened (ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen 46-130) and ECMO was initiated after 3-7 days of mechanical ventilation. AIP diagnosis was established after exclusion of infectious and noninfectious acute respiratory distress syndrome on the basis of clinical and analytical data, bronchoalveolar lavage analysis and lung imaging, with a confirmatory surgical lung biopsy revealing diffuse alveolar damage of unknown etiology. Immunosuppressive treatment consisted in high-dose corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide in one case. Two patients survived to hospital discharge. ECMO allowed AIP diagnosis and treatment in the presence of refractory respiratory failure, therefore reducing ventilator-induced lung injury and bridging lung recovery in two patients. ECMO referral should be considered in refractory respiratory failure if AIP is suspected. © 2018 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Metformin Hydrochloride and Ritonavir in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma or Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-22

    Anemia; Fatigue; Fever; Lymphadenopathy; Lymphocytosis; Night Sweats; Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Plasma Cell Myeloma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Plasma Cell Myeloma; Splenomegaly; Thrombocytopenia; Weight Loss

  15. Refractory status epilepticus complicated by drug-induced involuntary movements.

    PubMed

    Nair, Pradeep Pankajakshan; Wadwekar, Vaibhav; Murgai, Aditya; Narayan, Sunil K

    2014-02-11

    New onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE) is a neurological emergency and difficult to treat condition. We report a case of involuntary movements resulting from thiopentone sodium infusion during the management of refractory status epilepticus. A young woman was admitted with fever and NORSE in the neurology intensive care unit. In addition to supportive measures, she was treated with intravenous lorazepam, phenytoin sodium, sodium valproate, midazolam and thiopentone sodium. While on thiopentone sodium, she developed involuntary twitches involving her upper limbs and face with EEG showing no evidence of ongoing status epilepticus. Because of the temporal relationship with thiopentone infusion, we tapered the dose of thiopentone sodium, which resulted in the disappearance of the movements. The patient recovered well with no recurrence of the seizures during the hospital stay.

  16. Refractory Cardiogenic Shock During Tramadol Poisoning: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Belin, Nicolas; Clairet, Anne-Laure; Chocron, Sidney; Capellier, Gilles; Piton, Gaël

    2017-04-01

    Tramadol is a weak opioid analgesic indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe pain. Tramadol intoxication can be lethal, and this drug is frequently involved in voluntary overdose. Classically, tramadol intoxication is associated with neurological and respiratory side effects. In contrast, cardiac effects are poorly documented in the literature. We report a case of severe tramadol intoxication, with plasma concentration 20 times the toxic threshold, complicated by refractory cardiogenic shock, successfully treated by extra corporeal life support (ECLS) with a favorable cardiac outcome and ECLS weaning at day 10. Seizure, clonus, and nonreactive mydriasis were present during 4 days, and complete awakening was delayed to day 15. Poisoning caused by high doses of tramadol can lead to refractory cardiogenic shock, and ECLS can be considered as effective rescue therapy in this context.

  17. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe, refractory juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ladomenou, Fani; Carpenter, Ben; Chandra, Sharat; Sedlacek, Petr; Formankova, Renata; Grandage, Vicky; Friswell, Mark; Cant, Andrew J.; Nademi, Zohreh; Slatter, Mary A.; Gennery, Andrew R.; Hambleton, Sophie; Flood, Terence J.; Lucchini, Giovanna; Chiesa, Robert; Rao, Kanchan; Amrolia, Persis J.; Brogan, Paul; Wedderburn, Lucy R.; Glanville, Julie M.; Hough, Rachael; Marsh, Rebecca; Abinun, Mario; Veys, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) can experience a severe disease course, with progressive destructive polyarthritis refractory to conventional therapy with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs including biologics, as well as life-threatening complications including macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is a potentially curative immunomodulatory strategy for patients with such refractory disease. We treated 16 patients in 5 transplant centers between 2007 and 2016: 11 children with systemic JIA and 5 with rheumatoid factor–negative polyarticular JIA; all were either refractory to standard therapy, had developed secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis/MAS poorly responsive to treatment, or had failed autologous HSCT. All children received reduced toxicity fludarabine-based conditioning regimens and serotherapy with alemtuzumab. Fourteen of 16 patients are alive with a median follow-up of 29 months (range, 2.8-96 months). All patients had hematological recovery. Three patients had grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease. The incidence of viral infections after HSCT was high, likely due to the use of alemtuzumab in already heavily immunosuppressed patients. All patients had significant improvement of arthritis, resolution of MAS, and improved quality of life early following allo-HSCT; most importantly, 11 children achieved complete drug-free remission at the last follow-up. Allo-HSCT using alemtuzumab and reduced toxicity conditioning is a promising therapeutic option for patients with JIA refractory to conventional therapy and/or complicated by MAS. Long-term follow-up is required to ascertain whether disease control following HSCT continues indefinitely. PMID:29618462

  18. Percutaneous radiofrequency treatment for refractory anteromedial pain of osteoarthritic knees.

    PubMed

    Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Ushida, Takahiro; Izumi, Masashi; Tani, Toshikazu

    2011-04-01

    Although severe knee osteoarthritis with refractory pain is commonly treated surgically, this is often not an option for patients with poor health status or unwillingness to undergo major surgery. We examined the efficacy of radiofrequency application to sensory nerves as a novel alternative treatment for refractory knee pain. This study was an open-label, nonrandomized, and controlled study. Patients complaining of refractory anteromedial knee pain associated with radiological osteoarthritis (moderate or severe) were included. They were assigned to one of two groups: those receiving radiofrequency thermocoagulation (N = 18) or those receiving nerve block (N = 17), depending on the time period that they were referred to the clinic. Radiofrequency current or local anesthetics was applied to the medial retinacular nerve and the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve. Western Ontario McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index score, pain visual analog scale (VAS), and patient's global assessment were assessed with a minimum follow-up of 6 months.   Radiofrequency treatment significantly decreased knee pain as measured by VAS for 12 weeks compared with the control group. In terms of responders, more patients in the RF group responded to the treatment than in the control group. The differences were statistically significant at 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks in pain VAS. Eight patients (44%) treated with radiofrequency rated excellent or good but only three (18%) in the control group rated good, although the difference was not statistically significant. Some patients were able to benefit substantially from radiofrequency treatment. Even if its effective period is limited, radiofrequency application is a promising treatment to alleviate refractory anteromedial knee pain with osteoarthritis. Further experience and technical improvements are needed to establish its role in the management of knee osteoarthritis. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Pembrolizumab in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent, Progressive, or Refractory High-Grade Gliomas, Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas, Hypermutated Brain Tumors, Ependymoma or Medulloblastoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-28

    Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency Syndrome; Lynch Syndrome; Malignant Glioma; Progressive Ependymoma; Progressive Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Brain Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma; Recurrent Medulloblastoma; Refractory Brain Neoplasm; Refractory Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma; Refractory Ependymoma; Refractory Medulloblastoma

  20. Risk of recurrent or refractory strictures and outcome of endoscopic dilation for radiation-induced esophageal strictures.

    PubMed

    Agarwalla, Anant; Small, Aaron J; Mendelson, Aaron H; Scott, Frank I; Kochman, Michael L

    2015-07-01

    Radiation therapy for head, neck, and esophageal cancer can result in esophageal strictures that may be difficult to manage. Radiation-induced esophageal strictures often require repeat dilation to obtain relief of dysphagia. This study aimed to determine the long-term clinical success and rates of recurrent and refractory stenosis in patients with radiation-induced strictures undergoing dilation. Retrospective cohort study of patients with radiation-induced strictures who underwent endoscopic dilation by a single provider from October 2007-October 2012. Outcomes measured included long-term clinical efficacy, interval between sessions, number of dilations, and proportion of radiation strictures that were recurrent or refractory. Risk factors for refractory strictures were assessed. 63 patients underwent 303 dilations. All presented with a stricture >30 days after last radiation session. Clinical success to target diameter was achieved in 52 patients (83%). A mean of 3.3 (±2.6) dilations over a median period of 4 weeks was needed to achieve initial patency. Recurrence occurred in 17 (33%) at a median of 22 weeks. Twenty-seven strictures (43%) were refractory to dilation therapy. Fluoroscopy during dilation (OR 22.88; 95% CI 3.19-164.07), severe esophageal stenosis (lumen <9 mm) (OR 10.51; 95% CI 1.94-56.88), and proximal location with prior malignancy extrinsic to the lumen (OR 6.96; 95% CI 1.33-36.29) were independent predictors of refractory strictures in multivariate analysis. (1) Radiation-induced strictures have a delayed onset (>30 days) from time of radiation injury. (2) Endoscopic dilation can achieve medium-term luminal remediation but the strictures have a high long-term recurrence rate of up to 33%. (3) Remediation of radiation strictures following laryngectomy can be achieved but require frequent dilations. (4) Clinical and procedural predictors may identify patients at high risk of refractory strictures. (5) The optimal strategy in highly selected

  1. The ketogenic diet in two paediatric patients with refractory myoclonic status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Caraballo, Roberto Horacio; Valenzuela, Gabriela Reyes; Armeno, Marisa; Fortini, Sebastian; Mestre, Graciela; Cresta, Araceli

    2015-12-01

    We describe two patients with refractory myoclonic status epilepticus treated with the ketogenic diet. Between May 1, 2014 and January 1, 2015, two patients who met the diagnostic criteria for refractory myoclonic status epilepticus, seen at our department, were placed on the ketogenic diet and followed for a minimum of six months. One patient with myoclonic epilepsy of unknown aetiology had a 75-90% seizure reduction, and the other with progressive encephalopathy associated with myoclonic epilepsy had a 50% seizure reduction. Both patients retained good tolerability for the diet. At the last control, one patient had isolated myoclonias and EEG showed occasional generalized spike-and-polyspike waves; the patient is now successfully attending kindergarten. The quality of life of the second patient improved significantly. In both cases, the number of antiepileptic drugs was reduced. The ketogenic diet is an effective and well-tolerated treatment option for patients with refractory myoclonic status epilepticus and should be considered earlier in the course of treatment.

  2. Refractory electrodes for joule heating and methods of using same

    DOEpatents

    Lamar, D.A.; Chapman, C.C.; Elliott, M.L.

    1998-05-12

    A certain group of electrically conductive refractory materials presently known for use in high temperature applications as throat constructions, melter sidewalls, forehearth, stacks, port sills, hot face lining for slagging coal gasifiers, slag runners, and linings for nuclear waste encapsulation furnaces may be used as electrodes permitting joule heating at temperatures in excess of 1,200 C in excess of about 4400 hours even in the presence of transition group element(s). More specifically, the invention is an electrode for melting earthen materials, wherein the electrode is made from an electrically conductive refractory material, specifically at least one metal oxide wherein the metal is selected from the group consisting of chrome, ruthenium, rhodium, tin and combinations thereof. 2 figs.

  3. Chemotherapy Plus Sargramostim in Treating Patients With Refractory Myeloid Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-08

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Anemia With Ringed Sideroblasts; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Thrombocytopenia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  4. Refractory electrodes for joule heating and methods of using same

    DOEpatents

    Lamar, David A.; Chapman, Chris C.; Elliott, Michael L.

    1998-01-01

    A certain group of electrically conductive refractory materials presently known for use in high temperature applications as throat constructions, melter sidewalls, forehearth, stacks, port sills, hot face lining for slagging coal gasifiers, slag runners, and linings for nuclear waste encapsulation furnaces may be used as electrodes permitting joule heating at temperatures in excess of 1200 C. in excess of about 4400 hours even in the presence of transition group element(s). More specifically, the invention is an electrode for melting earthen materials, wherein the electrode is made from an electrically conductive refractory material, specifically at least one metal oxide wherein the metal is selected from the group consisting of chrome, ruthenium, rhodium, tin and combinations thereof.

  5. Engineering Antimicrobials that are Refractory to Resistance Development.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Multi-drug resistant pathogens are a serious problem in modern health care and there is a need for novel antimicrobials that are refractory to resistance development. Several US government agencies (FDA, CDC and NIH) recommend avoiding the use of broad range antimicrobials, a practice that is known...

  6. How I manage ibrutinib-refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of the Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib has dramatically changed the management of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Although responses have been durable in the majority of patients, relapses do occur, especially in the high-risk patient population. Most relapses occur as the result of acquired mutations in BTK and PLCG2, which may facilitate success with alternative targeted therapies. As outcomes after ibrutinib relapse have been reported to be poor, specific strategies are needed for this patient population. Here, I discuss the diagnosis and management of ibrutinib-refractory CLL. The focus will be on common clinical scenarios that can be mistaken for relapse and how to accurately determine which patients are relapsing. Because there is no established standard of care, I discuss currently available options for standard therapy and existing clinical data. I also discuss new agents with the potential to be effective in patients refractory to ibrutinib. Finally, I discuss strategies for long-term disease control in this patient population. PMID:28096090

  7. An Assessment of Recycled Refractory Material Performance After Two Years of Service in a Carbon Bake Furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, N.; Bennett, J.P.; Kwong, K.S.

