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  1. Birth Control Pill

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Pill KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Pill A A A What's in this article? ... español La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a daily ...

  2. Birth Control Pill

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Pill KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Pill Print A A A What's in this ... español La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a daily ...

  3. Birth control pills - combination

    MedlinePlus

    The pill - combination; Oral contraceptives - combination; OCP - combination; Contraception - combination; BCP - combination ... Birth control pills help keep you from getting pregnant. When taken daily, they are one of the most ...

  4. Birth control pill - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100108.htm Birth control pill - series—Normal female anatomy To use the ... to produce a successful pregnancy. To prevent pregnancy, birth control pills affect how these organs normally function. Review ...

  5. Oral Contraceptive Pill and PCOS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health PCOS: The Oral Contraceptive Pill Posted under Health Guides . ... of oral contraceptive pills for young women with PCOS? Regular and Lighter Periods: Oral contraceptive pills can ...

  6. Birth control pills - progestin only

    MedlinePlus

    ... The pill - progestin; Oral contraceptives - progestin; OCP - progestin; Contraception - progestin; BCP - progestin ... Birth control pills help keep you from getting pregnant. The pills with only progestin come in 28-day ...

  7. Morning-After Pill

    MedlinePlus

    ... and within 120 hours. You can take emergency contraceptive pills anytime during your menstrual cycle. To use the ... to five weeks after taking the morning-after pill, contact him or her. These may ... B One-Step emergency contraceptive for use without a prescription for all women ...

  8. Safe pill-dispensing.

    PubMed

    Testa, Massimiliano; Pollard, John

    2007-01-01

    Each patient is supplied with a smart-card containing a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) chip storing a unique identification code. The patient places the Smart-card on a pill-dispenser unit containing an RFID reader. The RFID chip is read and the code sent to a Base-station via a wireless Bluetooth link. A database containing both patient details and treatment information is queried at the Base-station using the RFID as the search key. The patient's treatment data (i.e., drug names, quantities, time, etc.) are retrieved and sent back to the pill-dispenser unit via Bluetooth. Appropriate quantities of the required medications are automatically dispensed, unless the patient has already taken his/her daily dose. Safe, confidential communication and operation is ensured.

  9. Delaying Your Period with Birth Control Pills

    MedlinePlus

    ... cycle pills compared with other extended-cycle pills. Amethyst. This pill contains low doses of both progesterone ... bleeding. Advance for Nurse Practitioners. 2008;16:36. Amethyst (prescribing information). Corona, Calif.: Watson Pharma, Inc.; 2010. ...

  10. Medical Uses of the Birth Control Pill

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Medical Uses of the Birth Control Pill Posted under Health Guides . Updated 2 June ... kinds of medical conditions can be helped with birth control pills? Birth control pills are used to treat ...

  11. Choosing a combined oral contraceptive pill

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Mary; Black, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Summary The combined oral contraceptive pill is an effective contraceptive method which can also offer other benefits. However, other contraceptive options should be discussed. If the pill is the chosen method, prescribe a pill with the lowest effective dose of oestrogen and progestogen. Pills containing levonorgestrel or norethisterone in combination with ethinyloestradiol 35 microgram or less are considered first-line. They are effective if taken correctly, have a relatively low risk of venous thromboembolism, and are listed on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. The pill is usually taken in a monthly cycle. Some women may prefer an extended pill regimen with fewer or no inactive pills. PMID:26648603

  12. Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Medications Quick-Relief Medications Oral Steroids Oral Steroids Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer Patient ... Want to learn more about steroids? How are steroid pills and syrups used? Steroid pills and syrups ...

  13. Contraceptive pills and acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, T N; Mital, H S; Gupta, S K

    1981-06-01

    This article reports a case of acute pancreatitis in a patient taking the oral contraceptive pill. A 32 year old mother had been on combined contraceptive pills since 1975. In 1978 she started having upper abdominal and retrosternal pain. She became critically ill with peripheral circulatory collapse, dyspnoea and cyanosis. A superficial thrombophlebitis was noted on the medial aspect of the right thigh. The diagnosis of pancreatitis was considered with history of recurrent abdominal pain. After several tests and supportive therapy (intravenous fluids, antibiotics, steriods), the woman started showing improvements in 48 hours and recovered in 10 days. This case differs from previously described cases in that the cholesterol and triglyceride levels were normal. The hypoglycemia has not been described previously.

  14. "Pills" relative safety gains further support.

    PubMed

    1969-02-17

    A symposium held in 1969 in Palm Springs, California on the current status of research and patient care in the field of oral contraceptives reviewed the relationship of the pill and various physiological complications. Alterations of blood coagulate factors were noted to occur in pill users, but women consuming progesterone-only pills did not show these changes. Other complications have stimulated study in areas of bile secretion, thyroid and pituitary function, and calcium metabolism in relation to the intake of orals.

  15. Introduction of the pill and its impact.

    PubMed

    Tyrer, L

    1999-01-01

    Introduction of the birth control pill in the United States in 1960 marked the end of a relatively short period of time (< 10 years) to intentionally produce an oral contraceptive, and the beginning of a relatively long period of controversy surrounding the use of the pill. Availability of the pill had an impact on various aspects of social life, including women's health, fertility trends, laws and policies, religion, interpersonal relationships and family roles, feminist issues, and gender relations, as well as sexual practices among both adults and adolescents. The pill proved to be highly effective from the outset. Although safety issues developed with the earlier formulations, continued evolution of pill hormones and doses has resulted in a greatly improved and safe oral contraceptive. A broad range of noncontraceptive health benefits also is associated with the pill. These health effects are significant, as they include protection against potentially fatal diseases, including ovarian and endometrial cancers, as well as against other conditions that are associated with substantial morbidity and potential hospitalization and associated costs. The popularity of the pill has remained high, with rates of use in the past 30 years in the United States ranging from one-quarter to almost one-third of women using contraception. Almost 40 years after its introduction, the pill's contraceptive efficacy is proven, its improved safety has been established, and the focus has shifted from supposed health risks to documented and real health benefits.

  16. Parental love pills: some ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Liao, S Matthew

    2011-11-01

    It may soon be possible to develop pills that allow parents to induce in themselves more loving behaviour, attitudes and emotions towards their children. In this paper, I consider whether pharmacologically induced parental love can satisfy reasonable conditions of authenticity; why anyone would be interested in taking such parental love pills at all, and whether inducing parental love pharmacologically promotes narcissism or results in self-instrumentalization. I also examine how the availability of such pills may affect the duty to love a child.

  17. The story of the pill.

    PubMed

    Davis, K S

    1978-01-01

    A 1951 meeting between feminist Margaret Sanger, philanthropist Katherine McCormick and biologist Dr. G.G. Pincus is described as the beginning of the project which was to culminate in the development of the oral contraceptive. The stories of the lives of the 3 participants are told. Dr. Pincus' field, endocrinology and mammalian reproduction, is explained in general terms for the lay reader. The results of early experimental work on mammalian sex hormones are described, as are some of the early problems in manufacturing synthetic estrogen and progesterone. Pincus' career is outlined, beginning at the time of his brief appointment at Harvard University in 1930-36. Notes on related work done by other scientists in this period are interspersed with the biographical sketches. The work of Dr. John Rock on induction of pregnancy through administration of estrogen and progesterone is described, with reference to Pincus' work. Pincus' search for an inexpensive progesterone which would be effective when taken orally is described, with a tangential story of how diosgenin was produced in Mexico. Pincus' bold declaration to the general public that the development of a safe oral contraceptive would be soon attained enabled him to obtain funding for conducting field trials. Results of field trials in Puerto Rico and subsequent changes in the pill are discussed. The possible consequences of use of a technology developed from a primitive science are discussed, as is the attitude of Puerto Rican and Haitian women who were willing to take the risks explained to them in order to avoid future pregnancy. Popular controversies over the pill in the USA in the 1960s and 1970s are described.

  18. The Return of Rainbow Diet Pills

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Pieter A.; Goday, Alberto; Swann, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently warned consumers about the risks of weight loss supplements adulterated with multiple pharmaceutical agents. Some of these supplements combine potent anorectics, such as amphetamines derivatives, with benzodiazepines, beta-blockers, and other medications to suppress the anorectics’ adverse effects. These weight loss supplements represent the most recent generation of rainbow diet pills, named for their bright and varied colors, which date back more than 70 years. Beginning in the 1940s, several US pharmaceutical firms aggressively promoted rainbow pills to physicians and patients. By the 1960s the pills had caused dozens of deaths before the FDA began removing them from the US market. We used a variety of original resources to trace these deadly pills from their origins in the United States to their popularity in Spain and Brazil to their reintroduction to the United States as weight loss dietary supplements. PMID:22813089

  19. The return of rainbow diet pills.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Pieter A; Goday, Alberto; Swann, John P

    2012-09-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently warned consumers about the risks of weight loss supplements adulterated with multiple pharmaceutical agents. Some of these supplements combine potent anorectics, such as amphetamines derivatives, with benzodiazepines, beta-blockers, and other medications to suppress the anorectics' adverse effects. These weight loss supplements represent the most recent generation of rainbow diet pills, named for their bright and varied colors, which date back more than 70 years. Beginning in the 1940s, several US pharmaceutical firms aggressively promoted rainbow pills to physicians and patients. By the 1960s the pills had caused dozens of deaths before the FDA began removing them from the US market. We used a variety of original resources to trace these deadly pills from their origins in the United States to their popularity in Spain and Brazil to their reintroduction to the United States as weight loss dietary supplements.

  20. Noncontraceptive Benefits of Birth Control Pills

    MedlinePlus

    ... one week of inactive placebo Treatment for acne, hirsutism (excess hair) and alopecia (hair pills (those that ... A woman can increase the of the body (hirsutism) by reducing the levels of male hormones length ...

  1. Fabric pilling measurement using three-dimensional image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Wenbin; Wang, Rongwu; Xu, Bugao

    2013-10-01

    We introduce a stereovision system and the three-dimensional (3-D) image analysis algorithms for fabric pilling measurement. Based on the depth information available in the 3-D image, the pilling detection process starts from the seed searching at local depth maxima to the region growing around the selected seeds using both depth and distance criteria. After the pilling detection, the density, height, and area of individual pills in the image can be extracted to describe the pilling appearance. According to the multivariate regression analysis on the 3-D images of 30 cotton fabrics treated by the random-tumble and home-laundering machines, the pilling grade is highly correlated with the pilling density (R=0.923) but does not consistently change with the pilling height and area. The pilling densities measured from the 3-D images also correlate well with those counted manually from the samples (R=0.985).

  2. Should the pill be stopped preoperatively?

    PubMed

    Sue-Ling, H; Hughes, L E

    1988-02-13

    Many women are now advised not to take birth control pills from 4 to 6 weeks before elective surgery out of concern over serious thromboembolic complications. However, stopping the pill may lead to unwanted pregnancies, and drug prophylaxis for deep vein thrombosis carries risk of morbidity. A study in the 1970s of more than 60,000 British women showed a 4 to 6-fold increase in the relative risk of spontaneous venous thrombosis in young women taking the pill. However, the incidence of spontaneous deep vein thrombosis was remarkably low--43 cases in 23,000 women taking the pill (0.19%) compared with 8 cases in 23,000 women not taking it (0.035%). Since 1968, when the 2 studies were commenced, only 5 deaths (3 of current users and 2 of past users) from pulmonary embolism have been reported. Epidemiological studies have relied almost entirely on cases diagnosed clinically. The clinical diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis after surgery in young women taking the pill (12/1244, 0.96%) was about twice that of women not taking the pill (22/4359, 0.5%), but this difference was not statistically significant. The literature showed 3 studies conducted on young women taking the pill in which Iodine 125 fibrinogen scans were used to diagnose deep vein thrombosis after surgery. The incidences of thrombosis in patients taking the pill were 4.6% in patients who underwent gynecological operations for benign disease, nil in 99 patients who underwent various abdominal operations, and 20% in 33 patients who had emergency appendectomies. Present evidence indicates that the risk to young women of becoming pregnant from stopping the pill or of developing side effects from prophylaxis may be greater than the risk of developing postoperative deep vein thrombosis. It is important to define the true incidence of postoperative deep vein thrombosis so that a rational policy can be adopted. Until such time, the routine use of prophylaxis for deep vein thrombosis in women on the pill is probably

  3. "Take your pill": the role and fantasy of pills in modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Leder, Drew; Krucoff, Mitchell W

    2014-06-01

    The pharmaceutical industry has undergone a vast expansion in the 20th and 21st centuries. This article explores the central role now played by pills in clinical practice, but also in the public imagination. First, this article analyzes four properties that, together, account for many of the promises and perils associated with pills: They are ingestible, potent, reproducible, and miniaturized. This allows them to serve as ideal consumer items for widespread distribution and sale and also as model technological "devices" capable of downloading into the body healing chemicals. As such, they seem to promise a disburdening solution to many of life's ills. In our cultural fantasy, often shared by physician and patient alike, pills can be used not only to treat and prevent disease but also raise energy, lose weight, lessen pain, lift mood, cope with stress, and enhance sexual and athletic performance. This article also explores many adverse effects not only of pills themselves but of this exaggerated cultural fantasy of the pill. It tends to distract us from other, more holistic understandings of the locus of disease and healing. It even fosters misunderstandings of the ways in which pills themselves work, which is to assist bodily processes, and the mind's "meaning response." The intent here is not to demonize all pills-many have great therapeutic potential-but to learn how to better choose and use them wisely. We propose that this process be assisted through recontextualizing the pill as a multidimensional gift. Taken in such a way, with appropriate gratitude and discernment, we may ingest fewer pills, but with greater efficacy.

  4. Exercise Pills: At the Starting Line.

    PubMed

    Li, Shunchang; Laher, Ismail

    2015-12-01

    Sedentary lifestyles, limited physical exercise, and prolonged inactivity undoubtedly increase chronic diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. It is widely acknowledged that exercise induces a number of physiological adaptations that have beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of these chronic metabolic diseases. Unfortunately, exercise compliance is extremely low and often not possible. The development of exercise science and molecular techniques has increased our understanding of the molecular pathways responsive to exercise. Knowledge of these molecular targets has led to the development of chemical interventions that can mimic the beneficial effects of exercise without requiring actual muscle activity. This review focuses on the concept of 'exercise pills' and how they mimic the effects produced by physical exercise including oxidative fiber-type transformation, mitochondrial biogenesis, increased fat oxidation, angiogenesis, and improvement of exercise capacity. We also review candidate exercise pills, and contrast the beneficial effects and molecular mechanisms between physical exercise and exercise pills.

  5. Use and Knowledge of Diet Pills among Female College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorociak, Jeffery D.; Vincent, Murray L.

    1985-01-01

    A survey was conducted in an attempt to assess the use and knowledge of diet pills and dietary patterns of female college students. Analysis of the data indicated that, while many students used diet pills, their knowledge of the effects of the pills was minimal. Conclusions are presented. (MT)

  6. Pill Properties that Cause Dysphagia and Treatment Failure

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Jeremy; Go, Jorge T.; Schulze, Konrad S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pills (tablets and capsules) are widely used to administer prescription drugs or to take supplements such as vitamins. Unfortunately, little is known about how much effort it takes Americans to swallow these various pills. More specifically, it is not known to what extent hard-to-swallow pills might affect treatment outcomes (eg, interfering with adherence to prescribed medications or causing clinical complications). It is also unclear which properties (eg, size, shape, or surface texture) Americans prefer or reject for their pills. To learn more about these issues, we interviewed a small group of individuals. Methods We invited individuals in waiting rooms of our tertiary health care center to participate in structured interviews about their pill-taking habits and any problems they have swallowing pills. We inquired which pill properties they believed caused swallowing problems. Participants scored capsules and pills of representative size, shape, and texture for swallowing effort and reported their personal preferences. Results Of 100 successive individuals, 99 participants completed the interview (65% women, mean age = 41 years, range = 23-77 years). Eighty-three percent took pills daily (mean 4 pills/d; 56% of those pills were prescribed by providers). Fifty-four percent of participants replied yes to the question, "Did you ever have to swallow a solid medication that was too difficult?" Four percent recounted serious complications: 1% pill esophagitis, 1% pill impaction, and 2% stopped treatments (antibiotic and prenatal supplement) because they could not swallow the prescribed pills. Half of all participants routinely resorted to special techniques (eg, plenty of liquids or repeated or forceful swallows). Sixty-one percent of those having difficulties cited specific pill properties: 27% blamed size (20% of problems were caused by pills that were too large whereas 7% complained about pills that were too small to sense); 12% faulted rough surface

  7. The Administration of Tibetan Precious Pills

    PubMed Central

    Czaja, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Precious pills represent a special kind of Tibetan drug that once was, and still is, highly sought after by Tibetan, Chinese, and Mongolian patients. Such pills are generally taken as a potent prophylactic remedy, and can be used to cure various diseases. The present study seeks to discuss the dispensation and efficacy of precious pills according to the presentations of historical Tibetan medical scholars. Several treatises dealing with these instructions will be analysed, thereby revealing their underlying concepts, and highlighting their points of both general consensus and disagreement. The analysis of these detailed instructions will reveal the fact that these precious pills were not merely given to a patient but, in order to ensure their full efficacy, involved an elaborate regimen concerning three chronological periods: (1) the time of preparation, (2) the time of dispensation, and (3) the time after dispensation. Thus the present study surveys not only the ritual empowerment of drugs in Tibetan medicine, but also the importance of social relationships between doctors and patients in Tibetan medical history. PMID:27980504

  8. Undigested Pills in Stool Mimicking Parasitic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Fazia; Achakzai, Ilyas; Ibdah, Jamal A.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Orally ingested medications now come in both immediate release and controlled release preparations. Controlled release preparations were developed by pharmaceutical companies to improve compliance and decrease frequency of pill ingestion. Case Report. A 67-year-old obese male patient presented to our clinic with focal abdominal pain that had been present 3 inches below umbilicus for the last three years. This pain was not associated with any trauma or recent heavy lifting. Upon presentation, the patient reported that for the last two months he started to notice pearly oval structures in his stool accompanying his chronic abdominal pain. This had coincided with initiation of his nifedipine pills for his hypertension. He reported seeing these undigested pills daily in his stool. Conclusion. The undigested pills may pose a cause of concern for both patients and physicians alike, as demonstrated in this case report, because they can mimic a parasitic infection. This can result in unnecessary extensive work-up. It is important to review the medication list for extended release formulations and note that the outer shell can be excreted whole in the stool. PMID:28255472

  9. Undigested Pills in Stool Mimicking Parasitic Infection.

    PubMed

    Mir, Fazia; Achakzai, Ilyas; Ibdah, Jamal A; Tahan, Veysel

    2017-01-01

    Background. Orally ingested medications now come in both immediate release and controlled release preparations. Controlled release preparations were developed by pharmaceutical companies to improve compliance and decrease frequency of pill ingestion. Case Report. A 67-year-old obese male patient presented to our clinic with focal abdominal pain that had been present 3 inches below umbilicus for the last three years. This pain was not associated with any trauma or recent heavy lifting. Upon presentation, the patient reported that for the last two months he started to notice pearly oval structures in his stool accompanying his chronic abdominal pain. This had coincided with initiation of his nifedipine pills for his hypertension. He reported seeing these undigested pills daily in his stool. Conclusion. The undigested pills may pose a cause of concern for both patients and physicians alike, as demonstrated in this case report, because they can mimic a parasitic infection. This can result in unnecessary extensive work-up. It is important to review the medication list for extended release formulations and note that the outer shell can be excreted whole in the stool.

