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Sample records for refugial balkan region

  1. Folk Calendars in the Balkan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolev, Dimiter

    Folk calendars are a good source for studying the knowledge and rituals of peoples from distant epochs. The turbulent history of the cultures in the Balkan Peninsula leads to a mixture of calendar traditions - different calendar types and naming systems of the calendar units (months and weekdays). Despite the differences, they share a common astronomical basis and the seasonal structure is of fundamental importance (i.e., dividing the year into two economic seasons - warm and cold). The Old Bulgarian 12-year calendar is also mentioned briefly.

  2. Higher Education in Balkan Region and its Contribution to the Earth Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisec, A.; Fras, M. K.

    2012-07-01

    The needs for spatial data as well as techniques of Earth Observation are changing, and new professional areas are developing very rapidly. In addition, scientific work and its connection with the teaching process have influenced the introduction of new cognitions into the higher education programs in general. Considering these facts, in the period shorter than one decade, the higher education institutions in the Balkan region, which have study programs in the fields of spatial data acquisition, analysis and spatial decisions, have made significant changes of the curricula. In our research, we have analyzed the current higher education programs in the Balkan region having focused on curricula related to the Earth Observation. Due to historical reasons, these curricula have its roots in surveying study programs in the most Balkan countries. The competences of classical surveying higher educational programs have been changing and nowadays include the wider area of spatial data acquisition, geoinformatics. In parallel, we present the current Earth Observation activities in the selected countries from the Balkan region. Based on the results of our research in the framework of the European program Observe, which aims to establish a new Balkan Earth Observation (EO) community of multilevel stakeholders that will make use of state of the art technological developments, products and knowhow from the existing European EO community and industry, we estimate the contribution of advanced higher educational programs to the Earth Observation activities in the selected countries.

  3. Dynamics of the Balkans deformation : regional impact of the Western Hellenic subduction-collision transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Métois, Marianne; D'Agostino, Nicola; Copley, Alex

    2016-04-01

    The increasing number of GPS measurements in the Balkan Peninsula over the last decades has brought new insights on the kinematic of the Eurasian plate there, revealing a significant ( 5 mm/yr) clockwise rotation motion of the entire region around the Scutari-Pec line in North Albania [Métois et al. 2015]. The focal mechanisms of recent earthquakes in this seismically active area are consistent with this deformation pattern. In this study, we use simple dynamic models based on the thin viscous sheet approximation to test the influence of realistic kinematic boundary conditions and gradients of gravitational potential energy on the predicted surface deformation in the region. In addition, we compare the surface velocity field with maps of azimuthal anisotropy at depth to assess whether mantle motions may drive part of the observed lithosphere deformation. We show that the observed shearing and rotation around Albania can be explained at the first order by kinematic boundary conditions applied on a viscous lithosphere (η ˜ 2.1021Pa.s), while GPE gradients may control the smaller-scale patterns of deformation. Our models appear to be very sensitive to the abrupt velocity-change imposed across the Kefalonia fault in northern Greece where the subduction to collision transition takes place. We propose that the large-scale shearing of the region observed in the GPS data results mainly from this lithospheric tearing, that is one of the most active structure in the area. This hypothesis implies that the slab tearing initiation would have been an important controlling factor on the tectonic history of the Balkans and that the current velocity gradient across the Kefalonia fault is probably sufficient to trigger a large scale shearing propagating up to central Serbia.

  4. Stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and ‘real world’ adherence to guidelines in the Balkan Region: The BALKAN-AF Survey

    PubMed Central

    Potpara, Tatjana S.; Dan, Gheorghe-Andrei; Trendafilova, Elina; Goda, Artan; Kusljugic, Zumreta; Manola, Sime; Music, Ljilja; Musetescu, Rodica; Badila, Elisabeta; Mitic, Gorana; Paparisto, Vilma; Dimitrova, Elena S.; Polovina, Marija M.; Petranov, Stanislav L.; Djergo, Hortensia; Loncar, Daniela; Bijedic, Amira; Brusich, Sandro; Lip, Gregory Y. H.; Potpara, Tatjana S.; Polovina, Marija; Milanov, Srdjan; Pavlovic, Marija; Petrovic, Marijana; Simovic, Stefan; Mitic, Gorana; Milanov, Marko; Savic, Jelena; Gnip, Sanja; Radovic, Pavica; Markovic, Snezana; Koncarevic, Ivana; Gavrilovic, Jelena; Acimovic, Tijana; Djikic, Dijana; Malic, Semir; Hodzic, Jusuf; Stojanovic, Milovan; Ilic, Marina Deljanin; Zlatar, Milan; Matic, Dragan; Lazic, Snezana; Peric, Vladan; Markovic, Sanja; Kovacevic, Snezana; Arandjelovic, Aleksandra; Asanin, Milika; Zdravkovic, Marija; Dan, Gheorghe-Andrei; Breha, Anca; Dan, Anca Rodica; Musetescu, Rodica; Popescu, Mircea Ioachim; Badila, Elisabeta; Georgescu, Catalina Arsenescu; Pop, Sorina; Popescu, Raluca; Neamtu, Simina; Oancea, Floriana; Trendafilova, Elina; Dimitrova, Elena; Goshev, Evgenii; Velichkova, Anna; Petranov, Stanislav; Kamenova, Delyana; Kamenova, Penka; Elefterova, Svetoslava; Shterev, Valentin; Zekova, Maria; Diukiandzhieva, Stela; Dimitrov, Boiko; Sotirov, Tihomir; Simeonova, Valentina; Drianovska, Dimitrina; Boiadzhieva, Liliya Ivanova Vasileva; Buchukova, Darina; Goda, Artan; Paparisto, Vilma; Gjergo, Hortensia; Mijo, Alma; Shirka, Ervina; Gjini, Viktor; Ekmekciu, Uliks; Refatllari, Ina; Kusljugic, Zumreta; Loncar, Daniela; Mrsic, Denis; Tulumovic, Hazim; Pojskic, Belma; Sijamija, Alma; Bijedic, Amira; Karamujic, Indira; Bijedic, Irma; Halilovic, Sanela; Sokolovic, Sekib; Manola, Sime; Zeljkovic, Ivan; Pavlovic, Nikola; Radeljic, Vjekoslav; Brusich, Sandro; Anic, Ante; Jeric, Melita; Pekic, Petar; Milas, Kresimir; Music, Ljilja; Bulatovic, Nebojsa; Nenezic, Ana; Asanovic, Dijana

    2016-01-01

    Data on the management of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the Balkan Region are limited. The Serbian AF Association (SAFA) prospectively investigated contemporary ‘real-world’ AF management in clinical practice in Albania, Bosnia&Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Montenegro, Romania and Serbia through a 14-week (December 2014-February 2015) prospective, multicentre survey of consecutive AF patients. We report the results pertinent to stroke prevention strategies. Of 2712 enrolled patients, 2663 (98.2%) with complete data were included in this analysis (mean age 69.1 ± 10.9 years, female 44.6%). Overall, 1960 patients (73.6%) received oral anticoagulants (OAC) and 762 (28.6%) received antiplatelet drugs. Of patients given OAC, 17.2% received non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs). CHA2DS2-VASc score was not significantly associated with OAC use. Of the ‘truly low-risk’ patients (CHA2DS2-VASc = 0 [males], or 1 [females]) 56.5% received OAC. Time in Therapeutic Range (TTR) was available in only 18.7% of patients (mean TTR: 49.5% ± 22.3%). Age ≥ 80 years, prior myocardial infarction and paroxysmal AF were independent predictors of OAC non-use. Our survey shows a relatively high overall use of OAC in AF patients, but with low quality of vitamin K antagonist therapy and insufficient adherence to AF guidelines. Additional efforts are needed to improve AF-related thromboprophylaxis in clinical practice in the Balkan Region. PMID:26869284

  5. Phylogeographic reconstruction of HIV type 1B in Montenegro and the Balkan region.

    PubMed

    Ciccozzi, Massimo; Lai, Alessia; Ebranati, Erika; Gabanelli, Elena; Galli, Massimo; Mugosa, Boban; Vratnica, Zoran; Vujoševic, Danijela; Lauševic, Dragan; Ciotti, Marco; Cella, Eleonora; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Zehender, Gianguglielmo

    2012-10-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of the most genetically variable human viruses as it is characterized by high rates of mutation, viral replication, and recombination. Phylodynamics is a powerful means of describing the behavior of an infection as a combination of evolutionary and ecological processes. Only a few studies of HIV-1 molecular epidemiology have so far been carried out in the Balkans. In this study, we used Bayesian methods to reconstruct the phylogeography and phylodynamics of HIV-1B in Montenegro and some other Balkan countries on the basis of pol gene sequences retrieved from a public database. The phylogenetic analysis showed that 43% of the isolates grouped in accordance with their geographic area, whereas the majority were interspersed in the tree, thus confirming the multiple introductions of HIV-1B in the Balkans. The Bayesian phylogeographic analysis suggested that HIV-1B entered the Balkans in the early 1970s probably through Greece and other Mediterranean tourist/travel destinations (such as Slovenia). Other Balkan countries, such as Bulgaria and Serbia, may have played an important role in spreading the infection to the entire Eastern Mediterranean area, and possibly to Northeast Europe. This suggests that the Balkans may have played a role as a "gateway" between Western and Eastern Europe. PMID:22364163

  6. Free radical scavenging activity and anthocyanin profile of Cabernet Sauvignon wines from the Balkan region.

    PubMed

    Radovanović, Blaga; Radovanović, Aleksandra

    2010-06-10

    The present study is focused on anthocyanin derivatives characterizing the antioxidant activity of Cabernet Sauvignon wines produced from different vineyard regions in the Balkans. These bioactive compounds were quantified with a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-diode array detection (DAD) method. The antiradical activity was estimated by the ability of the wine to scavenge the stable 2,2;-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH(*)). The results show that the total anthocyanin content varied from 205.88 to 1940.28 mg/L, depending on agroclimatic factors and the enological practices of the corresponding vineyard region. The most prominent antocyanin in all investigated Cabernet Sauvignon wines was malvidin-3-O-monoglucoside, which accounted for 50.57% of total content, followed by its acetyl derivatives, 15.45%, and p-coumaryl derivatives 5.66%. The relationship between the anthocyanin derivatives and free radical scavenging activity is discussed. A high correlation between total anthocyanin content and DPPH scavenging ability of tested wines was confirmed (r(2) = 0.9619). The significant correlations were obtained between antiradical activity and the sum of 3-monoglucoside (r(2) = 0.95594), the sum of 3-acetyl-3-glucoside (r(2) = 0.9728) and the sum of p-coumaryl-3-glucoside (r(2) = 0.8873) of wine samples. It can be concluded that, the anthocyanin composition can be used as biochemical marker for the authenticity of red grape cultivar and their corresponding single-cultivar wine.

  7. Occurrence and fate of emerging wastewater contaminants in Western Balkan Region.

    PubMed

    Terzić, Senka; Senta, Ivan; Ahel, Marijan; Gros, Meritxell; Petrović, Mira; Barcelo, Damia; Müller, Jutta; Knepper, Thomas; Martí, Isabel; Ventura, Francesc; Jovancić, Petar; Jabucar, Dalila

    2008-07-25

    This paper reports on a comprehensive reconnaissance of over seventy individual wastewater contaminants in the region of Western Balkan (WB; Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia and Serbia), including some prominent classes of emerging contaminants such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products, surfactants and their degradation products, plasticizers, pesticides, insect repellents, and flame retardants. All determinations were carried out using a multiresidue analytical approach, based on the application of gas chromatographic and liquid chromatographic techniques coupled to mass spectrometric detection. The results confirmed a widespread occurrence of the emerging contaminants in municipal wastewaters of the region. The most prominent contaminant classes, determined in municipal wastewaters, were those derived from aromatic surfactants, including linear alkylbenzene sulphonates (LAS) and alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEO), with the concentrations in raw wastewater reaching into the mg/l range. All other contaminants were present in much lower concentrations, rarely exceeding few microg/l. The most abundant individual compounds belonged to several classes of pharmaceuticals (antimicrobials, analgesics and antiinflammatories, beta-blockers and lipid regulators) and personal care products (fragrances). Due to the rather poor wastewater management practices in WB countries, with less than 5% of all wastewaters being biologically treated, most of the contaminants present in wastewaters reach ambient waters and may represent a significant environmental concern. PMID:18420255

  8. First records of Dirofilaria repens in wild canids from the region of Central Balkan.

    PubMed

    Cirović, Duško; Penezić, Aleksandra; Pavlović, Ivan; Kulišić, Zoran; Cosić, Nada; Burazerović, Jelena; Maletić, Vladimir

    2014-12-01

    Dirofilaria repens causes an emerging zoonotic disease in Europe, particularly in its southern part, the Mediterranean region. Many reports on human dirofilariosis have been published recently, but little is known about the wildlife hosts and reservoirs of this parasite in nature. This paper presents the first records of adult D. repens specimens from free-ranging carnivores in Central Balkan countries (Serbia and Macedonia). During the period 2009-2013, a total of 145 regularly shot canids were examined for the presence of D. repens adults. In order to investigate their role as hosts and potential wild reservoirs of this zoonosis, 71 wolves (Canis lupus), 48 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 26 jackals (Canis aureus) were examined. Under the skin of two wolves (one from Serbia and one from Macedonia) and of a red fox from Serbia D. repens adults were found. In all three cases only one parasite was present. Further research on wild canids is needed, particularly on species widening their range (such as jackals) and those living near human settlements (foxes and jackals), which facilitates the transmission of the parasites to dogs and humans. PMID:25410390

  9. First records of Dirofilaria repens in wild canids from the region of Central Balkan.

    PubMed

    Cirović, Duško; Penezić, Aleksandra; Pavlović, Ivan; Kulišić, Zoran; Cosić, Nada; Burazerović, Jelena; Maletić, Vladimir

    2014-12-01

    Dirofilaria repens causes an emerging zoonotic disease in Europe, particularly in its southern part, the Mediterranean region. Many reports on human dirofilariosis have been published recently, but little is known about the wildlife hosts and reservoirs of this parasite in nature. This paper presents the first records of adult D. repens specimens from free-ranging carnivores in Central Balkan countries (Serbia and Macedonia). During the period 2009-2013, a total of 145 regularly shot canids were examined for the presence of D. repens adults. In order to investigate their role as hosts and potential wild reservoirs of this zoonosis, 71 wolves (Canis lupus), 48 foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and 26 jackals (Canis aureus) were examined. Under the skin of two wolves (one from Serbia and one from Macedonia) and of a red fox from Serbia D. repens adults were found. In all three cases only one parasite was present. Further research on wild canids is needed, particularly on species widening their range (such as jackals) and those living near human settlements (foxes and jackals), which facilitates the transmission of the parasites to dogs and humans.

  10. Could living unrelated renal transplantation ameliorate the actual shortage of organs in the Balkan region?

    PubMed Central

    Rambabova-Busljetic, I; Popov, Z; Masin-Spasovska, j; Sikole, A; Selim, Gj; Dohcev, S; Ivanovski, N

    2013-01-01

    Background: Despite the efforts for more transplants performed with organs from deceased donors, the living renal transplantation is still the predominant transplant activity in the Balkan region. In order to adress the severe organ shortage, we started accepting unrelated (emotionally related) living donors (LURD). Here we present our 10-year experience with living unrelated renal transplantation (LURT). Methods: Twenty four LURT were performed in our center in the last 10 years. The mean recipients and donors age was 41.7 and 47.2 years, respectively. As LURD spouses (n=17) and extended family members (n=7) were accepted predominantly. All donors went through careful psychological evaluation in order to confirm emotional relationship. The final decision was taken after both the recipient and the donor signed a consent in front of a judge. A quadruple sequential immunosuppressive protocol was used in all recipients. The 5-year Kaplan Meier graft survival rate, HLA mismatch, rejection episodes, delayed graft function, serum creatinine and Glomerular filtration rate-Modification of the diet in renal disease (GFR-MDRD) were analyzed. The results were compared with 30 living related renal transplants (LRT) performed during the same time with mean recipients and donors age of 35.9 and 58.5 years, respectively. Results: The mean follow up for LURT and LRT recipients were 81.4 and 79.6 months, respectively. There was a significant difference regarding recipients and donors age, HLA mismatch (5.07 and 2.9) and rejection episodes (16% vs. 11%) in LURT and LRT recipients. The 5 years graft survival rate was excellent in both groups (83 and 81%, respectively). There was no significant difference in 5 years serum creatinine (129.3 vs 121.1 μmol/lit) and 5 years GFR-MDRD (56.6 and 58.6 ml/min). Conclusion: The authors present an excellent 5-year graft survival rate in both LURT and LRT recipients. Therefore, LURT could ameliorate the severe organ shortage in the region and

  11. Tectonic evolution and hydrocarbon potential of the southern Moesian platform and Balkan-Forebalken regions of northern Bulgaria

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, M. ); Georgiev, G. )

    1993-09-01

    The major tectonic elements of northern Bulgaria are the east-west-trending Balkan-Forebalkan fold belt and the Moesian platform. Moderate hydrocarbon exploration potential exists in trapping geometries generated during the tectonic evolution of the region coupled with reservoir/seal pairs and source rocks within Mesozoic strata. The tectonic evolution of the region includes Early Triassic to Early Jurassic intracratonic rifting followed by multiphase compression that contracted the rift basin and produced a north vergent fold and thrust belt along the southern margin of the stable Moesian platform. Compression began during the Early Cretaceous, continued during the Paleocene, and concluded during the middle Eocene. Trap types generated during the tectonic evolution include normal fault-bounded rotated blocks in the autochthonous section and elongate, asymmetric anticlines in the allochthonous section. Triassic to Upper Jurassic Marine facies were deposited in an east-west-trending rift. Sediments deposited in a shallow foredeep, which evolved during Lower cretaceous compression, overlay the rift sequence. The Early Mesozoic rift sequence provides the depositional settings for Middle Triassic and lower Middle Jurassic source rock shales and sandstone/carbonate reservoirs ranging from Middle Triassic to Lower Cretaceous. Carbonate reservoirs generally are porous dolomites with intercrystalline, moldic, and vugular pore types interbedded with nonporous limestones. Clastic reservoirs are quartz-rich sandstones with pore types that are reduced intergranular, dissolution, and microporosity. These heterogeneous reservoir targets exhibit poor to good reservoir characteristics and are overlain with sealing lithologies of variable thicknesses.

  12. Determination of Depleted Uranium in Environmental Bio-monitor Samples and Soil from Target sites in Western Balkan Region

    SciTech Connect

    Sahoo, Sarata K.; Enomoto, Hiroko; Tokonami, Shinji; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Ujic, Predrag; Celikovic, Igor; Zunic, Zora S.

    2008-08-07

    Lichen and Moss are widely used to assess the atmospheric pollution by heavy metals and radionuclides. In this paper, we report results of uranium and its isotope ratios using mass spectrometric measurements (followed by chemical separation procedure) for mosses, lichens and soil samples from a depleted uranium (DU) target site in western Balkan region. Samples were collected in 2003 from Han Pijesak (Republika Srpska in Bosnia and Hercegovina). Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements show the presence of high concentration of uranium in some samples. Concentration of uranium in moss samples ranged from 5.2-755.43 Bq/Kg. We have determined {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U isotope ratio using thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) from the samples with high uranium content and the ratios are in the range of 0.002097-0.002380. TIMS measurement confirms presence of DU in some samples. However, we have not noticed any traces of DU in samples containing lesser amount of uranium or from any samples from the living environment of same area.

  13. Forensic DNA databases in Western Balkan region: retrospectives, perspectives, and initiatives

    PubMed Central

    Marjanović, Damir; Konjhodžić, Rijad; Butorac, Sara Sanela; Drobnič, Katja; Merkaš, Siniša; Lauc, Gordan; Primorac, Damir; Anđelinović, Šimun; Milosavljević, Mladen; Karan, Željko; Vidović, Stojko; Stojković, Oliver; Panić, Bojana; Vučetić Dragović, Anđelka; Kovačević, Sandra; Jakovski, Zlatko; Asplen, Chris; Primorac, Dragan

    2011-01-01

    The European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI) recommended the establishment of forensic DNA databases and specific implementation and management legislations for all EU/ENFSI members. Therefore, forensic institutions from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia launched a wide set of activities to support these recommendations. To assess the current state, a regional expert team completed detailed screening and investigation of the existing forensic DNA data repositories and associated legislation in these countries. The scope also included relevant concurrent projects and a wide spectrum of different activities in relation to forensics DNA use. The state of forensic DNA analysis was also determined in the neighboring Slovenia and Croatia, which already have functional national DNA databases. There is a need for a ‘regional supplement’ to the current documentation and standards pertaining to forensic application of DNA databases, which should include regional-specific preliminary aims and recommendations. PMID:21674821

  14. High variability of indoor radon concentrations in uraniferous bedrock areas in the Balkan region.

    PubMed

    Zunić, Z S; Ujić, P; Nađđerđ, L; Yarmoshenko, I V; Radanović, S B; Komatina Petrović, S; Celiković, I; Komatina, M; Bossew, P

    2014-12-01

    In this work the strong influence of geological factors on the variability of indoor radon is found in two of three geologically very different regions of South-Eastern Europe. A method to estimate the annual mean concentration when one seasonal measurement is missing is proposed. Large differences of radon concentrations in different rooms of the same house and significant difference in radon concentrations in one season comparing it to the others are noted in certain cases. Geological factors that can lead to such behavior are discussed.

  15. Cancer incidence in Dutch Balkan veterans.

    PubMed

    Bogers, Rik P; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Grievink, Linda; Schouten, Leo J; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Schram-Bijkerk, Dieneke

    2013-10-01

    Suspicion has been raised about an increased cancer risk among Balkan veterans because of alleged exposure to depleted uranium. The authors conducted a historical cohort study to examine cancer incidence among Dutch Balkan veterans. Male military personnel (n=18,175, median follow-up 11 years) of the Army and Military Police who had been deployed to the Balkan region (1993-2001) was compared with their peers not deployed to the Balkans (n=135,355, median follow-up 15 years) and with the general Dutch population of comparable age and sex. The incidence of all cancers and 4 main cancer subgroups was studied in the period 1993-2008. The cancer incidence rate among Balkan deployed military men was 17% lower than among non-Balkan deployed military men (hazard ratio 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.69, 1.00)). For the 4 main cancer subgroups, hazard ratios were statistically non-significantly below 1. Also compared to the general population cancer rates were lower in Balkan deployed personnel (standardised incidence rate ratio (SIR) 0.85 (0.73, 0.99). The SIR for leukaemia was 0.63 (0.20, 1.46). The authors conclude that earlier suggestions of increased cancer risks among veterans are not supported by empirical data. The lower risk of cancer might be explained by the 'healthy warrior effect'. PMID:23707157

  16. Deep drilling of ancient Lake Ohrid (Balkan region) to capture over 1 million years of evolution and global climate cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Bernd; Francke, Alexander; Wilke, Thomas; Krastel, Sebastian; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Sulpizio, Roberto; Reicherter, Klaus; Leng, Melanie; Grazhdani, Andon; Trajanovski, Sasho; Levkov, Zlatko; Reed, Jane; Wonik, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Ancient lakes, with sediment records spanning >1 million years, are very rare. The UNESCO World Heritage site of Lake Ohrid in the Balkan region is thought to be the oldest lake in continuous existence in Europe and, with 212 endemic species described to date, is a hotspot of evolution. An international group of scientists working on a project entitled 'Scientific Collaboration on Past Speciation Conditions in Lake Ohrid (SCOPSCO)' realized a deep drilling campaign of Lake Ohrid in spring 2013. Based on several coring seismic campaigns between 2004 and 2011, Lake Ohrid became the target of an ICDP deep drilling campaign, with specific research aims: (i) obtain precise information about the age and origin of the lake, (ii) unravel the lake's seismotectonic history, (iii) obtain a continuous record of Quaternary volcanic activity and climate change, and (iv) investigate the influence of major geological/environmental events on evolution and the generation of extraordinary endemic biodiversity. Drilling began in April 2013 using the Deep Lake Drilling System (DLDS) of DOSECC (USA). The campaign, completed by late May, was deemed one of the most successful ICDP lake drilling projects, with a total of ~2100 m of sediment recovered from four different sites. At the central "DEEP" site, hydro-acoustic data indicated a maximum sediment fill of ca. 700 m, of which the uppermost 568 m was recovered. Coarse gravel and pebbles underlying clay and shallow water facies hampered deeper penetration. A total of 1526 m of sediment cores was collected from six boreholes, with a composite field recovery ('master core') of 544 m (95%). Three additional sites were drilled in order to analyze lake-level fluctuations, catchment dynamics, biodiversity and evolution processes ("Cerava", deepest drilled depth: 90 m), to investigate active tectonics and spring dynamics ("Gradiste", deepest drilled depth: 123 m), and to try to understand the geological origins of the Ohrid Basin ("Pestani

  17. Preservation of Scientific and Cultural Heritage in Balkan Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonta, Yasar

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The peoples living in the Balkan Peninsula over centuries have created a very rich cultural heritage and the constant political upheavals in the region have affected the development and preservation of their cultures. This paper aims to review the internet infrastructure and networked readiness levels of the Balkan countries, which are…

  18. Conservation phylogeography: does historical diversity contribute to regional vulnerability in European tree frogs (Hyla arborea)?

    PubMed

    Dufresnes, Christophe; Wassef, Jérôme; Ghali, Karim; Brelsford, Alan; Stöck, Matthias; Lymberakis, Petros; Crnobrnja-Isailovic, Jelka; Perrin, Nicolas

    2013-11-01

    Documenting and preserving the genetic diversity of populations, which conditions their long-term survival, have become a major issue in conservation biology. The loss of diversity often documented in declining populations is usually assumed to result from human disturbances; however, historical biogeographic events, otherwise known to strongly impact diversity, are rarely considered in this context. We apply a multilocus phylogeographic study to investigate the late-Quaternary history of a tree frog (Hyla arborea) with declining populations in the northern and western part of its distribution range. Mitochondrial and nuclear polymorphisms reveal high genetic diversity in the Balkan Peninsula, with a spatial structure moulded by the last glaciations. While two of the main refugial lineages remained limited to the Balkans (Adriatic coast, southern Balkans), a third one expanded to recolonize Northern and Western Europe, loosing much of its diversity in the process. Our findings show that mobile and a priori homogeneous taxa may also display substructure within glacial refugia ('refugia within refugia') and emphasize the importance of the Balkans as a major European biodiversity centre. Moreover, the distribution of diversity roughly coincides with regional conservation situations, consistent with the idea that historically impoverished genetic diversity may interact with anthropogenic disturbances, and increase the vulnerability of populations. Phylogeographic models seem important to fully appreciate the risks of local declines and inform conservation strategies. PMID:24102652

  19. Refugial persistence and postglacial recolonization of North America by the cold-tolerant herbaceous plant Orthilia secunda.

    PubMed

    Beatty, Gemma E; Provan, Jim

    2010-11-01

    Previous phylogeographical and palaeontological studies on the biota of northern North America have revealed a complex scenario of glacial survival in multiple refugia and differing patterns of postglacial recolonization. Many putative refugial regions have been proposed both north and south of the ice sheets for species during the Last Glacial Maximum, but the locations of many of these refugia remain a topic of great debate. In this study, we used a phylogeographical approach to elucidate the refugial and recolonization history of the herbaceous plant species Orthilia secunda in North America, which is found in disjunct areas in the west and east of the continent, most of which were either glaciated or lay close to the limits of the ice sheets. Analysis of 596 bp of the chloroplast trnS-trnG intergenic spacer and five microsatellite loci in 84 populations spanning the species' range in North America suggests that O. secunda persisted through the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in western refugia, even though palaeodistribution modelling indicated a suitable climate envelope across the entire south of the continent. The present distribution of the species has resulted from recolonization from refugia north and south of the ice sheets, most likely in Beringia or coastal regions of Alaska and British Columbia, the Washington/Oregon region in the northwest USA, and possibly from the region associated with the putative 'ice-free corridor' between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets. Our findings also highlight the importance of the Pacific Northwest as an important centre of intraspecific genetic diversity, owing to a combination of refugial persistence in the area and recolonization from other refugia.

  20. Refugial persistence and postglacial recolonization of North America by the cold-tolerant herbaceous plant Orthilia secunda.

    PubMed

    Beatty, Gemma E; Provan, Jim

    2010-11-01

    Previous phylogeographical and palaeontological studies on the biota of northern North America have revealed a complex scenario of glacial survival in multiple refugia and differing patterns of postglacial recolonization. Many putative refugial regions have been proposed both north and south of the ice sheets for species during the Last Glacial Maximum, but the locations of many of these refugia remain a topic of great debate. In this study, we used a phylogeographical approach to elucidate the refugial and recolonization history of the herbaceous plant species Orthilia secunda in North America, which is found in disjunct areas in the west and east of the continent, most of which were either glaciated or lay close to the limits of the ice sheets. Analysis of 596 bp of the chloroplast trnS-trnG intergenic spacer and five microsatellite loci in 84 populations spanning the species' range in North America suggests that O. secunda persisted through the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in western refugia, even though palaeodistribution modelling indicated a suitable climate envelope across the entire south of the continent. The present distribution of the species has resulted from recolonization from refugia north and south of the ice sheets, most likely in Beringia or coastal regions of Alaska and British Columbia, the Washington/Oregon region in the northwest USA, and possibly from the region associated with the putative 'ice-free corridor' between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets. Our findings also highlight the importance of the Pacific Northwest as an important centre of intraspecific genetic diversity, owing to a combination of refugial persistence in the area and recolonization from other refugia. PMID:20958819

  1. Field experience on indoor radon, thoron and their progenies with solid-state detectors in a survey of Kosovo and Metohija (Balkan region).

    PubMed

    Gulan, L; Milic, G; Bossew, P; Omori, Y; Ishikawa, T; Mishra, R; Mayya, Y S; Stojanovska, Z; Nikezic, D; Vuckovic, B; Zunic, Z S

    2012-11-01

    Since 1996/97, indoor radon has been measured in scattered locations around Kosovo. In the most recent campaign, apart from radon, thoron and Rn and Tn progenies have also been measured. The current survey involves 48 houses, in which different detectors have been deployed side-by-side in one room, in order to measure indoor radon and thoron gas with RADUET devices based on CR-39 detectors (analysed by Japanese collaborators) and with direct thoron and radon progeny sensor (DTPS and DRPS) devices based on LR-115 detectors (analysed by collaborators from India). Estimated arithmetic mean values of concentrations in 48 houses are 122 Bq m(-3) for radon and 136 Bq m(-3) for thoron. Those for equilibrium equivalent radon concentration and equilibrium equivalent thoron concentration based on measurements in 48 houses are 40 and 2.1 Bq m(-3), respectively. The arithmetic mean value of the equilibrium factor is estimated to be 0.50 ± 0.23 for radon and 0.037 ± 0.041 for thoron. The preliminary results of these measurements are reported, particularly regarding DTPS and DRPS being set up in real field conditions for the first time in the Balkan region. The results are to be understood under the caveat of open questions related to measurement protocols which yield reproducible and representative results, and to quality assurance of Tn and Rn/Tn progeny measurements in general, some of which are discussed.

  2. Climate variability over the last 92 ka in SW Balkans from analysis of sediments from Lake Prespa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotopoulos, K.; Böhm, A.; Leng, M. J.; Wagner, B.; Schäbitz, F.

    2014-03-01

    The transboundary Lake Prespa (Albania/former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia/Greece) has been recognized as a conservation priority wetland. The high biodiversity encountered in the catchment at present points to the refugial character of this mountainous region in the southwestern Balkans. A lake sediment core retrieved from a coring location in the northern part of the lake was investigated through sedimentological, geochemical, and palynological analyses. Based on tephrochronology, radiocarbon and electron spin resonance (ESR) dating, and cross correlation with other Northern Hemisphere records, the age model suggests that the basal part of core Co1215 reaches back to 92 ka cal BP. Here we present the responses of this mid-altitude site (849 m a.s.l.) to climate oscillations during this interval and assess its sensitivity to millennial-scale variability. Endogenic calcite precipitation occurred in marine isotope stages (MIS) 5 and 1 and is synchronous with periods of increased primary production (terrestrial and/or lacustrine). Periods of pronounced phytoplankton blooms (inferred from green algae and dinoflagellate concentrations) are recorded in MIS 5 and MIS 1 and suggest that the trophic state and lake levels underwent substantial fluctuations. Three major phases of vegetation development are distinguished: the forested phases of MIS 5 and MIS 1 dominated by deciduous trees with higher temperatures and moisture availability, the open landscapes of MIS 3 with significant presence of temperate trees, and the pine-dominated open landscapes of MIS 4 and MIS 2 with lower temperatures and moisture availability. Our findings suggest significant changes in forest cover and landscape openness, as well as in the properties of the vegetation belts (composition and distribution) over the period examined. The study area most likely formed the upper limit of several drought-sensitive trees (temperate tree refugium) at these latitudes in the Mediterranean mountains.

  3. Practical Applications of the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) as a Tool for Very Early Warning of Droughts and Floods in the Balkans Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Southern Europe is repeatedly identified in IPCC Reports as being particularly vulnerable to water resource impacts with risks being assessed as medium to high with current (low) levels of adaptation. Drought frequency will likely increase by the end of the 21st century under IPCC RCP8.5 (medium confidence) . The Balkans region has encountered some of its most significant ever floods and droughts since 2000, highly symptomatic of intense climate change. Foremost of these are the regional catastrophic floods in Albania (2009-10) (2010-11), Bosnia, Herzegovina and Serbia (2014), and the widespread droughts of 2007-08 and 2013-14. There is an urgent need to improve the awareness and implementation of drought and flood risk management tools in the national Ministries and National Hydrometeorological Services (NHMSs) of s.e. Europe generally. This paper describes the development and application of a practical user-friendly tool to calculate SPI across a range of timescales as recommended by the WMO , using a conventional 'Year Book' format to enter monthly precipitation values, coupled with some automated and relatively simple VBA code. Since the tool is spreadsheet based, it is user-friendly and graphically intuitive. The conditional formatting capability introduces a visualisation element to the SPI which is extremely helpful to NHMSs and other non-expert decision makers in understanding SPI significance. Recent practical application of the tool in relation to significant recent floods and droughts in Albania, Kosovo and Macedonia has demonstrated its value as a Very Early Warning tool. However, there are some implicit dangers in simply tracking the SPI 1, 2, n value per se without taking account of the actual accumulated deficits that may generate agricultural and ultimately hydrological droughts. It is conventionally assumed that the sum of the SPI for all months within a drought event can be termed the drought's "magnitude". In fact this is not the case. In regions

  4. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 19: The Balkan States (Bulgaria and Croatia).

    PubMed

    Kirilova, Savina; Skoric, Lea

    2016-09-01

    This is the 19th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Balkan Region (Bulgaria and Croatia). The next regular feature column will investigate two other Balkan states - Serbia and Slovenia. JM.

  5. International Trends in Health Science Librarianship Part 19: The Balkan States (Bulgaria and Croatia).

    PubMed

    Kirilova, Savina; Skoric, Lea

    2016-09-01

    This is the 19th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in the 21st century. The focus of the present issue is the Balkan Region (Bulgaria and Croatia). The next regular feature column will investigate two other Balkan states - Serbia and Slovenia. JM. PMID:27384106

  6. The current refugial rainforests of Sundaland are unrepresentative of their biogeographic past and highly vulnerable to disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Charles H.; Morley, Robert J.; Bush, Andrew B. G.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the historical dynamics of forest communities is a critical element for accurate prediction of their response to future change. Here, we examine evergreen rainforest distribution in the Sunda Shelf region at the last glacial maximum (LGM), using a spatially explicit model incorporating geographic, paleoclimatic, and geologic evidence. Results indicate that at the LGM, Sundaland rainforests covered a substantially larger area than currently present. Extrapolation of the model over the past million years demonstrates that the current “island archipelago” setting in Sundaland is extremely unusual given the majority of its history and the dramatic biogeographic transitions caused by global deglaciation were rapid and brief. Compared with dominant glacial conditions, lowland forests were probably reduced from approximately 1.3 to 0.8 × 106 km2 while upland forests were probably reduced by half, from approximately 2.0 to 1.0 × 105 km2. Coastal mangrove and swamp forests experienced the most dramatic change during deglaciations, going through a complete and major biogeographic relocation. The Sundaland forest dynamics of fragmentation and contraction and subsequent expansion, driven by glacial cycles, occur in the opposite phase as those in the northern hemisphere and equatorial Africa, indicating that Sundaland evergreen rainforest communities are currently in a refugial stage. Widespread human-mediated reduction and conversion of these forests in their refugial stage, when most species are passing through significant population bottlenecks, strongly emphasizes the urgency of conservation and management efforts. Further research into the natural process of fragmentation and contraction during deglaciation is necessary to understand the long-term effect of human activity on forest species. PMID:19549829

  7. HFRS and hantaviruses in the Balkans/South-East Europe.

    PubMed

    Avšič Županc, Tatjana; Korva, Miša; Markotić, Alemka

    2014-07-17

    Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome is endemic in the Balkans with epidemic outbreaks and sporadic cases that have been recorded yearly since the disease was first recognized. The incidence of Balkan HFRS is modest, with approximately one hundred cases reported in most years. Seroepidemiological investigations conducted in several Balkan countries revealed an overall seroprevalence of 6% in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1.6% in Croatia, 4% in Greece and 1.7% in Slovenia, respectively. The complex ecology of the Balkan Peninsula supports the existence of diverse rodent and insectivore species which harbor several pathogenic and non-pathogenic hantaviruses. Among them only Dobrava (DOBV) and Puumala (PUUV) viruses are associated with disease in humans. Comprehensive clinical studies compared clinical signs and symptoms between patients infected with either virus. A spectrum of clinical picture of the disease ranges from mild illness typical of PUUV infections to a severe form with fulminant hemorrhagic fever and an overall mortality rate of 9.8% among DOBV infected patients. While severe DOBV cases are recognized from Slovenia in the North to Greece in the South, PUUV infections are more frequent in northern part of the area. Balkans represent an area with a potential need for hantavirus vaccines, but due to co-existence of DOBV and PUUV causing HFRS in the same region, a universal vaccine is required.

  8. 77 FR 37993 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, June 22, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-15671 Filed 6-22-12; 2:15 pm... Balkans region, or (ii) acts obstructing implementation of the Dayton Accords in Bosnia or United...

  9. 75 FR 32843 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... the Congress. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, June 8, 2010. [FR Doc. 2010-14118 Filed 6-9-10; 8... Balkans region, or (ii) acts obstructing implementation of the Dayton Accords in Bosnia or the...

  10. 76 FR 37239 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To the Western Balkans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    .... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, June 23, 2011. [FR Doc. 2011-16103 Filed 6-23-11; 11:15 am] Billing code... Balkans region, or (ii) acts obstructing implementation of the Dayton Accords in Bosnia or United...

  11. Record Balkan floods of 2014 linked to planetary wave resonance

    PubMed Central

    Stadtherr, Lisa; Coumou, Dim; Petoukhov, Vladimir; Petri, Stefan; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In May 2014, the Balkans were hit by a Vb-type cyclone that brought disastrous flooding and severe damage to Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, and Croatia. Vb cyclones migrate from the Mediterranean, where they absorb warm and moist air, to the north, often causing flooding in central/eastern Europe. Extreme rainfall events are increasing on a global scale, and both thermodynamic and dynamical mechanisms play a role. Where thermodynamic aspects are generally well understood, there is large uncertainty associated with current and future changes in dynamics. We study the climatic and meteorological factors that influenced the catastrophic flooding in the Balkans, where we focus on large-scale circulation. We show that the Vb cyclone was unusually stationary, bringing extreme rainfall for several consecutive days, and that this situation was likely linked to a quasi-stationary circumglobal Rossby wave train. We provide evidence that this quasi-stationary wave was amplified by wave resonance. Statistical analysis of daily spring rainfall over the Balkan region reveals significant upward trends over 1950–2014, especially in the high quantiles relevant for flooding events. These changes cannot be explained by simple thermodynamic arguments, and we thus argue that dynamical processes likely played a role in increasing flood risks over the Balkans. PMID:27152340

  12. Record Balkan floods of 2014 linked to planetary wave resonance.

    PubMed

    Stadtherr, Lisa; Coumou, Dim; Petoukhov, Vladimir; Petri, Stefan; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    In May 2014, the Balkans were hit by a Vb-type cyclone that brought disastrous flooding and severe damage to Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, and Croatia. Vb cyclones migrate from the Mediterranean, where they absorb warm and moist air, to the north, often causing flooding in central/eastern Europe. Extreme rainfall events are increasing on a global scale, and both thermodynamic and dynamical mechanisms play a role. Where thermodynamic aspects are generally well understood, there is large uncertainty associated with current and future changes in dynamics. We study the climatic and meteorological factors that influenced the catastrophic flooding in the Balkans, where we focus on large-scale circulation. We show that the Vb cyclone was unusually stationary, bringing extreme rainfall for several consecutive days, and that this situation was likely linked to a quasi-stationary circumglobal Rossby wave train. We provide evidence that this quasi-stationary wave was amplified by wave resonance. Statistical analysis of daily spring rainfall over the Balkan region reveals significant upward trends over 1950-2014, especially in the high quantiles relevant for flooding events. These changes cannot be explained by simple thermodynamic arguments, and we thus argue that dynamical processes likely played a role in increasing flood risks over the Balkans. PMID:27152340

  13. Record Balkan floods of 2014 linked to planetary wave resonance.

    PubMed

    Stadtherr, Lisa; Coumou, Dim; Petoukhov, Vladimir; Petri, Stefan; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    In May 2014, the Balkans were hit by a Vb-type cyclone that brought disastrous flooding and severe damage to Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, and Croatia. Vb cyclones migrate from the Mediterranean, where they absorb warm and moist air, to the north, often causing flooding in central/eastern Europe. Extreme rainfall events are increasing on a global scale, and both thermodynamic and dynamical mechanisms play a role. Where thermodynamic aspects are generally well understood, there is large uncertainty associated with current and future changes in dynamics. We study the climatic and meteorological factors that influenced the catastrophic flooding in the Balkans, where we focus on large-scale circulation. We show that the Vb cyclone was unusually stationary, bringing extreme rainfall for several consecutive days, and that this situation was likely linked to a quasi-stationary circumglobal Rossby wave train. We provide evidence that this quasi-stationary wave was amplified by wave resonance. Statistical analysis of daily spring rainfall over the Balkan region reveals significant upward trends over 1950-2014, especially in the high quantiles relevant for flooding events. These changes cannot be explained by simple thermodynamic arguments, and we thus argue that dynamical processes likely played a role in increasing flood risks over the Balkans.

  14. Pollen, sediment and diatom response to past climate and environmental change in the Balkan region: the Holocene record of Lake Dojran (Greece/FYROM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masi, Alessia; Sadori, Laura; Francke, Alexander; Pepe, Caterina; Wagner, Bernd

    2015-04-01

    Lake Dojran (41° 12'N, 22° 44'E, 144 m a.s.l.) is located at the border between the F.Y.R. of Macedonia and Greece in a karstic basin formed by a combination of Tertiary volcanic and tectonic activities. The lake is fed by small rivers, creeks and springs, with most of the run off originating from the near Belasica and Kroussia Mountains. The area of Lake Dojran is influenced by the mountain climate of the central and northern Balkans. In addition, it is tempered by the influence of the Mediterranean Sea, to which it is exposed via the Thessaloniki Plain. The marine influence provides mild winters with high precipitation and long, hot, dry summers. The diverse natural vegetation has been heavily influenced by human activities, particularly during the historical era. Remnants of natural vegetation which survive are dominated by mesophilous plants, in particular deciduous oaks and ashes together with riparian elements such as alders and planes. A 717 cm core was collected from the deepest part of the lake (ca. 6.6 m depth), in Macedonian waters. Thirteen radiocarbon dates carried out on terrestrial plant remains, charcoal, carbonate shell fragments, and bulk organic matter, established that the core covers the last ca. 12500 years, spanning the Younger Dryas to the present (1). Here, we build on previous sedimentological and diatom-based palaeolimnological research, strengthening the multi-proxy dataset by addition of palynological evidence for vegetation catchment change. The Late Glacial was characterized first by an Artemisia steppe, followed by expansion of chenopods and then grasses, confirming the arid climate inferred from sedimentology and diatom data. The subsequent expansion of grasses matches with an increase in lake level inferred from changes in the diatom assemblages. Forest expansion at the onset of the Holocene is characterized by deciduous, semideciduous and evergreen oaks, with pine and fir, during an initial deepwater phase followed by shallowing

  15. The larvae of Micropterna coiffaiti Décamps 1963, Micropterna taurica Martynov 1917, and Potamophylax goulandriorum (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae), including a key to the hitherto known Stenophylacini larvae of the Hellenic western Balkan region

    PubMed Central

    Waringer, Johann; Malicky, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The paper gives a description of the hitherto unknown larvae of Micropterna coiffaiti, Micropterna taurica, and Potamophylax goulandriorum (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae). Information on the morphology of the larvae is given and the most important diagnostic features are illustrated. In the context of published keys, the larva of Micropterna coiffaiti keys together with Micropterna sequax, Stenophylax mitis, and Stenophylax permistus. Species can be easily diagnosed by presence/absence and the structure of posterior sclerites at the lateral protuberances, by the extent of head spinule fields, and by the number of posterolateral setae on abdominal dorsum IX. Micropterna taurica keys together with Micropterna nycterobia. This pair can be separated by the setae posterior of the dorsal protuberance which are lacking in M. nycterobia but present in M. taurica. Finally, Potamophylax goulandriorum keys together with P. cingulatus, P. latipennis, and P. luctuosus. Currently it is not possible to separate this species quartet morphologically. With respect to distribution, M. coiffaiti has been reported from the Eastern Aegean islands in Greece, the Levant, Turkey, and Cyprus, whereas M. taurica ranges from Bulgaria and Greece (Crete, Karpathos, mainland Greece) to Cyprus and Turkey. Potamophylax goulandriorum is known from mainland Greece and Macedonia only. In addition, ecological characteristics are briefly discussed, and a key to the hitherto known Stenophylacini larvae of European Ecoregion 6 (= Hellenic western Balkan region) is included. PMID:27766019

  16. The vegetational history of the Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, K. J.

    The vegetational history of the Balkans from the last glacial through to present features a dynamic system not subject to immigration of additional taxa. Many temperate taxa appear to have survived in this region during the last glacial in low but persistent populations. Evidence suggests that a greater diversity of taxa existed in the mid to high altitude sites probably where the climate was more humid. At the lateglacial/Holocene transition many tree taxa expanded simultaneously with no evidence of the time-transgressive appearance of taxa which is taken to be indicative of differential immigration in northern Europe. Expansion of temperate woodland was at least 1000 years earlier than in northern Europe suggesting that this was the minimum time for migration of temperate trees into northern Europe. Changes in the composition of the early Holocene woodland included expansion of Pistacia between 9000 and 8000 14C BP, a change in the forest dominants between 8000 and 7000 14C BP, and the appearance and increase of Carpinus orient./Ostrya, Abies. Carpinus betulus and Fagus between 7500 and 5000 14C BP. Since all types were present in the region from the lateglacial, it is suggested that factors other than migration are responsible for their population increase. These factors are considered and include climate, soil development, establishment time and anthropogenic disturbance. Development of the present day landscape started at approximately 4500 14C BP with the onset of anthropogenic disturbance. Clearance resulted in the increase of open ground herbaceous types with grasses, Cerealia-type and Plantago lanceolata. New trees also to become established included Juglans, Olea, Castanea and Platanus. At least two of these types ( Juglans and Castanea) were present in the Balkans during the lateglacial suggesting that although some types were imported by the Greeks/Romans others may have expanded in situ as a result of a favourable niche being created by anthropogenic

  17. International virtual e-hospital: the Balkans journey.

    PubMed

    Latifi, Rifat

    2008-01-01

    What started in Berlin in May of 2000 as an idea to create the telemedicine program of Kosova in order to help the country rebuild the broken medical system and change the miserable face of medicine, has now spread to other countries in the Balkans. Today, June 29, 2007, as I am rewriting this chapter, ten doctors and engineers from Kosova, Montenegro and Macedonia graduated from a three weeks intensive course on telemedicine, e-health and medical electronic library. This international telemedicine fellowship is organized by the very entity that was created in Berlin 7 years ago: The International Virtual e-Hospital (IVEH). This time, however they are part of a project called "Improving Health Care in the Balkans Using Telemedicine, Advanced Technologies and Cultural Exchange Programs as a Platform" funded by the Bureau of Education and Cultural Exchange of the State department of USA, and is being implemented in collaboration with Arizona Telemedicine Program and University of Arizona Health Science Center Library, as well as Alaska Telemedicine program in Anchorage. The goal of the program is to create the medical and technical leadership that will significantly enhance health care access and quality in the region. This program is creating a powerful international medical education network in the Balkans for further collaboration and development. As part of the project, 48 physicians, nurses and engineers from Kosova, Montenegro, Macedonia and Albania are being trained in telemedicine, e-health, electronic library management, trauma and surgical critical care. A group of experts in these same medical disciplines will conduct workshops, seminars and other cultural and educational activities in the Balkan region. We can say now with certainty that the Telemedicine Program of Kosova is having an impact in the region that goes far beyond telemedicine applications and advanced technologies in the Balkans. It is creating leadership that will take the future in their

  18. A new approach to geographic partitioning of probabilistic seismic hazard using seismic source distance with earthquake extreme and perceptibility statistics: an application to the southern Balkan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayliss, T. J.

    2016-02-01

    The southeastern European cities of Sofia and Thessaloniki are explored as example site-specific scenarios by geographically zoning their individual localized seismic sources based on the highest probabilities of magnitude exceedance. This is with the aim of determining the major components contributing to each city's seismic hazard. Discrete contributions from the selected input earthquake catalogue are investigated to determine those areas that dominate each city's prevailing seismic hazard with respect to magnitude and source-to-site distance. This work is based on an earthquake catalogue developed and described in a previously published paper by the author and components of a magnitude probability density function. Binned magnitude and distance classes are defined using a joint magnitude-distance distribution. The prevailing seismicity to each city-as defined by a child data set extracted from the parent earthquake catalogue for each city considered-is divided into distinct constrained data bins of small discrete magnitude and source-to-site distance intervals. These are then used to describe seismic hazard in terms of uni-variate modal values; that is, M* and D* which are the modal magnitude and modal source-to-site distance in each city's local historical seismicity. This work highlights that Sofia's dominating seismic hazard-that is, the modal magnitudes possessing the highest probabilities of occurrence-is located in zones confined to two regions at 60-80 km and 170-180 km from this city, for magnitude intervals of 5.75-6.00 Mw and 6.00-6.25 Mw respectively. Similarly, Thessaloniki appears prone to highest levels of hazard over a wider epicentral distance interval, from 80 to 200 km in the moment magnitude range 6.00-6.25 Mw.

  19. Deforming Balkans : Insights on Continental Collisional Processes from GPS Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metois, M.; D'Agostino, N.; Avallone, A.; Chamot-Rooke, N. R. A.; Rabaute, A.; Duni, L.; Kuka, N.; Koci, R.; Georgiev, I.

    2014-12-01

    The Balkans region that sits at the transition between stable Eurasia and highly straining Eastern Mediterranean, is a natural laboratory to study diffuse deformation of areas affected by continental collision. As in the Himalayan collision zone, it results in a widespread seismicity and underestimated seismic hazard (England & Jackson, 2011). Several Mw~6 shallow earthquakes occurred there in the last century producing large destructions and casualties. The completeness interval of the available historical seismicity catalogs is probably below the average recurrence of individual seismogenic structures, making them insufficient for accurate estimates of seismic hazard there. However, cGPS networks in the Balkans have been growing during the last few years mainly for civilian application, opening new opportunities to quantify the present-day rates of crustal deformation. Here, we processed all the currently available data acquired on these new networks using the Gipsy-Oasis software and combined them with previously published velocities. We use this dense velocity field together with tensor moments from RCMT and CMT to derive an homogeneous map of the current-day strain using the methodology of Haines & Holt (1993). We image the deformation resulting from the boundary conditions around the Balkans : (i) the NE motion of Adria-Apulia blocks, (ii) the rigid Eurasian and Black sea backstops, (iii) the hellenic subduction zone and NAF rapid SE motion. We show that the «Adria-Apulia push» is nearly entirely accommodated by compression across the Dinarides with minor propagation in the Pannonian basin. On the other hand, East of 20°E, the entire peninsula is moving southward, probably driven by the hellenic subduction pull. The transition between the SW-NE compressive and the N-S extensive regimes roughly corresponds to the Scutari-Pec transform zone, also known to be a boundary between paleomagnetic domains. Therefore, we show that the clockwise rotation pattern

  20. Teachers for the Future: Teacher Development for Inclusive Education in the Western Balkans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantic, Natasa; Closs, Alison; Ivosevic, Vanja

    2011-01-01

    Teachers for the Future is a regional report that draws together and analyses research findings from a study commissioned by the European Training Foundation (ETF) in seven countries in the Western Balkans region, namely, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo, Montenegro and Serbia. The overall…

  1. Teachers for the Future: Teacher Development for Inclusive Education in the Western Balkans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantic, Natasa; Closs, Alison; Ivosevic, Vanja

    2011-01-01

    Teachers for the Future is a regional report that draws together and analyses research findings from a study commissioned by the European Training Foundation (ETF) in seven countries in the Western Balkan region, namely Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo, Montenegro and Serbia. The overall…

  2. Collaborative investigations on thoron and radon in some rural communities of Balkans.

    PubMed

    Zunić, Z S; Celiković, I; Tokonami, S; Ishikawa, T; Ujić, P; Onischenko, A; Zhukovsky, M; Milić, G; Jakupi, B; Cuknić, O; Veselinović, N; Fujimoto, K; Sahoo, S K; Yarmoshenko, I

    2010-10-01

    This paper deals with the results of the first-field use in the Balkans, i.e. Serbia and Republic of Srpska (Bosnia and Hercegovina), of a passive polycarbonate Mark II type and poliallyldiglycol carbonate (Cr-39) alpha track detectors sensitive to thoron as well as to radon. Both types of solid state nuclear track detectors were designed and supplied by National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan. The commercial names for these detectors which all have been field tested in Balkan rural communities are known as: UFO and RADUET passive discriminative radon/thoron detectors. No database of thoron and thoron progeny concentrations in dwellings in Serbia or Balkans region exist, and as a result, the level of exposure of the Serbian population to thoron and its progeny is unknown so far. PMID:20966203

  3. Standing at the Gateway to Europe - The Genetic Structure of Western Balkan Populations Based on Autosomal and Haploid Markers

    PubMed Central

    Kovacevic, Lejla; Tambets, Kristiina; Ilumäe, Anne-Mai; Kushniarevich, Alena; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Solnik, Anu; Bego, Tamer; Primorac, Dragan; Skaro, Vedrana; Leskovac, Andreja; Jakovski, Zlatko; Drobnic, Katja; Tolk, Helle-Viivi; Kovacevic, Sandra; Rudan, Pavao; Metspalu, Ene; Marjanovic, Damir

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary inhabitants of the Balkan Peninsula belong to several ethnic groups of diverse cultural background. In this study, three ethnic groups from Bosnia and Herzegovina - Bosniacs, Bosnian Croats and Bosnian Serbs - as well as the populations of Serbians, Croatians, Macedonians from the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegrins and Kosovars have been characterized for the genetic variation of 660 000 genome-wide autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms and for haploid markers. New autosomal data of the 70 individuals together with previously published data of 20 individuals from the populations of the Western Balkan region in a context of 695 samples of global range have been analysed. Comparison of the variation data of autosomal and haploid lineages of the studied Western Balkan populations reveals a concordance of the data in both sets and the genetic uniformity of the studied populations, especially of Western South-Slavic speakers. The genetic variation of Western Balkan populations reveals the continuity between the Middle East and Europe via the Balkan region and supports the scenario that one of the major routes of ancient gene flows and admixture went through the Balkan Peninsula. PMID:25148043

  4. Explaining the Tragedy of Sarajevo to the Children: Bringing the Contemporary Balkans into the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Ron

    1993-01-01

    Contends that the political changes that have swept across Europe since the end of the Cold War have not necessarily led to a more stable world. Contends that Yugoslavia is crucial to the future of the Balkan region. Includes suggestions for incorporating lessons about Yugoslavia into the social studies curriculum. (CFR)

  5. Tephrostratigraphy and tephrochronology of lakes Ohrid and Prespa, Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; D'Orazio, M.; Vogel, H.; Wagner, B.

    2010-10-01

    Four cores from Balkans lakes Ohrid and Prespa were examined for recognition of tephra layers and cryptotephras, and the results presented along with the review of data from other two already published cores from Lake Ohrid. The six cores provide a previously unrealised tephrostratigraphic framework of the two lakes, and provide a new tephrostratigraphic profile (composite) for the Balkans, which spans from the end of the Middle Pleistocene to the AD 472. A total of 12 tephra layers and cryptotephras were recognised in the cores. One is of Middle Pleistocene age (131 ka) and correlated to the marine tephra layer P-11 from Pantelleria Island. Eight volcanic layers are Upper Pleistocene in age, and encompass the period between ca. 107 ka and ca. 31 ka. This interval contains some of the main regional volcanic markers of the central Mediterranean area, including X-6, X-5, Y-5 and Y-3 tephra layers. The other layers of this interval have been related to the marine tephra layers C20, Y-6 and C10, while one was for the first time recognised in distal areas and correlated to the Taurano eruption of probable Vesuvian origin. Three cryptotephras were of Holocene age. Two of which have been correlated to Mercato and AD 472 eruptions of Somma-Vesuvius, while the third has been correlated to the FL eruption from Mount Etna. These recognitions provide a link of the Ohrid and Prespa lacustrine successions to other archives of the central Mediterranean area, like south Adriatic, Ionian, and south Tyrrhenian seas, lakes of southern Italy (Lago Grande di Monticchio, Pantano di San Gregorio Magno and Lago di Pergusa) and Balkans (Lake Shkodra).

  6. Tephrostratigraphy and tephrochronology of lakes Ohrid and Prespa, Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; D'Orazio, M.; Vogel, H.; Wagner, B.

    2010-05-01

    Four cores from Balkans lakes Ohrid and Prespa were studied for recognition of tephra layers and cryptotephras, and the results presented along with the review of data from other two already published cores from Lake Ohrid. The six cores provide a previously unrealised tephrostratigraphic framework of the two lakes, and supply the first detailed tephrochronologic profile (composite) for the Balkans, which spans from the end of the Middle Pleistocene to the end of the Ancient Age (AD 472). A total of 12 tephra layers and cryptotephras were recognised in the cores. One is of Middle Pleistocene age (131 ky) and correlated to the marine tephra layer P-11 from Pantelleria Island. Eight volcanic layers are Upper Pleistocene in age, and encompass the period between ca. 107 ky and ca. 31 ky. This interval contains some of the main regional volcanic markers of the Central Mediterranean area, including X-6, X-5, Y-5 and Y-3 tephra layers. The other layers of this interval have been related to the marine tephra layers C20, Y-6 and C10, while one was for the first time recognised in distal areas and correlated to the Taurano eruption of probable Vesuvian origin. Three cryptotephras were of Holocene age. Two of which have been correlated to Mercato and AD 472 eruptions of Somma-Vesuvius, while the third has been correlated to the FL eruption from Mount Etna. These recognitions provide a link of the Ohrid and Prespa lacustrine successions to other archives of the Central Mediterranean area, like South Adriatic, Ionian, and South Tyrrhenian Seas, lakes of Southern Italy (Lago Grande di Monticchio, Pantano di San Gregorio Magno and Lago di Pergusa) and Balkans (Lake Shkodra).

  7. Unusually limited pollen dispersal and connectivity of Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) refugial populations at the species' southern range margin.

    PubMed

    Moracho, E; Moreno, G; Jordano, P; Hampe, A

    2016-07-01

    Low-latitudinal range margins of temperate and boreal plant species typically consist of scattered populations that persist locally in microrefugia. It remains poorly understood how their refugial habitats affect patterns of gene flow and connectivity, key components for their long-term viability and evolution. We examine landscape-scale patterns of historical and contemporary gene flow in refugial populations of the widespread European forest tree Pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) at the species' southwestern range margin. We sampled all adult trees (n = 135) growing in a 20 km long valley and genotyped 724 acorns from 72 mother trees at 17 microsatellite loci. The ten oak stands that we identified were highly differentiated and formed four distinct genetic clusters, despite sporadic historical dispersal being detectable. By far most contemporary pollination occurred within stands, either between local mates (85.6%) or through selfing (6.8%). Pollen exchange between stands (2.6%) was remarkably rare given their relative proximity and was complemented by long-distance pollen immigration (4.4%) and hybridization with the locally abundant Quercus pyrenaica (0.6%). The frequency of between-stand mating events decreased with increasing size and spatial isolation of stands. Overall, our results reveal outstandingly little long-distance gene flow for a wind-pollinated tree species. We argue that the distinct landscape characteristics of oaks' refugial habitats, with a combination of a rugged topography, dense vegetation and humid microclimate, are likely to increase plant survival but to hamper effective long-distance pollen dispersal. Moreover, local mating might be favoured by high tree compatibility resulting from genetic purging in these long-term relict populations. PMID:27146553

  8. Improving nutrition surveillance and public health research in Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries using the Balkan Food Platform and dietary tools.

    PubMed

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Novaković, Romana; Kadvan, Agnes; Djekić-Ivanković, Marija; Šatalić, Zvonimir; Korošec, Mojca; Spiroski, Igor; Ranić, Marija; Dupouy, Eleonora; Oshaug, Arne; Finglas, Paul; Glibetić, Maria

    2016-02-15

    The objective of this paper is to share experience and provide updated information on Capacity Development in the Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries (CEE/BC) region relevant to public health nutrition, particularly in creation of food composition databases (FCDBs), applying dietary intake assessment and monitoring tools, and harmonizing methodology for nutrition surveillance. Balkan Food Platform was established by a Memorandum of Understanding among EuroFIR AISBL, Institute for Medical Research, Belgrade, Capacity Development Network in Nutrition in CEE - CAPNUTRA and institutions from nine countries in the region. Inventory on FCDB status identified lack of harmonized and standardized research tools. To strengthen harmonization in CEE/BC in line with European research trends, the Network members collaborated in development of a Regional FCDB, using web-based food composition data base management software following EuroFIR standards. Comprehensive nutrition assessment and planning tool - DIET ASSESS & PLAN could enable synchronization of nutrition surveillance across countries.

  9. Improving nutrition surveillance and public health research in Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries using the Balkan Food Platform and dietary tools.