    1999-10-27

    Material removed from carbon bake furnaces used to manufacture anodes for the production of aluminum metal has historically been disposed by landfill. This material is composed primarily of 50% alumina refractory. in 1997, Alcoa completed a highly successful program to reuse the spent refractories in castables for carbon bake furnace headwalls and flooring, as roadbed aggregate, and in other internal applications. This program recycled/reused 11,000 metric tons of used refractory material (99% of the material removed from the carbon bake furnace) and saved Alcoa over 3.8 of the 9.6 million dollar projected furnace rebuild costs. As assessment is made ofmore » the performance of the recycled refractory components after two years of service.« less

  8. Refractory metal alloys and composites for space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, Robert H.; Stephens, Joseph R.; Petrasek, Donald W.

    1988-01-01

    Space power requirements for future NASA and other U.S. missions will range from a few kilowatts to megawatts of electricity. Maximum efficiency is a key goal of any power system in order to minimize weight and size so that the Space Shuttle may be used a minimum number of times to put the power supply into orbit. Nuclear power has been identified as the primary power source to meet these high levels of electrical demand. One method to achieve maximum efficiency is to operate the power supply, energy conservation system, and related components at relatively high temperatures. For systems now in the planning stages, design temperatures range from 1300 K for the immediate future to as high as 1700 K for the advanced systems. NASA Lewis Research Center has undertaken a research program on advanced technology of refractory metal alloys and composites that will provide baseline information for space power systems in the 1900's and the 21st century. Special emphasis is focused on the refractory metal alloys of niobium and on the refractory metal composites which utilize tungsten alloy wires for reinforcement. Basic research on the creep and creep-rupture properties of wires, matrices, and composites are discussed.

  9. Mitigating the effects of in-vehicle distractions through use of the Psychological Refractory Period paradigm.

    PubMed

    Hibberd, Daryl L; Jamson, Samantha L; Carsten, Oliver M J

    2013-01-01

    Modern driving involves frequent and potentially detrimental interactions with distracting in-vehicle tasks. Distraction has been shown to slow brake reaction time and decrease lateral and longitudinal vehicle control. It is likely that these negative effects will become more prevalent in the future as advances are made in the functionality, availability, and number of in-vehicle systems. This paper addresses this problem by considering ways to manage in-vehicle task presentation to mitigate their distracting effects. A driving simulator experiment using 48 participants was performed to investigate the existence of the Psychological Refractory Period in the driving context and its effect on braking performance. Drivers were exposed to lead vehicle braking events in isolation (single-task) and with a preceding surrogate in-vehicle task (dual-task). In dual-task scenarios, the time interval between the in-vehicle and braking tasks was manipulated. Brake reaction time increased when drivers were distracted. The in-vehicle task interfered with the performance of the braking task in a manner that was dependent on the interval between the two tasks, with slower reactions following a shorter inter-task interval. This is the Psychological Refractory Period effect. These results have implications for driver safety during in-vehicle distraction. The findings are used to develop recommendations regarding the timing of in-vehicle task presentation so as to reduce their potentially damaging effects on braking performance. In future, these guidelines could be incorporated into a driver workload management system to minimise the opportunity for a driver to be distracted from the ongoing driving task. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nivolumab With or Without Ipilimumab in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent or Refractory Solid Tumors or Sarcomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-25

    Metastatic Melanoma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma/Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Malignant Solid Neoplasm; Recurrent Melanoma; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Osteosarcoma; Recurrent Rhabdomyosarcoma; Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Malignant Solid Neoplasm; Refractory Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage III Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v6 and v7

  11. Time-resolved analysis of particle emissions from residential biomass combustion - Emissions of refractory black carbon, PAHs and organic tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Ingeborg E.; Eriksson, Axel C.; Lindgren, Robert; Martinsson, Johan; Nyström, Robin; Nordin, Erik Z.; Sadiktsis, Ioannis; Boman, Christoffer; Nøjgaard, Jacob K.; Pagels, Joakim

    2017-09-01

    Time-resolved particle emissions from a conventional wood stove were investigated with aerosol mass spectrometry to provide links between combustion conditions, emission factors, mixing state of refractory black carbon and implications for organic tracer methods. The addition of a new batch of fuel results in low temperature pyrolysis as the fuel heats up, resulting in strong, short-lived, variable emission peaks of organic aerosol-containing markers of anhydrous sugars, such as levoglucosan (fragment at m/z 60). Flaming combustion results in emissions dominated by refractory black carbon co-emitted with minor fractions of organic aerosol and markers of anhydrous sugars. Full cycle emissions are an external mixture of larger organic aerosol-dominated and smaller thinly coated refractory black carbon particles. A very high burn rate results in increased full cycle mass emission factors of 66, 2.7, 2.8 and 1.3 for particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, refractory black carbon, total organic aerosol and m/z 60, respectively, compared to nominal burn rate. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are primarily associated with refractory black carbon-containing particles. We hypothesize that at very high burn rates, the central parts of the combustion zone become air starved, leading to a locally reduced combustion temperature that reduces the conversion rates from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to refractory black carbon. This facilitates a strong increase of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions. At nominal burn rates, full cycle emissions based on m/z 60 correlate well with organic aerosol, refractory black carbon and particulate matter. However, at higher burn rates, m/z 60 does not correlate with increased emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, refractory black carbon and organic aerosol in the flaming phase. The new knowledge can be used to advance source apportionment studies, reduce emissions of genotoxic compounds and model the climate impacts of

  12. The application of microwave digestion in decomposing some refractory ore samples with solid fusion agent.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan; Li, Gang; Liu, Wei; Yuan, Hongyan; Xiao, Dan

    2018-08-15

    It is known that most of the refractory ore are the basis of national economy and widely applied in various fields, however, the complexity of the chemical composition and the diversity of the crystallinity in the mineral phases make the sample pre-treatment of refractory ore still remains a challenge. In this work, the complete decomposition of the refractory ore sample can be achieved just by exposing the solid fusion agent and the refractory ore sample in the microwave irradiation environment for a few minutes, and induced by a drop of water. A digestion time of 15 min for 3.0 g solid fusion agent mixture of sodium peroxide/sodium carbonate (Na 2 O 2 /Na 2 CO 3 ) in a corundum crucible via microwave heating is sufficient to decompose 0.1 g refractory ore sample. An excellent microwave digestion solid agent should meet the following conditions, a good decomposition ability, an outstanding ability of absorbing microwave energy and converting it into heat quickly, a higher melting point than the decomposing temperature of the ore sample. In the research, the induction effect of water plays an important role for the microwave digestion. The energy which is released by the reaction of water and the solid fusion agent (Na 2 O 2 ) is the key to decompose refractory ore samples with solid fusion agent, which replenished the total energy required for the microwave digestion and made the microwave digestion completed successfully. This microwave digestion technique has good reproducibility and precision, RSD % for Mo, Fe, Ti, Cr and W in the refractory ore samples were all better than 6, except RSD % for Be of about 8 because of the influence of matrix-effect. Meanwhile, the analysis results of the elements in the refractory ore samples provided by the microwave digestion technique were all in good agreement with the analysis results provided by the traditional fusion method except for Cr in the mixture ore samples. In the study, the non-linear dependence of the

  13. Novel use of rituximab in a case of Riedel's thyroiditis refractory to glucocorticoids and tamoxifen.

    PubMed

    Soh, Shui-Boon; Pham, Alan; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Cherk, Martin; Topliss, Duncan J

    2013-09-01

    A 42-year-old woman presented with a rapidly enlarging right-sided thyroid mass and underwent hemithyroidectomy. Riedel's thyroiditis was only diagnosed upon surgical decompression of the right carotid artery 2 years later. She became more symptomatic as Riedel's thyroiditis progressed, and mediastinal fibrosclerosis developed over the next 12 months. Oral prednisolone failed to improve her condition, and she was commenced on tamoxifen. Despite initial improvement, her symptoms recurred 2 years later, mainly arising from compression of the trachea and esophagus at the thoracic inlet. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic scan showed locally advanced active invasive fibrosclerosis in the neck and mediastinum. An elevated activin-A level of 218 pg/mL was consistent with active inflammation. IgG subtypes (including IgG4) were normal. Two courses of iv methylprednisolone were given but only produced transient improvement. Subsequently, the patient received 3 doses of i.v. rituximab at monthly intervals and had prompt sustained symptomatic improvement. Activin-A level decreased to 122 pg/mL 10 months after rituximab therapy. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic scan 6 weeks after therapy showed reduction in inflammation. A further scan at 10 months demonstrated ongoing response to rituximab. This is a case of refractory Riedel's thyroiditis with symptomatic, biochemical, and radiological improvement that has persisted 14 months after rituximab. The likelihood and duration of response to rituximab in Riedel's thyroiditis requires further study.

  14. Comparison of cytokines and prooxidants/antioxidants markers among adults with refractory versus well-controlled epilepsy: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Ethemoglu, Ozlem; Ay, Halil; Koyuncu, Ismail; Gönel, Ataman

    2018-06-15

    This study aims to investigate the serum adiponectin, interleukin (IL)-6 and oxidative stress in epilepsy patients who are refractory or non-refractory to treatments. The study comprised 31 refractory epilepsy, 29 well-controlled epilepsy patients and control group including 29 healthy individuals. The serum adiponectin, IL-6, total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status levels (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSİ) were determined. The mean serum adiponectin and TAS levels were significantly lower in the refractory epilepsy patients than in the healty controls, and mean IL-6, TOS and OSİ levels were significantly higher. The serum adiponectin, IL-6, TAS, TOS and OSI levels were not significantly different between the well-controlled epilepsy patients and the healthy controls. The mean serum IL-6 and oxidative stress levels in refractory epilepsy patients were higher and the serum adiponectin level was lower than the healthy control group. These findings may be associated with an increased risk of seizures, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease in refractory epilepsy patients. Copyright © 2018 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Onalespib in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma, Mantle Cell Lymphoma, or Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-23

    ALK Positive; BCL6 Positive; Recurrent Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Mantle Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Mantle Cell Lymphoma

  16. Drug-refractory aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums in autism spectrum disorders: a chart review study.

    PubMed

    Adler, Benjamin A; Wink, Logan K; Early, Maureen; Shaffer, Rebecca; Minshawi, Noha; McDougle, Christopher J; Erickson, Craig A

    2015-01-01

    Aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums are impairing symptoms frequently experienced by individuals with autism spectrum disorders. Despite US Food and Drug Administration approval of two atypical antipsychotics targeting these symptoms in youth with autistic disorder, they remain frequently drug refractory. We define drug-refractory aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums in people with autism spectrum disorders as behavioral symptoms requiring medication adjustment despite previous trials of risperidone and aripiprazole or previous trials of three psychotropic drugs targeting the symptom cluster, one of which was risperidone or aripiprazole. We reviewed the medical records of individuals of all ages referred to our clinic for autism spectrum disorder diagnostic evaluation, as well as pharmacotherapy follow-up notes for all people meeting autism spectrum disorder criteria, for drug-refractory symptoms. Among 250 consecutively referred individuals, 135 met autism spectrum disorder and enrollment criteria, and 53 of these individuals met drug-refractory symptom criteria. Factors associated with drug-refractory symptoms included age 12 years or older (p < 0.0001), diagnosis of autistic disorder (p = 0.0139), and presence of intellectual disability (p = 0.0273). This pilot report underscores the significance of drug-refractory aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums; suggests the need for future study clarifying factors related to symptom development; and identifies the need for focused treatment study of this impairing symptom domain. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Possible impact-induced refractory-lithophile fractionations in EL chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, Alan E.; Huber, Heinz; Wasson, John T.

    2009-03-01

    Literature data show that refractory-lithophile elements in most chondrite groups are unfractionated relative to CI chondrites; the principal exception is the EL-chondrite group whose observed falls (all of which are type 6) are depleted in Ca and light REE. In contrast, literature data and our new INAA data on EL3 PCA 91020, EL3 MAC 88136 and EL4 Grein 002 show that some replicates of these samples have nearly flat REE patterns (unlike those of EL6 chondrites); other replicates exhibit fractionated REE patterns similar to those of EL6 chondrites. Petrographic examination shows that many EL6 (and some EL3 and EL4) chondrites are impact-melt breccias or contain impact-melted portions. We suggest that the same impact processes that formed these breccias and produced melt are responsible for the observed bulk compositional fractionations in refractory-lithophile elements, i.e., EL6 chondrites were produced from initially unequilibrated EL3 material. When large amounts of impact heat were deposited, plagioclase and/or oldhamite (CaS) (the major REE carriers in enstatite chondrites) may have been melted and then transported appreciable (>10 cm) distances. EL6 chondrites represent the residuum that is depleted in REE (particularly in LREE) and Ca. Unlike the case for EL chondrites, our new INAA data on ALH 84170, EET 87746 and SAH 97096 (all EH3) show some scatter but are consistent with the EH group having uniform refractory-lithophile abundances.

  18. Cytokine analysis in lesions refractory to endodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Henriques, Luiz Carlos Feitosa; de Brito, Luciana Carla Neves; Tavares, Warley Luciano Fonseca; Vieira, Leda Quércia; Ribeiro Sobrinho, Antônio Paulino

    2011-12-01

    Failure in endodontic treatment is often caused by the persistence of microorganisms in the root canal after therapy. When treatment fails, an immune response develops that is characterized by an extensive network of immunologic mechanisms that lead to the production of cytokines and chemokines. The objective of this study was to determine the relative messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-17A, IL-10, and MCP-1 in periapical dental lesions refractory to treatment. Clinical samples were taken from teeth presenting periapical lesions refractory to endodontic treatment (the experimental group) or from healthy teeth with pulp vitality (the control group). Three paper points passing through the root apex (2 mm) were used to collect the samples. The total RNA was extracted from each sample, complementary DNA was synthesized, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to determine the statistical significance of our findings (P < .05). Significant differences in the levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17A, and MCP-1 mRNA expression were observed in cases refractory to endodontic treatment as compared with the control group. The expression of IL-1β mRNA was not significantly different between the groups. The expression of IL-10 mRNA was insignificant in both the experimental and control groups. A significantly increased expression of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-17A, and MCP-1 mRNA was observed in the periapical immune response in cases of endodontic failure. These results suggest that a proinflammatory cytokine profile predominates in these types of dental lesions. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.