  10. Update on 1-benzylpiperazine (BZP) party pills.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Márcia Sá; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Guedes de Pinho, Paula; Carvalho, Márcia

    2013-06-01

    N-benzylpiperazine (BZP) has become popular among recreational drug users as the major active ingredient of "party pills" due to its stimulant and euphoric properties. Before BZP legal restrictions, these pills were sold as a safe and legal alternative to classical amphetamines like ecstasy. New Zealand, given the size of its legal market prior to BZP control, is the country that most contributed to the knowledge about the patterns of use, motivations and positive and adverse effects resulting from its consumption, though the interest in BZP-party pills was observed all over the world. The use of these pills has been associated with hospitalizations for adverse events and continued availability over the Internet makes this intoxication a continued concern. This paper provides a review on the characteristics of BZP recreational use, specifically the target population, patterns and motivations of use, and evolution of legal status. Moreover, the in vivo and in vitro studies performed in order to understand its pharmacology, toxicology and kinetics are also discussed. Lastly, analytical methodologies for the identification of BZP in clinical and forensic settings are addressed.

  11. The misunderstood pill: thirty years of testing and development have reduced pill's major, minor side effects.

    PubMed

    1986-01-01

    Many users of oral contraceptives (OCs) and potential users misunderstand the risks and benefits of OCs. A recent poll in the US revealed that 3 out of 4 women thought the pill carried substantial health risks. Nearly 2/3 of the women surveyed believe using OCs is at least as risky as childbearing. Family Health International (FHI) recently conducted a world survey of perceptions of OCs. It shows that women in many other countries share US womens negative image of the pill. Women believe in pill-related dangers scientists have never even suspected, much less proven, such as an increased risk of stomach cancer. Yet, many women, especially women in developing countries, are unaware of problems such as cardiovascular disease that are related to OC use, and they are ignorant of the proven health benefits of OCs, such as protection against ovarian and endometrial cancer. Despite the persistence of negative perceptions of the pill, research conducted over the past 30 years has shown that the pill is safe for the great majority of women and, in fact, provides significant health benefits for many users. With the contraceptive effectiveness of the pill established through the early tests, drug companies began steadily lowering the hormone dosages. By 1983, more than half of the OCs sold in the US contained less than 0.5 mg estrogen. Many of the combination OCs now sold have only 0.2 to 0.4 mg estrogen. Eventually, pill researchers learned that OCs containing only progestogen, even in comparatively small doses, also could effectively prevent pregnancy, though not as effectively as pills containing estrogen. The first progestogen-only pills received US Food and Drug Administration approval in 1973. Continued research on OCs shows that the increased risks of cardiovascular diseases actually were almost entirely confined to specific groups women who were over 35 or who both were over 30 and smoked. For the great majority of women, studies showed, the risk of cardiovascular

  12. The Pill vs. the Sword: Additional Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Lottes, Ilsa L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I present additional information for policy-makers and researchers to consider in response to the view proposed by Potts et al that "the pill is mightier than the sword." I identify states with both high rates of terrorism and a youth bulge and discuss correlates of both these societal characteristics. The research examined supports the view that factors other than access to family planning are more important in facilitating terrorism. PMID:26673473

  13. The pill in figures and facts.

    PubMed

    Von Keep, P A

    1967-01-01

    A review of the use of oral contraceptives from 1956-1966 is presented for the U.S. and several European and Latin American countries. In 1969 an estimated 9,600,000 to 10,700,000 women in the world were pill users. Estimates for the number in 1985 vary from 20,000,000 to 40,000,000. However estimates are difficult because of the improvements in fertility control that are likely to occur in the future.

  14. Estrogen potency of oral contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Chihal, H J; Peppler, R D; Dickey, R P

    1975-01-01

    The estrogen potencies of 9 oral contraceptive pills, Enovid-E, Enovid-5, Ovulen, Demulen, Norinyl+80, Norinyl+50, Ovral, Norlestrin 1 mg. and Norlestrin 2.5 mg., were determined by bioassay. Relative estrogen potency was determined by analysis of variance. Enovid-5, the most estrogenic compound, had a potency of 4.88 compared to ethinyl estradiol, 50 mcg. equal 1.00; Ovral, the least estrogenic compound, had a potency of 0.81, a sixfold difference. Estrogen potencies at a fractional dose of 0.00155 correlate with reports of the incidence of minor side effects and thromboembolic disease. The effect of progestins on estrogen potency was purely additive (norgestrel and norethynodrel), purely antagonistic, or additive at low concentrations and antagonistic at high concentrations (norethindrone, norethindrone acetate, and ethynodiol diacetate). These results suggest that pills with a greater margin of safety might be developed by utilizing greater ratios of progestin to estrogen. In addition, differences in relative estrogen potency of oral contraceptive pills may be used as a basis for better clinical selection.

  15. How to use mini-pills: helpful patient instructions.

    PubMed

    1982-09-01

    Progestin only birth control pills appeared on the US market in 1973. As there is no estrogen in these mini pills, they may have fewer dangerous side effects than the combined pills. Some clinics suggest mini pills for women who suffer from estrogen excess side effects. The 3 mini pills available in the U.S. are called Micronor, NOR-QD, and Ovrette. Instructions are presented for patients who are interested in using mini pills. The mini pills most likely work by affecting a women's fertility in several ways: act as a messenger to the woman's ovaries and uterus to prevent the release of an egg; thicken the mucous on the cervix, making it difficult for the sperm to "get through" the cervix and reach the egg; and change the lining of the uterus so that it may not develop properly for the fertilized egg to grow. The mini pills can be 97% effective is used perfectly. The mini pills are only effective for as long as a woman takes them. A woman must take a pill every day to prevent pregnancy. A woman should not use the mini pill if she has or ever has had any of these problems: blood clotting problems in veins; stroke; cancer of the breast or reproductive parts of the body; suspected pregnancy, current pregnancy; and undiagnosed, abnormal genital bleeding. Possible benefits for a woman using mini pills include: an effective method of birth control; a method for nursing mothers since it does not seem to affect the amount of their breast milk; and a possible reduction in premenstrual cramps. Possible risks for a woman using mini pills include: irregular periods; and a less effective method if the patient does not take a pill every day. The danger signals to look for are abdominal pain, chest pain, headaches, eye problems, and severe leg pain. A patient should revisit a clinic in the following situations: has not had a period within 45 days of the last period; severe abdominal pains while taking mini pills; experiences a warning signal; any time one thinks the pills are

  16. [Core body temperature monitoring using the telemetric pill].

    PubMed

    Rav-Acha, M; Heled, Y; Slypher, N; Moran, D S

    2003-03-01

    Exposure to extreme weather or physical work conditions can lead to dangerous core temperature changes, and to the clinical syndromes accompanying them. Core temperature measurement is the main tool for diagnosing these syndromes. Recent technological advances particularly NASA's telemetry and miniaturizing technologies, have led to the development of a CorTemp Ingestible Temperature Sensor, or "pill". The pill is a small electronic device, which senses the body's temperature and transmits it through a radio wave signal to an external receiver. The advantage of the pill over other temperature measurement devices is that it is a simple device that enables core temperature measurement for many hours without the need of any wire connections or other cumbersome instruments. For this reason, the pill is an ideal tool for core temperature measurements in field locales or for continuous long duration temperature monitoring of ambulatory patients. The following study reviews available literature concerning the use of the pill and the validity of its measurements. A high correlation has been revealed between pill temperature measurements and rectal or esophageal measurements. Pill temperature values usually fall between the high rectal and the low esophageal measurements, considered the gold standard for core temperature measurement. A number of studies emphasizing the advantage of the pill are presented in this review.

  17. [Tissue distribution of arsenic of liushen pills and realgar].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-Li; Wu, Qian; Xie, Yuan-Yuan; Shen, Lian-Zhong; Fan, Min-Wei; Liang, Qiong-Lin; Wang, Yi-Ming; Luo, Guo-An

    2011-06-01

    This study is to report the tissue distribution of arsenic after giving different doses of realgar and Liushen pills to Beagle dogs, in order to provide basis for the safety evaluation of Liushen pills. ICP-MS was used to measure arsenic concentration, and HPLC-ICP-MS was used to analyze arsenic speciation. The concentration of total arsenic and As(III) + DMA (arsenite + dimethylarsenic acid) increased with dosing of realgar. Total arsenic concentration in most tissues and As(III) + DMA concentration in all tissues of Liushen pills group are lower than that of realgar group, but AsB concentration in liver, spleen and kidney of Liushen pills group increased. The concentration of total arsenic showed a dose-dependent manner with dosage administered. It was indicated that components in Liushen pills can reduce solubility of arsenic in realgar, which may decrease toxicity of realgar.

  18. Patterns of Oral Contraceptive Pill-taking and Condom Use among Adolescent Contraceptive Pill Users

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Jennifer L.; Shew, Marcia L.; Tu, Wanzhu; Ofner, Susan; Ott, Mary A.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Imperfect oral contraceptive pill (OCP) regimen adherence may impair contraceptive effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to describe daily adherence patterns of OCP use, to analyze OCP protection on an event level basis, and to examine pill-taking and condom use during method transitions. Methods Women (n = 123, ages 14–17 years) completed quarterly interviews to classify OCP method choice into four categories: stable, initiated, stopped, and discordant use. Within each OCP category, daily diaries were used to assess occurrence of coitus, condom use, and patterns of day-to-day OCP use (i.e., consecutive days of OCP use reported with no more than two consecutive days of nonuse). A coital event was OCP protected if pills were used on both the day of the coitus and the day preceding. Results There were 123 participants who reported at least some OCP use in 210 diary periods (average diary length = 75.5 days). Fifty-three participants categorized as stable users reported 87 diary periods: the average interval of consecutive OCP use in this group was 32.5 days. Among stable users, only 45% of coital events were associated with both OCP and condom use. Over one-fifth of coital events in all groups were protected by no method of contraception. Conclusion Dual use of OCP and barrier contraception remains an elusive goal. The time during OCP adoption or discontinuation is often unprotected by condoms. However, concurrent missed pills and condom nonuse increase pregnancy and infection risk even among stable OCP users. Understanding motivation for method usage may improve education and prevention techniques. PMID:16919800

  19. Cellulose fiber diet pills. A new cause of esophageal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Jones, K R; Pillsbury, H C

    1990-09-01

    Cellulose fiber diet pills have recently become a popular form of weight control. In the past 2 months, we have seen two patients in whom ingestion of these pills has resulted in complete distal esophageal obstruction. Further studies revealed that each patient had a previously undiagnosed anatomical abnormality of the distal esophagus; in one case a Schatzki's ring, and in the other a stricture probably secondary to chronic reflux. We conclude that patients with known esophageal narrowing, or with a history of reflux and/or dysphagia, should use cellulose fiber diet pills only with extreme caution.

  20. Two Techniques to Make Swallowing Pills Easier

    PubMed Central

    Schiele, Julia T.; Schneider, Hendrik; Quinzler, Renate; Reich, Gabriele; Haefeli, Walter E.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether 2 techniques (the pop-bottle method for tablets and the lean-forward technique for capsules) ease swallowing of tablets and capsules, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 151 adults of the general German population. Participants swallowed 16 differently shaped placebos, rated their ease of swallowing on an 8-point Likert scale, and swallowed the 2 dosage forms that they had rated most difficult again using the appropriate technique. The pop-bottle method substantially improved swallowing of tablets in 59.7% (169/283) and the lean-forward technique for capsules in 88.6% (31/35). Both techniques were remarkably effective in participants with and without reported difficulties swallowing pills and should be recommended regularly. PMID:25384817

  1. Two techniques to make swallowing pills easier.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Julia T; Schneider, Hendrik; Quinzler, Renate; Reich, Gabriele; Haefeli, Walter E

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether 2 techniques (the pop-bottle method for tablets and the lean-forward technique for capsules) ease swallowing of tablets and capsules, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 151 adults of the general German population. Participants swallowed 16 differently shaped placebos, rated their ease of swallowing on an 8-point Likert scale, and swallowed the 2 dosage forms that they had rated most difficult again using the appropriate technique. The pop-bottle method substantially improved swallowing of tablets in 59.7% (169/283) and the lean-forward technique for capsules in 88.6% (31/35). Both techniques were remarkably effective in participants with and without reported difficulties swallowing pills and should be recommended regularly.

  2. ON IMPROVING THE DISINTEGRATION OF AYURVEDIC PILLS CONTAINING GUGGULU

    PubMed Central

    Chaube, Anjana; Dixit, S.K.; Sharma, P.V.

    1995-01-01

    An attempt is made in this communication to report a better way of preparing guggulu – containing pills. This technique improves the disintegration time of the preparation, thus enhancing its therapeutic value. PMID:22556694

  3. A new accurate pill recognition system using imprint information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Kamata, Sei-ichiro

    2013-12-01

    Great achievements in modern medicine benefit human beings. Also, it has brought about an explosive growth of pharmaceuticals that current in the market. In daily life, pharmaceuticals sometimes confuse people when they are found unlabeled. In this paper, we propose an automatic pill recognition technique to solve this problem. It functions mainly based on the imprint feature of the pills, which is extracted by proposed MSWT (modified stroke width transform) and described by WSC (weighted shape context). Experiments show that our proposed pill recognition method can reach an accurate rate up to 92.03% within top 5 ranks when trying to classify more than 10 thousand query pill images into around 2000 categories.

  4. Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring

    MedlinePlus

    ... FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ185 CONTRACEPTION Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring • What are combined hormonal birth control methods? • How do combined hormonal methods prevent pregnancy? • ...

  5. Imported fenproporex-based diet pills from Brazil: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Pieter A

    2009-03-01

    Banned amphetamine-based anorectics are illicitly imported into the United States (US), but little is known regarding the harm these diet pills pose to US residents. A 26-year-old woman using imported diet pills presented with a two-year history of intermittent chest pains, palpitations, headaches and insomnia. Urine toxicology screen detected amphetamines and benzodiazepines. Fenproporex and chlordiazepoxide were detected in her pills. Her symptoms resolved after she stopped using diet pills. A 38-year-old man using imported diet pills presented after his occupational urine screen was significantly positive for amphetamine. Fenproporex and fluoxetine were detected in his pills. These cases illustrate the potential harm from imported prescription diet pills that combine fenproporex with benzodiazepines, antidepressants, diuretics, laxatives and other substances. Increasing physicians' awareness of imported diet pill use may improve care of patients suffering from the pills' many adverse effects.

  6. Brief Report: Apparent Antiretroviral Overadherence by Pill Count is Associated With HIV Treatment Failure in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Okatch, Harriet; Beiter, Kaylin; Eby, Jessica; Chapman, Jennifer; Marukutira, Tafireyi; Tshume, Ontibile; Matshaba, Mogomotsi; Anabwani, Gabriel M; Gross, Robert; Lowenthal, Elizabeth

    2016-08-15

    Pill counts with calculated adherence percentages are used in many settings to monitor adherence, but can be undermined by patients discarding pills to hide nonadherence. Pill counts suggesting that >100% of prescribed doses were taken can signal "pill dumping." We defined "overadherence" among a cohort of 300 HIV-infected adolescents as having greater than one-third of pill counts with >100% adherence during a year of follow-up. Apparent overadherence was more common in those with virologic failure than in those with suppressed viral loads (33% vs 13%, χ P = 0.001). Pill count adherence repeatedly >100% may identify HIV-infected adolescents at increased risk of treatment failure.