    PubMed

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Novaković, Romana; Kadvan, Agnes; Djekić-Ivanković, Marija; Šatalić, Zvonimir; Korošec, Mojca; Spiroski, Igor; Ranić, Marija; Dupouy, Eleonora; Oshaug, Arne; Finglas, Paul; Glibetić, Maria

    2016-02-15

    The objective of this paper is to share experience and provide updated information on Capacity Development in the Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries (CEE/BC) region relevant to public health nutrition, particularly in creation of food composition databases (FCDBs), applying dietary intake assessment and monitoring tools, and harmonizing methodology for nutrition surveillance. Balkan Food Platform was established by a Memorandum of Understanding among EuroFIR AISBL, Institute for Medical Research, Belgrade, Capacity Development Network in Nutrition in CEE - CAPNUTRA and institutions from nine countries in the region. Inventory on FCDB status identified lack of harmonized and standardized research tools. To strengthen harmonization in CEE/BC in line with European research trends, the Network members collaborated in development of a Regional FCDB, using web-based food composition data base management software following EuroFIR standards. Comprehensive nutrition assessment and planning tool - DIET ASSESS & PLAN could enable synchronization of nutrition surveillance across countries. PMID:26433305

  10. The continuing medical mystery of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crosby, Lynn M.; Tatu, Calin A.; Orem, William H.; Pavlovic MD PhD, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN) is a disease of subtle onset and insidious progression that typically occurs between the 4th and 6th decade in long‐resident individuals in highly specific geographic locations of the Balkan region and affects 1 – 5% of the population. Though it does not follow typical Mendelian genetics, there is a familial pattern of occurrence. Although residents may live only a few kilometers apart, certain locations are highly affected while others close by, even as close as across the road, remain unscathed. Because of this geographic selectivity scientists have searched for an environmental cause. It is thought that exposure to the toxic plant Aristolochia clematitis is to blame. Genotoxic N‐heterocyclic or polycyclic aromatic containing coal water leachates entering cultivated soil and drinking water are also a possible cause due to the proximity and predictive power of endemic foci to coal deposits. Evidence for Ochratoxin A fungal poisoning also exists. High levels of phthalates have been measured in BEN‐endemic drinking water. BEN is a probably a multifactorial disease that may result from exposure through some of above‐mentioned environmental sources, with genetic factors contributing. This review will discuss recent research concerning the etiology, potential therapies for the treatment of nephropathy, and unexplored research directions for this chronic kidney disease.

  11. Spatial patterns of AFLP diversity in Bulbophyllum occultum (Orchidaceae) indicate long-term refugial isolation in Madagascar and long-distance colonization effects in La Réunion.

    PubMed

    Jaros, U; Fischer, G A; Pailler, T; Comes, H P

    2016-05-01

    Bulbophyllum occultum, an epiphytic orchid mainly distributed in the rainforests of (north)eastern Madagascar and La Réunion, represents an interesting model case for testing the effects of anthropogenic vs historical (e.g., climate induced) habitat isolation and long-distance colonization on the genetic structure of plant species with disjunct distributions in the Madagascan region. To this aim, we surveyed amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) across 13 populations in Madagascar and nine in La Réunion (206 individuals in total). We found overall high levels of population subdivision (Φ(PT)=0.387) and low within-population diversity (H(E), range: 0.026-0.124), indicating non-equilibrium conditions in a mainly selfing species. There was no impact of recent deforestation (Madagascar) or habitat disturbance (La Réunion) detectable on AFLP diversity. K-means clustering and BARRIER analyses identified multiple gene pools and several genetic breaks, both within and among islands. Inter-island levels of population genetic diversity and subdivision were similar, whereby inter-individual divergence in flower colour explained a significant part of gene pool divergence in La Réunion. Our results suggest that (i) B. occultum persisted across multiple isolated ('refugial') regions along the eastern rainforest corridor of Madagascar over recent climatic cycles and (ii) populations in La Réunion arose from either single or few independent introductions from Madagascar. High selfing rates and sufficient time for genetic drift likely promoted unexpectedly high population genetic and phenotypic (flower colour) differentiation in La Réunion. Overall, this study highlights a strong imprint of history on the genetic structure of a low-gene-dispersing epiphytic orchid from the Madagascan region. PMID:26883184

  12. Spatial patterns of AFLP diversity in Bulbophyllum occultum (Orchidaceae) indicate long-term refugial isolation in Madagascar and long-distance colonization effects in La Réunion.

    PubMed

    Jaros, U; Fischer, G A; Pailler, T; Comes, H P

    2016-05-01

    Bulbophyllum occultum, an epiphytic orchid mainly distributed in the rainforests of (north)eastern Madagascar and La Réunion, represents an interesting model case for testing the effects of anthropogenic vs historical (e.g., climate induced) habitat isolation and long-distance colonization on the genetic structure of plant species with disjunct distributions in the Madagascan region. To this aim, we surveyed amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) across 13 populations in Madagascar and nine in La Réunion (206 individuals in total). We found overall high levels of population subdivision (Φ(PT)=0.387) and low within-population diversity (H(E), range: 0.026-0.124), indicating non-equilibrium conditions in a mainly selfing species. There was no impact of recent deforestation (Madagascar) or habitat disturbance (La Réunion) detectable on AFLP diversity. K-means clustering and BARRIER analyses identified multiple gene pools and several genetic breaks, both within and among islands. Inter-island levels of population genetic diversity and subdivision were similar, whereby inter-individual divergence in flower colour explained a significant part of gene pool divergence in La Réunion. Our results suggest that (i) B. occultum persisted across multiple isolated ('refugial') regions along the eastern rainforest corridor of Madagascar over recent climatic cycles and (ii) populations in La Réunion arose from either single or few independent introductions from Madagascar. High selfing rates and sufficient time for genetic drift likely promoted unexpectedly high population genetic and phenotypic (flower colour) differentiation in La Réunion. Overall, this study highlights a strong imprint of history on the genetic structure of a low-gene-dispersing epiphytic orchid from the Madagascan region.

  13. Spatial patterns of AFLP diversity in Bulbophyllum occultum (Orchidaceae) indicate long-term refugial isolation in Madagascar and long-distance colonization effects in La Réunion

    PubMed Central

    Jaros, U; Fischer, G A; Pailler, T; Comes, H P

    2016-01-01

    Bulbophyllum occultum, an epiphytic orchid mainly distributed in the rainforests of (north)eastern Madagascar and La Réunion, represents an interesting model case for testing the effects of anthropogenic vs historical (e.g., climate induced) habitat isolation and long-distance colonization on the genetic structure of plant species with disjunct distributions in the Madagascan region. To this aim, we surveyed amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) across 13 populations in Madagascar and nine in La Réunion (206 individuals in total). We found overall high levels of population subdivision (ΦPT=0.387) and low within-population diversity (HE, range: 0.026–0.124), indicating non-equilibrium conditions in a mainly selfing species. There was no impact of recent deforestation (Madagascar) or habitat disturbance (La Réunion) detectable on AFLP diversity. K-means clustering and BARRIER analyses identified multiple gene pools and several genetic breaks, both within and among islands. Inter-island levels of population genetic diversity and subdivision were similar, whereby inter-individual divergence in flower colour explained a significant part of gene pool divergence in La Réunion. Our results suggest that (i) B. occultum persisted across multiple isolated (‘refugial') regions along the eastern rainforest corridor of Madagascar over recent climatic cycles and (ii) populations in La Réunion arose from either single or few independent introductions from Madagascar. High selfing rates and sufficient time for genetic drift likely promoted unexpectedly high population genetic and phenotypic (flower colour) differentiation in La Réunion. Overall, this study highlights a strong imprint of history on the genetic structure of a low-gene-dispersing epiphytic orchid from the Madagascan region. PMID:26883184

  14. Tracing the Mediterranean climate influence over the central Balkans (southeast Europe) during the past 350 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obreht, Igor; Zeeden, Christian; Hambach, Ulrich; Veres, Daniel; Marković, Slobodan; Boesken, Janina; Bačević, Nikola; Gavrilov, Milivoj; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of past climate variability based on the study of paleoclimate archives may help in better understanding the forcing mechanisms and extent of any future climate change. In some regions, such as Eastern Europe, loess-paleosol sequences (LPS) are one of the most important terrestrial archives of Quaternary paleoclimate and its spatial and temporal dynamics. Studies of LPS from the Middle and Lower Danube basins fundamentally improved understanding of the European Quaternary climate and environmental evolution. The central Balkans (central Serbia) is situated in a transition zone between the temperate-continental climate zone to the north and Mediterranean climate to the south. Up to now this area has been poorly investigated concerning the paleoclimate evolution on a longer term, albeit this region is considered more sensitive to the relative influence associated to the Mediterranean climate influence than the Carpathian basin further north. To fill this gap we conducted a high-resolution multiproxy investigation on the Stalać LPS in the central Balkan (Serbia). Located at the southern limits of European loess distribution and within the Mediterranean climate influence, the Stalać section has potential for better understanding of past regional climate dynamics. We discuss grain-size (granulometric fractions, U-ratio), environmental magnetic (χ, χfd), geochemical (major and trace elements) and colour (L*, a*, b* values) data from the Stalać section in terms of switching sediment provenance sources modulated by past environmental conditions. We can show that the Carpathian Basin and central Balkans were influenced by different environmental conditions during past ~350 ka. A general higher continentality of the climate during the late Pleistocene can be observed over the Stalać section and the Carpathian Basin, indicating that this trend is more than a regional feature. Our results indicate warmer and/or more humid last glacial cycles compared to

  15. Dearth of Early Education Experience: A Significant Barrier to Educational and Social Inclusion in the Western Balkans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milovanovic, Suncica Macura; Kokic, Ivana Batarelo; Kristiansen, Selma Džemidžic; Gera, Ibolya; Ikonomi, Estevan; Kafedžic, Lejla; Milic, Tamara; Rexhaj, Xhavit; Spasovski, Ognen; Closs, Alison

    2014-01-01

    The article summarises the socio-political, cultural, economic and educational background to the Western Balkans region and outlines the wider qualitative research study that provided the data on early and pre-school educational opportunities in the seven countries involved; Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo (under United Nations…

  16. New insights on the seismic hazard in the Balkans inferred from GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agostino, Nicola; Métois, Marianne; Avallone, Antonio; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    The Balkans region sits at the transition between stable Eurasia and highly straining continental Eastern Mediterranean, resulting in a widespread seismicity and high seismic hazard. Because of intensive human and economic development over the last decades, the vulnerability has increased in the region faster than the progress in seismic hazard assessments. Opposite to the relatively good understanding of the seismicity in plate boundaries contexts, the seismic hazard is poorly known in the regions of distributed continental deformation like the Balkan region and is often underestimated (England and Jackson, 2011). Current seismic hazard assessments are based on the historical and instrumental catalogues. However, the completeness interval of the historical data bases may be below the average recurrence of individual seismogenic structures. In addition, relatively sparse seismological networks in the region and limited cross-border seismic data exchanges cast doubts in seismotectonic interpretation and challenge our understanding of seismic and geodynamic processes. This results in a inhomogeneous knowledge of the seismic hazard of the region to date. Geodetic measurements have the capability to contribute to seismic hazard by mapping the field of current active deformation and translating it into estimates of the seismogenic potential. With simple assumptions, measurements of crustal deformation can be translated in estimates of the average frequency and magnitude of the largest events and assessments of the aseismic deformation. GPS networks in the Balkans have been growing during the last few years mainly for civilian application (e.g. Cadastral plan, telecommunications), but opening new opportunities to quantify the present-day rates of crustal deformation. Here we present the initial results of GEOSAB (Geodetic Estimate of Strain Accumulation over Balkans), an AXA-Research-Fund supported project devoted to the estimation of crustal deformation and the

  17. MicroRNA Profiling in Patients with Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma Associated with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Popovska-Jankovic, Katerina; Noveski, Predrag; Jankovic-Velickovic, Ljubinka; Stojnev, Slavica; Cukuranovic, Rade; Stefanovic, Vladisav; Toncheva, Draga; Staneva, Rada; Polenakovic, Momir; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana

    2016-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a disease that affects people that live in the alluvial plains along the tributaries of the Danube River in the Balkan region. BEN is a chronic tubulointerstitial disease with a slow progression to terminal renal failure and has strong association with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). There are several hypotheses about the etiology of BEN, but only the toxic effect of aristolochic acid has been confirmed as a risk factor in the occurrence of the disease. Aberrantly expressed miRNAs have been shown to be associated with many types of cancers. A number of studies have investigated the expression of microRNAs in urothelial carcinoma, mainly on urothelial bladder cancer, and only a few have included patients with UTUC. Here we present the first study of microRNA profiling in UTUC tissues from patients with BEN (BEN-UTUC) and patients with UTUC from nonendemic Balkan regions (non-BEN-UTUC) in comparison to normal kidney tissues. We found 10 miRNAs that were differentially expressed in patients with BEN-UTUC and 15 miRNAs in patients with non-BEN-UTUC. miRNA signature determined in BEN-UTUC patients differs from the non-BEN-UTUC patients; only miR-205-5p was mutual in both groups. PMID:27218105

  18. MicroRNA Profiling in Patients with Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma Associated with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Popovska-Jankovic, Katerina; Noveski, Predrag; Jankovic-Velickovic, Ljubinka; Stojnev, Slavica; Cukuranovic, Rade; Stefanovic, Vladisav; Toncheva, Draga; Staneva, Rada; Polenakovic, Momir; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana

    2016-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a disease that affects people that live in the alluvial plains along the tributaries of the Danube River in the Balkan region. BEN is a chronic tubulointerstitial disease with a slow progression to terminal renal failure and has strong association with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). There are several hypotheses about the etiology of BEN, but only the toxic effect of aristolochic acid has been confirmed as a risk factor in the occurrence of the disease. Aberrantly expressed miRNAs have been shown to be associated with many types of cancers. A number of studies have investigated the expression of microRNAs in urothelial carcinoma, mainly on urothelial bladder cancer, and only a few have included patients with UTUC. Here we present the first study of microRNA profiling in UTUC tissues from patients with BEN (BEN-UTUC) and patients with UTUC from nonendemic Balkan regions (non-BEN-UTUC) in comparison to normal kidney tissues. We found 10 miRNAs that were differentially expressed in patients with BEN-UTUC and 15 miRNAs in patients with non-BEN-UTUC. miRNA signature determined in BEN-UTUC patients differs from the non-BEN-UTUC patients; only miR-205-5p was mutual in both groups. PMID:27218105

  19. Evaluating Weight of Evidence in the Mystery of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Bui-Klimke, Travis; Wu, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN) is a chronic, progressive wasting disease of the kidneys, endemic in certain rural regions of the Balkan nations Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Romania. It is irreversible, and ultimately fatal. Though this disease was first described in the 1920s, its causes have been a mystery and a source of much academic and clinical contention. Possible etiologic agents that have been explored include exposure to metals and metalloids, viruses and bacteria, and the environmental toxins aristolochic acid (AA) and ochratoxin A (OTA). Aristolochic acid is a toxin produced by weeds of the genus Aristolochia, common in Balkan wheat fields. Aristolochia seeds may intermingle with harvested grains and thus inadvertently enter human diets. Ochratoxin A is a mycotoxin (fungal toxin) common in many foods, including cereal grains. In this study, we analyzed the weight of evidence for each of the suspected causes of BEN using the Bradford Hill Criteria (BHC): nine conditions that determine weight of evidence for a causal relationship between an agent and a disease. Each agent postulated to cause BEN was evaluated using the nine criteria, and for each criterion was given a rating based on the strength of the association between exposure to the substance and BEN. From the overall available scientific evidence for each of these suspected risk factors, aristolochic acid is the agent with the greatest weight of evidence in causing BEN. We describe other methods for testing causality from epidemiological studies, which support this conclusion of AA causing BEN. PMID:24954501

  20. Phylogeographic analysis of a temperate-deciduous forest restricted plant (Bupleurum longiradiatum Turcz.) reveals two refuge areas in China with subsequent refugial isolation promoting speciation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Cai; Wang, Chang-Bao; Ma, Xiang-Guang; Liang, Qian-Long; He, Xing-Jin

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates the influence of climate-induced oscillations and complicated geological conditions on the evolutionary processes responsible for species formation in presently fragmented temperate forest habitats, located in continental East Asia. In addition to this, we also investigate the heavily debated issue of whether temperate forests migrated southwards during such glacial periods or, alternatively, whether there existed refugia within north China, enabling localized survival of temperate forests within this region. In order to achieve these, we surveyed the phylogeography of Bupleurum longiradiatum Turcz. (a herbaceous plant solely confined to temperate forests) constructed from sequence variation in three chloroplast (cp) DNA fragments: trnL-trnF, psbA-trnH and rps16. Our analyses show high genetic diversity within species (h(T)=0.948) and pronounced genetic differentiation among groups (yellow and purple flowers) with a significant phylogeographical pattern (N(ST)>G(ST), P<0.05). Forty-three haplotypes were identified and clustered into two lineages (the purple-flowered lineage and the yellow-flowered lineage). Two corresponding refuge areas, one in Qinling and its adjacent regions and one in the Changbai Mountains/eastern China, were revealed across the entire distribution ranges of Bupleurum longiradiatum. These results provide evidence for the hypothesis that independent refugia were maintained across the range of temperate forests in northern China during the last glacial maximum or earlier cold periods. Bupleurum longiradiatum var. porphyranthum formed a single taxon based on molecular data. This specific formation process suggests that the historical vicariance factors, i.e. climate-induced eco-geographic isolation through the biotic displacement of temperate-deciduous forest habitats, enhanced the divergence of the yellow and purple flower lineages at different spatial-temporal scales and over glacial and interglacial periods

  1. Phylogeographic analysis of a temperate-deciduous forest restricted plant (Bupleurum longiradiatum Turcz.) reveals two refuge areas in China with subsequent refugial isolation promoting speciation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Cai; Wang, Chang-Bao; Ma, Xiang-Guang; Liang, Qian-Long; He, Xing-Jin

    2013-09-01

    This study investigates the influence of climate-induced oscillations and complicated geological conditions on the evolutionary processes responsible for species formation in presently fragmented temperate forest habitats, located in continental East Asia. In addition to this, we also investigate the heavily debated issue of whether temperate forests migrated southwards during such glacial periods or, alternatively, whether there existed refugia within north China, enabling localized survival of temperate forests within this region. In order to achieve these, we surveyed the phylogeography of Bupleurum longiradiatum Turcz. (a herbaceous plant solely confined to temperate forests) constructed from sequence variation in three chloroplast (cp) DNA fragments: trnL-trnF, psbA-trnH and rps16. Our analyses show high genetic diversity within species (h(T)=0.948) and pronounced genetic differentiation among groups (yellow and purple flowers) with a significant phylogeographical pattern (N(ST)>G(ST), P<0.05). Forty-three haplotypes were identified and clustered into two lineages (the purple-flowered lineage and the yellow-flowered lineage). Two corresponding refuge areas, one in Qinling and its adjacent regions and one in the Changbai Mountains/eastern China, were revealed across the entire distribution ranges of Bupleurum longiradiatum. These results provide evidence for the hypothesis that independent refugia were maintained across the range of temperate forests in northern China during the last glacial maximum or earlier cold periods. Bupleurum longiradiatum var. porphyranthum formed a single taxon based on molecular data. This specific formation process suggests that the historical vicariance factors, i.e. climate-induced eco-geographic isolation through the biotic displacement of temperate-deciduous forest habitats, enhanced the divergence of the yellow and purple flower lineages at different spatial-temporal scales and over glacial and interglacial periods

  2. US policy in the Balkans: A Hobson`s choice

    SciTech Connect

    Blank, S.J.; Johnson, W.T.; Tilford, E.H.

    1995-08-28

    At this writing, the strategic balance may have shifted in the ongoing war in the former Yugoslavia, and the region could be on the verge of a settlement. But, the window of opportunity may be fleeting, and the failures and frustrations of the past four years temper any optimism that conflict in the former Yugoslavia will end quickly or completely. If this opening passes without an end to the fighting, the United States may have to reassess its fundamental policy objectives-and the ways and means to achieve them-if peace is to be effected in the Balkans. The intent of this report, therefore, is to analyze and assess existing policies, to identify any conflicts or contradictions that may stymie U.S. efforts to bring about a peaceful resolution of the crisis, and to offer potential solutions. The report does not offer an ambitious criticism of policy or an expert`s solution to an intractable problem. Its more modest goal is to examine current policy within a context that fits Bosnia into the larger pattern of U.S. interests and policy. In this manner, the report offers a broader framework for the strategic decisions that may face the United States in the not so distant future.

  3. Neurosteroids, immunosteroids, and the Balkanization of endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kim L; Pradhan, Devaleena S; Shah, Amit H; Charlier, Thierry D; Chin, Eunice H; Soma, Kiran K

    2008-07-01

    Traditionally, the production and regulation of steroid hormones has been viewed as a multi-organ process involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis for sex steroids and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis for glucocorticoids. However, active steroids can also be synthesized locally in target tissues, either from circulating inactive precursors or de novo from cholesterol. Here, we review recent work demonstrating local steroid synthesis, with an emphasis on steroids synthesized in the brain (neurosteroids) and steroids synthesized in the immune system (immunosteroids). Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that other components of the HPG axis (luteinizing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing hormone) and HPA axis (adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticotropin-releasing hormone) are expressed locally in target tissues, potentially providing a mechanism for local regulation of neurosteroid and immunosteroid synthesis. The balance between systemic and local steroid signals depends critically on life history stage, species adaptations, and the costs of systemic signals. During particular life history stages, there can be a shift from systemic to local steroid signals. We propose that the shift to local synthesis and regulation of steroids within target tissues represents a "Balkanization" of the endocrine system, whereby individual tissues and organs may become capable of autonomously synthesizing and modulating local steroid signals, perhaps independently of the HPG and HPA axes.

  4. From globalization to Europeanization-and then? Transnational influences in lesbian activism of the Western Balkans.

    PubMed

    Dioli, Irene

    2011-01-01

    The article looks at transnational dynamics in lesbian activism in the Western Balkans, with particular focus on Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, over the last two decades. Based on 30 interviews with activists from local and international feminist, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT), and queer organizations, the article discusses the role played by transnational contacts in the development of lesbian activism in the region and the related issues arising within the conflicting relationship between the "East" and the "West," with special attention to trends related to international intervention and cooperation, globalization, and Europeanization. PMID:21774599

  5. Demography of the Early Neolithic Population in Central Balkans: Population Dynamics Reconstruction Using Summed Radiocarbon Probability Distributions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Central Balkans region is of great importance for understanding the spread of the Neolithic in Europe but the Early Neolithic population dynamics of the region is unknown. In this study we apply the method of summed calibrated probability distributions to a set of published radiocarbon dates from the Republic of Serbia in order to reconstruct population dynamics in the Early Neolithic in this part of the Central Balkans. The results indicate that there was a significant population growth after ~6200 calBC, when the Neolithic was introduced into the region, followed by a bust at the end of the Early Neolithic phase (~5400 calBC). These results are broadly consistent with the predictions of the Neolithic Demographic Transition theory and the patterns of population booms and busts detected in other regions of Europe. These results suggest that the cultural process that underlies the patterns observed in Central and Western Europe was also in operation in the Central Balkan Neolithic and that the population increase component of this process can be considered as an important factor for the spread of the Neolithic as envisioned in the demic diffusion hypothesis. PMID:27508413

  6. Demography of the Early Neolithic Population in Central Balkans: Population Dynamics Reconstruction Using Summed Radiocarbon Probability Distributions.

    PubMed

    Porčić, Marko; Blagojević, Tamara; Stefanović, Sofija

    2016-01-01

    The Central Balkans region is of great importance for understanding the spread of the Neolithic in Europe but the Early Neolithic population dynamics of the region is unknown. In this study we apply the method of summed calibrated probability distributions to a set of published radiocarbon dates from the Republic of Serbia in order to reconstruct population dynamics in the Early Neolithic in this part of the Central Balkans. The results indicate that there was a significant population growth after ~6200 calBC, when the Neolithic was introduced into the region, followed by a bust at the end of the Early Neolithic phase (~5400 calBC). These results are broadly consistent with the predictions of the Neolithic Demographic Transition theory and the patterns of population booms and busts detected in other regions of Europe. These results suggest that the cultural process that underlies the patterns observed in Central and Western Europe was also in operation in the Central Balkan Neolithic and that the population increase component of this process can be considered as an important factor for the spread of the Neolithic as envisioned in the demic diffusion hypothesis. PMID:27508413

  7. Refugial isolation and secondary contact in the dyeing poison frog Dendrobates tinctorius.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Brice P; Gaucher, Philippe

    2006-12-01

    Recent palaeoclimactic research suggests that fluctuating environmental conditions throughout the Pleistocene of Amazonia occurred with previously unrecognized frequency. This has resulted in a theoretical shift from glacially influenced fluctuations to those driven by precessional rhythms. This theoretical revolution has a profound impact on expectations of biotic diversity within biogeographical regions that have long been based on the idea of large-scale landscape fragmentation associated with increased aridity and glacial cycles. Generally speaking, this shifts phylogeographical expectations from that of (i) large areas of sympatry of closely related (but not sister) species whose origins lie in separate refugia, and current distributions are the results of cyclic connectivity of those two refugia (refuge hypothesis), to that of (ii) fine scale genetic structure, often associated with elevation, and divergence well below expected speciation levels [disturbance-vicariance (DV) hypothesis]. To date there have been few tests of the expectations of the DV hypothesis based on empirical studies of Neotropical floral and faunal communities. Herein we examine phylogeographical structure of Dendrobates tinctorius, an amphibian species endemic to the uplands of the eastern Guiana Shield, based on sampling of 114 individuals from 24 localities. Phylogenetic, nested clade, and dispersal-vicariance (DIVA) analyses of cytochrome b sequence data reveal the presence of two mitochondrial lineages that are associated with previously identified western and eastern uplands of this area. The geographical distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes and the results of DIVA and coalescent analyses suggest that there has been extensive secondary contact between these lineages indicating a complex history of connectivity between these western and eastern highlands, supporting the predictions of the DV hypothesis. PMID:17107474

  8. Refugial isolation and secondary contact in the dyeing poison frog Dendrobates tinctorius.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Brice P; Gaucher, Philippe

    2006-12-01

    Recent palaeoclimactic research suggests that fluctuating environmental conditions throughout the Pleistocene of Amazonia occurred with previously unrecognized frequency. This has resulted in a theoretical shift from glacially influenced fluctuations to those driven by precessional rhythms. This theoretical revolution has a profound impact on expectations of biotic diversity within biogeographical regions that have long been based on the idea of large-scale landscape fragmentation associated with increased aridity and glacial cycles. Generally speaking, this shifts phylogeographical expectations from that of (i) large areas of sympatry of closely related (but not sister) species whose origins lie in separate refugia, and current distributions are the results of cyclic connectivity of those two refugia (refuge hypothesis), to that of (ii) fine scale genetic structure, often associated with elevation, and divergence well below expected speciation levels [disturbance-vicariance (DV) hypothesis]. To date there have been few tests of the expectations of the DV hypothesis based on empirical studies of Neotropical floral and faunal communities. Herein we examine phylogeographical structure of Dendrobates tinctorius, an amphibian species endemic to the uplands of the eastern Guiana Shield, based on sampling of 114 individuals from 24 localities. Phylogenetic, nested clade, and dispersal-vicariance (DIVA) analyses of cytochrome b sequence data reveal the presence of two mitochondrial lineages that are associated with previously identified western and eastern uplands of this area. The geographical distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes and the results of DIVA and coalescent analyses suggest that there has been extensive secondary contact between these lineages indicating a complex history of connectivity between these western and eastern highlands, supporting the predictions of the DV hypothesis.

  9. Evidence for Differential Assortative Female Preference in Association with Refugial Isolation of Rainbow Skinks in Australia's Tropical Rainforests

    PubMed Central

    Dolman, Gaynor

    2008-01-01

    Background Divergence driven by female preference can give rise to pre-mating isolation more rapidly than post-mating isolation can evolve through the accumulation of allelic incompatibilities. Moreover pre-mating isolation may be more effective at maintaining morphological differentiation between divergent populations. In the context of Australian rainforest endemic skinks that were historically subjected to refugial isolation, this study examined the following predictions: 1) that assortative female preference is associated with more recent divergence of southern C. rubrigularis (S-RED) and C. rhomboidalis (BLUE), but not with deeply divergent S-RED and northern C. rubrigularis (N-RED); and 2) that upon secondary contact, morphological differentiation is maintained between S-RED and BLUE, whereas N-RED and S-RED remain morphogically indistinguishable. Principal Findings Female preference trials found no evidence for assortative female preference between N-RED and S-RED, supporting a previous genetic hybrid zone study which inferred post-mating but no pre-mating isolation. In contrast there is evidence for assortative female preference between S-RED and BLUE, with BLUE females preferring to associate with BLUE males, but S-RED females showing no preference. Multi-locus coalescent analyses, used to estimate post-divergence gene-flow between proximally located S-RED and BLUE populations, rejected zero gene-flow from BLUE to S-RED and thus RED and BLUE have maintained morphological differentiation despite secondary contact. Morphometric analyses confirmed a lack of morphological divergence between N-RED and S-RED and established that BLUE is morphologically divergent from RED in traits other than throat colour. Conclusions/Significance Long-term isolation has been sufficient to generate post-mating isolation but no morphological divergence between N-RED and S-RED. In contrast, greater morphological differentiation is associated with evidence for assortative female

  10. The sibling species Leptidea juvernica and L. sinapis (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) in the Balkan Peninsula: ecology, genetic structure, and morphological variation.

    PubMed

    Shtinkov, Nikolay; Kolev, Zdravko; Vila, Roger; Dincă, Vlad

    2016-02-01

    The wood white butterfly Leptidea sinapis and its more recently discovered sibling species L. reali and L. juvernica have emerged as a model system for studying the speciation and evolution of cryptic species, as well as their ecological interactions in conditions of sympatry. Leptidea sinapis is widely distributed from Western Europe to Central Asia while the synmorphic L. juvernica and L. reali have allopatric distributions, both occurring in sympatry with L. sinapis and exhibiting an intricate, regionally variable ecological niche separation. Until now, the Balkan Peninsula remained one of the major unknowns in terms of distribution, genetic structure, and ecological preferences of the Leptidea triplet in Europe. We present new molecular and morphological data from a detailed survey of the region. Our DNA analysis suggests that the Balkan populations belong only to L. sinapis and L. juvernica, and that they are not genetically differentiated from other mainland populations. The distribution data reveal that L. sinapis is a widespread habitat generalist, while L. juvernica exhibits a transition from a habitat generalist in the western Balkans to a localised habitat specialist, confined to humid mountain habitats, in the east. The morphometric analysis of male genitalia and a comparison to data from other parts of the species' ranges suggest an interesting mosaic of regional morphological variation that is likely linked to environmental and ecological factors. We also demonstrate the usefulness of the genitalia scaling relations for analysing the morphological variation and discuss the implications for species identification.

  11. An Examination of Long-Term Environmental-Social Dynamics in the Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, C.; Boger, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the interactions of environmental and social dynamics in Central Balkans over the past millennium, a period that experienced three major climatic phases (Medieval Climate Anomaly, Little Ice Age, and the warm 20th century). Meanwhile, the same period witnessed a complex human history with the emergence-rise-decline of the Ottoman Empire and subsequent socio-political events (e.g. wars, famines, migrations). Environmental datasets for the analysis include biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical signals through X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and a detailed chronology based on AMS 14C dating of two western and central Serbian lakes while social datasets include historic population data, land use, settlement patterns, and critical historic events derived from a review of the literature and local archives. Among the environmental datasets, indigenous tree and herbaceous pollen from these Central Balkans records demonstrate fluctuations in woodland-grassland dynamics whereas potassium and titanium counts obtained through XRF act as a proxy for surface erosion and clastic input into the lakes. Microscopic charcoal, cereal pollen and subordinate anthropogenic pollen (e.g. cultivated fruits and vegetables) are used to distinguish strong human impact over the landscape. These key anthropogenic indicators create a more thorough social component of the analysis in association with the social datasets. After reconstructing the individual time series for each environmental and social dataset, the two Central Balkan records are correlated in order to identify the environmental and social homogeneity and heterogeneity patterns occurring at shorter and longer timescales during the period. Results provide insights on how a region responds to social and environmental stressors and our approach demonstrates ways to integrate natural and social science system research.

  12. Human Y-chromosome short tandem repeats: a tale of acculturation and migrations as mechanisms for the diffusion of agriculture in the Balkan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Mirabal, Sheyla; Varljen, Tatjana; Gayden, Tenzin; Regueiro, Maria; Vujovic, Slavica; Popovic, Danica; Djuric, Marija; Stojkovic, Oliver; Herrera, Rene J

    2010-07-01

    Southeastern Europe and, particularly, the Balkan Peninsula are especially useful when studying the mechanisms responsible for generating the current distribution of Paleolithic and Neolithic genetic signals observed throughout Europe. In this study, 404 individuals from Montenegro and 179 individuals from Serbia were typed for 17 Y-STR loci and compared across 9 Y-STR loci to geographically targeted previously published collections to ascertain the phylogenetic relationships of populations within the Balkan Peninsula and beyond. We aim to provide information on whether groups in the region represent an amalgamation of Paleolithic and Neolithic genetic substrata, or whether acculturation has played a critical role in the spread of agriculture. We have found genetic markers of Middle Eastern, south Asian and European descent in the area, however, admixture analyses indicate that over 80% of the Balkan gene pool is of European descent. Altogether, our data support the view that the diffusion of agriculture into the Balkan region was mostly a cultural phenomenon although some genetic infiltration from Africa, the Levant, the Caucasus, and the Near East has occurred.

  13. Description of two new filtering carnivore Drusus species (Limnephilidae, Drusinae) from the Western Balkans

    PubMed Central

    Vitecek, Simon; Kučinić, Mladen; Oláh, János; Previšić, Ana; Bálint, Miklós; Keresztes, Lujza; Waringer, Johann; Pauls, Steffen U.; Graf, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of the genus Drusus (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Drusinae) from the Western Balkans are described. Additionally, observations on the biodiversity and threats to the region’s endemic aquatic fauna are discussed. Drusus krpachi sp. n. is a micro-endemic of the Korab Mountains, Macedonia, and Drusus malickyi sp. n. is a micro-endemic of the Prokletije Mountains, Albania. Both new species are most similar to Drusus macedonicus but differ from the latter in the shape of segment IX, the shape of the tips of the intermediate appendages in lateral view, the shape of the inferior appendages, and the form and shape of the parameres. In addition, males of the European species of filtering carnivore Drusinae are diagnosed and illustrated, including Cryptothrix nebulicola McLachlan, Drusus chrysotus Rambur, Drusus discolor Rambur, Drusus macedonicus Schmid, Drusus meridionalis Kumanski, Drusus muelleri McLachlan, Drusus romanicus Murgoci and Botosaneanu, and Drusus siveci Malicky. These additions to the Western Balkan fauna demonstrate the significance of this region for European biodiversity and further highlight the importance of faunistic studies in Europe. PMID:26257570

  14. Dental calculus reveals Mesolithic foragers in the Balkans consumed domesticated plant foods.

    PubMed

    Cristiani, Emanuela; Radini, Anita; Edinborough, Marija; Borić, Dušan

    2016-09-13

    Researchers agree that domesticated plants were introduced into southeast Europe from southwest Asia as a part of a Neolithic "package," which included domesticated animals and artifacts typical of farming communities. It is commonly believed that this package reached inland areas of the Balkans by ∼6200 calibrated (cal.) BC or later. Our analysis of the starch record entrapped in dental calculus of Mesolithic human teeth at the site of Vlasac in the Danube Gorges of the central Balkans provides direct evidence that already by ∼6600 cal. BC, if not earlier, Late Mesolithic foragers of this region consumed domestic cereals, such as Triticum monococcum, Triticum dicoccum, and Hordeum distichon, which were also the main crops found among Early Neolithic communities of southeast Europe. We infer that "exotic" Neolithic domesticated plants were introduced to southern Europe independently almost half a millennium earlier than previously thought, through networks that enabled exchanges between inland Mesolithic foragers and early farming groups found along the Aegean coast of Turkey. PMID:27573829

  15. Native Dreissena freshwater mussels in the Balkans: in and out of ancient lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, T.; Schultheiß, R.; Albrecht, C.; Bornmann, N.; Trajanovski, S.; Kevrekidis, T.

    2010-10-01

    The Balkans is a biogeographically highly diverse region and a worldwide hotspot of endemic freshwater diversity. A substantial part of this diversity is attributed to well recognized and potential ancient lakes in its southwestern part. However, despite considerable research efforts, faunal relationships among those lakes are not well understood. Therefore, genetic information from native representatives of the mussel genus Dreissena is here used to test the biogeographical zonation of the southwestern Balkans, to relate demographic changes to environmental changes, to assess the degree of eco-insularity, to reconstruct their evolutionary history, and to explore the potential of native taxa for becoming invasive. Phylogeographical and population genetic analyses indicate that most studied populations belong to two native species: D. presbensis (including the distinct genetic subgroup from Lake Ohrid, "D. stankovici") and D. blanci. In addition, the first confirmed record of invasive D. polymorpha in the southwestern Balkan is presented. The distribution of native Dreissena spp. generally coincides with the biogeographical zonations previously suggested based on fish data. However, there is disagreement on the assignment of the ancient lakes in the area to respective biogeographical regions. The data for Lake Ohrid are not conclusive. A closer biogeographical connection to lakes of the Vardar region and possibly the northern Ionian region is, however, suggested for Lake Prespa. The reconstruction of the evolutionary history of Dreissena spp. suggests that populations underwent demographic and spatial expansions in the recent past. Expansions started around 320 000-300 000 years ago in "D. stankovici", 160 000-140 000 years ago in D. blanci, and 110 000-70 000 years ago in D. presbensis. These time frames are discussed within the context of available paleogeological data for lakes Ohrid and Prespa. It is suggested that regional environmental changes may have had

  16. Native Dreissena freshwater mussels in the Balkans: in and out of ancient lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, T.; Schultheiß, R.; Albrecht, C.; Bornmann, N.; Trajanovski, S.; Kevrekidis, T.

    2010-06-01

    The Balkans is a biogeographically highly diverse region and a worldwide hotspot of endemic freshwater diversity. A substantial part of this diversity is attributed to well recognized and potential ancient lakes in its southwestern part. Despite considerable research efforts, faunal relationships among those lakes are, however, not well understood. Therefore, genetic information from native representatives of the mussel genus Dreissena is used here to test the biogeographical zonation of the Southwestern Balkans, to relate demographic changes to environmental changes, to assess the degree of eco-insularity, to reconstruct their evolutionary history, and to explore the potential of native taxa for becoming invasive. Phylogeographical and population genetic analyses indicate that most populations studied belong to two native species: D. presbensis (incl. the distinct genetic subgroup from Lake Ohrid, D. ''stankovici'') and D. blanci. In addition, the first confirmed record of invasive D. polymorpha in the Southwestern Balkan is presented. The distribution of native Dreissena spp. is largely in concordance with the biogeographical zonations previously proposed based on fish data. Disagreement, however, consists regarding the assignment of the ancient lakes in the area to biogeographical regions. The data for Lake Ohrid are not conclusive. For Lake Prespa, however, a closer biogeographical connection to lakes of the Vardar region and possibly the Northern Ionian region is suggested. While reconstructing the evolutionary histories of Dreissena spp., signs of major demographic and spatial expansions were found. They started some 320 000-300 000 years ago in D. ''stankovici'', some 160 000-140 000 years ago in D. blanci, and some 110 000-70 000 years ago in D. presbensis. These time frames are discussed within the context of available paleogeological data for lakes Ohrid and Prespa. It is suggested that regional environmental changes may have had pronounced effects on the

  17. How unique is the tiger beetle fauna (Coleoptera, Cicindelidae) of the Balkan Peninsula?

    PubMed Central

    Jaskuła, Radomir

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The tiger beetle fauna of the Balkan Peninsula is one of the richest in Europe and includes 19 species or 41% of the European tiger beetle fauna. Assembled by their biogeographical origins, the Balkan tiger beetle species fall into 14 different groups that include, Mediterranean, Middle Oriental, Central Asiatic, Euro-Siberian, South and East European, Pannonian-Sarmatian, West Palaearctic, Turano-European and Afrotropico Indo-Mediterranean species. The Mediterranean Sclerophyl and the Pontian Steppe are the Balkan biogeographical provinces with the highest species richness, while the Balkan Highlands has the lowest Cicindelidae diversity. Most species are restricted to single habitat types in lowland areas of the Balkan Peninsula and only Calomera aulica aulica and Calomera littoralis nemoralis occur in respectively 3 and 4 different types of habitat. About 60% of all Balkan Cicindelidae species are found in habitats potentially endangered by human activity. PMID:21738429

  18. A new millipede, Austrotyla awishoshola n. sp., (Diplopoda, Chordeumatida, Conotylidae) from New Mexico, USA, and the importance of cave moss gardens as refugial habitats.

    PubMed

    Wynne, J Judson; Shear, William A

    2016-01-01

    Austrotyla awishoshola n. sp. is described from the moss gardens of one lava tube cave in El Malpais National Monument, Cibola Co., New Mexico. Most chordeumatidans require mesic conditions, and these environments are limited to moss gardens in several cave entrances and beneath cave skylights in El Malpais. Presently, this species is known from the moss gardens of a single of cave in the monument. We suggest A. awishoshola may be a climatic relict, having become restricted to the cave environment following the end of the Pleistocene. We discuss the importance of cave moss gardens as refugial and relictual habitats. Recommendations are provided to aid in the conservation and management of A. awishoshola and these habitats. PMID:27394265

  19. A new millipede, Austrotyla awishoshola n. sp., (Diplopoda, Chordeumatida, Conotylidae) from New Mexico, USA, and the importance of cave moss gardens as refugial habitats.

    PubMed

    Wynne, J Judson; Shear, William A

    2016-02-25

    Austrotyla awishoshola n. sp. is described from the moss gardens of one lava tube cave in El Malpais National Monument, Cibola Co., New Mexico. Most chordeumatidans require mesic conditions, and these environments are limited to moss gardens in several cave entrances and beneath cave skylights in El Malpais. Presently, this species is known from the moss gardens of a single of cave in the monument. We suggest A. awishoshola may be a climatic relict, having become restricted to the cave environment following the end of the Pleistocene. We discuss the importance of cave moss gardens as refugial and relictual habitats. Recommendations are provided to aid in the conservation and management of A. awishoshola and these habitats.

  20. Improvement in kidney transplantation in the Balkans after the Istanbul Declaration: where do we stand today?

    PubMed

    Spasovski, Goce; Busic, Mirela; Delmonico, Francis

    2016-02-01

    Due to the limited access to kidney transplantation (KTx) in developing countries, desperate patients have engaged in the purchase and sale of kidneys. In 2004, the World Health Assembly urged member states to protect the poor and vulnerable from being exploited through practices of illegal organ trafficking that had become widespread throughout the world. In 2008, the international transplant community convened a summit of transplant professionals, legal experts and ethicists to combat organ trafficking, transplant tourism and transplant commercialism that resulted in the Declaration of Istanbul (DOI). The South-Eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN) represents a nine country multigovernmental collaboration on health systems. The Regional Health Development Centre on Organ Donation and Transplant Medicine (RHDC) was established in 2011 in Croatia to facilitate cooperation among south-eastern European countries to improve organ transplantation within the Balkan region. Since 2011, a collaboration between the RHDC, the Custodian Group of the DOI (DICG) and SEEHN professionals has enhanced strategic planning and definition of country-specific action plan priorities on organ donation and transplantation. Data of kidney transplantation provided in this report show a significant increase in transplantation activities in a 4-year period in Macedonia, Moldova, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Romania and Montenegro. The success of the donation and transplantation programmes was influenced by the engagement of key professionals and the establishment of organizational infrastructure with the implementation of an appropriate funding model. In conclusion, the DOI has provided an ethical framework for engagement of health professionals from south-eastern European countries. The newly established SEEHN RHDC as a technical coordinating body greatly contributed in building institutional capacity and strengthening regional collaboration between health authorities and professionals within

  1. Improvement in kidney transplantation in the Balkans after the Istanbul Declaration: where do we stand today?

    PubMed

    Spasovski, Goce; Busic, Mirela; Delmonico, Francis

    2016-02-01

    Due to the limited access to kidney transplantation (KTx) in developing countries, desperate patients have engaged in the purchase and sale of kidneys. In 2004, the World Health Assembly urged member states to protect the poor and vulnerable from being exploited through practices of illegal organ trafficking that had become widespread throughout the world. In 2008, the international transplant community convened a summit of transplant professionals, legal experts and ethicists to combat organ trafficking, transplant tourism and transplant commercialism that resulted in the Declaration of Istanbul (DOI). The South-Eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN) represents a nine country multigovernmental collaboration on health systems. The Regional Health Development Centre on Organ Donation and Transplant Medicine (RHDC) was established in 2011 in Croatia to facilitate cooperation among south-eastern European countries to improve organ transplantation within the Balkan region. Since 2011, a collaboration between the RHDC, the Custodian Group of the DOI (DICG) and SEEHN professionals has enhanced strategic planning and definition of country-specific action plan priorities on organ donation and transplantation. Data of kidney transplantation provided in this report show a significant increase in transplantation activities in a 4-year period in Macedonia, Moldova, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Romania and Montenegro. The success of the donation and transplantation programmes was influenced by the engagement of key professionals and the establishment of organizational infrastructure with the implementation of an appropriate funding model. In conclusion, the DOI has provided an ethical framework for engagement of health professionals from south-eastern European countries. The newly established SEEHN RHDC as a technical coordinating body greatly contributed in building institutional capacity and strengthening regional collaboration between health authorities and professionals within

  2. The etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy: Still more questions than answers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatu, C.A.; Orem, W.H.; Finkelman, R.B.; Feder, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) has attracted increasing attention as a possible environmental disease, and a significant amount of research from complementary scientific fields has been dedicated to its etiology. There are two actual competing theories attempting to explain the cause of this kidney disease: 1) the mycotoxin hypothesis, which considers that BEN is produced by ochratoxin A ingested intermittently in small amounts by the individuals in the endemic regions, and 2) the Pliocene lignite hypothesis, which proposes that the disease is caused by long-term exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other toxic organic compounds leaching into the well drinking water from low rank coals underlying or proximal to the endemic settlements. We outline the current developments and future prospects in the study of BEN and differentiate possible factors and cofactors in disease etiology.

  3. The etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy: still more questions than answers.

    PubMed Central

    Tatu, C A; Orem, W H; Finkelman, R B; Feder, G L

    1998-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) has attracted increasing attention as a possible environmental disease, and a significant amount of research from complementary scientific fields has been dedicated to its etiology. There are two actual competing theories attempting to explain the cause of this kidney disease: 1) the mycotoxin hypothesis, which considers that BEN is produced by ochratoxin A ingested intermittently in small amounts by the individuals in the endemic regions, and 2) the Pliocene lignite hypothesis, which proposes that the disease is caused by long-term exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other toxic organic compounds leaching into the well drinking water from low rank coals underlying or proximal to the endemic settlements. We outline the current developments and future prospects in the study of BEN and differentiate possible factors and cofactors in disease etiology. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9799184

  4. The Little Ice Age and its Spatial Variability across the Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, C.; Peteet, D. M.; Boger, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    Using biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical signals through X-ray fluorescence, and AMS 14C based chronology, we present a correlation between two new high resolution Little Ice Age (LIA) records from the Central Balkans that are part of one of the least studied regions of Europe. The sediments extracted from a western sinkhole and central Serbian oxbow lake are analyzed at 8-10-cm intervals to capture the nature and magnitude of the LIA at a resolution of 20 years. During the 15th-19th CE, indigenous tree (e.g. Quercus, Acer, Pinus) and herbaceous (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Artemisia) pollen from these records demonstrate fluctuations in woodland-grassland dynamics. While tree populations from Central Serbia remain comparatively stable (40-60%), the trees of western Serbia vacillate drastically between 15% and 50%. Similarly, central Serbian grasses show variations of ~18-36% whereas the western Serbian grass populations exhibit abrupt oscillations between high (55%) and low (19%) percentages. As a proxy for surface erosion and clastic input into the lakes, the 1-cm resolution potassium and titanium counts are in strong agreement with varying herbaceous taxa. These variations in ecological signals across the cores can account for local factors including altitude, terrain exposure, soils etc., however, the dynamic human component of the landscape is evident through crop pollen (e.g. Cerealia, Juglans) and microscopic charcoal highlighting the dominant role of people in ecological changes. Although the two sites show certain differences in charcoal concentration, extremely high charcoal indicates accelerated land clearance between the 15th and 17th CE. Until the beginning of 18th CE, the cultivars (e.g. Secale, Triticum) occur with very low percentages and then peak to suggest improved agriculture in the region. In the post-LIA era, the 20th CE exhibits increased arboreal percentages and declining grasslands in both the two Central

  5. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of June 22, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans On June 26, 2001, by Executive Order 13219, the President declared...

  6. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of June 8, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans On June 26, 2001, by Executive Order 13219, the President declared a...

  7. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of June 17, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to the Western Balkans On June 26, 2001, by Executive Order 13219, the President declared...

  8. Endogean and cavernicolous Coleoptera of the Balkans. XVII. A new species of the genus Speluncarius Reitter, 1886 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Harpalinae, Pterostichini) from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Hlaváč, Peter; Lakota, Ján; Čeplík, Dávid

    2016-01-01

    The genus Speluncarius Reitter, 1886 (Harpalinae, Pterostichini) is made up by anophthalmous or almost blind species. The genus is related to Tapinopterus Schaum, 1858, which contains numerous species from the Balkan-Anatolian region and have more or less developed eyes. Speluncarius is distributed in the Western Palaearctic region; 26 species and one subspecies are known from Italy, the Balkan Peninsula and Turkey. The genus is classified in five subgenera, Elasmopterus Kraatz, 1886 (6 spp.); Hypogearius Jeannel, 1953 (3 spp.); Hypogium Tschitscherine, 1900 (1 sp.); Pontotapinus Guéorguiev & Lohaj, 2008 (1 sp.) and Speluncarius (s.str.) Reitter, 1886 (15 spp.) (Sciaky, 1982; Bousquet, 2003; Guéorguiev & Lohaj, 2008; Casale et al., 2013). PMID:27615918

  9. Potential impacts of climate change on flow regime and fish habitat in mountain rivers of the south-western Balkans.

    PubMed

    Papadaki, Christina; Soulis, Konstantinos; Muñoz-Mas, Rafael; Martinez-Capel, Francisco; Zogaris, Stamatis; Ntoanidis, Lazaros; Dimitriou, Elias

    2016-01-01

    The climate change in the Mediterranean area is expected to have significant impacts on the aquatic ecosystems and particular in the mountain rivers and streams that often host important species such as the Salmo farioides, Karaman 1938. These impacts will most possibly affect the habitat availability for various aquatic species resulting to an essential alteration of the water requirements, either for dams or other water abstractions, in order to maintain the essential levels of ecological flow for the rivers. The main scope of this study was to assess potential climate change impacts on the hydrological patterns and typical biota for a south-western Balkan mountain river, the Acheloos. The altered flow regimes under different emission scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) were estimated using a hydrological model and based on regional climate simulations over the study area. The Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) methodology was then used to assess the potential streamflow alterations in the studied river due to predicted climate change conditions. A fish habitat simulation method integrating univariate habitat suitability curves and hydraulic modeling techniques were used to assess the impacts on the relationships between the aquatic biota and hydrological status utilizing a sentinel species, the West Balkan trout. The most prominent effects of the climate change scenarios depict severe flow reductions that are likely to occur especially during the summer flows, changing the duration and depressing the magnitude of the natural low flow conditions. Weighted Usable Area-flow curves indicated the limitation of suitable habitat for the native trout. Finally, this preliminary application highlighted the potential of science-based hydrological and habitat simulation approaches that are relevant to both biological quality elements (fish) and current EU Water policy to serve as efficient tools for the estimation of possible climate

  10. Paleo-Balkan and Slavic contributions to the genetic pool of Moldavians: insights from the Y chromosome.

    PubMed

    Varzari, Alexander; Kharkov, Vladimir; Nikitin, Alexey G; Raicu, Florina; Simonova, Kseniya; Stephan, Wolfgang; Weiss, Elisabeth H; Stepanov, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    Moldova has a rich historical and cultural heritage, which may be reflected in the current genetic makeup of its population. To date, no comprehensive studies exist about the population genetic structure of modern Moldavians. To bridge this gap with respect to paternal lineages, we analyzed 37 binary and 17 multiallelic (STRs) polymorphisms on the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome in 125 Moldavian males. In addition, 53 Ukrainians from eastern Moldova and 54 Romanians from the neighboring eastern Romania were typed using the same set of markers. In Moldavians, 19 Y chromosome haplogroups were identified, the most common being I-M423 (20.8%), R-M17* (17.6%), R-M458 (12.8%), E-v13 (8.8%), R-M269* and R-M412* (both 7.2%). In Romanians, 14 haplogroups were found including I-M423 (40.7%), R-M17* (16.7%), R-M405 (7.4%), E-v13 and R-M412* (both 5.6%). In Ukrainians, 13 haplogroups were identified including R-M17 (34.0%), I-M423 (20.8%), R-M269* (9.4%), N-M178, R-M458 and R-M73 (each 5.7%). Our results show that a significant majority of the Moldavian paternal gene pool belongs to eastern/central European and Balkan/eastern Mediterranean Y lineages. Phylogenetic and AMOVA analyses based on Y-STR loci also revealed that Moldavians are close to both eastern/central European and Balkan-Carpathian populations. The data correlate well with historical accounts and geographical location of the region and thus allow to hypothesize that extant Moldavian paternal genetic lineages arose from extensive recent admixture between genetically autochthonous populations of the Balkan-Carpathian zone and neighboring Slavic groups.

  11. Paleo-Balkan and Slavic Contributions to the Genetic Pool of Moldavians: Insights from the Y Chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Varzari, Alexander; Kharkov, Vladimir; Nikitin, Alexey G.; Raicu, Florina; Simonova, Kseniya; Stephan, Wolfgang; Weiss, Elisabeth H.; Stepanov, Vadim

    2013-01-01

    Moldova has a rich historical and cultural heritage, which may be reflected in the current genetic makeup of its population. To date, no comprehensive studies exist about the population genetic structure of modern Moldavians. To bridge this gap with respect to paternal lineages, we analyzed 37 binary and 17 multiallelic (STRs) polymorphisms on the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome in 125 Moldavian males. In addition, 53 Ukrainians from eastern Moldova and 54 Romanians from the neighboring eastern Romania were typed using the same set of markers. In Moldavians, 19 Y chromosome haplogroups were identified, the most common being I-M423 (20.8%), R-M17* (17.6%), R-M458 (12.8%), E-v13 (8.8%), R-M269* and R-M412* (both 7.2%). In Romanians, 14 haplogroups were found including I-M423 (40.7%), R-M17* (16.7%), R-M405 (7.4%), E-v13 and R-M412* (both 5.6%). In Ukrainians, 13 haplogroups were identified including R-M17 (34.0%), I-M423 (20.8%), R-M269* (9.4%), N-M178, R-M458 and R-M73 (each 5.7%). Our results show that a significant majority of the Moldavian paternal gene pool belongs to eastern/central European and Balkan/eastern Mediterranean Y lineages. Phylogenetic and AMOVA analyses based on Y-STR loci also revealed that Moldavians are close to both eastern/central European and Balkan-Carpathian populations. The data correlate well with historical accounts and geographical location of the region and thus allow to hypothesize that extant Moldavian paternal genetic lineages arose from extensive recent admixture between genetically autochthonous populations of the Balkan-Carpathian zone and neighboring Slavic groups. PMID:23341985

  12. Patterns of fine-scale plant species richness in dry grasslands across the eastern Balkan Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palpurina, Salza; Chytrý, Milan; Tzonev, Rossen; Danihelka, Jiří; Axmanová, Irena; Merunková, Kristina; Duchoň, Mário; Karakiev, Todor

    2015-02-01

    Fine-scale plant species richness varies across habitats, climatic and biogeographic regions, but the large-scale context of this variation is insufficiently explored. The patterns at the borders between biomes harbouring rich but different floras are of special interest. Dry grasslands of the eastern Balkan Peninsula, situated in the Eurasian forest-steppe zone and developed under Mediterranean influence, are a specific case of such biome transition. However, there are no studies assessing the patterns of fine-scale species richness and their underlying factors across the eastern Balkans. To explore these patterns, we sampled dry and semi-dry grasslands (phytosociological class Festuco-Brometea) across Bulgaria and SE Romania. In total, 172 vegetation plots of 10 × 10 m2 were sampled, in which all vascular plant species were recorded, soil depth was measured, and soil samples were collected and analysed in a laboratory for pH and plant-available nutrients. Geographic coordinates were used to extract selected climatic variables. Regression trees and linear regressions were used to quantify the relationships between species richness and environmental variables. Climatic factors were identified as the main drivers of species richness: (1) Species richness was strongly positively correlated with the mean temperature of the coldest month: sub-Mediterranean areas of S and E Bulgaria, characterized by warmer winters, were more species-rich. (2) Outside the sub-Mediterranean areas, species richness strongly increased with annual precipitation, which was primarily controlled by altitude. (3) Bedrock type and soil pH also significantly affected dry grassland richness outside the sub-Mediterranean areas. These results suggest that fine-scale species richness of dry grasslands over large areas is driven by processes at the regional level, especially by the difference in the species pools of large regions, in our case the Continental and Mediterranean biogeographic regions

  13. Molecular detection and prevalence of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in horses of central Balkan.

    PubMed

    Davitkov, Darko; Vucicevic, Milos; Stevanovic, Jevrosima; Krstic, Vanja; Slijepcevic, Dajana; Glavinic, Uros; Stanimirovic, Zoran

    2016-03-01

    Equine piroplasmosis is significant tick-borne disease with wide distribution. The prevalence of equine piroplasmosis in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina is unknown. In aim to obtain a first insight into the prevalence we performed molecular epidemiological study which included 142 horses, on seven locations in these three countries. We first performed PCR for the detection of a 450bp long section of the 18S rRNA of piroplasma-specific region. For all positive samples we have done multiplex PCR for the species detection. Species determination was further confirmed by sequencing PCR products of 10 randomly selected Theileria equi and all Babesia caballi samples. The overall prevalence rates in analysed region for T. equi and B. caballi were 22.5% and 2.1%, respectively. Possible risk factors (such as location, age, sex and activity) associated with PCR positivity were evaluated. Marked differences were found in prevalence between geographic areas. There was no significant association between positivity and age group. T. equi was more prevalent in females and farming horses. This is the first report on the molecular survey of T. equi and B. caballi in central Balkan. Further prevalence studies on definitive host and vectors in this region are necessary. PMID:27078657

  14. Did glacials and/or interglacials promote allopatric incipient speciation in East Asian temperate plants? Phylogeographic and coalescent analyses on refugial isolation and divergence in Dysosma versipellis.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ying-Xiong; Guan, Bi-Cai; Fu, Cheng-Xin; Comes, Hans Peter

    2009-05-01

    To explore the evolutionary consequences of climate-induced fluctuations in presently fragmented temperate forest habitats in continental East Asia we investigated the phylogeography and demographic history of the temperate-deciduous forest endemic Dysosma versipellis from disjunct montane sites in Central-Southeast China. Based on a survey of chloroplast (cp) DNA sequence variation, our analyses show that this perennial herb consists of morphologically indistinguishable western and central/eastern cpDNA lineages. Coalescent analyses under the 'isolation with migration' (IM) model support an ancient (Mid-Pleistocene) divergence between these lineages, with the western lineage having persisted without significant population growth in a long-term refuge just east of the Tibetan (Qinghai-Xizang) Plateau. In contrast, for the central/eastern lineage, we found strong evidence for population expansion from a refuge located south of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and likely coinciding with the last or penultimate interglacial, followed by considerable population isolation and divergence in situ over (at least) the latest glacial-interglacial cycle. In line with recent evidence from palaeomodeling of East Asian forest biomes, our results suggest that the same vicariance factor, i.e. climate-induced eco-geographic isolation through (a)biotic displacement of temperate-deciduous forested habitats, promoted the divergence of D. versipellis lineages and populations at different spatial-temporal scales and over glacial and interglacial periods. Thus, there is no evidence that populations of D. versipellis merged at lower elevations during the last glacial(s). As such, D. versipellis accords with the premise that Late Quaternary refugial isolation is likely to have enhanced allopatric (incipient) species formation of temperate plants in East Asia.

  15. Description of a new species of Wormaldia from Sardinia and a new Drusus species from the Western Balkans (Trichoptera, Philopotamidae, Limnephilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Vitecek, Simon; Previšić, Ana; Kučinić, Mladen; Bálint, Miklós; Keresztes, Lujza; Waringer, Johann; Pauls, Steffen U.; Malicky, Hans; Graf, Wolfram

    2015-01-01

    Abstract New species are described in the genera Wormaldia (Trichoptera, Philopotamidae) and Drusus (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Drusinae). Additionally, the larva of the new species Drusus crenophylax sp. n. is described, and a key provided to larval Drusus species of the bosnicus-group, in which the new species belongs. Observations on the threats to regional freshwater biodiversity and caddisfly endemism are discussed. The new species Wormaldia sarda sp. n. is an endemic of the Tyrrhenian island of Sardinia and differs most conspicuously from its congeners in the shape of segment X, which is trilobate in lateral view. The new species Drusus crenophylax sp. n. is a micro-endemic of the Western Balkans, and increases the endemism rate of Balkan Drusinae to 79% of 39 species. Compared to other Western Balkan Drusus, males of the new species are morphologically most similar to Drusus discophorus Radovanovic and Drusus vernonensis Malicky, but differ in the shape of superior and intermediate appendages. The females of Drusus crenophylax sp. n. are most similar to those of Drusus vernonensis, but differ distinctly in the outline of segment X. Larvae of Drusus crenophylax sp. n. exhibit toothless mandibles, indicating a scraping grazing-feeding ecology. PMID:25931956

  16. Comparison of Satellite NO{sub 2} Observations with High Resolution Model Simulations over the Balkan Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Zyrichidou, I.; Koukouli, M. E.; Balis, D. S.; Katragkou, E.; Poupkou, A.; Kioutsioukis, I.; Markakis, K.; Melas, D.; van der A., R.; Boersma, F. K.; Roozendael, M. van

    2010-01-21

    High resolution model estimations of tropospheric NO{sub 2} column amounts from the Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx) were simulated for the Balkan Peninsula and were compared with satellite data for a period of one year, in order to study the characteristics of the spatial and temporal variability of pollution in the area. The Balkan area is considered a crossroad of different pollution sources and therefore has been divided in urban, industrial and rural regions, aiming to investigate the consistency of satellite retrievals and model predictions at high spatial resolution. Satellite measurements of tropospheric NO{sub 2} are available daily at 13:30 LT since 2004 from OMI/Aura with a resolution of 13x24 km. The anthropogenic emissions used in CAMx for the domain under study, was compiled employing bottom-up approaches (road transport sector, off-road machinery) as well as other national registries and international databases. High resolution GIS maps (road network, landuses, population) were also used in order to achieve high spatial resolution. In most of the cases the model reveals similar spatial patterns with the satellite data, while over certain areas discrepancies were found and investigated.