  19. EphB4-HSA Fusion Protein and Cytarabine /or Liposomal Vincristine in Patients With Recurrent or Refractory Acute Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-08

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Blasts 5 Percent or More of Bone Marrow Nucleated Cells; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm; Philadelphia Chromosome Positive; Recurrent Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Positive; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  20. Isotopic and trace element characteristics of an unusual refractory inclusion from Essebi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloule, E.; Kennedy, A. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Elgoresy, A.

    1993-01-01

    The isotopic and chemical properties of Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAI) provide important clues to the early solar nebula environment. While the abundances of refractory major and trace elements are similar to those expected for high temperature condensates, the variety of textural, chemical, and isotopic signatures indicate most CAI experienced complex, multi-stage histories involving repeated episodes of condensation, evaporation, and metamorphism. Evidence of multiple processes is especially apparent in an unusual refractory inclusion from Essebi (URIE) described by El Goresy et al. The melilite (mel)-rich core of URIE contains polygonal framboids of spinel (sp) and hibonite (hb) or sp and fassaite (fas) and is surrounded by a rim sequence consisting of five layers. In contrast to rims on Allende, the mineralogy of the URIE rim layers becomes increasingly refractory from the core outwards, ending in a layer of spinel-Al2O3 solid solution + Sc-rich fassaite. The chemical and mineralogical features of URIE are inconsistent with crystallization from a homogeneous melt, and El Goresy et al. proposed a multi-step history involving condensation of sp + hb and aggregation into framboids, capture of framboids by a refractory silicate melt droplet, condensation of rim layers, and alteration of mel to calcite and feldspathoid. The PANURGE ion probe was used to investigate the isotopic and trace element characteristics of URIE to develop a more complete picture of the multiple processes leading to formation and metamorphism.

  1. Condensation of refractory metals in asymptotic giant branch and other stellar environments

    SciTech Connect

    Schwander, D.; Berg, T.; Schönhense, G.

    2014-09-20

    The condensation of material from a gas of solar composition has been extensively studied, but less so condensation in the environment of evolved stars, which has been mainly restricted to major compounds and some specific element groups such as the Rare Earth elements. Also of interest, however, are refractory metals like Mo, Ru, Os, W, Ir, and Pt, which may condense to form refractory metal nuggets (RMNs) like the ones that have been found in association with presolar graphite. We have performed calculations describing the condensation of these elements in the outflows of s-process enriched AGB stars as well asmore » from gas enriched in r-process products. While in carbon-rich environments (C > O), the formation of carbides is expected to consume W, Mo, and V (Lodders and Fegley), the condensation sequence for the other refractory metals under these conditions does not significantly differ from the case of a cooling gas of solar composition. The composition in detail, however, is significantly different due to the completely different source composition. Condensation from an r-process enriched source differs less from the solar case. Elemental abundance ratios of the refractory metals can serve as a guide for finding candidate presolar grains among the RMNs in primitive meteorites—most of which have a solar system origin—for confirmation by isotopic analysis. We apply our calculations to the case of the four RMNs found by Croat et al., which may very well be presolar.« less

  2. Hydrocortisone administration for the treatment of refractory hypotension in critically ill newborns.

    PubMed

    Baker, C F W; Barks, J D E; Engmann, C; Vazquez, D M; Neal, C R; Schumacher, R E; Bhatt-Mehta, V

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this observation was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of hydrocortisone (HC) for the treatment of refractory hypotension in term and preterm infants. A secondary purpose was to determine the utility of serum cortisol concentrations in predicting the response to treatment. This is a retrospective observational study of 117 infants treated with a standardized HC protocol for refractory hypotension. Refractory hypotension was defined as a mean arterial pressure (MAP) less than the gestational age (GA) despite a total inotrope dose of 20 microg per kg per min. Baseline serum cortisol concentrations were determined prior to treatment with stress dose HC. Treatment with HC increased the MAP at 2, 6, 12 and 24 h after initiation, decreased the total inotrope dose at 6, 12 and 24 h, and was associated with resolution of oliguria. There was no correlation between the pretreatment baseline cortisol concentration and GA, birth weight or the response to treatment. The incidence of grades III to IV intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, bacterial or fungal sepsis and spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) after HC treatment was similar to institutional historic controls prior to institution of this standardized HC protocol. HC treatment was associated with a rapid resolution of cardiovascular compromise. The incidence of significant side effects was similar to that in previously published reports, including a comparable incidence of SIP. On the basis of our results, measuring baseline serum cortisol concentration to guide the management of refractory hypotension is unwarranted.

  3. When all seems lost: management of refractory constipation-Surgery, rectal irrigation, percutaneous endoscopic colostomy, and more.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson-Smith, V; Bharucha, A E; Emmanuel, A; Knowles, C; Yiannakou, Y; Corsetti, M

    2018-05-01

    While the pharmacological armamentarium for chronic constipation has expanded over the past few years, a substantial proportion of constipated patients do not respond to these medications. This review summarizes the pharmacological and behavioral options for managing constipation and details the management of refractory constipation. Refractory constipation is defined as an inadequate improvement in constipation symptoms evaluated with an objective scale despite adequate therapy (ie, pharmacological and/or behavioral) that is based on the underlying pathophysiology of constipation. Minimally invasive (ie, rectal irrigation and percutaneous endoscopic colostomy) and surgical therapies are used to manage refractory constipation. This review appraises these options, and in particular, percutaneous endoscopic colostomy, which as detailed by an article in this issue, is a less invasive option for managing refractory constipation than surgery. While these options benefit some patients, the evidence of the risk: benefit profile for these therapies is limited. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Platinum Group Coatings for Refractory Metals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    temperatures and deposition was very slow. We decided to try iridium hexaflouride, Siridium trichloride hydrate, iridiuw carbonyl and tris-acetyl acetonato...T:*ouu sue. CO. Rhenium Refractory Metals 03 1 d.pRsiý C rg Iridium Coatings 2i 8 bapo i 10. ASSTRACT Won#~.. on mov ofot~sfte.. iad k.dhItfV by b...b q Oxidation resistant coatings of iridium on rhenium substrates have been produced by chemical vapor deposition from an iridium acetyl acetonate

  5. Palbociclib in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Rb Positive Advanced Solid Tumors, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, or Histiocytic Disorders With Activating Alterations in Cell Cycle Genes (A Pediatric MATCH Treatment Trial)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-13

    Advanced Malignant Solid Neoplasm; RB1 Positive; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma; Recurrent Glioma; Recurrent Hepatoblastoma; Recurrent Kidney Wilms Tumor; Recurrent Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis; Recurrent Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Malignant Glioma; Recurrent Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Osteosarcoma; Recurrent Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Rhabdoid Tumor; Recurrent Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Refractory Ependymoma; Refractory Ewing Sarcoma; Refractory Glioma; Refractory Hepatoblastoma; Refractory Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis; Refractory Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Refractory Malignant Glioma; Refractory Medulloblastoma; Refractory Neuroblastoma; Refractory Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Osteosarcoma; Refractory Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Refractory Rhabdoid Tumor; Refractory Rhabdomyosarcoma; Refractory Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  6. Intravenous ketogenic diet therapy for treatment of the acute stage of super-refractory status epilepticus in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jainn-Jim; Lin, Kuang-Lin; Chan, Oi-Wa; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Wang, Huei-Shyong

    2015-04-01

    A ketogenic diet has been used successfully to treat intractable epilepsy. However, the role of early intravenous initiation of ketogenic diet in the acute phase of super-refractory status epilepticus is not well-described. An intravenous ketogenic diet was administered to a boy with super-refractory status epilepticus. At 24 hours after intravenous ketogenic diet, moderate ketosis appeared, and thiamylal was successfully weaned at 70 hours after admission. An intravenous ketogenic regimen led to subsequent ketosis and seizure control in a child with super-refractory status epilepticus. Early induction of ketosis may be a novel strategy to effectively treat super-refractory status epilepticus. Although there are few data regarding the early use of intravenous ketogenic diet in the treatment of super-refractory status epilepticus, it may be considered an alternative option. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Refractory Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Steven A; Rycus, Peter T

    2017-01-01

    Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) is the use of rapid deployment venoarterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to support systemic circulation and vital organ perfusion in patients in refractory cardiac arrest not responding to conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Although prospective controlled studies are lacking, observational studies suggest improved outcomes compared with conventional CPR when ECPR is instituted within 30–60 min following cardiac arrest. Adult and pediatric patients with witnessed in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and good quality CPR, failure of at least 15 min of conventional resuscitation, and a potentially reversible cause for arrest are candidates. Percutaneous cannulation where feasible is rapid and can be performed by nonsurgeons (emergency physicians, intensivists, cardiologists, and interventional radiologists). Modern extracorporeal systems are easy to prime and manage and are technically easy to manage with proper training and experience. ECPR can be deployed in the emergency department for out-of-hospital arrest or in various inpatient units for in-hospital arrest. ECPR should be considered for patients with refractory cardiac arrest in hospitals with an existing extracorporeal life support program, able to provide rapid deployment of support, and with resources to provide postresuscitation evaluation and management. PMID:28074817

  8. Antiviral Therapy in Steroid-refractory Ulcerative Colitis with Cytomegalovirus: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Tushar; Singh, Siddharth; Loftus, Edward V; Bruining, David H; McCurdy, Jeffrey D

    2015-11-01

    The role of antiviral therapy in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) with cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains unclear. We therefore performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the association between antiviral therapy and the risk of colectomy. Multiple electronic databases were searched systematically through July 2014 for studies reporting the risk of colectomy in patients with UC with CMV stratified by treatment with antiviral agents. Colectomy rates were assessed for the overall cohort and stratified by corticosteroid (CS) refractoriness. We estimated summary odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals, using random-effects model, and used Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria to appraise the quality of evidence. Fifteen observational studies (333 patients with UC with CMV, 43.2% treated with antiviral agents) were identified, of which 8 stratified patients according to CS-refractory disease (55.4% treated with antiviral agents). Antiviral therapy resulted in a significantly lower risk of colectomy in patients with CS-refractory disease (odds ratio, 0.20; 95% confidence interval, 0.08-0.49; I = 0%) but not in the overall population of patients with UC (odds ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.31-2.76; I = 65). The quality evidence was low. The results were stable when restricting the analysis to patients with a tissue diagnosis of CMV and studies that defined CS-refractory disease as a failure to respond to intravenous CS. Antiviral therapy may benefit a subgroup of patients with UC who are refractory to CS. Further prospective trials are required to confirm these findings.

  9. Atezolizumab, Gemcitabine, Oxaliplatin, and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Transformed Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-06-06

    Recurrent Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; Refractory Transformed Indolent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Transformed Follicular Lymphoma to Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

  10. Refractory chronic cough due to gastroesophageal reflux: Definition, mechanism and management

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Han-Jing; Qiu, Zhong-Min

    2015-01-01

    Refractory chronic cough due to gastroesophageal reflux is a troublesome condition unresponsive to the standard medical anti-reflux therapy. Its underlying mechanisms may include incomplete acid suppression, non-acid reflux, transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations and esophageal hypersensitivity. The diagnosis of this disorder depends on both the findings of multi-channel intraluminal impedance-pH monitoring and the subsequent intensified anti-reflux therapy. The strategies of pharmacological treatment for refractory chronic cough due to reflux include the optimization of proton pump inhibitors and add-on therapies with histamine H2 receptor antagonists, baclofen and gabapentin. However, the further study is needed to satisfy its management. PMID:26413488

  11. Chemical properties and methods of analysis of refractory compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samsonov, G. V. (Editor); Frantsevich, I. N. (Editor); Yeremenko, V. N. (Editor); Nazarchuk, T. N. (Editor); Popova, O. I. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Reactions involving refractory metals and the alloys based on them are discussed. Chemical, electrochemical, photometric, spectrophotometric, and X-ray analysis are among the methods described for analyzing the results of the reactions and for determining the chemical properties of these materials.

  12. Dissolution Behavior of Mg from Magnesia-Chromite Refractory into Al-killed Molten Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunyang; Yagi, Motoki; Gao, Xu; Kim, Sun-Joong; Huang, Fuxiang; Ueda, Shigeru; Kitamura, Shin-ya

    2018-06-01

    Magnesia-chromite refractory materials are widely employed in steel production, and are considered a potential MgO source for the generation of MgO·Al2O3 spinel inclusions in steel melts. In this study, a square magnesia-chromite refractory rod was immersed into molten steel of various compositions held in an Al2O3 crucibles. As the immersion time was extended, Mg and Cr gradually dissolved from the magnesia-chromite refractory, and the Mg and Cr contents of the steel melts increased. However, it was found that the inclusions in the steel melts remained as almost pure Al2O3 because the Mg content of the steel melts was low, approximately 1 ppm. On the surface of the magnesia-chromite refractory, an MgO·Al2O3 spinel layer with a variable composition was formed, and the thickness of the MgO·Al2O3 spinel layer increased with the immersion time and the Al content of the steel melts. At the rod interface, the formed layer consisted of MgO-saturated MgO·Al2O3 spinel. The MgO content decreased along the thickness direction of the layer, and at the steel melts interface, the formed layer consisted of Al2O3-saturated MgO·Al2O3 spinel. Therefore, the low content of Mg in steel melts and the unchanged inclusions were because of the equilibrium between Al2O3-saturated MgO·Al2O3 layer and Al2O3. In addition, the effects of the Al and Cr contents of the steel melts on the dissolution of Mg from the magnesia-chromite refractory are insignificant.