  7. Histomorphological and Immunophenotypic Features of Pill-Induced Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Hwan; Kim, Won; Lee, Kook Lae; Byeon, Sun-ju; Choi, Euno; Chang, Mee Soo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate histomorphological and immunophenotypic features in pill-induced esophagitis. We comparatively evaluated the histomorphological, immunophenotypic features of pill-induced esophagitis vs. reflux esophagitis, as well as clinical information and endoscopic findings. Fifty-two tissue pieces from 22 cases of pill-induced esophagitis, 46 pieces from 20 reflux esophagitis, and 16 pieces from 14 control samples were subjected to immunohistochemistry for inflammatory infiltrates (CD3 for T lymphocyte, CD20 for B lymphocyte, CD56 for NK cell, CD68 for macrophage, CD117 for mast cell) and eosinophil chemotaxis-associated proteins (Erk, leptin, leptin receptor, pSTAT3, phospho-mTOR). As a result, Histomorphology showed that a diffuse pattern of dilated intercellular spaces was more frequently observed in pill-induced esophagitis, while reactive atypia and subepithelial papillary elongation were more often found in reflux esophagitis (P < 0.05, respectively). Interestingly, intraepithelial eosinophilic microabscess, intraepithelial pustule and diffuse pattern of dilated intercellular spaces were observed in 14% (3 cases), 9% (2 cases) and 32% (7 cases) of pill-induced esophagitis, respectively, but in no cases of reflux esophagitis. Regarding intraepithelial inflammatory infiltrates in pill-induced esophagitis, T lymphocytes were the most common cells, followed by eosinophil; 11 and 7 in one x400 power field, respectively. Intraepithelial pSTAT3-positive pattern was more frequently observed in pill-induced esophagitis than in reflux esophagitis, at 45% (10 cases) versus 10% (2 cases), respectively (P < 0.05). Considering the distal esophageal lesion only, intraepithelial pustule, diffuse dilated intercellular spaces and stromal macrophages were more frequently found in distal pill-induced esophagitis, whereas reactive atypia and intraepithelial mast cells in reflux esophagitis (P < 0.05, respectively). In conclusion, diffuse dilated

  8. Monitoring Location and Angular Orientation of a Pill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schipper, John F.

    2012-01-01

    A mobile pill transmitter system moves through, or adjacent to, one or more organs in an animal or human body, while transmitting signals from its present location and/or present angular orientation. The system also provides signals from which the present roll angle of the pill, about a selected axis, can be determined. When the location coordinates angular orientation and the roll angle of the pill are within selected ranges, an aperture on the pill container releases a selected chemical into, or onto, the body. Optionally, the pill, as it moves, provides a sequence of visually perceptible images. The times for image formation may correspond to times at which the pill transmitter system location or image satisfies one of at least four criteria. This invention provides and supplies an algorithm for exact determination of location coordinates and angular orientation coordinates for a mobile pill transmitter (PT), or other similar device that is introduced into, and moves within, a GI tract of a human or animal body. A set of as many as eight nonlinear equations has been developed and applied, relating propagation of a wireless signal between either two, three, or more transmitting antennas located on the PT, to four or more non-coplanar receiving antennas located on a signal receiver appliance worn by the user. The equations are solved exactly, without approximations or iterations, and are applied in several environments: (1) association of a visual image, transmitted by the PT at each of a second sequence of times, with a PT location and PT angular orientation at that time; (2) determination of a position within the body at which a drug or chemical substance or other treatment is to be delivered to a selected portion of the body; (3) monitoring, after delivery, of the effect(s) of administration of the treatment; and (4) determination of one or more positions within the body where provision and examination of a finer-scale image is warranted.

  9. The pill, parity, and rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Spector, T D; Roman, E; Silman, A J

    1990-06-01

    We report on a case-control study investigating the relationship of oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use and parity to the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Women with RA were compared with 2 separate control groups, women with osteoarthritis (OA) and women randomly selected from a population-based electoral register. Nulliparity was found to be a risk factor for the development of RA, with age-adjusted odds ratios of 1.82 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-3.03) versus the OA control group and 1.83 (95% CI 1.03-3.06) versus the population control group. Use of OCPs before the age of 35 was negatively associated with RA (odds ratio 0.56, 95% CI 0.29-1.12 versus the OA control group; odds ratio 0.6, 95% CI 0.30-1.17 versus the population control group). Some evidence of a duration-response effect was seen, although the numbers were small. The 2 variables were also multiplicative, with nulliparous non-OCP users having a 4-fold risk of RA compared with parous OCP users. These findings suggest that pregnancy and OCP use have a "protective effect" on the development of RA, although the mechanism remains unclear.

  10. EPR study on non- and gamma-irradiated herbal pills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksieva, K.; Lagunov, O.; Dimov, K.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2011-06-01

    The results of EPR studies on herbal pills of marigold, hawthorn, yarrow, common balm, tutsan, nettle and thyme before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak singlet EPR line with a g-factor of 2.0048±0.0005. After irradiation herbal pills could be separated in two groups according to their EPR spectra. Radiation-induced free radicals in pills of marigold, yarrow, nettle, tutsan and thyme could be attributed mainly to saccharide excipients. Tablets of hawthorn and common balm show "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum, superimposed on partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum, due to the active part (herb) and inulin, which is present in the pills as an excipient. Fading study of the radiation-induced EPR signals confirms that sugar radicals are more stable than cellulose species. The reported results show that the presence of characteristic EPR spectra of herbal pills due to excipients or active part can be used as unambiguous proof of radiation processing within 35 or more days after irradiation.

  11. PILL AVERSION IN HIV-INFECTED PREGNANT WOMEN: THEORY TO PRACTICE

    PubMed Central

    Dorman, Robin M; Yee, Lynn M; Sutton, Sarah H

    2016-01-01

    In our perinatal HIV cohort we have observed difficulty swallowing pills as a frequent and significant barrier to adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy. We refer to this problem as pill aversion and define it as difficulty swallowing pills with no persistent medical or structural cause as well as the anxiety and physical symptoms associated with pill swallowing. By applying cognitive behavioral theory to behavioral patterns within our pregnant HIV-infected population, we seek to better understand the development and reinforcement of pill aversion behavior. Based upon this theory, our experience, and the pediatric pill swallowing literature, we propose a conceptual framework for understanding the multiple causes of pill aversion and applying therapeutic interventions to a perinatal population. In a theoretical discussion we address the roles of classical conditioning and cognitive theory in the development and experience of pill aversion in an HIV-infected pregnant population. We propose future steps for characterizing these behaviors and testing theories and interventions. PMID:27735932

  12. Provision of emergency contraceptive pills at college and university student health centers in Florida.

    PubMed

    Hemmick, Rob S; McCarthy, Susan K

    2007-01-01

    Provision of emergency contraceptive (EC) pills at Florida university and college student health centers was examined. Practices related to dosages, pill brands, advance prescriptions, restrictions, written policy, printed materials, routine contraceptive counseling, and publicity were identified. Barriers for centers not providing EC pills and practices were also determined.

  13. Berlex introduces new 20 mcg birth control pill.

    PubMed

    1998-11-01

    Another low-dose oral contraceptive (OC), Levlite, has received US Food and Drug Administration approval. Levlite, manufactured by Berlex Laboratories, contains 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 100 mcg levonorgestrel. Alesse, an OC manufactured by Wyeth-Ayerst, has the same components. Two other OCs--Loestrin and Mircette--contain 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol, but differ in their progestin component or dose. A pill containing 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol provides women with 33% less estrogen than a 30-mcg pill. Clinical trials involving 755 US women confirmed that Levlite provides high contraceptive efficacy with good cycle control. Headache, reported by 17.3% of study participants, was the most common side effect.

  14. Teaching children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autistic disorder (AD) how to swallow pills.

    PubMed

    Beck, Melissa H; Cataldo, Marilyn; Slifer, Keith J; Pulbrook, Valerie; Guhman, Jaswinder K

    2005-01-01

    One barrier to medication adherence in pediatric populations is difficulty swallowing pills. Some children may not have prerequisite skills for pill swallowing, while others may have developed conditioned anxiety from repeated negative experiences. Eight children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or autistic disorder participated in behavioral training to increase cooperation with pill swallowing. A pill-swallowing protocol was utilized during practice sessions with placebo "pills" of increasing size to implement systematic desensitization. Seven of the 8 children swallowed medication with a therapist. Six of the 8 children maintained treatment gains over time. Interventions used to succeed with these children are presented along with methods to reduce conditioned behavioral distress.

  15. Pills, Thrills and Bellyaches: Case Studies of Prescription Pill Use and Misuse among Marijuana/Blunt Smoking Middle Class Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Bardhi, Flutura; Sifaneck, Stephen J.; Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise

    2008-01-01

    Recent survey research has documented important increases during the 2000s in the misuse and abuse of several prescription drugs (Vicodin, Percocet, Codeine, Dilaudid, Xanax, Klonopin, Valium, Ativan, Adderall, Ritalin, among others). This article focuses upon the patterns of pill use and misuse among young women who are middle-class white and college-educated, and they are also experienced marijuana users who report recreational consumption of other illegal drugs. The ethnographic data provides insights about various ways and reasons that such prescription pill misuse occurs among 12 college-educated, (upper) middle-class, white/Asian women in their 20s who were involved in a major ethnographic study of marijuana and blunts. Three patterns of pill use were observed: recreational; quasi-medical; and legal medical; shifts among these patterns of pill use was common. Few reported that their pill use interfered with their conventional jobs and lifestyles; they concealed such use from their employers and coworkers, and from non-using friends and family members. None reported contacts with police nor seeking treatment specifically for their pill misuse. Many reported misusing prescription pills in conjunction with illegal drugs (marijuana, cocaine, ecstasy) and alcohol. Pills were used as a way to enhance the euphoric effects of other drugs, as well as a way to avoid the negative side effects of illegal drugs. Some reported pill use as a means for reducing expenditures (and use of) alcohol and cocaine. The implications suggest a hidden subpopulation of prescription pill misusers among regular users of marijuana and other illegal drugs. Future research should include users and misusers of various pills to better understand how prescriptions pills interact with illegal drug use patterns. PMID:19081798

  16. Determination and application of location and angular orientation of a pill transmitter within a body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A mobile pill transmitter system that moves through or adjacent to one or more organs in an animal's body and that provides signals from which the pill's present location and/or present angular orientation can be determined. The system also provides signals from which the present roll angle of the pill, about a selected axis, can be determined. When the location coordinates and the roll angle of the pill are within selected ranges, an aperture on the pill container releases a selected chemical into or onto the body. Optionally, the pill as it moves also provides a sequence of visually perceptible images; the times for image formation may correspond to times at which the pill transmitter system location or image satisfies one or at least four different criteria.

  17. Imported compounded diet pill use among Brazilian women immigrants in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Pieter A; McCormick, Danny; Casey, Carolyn; Dawson, Glen F; Hacker, Karen A

    2009-06-01

    In Brazil, compounded diet pills that combine amphetamines, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, diuretics and laxatives are often prescribed. In 2006, the Food and Drug Administration banned their sale in the United States (US) citing substantial safety concerns. This study evaluates the prevalence of, and factors associated with, use of these pills among Brazilian immigrant women aged 18-50. Pill use was assessed at one clinic and two churches using an anonymous survey (n = 307). While living in the US, 18% of clinic respondents and 9% of church respondents reported using these diet pills. Nearly two thirds of pill users reported adverse effects. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, being unmarried, college educated, dissatisfied with current weight, and advised by a US physician to lose weight were associated with greater odds of imported diet pill use. To enhance care of Brazilian immigrants, US physicians should become familiar with the health consequences of imported diet pills from Brazil.

  18. Salt Pill Design and Fabrication for Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter J.; Mccammon, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The performance of an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is critically dependent on the design and construction of the salt pills that produce cooling. In most cases, the primary goal is to obtain the largest cooling capacity at the low temperature end of the operating range. The realizable cooling capacity depends on a number of factors, including refrigerant mass, and how efficiently it absorbs heat from the various instrument loads. The design and optimization of "salt pills" for ADR systems depend not only on the mechanical, chemical and thermal properties of the refrigerant, but also on the range of heat fluxes that the salt pill must accommodate. Despite the fairly wide variety of refrigerants available, those used at very low temperature tend to be hydrated salts that require a dedicated thermal bus and must be hermetically sealed, while those used at higher temperature - greater than about 0.5 K - tend to be single-­- or poly-­-crystals that have much simpler requirements for thermal and mechanical packaging. This paper presents a summary of strategies and techniques for designing, optimizing and fabricating salt pills for both low-­- and mid-­-temperature applications.

  19. A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Abergel, Rebecca

    2013-10-31

    Berkeley Lab's Rebecca Abergel discusses "A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas. Go here to watch the entire event with all 8 speakers:

  20. A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials

    ScienceCinema

    Abergel, Rebecca

    2016-07-12

    Berkeley Lab's Rebecca Abergel discusses "A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas. Go here to watch the entire event with all 8 speakers:

  1. [The NHG guideline 'Sleep problems and sleeping pills'].

    PubMed

    Damen-van Beek, Zamire; Lucassen, Peter L B J; Gorgels, Wim; Smelt, Antonette F H; Knuistingh Neven, Arie; Bouma, Margriet

    2015-01-01

    The Dutch College of General Practitioners' (NHG) guideline 'Sleep problems and sleeping pills' provides recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of the most prevalent sleep problems and for the management of chronic users of sleeping pills. The preferred approach for sleeplessness is not to prescribe medication but to give information and behavioural advice. Practice assistants of the Dutch Association of Mental Health and Addiction Care are also expected to be able to undertake this management. The GP may consider prescribing sleeping pills for a short period only in cases of severe insomnia with considerable distress. Chronic users of sleeping pills should be advised by the GP to stop using them or to reduce the dose gradually (controlled dose reduction). The GP may refer patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) to a pulmonary or ear, nose and throat specialist or neurologist for further diagnosis depending on the regional arrangements. The GP may then consider the cardiovascular risk factors commonly present with OSA. In patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) who continue to experience major distress despite being given advice without the prescription of medication, the GP may consider prescribing a dopamine agonist.

  2. Teaching through Trade Books: Roly-Poly Pill Bugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Emily; Ansberry, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Pill bugs, also called roly-polies, are small terrestrial isopods that are abundant in temperate areas throughout the world. Because they are engaging, harmless, and easily collected, they provide an excellent opportunity for children to learn about invertebrate body parts, behaviors, and information processing. This column includes activities…

  3. Fabric Pilling Image Segmentation Based on Mean Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Junfeng; Kang, Xuejuan

    Fabric appearance is always considered to be one of the most important aspects of fabric quality. Testing for fabric appearance is the process of inspecting, measuring and evaluating characteristics and properties of a fabric surface. Fabric Pilling is a key step in fabric pilling objective evaluation,which is the important component of textile performance test digitization.Image analysis has been widely accepted as an objetive mothod for evaluating fabric appearance.This study presents the principles of new method of fabric pilling image segmenttation based on mean shift.The principle of mean shift was demonstrated, and the extend principle of mean shift was educed. The extended mean shift algorithm was used to try to solve the segmentation of fabric pilling image.In this issue, two main steps were introduced: the filting of image and the segmentation of image. The influences of three parameters to the segmentation effect were analysised. The laboratory result shows that the proposed algorithm can get excellent segmentation after chosen three better parameters.

  4. Progestin-Only Hormonal Birth Control: Pill and Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... in progestin-only pills and the birth control injection. The birth control implant and the hormonal intrauterine device also are progestin-only forms of birth control and are discussed in FAQ Long-Acting Reversible Contraception (LARC): IUD and Implant. How effective ...

  5. Birth Control Pills and Nonprofessional Voice: Acoustic Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Ofer; Biron-Shental, Tal; Shabtai, Esther

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies are presented here. Study 1 was aimed at evaluating whether the voice characteristics of women who use birth control pills that contain different progestins differ from the voice characteristics of a control group. Study 2 presents a meta-analysis that combined the results of Study 1 with those from 3 recent studies that…

  6. Ingestible Thermometer Pill Aids Athletes in Beating the Heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Developed by Goddard Space Flight Center and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory to monitor the core body temperature of astronauts during space flight, the ingestible "thermometer pill" has a silicone-coated exterior, with a microbattery, a quartz crystal temperature sensor, a space-aged telemetry system, and microminiaturized circuitry on the interior.

  7. Discussing Smart Pills versus Endorsing Smart Pills: Reply to Swanson, Wigal, and Volkow (2011) and Elliott and Elliott (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farah, Martha J.; Smith, M. Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    We find much of interest, and little to disagree with, in the commentaries on our article. We take issue only with the suggestion that our article was provocative and submit that the attempt to understand the use of stimulants as smart pills does not imply an endorsement of the practice.