  17. Detachment vs. normal faulting: Diachronous Cenozoic extension and rift basin formation in the Southern Balkans (Pirin Mts. and Sandanski basin, SW Bulgaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stübner, Konstanze; Böhme, Madelaine; Ehlers, Todd

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Balkans are a landscape of basins and ranges formed by more than 40 Ma of extension in thickened post-collisional crust and above the retreating Hellenic trench. One of the best-studied extensional systems in the Southern Balkans is the South Rhodope core complex in northern Greece and southern Bulgaria, which records multiple stages of detachment faulting, including the Miocene Strymon detachment. Paleogene, Neogene and Quaternary basins are associated with stages of extension. We present new (U-Th)/He thermochronology ages from bedrock samples of the Pirin mountains and detrital samples of the adjacent Sandanski basin, SW Bulgaria. In combination with sediment paleomagnetic ages, structural data, and geomorphic analyses, our results document two episodes of Eocene/Oligocene and early to middle Miocene detachment faulting that were probably not associated with significant relief or basin development. In contrast, the Sandanski basin formed in the late Miocene (10-6 Ma) above the West Pirin and Melnik normal faults. Late Miocene E-W extension resulted in uplift of the Pirin Mts. and the development of a mountain landscape similar to the modern topography. In the Quaternary, the stress field switched to N-S extension reflected in E-W trending faults and Quaternary basins and recorded by river profiles. Our results advance our understanding of extension processes in the Southern Balkans in general and yield first constraints on the Neogene evolution of topography in the Southern Balkans with important implications on the evolution of regional climate and on Neogene paleoecology. Our study also documents a dichotomy between low-relief detachment faulting and steeply dipping normal faulting associated with relief and basin development.

  18. Microscale vicariance and diversification of Western Balkan caddisflies linked to karstification

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzler, Jan; Kučinić, Mladen; Graf, Wolfram; Ibrahimi, Halil; Kerovec, Mladen

    2016-01-01

    The karst areas in the Dinaric region of the Western Balkan Peninsula are a hotspot of freshwater biodiversity. Many investigators have examined diversification of the subterranean freshwater fauna in these karst systems. However, diversification of surface-water fauna remains largely unexplored. We assessed local and regional diversification of surface-water species in karst systems and asked whether patterns of population differentiation could be explained by dispersal–diversification processes or allopatric diversification following karst-related microscale vicariance. We analyzed mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) sequence data of 4 caddisfly species (genus Drusus) in a phylogeographic framework to assess local and regional population genetic structure and Pliocene/Pleistocene history. We used BEAST software to assess the timing of intraspecific diversification of the target species. We compared climate envelopes of the study species and projected climatically suitable areas during the last glacial maximum (LGM) to assess differences in the species climatic niches and infer potential LGM refugia. The haplotype distribution of the 4 species (324 individuals from 32 populations) was characterized by strong genetic differentiation with few haplotypes shared among populations (16%) and deep divergence among populations of the 3 endemic species, even at local scales. Divergence among local populations of endemics often exceeded divergence among regional and continental clades of the widespread D. discolor. Major divergences among regional populations dated to 2.0 to 0.5 Mya. Species distribution model projections and genetic structure suggest that the endemic species persisted in situ and diversified locally throughout multiple Pleistocene climate cycles. The pattern for D. discolor was different and consistent with multiple invasions into the region. Patterns of population genetic structure and diversification were similar for the 3 regional

  19. Botryosphaeriaceae associated with the die-back of ornamental trees in the Western Balkans.

    PubMed

    Zlatković, Milica; Keča, Nenad; Wingfield, Michael J; Jami, Fahimeh; Slippers, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Extensive die-back and mortality of various ornamental trees and shrubs has been observed in parts of the Western Balkans region during the past decade. The disease symptoms have been typical of those caused by pathogens residing in the Botryosphaeriaceae. The aims of this study were to isolate and characterize Botryosphaeriaceae species associated with diseased ornamental trees in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Isolates were initially characterized based on the DNA sequence data for the internal transcribed spacer rDNA and six major clades were identified. Representative isolates from each clade were further characterized using DNA sequence data for the translation elongation factor 1-alpha, β-tubulin-2 and large subunit rRNA gene regions, as well as the morphology of the asexual morphs. Ten species of the Botryosphaeriaceae were identified of which eight, i.e., Dothiorella sarmentorum, Neofusicoccum parvum, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Phaeobotryon cupressi, Sphaeropsis visci, Diplodia seriata, D. sapinea and D. mutila were known taxa. The remaining two species could be identified only as Dothiorella spp. Dichomera syn-asexual morphs of D. sapinea, Dothiorella sp. 2 and B. dothidea, as well as unique morphological characters for a number of the known species are described. Based on host plants and geographic distribution, the majority of Botryosphaeriaceae species found represent new records. The results of this study contribute to our knowledge of the distribution, host associations and impacts of these fungi on trees in urban environments.

  20. Strontium isotopes document greater human mobility at the start of the Balkan Neolithic

    PubMed Central

    Borić, Dušan; Price, T. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Questions about how farming and the Neolithic way of life spread across Europe have been hotly debated topics in archaeology for decades. For a very long time, two models have dominated the discussion: migrations of farming groups from southwestern Asia versus diffusion of domesticates and new ideas through the existing networks of local forager populations. New strontium isotope data from the Danube Gorges in the north-central Balkans, an area characterized by a rich burial record spanning the Mesolithic–Neolithic transition, show a significant increase in nonlocal individuals from ∼6200 calibrated B.C., with several waves of migrants into this region. These results are further enhanced by dietary evidence based on carbon and nitrogen isotopes and an increasingly high chronological resolution obtained on a large sample of directly dated individuals. This dataset provides robust evidence for a brief period of coexistence between indigenous groups and early farmers before farming communities absorbed the foragers completely in the first half of the sixth millennium B.C. PMID:23401535

  1. Understanding the motives for food choice in Western Balkan Countries.

    PubMed

    Milošević, Jasna; Žeželj, Iris; Gorton, Matthew; Barjolle, Dominique

    2012-02-01

    Substantial empirical evidence exists regarding the importance of different factors underlying food choice in Western Europe. However, research results on eating habits and food choice in the Western Balkan Countries (WBCs) remain scarce. A Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ), an instrument that measures the reported importance of nine factors underlying food choice, was administered to a representative sample of 3085 adult respondents in six WBCs. The most important factors reported are sensory appeal, purchase convenience, and health and natural content; the least important are ethical concern and familiarity. The ranking of food choice motives across WBCs was strikingly similar. Factor analysis revealed eight factors compared to nine in the original FCQ model: health and natural content scales loaded onto one factor as did familiarity and ethical concern; the convenience scale items generated two factors, one related to purchase convenience and the other to preparation convenience. Groups of consumers with similar motivational profiles were identified using cluster analysis. Each cluster has distinct food purchasing behavior and socio-economic characteristics, for which appropriate public health communication messages can be drawn.

  2. Balkan endemic nephropathy—current status and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Pavlović, Nikola M.

    2013-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), originally described in 1956, is a unique familial, chronic renal disease encountered with a high-prevalence rate in Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The most prominent features of the disease are its endemic nature, long-incubation period, familial clustering of the disease and an unusually high incidence of associated upper urothelial cancer (UUC). There are no clear-cut data on BEN incidence and prevalence, since the studies carried out in different endemic areas yielded contradictory information. In spite of intermittent variations, the incidence of new cases has remained stable over time. It has been estimated that almost 100 000 people are at risk of BEN, whereas 25 000 have the disease. The clinical signs and symptoms of BEN are non-specific and often remain unrecognized for years. There are no pathognomonic diagnostic features of BEN, but the set of epidemiological, clinical and biochemical data along with the pattern of pathologic injury in the absence of any other renal diseases are highly suggestive of this entity. Although the aetiology has been extensively studied, fostering the publication of various hypotheses, only one of them has provided conclusive evidence related to the aetiology of BEN. Studies conducted over the past decade have provided particularly strong arguments that BEN and UUC are caused by chronic poisoning with aristolochic acids (AAs). In light of these later studies, one can raise the question whether AAs could be responsible for previously and currently widespread unrecognized global renal disease and UUC. PMID:26064484

  3. On depleted uranium: gulf war and Balkan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Duraković, A

    2001-04-01

    The complex clinical symptomatology of chronic illnesses, commonly described as Gulf War Syndrome, remains a poorly understood disease entity with diversified theories of its etiology and pathogenesis. Several causative factors have been postulated, with a particular emphasis on low level chemical warfare agents, oil fires, multiple vaccines, desert sand (Al-Eskan disease), botulism, Aspergillus flavus, Mycoplasma, aflatoxins, and others, contributing to the broad scope of clinical manifestations. Among several hundred thousand veterans deployed in the Operation Desert Storm, 15-20% have reported sick and about 25,000 died. Depleted uranium (DU), a low-level radioactive waste product of the enrichment of natural uranium with U-235 for the reactor fuel or nuclear weapons, has been considered a possible causative agent in the genesis of Gulf War Syndrome. It was used in the Gulf and Balkan wars as an armor-penetrating ammunition. In the operation Desert Storm, over 350 metric tons of DU was used, with an estimate of 3-6 million grams released in the atmosphere. Internal contamination with inhaled DU has been demonstrated by the elevated excretion of uranium isotopes in the urine of the exposed veterans 10 years after the Gulf war and causes concern because of its chemical and radiological toxicity and mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Polarized views of different interest groups maintain an area of sustained controversy more in the environment of the public media than in the scientific community, partly for the reason of being less than sufficiently addressed by a meaningful objective interdisciplinary research.

  4. Ozone minihole observation over the Balkan Peninsula in March 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, R.; Valev, D.; Atanasov, A.; Kostadinov, I.; Petkov, B.; Giovanelli, G.; Stebel, K.; Petritoli, A.; Palazzi, E.

    Areas with dimensions of 1000 km -- 3000 km in which the total ozone content TOC decreases fast are called ozone miniholes They are generated mainly dynamically in two ways either by poor ozone airmass transport from the tropics to higher latitudes by planetary wave activity or they are connected with strong adiabatic uplifting of the tropopause height An ozone minihole generated by the second mechanism was observed over the Balkan Peninsula on 19 21 March 2005 In the middle of March the polar vortex was strongly disturbed by Rossby waves reaching up to the lower stratosphere Warming episodes over a geographical area covering the Barent Sea and the Polar Sea north from Central Siberia displaced a polar vortex fragment extremely southwards However the vorticity was weak and the stratospheric temperatures did not reach low values providing conditions for ozone chemical destruction via heterogenic reactions At the same time a Rossby wave ridge was located below the European polar fragment In the period from 13 to 19 March the thermal tropopause over Sofia was uplifting almost by 3 1 km Ozone distributions observed by the SCIAMACHY instrument on 18-21 March show an fast TOC decrease westwards from Ireland which was moving eastwards during the next days increasing the area in which the ozone content decreased On 20 21 March low ozone content was observed above the Stara Zagora 42 N 25 E ground-based station by means of the GASCOD instrument using DOAS technique The TOMS Earth probe instrument

  5. Greece: a Balkan subrefuge for a remnant red deer (cervus elaphus) population.

    PubMed

    Karaiskou, Nikoleta; Tsakogiannis, Alexander; Gkagkavouzis, Konstantinos; Papika, Sylvia; Latsoudis, Panagiotis; Kavakiotis, Ioannis; Pantis, John; Abatzopoulos, Theodore J; Triantaphyllidis, Costas; Triantafyllidis, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    A number of phylogeographic studies have revealed the existence of multiple ice age refugia within the Balkan Peninsula, marking it as a biodiversity hotspot. Greece has been reported to harbor genetically differentiated lineages from the rest of Balkans for a number of mammal species. We therefore searched for distinct red deer lineages in Greece, by analyzing 78 samples originating from its last population in Parnitha Mountain (Central Greece). Additionally, we tested the impact of human-induced practices on this population. The presence of 2 discrete mtDNA lineages was inferred: 1) an abundant one not previously sampled in the Balkans and 2) a more restricted one shared with other Balkan populations, possibly the result of successful translocations of Eastern European individuals. Microsatellite-based analyses of 14 loci strongly support the existence of 2 subpopulations with relative frequencies similar to mitochondrial analyses. This study stresses the biogeographic importance of Central Greece as a separate Last Glacial Maximum period refugium within the Balkans. It also delineates the possible effects that recent translocations of red deer populations had on the genetic structuring within Parnitha. We suggest that the Greek red deer population of Parnitha is genetically distinct, and restocking programs should take this genetic evidence into consideration.

  6. Sattleria revisited: unexpected cryptic diversity on the Balkan Peninsula and in the south-eastern Alps (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Huemer, Peter; Timossi, Giovanni

    2014-03-21

    The taxonomy of Sattleria Povolný from the high mountain systems on the Balkan Peninsula and the adjacent parts of the Alps (south-eastern Alps, Dinaric Alps, Rila Mountains) is revised based on recently collected material and re-examined museum vouchers. Adult morphology and molecular data of the COI barcode region support the existence of six strictly allopatric species in this area, including four new species: Sattleria sophiae Timossi, sp. nov. (Parco Paneveggio-Pale di San Martino, Dolomites, Prov. Trento, Italy), Sattleria dolomitica Huemer, sp. nov. (Eastern Dolomites, Prov. South Tyrol, Italy), Sattleria dinarica Huemer, sp. nov. (Durmitor NP, Dinaric Alps, Montenegro) and Sattleria haemusi Huemer, sp. nov. (Rila Mts., Bulgaria; Šar Planina, Macedonia). 

  7. Identifying and Interpreting the Imprint of the Little Ice Age over the Balkan Landscape: A Combined Palynological and Geochemical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, C.; Peteet, D. M.; Boger, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    We examine a multi-centennial Balkan record of vegetation and landscape during the Little Ice Age (LIA) climatic transition that lasted from c. 15th to the 19th century AD. Biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical analysis (X-ray Fluorescence (XRF)), and a robust chronology based on AMS 14C dating are used to reconstruct the vegetation response and human-environmental interactions during the LIA. A sediment core extracted from a sinkhole lake located in western Serbia (44°30'N-19°30'E; elevation 250 m a.s.l.) was sampled at 10-cm intervals for investigating biological proxies. Palynological data include temperate indigenous trees (e.g. Quercus, Betula), herbaceous taxa (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae), and key anthropogenic indicators (e.g. Juglans, cereals) and demonstrate wet and cool conditions as well as seasonal variations during cal. 16th to 19th century AD. The XRF data obtained from the core at 1-cm intervals show changes in the clastic input and surface erosion around the lake probably owing to seasonal variations during the LIA. Moreover, pollen and charcoal data together reveal the changing nature of human interference across the LIA from intense deforestation to reforestation and sustained cultivation with climatic and seasonal variations. Correlating palaeoecological and geochemical data for this region allows us to interpret the long-term dynamics of landscape and humans across one of the important climatic intervals in Europe. The Balkans, as one of Europe's "Biodiversity Hotspots" and a rapidly changing region, provides insights into possible biotic responses to future global climatic change.

  8. Distribution of uranium and some selected trace metals in human scalp hair from Balkans.

    PubMed

    Zunic, Z S; Tokonami, S; Mishra, S; Arae, H; Kritsananuwat, R; Sahoo, S K

    2012-11-01

    The possible consequences of the use of depleted uranium (DU) used in Balkan conflicts in 1995 and 1999 for the people and the environment of this reason need attention. The heavy metal content in human hair may serve as a good indicator of dietary, environmental and occupational exposures to the metal compounds. The present work summarises the distribution of uranium and some selected trace metals such as Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sr, Cd and Cs in the scalp hair of inhabitants from Balkans exposed to DU directly and indirectly, i.e. Han Pijesak, Bratoselce and Gornja Stubla areas. Except U and Cs, all other metals were compared with the worldwide reported values of occupationally unexposed persons. Uranium concentrations show a wide variation ranging from 0.9 ± 0.05 to 449 ± 12 µg kg(-1). Although hair samples were collected from Balkan conflict zones, uranium isotopic measurement ((235)U/(238)U) shows a natural origin rather than DU.

  9. Kidney length in healthy members of Balkan endemic nephropathy families

    PubMed Central

    Ristić, S; Marić, S; Maksimović, Z; Marić, V; Djukanović, L

    2015-01-01

    Background: Kidney size may differ between healthy members of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) and non-BEN families. The present study was designed to elucidate this, in comparison with values for BEN patients. Methods: A total of 71 BEN patients (34 males, 64.4 ± 12.0 years), 74 healthy BEN family members (39 males, 49.1 ± 12.2 years), and 59 non-BEN family members (19 males, 49.2 ± 12.3 years) were involved. We measured the longest craniocaudal length and minimal parenchymal thickness on each kidney of all examined subjects using ultrasound. Results: No significant difference was found between the kidney length of healthy subjects from BEN (11.0 ± 0.8 cm) and non-BEN families (10.9 ± 0.8 cm), but kidneys were significantly longer than in BEN patients (9.9 ± 1.3 cm). Minimal parenchymal thickness was similar in all three groups. When subjects from each group were divided according to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), kidney length of the healthy groups was significantly longer than in BEN patients both in stage 1 (p =0.039) and stage 2 (p =0.044) of chronic kidney disease. The parental history of BEN was not associated with kidney dimensions, eGFR, or urinary excretion of albumin and alpha1-microglobulin. Conclusion: Kidneys of BEN patients were significantly shorter than in healthy members of both BEN and non-BEN families, but no difference was found in kidney length and parenchymal thickness between healthy members of BEN and non-BEN families. No significant association was found between parental history of BEN and kidney size and function either in BEN patients or in healthy members from BEN families. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (4): 304-308.

  10. Genetic Diversity and Conservation of the Prespa Trout in the Balkans

    PubMed Central

    Berrebi, Patrick; Tougard, Christelle; Dubois, Sophie; Shao, Zhaojun; Koutseri, Irene; Petkovski, Svetozar; Crivelli, Alain J.

    2013-01-01

    The Balkans are known to have a high level of biodiversity and endemism. No less than 15 taxa have been recorded in salmonids of the Salmo genus. Among them, the Prespa trout is found in only four river systems flowing into Lake Macro Prespa, three in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and one in Greece. This is the first comprehensive survey of all streams located within the Macro Prespa Basin, encompassing the whole taxon range. A large genetic sample of 536 Prespa trout was collected mainly between 2005 and 2007. The sampling included 59 individuals from the Golema river system, 93 from the Kranska, 260 from the Brajcinska, 119 from the Agios Germanos, and five individuals from the lake itself. These specimens were analyzed with six microsatellite markers and by sequencing the mitochondrial control region. Nuclear data were examined through multidimensional analysis and assignment tests. Five clusters were detected by assignment: Golema, Kranska, Brajcinska upstream, Rzanska Brajcinska tributary and Brajcinska downstream. Most of these river systems thus hosted differentiated Prespa trout populations (with past gene flows likely dating before the construction of dams), except Agios Germanos, which was found to be composed of 5% to 32% of each cluster. Among the five trout individuals from the lake, four originated from Kranska River and one was admixed. Supported parsimonious hypotheses are proposed to explain these specificities. Conservation of this endemic taxon should take these results into account. No translocation should be performed between different tributaries of the lake and preservation of the Brajcinska populations should address the upstream-downstream differentiation described. PMID:24287917

  11. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Xanthomonas euvesicatoria Strains from the Balkan Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Vancheva, Taca; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Bogatzevska, Nevena; Moncheva, Penka

    2015-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequences of two Xanthomonas euvesicatoria strains from the Balkan Peninsula, which were isolated from symptomatic pepper plants. The availability of these genome sequences will facilitate the development of modern genotyping assays for X. euvesicatoria strains and to define targets for resistance breeding. PMID:25657284

  12. Agenda-Setting for VET Policy in the Western Balkans: Employability versus Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Will; Pagliarello, Marina Cino

    2016-01-01

    For the last decade, the Western Balkan countries have sought to modernise their vocational education and training (VET) systems, adapting them to the needs of their emerging market economies. Within the framework of the EU accession process, the policy agenda for VET policies has been strongly influenced by a range of international and domestic…

  13. The "1+1:Life & Love" Simultaneous Exhibition: Cross-Border Collaboration in the Western Balkans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Diana

    2012-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes a cross-border, "simultaneous exhibition" collaborative project in six post-conflict western Balkan countries. Through a process of collaboration, active learning, and audience development, professional and personal trust developed among eleven museums. Previously identified barriers were overcome and…

  14. Escaping to the summits: phylogeography and predicted range dynamics of Cerastium dinaricum, an endangered high mountain plant endemic to the western Balkan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Kutnjak, Denis; Kuttner, Michael; Niketić, Marjan; Dullinger, Stefan; Schönswetter, Peter; Frajman, Božo

    2014-09-01

    The Balkans are a major European biodiversity hotspot, however, almost nothing is known about processes of intraspecific diversification of the region's high-altitude biota and their reaction to the predicted global warming. To fill this gap, genome size measurements, AFLP fingerprints, plastid and nuclear sequences were employed to explore the phylogeography of Cerastium dinaricum. Range size changes under future climatic conditions were predicted by niche-based modeling. Likely the most cold-adapted plant endemic to the Dinaric Mountains in the western Balkan Peninsula, the species has conservation priority in the European Union as its highly fragmented distribution range includes only few small populations. A deep phylogeographic split paralleled by divergent genome size separates the populations into two vicariant groups. Substructure is pronounced within the southeastern group, corresponding to the area's higher geographic complexity. Cerastium dinaricum likely responded to past climatic oscillations with altitudinal range shifts, which, coupled with high topographic complexity of the region and warmer climate in the Holocene, sculptured its present fragmented distribution. Field observations revealed that the species is rarer than previously assumed and, as shown by modeling, severely endangered by global warming as viable habitat was predicted to be reduced by more than 70% by the year 2080.

  15. Quantitation of Aristolochic Acids in Corn, Wheat Grain, and Soil Samples Collected in Serbia: Identifying a Novel Exposure Pathway in the Etiology of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wan; Pavlović, Nikola M; Li, Weiwei; Chan, Chi-Kong; Liu, Jingjing; Deng, Kailin; Wang, Yinan; Milosavljević, Biljana; Kostić, Emina N

    2016-07-27

    While to date investigations provided convincing evidence on the role of aristolochic acids (AAs) in the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) and upper urothelial cancer (UUC), the exposure pathways by which AAs enter human bodies to cause BEN and UUC remain obscure. The goal of this study is to test the hypothesis that environmental pollution by AAs and root uptake of AAs in the polluted soil may be one of the pathways by which AAs enter the human food chain. The hypothesis driving this study was that the decay of Aristolochia clematitis L., a AA-containing herbaceous plant that is found growing widespread in the endemic regions, could release free AAs to the soil, which could be taken up by food crops growing nearby, thereby transferring this potent human nephrotoxin and carcinogen into their edible parts. Using the highly sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection method, we identified and quantitated in this study for the first time AAs in corn, wheat grain, and soil samples collected from the endemic village Kutles in Serbia. Our results provide the first direct evidence that food crops and soil in the Balkans are contaminated with AAs. It is possible that the presence of AAs in edible parts of crops originating from the AA-contaminated soil could be one of the major pathways by which humans become exposed to AAs. PMID:27362729

  16. Tephrostratigraphic studies on a sediment core from Lake Prespa in the Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damaschke, M.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Wagner, B.; Böhm, A.; Nowaczyk, N.; Rethemeyer, J.; Hilgers, A.

    2012-09-01

    A detailed tephrostratigraphic record, which dates back to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5, has been established from a 17.76 m long core (Co1215) from Lake Prespa (Macedonia, Albania and Greece). A total of eleven tephra and cryptotephra layers (PT0915-1 to PT0915-11) were identified, using XRF scanning, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and macro- and microscopic inspection of the sediments. The major element composition of glass shards and/or micro-pumice fragments indicates that the tephras and cryptotephras originate from the explosive volcanism of Italy. Eight tephra and cryptotephra layers were correlated with specific volcanic eruptions: cryptotephra PT0915-1 with the 512 AD eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (1438 cal yr BP), tephra PT0915-2 with the Mercato eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (8890 ± 90 cal yr BP), cryptotephras PT0915-3 and PT0915-4 with Tufi Biancastri/LN1-LN2 of the Campi Flegrei (14 749 ± 523 cal yr BP and 15 551 ± 621 cal yr BP), tephra PT0915-5 with the SMP1-e/Y-3 eruption of the Campi Flegrei (30 000-31 000 cal yr BP), tephra PT0915-7 with the Campanian Ignimbrite/Y-5 of the Campi Flegrei (39 280 ± 110 cal yr BP), cryptotephra PT0915-8 with the SMP1-a event of Ischia Island (around 44 000 cal yr BP) and tephra PT0915-9 with the Green Tuff/Y-6 eruption of Pantelleria Island (around 45 000 cal yr BP). Tephra PT0915-11 could be attributed to the volcanic activity of Mount Etna, but probably represents a hitherto unknown eruption at ca. 60 000 cal yr BP. Cryptotephras PT0915-6 and PT0915-10 remain unclassified so far, but according to the presented age-depth model these would have been deposited around 35 000 and 48 500 cal yr BP, respectively. Some of the tephras and cryptotephras are recognised for the first time in the Balkan region. The tephrostratigraphic work provides important information about ash dispersal and explosion patterns of source volcanoes and can be used to correlate and date geographically distant paleoenvironmental and

  17. Tephrostratigraphic studies on a sediment core from Lake Prespa in the Balkans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damaschke, M.; Sulpizio, R.; Zanchetta, G.; Wagner, B.; Böhm, A.; Nowaczyk, N.; Rethemeyer, J.; Hilgers, A.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed tephrostratigraphic record, which dates back to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5b (ca. 91 kyr), has been established from a 17.76 m long core (Co1215) from Lake Prespa (Macedonia, Albania and Greece). A total of eleven tephra and cryptotephra layers (PT0915-1 to PT0915-11) were identified, using XRF scanning, magnetic susceptibility measurements, and macro- and microscopic inspection of the sediments. The major element composition of glass shards and/or micro-pumice fragments indicates that the tephras and cryptotephras originate from the explosive volcanism of Italy. Eight tephra and cryptotephra layers were correlated with specific volcanic eruptions: the AD 512 eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (1438 cal yr BP), the Mercato eruption of Somma-Vesuvius (8890 ± 90 cal yr BP), the Tufi Biancastri/LN1-LN2 eruption of the Campi Flegrei (14 749 ± 523 cal yr BP and 15 551 ± 621 cal yr BP), the SMP1-e/Y-3 eruption of the Campi Flegrei (30 000-31 000 cal yr BP), the Campanian Ignimbrite/Y-5 eruption of the Campi Flegrei (39 280 ± 110 cal yr BP), the SMP1-a event of Ischia Island (around 44 000 cal yr BP) and the Green Tuff/Y-6 eruption of Pantelleria Island (around 45 000 cal yr BP). One tephra could be attributed to the volcanic activity of Mount Etna, but probably represents an unknown eruption at ca. 60 000 cal yr BP. Cryptotephras PT0915-6 and PT0915-10 remain unclassified so far, but according to the presented age-depth model these would have been deposited around 35 000 and 48 500 cal yr BP, respectively. Some of the tephras and cryptotephras are recognised for the first time in the Balkan region. The tephrostratigraphic work provides important information about ash dispersal and explosion patterns of source volcanoes and can be used to correlate and date geographically distant paleoenvironmental and archaeological archives in the central Mediterranean region. Moreover, the tephrostratigraphic work in combination with radiocarbon and electron spin resonance (ESR

  18. Exploring the Role of Humans and Climate over the Balkan Landscape: 500 Years of Vegetational History of Serbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Charuta; Peteet, Dorothy; Boger, Rebecca; Heusser, Linda

    2016-01-01

    We present the first, well-dated, high-resolution record of vegetation and landscape change from Serbia, which spans the past 500 years. Biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical analysis through X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and a detailed chronology based on AMS C-14 dating from a western Serbian sinkhole core suggest complex woodland-grassland dynamics and strong erosional signals throughout the Little Ice Age (LIA). An open landscape with prominent steppe vegetation (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae) and minor woodland exists during 1540-1720 CE (early LIA), while the late LIA (1720-1850 CE) in this record shows higher tree percentages possibly due to increased moisture availability. The post LIA Era (1850-2012 CE) brings a disturbed type of vegetation with the presence of weedy genera and an increase in regional woodland. Anthropogenic indicators for agricultural, pastoral and fire practices in the region together attest to the dominant role of humans in shaping this Balkan landscape throughout the interval. The changing nature of human interference, potentially as a response to underlying climatic transitions, is evident through large-scale soil depletion resulting from grazing and land clearance during the early LIA and stabilization of arable lands during the late and post-LIA eras.

  19. Exploring the role of humans and climate over the Balkan landscape: 500 years of vegetational history of Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Charuta; Peteet, Dorothy; Boger, Rebecca; Heusser, Linda

    2016-07-01

    We present the first, well-dated, high-resolution record of vegetation and landscape change from Serbia, which spans the past 500 years. Biological proxies (pollen, spores, and charcoal), geochemical analysis through X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), and a detailed chronology based on AMS 14C dating from a western Serbian sinkhole core suggest complex woodland-grassland dynamics and strong erosional signals throughout the Little Ice Age (LIA). An open landscape with prominent steppe vegetation (e.g. Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae) and minor woodland exists during 1540-1720 CE (early LIA), while the late LIA (1720-1850 CE) in this record shows higher tree percentages possibly due to increased moisture availability. The post LIA Era (1850-2012 CE) brings a disturbed type of vegetation with the presence of weedy genera and an increase in regional woodland. Anthropogenic indicators for agricultural, pastoral and fire practices in the region together attest to the dominant role of humans in shaping this Balkan landscape throughout the interval. The changing nature of human interference, potentially as a response to underlying climatic transitions, is evident through large-scale soil depletion resulting from grazing and land clearance during the early LIA and stabilization of arable lands during the late and post-LIA eras.

  20. Cryptic diversity of caddisflies in the Balkans: the curious case of Ecclisopteryx species (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kučinić, Mladen; Bálint, Miklós; Keresztes, Lujza; Pauls, Steffen U.; Waringer, Johann

    2015-01-01

    Adults and larvae of two new cryptic, endemic caddisflies, Ecclisopteryx keroveci sp.n. and Ecclisopteryx ivkae sp.n., are described and illustrated from the Western Balkans. Phylogenetic analysis (Bayesian MCMCMC) and association of different life history stages in both cryptic species were achieved through comparison of morphological characters and mitochondrial (mtCOI and mtLSU) and nuclear (nuWG) gene sequence data. The new species form a sister clade to the widely distributed E. dalecarlica and E. guttulata, with which they were formerly misidentified. Adults differ from each other and other species in the genus by the uniquely shaped inferior appendages in males and segment X in females. The larvae differ from each other and their congeners in the shape of the pronotum, and presence and constitution of additional spines on the parietalia. Larvae of both species are grazers and prefer stony substrate. Ecclisopteryx keroveci sp.n. has a wide distribution in the Western Balkans, while E. ivkae sp.n. is endemic to Dalmatia. Our findings demonstrate the significance of the Western Balkans as a freshwater biodiversity hotspot, and accentuate the importance of research focused on freshwater biodiversity and biogeography in southern Europe. PMID:25810791

  1. Do Health Reforms Impact Cost Consciousness of Health Care Professionals? Results from a Nation-Wide Survey in the Balkans

    PubMed Central

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo; Vukovic, Mira; Chen, Chia-Ching; Antunovic, Mirjana; Dragojevic-Simic, Viktorija; Velickovic-Radovanovic, Radmila; Djendji, Mladenovic Siladji; Jankovic, Nikola; Rankovic, Ana; Kovacevic, Aleksandra; Antunovic, Marko; Milovanovic, Olivera; Markovic, Veroljub; Dasari, Babu N.S.; Yamada, Tetsuji

    2016-01-01

    Background: Serbia, as the largest market of the Western Balkans, has entered socioeconomic transition with substantial delay compared to most of Eastern Europe. Its health system reform efforts were bold during the past 15 years, but their results were inconsistent in various areas. The two waves of global recession that hit Balkan economies ultimately reflected to the financial situation of healthcare. Serious difficulties in providing accessible medical care to the citizens became a reality. A large part of the unbearable expenses actually belongs to the overt prescription of pharmaceuticals and various laboratory and imaging diagnostic procedures requested by physicians. Therefore, a broad national survey was conducted at all levels of the healthcare system hierarchy to distinguish the ability of cost containment strategies to reshape clinician’s mindsets and decision-making in practice. Aims: Assessment of healthcare professionals’ judgment on economic consequences of prescribed medical interventions and evaluation of responsiveness of healthcare professionals to policy measures targeted at increasing cost-consciousness. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted through a hierarchy of medical facilities across diverse geographical regions before and after policy action, from January 2010 to April 2013. In the middle of the observed period, the National Health Insurance Fund (RFZO) adopted severe cost-containment measures. Independently, pharmacoeconomic guidelines targeted at prescribers were disseminated. Administration in large hospitals and community pharmacies was forced to restrict access to high budget-impact medical care. Economic Awareness of Healthcare Professionals Questionnaire–29 (EAHPQ-29), developed in Serbian language, was used in face-to-face interviews. The questionnaire documented clinician’s attitudes on: Clinical-Decision-Making-between-Alternative-Interventions (CDMAI), Quality

  2. Third intensive Balkan telemedicine and e-health seminar: current principles and practices of telemedicine and e-health--clinical applications and evidence-based outcomes: International Conference on Telemedicine and e-Health February 6-7, 2009 Skopje, Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Doarn, Charles R; Latifi, Rifat; Hadeed, George; Haxhihamza, Kadri; Bekteshi, Flamur; Lecaj, Ismet

    2009-05-01

    The region, which consists of the countries of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Greece, Kosova, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia, takes its name from the mountain range, the Balkans. The Balkans, a Turkish word for "chain of wooded mountains," covers an area of 700,000 km(2) region in Southeastern Europe and is home to over 55 million inhabitants. A decade of war and ethnic fighting in the 1990s destroyed the medical systems in place, creating a desperate need to rebuild a modern healthcare infrastructure. Telemedicine has been shown to be an effective tool in this regard. The adoption of telemedicine in the Balkans is firmly under way. Since its inception in 2001, the International Virtual e-Hospital (IVeH) has promoted the design, growth, and implementation of telemedicine in a variety of developing countries across the globe. Successful implementation of telemedicine in any region is based on a number of factors, each of great importance. However, one that is key is the education and training of community leadership. Over the past several years, the IVeH has held intensive seminars in the region to promote the application of telemedicine as an effective tool in healthcare modernization. This includes the First Intensive Balkan Telemedicine and e-Health Seminar in Prishtina, Kosova (2002) and the Second Intensive Balkan Telemedicine and e-Health Seminar in Tirana, Albania (2007). Recently, the third installment of these seminars was held in Skopje, Macedonia (February 2009). These three seminars have provided a fertile foundation for telemedicine to emerge as a significant tool in enhancing healthcare in this region. Each has broadened the understanding of the immense capability that telemedicine can offer and has acted as a catalyst for the development of telemedicine in the region. The Republic of Macedonia is the latest country to invest in telemedicine, having a formal commitment from the Ministry of Health to establish a national

  3. Environment-related variations of the composition of the essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) in the Balkan Penninsula.

    PubMed

    Lakušić, Dmitar V; Ristić, Mihailo S; Slavkovska, Violeta N; Sinžar-Sekulić, Jasmina B; Lakušić, Branislava S

    2012-07-01

    Composition of the essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis of ten populations from the Balkan Peninsula were determined by GC/FID and GC/MS. The main constituents were 1,8-cineole, camphor, α-pinene, and borneol. Multivariate statistical analysis (UPGMA cluster analysis and principal-component analysis (PCA)) revealed two major types of rosemary oil, i.e., 1,8-cineole and camphor-type, and two intermediate types, i.e., camphor/1,8-cineole/borneol type and 1,8-cineole/camphor type. The regression analyses (simple linear regression and stepwise multiple regression) have shown that, with respect to basic geographic, orographic, and 19 bioclimatic characteristics of each population, bioclimatic factor temperature of habitat represented the dominant abiogenetic factor, which, in chemical sense, led to differentiation of populations in the studied region. Also, the regression analysis have shown that some constituents of essential oils are independent of any single bioclimatic factors. However, some constituents display statistically significant correlations with some abiotic factors.

  4. Resource recovery from waste by Roma in the Balkans: A case study from Zavidovici (BiH).

    PubMed

    Vaccari, Mentore; Perteghella, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Roma communities represent the main involved actors in the informal activities in the Balkan regions, especially because the state does not formally recognize them as formal inhabitants. The Roma community in Zavidovici, despite being resident since the beginning of the 20th century, is still considered a marginalized and vulnerable group. They are actively involved in and dependent on the informal solid waste sector. Waste collection is a 'family business', a kind of self-employment and the main source of income for households. Informal recyclers have a central role in the solid waste management system and they recover a significant amount of materials, especially iron, copper, brass, lead and exhausted batteries. Despite the negative fluctuations of the raw material prices, because of the international economic crisis, informal recyclers remain dependent on the waste recycling sector. They are crucial actors in the value chain of recyclables: though they cannot access the final buyers of recyclables, they provide more than 50% of the market to the middle dealers in the Zenica-Doboj Canton. This research activity consists of a deep socio-economic analysis of the informal recyclers' community living in Zavidovici city. In particular, this paper describes the composition and welfare status of informal recyclers' households, the role of informal recyclers in waste collection, the geographical coverage and the related pattern of waste picking, types, volumes and price fluctuations of recyclable materials, and the middle dealers involved in the informal recycling system. PMID:27305917

  5. Resource recovery from waste by Roma in the Balkans: A case study from Zavidovici (BiH).

    PubMed

    Vaccari, Mentore; Perteghella, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Roma communities represent the main involved actors in the informal activities in the Balkan regions, especially because the state does not formally recognize them as formal inhabitants. The Roma community in Zavidovici, despite being resident since the beginning of the 20th century, is still considered a marginalized and vulnerable group. They are actively involved in and dependent on the informal solid waste sector. Waste collection is a 'family business', a kind of self-employment and the main source of income for households. Informal recyclers have a central role in the solid waste management system and they recover a significant amount of materials, especially iron, copper, brass, lead and exhausted batteries. Despite the negative fluctuations of the raw material prices, because of the international economic crisis, informal recyclers remain dependent on the waste recycling sector. They are crucial actors in the value chain of recyclables: though they cannot access the final buyers of recyclables, they provide more than 50% of the market to the middle dealers in the Zenica-Doboj Canton. This research activity consists of a deep socio-economic analysis of the informal recyclers' community living in Zavidovici city. In particular, this paper describes the composition and welfare status of informal recyclers' households, the role of informal recyclers in waste collection, the geographical coverage and the related pattern of waste picking, types, volumes and price fluctuations of recyclable materials, and the middle dealers involved in the informal recycling system.

  6. Medical and Social Aspects of Syphilis in the Balkans from the mid-19th Century to the Interwar.

    PubMed

    Tsiamis, Costas; Vrioni, Georgia; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Gennimata, Vasiliki; Murdjeva, Mariana А; Tsakris, Athanasios

    2016-03-01

    The current study presents some aspects of syphilis in the Balkan Peninsula from the 19th century until the Interwar. Ever since the birth of modern Balkan States (Greece, Bulgaria, Turkey and Serbia), urbanization, poverty and the frequent wars have been considered the major factors conducive to the spread of syphilis. The measures against sex work and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) were taken in two aspects, one medical and the other legislative. In this period, numerous hospitals for venereal diseases were established in the Balkan countries. In line with the international diagnostic approach and therapeutic standards, laboratory examinations in these Balkan hospitals included spirochete examination, Wassermann reaction, precipitation reaction and cerebrospinal fluid examination. Despite the strict legislation and the adoption of relevant laws against illegal sex work, public health services were unable to curb the spread of syphilis. Medical and social factors such as poverty, citizen's ignorance of STDs, misguided medical perceptions, lack of sanitary control of prostitution and epidemiological studies, are highlighted in this study. These factors were the major causes that helped syphilis spread in the Balkan countries during the 19th and early 20th century. The value of these aspects as a historic paradigm is diachronic. Failure to comply with the laws and the dysfunction of public services during periods of war or socioeconomic crises are both factors facilitating the spread of STDs. PMID:27383872

  7. The environmental state of rivers in the Balkans--a review within the DPSIR framework.

    PubMed

    Skoulikidis, Nikolaos Th

    2009-04-01

    Fifteen major Balkan rivers with over 80% of the inflows in Eastern Mediterranean were examined for their environmental state within the DPSIR framework. Physicogeographic and hydrochemical conditions differ substantially among river basins, which may be roughly classified into three main zones. Despite strong fragmentation, most of the rivers are liable to flash floods and have low summer flow. Decreasing precipitation and (mis)management caused a dramatic discharge reduction over the last decades. Wars, political instability, economical crises over the past decades, combined with administrative and structural constraints, poor environmental planning and inspection and, frequently, a lack of environmental awareness imposed significant pressures on rivers. Large wetland areas were drained in favour of widespread intensive agriculture. The treatment of municipal wastewaters is barely adequate in Greece and insufficient elsewhere, while management and treatment of mining and industrial wastewaters is overall poor. In general, lowland river sections are hydro-morphologically modified and are at the greatest pollution risk, while upstream areas mostly retain their natural conditions. Nutrient concentrations in a number of central and eastern Balkan rivers often exceed quality standards, whereas pesticides and heavy metals, partly of geochemical origin, occasionally exceed quality standards. Reservoirs retain vast masses of sediments, thus adversely affecting delta evolution, while dam operation disturbs the seasonal hydrological and hydrochemical regimes. Almost all Balkan countries face daunting water resource challenges because of urgently needed investments in water supply, sanitation, irrigation, and hydroelectricity. International treaties and designations and European Union Directives have mobilized pollution mitigation and conservation efforts. However, the application of environmental legislation has proved in a number of cases inadequate. Constraints arise

  8. Reconstruction of the evolutionary dynamics of hepatitis C virus subtypes in Montenegro and the Balkan region.

    PubMed

    Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Sorrentino, Chiara; Lai, Alessia; Ebranati, Erika; Gabanelli, Elena; Lo Presti, Alessandra; Vujoševic, Danijela; Lauševic, Dragan; Terzić, Dragica; Shkjezi, Renata; Bino, Silvia; Vratnica, Zoran; Mugosa, Boban; Galli, Massimo; Ciccozzi, Massimo

    2013-07-01

    More than 20 million hepatitis C virus (HCV) carriers live in the countries of the Eastern Mediterranean. We determined HCV genotype distribution among chronically infected patients in Montenegro and investigated the phylodynamics and phylogeography of the most represented HCV subtypes. The HCV-NS5b sequences of the Montenegrin patients were compared with sequences isolated in different known localities of the Mediterranean area, Europe and Asia. A Bayesian approach was used in order to allow the simultaneous estimate of the evolutionary rate, time-scaled phylogeny, demography and ancestral spatial status. The most frequent HCV subtypes among the Montenegrin patients, were 1b (34.7%) and 3a (24.7%), but there was also a significant prevalence of 1a and 4d (19.5%). Subtype 3a was significantly more frequent among younger patients and intravenous drug users (IDUs), whereas subtype 1b was more frequently associated with iatrogenic exposure and older ages. The spatio-temporal analysis of the epidemic suggested that HCV-1b penetrated Europe at the beginning of the XX century, probably through Greece and Cyprus and in the 1920s reached Montenegro, where there was an exponential increase in the effective number of infections between the 1950s and 1970s. The phylogeographic and phylodynamic analysis of HCV 3a showed that its most probable origin was in the Indian sub-continent (Pakistan in our reconstruction) about 300years ago. The evolutionary dynamics analysis showed that HCV-3a reached Montenegro more recently in the late 1970s and underwent multi-phasic growth still persisting. Our data suggest multiple introduction of HCV subtypes in the area, supported by different causes of dispersion: adverse social conditions and unsafe medical practices for HCV-1b and i.v. drug use for HCV-3a.

  9. Genetic, Genomic and Epigenomic Studies of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (Ben).

    PubMed

    Staneva, Rada G; Balabanski, L; Dimova, I; Rukova, B; Hadjidekova, S; Dimitrov, P; Simeonov, V; Ivanov, S; Vagarova, R; Malinov, M; Cukuranovic, R; Stefanovic, V; Polenakovic, M; Djonov, V; Galabov, A; Toncheva, D

    2015-01-01

    BEN is a primary, chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis characterized with chronic anemia, absence of edema, xantoderma, normal blood pressure and normal findings on the fundus oculi. The disease is distributed in restricted areas in Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia, Bosnia, Former Yugoslavia. Despite numerous studies on genetic and environmental factors and their possible involvement in BEN, its etiopathogenesis still remains elusive. Our recent study aim to elucidate the possible epigenetic component in BEN development. Whole genome DNA array methylation analysis was applied to compare the methylation profiles of male and female BEN patients from endemic regions in Bulgaria and Serbia and healthy controls. All three most prominent candidate genes with aberrations in the epigenetic profile discovered with this study are involved in the inflammatory/immune processes and oncogenesis. These data are in concordance with the reported pathological alterations in BEN. This research supports the role of epigenetic changes in BEN pathology. Exome sequencing of 22.000 genes with Illumina Nextera Exome Enrichment Kit revealed three mutant genes (CELA1, HSPG2, and KCNK5) in BEN patients which encode proteins involved in basement membrane/extracellular matrix and vascular tone, tightly connected to process of angiogenesis. We suggest that an abnormal process of angiogenesis plays a key role in the molecular pathogenesis of BEN. PMID:27442376

  10. Health effects of toxic organic compounds from coal; the case Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, W.H.; Tatu, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a serious kidney disease that occurs only in clusters of rural villages located in tributary valleys of the Danube River in the Balkan Peninsula. It is believed that at least 25,000 persons are suffering from BEN or are suspected of having the disease and that the total number of people at risk may exceed 100,000. BEN was first described as a distinct medical entity in 1956, but it may have existed undescribed for many centuries. The geographic distribution of the disease has not changed significantly since the 1950's. Villages afflicted in the past continue to have cases of BEN, while villages with no history of BEN (some of which are only a few miles from affected villages) have remained free of this disease. Work by the U.S. Geological Survey and others in the early 1990's noted the close correspondence between the location of the affected villages and the occurrence of coal deposits, specifically lignites deposited in the Pliocene Epoch 5.3 million to 1.6 million years ago.

  11. Physical self-concept of adolescents in Western Balkan countries: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Janić, Snežana Radisavljević; Jurak, Gregor; Milanović, Ivana; Lazarević, Dušanka; Kovač, Marjeta; Novak, Dario

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore physical self-concept of adolescents of the Western Balkans (Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina) according to sex and country. The participants were 2,606 students, ages 13 and 14 years (M = 13.5, SD = 0.9). The Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) was used to assess multidimensional physical self-concept. The results show the interaction of sex and country for three dimensions of physical self-concept (Appearance, Global Physical Self-Concept, and Self-Esteem). It was shown that female and male adolescents' perception of physical appearance, self-esteem, and global physical self-concept is more susceptible to influences of socio-cultural factors in the monitored countries. In all other dimensions of Physical self-concept, sex differences were consistently manifested in favour of male adolescents, except in Flexibility. Regardless of adolescents' sex, under the increasing influence of Western culture in the Western Balkan countries, adolescents more critically evaluate their body and motor abilities. PMID:25310227

  12. Daily uranium excretion in German peacekeeping personnel serving on the Balkans compared to ICRP model prediction.

    PubMed

    Oeh, U; Li, W B; Höllriegl, V; Giussani, A; Schramel, P; Roth, P; Paretzke, H G

    2007-01-01

    An investigation was performed to assess a possible health risk of depleted uranium (DU) for residents and German peacekeeping personnel serving on the Balkans. In order to evaluate a possible DU intake, the urinary uranium excretions of volunteers were collected and analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). In total, more than 1300 urine samples from soldiers, civil servants and unexposed controls of different genders and ages were analysed to determine uranium excretion parameters. All participating volunteers, aged 3-92 y, were grouped according to their gender and age for evaluation. The results of the investigation revealed no significant difference between the unexposed controls and the peacekeeping personnel. In addition, the geometric means of the daily urinary excretion in peacekeeping personnel, ranging from 3 to 23 ng d(-1) for different age groups, fall toward the lower end of renal uranium excretion values published for unexposed populations in literature. The measured data were compared with the International Commission on Radiological Protection prediction for the intake of natural uranium by unexposed members of the public. The two data sets are in good agreement, indicating that no relevant intake of additional uranium, either natural or DU, has appeared for German peacekeeping personnel serving on the Balkans. PMID:17567762

  13. History of the Balkans: Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. Volume 1. The Joint Committee on Eastern Europe Publications Series. No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelavich, Barbara

    Designed as an introductory history, this book covers developments in the Balkan Peninsula from the 17th through the 19th centuries. Emphasis is placed on the process by which separate nationalities broke away from imperial rule, established independent states, and embarked on economic and social modernization. To establish perspective on the role…

  14. History of the Balkans: Twentieth Century. Volume 2. The Joint Committee on Eastern Europe Publication Series. No. 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelavich, Barbara

    Principal issues in the 20th century development of the Balkan Peninsula are discussed in this introductory history text. Three themes--national rivalries, great power interference, and the economic, social, and political problems of modernization--are given special emphasis. An overview of 18th and 19th century history precedes the two major…

  15. Teacher Competence as a Basis for Teacher Education: Comparing Views of Teachers and Teacher Educators in Five Western Balkan Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantic, Natasa; Wubbels, Theo; Mainhard, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Orientation of teacher preparation toward the development of competence has recently been suggested as a worthwhile direction of change in teacher education in the Western Balkan countries. In this study, 2,354 teachers, teacher educators, and student teachers from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia responded to a…

  16. Climate variability since MIS 5 in SW Balkans inferred from multiproxy analysis of Lake Prespa sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotopoulos, K.; Böhm, A.; Leng, M. J.; Wagner, B.; Schäbitz, F.

    2013-03-01

    The transboundary Lake Prespa (AL/FYROM/GR) has been recognized as a conservation priority wetland. The catchment area has a remarkably diverse flora that points to its refugial properties. A lake sediment core retrieved from a coring location in the northern part of the lake was investigated through geophysical, sedimentological, geochemical, and palynological analyses. Based on tephrochronology, radiocarbon and electron spin resonance (ESR) dating, and cross correlation with other Northern Hemisphere records, the age model suggests that the basal part of core Co1215 reaches back to 92 ka cal BP. Here we present the response of this mid-altitude site (849 m a.s.l.) to climate oscillations during this interval and assess its sensitivity to millennial-scale variability. Endogenic calcite precipitation occurred in Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5 and 1 and is synchronous with periods of increased primary production (terrestrial and/or lacustrine). Periods of pronounced phytoplankton blooms (inferred from green algae and dinoflagellate concentrations) are recorded in MIS 5 and MIS 1 and suggest that the trophic state and lake levels underwent substantial fluctuations. Three major phases of vegetation development are distinguished: the forested phases of MIS 5 and MIS 1 dominated by deciduous trees with higher temperatures and moisture availability, the open landscapes of MIS 3 with significant presence of temperate trees, and the pine dominated open landscapes of MIS 4 and MIS 2 with lower temperatures and moisture availability. Forest dynamics, cover and density are discussed in an altitudinal context and the existence of temperate tree refugia is examined.

  17. The Balkans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Transylvanian Basin in Romania stands out in brilliant green in this image from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on May 3, 2002. Near the top of the image, the hilly, forested basin is tucked in between the Carpathian Mountains, running northwest-southeast, and the Transylvanian Alps, running west-east. To the right of the image is the Black Sea. The large patch of turquoise water in the Black Sea is a large phytoplankton bloom. At the bottom of the image, the Aegean Sea and the Sea of Marmara is ringed by Greece (left) and Turkey (right). Please note that the high-resolution scene provided here is 500 meters per pixel. For a copy of this scene at the sensor?s fullest (250-m) resolution, visit the MODIS Rapidfire site. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  18. Nitrogen species in drinking water indicate potential exposure pathway for Balkan Endemic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Niagolova, Nedialka; McElmurry, Shawn P; Voice, Thomas C; Long, David T; Petropoulos, Evangelos A; Havezov, Ivan; Chou, Karen; Ganev, Varban

    2005-03-01

    This study explored two hypotheses relating elevated concentrations of nitrogen species in drinking water and the disease Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN). Drinking water samples were collected from a variety of water supplies in both endemic and non-endemic villages in the Vratza and Montana districts of Bulgaria. The majority of well water samples exceeded US drinking water standards for nitrate + nitrite. No statistically significant difference was observed for any of the nitrogen species between villages classified as endemic and non-endemic. Other constituents (sodium, potassium and chloride) known to be indicators of anthropogenic pollution were also found at elevated concentrations and all followed the order wells > springs > taps. This ordering coincides with the proximity of human influences to the water sources. Our results clearly establish an exposure pathway between anthropogenic activity and drinking water supplies, suggesting that the causative agent for BEN could result from surface contamination.

  19. Consensus statement on screening, diagnosis, classification and treatment of endemic (Balkan) nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Jelaković, Bojan; Nikolić, Jovan; Radovanović, Zoran; Nortier, Joelle; Cosyns, Jean-Pierre; Grollman, Arthur P.; Bašić-Jukić, Nikolina; Belicza, Mladen; Bukvić, Danica; Čavaljuga, Semra; Čvorišćec, Dubravka; Cvitković, Ante; Dika, Živka; Dimitrov, Plamen; Đukanović, Ljubica; Edwards, Karen; Ferluga, Dušan; Fuštar-Preradović, Ljubica; Gluhovschi, Gheorghe; Imamović, Goran; Jakovina, Tratinčica; Kes, Petar; Leko, Ninoslav; Medverec, Zvonimir; Mesić, Enisa; Miletić-Medved, Marica; Miller, Frederick; Pavlović, Nikola; Pasini, Josip; Pleština, Stjepko; Polenaković, Momir; Stefanović, Vladislav; Tomić, Karla; Trnačević, Senaid; Vuković Lela, Ivana; Štern-Padovan, Ranka

    2014-01-01

    Currently used diagnostic criteria in different endemic (Balkan) nephropathy (EN) centers involve different combinations of parameters, various cut-off values and many of them are not in agreement with proposed international guidelines. Leaders of EN centers began to address these problems at scientific meetings, and this paper is the outgrowth of those discussions. The main aim is to provide recommendations for clinical work on current knowledge and expertise. This document is developed for use by general physicians, nephrologists, urologist, public health experts and epidemiologist, and it is hoped that it will be adopted by responsible institutions in countries harboring EN. National medical providers should cover costs of screening and diagnostic procedures and treatment of EN patients with or without upper urothelial cancers. PMID:24166461

  20. Relationship between weathered coal deposits and the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feder, G.L.; Radovanovic, Z.; Finkelman, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    Field studies in epidemiology and environmental geochemistry in areas in Yugoslavia containing villages with a high incidence of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), indicate a possible relationship between the presence of low-rank coal deposits and the etiology of BEN. Preliminary results from qualitative chemical analyses of drinking water from shallow farm wells indicate the presence of soluble polar aromatic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. These compounds may be derived from weathering of low-rank coals occurring in the vicinity of the endemic villages. All of the endemic villages are in alluvial valleys of tributaries to the Danube River. All except one of the clusters of endemic villages are located in the vicinity of known Pliocene age coals. Detailed sampling of the drinking waters and the nearby coals are being undertaken to identify a possible etiologic factor.

  1. Common Polymorphisms in GSTA1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 Are Associated with Susceptibility to Urinary Bladder Cancer in Individuals from Balkan Endemic Nephropathy Areas of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Matic, Marija; Dragicevic, Biljana; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Suvakov, Sonja; Savic-Radojevic, Ana; Pljesa-Ercegovac, Marija; Dragicevic, Dejan; Smiljic, Jelena; Simic, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a chronic familial form of interstitial nephritis that might eventually lead to end stage renal disease. This nephropathy affects individuals living along of the Danube River and its tributaries in Serbia, Bosnia, Croatia, Bulgaria and Romania. The increased incidence of urinary tract tumors in the BEN areas is well described, but its specific genetic predisposition is still unclear. Certain nephrocarcinogenic compounds, including those associated with BEN, are metabolized by glutathione S-transferase (GST) superfamily of phase II detoxication enzymes. Importantly, the GST-mediated detoxification may result in formation of more toxic compounds. We examined the association of common GST polymorphisms and bladder cancer (BC) risk in individuals from BEN areas in Serbia. A hospital-based case-control study included 201 BC cases (67 from BEN region) and 122 controls. Each polymorphism was identified by a PCR-based method. Individuals from BEN region with low-expression GSTA1 genotype (AB+BB) exhibited a 2.6-fold higher BC risk compared to those with GSTA1 (AA) genotype who were from non-BEN region (OR = 2.60, p = 0.015). In contrast, carriers of GSTM1-active genotype from BEN region had a 2.9-fold increased BC risk compared to those with GSTM1-active genotype from non-BEN region (OR = 2.90, p = 0.010). Likewise, carriers with GSTT1-active genotype from BEN region exhibited 2.1-fold higher BC risk compared to those from non-BEN region with GSTT1-active genotype (OR = 2.10, p = 0.027). Thus, common polymorphisms in GSTA1, GSTM1 and GSTT1 are associated with susceptibility to BC in individuals from BEN areas of Serbia. PMID:27568660

  2. Morphing of the phylogeographic lineages of the Balkan alpine newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris, Caudata, Salamandridae): in situ morphological diversification.

    PubMed

    Vukov, Tanja D; Sotiropoulos, Konstantinos; Kalezić, Miloš L; Džukić, Georg

    2011-12-01

    Numerous alpine newt (Ichthyosaura alpestris) populations from the Balkans, representing all the previously established phylogeographic lineages, were studied for variations in various morphological characteristics (body size and shape, skull qualitative traits and number of trunk vertebrae). Here, we present a decoupling of morphological and mtDNA phylogeographic substructuring in the alpine newt on the Balkan Peninsula. In sharp contrast to other European newts (Triturus spp., Lissotriton spp.), the vast majority of morphological variation in the alpine newt is concentrated at the population level indicating an in situ morphological diversification. We found that the rate of morphological change is similar to the rate of mtDNA change. We hypothesize that the alpine newts are characterized by non-adaptive morphological evolution.

  3. Paternal and maternal lineages in the Balkans show a homogeneous landscape over linguistic barriers, except for the isolated Aromuns.

    PubMed

    Bosch, E; Calafell, F; González-Neira, A; Flaiz, C; Mateu, E; Scheil, H-G; Huckenbeck, W; Efremovska, L; Mikerezi, I; Xirotiris, N; Grasa, C; Schmidt, H; Comas, D

    2006-07-01

    The Balkan Peninsula is a complex cultural mosaic comprising populations speaking languages from several branches of the Indo-European family and Altaic, as well as culturally-defined minorities such as the Aromuns who speak a Romance language. The current cultural and linguistic landscape is a palimpsest in which different peoples have contributed their cultures in a historical succession. We have sought to find any evidence of genetic stratification related to those cultural layers by typing both mtDNA and Y chromosomes, in Albanians, Romanians, Macedonians, Greeks, and five Aromun populations. We have paid special attention to the Aromuns, and sought to test genetically various hypotheses on their origins. MtDNA and Y-chromosome haplogroup frequencies in the Balkans were found to be similar to those elsewhere in Europe. MtDNA sequences and Y-chromosome STR haplotypes revealed decreased variation in some Aromun populations. Variation within Aromun populations was the primary source of genetic differentiation. Y-chromosome haplotypes tended to be shared across Aromuns, but not across non-Aromun populations. These results point to a possible common origin of the Aromuns, with drift acting to differentiate the separate Aromun communities. The homogeneity of Balkan populations prevented testing for the origin of the Aromuns, although a significant Roman contribution can be ruled out.

  4. A novel method to combat the cholera epidemic among the Romanian Army during the Balkan War - 1913.

    PubMed

    Leasu, Florin; Nemet, Codruta; Borzan, Cristina; Rogozea, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    The history of cholera, a specific infection caused by Vibrio Cholerae, starts in ancient times. The sixth pandemic that began in 1899 and lasted until 1923, started in India and came to Eastern Europe through Russia. The expansion of the epidemic in the Balkans was facilitated both by the 2 Balkan Wars and the First World War. Romania, as a participant in these wars was affected by cholera, which was especially common among the army during the Balkan War. If the original source of the cholera issue is still controversial, both Romanians and Bulgarians accusing each other of being the basis of the outbreaks south of the Danube, it is widely recognized that the extent of the disease was facilitated by the sanitary conditions of food preparation and drinking water sources among both Romanian soldiers and in the civilian population. Under these conditions, in addition to numerous measures against cholera taken by the Ministry of War, Prof. I. Cantacuzino successfully experiments outbreak vaccination for the first time in the world with a vaccine prepared by himself and his collaborators. The vaccine containing 25 breeds of vibriones was a success in terms of rapid development of a preparation, the application of which was achieved through a quick campaign and proved extremely efficient, imposing the Romanian method as an effective way to combat a disease in full outbreak. PMID:26203545

  5. Management in child and adolescent psychiatry: how does it look in the Balkans?

    PubMed

    Pejovic-Milovancevic, M; Miletic, V; Anagnostopoulos, D; Raleva, M; Stancheva, V; Burgic-Radmanovic, M; Barac-Otasevic, Z; Ispanovic, V

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the situation of child and adolescent psychiatry in the following Balkan countries: Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, FYROM, and Montenegro. With the exception of Greece, these countries are new democracies, with their mental health services in a transitional stage of organization. Overall, they have initiated programmes to move psychiatric care towards deinstitutionalization, developing outpatient infrastructures to handle psychiatric disorders. Child psychiatry as a specialization is still less developed than adult psychiatry at a significant, albeit different degree among these countries. The number of mental health services offered to children and adolescents is deemed insufficient, and the type of services limited and lacking. This situation is also reflected in the small number of child psychiatrists and other mental health specialists for children and adolescents, as well as in the complete lack (Montenegro) or deficiency of special programmes and actions for children and adolescents. The same also applies to mental health legislation. Greece is the exception in the development of the entire spectrum of services, the number of specialists, and the establishment of an adequate legislation framework reinforced by the incorporation of all international treaties on children's rights; although the recent economic crisis has affected the country negatively, threatening with regression to pre-reformational practices. Children and adolescents in need of mental health care have been increasing in all countries. The effect of violent and sudden changes taking place in most countries is a major factor for the emergence of increased and stress-related psychopathology and psychosocial problems in children and families. In all countries, there is a significant development of nongovernmental organizations undertaking a large part of reformation work. There is also the disconcerting phenomenon of professional exhaustion and the

  6. Molecular phylogeny of Salmo of the western Balkans, based upon multiple nuclear loci

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Classification of species within the genus Salmo is still a matter of discussion due to their high level of diversity and to the low power of resolution of mitochondrial (mt)DNA-based phylogeny analyses that have been traditionally used in evolutionary studies of the genus. We apply a new marker system based on nuclear (n)DNA loci to present a novel view of the phylogeny of Salmo representatives and we compare it with the mtDNA-based phylogeny. Methods Twenty-two nDNA loci were sequenced for 76 individuals of the brown trout complex: Salmo trutta (Danubian, Atlantic, Adriatic, Mediterranean and Duero mtDNA lineages), Salmo marmoratus (marble trout), Salmo obtusirostris (softmouth trout), and Salmo ohridanus (Ohrid belvica or belushka). Sequences were phylogenetically analyzed using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods. The divergence time of the major clades was estimated using the program BEAST. Results The existence of five genetic units i.e. S. salar, S. ohridanus, S. obtusirostris, S. marmoratus and the S. trutta complex, including its major phylogenetic lineages was confirmed. Contrary to previous observations, S. obtusirostris was found to be sister to the S. trutta complex and the S. marmoratus clade rather than to the S. ohridanus clade. Reticulate evolution of S. obtusirostris was confirmed and a time for its pre-glacial origin suggested. S. marmoratus was found to be a separate species as S. trutta and S. obtusirostris. Relationships among lineages within the S. trutta complex were weakly supported and remain largely unresolved. Conclusions Nuclear DNA-based results showed a fairly good match with the phylogeny of Salmo inferred from mtDNA analyses. The comparison of nDNA and mtDNA data revealed at least four cases of mitochondrial–nuclear DNA discordance observed that were all confined to the Adriatic basin of the Western Balkans. Together with the well-known extensive morphological and genetic variability of Balkan trouts, this

  7. Current status of transplantation and organ donation in the Balkans--could it be improved through the South-eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN) initiative?