  13. Intraarticular Pulsed Radiofrequency to Treat Refractory Lumbar Facet Joint Pain in Patients with Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Chang, Min Cheol; Cho, Yun-Woo; Ahn, Da Hyun; Do, Kyung Hee

    2018-04-01

    Many treatment techniques have been used for refractory lumbar facet joint pain; however, their efficacy has been controversial. In this study, we investigated the clinical efficacy and safety of intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency for the treatment of refractory lumbar facet joint pain in patients with low back pain. Twenty patients with refractory lumbar facet joint pain were recruited, and each patient was treated via intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency. The treatment effects were measured with a numerical rating scale, and the technical accuracy of intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency treatment was evaluated independently by 2 radiologists. Any adverse events or complications also were checked. We performed intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency treatment at 48 levels of the lumbar facet joints in 20 patients (5 men and 15 women; mean age, 64.50 ± 10.65 years) with refractory lumbar facet joint pain. Pain scores were significantly reduced at 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after treatment (P < 0.05). The face validity revealed good intraarticular pulsed radiofrequency results in all 20 patients, without any serious adverse effects. Treatment using intra-articular pulsed radiofrequency is an alternative to other techniques in patients with refractory lumbar facet joint pain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Function Lateralization via Measuring Coherence Laterality

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ze; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn; Pluta, John; Glynn, Simon; Detre, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A data-driven approach for lateralization of brain function based on the spatial coherence difference of functional MRI (fMRI) data in homologous regions-of-interest (ROI) in each hemisphere is proposed. The utility of using coherence laterality (CL) to determine function laterality was assessed first by examining motor laterality using normal subjects’ data acquired both at rest and with a simple unilateral motor task and subsequently by examining mesial temporal lobe memory laterality in normal subjects and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The motor task was used to demonstrate that CL within motor ROI correctly lateralized functional stimulation. In patients with unilateral epilepsy studied during a scene-encoding task, CL in a hippocampus-parahippocampus-fusiform (HPF) ROI was concordant with lateralization based on task activation, and the CL index (CLI) significantly differentiated the right side group to the left side group. By contrast, normal controls showed a symmetric HPF CLI distribution. Additionally, similar memory laterality prediction results were still observed using CL in epilepsy patients with unilateral seizures after the memory encoding effect was removed from the data, suggesting the potential for lateralization of pathological brain function based on resting fMRI data. A better lateralization was further achieved via a combination of the proposed approach and the standard activation based approach, demonstrating that assessment of spatial coherence changes provides a complementary approach to quantifying task-correlated activity for lateralizing brain function. PMID:19345736

  15. Vigabatrin and lamotrigine in refractory epilepsy.

    PubMed Central

    Stolarek, I; Blacklaw, J; Forrest, G; Brodie, M J

    1994-01-01

    Epilepsy arises from an imbalance of inhibitory and excitatory influences in the brain. Vigabatrin (VIG) decreases the breakdown of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid, whereas lamotrigine (LTG) reduces presynaptic excitatory amino acid release. 22 patients with refractory epilepsy, treated with an anticonvulsant regimen containing VIG, entered a balanced, double blind, placebo controlled, crossover trial of additional LTG. Treatment periods of 12 weeks (25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg LTG twice daily for four weeks at each dose, and matched placebo) were followed by wash out intervals of four weeks. 14 of the 20 patients completing the study improved, resulting in a significant fall in seizure days and numbers. Analysis of seizure type confirmed a beneficial effect on partial and secondary generalised tonic-clonic seizures. At the highest LTG dose (200 mg daily) there was a median fall of 37% in seizure count with nine (45%) patients reporting > 50% reduction. Three of these patients were seizure free during this month of treatment. Side effects were minimal throughout the study. Concentrations of other antiepileptic drugs, including those of carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide, were not modified by LTG. This study suggests a substantial efficacy for a regimen containing VIG and LTG. Combinations of drugs with complementary modes of action may provide a rational pharmacological approach to the management of refractory epilepsy. PMID:8057114

  16. Azacitidine and lenalidomide as an alternative treatment for refractory acute myeloid leukemia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Todaro, Juliana; Bollmann, Patrícia Weinschenker; Rother, Edna Terezinha; del Giglio, Auro

    2015-01-01

    Refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a difficult disease to control with second or third-line chemotherapy regimens. In this report, we describe using azacitidine in combination with lenalidomide as salvage therapy. 52-year-old female was diagnosed with refractory AML and high-risk cytogenetics: complex monosomal karyotype consisting of t (3, 3) in association with monosomy 7 and del 5q. Morphological remission associated with maintenance of the cytogenetic abnormality of chromosome 3 and disappearance of the abnormalities relating to chromosomes 5 and 7 was achieved after three cycles of combination therapy with azacitidine and lenalidomide. Azacitidine plus lenalidomide can be a therapeutic option for patients with refractory AML, as illustrated in this case.

  17. Exploration of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in the Treatment of Refractory Diarrhea After Renal Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gu, B; Bo, G Z; Ke, C

    2018-06-01

    Exploration of fecal microbiota transplantation in the treatment of refractory diarrhea after renal transplantation. Summarize the etiology of 120 cases with diarrhea after renal transplantation from 2014 to 2017 in our hospital. There were 4 recipients of refractory diarrhea who accepted fecal microbiota transplantation with informed consent, and we collected clinical data of stool and bacterial culture, gut microbiota analysis, graft function, electrolytes, immunosuppressant concentrations of prognostic evaluation of patients with fecal transplantation. The absorption of electrolyte is slightly higher and concentration of tacrolimus and creatinine were not significantly changed compared with before. Fecal microbiota transplantation provides a new choice to refractory diarrhea after renal transplantation as an innovative treatment, but the effectiveness of fecal microbiota transplantation needs long-term observation and further evaluation through large sample data. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Molecular Determinants of Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-07-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0062 TITLE: Molecular Determinants of Hormone Refractory Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Atish Choudhury...ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE July 2017 2. REPORT TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 1 July 2012 - 30 June 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Molecular ...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We have performed a high throughput, in vivo genetic screen to identify kinases that permit androgen

  19. The management of metastatic radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer requires an integrated approach including both directed and systemic therapies.

    PubMed

    Cooray, Shamil D; Topliss, Duncan J

    2017-01-01

    A 58-year-old man with metastatic radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) presented with left thigh and right flank numbness. He had known progressive and widespread bony metastases, for which he received palliative radiotherapy, and multiple bilateral asymptomatic pulmonary metastases. CT scan and MRI of the spine revealed metastases at right T10-L1 vertebrae with extension into the central canal and epidural disease at T10 and T11 causing cord displacement and canal stenosis but retention of spinal cord signal. Spinal surgery was followed by palliative radiotherapy resulting in symptom resolution. Two months later, sorafenib received approval for use in Australia and was commenced and up-titrated with symptomatic management of mild adverse effects. Follow-up CT scan three months after commencement of sorafenib revealed regression of pulmonary metastases but no evident change in most bone metastases except for an advancing lesion eroding into the right acetabulum. The patient underwent a right total hip replacement, intra-lesional curettage and cementing. After six months of sorafenib therapy, CT scanning showed enlarging liver lesions with marked elevation of serum thyroglobulin. Lenvatinib was commenced and sorafenib was ceased. He now has stable disease with a falling thyroglobulin more than 5 years after metastatic radioiodine-refractory DTC was diagnosed. In DTC, 5% of distant metastases become radioiodine-refractory, resulting in a median overall survival of 2.5-3.5 years. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy has recently been demonstrated to increase progression-free survival in these patients but poses some unique management issues and is best used as part of an integrated approach with directed therapy. Directed therapies may have greater potential to control localised disease and related symptoms when compared to systemic therapies.Consider TKI therapy in progressive disease where benefits outweigh risks.Active surveillance and

  20. Outcome of children with relapsed or refractory neuroblastoma: A meta-analysis of ITCC/SIOPEN European phase II clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Lucas; Rubie, Herve; Varo, Amalia; Le Deley, Marie Cecile; Amoroso, Loredana; Chevance, Aurelie; Garaventa, Alberto; Gambart, Marion; Bautista, Francisco; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Geoerger, Birgit; Vassal, Gilles; Paoletti, Xavier; Pearson, Andrew D J

    2017-01-01

    Few randomized trials have been conducted in children with relapsed/refractory neuroblastoma and data about outcomes including progression-free survival (PFS) in these patients are scarce. A meta-analysis of three phase II studies of children with relapsed/refractory neuroblastoma conducted in Europe (temozolomide, topotecan-vincristine-doxorubicin and topotecan-temozolomide) was performed. Individual patient data with extended follow-up were collected from the trial databases after publication to describe trial outcomes (response rate, clinical benefit ratio, duration of treatment, PFS, and overall survival [OS]). Characteristics of subjects with relapsed/refractory neuroblastoma were compared. Data from 71 children and adolescents with relapsed/refractory neuroblastoma were collected. Response definitions were not homogeneous in the three trials. Patients were on study for a median of 3.5 months (interquartile range [IQR] 1.9-6.2). Of those, 35.2% achieved a complete or partial response, 26.3% experienced a response after more than two cycles, and 23.9% received more than six cycles. Median PFS from study entry for all, refractory, and relapsed patients was 6.4 ± 1.0, 12.5 ± 6.8, and 5.7 ± 1.0 months, respectively (P = 0.006). Median OS from study entry for all, refractory, and relapsed patients was 16.1 ± 4.3, 27.9 ± 20.2, and 11.0 ± 1.6 months, respectively (P = 0.03). Baseline data for response rate, clinical benefit ratio, duration of treatment, PFS, and OS were provided. Two subpopulations (relapsed/refractory) were clearly distinct and should be included in the interpretation of all trials. These results should help informing the design of forthcoming studies in relapsed/refractory neuroblastoma. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Crucible cast from beryllium oxide and refractory cement is impervious to flux and molten metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jastrzebski, Z. D.

    1966-01-01

    Crucible from a mixture of a beryllium oxide aggregate and hydraulic refractory cement, and coated with an impervious refractory oxide will not deteriorate in the presence of fused salt- molten metal mixtures such as uranium- magnesium-zinc-halide salt systems. Vessels cast by this process are used in the flux reduction of oxides of thorium and uranium.

  2. Pembrolizumab Alone or With Idelalisib or Ibrutinib in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia or Other Low-Grade B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-06-30

    Recurrent Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Recurrent Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue; Recurrent Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Recurrent Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Nodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Recurrent Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Refractory Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Refractory Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue; Refractory Follicular Lymphoma; Refractory Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Refractory Nodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Refractory Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Richter Syndrome; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia

  3. Ketamine infusion for refractory status epilepticus: A case report of cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Koffman, Lauren; Yan Yiu, Ho; Farrokh, Salia; Lewin, John; Geocadin, Romergryko; Ziai, Wendy

    2018-01-01

    Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) has a high mortality rate and is often difficult to treat. When traditional therapies fail ketamine may be considered. There are limited reports of adverse cardiac events with the use of ketamine for RSE and no reports of cardiac arrest in this context. Evaluate the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias associated with the use of ketamine for RSE. Retrospective chart review of nine patients who underwent ketamine infusion for RSE. Etiology of refractory status epilepticus included autoimmune/infectious process (Zeiler et al., 2014), ischemic stroke (Bleck, 2005) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (Bleck, 2005). Of the nine patients who received ketamine, two had documented cardiac events; one remained clinically stable and the other developed multiple arrhythmias, including recurrent episodes of asystole. Once ketamine was discontinued the latter patient stabilized with the addition of anti arrhythmic therapy. Ketamine is utilized to treat refractory status epilepticus, but should be used with caution in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, as there may be an increased risk of life threatening arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Usefulness of a pleuroperitoneal shunt for treatment of refractory pleural effusion in a patient receiving maintenance hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Habuka, Masato; Ito, Toru; Yoshizawa, Yuta; Matsuo, Koji; Murakami, Shuichi; Kondo, Daisuke; Kanazawa, Hiroshi; Narita, Ichiei

    2018-03-23

    Refractory pleural effusion can be a life-threatening complication in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis. We report successful treatment of refractory pleural effusion using a Denver® pleuroperitoneal shunt in one such patient. A 54-year-old Japanese man, who had previously undergone left nephrectomy, was admitted urgently to our department because of a high C-reactive protein (CRP) level, right pleural effusion, and right renal abscess. Because antibiotics proved ineffective and his general state was deteriorating, he underwent emergency insertion of a thoracic drainage tube and nephrectomy, and hemodialysis was started. Although his general state improved slowly thereafter, the pleural effusion, which was unilateral and transudative, remained refractory and therefore he needed to be on oxygenation. To control the massive pleural effusion, a pleuroperitoneal shunt was inserted. Thereafter, his respiratory condition became stable without oxygenation and he was discharged. His general condition has since been well. Although pleural effusion is a common complication of maintenance hemodialysis, few reports have documented the use of pleuroperitoneal shunt to control refractory pleural effusion. Pleuroperitoneal shunt has been advocated as an effective and low-morbidity treatment for refractory pleural effusion, and its use for some patients with recurrent pleural effusion has also been reported, without any severe complications. In the present case, pleuroperitoneal shunt improved the patient's quality of life sufficiently to allow him to be discharged home without oxygenation. Pleuroperitoneal shunt should be considered a useful treatment option for hemodialysis patients with refractory pleural effusion.