  8. The combined oral contraceptive pill -- recent developments, risks and benefits.

    PubMed

    Dragoman, Monica V

    2014-08-01

    The introduction of the birth control pill as an effective, coitally-independent method of contraception was a public health milestone of the last century. Over time, combined oral contraception (COC) formulations and pill-taking regimens have evolved with improved safety and tolerability while maintaining contraceptive efficacy. In addition to protection against pregnancy, use of combined oral contraception confers a number of significant non-contraceptive benefits to users. COC use is also associated with well-studied risks. Common side effects are generally self-limiting and improve with increasing duration of use while serious adverse events, including venous thromboembolism, are rare among healthy COC users. Contraceptive decision-making should include consideration of both the risks and benefits of a given method versus the real consequences of unintended pregnancy.

  9. [An idolized pill: a pill to be gilded...or resistance to oral contraception].

    PubMed

    Debout, M

    1982-06-01

    Contraception can be perceived by a woman either as a subjugation to socioeconomic imperatives or as a means of escaping the fate of repeated pregnancies or abortions. Whether contraception liberates or constrains depends on the individual attitude. In France, decision of whether to have a child is influenced by the couple's perception of cultural norms such as the ideal 4-member family proposed by advertisers, the organization of collective life, and the design of consumer goods such as 4-seat automobiles. The 2-child norm is rapidly becoming internalized, but may be influenced by such societal factors as declining employment opportunities for women which prompt them to reassume the career of motherhood. Among sources of resistence to contraception are those stemming from the physician who may be reluctant to prescribe potent drugs with obvious societal implications to a healthy woman. The patient seeking cure of an ailment and the patient seeking OCs have completely different psychological encounters with the physician in the position of furnishing supplies rather than of diagnosing and explaining treatment. The resulting loss of power may frustrate some physicians. The woman may however return power to the physician by demanding reassurances about the medical aspects of pill use. Concern about the possibility of thromboses or other side effects also serves to return the OC consultation to the realm of a more traditional medical practice. The attitude of the physician can reinforce resistence of the woman to contraception or provide a scientific rationalization for it. Taking the pill daily, a regular reminder to the woman that she is suppressing her maternal potential, is a cause of stress and perhaps of forgetfulness for some women. OCs, because of their efficacy, may not be seen merely as the means of suspending the procreative function for a given time, but as suppressing and negating it permanently. Women who for various reasons are disturbed by the loss of

  10. Sbaa basin: A new oil-producing regino in Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Baghdadli, S.M.

    1988-08-01

    Discovery of a paraffinic oil in 1980 in the Adrar area, the west part of the Algerian Sahara within the Sbaa half-graben depression, opens a new oil- and gas-bearing region in Algeria. The oil and gas fields are located on highly faulted structures generated by differential movements of basement blocks. Oil deposits are connected with tidal sandy sediments of Strunian and Tournaisian age and occur at depths of 500 to 1,000 m (1,640 to 3,280 ft). Gas and wet gas deposits are related to sandstone reservoirs of Cambrian-Ordovician age at depths of 1,500 to 2,000 m (4,920 to 6,562 ft).

  11. Salt pill design and fabrication for adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirron, Peter J.; McCammon, Dan

    2014-07-01

    The performance of an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is critically dependent on the design and construction of the salt pills that produce cooling. In most cases, the primary goal is to obtain the largest cooling capacity at the low temperature end of the operating range. The realizable cooling capacity depends on a number of factors, including refrigerant mass, and how efficiently it absorbs heat from the various instrument loads. The design and optimization of “salt pills” for ADR systems depend not only on the mechanical, chemical and thermal properties of the refrigerant, but also on the range of heat fluxes that the salt pill must accommodate. Despite the fairly wide variety of refrigerants available, those used at very low temperature tend to be hydrated salts that require a dedicated thermal bus and must be hermetically sealed, while those used at higher temperature - greater than about 0.5 K - tend to be single- or poly-crystals that have much simpler requirements for thermal and mechanical packaging. This paper presents a summary of strategies and techniques for designing, optimizing and fabricating salt pills for both low- and mid-temperature applications.

  12. A comparison of patient adherence and preference of packaging method for oral anticancer agents using conventional pill bottles versus daily pill boxes.

    PubMed

    Macintosh, P W; Pond, G R; Pond, B J; Leung, V; Siu, L L

    2007-07-01

    Adherence to medications is an important issue in oncology due to the increasing number of anticancer agents, such as targeted therapies, formulated for oral dosing. A prospective, crossover design was utilized in which patients on capecitabine were randomly assigned to one of two packaging methods for one cycle, and then switched over to the alternate packaging method in the subsequent cycle. Twenty-five patients were accrued to this study. Adherence rates were similar when using the daily pill boxes (17/21 = 81%) and when using the conventional pill bottles (18/21 = 86%). However, more patients were satisfied with the daily pill boxes (61% versus 11%, P = 0.027), preferred the daily pill boxes (61% versus 17%, P = 0.061), and thought the daily pill boxes were more helpful in reminding them to take their medications (50% versus 11%, P = 0.070). In conclusion, this small pilot study did not demonstrate that the use of daily pill boxes improved patient adherence with capecitabine, but patient satisfaction and preference for this packaging method were greater than for the conventional pill bottles. Further exploration of this intervention in a larger study is warranted.

  13. The birth control pill, thromboembolic disease, science and the media: a historical review of the relationship.

    PubMed

    Lackie, Elyse; Fairchild, Amy

    2016-10-01

    The introduction of the birth control pill (the Pill) in 1960 revolutionized the options for contraception, sparking vibrant discussion in the scientific and social science literature and in the media. Much attention focused on issues of women's rights, including ethics and personal choice. But the Pill also introduced new questions about risk. Shortly after its introduction, the risk of thromboembolic disease was recognized [1]. After more than half a century, controversies about the relationship between the Pill and thromboembolic disease have persisted. The scientific and media communities have been active in the discussion, debate and delivery of information about this risk. Scientific and public attention to thromboembolism and the Pill has had dramatic consequences, both good and bad. The spotlight on risk has helped to change norms regarding the public's right to know and assess dangers; it has sparked Pill scares linked to increased unplanned pregnancy, birth and abortion rates; and it has led to a change in federally mandated policies regarding how new contraceptive products are studied and brought to market. This paper charts the narrative of the thromboembolic risk of the Pill from its introduction in 1960 until today and reviews the corresponding media response to this history. How does the story of the thromboembolic risk of the Pill - explored through the lens of science, media and contemporary social dynamics - frame contemporary understanding of risk for researchers, clinicians, individuals and the public?

  14. Expectancy effect: impact of pill administration on cognitive performance in healthy seniors.

    PubMed

    Oken, Barry S; Flegal, Kristin; Zajdel, Daniel; Kishiyama, Shirley; Haas, Mitchell; Peters, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    Expectancy or placebo effects on cognitive function have not been well studied. To determine the effect of taking pills on cognitive function, 40 participants were randomly assigned to a pill or no-pill condition. Healthy seniors who took a 2-week supply of methylcellulose pills, which they were told was an experimental cognitive enhancer, were compared to seniors not taking any pills. There were 2 primary outcome measures defined prior to the study-Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) Word List delayed recall and Stroop color word task time-as well as 7 other cognitive outcome measures. There was a significant effect of pill taking on the 2 primary outcome measures. There was also an effect of pill taking on choice reaction time and Word List immediate recall but not on the other 5 secondary cognitive outcome measures. In an exploratory analysis of potential predictors of the expectancy effect, perceived stress and self-efficacy but not personality traits interacted with the pill-taking effect on cognitive function. Further characterizing and understanding this observed expectancy effect is important to maximize cognitive health and improve clinical trial design.

  15. Effects of the oral contraceptive pill cycle on physiological responses to hypoxic exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandoval, Darleen A.; Matt, Kathleen S.

    2003-01-01

    To test whether the oral contraceptive pill cycle affects endocrine and metabolic responses to hypoxic (fraction of inspired oxygen = 13%, P(IO2): 95 mmHg; H) versus normoxic (P(IO2):153 mmHg; N) exercise, we examined eight women (28 +/- 1.2 yr) during the third (PILL) and placebo (PLA) weeks of their monthly oral contraceptive pill cycle. Cardiopulmonary, metabolic, and neuroendocrine measurements were taken before, during, and after three 5-min consecutive workloads at 30%, 45%, and 60% of normoxic V(O2peak) in H and N trials. Heart rate response to exercise was greater in H versus N, but was not different between PILL and PLA. Lactate levels were significantly greater during exercise, and both lactate and glucose levels were significantly greater for 30 min after exercise in H versus N (p < 0.0001). When expressed relative to baseline, lactate levels were lower in PILL versus PLA, but glucose was greater in PILL versus PLA (p < 0.001). Cortisol levels were also significantly greater in PILL versus PLA (p < 0.001). Norepinephrine levels were significantly increased during exercise (p < 0.0001) and in H versus N (p < 0.0001). However, epinephrine levels were not different over time or with trial. Thus, the presence of circulating estradiol and progesterone during the PILL phase reduces glucose and lactate responses to hypoxic exercise.

  16. Factors predicting mood changes in oral contraceptive pill users

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Over 100 million women worldwide are using oral contraceptives pills (OCP) and mood changes were being as the primary reason for OCP discontinuation. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and predicting factors of mood changes in oral contraceptive pills users. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 500 women aged 15–49 years old using low dose (LD) pills attending family planning centers in Ahwaz, Iran. Data were collected via face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire including items on demographic, self-efficacy and mood change. Both univarate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between reported mood change and the independent variables. Results In all 406 women reported that they did experience OCP side effects. Of these, 37.7% of women (n =153) reported mood changes due to OCP use. The results of multiple logistic regression revealed that place of living (OR =2.57, 95% CI = 1.06-6.20, p =0.03), not receiving information on OCP side effects (OR =1.80, 95% CI = 1.15-2.80, p =0.009), and lower self-efficacy (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.80-0.94, p =0.001) were significant predictors of mood changes. Conclusion The findings from this study indicated that the prevalence of reported mood changes due to OCP use among Iranian women appeared to be consistent with other studies. In addition the findings showed that receiving information on OCP side effects from health care workers and self-efficacy were important predicting factors for mood changes. Indeed implementing educational programs and improving self-efficacy among women are recommended. PMID:24015872

  17. The oral contraceptive pill: a revolution for sportswomen?

    PubMed Central

    Bennell, K.; White, S.; Crossley, K.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) on skeletal health, soft tissue injury, and performance in female athletes. METHODS: A literature review was performed using literature retrieval methods to locate relevant studies. RESULTS: Most female athletes primarily choose to use the OCP for contraceptive purposes, but cycle manipulation and control of premenstrual symptoms are secondary advantages of its use. The effect of the OCP on bone density in normally menstruating women is unclear, with some studies reporting no effect, others a positive effect, and some even a negative effect. The OCP is often prescribed for the treatment of menstrual disturbances in female athletes, and improvements in bone density may result. Whether the OCP influences the risk of stress fracture and soft tissue injuries is not clear from research to date. Effects of the OCP on performance are particularly relevant for elite sportswomen. Although a reduction in Vo2MAX has been reported in some studies, this may not necessarily translate to impaired performance in the field. Moreover, some studies claim that the OCP may well enhance performance by reducing premenstrual symptoms and menstrual blood loss. A fear of weight gain with the use of the OCP is not well founded, as population studies report no effect on weight, particularly with the lower dose pills currently available. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the advantages of the pill for sportswomen would appear to outweigh any potential disadvantages. Nevertheless, there is individual variation in response to the OCP and these should be taken into account and monitored in the clinical situation. Women should be counselled as to the range of potential benefits and disadvantages in order to make an informed decision based on individual circumstances. 


 PMID:10450476

  18. Wine, alcohol and pills: What future for the French paradox?

    PubMed

    Biagi, Marco; Bertelli, Alberto A E

    2015-06-15

    The present review discusses the acquisitions obtained to date on the subject of wine consumption, health and cardiovascular protection. We distinguished the cardiovascular effects related to the consumption of wine and other alcoholic beverages focusing on non-alcoholic wine fraction: polyphenols and especially resveratrol. In the second part of the review we have addressed the issue of resveratrol bioavailability and the importance of wine matrix and phytocomplex highlighting the biological effects that can be obtained with nutraceuticals and resveratrol pills compared to the daily consumption of a glass of red wine.

  19. Features associated with diet pill use in individuals with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Reba-Harrelson, Lauren; Von Holle, Ann; Thornton, Laura M; Klump, Kelly L; Berrettini, Wade H; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steven; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M; Goldman, David; Halmi, Katherine A; Johnson, Craig; Kaplan, Allan S; Keel, Pamela; LaVia, Maria; Mitchell, James; Plotnicov, Katherine; Rotondo, Alessandro; Strober, Michael; Treasure, Janet; Woodside, D Blake; Kaye, Walter H; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the relation between diet pill use and eating disorder subtype, purging and other compensatory behaviors, body mass index (BMI), tobacco and caffeine use, alcohol abuse or dependence, personality characteristics, and Axis I and Axis II disorders in 1,345 participants from the multisite Price Foundation Genetics Studies. Diet pill use was significantly less common in women with restricting type of AN than in women with other eating disorder subtypes. In addition, diet pill use was associated with the use of multiple weight control behaviors, higher BMI, higher novelty seeking, and the presence of anxiety disorders, alcohol abuse or dependence, and borderline personality disorder. Findings suggest that certain clinical and personality variables distinguish individuals with eating disorders who use diet pills from those who do not. In the eating disorder population, vigilant screening for diet pill use should be routine clinical practice.

  20. Lipid profile of women using oral contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Naz, F; Jyoti, S; Akhtar, N; Afzal, M; Siddique, Y H

    2012-10-01

    Oral contraceptives (OCs) are the most popular type of birth control pills. The study was designed to examine the biochemical changes which occur due to the use of oral contraceptive pills (OCs). The study was based on the questionnaire for having the information of any reproductive history fasting, age, health, nature of menstrual cycle, bleeding, disease etc and blood profiling for biochemical analysis of the women includes high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG). Lipid profiling was carried out by using a commercially available diagnostic test kits. SPSS was used to analyze the data. The results showed statistically significant differences among users of OCs compared to non-users. Total cholesterol (242.92 +/- 2.842 mg dL(-1)), HDL-C (58.65 +/- 1.098 mg dL(-1)), LDL-C (115.84 +/- 1.266 mg dL(-1)) and triglycerides (105.56 +/- 2.341 mg dL(-1)) were significantly higher compared to the non-users (Total cholesterol 218.49 +/- 1.762, HDL-C 48.17 +/- 0.543, LDL-C 100.321 +/- 0.951 and triglycerides 83.77 +/- 2.299 mg dL(-1)). The result suggests that OCs increase the level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG).

  1. Treatment of hirsutism with combined pill containing drospirenone.

    PubMed

    Gregoriou, Odisseas; Papadias, Kostantinos; Konidaris, Sokratis; Bakalianou, Kostantina; Salakos, Nikolaos; Vrachnis, Nikolaos; Creatsas, George

    2008-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biochemical and clinical effects of the combined pill consisting of ethinyl estradiol (EE) and drospirenone (DRSP) in hirsute patients. Fifty-two adolescents or young women from Greece were treated with 30 mug EE and 3 mg DRSP for 1 year. Hirsutism was evaluated by the Ferriman-Gallway (FG) score in the initial visit and at 3, 6 and 12 months. Follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, etradiol, free and total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were determined at the same intervals. Hirsutism improved and FG scores reduced to 77.4%, 67.2% and 51.8% at 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. Plasma SHBG levels rose, while free and total T levels reduced from the third month onwards. In conclusion, the EE/DRSP pill improves hirsutism in women via antiandrogenic and antimineralocorticoid action. The biochemical manifestations of hyperandrogenism are also improved.