    PubMed

    Spasovski, Goce; Busic, Mirela; Pipero, Pellumb; Sarajlić, Lada; Popović, Andreja Subotić; Dzhaleva, Theodora; Codreanu, Igor; Ratković, Marina Mugosa; Popescu, Irinel; Lausević, Mirjana; Avsec, Danica; Raley, Lydia; Ekberg, Henrik; Ploeg, Rutger; Delmonico, Francis

    2012-04-01

    Organ donation and transplantation activity in the majority of Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Moldova, Montenegro, Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria) are lagging far behind international averages. Inadequate financial resources, unclear regional data and lack of government infrastructure are some of the issues which should be recognized to draw attention and lead to problem-solving decisions. The Regional Health Development Centre (RHDC) Croatia, a technical body of the South-eastern Europe Health Network (SEEHN), was created in 2011 after Croatia's great success in the field over the last 10 years. The aim of the RHDC is to network the region and provide individualized country support to increase donation and transplantation activity in collaboration with professional societies (European Society of Organ Transplantation, European Transplant Coordinators Organization, The Transplantation Society and International Society of Organ Donation and Procurement). Such an improvement would in turn likely prevent transplant tourism. The regional data from 2010 show large discrepancies in donation and transplantation activities within geographically neighbouring countries. Thus, proposed actions to improve regional donation and transplantation rates include advancing living and deceased donation through regular public education, creating current and accurate waiting lists and increasing the number of educated transplant nephrologists and hospital coordinators. In addition to the effort from the professionals, government support with allocated funds per deceased donation, updated legislation and an established national coordinating body is ultimately recognized as essential for the successful donation and transplantation programmes. By continuous RHDC communication and support asked from the health authorities and motivated professionals from the SEEHN initiative, an increased number of deceased as well as living donor kidney

  8. Biogeographic variation of foliar n-alkanes of Juniperus communis var. saxatilis Pallas from the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Rajčević, Nemanja; Janaćković, Pedja; Dodoš, Tanja; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D

    2014-12-01

    The composition of the epicuticular n-alkanes isolated from the leaves of ten populations of Juniperus communis L. var. saxatilis Pallas from central (continental) and western (coastal) areas of the Balkan Peninsula was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the leaf waxes, 14 n-alkane homologues with chain-lengths ranging from C22 to C35 were identified. All samples were dominated by n-tritriacontane (C33 ), but differences in two other dominant n-alkanes allowed separating the coastal from the continental populations. Several statistical methods (ANOVA, principal component, discriminant, and cluster analyses as well as the Mantel test) were deployed to analyze the diversity and variability of the epicuticular-leaf-n-alkane patterns of the ten natural populations of J. communis var. saxatilis and their relation to different geographic and bioclimatic parameters. Cluster analysis showed a high correlation of the leaf-n-alkane patterns with the geographical distribution of the investigated samples, differentiating the coastal from the continental populations of this taxon. Several bioclimatic parameters related to aridity were highly correlated with this differentiation.

  9. Comparative study on carbon accumulation in soils under managed and unmanaged forests in Central Balkan Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naydenova, Lora; Zhiyanski, Miglena; Leifeld, Jens

    2014-05-01

    Each soil has a carbon storage capacity, which depends on many factors including type of soil, vegetation, precipitation and temperature. The aim of this work is to compare the carbon accumulation in forest floor layers and mineral soil horizons under managed and unmanaged spruce and beech forest ecosystems developed on Cambisols in Central Balkan Mountains, Bulgaria. We have investigated two managed and two unmanaged forests - pure stands of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.). In each experimental site one representative soil profile was prepared with additional 4 sampling profiles for more precise determination of spatial variability of soil characteristic at site level. The forest floor was sampled in 3 repetitions per site, by a plastic frame (25:25 cm). The textural composition of soil, bulk density, coarse fraction content, pH, carbon and nitrogen content were analysed for forest floor layers and soil at different soil depths (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-30 cm and 30-50 cm). Both European beech and Norway spruce stands had higher accumulation of organic matter in the forest floor and the Ah horizon under unmanaged conditions. When managed, carbon contents tended to be higher in deeper horizons of the mineral soil, probably due to differences in microclimate after cutting. However, the variability in carbon storage was higher in managed sites which may reflect a higher degree of disturbance. Further work will analyse the soil carbon dynamics using radiocarbon as a tracer.

  10. The Alburnus benthopelagic fish species of the Western Balkan Peninsula: An assessment of their sustainable use.

    PubMed

    Simić, Vladica; Simić, Snežana; Paunović, Momir; Radojković, Nataša; Petrović, Ana; Talevski, Trajče; Milošević, Djuradj

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to assess the population status of bleak (Alburnus spp.) over the Western Balkan Peninsula in terms of its sustainable use. A second objective was to determine key factors important for fishery management planning. Two different basins, continental (the Danube Basin and the Sava River sub-basin) and marine (the Adriatic and the Aegean Sea Basins) were examined. A sustainability assessment and factor analysis were conducted using the adjusted ESHIPPOfishing model, extended with additional socio-economic sub-elements, and the categorical principal components analysis (CATPCA), respectively. The results of the assessment revealed the bleak populations in the Danube Basin and the Sava River sub-basin to be highly sustainable. The population characteristics with abiotic and biotic factors were responsible for this status, while the influence of socio-economic factors was insignificant. The sustainability status of the bleak populations of the Mediterranean basin varied, with the populations from Ohrid and Skadar Lakes showing a high and those from Prespa and Dojran Lakes a medium status. Socio-economic factors with traditional fishing were the most important for the Mediterranean bleak populations.

  11. Limitations and plausibility of the Pliocene lignite hypothesis in explaining the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Maharaj, S V M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a chronic, tubulointerstitial renal disease often accompanied by urothelial cancer that has a lethality of nearly 100%. Introduction: One of the many factors that have been proposed to play an etiological role in BEN is exposure to organic compounds from Pliocene lignite coal deposits via the drinking water in endemic areas. Objectives: The objective of this study was to systematically evaluate the role of the tenets of the Pliocene lignite hypothesis in the etiology of BEN in order to provide an improved understanding of the hypothesis for colleagues and patients alike. Methods: A comprehensive compilation of the possible limitations of the hypothesis, with each limitation addressed in turn is presented. Results: The Pliocene lignite hypothesis can best account for, is consistent with, or has the potential to explain the evidence associated with the myriad of factors related to BEN. Conclusions: Residents of endemic areas are exposed to complex mixtures containing hundreds of organic compounds at varying doses and their potentially more toxic (including nephrotoxic) and/or carcinogenic metabolites; however, a multifactorial etiology of BEN appears most likely. PMID:24075451

  12. Correlation Of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy With Fluorescent Organic Compounds In Shallow Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Marvin C.; Feder, Gerald L.; Radovanovic, Zoran

    1994-04-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a disease of intersitial nephropathy leading to end-stage renal failure. The disease occurs in persons living in villages on alluvial valleys of streams tributary to the Danube River in Rumania, Bulgaria and former Yugoslavia. The etiologic agent is not known, but a contaminant in shallow groundwater has become suspect. In this study, samples of drinking water from endemic and non-endemic village water supplies were analyzed by excitation/emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. Spectra characteristic of groundwater from BEN households show elongated teardrop shapes in the fluorescence excitation/emission matrix. A sharp rise occurs in fluorescence emission between 380 and 400 nanometers (nm) and a trailing emission intensity from 400 to 550 nm. Spectra of groundwater samples from some BEN households have an additional excitation maxima at 300 nm, which further contributes to the emission intensity at 400 nm. Spectra of water samples from non-BEN households located in endemic villages show characteristics of BEN household waters, exhibiting the 250-nm excitation peak, even though the fluorophoric intensity is much less than that in samples from BEN household waters. Samples from non-endemic villages do not show the characteristic EEM spectra described as "teardrop shaped". The non-BEN households have lower concentrations of these fluorophores in the drinking water than the endemic households; hence, one of the factors in contracting the disease may be the concentration of these fluorescent materials in drinking water.

  13. Mapping Soil Erosion Factors and Potential Erosion Risk for the National Park "Central Balkan"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilieva, Diliana; Malinov, Ilia

    2014-05-01

    Soil erosion is widely recognised environmental problem. The report aims at presenting the main results from assessment and mapping of the factors of sheet water erosion and the potential erosion risk on the territory of National Park "Central Balkan". For this purpose, the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) was used for predicting soil loss from erosion. The influence of topography (LS-factor) and soil erodibility (K-factor) was assessed using small-scale topographic and soil maps. Rainfall erosivity (R-factor) was calculated from data of rainfalls with amounts exceeding 9.5 mm from 14 hydro-meteorological stations. The values of the erosion factors (R, K and LS) were presented for the areas of forest, sub-alpine and alpine zones. Using the methods of GIS, maps were plotted presenting the area distribution among the classes of the soil erosion factors and the potential risk in the respective zones. The results can be used for making accurate decisions for soil conservation and sustainable land management in the park.

  14. The Alburnus benthopelagic fish species of the Western Balkan Peninsula: An assessment of their sustainable use.

    PubMed

    Simić, Vladica; Simić, Snežana; Paunović, Momir; Radojković, Nataša; Petrović, Ana; Talevski, Trajče; Milošević, Djuradj

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to assess the population status of bleak (Alburnus spp.) over the Western Balkan Peninsula in terms of its sustainable use. A second objective was to determine key factors important for fishery management planning. Two different basins, continental (the Danube Basin and the Sava River sub-basin) and marine (the Adriatic and the Aegean Sea Basins) were examined. A sustainability assessment and factor analysis were conducted using the adjusted ESHIPPOfishing model, extended with additional socio-economic sub-elements, and the categorical principal components analysis (CATPCA), respectively. The results of the assessment revealed the bleak populations in the Danube Basin and the Sava River sub-basin to be highly sustainable. The population characteristics with abiotic and biotic factors were responsible for this status, while the influence of socio-economic factors was insignificant. The sustainability status of the bleak populations of the Mediterranean basin varied, with the populations from Ohrid and Skadar Lakes showing a high and those from Prespa and Dojran Lakes a medium status. Socio-economic factors with traditional fishing were the most important for the Mediterranean bleak populations. PMID:26216478

  15. Part II: Is There a Role for Education in the Way towards Stability and Democratisation in the Balkans? A Critical Review of BA.SO.P.ED's Aims and Publications (1997-2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonidis, Kyriakos Th.; Zarifis, George K.

    2006-01-01

    November 1997 witnessed the formation of the Balkan Society for Pedagogy and Education (BA.SO.P.ED) in Thessaloniki, with the support of individual academics and pedagogues from many Balkan Universities and research institutes, but also with the participation of representatives of Educational Societies from Albania, Bulgaria, Former Yugoslav…

  16. Dissecting the molecular architecture and origin of Bayash Romani patrilineages: genetic influences from South-Asia and the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Klarić, Irena Martinović; Salihović, Marijana Pericić; Lauc, Lovorka Barać; Zhivotovsky, Lev A; Rootsi, Siiri; Janićijević, Branka

    2009-03-01

    The Bayash are a branch of Romanian speaking Roma living dispersedly in Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. To better understand the molecular architecture and origin of the Croatian Bayash paternal gene pool, 151 Bayash Y chromosomes were analyzed for 16 SNPs and 17 STRs and compared with European Romani and non-Romani majority populations from Europe, Turkey, and South Asia. Two main layers of Bayash paternal gene pool were identified: ancestral (Indian) and recent (European). The reduced diversity and expansion signals of H1a patrilineages imply descent from closely related paternal ancestors who could have settled in the Indian subcontinent, possibly as early as between the eighth and tenth centuries AD. The recent layer of the Bayash paternal pool is dominated by a specific subset of E1b1b1a lineages that are not found in the Balkan majority populations. At least two private mutational events occurred in the Bayash during their migrations from the southern Balkans toward Romania. Additional admixture, evident in the low frequencies of typical European haplogroups, J2, R1a, I1, R1b1b2, G, and I2a, took place primarily during the early Bayash settlement in the Balkans and the Romani bondage in Romania. Our results indicate two phenomena in the Bayash and analyzed Roma: a significant preservation of ancestral H1a haplotypes as a result of considerable, but variable level of endogamy and isolation and differential distribution of less frequent, but typical European lineages due to different patterns of the early demographic history in Europe marked by differential admixture and genetic drift. PMID:18785634

  17. Antinociceptive and anti-edematous activities of the essential oils of two Balkan endemic Laserpitium species.

    PubMed

    Popović, Visnja; Petrović, Silvana; Tomić, Maja; Stepanović-Petrović, Radica; Micov, Ana; Pavlović-Drobac, Milica; Couladis, Maria; Niketić, Marjan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper antinociceptive and anti-edematous effects are examined of the essential oils of the underground parts of two Balkan endemic Laserpitium species (Apiaceae), L. zernyi and L. ochridanum. Furthermore, the essential oil of the underground parts of L. ochridanum is chemically characterised by GC and GC-MS. Antinociceptive and anti-edematous effects were measured in a rat model of localized inflammation, induced by carrageenan, using apparatus for the modified paw-pressure test, and plethysmometer, respectively. The effects of both Laserpitium essential oils were measured after oral gavage administration to male Wistar rats in doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg. The main constituents of L. ochridanum essential oil were: alpha-pinene (33.2%), alpha-bisabolol (10.3%) and chamazulene (14.9%). The essential oil of L. zernyi was previously shown to be rich in alpha-pinene (31.6%) and alpha-bisabolol (30.9%). Both examined essential oils produced a significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effect. The corresponding ED50 +/- SEM in producing antinociception were 45.9 +/- 4.9 mg/kg and 42.4 +/- 2.1 mg/kg for L. zernyi and L. ochridanum oil, respectively. Both essential oils also significantly reduced paw edema in a dose-dependent manner. The estimated ED50 +/- SEM values for the anti-edematous effect were 36.3 +/- 4.5 mg/kg for L. zernyi oil and 45.1 +/- 11.3 mg/kg for L. ochridanum oil. These results suggest that the essential oils of both investigated Laserpitium species may be effective against pain and edema present in various inflammatory conditions.

  18. Population structure and genetic differentiation of livestock guard dog breeds from the Western Balkans.

    PubMed

    Ceh, E; Dovc, P

    2014-08-01

    Livestock guard dog (LGD) breeds from the Western Balkans are a good example of how complex genetic diversity pattern observed in dog breeds has been shaped by transition in dog breeding practices. Despite their common geographical origin and relatively recent formal recognition as separate breeds, the Karst Shepherd, Sarplaninac and Tornjak show distinct population dynamics, assessed by pedigree, microsatellite and mtDNA data. We genotyped 493 dogs belonging to five dog breeds using a set of 18 microsatellite markers and sequenced mtDNA from 94 dogs from these breeds. Different demographic histories of the Karst Shepherd and Tornjak breeds are reflected in the pedigree data with the former breed having more unbalanced contributions of major ancestors and a realized effective population size of less than 20 animals. The highest allelic richness was found in Sarplaninac (5.94), followed by Tornjak (5.72), whereas Karst Shepherd dogs exhibited the lowest allelic richness (3.33). Similarly, the highest mtDNA haplotype diversity was found in Sarplaninac, followed by Tornjak and Karst Shepherd, where only one haplotype was found. Based on FST differentiation values and high percentages of animals correctly assigned, all breeds can be considered genetically distinct. However, using microsatellite data, common ancestry between the Karst Shepherd and Sarplaninac could not be reconstructed, despite pedigree and mtDNA evidence of their historical admixture. Using neighbour-joining, STRUCTURE or DAPC methods, Sarplaninac and Caucasian Shepherd breeds could not be separated and additionally showed close proximity in the NeighborNet tree. STRUCTURE analysis of the Tornjak breed demonstrated substructuring, which needs further investigation. Altogether, results of this study show that the official separation of these dog breeds strongly affected the resolution of genetic differentiation and thus suggest that the relationships between breeds are not only determined by breed

  19. Tectonic, magmatic, and metallogenic evolution of the Late Cretaceous arc in the Carpathian-Balkan orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallhofer, Daniela; Quadt, Albrecht von; Peytcheva, Irena; Schmid, Stefan M.; Heinrich, Christoph A.

    2015-09-01

    The Apuseni-Banat-Timok-Srednogorie Late Cretaceous magmatic arc in the Carpathian-Balkan orogen formed on the European margin during closure of the Neotethys Ocean. It was subsequently deformed into a complex orocline by continental collisions. The Cu-Au mineralized arc consists of geologically distinct segments: the Apuseni, Banat, Timok, Panagyurishte, and Eastern Srednogorie segments. New U-Pb zircon ages and geochemical whole rock data for the Banat and Apuseni segments are combined with previously published data to reconstruct the original arc geometry and better constrain its tectonic evolution. Trace element and isotopic signatures of the arc magmas indicate a subduction-enriched source in all segments and variable contamination by continental crust. The magmatic arc was active for 25 Myr (~92-67 Ma). Across-arc age trends of progressively younger ages toward the inferred paleo-trench indicate gradual steepening of the subducting slab away from the upper plate European margin. This leads to asthenospheric corner flow in the overriding plate, which is recorded by decreasing 87Sr/86Sr (0.70577 to 0.70373) and increasing 143Nd/144Nd (0.51234 to 0.51264) ratios over time in some segments. The close spatial relationship between arc magmatism, large-scale shear zones, and related strike-slip sedimentary basins in the Timok and Pangyurishte segments indicates mild transtension in these central segments of the restored arc. In contrast, the Eastern Srednogorie segment underwent strong orthogonal intraarc extension. Segmental distribution of tectonic stress may account for the concentration of rich porphyry Cu deposits in the transtensional segments, where lower crustal magma storage and fractionation favored the evolution of volatile-rich magmas.

  20. Balkanized research in ecological engineering revealed by a bibliometric analysis of earthworms and ecosystem services.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Manuel; Sery, Nicolas; Cluzeau, Daniel; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Bédécarrats, Alain

    2013-08-01

    Energy crisis, climate changes, and biodiversity losses have reinforced the drive for more ecologically-based approaches for environmental management. Such approaches are characterized by the use of organisms rather than energy-consuming technologies. Although earthworms are believed to be potentially useful organisms for managing ecosystem services, there is actually no quantification of such a trend in literature. This bibliometric analysis aimed to measure the evolution of the association of "earthworms" and other terms such as ecosystem services (primary production, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, soil structure, and pollution remediation), "ecological engineering" or "biodiversity," to assess their convergence or divergence through time. In this aim, we calculated the similarity index, an indicator of the paradigmatic proximity defined in applied epistemology, for each year between 1900 and 2009. We documented the scientific fields and the geographical origins of the studies, as well as the land uses, and compare these characteristics with a 25 years old review on earthworm management. The association of earthworm related keywords with ecosystem services related keywords was increasing with time, reflecting the growing interest in earthworm use in biodiversity and ecosystem services management. Conversely, no significant increase in the association between earthworms and disciplines such as ecological engineering or restoration ecology was observed. This demonstrated that general ecologically-based approaches have yet to emerge and that there is little exchange of knowledge, methods or concepts among balkanized application realms. Nevertheless, there is a strong need for crossing the frontiers between fields of application and for developing an umbrella discipline to provide a framework for the use of organisms to manage ecosystem services. PMID:23716007

  1. Possible pathogenetic role of low-molecular-weight proteins in Balkan nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Batuman, V

    1991-11-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a tubulointerstitial disease characterized by increased-low-molecular-weight protein (LMWP), most notably, beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) excretion in urine. We previously demonstrated that two species of LMWPs, immunoglobulin light chains (LC) and recombinant alpha interferon (rIF), are toxic at proximal tubule cell membrane level. Myeloma LCs and rIF inhibit Na-dependent uptake of 14C-L-alanine and 14C-D-glucose by rat renal brush border membrane (BBM) vesicles at half-maximal inhibitory concentrations, IC50, ranging from 68 to 140 microM for LCs, and 5.4 to 18 nM for rIF. We further demonstrated that LCs bind to high-capacity, low-affinity sites on BBM with dissociation constants (Kd) ranging from 16 to 118 microM, a range similar to IC50s observed with the same LCs. Binding site occupancy is inversely related to alanine (r = -0.95, P less than 0.01), and glucose uptake (r = -0.96, P less than 0.01), implying that LC nephrotoxicity is determined by its binding to BBM. beta 2m shares behavioral and structural similarities with both LC and rIF. Preliminary studies in our laboratory showed that unlabeled LCs compete for the same binding sites on BBM with beta 2m. These observations confirm that all LMWP, including beta 2m, are potentially nephrotoxic. Thus, the characteristic beta 2-microglobulinuria of BEN may be more than a consequence of tubular dysfunction, and may play a pathogenetic role.

  2. Balkanized Research in Ecological Engineering Revealed by a Bibliometric Analysis of Earthworms and Ecosystem Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blouin, Manuel; Sery, Nicolas; Cluzeau, Daniel; Brun, Jean-Jacques; Bédécarrats, Alain

    2013-08-01

    Energy crisis, climate changes, and biodiversity losses have reinforced the drive for more ecologically-based approaches for environmental management. Such approaches are characterized by the use of organisms rather than energy-consuming technologies. Although earthworms are believed to be potentially useful organisms for managing ecosystem services, there is actually no quantification of such a trend in literature. This bibliometric analysis aimed to measure the evolution of the association of "earthworms" and other terms such as ecosystem services (primary production, nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, soil structure, and pollution remediation), "ecological engineering" or "biodiversity," to assess their convergence or divergence through time. In this aim, we calculated the similarity index, an indicator of the paradigmatic proximity defined in applied epistemology, for each year between 1900 and 2009. We documented the scientific fields and the geographical origins of the studies, as well as the land uses, and compare these characteristics with a 25 years old review on earthworm management. The association of earthworm related keywords with ecosystem services related keywords was increasing with time, reflecting the growing interest in earthworm use in biodiversity and ecosystem services management. Conversely, no significant increase in the association between earthworms and disciplines such as ecological engineering or restoration ecology was observed. This demonstrated that general ecologically-based approaches have yet to emerge and that there is little exchange of knowledge, methods or concepts among balkanized application realms. Nevertheless, there is a strong need for crossing the frontiers between fields of application and for developing an umbrella discipline to provide a framework for the use of organisms to manage ecosystem services.

  3. [Balkan nephropathy and urothelial cancer. Well water pollution and current questions on pathogenesis and carcinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Markovic, B

    1993-02-01

    In the autopsied inhabitants who died from unrelated reasons in the villages-foci of Balkan Nephropathy (BN) the characteristic histologic changes of the initial phase of BN were found as well as the striking difference in the weight of the kidneys. The weight of a kidney amounting to 180 grams was noted. The continual, severe environmental exposure to polluted drinking water by erosive toxic silica accounts for the excessive silica accumulation in the kidney and its overhydration. Silica has an affinity for water molecules absorbating them on its surface, the absorption of water coats round the accumulations of polymerized silica being formed by several water molecular layers. The increased kidney weight, however, may be regarded as a very rare one and is possible in the initial phase of disease. In most cases the dehydrating, atrophic and necrotic activity of toxic silica characterizes all developmental phases of BN leading to a loss of both fluid and mass of the kidney. In the rainy season fresh submironic suspension of toxic silicate particles is the most toxic for human kidneys. When deposited in drinking waters the larger ones encounter conditions suitable for further solution humus matter and CO2 and the drinking water becomes toxic for human kidneys in the dry season as well. In the course of time the metamorphic process of silica particles being completed these drinking waters become slightly toxic or not toxic at all. In relation to the inactive silica the other component of magmatic silicate rocks heavy, tumorogenic metals preserve the reactivity for a longer time and are responsible for the urothelial carcino-genesis unfollowed by chronic kidney insufficiency in the areas where BN is endemic.

  4. Larval morphology of the Western Balkans endemic caddisflies Drusus krusniki Malicky 1981, D. vernonensis Malicky 1989, and D. vespertinus Marinković 1976 (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae, Drusinae)

    PubMed Central

    KUČINIĆ, MLADEN; GRAF, WOLFRAM; VITECEK, SIMON; KERESZTES, LUJZA; BÁLINT, MIKLÓS; PAULS, STEFFEN U.

    2016-01-01

    Drusinae (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae) are highland caddisflies inhabiting high-gradient, turbulent running water and spring habitats. They are disjunctly distributed over the Eurasian mountain ranges, and the majority of species is endemic to particular mountain areas. The most diverse of three main groups of the Drusinae, the grazer clade, consists of species in which larvae feed on epiltihic biofilm and algae. In this paper we describe three previously unknown grazer-clade Drusinae larvae: Drusus krusniki Malicky 1981 (endemic to the Dinaric western Balkans), D. vernonensis Malicky 1989 (endemic to the Hellenic western Balkans), and D. vespertinus Marinković 1976 (endemic to the Dinaric western Balkans). The larvae of these species have toothless mandibles typical of the Drusinae grazer clade. Larvae and adults were unambiguously associated using molecular genetic data, i.e., the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene fragment (mtCOI3-P). Morphological characteristics of the larvae are described and the diagnostic features enabling species-level identification are illustrated. We further discuss the ecology and distribution of three Western Balkan endemic species. PMID:26985141

  5. Four Authors and a Traveller: Intercultural Narrative in Balkan Prose of the Second Half of the 20th and the Beginning of the 21st Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angusheva, Adelina

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses different approaches to foreign culture in the works of four Balkan writers: Ismail Kadare, Milorad Pavi, Yordan Radichkov and Jadranka Vladova in the context of the works of the English traveller, Edith Durham. It studies the specific function of travel and exploration and the use of different languages (dictionaries) as a…

  6. Extensive polymorphism of the major histocompatibility complex DRA gene in Balkan donkeys: perspectives on selection and genealogy.

    PubMed

    Arbanasić, Haidi; Galov, Ana; Ambriović-Ristov, Andreja; Grizelj, Juraj; Arsenos, Georgios; Marković, Božidarka; Dovenski, Toni; Vince, Silvijo; Curik, Ino

    2013-12-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) contains genes important for immune response in mammals, and these genes exhibit high polymorphism and diversity. The DRA gene, a member of the MHC class II family, is highly conserved across a large number of mammalian species, but it displays exceptionally rich sequence variations in Equidae members. We analyzed allelic polymorphism of the DRA locus in 248 donkeys sampled across the Balkan Peninsula (Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Macedonia, Greece and Montenegro). Five known alleles and two new alleles were identified. The new allele Eqas-DRA*0601 was found to carry a synonymous mutation, and new allele Eqas-DRA*0701, a non-synonymous mutation. We further analyzed the historical selection and allele genealogy at the DRA locus in equids. Signals of positive selection obtained by various tests were ambiguous. A conservative conclusion is that DRA polymorphism occurred relatively recently and that positive selection has been acting on the DRA locus for a relatively brief period.

  7. Predictors of Patients’ Satisfaction with Health Care Services in Three Balkan Countries (Macedonia, Bulgaria and Serbia): a Cross Country Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lazarevik, Vladimir; Kasapinov, Blasko

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients’ satisfaction with provided healthcare services is one of the factors to measure the overall quality of the delivered health care. Main objective of our study was to determine the common predictors associated with patients ‘satisfaction in three Balkan countries. Methods: We conducted web based survey among population in Macedonia, Serbia and Bulgaria using paid campaign over the social network Facebook. A questionnaire consisted of 31 questions was developed following studies on patients’ satisfaction conducted elsewhere. Descriptive analysis was performed to assess the predictors associated with patients’ satisfaction. In addition we performed content analysis to all open-ended responses. Results and discussion: In total 4118 respondents participated in the survey. Main predictors associated with low users satisfaction with the health care services in three surveyed countries are waiting time to appointments, huge administrative procedures, and attitudes of the medical personnel towards the patients. The analysis showed that there are many similarities in user experiences in three countries, but also there are some differences. Conclusions: The health care systems in these three counties are organized around centralized and monopolistic position of one health insurance fund that serves as main purchaser of health care services. Top three indicators of patients’ satisfaction across three countries are trust and overall satisfaction with the attention of the doctors, as well as satisfaction with the outcome of the treatment. Long waiting time and huge administrative procedures are determined as common predictor for lower patients’ satisfaction across these Balkan countries. Patients’ privacy protection is issue for concern in all three countries. PMID:25870493

  8. Experience of human rights violations and subsequent mental disorders - a study following the war in the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Priebe, Stefan; Bogic, Marija; Ashcroft, Richard; Franciskovic, Tanja; Galeazzi, Gian Maria; Kucukalic, Abdulah; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica; Morina, Nexhmedin; Popovski, Mihajlo; Roughton, Michael; Schützwohl, Matthias; Ajdukovic, Dean

    2010-12-01

    War experiences are associated with substantially increased rates of mental disorders, particularly Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Major Depression (MD). There is limited evidence on what type of war experiences have particularly strong associations with subsequent mental disorders. Our objective was to investigate the association of violations of human rights, as indicated in the 4th Geneva Convention, and other stressful war experiences with rates of PTSD and MD and symptom levels of intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal. In 2005/6, human rights violations and other war experiences, PTSD, post-traumatic stress symptoms and MD were assessed in war affected community samples in five Balkan countries (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Serbia) and refugees in three Western European countries (Germany, Italy, United Kingdom). The main outcome measures were the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. In total 3313 participants in the Balkans and 854 refugees were assessed. Participants reported on average 2.3 rights violations and 2.3 other stressful war experiences. 22.8% of the participants were diagnosed with current PTSD and also 22.8% had MD. Most war experiences significantly increased the risk for both PTSD and MD. When the number of rights violations and other stressful experiences were considered in one model, both were significantly associated with higher risks for PTSD and were significantly associated with higher levels of intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal. However, only the number of violations, and not of other stressful experiences, significantly increased the risk for MD. We conclude that different types of war experiences are associated with increased prevalence rates of PTSD and MD more than 5 years later. As compared to other stressful experiences, the experience of human rights violations similarly increases the risk of PTSD, but appears more important for MD.

  9. A possible link between Balkan endemic nephropathy and the leaching of toxic organic compounds from Pliocene lignite by groundwater: Preliminary investigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, W.H.; Feder, G.L.; Finkelman, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a fatal kidney disease that is known to occur only in clusters of villages in alluvial valleys of tributaries of the Danube River in Bulgaria, Romania, Yugoslavia, Bosnia, and Croatia. The confinement of this disease to a specific geographic area has led to speculation that an environmental factor may be involved in the etiology of BEN. Numerous environmental factors have been suggested as causative agents for producing BEN, including toxic metals in drinking water, metal deficiency in soils of BEN areas, and environmental mycotoxins to name a few. These hypotheses have either been disproved or have failed to conclusively demonstrate a connection to the etiology of BEN, or the clustering of BEN villages. In previous work, we observed a distinct geographic relationship between the distribution of Pliocene lignites in the Balkans and BEN villages. We hypothesized that the long-term consumption of well water containing toxic organic compounds derived from the leaching of nearby Pliocene lignites by groundwater was a primary factor in the etiology of BEN. In our current work, chemical analysis using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13CNMR) spectroscopy indicated a high degree of organic functionality in Pliocene lignite from the Balkans, and suggested that groundwater can readily leach organic matter from these coal beds. Semi-quantitative gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis of solvent extracts of groundwater from shallow wells in BEN villages indicated the presence of potentially toxic aromatic compounds, such as napthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, and pyrene at concentrations in the ppb range. Laboratory leaching of Balkan Pliocene lignites with distilled water yielded soluble organic matter (> 500 MW) containing large amounts of aromatic structures similar to the simple/discrete aromatic compounds detected in well water from BEN villages. These preliminary results are permissive of our hypothesis and suggest that further

  10. The Balkanization of Nigeria's Federal System: A Case Study in the Political Geography of Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogge, John R.

    1977-01-01

    By means of a case study of Nigeria, this paper examines the issue of national unity and identity in the face of tribally based regionalism, diversity, and suspicion. Maps and tables accompany the article. (Author/AV)

  11. Leaf n-alkanes as characters differentiating coastal and continental Juniperus deltoides populations from the Balkan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Rajčević, Nemanja; Janaćković, Pedja; Dodoš, Tanja; Tešević, Vele; Bojović, Srdjan; Marin, Petar D

    2014-07-01

    The composition of the cuticular n-alkanes isolated from the leaves of nine populations of Juniperus deltoides R.P.Adams from continental and coastal areas of the Balkan Peninsula was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the leaf waxes, 14 n-alkane homologues with chain-lengths ranging from C22 to C35 were identified. n-Tritriacontane (C33 ) was dominant in the waxes of all populations, but variations between the populations in the contents of all n-alkanes were observed. Several statistical methods (ANOVA, principal component, discriminant, and cluster analyses) were used to investigate the diversity and variability of the cuticular-leaf-n-alkane patterns of the nine J. deltoides populations. This is the first report on the n-alkane composition for this species. The multivariate statistical analyses evidenced a high correlation of the leaf-n-alkane pattern with the geographical distribution of the investigated samples, differentiating the coastal from the continental populations of this taxon.

  12. Lowermost Mantle Velocity Estimations Beneath the Central North Atlantic Area from Pdif Observed at Balkan, East Mediterranean, and American Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivan, Marian; Ghica, Daniela Veronica; Gosar, Andrej; Hatzidimitriou, Panagiotis; Hofstetter, Rami; Polat, Gulten; Wang, Rongjiang

    2015-02-01

    Lowermost mantle velocity in the area 15°S-70°N latitude/60°W-5° W longitude is estimated using two groups of observations, complementary to each other. There are 894 Pdif observations at stations in the Balkan and Eastern Mediterranean areas from 15 major earthquakes in Central and South America. Another 218 Pdif observations are associated with four earthquakes in Greece/Turkey and one event in Africa, recorded by American stations. A Pdif slowness tomographic approach of the structures immediately above the core-to-mantle boundary (CMB) is used, incorporating corrections for ellipticity, station elevation and velocity perturbations along the ray path. A low-velocity zone above CMB with a large geographical extent, approximately in the area (35-65°N) × (40-20°W), appears to have the velocity perturbations exceeding the value actually assumed by some global models. Most likely, it is extended beneath western Africa. A high-velocity area is observed west of the low-velocity zone. The results suggest that both Cape Verde and Azorean islands are located near transition areas from low-to-high velocity values in the lowermost mantle.

  13. Values of Alpha 1 Microglobulin Does Not Differ between Individuals with and without Family History of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Trnacevic, Senaid; Hodzic, Emir; Atic, Mirza; Dugonjic, Maida; Hasanovic, Evlijana

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to compare urinary alpha 1 microglobulin (A1MG) in healthy individuals with and without family burden for Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) in an endemic village. Methods. Otherwise healthy inhabitants with microalbuminuria or proteinuria were divided into two groups: with (n = 24) and without (n = 32) family BEN burden and screened for urinary A1MG and A1MG/urine creatinine ratio. Results. Average value of urinary A1MG was 10.35 ± 7.01 mg/L in group with and 10.79 ± 8.27 mg/L in group without family history for BEN (NS, P = 0.87). A1MG was higher than 10 mg/L in eight (33.33%) inhabitants with family history and in 12 (37.5%) without (NS, P = 0.187). Average values of urinary A1MG/creatinine ratio were 1.30 ± 1.59 and 0.94 ± 0.78 in group with and group without family BEN history (NS, P = 0.39, resp.). Elevated values of this ratio were found in 13 (54.17%) inhabitants with and 14 (43.75%) without family history for BEN (NS, P = 0.415). Conclusion. We did not find statistically significant difference in the examined markers between healthy individuals with and without family burden for BEN. We concluded that these markers are not predictive of risk for BEN. PMID:24563783

  14. Mitochondrial phylogeography of the European ground squirrel, Spermophilus citellus, yields evidence on refugia for steppic taxa in the southern Balkans.

    PubMed

    Krystufek, B; Bryja, J; Buzan, E V

    2009-08-01

    The spatial genetic structure of the European ground squirrel, a species characteristic of the short-grass steppe, was investigated on the basis of a 1140-bp cyt b gene sequence. The phylogeographical architecture of this species is expected to shed light on the putative long-term presence of the steppic ecosystem in south-eastern Europe and the evolutionary consequences of glacial cycles as forcing factors in speciation. Among 31 haplotypes, three highly divergent phylogenetic lineages (Southern, Northern and Jakupica) were recognized. This result suggests the past existence of an allopatric fragmentation event caused by effective biogeographical barriers. The Southern lineage consisted of the southernmost populations, those from Greece, Macedonia and European Turkey, and showed the highest divergence from all other samples. Haplotypes of the Northern lineage showed little geographical structure, with dispersal on both sides of the Danube River and in both of the two main geographical fragments of the species. The Jakupica lineage is a geographical isolate on a high plateau in central Macedonia. The estimated time for divergence of the Southern lineage (ca. 0.58 Mya) suggests the long-term persistence of a short-grass steppic refugium in the southern Balkans. Although the divergence between the Northern and Jakupica lineages occurred more recently (ca. 0.3 Mya), it still putatively predates two glacial cycles. The three phylogeographical lineages of the European ground squirrel should be regarded as independent units for conservation management purposes.

  15. A GNSS-derived Velocity Field of the Southern Balkan Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stangl, Günter; Mitterschiffthaler, Philipp

    2015-04-01

    GNSS stations of Albania, Bulgaria, FYROM and Greece are combined between 2006 and 2014 to a velocity filed. This area covers a part of the transition zone between the Eurasian and Nubian Plate. Even not yet totally reprocessed within IGb08, the lateral components are at the precision of 1 mm/year. The density of stations allows to separate regions with abrupt changes of velocities coinciding with major faults already known from seismology and geology.

  16. Comparative Study of Composition, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Selected Aromatic Plants from Balkan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Stanković, Nemanja; Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana; Zlatković, Bojan; Matejić, Jelena; Stankov Jovanović, Vesna; Kocić, Branislava; Čomić, Ljiljana

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study to perform a comparative analysis of the chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of plant species Hyssopus officinalis, Achillea grandifolia, Achillea crithmifolia, Tanacetum parthenium, Laserpitium latifolium, and Artemisia absinthium from Balkan Peninsula. The chemical analysis of essential oils was performed by using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Monoterpenes were dominant among the recorded components, with camphor in T. parthenium, A. grandifolia, and A. crithmifolia (51.4, 45.4, and 25.4 %, respectively), 1,8-cineole in H. officinalis, A. grandifolia, and A. crithmifolia (49.1, 16.4, and 14.8 %, respectively), and sabinene in L. latifolium and A. absinthium (47.8 and 21.5 %). The antiradical and antioxidant activities were determined by using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods. The essential oil of A. grandifolia has shown the highest antioxidant activity [IC50 of 33.575 ± 0.069 mg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2.510 ± 0.036 mg vitamin C/g for the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay]. The antimicrobial activity against 16 multiresistant pathogenic bacteria isolated from human source material was tested by the broth microdilution assay. The resulting minimum inhibitory concentration/minimum bactericidal concentration values ranged from 4.72 to 93.2 mg/mL. Therefore, the essential oils of the plant species included in this study may be considered to be prospective natural sources of antimicrobial substances, and may contribute as effective agents in the battle against bacterial multiresistance. PMID:26891001

  17. Comparative Study of Composition, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Selected Aromatic Plants from Balkan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Stanković, Nemanja; Mihajilov-Krstev, Tatjana; Zlatković, Bojan; Matejić, Jelena; Stankov Jovanović, Vesna; Kocić, Branislava; Čomić, Ljiljana

    2016-05-01

    The objective of the present study to perform a comparative analysis of the chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of plant species Hyssopus officinalis, Achillea grandifolia, Achillea crithmifolia, Tanacetum parthenium, Laserpitium latifolium, and Artemisia absinthium from Balkan Peninsula. The chemical analysis of essential oils was performed by using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Monoterpenes were dominant among the recorded components, with camphor in T. parthenium, A. grandifolia, and A. crithmifolia (51.4, 45.4, and 25.4 %, respectively), 1,8-cineole in H. officinalis, A. grandifolia, and A. crithmifolia (49.1, 16.4, and 14.8 %, respectively), and sabinene in L. latifolium and A. absinthium (47.8 and 21.5 %). The antiradical and antioxidant activities were determined by using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging methods. The essential oil of A. grandifolia has shown the highest antioxidant activity [IC50 of 33.575 ± 0.069 mg/mL for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2.510 ± 0.036 mg vitamin C/g for the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) assay]. The antimicrobial activity against 16 multiresistant pathogenic bacteria isolated from human source material was tested by the broth microdilution assay. The resulting minimum inhibitory concentration/minimum bactericidal concentration values ranged from 4.72 to 93.2 mg/mL. Therefore, the essential oils of the plant species included in this study may be considered to be prospective natural sources of antimicrobial substances, and may contribute as effective agents in the battle against bacterial multiresistance.

  18. A quantitative ~1ky lake level record of Lake Prespa (SW Balkans) derived from beach ridge sediments: implications for hydro-climatic changes from the Medieval Climate Anomaly to the present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Schriek, Tim; Giannakopoulos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    We present the first quantitative lake stage record of Prespa that covers the past millennium, based on the singular isthmus beach ridge complex, allowing numerical reconstruction of precipitation-driven inflow changes during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA). Mediterranean precipitation change, based on lake-proxy reconstructions, shows a distinct W-E pattern over the past millennium. Generally, the West experienced drier conditions during the MCA and wetter conditions during the LIA; the East experienced opposite conditions. This pattern is linked to the multi-decadal North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) Winter Index: positive phases are associated with drier (wetter) and negative phases with wetter (drier) conditions in the W (E) Mediterranean. The SW Balkans is located at the juncture of proposed boundary between these contrasting climate and hydrological domains. It is not clear which, if any, of these patterns reflects past precipitation changes in the region, given the lack of detailed palaeo-hydrological data. The beach ridge complex that underlies the entire isthmus separating Lakes Mikri- and Megali Prespa offers a unique opportunity to address this question. High, oblique, sediment-supply allows the formation and preservation of beach ridges that register the annual water level fluctuations of Lake Megali Prespa which are driven by wet season precipitation and contain a strong NAO-signal. Modern beach-ridge sediment facies were calibrated against observed lake levels, thus allowing the reliable determination of past lake levels from the geological record. Lake surface area variation was found to be a more reliable indicator of hydro-climate change than water level fluctuations as the latter are strongly influenced by lake bathymetry. Accordingly, surface areas were calculated for different water levels to enable the conversion of lake level stage-indicators to quantitative inflow estimates. The isthmus profile reveals a "high

  19. Formation of a cold ophiolitic sole at the base of the Devonian Balkan Carpathian Ophiolite (Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plissart, Gaëlle; Diot, Hervé; Monnier, Christophe; Maruntiu, Marcel; Debaille, Vinciane; Neubauer, Franz

    2013-04-01

    Our study concerns deformed gabbroic rocks from the Balkan Carpathian Ophiolite (BCO - Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria). The BCO consists of four ophiolitic massifs dismembered during Alpine tectonic and displaying together a complete classical oceanic lithosphere. Our new Sm-Nd dating on fresh lower gabbroic rocks give an accretion age for the BCO crust at 409 ± 38 Ma, in agreement with a previous age of 405 ± 3 Ma (Zakariadze et al. 2012). After removing the Alpine tectonic, the BCO appears as an elongated E-W body tilted to the south. At the base of the ophiolitic complex occurs a thin deformed zone (< 800m) of metagabbroic rocks underlined by Cambro-Ordovician metasediments. Petrostructural observations on metagabbroic rocks coupled with mineralogical and geochemical data indicate that their protoliths were mainly upper gabbros statically metamorphosed in the Greenschist/Amphibolite facies (event 1 = ocean-floor metamorphism at the ridge axis). These rocks have been affected by a second circulation of fluids (event 2), contemporaneous to a deformation and inducing local K-enrichment (formation of Cr-muscovite). Temperature estimates for this event indicate a range of 450°C - 280°C, with the lower values observed for the more intensively metasomatized rocks. 40Ar - 39Ar dating on two Cr-muscovites from slightly and highly deformed metagabbros gives plateau ages of 372.6 ± 1.3 Ma and 360.6 ± 1.2 Ma respectively. We interpret the first age as a mimimum age for the beginning of the event 2, observed into preserved rocks, and the second one as linked to (neo-/)recrystallisation due to localisation of the metasomatism/deformation. The interval of 30 Ma between oceanic crust accretion and initiation of metasomatism/deformation involves that the upper oceanic crust had cooled down to temperatures close to 100°C before the beginning of event 2. Consequently, a temperature increase is required to observe the greenschist facies assemblage. We have tested by tectono

  20. The role of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase and organic substances from coal in the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy: A new hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavlovic, N.M.; Orem, W.H.; Tatu, C.A.; Lerch, H.E.; Bunnell, J.E.; Feder, G.L.; Kostic, E.N.; Ordodi, V.L.

    2008-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) occurs in Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Croatia. BEN has been characterized as a chronic, slowly progressive renal disease of unknown etiology. In this study, we examined the influence of soluble organic compounds in drinking water leached from Pliocene lignite from BEN-endemic areas on plasma lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity. We found that changes for all samples were the most prominent for the dilution category containing 90% plasma and 10% of diluting media. Water samples from BEN villages from Serbia and Romania showed higher LCAT inhibiting activity (p = 0.02) and (p = 0.003), respectively, compared to deionised water and non-endemic water. A secondary LCAT deficiency could result from this inhibitory effect of the organic compounds found in endemic water supplies and provide an ethiopathogenic basis for the development of BEN in the susceptible population. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nuclear and mitochondrial phylogeography of the European fire-bellied toads Bombina bombina and Bombina variegata supports their independent histories.

    PubMed

    Fijarczyk, Anna; Nadachowska, Krystyna; Hofman, Sebastian; Litvinchuk, Spartak N; Babik, Wiesław; Stuglik, Michał; Gollmann, Günter; Choleva, Lukáš; Cogălniceanu, Dan; Vukov, Tanja; Džukić, George; Szymura, Jacek M

    2011-08-01

    Exact location and number of glacial refugia still remain unclear for many European cold-blooded terrestrial vertebrates. We performed a fine-scaled multilocus phylogeographic analysis of two Bombina species combining mitochondrial variation of 950 toads from 385 sites and nuclear genes (Rag-1, Ncx-1) from a subset of samples to reconstruct their colonization and contemporary variation patterns. We identified the lowlands northwest of the Black Sea and the Carpathians to be important refugial areas for B. bombina and B. variegata, respectively. This result emphasizes the importance of Central European refugia for ectothermic terrestrial species, far north of the Mediterranean areas regarded as exclusive glacial refugia for the animals. Additional refugia for B. variegata have been located in the southern Apennines and Balkans. In contrast, no evidence for the importance of other east European plains as refugial regions has been found. The distribution of mtDNA and Ncx-1 variation suggests the presence of local refugia near the Black Sea for B. bombina; however, coalescent simulations did not allow to distinguish whether one or two refugia were present in the region. Strong genetic drift apparently accompanied postglacial expansions reducing diversity in the colonization areas. Extended sampling, coupled with the multilocus isolation with migration analysis, revealed a limited and geographically restricted gene flow from the Balkan to Carpathian populations of B. variegata. However, despite proximity of inferred B. bombina and B. variegata refugia, gene exchange between them was not detected. PMID:21749513

  2. European phylogeography of the epiphytic lichen fungus Lobaria pulmonaria and its green algal symbiont.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Ivo; Dal Grande, Francesco; Excoffier, Laurent; Holderegger, Rolf; Keller, Christine; Mikryukov, Vladimir S; Scheidegger, Christoph

    2012-12-01

    In lichen symbiosis, fungal and algal partners form close associations, often codispersed by vegetative propagules. Due to the particular interdependence, processes such as colonization, dispersal or genetic drift are expected to result in congruent patterns of genetic structure in the symbionts. To study the population structure of an obligate symbiotic system in Europe, we genotyped the fungal and algal symbionts of the epiphytic lichen Lobaria pulmonaria at eight and seven microsatellite loci, respectively, and analysed about 4300 L. pulmonaria thalli from 142 populations from the species' European distribution range. Based on a centroid approach, which localizes centres of genetic differentiation with a high frequency of geographically restricted alleles, we identified the South Italy-Balkan region as the primary glacial refugial area of the lichen symbiosis. Procrustean rotation analysis and a distance congruence test between the fungal and algal population graphs indicated general concordance between the phylogeographies of the symbionts. The incongruent patterns found in areas of postglacial recolonization may show the presence of an additional refugial area for the fungal symbiont, and the impact that horizontal photobiont transmission and different mutation rates of the symbionts have on their genotypic associations at a continental scale. PMID:23094600

  3. On the amphibious food uptake and prey manipulation behavior in the Balkan-Anatolian crested newt (Triturus ivanbureschi, Arntzen and Wielstra, 2013).

    PubMed

    Lukanov, Simeon; Tzankov, Nikolay; Handschuh, Stephan; Heiss, Egon; Naumov, Borislav; Natchev, Nikolay

    2016-06-01

    Feeding behavior in salamanders undergoing seasonal habitat shifts poses substantial challenges caused by differences in the physical properties of air and water. Adapting to these specific environments, urodelans use suction feeding predominantly under water as opposed to lingual food prehension on land. This study aims to determine the functionality of aquatic and terrestrial feeding behavior in the Balkan-Anatolian crested newt (Triturus ivanbureschi) in its terrestrial stage. During the terrestrial stage, these newts feed frequently in water where they use hydrodynamic mechanisms for prey capture. On land, prey apprehension is accomplished mainly by lingual prehension, while jaw prehension seems to be the exception (16.67%) in all terrestrial prey capture events. In jaw prehension events there was no detectable depression of the hyo-lingual complex. The success of terrestrial prey capture was significantly higher when T. ivanbureschi used lingual prehension. In addition to prey capture, we studied the mechanisms involved in the subduction of prey. In both media, the newts frequently used a shaking behavior to immobilize the captured earthworms. Apparently, prey shaking constitutes a significant element in the feeding behavior of T. ivanbureschi. Prey immobilization was applied more frequently during underwater feeding, which necessitates a discussion of the influence of the feeding media on food manipulation. We also investigated the osteology of the cranio-cervical complex in T. ivanbureschi to compare it to that of the predominantly terrestrial salamandrid Salamandra salamandra. PMID:27013264

  4. The first record of a soft-shelled turtle (Testudines: Pan-Trionychidae) from southern Balkans (Pliocene, Gefira, N. Greece) and new information from bone histology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachos, Evangelos; Cerda, Ignacio; Tsoukala, Evangelia

    2015-08-01

    Soft-shelled turtles (Pan-Trionychidae) are not included in the present-day chelonian fauna of Greece and have been unknown in the Greek fossil record up to now. Here, we report the first fossil occurrence of a soft-shelled turtle from Greece, originating from the Pliocene Gefira Member (Angelochori Formation), in the lower Axios valley. The corresponding specimens were discovered with several mammalian remains, most of them attributable to the mastodon of Auvergne, Anancus arvernensis. The chelonian material includes five carapacial fragments that belong to the same individual and can be attributed to Pan-Trionychidae based on the typical sculpturing on the dorsal side of the carapace. Most of these bony plates were histologically sampled and thereby provide evidence for the "plywood" structure, another characteristic of pan-trionychids. They represent the first extended sampling of trionychid plates that belong to the same individual, allowing the documentation of the variation of the relevant trionychid morphologies in the carapace. These findings expand the paleobiogeographic range of this taxon to the southern Balkans and Greece and allow a better estimation of the chelonian paleo-fauna of the area. They are also important for the temporal distribution of this clade in the Paleoarctic, as they join specimens from Italy as being the last trionychids in Europe.

  5. Impact of origin and biological source on chemical composition, anticholinesterase and antioxidant properties of some St. John's wort species (Hypericum spp., Hypericaceae) from the Central Balkans.

    PubMed

    Božin, Biljana; Kladar, Nebojša; Grujić, Nevena; Anačkov, Goran; Samojlik, Isidora; Gavarić, Neda; Conić, Branislava Srđenović

    2013-09-25

    The study shows the influence of the origin of plant material and biological source on the in vitro antioxidant (neutralization of DPPH and OH radical, nitric oxide, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation) and anticholinesterase activity of chemically characterized and quantified ethanol extracts of ten St. John's wort samples. The investigated samples were: five Hypericum perforatum species representatives collected at different localities, one commercial sample of Hyperici herba purchased at a local market and four Hypericum species autochtonous to the Balkan Peninsula (H. maculatum subsp. immaculatum, H. olympicum, H. richeri subsp. grisebachii and H. barbatum). All the examined extracts exhibited notable antioxidant potential, but in most of the cases indigenous Hypericum species expressed stronger effects compared to the original source of the drug, H. perforatum. The changes in the content of phenolic compounds, especially flavonoids, hyperforin and hypericin, related to the source of the drug affected the investigated activities. Since all of the investigated species have shown prominent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in vitro activity, they could be further investigated as potential substances in preventing of Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Dominant-Negative Effect of a Missense Variant in the TASK-2 (KCNK5) K+ Channel Associated with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Abd-Wahab, Firdaus; Tucker, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    TASK-2, a member of the Two-Pore Domain (K2P) subfamily of K+ channels, is encoded by the KCNK5 gene. The channel is expressed primarily in renal epithelial tissues and a potentially deleterious missense variant in KCNK5 has recently been shown to be prevalent amongst patients predisposed to the development of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN), a chronic tubulointerstitial renal disease of unknown etiology. In this study we show that this variant (T108P) results in a complete loss of channel function and is associated with a major reduction in TASK-2 channel subunits at the cell surface. Furthermore, these mutant subunits have a suppressive or ‘dominant-negative’ effect on channel function when coexpressed with wild-type subunits. This missense variant is located at the extracellular surface of the M2 transmembrane helix and by using a combination of structural modelling and further functional analysis we also show that this highly-conserved threonine residue is critical for the correct function of other K2P channels. These results therefore provide further structural and functional insights into the possible pathophysiological effects of this missense variant in TASK-2. PMID:27228168

  7. The first record of a soft-shelled turtle (Testudines: Pan-Trionychidae) from southern Balkans (Pliocene, Gefira, N. Greece) and new information from bone histology.

    PubMed

    Vlachos, Evangelos; Cerda, Ignacio; Tsoukala, Evangelia

    2015-08-01

    Soft-shelled turtles (Pan-Trionychidae) are not included in the present-day chelonian fauna of Greece and have been unknown in the Greek fossil record up to now. Here, we report the first fossil occurrence of a soft-shelled turtle from Greece, originating from the Pliocene Gefira Member (Angelochori Formation), in the lower Axios valley. The corresponding specimens were discovered with several mammalian remains, most of them attributable to the mastodon of Auvergne, Anancus arvernensis. The chelonian material includes five carapacial fragments that belong to the same individual and can be attributed to Pan-Trionychidae based on the typical sculpturing on the dorsal side of the carapace. Most of these bony plates were histologically sampled and thereby provide evidence for the "plywood" structure, another characteristic of pan-trionychids. They represent the first extended sampling of trionychid plates that belong to the same individual, allowing the documentation of the variation of the relevant trionychid morphologies in the carapace. These findings expand the paleobiogeographic range of this taxon to the southern Balkans and Greece and allow a better estimation of the chelonian paleo-fauna of the area. They are also important for the temporal distribution of this clade in the Paleoarctic, as they join specimens from Italy as being the last trionychids in Europe.

  8. Changing what it means to 'become a man': participants' reflections on a school-based programme to redefine masculinity in the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Namy, Sophie; Heilman, Brian; Stich, Shawna; Crownover, John; Leka, Besnik; Edmeades, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Calls to engage men and boys in efforts to promote health, prevent violence and advance gender equality have grown in recent years. However, there remains little evidence or reflection on how most effectively to change harmful norms related to masculinity. The study addresses this gap by exploring the perspectives of participants in the Young Men Initiative (YMI), an innovative programme that aimed to promote healthier masculinities among boys attending vocational high schools in several Balkan countries through educational workshops, residential retreats and a social marketing campaign. Qualitative data were collected through 37 in-depth interviews and 11 focus-group discussions with boys, youth facilitators and teachers. Findings from four schools (in Belgrade, Sarajevo, Prishtina and Zagreb) suggest that several elements of the programme resonated strongly with participants and supported their meaningful engagement in project activities. Five themes emerged as most salient in identifying how and why specific aspects of YMI positively influenced participants: personal reflection, experience-based learning, connections with youth facilitators, new peer groups and aspirational messaging. Building on these insights, the study highlights potentially useful strategies for other programmes seeking to reach boys and transform their understanding of masculinity.

  9. Changing what it means to ‘become a man’: participants’ reflections on a school-based programme to redefine masculinity in the Balkans

    PubMed Central

    Namy, Sophie; Heilman, Brian; Stich, Shawna; Crownover, John; Leka, Besnik; Edmeades, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Calls to engage men and boys in efforts to promote health, prevent violence and advance gender equality have grown in recent years. However, there remains little evidence or reflection on how most effectively to change harmful norms related to masculinity. The study addresses this gap by exploring the perspectives of participants in the Young Men Initiative (YMI), an innovative programme that aimed to promote healthier masculinities among boys attending vocational high schools in several Balkan countries through educational workshops, residential retreats and a social marketing campaign. Qualitative data were collected through 37 in-depth interviews and 11 focus-group discussions with boys, youth facilitators and teachers. Findings from four schools (in Belgrade, Sarajevo, Prishtina and Zagreb) suggest that several elements of the programme resonated strongly with participants and supported their meaningful engagement in project activities. Five themes emerged as most salient in identifying how and why specific aspects of YMI positively influenced participants: personal reflection, experience-based learning, connections with youth facilitators, new peer groups and aspirational messaging. Building on these insights, the study highlights potentially useful strategies for other programmes seeking to reach boys and transform their understanding of masculinity. PMID:26680537

  10. A training network for introducing telemedicine, telecare and hospital informatics in the Adriatic-Danube-Black Sea region.

    PubMed

    Anogeianaki, Antonia; Ilonidis, George; Anogianakis, George; Lianguris, John; Katsaros, Kyriakos; Pseftogianni, Dimitra; Klisarova, Anelia; Negrev, Negrin

    2004-01-01

    DIMNET is a training mechanism for a region of central Europe. The aim is to upgrade the information technology skills of local hospital personnel and preserve their employability following the introduction of medical informatics. DIMNET uses Internet-based virtual classrooms to provide a 200-hour training course in medical informatics. Training takes place in the cities of Drama, Kavala, Xanthi and Varna. So far, more than 600 people have benefited from the programme. Initial results are encouraging. DIMNET promotes a new vocational training culture in the Balkans and is supported by local governments that perceive health-care as a fulcrum for economic development.

  11. Phylogeographic study of brown trout from Serbia, based on mitochondrial DNA control region analysis

    PubMed Central

    Marić, Saša; Sušnik, Simona; Simonović, Predrag; Snoj, Aleš

    2006-01-01

    In order to illuminate the phylogeography of brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations in the Balkan state of Serbia, the 561 bp 5'-end of mtDNA control region of 101 individuals originating from upland tributaries of the Danubian, Aegean and Adriatic drainages were sequenced and compared to corresponding brown trout sequences obtained in previous studies. Among 15 haplotypes found, 14 were considered native, representing the Danubian and Adriatic lineages of the brown trout, while one haplotype (ATcs1), found only in two individuals originating from two stocked rivers, corresponded to the Atlantic lineage and was considered introduced. Native haplotypes exhibited a strong geographic pattern of distribution: the Danubian haplotypes were strictly confined to the Danubian drainage, while the Adriatic haplotypes dominated in the Aegean and Adriatic drainages; most of the total molecular variance (69%) was attributed to differences among the drainages. Phylogenetic reconstruction, supplemented with seven haplotypes newly described in this study, suggested a sister position of the Atlantic-Danubian and Adriatic-Mediterranean-marmoratus ("southern") phylogenetic group, and pointed to the existence of a distinct clade, detected within the "southern" group. The data obtained confirmed our expectation of the existence of high genetic diversity in Balkan trout populations, and we recommend more widespread surveys covering trout stocks from the region. PMID:16790230

  12. Tectonic configuration of the Apuseni-Banat—Timok-Srednogorie belt, Balkans-South Carpathians, constrained by high precision R e-O s molybdenite ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Aaron; Stein, Holly J.; Hannah, Judith L.; Koželj, Dejan; Bogdanov, Kamen; Berza, Tudor

    2008-01-01

    The Apuseni-Banat-Timok-Srednogorie magmatic-metallogenic belt (ABTS belt), forms a substantial metallogenic province in the Balkan-South Carpathian system in southeastern Europe. The belt hosts porphyry, skarn, and epithermal deposits mined since pre-Roman times. Generally, the deposits, prospects, and occurrences within the belt are linked to magmatic centers of calc-alkaline affinity. Fifty-one rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) ages and Re concentration data for molybdenites define systematic geochronologic trends and constrain the geochemical-metallogenic evolution of the belt in space and time. From these data and additional existing geologic-geochemical data, a general tectonic history for the belt is proposed. Mineralization ages in Apuseni-Banat, Timok, and Panagyurishte (the central district of the larger E-W Srednogorie Zone) range from 72-83, 81-88, and 87-92 Ma, respectively, and clearly document increasing age from the northwestern districts to the southeastern districts. Further, Re-Os ages suggest rapidly migrating pulses of Late Cretaceous magmatic-hydrothermal activity with construction of deposits in ~1 m.y., districts in ~10 m.y., and the entire 1,500 km belt in ~20 m.y. Ages in both Timok and Panagyurishte show systematic younging, while deposit ages in Banat and Apuseni are less systematic reflecting a restricted evolution of the tectonic system. Systematic differences are also observed for molybdenite Re concentrations on the belt scale. Re concentrations generally range from hundreds to thousands of parts per million, typical of subduction-related Cu-Au-Mo-(PGE) porphyry systems associated with the generation of juvenile crust. The geochronologic and geochemical trends are compatible with proposed steepening of subducting oceanic slab and relaxation of upper continental plate compression. Resulting influx of sub-continental mantle lithosphere (SCML) and asthenosphere provide a fertile metal source and heat, while the subducting slab contributes connate

  13. Lake Prespa palaeoenvironment since the MIS 5: a continuous record from a mid-altitude site on modern human's way to Europe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotopoulos, K.; Aufgebauer, A.; Schäbitz, F.; Wagner, B.

