Ekholm, Bodil; Ellstrom, Eva
The aim of this study was to examined the impact of a new charging system in child care in two different Swedish municipalities, on personnel, parents, and children. Four day care centers situated in different socioeconomic areas were studied. A qualitative approach was used, and data were collected by means of interviews and a questionnaire.…
Wang, Yu; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Hui-Guo; Yan, Ming; Lu, Liping
Objective: Research on the metabolism of oral ALA combined small dose HPD in the small rat glioma to find the optimal oral dose and diagnostic time for the ALA-photodynamic diagnosis and therapy of brain glioma. Methods: Measure the fluorescence spectra of tumor in the treatment groups and control group and of brain tissue of no-tumor group with different doses of ALA taken orally combined injectd small dose HPD and different time before and after take ALA when irradiated by laser. We analyzed the spectrum of fluorescence of every groups with optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) and compared it each other. Result: The maximum ratio (Itumor/Inomal ) of fluorescence was obtained at 60mg/kg of ALA taken orally and 6-8h after ALA taken. Conclusion: The optimal oral dose is 60mg/kg of ALA and the optimal measure time is 6-8 hours after ALA taken.
Lee, Albert; Chua, Hoi-wai; Chan, Mariana; Leung, Patrick W. L.; Wong, Jasmine W. S.; Chuh, Antonio A. T.
Background The socioeconomic inequalities in child health continue to widen despite improved economy. Objective To investigate the correlation between socio-economic factors and health risk behaviors and psychosocial well-being of children in Hong Kong. Hypothesis The null hypothesis is that for this particular developed region, there exists little or no correlation between social-economic factors and health risk behaviors and psychosocial well-being of children. Design Cross sectional territory wide survey. Participants Caregivers of 7,000 children in kindergartens in Hong Kong. Measuring tools Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance questionnaire, health-related knowledge and hygienic practice questionnaire, and Children Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Results Children were less likely to have somatic complaints and anxiety/depression as reflected by CBCL scores coming from families of higher income, not being recipients of social assistance, with fathers in employment, and with higher parental education. Children with only mother or father as caretakers had lower odds ratios (ORs) 0.71 (95% CI 0.58-0.89) and 0.53 (95% CI 0.33-0.84) respectively to have the habit of eating breakfast, whilst parental education at post-secondary level and higher family income had higher ORs 1.91 (95% CI 1.31-2.78), and 1.63 (95% CI 1.11-2.39). Fathers unemployed, relatives as main caretakers and living in districts with low median household inome incurred higher ORs, as 1.46 (95% CI 1.10-1.94),1.52 (95% CI 1.27-1.83) and 1.17 (95% CI 1.02-1.34) respectively, of watching television over two hours daily, whilst children with parental education at secondary level or above incurred lower OR 0.33 (95% CI 0.24-0.45). Children with parental education at post-secondary level and higher family income had lower ORs of 0.32 (95% CI 0.48-0.97) and 0.52 (95% CI 0.34-0.79) respectively, with regard to exposing to passive smoking, and reversed for those living in districts with lower median household income
Dingman, Sean Douglas
I present new strategies to low-temperature solution-phase synthesis of indium and gallium nitride (InN and GaN) ceramic materials. The strategies include: direct conversion of precursor molecules to InN by pyrolysis, solution-phase synthesis of nanostructured InN fibers via molecular precursors and co-reactants, and synthesis of powders through reactions derived from molten-salt chemistry. Indium nitride powders are prepared by pyrolysis of the precursors R 2InN3 (R = t-Bu (1), i-Amyl(2), Et(3), i-Pr( 4)). The precursors are synthesized via azide-alkoxide exchange of R2InOMe with Me3SiN3. The precursors are coordination polymers containing five-coordinate indium centers. Pyrolysis of 1 and 2 under N2 at 400°C yields powders consisting primarily of InN with average crystal sizes of 15--35 nm. 1 yields nanocrystalline InN with average particle sizes of 7 nm at 250°C. 3 and 4 yield primarily In metal from pyrolysis. Refluxing 1 in diisopropylbenzene (203°C) in the presence of primary amines yields InN nanofibers 10--100 nm in length. InN nanofibers of up to 1 mum can be synthesized by treating 1 with 1,1-dimethylhydrazine (DMHy) The DMHy appears to control the fiber length by acting as a secondary source of active nitrogen in order to sustain fiber growth. The resulting fibers are attached to droplets of indium metal implying a solution-liquid-solid growth mechanism. Precursor 4 yields crystalline InN whiskers when reacted with DMHy. Reactions of 4 with reducing agents such as HSnBu3, yield InN nanoparticles with an average crystallite size of 16 nm. Gallium precursors R2GaN3 (R = t-Bu( 5), Me3SiCH2(6) and i-Pr( 7)), synthesized by azide-alkoxide exchange, are found to be inert toward solution decomposition and do not yield GaN. These compounds are molecular dimers and trimers unlike the indium analogs. Compound 6 displays a monomer-dimer equilibrium in benzene solution, but exists as a solid-state trimer. InN powders are also synthesized by reactions of InCl3 and