  2. The effect of low-oestrogen combined pill, progestogen-only pill and medroxyprogesterone acetate on oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Kamau, R K; Maina, F W; Kigondu, C; Mati, J K

    1990-08-01

    The effect of a low-oestrogen combined pill, progestogen-only pill and medroxyprogesterone acetate on oral glucose tolerance test was studied in 29, 30 and 9 indigenous Kenyan women respectively. Glucose tolerance test was performed before treatment was started and then after 1,3 and 6 months in microgynon users. The mean areas under the glucose curves were also significantly elevated. Significant increase in blood glucose values were noted only at 30 minutes after 6 months of use of the progestogen-only oral contraceptive but the mean blood glucose values were higher than in the control after 1,3 and 6 months of use. However, the mean values of the areas under the glucose curves were significantly elevated after 1,3, and 6 months of use. Medroxyprogesterone acetate users showed significantly lower fasting blood glucose values at 60 and 90 minutes after 1 month of use, after which the blood glucose values returned to the pre-treatment values. The mean values of the glucose curve areas showed no significant change. It is concluded that both microgynon and minipill cause relative impairment of glucose tolerance test as early as after 1 month of use. Medroxyprogesterone acetate does not impair oral glucose tolerance for at least the first 6 months of use. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  3. Association between Physician Specialty and Risk of Prescribing Inappropriate Pill Splitting

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chia-Yu; Hsu, Chia-Chen; Chiang, Shu-Chiung; Ho, Chin-Chin; Chou, Chia-Lin; Wu, Min-Shan; Chang, Yuh-Lih; Tsai, Han-Yi; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chou, Yueh-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Background Prescription errors that occur due to the process of pill splitting are a common medication problem; however, available prescription information involving inappropriate pill splitting and its associated factors is lacking. Methods We retrospectively evaluated a cohort of ambulatory prescriptions involving extended-release or enteric-coated formulations in a Taiwan medical center during a 5-month period in 2010. For this study, those pill splitting prescriptions involving special oral formulations were defined as inappropriate prescriptions. Information obtained included patient demographics, prescriber specialty and prescription details, which were assessed to identify factors associated with inappropriate pill splitting. Results There were 1,252 inappropriate prescriptions identified in this cohort study, representing a prescription frequency for inappropriate pill splitting of 1.0% among 124,300 prescriptions with special oral formulations. Among 35 drugs with special oral formulations in our study, 20 different drugs (57.1%, 20/35) had ever been prescribed to split. Anti-diabetic agents, cardiovascular agents and central nervous system agents were the most common drug classes involved in inappropriate splitting. The rate of inappropriate pill splitting was higher in older (over 65 years of age) patients (1.1%, 832/75,387). Eighty-seven percent (1089/1252) of inappropriate prescriptions were prescribed by internists. The rate of inappropriate pill splitting was highest from endocrinologists (3.4%, 429/12,477), nephrologists (1.3%, 81/6,028) and cardiologists (1.3%, 297/23,531). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the strongest factor associated with individual specific drug of inappropriate splitting was particular physician specialties. Conclusion This study provides important insights into the inappropriate prescription of special oral formulation related to pill splitting, and helps to aggregate information that can assist

  4. Peripheral arterial disease in a female using high-dose combined oral contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Pallavee, P; Samal, Sunita; Samal, Rupal

    2013-01-01

    The association between oral contraceptive (OC) pills and vascular diseases is well-known, although, the present generation of pills is considered to be relatively safer in this regard. Hormonal treatment for severe abnormal uterine bleeding is usually considered after ruling out malignancy, when such bleeding is resistant to all other forms of treatment. We report a case of severe peripheral arterial disease in a female, who had been on high-dose OC pills for an extended period of time for severe uterine bleeding.

  5. PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (PCCE) in colonic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Diseases affecting the colon are common worldwide and can cause a major health problem. Colorectal cancer (CRC) as well as Inflammatory bowel diseases represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in western countries. PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (PCCE) is a novel and promising technology that can be useful for the screening and monitoring of colonic diseases. In the recent years many articles examined the use of various versions of PCCE—the 1st and 2nd generation versus various other endoscopic or radiologic modalities both for detection of colonic polyps or cancer and in both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease. The aim of the current review is to provide up to date information regarding the use and usefulness of this method in these disease. PMID:27668227

  6. Pills, injections and audiotapes: reaching couples in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Collumbien, Martine; Douthwaite, Megan

    2003-01-01

    An innovative social marketing intervention in Pakistan distributes audiocassettes via chemist shops and Lady Health Visitors (LHVs) to reach women in a segregated society with accurate information on hormonal contraceptives. Operations research was done to assess the utility of the cassette in knowledge dissemination and adoption of hormonal use. In total 187 structured questionnaires were completed with couples who had obtained a cassette. Listeners were significantly more knowledgeable than non-listeners about correct use of hormonals (OR = 8.6 for women and OR = 12.7 for men). Hormonal use increased from 12% to 25%. LHVs also organized discussion groups for women, and attending such a chat group was the strongest predictor for adoption of pills and injectables (OR = 4.15). Equivalent male groups are suggested to reach apprehensive men. By providing accurate information to urban couples and by acquiring a knowledgeable critical mass of satisfied users, the cassette could be a powerful catalyst to further contraceptive diffusion.

  7. Decision-making and Anticipation in Pill Bugs (Armadillidium vulgare)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriyama, Tohru; Migita, Masao

    2004-08-01

    In the previous study, decision-making of the direction of motion was found in pill bugs. In the present experiment, we find that they autonomously choose specific places for the decision-making. Each individual was placed in a circle track surrounded by water. Small columnar marks were placed in the center of the track at equal intervals. At first, when they encountered the marks, they moved along and passed it. After some minutes, they tended to mount on the top of the marks, stayed for a while and swung the antennae as if they searched for the direction of motion. As time went on, they sometimes traced several marks. It seemed that they anticipated the appearance of the mark in advance to use it for decision-making of the direction of the next motion. In another circle track surrounded by wall, such behaviors were not observed.

  8. Enhanced Oral Bioavailability of Pueraria Flavones by a Novel Solid Self-microemulsifying Drug Delivery System (SMEDDS) Dropping Pills.

    PubMed

    Guan, Qingxiang; Zhang, Guangyuan; Sun, Shilin; Fan, Hongbo; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Shaoyuan

    2016-05-01

    To improve bioavailability of pueraria flavones (PF), a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) dropping pills composed of PF, Crodamol GTCC, Maisine 35-1, Cremophor RH 40, 1,2-propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000) was developed. Particle size, zeta potential, morphology and in vitro drug release were investigated, respectively. Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills and commercial Yufengningxin dropping pills were also evaluated and compared in rats. Puerarin treated as the representative component of PF was analyzed. Dynamic light scattering showed the ability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills to form a nanoemulsion droplet size in aqueous media. The type of media showed no significant effects on the release rate of PF. PF-SMEDDS dropping pills were able to improve the in vitro release rate of PF, and the in vitro release of these dropping pills was significantly faster than that of Yufengningxin dropping pills. There was a dramatic difference between the mean value of t1/2, peak concentration (Cmax), the area of concentration-time curve from 0 to 6 h (AUC0-6 h) of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills and that of commercial Yufengningxin dropping pills. A pharmacokinetic study showed that the bioavailability of PF was greatly enhanced by PF-SMEDDS dropping pills. The value of Cmax and relative bioavailability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills were dramatically improved by an average of 1.69- and 2.36-fold compared with that of Yufengningxin dropping pills after gavage administration, respectively. It was concluded that bioavailability of PF was greatly improved and that PF-SMEDDS dropping pills might be an encouraging strategy to enhance the oral bioavailability of PF.

  9. A new estradiol-dienogest oral contraceptive marks "The Pill's" 50th anniversary.

    PubMed

    Keder, Lisa M

    2011-01-01

    Oral contraceptive pills were first approved by the Food and Drug Administration 50 years ago. Discovery of the physiology of reproduction and demonstration of the ability to inhibit ovulation with ovarian extracts laid the early groundwork for the development of contraceptives. Later, characterization of the hormones controlling ovulation and synthesis of progestins allowed production of oral contraceptives. Modern estrogen and progestin pills have undergone significant changes since their initial introduction. New formulations have been developed, doses have been lowered, and extended use introduced. The Food and Drug Administration has recently approved a new oral contraceptive containing estradiol valerate and dienogest. This pill contains an orally active estradiol in combination with a progestin with strong endometrial activity. The decreasing estrogen dose combined with an increasing progestin dose decreases the risk of break through bleeding when compared to previous estradiol valerate formulations. The contraceptive efficacy and a tolerability of this new pill are similar to currently marketed low dose combined estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives.

  10. Relative Weight, Smoking and Contraceptive Pills: Interrelations to Blood Pressure in Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtonen, Aapo; Perasalo, Juhani

    1982-01-01

    The relationships among weight, cigarette smoking, use of contraceptive pills, and blood pressure were investigated in over 1,500 college students who underwent physical examinations in their first and third academic years. Results of the study are discussed. (PP)

  11. Pulmonary hypertension, systemic lupus erythematosus, and the contraceptive pill: another report.

    PubMed

    Miller, M H

    1987-02-01

    I report the case of a woman with systemic lupus erythematosus who had pulmonary hypertension unassociated with chronic interstitial lung disease or pulmonary emboli. She had started taking the contraceptive pill seven months previously.

  12. [Determination of dissolution of liuwei dihuang concentrated pills based on multi-index components].

    PubMed

    Luo, Yun; Hao, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Jing; Liang, Xin-Li; Zhao, Guo-Wei; Yang, Ming; Liao, Zheng-Gen

    2014-01-01

    With the content of gallic acid, loganin, paeoniflorin and paeonol as the indexes, to screen out dissolution determination conditions, establish the dissolution determination method for multi-index components in Liuwei Dihuang concentrated pills, calculate and map the accumulative dissolution curve, and then compare the dissolution of products from different pharmaceutical factories through the similarity factor (f2). According to the results, the optimum dissolution determination conditions were the paddle method, with 250 mL 0.1 mol x L(-1) hydrochloric acid as the dissolution medium, and a rotation rate of 100 r x min(-1). The similarity factor values (f2) of the dissolution curves of the four main components of Liuwei Dihuang concentrated pills from different pharmaceutical factories were mostly less than 50. This demonstrated a significant difference in the dissolution of Liuwei Dihuang concentrated pills from different pharmaceutical factories, and provided scientific basis for improving the equality evaluation of Liuwei Dihuang concentrated pills.

  13. Omitting the first oral contraceptive pills of the cycle does not automatically lead to ovulation.

    PubMed

    Elomaa, K; Rolland, R; Brosens, I; Moorrees, M; Deprest, J; Tuominen, J; Lähteenmäki, P

    1998-07-01

    The hypothesis that omission of the first three pills of the oral contraceptive (OC) cycle leads to ovulation by extending further the pill-free period was investigated in 107 healthy women 18-35 years of age recruited from family planning programs in Finland, the Netherlands, and Belgium. Study participants were randomly allocated to one of the following treatment groups: 1) monophasic gestodene--75 mcg of gestodene and 30 mcg of ethinyl estradiol; 2) triphasic gestodene--6 days of 50 mcg gestodene and 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol, 5 days of 70 mcg gestodene and 40 mcg ethinyl estradiol, and 10 days of 100 mcg gestodene and 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol; or 3) monophasic desogestrel--150 mcg desogestrel and 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol. Noncompliance with OC taking was simulated by extending the pill-free period from 7 to 10 days. During or after the extended pill-free interval, follicular growth exceeding 18 mm occurred in 24% of women in the monophasic gestodene group, 24% in the triphasic gestodene group, and 40% in the monophasic desogestrel group. Follicle-stimulating hormone reached a maximum serum concentration in most women during the first 7 pill-free days, indicating complete pituitary recovery. No normal ovulation was observed after either a 7- or 10-day pill-free period as evaluated by ultrasonography of follicles and serum progesterone assays. Since normal ovulation did not occur when pill omissions were limited to 3 days, OC users who forget to take these three tablets can be safely advised to start the pill cycle on day 11.

  14. Incidental discovery of radiopaque pills on abdominal CT in a patient with abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Judge, Bryan S; Hoyle, John D

    2008-07-01

    We present a case in which a young female ingested several tablets of an over-the-counter cough and cold remedy over the course of a week. Pill fragments were identifiable and incidentally discovered when a CT scan of the abdomen was performed to evaluate the cause of her abdominal pain. Discovery of radiopaque pills on diagnostic imaging studies warrants further history and appropriate testing to rule out a life-threatening ingestion.

  15. Unannounced telephone pill counts for assessing varenicline adherence in a pilot clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Nia; Nazir, Niaman; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Faseru, Babalola; Goggin, Kathy; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Nollen, Nicole L

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite consistent evidence linking smoking cessation pharmacotherapy adherence to better outcomes, knowledge about objective adherence measures is lacking and little attention is given to monitoring pharmacotherapy use in smoking cessation clinical trials. Objectives To examine unannounced telephone pill counts as a method for assessing adherence to smoking cessation pharmacotherapy. Research design Secondary data analysis of a randomized pilot study. Participants 46 moderate-to-heavy (>10 cigarettes per day) African-American smokers. Main measures Smokers received 1 month of varenicline (Pfizer Global Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY) in a pill box at baseline. Unannounced pill counts were completed by telephone 4 days prior to an in-person pill count conducted at Month 1. At both counts, each compartment of the pill box was opened and the number of remaining pills was recorded. Results Participants were a mean age of 48 years (SD = 13), predominately female (59%), low income (60% < $1800 monthly family income), and smoked an average of 17 (SD = 7) cigarettes per day. A high degree of concordance was observed between the number of pills counted by phone and in-person (rs = 0.94, P < 0.001). Participants with discordant counts (n = 7) had lower varenicline adherence (mean [SD] = 77% [18%] vs 95% [9%], P < 0.0005), but reported better medication adherence in the past (1.0 [0.8] vs 2.8 [1.0], P < 0.0004) than participants with matching phone and in-person counts (n = 39). Conclusion Unannounced telephone pill counts appear to be a reliable and practical method for measuring adherence to smoking cessation pharmacotherapy. PMID:22003285

  16. Combined Oral Contraceptive Pills: Profile of Acceptors in a Tertiary Hospital in South-South Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abasiattai, A M; Utuk, M N; Ojeh, S O; Eyo, U E

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Combined oral contraceptive pills were the first contraceptive method to provide sexual freedom of choice for women through reliable, personal and private control of fertility. They are the most widely used hormonal contraceptives and also the most popular non-surgical method of contraception. OBJECTIVE: To review the profile of acceptors of combined oral contraceptive pills at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo. METHODOLOGY: An 8 year review of all clients that accepted combined oral contraceptive pills in the family planning clinic. RESULTS: There were 1,146 new contraceptive acceptors during the period of study out of which 309 (27.9%) accepted the pills. Majority of the clients were between 20 and 29 years of age (54.0%), were multiparous (72.8%), Christians (99.7%) and 61.2% had tertiary level education. Two hundred and fifty-five women (82.5%) desired to use combined oral contraceptive pills to space births while 7.8% wanted to limit child bearing. There was a high discontinuation rate among the women (45.0%) and out of these 87.9% of the clients changed to other contraceptive methods. All the clients commenced their pills within seven days of menstruation and only the low dose monophasic preparations were available in the family planning unit and thus were given to the clients. CONCLUSION: Women who accept to initiate combined oral contraceptive pills in our center are young, well educated, multiparous women who want to space their pregnancies. However, due to the high discontinuation rate among the clients, there is need for further studies evaluating reasons for the high discontinuation rate, exploring interactions between clients and providers' and also providers' attitude towards combined pills in our environment.

  17. What is wrong with 'being a pill-taker'? The special case of statins.

    PubMed

    Polak, Louisa

    2016-11-16

    In an interview study of decision-making about statins, many participants said they took pills regularly, yet described themselves as 'not really pill-takers'. This paper explores this paradox and its implications. The practice of pill-taking itself can constitute a challenge to the presentation of moral adequacy, beyond the potential for rendering stigmatised illnesses visible. Meeting this challenge involves a complex process of calibrating often-conflicting moral imperatives: to be concerned, but not too concerned, over one's health; to be informed, but not over-informed; and deferential but not over-deferential to medical expertise. This calibration reflects a broader tension between rival tropes: embracing medical progress and resisting medicalisation. Participants who take statins present them as unquestionably necessary; 'needing' pills, as opposed to choosing to take them, serves as a defence against the devalued identity of being a pill-taker. However, needing to take statins offers an additional threat to identity, because taking statins is widely perceived to be an alternative strategy to 'choosing a healthy lifestyle'. This perception underpins a responsibilising health promotion discourse that shapes and complicates the work participants do to avoid presenting themselves as 'pill-takers'. The salience of this discourse should be acknowledged where discussions of medicalisation use statins as an example.

  18. PillCam(TradeMark), a Noninvasive Endoscopic Device for the Measurement of Gastrointestinal Motility Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaksman, Zahman; Crady, Camille; Raju, G. S.; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Bioavailability and effectiveness of drugs given by mouth are governed in part by gastrointestinal (GI) motility and function. Microgravity has been shown to decrease GI motility as indicated by a 3 fold increase in gastrointestinal transit time (GITT). The PillCam(TradeMark), an endoscopic camera embedded in a capsule, is a novel noninvasive and unobtrusive device that is used for the diagnosis of GI pathology. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of PillCam(TradeMark) as an alternative to the Lactulose Breath Hydrogen Test (LBHT) for estimating GI motility. The sensitivity and applicability of this device for detection and estimation of the effect of promethazine, a deterrent, and caffeine, a prokinetic, on GI motility were also examined. Method: In this semi-randomized cross-over design study, six male and six female subjects were administered the following 4 treatments: PillCam(TradeMark) alone, PillCam(TradeMark)+Lactulose (10g), PillCam(TradeMark)+caffeine (200mg), and PillCam(TradeMark)+Promethazine (50mg). Results: GITT ranged between 1:24 and 7:52 hr:min. Lactulose did not alter GITT. A significant increase in GITT was noticed after administration of PMZ when compared to values from PillCam(TradeMark) treatment alone or PillCam(TradeMark)+Lactulose treatment. No difference in GITT after caffeine treatment was noticed. While there were no gender related differences in GITT after administration of PillCam(TradeMark) or with lactulose, a significant difference (p<.05) between genders was observed after promethazine administration with mean GITT higher in males (5:50 hr:min) than females (4:15 hr:min). Conclusion: The PillCam(TradeMark) capsule is applicable for the determination of GITT using time stamped GI images. It can be successfully used for the assessment of drug induced changes in GI motility and therefore, may be applicable for microgravity and analog environment studies on GI motility and function.