    2012-04-01

    Lake Prespa is situated in the Balkans (40°57'50'' N, 20°58'41'' E) along the eastern trajectory of modern human dispersal. A long (c. 18m) composite sediment core was investigated using geophysical, geochemical and pollen analyses. This study aims to reconstruct the palaeoenvironment and palaeoclimate from a mid-altitude (849m asl) site and evaluate their implications in the migration of our ancestors from Africa to Europe. The age-depth model, based on radiocarbon dating and tephrochronology, indicates continuous sedimentation reaching back to MIS 5. According to the pollen record, the wider Lake Prespa catchment sustained refugial temperate tree populations throughout this period. Following the decline of woodlands at the end of MIS 5, pollen concentration and TOC percentages retain relatively low values until the onset of the Holocene when closed forest formations dominated the landscape signaling the establishment of a warmer and moister climate. Distinct fluctuations of arboreal relative percentages coupled with the occurrence of TIC and Mn peaks can be tentatively correlated to Heinrich events. Climatic oscillations are sensitively recorded in the Lake Prespa sediments at a sub-millennial scale permitting a detailed reconstruction of the regional palaeoenvironment, as well as correlations with other regional and global climate archives. This project is part of the Collaborative Research Center 806: "Our Way To Europe; Culture-Environment Interaction and Human Mobility in the Late Quaternary" (www.sfb806.de). Keywords: Lake Prespa, Balkans, eastern Mediterranean, pollen analysis, palaeolimnology, modern human dispersal

  14. Geographically Related Variation in Epicuticular Wax Traits of Pinus nigra Populations from Southern Carpathians and Central Balkans - Taxonomic Considerations.

    PubMed

    Mitić, Zorica S; Zlatković, Bojan K; Jovanović, Snežana Č; Stojanović, Gordana S; Marin, Petar D

    2016-07-01

    The chemical composition of epicuticular waxes of nine populations from three Pinus nigra J. F. Arnold subspecies (namely subsp. nigra, subsp. banatica (Borbás) Novák, and subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe) from Southern Carpathians and central Balkan Peninsula were analyzed using GC/MS and GC/FID chromatography, and multivariate statistical techniques with respect to biogeography and taxonomy. In the needle waxes, four primary alcohols and 14 n-alkanes ranging from C21 to C33 were identified, and the most abundant compounds were the four odd-numbered n-alkanes C27 , C25 , C23 , and C29. Multivariate statistical analyses (CDA and CA) have shown existence of three P. nigra groups and suggested clinal differentiation as a mechanism of genetic variation across a geographic area: the first group consisted of the southernmost populations of subsp. pallasiana from Macedonia, the second consisted of the northernmost subsp. banatica populations from Romania, while all populations in Serbia described as three different subspecies (nigra, banatica, and pallasiana) formed the third group together with subsp. nigra population from Bosnia and Herzegovina. According to simple linear regression, geographic latitude and four bioclimatic parameters were moderately correlated with the contents of epicuticular wax compounds that are important in population discrimination, while stepwise multiple regression showed that latitude participated in most of the regression models for predicting the composition of the epicuticular waxes. These results agree with CDA and CA analysis, and confirmed the possibility of recognition of fine geographic differentiation of the analyzed P. nigra populations. PMID:27273147

  15. Genetic architecture of trout from Albania as revealed by mtDNA control region variation

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    To determine the genetic architecture of trout in Albania, 87 individuals were collected from 19 riverine and lacustrine sites in Albania, FYROM and Greece. All individuals were analyzed for sequence variation in the mtDNA control region. Among fourteen haplotypes detected, four previously unpublished haplotypes, bearing a close relationship to haplotypes of the Adriatic and marmoratus lineages of Salmo trutta, were revealed. Ten previously described haplotypes, characteristic of S. ohridanus, S. letnica and the Adriatic and Mediterranean lineages of S. trutta, were also detected. Haplotypes detected in this study were placed in a well supported branch of S. ohridanus, and a cluster of Mediterranean – Adriatic – marmoratus haplotypes, which were further delimited into three subdivisions of Mediterranean, marmoratus, and a previously non-described formation of four Adriatic haplotypes (Balkan cluster). Haplotypes of the Balkan cluster and the other Adriatic haplotypes, do not represent a contiguous haplotype lineage and appear not to be closely related, indicating independent arrivals into the Adriatic drainage and suggesting successive colonization events. Despite the presence of marmoratus haplotypes in Albania, no marbled phenotype was found, confirming previously reported findings that there is no association between this phenotype and marmoratus haplotypes. PMID:19284692

  16. Genetic architecture of trout from Albania as revealed by mtDNA control region variation.

    PubMed

    Snoj, Ales; Marić, Sasa; Berrebi, Patrick; Crivelli, Alain J; Shumka, Spase; Susnik, Simona

    2009-02-02

    To determine the genetic architecture of trout in Albania, 87 individuals were collected from 19 riverine and lacustrine sites in Albania, FYROM and Greece. All individuals were analyzed for sequence variation in the mtDNA control region. Among fourteen haplotypes detected, four previously unpublished haplotypes, bearing a close relationship to haplotypes of the Adriatic and marmoratus lineages of Salmo trutta, were revealed. Ten previously described haplotypes, characteristic of S. ohridanus, S. letnica and the Adriatic and Mediterranean lineages of S. trutta, were also detected. Haplotypes detected in this study were placed in a well supported branch of S. ohridanus, and a cluster of Mediterranean-Adriatic-marmoratus haplotypes, which were further delimited into three subdivisions of Mediterranean, marmoratus, and a previously non-described formation of four Adriatic haplotypes (Balkan cluster). Haplotypes of the Balkan cluster and the other Adriatic haplotypes, do not represent a contiguous haplotype lineage and appear not to be closely related, indicating independent arrivals into the Adriatic drainage and suggesting successive colonization events. Despite the presence of marmoratus haplotypes in Albania, no marbled phenotype was found, confirming previously reported findings that there is no association between this phenotype and marmoratus haplotypes.

  17. Frequencies of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes of the SLCO1B1 gene in selected populations of the western balkans

    PubMed Central

    Grapci, A Daka; Dimovski, AJ; Kapedanovska, A; Vavlukis, M; Eftimov, A; Geshkovska, N Matevska; Labachevski, N; Jakjovski, K; Gorani, D; Kedev, S; Mladenovska, K

    2015-01-01

    As a membrane influx transporter, organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) regulates the cellular uptake of a number of endogenous compounds and drugs. The aim of this study was to characterize the diversity of the solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 (SLCO1B1) gene encoding this transporter in two ethnic groups populating the Western Balkans. The distribution of SCLO1B1 alleles was determined at seven variant sites (c.388A>G, c.521T>C, c.571T>C, c.597C>T, c.1086C>T, c.1463G>C and c.*439T>G) in 266 Macedonians and 94 Albanians using the TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. No significant difference in the frequencies of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was observed between these populations. The frequency of the c.521T>C SNP was the lowest (<13.7 and 12.2%, respectively), while the frequencies of all other SNP alleles were above 40.0%. Variant alleles of c.1463G>C and c.1086 C>T SNPs were not identified in either ethnic group. The haplotype analysis revealed 20 and 21 different haplotypes in the Macedonian and Albanian population, respectively. The most common haplotype in both ethnic groups, *1J/*1K/*1L, had a frequency of 39.0% and 26.6%, respectively. In both populations, the variant alleles of the functionally significant c.521T>C and c.388A>G SNPs existed in one major haplotype (*15/*16/*17), with a frequency of 8.6 and 2.4% in the Macedonian and Albanian subjects, respectively. In conclusion, sequence variations of the SLCO1B1 gene in the studied populations occur at high frequencies, which are similar to that of the Caucasian population. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical significance of these SNPs and/ or the major SLCO1B1 haplotypes they form for a large number of substrates and for susceptibility to certain diseases. PMID:26929901

  18. Frequencies of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes of the SLCO1B1 gene in selected populations of the western balkans.

    PubMed

    Grapci, A Daka; Dimovski, A J; Kapedanovska, A; Vavlukis, M; Eftimov, A; Geshkovska, N Matevska; Labachevski, N; Jakjovski, K; Gorani, D; Kedev, S; Mladenovska, K

    2015-06-01

    As a membrane influx transporter, organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) regulates the cellular uptake of a number of endogenous compounds and drugs. The aim of this study was to characterize the diversity of the solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 (SLCO1B1) gene encoding this transporter in two ethnic groups populating the Western Balkans. The distribution of SCLO1B1 alleles was determined at seven variant sites (c.388A>G, c.521T>C, c.571T>C, c.597C>T, c.1086C>T, c.1463G>C and c.*439T>G) in 266 Macedonians and 94 Albanians using the TaqMan allelic discrimination assay. No significant difference in the frequencies of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was observed between these populations. The frequency of the c.521T>C SNP was the lowest (<13.7 and 12.2%, respectively), while the frequencies of all other SNP alleles were above 40.0%. Variant alleles of c.1463G>C and c.1086 C>T SNPs were not identified in either ethnic group. The haplotype analysis revealed 20 and 21 different haplotypes in the Macedonian and Albanian population, respectively. The most common haplotype in both ethnic groups, *1J/*1K/*1L, had a frequency of 39.0% and 26.6%, respectively. In both populations, the variant alleles of the functionally significant c.521T>C and c.388A>G SNPs existed in one major haplotype (*15/*16/*17), with a frequency of 8.6 and 2.4% in the Macedonian and Albanian subjects, respectively. In conclusion, sequence variations of the SLCO1B1 gene in the studied populations occur at high frequencies, which are similar to that of the Caucasian population. Further studies are needed to evaluate the clinical significance of these SNPs and/ or the major SLCO1B1 haplotypes they form for a large number of substrates and for susceptibility to certain diseases. PMID:26929901

  19. Dating intrusion and cooling of Cenozoic granitoids in the Dinarides of Southern Serbia and discussion of the geodynamic setting of Paleocene-Miocene magmatism in the Balkan Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senecio, Schefer; Cvetković, Vladica; Fügenschuh, Bernhard; Kounov, Alexandre; Ovtcharova, Maria; Schaltegger, Urs; Schmid, Stefan

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents the results of high precision single grain U-Pb dating and Hf isotope analyses of thermally annealed and chemically abraded zircons from the Kopaonik, Drenje, Željin, Golija and Polumir intrusions in the inner Dinarides of southern Serbia. In addition, new zircon and apatite fission-track data together with local structural observations, allow for constraining the subsequent exhumation history of these intrusions. Two age groups were determined for the granitoid intrusions: (i) Oligocene intrusive bodies (Kopaonik, Drenje, Željin) ranging in age from 31.7 to 30.6 Ma and (ii) Miocene Golija and Polumir intrusions which emplaced at 20.58-20.17 and 18.06-17.74 Ma, respectively. The apatite fission-track modelling combined with zircon central ages show rapid cooling from above 300 to ca. 80 °C between 16 and 10 Ma for granitoids of both age groups, followed by rather slow cooling to surface temperatures for the last 10 Ma. Fast Middle Miocene cooling between 16 and 10 Ma is caused by extensional exhumation of the plutons that are located in the footwall of core-complexes. This documents that Miocene magmatism and core-complex formation leading to formation of the Pannonian basin also affected a part of the mountainous areas of the internal Dinarides. The discussion of an extensive set of age data from the literature and the geodynamic setting of the Balkan Peninsula reveals that there is no direct connection of the Dinaridic Late Eocene to earliest Miocene magmatic belt with contemporaneous Periadriatic intrusions in the Alps and along the Mid-Hungarian fault zone as proposed in the literature. We insist on the fact that the subduction polarity in the Alps, including that within the Western Carpathians north of the Mid-Hungarian fault zone, is opposite to that of the Dinarides during the given time span. Instead, we propose that Late Eocene to Oligocene magmatism, which affects the Adria-derived lower plate units of the internal Dinarides, may be

  20. A new species and new records of Molophilus Curtis, 1833 (Diptera: Limoniidae) from the Western Palaearctic Region

    PubMed Central

    Török, Edina; Keresztes, Lujza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Molophilus Curtis, 1833 is the most species-rich Limoniidae genus with a total number of 1006 species and subspecies, from which 97 are recorded in the Western-Palaearctic region so far. However new species are still expected from less investigated regions, like the Balkans or the Eastern Europe. New information In the present article, we desrcibe a new limonid crane fly species, Molophilus balcanicus Kolcsár sp. n. from the Central Balkan area (Bulgaria). This new taxa is closely related to M. serpentiger Edwards, 1938 and M. variispinus Starý​, 1971 based on the external male genital structures, but differs from its siblings mostly in the structure of the inner and outer gonostylus. Additionally, a number of species are reported for the first time from various European countries, like M. variispinus Starý, 1971 and M. occultus de Meijere, 1918 from Romania; M. crassipygus de Meijere 1918, M. obsoletus Lackschewitz, 1940 and M. medius de Meijere, 1918 from Greece; M. flavus Goetghebuer, 1920 from Andorra; M. cinereifrons de Meijere, 1920 from Bulgaria and M. corniger Meijere, 1920 from Spain. PMID:26379460

  1. Community impacts of anthropogenic disturbance: natural enemies exploit multiple routes in pursuit of invading herbivore hosts

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Biological invasions provide a window on the process of community assembly. In particular, tracking natural enemy recruitment to invading hosts can reveal the relative roles of co-evolution (including local adaptation) and ecological sorting. We use molecular data to examine colonisation of northern Europe by the parasitoid Megastigmus stigmatizans following invasions of its herbivorous oak gallwasp hosts from the Balkans. Local host adaptation predicts that invading gallwasp populations will have been tracked primarily by sympatric Balkan populations of M. stigmatizans (Host Pursuit Hypothesis). Alternatively, ecological sorting allows parasitoid recruitment from geographically distinct populations with no recent experience of the invading hosts (Host Shift Hypothesis). Finally, we test for long-term persistence of parasitoids introduced via human trade of their hosts' galls (Introduction Hypothesis). Results Polymorphism diagnostic of different southern refugial regions was present in both mitochondrial and nuclear microsatellite markers, allowing us to identify the origins of northern European invaded range M. stigmatizans populations. As with their hosts, some invaded range populations showed genetic variation diagnostic of Balkan sources, supporting the Host Pursuit Hypothesis. In contrast, other invading populations had an Iberian origin, unlike their hosts in northern Europe, supporting the Host Shift Hypothesis. Finally, both British and Italian M. stigmatizans populations show signatures compatible with the Introduction Hypothesis from eastern Mediterranean sources. Conclusions These data reveal the continental scale of multi-trophic impacts of anthropogenic disturbance and highlight the fact that herbivores and their natural enemies may face very different constraints on range expansion. The ability of natural enemies to exploit ecologically-similar hosts with which they have had no historical association supports a major role for ecological

  2. Analyse quantitative des faciès carbonatés et cycles T R de haute fréquence dans le Barrémien du Prébalkan central (Bulgarie)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkovska, Viara; Peybernès, Bernard; Cugny, Pierre; Nikolov, Todor

    2004-07-01

    Within the Emerici zone-Barremense zone biostratigraphic interval, the Barremian deposits of Central Fore-Balkan (Lovech-Veliko Tarnovo shelf) consist of a succession of several formations where alternate terrigenous argillaceous/sandy-dominated facies (Kormjansko Fm., Balgarene Fm.) and carbonate-dominated ('Urgonian') facies (Krushevo Fm., Emen Fm.). The qualitative and, particularly, quantitative facies analysis of the carbonate successions observed along 13 detailed cross-sections and in one drill hole show the stacking of about 40 fifth-order T-R cycles induced by numerous eustatic jerks contributing to the progressive settlement of this shelf. These high-frequency cycles of about 100 000 years must be regarded as valuable correlation tools for the subsurface hydrocarbon research. To cite this article: V. Minkovska et al., C. R. Geoscience 336 (2004).

  3. Distribution of uranium, thorium and some stable trace and toxic elements in human hair and nails in Niška Banja Town, a high natural background radiation area of Serbia (Balkan Region, South-East Europe).

    PubMed

    Sahoo, S K; Žunić, Z S; Kritsananuwat, R; Zagrodzki, P; Bossew, P; Veselinovic, N; Mishra, S; Yonehara, H; Tokonami, S

    2015-07-01

    Human hair and nails can be considered as bio-indicators of the public exposure to certain natural radionuclides and other toxic metals over a long period of months or even years. The level of elements in hair and nails usually reflect their levels in other tissues of body. Niška Banja, a spa town located in southern Serbia, with locally high natural background radiation was selected for the study. To assess public exposure to the trace elements, hair and nail samples were collected and analyzed. The concentrations of uranium, thorium and some trace and toxic elements (Mn, Ni, Cu, Sr, Cd, and Cs) were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). U and Th concentrations in hair varied from 0.0002 to 0.0771 μg/g and from 0.0002 to 0.0276 μg/g, respectively. The concentrations in nails varied from 0.0025 to 0.0447 μg/g and from 0.0023 to 0.0564 μg/g for U and Th, respectively. We found significant correlations between some elements in hair and nails. Also indications of spatial clustering of high values could be found. However, this phenomenon as well as the large variations in concentrations of heavy metals in hair and nail could not be explained. As hypotheses, we propose possible exposure pathways which may explain the findings, but the current data does not allow testing them.

  4. Regional odontodysplasia.

    PubMed

    Mehta, D N; Bailoor, D; Patel, B

    2011-01-01

    Regional odontodysplasia is an unusual developmental anomaly in which ectodermal and mesodermal tooth components are affected. We present a rare case of a developmental anomaly called regional odontodysplasia or 'ghost teeth' in a 12-year-old Indian girl. The anomaly affected right maxillary permanent teeth. The mandibular teeth were unaffected. The clinical, radiographic and histological features are reviewed. The management of affected patients is discussed.

  5. Analysis of the population structure of Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the Palaearctic region using microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Juan Antonio; Spina, Michelangelo La; Perera, Omaththage P

    2012-01-01

    Macrolophus pygmaeus (Rambur) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is widely distributed throughout the Palaearctic region. The aim was to explain the current geographic distribution of the species by investigating its genetic population structure. Samples of M. pygmaeus were collected in 15 localities through its range of distribution. A sample from a commercial producer was also analyzed. A total of 367 M. pygmaeus were genotyped for nine microsatellite loci. Isolation by distance was tested by Mantel's test. The molecular structure of M. pygmaeus populations was inferred by UPGMA, AMOVA, Principal component and Bayesian analyses. The average number of alleles per locus per population was 5.5 (range: 3.1–7.8). Istanbul (Turkey) and Nimes (France) had the lowest (0.291) and the highest (0.626) expected heterozygosity (He), respectively. There was an increase in He from the Canary Islands to Nimes, and a progressive decrease thereafter. A significant negative correlation was found between allelic richness and He, and the distance of each population to the easternmost locality (Canary Islands). Significant linkage disequilibrium was observed in the populations from Turkey. FST (0.004–0.334) indicated a high population differentiation, with isolation by distance supported by a high correlation. Bayesian analyses, PCA, and UPGMA pointed to three main clusters: (1) Greece and Turkey, (2) Italy and France, and (3) southern Iberia and the Canary Islands. The recent evolutionary history of M. pygmaeus is inferred from the data as follows: (1) the reduction in the geographic distribution of the species to the Iberian, Italian, and Balkan peninsulas, and possibly southern France, during glaciations and re-colonization of northern Europe from its southern refuges; (2) the maintenance of high diversity in Iberia and Italy (and possibly southern France) during contraction periods, and bottlenecks in the Balkans; (3) introgression of the Italian–French lineage in northern Spain

  6. The effects of air mass transport, seasonality, and meteorology on pollutant levels at the Iskrba regional background station (1996-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poberžnik, Matevž; Štrumbelj, Erik

    2016-06-01

    Our main goal was to estimate the effects of long-range air transport on pollutant concentrations measured at the Iskrba regional background station (Slovenia). We cluster back-trajectories into categories and simultaneously model the effects of meteorology, seasonality, trends, and air mass trajectory clusters using a Bayesian statistical approach. This simplifies the interpretation of results and allows us to better identify the effects of individual variables, which is important, because pollutant concentrations, meteorology, and trajectories are seasonal and correlated. Similar to related work from other European sites, we find that slow and faster moving trajectories from eastern Europe and the northern part of the Balkan peninsula are associated with higher pollutant levels, while fast-moving trajectories from the Atlantic are associated with lower pollutant concentration. Overall, pollutant concentrations have decreased in the studied period.

  7. Evidence for long-term migration on the Balkan Peninsula using dental and cranial nonmetric data: Early interaction between corinth (Greece) and its colony at Apollonia (Albania).

    PubMed

    McIlvaine, Britney Kyle; Schepartz, Lynne A; Larsen, Clark Spencer; Sciulli, Paul W

    2014-02-01

    This article seeks to identify "Greeks" and "non-Greeks" in "mixed" mortuary contexts in a Greek colony. Specifically, we test the hypothesis that Illyrian and Greek individuals lived and were buried together at the Corinthian colony of Apollonia, Albania (established ca. 600 BC). The pattern of human biological interaction at Apollonia is tested by identifying variation in genetic relatedness using biodistance analysis of dental and cranial nonmetric traits for three sites: Apollonia (n = 116), its founder-city Corinth (n = 69), and Lofkënd (n = 108), an inland site near Apollonia pre-dating colonization. Logistic regression analysis estimates that individuals from colonial Apollonia are most closely related to prehistoric Illyrian populations (from Lofkënd and prehistoric Apollonia), rather than Greeks (from Corinth). The phenotypic similarity between colonial Apollonia and prehistoric Illyria suggests that there was a large Illyrian contribution to the gene pool at the colony of Apollonia. However, some trait combinations show low biological distances among all groups, suggesting homogeneity among Illyrian and Greek populations (assessed through pseudo-Mahalanobis' D(2) ). The degree of phenotypic similarity suggests shared ancestry and long-term migration throughout these regions. The impacts of missing data and small sample sizes are also considered.

  8. Pleistocene phylogeography and cryptic diversity of a tiger beetle, Calomera littoralis, in North-Eastern Mediterranean and Pontic regions inferred from mitochondrial COI gene sequences

    PubMed Central

    Rewicz, Tomasz; Płóciennik, Mateusz; Grabowski, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Background. Calomera littoralis is a Palearctic species, widely distributed in Europe; inhabiting predominantly its Atlantic, Mediterranean and Black Sea coastlines. Methods. Its phylogeography on the Balkan Peninsula and on the north-western Black Sea coast was inferred using a 697 bp long portion of the mitochondrial COI gene, amplified from 169 individuals collected on 43 localities. Results. The results revealed two genetically divergent groups/lineages, the southern one inhabiting both the Balkan Peninsula and the Pontic Region and the northern one found exclusively in the Pontic Region. Species delimitation based on DNA barcoding gap suggested an interspecific level of divergence between these groups. Multivariate analysis of eight male and female morphometric traits detected no difference between the groups, implying they may represent cryptic species. The Bayesian time-calibrated reconstruction of phylogeny suggested that the lineages diverged ca. 2.3 Ma, in early Pleistocene. Discussion. The presence of the two genetically divergent groups results most likely from contemporary isolation of the Pontic basin from the Mediterranean that broke the continuous strip of coastal habitats inhabited by C. littoralis. Demographic analyses indicated that both lineages have been in demographic and spatial expansion since ca. 0.15 Ma. It coincides with the terminal stage of MIS-6, i.e., Wartanian/Saalian glaciation, and beginning of MIS-5e, i.e., Eemian interglacial, during which, due to eustatic sea level rise, a wide connection between Mediterranean and the Pontic basin was re-established. This, along with re-appearance of coastal habitats could initiate north-east expansion of the southern lineage and its secondary contact with the northern one. The isolation of the Pontic basin from the Mediterranean during the Weichselian glaciation most likely did not have any effect on their phylogeography. PMID:27547517

  9. Pleistocene phylogeography and cryptic diversity of a tiger beetle, Calomera littoralis, in North-Eastern Mediterranean and Pontic regions inferred from mitochondrial COI gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Jaskuła, Radomir; Rewicz, Tomasz; Płóciennik, Mateusz; Grabowski, Michał

    2016-01-01

    Background. Calomera littoralis is a Palearctic species, widely distributed in Europe; inhabiting predominantly its Atlantic, Mediterranean and Black Sea coastlines. Methods. Its phylogeography on the Balkan Peninsula and on the north-western Black Sea coast was inferred using a 697 bp long portion of the mitochondrial COI gene, amplified from 169 individuals collected on 43 localities. Results. The results revealed two genetically divergent groups/lineages, the southern one inhabiting both the Balkan Peninsula and the Pontic Region and the northern one found exclusively in the Pontic Region. Species delimitation based on DNA barcoding gap suggested an interspecific level of divergence between these groups. Multivariate analysis of eight male and female morphometric traits detected no difference between the groups, implying they may represent cryptic species. The Bayesian time-calibrated reconstruction of phylogeny suggested that the lineages diverged ca. 2.3 Ma, in early Pleistocene. Discussion. The presence of the two genetically divergent groups results most likely from contemporary isolation of the Pontic basin from the Mediterranean that broke the continuous strip of coastal habitats inhabited by C. littoralis. Demographic analyses indicated that both lineages have been in demographic and spatial expansion since ca. 0.15 Ma. It coincides with the terminal stage of MIS-6, i.e., Wartanian/Saalian glaciation, and beginning of MIS-5e, i.e., Eemian interglacial, during which, due to eustatic sea level rise, a wide connection between Mediterranean and the Pontic basin was re-established. This, along with re-appearance of coastal habitats could initiate north-east expansion of the southern lineage and its secondary contact with the northern one. The isolation of the Pontic basin from the Mediterranean during the Weichselian glaciation most likely did not have any effect on their phylogeography. PMID:27547517

  10. Genetic diversity, population structure and subdivision of local Balkan pig breeds in Austria, Croatia, Serbia and Bosnia-Herzegovina and its practical value in conservation programs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background At present the Croatian Turopolje pig population comprises about 157 breeding animals. In Austria, 324 Turopolje pigs originating from six Croatian founder animals are registered. Multiple bottlenecks have occurred in this population, one major one rather recently and several more older and moderate ones. In addition, it has been subdivided into three subpopulations, one in Austria and two in Croatia, with restricted gene flow. These specificities explain the delicate situation of this endangered Croatian lard-type pig breed. Methods In order to identify candidate breeding animals or gene pools for future conservation breeding programs, we studied the genetic diversity and population structure of this breed using microsatellite data from 197 individuals belonging to five different breeds. Results The genetic diversity of the Turopolje pig is dramatically low with observed heterozygosities values ranging from 0.38 to 0.57. Split into three populations since 1994, two genetic clusters could be identified: one highly conserved Croatian gene pool in Turopoljski Lug and the"Posavina" gene pool mainly present in the Austrian population. The second Croatian subpopulation in Lonjsko Polje in the Posavina region shows a constant gene flow from the Turopoljski Lug animals. Conclusions One practical conclusion is that it is necessary to develop a "Posavina" boar line to preserve the "Posavina" gene pool and constitute a corresponding population in Croatia. Animals of the highly inbred herd in Turopoljski Lug should not be crossed with animals of other populations since they represent a specific phenotype-genotype combination. However to increase the genetic diversity of this herd, a program to optimize its sex ratio should be carried out, as was done in the Austrian population where the level of heterozygosity has remained moderate despite its heavy bottleneck in 1994. PMID:22376364

  11. Demic and cultural diffusion propagated the Neolithic transition across different regions of Europe.

    PubMed

    Fort, Joaquim

    2015-05-01

    The Neolithic transition is the shift from hunting–gathering into farming. About 9000 years ago, the Neolithic transition began to spread from the Near East into Europe, until it reached Northern Europe about 5500 years ago. There are two main models of this spread. The demic model assumes that it was mainly due to the reproduction and dispersal of farmers. The cultural model assumes that European hunter-gatherers become farmers by acquiring domestic plants and animals, as well as knowledge, from neighbouring farmers. Here we use the dates of about 900 archaeological sites to compute a speed map of the spread of the Neolithic transition in Europe. We compare the speed map to the speed ranges predicted by purely demic, demic-cultural and purely cultural models. The comparison indicates that the transition was cultural in Northern Europe, the Alpine region and west of the Black Sea. But demic diffusion was at work in other regions such as the Balkans and Central Europe. Our models can be applied to many other cultural traits. We also propose that genetic data could be gathered and used to measure the demic kernels of Early Neolithic populations. This would lead to an enormous advance in Neolithic spread modelling.

  12. Plant molecular phylogeography in China and adjacent regions: Tracing the genetic imprints of Quaternary climate and environmental change in the world's most diverse temperate flora.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ying-Xiong; Fu, Cheng-Xing; Comes, Hans Peter

    2011-04-01

    The Sino-Japanese Floristic Region (SJFR) of East Asia harbors the most diverse of the world's temperate flora, and was the most important glacial refuge for its Tertiary representatives ('relics') throughout Quaternary ice-age cycles. A steadily increasing number of phylogeographic studies in the SJFR of mainland China and adjacent areas, including the Qinghai-Tibetan-Plateau (QTP) and Sino-Himalayan region, have documented the population histories of temperate plant species in these regions. Here we review this current literature that challenges the oft-stated view of the SJFR as a glacial sanctuary for temperate plants, instead revealing profound effects of Quaternary changes in climate, topography, and/or sea level on the current genetic structure of such organisms. There are three recurrent phylogeographic scenarios identified by different case studies that broadly agree with longstanding biogeographic or palaeo-ecological hypotheses: (i) postglacial re-colonization of the QTP from (south-)eastern glacial refugia; (ii) population isolation and endemic species formation in Southwest China due to tectonic shifts and river course dynamics; and (iii) long-term isolation and species survival in multiple localized refugia of (warm-)temperate deciduous forest habitats in subtropical (Central/East/South) China. However, in four additional instances, phylogeographic findings seem to conflict with a priori predictions raised by palaeo-data, suggesting instead: (iv) glacial in situ survival of some hardy alpine herbs and forest trees on the QTP platform itself; (v) long-term refugial isolation of (warm-)temperate evergreen taxa in subtropical China; (vi) 'cryptic' glacial survival of (cool-)temperate deciduous forest trees in North China; and (vii) unexpectedly deep (Late Tertiary/early-to-mid Pleistocene) allopatric-vicariant differentiation of disjunct lineages in the East China-Japan-Korea region due to past sea transgressions. We discuss these and other consequences

  13. Plant molecular phylogeography in China and adjacent regions: Tracing the genetic imprints of Quaternary climate and environmental change in the world's most diverse temperate flora.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ying-Xiong; Fu, Cheng-Xing; Comes, Hans Peter

    2011-04-01

    The Sino-Japanese Floristic Region (SJFR) of East Asia harbors the most diverse of the world's temperate flora, and was the most important glacial refuge for its Tertiary representatives ('relics') throughout Quaternary ice-age cycles. A steadily increasing number of phylogeographic studies in the SJFR of mainland China and adjacent areas, including the Qinghai-Tibetan-Plateau (QTP) and Sino-Himalayan region, have documented the population histories of temperate plant species in these regions. Here we review this current literature that challenges the oft-stated view of the SJFR as a glacial sanctuary for temperate plants, instead revealing profound effects of Quaternary changes in climate, topography, and/or sea level on the current genetic structure of such organisms. There are three recurrent phylogeographic scenarios identified by different case studies that broadly agree with longstanding biogeographic or palaeo-ecological hypotheses: (i) postglacial re-colonization of the QTP from (south-)eastern glacial refugia; (ii) population isolation and endemic species formation in Southwest China due to tectonic shifts and river course dynamics; and (iii) long-term isolation and species survival in multiple localized refugia of (warm-)temperate deciduous forest habitats in subtropical (Central/East/South) China. However, in four additional instances, phylogeographic findings seem to conflict with a priori predictions raised by palaeo-data, suggesting instead: (iv) glacial in situ survival of some hardy alpine herbs and forest trees on the QTP platform itself; (v) long-term refugial isolation of (warm-)temperate evergreen taxa in subtropical China; (vi) 'cryptic' glacial survival of (cool-)temperate deciduous forest trees in North China; and (vii) unexpectedly deep (Late Tertiary/early-to-mid Pleistocene) allopatric-vicariant differentiation of disjunct lineages in the East China-Japan-Korea region due to past sea transgressions. We discuss these and other consequences

  14. High genetic differentiation in the alpine plant Campanula alpina Jacq. (Campanulaceae): evidence for glacial survival in several Carpathian regions and long-term isolation between the Carpathians and the Alps.

    PubMed

    Ronikier, M; Cieślak, E; Korbecka, G

    2008-04-01

    A survey of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variation was conducted to elucidate the phylogeography of Campanula alpina, a key species of silicicolous alpine grasslands in the Carpathians with a disjunct distribution in the Eastern European Alps. The Carpathians experienced a different glacial history from the Alps: local glaciers were present only in the highest massifs, while alpine habitats extended over larger areas related to their present distribution in this region. We asked: (i) whether in the Carpathians a high-mountain plant exhibits a complex phylogeographical structure or rather signatures of recent migrations, and (ii) whether the disjunct part of the species' distribution in the Alps resulted from a recent colonization from the Carpathians or from a restricted expansion from separate Eastern Alpine refugia. Our study revealed a clear phylogeographical pattern in AFLPs supported by congruent groups of distinct cpDNA haplotypes. Highest genetic differentiation was observed between the Alps and the Carpathians, indicating a long-term isolation between populations from these two mountain ranges. Further genetic division within the Carpathians suggests that current species' distribution is composed of several groups which have been isolated from each other for a long period. One genetic break separates Western from Southeastern Carpathian material, which is in line with a classical biogeographical boundary. A further, strongly supported genetic group was identified at the southwestern edge of the Carpathian arch. In the Eastern Alps, genetic traces of glacial survival in separate refugial areas in the calcareous northern part and the siliceous central part were found.

  15. Balkanization and Unification of Probabilistic Inferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Chong-Ho

    2005-01-01

    Many research-related classes in social sciences present probability as a unified approach based upon mathematical axioms, but neglect the diversity of various probability theories and their associated philosophical assumptions. Although currently the dominant statistical and probabilistic approach is the Fisherian tradition, the use of Fisherian…

  16. 76 FR 38002 - Western Balkans Stabilization Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States and declared a national... within the possession or control of United States persons, of persons listed in the Annex to E.O. 13219... possession or control of United States persons, of: (i) Persons listed in the Annex to the order,......

  17. Sedimentological imprints of environmental variability at the Balkan Peninsula on the sediment sequence of Lake Ohrid (Macedonia, Albania) between the Mid Pleistocene Transition and present days: The ICDP SCOPSCO project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francke, Alexander; Wagner, Bernd; Leicher, Niklas; Raphael, Gromig; Leng, Melanie; Lacey, Jack; Vogel, Hendrik; Baumgarten, Henrike; Thomas, Wonik; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Roberto, Sulpizio; Krastel, Sebastian; Lindhorst, Katja

    2015-04-01

    The UNESCO World Heritage site of Lake Ohrid in the Balkans is thought to be the oldest, continuously existing lake in Europe. In order to unravel the geological and evolutionary history of the lake, a deep drilling campaign was conducted in spring 2013 under the umbrella of the ICDP SCOPSCO project. At the coring site "DEEP" in central parts of the lake, more than 1,500 m of sediments were recovered down to a penetration depth of 569 m blf. This sediment sequence is assumed to be more than 1.2 Ma old and likely covers the entire lacustrine deposits of the Lake Ohrid Basin. Currently, an age model for the upper 260m of the DEEP- site sequence is available. This age model is based on chronological tie points (tephrochronology), and wiggle matching of down hole logging data and (bio-)geochemistry data (XRF, TIC, TOC) from the core sequence to the global benthic stack LR04 and local insolation patterns. The data suggests that the upper 260 m of the DEEP-site sequence corresponds to the time period between the Mid Pleistocene Transition (MPT) and present days. During this period, the sedimentological properties of the sediments show a strong dependency on environmental variability in the area. Interglacial deposits appear massive or marbled, contain up to 80 % of CaCO3 (high TIC), high amounts of organic matter (high TOC) and biogenic silica (high BSi), and low contents of clastic material. Glacial deposits are predominantly marbled and calcite is generally absent. Similarly, the amounts of organic matter and biogenic silica are low, and glacial sediments predominately consist of clastic matter. Distinct layers of siderite and uniformly distributed Fe- or Mn- oxides occur in the glacial deposits, vivianite concretions occur in both the glacial and interglacial periods. High CaCO3 contents in deposits formed during warm (interglacial) periods are also known from studies on short pilot cores from Lake Ohrid and are triggered by increased productivity in the lake, such as

  18. Returning "Region" to World Regional Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Peter W.; Legates, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    World regional geography textbooks rarely focus on the process of region formation, despite frequent calls to reincorporate a regional approach to teaching global geography. An instructional strategy using problem-based learning in a small honors section of a large world regional geography course is described. Using a hypothetical scenario…

  19. Ionospheric research. [E region, F region, D region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas: D-region theory; E and F-region; wave propagation; mass spectrometer measurements; and atmospheric reactions. Various supporting operations are included: design and construction of instrumentation; and programming.

  20. A glacial survivor of the alpine Mediterranean region: phylogenetic and phylogeographic insights into Silene ciliata Pourr. (Caryophyllaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Iriondo, José María; García-Fernández, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Silene ciliata Pourr. (Caryophyllaceae) is a species with a highly disjunct distribution which inhabits the alpine mountains of the Mediterranean Basin. We investigated the phylogeny and phylogeography of the species to (a) clarify the long-suggested division of S. ciliata into two subspecies, (b) evaluate its phylogenetic origin and (c) assess whether the species’ diversification patterns were affected by the Mediterranean relief. For this purpose, we collected DNA from 25 populations of the species that inhabit the mountains of Portugal, Spain, France, Italy, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria and Greece and studied the plastid regions rbcL, rps16 and trnL. Major intraspecific variation was supported by all analyses, while the possibility of the existence of more varieties or subspecies was not favoured. Plastid DNA (cpDNA) evidence was in accordance with the division of S. ciliata into the two subspecies, one spreading west (Iberian Peninsula and Central Massif) and the other east of the Alps region (Italian and Balkan Peninsula). This study proposes that the species’ geographically disconnected distribution has probably derived from vicariance processes and from the Alps acting as a barrier to the species’ dispersal. The monophyletic origin of the species is highly supported. cpDNA patterns were shown independent of the chromosome evolution in the populations and could have resulted from a combination of geographic factors providing links and barriers, climatic adversities and evolutionary processes that took place during Quaternary glaciations. PMID:26312184

  1. Refugial isolation and range expansions drive the genetic structure of Oxyria sinensis (Polygonaceae) in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lihua; Chen, Gang; Li, Zhonghu; Yang, Yongping; Wang, Zhengkun; Wang, Liuyang

    2015-01-01

    The formation of the Mekong-Salween Divide and climatic oscillations in Pleistocene were the main drivers for the contemporary diversity and genetic structure of plants in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (HHM). To identify the relative roles of the two historical events in shaping population history of plants in HHM, we investigated the phylogeographic pattern of Oxyria sinensis, a perennial plant endemic to the HHM. Sixteen chloroplast haplotypes were identified and were clustered into three phylogenetic clades. The age of the major clades was estimated to be in the Pleistocene, falling into several Pleistocene glacial stages and postdating the formation of the Mekong-Salween Divide. Range expansions occurred at least twice in the early and middle Pleistocene, but the spatial genetic distribution rarely changed since the Last Glacial Maximum. Our results suggest that temporary mountain glaciers may act as barriers in promoting the lineage divergence in O. sinensis and that subsequential range expansions and secondary contacts might reshape the genetic distribution in geography and blur the boundary of population differentiation created in the earlier glacial stages. This study demonstrates that Pleistocene climatic change and mountain glaciers, rather than the Mekong-Salween Divide, play the primary role in shaping the spatial genetic structure of O. sinensis.

  2. Refugial isolation and range expansions drive the genetic structure of Oxyria sinensis (Polygonaceae) in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lihua; Chen, Gang; Li, Zhonghu; Yang, Yongping; Wang, Zhengkun; Wang, Liuyang

    2015-01-01

    The formation of the Mekong-Salween Divide and climatic oscillations in Pleistocene were the main drivers for the contemporary diversity and genetic structure of plants in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (HHM). To identify the relative roles of the two historical events in shaping population history of plants in HHM, we investigated the phylogeographic pattern of Oxyria sinensis, a perennial plant endemic to the HHM. Sixteen chloroplast haplotypes were identified and were clustered into three phylogenetic clades. The age of the major clades was estimated to be in the Pleistocene, falling into several Pleistocene glacial stages and postdating the formation of the Mekong-Salween Divide. Range expansions occurred at least twice in the early and middle Pleistocene, but the spatial genetic distribution rarely changed since the Last Glacial Maximum. Our results suggest that temporary mountain glaciers may act as barriers in promoting the lineage divergence in O. sinensis and that subsequential range expansions and secondary contacts might reshape the genetic distribution in geography and blur the boundary of population differentiation created in the earlier glacial stages. This study demonstrates that Pleistocene climatic change and mountain glaciers, rather than the Mekong-Salween Divide, play the primary role in shaping the spatial genetic structure of O. sinensis. PMID:26013161

  3. Reconstruction of full glacial environments and summer air temperatures from Lago della Costa, a refugial site in northeastern Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samartin, S. V.; Heiri, O.; Boltshauser-Kaltenrieder, P.; Tinner, W.

    2014-12-01

    Vegetation and climate during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) were considerably different than during the current interglacial (Holocene). In Europe large areas north of 40°N were entirely covered by continental ice-sheets and widespread permafrost, with temperatures around 10-20°C lower than at present, whereas further south aridity and temperatures 7-10°C cooler than today occurred. Cool climatic conditions and growing ice-sheets during the LGM radically reduced forest extent and diversity in Europe to a restricted number of so-called "refugia", mostly located in the southern part of the continent. The Euganian Hills in northeastern Italy are supposed to be one of the northernmost refugia of thermophilous mixed oak forest species (e.g. deciduous Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer, Carpinus, Castanea) as well of some temperate mesophilous species (e.g. Fagus sylvatica, Abies alba) in Europe. In this study we present the first European chironomid-based quantitative temperature reconstruction for the LGM and address the question whether climate conditions were warm enough to permit the local survival of Quercetum mixtum species between ca. 31'000-17'000 cal yr BP. Chironomids preserved in a lake sediment core from Lago della Costa (7m a.s.l.), a lake on the border of the Euganean Hills in northeastern Italy, allowed quantitative reconstruction of Full and Late Glacial July air temperatures using a combined Swiss-Norwegian temperature inference model based on chironomid assemblages from 274 lakes. Our results suggest that July air temperatures never fell below 10°C which are considered necessary for forest growth. In general, mild climatic conditions prevailed between ca. 31'000-17'000 cal yr BP with temperatures ranging from ca. 11°C to 15.7°C. The expansion of thermophilous trees such as Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer, Carpinus, Castanea (Quercetum mixtum) between ca. 30'000-23'000 cal yr BP can most likely be explained by climate warming (ca. 14°C), conversely, the local contraction of these taxa between ca. 23'000-18'500 cal yr BP was possibly triggered by cooler summer air temperatures (ca. 13.4°C) and a significant moisture decline during the LGM.

  4. Refugial isolation and divergence in the Narrowheaded Gartersnake species complex (Thamnophis rufipunctatus) as revealed by multilocus DNA sequence data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Dustin A.; Vandergast, A.G.; Espinal, A. Lemos; Fisher, R.N.; Holycross, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    Glacial–interglacial cycles of the Pleistocene are hypothesized as one of the foremost contributors to biological diversification. This is especially true for cold-adapted montane species, where range shifts have had a pronounced effect on population-level divergence. Gartersnakes of the Thamnophis rufipunctatus species complex are restricted to cold headwater streams in the highlands of the Sierra Madre Occidental and southwestern USA. We used coalescent and multilocus phylogenetic approaches to test whether genetic diversification of this montane-restricted species complex is consistent with two prevailing models of range fluctuation for species affected by Pleistocene climate changes. Our concatenated nuDNA and multilocus species analyses recovered evidence for the persistence of multiple lineages that are restricted geographically, despite a mtDNA signature consistent with either more recent connectivity (and introgression) or recent expansion (and incomplete lineage sorting). Divergence times estimated using a relaxed molecular clock and fossil calibrations fall within the Late Pleistocene, and zero gene flow scenarios among current geographically isolated lineages could not be rejected. These results suggest that increased climate shifts in the Late Pleistocene have driven diversification and current range retraction patterns and that the differences between markers reflect the stochasticity of gene lineages (i.e. ancestral polymorphism) rather than gene flow and introgression. These results have important implications for the conservation of T. rufipunctatus (sensu novo), which is restricted to two drainage systems in the southwestern US and has undergone a recent and dramatic decline.

  5. Reconstruction of full glacial environments and summer temperatures from Lago della Costa, a refugial site in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samartin, Stéphanie; Heiri, Oliver; Kaltenrieder, Petra; Kühl, Norbert; Tinner, Willy

    2016-07-01

    Vegetation and climate during the last ice age and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ∼23,000-19,000 cal BP) were considerably different than during the current interglacial (Holocene). Cold climatic conditions and growing ice-sheets during the last glaciation radically reduced forest extent in Europe to a restricted number of so-called "refugia", mostly located in the southern part of the continent. On the basis of paleobotanical analyses the Euganian Hills (Colli Euganei) in northeastern Italy have previously been proposed as one of the northernmost refugia of temperate trees (e.g. deciduous Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer, Abies alba, Fagus sylvatica, Carpinus and Castanea) in Europe. In this study we provide the first quantitative, vegetation independent summer air temperature reconstruction for Northern Italy spanning the time ∼31,000-17,000 cal yr BP, which covers the coldest periods of the last glacial, including the LGM and Heinrich stadials 1 to 3. Chironomids preserved in a lake sediment core from Lago della Costa (7m a.s.l.), a small lake at the south-eastern edge of the Euganean Hills, allowed quantitative reconstruction of Full and Late Glacial summer air temperatures using a combined Swiss-Norwegian temperature inference model based on chironomid assemblages from 274 lakes. Chironomid and pollen evidence from Lago della Costa derives from finely stratified autochthonous organic gyttja sediments, which excludes major sediment mixing or reworking. After reconstructing paleo-temperatures, we address the question whether climate conditions were warm enough to permit the local survival of temperate tree species during the LGM and whether local expansions and pollen-inferred contractions of temperate tree taxa coincided with chironomid-inferred climatic changes. Our results suggest that chironomids at Lago della Costa have responded to major climatic fluctuations such as temperature decreases during the LGM and Heinrich stadials. The vegetation of the Euganean Hills shows responses to these climatic oscillations although the effects of temperature changes were probably also strongly influenced by changes in humidity. Reconstructed July air temperatures at Lago della Costa never fell below 10-13 °C (error range of reconstruction ∼ ±1.5-1.6 °C), which is considerably above the limit considered necessary for forest growth (8-10 °C). Instead rather mild climatic conditions prevailed ∼31,000-17,000 cal yr BP with average summer temperatures between ∼12 and 16 °C, which most likely allowed survival of temperate tree taxa in the warmest (and moistest) microhabitats of the Euganean Hills during the LGM. Only assuming local survival is it possible to explain the repeated expansions and collapses of temperate trees at Lago della Costa which faithfully accompanied the climatic oscillations.

  6. Ephemeral regions versus pseudo ephemeral regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, S. F.; Livi, S. H. B.; Wang, J.; Shi, Z.

    1985-01-01

    New studies of the quiet Sun reveal that ephemeral active regions constitute minority rather than a majority of all the short lived, small scale bipolar features on the Sun. In contrast to the recognized patterns of growth and decay of ephemeral regions, various examples of the creation of other temporary bipoles nicknamed pseudo ephemeral regions are illustrated. The pseudo ephemeral regions are the consequence of combinations of small scale dynamic processes of the quiet Sun including: (1) fragmentation of network magnetic fields, (2) the separation of opposite polarity halves of ephemeral regions as they grow and evolve, and (3) the coalescence of weak network or intranetwork magnetic fields. New observations offer the possibility of resolving the discrepancies that have arisen in the association of ephemeral regions with X-ray bright points. Many X-ray bright points may be related to those pseudo ephemeral regions which have begun to exhibit magnetic flux loss.

  7. Regional Sustainable Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional sustainable environmental management is an interdisciplinary effort to develop a sufficient understanding of the interactions between ecosystems, the economy, law, and technology to formulate effective long-term management strategies on a regional scale. Regional sustai...

  8. Measurements of daily urinary uranium excretion in German peacekeeping personnel and residents of the Kosovo region to assess potential intakes of depleted uranium (DU).

    PubMed

    Oeh, U; Priest, N D; Roth, P; Ragnarsdottir, K V; Li, W B; Höllriegl, V; Thirlwall, M F; Michalke, B; Giussani, A; Schramel, P; Paretzke, H G

    2007-08-01

    Following the end of the Kosovo conflict, in June 1999, a study was instigated to evaluate whether there was a cause for concern of health risk from depleted uranium (DU) to German peacekeeping personnel serving in the Balkans. In addition, the investigations were extended to residents of Kosovo and southern Serbia, who lived in areas where DU ammunitions were deployed. In order to assess a possible DU intake, both the urinary uranium excretion of volunteer residents and water samples were collected and analysed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). More than 1300 urine samples from peacekeeping personnel and unexposed controls of different genders and age were analysed to determine uranium excretion parameters. The urine measurements for 113 unexposed subjects revealed a daily uranium excretion rate with a geometric mean of 13.9 ng/d (geometric standard deviation (GSD)=2.17). The analysis of 1228 urine samples from the peacekeeping personnel resulted in a geometric mean of 12.8 ng/d (GSD=2.60). It follows that both unexposed controls and peacekeeping personnel excreted similar amounts of uranium. Inter-subject variation in uranium excretion was high and no significant age-specific differences were found. The second part of the study monitored 24 h urine samples provided by selected residents of Kosovo and adjacent regions of Serbia compared to controls from Munich, Germany. Total uranium and isotope ratios were measured in order to determine DU content. (235)U/(238)U ratios were within +/-0.3% of the natural value, and (236)U/(238)U was less than 2 x 10(-7), indicating no significant DU in any of the urine samples provided, despite total uranium excretion being relatively high in some cases. Measurements of ground and tap water samples from regions where DU munitions were deployed did not show any contamination with DU, except in one sample. It is concluded that both peacekeeping personnel and residents serving or living in the Balkans

  9. Kinematic reconstructions and magmatic evolution illuminating crustal and mantle dynamics of the eastern Mediterranean region since the late Cretaceous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menant, Armel; Jolivet, Laurent; Vrielynck, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between subduction dynamics and crustal deformation in the Mediterranean region has been recently studied using three-dimensional (3D) models. Such models require, however, detailed information concerning the past geological evolution. We use stratigraphic, petrologic, metamorphic, structural, paleomagnetic and magmatic data to build new kinematic reconstructions of the eastern Mediterranean region since the late Cretaceous using the principle of non-rigid domains. The motions of the 56 deforming domains defined in this work are calculated based on published paleomagnetic rotations, the directions and amounts of displacement on crustal-scale shear zones and the burial and exhumation histories of the main metamorphic units. Extracted from these reconstructions, paleotectonic maps and lithospheric-scale cross-sections illustrate that the present-day subduction zone has been continuously retreating southward since the late Cretaceous and has accreted several small continental domains in the process. We find evidence for two back-arc-related extensional events: (1) slow extension along the Balkans and the Pontides in the late Cretaceous while the trench was long and linear and (2) faster extension in the Rhodope-Aegean-west Anatolian region since the Eocene-Oligocene. Rapid rotation of the Hellenides between 15 and 8 Ma probably indicates a slab tearing event below western Anatolia that could have further accelerated this extensional kinematics. Spatial distribution and the geochemical signature of magmatic centers integrated in these reconstructions allow us to trace mantle-related processes revealing the deep dynamics that controls both the magma genesis and the crustal deformation.

  10. Imaging crustal roots in the Europe-Mediterranean region: a surface wave perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villaseñor, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The thickness of crustal roots is a fundamental constrain to understand the geodynamic evolution of mountain ranges. Crustal thickness can be inferred from a variety of geophysical observables (e.g. gravity anomalies, active and passive seismic methods, etc). Deep seismic sounding (DSS) using controlled sources usually provides the most accurate images of the crustal structure and thickness. However it is an expensive method, and often only used for 2D profiles. On the other hand, passive seismology experiments based on earthquakes or ambient noise have generally lower resolution, but are cheaper to conduct and can provide 3D images. As a result of the success of USArray, experiments consisting of dense deployments of broadband seismometers have become the modern standard approach for imaging continental regions. This, in combination with the densification of permanent regional monitoring networks and the use of seismic ambient noise, has allowed to use surface waves to image with increased resolution regions such as Europe and the Mediterranean basin. Surface waves are not very sensitive to the location of discontinuities such as the Moho, but can provide good constraints on the lateral variation of crustal thickness. Here, by combining continuous recordings of array experiments and permanent networks, I present a new tomographic model of surface wave velocities in the Europe-Mediterranean region that can be used as a proxy for crustal thickness. Large low velocity anomalies corresponding to thick crust are observed as expected in mountain ranges such as the Atlas, Pyrenees and Alps where crustal thickening has occurred as a result of continental collision. In addition, similarly large low velocity anomalies are observed in regions where slab roll-back/break-off has occurred (Betic-Rif, NW and SE Carpathians, Apennines, western Balkan peninsula). While these anomalies might not all be originated by thick crust, in some cases such as the Rif-western Betics

  11. Utah: Salt Lake Region

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region     View Larger Image Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the ...

  12. [Regional aging in Germany].

    PubMed

    Bucher, H

    1996-01-01

    Elderly people in Germany have a specific regional distribution. Recent regional population projections show that these patterns will change. The most dynamic process of aging will take place in the suburban parts of the large western Germany agglomerations, whereas in eastern Germany aging concentrates in regions with a lower density. There will be a regional deconcentration of elderly people with consequences for the planning of infrastructure.

  13. Learning Regions in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thinesse-Demel, Jutta

    2010-01-01

    In 2000, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) launched the programme "Learning Regions--Providing Support for Networks'" in cooperation with the Lander. It was co-financed by the European Social Fund (ESF). Some 90 regions were selected and financially supported. After one year, 71 regions continued to build-up their…

  14. Regional flood frequency analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book, the fourth of a four volume set, contains five sections encompassing major aspects of regional flood frequency analysis. Each section starts usually with an invited state-of-the-art paper followed by contributed papers. The first section provides an assessment of regional flood frequency analysis. Methods for performing regional frequency analysis for ungaged watersheds are presented in Section 2. More discussion on regional frequency analysis is provided in Section 3. Selection and comparison of regional frequency methods are dealt with in Section 4; these are of great interest to the user. Increasing attention is being focused these days on paleohydrologic flood analysis. This topic is covered in Section 5.

  15. Reversed-polarity regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, F.

    1982-01-01

    It is found by a statistical study of 58 reversed-polarity regions (RPRs) covering the 11-year period 1969-1979 that RPRs (1) have a lifespan comparable to normal active regions, (2) do not show a tendency to rotate toward a more normal alignment, and (3) have stable configurations that do not suggest stress due to their anomalous magnetic alignment. As in normal regions, RPR magnetic complexity is found to be the primary factor in flare productivity. Weak-field RPRs produce no flares, and regions with complex spots produce more flares than regions with non-complex spots by a factor of five. The main difference between RPRs and normal regions lies in complex spot frequency, with less that 17% of normal active regions having such spots and fewer than 1.8% having long-lived complex ones, while 41% of RPRs have complex spots and 24% have long-lived complex spots.

  16. The crisis of regionalization.

    PubMed

    Marchildon, Gregory P

    2015-11-01

    Currently in Canada, there is no consensus concerning the efficacy of regionalization, a reversal of the strong commitment in favour only a decade earlier. Instead, provincial governments are either dismantling regional health authorities in favour of highly centralized structures under the control of ministries of health or actively considering more centralized approaches. There is a general feeling among political leaders that regionalization has failed to achieve its original objectives. However, by not including physicians and primary care within regionalized governance, provincial governments have never given regionalization a real chance. Moreover, given the fact that the status quo prior to regionalization was far from an ideal state and would be almost impossible to return to in any event, some provincial governments should consider implementing a more full-blooded version of regionalization before abandoning the approach.

  17. Morphologically Cryptic Amphipod Species Are "Ecological Clones" at Regional but Not at Local Scale: A Case Study of Four Niphargus Species.

    PubMed

    Fišer, Žiga; Altermatt, Florian; Zakšek, Valerija; Knapič, Tea; Fišer, Cene

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that morphologically cryptic species may be ecologically more different than would be predicted from their morphological similarity and phylogenetic relatedness. However, in biodiversity research it often remains unclear whether cryptic species should be treated as ecologically equivalent, or whether detected differences have ecological significance. In this study, we assessed the ecological equivalence of four morphologically cryptic species of the amphipod genus Niphargus. All species live in a small, isolated area on the Istrian Peninsula in the NW Balkans. The distributional ranges of the species are partially overlapping and all species are living in springs. We reconstructed their ecological niches using morphological traits related to feeding, bioclimatic niche envelope and species' preference for epi-hypogean habitats. The ecological meaning of differences in niches was evaluated using distributional data and co-occurrence frequencies. We show that the species comprise two pairs of sister species. All species differ from each other and the degree of differentiation is not related to phylogenetic relatedness. Moreover, low co-occurrence frequencies in sympatric zones imply present or past interspecific competition. This pattern suggests that species are not differentiated enough to reduce interspecific competition, nor ecologically equivalent to co-exist via neutral dynamics. We tentatively conclude that the question of ecological equivalence relates to the scale of the study: at a fine scale, species' differences may influence dynamics in a local community, whereas at the regional level these species likely play roughly similar ecological roles.

  18. Morphologically Cryptic Amphipod Species Are “Ecological Clones” at Regional but Not at Local Scale: A Case Study of Four Niphargus Species

    PubMed Central

    Fišer, Žiga; Altermatt, Florian; Zakšek, Valerija; Knapič, Tea; Fišer, Cene

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that morphologically cryptic species may be ecologically more different than would be predicted from their morphological similarity and phylogenetic relatedness. However, in biodiversity research it often remains unclear whether cryptic species should be treated as ecologically equivalent, or whether detected differences have ecological significance. In this study, we assessed the ecological equivalence of four morphologically cryptic species of the amphipod genus Niphargus. All species live in a small, isolated area on the Istrian Peninsula in the NW Balkans. The distributional ranges of the species are partially overlapping and all species are living in springs. We reconstructed their ecological niches using morphological traits related to feeding, bioclimatic niche envelope and species’ preference for epi-hypogean habitats. The ecological meaning of differences in niches was evaluated using distributional data and co-occurrence frequencies. We show that the species comprise two pairs of sister species. All species differ from each other and the degree of differentiation is not related to phylogenetic relatedness. Moreover, low co-occurrence frequencies in sympatric zones imply present or past interspecific competition. This pattern suggests that species are not differentiated enough to reduce interspecific competition, nor ecologically equivalent to co-exist via neutral dynamics. We tentatively conclude that the question of ecological equivalence relates to the scale of the study: at a fine scale, species’ differences may influence dynamics in a local community, whereas at the regional level these species likely play roughly similar ecological roles. PMID:26226375

  19. REGIONAL EMAP PROPOSALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA's Environmental Assessment and Monitoring Program (EMAP) annually funds regional EMAP (REMAP) projects through each of the regions to support the improvement of monitoring activities by the states. The last call for proposals emphasized the need to support biological m...

  20. New Lessons in Regionalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peirce, Neal R.

    1998-01-01

    From the hierarchical, governmental, industrial, military model of the 20th century, society is moving rapidly toward a globalized, interactive market. This new order is tailor-made for regional development but also challenges regions to think and act strategically in a world of weakened central governments and growing international currency…

  1. Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

  2. Regional anesthesia for laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Collins, L M; Vaghadia, H

    2001-03-01

    A variety of laparoscopic procedures can be performed on patients under regional anesthesia. Diagnostic laparoscopy in elective and emergency patients, pain mapping, laparoscopy for infertility, and tubal sterilization are some examples. The key benefits of regional anesthesia include less emesis, less postoperative pain, shorter postoperative stay, improved patient satisfaction, and overall safety. Regional techniques, such as rectus sheath blocks, inguinal blocks, and caudal blocks, are useful adjuncts to general anesthesia and facilitate postoperative analgesia. Other techniques, such as spinal and epidural anesthesia, and combination of the two, are suitable as a sole anesthetic technique for laparoscopy. The physiologic changes during laparoscopy in the awake patient appear to be tolerated well under regional anesthesia. It is reasonable to assume that with advances in instrumentation and surgical techniques, the role of laparoscopy will increase in the future. The benefits conferred by regional anesthesia make it an attractive option to general anesthesia for many patients and procedures. Successful implementation of regional anesthesia is an important determinant of how anesthesiologists, surgeons, and surgical facilities cope with new challenges. In the future, it could be possible to provide "walk-in/walk-out" regional anesthesia with a real possibility of fast tracking patients through the recovery process after ambulatory surgery. For maximal patient safety, however, facilities offering regional anesthesia must have appropriately trained anesthesia personnel and the equipment necessary for monitoring and providing full resuscitation in the event of complications or a need to convert to general anesthesia. PMID:11244919

  3. South Persian Gulf Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This oblique view of the south Persian Gulf region (26.0N, 54.0E) was taken over Iran looking west across the south Persian Gulf into the Trucial Coast of the United Arab Emirates and the prominent Qatar peninsula. Rich in petroleum resources, this region supplies much of the world's oil needs from its many ports and off shore loading facilities.

  4. Spatiotemporal characterization of very long dry spells in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, Florian; Ullmann, Albin; Camberlin, Pierre; Drobinski, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Mediterranean winter precipitations (September to April) are important for annual water resources, summer ground moisture, vegetation and agriculture. Decrease of precipitation during this season may cause many important economic and social impacts. The study focuses on the identification and variability analyze of very long dry spells (VLDS) in the Mediterranean region, relying on observations. E-obs Data grid from ECA&D are used to 0.25° spatial resolution to the 1957-2013 period. ERA-40 (1957-1979) and ERA-Interim (1979-2013) reanalysis data from ECMWF are then used to associate different and oceanic forcings to the very long dry spells events. 76 events are detected throughout the Mediterranean Basin for a total duration of 4423 days (33% of the 13364 studied days). Clustering analysis was applied to the 76 events and have detected 5 cluster. Cluster 1 (called North-West Mediterranean) regroups 13 VLDS events who's mainly located in the Iberian Peninsula and France. Cluster 2 (Generalized) regroups 23 events who's dispersed throughout the entire Mediterranean Basin. Cluster 3 (West-Mediterranean) regroups 5 events VLDS events who's mainly located in the Iberian Peninsula and Maghreb countries (Morocco and Algeria). Cluster 4 (North-East Mediterranean) regroups 11 events who's mainly located in the Balkan region. The last cluster (South-East Mediterranean) regroups 24 events mainly located on the Middle East. All the events are associated with anticyclonic conditions, except events of the cluster 5 (South-East Mediterranean), who's associated with heat low conditions. This study also assesses the ability of regional climate simulations performed within the context of the HyMeX (Drobinski et al. 2014) and MED-CORDEX programs (Ruti et al. 2015) to represent the spatio-temporal characteristics of very long dry spells, to the 1979-2009 period. CCLM4, LMDZ4 and LMDZ4NEMOMED8 strongly overestimate the duration of VLDS in Middle East and Anatolia. Globally, the 5

  5. Reversed-polarity regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, F.

    1980-01-01

    The 58 RPRS studied have a lifespan comparable to normal active regions and have no tendency to rotate toward a more normal alignment. They seem to have stable configurations with no apparent evidence suggesting stress due to their anomalous magnetic alignment. Magnetic complexity in RPRs is the key to flare productivity just as it is in normal regions - weak field RPRs produced no flares and regions with complex spots produced more flares than regions with noncomplex spots by a factor of 5. The RPRs however, differ from normal regions in the frequency of having complex spots, particularly the long lived complex spots, in them. Less than 17 percent of normal ARs have complex spots; less than 1.8 percent have long lived complex spots. In contrast, 41 percent of RPRs have complex spots and 24 percent have long lived complex spots.