  5. Risk of Recurrent or Refractory Strictures and Outcome of Endoscopic Dilation for Radiation-Induced Esophageal Strictures

    PubMed Central

    Agarwalla, Anant; Small, Aaron J.; Mendelson, Aaron H.; Scott, Frank I.; Kochman, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Radiation therapy for head, neck, and esophageal cancer can result in esophageal strictures that may be difficult to manage. Radiation-induced esophageal strictures often require repeat dilation to obtain relief of dysphagia. This study aimed to determine the long-term clinical success and rates of recurrent and refractory stenosis in patients with radiation-induced strictures undergoing dilation. Methods Retrospective cohort study of patients with radiation-induced strictures who underwent endoscopic dilation by a single provider from October 2007– October 2012. Outcomes measured included long-term clinical efficacy, interval between sessions, number of dilations, and proportion of radiation strictures that were recurrent or refractory. Risk factors for refractory strictures were assessed. Results 63 patients underwent 303 dilations. All presented with a stricture > 30 days after last radiation session. Clinical success to target diameter was achieved in 52 patients (83%). A mean of 3.3 (+/− 2.6) dilations over a median period of 4 weeks was needed to achieve initial patency. Recurrence occurred in 17 (33%) at a median of 22 weeks. Twenty-seven strictures (43%) were refractory to dilation therapy. Fluoroscopy during dilation (OR, 22.88; 95% CI, 3.19 – 164.07), severe esophageal stenosis (lumen <9 mm) (OR, 10.51; 95% CI, 1.94 – 56.88), and proximal location with prior malignancy extrinsic to the lumen (OR, 6.96; 95% CI, 1.33 – 36.29) were independent predictors of refractory strictures in multivariate analysis. Conclusions 1. Radiation-induced strictures have a delayed onset (>30 days) from time of radiation injury. 2. Endoscopic dilation can achieve medium-term luminal remediation but the strictures have a high long-term recurrence rate of up to 33%. 3. Remediation of radiation strictures following laryngectomy can be achieved but require frequent dilations. 4. Clinical and procedural predictors may identify patients at high risk of refractory

  6. METHOD OF MAKING A REFRACTORY MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Miller, H.I.

    1958-01-01

    This patent relates to a composition containing beryllia and the oxide of a fissile element such as uranium. The oxides are first ground and mixed, paraffin is added to the mixed powders, and the composition is then compacted and sintered to drive off the paraffin and produce a stuctually stable compact. The result is a coherent refractory arrangement of fissile nuclei dispersed among moderating nuclei. The composition, size, shape, etc., of the brick may be varied according to its intended use.

  7. Refractory pulmonary sarcoidosis - proposal of a definition and recommendations for the diagnostic and therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Korsten, Peter; Strohmayer, Katharina; Baughman, Robert P; Sweiss, Nadera J

    2016-03-01

    Patients with sarcoidosis undergo spontaneous remission or may be effectively controlled with glucocorticoids alone in many cases. Progressive and refractory pulmonary sarcoidoisis constitute more than 10% of patients seen at specialized centers. Pulmonary fibrosis and associated complications, such as infections and pulmonary hypertension are leading causes of mortality. No universal definition of refractoriness exists, we therefore propose classifying patients as having refractory disease when the following criteria are fulfilled: (1) progressive disease despite at least 10 mg of prednisolone or equivalent for at least three months and need for additional disease-modifying anti-sarcoid drugs due to lack of efficacy, drug toxicity or intolerability and (2) treatment started for significant impairment of life due to progressive pulmonary symptoms. Both criteria should be fulfilled. Treatment options in addition to or instead of glucocorticoids for these patients include second- (methotrexate, azathioprine, leflunomide) and third-line agents (infliximab, adalimumab). Other immunmodulating agents can be used, but the evidence is very limited. Newer agents with anti-fibrotic properties, such as pirfenidone or nintedanib, might hold promise also for the pulmonary fibrosis seen in sarcoidosis. Treating physicians have to actively look for potentially treatable complications, such as pulmonary hypertension, cardiac disease or infections before patients should be classified as treatment-refractory. Ultimately, lung transplantation has to be considered as treatment option for patients not responding to medical therapy. In this review, we aim to propose a new definition of refractoriness, describe the associated clinical features and suggest the therapeutic approach.

  8. Pathogenesis of prostate cancer and hormone refractory prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Girling, J. S.; Whitaker, H. C.; Mills, I. G.; Neal, D. E.

    2007-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common malignancy in males and the leading cause of cancer death. Prostate cancer is initially androgen dependent and relies upon the androgen receptor (AR) to mediate the effects of androgens. The AR is also the target for therapy using antiandrogens and LHRH analogues. However, all cancers eventually become androgen independent, often referred to as hormone refractory prostate cancer. The processes involved in this transformation are yet to be fully understood but research in this area has discovered numerous potential mechanisms including AR amplification, over-expression or mutation and alterations in the AR signaling pathway. This review of the recent literature examines the current knowledge and developments in the understanding of the molecular biology of prostate cancer and hormone refractory prostate cancer, summarizing the well characterized pathways involved as well as introducing new concepts that may offer future solutions to this difficult problem. PMID:19675761

  9. Rapid clozapine titration in treatment-refractory bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Ifteni, Petru; Correll, Christoph U; Nielsen, Jimmi; Burtea, Victoria; Kane, John M; Manu, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Clozapine is effective in treatment-refractory bipolar disorder (BD). Guidelines recommend slow titration to prevent seizures, hypotension and myocarditis, but this stance is not supported by comparative data. To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of rapid clozapine titration in BD. Analysis of a consecutive cohort of treatment-refractory BD patients with mixed/manic episode admitted on alternate days to one of two units of a psychiatric hospital. On one unit, clozapine was started at 25mg followed by 25-50mg as needed every 6h (maximum=100mg/day) on day 1, followed by increases of 25-100mg/day. On the other unit, clozapine was initiated with 25mg in day 1, followed by increases of 25-50mg/day. The primary outcome was the number of days from starting clozapine until readiness for discharge, adjusted in logistic regression for the number of antipsychotics tried during the hospitalization, psychotropic co-treatments and presence of psychotic features. Patients subject to rapid (N=44) and standard (N=23) titration were similar in age, gender, smoking status, body mass index, illness severity at baseline and discharge, and highest clozapine dose. Clozapine was discontinued due to hypotension (N=1) and pneumonia (N=1) during rapid titration, and for excessive sedation (N=1) in each titration group. The number of hospital days from starting clozapine until readiness for discharge was 3.8 days shorter in the rapid titration group (12.7±6.3 vs. 16.5±5.8, p=0.0077). Rapid clozapine titration appeared safe and effective for treatment-refractory BD. The potential for shorter hospital stays justifies prospective trials of this method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Dexmedetomidine for Refractory Adrenergic Crisis in Familial Dysautonomia

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Ryan C.; Palma, Jose-Alberto; Spalink, Christy L.; Altshuler, Diana; Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Lucy; Fridman, David; Papadopoulos, John; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2016-01-01

    Objective Adrenergic crises are a cardinal feature of familial dysautonomia (FD). Traditionally, adrenergic crisis have been treated with the sympatholytic agent clonidine or with benzodiazepines, which can cause excessive sedation and respiratory depression. Dexmedetomidine is an α2A-adrenergic agonist with greater selectivity and shorter half-life than clonidine. We aimed to evaluate the preliminary effectiveness and safety of intravenous dexmedetomidine in the treatment of refractory adrenergic crisis in patients with FD. Methods Retrospective chart review of patients with genetically confirmed FD who received intravenous dexmedetomidine for refractory adrenergic crises. The primary outcome was preliminary effectiveness of dexmedetomidine defined as change in blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) 1-hour after the initiation of dexmedetomidine. Secondary outcomes included incidence of adverse events related to dexmedetomidine, hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, and hemodynamic parameters 12-hours after dexmedetomidine cessation. Results Nine patients over 14 admissions were included in the final analysis. At 1-hour after the initiation of dexmedetomidine, systolic BP decreased from 160±7 to 122±7 mmHg (p=0.0005), diastolic BP decreased from 103±6 to 65±8 (p=0.0003), and HR decreased from 112±4 to 100±5 bpm (p=0.0047). The median total adverse events during dexmedetomidine infusion was 1 per admission. Median hospital length of stay was 9 days (IQR, 3 – 11 days) and median ICU length of stay was 7 days (IQR, 3 – 11 days). Conclusions Intravenous dexmedetomidine is safe in patients with FD and appears to be effective to treat refractory adrenergic crisis. Dexmedetomidine may be considered in FD patients who do not respond to conventional clonidine and benzodiazepine pharmacotherapy. PMID:27752785

  11. Refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Charumathi Raghu; Triadafilopoulos, George

    2015-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition that develops when the reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus causes troublesome symptoms, esophageal injury, and/or complications. Use of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) remains the standard therapy for GERD and is effective in most patients. Those whose symptoms are refractory to PPIs should be evaluated further and other treatment options should be considered, according to individual patient characteristics. Response to PPIs could be total (no symptoms), partial (residual breakthrough symptoms), or absent (no change in symptoms). Patients experiencing complete response do not usually need further management. Patients with partial response can be treated surgically or by using emerging endoscopic therapies. Patients who exhibit no response to PPI need further evaluation to rule out other causes. PMID:25274499

  12. Diverting Ileostomy for the Treatment of Severe, Refractory, Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Elizabeth C; Dawany, Noor; Baldassano, Robert N; Mamula, Petar; Mattei, Peter; Albenberg, Lindsey; Kelsen, Judith R

    2017-09-01

    Diverting ileostomy is used as a temporizing therapy in patients with perianal Crohn disease; however, little data exist regarding its use for colonic disease. The primary aim of the present study was to determine the role of diversion in severe refractory colonic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in a pediatric population. Retrospective study of patients who underwent diverting ileostomy at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia from 2000 to 2014 for the management of severe, refractory colonic IBD. Clinical variables were compared in the 1 year before ileostomy and 1 year after diversion. Surgical and disease outcomes including changes in diagnosis were reviewed through 2015. Twenty-four patients underwent diverting ileostomy for refractory colonic disease. Initial diagnoses were Crohn disease in 10 (42%), ulcerative colitis in 1 (4%), and IBD-unclassified in 13 patients (54%). Comparing data before and after surgery, there were statistically significant improvements in height and weight velocities, height velocity z score, blood transfusion requirement, hemoglobin, and hospitalization rates. Chronic steroid use decreased from 71% to 22%. At the conclusion of the study, 10 patients had undergone subsequent colectomy, 7 had successful bowel reanastomosis, and 7 remain diverted. Seven patients (29%) had a change in diagnosis. There were 13 surgical complications in 7 subjects, including prolapse reduction, stoma revision, and resection of ischemic bowel. In pediatric patients with refractory colonic IBD, diverting ileostomy can be a successful intervention to induce clinical stability. Importantly, diversion is a steroid-sparing therapy and allows additional time to clarify the diagnosis.

  13. Review of refractory ceramic fiber (RCF) toxicity, epidemiology and occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Maxim, L Daniel; Utell, Mark J

    2018-02-01

    This literature review on refractory ceramic fibers (RCF) summarizes relevant information on manufacturing, processing, applications, occupational exposure, toxicology and epidemiology studies. Rodent toxicology studies conducted in the 1980s showed that RCF caused fibrosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma. Interpretation of these studies was difficult for various reasons (e.g. overload in chronic inhalation bioassays), but spurred the development of a comprehensive product stewardship program under EPA and later OSHA oversight. Epidemiology studies (both morbidity and mortality) were undertaken to learn more about possible health effects resulting from occupational exposure. No chronic animal bioassay studies on RCF have been conducted since the 1980s. The results of the ongoing epidemiology studies confirm that occupational exposure to RCF is associated with the development of pleural plaques and minor decrements in lung function, but no interstitial fibrosis or incremental lung cancer. Evidence supporting a finding that urinary tumors are associated with RCF exposure remains, but is weaker. One reported, but unconfirmed, mesothelioma was found in an individual with prior occupational asbestos exposure. An elevated SMR for leukemia was found, but was absent in the highly exposed group and has not been observed in studies of other mineral fibers. The industry will continue the product stewardship program including the mortality study.