  19. Impact of Decontamination Therapy on Ultrasound Visualization of Ingested Pills

    PubMed Central

    Bothwell, Jason; Skinner, Carl; Della-Giustina, David; Kang, Christopher; Cookman, Laura; Laselle, Brooks

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Acute toxic ingestion is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Emergency physicians (EP) caring for overdose (OD) patients are often required to make critical decisions with incomplete information. Point of care ultrasound (POCUS) may have a role in assisting EPs manage OD patients. We evaluated the impact of different liquid adjuncts used for gastric decontamination on examiners’ ability to identify the presence of tablets using POCUS, and assessed examiners’ ability to quantify the numbers of tablets in a simulated massive OD. Methods This prospective, blinded, pilot study was performed at an academic emergency department. Study participants were volunteer resident and staff EPs trained in POCUS. Five nontransparent, sealed bags were prepared with the following contents: 1 liter (L) of water, 1 L of water with 50 regular aspirin (ASA) tablets, 1 L of water with 50 enteric-coated aspirin tablets (ECA), 1 L of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with 50 ECA, and 1 L of activated charcoal (AC) with 50 ECA. After performing POCUS on each of the bags using a 10-5 MHz linear array transducer, participants completed a standardized questionnaire composed of the following questions: (1) Were pills present? YES/NO; (2) If tablets were identified, estimate the number (1–10, 11–25, >25). We used a single test on proportions using the binomial distribution to determine if the number of EPs who identified tablets differed from 50% chance. For those tablets identified in the different solutions, another test on proportions was used to determine whether the type of solution made a difference. Since 3 options were available, we used a probability of 33.3%. Results Thirty-seven EPs completed the study. All (37/37) EP’s correctly identified the absence of tablets in the bag containing only water, and the presence of ECA in the bags containing water and PEG. For Part 2 of the study, most participants - 25/37 (67.5%) using water, 23/37 (62.1%) using PEG, and all 37

  20. Pill formulations and their effect on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Brooks, P G

    1984-07-01

    Recent data on oral contraceptives (OCs) employing new low-dose formulations appear to indicate that most of the previously reported metabolic effects are minimized, particularly when a product is neigher ovverly estrogenic nor progestational. Evidence suggests that elevated levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the plasma are correlated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic students have indicated a correlation between elevation of low denisty lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and coronary heart disease, and a correlation between decreases in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and arterial disease. Epidemiologic evidence seems to suggest that combination OCs are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, especially risks of venous thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and stroke. There is some debate as to whether OCs themselves are an independent risk factor or whether they increase the effects of other risk factors. Women using combination OCs have been reported to have higher total serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations, related primarily to the estrogen dose. While most of the earlier literature associated estrogens with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, recent studies have increasingly implicated the progestin component. Increasing potencies of progestin have been found to proportionally lower the HDL-cholesterol level. There is a positive association between the estrogen dose and HDL-cholesterol level. Among combination pill users, HDL levels gevverally depend on the relative amounts and potencies of both components. It is generally agreed that there are some high-risk women who should be carefully monitored while using the pill or who should not use it at all. Steroid type and dosage both play a role in affecting carbohydrate metabolism. Ethinyl estradiol (EE), the estrogen component in most OCs, does not seem to have the same biphasic effect on carbohydrate metaolism as most other estrogens. Most of the recent

  1. Oral contraceptives and venous thromboembolism: pill scares and public health.

    PubMed

    Reid, Robert L

    2011-11-01

    Post-marketing surveillance of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) for rare complications such as venous thromboembolism (VTE) presents unique challenges. Prospective studies, which are costly and time consuming, have to date been undertaken by only a few contraceptive manufacturers willing to commit to full evaluation of product safety. Often such studies are conducted with the approval of regulatory authorities as a precondition for marketing. Alternatively, independent investigators with access to large databases have conducted retrospective studies to compare the incidence of VTE between new and older products. Such studies, however, run the risk of erroneous conclusions if they cannot ensure comparable risk profiles for users of these different products. Often database studies are unable to access information on important confounders, and medical records may not be available to validate the actual diagnosis of VTE. "Pill scares" generated following publication and media dissemination of worrisome findings, when the conclusions are in doubt and not corroborated by stronger prospective study designs, are frequently damaging to public health. From a review of recent publications on the VTE risk with drospirenone-containing COCs, it can be concluded that the best quality evidence does not support a difference in risk between users of COCs containing drospirenone and those of COCs containing levonorgestrel.

  2. Qishen Yiqi Drop Pill improves cardiac function after myocardial ischemia

    PubMed Central

    JianXin, Chen; Xue, Xu; ZhongFeng, Li; Kuo, Gao; FeiLong, Zhang; ZhiHong, Li; Xian, Wang; HongCai, Shang

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia (MI) is one of the leading causes of death, while Qishen Yiqi Drop Pill (QYDP) is a representative traditional Chinese medicine to treat this disease. Unveiling the pharmacological mechanism of QYDP will provide a great opportunity to promote the development of novel drugs to treat MI. 64 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups: MI model group, sham operation group, QYDP treatment group and Fosinopril treatment group. Echocardiography results showed that QYDP exhibited significantly larger LV end-diastolic dimension (LVEDd) and LV end-systolic dimension (LVEDs), compared with the MI model group, indicating the improved cardiac function by QYDP. 1H-NMR based metabonomics further identify 9 significantly changed metabolites in the QYDP treatment group, and the QYDP-related proteins based on the protein-metabolite interaction networks and the corresponding pathways were explored, involving the pyruvate metabolism pathway, the retinol metabolism pathway, the tyrosine metabolism pathway and the purine metabolism pathway, suggesting that QYDP was closely associated with blood circulation. ELISA tests were further employed to identify NO synthase (iNOS) and cathepsin K (CTSK) in the networks. For the first time, our work combined experimental and computational methods to study the mechanism of the formula of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:27075394

  3. Pills easier to obtain as nations start to relax rules.

    PubMed

    1975-01-01

    In both developing and developed nations it has become easier to obtain oral contraception (OC). Generally, this means that the OC becomes available without a doctor's prescription and/or sources from outside a pharmacy. Sometimes there is no charge for the OC. In the People's Republic of China barefoot doctors distribute OC free of charge. Fiji, Israel, Korea and Pakistan have removed the prescription requirement. In India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and Turkey private family planning clinics distribute the OC on prescription but free of charge. Specially trained and registered midwives distribute OCs in Chile and Antigua has also recently lifted the prescription requirement. Free OC is available to low income women in Jamaica, Costa Rica and Peru. In Egypt family planning centers distribute the OC free and without prescription. The United Kingdom is making OCs available free-of-charge through the National Health Service. OCs are free in France. In the U.S. government agencies have provided free OCs to low-income women in government health centers and have subsidized free pills for distribution in private family planning clinics. In Canada and in the Democratic Republic of Germany, OCs are distributed free, on prescription, to low-income women.

  4. [Sequential contraceptive pills in the immediate postabortion period].

    PubMed

    Escudero, P; Viala, J L

    1982-05-01

    2637 abortions were done during 1980 at the Bionne Orthogenic Center in Montpellier, France. 12.83% of women treated were not using contraception at the time of conception; 61.89% had been using OC (oral contraception); reasons for not using contraception were lack of information, negligence, 1st sexual relation, and fear. 8.9% of women had undergone a previous induced abortion; 47.26% were unmarried, 35.52% were married, and 52.12% had no children. A sequential combination pill, 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol for 7 days, and 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol and 2.5 mg of lynestrenol for the next 15 days, was prescribed beginning the day after abortion for 2320 women, or 88% of the total. Purpose of this treatment was to prevent hemorrhage, the formation of synechiae, and to favor an early return to normal endometrial physiology. Sequential OCs have the advantage of simulating a regular biphasic cycle, thus allowing the cicatrization of the placental scar, the return to normal of the uterine mucosa, and the hypervascularization of the endometrium; all these factors contribute to decreasing the risk of infection, such as endometritis. Effectiveness and acceptability of this method were excellent. After 3 months of this treatment a more specific type of contraception may be advisable.

  5. Individual patient data meta-analysis of combined treatments versus psychotherapy (with or without pill placebo), pharmacotherapy or pill placebo for adult depression: a protocol

    PubMed Central

    Weitz, Erica; Kleiboer, Annet; van Straten, Annemieke; Hollon, Steven D; Cuijpers, Pim

    2017-01-01

    Introduction There are many proven treatments (psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy or their combination) for the treatment of depression. Although there is growing evidence for the effectiveness of combination treatment (psychotherapy + pharmacotherapy) over pharmacotherapy alone, psychotherapy alone or psychotherapy plus pill placebo, for depression, little is known about which specific groups of patients may respond best to combined treatment versus monotherapy. Conventional meta-analyses techniques have limitations when tasked with examining whether specific individual characteristics moderate the effect of treatment on depression. Therefore, this protocol outlines an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis to explore which patients, with which clinical characteristics, have better outcomes in combined treatment compared with psychotherapy (alone or with pill placebo), pharmacotherapy and pill placebo. Methods and Analysis Study searches are completed using an established database of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on the psychological treatment of adult depression that has previously been reported. Searches were conducted in PubMed, PsycInfo, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. RCTs comparing combination treatment (psychotherapy + pharmacotherapy) with psychotherapy (with or without pill placebo), pharmacotherapy or pill placebo for the treatment of adult depression will be included. Study authors of eligible trials will be contacted and asked to contribute IPD. Conventional meta-analysis techniques will be used to examine differences between studies that have contributed data and those that did not. Then, IPD will be harmonised and analysis using multilevel regression will be conducted to examine effect moderators of treatment outcomes. Dissemination Study results outlined above will be published in peer-reviewed journals. Study results will contribute to better understanding whether certain patients respond best to combined

  6. Effects of herbal drugs prescribed in wood creosote pills on the dissolution profile of guaiacol.

    PubMed

    Baba, Tatsuya; Nishino, Takao; Tani, Tadato

    2003-02-01

    Wood creosote pills (P4) containing wood creosote and four herbal drugs, Gambir, Phellodendri Cortex, Glycyrrhizae Radix, and Citri Unshiu Pericarpium (CUP), have been used to treat food poisoning and diarrhea through self-medication in Japan. The mean dissolution time (MDT) of guaiacol, one of the active constituents of wood creosote, from P4 (138.3+/-3.3 min) was significantly longer than that (42.6+/-4.3 min) from pills (P0) containing only wood creosote. The MDT of the variant pills prepared from P4 without CUP (54.3+/-12.5 min) was found to be significantly shorter than that of P4. These findings suggest that CUP plays an important role in sustaining the dissolution of guaiacol from P4. The long MDT of guaiacol is considered one of the most important factors affecting the duration of efficacy after oral administration of wood creosote pills. The present findings are considered proof that CUP has been prescribed in traditional as well as new formulations of wood creosote pills.

  7. Self-corrective behavior for turn alternation in pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare).

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Toru; Migita, Masao; Mitsuishi, Meiji

    2016-01-01

    Pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare) demonstrate a behavior called turn alternation that keeps their overall direction of movement straight after obstacles in experimental settings force them to deviate from a course. For example, this behavior is seen when they alternate their path choice on successive trials of the T-maze test. However, sometimes pill bugs stop after turning and change their direction (directional change). The function of this directional change has not been investigated because such individuals are usually omitted from the data. The present paper shows that pill bugs use directional changes to prevent them from turning in the same direction on two successive turns, a behavior called turn repetition. We examined the behavior of 36 pill bugs that each completed 130 successive T-maze trials. Directional changes appeared more frequently when individuals had begun a turn repetition than when they had begun a turn alternation. Furthermore, after correcting for turn repetition, turn alternations increased. These results suggest that pill bugs have an inherent mechanism that acts to maintain turn-alternating behavior.

  8. Clinical and metabolic effects of a pill containing 30 mcg ethinylestradiol plus 75 mcg gestodene.

    PubMed

    Fioretti, P; Fruzzetti, F; Navalesi, R; Ricci, C; Miccoli, R; Cerri, M; Melis, G B

    1989-12-01

    The clinical and metabolic effects of a short-term treatment with a combination contraceptive pill containing 30 mcg ethinylestradiol and 75 mcg gestodene were evaluated in a group of 31 healthy women. The pill exerted good cycle control and the incidence of irregular bleeding was low. Side effects rarely occurred, and an improvement in premenstrual symptoms was reported during pill intake. Among the different biochemical parameters tested to monitor the coagulatory system, the only modification observed was an increase of fibrinopeptide A plasma levels, confirming that low-dose pills have less effects on the haemostatic system than oral contraceptives with a higher estrogen content. No significant modification in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-CH), HDL2-CH, nor low density lipoprotein-cholesterol were observed. HDL3-CH levels were significantly increased. Moreover, the pill did not significantly alter the fasting insulin and glucose levels nor their response to an oral glucose tolerance test. It may be suggested that this new formulation has high efficacy and clinical acceptability, primarily due to the total absence of any adverse metabolic effect.

  9. Phosphate Binder Pill Burden, Patient-Reported Non-Adherence, and Mineral Bone Disorder Markers: Findings from the DOPPS

    PubMed Central

    Fissell, Rachel B.; Karaboyas, Angelo; Bieber, Brian A.; Sen, Ananda; Li, Yun; Lopes, Antonio A.; Akiba, Takashi; Bommer, Jürgen; Ethier, Jean; Jadoul, Michel; Pisoni, Ronald L.; Robinson, Bruce M.; Tentori, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to multiple comorbidities, hemodialysis (HD) patients are prescribed many oral medications, including phosphate binders (PBs), often resulting in a high “pill burden”. Methods Using data from the international Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS), we assessed associations between PB pill burden, patient-reported PB non-adherence, and levels of serum phosphorus (SPhos) and parathyroid hormone (PTH), using standard regression analyses. The study included data collected from 5,262 HD patients from dialysis units participating in the DOPPS in 12 countries. Results PB prescription ranged from a mean of 7.4 pills/day in the United States (US) to 3.9 pills/day in France. About half of the patients were prescribed at least 6 PB pills/day, and 13% were prescribed at least 12 PB pills/day. Overall, the proportion of patients who reported skipping PBs at least once in the past month was 45% overall, ranging from 33% in Belgium to 57% in the US. There was a trend toward greater PB non-adherence and a higher number of prescribed PB pills/day. Non-adherence to PB prescription was associated with high SPhos (>5.5 mg/dL) and PTH (> 600 pg/mL). Conclusions Adherence to PB is a challenge for many hemodialysis patients and may be related to the number of PB pills prescribed. Prescription of a simplified PB regimen could improve patient adherence and perhaps improve SPhos and PTH levels. PMID:25975222

  10. Improved Design and Fabrication of Hydrated-Salt Pills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter J.; DiPirro, Michael J.; Canavan, Edgar R.

    2011-01-01

    A high-performance design, and fabrication and growth processes to implement the design, have been devised for encapsulating a hydrated salt in a container that both protects the salt and provides thermal conductance between the salt and the environment surrounding the container. The unitary salt/container structure is known in the art as a salt pill. In the original application of the present design and processes, the salt is, more specifically, a hydrated paramagnetic salt, for use as a refrigerant in a very-low-temperature adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The design and process can also be applied, with modifications, to other hydrated salts. Hydrated paramagnetic salts have long been used in ADRs because they have the desired magnetic properties at low temperatures. They also have some properties, disadvantageous for ADRs, that dictate the kind of enclosures in which they must be housed: Being hydrated, they lose water if exposed to less than 100-percent relative humidity. Because any dehydration compromises their magnetic properties, salts used in ADRs must be sealed in hermetic containers. Because they have relatively poor thermal conductivities in the temperature range of interest (<0.1 K), integral thermal buses are needed as means of efficiently transferring heat to and from the salts during refrigeration cycles. A thermal bus is typically made from a high-thermal-conductivity met al (such as copper or gold), and the salt is configured to make intimate thermal contact with the metal. Commonly in current practice (and in the present design), the thermal bus includes a matrix of wires or rods, and the salt is grown onto this matrix. The density and spacing of the conductors depend on the heat fluxes that must be accommodated during operation.

  11. Emergency contraceptive pills: what does the law say about prescribing, dispensing, repackaging, and advertising?

    PubMed

    Jones, B S

    1998-01-01

    Despite the proven safety and efficacy of providing concentrated doses of oral contraceptive pills as postcoital contraception, many physicians and health care providers are unclear as to this "off-label" use and thus remain reluctant to dispense it. It is critical that health care providers learn about both the medical and legal aspects of providing emergency contraception so that they can make this important method of pregnancy prevention available to their patients. While a dedicated product may soon gain US Food and Drug Administration approval and go on the market, it is still important for health care providers to be aware of the legal issues surrounding the various aspects of both on- and off-label provision of emergency contraceptive pills. This paper provides an overview of the legal issues involved and suggests that there are a number of ways that health care providers can make emergency contraceptive pills available and readily accessible to patients with no serious legal risk.