  6. Modeling the transition region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Bart A.

    1993-01-01

    The current status of transition-region models is reviewed in this report. To understand modeling problems, various flow features that influence the transition process are discussed first. Then an overview of the different approaches to transition-region modeling is given. This is followed by a detailed discussion of turbulence models and the specific modifications that are needed to predict flows undergoing laminar-turbulent transition. Methods for determining the usefulness of the models are presented, and an outlook for the future of transition-region modeling is suggested.

  7. Regional ocean data assimilation.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Christopher A; Moore, Andrew M; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Cornuelle, Bruce D

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal regions. As in weather prediction, the accurate representation of physical, chemical, and/or biological properties in the ocean is challenging. Models and observations alone provide imperfect representations of the ocean state, but together they can offer improved estimates. Variational and sequential methods are among the most widely used in regional ocean systems, and there have been exciting recent advances in ensemble and four-dimensional variational approaches. These techniques are increasingly being tested and adapted for biogeochemical applications.

  8. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. ... in skin temperature, color, or texture Intense burning pain Extreme skin sensitivity Swelling and stiffness in affected ...

  9. Mercury's South Polar Region

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows 89 wide-angle camera (WAC) images of Mercury’s south polar region acquired by the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) over one complete Mercury solar day (176 Earth days). Thi...

  10. Regional Instrumentation Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromie, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on the activities of regional instrumentation centers that utilize the state-of-the-art instruments and methodology in basic scientific research. The emphasis is on the centers involved in mass spectroscopy, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, lasers, and accelerators. (SA)

  11. On regional geomagnetic charts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alldredge, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    When regional geomagnetic charts for areas roughly the size of the US were compiled by hand, some large local anomalies were displayed in the isomagnetic lines. Since the late 1960s, when the compilation of charts using computers and mathematical models was started, most of the details available in the hand drawn regional charts have been lost. One exception to this is the Canadian magnetic declination chart for 1980. This chart was constructed using a 180 degrees spherical harmonic model. -from Author

  12. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.D.

    1992-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

  13. LAMPF transition region

    SciTech Connect

    Sander, O.R.

    1982-06-01

    After describing the transition region between the LAMPF drift-tube linac and side-coupled linac, we discuss the function of the region, its present shortcomings, and the need for a redesign. Then we present the new design, its advantages, and its expected performance. Included are detailed results of beam-dynamics studies giving the ranges of input- and output-beam shapes that can be successfully matched in the new transition region. To improve the present operation of the two linacs, we suggest small changes that will allow us to easily match the beam between the two linacs. Finally we describe the methods used in our beam-dynamic studies so that effects of future improvements to the new design can be examined.

  14. Turbulence in HII regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'dell, C. R.

    1986-10-01

    It has been known for many decades that the Reynolds number in HII regions must be very high and that the corresponding fine scale flow must be turbulent. Even though the theoretical relation between turbulent element separation and random velocity was derived by Kolmogoroff over forty years ago, there have been only a few attempts to test this theory and its corresponding assumptions. An attempt by Munch for M42 with marginal velocity resolution lead to ambiguous results, although more recent studies by Jean Rene Roy and his colleagues have been more credible. The internal velocities of a number of HII regions were systematically studied and the theory was tested with considerable certainty. The results should be important for the determination of the energy balance of HII regions and the relation of small scale motion to the process of star formation.

  15. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory.

  16. NV PFA Regional Data

    SciTech Connect

    James Faulds

    2015-10-28

    This project focused on defining geothermal play fairways and development of a detailed geothermal potential map of a large transect across the Great Basin region (96,000 km2), with the primary objective of facilitating discovery of commercial-grade, blind geothermal fields (i.e. systems with no surface hot springs or fumaroles) and thereby accelerating geothermal development in this promising region. Data included in this submission consists of: structural settings (target areas, recency of faulting, slip and dilation potential, slip rates, quality), regional-scale strain rates, earthquake density and magnitude, gravity data, temperature at 3 km depth, permeability models, favorability models, degree of exploration and exploration opportunities, data from springs and wells, transmission lines and wilderness areas, and published maps and theses for the Nevada Play Fairway area.

  17. ORIC central region calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.D.; Dowling, D.T.; Lane, S.N.; Mosko, S.W.; Olsen, D.K.; Tatum, B.A.

    1995-12-31

    The central region for the K = 100 Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron, ORIC, will be modified to provide better orbit centering, focusing of orbits in the axial direction, and phase selection, in order to improve extraction efficiency, and reduce radioactive activation of cyclotron components. The central region is specifically designed for the acceleration of intense light ion beams such as 60 MeV protons and 15--100 MeV alphas. These beams will be used in the production of radioactive atoms in the Radioactive Ion Beam Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  18. REGIONAL CONFERENCE SUMMARIES, 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    AN AVERAGE OF 200 TEACHER EDUCATORS, STATE DIRECTORS, LAYMEN, AND REPRESENTATIVES OF VARIOUS AGENCIES ATTENDED EACH OF NINE REGIONAL CONFERENCES CONDUCTED THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES TO DISCUSS THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGES AND PROBLEMS IN PLANNING AND CONDUCTING VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS. MAJOR SPEECHES PRESENTED…

  19. Recipe for Regional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    1994-01-01

    The Ceramics Corridor has created new jobs in New York's Appalachian region by fostering ceramics research and product development by small private companies. Corridor business incubators offer tenants low overhead costs, fiber-optic connections to Alfred University's mainframe computer, rental of lab space, and use of equipment small companies…

  20. Multiethnic Societies and Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, John H., II

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that sociology must reconceptualize the meaning of multiethnic societies and regions and also advance theories about how such social organizations came into being and transform themselves through conflicting and peaceful processes. Briefly reviews traditional approaches and outlines new areas of study. (MJP)

  1. Regionalism. Clip and Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the art movement, called Regionalism, discussing the painters involved and describing the characteristics of the art movement. Provides a set of learning activities and background information on John Steuart Curry. Includes a discussion of Curry's painting, "Tornado Over Kansas," and a reproduction of the painting. (CMK)

  2. MISR Regional SAMUM Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... Regional products:  Radiance ,  Aerosol , and  Land Surface . Each product summarizes selected parameters from one Level 1 or ... the  MISR SAMUM data table . Images available on this web site include the following parameters: Image Description ...

  3. MISR Regional VBBE Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... Regional products:  Radiance ,  Aerosol , and  Land Surface . Each product summarizes selected parameters from one Level 1 or ... the  MISR VBBE data table . Images available on this web site include the following parameters: Image Description ...

  4. Climatic Concepts and Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    Designed for students in grades 7 through 12, this teaching unit presents illustrative resource materials depicting concepts related to climate and geographic regions. Emphasis is on giving students an understanding of climatic elements and factors, not as isolated, disjointed entities, but as a dynamic interplay of forces having a very definite…

  5. Australia's Regional Youth Exodus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines media coverage of youth outmigration from Tasmania in the context of Australia's regional crisis. Focuses on how young people are constructed by others and positioned in others' visions of their rural home towns. Discusses two recurring narratives: strategies to keep youth at home, and preoccupation with the "best and brightest" young…

  6. Benchmarks: WICHE Region 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Benchmarks: WICHE Region 2012 presents information on the West's progress in improving access to, success in, and financing of higher education. The information is updated annually to monitor change over time and encourage its use as a tool for informed discussion in policy and education communities. To establish a general context for the…

  7. High regional genetic diversity and lack of host-specificity in Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) as revealed by mtDNA variation.

    PubMed

    Piwczyński, M; Pabijan, M; Grzywacz, A; Glinkowski, W; Bereś, P K; Buszko, J

    2016-08-01

    The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) infests a wide array of host plants and is considered one of the most serious pests of maize in Europe. Recent studies suggest that individuals feeding on maize in Europe should be referred to O. nubilalis (sensu nov.), while those infesting dicots as Ostrinia scapulalis (sensu nov.). We test if the clear genetic distinctiveness among individuals of O. nubilalis living on maize vs. dicots is tracked by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We used fragments of COI and COII genes of 32 individuals traditionally recognized as O. nubilalis collected on three host plants, maize, mugwort and hop, growing in different parts of Poland. In addition, we reconstructed the mtDNA phylogeny of Ostrinia species based on our data and sequences retrieved from GenBank to assess host and/or biogeographic patterns. We also compared haplotype variation found in Poland (east-central Europe) with other regions (Anatolia, Eastern Europe, Balkans, Far East, North America). Our study showed high mtDNA diversity of O. nubilalis in Poland in comparison with other regions and revealed rare haplotypes likely of Asian origin. We did not find distinct mtDNA haplotypes in larvae feeding on maize vs. dicotyledonous plants. Phylogenetic analyses showed an apparent lack of mtDNA divergence among putatively distinct lineages belonging to the O. nubilalis group as identical haplotypes are shared by Asian and European individuals. We argue that human-mediated dispersal, hybridization and sporadic host jumps are likely responsible for the lack of a geographic pattern in mtDNA variation. PMID:27019346

  8. Statistical region merging.

    PubMed

    Nock, Richard; Nielsen, Frank

    2004-11-01

    This paper explores a statistical basis for a process often described in computer vision: image segmentation by region merging following a particular order in the choice of regions. We exhibit a particular blend of algorithmics and statistics whose segmentation error is, as we show, limited from both the qualitative and quantitative standpoints. This approach can be efficiently approximated in linear time/space, leading to a fast segmentation algorithm tailored to processing images described using most common numerical pixel attribute spaces. The conceptual simplicity of the approach makes it simple to modify and cope with hard noise corruption, handle occlusion, authorize the control of the segmentation scale, and process unconventional data such as spherical images. Experiments on gray-level and color images, obtained with a short readily available C-code, display the quality of the segmentations obtained.

  9. Active region seismology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdan, Tom; Braun, D. C.

    1995-01-01

    Active region seismology is concerned with the determination and interpretation of the interaction of the solar acoustic oscillations with near-surface target structures, such as magnetic flux concentration, sunspots, and plage. Recent observations made with a high spatial resolution and a long temporal duration enabled measurements of the scattering matrix for sunspots and solar active regions to be carried out as a function of the mode properties. Based on this information, the amount of p-mode absorption, partial-wave phase shift, and mode mixing introduced by the sunspot, could be determined. In addition, the possibility of detecting the presence of completely submerged magnetic fields was raised, and new procedures for performing acoustic holography of the solar interior are being developed. The accumulating evidence points to the mode conversion of p-modes to various magneto-atmospheric waves within the magnetic flux concentration as being the unifying physical mechanism responsible for these diverse phenomena.

  10. Arctic region mapping tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-08-01

    An interactive online mapping tool is now available to assist with scientific, environmental, and emergency response needs in the Arctic region, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) announced on 31 July. The Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) already has been used in other regions, including in the Gulf of Mexico, as part of the response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010. The tool—which is a product of the combined work of NOAA, the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE), the University of New Hampshire, and others—offers near-real time oceanographic observations, weather data, environmental and commercial information, and other data.

  11. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  12. Northwest Regional Climate Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipschultz, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Objectives are to establish a continuing, inclusive National process that: 1) synthesizes relevant science and information 2) increases understanding of what is known & not known 3) identifies information needs related to preparing for climate variability and change, and reducing climate impacts and vulnerability 4) evaluates progress of adaptation & mitigation activities 5) informs science priorities 6) builds assessment capacity in regions and sectors 7) builds understanding & skilled use of findings

  13. Complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bruehl, Stephen

    2015-07-29

    Complex regional pain syndrome is a chronic pain condition characterized by autonomic and inflammatory features. It occurs acutely in about 7% of patients who have limb fractures, limb surgery, or other injuries. Many cases resolve within the first year, with a smaller subset progressing to the chronic form. This transition is often paralleled by a change from "warm complex regional pain syndrome," with inflammatory characteristics dominant, to "cold complex regional pain syndrome" in which autonomic features dominate. Multiple peripheral and central mechanisms seem to be involved, the relative contributions of which may differ between individuals and over time. Possible contributors include peripheral and central sensitization, autonomic changes and sympatho-afferent coupling, inflammatory and immune alterations, brain changes, and genetic and psychological factors. The syndrome is diagnosed purely on the basis of clinical signs and symptoms. Effective management of the chronic form of the syndrome is often challenging. Few high quality randomized controlled trials are available to support the efficacy of the most commonly used interventions. Reviews of available randomized trials suggest that physical and occupational therapy (including graded motor imagery and mirror therapy), bisphosphonates, calcitonin, subanesthetic intravenous ketamine, free radical scavengers, oral corticosteroids, and spinal cord stimulation may be effective treatments. Multidisciplinary clinical care, which centers around functionally focused therapies is recommended. Other interventions are used to facilitate engagement in functional therapies and to improve quality of life.

  14. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, Michael B.; Dennison, Deborah; Kane, Jave; Walker, Hoyt; Miller, Paul

    2015-08-01

    The fallout from a nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill 100,000 or more people through exposure to external gamma (fallout) radiation. Existing buildings can reduce radiation exposure by placing material between fallout particles and exposed people. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was tasked with developing an operationally feasible methodology that could improve fallout casualty estimates. The methodology, called a Regional Shelter Analysis, combines the fallout protection that existing buildings provide civilian populations with the distribution of people in various locations. The Regional Shelter Analysis method allows the consideration of (a) multiple building types and locations within buildings, (b) country specific estimates, (c) population posture (e.g., unwarned vs. minimally warned), and (d) the time of day (e.g., night vs. day). The protection estimates can be combined with fallout predictions (or measurements) to (a) provide a more accurate assessment of exposure and injury and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of various casualty mitigation strategies. This report describes the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology, highlights key operational aspects (including demonstrating that the methodology is compatible with current tools), illustrates how to implement the methodology, and provides suggestions for future work.

  15. The Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Tagica, K

    1993-03-01

    Population education in the Pacific region is summarized in terms of awareness and commitment, curriculum and instructional materials development, integration into the school curricula, training programs, and evaluation research. Several population education issues of current concern relate to the increase in chronic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension that are associated with life styles and diet, and the rising incidence of AIDS and teenage pregnancy. In the Pacific region, many countries have advanced population programs and policies, while some still do not even have a population policy. The issue of balancing population and resources is a topic that has not been sufficiently addressed in resource-poor countries. There is wide variance in awareness and commitment to population education in the Pacific region. Commitment and continuous support are crucial to population education projects. Lack of support is sometimes due to changing government personnel and lack of awareness of policy makers. Population education is not the same as family planning or sex education, and traditionally is spread through seminars and workshops by part time project personnel unconnected to the entire educational apparatus. Presently, only 8 population projects are functioning in the region, with 2-3 in the planning stages. Materials development in the Pacific region has been devoted to the secondary school level, yet awareness is increasing that sexuality, family health, and the environment should be introduced at the primary level. A popular strategy is to integrate population issues into the existing curriculum, such as in Fiji, the Marshall Islands, and Kiribati, which also have teacher training curriculum. In most countries sex education is still a controversial topic, and materials are developed by teacher committees working after school rather in a curriculum development unit. AIDS has pushed this topic into the public sector. A chart is provided for each country and

  16. Venus - Eistla Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This Magellan image is of an area located in the Eistla Region of Venus in the southern hemisphere and is centered at 5.5 degrees east longitude, 18 degrees south latitude. It is 122 kilometers (76 miles) across east to west and 107 kilometers (66 miles) north to south. North is at the top of the image. Shown is an unusual volcanic edifice unlike all others previously observed. It is approximately 66 kilometers (41 miles) across at the base and has a relatively flat, slightly concave summit 35 kilometers (22 miles) in diameter. The sides of the edifice are characterized by radiating ridges and valleys that impart a fluted appearance. To the west, the rim of the structure appears to have been breached by dark lava flows that emanated from a shallow summit pit approximately 5 kilometers (3 miles) in diameter and traveled west along a channel approximately 5 kilometers wide and 27 kilometers (17 miles) long. A series of coalescing, collapsed pits 2 to 10 kilometers (1.2 to 6.2 miles) in diameter are located 10 kilometers (6 miles) west of the summit. The edifice and western pits are circumscribed by faint, concentric lineaments up to 70 kilometers (43 miles) in diameter. A series of north northwest trending graben are deflected eastward around the edifice; the interplay of these graben and the fluted rim of the edifice produce a distinctive scalloped pattern in the image. Several north northwest trending lineaments cut directly across the summit region. This peculiar volcanic construct is located 25 to 30 kilometers (15 to 19 miles) north of Alpha Regio, a highly deformed region of tessera terrain. A collection of at least six similar volcanoes has been observed near Thetis Regio, a region of tessera within Aphrodite Terra. Thus, these unusual constructs tentatively appear to be spatially associated with regions of tessera. A tessera is a complex, deformed terrain on Venus consisting of at least two sets of intersecting ridges and troughs. The implications of this

  17. Bulgarian Verbs of Motion: Slavic Verbs in a Balkan Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsey, Traci Speed

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the motion verb system of Bulgarian, focusing both on the structure of the Bulgarian motion verb itself, and on the information typically encoded in the Bulgarian verb of motion. It then compares the Bulgarian motion verb system with the motion verb systems of two other Slavic languages, Russian and Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian…

  18. Managing Teacher Balkanization in Times of Implementing Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Shun-wing

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to report an exploratory study which was designed to illuminate how school cultures and teachers' value orientations are affected by the educational change of parental involvement. Design/methodology/approach: The qualitative research that informs this paper is conceptualized within the interpretive…

  19. Seismic Hazard and risk assessment for Romania -Bulgaria cross-border region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonova, Stela; Solakov, Dimcho; Alexandrova, Irena; Vaseva, Elena; Trifonova, Petya; Raykova, Plamena

    2016-04-01

    Among the many kinds of natural and man-made disasters, earthquakes dominate with regard to their social and economical impact on the urban environment. Global seismic hazard and vulnerability to earthquakes are steadily increasing as urbanization and development occupy more areas that are prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The assessment of the seismic hazard and risk is particularly important, because it provides valuable information for seismic safety and disaster mitigation, and it supports decision making for the benefit of society. Romania and Bulgaria, situated in the Balkan Region as a part of the Alpine-Himalayan seismic belt, are characterized by high seismicity, and are exposed to a high seismic risk. Over the centuries, both countries have experienced strong earthquakes. The cross-border region encompassing the northern Bulgaria and southern Romania is a territory prone to effects of strong earthquakes. The area is significantly affected by earthquakes occurred in both countries, on the one hand the events generated by the Vrancea intermediate-depth seismic source in Romania, and on the other hand by the crustal seismicity originated in the seismic sources: Shabla (SHB), Dulovo, Gorna Orjahovitza (GO) in Bulgaria. The Vrancea seismogenic zone of Romania is a very peculiar seismic source, often described as unique in the world, and it represents a major concern for most of the northern part of Bulgaria as well. In the present study the seismic hazard for Romania-Bulgaria cross-border region on the basis of integrated basic geo-datasets is assessed. The hazard results are obtained by applying two alternative approaches - probabilistic and deterministic. The MSK64 intensity (MSK64 scale is practically equal to the new EMS98) is used as output parameter for the hazard maps. We prefer to use here the macroseismic intensity instead of PGA, because it is directly related to the degree of damages and, moreover, the epicentral intensity is the original

  20. Human-climate interactions in the central Mediterranean region during the last millennia: The laminated record of Lake Butrint (Albania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morellón, Mario; Anselmetti, Flavio S.; Ariztegui, Daniel; Brushulli, Brunhilda; Sinopoli, Gaia; Wagner, Bernd; Sadori, Laura; Gilli, Adrian; Pambuku, Arben

    2016-03-01

    ). Hydrological fluctuations recorded in Butrint are in phase with most central and western Mediterranean records and correlate with NAO variability. In contrast, opposite hydrological patterns have been recorded in the Eastern Balkans and the Levant during the last millennium, emphasizing a complex spatial variability in the region. Phases of maximum settlement intensity in Butrint (Roman-Late Antique) coincide with warmer and/or stable climate periods (0-800 AD and MCA, respectively), indicating a long-term influence of climatic conditions on human activities. The Late Holocene sedimentary record of Lake Butrint demonstrates the complex interplay of climate variability, tectonics and human impact in the recent evolution of coastal Mediterranean regions.

  1. Regional river sulfur runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husar, Rudolf B.; Husar, Janja Djukic

    1985-01-01

    The water and sulfur runoff data for 54 large river basins were assembled, covering 65% of the nondesert land area of the world. The sulfur concentration ranges from 0.5 mg S/L for the West African rivers Niger and Volta to 100 mg S/L in the Colorado River; the world average is 3.2 mg S/L. The concentrations in central and eastern Europe as well as central and eastern North America exceed 8 mg S/L. The sulfur runoff density is also highest in the river basins over these industrialized regions, exceeding 2 g S/m2/yr. However, high sulfur runoff density in excess of 3 g S/m2/yr is also measured over the Pacific islands New Zealand and New Guinea and the archipelagos of Indonesia and the Philippines. The natural background sulfur runoff was estimated by assuming that South America, Africa, Australia, and the Pacific Islands are unperturbed by man and that the average river sulfur concentration is in the range 1-3 mg S/L. Taking these background concentration values, the man-induced sulfur runoff for Europe ranges between 2 and 8 times the natural flow, and over North America, man's contribution ranges between 1 and 5 times the natural runoff. The global sulfur flow from nondesert land to the oceans and the Caspian Sea is estimated as 131 Tg S/yr, of which 46-85 Tg S/yr is attributed to natural causes. The regional river sulfur runoff pattern discussed in this paper does not have enough spatial resolution to be directly applicable to studies of the environmental effects of man-induced sulfur flows. However, it points to the continental-size regions where those perturbations are most evident and to the magnitude of the perturbations as expressed in units of the natural flows.

  2. Regional river sulfur runoff

    SciTech Connect

    Husar, R.B.; Husar, J.D.

    1985-01-20

    The water and sulfur runoff data for 54 large river basins were assembled, covering 65% of the nondesert land area of the world. The sulfur concentration ranges from 0.5 mg S/L for the West African rivers Niger and Volta to 100 mg S/L in the Colorado River; the world average is 3.2 mg S/L. The concentrations in central and eastern Europe as well as central and eastern North America exceed 8 mg S/L. The sulfur runoff density is also highest in the river basins over these industrialized regions, exceeding 2 g S/m/sup 2//yr. However, high sulfur runoff density in excess of 3 g S/m/sup 2//yr is also measured over the Pacific islands New Zealand and New Guinea and the archipelagos of Indonesia and the Philippines. The natural background sulfur runoff was estimated by assuming that South America, Africa, Australia, and the Pacific Islands are unperturbed by man and that the average river sulfur concentration is in the range 1--3 mg S/L. Taking these background concentration values, the man-induced sulfur runoff for Europe ranges between 2 and 8 times the natural flow, and over North America, man's contribution ranges between 1 and 5 times the natural runoff. The global sulfur flow from nondesert land to the oceans and the Caspian Sea is estimated as 131 Tg S/yr, of which 46--85 Tg S/yr is attributed to natural causes. The regional river sulfur runoff pattern discussed in this paper does not have enough spatial resolution to be directly applicable to studies of the environmental effects of man-induced sulfur flows. However, it points to the continental-size regions where those perturbations are most evident and to the magnitude of the perturbations as expressed in units of the natural flows.

  3. Higher Education and Regional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neave, Guy

    1979-01-01

    The effect that the university has upon its region and the issue of regional control of higher education are examined. A definition of regional development is offered and regional planning, relevant research, cultural mobilization, and the Jacobin university are described. (Author/MLW)

  4. Complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sebastin, Sandeep J

    2011-05-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic neurological disorder involving the limbs characterized by disabling pain, swelling, vasomotor instability, sudomotor abnormality, and impairment of motor function. CRPS is not uncommon after hand surgery and may complicate post-operative care. There is no specific diagnostic test for CRPS and the diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, and supportive laboratory findings. Recent modifications to diagnostic criteria have enabled clinicians to diagnose this disease more consistently. This review gives a synopsis of CRPS and discusses the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment options based on the limited evidence in the literature. PMID:22022040

  5. Complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sebastin, Sandeep J

    2011-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic neurological disorder involving the limbs characterized by disabling pain, swelling, vasomotor instability, sudomotor abnormality, and impairment of motor function. CRPS is not uncommon after hand surgery and may complicate post-operative care. There is no specific diagnostic test for CRPS and the diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, and supportive laboratory findings. Recent modifications to diagnostic criteria have enabled clinicians to diagnose this disease more consistently. This review gives a synopsis of CRPS and discusses the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment options based on the limited evidence in the literature. PMID:22022040

  6. Complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Greta

    2015-06-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome is an uncommon chronic pain condition. It develops spontaneously or following an injury. The features are limb pain, allodynia, hypersensitivity, hyperalgesia, abnormalities of the vasomotor, sudomotor and motor systems, and trophic changes, with reduced use of the affected limb. The diagnosis is clinical and one of exclusion. The emphasis of therapy is graded rehabilitation and movement of the limb with physiotherapy and occupational therapy. Psychological therapies should be offered if a patient is making no or slow progress in the acute phase, and to all patients in the chronic phase as depression can occur. The goal of pharmacotherapy is to assist functional improvement. The early phase may be managed with simple analgesia. Antineuropathic drugs including tricyclic antidepressants and antiepileptic drugs may be added. Other treatments with some evidence of effectiveness include corticosteroids, calcitonin and bisphosphonates. Vitamin C has been used for primary prevention after wrist fracture and upper and lower limb surgery. There is no evidence that it is effective for treating established complex regional pain syndrome.

  7. Colorado Regional Faults

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) Publication Date: 2012 Title: Regional Faults Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science, University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the regional faults of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4543192.100000 m Left: 144385.020000 m Right: 754585.020000 m Bottom: 4094592.100000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS ’984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  8. Regional flood probabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    The T-year annual maximum flood at a site is defined to be that streamflow, that has probability 1/T of being exceeded in any given year, and for a group of sites the corresponding regional flood probability (RFP) is the probability that at least one site will experience a T-year flood in any given year. The RFP depends on the number of sites of interest and on the spatial correlation of flows among the sites. We present a Monte Carlo method for obtaining the RFP and demonstrate that spatial correlation estimates used in this method may be obtained with rank transformed data and therefore that knowledge of the at-site peak flow distribution is not necessary. We examine the extent to which the estimates depend on specification of a parametric form for the spatial correlation function, which is known to be nonstationary for peak flows. It is shown in a simulation study that use of a stationary correlation function to compute RFPs yields satisfactory estimates for certain nonstationary processes. Application of asymptotic extreme value theory is examined, and a methodology for separating channel network and rainfall effects on RFPs is suggested. A case study is presented using peak flow data from the state of Washington. For 193 sites in the Puget Sound region it is estimated that a 100-year flood will occur on the average every 4,5 years.

  9. The Eutherian Pseudoautosomal Region.

    PubMed

    Raudsepp, Terje; Chowdhary, Bhanu P

    2015-01-01

    The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is a unique segment of sequence homology between differentiated sex chromosomes where recombination occurs during meiosis. Molecular and functional properties of the PAR are distinctive from the autosomes and the remaining regions of the sex chromosomes. These include a higher rate of recombination than genome average, bias towards GC-substitutions and increased interindividual nucleotide divergence and mutations. As yet, the PAR has been physically demarcated in only 28 eutherian species representing 6 mammalian orders. Murid rodents have the smallest, gene-poorest and most diverged PARs. Other eutherian PARs are largely homologous but differ in size and gene content, being the smallest in equids and human/simian primates and much larger in other eutherians. Because pseudoautosomal genes escape X inactivation, their dosage changes with sex chromosome aneuploidies, whereas phenotypic effects of the latter depend on the size and gene content of the PAR. Thus, X monosomy is more viable in mice, humans and horses than in species with larger PARs. Presently, little is known about the functions of PAR genes in individual species, though human studies suggest their involvement in early embryonic development. The PAR is, thus, of evolutionary, genetic and biomedical significance and a 'research hotspot' in eutherian genomes. PMID:26730606

  10. Complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Greta

    2015-06-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome is an uncommon chronic pain condition. It develops spontaneously or following an injury. The features are limb pain, allodynia, hypersensitivity, hyperalgesia, abnormalities of the vasomotor, sudomotor and motor systems, and trophic changes, with reduced use of the affected limb. The diagnosis is clinical and one of exclusion. The emphasis of therapy is graded rehabilitation and movement of the limb with physiotherapy and occupational therapy. Psychological therapies should be offered if a patient is making no or slow progress in the acute phase, and to all patients in the chronic phase as depression can occur. The goal of pharmacotherapy is to assist functional improvement. The early phase may be managed with simple analgesia. Antineuropathic drugs including tricyclic antidepressants and antiepileptic drugs may be added. Other treatments with some evidence of effectiveness include corticosteroids, calcitonin and bisphosphonates. Vitamin C has been used for primary prevention after wrist fracture and upper and lower limb surgery. There is no evidence that it is effective for treating established complex regional pain syndrome. PMID:26648626

  11. Neptune's south polar region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This image of Neptune's south polar region was obtained by the NASA Voyager narrow-angle camera on Aug. 23, 1989, when it was at a distance of 25 million kilometers (1.6 million miles). The smallest cloud features are 45 kilometers (28 miles) in diameter. The image shows the discovery of shadows in Neptune's atmosphere, shadows cast onto a deep cloud bank by small elevated clouds. Located at about 68 degrees south latitude, they are the first cloud shadows ever seen by the Voyager on any planet. The dark regions adjacent to the small bright clouds are believed to be shadows, because they are on the side of the cloud that is opposite to the incoming sunlight and because they lengthen in places where the sun lies closer to the horizon. Estimates of the height of these discrete clouds above the underlying cloud bank can be obtained by careful analysis of this data. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  12. [COMPLEX REGIONAL PAIN SYNDROME].

    PubMed

    Blažeković, Ivan; Bilić, Ervina; Žagar, Marija; Anić, Branimir

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) represents a state of constant and often disabling pain, affecting one region (usually hand) and often occurs after a trauma whose severity does not correlate with the level of pain. The older term for this condition of chronic pain associated with motor and autonomic symptoms is reflex sympathetic dystrophy or causalgia. The aim of this review, based on contemporary literature, is to show the epidemiology and etiology, proposed pathophysiological mechanisms, method of diagnosis and treatment options, prevention and mitigation of this under-recognized disease. CRPS I occurs without known neurological damage, unlike CRPS II, where the history of trauma is present and in some cases damage to the peripheral nervous system can be objectively assessed using electromyoneurography. New diagnostic methods, such as quantitative sensory testing (CST), challenge this division because the CST findings in patients with CRPS I can suggest damage to Adelta peripheral nerve fibers. Except for distinguishing type I and type II disease, it is important to bear in mind the diversity of clinical presentation of CRPS in acute and chronic phase of the disease. This regional pain syndrome typically includes the autonomic and motor signs and thus differs from other peripheral neuropathic pain syndromes. The complexity of the clinical presentation indicates the likely presence of different pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disease. Previous studies have demonstrated the autonomic dysfunction, neurogenic inflammation and neuroplastic changes. The diagnosis of CRPS is based on anamnesis and clinical examination on the basis of which the disease can be graded according to the Budapest Criteria. A valuable aid in differentiating subtypes of the disease is electromyoneurography. The treatment of CRPS is as complex as the clinical picture and the pathophysiology of the disease and requires interdisciplinary cooperation and individual approach

  13. [COMPLEX REGIONAL PAIN SYNDROME].

    PubMed

    Blažeković, Ivan; Bilić, Ervina; Žagar, Marija; Anić, Branimir

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) represents a state of constant and often disabling pain, affecting one region (usually hand) and often occurs after a trauma whose severity does not correlate with the level of pain. The older term for this condition of chronic pain associated with motor and autonomic symptoms is reflex sympathetic dystrophy or causalgia. The aim of this review, based on contemporary literature, is to show the epidemiology and etiology, proposed pathophysiological mechanisms, method of diagnosis and treatment options, prevention and mitigation of this under-recognized disease. CRPS I occurs without known neurological damage, unlike CRPS II, where the history of trauma is present and in some cases damage to the peripheral nervous system can be objectively assessed using electromyoneurography. New diagnostic methods, such as quantitative sensory testing (CST), challenge this division because the CST findings in patients with CRPS I can suggest damage to Adelta peripheral nerve fibers. Except for distinguishing type I and type II disease, it is important to bear in mind the diversity of clinical presentation of CRPS in acute and chronic phase of the disease. This regional pain syndrome typically includes the autonomic and motor signs and thus differs from other peripheral neuropathic pain syndromes. The complexity of the clinical presentation indicates the likely presence of different pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disease. Previous studies have demonstrated the autonomic dysfunction, neurogenic inflammation and neuroplastic changes. The diagnosis of CRPS is based on anamnesis and clinical examination on the basis of which the disease can be graded according to the Budapest Criteria. A valuable aid in differentiating subtypes of the disease is electromyoneurography. The treatment of CRPS is as complex as the clinical picture and the pathophysiology of the disease and requires interdisciplinary cooperation and individual approach

  14. A range extension of a deep-sea barnacle of the genus Aurivillialepas (Cirripedia, Scalpellomorpha), a Macaronesian and amphitropical refugial genus having Mesozoic affinities.

    PubMed

    Innocenti, Gianna; Geronimo, Raffaella Di; Newman, William A

    2015-06-22

    The scalpellomorph barnacle, Aurivillialepas calycula (Aurivillius, 1898), previously known only from Macaronesia, is reported from Banco de Galicia, off the NW corner of the Iberian Peninsula. One of the two specimens was attached to the scleractinian coral, Madrepora oculata Linnaeus, 1758. Since such pedunculate barnacles are little known, the potentially hermaphroditic specimens and its complemental male are illustrated photographically, and a key to the genus Aurivillialepas is provided. The genus, together with Scillaelepas Seguenza, 1876 and Gruvelialepas Newman, 1980, has long been considered to constitute a natural group of scalpellomorphs within the Calanticidae, and therefore the Scillaelepadinae subfam. nov. is proposed to accommodate them. Biogeographical aspects of these deep-sea barnacles support the hypothesis that not only the islands but the banks and guyots of Macaronesia constitute refugia for ancient as well as more recent forms, some of which may stem back to the late Mesozoic.

  15. A range extension of a deep-sea barnacle of the genus Aurivillialepas (Cirripedia, Scalpellomorpha), a Macaronesian and amphitropical refugial genus having Mesozoic affinities.

    PubMed

    Innocenti, Gianna; Geronimo, Raffaella Di; Newman, William A

    2015-01-01

    The scalpellomorph barnacle, Aurivillialepas calycula (Aurivillius, 1898), previously known only from Macaronesia, is reported from Banco de Galicia, off the NW corner of the Iberian Peninsula. One of the two specimens was attached to the scleractinian coral, Madrepora oculata Linnaeus, 1758. Since such pedunculate barnacles are little known, the potentially hermaphroditic specimens and its complemental male are illustrated photographically, and a key to the genus Aurivillialepas is provided. The genus, together with Scillaelepas Seguenza, 1876 and Gruvelialepas Newman, 1980, has long been considered to constitute a natural group of scalpellomorphs within the Calanticidae, and therefore the Scillaelepadinae subfam. nov. is proposed to accommodate them. Biogeographical aspects of these deep-sea barnacles support the hypothesis that not only the islands but the banks and guyots of Macaronesia constitute refugia for ancient as well as more recent forms, some of which may stem back to the late Mesozoic. PMID:26249902

  16. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ersoy, Hale; Pomeranz, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neurological disorder producing peripheral neurogenic inflammatory process in hands and feet distal to injury, which may lead to severe disability. Symptoms are often out of proportion to the initiating event and not limited to a single peripheral nerve. There is no gold standard in diagnosis of this entity, and a multidisciplinary approach is necessary for proper diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most useful diagnostic modalities in early stages of CRPS (when clinical diagnosis is most difficult), the most desirable time to diagnose this disorder to expedite treatment and improve function. This article discusses MRI findings of CRPS, particularly in the early phase, and differential considerations. PMID:27518298

  17. Venus - Lakshmi Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This Magellan image is centered at 55 degrees north latitude, 348.5 degrees longitude, in the eastern Lakshmi region of Venus. This image, which is of an area 300 kilometers (180 miles) in width and 230 kilometers (138 miles) in length, is a mosaic of orbits 458 through 484. The image shows a relatively flat plains region composed of many lava flows. The dark flows mostly likely represent smooth lava flows similar to 'pahoehoe' flows on Earth while the brighter lava flows are rougher flows similar to 'aa' flows on Earth. (The terms 'pahoehoe' and 'aa' refer to textures of lava with pahoehoe a smooth or ropey surface, and aa a rough, clinkery texture). The rougher flows are brighter because the rough surface returns more energy to the radar than the smooth flows. Situated on top of the lava flows are three dark splotches. Because of the thick Venusian atmosphere, the small impactors break up before they reached the surface. Only the fragments from the broken up impactor are deposited on the surface and these fragments produce the dark splotches in this image. The splotch at the far right (east) has a crater centered in it, indicating that the impactor was not completely destroyed during its journey through the atmosphere. The dark splotches in the center and to the far left in this image each represent an impactor that was broken up into small fragments that did not penetrate the surface to produce a crater. The dark splotch at the left has been modified by the wind. A southwest northeast wind flow has moved some of the debris making up the splotch to the northeast where it has piled up against some small ridges.

  18. Moldova. Historic regional conference.

    PubMed

    Moshin, V

    1995-05-01

    The Directorate of Maternal and Child Health and the Family Planning Association of Moldova organized a regional conference, which was held October 18-19, 1994, in Kishinev, Moldova, with the support of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). The conference,"Problems of Family Planning in Eastern Europe," was attended by approximately 400 Moldovan delegates of governmental and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and by 25 delegates from Romania, Russia, Belarus, the Ukraine, and Georgia. The President of Moldova and the Ministry of Public Health of Moldova gave their approval. The main objectives of the conference were to inform the public about the recommendations of the ICPD, to analyze the status of women's reproductive health and family planning in Eastern Europe, and to find ways of implementing the ICPD Plan of Action. Major problems identified during the conference were: 1) the social and economic problems facing most families; 2) the high rate of morbidity and mortality; 3) the decrease in birth rate; 4) the increase in abortions; 5) the rising incidence of venereal disease; and 6) the absence of an effective family planning system. It was agreed that cooperation between governments and NGOs is essential in designing population programs for each country. The following goals were set: 1) to provide populations with sufficient contraceptives; 2) to actively promote family planning concepts through the mass media; 3) to train specialists and to open family planning offices and centers; 4) to introduce sex education in the curricula of Pedagogical Institutes; and 5) to create national and regional statistical and sociological databases on population issues.

  19. Regional brain hypometabolism is unrelated to regional amyloid plaque burden.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Andre; Ng, Bernard; Landau, Susan M; Jagust, William J; Greicius, Michael D

    2015-12-01

    In its original form, the amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease holds that fibrillar deposits of amyloid are an early, driving force in pathological events leading ultimately to neuronal death. Early clinicopathological investigations highlighted a number of inconsistencies leading to an updated hypothesis in which amyloid plaques give way to amyloid oligomers as the driving force in pathogenesis. Rather than focusing on the inconsistencies, amyloid imaging studies have tended to highlight the overlap between regions that show early amyloid plaque signal on positron emission tomography and that also happen to be affected early in Alzheimer's disease. Recent imaging studies investigating the regional dependency between metabolism and amyloid plaque deposition have arrived at conflicting results, with some showing regional associations and other not. We extracted multimodal neuroimaging data from the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging database for 227 healthy controls and 434 subjects with mild cognitive impairment. We analysed regional patterns of amyloid deposition, regional glucose metabolism and regional atrophy using florbetapir ((18)F) positron emission tomography, (18)F-fluordeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Specifically, we derived grey matter density and standardized uptake value ratios for both positron emission tomography tracers in 404 functionally defined regions of interest. We examined the relation between regional glucose metabolism and amyloid plaques using linear models. For each region of interest, correcting for regional grey matter density, age, education and disease status, we tested the association of regional glucose metabolism with (i) cortex-wide florbetapir uptake; (ii) regional (i.e. in the same region of interest) florbetapir uptake; and (iii) regional florbetapir uptake while correcting in addition for cortex-wide florbetapir uptake. P-values for each setting

  20. Upper plate deformation, magmatism and mineralization illuminating crustal and mantle dynamics in the eastern Mediterranean region: kinematic reconstructions and numerical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menant, Armel; Jolivet, Laurent; Sternai, Pietro; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Gerya, Taras

    2015-04-01

    Geodynamics of the eastern Mediterranean region is largely governed by the Africa-Eurasia convergence and involves a succession of subduction, collision, obduction, slab retreat and tearing events since the late Cretaceous. The resulting complex 3D dynamics of the subduction zone is still largely discussed and a large number of geological data have to be considered to better constrain this evolution. We propose new detailed kinematic reconstructions of the eastern Mediterranean region (integrating notably stratigraphic, metamorphic, structural and paleomagnetic data) also showing the distribution of magmatic products and mineralization in space and time. Moreover, we test the parameters controlling this tectonic and magmatic evolution with 3D thermo-mechanical numerical models of subduction with realistic lithospheric and mantle rheologies. A continuous southward retreating subduction zone has been active in the region since the late Cretaceous with the subduction and accretion of several oceanic and continental domains. Separated by a barren compressional period in the Paleocene-Eocene, two back-arc extensional events are highlighted. (1) In the late Cretaceous, a slow extension was active and a wide calc-alkaline magmatic province associated with porphyry Cu deposits emplaced along the Balkans and the Pontides. During this period, the trench was long and linear, similarly to the present-day Andean margin. (2) Since the Oligocene, a sensibly faster extension occurred in the Aegean-west Anatolian region where K-rich magmatism and Au-rich ore deposits emplaced. Back-arc extension and related mantle flow have induced the rising of the isotherms within the upper plate, allowing the partial melting of the lithospheric mantle or the base of the crust, where Au was previously stored. Emplacement at shallow level of this mineralization was then largely controlled by large-scale structures such as detachments that drained the magmatic-hydrothermal fluids. In addition

  1. Landslides of Palestinian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwahsh, H.

    2013-12-01

    Natural disasters are extreme sudden events caused by environmental and natural actors that take away the lives of many thousands of people each year and damage large amount of properties. They strike anywhere on earth, often without any warning. A risk maps of natural disaster are very useful to identify the places that might be adversely affected in the event of natural disaster. The earthquakes are one of natural disaster that have the greatest hazards and will cause loss of life and properties due to damaging the structures of building, dams, bridges. In addition, it will affect local geology and soil conditions. The site effects play an important role in earthquake risk because of its amplification or damping simulation. Another parameter in developing risk map is landslide, which is also one of the most important topics in site effect hazards. Palestine region has been suffering landslide hazards because of the topographical and geological conditions of this region. Most Palestine consists of mountainous area, which has great steep slopes and the type of soil is mainly grayish to yellowish silty clay (Marl Soil). Due to the above mentioned factors many landslides have been occurred from Negev south to the northern borders of Palestine. An example of huge and destruction landslide in a Palestine authority is the landslide in the White Mountain area in the city of Nablus, which occurred in 1997. The geotechnical and geophysical investigation as well as slope stability analysis should be considered in making landslide maps that are necessary to develop risk levels of the natural disaster. Landslides occurred in slopes that are created naturally or by human beings. Failure of soil mass occurs, and hence landslide of soil mass happen due to sliding of soil mass along a plane or curved surface. In general, the slopes become unstable when the shear stresses (driving force) generated in the soil mass exceed the available shearing resistance on the rupture surface

  2. Mesozoic Tertiary tectonic evolution of Albania in its regional Eastern Mediterranean context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Alastair; Shallo, Minella

    2000-01-01

    Research carried out since the opening of Albania to the 'western' geological community in the 1990s allows the geology and tectonics of this small Balkan country to be integrated into an overall interpretation of Neotethys in the Eastern Mediterranean region, specifically Greece and the former Yugoslavia region. Albanian geology is most famous for the occurrence of contrasting ophiolites of Jurassic age. The country is sub-divided into three main geotectonic units. Those in the west (i.e. Sazani, Ionian, Kruja, Krasta-Cukali and the Albanian Alps) relate to the western margin of Apulia, effectively part of North Africa from Early Mesozoic time onwards. In the east is the Korabi zone, interpreted as a microcontinent located further northeast within Neotethys. Between the two is the Mirdita zone, dominated by two contrasting Jurassic ophiolites: the 'Western-type' ophiolite and the 'Eastern-type' ophiolite. Taking account of evidence from Greece and former Yugoslavia, the following tectonic evolution is proposed. From Early Mesozoic time onwards, Neotethys in Albania existed as a northward continuation of the Pindos oceanic basin in Greece (Pindos-Mirdita ocean). A Korabi microcontinent was rifted off Apulia in the Early-Mid Triassic, followed by passive margin subsidence until late Middle Jurassic time. A rifted, slow-spreading, MOR-type ophiolite formed within the western Pindos-Mirdita oceanic basin in Late Triassic?-early Late Jurassic time (using present co-ordinates). The Shkoder-Peje (Scutari-Peć) lineament in the north of Albania is interpreted as an important transform fault zone that influenced the regional tectonic evolution during the entire Mesozoic-Early Tertiary rift/drift/emplacement history of the Pindos-Mirdita ocean. Taking account of evidence from the Greek and former Yugoslavia ophiolites, the easterly Albanian ophiolites formed within the Pindos-Mirdita ocean above a westward-dipping intra-oceanic subduction zone in the early Late Jurassic

  3. Sudurnes Regional Heating Corp.

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.

    1996-11-01

    The Svartsengi geothermal area is close to the town of Grindavik on the Rekjanes peninsula and is part of an active fissure swarm, lined with crater-rows and open fissures and faults. The high-temperature area has an area of 2 sq. km and shows only limited signs of geothermal activity at the surface. The reservoir, however, contains lots of energy and at least 8 wells supply the Svartsengi Power Plant with steam. The steam is not useable for domestic heating purposes so that heat exchangers are used to heat cold groundwater with the steam. Some steam is also used for producing 16.4 MW{sub e} of electrical power. The article shows the distribution system piping hot water to nine towns and the Keflavik International Airport. The effluent brine from the Svartsengi Plant is disposed of into a surface pond, called the Blue Lagoon, popular to tourists and people suffering from psoriasis and other forms of eczema seeking therapeutic effects from the silica rich brine. This combined power plant and regional district heating system (cogeneration) is an interesting and unique design for the application of geothermal energy.

  4. Active region flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foukal, Peter

    1987-01-01

    A wide range of observations has shown that active region phenomena in the photospheric, chromospheric and coronal temperature regimes are dynamical in nature. At the photosphere, recent observations of full line profiles place an upper limit of about + or - 20/msec on any downflows at supergranule cell edges. Observations of the full Stokes 5 profiles in the network show no evidence for downflows in magnetic flux tubes. In the area of chromospheric dynamics, several models were put forward recently to reproduce the observed behavior of spicules. However, it is pointed out that these adiabatic models do not include the powerful radiative dissipation which tend to damp out the large amplitude disturbances that produce the spicular acceleration in the models. In the corona, loop flows along field lines clearly transport mass and energy at rates important for the dynamics of these structures. However, advances in understanding the heating and mass balance of the loop structures seem to require new kinds of observations. Some results are presented using a remote sensing diagnostic of the intensity and orientation of macroscopic plasma electric fields predicted by models of reconnective heating and also wave heating.

  5. Regional Kendall test for trend

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helsel, D.R.; Frans, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Trends in environmental variables are often investigated within a study region at more than one site. At each site, a trend analysis determines whether a trend has occurred. Yet often also of interest is whether a consistent trend is evident throughout the entire region. This paper adapts the Seasonal Kendall trend test to determine whether a consistent regional trend occurs in environmental variables.

  6. Regions. [Africa, Middle East].

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of population focuses on the regions of Africa and the Middle East. In South Africa more white women are working but fewer black women work. The overall result is that the percentage of women who work is declining. Marita de Beer, research liaison executive at the South African Advertising Research Foundation, reports that the female population grew by 31% in the past 10 years while the number of working women has grown by only 11%. Among blacks the female population rose by 36%, but the number of workers among them declined by about 1%. Married women are among the fastest growing groups of working women in South Africa. The most recent estimate of the population of Nigeria is 92 million. According to Professor Vremudia Diejomaoh, Nigeria's population will probably reach 155 million by 2000 with 33% living in urban areas. In Saudi Arabia the Pan Arab Research Center recently completed a census of retail outlets in 3 metropolitan areas: Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. The types of outlets surveyed include large supermarkets, small supermarkets, groceries with and without deep freeze, tobacco shops, meat shop/delis, small cafeterias, large restaurants/hotels, cosmetics shops or perfumeries, camera stores, toy shops, pharmacies, watch and gift shop, newsstands, department store, and appliance outlets. Using the Census of Retail Outlets as a base, Pan Arab Research Center also has a new distribution audit system that will cover 500 outlets. By plotting Arab countries according to their population policies and their current growth rates, it is possible to project where the middle class will grow fastest in the Arab world. The countries that have declining growth rates and strong population programs designed to encourage lower fertility rates among women are Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Lebanon. The countries most likely to have a better per capita distribution of resources within this decade are those where governments encourage reductions in

  7. Regions. [Africa, Middle East].

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of population focuses on the regions of Africa and the Middle East. In South Africa more white women are working but fewer black women work. The overall result is that the percentage of women who work is declining. Marita de Beer, research liaison executive at the South African Advertising Research Foundation, reports that the female population grew by 31% in the past 10 years while the number of working women has grown by only 11%. Among blacks the female population rose by 36%, but the number of workers among them declined by about 1%. Married women are among the fastest growing groups of working women in South Africa. The most recent estimate of the population of Nigeria is 92 million. According to Professor Vremudia Diejomaoh, Nigeria's population will probably reach 155 million by 2000 with 33% living in urban areas. In Saudi Arabia the Pan Arab Research Center recently completed a census of retail outlets in 3 metropolitan areas: Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. The types of outlets surveyed include large supermarkets, small supermarkets, groceries with and without deep freeze, tobacco shops, meat shop/delis, small cafeterias, large restaurants/hotels, cosmetics shops or perfumeries, camera stores, toy shops, pharmacies, watch and gift shop, newsstands, department store, and appliance outlets. Using the Census of Retail Outlets as a base, Pan Arab Research Center also has a new distribution audit system that will cover 500 outlets. By plotting Arab countries according to their population policies and their current growth rates, it is possible to project where the middle class will grow fastest in the Arab world. The countries that have declining growth rates and strong population programs designed to encourage lower fertility rates among women are Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Lebanon. The countries most likely to have a better per capita distribution of resources within this decade are those where governments encourage reductions in

  8. Europa Wedge Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This image shows an area of crustal separation on Jupiter's moon, Europa. Lower resolution pictures taken earlier in the tour of NASA's Galileo spacecraft revealed that dark wedge-shaped bands in this region are areas where the icy crust has completely pulled apart. Dark material has filled up from below and filled the void created by this separation.

    In the lower left corner of this image, taken by Galileo's onboard camera on December 16, 1997, a portion of one dark wedge area is visible, revealing a linear texture along the trend of the wedge. The lines of the texture change orientation slightly and reflect the fact that we are looking at a bend in the wedge. The older, bright background, visible on the right half of the image, is criss-crossed with ridges. A large, bright ridge runs east-west through the upper part of the image, cutting across both the older background plains and the wedge. This ridge is rough in texture, with numerous small terraces and troughs containing dark material.

    North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the northwest. This image, centered at approximately 16.5 degrees south latitude and 196.5 degrees west longitude, covers an area approximately 10 kilometers square (about 6.5 miles square). The resolution of this image is about 26 meters per picture element. This image was taken by the solid state imaging system from a distance of 1250 kilometers (750 miles).

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  9. Emission measure distribution for diffuse regions in solar active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Srividya; Tripathi, Durgesh; Klimchuk, James A.; Mason, Helen E.

    2014-11-01

    Our knowledge of the diffuse emission that encompasses active regions is very limited. In this paper we investigate two off-limb active regions, namely, AR 10939 and AR 10961, to probe the underlying heating mechanisms. For this purpose, we have used spectral observations from Hinode/EIS and employed the emission measure (EM) technique to obtain the thermal structure of these diffuse regions. Our results show that the characteristic EM distributions of the diffuse emission regions peak at log T = 6.25 and the coolward slopes are in the range 1.4-3.3. This suggests that both low- as well as high-frequency nanoflare heating events are at work. Our results provide additional constraints on the properties of these diffuse emission regions and their contribution to the background/foreground when active region cores are observed on-disk.

  10. Callisto's Equatorial Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This mosaic covers part of the equatorial region of Jupiter's moon, Callisto. The mosaic combines six separate image frames obtained by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its ninth orbit around Jupiter. North is to the top of the picture. The mosaic shows several new features and characteristics of the surface revealed by Galileo. These include deposits that may represent landslides in the southern and southwestern floors of many craters. Two such deposits are seen in a 12 kilometer (7.3 mile) crater in the west-central part of the image, and in a 23 kilometer (14 mile) crater just north of the center of the image. Also notable are several sinuous valleys emanating from the southern rims of 10 to 15 kilometer (6.2 to 9.3 mile) irregular craters in the west-central part of the image. The pervasive local smoothing of Callisto's surface is well represented in the plains between the craters in the southeastern part of the image. Possible oblique impacts are suggested by the elongated craters in the northeastern and southeastern parts of the image.

    The mosaic, centered at 7.4 degrees south latitude and 6.6 degrees west longitude, covers an area of approximately 315 by 215 kilometers (192 by 131 miles). The sun illuminates the scene from the west (left). The smallest features that can be seen are about 300 meters (993 feet) across. The images were obtained on June 25, 1997, when the spacecraft was at a range of 15,200 kilometers (8,207 miles) from Callisto.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  11. Regional governance: strategies and disputes in health region management

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Adriano Maia; Giovanella, Ligia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the regional governance of the health systemin relation to management strategies and disputes. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES A qualitative study with health managers from 19 municipalities in the health region of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Data were drawn from 17 semi-structured interviews of state, regional, and municipal health policymakers and managers; a focus group; observations of the regional interagency committee; and documents in 2012. The political-institutional and the organizational components were analyzed in the light of dialectical hermeneutics. RESULTS The regional interagency committee is the chief regional governance strategy/component and functions as a strategic tool for strengthening governance. It brings together a diversity of members responsible for decision making in the healthcare territories, who need to negotiate the allocation of funding and the distribution of facilities for common use in the region. The high turnover of health secretaries, their lack of autonomy from the local executive decisions, inadequate technical training to exercise their function, and the influence of party politics on decision making stand as obstacles to the regional interagency committee’s permeability to social demands. Funding is insufficient to enable the fulfillment of the officially integrated agreed-upon program or to boost public supply by the system, requiring that public managers procure services from the private market at values higher than the national health service price schedule (Brazilian Unified Health System Table). The study determined that “facilitators” under contract to health departments accelerated access to specialized (diagnostic, therapeutic and/or surgical) services in other municipalities by direct payment to physicians for procedure costs already covered by the Brazilian Unified Health System. CONCLUSIONS The characteristics identified a regionalized system with a conflictive pattern of governance and

  12. Document Delivery Policy. Region 2 [Regional Medical Library Network].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeastern/Atlantic Regional Medical Library Services, Baltimore, MD.

    Standardized policies and procedures for interlibrary loan and resource sharing in the Southeastern/Atlantic Region of the Regional Medical Library (RML) Network are presented in this policy statement. RML network institutions, which are divided into categories based on their ability and willingness to assume responsibility for interlibrary…

  13. 17 CFR 140.2 - Regional office-regional coordinators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... direction of a Regional Coordinator who, as a collateral duty, oversees the administration of the office and... parties. Each regional office has delegated authority for the enforcement of the Act and administration of... administration of programs of the Commission in the States of Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida,...

  14. About the REL Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory Pacific, 2014

    2014-01-01

    REL Pacific is one of ten Regional Educational Laboratories established and funded by the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences. Their region encompasses approximately 4.9 million square miles and serves seven Pacific island entities, including American Samoa; the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; the Federated…

  15. Training Teachers for Regional Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hla Myint; And Others

    This report presents alternative plans for training teachers for the newly-established Regional Colleges in Burma. The Regional Colleges are three-year postsecondary institutions designed to train middle level technicians to help increase the production of goods and services needed in the Burmese economy. Concentrating on the Hawaii Community…

  16. CLIMATE IMPACTS ON REGIONAL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The New England region (including the 6 New England
    states plus upstate New York) offers a very diverse geography,
    matched by an equally diverse economy and human
    population. Livelihoods throughout the region are based
    on service industries that depend heavily on comm...

  17. What's Happening to Regional Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Back in November, voters in the North East of England overwhelmingly rejected the move towards an elected regional assembly. The scale of the defeat (three to one) of a Government-backed scheme was a rude awakening for the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister and the range of regional agencies created since 1997. After all, it was felt that the…

  18. Adoption Resource Directory: Region X.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1983

    State, regional, and national adoption resources are described in this directory for residents of Region X states (Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington). Emphasizing the adoption of children with special needs, the directory gives organizational contacts for parents in various stages of the adoption process and mentions resources for social…

  19. REGIONAL VULNERABILITY: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional vulnerability assessment, or ReVA, is an approach to place-based ecological risk assessment that is currently under development by the Office of Research and Development of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The assessment is done at the scale of EPA region...

  20. MISR Regional VBBE Imagery Overview

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... View Data  |  Download Data About this Web Site: Visualizations of select MISR Level 3 data for special regional ... Regional products are derived from averaging select Level 1 and Level 2 parameters over daily, monthly, seasonal and annual time periods. ...

  1. Regional Early Childhood Policy Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith

    2008-01-01

    The UNESCO-UNICEF joint regional policy review project was launched in September 2006 with the aim to support the countries of Asia-Pacific region in meeting the first goal of Education For All (EFA) on Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) by identifying, documenting and sharing good practices as well as constraints and challenges in early…

  2. Global forcing and regional interactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1992-01-01

    The Climate System Modeling Program (CSMP) sponsored a “Global Forcing and Regional Interaction Workshop” from October 21 to 23, 1991, at Colorado State University's Pingree Park campus, to evaluate the relationship between global climate forcing and the response of the land surface on a regional scale. The general aim of the workshop was to develop specific action plans and preliminary science research strategies for regional-global interactions. Each participant was invited to identify tractable, high pay-off science issues related to global forcing and regional interactions. The workshop, with twenty-six participants about evenly split between atmospheric scientists, hydrologists, and ecologists, was also designed to facilitate a network of collaborators to prepare multidisciplinary research proposals. Discussion also focused on regional climate over the last 200 years and included the influence of atmosphere-land surface processes on natural climate variability. Several major recommendations were made on topics discussed.

  3. North-South differentiation and a region of high diversity in European wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Stronen, Astrid V; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła; Pertoldi, Cino; Demontis, Ditte; Randi, Ettore; Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Pilot, Małgorzata; Sidorovich, Vadim E; Dykyy, Ihor; Kusak, Josip; Tsingarska, Elena; Kojola, Ilpo; Karamanlidis, Alexandros A; Ornicans, Aivars; Lobkov, Vladimir A; Dumenko, Vitalii; Czarnomska, Sylwia D

    2013-01-01

    European wolves (Canis lupus) show population genetic structure in the absence of geographic barriers, and across relatively short distances for this highly mobile species. Additional information on the location of and divergence between population clusters is required, particularly because wolves are currently recolonizing parts of Europe. We evaluated genetic structure in 177 wolves from 11 countries using over 67K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. The results supported previous findings of an isolated Italian population with lower genetic diversity than that observed across other areas of Europe. Wolves from the remaining countries were primarily structured in a north-south axis, with Croatia, Bulgaria, and Greece (Dinaric-Balkan) differentiated from northcentral wolves that included individuals from Finland, Latvia, Belarus, Poland and Russia. Carpathian Mountain wolves in central Europe had genotypes intermediate between those identified in northcentral Europe and the Dinaric-Balkan cluster. Overall, individual genotypes from northcentral Europe suggested high levels of admixture. We observed high diversity within Belarus, with wolves from western and northern Belarus representing the two most differentiated groups within northcentral Europe. Our results support the presence of at least three major clusters (Italy, Carpathians, Dinaric-Balkan) in southern and central Europe. Individuals from Croatia also appeared differentiated from wolves in Greece and Bulgaria. Expansion from glacial refugia, adaptation to local environments, and human-related factors such as landscape fragmentation and frequent killing of wolves in some areas may have contributed to the observed patterns. Our findings can help inform conservation management of these apex predators and the ecosystems of which they are part. PMID:24146871

  4. North-South Differentiation and a Region of High Diversity in European Wolves (Canis lupus)

    PubMed Central

    Stronen, Astrid V.; Jędrzejewska, Bogumiła; Pertoldi, Cino; Demontis, Ditte; Randi, Ettore; Niedziałkowska, Magdalena; Pilot, Małgorzata; Sidorovich, Vadim E.; Dykyy, Ihor; Kusak, Josip; Tsingarska, Elena; Kojola, Ilpo; Karamanlidis, Alexandros A.; Ornicans, Aivars; Lobkov, Vladimir A.; Dumenko, Vitalii; Czarnomska, Sylwia D.