  14. Preoperative therapeutic apheresis for severe medically refractory amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Jennifer; Dostmohamed, Hanifa; Schacter, Isanne; Ariano, Robert E; Houston, Donald S; Lewis, Brenda; Knoll, Colleen; Katz, Pamela; Zarychanski, Ryan

    2014-06-01

    Amiodarone is associated with thyroid dysfunction and life-threatening thyrotoxicosis. In medically refractory cases, or where medical therapy is contraindicated, thyroidectomy may be required. To decrease perioperative thyroid storm and to reduce overall surgical risk, apheresis may be considered preoperatively to restore euthyroidism. We report a 46-year-old female with a history of cardiac arrhythmia and tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy for which she received amiodarone. Months after discontinuation of amiodarone, the patient presented with wide complex tachycardia and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis. Laboratory testing confirmed severe thyrotoxicosis which was subsequently refractory to medical therapy. Total thyroidectomy was required. Following a total of 10 apheresis treatments, thyroid hormone levels were reduced to near normal levels and the patient's symptoms improved. Thyroidectomy was performed without intraoperative or postoperative complication. In the setting of life-threatening, medically refractory amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis, therapeutic apheresis can effectively reduce thyroid hormone levels and restore a state of clinical and biochemical euthyroidism. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Conduction velocity and refractory period of single motor nerve fibres in antecedent poliomyelitis.

    PubMed Central

    Borg, K; Borg, J

    1987-01-01

    The axonal conduction velocity and the axonal refractory period were determined using electromyographic techniques for 60 single motor units in 11 patients with antecedent poliomyelitis. The results were compared with previous observations in healthy subjects as well as subjects with motor neuron disease. In antecedent poliomyelitis there was a reduced proportion of nerve fibres with low conduction velocity as compared with the findings in healthy subjects. The mean value of the axonal conduction velocities in antecedent poliomyelitis (42.4 +/- 3.7 m/s, M +/- SD) was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) while in motor neuron disease the corresponding value (35.2 +/- 7.8 m/s) was significantly lower (p less than 0.005) than in healthy subjects (39.8 +/- 4.9 m/s). In antecedent poliomyelitis the conduction velocity and refractory period were related as in healthy subjects while abnormally long refractory periods were observed in motor neuron disease. Images PMID:3585356

  16. Drug interaction between phenytoin and valproic acid in a child with refractory epilepsy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Indira Valadê; Carnevale, Renata Cavalcanti; Visacri, Marília Berlofa; Mazzola, Priscila Gava; de Fátima Lopes Ambrósio, Rosiane; dos Reis, Marcelo Conrado; de Queiroz, Rachel Alvarenga; Moriel, Patricia

    2014-04-01

    There are no published reports on pediatric phenytoin toxicity, resulting from the drug interaction between phenytoin and valproic acid. A 12-year-old patient with refractory epilepsy syndrome presented with phenytoin toxicity, following a concomitant treatment with phenytoin, valproic acid, and lamotrigine. The phenytoin concentration detected in the capsules used by the patient was in accordance with the prescribed dose and was appropriate for the age and weight of the patient. However, a supratherapeutic phenytoin serum concentration was observed (21.92 µg phenytoin/mL of blood). Consequently, the phenytoin dose was reduced, and the patient was monitored; 24 hours later the patient did not present with any signs/symptoms of toxicity. Despite the appropriate phenytoin concentration in the capsules, the patient presented with phenytoin toxicity. This toxicity likely resulted from the drug interaction between phenytoin and valproic acid that leads to phenytoin displacement from plasmatic proteins and inhibits phenytoin metabolism, thereby increasing the concentration of free drug in the serum.

  17. Refractory Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Role of Angiographic Intervention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Although endoscopic hemostasis remains initial treatment modality for nonvariceal gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, severe bleeding despite endoscopic management occurs in 5% to 10% of the patients, requiring surgery or transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). TAE is now considered the first-line therapy for massive GI bleeding refractory to endoscopic management. GI endoscopists need to be familiar with indications, principles, outcomes, and complications of TAE, as well as embolic materials available. PMID:24143308

  18. AOI [3]: Smart Refractory Sensor Systems for Wireless Monitoring of Temperature, Health, and Degradation of Slagging Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Sabolsky, Edward M.; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Graham, David

    The objective of the work was to develop refractory “smart bricks”, which would contain embedded temperature, strain/stress, and spallation sensors throughout the volume of high-chromia (-Cr2O3) refractory brick. The proposed work included work to interconnect the sensors to the reactor exterior, where the sensor signals may be processed by low-power electronics and transmitted wirelessly to a central processing hub. The data processing and wireless transmitter hardware was specifically designed to be isolated (with low power consumption) and to be adaptable to future implementation of energy-harvesting strategies for extended life. Finally, the collected data was incorporated into a model to estimatemore » refractory degradation, a technique that could help monitor the health of the refractory in real-time. The long-term goal of this program was to demonstrate high-temperature, wireless sensor arrays for in situ three-dimensional (3-D) refractory monitoring or mapping for slagging gasification systems. The research was in collaboration with HarbisonWalker International (HWI) Technology Center in West Mifflin, PA. HWI is a leading developer and manufacturer of ceramic refractory products for high-temperature applications. The work completed focused on the following areas: 1) Investigation of the chemical stability, microstructural evolution, grain growth kinetics, degree of homogeneity (quantitative image analysis), and electrical properties of refractory oxide-silicide composites at temperatures between 750-1450ºC; 2) Fabrication of silicide-alumina composite and oxide thermocouples and thermistor preforms and the development of techniques to embed them into high-chromia refractory bricks to form “smart bricks”; 3) Utilization of commercial off-the-shelf discrete components to prototype circuits for interfacing between smart brick sensors and the wireless sensor network. The prototypes were then used to design an integrated circuit for thermistor

  19. Detection of Active Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Duodenal Mucosa of Patients With Refractory Celiac Disease.

    PubMed

    Perfetti, Vittorio; Baldanti, Fausto; Lenti, Marco Vincenzo; Vanoli, Alessandro; Biagi, Federico; Gatti, Marta; Riboni, Roberta; Dallera, Elena; Paulli, Marco; Pedrazzoli, Paolo; Corazza, Gino Roberto

    2016-08-01

    Refractory celiac disease is characterized by mucosal damage in patients with celiac disease despite a gluten-free diet. Little is known about the mechanisms that cause persistent intestinal inflammation in these patients. We performed a case-control study of 17 consecutive patients diagnosed with refractory celiac disease from 2001 through 2014 (median age, 51 y; 10 women) and 24 patients with uncomplicated celiac disease (controls) to determine whether refractory disease is associated with infection by lymphotropic oncogenic viruses. We performed real-time PCR analyses of duodenal biopsy samples from all patients to detect Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus-8, and human T-cell lymphotropic virus-I, -II, or -III. We used in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analyses to identify infected cells and viral proteins. We did not detect human herpesvirus-8 or human T-cell lymphotropic viruses in any of the biopsy specimens. However, 12 of 17 (70.5%) biopsy specimens from patients with refractory celiac disease were positive for EBV, compared with 4 of 24 (16.6%) biopsy specimens from controls (P < .001). EBV was detected in inflammatory cells and enterocytes. An analysis of latency- and replication-associated proteins confirmed active infection. Further studies are needed to determine whether EBV infection contributes to the pathogenesis of refractory celiac disease and enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of vincristine-loaded platelet therapy in three dogs with refractory immune-mediated thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Ja-Won; Song, Kun-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Three dogs presented with refractory immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (IMT). All patients failed to respond to prednisone, which is considered a mainstay of immunosuppressive therapy. Vincristine-loaded platelets (VLPs), which act selectively on mononuclear phagocytes,were introduced. After the VLPs were transfused, two dogs responded quickly withimproved clinical signs while the third dogwith recurrent IMT was euthanized due to its deteriorating condition. This case report describesthe efficacy of VLP therapy in refractory IMT patients. PMID:25269722

  1. Direct Tumor Microinjection and FDG-PET in Testing Drug Sensitivity in Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Hodgkin Lymphoma, or Stage IV Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-03-28

    Breast Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Breast Carcinoma; Recurrent Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Mycosis Fungoides; Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Primary Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Mycosis Fungoides; Refractory Nodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma; Refractory Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Primary Cutaneous T-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Stage IV Breast Cancer AJCC v6 and v7

  2. Nab-paclitaxel/Rituximab-coated Nanoparticle AR160 in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-17

    Aggressive Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; CD20 Positive; Recurrent B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma; Refractory B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma

  3. Preliminary Investigations of Joining Technologies for Attaching Refractory Metals to Ni-Based Superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, Jerry E.; Ritzert, Frank J.; Loewenthal, William S.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, a range of joining technologies has been investigated for creating attachments between refractory metal and Ni-based superalloys. Refractory materials of interest include Mo-47%Re, T-111, and Ta-10%W. The Ni-based superalloys include Hastelloy X and MarM 247. During joining with conventional processes, these materials have potential for a range of solidification and intermetallic formation-related defects. For this study, three non-conventional joining technologies were evaluated. These included inertia welding, electro-spark deposition (ESD) welding, and magnetic pulse welding (MPW). The developed inertia welding practice closely paralleled that typically used for the refractory metals alloys. Metallographic investigations showed that forging during inertia welding occurred predominantly on the nickel base alloy side. It was also noted that at least some degree of forging on the refractory metal side of the joint was necessary to achieve consistent bonding. Both refractory metals were readily weldable to the Hastelloy X material. When bonding to the MarM 247, results were inconsistent. This was related to the higher forging temperatures of the MarM 247, and subsequent reduced deformation on that material during welding. ESD trials using a Hastelloy X filler were successful for all material combinations. ESD places down very thin (5- to 10- m) layers per pass, and interactions between the substrates and the fill were limited (at most) to that layer. For the refractory metals, the fill only appeared to wet the surface, with minimal dilution effects. Microstructures of the deposits showed high weld metal integrity with maximum porosity on the order of a few percent. Some limited success was also obtained with MPW. In these trials, only the T-111 tubes were used. Joints were possible for the T-111 tube to the Hastelloy X bar stock, but the stiffness of the tube (resisting collapse) necessitated the use of very high power levels. These power levels

  4. Risk factors for drainage-requiring ascites after refractory peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheng-Chia; Tu, Kun-Hua; Chen, Hsiao-Hui; Chang, Ming-Yang; Hung, Cheng-Chieh

    2016-10-01

    Refractory peritonitis remains a thorny issue for patients with chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD). Shortly after catheter removal, some patients develop persistent peritoneal inflammation and ascites formation, which require percutaneous drainage for symptom relief. Our study aimed at finding the risk factors for this kind of event. A total of 47 PD patients complicated with refractory peritonitis who underwent catheter removal between January 2009 and December 2011 were enrolled in this study. Data were compared between patients with and without the development of symptomatic ascites requiring drainage during hospitalization. Among the 47 refractory peritonitis patients, 15 patients developed symptomatic ascites that needed further drainage shortly after catheter removal during hospitalization. The following factors were associated with an increased risk: longer dialysis duration, higher peritoneal Kt/V urea, and a significant rise in serum C-reactive protein (CRP) level after catheter removal. These patients had a prolonged hospital stay (62 vs 21 days, P < 0.001) and a significantly higher risk of recurrent loculated ascites during subsequent 6 months of follow-up (33.3 vs 6.2 %, P = 0.022) compared with patients who did not develop ascites requiring drainage during hospitalization. A significant portion of patients with refractory PD peritonitis experienced ascites requiring drainage shortly after catheter removal, which led to a prolonged hospitalization. Whether routine drain placement at the time of catheter removal for this high-risk group would be of benefit warrants further prospective studies.

  5. A retrospective study on the management of patients with rituximab refractory follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Solal-Céligny, Philippe; Leconte, Pierre; Bardet, Aurélie; Hernandez, Juana; Troussard, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    Given that there are currently no clear recommendations regarding therapeutic options for rituximab refractory/relapsed follicular lymphoma patients, this study aimed to describe the real-life management of patients with refractory follicular lymphoma after systemic rituximab-containing regimens (rFL), and rFL patient characteristics. In this retrospective, national, multicentre study, descriptive analyses were mainly performed according to rituximab-containing regimen at rFL diagnosis [rituximab monotherapy (R-MONO), rituximab + chemotherapy (R-COMBO), and ongoing rituximab maintenance (R-MAINTAIN)]. The 459 analysed patients experienced rituximab-refractoriness between October 2013 and September 2015: R-MONO: 58 (13%), R-COMBO: 197 (43%), R-MAINTAIN: 204 (44%). Post-refractoriness strategies were heterogeneous: idelalisib ± rituximab (22%), without anti-lymphoma treatment (21%), rituximab-chemotherapy (21%) and stem cell transplantation (18%). Rituximab was continued in combination in 41% of cases. Chosen strategies varied according to patient age (without anti-lymphoma treatment: 28% of patients if ≥65 years vs. 12% if <65 years old; stem-cell transplantation: 4% vs. 38%), treatment line at rFL, FL International Prognostic Index score and prior treatment. This French retrospective study, the first one conducted in a large cohort of rFL patients, showed that further strategies were highly heterogeneous, depending notably on patient characteristics and previous treatment. These data are the basis for a better understanding of rFL management and for the design of clinical trials in these patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Entinostat in Treating Pediatric Patients With Recurrent or Refractory Solid Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-23

    Childhood Brain Stem Neoplasm; Childhood Lymphoma; Childhood Solid Neoplasm; Pineal Region Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Refractory Central Nervous System Neoplasm

  7. Design of Refractory Linings for Balanced Energy Efficiency, Uptime, and Capacity in Lime Kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Gorog, John Peter; Hemrick, James Gordon; Walker, Harold