  12. Autopsy report on pseudo-Bartter syndrome with renal calcification induced by diuretics and diet pills.

    PubMed

    Unuma, Kana; Tojo, Akihiro; Harada, Kazuki; Saka, Kanju; Nakajima, Makoto; Ishii, Takeshi; Fujita, Toshiro; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi

    2009-01-01

    A woman in her mid-forties had repeated vomiting and diarrhoea accompanied by muscle weakness soon after she started taking seven different diet pills imported from Thailand. After she had taken the pills for 8 days, respiratory depression progressed rapidly to arrest. Blood tests at the Emergency Department showed severe hypokalaemia with metabolic alkalosis. We diagnosed that she had developed pseudo-Bartter syndrome from the findings based on ionic abnormalities and high renin and aldosterone levels, and hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular apparatus. A postmortem blood analysis indicated subtherapeutic levels of furosemide. We concluded that the patient died from pseudo-Bartter syndrome, which was triggered by chronic self-administration of furosemide and aggravated by the diet pills. This is the first pseudo-Bartter syndrome autopsy report to show histological localisation of calcification in the kidneys.

  13. [Study on fluorescence sequencing typing technology identification of raw materials in liuwei dihuang pill].

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhan-Hu; Huang, Lu-Qi; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Min-Hui; Jiang, Chao; Zhou, Li-She

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, Liuwei Dihuang pill was used to study the identification of Chinese patent medicine by fluorescence sequencing typing technology. The DNA of Paeonia suffruticosa was used as template to amplify by five pair of FAM fluorescence labeling primers. Then, the amplified products were sequenced. The sequencing results were analyzed by GeneMarker V1.80 to screen the best fluorescence labeling primers. As a result, psbA-trnH fluorescence labeling primer was used to identify the raw materials of Liuwei Dihuang pill. The results showed that three kinds of raw plant medicinal materials in Liuwei Dihuang pill were able to be correctly identified by psbA-trnH fluorescence labeling primer. The fluorescence sequencing typing technology can stably and accurately distinguish raw medicinal materials in Chinese patent medicine.

  14. [Reexaminations of dosages in Shanghanlun: comparison of the dosages among decoctions, pills and powder formulations].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tatsuhiko; Endo, Jiro

    2011-01-01

    This paper reveals the dosages of decoctions in Shanghanlun in relation of pills and powder formulations, and obtains following results. At the first examination of the system of weight, while Taohongjing shows three kinds of system of weight; [(1)1liang is equivalent to 14 g. (2) 1liang = 7 g (3) 1liang = 1.4 g], he describes the necessity of the corrective system of weight among the decoctions, the pills and the powder formulations. After Song dynasty, Zhusanfa, which is the method of preparing the decoction by placing powder ingredients of prescriptions in water and simmer, have been mainly adopted. In the term of Zhusanfa, although the whole quantities of prescriptions are written with the ancient weight unit, the notation of the dosage is indicated by the current weight unit, Qian. In Shanghanlun, since the dosage form seems to have been changed from the pills or the powders into the decoction, some of decoctions contain impractical dose for decoction.

  15. Fertility effects of abortion and birth control pill access for minors.

    PubMed

    Guldi, Melanie

    2008-11-01

    This article empirically assesses whether age-restricted access to abortion and the birth control pill influence minors' fertility in the United States. There is not a strong consensus in previous literature regarding the relationship between laws restricting minors' access to abortion and minors' birth rates. This is the first study to recognize that state laws in place prior to the 1973 Roe v. Wade decision enabled minors to legally consent to surgical treatment-including abortion-in some states but not in others, and to construct abortion access variables reflecting this. In this article, age-specific policy variables measure either a minor's legal ability to obtain an abortion or to obtain the birth control pill without parental involvement. I find fairly strong evidence that young women's birth rates dropped as a result of abortion access as well as evidence that birth control pill access led to a drop in birth rates among whites.

  16. [Study on self-microemulsifying membrane controlled-release drop pill of hawthorn leaves flavonoids].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Xuan; Huang, Hong-Zhang; Li, Ning; Gao, Chong-Kai

    2014-03-01

    To prepare the hawthorn leaves flavonoids self-microemulsifying membrane controlled-release coated drop pill, and to study its release rate in vitro and pharmacokinetics study in vivo. In order to improve the dissolution of hawthorn leaves flavonoids, self-microemulsifying technology was used to prepare the hawthorn leaves flavonoids self-microemulsion. Hawthorn leaves flavonoids self-microemulsifying drop pill was prepared with the PEG 6000. Studies were made on the in vitro release of flavonoids from hawthorn leaves self-micro-emulsifying membrane-moderated coated drop pills and the in vivo pharmacokinetic in rats. The prescription of flavonoids from hawthorn leaves self-micro-emulsifying drop pills was 0.25 g of flavonoids from hawthorn leaves, 0.25 g of iodophenyl maleimide, 0.375 g of polyethylene glycol 400, 0.375 g of cremophor RH 40 and 2 g of polyethylene glycol 6000. The optimized prescription was 4 g of ethyl cellulose 20, 0.64 g of polyethylene glycol 400, 1.8 g of diethyl phthalate, and the weight of coating materials increased by 3.5%. Flavonoids from hawthorn leaves self-micro-emulsifying membrane-moderated coated drop pills complied with the design of sustained-release in 12 h in terms of in vitro release and in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters in rats, and its bioavailability was 2.47 times of quick-release drop pills. Slightly soluble flavonoids from hawthorn leaves could be made into sustained-release preparations by the self-micro-emulsifying and coating technology.

  17. Inhibitory effects of cardiotonic pills on platelet function in dogs fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Jun; Li, Hui-Min; Meng, Yong-Xia

    2006-06-01

    Insulin resistance and the consequent metabolic disorders are associated with a state of platelet hyperactivity. Oxidative stress is responsible for the persistent platelet activation. We sought to study the inhibitory effect of cardiotonic pills, an oral herbal component, on platelet function in a dog model with insulin resistance induced by high-fat feeding. We fed 18 dogs with a high-fat diet and six dogs with normal chow as control for 6 months. Then, six dogs were fed with a high-fat diet and received additional aspirin (250 mg/day), and another six dogs received additional cardiotonic pills (1,000 mg/day) for 4 months. Time-course changes in metabolic parameters and platelet function were detected. After high-fat feeding for 6 months, 18 dogs developed a series of metabolic disorders including obesity, dyslipidemia, oxidative stress and insulin resistance. In addition, a platelet hyperactivity state, characterized by increased agonist (arachidonic acid, ADP and collagen) induced platelet aggregation, platelet expression of adhesion molecules (P-selectin and GP IIb/IIIa), and platelet intracellular calcium concentration, was indicated. Cardiotonic pills showed a significant antioxidative activity by presenting an increase in plasma superoxide dismutase and decrease in erythrocyte glutathione, as well as a lipid-lowering effect (decrease in both plasma cholesterol and triglyceride). Either aspirin or cardiotonic pills could significantly reverse the platelet hypersensitivity and hyperfunction. Compared with aspirin, cardiotonic pills showed a more exaggerated inhibitory effect on platelet function (a significantly decreased collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation, and expression of adhesion molecules). In conclusion, cardiotonic pills inhibited platelet hyperfunction in dogs with insulin resistance. This inhibitory effect may mainly be explained by antioxidative activity and metabolic control.

  18. Kinematic Kevlar suspension system for the HAWC and SAFIRE ADR salt pills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voellmer, George M.; Jackson, Michael; Shirron, Peter J.; Tuttle, James G.

    2003-03-01

    The High Resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter And Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE) will use identical Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADR) to cool their detectors to 200mK and 100mK, respectively. In order to minimize thermal loads on the salt pill, a Kevlar® suspension system is used to hold it in place. An innovative, kinematic suspension system is presented. The suspension system is unique in that it consists of two parts that can be assembled and tensioned offline, and later bolted onto the salt pill.

  19. A Little Bit of Sugar Helps the Pill Go Down: Resilience, Peace, and Family Planning: Comment on "The Pill Is Mightier Than the Sword".

    PubMed

    De Souza, Roger-Mark

    2015-10-04

    The article by Potts et al, "The Pill is Mightier than the Sword," points out that family planning has an important role to play in building peace by increasing women's empowerment and their agency, ultimately helping peacebuilding efforts. Evidence has demonstrated that family planning programs are cost effective, produce quick results, help women and couples meet their desired fertility levels, and produce a multitude of benefits around economic productivity, community engagement, conservation, resilience, and peacebuilding. In order for policy audiences from a variety of sectors, including conflict and peacebuilding, to appreciate these benefits, it is important to find common ground and articulate co-benefits that will help them appreciate and value the role of family planning, as it were, give them sugar to help the pill go down. This commentary examines how resilience, peacebuilding and family planning efforts need to focus on co-benefits in order to build on the successful interventions and opportunities that Potts et al highlight.

  20. Digital Pills to Measure Opioid Ingestion Patterns in Emergency Department Patients With Acute Fracture Pain: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Carreiro, Stephanie; Innes, Brendan J; Rosen, Rochelle K; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Mayer, Kenneth H; Boyer, Edward W

    2017-01-01

    Background Nonadherence to prescribed regimens for opioid analgesic agents contributes to increasing opioid abuse and overdose death. Opioids are frequently prescribed on an as-needed basis, placing the responsibility to determine opioid dose and frequency with the patient. There is wide variability in physician prescribing patterns because of the lack of data describing how patients actually use as-needed opioid analgesics. Digital pill systems have a radiofrequency emitter that directly measures medication ingestion events, and they provide an opportunity to discover the dose, timing, and duration of opioid therapy. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of a novel digital pill system to measure as-needed opioid ingestion patterns in patients discharged from the emergency department (ED) after an acute bony fracture. Methods We used a digital pill with individuals who presented to a teaching hospital ED with an acute extremity fracture. The digital pill consisted of a digital radiofrequency emitter within a standard gelatin capsule that encapsulated an oxycodone tablet. When ingested, the gastric chloride ion gradient activated the digital pill, transmitting a radiofrequency signal that was received by a hip-worn receiver, which then transmitted the ingestion data to a cloud-based server. After a brief, hands-on training session in the ED, study participants were discharged home and used the digital pill system to ingest oxycodone prescribed as needed for pain for one week. We conducted pill counts to verify digital pill data and open-ended interviews with participants at their follow-up appointment with orthopedics or at one week after enrollment in the study to determine the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding digital pills. We analyzed open-ended interviews using applied thematic analysis. Results We recruited 10 study participants and recorded 96 ingestion events (87.3%, 96/110 accuracy). Study participants

  1. The "Pill scare" and fertility in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Bone, M

    1982-08-01

    In 1977 the published results of 2 major studies indicated that the use of oral contraceptives (OC)s increased the risk of death from cardiovascular disease. The studies were the Royal College of General Practitioner's (RCGP) Oral Contraception Study, and the other was the University of Oxford/FPA contraceptive study. Manufacturers' sales of OCs fell from their 1976 peak in 1977, and in 1978 fertility began to rise once more and continued to do so until 1980, when the increase evidently began to run out of steam. It is argued that the way people responded to the adverse findings about OCs may well have played a part in the recent rise in fertility. It is acknowledged, however, that in this complex field other factors will be involved and what is important is the extent to which each contributed to the rise. Between 1964 and 1977 the number of births/1000 women of childbearing age declined from 93.0 to 58.7 in England and Wales. OCs were introduced in 1961 and use grew steadily until at least 1975. A survey conducted in 1975 shows that OCs were easily the most popular method during the mid-1970s. The whole of the reduction in the rates at which pregnancies of higher orders occurred over the period seems to have been in unplanned pregnancies. It is worth noting that the decline could have been realized without modern contraception. The low general fertility rate of 1977 of 58.7 was only slightly lower than that for 1939 (61.3). It may be possible that whenever any commonly used effective method of birth control ceases to be available for some reason, the period of adjustment to other methods is accompanied by a temporary rise in fertility. The sequence of events of adverse publicity, i.e., decline in OC use and rise in fertility in England and Wales after 1976, could be an example of mere coincidence. 2 earlier sequences of the same kind suggest that it has not. There were earlier "Pill scares," all of which possibly the most important was that of 1969. Preliminary

  2. Bioaccessibility and excretion of arsenic in Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Iris; Sylvester, Steven; Lai, Vivian W.-M.; Owen, Andrew; Reimer, Kenneth J. Cullen, William R.

    2007-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) often contain significant levels of potentially toxic elements, including arsenic. Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills were analyzed to determine the concentration, bioaccessibility (arsenic fraction soluble in the human gastrointestinal system) and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic. Arsenic excretion in urine (including speciation) and facial hair were studied after a one-time ingestion. The pills contained arsenic in the form of realgar, and although the total arsenic that was present in a single pill was high (28 mg), the low bioaccessibility of this form of arsenic predicted that only 4% of it was available for absorption into the bloodstream (1 mg of arsenic per pill). The species of arsenic that were solubilized were inorganic arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) but DMAA and MMAA were detected in urine. Two urinary arsenic excretion peaks were observed: an initial peak several (4-8) hours after ingestion corresponding to the excretion of predominantly As(III), and a larger peak at 14 h corresponding predominantly to DMAA and MMAA. No methylated As(III) species were observed. Facial hair analysis revealed that arsenic concentrations did not increase significantly as a result of the ingestion. Arsenic is incompletely soluble under human gastrointestinal conditions, and is metabolized from the inorganic to organic forms found in urine. Bioaccessible arsenic is comparable to the quantity excreted. Facial hair as a bio-indicator should be further tested.

  3. Diet Pills, Powders, and Liquids: Predictors of Use by Healthy Weight Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorlton, Janet; Park, Chang; Hughes, Tonda

    2014-01-01

    About 35% of healthy weight adolescent females describe themselves as overweight, and 66% report planning to lose weight. Body weight dissatisfaction is associated with unhealthy weight loss practices including diet pill/powder/liquid (PPL) use. Few studies have examined diet PPL use in healthy weight adolescent females; therefore, Youth Risk…

  4. Birthing the Pill at the University of Vermont (1970-1976)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christmas, William A.; Schultz, J. Donald

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of the birth control pill in 1960 precipitated 2 decades of intense social change in the United States, particularly in the area of sexuality. Colleges and universities were not immune to these changes. The author examines the struggles at 1 land-grant university to find common ground on this issue among students, faculty,…

  5. Medicine and the law. The postcoital pill and intrauterine device: contraceptive or abortifacient?

    PubMed

    Brahams, D

    1983-05-07

    The use of the postcoital pill and the IUD might be illegal under British law if, as some groups contend, conception is defined as fertilization of the ovum. An amendment stipulating that conception includes implantation would erase the potential conflict between the law and current practice or dictionary definitions of conception.

  6. The Role of Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets in Treating Diabetic Complications

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jiangyi; Liu, Jingshun

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To observe the clinical prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets for type 2 diabetic vascular complications. Methods. It was a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial. 140 outpatients with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly divided into the treatment group and control group. The two groups were given basic therapy (management of blood sugar, blood pressure, etc.). Additionally, the treatment group was given Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets, while the control group was given Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets placebos. All subjects were followed up for consecutive 36 months and observed monthly. The clinical data as urinary microalbumin to urinary creatinine ratio (Umalb/cr), carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), diabetic nephropathy (DN) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) prevalence, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, blood glucose, and blood pressure were collected and analyzed statistically. Results. After 36-month treatment, the Umalb/cr level and DN and DR prevalence in treatment group were all significantly lower than control group (P < 0.05). However, the IMT level and the incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events were not significantly different between the two groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets are beneficial to diabetic microvascular complications, while the efficacy to diabetic macrovascular complications needs more observations. PMID:28077949

  7. The Role of Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets in Treating Diabetic Complications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Yu, Jiangyi; Liu, Jingshun; An, Xiaofei

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To observe the clinical prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets for type 2 diabetic vascular complications. Methods. It was a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial. 140 outpatients with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly divided into the treatment group and control group. The two groups were given basic therapy (management of blood sugar, blood pressure, etc.). Additionally, the treatment group was given Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets, while the control group was given Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets placebos. All subjects were followed up for consecutive 36 months and observed monthly. The clinical data as urinary microalbumin to urinary creatinine ratio (Umalb/cr), carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), diabetic nephropathy (DN) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) prevalence, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, blood glucose, and blood pressure were collected and analyzed statistically. Results. After 36-month treatment, the Umalb/cr level and DN and DR prevalence in treatment group were all significantly lower than control group (P < 0.05). However, the IMT level and the incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events were not significantly different between the two groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets are beneficial to diabetic microvascular complications, while the efficacy to diabetic macrovascular complications needs more observations.

  8. The Administration of Tibetan Precious Pills: Efficacy in Historical and Ritual Contexts.

    PubMed

    Czaja, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Precious pills represent a special kind of Tibetan drug that once was, and still is, highly sought after by Tibetan, Chinese, and Mongolian patients. Such pills are generally taken as a potent prophylactic remedy, and can be used to cure various diseases. The present study seeks to discuss the dispensation and efficacy of precious pills according to the presentations of historical Tibetan medical scholars. Several treatises dealing with these instructions will be analysed, thereby revealing their underlying concepts, and highlighting their points of both general consensus and disagreement. The analysis of these detailed instructions will reveal the fact that these precious pills were not merely given to a patient but, in order to ensure their full efficacy, involved an elaborate regimen concerning three chronological periods: (1) the time of preparation, (2) the time of dispensation, and (3) the time after dispensation. Thus the present study surveys not only the ritual empowerment of drugs in Tibetan medicine, but also the importance of social relationships between doctors and patients in Tibetan medical history.