    2013-01-01

    European wolves (Canis lupus) show population genetic structure in the absence of geographic barriers, and across relatively short distances for this highly mobile species. Additional information on the location of and divergence between population clusters is required, particularly because wolves are currently recolonizing parts of Europe. We evaluated genetic structure in 177 wolves from 11 countries using over 67K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci. The results supported previous findings of an isolated Italian population with lower genetic diversity than that observed across other areas of Europe. Wolves from the remaining countries were primarily structured in a north-south axis, with Croatia, Bulgaria, and Greece (Dinaric-Balkan) differentiated from northcentral wolves that included individuals from Finland, Latvia, Belarus, Poland and Russia. Carpathian Mountain wolves in central Europe had genotypes intermediate between those identified in northcentral Europe and the Dinaric-Balkan cluster. Overall, individual genotypes from northcentral Europe suggested high levels of admixture. We observed high diversity within Belarus, with wolves from western and northern Belarus representing the two most differentiated groups within northcentral Europe. Our results support the presence of at least three major clusters (Italy, Carpathians, Dinaric-Balkan) in southern and central Europe. Individuals from Croatia also appeared differentiated from wolves in Greece and Bulgaria. Expansion from glacial refugia, adaptation to local environments, and human-related factors such as landscape fragmentation and frequent killing of wolves in some areas may have contributed to the observed patterns. Our findings can help inform conservation management of these apex predators and the ecosystems of which they are part. PMID:24146871

  5. Disordered regions in transmembrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Tusnády, Gábor E; Dobson, László; Tompa, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The functions of transmembrane proteins in living cells are widespread; they range from various transport processes to energy production, from cell-cell adhesion to communication. Structurally, they are highly ordered in their membrane-spanning regions, but may contain disordered regions in the cytosolic and extra-cytosolic parts. In this study, we have investigated the disordered regions in transmembrane proteins by a stringent definition of disordered residues on the currently available largest experimental dataset, and show a significant correlation between the spatial distributions of positively charged residues and disordered regions. This finding suggests a new role of disordered regions in transmembrane proteins by providing structural flexibility for stabilizing interactions with negatively charged head groups of the lipid molecules. We also find a preference of structural disorder in the terminal--as opposed to loop--regions in transmembrane proteins, and survey the respective functions involved in recruiting other proteins or mediating allosteric signaling effects. Finally, we critically compare disorder prediction methods on our transmembrane protein set. While there are no major differences between these methods using the usual statistics, such as per residue accuracies, Matthew's correlation coefficients, etc.; substantial differences can be found regarding the spatial distribution of the predicted disordered regions. We conclude that a predictor optimized for transmembrane proteins would be of high value to the field of structural disorder. PMID:26275590

  6. Regional strategies for global leadership.

    PubMed

    Ghemawat, Pankaj

    2005-12-01

    The leaders of such global powerhouses as GE, Wal-Mart, and Toyota seem to have grasped two crucial truths: First, far from becoming submerged by the rising tide of globalization, geographic and other regional distinctions may in fact be increasing in importance. Second, regionally focused strategies, used in conjunction with local and global initiatives, can significantly boost a company's performance. The business and economic data reveal a highly regionalized world. For example, trade within regions, rather than across them, drove the surge of international commerce in the second half of the twentieth century. Regionalization is also apparent in foreign direct investment, companies' international sales, and competition among the world's largest multinationals. Harvard Business School Professor Pankaj Ghemawat says that the most successful companies employ five types of regional strategies in addition to--or even instead of--global ones: home base, portfolio, hub, platform, and mandate. Some companies adopt the strategies in sequence, but the most nimble switch from one to another and combine approaches as their markets and businesses evolve. At Toyota, for example, exports from the home base continue to be substantial even as the company builds up an international manufacturing presence. And as Toyota achieves economies of scale and scope with a strong network of hubs, the company also pursues economies of specialization through interregional mandates. Embracing regional strategies requires flexibility and creativity. A company must decide what constitutes a region, choose the most appropriate strategies, and mesh those strategies with the organization's existing structures. In a world that is neither truly global nor truly local, finding ways of coordinating within and across regions can deliver a powerful competitive advantage. PMID:16334585

  7. Regional strategies for global leadership.

    PubMed

    Ghemawat, Pankaj

    2005-12-01

    The leaders of such global powerhouses as GE, Wal-Mart, and Toyota seem to have grasped two crucial truths: First, far from becoming submerged by the rising tide of globalization, geographic and other regional distinctions may in fact be increasing in importance. Second, regionally focused strategies, used in conjunction with local and global initiatives, can significantly boost a company's performance. The business and economic data reveal a highly regionalized world. For example, trade within regions, rather than across them, drove the surge of international commerce in the second half of the twentieth century. Regionalization is also apparent in foreign direct investment, companies' international sales, and competition among the world's largest multinationals. Harvard Business School Professor Pankaj Ghemawat says that the most successful companies employ five types of regional strategies in addition to--or even instead of--global ones: home base, portfolio, hub, platform, and mandate. Some companies adopt the strategies in sequence, but the most nimble switch from one to another and combine approaches as their markets and businesses evolve. At Toyota, for example, exports from the home base continue to be substantial even as the company builds up an international manufacturing presence. And as Toyota achieves economies of scale and scope with a strong network of hubs, the company also pursues economies of specialization through interregional mandates. Embracing regional strategies requires flexibility and creativity. A company must decide what constitutes a region, choose the most appropriate strategies, and mesh those strategies with the organization's existing structures. In a world that is neither truly global nor truly local, finding ways of coordinating within and across regions can deliver a powerful competitive advantage.

  8. LLNL's Regional Seismic Discrimination Research

    SciTech Connect

    Hanley, W; Mayeda, K; Myers, S; Pasyanos, M; Rodgers, A; Sicherman, A; Walter, W

    1999-07-23

    As part of the Department of Energy's research and development effort to improve the monitoring capability of the planned Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty international monitoring system, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) is testing and calibrating regional seismic discrimination algorithms in the Middle East, North Africa and Western Former Soviet Union. The calibration process consists of a number of steps: (1) populating the database with independently identified regional events; (2) developing regional boundaries and pre-identifying severe regional phase blockage zones; (3) measuring and calibrating coda based magnitude scales; (4a) measuring regional amplitudes and making magnitude and distance amplitude corrections (MDAC); (4b) applying the DOE modified kriging methodology to MDAC results using the regionalized background model; (5) determining the thresholds of detectability of regional phases as a function of phase type and frequency; (6) evaluating regional phase discriminant performance both singly and in combination; (7) combining steps 1-6 to create a calibrated discrimination surface for each stations; (8) assessing progress and iterating. We have now developed this calibration procedure to the point where it is fairly straightforward to apply earthquake-explosion discrimination in regions with ample empirical data. Several of the steps outlined above are discussed in greater detail in other DOE papers in this volume or in recent publications. Here we emphasize the results of the above process: station correction surfaces and their improvement to discrimination results compared with simpler calibration methods. Some of the outstanding discrimination research issues involve cases in which there is little or no empirical data. For example in many cases there is no regional nuclear explosion data at IMS stations or nearby surrogates. We have taken two approaches to this problem, first finding and using mining explosion data when available, and

  9. Future of multistate regional commissions

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, M.

    1980-04-01

    Multistate regional commissions in the United States have been used since 1965. The largest program has been that of the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC). Institutional and financial barriers have been the most difficult problems encountered by the ARC and other programs (such as Title V commissions). Despite the imperfect performance of the existing regional commissions, they offer a demonstration that some improvement in governmental performance can be achieved. There is virtual unanimity among the nation's governors that this is the route for Federal state relations to follow. Also, the commission route is viewed privately as the most socially acceptable means to have a beneficial impact on government performance. (SAC)

  10. A regional technology transfer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chenery, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    The activities of the NC/STRC are reported. The background and organization of the regional dissemination center, and marketing methods are discussed along with the services provided, and available information resources.

  11. MISR Regional UAE2 Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-29

    ... those familiar with the MISR Level 1 and 2 products, this maps directly to those products; each Regional product summarizes selected ... Theoretical Basis Documents . Images available on this web site include the following parameters: Image Description ...

  12. Active Region Release Two CMEs

    NASA Video Gallery

    Solar material can be seen blowing off the sun in this video captured by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) on the night of Feb. 5, 2013. This active region on the sun sent out two coronal ...

  13. Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulin-Acevedo, Madeleine; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "From School to Jobs: Africa's Dilemma" (Moulin-Acevedo); "Helping Change in Eastern Europe"; "Recognizing the Dignity of Indigenous Peoples"; "An Employment Plan for Pakistan"; and "Around the Continents." (JOW)

  14. Slot Region Radiation Environment Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandberg, Ingmar; Daglis, Ioannis; Heynderickx, Daniel; Evans, Hugh; Nieminen, Petteri

    2013-04-01

    Herein we present the main characteristics and first results of the Slot Region Radiation Environment Models (SRREMs) project. The statistical models developed in SRREMs aim to address the variability of trapped electron and proton fluxes in the region between the inner and the outer electron radiation belt. The energetic charged particle fluxes in the slot region are highly dynamic and are known to vary by several orders of magnitude on both short and long timescales. During quiet times, the particle fluxes are much lower than those found at the peak of the inner and outer belts and the region is considered benign. During geospace magnetic storms, though, this region can fill with energetic particles as the peak of the outer belt is pushed Earthwards and the fluxes can increase drastically. There has been a renewed interest in the potential operation of commercial satellites in orbits that are at least partially contained within the Slot Region. Hence, there is a need to improve the current radiation belt models, most of which do not model the extreme variability of the slot region and instead provide long-term averages between the better-known low and medium Earth orbits (LEO and MEO). The statistical models developed in the SRREMs project are based on the analysis of a large volume of available data and on the construction of a virtual database of slot region particle fluxes. The analysis that we have followed retains the long-term temporal, spatial and spectral variations in electron and proton fluxes as well as the short-term enhancement events at altitudes and inclinations relevant for satellites in the slot region. A large number of datasets have been used for the construction, evaluation and inter-calibration of the SRREMs virtual dataset. Special emphasis has been given on the use and analysis of ESA Standard Radiation Environment Monitor (SREM) data from the units on-board PROBA-1, INTEGRAL, and GIOVE-B due to the sufficient spatial and long temporal

  15. Late-glacial recolonization and phylogeography of European red deer (Cervus elaphus L.).

    PubMed

    Meiri, Meirav; Lister, Adrian M; Higham, Thomas F G; Stewart, John R; Straus, Lawrence G; Obermaier, Henriette; González Morales, Manuel R; Marín-Arroyo, Ana B; Barnes, Ian

    2013-09-01

    The Pleistocene was an epoch of extreme climatic and environmental changes. How individual species responded to the repeated cycles of warm and cold stages is a major topic of debate. For the European fauna and flora, an expansion-contraction model has been suggested, whereby temperate species were restricted to southern refugia during glacial times and expanded northwards during interglacials, including the present interglacial (Holocene). Here, we test this model on the red deer (Cervus elaphus) a large and highly mobile herbivore, using both modern and ancient mitochondrial DNA from the entire European range of the species over the last c. 40,000 years. Our results indicate that this species was sensitive to the effects of climate change. Prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) haplogroups restricted today to South-East Europe and Western Asia reached as far west as the UK. During the LGM, red deer was mainly restricted to southern refugia, in Iberia, the Balkans and possibly in Italy and South-Western Asia. At the end of the LGM, red deer expanded from the Iberian refugium, to Central and Northern Europe, including the UK, Belgium, Scandinavia, Germany, Poland and Belarus. Ancient DNA data cannot rule out refugial survival of red deer in North-West Europe through the LGM. Had such deer survived, though, they were replaced by deer migrating from Iberia at the end of the glacial. The Balkans served as a separate LGM refugium and were probably connected to Western Asia with genetic exchange between the two areas.

  16. Ig Constant Region Effects on Variable Region Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Janda, Alena; Bowen, Anthony; Greenspan, Neil S.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive humoral immune response is responsible for the generation of antimicrobial proteins known as immunoglobulin molecules or antibodies. Immunoglobulins provide a defense system against pathogenic microbes and toxins by targeting them for removal and/or destruction. Historically, antibodies have been thought to be composed of distinct structural domains known as the variable and constant regions that are responsible for antigen binding and mediating effector functions such as opsonization and complement activation, respectively. These domains were thought to be structurally and functionally independent. Recent work has revealed however, that in some families of antibodies, the two regions can influence each other. We will discuss the body of work that led to these observations, as well as the mechanisms that have been proposed to explain how these two different antibody regions may interact in the function of antigen binding. PMID:26870003

  17. Influence of some socio-economic factors on growth and development of the boys in the Tuzla region (Bosnia and Herzegovina).

    PubMed

    Redzić, Amira; Hadzihalilović, Jasminka

    2007-06-01

    The impact of certain exogenous factor (socio-economic, ecological) has been investigated with special attention paid to the parents' living standard, and number of family members on some anthropometric parameters like: body height, body mass, chest circumference, upper leg circumference, upper arm circumference, sitting height, arm length, leg length, pelvis width, shoulders width, lenght of head and with of head on the sample of 698 boys aged 11 to 16 (17) years in the Tuzla region (the northeastern Bosnia, Western Balkan peninsula). Anthropometric measurements have been carried out using methodology proposed by the International Biological program (IBP). The results of these investigations have shown that there is a certain impact of the socio-economic conditions on the growth and development of boys. Children from families that have better living standard are, as a rule, taller, which is indicated by the statistical significant differences (P > 0.01). This trend indicates also value of Body Mass Index (BMI), which is in younger children from the families with lower living standard 16, while in the same category in the children from the families with better living standard it has value 18.5. The real impact of living conditions on the dynamics of development could be the best seen in the period of puberty. The number of children in the family has negative relationship with anthropometric features. Statistically significant differences (P > 0.001) have been detected in numerous analysed features in families with one or two children in comparison with families with three, four, or five children. Therefore, BMI has been significantly lower (16) in children from families with several children, while in the families with one child in the same growth class (11 years) it was significantly higher (17.4). Similar value of BMI (17.9) have children from the families with five children and which are 17 years old. Besides socio-economic conditions, high level of

  18. Regional waveform calibration in the Pamir-Hindu Kush region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lupei; Helmberger, Donald V.; Saikia, Chandan K.; Woods, Bradley B.

    1997-10-01

    Twelve moderate-magnitude earthquakes (mb 4-5.5) in the Pamir-Hindu Kush region are investigated to determine their focal mechanisms and to relocate them using their regional waveform records at two broadband arrays, the Kyrgyzstan Regional Network (KNET), and the 1992 Pakistan Himalayas seismic experiment array (PAKH) in northern Pakistan. We use the "cut-and-paste" source estimation technique to invert the whole broadband waveforms for mechanisms and depths, assuming a one-dimensional velocity model developed for the adjacent Tibetan plateau. For several large events the source mechanisms obtained agree with those available from the Harvard centroid moment tensor (CMT) solutions. An advantage of using regional broadband waveforms is that focal depths can be better constrained either from amplitude ratios of Pnl to surface waves for crustal events or from time separation between the direct P and the shear-coupled P wave (sPn + sPmP) for mantle events. All the crustal events are relocated at shallower depths compared with their International Seismological Centre bulletin or Harvard CMT depths. After the focal depths are established, the events are then relocated horizontally using their first-arrival times. Only minor offsets in epicentral location are found for all mantle events and the bigger crustal events, while rather large offsets (up to 30 km) occur for the smaller crustal events. We also tested the performance of waveform inversion using only two broadband stations, one from the KNET array in the north of the region and one from the PAKH array in the south. We found that this geometry is adequate for determining focal depths and mechanisms of moderate size earthquakes in the Pamir-Hindu Kush region.

  19. Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    The Keystone Center

    2005-06-15

    The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association

  20. Hierarchical probabilistic regionalization of volcanism for Sengan region, Japan.

    SciTech Connect

    Balasingam, Pirahas; Park, Jinyong; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Kulatilake, Pinnaduwa H. S. W.

    2005-03-01

    A 1 km square regular grid system created on the Universal Transverse Mercator zone 54 projected coordinate system is used to work with volcanism related data for Sengan region. The following geologic variables were determined as the most important for identifying volcanism: geothermal gradient, groundwater temperature, heat discharge, groundwater pH value, presence of volcanic rocks and presence of hydrothermal alteration. Data available for each of these important geologic variables were used to perform directional variogram modeling and kriging to estimate geologic variable vectors at each of the 23949 centers of the chosen 1 km cell grid system. Cluster analysis was performed on the 23949 complete variable vectors to classify each center of 1 km cell into one of five different statistically homogeneous groups with respect to potential volcanism spanning from lowest possible volcanism to highest possible volcanism with increasing group number. A discriminant analysis incorporating Bayes theorem was performed to construct maps showing the probability of group membership for each of the volcanism groups. The said maps showed good comparisons with the recorded locations of volcanism within the Sengan region. No volcanic data were found to exist in the group 1 region. The high probability areas within group 1 have the chance of being the no volcanism region. Entropy of classification is calculated to assess the uncertainty of the allocation process of each 1 km cell center location based on the calculated probabilities. The recorded volcanism data are also plotted on the entropy map to examine the uncertainty level of the estimations at the locations where volcanism exists. The volcanic data cell locations that are in the high volcanism regions (groups 4 and 5) showed relatively low mapping estimation uncertainty. On the other hand, the volcanic data cell locations that are in the low volcanism region (group 2) showed relatively high mapping estimation uncertainty

  1. Does regional anaesthesia improve outcome?

    PubMed

    Hopkins, P M

    2015-12-01

    This review examines the recent evidence of an impact of regional anaesthesia on important clinical outcomes. Evidence was obtained from a variety of studies, with increasing numbers of analyses of large databases being prominent. The benefits and limitations of these approaches are considered in order to provide a context for interpretation of the data they generate. There should be little argument that correctly performed and appropriately used regional anaesthetic techniques can provide the most effective postoperative analgesia for the duration of the block, but the majority of studies suggest that this does not translate into improved longer-term surgical outcomes. The evidence for reduced incidence of major complications when regional anaesthesia is compared with, or added to, general anaesthesia is mixed. There appears to be a small effect in reducing blood loss during major joint arthroplasty. Some, but not all, studies demonstrate a reduced incidence of respiratory and infective complications with regional anaesthesia, but the effect on cardiovascular complications is variable. There are even some data consistent with a hypothesis that general anaesthesia may be protective against postoperative cognitive dysfunction. In conclusion, there is probably no generally applicable benefit in long-term outcomes with regional anaesthesia. More likely is an interaction between patient factors, the surgical procedure, and the relative capability of the anaesthetist to manage different types of anaesthesia.

  2. Correlation of regional breath sound with regional ventilation in emphysema

    SciTech Connect

    Ploysongsang, Y.; Pare, J.A.; Macklem, P.T.

    1982-09-01

    We measured regional breath sound intensities (Ib) by a microphone amplifier system in 8 subjects with emphysema. We also measured regional white noise transmissions (Tn) from the same areas in all subjects. The recorded areas were 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm from the apex of the lung just lateral to the right anterior midclavicular line. Xenon ventilation indexes (xenon tidal raw counts, an index of total regional ventilation; xenon equilibration raw counts, an index of ventilating lung volume; xenon ventilation per unit volume (Vr), an index of ventilation per unit volume) were also recorded from the same areas. The Ib, Tn, Ib/Tn (an index of sound generation), and xenon ventilation indexes were all expressed as a fraction of the mean value of all four recorded areas. The Ib and Ib/Tn correlated best with the xenon tidal raw counts, correlated well with the xenon equilibration raw counts, and correlated poorly with Vr. We conclude that Ib and Ib/Tn can be used to quantify regional ventilation in subjects with emphysema.

  3. Satellites monitor Atlanta regional development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, William J.; Blackmon, C.C.; Rudasill, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    Since the adoption of a Regional Development Plan in 1975, the Atlanta Regional Commission has investigated methods for monitoring regional development patterns in a periodic, efficient manner. A promising approach appears to be the use of Landsat satellite data. In cooperation with the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, the commission used machine processing of digital temporal overlays of Landsat data collected in 1972, 1974 and 1976 to detect land use and land cover changes in the Atlanta metropolitan area. Results of the analysis revealed the conversion of forested and open space areas to residential, commercial and industrial land use in the urban-rural fringe zone from 1972 to 1974 and from 1974 to 1976. The study indicated that a land use and land cover change-detection program may be used to revise small-area forecasts of land use, population and employment made by planning models.

  4. Northeast Regional Biomass Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1992-04-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) is entering its ninth year of operation. The management and the objectives have virtually remained unchanged and are stated as follows. The program conducted by NRBP has three basic features: (1) a state grant component that provides funds (with a 50 percent matching requirement) to each of the states in the region to strengthen and integrate the work of state agencies involved in biomass energy; (2) a series of technical reports and studies in areas that have been identified as being of critical importance to the development of biomass energy in the region; and (3) a continuous long range planning component with heavy private sector involvement that helps to identify activities necessary to spur greater development and use of biomass energy in the Northeast.

  5. Desmoid Fibromatosis of Submandibular Region

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rohana; Parthiban, Nirmalatiban; O’Dwyer, Tadgh

    2014-01-01

    Desmoid fibromatosis is a benign yet locally aggressive tumor with a tendency to recur. It causes considerable morbidity particularly when it arises in a small area in the head and neck region. This tumor is extremely rare in the submandibular region. We report a case of desmoid tumor in the submandibular region in a 32-year-old male who presented with right submandibular swelling postextraction of right lower wisdom tooth. Excision biopsy was carried out initially following inconclusive fine needle aspiration and discussion at multidisciplinary meeting. The tumor recurred 4 months following initial excisional biopsy necessitating a more radical secondary approach involving segmental mandibulectomy. Intraoperatively we also noted that the tumor was originating from the site of previous wisdom tooth extraction, raising the question of surgical trauma as precursor of desmoid tumor. We achieved a negative resection margin and a complete remission for 24 months. PMID:25013548

  6. Parsing surrounding space into regions.

    PubMed

    Franklin, N; Henkel, L A; Zangas, T

    1995-07-01

    Surrounding space is not inherently organized, but we tend to treat it as though it consisted of regions (e.g., front, back, right, and left). The current studies show that these conceptual regions have characteristics that reflect our typical interactions with space. Three experiments examined the relative sizes and resolutions of front, back, left, and right around oneself. Front, argued to be the most important horizontal region, was found to be (a) largest, (b) recalled with the greatest precision, and (c) described with the greatest degree pf detao. Our findings suggest that some of the characteristics of the category model proposed by Huttenlocher, Hedges, and Duncan (1991) regarding memory for pictured circular displays may be generalized to space around oneself. More broadly, our results support and extend the spatial framework analysis of representation of surrounding space (Franklin & Tversky, 1990).

  7. Regional sea level change in the Thailand-Indonesia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenoglio-Marc, L.; Becker, M. H.; Buchhaupt, C.

    2013-12-01

    It is expected that the regional sea level rise will strongly affect particular regions with direct impacts including submergence of coastal zones, rising water tables and salt intrusion into groundwaters. It can possibly also exacerbate other factors as floodings, associated to storms and hurricanes, as well as ground subsidence of anthropogenic nature. The Thailand-Vietnam-Indonesian region is one of those zones. On land, the Chao-Praya and Mekong Delta are fertile alluvial zones. The potential for sea level increases and extreme floodings due to global warming makes the Deltas a place where local, regional, and global environmental changes are converging. We investigate the relative roles of regional and global mechanisms resulting in multidecadal variations and inflections in the rate of sea level change. Altimetry and GRACE data are used to investigate the variation of land floodings. The land surface water extent is evaluated at 25 km sampling intervals over fifteen years (1993-2007) using a multisatellite methodology which captures the extent of episodic and seasonal inundations, wetlands, rivers, lakes, and irrigated agriculture, using passive and active (microwaves and visible observations. The regional sea level change is analysed during the period 1993-2012 using satellite altimetry, wind and ocean model data, tide gauge data and GPS. The rates of absolute eustatic sea level rise derived from satellite altimetry through 19-year long precise altimeter observations are in average higher than the global mean rate. Several tide gauge records indicate an even higher sea level rise relative to land. We show that the sea level change is closely linked to the ENSO mode of variability and strongly affected by changes in wind forcing and ocean circulation. We have determined the vertical crustal motion at a given tide gauge location by differencing the tide gauge sea level time-series with an equivalent time-series derived from satellite altimetry and by computing

  8. Alpine cloud climatology: regional effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaestner, Martina; Kriebel, Karl T.

    1996-12-01

    The present understanding of moist atmospheric processes and the role of clouds in the hydrologic cycle shows severe gaps of knowledge. Water vapor plays an essential part in atmospheric dynamics. For example, the release of large amounts of latent heat, due to the condensation in convective clouds, plays an important role in the general circulation. Knowledge of the distribution of clouds and its transport is essential to understand atmospheric dynamics. Clouds can have a positive as well as a negative contribution to the greenhouse effect. A cloud cover climatology in a 15 km grid resolution has been retrieved by means of the APOLLO algorithm using the 5 calibrated AVHRR channels. The monthly means of total cloud cover are about 15 percent too high compared to conventional data, the standard deviation is +/- 12 percent. The high resolution cloud cover maps show topometeorological features like 'Fohn' on single days but not in monthly means, because these events are too rare. But increased cloud cover in the luff regions are detected in monthly means as well as some cloud sparse regions like Lake Garda, Ticino or the Swiss Rhone valley. The different annual cycles of cloud cover show the different climatic regions, which are temperate, Alpine, and Mediterranean climate. This is indicated, for example, by the remarkably smaller cloud cover in the Alpine region in winter as compared to the northern and southern forelands.

  9. Soviet attitudes toward regional security

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book examines Soviet views on the contemporary problems of regional security in the Third World. While there has been significant attention devoted to Western perceptions of regional security, there have been few corresponding efforts to understand the Soviet approach to issues of conflict and stability in the Third World. This volume provides a systematic examination of the strategic, political and ideological criteria which together shape Soviet policies in the developing world. The collection has been organized around particular themes and issues, with appropriate attention to both theoretical fundamentals in Soviet doctrine and Soviet actions in specific regions. CONTENTS: Forward; Introduction: Soviet Approach to Conflict and Stability in the Third World; Soviet Conception of Regional Security; Soviet Perceptions of US Involvement in Third World Disputes; Counterinsurgency in the Practice of Soviet Policy Towards the Third World; Soviet Views on the Relationship Between Local Disputes and International Tensions; Soviet Attitudes About Crisis Prevention Regimes for Third World Conflicts; The Third World in Soviet Military Thinking; Soviet Policy Towards the Middle East; The Formulation and Practice of Soviet Foreign Policy in South Asia; Soviet Policy in Latin America; Soviet Foreign Policy Towards Southern Africa; Soviet Views on the Proliferation of Nuclear Weaponry to the Third World; Conclusion.

  10. Regional nonpoint source program summary

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.; Partee, G.; Fleming, F.

    1992-11-01

    The Regional Nonpoint Source Program Summary outlines the major components of the strategies for controlling nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution in EPA Region 10. The document was developed from the Clean Water Act Section 319 Nonpoint Source Assessments, NPS Management Programs and related documents for Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington and for the Colville Confederated Tribes. The water resources and associated land uses vary widely both within and between the four states in EPA Region 10. The primary purpose of the NPS Assessments and Management Programs is to provide the states and tribes with a new blueprint for implementing integrated programs to address priority NPS water quality problems. The focus is needed in order to identify innovative funding opportunities and to effectively direct limited resources toward the highest priority issues and waterbodies. A secondary purpose of the Assessments and Management Programs involves the fulfillment of Clean Water Act requirements in order for states and tribes to compete for Section 319 grants for implementing NPS controls. The Regional NPS Program Summary provides a synthesis of these documents in order to improve understanding of the programs and to assist in their implementation.

  11. Education and Italian Regional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Liberto, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the connection between growth and human capital in a convergence regression for the panel of Italian regions. We include measures of average primary, secondary and tertiary education. We find that increased education seems to contribute to growth only in the South. Decomposing total schooling into its three constituent…

  12. PREL Pacific Region Language Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Region Educational Lab., Honolulu, HI.

    This collection of 10 cue cards presents English translations of common English words and expressions into 10 Pacific Region languages: Palauan, Samoan, Chamorro, Hawaiian, Carolinian, Chuukese, Pohnpeian, Marshallese, Yapese, and Kosraean. The cards translate the following: hello, good morning, good afternoon, good night, thank you, you're…

  13. MISR Regional SAMUM Imagery Overview

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... show data for a fixed geographical region, with a fixed color table. This allows images from different days to be directly compared. ... outside of the geographic range, and doesn't select the color table to best display the dynamic range of a particular day. The images ...

  14. Regional Background Fine Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling system composed of the global model GEOS-Chem providing hourly lateral boundary conditions to the regional model CMAQ was used to calculate the policy relevant background level of fine particulate: matter. Simulations were performed for the full year of 2004 over the d...

  15. SDO Sees Active Region Outbursts

    NASA Video Gallery

    This close up video by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory shows an active region near the right-hand edge of the sun’s disk, which erupted with at least a dozen minor events over a 30-hour period fr...

  16. Regional Needs Analysis Report. 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB) is required to develop a comprehensive and ongoing needs assessment process to analyze demand for additional degrees and programs [RCW 28B.76.230 (1)]. This report fulfills a portion of that mandate by focusing on employer demand on the regional level, but also includes additional information on…

  17. Numerical Simulation of Regional Circulation in the Monterey Bay Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, Y. H.; Dietrich, D. E.; Ferziger, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to produce a high-resolution numerical model of Mon- terey Bay area in which the dynamics are determined by the complex geometry of the coastline, steep bathymetry, and the in uence of the water masses that constitute the CCS. Our goal is to simulate the regional-scale ocean response with realistic dynamics (annual cycle), forcing, and domain. In particular, we focus on non-hydrostatic e ects (by comparing the results of hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic models) and the role of complex geometry, i.e. the bay and submarine canyon, on the nearshore circulation. To the best of our knowledge, the current study is the rst to simulate the regional circulation in the vicinity of Monterey Bay using a non-hydrostatic model. Section 2 introduces the high resolution Monterey Bay area regional model (MBARM). Section 3 provides the results and veri cation with mooring and satellite data. Section 4 compares the results of hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic models.

  18. Computed tomography of the rectosigmoid region.

    PubMed

    Dixon, A K

    1996-05-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy and embryology of the rectosigmoid region is useful for the correct interpretation of computed tomography in this region. The appearances and differential diagnoses of some of the common conditions affecting this region are presented and discussed.

  19. Marine cloud brightening: regional applications

    PubMed Central

    Latham, John; Gadian, Alan; Fournier, Jim; Parkes, Ben; Wadhams, Peter; Chen, Jack

    2014-01-01

    The general principle behind the marine cloud brightening (MCB) climate engineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with substantial concentrations of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre-sized seawater particles might significantly enhance cloud albedo and longevity, thereby producing a cooling effect. This paper is concerned with preliminary studies of the possible beneficial application of MCB to three regional issues: (1) recovery of polar ice loss, (2) weakening of developing hurricanes and (3) elimination or reduction of coral bleaching. The primary focus is on Item 1. We focus discussion herein on advantages associated with engaging in limited-area seeding, regional effects rather than global; and the levels of seeding that may be required to address changing current and near-term conditions in the Arctic. We also mention the possibility that MCB might be capable of producing a localized cooling to help stabilize the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. PMID:25404682

  20. Venus - Lavinia Region Impact Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Three large meteorite impact craters, with diameters that range from 37 to 50 kilometers (23 to 31 miles), are seen in this image of the Lavinia region of Venus. The image is centered at 27 degrees south latitude and 339 degrees east longitude (longitude on Venus is measured from 0 degrees to 360 degrees east), and covers an area 550 kilometers (342 miles) wide by about 500 kilometers (311 miles) long. Situated in a region of fractured plains, the craters show many features typical of meteorite impact craters, including rough (bright) material around the rim, terraced inner walls and central peaks. Numerous domes, probably caused by volcanic activity, are seen in the southeastern corner of the mosaic. The domes range in diameter from 1 to 12 kilometers (0.6 to 7 miles). Some of the domes have central pits that are typical of some types of volcanoes. North is at the top of the image.

  1. Schwannoma Located in Nasopharyngeal Region.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Fadlullah; Yenigun, Alper; Senturk, Erol; Ozturan, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Schwannoma is a tumor which has neuroectoderm origins, is hard, well-circumscribed, encapsulated, and slow growing benign cranial tumor, and may autonomously grow out of the nerve sheath of peripheral nerves. It is mostly seen in the head and neck region. In the paranasal sinus and nose areas, it is seen at a rate of 4%. The diagnosis is mostly made after histopathological examination. In this paper, a Schwannoma case observed in the nasopharyngeal region was presented in a 20-year-old female who had complaints of sleeping with open mouth, snoring, foreign body feeling in throat, and swallowing difficulties. The tumor was extracted via transoral approach. No recurrence was observed during follow-up over the next year. This case presentation is presented for the first time in the literature in English. PMID:27293938

  2. Sustainable development: a regional perspective.

    PubMed

    Icamina, P

    1988-12-01

    This article discusses sustainable development in Asia and current environmental problems in this region. Droughts and rainy seasons pose a major concern indicating environmental limitations: India's 1987 drought halted world grain production and China suffered US $435 million in flooding damage. Deforestation and land degradation are consequences of a rising population's demand for agriculture, fuelwood, irrigation, and hydroelectric projects; 1815 million hectares of forest are cleared/year and 40% of the land could possible be subjected to soil erosion. Although population growth is declining in some Asian countries, the continent inhabits the greatest proportion of world population; 300 million are underfed. Food production remains a problem for this region because of bad weather, highly populated areas, less cropland, soil erosion, and limited water supply. Efforts currently employed to conserve natural resources include community reforestation, providing available drinking water, substituting firewood for fuelwood, and delivering primary health care.

  3. Marine cloud brightening: regional applications.

    PubMed

    Latham, John; Gadian, Alan; Fournier, Jim; Parkes, Ben; Wadhams, Peter; Chen, Jack

    2014-12-28

    The general principle behind the marine cloud brightening (MCB) climate engineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with substantial concentrations of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre-sized seawater particles might significantly enhance cloud albedo and longevity, thereby producing a cooling effect. This paper is concerned with preliminary studies of the possible beneficial application of MCB to three regional issues: (1) recovery of polar ice loss, (2) weakening of developing hurricanes and (3) elimination or reduction of coral bleaching. The primary focus is on Item 1. We focus discussion herein on advantages associated with engaging in limited-area seeding, regional effects rather than global; and the levels of seeding that may be required to address changing current and near-term conditions in the Arctic. We also mention the possibility that MCB might be capable of producing a localized cooling to help stabilize the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.

  4. 50 CFR 2.2 - Regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Field installations include ecological services stations, endangered species stations, fishery...), Albuquerque, New Mexico 87102. (c) Midwest Regional Office (Region 3—comprising the States of...

  5. A Regional Medical Library Network *

    PubMed Central

    Pizer, Irwin H.

    1969-01-01

    The raison d'être for cooperative networks is discussed, and the development of the SUNY Biomedical Communication Network is traced briefly; a description of the system and its products is given. The cooperative cataloging program engaged in with the Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine and the National Library of Medicine is described, as are the efforts of the Network in the production of regional and state-wide union lists of serials. PMID:5778720

  6. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2006-08-30

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership's (SECARB) Phase I program focused on promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and commercial deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. The SECARB program, and its subsequent phases, directly support the Global Climate Change Initiative's goal of reducing greenhouse gas intensity by 18 percent by the year 2012. Work during the project's two-year period was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix''. The SECARB team was successful in accomplishing its tasks to define the geographic boundaries of the region; characterize the region; identify and address issues for technology deployment; develop public involvement and education mechanisms; identify the most promising capture, sequestration, and transport options; and prepare action plans for implementation and technology validation activity. Milestones accomplished during Phase I of the project are listed below: (1) Completed preliminary identification of geographic boundaries for the study (FY04, Quarter 1); (2) Completed initial inventory of major sources and sinks for the region (FY04, Quarter 2); (3) Completed initial development of plans for GIS (FY04, Quarter 3); (4) Completed preliminary action plan and assessment for overcoming public perception issues (FY04, Quarter 4); (5) Assessed safety, regulatory and permitting issues (FY05, Quarter 1); (6) Finalized inventory of major sources/sinks and refined GIS algorithms (FY05, Quarter 2); (7) Refined public involvement and education mechanisms in support of technology development options (FY05, Quarter 3); and (8) Identified the most promising capture, sequestration and transport options and prepared action plans (FY05, Quarter 4).

  7. [Population and environment: regional perspective].

    PubMed

    Gonzales Reategui, J T

    1995-06-01

    The ultimate objective of Peru's national environmental policy is to guarantee an adequate quality of life for Peruvians. Giving priority to preservation of resources without utilizing them is unjust; the capacity to protect natural resources requires a parallel social and economic development. The government's environmental policy must be in harmony with development policy at all levels. The concept of sustainable development, or conservation of natural resources with economic growth and equity, must be incorporated into policy. The regional governments must harmonize their development plans with the guidelines set down by the National Council on the Environment (CONAM). A meeting of regional officials and CONAM personnel is planned to ensure participation and coordination. Past styles of development in the department of Loreto have led to a vicious circle of poverty and environmental deterioration. The disappearance of the tropical forest, loss of habitat and biodiversity, poor water quality, and deficit of sanitary infrastructure, in the context of rapid population growth, have led to declines in living standards. The Amazon is the object of worldwide attention because of the possible consequences of deforestation. The riches of the forest should be used rationally and left for future generations. It is expected that decentralized environmental offices will be opened to coordinate multisectorial actions at the regional level.

  8. Region processing algorithm for HSTAMIDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngan, Peter; Burke, Sean; Cresci, Roger; Wilson, Joseph N.; Gader, Paul; Ho, Dominic K. C.

    2006-05-01

    The AN/PSS-14 (a.k.a. HSTAMIDS) has been tested for its performance in South East Asia, Thailand), South Africa (Namibia) and in November of 2005 in South West Asia (Afghanistan). The system has been proven effective in manual demining particularly in discriminating indigenous, metallic artifacts in the minefields. The Humanitarian Demining Research and Development (HD R&D) Program has sought to further improve the system to address specific needs in several areas. One particular area of these improvement efforts is the development of a mine detection/discrimination improvement software algorithm called Region Processing (RP). RP is an innovative technique in processing and is designed to work on a set of data acquired in a unique sweep pattern over a region-of-interest (ROI). The RP team is a joint effort consisting of three universities (University of Florida, University of Missouri, and Duke University), but is currently being led by the University of Florida. This paper describes the state-of-the-art Region Processing algorithm, its implementation into the current HSTAMIDS system, and its most recent test results.

  9. Developing a Regional Recovery Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.; Clark, Rebecca; Kelly, Heather; Sheline, Jim; Tietje, Grant; Williamson, Mark; Woodcock, Jody

    2011-09-01

    Abstract A biological attack would present an unprecedented challenge for local, state, and federal agencies; the military; the private sector; and individuals on many fronts ranging from vaccination and treatment to prioritization of cleanup actions to waste disposal. To prepare the Seattle region to recover from a biological attack, the Seattle Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) partners collaborated with military and federal agencies to develop a Regional Recovery Framework for a Biological Attack in the Seattle Urban Area. The goal was to reduce the time and resources required to recover and restore wide urban areas, military installations, and other critical infrastructure following a biological incident by providing a coordinated systems approach. Based on discussions in small workshops, tabletop exercises, and interviews with emergency response agency staff, the partners identified concepts of operation for various areas to address critical issues the region will face as recovery progresses. Key to this recovery is the recovery of the economy. Although the Framework is specific to a catastrophic, wide-area biological attack using anthrax, it was designed to be flexible and scalable so it could also serve as the recovery framework for an all-hazards approach. The Framework also served to coalesce policy questions that must be addressed for long-term recovery. These questions cover such areas as safety and health, security, financial management, waste management, legal issues, and economic development.

  10. Ab Initio Active Region Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Robert F.; Nordlund, A.

    2013-01-01

    The tachocline is not necessary to produce active regions with their global properties. Dynamo action within the convection zone can produce large scale reversing polarity magnetic fields as shown by ASH code and Charboneau et al simulations. Magneto-convection acting on this large scale field produces Omega-loops which emerge through the surface to produce active regions. The field first emerges as small bipoles with horizontal field over granules anchored in vertical fields in the intergranular lanes. The fields are quickly swept into the intergranular lanes and produce a mixed polarity "pepper and salt" pattern. The opposite polarities then migrate toward separate unipolar regions due to the underlying large scale loop structure. When sufficient flux concentrates, pores and sunspots form. We will show movies of magneto-convection simulations of the emerging flux, its migration, and concentration to form pores and spots, as well as the underlying magnetic field evolution. In addition, the same atmospheric data has been used as input to the LILIA Stokes Inversion code to calculate Stokes spectra for the Fe I 630 nm lines and then invert them to determine the magnetic field. Comparisons of the inverted field with the simulation field shows that small-scale, weak fields, less than 100 G, can not be accurately determined because of vertical gradients that are difficult to match in fitting the line profiles. Horizontal smoothing by telescope diffraction further degrades the inversion accuracy.

  11. Quiet-Region Filament Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhary, Debi Prasad; Moore, Ronald L.

    2004-01-01

    We report characteristics of quiescent filament eruptions that did not produce coronal mass ejections (CMEs). It is known that there is a dichotomy of quiescent filament eruptions: those that produce CMEs and those that do not. We examined the quiescent filament eruptions, each of which was located far from disk center (greater than or equal to 0.7 R(sub Sun)) in diffuse remnant magnetic fields of decayed active regions, was well observed in Ha observations and Fe XII, and had good coronagraph coverage. We present the similarity and differences of two classes of filament eruptions. From their lack of CME production and the appearance of their eruptive motion in Fe XII movies, we conclude that the non-CME-producing filament eruptions are confined eruptions like the confined filament eruptions in active regions. We take the similarity of the confined and eruptive quiescent filament eruptions with their active-region counterparts to favor runaway tether-cutting connection for unleashing the magnetic explosion in all these eruptions.

  12. Great Lakes' regional climate regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsov, Sergey; Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Roebber, Paul

    2016-04-01

    We simulate the seasonal cycle of the Great Lakes' water temperature and lake ice using an idealized coupled lake-atmosphere-ice model. Under identical seasonally varying boundary conditions, this model exhibits more than one seasonally varying equilibrium solutions, which we associate with distinct regional climate regimes. Colder/warmer regimes are characterized by abundant/scarce amounts of wintertime ice and cooler/warmer summer temperatures, respectively. These regimes are also evident in the observations of the Great Lakes' climate variability over recent few decades, and are found to be most pronounced for Lake Superior, the deepest of the Great Lakes, consistent with model predictions. Multiple climate regimes of the Great Lakes also play a crucial role in the accelerated warming of the lakes relative to the surrounding land regions in response to larger-scale global warming. We discuss the physical origin and characteristics of multiple climate regimes over the lakes, as well as their implications for a longer-term regional climate variability.

  13. Regional air pollution over Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krysztofiak, G.; Catoire, V.; Dorf, M.; Grossmann, K.; Hamer, P. D.; Marécal, V.; Reiter, A.; Schlager, H.; Eckhardt, S.; Jurkat, T.; Oram, D.; Quack, B.; Atlas, E.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2012-12-01

    During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in Nov. and Dec. 2011 a number of polluted air masses were observed in the marine and terrestrial boundary layer (0 - 2 km) and in the free troposphere (2 - 12 km) over Borneo/Malaysia. The measurements include isoprene, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, NO2, SO2 as primary pollutants, O3 and HCHO as secondary pollutants, and meteorological parameters. This set of trace gases can be used to fingerprint different sources of local and regional air pollution (e.g., biomass burning and fossil fuel burning, gas flaring on oil rigs, emission of ships and from urban areas, volcanic emissions, and biogenic emissions). Individual sources and location can be identified when the measurements are combined with a nested-grid regional scale chemical and meteorological model and lagrangian particle dispersion model (e.g., CCATT-BRAMS and FLEXPART). In the case of the former, emission inventories of the primary pollutants provide the basis for the trace gas simulations. In this region, the anthropogenic influence on air pollution seems to dominate over natural causes. For example, CO2 and CH4 often show strong correlations with CO, suggesting biomass burning or urban fossil fuel combustion dominates the combustion sources. The study of the CO/CO2 and CH4/CO ratios can help separate anthropogenic combustion from biomass burning pollution sources. In addition, these ratios can be used as a measure of combustion efficiency to help place the type of biomass burning particular to this region within the wider context of fire types found globally. On several occasions, CH4 enhancements are observed near the ocean surface, which are not directly correlated with CO enhancements thus indicating a non-combustion-related CH4 source. Positive correlations between SO2 and CO show the anthropogenic influence of oil rigs located in the South China Sea. Furthermore, SO2 enhancements are observed without any increase in CO

  14. Active region evolution in the chromosphere and transtition region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shine, R. A.; Schrijver, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    Images in the C IV 1548 A and the Si II 1526 S lines taken with the ultraviolet spectrometer polarimeter (UVSP) instrument on board the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite were combined into movies showing the evolution of active regions and the neighboring supergranulation over several days. The data sets generally consist of 240 by 240 arc second rasters with 3 arc second pixels taken one per orbit (about every 90 minutes). The images are projected on a latitude/longitude grid to remove the forshortening as the region rotates across the solar disk and further processed to remove jitter and gain variations. Movies were made with and without differential rotation. Although there are occasional missing orbits, these series do not suffer from the long nighttime gaps that occur in observations taken at a single groundbased observatory and are excellent for studying changes on time scales of several hours. The longest sequence processed to date runs from 20 Oct. 1980 to 25 Oct. 1980. This was taken during an SMM flare buildup study on AR 2744. Several shorter sequences taken in 1980 and 1984 will also be shown. The results will be presented on a video disk which can be interactively controlled to view the movies.

  15. Assessment of homogeneity of regions for regional flood frequency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong Eun; Kim, Nam Won

    2016-04-01

    This paper analyzed the effect of rainfall on hydrological similarity, which is an important step for regional flood frequency analysis (RFFA). For the RFFA, storage function method (SFM) using spatial extension technique was applied for the 22 sub-catchments that are partitioned from Chungju dam watershed in Republic of Korea. We used the SFM to generate the annual maximum floods for 22 sub-catchments using annual maximum storm events (1986~2010) as input data. Then the quantiles of rainfall and flood were estimated using the annual maximum series for the 22 sub-catchments. Finally, spatial variations in terms of two quantiles were analyzed. As a result, there were significant correlation between spatial variations of the two quantiles. This result demonstrates that spatial variation of rainfall is an important factor to explain the homogeneity of regions when applying RFFA. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by a grant (11-TI-C06) from Advanced Water Management Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  16. Regional Slip Tendency Analysis of the Great Basin Region

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-09-30

    Slip and dilation tendency on the Great Basin fault surfaces (from the USGS Quaternary Fault Database) were calculated using 3DStress (software produced by Southwest Research Institute). Slip and dilation tendency are both unitless ratios of the resolved stresses applied to the fault plane by the measured ambient stress field. - Values range from a maximum of 1 (a fault plane ideally oriented to slip or dilate under ambient stress conditions) to zero (a fault plane with no potential to slip or dilate). - Slip and dilation tendency values were calculated for each fault in the Great Basin. As dip is unknown for many faults in the USGS Quaternary Fault Database, we made these calculations using the dip for each fault that would yield the maximum slip or dilation tendency. As such, these results should be viewed as maximum slip and dilation tendency. - The resulting along‐fault and fault‐to‐fault variation in slip or dilation potential is a proxy for along fault and fault‐to‐fault variation in fluid flow conduit potential. Stress Magnitudes and directions were calculated across the entire Great Basin. Stress field variation within each focus area was approximated based on regional published data and the world stress database (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson‐Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes, 2010; Davatzes and Hickman, 2006; Blake and Davatzes 2011; Blake and Davatzes, 2012; Moeck et al., 2010; Moos and Ronne, 2010 and Reinecker et al., 2005). The minimum horizontal stress direction (Shmin) was contoured, and spatial bins with common Shmin directions were calculated. Based on this technique, we subdivided the Great Basin into nine regions (Shmin <070, 070140). Slip and dilation tendency were calculated using 3DStress for the faults within each region using the mean Shmin for the region. Shmin variation throughout Great Basin

  17. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  18. 32 CFR 1605.7 - Region Manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM... Director of Selective Service, the Region Manager of Selective Service for each region shall be in... of the Selective Service System in the various States assigned to the region. (b) The Region...

  19. 32 CFR 1605.7 - Region Manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM... Director of Selective Service, the Region Manager of Selective Service for each region shall be in... of the Selective Service System in the various States assigned to the region. (b) The Region...

  20. 32 CFR 1605.7 - Region Manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM... Director of Selective Service, the Region Manager of Selective Service for each region shall be in... of the Selective Service System in the various States assigned to the region. (b) The Region...

  1. 32 CFR 1605.7 - Region Manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM... Director of Selective Service, the Region Manager of Selective Service for each region shall be in... of the Selective Service System in the various States assigned to the region. (b) The Region...

  2. 32 CFR 1605.7 - Region Manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM... Director of Selective Service, the Region Manager of Selective Service for each region shall be in... of the Selective Service System in the various States assigned to the region. (b) The Region...

  3. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  4. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  5. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  6. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  7. The French Regions and Their Social Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jany-Catrice, Florence

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a new indicator designed to capture the multidimensionality of the social health of the French regions is put to the test. Drawing on regional data for 2004, this indicator of social health (ISH) sheds new light on the social performance of the French regions. The worst performers are the highly urbanised regions, whereas others,…

  8. Appalachian Regional Commission: 1987 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jack, Ed.; And Others

    The Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) used its $105 million appropriation for fiscal year 1987 to support three major program areas in the 13 state region: (1) creating and retaining regional jobs; (2) assisting in construction of basic facilities, particularly water and sewer systems, in the region's 90 poorest counties; and (3) working…

  9. 5 CFR 2421.6 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Regional Director. 2421.6 Section 2421.6... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MEANING OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 2421.6 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of the Authority with geographical boundaries as fixed...

  10. 5 CFR 2421.6 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Regional Director. 2421.6 Section 2421.6... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MEANING OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 2421.6 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of the Authority with geographical boundaries as fixed...

  11. 22 CFR 1421.5 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Regional Director. 1421.5 Section 1421.5 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.5 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of...

  12. 22 CFR 1421.5 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Regional Director. 1421.5 Section 1421.5 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.5 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of...

  13. 50 CFR 1.7 - Regional director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regional director. 1.7 Section 1.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.7 Regional director. Regional director means the official in charge of a region...

  14. 5 CFR 2421.6 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Regional Director. 2421.6 Section 2421.6... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MEANING OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 2421.6 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of the Authority with geographical boundaries as fixed...

  15. 50 CFR 1.7 - Regional director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Regional director. 1.7 Section 1.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.7 Regional director. Regional director means the official in charge of a region...

  16. 5 CFR 2421.6 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regional Director. 2421.6 Section 2421.6... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MEANING OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 2421.6 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of the Authority with geographical boundaries as fixed...

  17. 22 CFR 1421.5 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Regional Director. 1421.5 Section 1421.5 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.5 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of...

  18. 50 CFR 1.7 - Regional director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Regional director. 1.7 Section 1.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.7 Regional director. Regional director means the official in charge of a region...

  19. 50 CFR 1.7 - Regional director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Regional director. 1.7 Section 1.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.7 Regional director. Regional director means the official in charge of a region...

  20. 22 CFR 1421.5 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Regional Director. 1421.5 Section 1421.5 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.5 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of...

  1. 5 CFR 2421.6 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Regional Director. 2421.6 Section 2421.6... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MEANING OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 2421.6 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of the Authority with geographical boundaries as fixed...

  2. Solar active region display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golightly, M.; Raben, V.; Weyland, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Solar Active Region Display System (SARDS) is a client-server application that automatically collects a wide range of solar data and displays it in a format easy for users to assimilate and interpret. Users can rapidly identify active regions of interest or concern from color-coded indicators that visually summarize each region's size, magnetic configuration, recent growth history, and recent flare and CME production. The active region information can be overlaid onto solar maps, multiple solar images, and solar difference images in orthographic, Mercator or cylindrical equidistant projections. Near real-time graphs display the GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, flare events, and daily F10.7 value as a function of time; color-coded indicators show current trends in soft x-ray flux, flare temperature, daily F10.7 flux, and x-ray flare occurrence. Through a separate window up to 4 real-time or static graphs can simultaneously display values of KP, AP, daily F10.7 flux, GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, GOES >10 and >100 MeV proton flux, and Thule neutron monitor count rate. Climatologic displays use color-valued cells to show F10.7 and AP values as a function of Carrington/Bartel's rotation sequences - this format allows users to detect recurrent patterns in solar and geomagnetic activity as well as variations in activity levels over multiple solar cycles. Users can customize many of the display and graph features; all displays can be printed or copied to the system's clipboard for "pasting" into other applications. The system obtains and stores space weather data and images from sources such as the NOAA Space Environment Center, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, the joint ESA/NASA SOHO spacecraft, and the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory, and can be extended to include other data series and image sources. Data and images retrieved from the system's database are converted to XML and transported from a central server using HTTP and SOAP protocols, allowing

  3. Diversity in Mawrth Region, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view shows diverse materials and morphologies in the region south of Mawrth Vallis on Mars. The color is composed of infrared, red, and blue-green color images, and has been enhanced to accentuate the color differences. The bright material may be rich in clays and date back to a time when Mars had a wetter environment. This is a sub-image of a larger view imaged by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter on Oct. 1, 2006. The resolution is 25 centimeters (10 inches) per pixel, and the scene is 352 meters (385 yards) wide.

  4. The effects of HII regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, J. E.

    2016-05-01

    Recent work on the effects of HII regions on giant molecular clouds (GMCs) and their embedded clusters is discussed. Although the dispersive effects of ionising radiation on clouds, particularly massive ones with high escape velocities, is rather modest, it is argued that it is still a vitally important process in the evolution of GMCs and clusters. It is able to drive turbulence on GMC scales, to set the optical emergence timescales of at last ˜ 103 M⊙ clusters, and has a strong influence on the large-scale energy and momentum input of supernovae by determining their detonation environments.

  5. Emergency Medicine in Remote Regions

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Rural and remote places like Sable Island (Nova Scotia) or François (Newfoundland) pose a challenge in delivering both health care and appropriate education that today’s learners need to practice in a rural setting. This education can be difficult to deliver to students far from academic centers. This is especially true for learners and practitioners at offshore locations like ships, oil installations, or in the air when patients are transported via fixed wing aircraft or helicopter. The following editorial provides a snapshot of the setting and the challenges faced while working as a physician on a ship, in remote regions. PMID:27738573

  6. What makes active regions grow.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weart, S.

    1972-01-01

    A study of magnetic flux growth or growth failure in over 100 active regions is shown to indicate that most growth is connected with the emergence of a large batch of flux in the shape of a new arch filament system (AFS). During the recent sunspot maximum, new AFSs appeared at a rate of nearly one per day over the entire sun. Evidence is presented for two proposed hypotheses, namely: (1) a twist in the flux tubes of new AFSs is a key factor in determining which new AFSs will grow; and (2) this twist is related to the well-known asymmetry of sunspot groups.

  7. Magnetospheric plasma regions and boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heikkila, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    The boundaries of the various regions of the magnetospheric plasma are considered, taking into account the bow shock, the magnetopause, the outer boundary of the plasma sheet, the inner boundary of the plasma sheet, and the trapping boundary for energetic particles. Attention is given to the steady state, or quasi-steady state, to substorm effects in which temporal changes are important, and to primary auroral processes. A description is presented of the high latitude lobes of the magnetotail. The characteristics of magnetic field topology associated with interconnected interplanetary and geomagnetic field lines are illustrated with the aid of a graph.

  8. [Pseudotumor in the parotid region].

    PubMed

    Olin, H B; Pedersen, K; Hansen, H; Poulsen, F W

    2000-06-19

    Tophaceous pseudogout is a rare form of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease. Half of the 31 reported cases of tophaceous pseudogout are in the head and neck region. This patient presented with a parotid tumour, that was initially suspected to be malignant based on radiology and cytology. Operation disclosed a tumour progressing to the base of the skull, histological examination showed inflammatory cells, macrophages, metaplastic chondroid cells and giant cells of foreign-body-type. X-ray diffraction revealed two crystal forms of CPPD.

  9. Surface compositions in the Aristarchus Region: Implications for regional stratigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawke, H. R.; Lucey, P. G.; Mccord, T. B.; Pieters, C. M.; Head, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Near infrared reflectance spectra for the Aristachus region, obtained using the 2.2m UH telescope at the Mauna Kea Observatory, were reduced and analyzed. The spectra obtained for the central peak, southern floor, southwestern wall, eastern wall, and northwestern wall of Aristachus crater exhibit shallow continuum slopes, relatively strong feldspar bands, pyroxene bands stronger than those typically seen in the spectra of fresh higland features, and pyroxene band centers near l micrometer suggesting the dominance of Ca rich clinopyroxene. The spectrum of the south rim of Aristachus is quite distinct from those of other crater units. The position of Aristrchus on the plateau/mare boundary raises questions concerning compositional variations in crater ejects deposits.

  10. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development. PMID:12032502

  11. Intravenous regional analgesia using bupivacaine.

    PubMed

    Ware, R J

    1975-11-01

    Intravenous regional analgesia using bupivacaine (Marcain) was employed as the anaesthetic technique in a series of 50 cases undergoing a variety of surgical procedures on the upper limb. A short pilot study was undertaken to determine the optimal dosage and concentration of bupivacaine. This was found to be 1-5 mg/kg in 0-2% concentration and proved suitable for all patients regardless of age or physical condition. The use of bupivacaine produced highly successful results in 98% of cases. Onset of analgesia was very rapid (3-5 minutes) and profound muscular relaxation occurred in approximately half of the cases. The degree of muscle relaxation was, however, always adequate for the successful reduction of fractures. Only one patient exhibited an adverse reaction to the dose of bupivacaine used and this was limited to a brief period of slight drowsiness. The results of this series suggest that bupivacaine may provide advantages over previously used local analgesic agents for intravenous regional analgesia and that it may be the agent of choice for this useful technique.

  12. Regional case studies--Africa.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Andrew M

    2009-01-01

    Africa is the final continent to be affected by the nutrition transition and, as elsewhere, is characterized by the paradoxical coexistence of malnutrition and obesity. Several features of the obesity epidemic in Africa mirror those in other emerging nations: it penetrates the richer nations and urban areas first with a strong urban- rural gradient; initially it affects the wealthy, but later there is a demographic switch as obesity becomes a condition more associated with poverty, and it shares many of the same drivers related to the increasing affordability of highly refined oils and carbohydrates, and a move away from subsistence farm work and towards sedentary lifestyles. Africa also has some characteristics of the obesity epidemic that stand out from other regions such as: (1) excepting some areas of the Pacific, Africa is probably the only region in which obesity (especially among women) is viewed culturally as a positive and desirable trait, leading to major gender differences in obesity rates in many countries; (2) most of Africa has very low rates of obesity in children, and to date African obesity is mostly an adult syndrome; (3) Africans seem genetically prone to higher rates of diabetes and hypertension in association with obesity than Caucasians, but seem to be relatively protected from dislipidemias; (4) the case-specific deaths and disabilities from diabetes and hypertension in Africa are very high due to the paucity of health services and the strain that the 'double burden' of disease places on health systems.

  13. INTERACTION REGION MAGNETS FOR VLHC.

    SciTech Connect

    GUPTA,R.; HARRISON,M.

    2001-09-24

    The interaction region (IR) magnets for the proposed very large hadron collider (VLHC) require high gradient quadrupoles and high field dipoles for high luminosity performance. Moreover, the IR magnets for high energy colliders and storage rings must operate in an environment where the amount of energy deposited on superconducting coils is rather large. In the case of doublet IR optics with flat beams, the design of the first 2-in-1 quadrupole defines the geometry and pole tip field in this and other IR magnets. This paper will present a novel design of this magnet that allows a very small separation between the two apertures. A brief discussion of the conceptual magnetic design of this and other magnets for interaction regions is given. The influence of critical current density in superconductor (a higher value of which is most beneficial to high performance IR magnet design) is also discussed. Since High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) retain most of their critical current density at high fields and at elevated temperatures, they offer an attractive possibility for the IR magnet designs of future colliders or upgrades of present colliders.

  14. Regional solid waste management study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    In 1990, the Lower Savannah Council of Governments (LSCOG) began dialogue with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) regarding possibilities for cooperation and coordination of solid waste management practices among the local governments and the Savannah River Site. The Department of Energy eventually awarded a grant to the Lower Savannah Council of Governments for the development of a study, which was initiated on March 5, 1992. After careful analysis of the region`s solid waste needs, this study indicates a network approach to solid waste management to be the most viable. The network involves the following major components: (1) Rural Collection Centers, designed to provide convenience to rural citizens, while allowing some degree of participation in recycling; (2) Rural Drop-Off Centers, designed to give a greater level of education and recycling activity; (3) Inert landfills and composting centers, designed to reduce volumes going into municipal (Subtitle D) landfills and produce useable products from yard waste; (4) Transfer Stations, ultimate landfill disposal; (5) Materials Recovery Facilities, designed to separate recyclables into useable and sellable units, and (6) Subtitle D landfill for burial of all solid waste not treated through previous means.

  15. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  16. Cold dust in hot regions

    SciTech Connect

    Sreenilayam, Gopika; Fich, Michel; Ade, Peter; Bintley, Dan; Chapin, Ed; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Jenness, Tim; Dunlop, James S.; Holland, Wayne S.; Ivison, Rob; Gibb, Andy; Halpern, Mark; Scott, Douglas; Greaves, Jane S.; Robson, Ian

    2014-03-01

    We mapped five massive star-forming regions with the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Temperature and column density maps are obtained from the SCUBA-2 450 and 850 μm images. Most of the dense clumps we find have central temperatures below 20 K, with some as cold as 8 K, suggesting that they have no internal heating due to the presence of embedded protostars. This is surprising, because at the high densities inferred from these images and at these low temperatures such clumps should be unstable, collapsing to form stars and generating internal heating. The column densities at the clump centers exceed 10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}, and the derived peak visual extinction values are from 25 to 500 mag for β = 1.5-2.5, indicating highly opaque centers. The observed cloud gas masses range from ∼10 to 10{sup 3} M {sub ☉}. The outer regions of the clumps follow an r {sup –2.36±0.35} density distribution, and this power-law structure is observed outside of typically 10{sup 4} AU. All these findings suggest that these clumps are high-mass starless clumps and most likely contain high-mass starless cores.

  17. Cold Dust in Hot Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenilayam, Gopika; Fich, Michel; Ade, Peter; Bintley, Dan; Chapin, Ed; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Dunlop, James S.; Gibb, Andy; Greaves, Jane S.; Halpern, Mark; Holland, Wayne S.; Ivison, Rob; Jenness, Tim; Robson, Ian; Scott, Douglas

    2014-03-01

    We mapped five massive star-forming regions with the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Temperature and column density maps are obtained from the SCUBA-2 450 and 850 μm images. Most of the dense clumps we find have central temperatures below 20 K, with some as cold as 8 K, suggesting that they have no internal heating due to the presence of embedded protostars. This is surprising, because at the high densities inferred from these images and at these low temperatures such clumps should be unstable, collapsing to form stars and generating internal heating. The column densities at the clump centers exceed 1023 cm-2, and the derived peak visual extinction values are from 25 to 500 mag for β = 1.5-2.5, indicating highly opaque centers. The observed cloud gas masses range from ~10 to 103 M ⊙. The outer regions of the clumps follow an r -2.36 ± 0.35 density distribution, and this power-law structure is observed outside of typically 104 AU. All these findings suggest that these clumps are high-mass starless clumps and most likely contain high-mass starless cores.

  18. Jalisco Regional Seismic Network (RESAJ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Suarez Plascencia, C.; Escudero, C. R.; Gomez, A.