    2014-01-01

    The rotary kilns used by the pulp and paper industry to regenerate lime in the Kraft process are very energy intensive. Throughout the 90 s, in response to increasing fuel prices, the industry used back up insulation in conjunction with the high alumina brick used to line the burning zones of their kilns. While this improved energy efficiency, the practice of installing insulating brick behind the working lining increased the inner wall temperatures. In the worst case, due to the increased temperatures, rapid brick failures occurred causing unscheduled outages and expensive repairs. Despite these issues, for the most part, themore » industry continued to use insulating refractory linings in that the energy savings were large enough to offset any increase in the cost of maintaining the refractory lining. Due to the dramatic decline in the price of natural gas in some areas combined with mounting pressures to increasing production of existing assets, over the last decade, many mills are focusing more on increasing the uptime of their kilns as opposed to energy savings. To this end, a growing number of mills are using basic (magnesia based) brick instead of high alumina brick to line the burning zone of the kiln since the lime mud does not react with these bricks at the operating temperatures of the burning zone of the kiln. In the extreme case, a few mills have chosen to install basic brick in the front end of the kiln running a length equivalent to 10 diameters. While the use of basic brick can increase the uptime of the kiln and reduce the cost to maintain the refractory lining, it does dramatically increase the heat losses resulting from the increased operating temperatures of the shell. Also, over long periods of time operating at these high temperatures, damage can occur in the shell. There are tradeoffs between energy efficiency, capacity and uptime. When fuel prices are very high, it makes sense to insulate the lining. When fuel prices are lower, trading

  8. Management of refractory pityriasis rubra pilaris: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Moretta, Gaia; De Luca, Erika V; Di Stefani, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) is a rare chronic inflammatory papulosquamous skin disease. Its clinical presentation and evolution is very variable. The most frequent clinical features are follicular papules, progressing to yellow-orange erythroderma with round small areas of normal skin and the well-demarcated palmoplantar keratoderma. Actually, six different types of PRP have been described based on clinical characteristics, age of onset, and prognosis. The pathogenesis is still unknown, and treatment can be challenging. Available treatments are mainly based on case reports or case series of clinical experience because no controlled randomized trials have never been performed because of the rarity of the condition. Traditional systemic treatment consists in retinoids, which are actually considered as first-line therapy, but refractory cases that do not respond or relapse after drug interruption do exist. In recent years, numerous reports have demonstrated the efficacy of new agents such as biological drugs. This article is an overview on available therapeutic options, in particular for refractory forms of PRP. PMID:29184428

  9. High-Dose Y-90-Ibritumomab Tiuxetan Added to Reduced-Intensity Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant Regimen for Relapsed or Refractory Aggressive B-Cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-12-04

    Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder; Recurrent Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Burkitt Lymphoma; Refractory B-Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Burkitt Lymphoma; Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

  10. Trans-jugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt placement for refractory ascites: a 'real-world' UK health economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Parker, Matthew J; Guha, Neil; Stedman, Brian; Hacking, Nigel; Wright, Mark

    2013-07-01

    To assess the benefit of trans-jugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt (TIPS) placement for refractory ascites. A retrospective observational study of all patients undergoing TIPS for refractory ascites in our hospital between 2003 and 2012. Secondary care. Cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites. We examined direct real-world (National Health Service) health related costs in the year before and after the TIPS procedure took place. Data were collected relating to the need for reintervention and hepatic encephalopathy. Data were available for 24 patients who underwent TIPS for refractory ascites (86% of eligible patients). TIPS was technically successful in all cases. Mean number of bed days in the year prior to TIPS was 30.3 and 14.3 in the year following (p=0.005). No patient had ascites at the end of the year after the TIPS with less requirement for paracentesis over the course of the year (p<0.001). Mean reduction in cost was £2759 per patient. TIPS was especially cost-effective in patients requiring between 6 and 12 drains per year with a mean saving of £9204 per patient. TIPS is both a clinically effective and economically advantageous therapeutic option for selected patients with refractory ascites.

  11. Application of vincristine-loaded platelet therapy in three dogs with refractory immune-mediated thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Ja-Won; Song, Kun-Ho; Seo, Kyoung-Won

    2015-01-01

    Three dogs presented with refractory immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (IMT). All patients failed to respond to prednisone, which is considered a mainstay of immunosuppressive therapy. Vincristine-loaded platelets (VLPs), which act selectively on mononuclear phagocytes,were introduced. After the VLPs were transfused, two dogs responded quickly with improved clinical signs while the third dog with recurrent IMT was euthanized due to its deteriorating condition. This case report describes the efficacy of VLP therapy in refractory IMT patients.

  12. A one-year prospective study of refractory status epilepticus in Modena, Italy.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, Giada; Monti, Giulia; Polisi, Michela M; Mirandola, Laura; Marudi, Andrea; Pinelli, Giovanni; Valzania, Franco; Girardis, Massimo; Nichelli, Paolo F; Meletti, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    Refractory status epilepticus (RSE) is a particular critical condition characterized by seizures that continue despite the use of first- and second-line therapies and by high mortality. To date, only one prospective study investigated clinical features and prognostic factors in RSE. In this study, we performed a one-year prospective survey to identify clinical features, outcomes, and variables associated with the development of RSE in the adolescent and adult population of Modena, northern Italy. We observed 83 episodes of SE in 83 patients. In 31% of the cases, third-line therapy (anesthetic drug) was needed. Among this group, 14% resolved and were classified as RSE, while, in 17%, seizures recurred at withdrawal of anesthetics and were classified as super-RSE. The development of RSE/super-RSE was associated with a stuporous/comatose state at presentation and with the absence of a previous history of epilepsy. Refractory status epilepticus/super-refractory status epilepticus showed a worse outcome compared with responsive SE: 54% versus 21% for 30-day mortality; 19% versus 56% for a return to baseline condition. This prospective study confirms stupor/coma at onset as a relevant clinical factor associated with SE refractoriness. We observed a rate of RSE comparable with previous reports, with high mortality and morbidity. Mortality in the observed RSE was higher than in previous studies; this result is probably related to the low rate of a previous epilepsy history in our population that reflects a high incidence of acute symptomatic etiologies, especially the inclusion of patients with postanoxic SE who have a bad prognosis per se. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Status Epilepticus". Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Epirubicin, Cisplatin, and Capecitabine for Primary Platinum-Resistant or Platinum-Refractory Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sayal, Karen; Gounaris, Ioannis; Basu, Bristi; Freeman, Sue; Moyle, Penny; Hosking, Karen; Iddawela, Mahesh; Jimenez-Linan, Mercedes; Abraham, Jean; Brenton, James; Hatcher, Helen; Earl, Helena; Parkinson, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Objective Primary platinum-resistant epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is an area of unmet medical need. There is limited evidence from small studies that platinum-based combinations can overcome “resistance” in a proportion of patients. We investigated the efficacy and toxicity of platinum-based combination chemotherapy in the platinum-resistant and platinum-refractory setting. Methods Epirubicin, cisplatin, and capecitabine (ECX) combination chemotherapy was used at our institution for the treatment of relapsed EOC. From the institutional database, we identified all patients with primary platinum-refractory or platinum-resistant relapse treated with ECX as second-line therapy between 2001 and 2012. We extracted demographic, clinical, treatment, and toxicity data and outcomes. We used logistic and Cox regression models to identify predictors of response and survival respectively. Results Thirty-four 34 patients (8 refractory, 26 resistant) were treated with ECX. Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) response rate was 45%, median progression-free survival (PFS) was 6.4 months, and overall survival (OS) was 10.6 months. Platinum-resistant patients had better outcomes than did platinum-refractory patients (response rate, 54% vs 0%, P = 0.047; PFS 7.2 vs 1.8 months, P < 0.0001; OS 14.4 vs 3 months, P < 0.001). In regression models, time to progression after first-line treatment and platinum-refractory status were the strongest predictors of response and PFS or OS, respectively. Patients with time to progression after first-line treatment longer than 3 months showed PFS and OS of 7.9 and 14.7 months, respectively. Toxicity was manageable, with only 13% of cycles administered at reduced doses. Conclusions Epirubicin, cisplatin, and capecitabine seems to be active in platinum-resistant relapsed EOC with manageable toxicity. Further prospective investigation of platinum-anthracycline combinations is warranted in patients who relapse 3 to 6 months after

  14. REFRACTORY HYPERTENSION: EVIDENCE OF HEIGHTENED SYMPATHETIC ACTIVITY AS A CAUSE OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE TREATMENT FAILURE

    PubMed Central

    Dudenbostel, Tanja; Acelajado, Maria C.; Pisoni, Roberto; Li, Peng; Oparil, Suzanne; Calhoun, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Refractory hypertension is an extreme phenotype of treatment failure defined as uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) in spite of ≥5 classes of antihypertensive agents, including chlorthalidone and a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. A prospective evaluation of possible mechanisms of refractory hypertension has not been done. The goal of this study was to test for evidence of heightened sympathetic tone as indicated by 24-hr urinary (U-) normetanephrine levels, clinic and ambulatory heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV), arterial stiffness as indexed by pulse wave velocity (PWV), and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) compared to patients with controlled resistant hypertension. Forty-four consecutive patients, 15 with refractory and 29 with controlled resistant hypertension, were evaluated prospectively. Refractory hypertensive patients were younger (48±13.3 vs. 56.5±14.1 years, p=0.038) and more likely female (80.0 vs 51.9 %, p=0.047) compared to patients with controlled resistant hypertension. They also had higher U-normetanephrine levels (464.4±250.2 vs. 309.8±147.6 μg/24h, p=0.03), higher clinic HR (77.8±7.7 vs. 68.8±7.6 bpm, p=0.001) and 24-hr ambulatory HR (77.8±7.7 vs 68.8±7.6, p=0.0018), higher PWV (11.8±2.2 vs. 9.4±1.5 m/s, p=0.009), reduced HRV (4.48 vs. 6.11, p=0.03), and higher SVR (3795±1753 vs. 2382±349 dyne·sec·cm5·m2, p=0.008). These findings are consistent with heightened sympathetic tone being a major contributor to antihypertensive treatment failure and highlight the need for effective sympatholytic therapies in patients with refractory hypertension. PMID:25987662

  15. Outcome of Low-Invasive Local Split-Thickness Lengthening for Iliotibial Band Friction Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroaki; Hara, Kunio; Arai, Yuji; Nakagawa, Shuji; Kan, Hiroyuki; Hino, Manabu; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2018-02-01

    Conventional surgical methods for iliotibial band friction syndrome (ITBFS) may affect the iliotibial band (ITB), delaying return to sports activities or impeding performance. We have developed a minimally invasive method. This study retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of this procedure in individuals with ITBFS. This study included 34 knees of 31 individuals. Surgery involved lengthening the central part of the ITB by splitting it into a superficial and a deep layer, maintaining the anterior and posterior fibers immediately above the lateral epicondyle. Outcomes included time to resume sports activity, personal best times to run a 5000-m race before and after surgery, and 2-month post-surgery muscle strengths. The mean postoperative time to return to competition was 5.8 weeks. Personal best times of 5000-m race improved in 13 of 17 runners. Two months post-surgery, the mean extensor muscle strengths on the healthy and affected sides did not significantly differ nor did the flexor muscle strengths. In ITBFS, the ITB itself is normal. Lengthening the limited region of the ITB immediately above the lateral femoral epicondyle removes the cause of ITBFS, with a reduction in inflammation. This technique resulted in early return to competition without degrading performance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Densification of porous refractory substrates. [space shuttle orbiter tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ecord, G. M.; Schomburg, C. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A hydrolyzed tetraethyl orthosilicate is applied to the surface of a porous refractory substrate following which the substrate is heated to a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to bond the silica released from the tetraethyl orthosilicate to the substrate. The surface is thus densified and strengthened.

  17. Method for producing UO$sub 2$ loaded refractory metals

    DOEpatents

    Baker, R.D.; Hayter, S.W.; Lewis, H.D.

    1973-12-11

    A finely divided dispersion of UO/sub 2/ in tungsten or molybdenum is prepared by co-precipitating the metals from mixed aqueous solution with oxine. The co-precipitate thus formed is separated from the solution, dried, calcined, and finally reduced to UO/sub 2/ and refractory metal. (Official Gazette)

  18. Interferon alpha-2a treatment for refractory Behcet uveitis in Korean patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hwan; Lee, Christopher Seungkyu; Lee, Sung Chul

    2018-02-20

    To evaluate therapeutic outcomes of interferon alpha-2a (IFNα2a) treatment in patients with Behcet's disease who were refractory to immunosuppressive agents. This retrospective case series reviewed the medical records of 5 patients with refractory Behcet uveitis from January 2011 to February 2017. IFNα2a was administered at a dose of 3 million IU 3 times per week. Clinical response, relapse rate, and change of visual acuity were evaluated. The mean age of patients was 39.60 ± 9.21 years, and the median treatment duration was 6 months. Four of the 5 patients (80%) presented with responses to IFNα2a without any uveitis attack during the treatment period. The mean number of uveitis attacks/year per patient during the treatment was 0.40 ± 0.89. The mean log of the Minimum Angle of Resolution visual acuity improved from 1.44 ± 0.38 at baseline to 1.02 ± 0.58 at the final follow up. IFNα2a is an effective therapy for Behcet uveitis refractory to conventional immunosuppressants in Korean patients.

  19. Oxidation Behavior of a Refractory NbCrMo0.5Ta0.5TiZr Alloy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    DANIEL J. EVANS, Chief Metals Branch Metals Branch Structural Materials Division...damage, is dif- ficult to achieve [2]. Thus, new metallic systems with higher melting points and a good balance of structural properties at high...has been considered to be the main issue during oxidation of conventional refractory alloys [14]. Heavy alloying of refractory metals with other

  20. The ketogenic diet and other dietary treatments for refractory epilepsy in children

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Suvasini; Jain, Puneet

    2014-01-01

    The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate, and restricted protein diet that is useful in patients with refractory epilepsy. The efficacy of the ketogenic diet is better than most of the new antiepileptic drugs. Other modifications of the diet are also beneficial, such as the modified Atkins diet and the low glycemic index treatment. There is a lack of awareness of the ketogenic diet as a treatment modality for epilepsy amongst pediatricians and neurologists. In this review, the use of the ketogenic diet and other dietary treatments in refractory epilepsy is discussed. The Indian experience with the use of these dietary treatments is also briefly reviewed. PMID:25221391

  1. Clofarabine-based combination chemotherapy for relapse and refractory childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Yuki; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Aoki, Takahiro; Kubota, Yasuo; Oyama, Ryo; Mori, Makiko; Hayashi, Mayumi; Hanada, Ryoji

    2014-11-01

    Clofarabine, one of the key treatment agents for refractory and relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), achieves a remission rate of approximately 30% with single-agent clofarabine induction chemotherapy. However, a remission rate of approximately 50% was reported with a combination chemotherapy regimen consisting of clofarabine, etoposide, and cyclophosphamide. We treated two cases with refractory and relapsed ALL with combination chemotherapy including clofarabine; one was an induction failure but the other achieved remission. Both cases developed an infectious complication (NCI-CTCAE grade 3) and body pain with infusion. Prophylactic antibiotic and opioid infusions facilitated avoiding septic shock and pain. Further investigation of such cases is required.

  2. Successful management of refractory cases of canine demodicosis with homeopathy medicine Graphitis.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Rakesh; Dua, Kirti; Turkar, Sujata; Singh, Harkirat; Singla, L D

    2014-12-01

    Canine demodicosis is a refractory skin disease caused by excessive proliferation of mite Demodex canis. Despite availability of several treatment options, the disease poses a great challenge to clinicians for its long term management as some drugs may be ineffective or toxic. Present report describes successful treatment of two refractory cases of canine demodicosis using homeopathy medicine. After oral administration of Graphitis 200 C two drops once daily for 2 months, complete cure from the disease was observed. No adverse health effects of the medication were recorded during the treatment. Thus, it may be concluded that homeopathy medicine may be used safely for long-term management of canine demodicosis.

  3. Refractory inclusions with unusual chemical compositions from the Vigarano carbonaceous chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sylvester, Paul J.; Grossman, Lawrence; Macpherson, Glenn J.

    1992-01-01

    Neutron activation was used to test ten inclusions, nine Vigarano and one from Leoville, for major and trace elements. Six Vigarano refractory inclusions have refractory element fractionations that are rare or absent in Allende inclusions. Vig 1623-11 has Th/La and Ir/Mo ratios that are lower than those of any Allende Group I or modified Group I inclusions, and Os/La, Ir/La, and Zr/Hf ratios that are among the lowest in those inclusions. The low Os/La, Ir/La, and Ir/Mo ratios seem to require nonrepresentative sampling of condensate phase in the nebula to a degree that is usual for Allende Group I and modified group I inclusions. The nature and origins of the different inclusions are discussed.

  4. Method of nitriding, carburizing, or oxidizing refractory metal articles using microwaves

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.; Tiegs, Terry N.

    1992-01-01

    A method of nitriding an article of refractory-nitride-forming metal or metalloids. A consolidated metal or metalloid article is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid to an article of refractory nitride. in addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

  5. Method of nitriding, carburizing, or oxidizing refractory metal articles using microwaves

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Tiegs, T.N.

    1992-10-13

    A method of nitriding an article of refractory-nitride-forming metal or metalloids. A consolidated metal or metalloid article is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid to an article of refractory nitride. in addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

  6. Non-pharmacological treatment options for refractory epilepsy: an overview of human treatment modalities and their potential utility in dogs.

    PubMed

    Martlé, Valentine; Van Ham, Luc; Raedt, Robrecht; Vonck, Kristl; Boon, Paul; Bhatti, Sofie

    2014-03-01

    Refractory epilepsy is a common disorder both in humans and dogs and treatment protocols are difficult to optimise. In humans, different non-pharmacological treatment modalities currently available include surgery, the ketogenic diet and neurostimulation. Surgery leads to freedom from seizures in 50-75% of patients, but requires strict patient selection. The ketogenic diet is indicated in severe childhood epilepsies, but efficacy is limited and long-term compliance can be problematic. In the past decade, various types of neurostimulation have emerged as promising treatment modalities for humans with refractory epilepsy. Currently, none of these treatment options are used in routine daily clinical practice to treat dogs with the condition. Since many dogs with poorly controlled seizures do not survive, the search for alternative treatment options for canine refractory epilepsy should be prioritised. This review provides an overview of non-pharmacological treatment options for human refractory epilepsy. The current knowledge and limitations of these treatments in canine refractory epilepsy is also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chimeric antigen receptor T cells persist and induce sustained remissions in relapsed refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Porter, David L.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Frey, Noelle V.; Lacey, Simon F.; Shaw, Pamela A.; Loren, Alison W.; Bagg, Adam; Marcucci, Katherine T.; Shen, Angela; Gonzalez, Vanessa; Ambrose, David; Grupp, Stephan A.; Chew, Anne; Zheng, Zhaohui; Milone, Michael C.; Levine, Bruce L.; Melenhorst, Jan J.; June, Carl H.

    2018-01-01

    Patients with multiply relapsed or refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have a poor prognosis. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)–modified T cells targeting CD19 have the potential to improve on the low complete response rates with conventional therapies by inducing sustained remissions in patients with refractory B cell malignancies. We previously reported preliminary results on three patients with refractory CLL. We report the mature results from our initial trial using CAR-modified T cells to treat 14 patients with relapsed and refractory CLL. Autologous T cells transduced with a CD19-directed CAR (CTL019) lentiviral vector were infused into patients with relapsed/refractory CLL at doses of 0.14 × 108 to 11 × 108 CTL019 cells (median, 1.6 × 108 cells). Patients were monitored for toxicity, response, expansion, and persistence of circulating CTL019 T cells. The overall response rate in these heavily pretreated CLL patients was 8 of 14 (57%), with 4 complete remissions (CR) and 4 partial remissions (PR). The in vivo expansion of the CAR T cells correlated with clinical responses, and the CAR T cells persisted and remained functional beyond 4 years in the first two patients achieving CR. No patient in CR has relapsed. All responding patients developed B cell aplasia and experienced cytokine release syndrome, coincident with T cell proliferation. Minimal residual disease was not detectable in patients who achieved CR, suggesting that disease eradication may be possible in some patients with advanced CLL. PMID:26333935

  8. Analysis of renal impairment in MM-003, a phase III study of pomalidomide + low - dose dexamethasone versus high - dose dexamethasone in refractory or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Weisel, Katja C.; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.; Moreau, Philippe; Lacy, Martha Q.; Song, Kevin W.; Delforge, Michel; Karlin, Lionel; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Banos, Anne; Oriol, Albert; Alegre, Adrian; Chen, Christine; Cavo, Michele; Garderet, Laurent; Ivanova, Valentina; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin; Knop, Stefan; Yu, Xin; Hong, Kevin; Sternas, Lars; Jacques, Christian; Zaki, Mohamed H.; Miguel, Jesus San

    2016-01-01

    Pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone is effective and well tolerated for refractory or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma after bortezomib and lenalidomide failure. The phase III trial MM-003 compared pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone with high-dose dexamethasone. This subanalysis grouped patients by baseline creatinine clearance ≥ 30 − < 60 mL/min (n=93, pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone; n=56, high-dose dexamethasone) or ≥ 60 mL/min (n=205, pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone; n=93, high-dose dexamethasone). Median progression-free survival was similar for both subgroups and favored pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone versus high-dose dexamethasone: 4.0 versus 1.9 months in the group with baseline creatinine clearance ≥ 30 − < 60 mL/min (P<0.001) and 4.0 versus 2.0 months in the group with baseline creatinine clearance ≥ 60 mL/min (P<0.001). Median overall survival for pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone versus high-dose dexamethasone was 10.4 versus 4.9 months (P=0.030) and 15.5 versus 9.2 months (P=0.133), respectively. Improved renal function, defined as an increase in creatinine clearance from < 60 to ≥ 60 mL/min, was similar in pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone and high-dose dexamethasone patients (42% and 47%, respectively). Improvement in progression-free and overall survival in these patients was comparable with that in patients without renal impairment. There was no increase in discontinuations of therapy, dose modifications, and adverse events in patients with moderate renal impairment. Pomalidomide at a starting dose of 4 mg + low-dose dexamethasone is well tolerated in patients with refractory or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma, and of comparable efficacy if moderate renal impairment is present. This trial was registered with clinicaltrials.gov identifier 01311687 and EudraCT identifier 2010-019820-30. PMID:27081177

  9. First Ti-XANES analyses of refractory inclusions from Murchison

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, S.B.; Sutton, S.R.; Grossman, L.

    2009-03-23

    Ti valence in refractory phases is an important recorder of redox conditions in the early solar nebula. We report the valence of Ti in pyroxene, spinel and hibonite in spinel-hibonite and spinel-pyroxene inclusions and in a coarse hibonite grain. A system of solar composition is so reducing that Ti{sup 3+} and Ti{sup 4+} can coexist, making the valence of Ti a valuable indicator of f{sub O2} conditions during formation of nebular materials. The Ti{sup 3+}/Ti{sup 4+} ratios observed in the Ti-rich phases fassaite and rhoenite in coarse-grained refractory inclusions from CV3 chondrites have been shown to be quantitatively consistent withmore » formation in a gas of solar composition (log f{sub O2} = IW-6.8), but these are the only objects in chondrites for which this is the case. Here, we report the valence of Ti in various phases in refractory inclusions from the Murchison CM2 chondrite. The second-highest temperature, major-element-bearing phase predicted to condense from a gas of solar composition, hibonite (ideally CaAl{sub 12}O{sub 19}), can contain significant amounts of Ti, but the hibonite structure can have oxygen vacancies, so calculation of Ti valence from stoichiometry of electron probe analyses is not recommended for hibonite. To date, the only reported measurement of Ti valence in meteoritic hibonite was done by electron spin resonance, on coarse crystals from a Murchison hibonite-perovskite-melilite inclusion. Spinel and most of the pyroxene in CM inclusions contain too little Ti for derivation of Ti{sup 3+}/Ti{sup 4+} ratios from electron probe analyses. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), however, allows determination of Ti valence in relatively Ti-poor phases. In the present work, we apply synchrotron microXANES to a large hibonite grain from Murchison and to spinel-hibonite (sp-hib) and spinel-pyroxene (sp-pyx) inclusions from Murchison, refractory materials whose Ti{sup 3+}/Ti{sup 4+} ratios have not been previously measured

  10. Twice-daily dosing of temozolomide in combination with fotemustine for the treatment of patients with refractory glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Santoni, M; Paccapelo, A; Burattini, L; Onofri, A; Cascinu, S

    2012-03-01

    Alkylating agents, such as temozolomide (TMZ) and fotemustine (FTM) are widely used in recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) regimes. Several strategies have been proposed to prevent resistance to these agents, by combining or sequencing them. We report the results of a pilot study of patients with refractory GBM receiving a regime of twice-daily dosing of temozolomide administered on day 1, (with an initial oral dose of 200 mg/m(2) and a second oral dose of 75 mg/m(2) 12 h later), followed by fotemustine in a single i.v. infusion at 75 mg/m(2) on day 2, repeated every four weeks. Enrolment was stopped at 15 patients due to lack of effectiveness of this schedule for patients with GBM. Toxicity was mild, with no grade 4 side effects reported. Results indicate that our temozolomide -FTM combined schedule is not effective, although well tolerated, in non responsive patients with GBM. Further strategies are required to improve the outcome of these patients.

  11. Evaluation of the Risk for Work-Related Upper Extremity Musculoskeletal Symptoms in USAF Air Traffic Controllers: A Pilot Feasibility Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-07-11

    interest to this study. One was suffering from (being diagnosed and in treatment for) medial epicondylitis , and the other had tenderness related to...rest forearms and hands, excessive lateral deviation of the hands operating the keyboard, and a pronounced inclination or turning of the head. Their...equal to or greater than 2.0. A similar relative risk was noted for neck, shoulder, arm and elbow disorders in 9 of 16 studies. The magnitude of the

  12. The use of sirolimus (rapamycin) in the management of refractory inflammatory bowel disease in children.

    PubMed

    Mutalib, Mohamed; Borrelli, Osvaldo; Blackstock, Sarah; Kiparissi, Fevronia; Elawad, Mamoun; Shah, Neil; Lindley, Keith

    2014-12-01

    Management of refractory inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children is challenging and once response to conventional medical therapy deviates from the expected, options are often limited. Sirolimus is commonly used in post-transplantation management and is used sparsely as rescue therapy in refractory Crohn's disease. In the presen