    2011-12-01

    Many societies and their economies endure the disastrous consequences of destructive earthquakes. The Jalisco region is exposing to this natural hazard. Scientific knowledge constitutes the only way to avoid or at least to mitigate the negative effects of such events. Accordingly the study of geological and geophysical causes; structural, kinematics and dynamic characteristics; and destructive effects of such events is indispensable. The main objective of this project is to developed capability to monitor and to analyze the potential destructive earthquakes along the Jalisco region. This network will allows us to study the Rivera plate and the Jalisco block seismicity. Ten earthquakes greater than 7.4 occurred in the last 160 years, including the largest Mexican earthquake (8.2) producing considerable damage in the area. During this project we installed 20 telemetric seismic stations and we plan to deploy up to 30. The stations are component by 24 bit A/D, 6 channels Quanterra Q330-6 DAS, Lennartz Triaxial 1Hz wide band seismometer, a triaxial accelerometer episensor Model FBA ES-T from Kinemetrics and solar power supply. The data is transmitted using freewave Ethernet radios or wireless internet links. All stations will transmit the data in to the central at Puerto Vallarta where all data is processed using Antelope system to localize and make preliminary evaluations of the events in almost real time and stored for future research. This network will produce high quality data enough to evaluate the eight previously identified seismic zones along Jalisco.

  19. Evolution of active region outflows throughout an active region lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangrilli, L.; Poletto, G.

    2016-10-01

    Context. We have shown previously that SOHO/UVCS data allow us to detect active region (AR) outflows at coronal altitudes higher than those reached by other instrumentation. These outflows are thought to be a component of the slow solar wind. Aims: Our purpose is to study the evolution of the outflows in the intermediate corona from AR 8100, from the time the AR first forms until it dissolves, after several transits at the solar limb. Methods: Data acquired by SOHO/UVCS at the time of the AR limb transits, at medium latitudes and at altitudes ranging from 1.5 to 2.3 R⊙, were used to infer the physical properties of the outflows through the AR evolution. To this end, we applied the Doppler dimming technique to UVCS spectra. These spectra include the H i Lyα line and the O vi doublet lines at 1031.9 and 1037.6 Å. Results: Plasma speeds and electron densities of the outflows were inferred over several rotations of the Sun. AR outflows are present in the newly born AR and persist throughout the entire AR life. Moreover, we found two types of outflows at different latitudes, both possibly originating in the same negative polarity area of the AR. We also analyzed the behavior of the Si xii 520 Å line along the UVCS slit in an attempt to reveal changes in the Si abundance when different regions are traversed. Although we found some evidence for a Si enrichment in the AR outflows, alternative interpretations are also plausible. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that outflows from ARs are detectable in the intermediate corona throughout the whole AR lifetime. This confirms that outflows contribute to the slow wind.

  20. [Epidemiological imaginary in Campania Region].

    PubMed

    Greco, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    The interviews on the epidemiological imaginary, collected within the framework of the project Sebiorec,(1) clearly demonstrate that also in Campania, on the border between the provinces of Naples and Caserta - where the issue of waste and land devastation take forms that are unprecedented compared to any other part of Europe - there is a widespread, strong, sacrosanct demand of participation in environment and health management. The request of deliberative ecological democracy is pressing.(2) There is an urgent need to meet that plethora of rights emerging in the "knowledge society" and in the "risk society" that someone has called "rights for scientific citizenship."(3) This request of the population of Campania, net of local cultural specificity, it is quite similar to that of the people of any other region of Europe. The context in which this request of participation is expressed, however, is quite different. Not only and not just for that real or perceived social pre-modern and familist web that would replace a modern civil society in Campania and all across the Southern Italian regions, but also and especially for some structural causes that we here try to list. Campania is a unique region in Europe - in many ways different even from other regions of southern Italy - due to the conjunction of at least five factors, not independent from each other. 1) The presence of a widespread organized crime which, in many areas, metropolitan and non-metropolitan alike, and especially in the provinces of Naples and Caserta, is a sort of state against the State and has one of its main levers of power and a major source of its wealth in the illegal control of the territory, in its different dimensions (military, but also economic, social and even cultural). 2) A huge social and economic disintegration, exacerbated in the last twenty years by a process of deindustrialization (until the early nineties Naples was the fifth industrial city of Italy, today it is a desert where

  1. [Epidemiological imaginary in Campania Region].

    PubMed

    Greco, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    The interviews on the epidemiological imaginary, collected within the framework of the project Sebiorec,(1) clearly demonstrate that also in Campania, on the border between the provinces of Naples and Caserta - where the issue of waste and land devastation take forms that are unprecedented compared to any other part of Europe - there is a widespread, strong, sacrosanct demand of participation in environment and health management. The request of deliberative ecological democracy is pressing.(2) There is an urgent need to meet that plethora of rights emerging in the "knowledge society" and in the "risk society" that someone has called "rights for scientific citizenship."(3) This request of the population of Campania, net of local cultural specificity, it is quite similar to that of the people of any other region of Europe. The context in which this request of participation is expressed, however, is quite different. Not only and not just for that real or perceived social pre-modern and familist web that would replace a modern civil society in Campania and all across the Southern Italian regions, but also and especially for some structural causes that we here try to list. Campania is a unique region in Europe - in many ways different even from other regions of southern Italy - due to the conjunction of at least five factors, not independent from each other. 1) The presence of a widespread organized crime which, in many areas, metropolitan and non-metropolitan alike, and especially in the provinces of Naples and Caserta, is a sort of state against the State and has one of its main levers of power and a major source of its wealth in the illegal control of the territory, in its different dimensions (military, but also economic, social and even cultural). 2) A huge social and economic disintegration, exacerbated in the last twenty years by a process of deindustrialization (until the early nineties Naples was the fifth industrial city of Italy, today it is a desert where

  2. Regional strategy tested in Caribbean.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Barbados, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia have joined forces in the world's 1st regional Contraceptive Social Marketing (CSM) effort -- the Caribbean CSM. The Barbados Family Planning Association (BFPS) is overseeing the operation, which begins selling 2 contraceptive pills and a condom in early February. Costs and start-up times were shaved by adopting brand names and advertising materials from Jamaica's highly successful CSM project. Jamaica's popular "Panther" condom and "Perle" oral contraceptive (OC) are being used by the Caribbean CSM project. Perle's 9-year-old package has been redesigned and the Caribbean CSM project also is selling a 2nd, low-dose version called "Perle-LD." The products are manufactured in the US by Syntex as Noriday and Norminest, respectively. But the regional approach's financial gains also had a debit side, most notably a tripling of bureaucratic procedures. Part of project difficulties stem from differences among the 3 Caribbean countries. While sharing a common cultural heritage, St. Lucians speak a patois dialect in addition to the English prevalent on the other islands. The biggest hurdle was overcoming an economic disparity between Barbados and its less affluent neighbors, St. Vincent and St. Lucia. The CSM project decided to try a 2-tier product pricing strategy. In US currency, prices run $1.75 per cycle for both OCs on Barbados, but $1.26 on St. Vincent and St. Lucia. A Panther 3-pack costs 75 cents on Barbados and 42 cents on the othe 2 islands. The project is being promoted with generic family planning media advertisements. The project also has held physician orientation seminars on each island. The pilot program will be accompanied by retailer training seminars. In addition the project may introduce a spermicidal foaming tablet, once the US Food and Drug Administration approvs a new American-made product. The unique Caribbean CSM project may spread an idea as potent as the family planning message. Its success could transmit the

  3. Regional strategy tested in Caribbean.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Barbados, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia have joined forces in the world's 1st regional Contraceptive Social Marketing (CSM) effort -- the Caribbean CSM. The Barbados Family Planning Association (BFPS) is overseeing the operation, which begins selling 2 contraceptive pills and a condom in early February. Costs and start-up times were shaved by adopting brand names and advertising materials from Jamaica's highly successful CSM project. Jamaica's popular "Panther" condom and "Perle" oral contraceptive (OC) are being used by the Caribbean CSM project. Perle's 9-year-old package has been redesigned and the Caribbean CSM project also is selling a 2nd, low-dose version called "Perle-LD." The products are manufactured in the US by Syntex as Noriday and Norminest, respectively. But the regional approach's financial gains also had a debit side, most notably a tripling of bureaucratic procedures. Part of project difficulties stem from differences among the 3 Caribbean countries. While sharing a common cultural heritage, St. Lucians speak a patois dialect in addition to the English prevalent on the other islands. The biggest hurdle was overcoming an economic disparity between Barbados and its less affluent neighbors, St. Vincent and St. Lucia. The CSM project decided to try a 2-tier product pricing strategy. In US currency, prices run $1.75 per cycle for both OCs on Barbados, but $1.26 on St. Vincent and St. Lucia. A Panther 3-pack costs 75 cents on Barbados and 42 cents on the othe 2 islands. The project is being promoted with generic family planning media advertisements. The project also has held physician orientation seminars on each island. The pilot program will be accompanied by retailer training seminars. In addition the project may introduce a spermicidal foaming tablet, once the US Food and Drug Administration approvs a new American-made product. The unique Caribbean CSM project may spread an idea as potent as the family planning message. Its success could transmit the

  4. Selection of USSR foreign similarity regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disler, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The similarity regions in the United States and Canada were selected to parallel the conditions that affect labeling and classification accuracies in the U.S.S.R. indicator regions. In addition to climate, a significant condition that affects labeling and classification accuracies in the U.S.S.R. is the proportion of barley and wheat grown in a given region (based on sown areas). The following regions in the United States and Canada were determined to be similar to the U.S.S.R. indicator regions: (1) Montana agrophysical unit (APU) 104 corresponds to the Belorussia high barley region; (2) North Dakota and Minnesota APU 20 and secondary region southern Manitoba and Saskatchewan correspond to the Ural RSFSR barley and spring wheat region; (3) Montana APU 23 corresponds to he North Caucasus barley and winter wheat region. Selection criteria included climates, crop type, crop distribution, growth cycles, field sizes, and field shapes.

  5. Cooperative monitoring of regional security agreements

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.L.

    1996-11-01

    This paper argues that cooperative monitoring plays a critical role in the implementation of regional security agreements and confidence building measures. A framework for developing cooperative monitoring options is proposed and several possibilities for relating bilateral and regional monitoring systems to international monitoring systems are discussed. Three bilateral or regional agreements are analyzed briefly to illustrate different possibilities. These examples illustrate that the relationship of regional or bilateral arms control or security agreements to international agreements depends on a number of factors: the overlap of provisions between regional and international agreements; the degree of interest in a regional agreement among the international community; efficiency in implementing the agreement; and numerous political considerations. Given the importance of regional security to the international community, regions should be encouraged to develop their own infrastructure for implementing regional arms control and other security agreements. A regional infrastructure need not preclude participation in an international regime. On the contrary, establishing regional institutions for arms control and nonproliferation could result in more proactive participation of regional parties in developing solutions for regional and international problems, thereby strengthening existing and future international regimes. Possible first steps for strengthening regional infrastructures are identified and potential technical requirements are discussed.

  6. Tumors of the pineal region.

    PubMed

    Piovan, E; Beltramello, A

    1996-01-01

    The role played by neuroradiologic examinations in the diagnosis of neoformations of the pineal region is considered. Results of reports of literature are compared with the personal experience (40 patients) to draw possible significant conclusions for the diagnosis of the oncological type. First, intrinsic pineal lesions should be separated from those of adjacent structures. Reliable discriminating parameters useful in the differential diagnosis are represented by sex and age. Diagnosis based on biochemistry with markers was shown not to be univocal. A further separation can be based on CT and MRI findings. In particular, teratomas appear as solid tumors with calcification and fat. The latter is depicted on MRI even if minimal. To the contrary, germinomas do not contain fat and are markedly enhancing. Microcysts seem to be more common in tumors originating from parenchymal pineal cells. A reliable differential diagnosis is however possible only for small-sized lesions where identification of the anatomical structure of origin is easier. PMID:8677341

  7. Venus - Landslide in Navka Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Magellan spacecraft has observed remnant landslide deposits apparently resulting from the collapse of volcanic structures. This Magellan radar image is centered about 25.4 degrees south latitude and 308 degrees east longitude in the southwestern Navka Region of Venus. The image shows a 17.4 kilometer (10.8 mile) diameter volcanic dome on the plains. The dome is approximately 1.86 kilometers (1.2 mile) in height and it has a slope of about 23 degrees. The northwest and northeast flanks of the dome have collapsed to form landslides that have deposited debris on the plains. The image shows an area 110 kilometers (68 miles) across and 100 kilometers (62 miles) in length.

  8. Complex regional pain syndrome underdiagnosed.

    PubMed

    Quisel, Anna; Gill, James M; Witherell, Peter

    2005-06-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type 1 may be diagnosed by history and physical exam with no further testing. Several different diagnostic criteria have undergone validity testing: the 1993 IASP criteria, Bruehl's criteria, and Veldman's criteria; there is no compelling reason to recommend 1 set of criteria over the others. Some cases of CRPS type 1 may be preventable. Some cases of CRPS type 1 in post-stroke upper extremity hemiplegia (also known as shoulder-hand syndrome) may be prevented by early inpatient rehabilitation and avoidance of shoulder trauma to the affected arm. Some cases of post-fracture CRPS type 1 may be prevented with 500 mg vitamin C daily started upon diagnosis of fracture and continued through healing.

  9. Phytophotodermatitis in Rijeka region, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Lenković, Maja; Cabrijan, Leo; Gruber, Franjo; Saftić, Marina; Stanić Zgombić, Zrinka; Stasić, Adalbert; Peharda, Vesna

    2008-10-01

    Contact with plants can cause phototoxic or rarely photoallergic reactions. Phototoxic dermatitis (photophytodermatitis) occurs after contact or ingestion of plants containing furocumarins i.e. psoralens and followed by sun exposure. Skin lesions develop usually after 24-48 hours with erythema, bulla formation, itch or pain, followed by a long lasting hyperpigmentation. Furocumarins can be linear i.e. psoralens (5-MOP, 8-MOP), or angular like angelicin and pimpinellin. Their binding to DNA causes cellular damage. This can happen in florists, gardeners, farmers, horticulturists, food handlers, and botanists. The plants causing phototoxic reaction can vary with the local flora but are commonly a member of the family apiaceae (formerly umbelliferae), family rutaceae, leguminosae and moraceae. The authors give special consideration to the phytophotodermatitis that appeared in their region in spring and summer during a three year period.

  10. Zoonoses in the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Seimenis, Aristarco; Morelli, Daniela; Mantovani, Adriano

    2006-01-01

    The Mediterranean and Middle East Region (MME) is considered the most important area for the historical development and concentration of zoonoses. Besides the classical Mediterranean pattern, an urbanised pattern has emerged which is strongly influenced by globalisation. Both patterns co-exist and have many peculiarities affecting the life cycles of zoonoses and their social impact. The features of those zoonoses which are now most relevant in the MME (brucellosis, rabies, cystic echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, food-borne zoonoses) are discussed. Besides other relevant activities, the World Health Organization has established, since 1979, a specialised programme with a unit coordinating and managing activities: i.e. the Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Centre, operating from Athens, Greece. PMID:17361068

  11. Zoonoses in the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Seimenis, Aristarco; Morelli, Daniela; Mantovani, Adriano

    2006-01-01

    The Mediterranean and Middle East Region (MME) is considered the most important area for the historical development and concentration of zoonoses. Besides the classical Mediterranean pattern, an urbanised pattern has emerged which is strongly influenced by globalisation. Both patterns co-exist and have many peculiarities affecting the life cycles of zoonoses and their social impact. The features of those zoonoses which are now most relevant in the MME (brucellosis, rabies, cystic echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, food-borne zoonoses) are discussed. Besides other relevant activities, the World Health Organization has established, since 1979, a specialised programme with a unit coordinating and managing activities: i.e. the Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Centre, operating from Athens, Greece.

  12. Cometary nucleus and active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, F. L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of the icy conglomerate model of cometary nuclei, various observations demonstrate the spotted nature of many or most nuclei, i.e., regions of unusual activity, either high or low. Rotation periods, spin axes and even precession of the axes are determined. The observational evidence for variations in activity over the surfaces of cometary nuclei are listed and discussed. On June 11 the comet IRAS-ARAKI-ALCOCK approached the Earth to a distance of 0.031 AU, the nearest since C/Lexell, 1770 I, providing a unique opportunity for near-nucleus observations. Preliminary analysis of these images establishes the spin axis of the nucleus, with an oblioquity to the orbit plane of approximately 50 deg, and a lag angle of sublimation approximately 35 deg from the solar meridian on the nucleus. Asymmetries of the inner coma suggests a crazy-quilt distribution of ices with differing volatility over the surface of the nucleus. The observations of Comet P/Homes 1892 III, exhibiting two 8-10 magnitude bursts, are carefully analyzed. The grazing encounter produced, besides the first great burst, an active area on the nucleus, which was rotating retrograde with a period of 16.3hr and inclination nearly 180 deg. After the first burst the total magnitude fell less than two magnitudes from November 7 to November 30 (barely naked eye) while the nuclear region remained diffuse or complex, rarely if ever showing a stellar appearance. The fading was much more rapid after the second burst. The grazing encounter distributed a volume of large chunks in the neighborhood of the nucleus, maintaining activity for weeks.

  13. Surface chemistry in photodissociation regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esplugues, G. B.; Cazaux, S.; Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M.; Caselli, P.

    2016-06-01

    Context. The presence of dust can strongly affect the chemical composition of the interstellar medium. We model the chemistry in photodissociation regions (PDRs) using both gas-phase and dust-phase chemical reactions. Aims: Our aim is to determine the chemical compositions of the interstellar medium (gas/dust/ice) in regions with distinct (molecular) gas densities that are exposed to radiation fields with different intensities. Methods: We have significantly improved the Meijerink PDR code by including 3050 new gas-phase chemical reactions and also by implementing surface chemistry. In particular, we have included 117 chemical reactions occurring on grain surfaces covering different processes, such as adsorption, thermal desorption, chemical desorption, two-body reactions, photo processes, and cosmic-ray processes on dust grains. Results: We obtain abundances for different gas and solid species as a function of visual extinction, depending on the density and radiation field. We also analyse the rates of the formation of CO2 and H2O ices in different environments. In addition, we study how chemistry is affected by the presence/absence of ice mantles (bare dust or icy dust) and the impact of considering different desorption probabilities. Conclusions: The type of substrate (bare dust or icy dust) and the probability of desorption can significantly alter the chemistry occurring on grain surfaces, leading to differences of several orders of magnitude in the abundances of gas-phase species, such as CO, H2CO, and CH3OH. The type of substrate, together with the density and intensity of the radiation field, also determine the threshold extinction to form ices of CO2 and H2O. We also conclude that H2CO and CH3OH are mainly released into the gas phase of low, far-ultraviolet illuminated PDRs through chemical desorption upon two-body surface reactions, rather than through photodesorption.

  14. Scandinavia and the Baltic Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera were combined to create this cloud-free natural-color mosaic of Scandinavia and the Baltic region. The image extends from 64oN, 0oE in the northwest to 56oN, 32oE in the southeast, and has been draped over a shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation Model from the United States Geological Survey. It is displayed in an equidistant conic projection.

    The image area includes southern Norway, Sweden and Finland, northern Denmark, Estonia, Latvia and part of western Russia. Norway's rugged western coastline is deeply indented by fjords. Elongated lakes, formed by glacial erosion and deposition, are characteristic of the entire region, and are particularly dense throughout Finland and Sweden. Numerous islands are present, and a virtually continuous chain of small, scattered islands occur between Sweden and Finland. The northern and eastern waters of the Baltic Sea are almost fresh, since the Baltic receives saltwater only from the narrow and shallow sounds between Denmark and Sweden that connect it to the North Sea. Most of the major cities within the image area are coastal, including St. Petersburg, Stockholm, Helsinki, Riga, and Oslo.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  15. [Chromosomal variation in Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) from populations of Bryansk region, Saratov region (Russia), and Gomel region (Belarus)].

    PubMed

    Belyanina, S I

    2015-02-01

    Cytogenetic analysis was performed on samples of Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) taken from waterbodies of various types in Bryansk region (Russia) and Gomel region (Belarus). Karyotypes of specimens taken from stream pools of the Volga were used as reference samples. The populations of Bryansk and Gomel regions (except for a population of Lake Strativa in Starodubskii district, Bryansk region) exhibit broad structural variation, including somatic mosaicism for morphotypes of the salivary gland chromosome set, decondensation of telomeric sites, and the presence of small structural changes, as opposed to populations of Saratov region. As compared with Saratov and Bryansk regions, the Balbiani ring in the B-arm of chromosome I is repressed in populations of Gomel region. It is concluded that the chromosome set of Ch. plumosus in a range of waterbodies of Bryansk and Gomel regions is unstable.

  16. Regional Heterogenity In Ceres' Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, Carol A.; Marchi, Simone; Bland, Michael T.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; Park, Ryan S.; Russell, Christopher T.; Hughson, Kynan G.; Scully, Jennifer E. C.

    2016-04-01

    The Dawn mission arrived at Ceres in March 2015 to find a body different than expected. Dawn found that Ceres was slightly smaller (avg radius of 470 versus 476.2 km), flatter and denser than the previous estimates, raising the question of how completely Ceres had differentiated. Dawn's gravity measurements indicate that Ceres is close to hydrostatic equilibrium and there is some degree of central condensation, suggesting a gradient in the content of volatiles within the interior. The surface is heavily cratered indicating that the outer shell is not dominated by ice, as would be expected for a differentiated body. Crater preservation at all scales, absent those larger than ~300 km, and complex morphology of the surface indicate a strong outer shell comprising no more than 40% ice by volume. The global, near-hydrostatic shape is consistent with a warmer, weaker interior beneath the strong outer shell. While the lack of evidence for an ice-dominated layer near the surface could indicate that it never formed, and thus Ceres only partially differentiated, an alternate explanation is that the volatile-rich outermost shell was lost as a result of im-pacts and to mixing of the ice with the silicate-rich briny layer that formed at the base of the former frozen ocean. Understanding the composition and rheology of the outer shell is a key part of solving the interior evolution puzzle. Thus far, we see evidence in the crater record for a viscosity several orders of magnitude higher than pure water ice; however, the crater preservation state varies considerably over the surface. There is no striking latitude dependence to the variation in crater preservation state, rather there are regional and local variations that juxtapose smooth, ap-parently relaxed or resurfaced areas next to areas of well-defined impacts and tectonic features. The largest craters Kerwan and Yalode are associated with surronding smoother, more sparsely cratered terrains, and show smooth inte-riors with

  17. Regional food culture and development.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2007-01-01

    Food culture is most influenced by the locality of its origin, which will have been one of food acquisition and processing by various means. It is generally agreed, and is the basis of much United Nations, especially Food and Agriculture Organisation strategic development policy, that successful agriculture, horticulture and aquaculture along with fishing, underpin economically viable and healthy communities with their various food cultures. We also know that this must be in tandem with maternal literacy and operational health care systems. These elements are best represented on a regional basis. There is a growing consumer interest in knowing where one's food comes from as a measure of "food integrity". However, food production alone can be a precarious business and relate to a lesser or greater extent to local food culture and to trade, which may be complementary or at-odds with each other. Likewise, the local food culture may have its strengths and weaknesses as far as its ability to meet nutritional and health needs is concerned. Local food production may be restricted because of geographical or socio-economic conditions which preclude food diversity, although this may be compensated for by trade. Where food adequacy and diversity is compromised, and soils poor, various macronutrient, micronutrient (from animals and plants) and phytonutrient (nutritionally-advantageous food component from plants) deficiencies may be in evidence. These food system problems may be intertwined with food culture--for example, "rice-based and water-soluble vitamin poor"; "few animal-derived foods like meat, fish, eggs and milk with associated low calcium, vitamin D, Vitamin B12 and long chain n-3 fatty acid intakes"; "low fruit and vegetable intake with limited carotenoids and other phytonutrients". Geo-satellite surveillance and mapping as identifying such "hot spots": for regional food problems, as well as hot spots where most of the world's biodiversity is found (1.4 % of land on

  18. 40 CFR 1.61 - Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Administrator, within the boundaries of their Regions, for the execution of the Regional Programs of the Agency... approval authority for proposed State standards and implementation plans; and (g) Providing for overall...

  19. Enhancing regional security agreements through cooperative monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    This paper proposes that strengthening regional capabilities for formulating and implementing arms control and confidence-building measures is a tangible method of enhancing regional security. It discusses the importance of developing a regional infrastructure for arms control and confidence building and elucidates the role of technology in facilitating regional arms control and confidence-building agreements. In addition, it identifies numerous applications for regional cooperative monitoring in the areas of arms control, resource management, international commerce and disaster response. The Cooperative Monitoring Center at Sandia National Laboratories, whose aim is to help individual countries and regions acquire the tools they need to develop their own solutions to regional problems, is discussed briefly. The paper ends with recommendations for establishing regional cooperative monitoring centers.

  20. Diode having trenches in a semiconductor region

    DOEpatents

    Palacios, Tomas Apostol; Lu, Bin; Matioli, Elison de Nazareth

    2016-03-22

    An electrode structure is described in which conductive regions are recessed into a semiconductor region. Trenches may be formed in a semiconductor region, such that conductive regions can be formed in the trenches. The electrode structure may be used in semiconductor devices such as field effect transistors or diodes. Nitride-based power semiconductor devices are described including such an electrode structure, which can reduce leakage current and otherwise improve performance.

  1. Regional Interagency Disaster Response Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, K.; Sullivan, D.; Butow, S.; Beilin, P.

    2008-12-01

    In affiliation with the "Great Worden Quake II" (GWQII) disaster preparedness exercise, the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field California, the Air Force National Guard (ANG) 129th Rescue Wing, Moffett Field, California, and the Bay Area Automated Mapping Association,led by the IT group for the City of Walnut Creek, California, will engage in a technology transfer demonstration utilizing the collaborative environment developed for NASA's very successful wildfire mapping campaigns during the years 2006-2008. The aircraft platform will be the ANG C-130, a viable candidate to substitute for the Ikana UAV, which cannot fly from Ames because of FAA restrictions on UAV flights over populated areas. In this technology transfer demonstration, we will: (1) Prove, document and train Regional Fire departments how to link and use NASA real-time data with existing software (ESRI, IRRIS, etc). (2) Demonstrate how to access and use this data as a bridge between the real-time (3) Refine the questions and capabilities that would be involved and developed with this type of real-time data available This paper describes this exercise.

  2. The complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oaklander, Anne Louise; Horowitz, Steven H

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is the current consensus-derived name for a syndrome usually triggered by limb trauma. Required elements include prolonged, disproportionate distal-limb pain and microvascular dysregulation (e.g., edema or color changes) or altered sweating. CRPS-II (formerly "causalgia") describes patients with identified nerve injuries. CRPS-I (formerly "reflex sympathetic dystrophy") describes most patients who lack evidence of specific nerve injuries. Diagnosis is clinical and the pathophysiology involves combinations of small-fiber axonopathy, microvasculopathy, inflammation, and brain plasticity/sensitization. Females have much higher risk and workplace accidents are a well-recognized cause. Inflammation and dysimmunity, perhaps facilitated by injury to the blood-nerve barrier, may contribute. Most patients, particularly the young, recover gradually, but treatment can speed healing. Evidence of efficacy is strongest for rehabilitation therapies (e.g., graded-motor imagery), neuropathic pain medications, and electric stimulation of the spinal cord, injured nerve, or motor cortex. Investigational treatments include ketamine, botulinum toxin, immunoglobulins, and transcranial neuromodulation. Nonrecovering patients should be re-evaluated for neurosurgically treatable causal lesions (nerve entrapment, impingement, infections, or tumors) and treatable potentiating medical conditions, including polyneuropathy and circulatory insufficiency. Earlier impressions that CRPS represents malingering or psychosomatic illness have been replaced by evidence that CRPS is a rare complication of limb injury in biologically susceptible individuals. PMID:26563805

  3. Hybrid regional air pollution models

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, R.L.

    1980-03-01

    This discussion deals with a family of air quality models for predicting and analyzing the fine particulate loading in the atmosphere, for assessing the extent and degree of visibility impairment, and for determining the potential of pollutants for increasing the acidity of soils and water. The major horizontal scales of interest are from 400km to 2000km; and the time scales may vary from several hours, to days, weeks, and a few months or years, depending on the EPA regulations being addressed. First the role air quality models play in the general family of atmospheric simulation models is described. Then, the characteristics of a well-designed, comprehensive air quality model are discussed. Following this, the specific objectives of this workshop are outlined, and their modeling implications are summarized. There are significant modeling differences produced by the choice of the coordinate system, whether it be the fixed Eulerian system, the moving Lagrangian system, or some hybrid of the two. These three systems are briefly discussed, and a list of hybrid models that are currently in use are given. Finally, the PNL regional transport model is outlined and a number of research needs are listed.

  4. Motor Functions of the Broca's Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binkofski, Ferdinand; Buccino, Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    Broca's region in the dominant cerebral hemisphere is known to mediate the production of language but also contributes to comprehension. This region evolved only in humans and is constituted of Brodmann's areas 44 and 45 in the inferior frontal gyrus. There is, however, evidence that Broca's region overlaps, at least in part, with the ventral…

  5. LATIN--Latin American Regional News Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, John Spicer

    The establishment of a regional news agency for Latin America to improve the balance of news flow and increase the transmission of news more applicable to regional problems has often been proposed. Despite wide acceptance of the concept, the birth of the Third World's first regional news agency, Agencia Latinoamericana de Informacion (LATIN), has…

  6. Appalachian Regional Commission. Annual Report 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachian Regional Commission, Washington, DC.

    After 4 years of operation, the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) presents this 1969 annual report and evaluation of its activities as required by the Appalachian Regional Development Act of 1965. A brief overview is given of the history of the program, the Federal-state relationship, and strategies for regional development. Appalachia is then…

  7. Regional Organizations Increase Opportunities for Member Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Vocational Journal, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The five American Vocational Association (AVA) Regions, organized only 18 months ago (1975), are now finding their place in the AVA structure. Their activities and accomplishments to date were reported to the membership at Regional meetings in Houston. It became clear that the regions are creating new opportunities for individual members and the…

  8. 22 CFR 1421.5 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Regional Director. 1421.5 Section 1421.5 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL... TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.5 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of...

  9. Cooperative monitoring of regional security agreements

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.L.

    1995-08-01

    This paper argues that cooperative monitoring plays a critical role in the implementation of regional security agreements and confidence building measures. A framework for developing cooperative monitoring options is proposed and several possibilities for relating bilateral and regional monitoring systems to international monitoring systems are discussed. Three bilateral or regional agreements are analyzed briefly to illustrate different possibilities: (1) the demilitarization of the Sinai region between Israel and Egypt in the 1970s; (2) the 1991 quadripartite agreement for monitoring nuclear facilities among Brazil, Argentina, The Argentine-Brazilian Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency; and (3) a bilateral Open Skies agreement between Hungary and Romania in 1991. These examples illustrate that the relationship of regional or bilateral arms control or security agreements to international agreements depends on a number of factors: the overlap of provisions between regional and international agreements; the degree of interest in a regional agreement among the international community; efficiency in implementing the agreement; and numerous political considerations.Given the importance of regional security to the international community, regions should be encouraged to develop their own infrastructure for implementing regional arms control and other security agreements. A regional infrastructure need not preclude participation in an international regime. On the contrary, establishing regional institutions for arms control and nonproliferation could result in more proactive participation of regional parties in developing solutions for regional and international problems, thereby strengthening existing and future international regimes. Possible first steps for strengthening regional infrastructures are identified and potential technical requirements are discussed.

  10. MHD simulations: Corotating Interaction Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiengarten, T.; Kleimann, J.; Fichtner, H.; Kühl, P.; Heber, B.; Kissmann, R.

    2013-12-01

    Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) form in the solar wind when parcels of fast-speed wind interact with slow-speed wind due to the rotation of the Sun. The resulting buildup of pressure generates disturbances that, with increasing time (or distance from the Sun), may develop into a so-called forward-reverse shock-pair. During solar-quiet times CIRs can be the dominant force shaping large-scale structures in the heliosphere. Studying CIRs is therefore important because the associated shocks are capable of e.g. accelerating energetic particles or deflecting cosmic rays. The global structure of CIRs can be modeled with an MHD approach that gives the plasma quantities needed to model the transport of particles in the heliosphere (with e.g. stochastic differential equations (SDEs)). Our MHD code CRONOS employs a semi-discrete finite volume scheme with adaptive time-stepping Runge-Kutta integration. The solenoidality of the magnetic field is ensured via constrained transport and the code supports Cartesian, Cylindrical and Spherical coordinates (including coordinate singularities) with the option for non-equidistant grids. The code runs in parallel (MPI) and supports the HDF5 output data format. Here, we show results from 3D-MHD simulations with our code CRONOS for a) analytic boundary conditions where results can be compared to those obtained with a different code and b) boundary conditions derived with the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model from observational data (WSO), which are compared to spacecraft observations. Comparison with Pizzo (1982) for analytic boundary conditions Comparison with STEREO A for Carrington Rotation 2060

  11. Securing non-volatile memory regions

    DOEpatents

    Faraboschi, Paolo; Ranganathan, Parthasarathy; Muralimanohar, Naveen

    2013-08-20

    Methods, apparatus and articles of manufacture to secure non-volatile memory regions are disclosed. An example method disclosed herein comprises associating a first key pair and a second key pair different than the first key pair with a process, using the first key pair to secure a first region of a non-volatile memory for the process, and using the second key pair to secure a second region of the non-volatile memory for the same process, the second region being different than the first region.

  12. Region effects influence local tree species diversity

    PubMed Central

    Ricklefs, Robert E.; He, Fangliang

    2016-01-01

    Global patterns of biodiversity reflect both regional and local processes, but the relative importance of local ecological limits to species coexistence, as influenced by the physical environment, in contrast to regional processes including species production, dispersal, and extinction, is poorly understood. Failure to distinguish regional influences from local effects has been due, in part, to sampling limitations at small scales, environmental heterogeneity within local or regional samples, and incomplete geographic sampling of species. Here, we use a global dataset comprising 47 forest plots to demonstrate significant region effects on diversity, beyond the influence of local climate, which together explain more than 92% of the global variation in local forest tree species richness. Significant region effects imply that large-scale processes shaping the regional diversity of forest trees exert influence down to the local scale, where they interact with local processes to determine the number of coexisting species. PMID:26733680

  13. Region effects influence local tree species diversity.

    PubMed

    Ricklefs, Robert E; He, Fangliang

    2016-01-19

    Global patterns of biodiversity reflect both regional and local processes, but the relative importance of local ecological limits to species coexistence, as influenced by the physical environment, in contrast to regional processes including species production, dispersal, and extinction, is poorly understood. Failure to distinguish regional influences from local effects has been due, in part, to sampling limitations at small scales, environmental heterogeneity within local or regional samples, and incomplete geographic sampling of species. Here, we use a global dataset comprising 47 forest plots to demonstrate significant region effects on diversity, beyond the influence of local climate, which together explain more than 92% of the global variation in local forest tree species richness. Significant region effects imply that large-scale processes shaping the regional diversity of forest trees exert influence down to the local scale, where they interact with local processes to determine the number of coexisting species. PMID:26733680

  14. Region effects influence local tree species diversity.

    PubMed

    Ricklefs, Robert E; He, Fangliang

    2016-01-19

    Global patterns of biodiversity reflect both regional and local processes, but the relative importance of local ecological limits to species coexistence, as influenced by the physical environment, in contrast to regional processes including species production, dispersal, and extinction, is poorly understood. Failure to distinguish regional influences from local effects has been due, in part, to sampling limitations at small scales, environmental heterogeneity within local or regional samples, and incomplete geographic sampling of species. Here, we use a global dataset comprising 47 forest plots to demonstrate significant region effects on diversity, beyond the influence of local climate, which together explain more than 92% of the global variation in local forest tree species richness. Significant region effects imply that large-scale processes shaping the regional diversity of forest trees exert influence down to the local scale, where they interact with local processes to determine the number of coexisting species.

  15. Regional adaptations in three rat tendons.

    PubMed

    Covizi, D Z; Felisbino, S L; Gomes, L; Pimentel, E R; Carvalho, H F

    2001-10-01

    Although detailed histological and immunocytochemical studies have been published for the rat calcanear tendon (CT), little is known of the structure, composition and biomechanics of the deep (DFT) and superficial (SFT) flexor tendons. In this study, we examined the structural specialization of these three tendons in 90-day-old rats by applying histochemical and biochemical assays to different tendon regions (proximal, intermediate and distal regions of the DFT and SFT, and proximal and distal regions of the CT). There were regional differences in tissue structure, glycosaminoglycan type and content, swelling properties and in the amount and distribution of elastic fibers. Dermatan sulfate occurred in all regions, but chondroitin sulfate predominated in the intermediate region of the DFT and in the distal region of the CT. These two chondroitin sulfate-bearing regions showed swelling in water, while all other regions lost fluid in water. Fibrocartilaginous sites were observed on the CT, one at the insertion to the bone and another distally at the innermost area of the tendon. The intermediate region of the DFT showed round cells disposed in lacunae, while the proximal and distal regions were typically fibrous. The intermediate region of the SFT showed a wavy array of collagen bundles but neither toluidine blue staining in the matrix nor round cells. Elastic fibers were present in each region of the three tendons, but were more prominent in the intermediate zone of the SFT. These results demonstrate regional variation in the three tendons. Tendon differentiation may occur by an increase in the number of elastic fibers and by variations in the arrangement of collagen fibers, without fibrocartilage formation.

  16. CME Productivity of Active Regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, J.; Shen, C.; Ye, P.; Zhang, Q.; Liu, R.; Wang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Solar active regions (ARs) are the major sources of two kinds of the most violent solar eruptions, namely flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Although they are believed to be two phenomena in the same eruptive process, the productivity of them could be quiet different for various ARs. Why is an AR productive? And why is a flare-rich AR CME-poor? To answer these questions, we compared the recent super flare-rich but CME-poor AR 12192, with other four ARs; two were productive in both flares and CMEs and the other two were inert to produce any M-class or intenser flares or CMEs. By investigating the photospheric parameters based on the SDO/HMI vector magnetogram, we find the three productive ARs have larger magnetic flux, current and free magnetic energy than the inert ARs. Furthermore, the two ARs productive in both flares and CMEs contain higher current helicity, concentrating along both sides of the flaring neutral lines, indicating the presence of a seed magnetic structure( that is highly sheared or twisted) of a CME; they also have higher decay index in the low corona, showing weak constraint. The results suggest that productive ARs are always large and have strong current system and sufficient free energy to power flares, and more importantly whether or not a flare is accompanied by a CME is seemingly related to (1) if there is significant sheared or twisted core field serving as the seed of the CME and (2) if the constraint of the overlying arcades is weak enough. Moreover, some productive ARs may frequently produce more than one CME. How does this happen? We do a statistical investigation of waiting times of quasi-homologous CMEs ( CME ssuccessive originating from the same ARs within short intervals) from super ARs in solar cycle 23 to answer this question. The waiting times of quasi-homologous CMEs have a two-component distribution with a separation at about 18 hours, the first component peaks at 7 hours. The correlation analysis among CME waiting times

  17. Word processing in the parafoveal region.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Hwan; Kim, Kyungill

    2009-10-01

    This study examined the role of words viewed in the parafoveal region during reading. In contrast to previous work, the present experiments used a reading-aloud paradigm that was postulated to encourage letter-to-sound processing, as is typical for beginning readers and for skilled readers who are reading difficult material. The three experiments in this study examined the role of orthographic and semantic information in the parafoveal region on the processing of a word in the foveal region. For this, two words, one in the foveal region and the other in the parafoveal region, were presented side by side to resemble normal reading. Participants were instructed to read aloud the word on the left side, ignoring the word on the right side. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that the presence of a word in the parafoveal region slowed naming of target words, and that this delay was attributable to linguistic interference. This pattern indicates that the information in the parafoveal region affect the processing of the target. Experiment 3 showed an effect of parafoveal semantic information on processing of the target word. In sum the results of the current study suggest that information in the parafoveal region appears to be linguistically processed but to a weaker degree than the focused word. In sum, the results of the experiments in the current study indicate that the influence of parafoveal information is quite lexical and semantic information in the parafoveal region affects processing of the target in the foveal region.

  18. Eighteen Years of the Great Lakes Regional Counseling Psychology Conference: Revisiting the Need for Regional Conferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Bowman, Sharon L.; Gerstein, Lawrence H.

    2006-01-01

    The Great Lakes Regional Conference on Counseling Psychology is the only conference to continuously fulfill the 1987 mandate issued by Division 17 for regional counseling conferences. The rationale for regional conferences is reviewed, and the 18-year history of the Great Lakes Regional Conference is examined. The authors conclude by noting the…

  19. Spatial region filtering in IRAF/PROS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, Eric; Roll, John; Schmidt, Dennis; Vanhilst, Mike; Burg, Richard

    1992-01-01

    In order to analyze x ray data, it is nearly always necessary to extract source and background events from a data set. Typically, this is done by defining geometric spatial regions of the data set to describe the source and background. For example, one might wish to extract source events from a circular or elliptical region centered at a particular pixel, and background events from a circular or elliptical annulus whose inner radius matches the source region. At the same time, it might be necessary to exclude one or more nearby sources from the source or background region in question. Thus, it might be necessary to define a pie-shaped region or even an entirely irregularly-shaped region to exclude. A spatial filtering scheme called REGIONS was implemented in IRAF/PROS to support these and other types of spatial region extraction. It allows users to create a spatial mask by specifying one or more ASCII geometric shape descriptors (box, circle, ellipse, pie, point, annulus, and polygon) as regions to be included or excluded in the mask. In addition, two or more shapes can be combined using Boolean algebra to create an infinite variety of sophisticated regions. Each geometric shape has a specific set of parameters that describe that shape. For example, a circle is described by a center and a radius, while a box is described by a center, length, width, and rotation angle. These quantities can be specified in units of pixels or, in cases where the target image contains world coordinate system information, they can be described in units such as RA and Dec. Users can create region mask files by feeding an ASCII region descriptor to the IRAF/PROS plcreate task. Temporary masks can also be created from ASCII region descriptors by individual applications that call the routines in the region creation library. This library implements a yacc-based region parser that compiles the ASCII descriptors into 'software CPU' instructions which are then executed to create the mask. The

  20. Localization of facial region in digital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Raj Kumar; Chowdhury, Aditya; Roy, Rahul

    2011-06-01

    We have developed and implemented an algorithm for the localization of facial region in a digital image consisting of multiple faces. The algorithm utilizes the basic colour-segmentation methods where the skin and hair regions are identified using the standard colour models. However, the implementation of merely the skin and hair models yields both the facial and non-facial regions. In order to filter out the non-facial region, we have introduced a quantization and a filtering module. The filter module essentially evaluates the proximity of the connected components associated with that of skin and hair regions. We have tested the algorithm on various images under various conditions. We found that the algorithm is capable of localizing the facial region even in a harsh condition.

  1. [Risks and dangers in pediatric regional anesthesia].

    PubMed

    Hillmann, R; Kretz, F-J

    2008-02-01

    In recent years peripheral and central regional anesthesia have become increasingly more important in pediatric anesthesia. Unlike adult patients, children typically receive regional anesthesia while under general anesthesia, an approach generally accepted among pediatric anesthesiologists. A well-founded knowledge of the specific anatomical, physiological and pharmacokinetic characteristics of pediatric patients is indispensable for safely practicing pediatric regional anesthesia. If attention is paid to these characteristics, complications are rare. The use of ultrasound when administering regional anesthesia can help reduce the risk of complications even further. Peripheral and central regional anesthesia are safe procedures which pediatric patients should not be deprived of. The present article discusses frequent as well as rare complications of pediatric regional anesthesia.

  2. Malformations of the zygomatic and maxillary regions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chen; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Yusheng; Liang, Yun

    2013-07-01

    The maxillofacial region develops during 3 to 8 weeks in an embryo. The process involves neural crest cell migration and proliferation as well as facial protrusion jointing and fusion. The maxillofacial region is one of the predilection sites of congenital malformations. We treated a 5-year-old Chinese boy with abnormal development of the left maxillofacial region. We describe in detail the patient's characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment processes and try to explain the possible causes of the disease. PMID:23851833

  3. A regional cooperative acquisition program for monographs.

    PubMed

    Kronick, D A

    1979-07-01

    A cooperative acquisition program for monographs for the twelve resource libraries in Region IX of the Regional Medical Library Network is described. Each of the participating libraries has agreed to purchase all books of an assigned publisher which fall within a prescribed subject-format profile. It is hoped that this will help to reduce unnecessary duplication and contribute toward the development of resources in the region. PMID:476317

  4. Mechanical heating in the transition region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withbroe, G.

    1981-01-01

    Attention is focused on the energy balance in the transition region and the role that mechanical heating plays in determining the temperature density structure of this region in a stellar atmosphere. Because of its role as the interface layer through which mass and energy flow between the chromospheres and corona, direct deposition of mechanical energy is a relatively unimportant factor in the overall energy balance in the transition region, except in the uppermost layers where the temperature approaches coronal values.

  5. Regional Climatology and Surface Radiation Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilber, Anne C.; Smith, G. Louis; Stackhouse, Paul W., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The climatology and surface radiation budget (SRB) of a region are intimately related. This paper presents a brief examination of this relationship. An 8-year surface radiation budget data set has been developed based on satellite measurements. In that data set and in this paper a region is defined as a quasi-square 2.5o in latitude and approximately the same physical distance in longitude. A pilot study by Wilber et al. (1998) showed a variety of behaviors of the annual cycles for selected regions. Selected desert regions form a loop in a specific part of the plot, with large NLW and large NSW. Tropical wet regions form much smaller loops in a different part of the plot, with small NLW and large NSW. For regions selected in high latitude the annual cycles form nearly linear figures in another part of the plot. The question arises as to whether these trajectories are characteristic of the climatology of the region or simply the behavior of the few regions selected from the set of 6596 regions. In order to address this question, it is necessary to classify the climatology of the each region, e.g. as classified by Koeppen (1936) or Trenwarthe and Horne (1980). This paper presents a method of classifying climate of the regions on the basis of the surface radiation behavior such that the results are very similar to the classification of Trenwarthe and Horne. The characteristics of the annual cycle of SRB components can then be investigated further, based on the climate classification of each region.

  6. Star Formation Regions in LDN 1667

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyulbudaghian, A. L.

    2015-09-01

    A group of three star formation regions in the dark cloud LDN 1667 is examined. All three of these regions contain Trapezium type systems. 12C(1-0) observations are made of the part of the molecular cloud LDN 1667 associated with one of the star formation regions. Three molecular clouds were detected, one of which (the main cloud) has a red and a blue outflow. Three stars from the star formation regions are found to have annular nebulae and one star has a conical nebula. The dark cloud LDN 1667 is associated with a radial system of dark globules which is formed by the star HD 57061.

  7. 7 CFR 600.3 - Regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... implementation, consistency, and accountability; (3) Region-wide strategic planning, performance measurement, and operations management; (4) Administrative operations and support; (5) Fund integrity and accountability;...

  8. 7 CFR 600.3 - Regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... implementation, consistency, and accountability; (3) Region-wide strategic planning, performance measurement, and operations management; (4) Administrative operations and support; (5) Fund integrity and accountability;...

  9. Cancer mortality in agricultural regions of Minnesota.

    PubMed Central

    Schreinemachers, D M; Creason, J P; Garry, V F

    1999-01-01

    Because of its unique geology, Minnesota can be divided into four agricultural regions: south-central region one (corn, soybeans); west-central region two (wheat, corn, soybeans); northwest region three (wheat, sugar beets, potatoes); and northeast region four (forested and urban in character). Cancer mortality (1980-1989) in agricultural regions one, two, and three was compared to region four. Using data compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics, cancer mortality was summarized by 5-year age groups, sex, race, and county. Age-standardized mortality rate ratios were calculated for white males and females for all ages combined, and for children aged 0-14. Increased mortality rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were observed for the following cancer sites: region one--lip (men), standardized rate ratio (SRR) = 2.70 (CI, 1.08-6.71); nasopharynx (women), SRR = 3.35 (CI, 1.20-9.31); region two--non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (women), SRR = 1.35 (CI, 1.09-1.66); and region three--prostate (men), SRR = 1.12 (CI, 1.00-1.26); thyroid (men), SRR = 2.95 (CI, 1.35-6.44); bone (men), SRR = 2.09 (CI, 1. 00-4.34); eye (women), SRR = 5.77 (CI, 1.90-17.50). Deficits of smoking-related cancers were noted. Excess cancers reported are consistent with earlier reports of agriculturally related cancers in the midwestern United States. However, reports on thyroid and bone cancer in association with agricultural pesticides are few in number. The highest use of fungicides occurs in region three. Ethylenebisdithiocarbamates, whose metabolite is a known cause of thyroid cancer in rats, are frequently applied. This report provides a rationale for evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of this suspect agent in humans. Images Figure 1 PMID:10064550

  10. Active Region Emergence and Remote Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yixing; Welsch, Brian T.

    2016-02-01

    We study the effect of new emerging solar active regions on the large-scale magnetic environment of existing regions. We first present a theoretical approach to quantify the "interaction energy" between new and pre-existing regions as the difference between i) the summed magnetic energies of their individual potential fields and ii) the energy of their superposed potential fields. We expect that this interaction energy can, depending upon the relative arrangements of newly emerged and pre-existing magnetic flux, indicate the existence of "topological" free magnetic energy in the global coronal field that is independent of any "internal" free magnetic energy due to coronal electric currents flowing within the newly emerged and pre-existing flux systems. We then examine the interaction energy in two well-studied cases of flux emergence, but find that the predicted energetic perturbation is relatively small compared to energies released in large solar flares. Next, we present an observational study of the influence of the emergence of new active regions on flare statistics in pre-existing active regions, using NOAA's Solar Region Summary and GOES flare databases. As part of an effort to precisely determine the emergence time of active regions in a large event sample, we find that emergence in about half of these regions exhibits a two-stage behavior, with an initial gradual phase followed by a more rapid phase. Regarding flaring, we find that the emergence of new regions is associated with a significant increase in the occurrence rate of X- and M-class flares in pre-existing regions. This effect tends to be more significant when pre-existing and new emerging active regions are closer. Given the relative weakness of the interaction energy, this effect suggests that perturbations in the large-scale magnetic field, such as topology changes invoked in the "breakout" model of coronal mass ejections, might play a significant role in the occurrence of some flares.

  11. The Main Sequence of Explosive Solar Active Regions: Comparison of Emerging and Mature Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David; Moore, Ron

    2011-01-01

    For mature active regions, an active region s magnetic flux content determines the maximum free energy the active region can have. Most Large flares and CMEs occur in active regions that are near their free-energy limit. Active-region flare power radiated in the GOES 1-8 band increases steeply as the free-energy limit is approached. We infer that the free-energy limit is set by the rate of release of an active region s free magnetic energy by flares, CMEs and coronal heating balancing the maximum rate the Sun can put free energy into the active region s magnetic field. This balance of maximum power results in explosive active regions residing in a "mainsequence" in active-region (flux content, free energy content) phase space, which sequence is analogous to the main sequence of hydrogen-burning stars in (mass, luminosity) phase space.

  12. Coactivation of the Default Mode Network regions and Working Memory Network regions during task preparation.

    PubMed

    Koshino, Hideya; Minamoto, Takehiro; Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Mariko; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-08-05

    The Default Mode Network (DMN) regions exhibit deactivation during a wide variety of resource demanding tasks. However, recent brain imaging studies reported that they also show activation during various cognitive activities. In addition, studies have found a negative correlation between the DMN and the working memory network (WMN). Here, we investigated activity in the DMN and WMN regions during preparation and execution phases of a verbal working memory task. Results showed that the core DMN regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, and WMN regions were activated during preparation. During execution, however, the WMN regions were activated but the DMN regions were deactivated. The results suggest that activation of these network regions is affected by allocation of attentional resources to the task relevant regions due to task demands. This study extends our previous results by showing that the core DMN regions exhibit activation during task preparation and deactivation during task execution.

  13. Environmental management on the basis of Complex Regional Indicators Concept: case of the Murmansk region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, A.; Gutman, S.; Zaychenko, I.; Rytova, E.; Nijinskaya, P.

    2015-09-01

    The article presents an approach to sustainable environmental development of the Murmansk region of the Russian Federation based on the complex regional indicators as a transformation of a balance scorecard method. The peculiarities of Murmansk region connected with sustainable environmental development are described. The complex regional indicators approach allows to elaborate the general concept of complex regional development taking into consideration economic and non-economic factors with the focus on environmental aspects, accumulated environmental damage in particular. General strategic chart of sustainable environmental development of the Murmansk region worked out on the basis of complex regional indicators concept is composed. The key target indicators of sustainable ecological development of the Murmansk region are presented for the following strategic chart components: regional finance; society and market; industry and entrepreneurship; training, development and innovations. These charts are to be integrated with international environmental monitoring systems.

  14. Coactivation of the Default Mode Network regions and Working Memory Network regions during task preparation.

    PubMed

    Koshino, Hideya; Minamoto, Takehiro; Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Mariko; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    The Default Mode Network (DMN) regions exhibit deactivation during a wide variety of resource demanding tasks. However, recent brain imaging studies reported that they also show activation during various cognitive activities. In addition, studies have found a negative correlation between the DMN and the working memory network (WMN). Here, we investigated activity in the DMN and WMN regions during preparation and execution phases of a verbal working memory task. Results showed that the core DMN regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, and WMN regions were activated during preparation. During execution, however, the WMN regions were activated but the DMN regions were deactivated. The results suggest that activation of these network regions is affected by allocation of attentional resources to the task relevant regions due to task demands. This study extends our previous results by showing that the core DMN regions exhibit activation during task preparation and deactivation during task execution. PMID:25092432

  15. Coactivation of the Default Mode Network regions and Working Memory Network regions during task preparation

    PubMed Central

    Koshino, Hideya; Minamoto, Takehiro; Yaoi, Ken; Osaka, Mariko; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    The Default Mode Network (DMN) regions exhibit deactivation during a wide variety of resource demanding tasks. However, recent brain imaging studies reported that they also show activation during various cognitive activities. In addition, studies have found a negative correlation between the DMN and the working memory network (WMN). Here, we investigated activity in the DMN and WMN regions during preparation and execution phases of a verbal working memory task. Results showed that the core DMN regions, including the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, and WMN regions were activated during preparation. During execution, however, the WMN regions were activated but the DMN regions were deactivated. The results suggest that activation of these network regions is affected by allocation of attentional resources to the task relevant regions due to task demands. This study extends our previous results by showing that the core DMN regions exhibit activation during task preparation and deactivation during task execution. PMID:25092432

  16. Dynamic systems of regional economy management optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, S.; Kudzh, S.

    One of the most actual problems of the Russian economic life is a regional economic systems formation. The hierarchy of economic and branch priorities should follow from the general idea of an industrial policy. The matter is that the concept of an industrial policy is defined by the system of priorities mainly incorporated in it. The problem of priorities is not solved yet neither on federal, nor at a regional level. It is necessary to recognize, that a substantiation of this or that variant of priorities - objectively a challenge. Such substantiation can be received with the help of dynamic structural modeling and management technology. At formation of the regional industrial policy program the special attention is given to creation of modern type commercial structures. In regions there are headquarters and branches of many largest corporations, holdings and banks. Besides it, many regional enterprises already became inter-regional or even the transnational companies. In this connection an assistance of transformation of the industrial enterprises and their groups in vertically integrated companies and modern type holdings can become a prominent aspect of an industrial policy. Regional economic structures should be reconstructed gradually on the general model of the world class competitive companies. Assistance to creation of new corporational control systems, the organization of headquarters and the central services work - all this can be included into the sphere of regional administration industrial policy. The special attention should be turned on necessity of development of own system of the corporate structures, capable to provide to the region an independent participation in use of the natural resources and industrial-technological potential, at the stage of a regional industrial policy program formation. Transformation of the industrial enterprises and their groups into modern type vertically-integrated companies and holdings can become one of the major

  17. Insect Biodiversity in the Palearctic Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect biodiversity in the Palearctic Region is described. Palearctic occupies cold, temperate, and subtropical regions of Eurasia and Africa north of the Sahara Desert together with islands of the Arctic, Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Based on currently available data, there are about 200,000 speci...

  18. REGIONAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT: A CONCEPTUAL APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment (REVA) project is developing and testing an approach to conducting comparative ecological risk assessments at the regional scale. I't seeks an objective and quantifiable answer to answer the question, "What are the greatest threaten accompa...

  19. Pacific Regional Solar Heating Handbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Writers' Development Trust, Toronto (Ontario).

    This handbook is intended as a guide for engineers, architects, and individuals familiar with heating and ventilating applications who wish to design a solar heating system for a residential or small commercial building in the Pacific Coast Region. The climate of the region is discussed by selected cities in terms of the effect of climate on solar…

  20. 7 CFR 600.3 - Regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Regional offices. 600.3 Section 600.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... leadership, guidance, coordination, and partnering for solutions to regional resource issues; (2)...

  1. 7 CFR 600.3 - Regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regional offices. 600.3 Section 600.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... leadership, guidance, coordination, and partnering for solutions to regional resource issues; (2)...

  2. Existence Regions of Shock Wave Triple Configurations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulat, Pavel V.; Chernyshev, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research is to create the classification for shock wave triple configurations and their existence regions of various types: type 1, type 2, type 3. Analytical solutions for limit Mach numbers and passing shock intensity that define existence region of every type of triple configuration have been acquired. The ratios that conjugate…

  3. 48 CFR 970.2673 - Regional partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regional partnerships. 970.2673 Section 970.2673 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Other Socioeconomic Programs 970.2673 Regional partnerships....

  4. 7 CFR 322.4 - Approved regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.4 Approved regions..., Bermuda, Canada, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, and Sweden. (c) Bees other than honeybees....

  5. 7 CFR 322.4 - Approved regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.4 Approved regions..., Bermuda, Canada, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, and Sweden. (c) Bees other than honeybees....

  6. 7 CFR 322.4 - Approved regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.4 Approved regions..., Bermuda, Canada, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, and Sweden. (c) Bees other than honeybees....

  7. Regional myocardial contractile function: multiparametric strain mapping.

    PubMed

    Cupps, Brian P; Taggar, Ajay K; Reynolds, Lina M; Lawton, Jennifer S; Pasque, Michael K

    2010-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with tissue tagging enables the quantification of multiple strain indices that can be combined through normalization into a single multiparametric index of regional myocardial contractile function. The aim of this study was to test the ability of multiparametric strain analysis to quantify regional differences in contractile function in an ovine model of myocardial injury. Regional variance in myocardial contractile function was induced in eight sheep by the ligation of the blood supply to the anterior and apical left ventricular (LV) myocardial walls. LV systolic strain was obtained from tissue tagged MRI images. A normal strain database (n=50) defines all parameters of systolic strain and allows normalization of regional function at 15,300 LV points by calculation of a z-score. Multiparametric systolic strain z-scores were therefore determined for 15,300 points in each injured sheep left ventricle. Multiparametric z-scores were found to vary significantly by region (P<0.001). z-Scores in regions remote to the infarct were found to be significantly smaller than those in the regions most likely to include infarcted myocardium. In this pre-clinical evaluation of MRI-based multiparametric strain analysis, it accurately quantified and visually defined regional differences in myocardial contractile function.

  8. Creating Opportunities: Tennessee's Southeast Regional Skills Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    2002-01-01

    Rural Marion County (Tennessee), the town of Kimball, the Appalachian Regional Commission, and a local community college founded a regional skills center. The center offers a 2-year associate of science degree and classes in GED preparation, parenting, drug abuse prevention, cosmetology, and air conditioning and refrigeration. It has expanded…

  9. EPA Regional Science Workshop on Stormwater Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    This workshop is being held at Region 2. It will provide a great opportunity for collaboration with Regions 1 and 3 as well as ORD. Topics to be discussed include: National Research Council's report, the new Administration's serious interest in stormwater management, issueanc...

  10. ATE Regional Centers: CCRC Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Monica; Jacobs, Jim; Ivanier, Analia; Morest, Vanessa Smith

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to determine the role of regional centers in the Advanced Technical Education (ATE) program of the National Science Foundation (NSF). Conducted by the Community College Research Center (CCRC), the researchers began by asking whether the concept of a regional center was unique and useful to NSF's goals of…

  11. Conceptual Design of a Regional Information System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denver Regional Council of Governments, CO.

    This report describes the conceptual design of a regional information system, developed in support of the Denver Regional Council of Government's established comprehensive planning work program. It includes a discussion of system objectives, available data sources, recommended system content, software and system maintenance requirements,…

  12. The Learning Region between Pedagogy and Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Roberta

    2010-01-01

    Economic growth is stimulated through learning. In "the learning economies" of those European regions that chose to develop their human and intellectual capital wisely, benefits have been visible. But this is a one-dimensional outlook in a multi-dimensional world. A "Learning Region" is an entirely different entity, pooling and mobilising its…

  13. Regional Coordination: A Point of View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faibisoff, Sylvia G.

    To more adequately provide for newly perceived user needs, New York State libraries have adopted the philosophy of regionalism through which public, academic, and special libraries can cooperate and share resources. The state's 22 public library systems and 9 3R regions (Reference and Research Library Resources Councils) are organized…

  14. 7 CFR 322.4 - Approved regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.4 Approved regions..., Bermuda, Canada, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, and Sweden. (c) Bees other than honeybees....

  15. 7 CFR 322.4 - Approved regions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation of Adult Honeybees, Honeybee Germ Plasm, and Bees Other Than Honeybees From Approved Regions § 322.4 Approved regions..., Bermuda, Canada, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, and Sweden. (c) Bees other than honeybees....

  16. Regional Phonological Variants in Louisiana Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubrecht, August Weston

    Based on tape recorded conversations of 28 informants in 18 Louisiana communities, this study investigated regional phonological variants in Louisiana speech. On the basis of settlement history and previous dialect studies, four regions are defined: northern Louisiana, the Florida Parishes, French Louisiana, and New Orleans. The informants are all…

  17. A Neural Region of Abstract Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Nelson; Li, Dawei; Moffitt, Amanda; Becker, Theresa M.; Martin, Elizabeth A.; Saults, J. Scott; Christ, Shawn E.

    2011-01-01

    Over 350 years ago, Descartes proposed that the neural basis of consciousness must be a brain region in which sensory inputs are combined. Using fMRI, we identified at least one such area for working memory, the limited information held in mind, described by William James as the trailing edge of consciousness. Specifically, a region in the left…

  18. Threading One's Way Through the Geographic Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    1982-01-01

    Designed for students in grades 7 through 12, the paper presents illustrative resource materials for teaching concepts related to geographic regions. Emphasis is on giving students an understanding of the interrelationship between regional characteristics and human behavior. The paper introduces students to the following notions: environmental…

  19. A game plan for regional marketing.

    PubMed

    Linneman, R E; Stanton, J L

    1992-01-01

    Should your company consider taking a niche-marketing approach to fragmented national markets? Regional marketing is not for every firm or for every product or service. Here are the pluses to consider, as well as the pitfalls that must be overcome, before wading into regional waters.

  20. Selection of the Argentine indicator region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, C. J.; Reed, C. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Determined from available Argentine crop statistics, selection of the Indicator Region was based on the highest wheat, corn, and soybean producing provinces, which were: Buenos Aires, Cordoba, Entre Rios, and Santa Fe. Each province in Argentina was examined for the availability of LANDSAT data; area, yield and production statistics; crop calendars; and other ancillary data. The Argentine Indicator Region is described.