  9. "Every 'never' I ever said came true": transitions from opioid pills to heroin injecting.

    PubMed

    Mars, Sarah G; Bourgois, Philippe; Karandinos, George; Montero, Fernando; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    This qualitative study documents the pathways to injecting heroin by users in Philadelphia and San Francisco before and during a pharmaceutical opioid pill epidemic. Data was collected through in-depth, semi-structured interviews (conducted between 2010 and 2012) that were, conducted against a background of longer-term participant-observation, ethnographic studies of street-based drug users and dealers in Philadelphia (2007-12) and San Francisco (1994-2007, 2012). Philadelphia and San Francisco were selected for their contrasting political economies, immigration patterns and source type of heroin. In Philadelphia the ethnographers found heroin injectors, usually white users, who had started their opiate using careers with prescription opioids rather than transitioning from other drugs. In both Philadelphia and San Francisco, most of the young heroin injectors interviewed began, their drug-use trajectories with opioid pills--usually Percocet (oxycodone and acetaminophen), generic short acting oxycodone or, OxyContin (long-acting oxycodone)--before transitioning to heroin, usually by nasal inhalation (sniffing) or smoking at first, followed by injecting. While most of the Philadelphia users were born in the city or its suburbs and had started using both opioid pills and heroin there, many of the San Francisco users had initiated their pill and sometimes heroin use elsewhere and had migrated to the city from around the country. Nevertheless, patterns of transition of younger injectors were similar in both cities suggesting an evolving national pattern. In contrast, older users in both Philadelphia and San Francisco were more likely to have graduated to heroin injection from non-opiate drugs such as cannabis, methamphetamine and cocaine. Pharmaceutical opioid initiates typically reported switching to heroin for reasons of cost and ease-of-access to supply after becoming physically and emotionally dependent on opioid pills. Many expressed surprise and dismay at their

  10. Evaluating the practice of Iranian community pharmacists regarding oral contraceptive pills using simulated patients

    PubMed Central

    Foroutan, Nazanin; Dabaghzadeh, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: As oral contraceptive pills are available over the counter in pharmacies, pharmacists are professionally responsible for checking and informing patients about every aspect of taking these drugs. Simulated patient method is a new and robust way to evaluate professional performance of pharmacists. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacy practice of Iranian pharmacists regarding over-the-counter use of oral contraceptive pills using simulated patient method. Methods: Simulated patients visited pharmacy with a prescription containing ciprofloxacin and asked for oral contraceptive pills. The pharmacist was expected to ask important questions for using these drugs and to inform the patient about them properly. Moreover, the Pharmacists should advise patients in regard to the possible interaction. Results: Ninety four pharmacists participated in this study. In 24 (25.3%) visits, the liable pharmacist was not present at the time of purchase. Furthermore, In 13 (18.57 %) visits by the simulated patients, the liable pharmacists did not pay any attention to the simulated patients even when they asked for consultation. Twenty nine (41.43%) pharmacists did not ask any question during dispensing. Nausea was the most frequent described side effect by pharmacists (27 (38.57%)). Yet important adverse effects of oral contraceptive pills were not mentioned by the pharmacists except for few ones. Only twelve (17.14%) pharmacists mentioned the possible interaction. There was a significant relation between the pharmacists’ gender and detection of possible interaction (p value= 0.048). Conclusion: The quality of the pharmacists’ consultations regarding the over the counter use of oral contraceptive pills was not satisfactory and required improvement. PMID:28042350

  11. Behavioral evidence for internal factors affecting duration of conglobation in pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare, Isopoda, Crustacea). Short communication.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, Hiroe; Moriyama, T

    2012-01-01

    Pill bugs individually walked an experimental pathway, then were induced to conglobate with a puff of air. After recovering, they were stimulated again. Sixty of 80 pill bugs conglobated both times, first moving either antennae (A) or legs (L) during recovery. Both AA and LL groups showed a significant positive correlation between first (t1) and second (t2) conglobation times. In the AL group, pathway locomotion time (t0) was significantly positively correlated to both t1 and t2. We conclude that pill bugs determine conglobation time based partly on their previous states.

  12. Accumulation of mesalazine pills in the medium ileum in a patient with Crohn´s disease.

    PubMed

    Martínez Huertas, Carmen; Garcia-Villanova Ruiz, Paloma; Pozo Sánchez, José; Dávila Arias, Cristina

    2017-03-01

    Crohn´s disease is an inflammatory disease that can involve any portion of the gastrointestinal tract, although terminal ileum is the most commonly affected portion. It is characterized by a transmural and discontinuous distribution pattern, with alternating periods of active disease and remission. We present the case of a 23-year-old patient diagnosed with Crohn´s disease, in treatment with extended release Mesalazine and corticoids. The CT Enterography showed activity signs and a great dilatation of medium ileum with lots of Mesalazine pills accumulated inside. Pill accumulation occurred because of stenosis, which did not let the pills at this level progress to distal ileum, and be absorbed.

  13. Continuation rates, bleeding profile acceptability, and satisfaction of women using an oral contraceptive pill containing estradiol valerate and dienogest versus a progestogen-only pill after switching from an ethinylestradiol-containing pill in a real-life setting: results of the CONTENT study

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Paula; Serrani, Marco; Vogtländer, Kai; Parke, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral contraceptives are still associated with high discontinuation rates, despite their efficacy. There is a wide choice of oral contraceptives available, and the aim of this study was to assess continuation rates, bleeding profile acceptability, and the satisfaction of women in the first year of using a contraceptive pill containing estradiol valerate and dienogest (E2V/DNG) versus a progestogen-only pill (POP) in a real-life setting after discontinuing an ethinylestradiol-containing pill. Methods and results In this prospective, noninterventional, observational study, 3,152 patients were included for the efficacy analyses (n=2,558 women in the E2V/DNG group and n=592 in the POP group (two patients fulfilled the criteria of the efficacy population, but the used product was not known). Women had been taking an ethinylestradiol-containing pill ≥3 months before deciding to switch to the E2V/DNG pill or a POP. Overall, 19.8% (n=506) of E2V/DNG users and 25.8% (n=153) of POP users discontinued their prescribed pill. The median time to discontinuation was 157.0 days and 127.5 days, respectively. Time to discontinuation due to bleeding (P<0.0001) or other reasons (P=0.022) was significantly longer in the E2V/DNG group versus the POP group. The E2V/DNG pill was also associated with shorter (48.7% vs 44.1%), lighter (54% vs 46.1%), and less painful bleeding (91.1% vs 73.7%) and greater user satisfaction (80.7% vs 64.6%) than POP use, within 3–5 months after switch. Conclusion The E2V/DNG pill was associated with higher rates of continuation, bleeding profile acceptability, and user satisfaction than POP use and may be an alternative option for women who are dissatisfied with their current pill. PMID:27695365

  14. Simultaneous Determination of Five Active Components in the Chinese Patent Medicine Niuhuang Jiangya Pill by HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shan; Lei, Shanshan

    2016-12-16

    Niuhuang Jiangya (NHJY) pill is one of the well-known Chinese patent medicines in China used in the treatment of high blood pressure. The primary purpose of this study was to establish and validate a method using HPLC with tandem MS for the quality evaluation of NHJY pill through simultaneous determination of the following five active components: baicalin, paeoniflorin, astragaloside IV, ferulic acid, and emodin. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a Hypersil GOLD HPLC C18 column (50 × 4.6 mm, 3 μm) with acetonitrile and water as mobile phase and gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The method established in this study was selective, linear, precise, and accurate and was successfully applied to evaluate five active components in NHJY pill collected from different production batches, which could be considered a good approach to control the quality of NHJY pill and other related botanical drugs.

  15. Xiaoyao pill for treatment of functional dyspepsia in perimenopausal women with depression

    PubMed Central

    Du, Han-Guang; Ming, Li; Chen, Shu-Jiao; Li, Can-Dong

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Xiaoyao pill for treatment of functional dyspepsia (FD) associated with perimenopausal depression. METHODS: This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial including 180 patients with FD accompanied by depression that were divided into two groups of 90. Patients in the treatment group received oral administration of the Xiaoyao pill for soothing the liver and activating the spleen, and patients in the control group received a placebo. This trial included an 8-wk therapy period with a follow-up period of 6 mo. The total efficacy and degree of depression, as assessed by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), were evaluated. Plasma levels of motilin and gastrin were measured and a gastric emptying test was conducted in each participant. RESULTS: The Xiaoyao pill had a good therapeutic effect and improved the symptoms in patients with perimenopausal FD as assessed by the HRSD score, motilin and gastrin levels, and rate of gastric emptying. The total effective rate of the Xiaoyao pill in the treatment group was significantly superior to that of the placebo in the control group. In the control group, the initial HRSD score was 12.12 ± 2.29 and decreased to 7.14 ± 1.67 after therapy (P < 0.01). In the treatment group, the initial HRSD score was 11.44 ± 2.15, which significantly decreased to 6.20 ± 2.08 after therapy (P < 0.01). Moreover, the HRSD score in the treatment group was significantly lower than in control group after 8 wk (P < 0.01). Motilin and gastrin levels in both groups were significantly increased after the 8-wk therapy (P < 0.05). The gastric emptying rate was also improved in both groups after therapy (P < 0.05), and the improvement was significantly better in the treatment group compared to the controls (P < 0.05). These results confirm the therapeutic effects of the Xiaoyao pill in perimenopausal FD patients and indicate that it is worthy of clinical promotion. CONCLUSION: The Xiaoyao

  16. Neurological function following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion is improved by the Ruyi Zhenbao pill in a rats

    PubMed Central

    WANG, TIAN; DUAN, SIJIN; WANG, HAIPING; SUN, SHAN; HAN, BING; FU, FENGHUA

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect and underlying mechanisms of the Ruyi Zhenbao pill on neurological function following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion following reperfusion. The rats received intragastrically either sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (control and model groups) or Ruyi Zhenbao pill at doses of 0.2, 0.4 or 0.8 g/kg. Neurological function was assessed by cylinder, adhesive and beam-walking tests after 14-day Ruyi Zhenbao pill treatment. Neurogenesis and angiogenesis were detected using immunofluorescence staining. The expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Treatment with 0.4 and 0.8 g/kg Ruyi Zhenbao for 14 days significantly improved neurological function, and increased the number of von Willebrand Factor- and neuronal nuclear antigen-positive cells in the ischemic hemisphere of rats. Ruyi Zhenbao pill treatment also significantly enhanced the expression levels of BDNF, NGF and VEGF in the ischemic hemisphere. The results demonstrated that the Ruyi Zhenbao pill improved neurological function following ischemia in rats. The mechanisms of the Ruyi Zhenbao pill are associated with increasing the expression levels of BDNF, NGF and VEGF, and subsequently promoting neurogenesis and angiogenesis in the ischemic zone. PMID:26893831

  17. Knowledge and perceptions of emergency contraceptive pills among a college-age population: a qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Harper, C; Ellertson, C

    1995-01-01

    Results from focus-group discussions with a population of university students who have convenient access to emergency contraceptive pills show that basic awareness about this method is high, although specific knowledge on appropriate use, such as the time limit for use, the level of effectiveness and the possible side effects, is lacking. Approval of the method is widespread among both female and male students, although students did voice anxieties about irresponsible use and the lack of protection against the human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted diseases. Many of their concerns stem from incomplete information about how the regimen works. Students noted how rarely emergency contraceptive pills are discussed, and were curious to know more. They asked for routine education on the method, as well as more general discussion.

  18. How can a state control swallowing? The home use of abortion pills in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Sally

    2016-11-01

    Evidence suggests that there is widespread home use of abortion pills in Ireland and that ending a pregnancy in this way is potentially safer than the alternatives available to many women. This paper argues that there is a strong case for women with unwanted pregnancies to be offered truthful and objective information regarding the use of abortion pills by trusted local professionals and, further, that this is possible within existing law. A move in this direction would not, however, negate the need for legal reform to address the fundamental moral incoherence of a law that treats women who terminate pregnancies within Ireland as criminals but those who travel to access services overseas as victims in need of support. In support of these arguments, the paper draws on both library research and a small number of interviews with government officials, service providers and activists.

  19. 'Stratified Contraception': Emergency Contraceptive Pills and Women's Differential Experiences in Contemporary India.

    PubMed

    Sheoran, Nayantara

    2015-01-01

    Available without prescriptions in India since 2005, emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) and their advertisements have provided women with increased contraceptive options and a vocabulary to talk about their reproductive lives. I draw on long-term fieldwork with women in urban India about ECPs, demonstrating a new form of 'stratified contraception' enabled by these pills and their advertisements. I posit that there are within India spaces that replicate the luxuries and privileges of the global North. These material conditions, I suggest, are replicated when it comes to contraception as there are hubs of women consumers of contraception and contraceptive advertising that participate in an 'imagined cosmopolitanism' within the global South in close proximity to 'contraceptive ghettos.' Moving beyond simplistic binaries, I outline three major stratifications along which women experience this medical technology and outline the implications for women and their contraceptive choices when notions of northern privilege exist in the 'South.'

  20. ADR salt pill design and crystal growth process for hydrated magnetic salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor); DiPirro, Michael J. (Inventor); Canavan, Edgar R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A process is provided for producing a salt pill for use in very low temperature adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADRs). The method can include providing a thermal bus in a housing. The thermal bus can include an array of thermally conductive metal conductors. A hydrated salt can be grown on the array of thermally conductive metal conductors. Thermal conductance can be provided to the hydrated salt.

  1. A survey of bonobo (Pan paniscus) oral contraceptive pill use in North American zoos.

    PubMed

    Agnew, Mary K; Asa, Cheryl S; Clyde, Victoria L; Keller, Dominique L; Meinelt, Audra

    2016-09-01

    Contraception is an essential tool in reproductive management of captive species. The Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) Reproductive Management Center (RMC) gathers data on contraception use and provides recommendations. Although apes have been given oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) for at least 30 years, there have been no published reports with basic information on why the pill is administered, formulations and brands used, and effects on physiology and behavior. Here, we report survey results characterizing OCP use in bonobos (Pan paniscus) housed in North American zoos, as well as information accumulated in the RMC's Contraception Database. Of 26 females treated, there have been no failures and nine reversals. The most commonly administered OCP formulation in bonobos contained ethinyl estradiol (EE) 35 μg/norethindrone 1 mg. Few females on combined oral contraceptives (COCs) were given a continuous active pill regimen; a hormone-free interval of at least 5 days was allowed in most. Crushing the pill and mixing with juice or food was common. Females on COCs seldom experienced breakthrough estrus or bleeding, while these conditions were sometimes observed for females on continuous COCs. All females on COCs exhibited some degree of perineal swelling, with a mean score of 3 or 3+ most commonly reported. Behavioral changes included less sexual behavior, dominant females becoming subordinate, and a negative effect on mood. No appreciable change in weight was noted. Taken together, these results indicate that OCPs are an effective and reversible contraceptive option for bonobos that can be used by zoos and sanctuaries to limit reproduction. Zoo Biol. 35:444-453, 2016. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Images of American sexuality in debates over nonprescription access to emergency contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Wynn, L L; Trussell, James

    2006-11-01

    The debate over emergency contraceptive pill access in the United States revolves around speculations about Americans' sexual lives. The recently released internal U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) memo that expresses fears that adolescents will form "sex-based cults" around emergency contraceptive pills echoes arguments made against the nonprescription switch at the 2003 FDA hearings. In these hearings, opponents argued that nonprescription access would lead to adolescent promiscuity and disease transmission and that adult predators would use the drug to facilitate the sexual abuse of young women. In contrast, proponents of expanded access to emergency contraceptive pills overwhelmingly portrayed their model user as a responsible adult who experiences a torn condom during consensual sex. These imaginations of American sexuality are tied to competing models of the role of medical providers in women's sexual decision making. Opponents of the nonprescription switch argued that women need a learned intermediary, not only to determine their need for emergency contraception, but also to educate them about proper sexual behavior and protect them from abuse. Proponents advocated putting more responsibility for sexual health decision making in the hands of women, not doctors, and complained about the moralizing scrutiny of medical providers. In the absence of nonprescription access to emergency contraception, advance prescription of emergency contraceptive pills can ensure that contraceptive education is not tied to a specific sexual act and therefore not perceived as a judgment about women's sexual decisions. However, advance prescription does not help women who lack access to health care or women who make sexual and contraceptive decisions without consulting physicians.

  3. HIV pill reminder device shows some adherence improvement. Technology now switched to cell phone.

    PubMed

    2005-12-01

    Researchers studying a population of HIV patients found that a pill reminder improved adherence for those who were memory impaired. "One reason patients don't take medications is because they simply forget it, and it's more of an issue in the population we studied because some started with mild cognitive impairment," says Adriana Andrade, MD, MPH, an assistant professor at Johns Hopkins University Division of Infectious Diseases in Baltimore, MD.

  4. Isolated angiitis of the brain in a young female on the contraceptive pill.

    PubMed

    Nagaratnam, N; James, W E

    1987-12-01

    The case of a 15 year old girl with a rapidly progressing right sided hemiparesis is reported. The history and clinical manifestations were suggestive of either herpes simplex encephalitis or occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. At necropsy an occlusive thrombosis of the left middle cerebral artery due to a segmental necrotizing granulomatous panarteritis was found. The cause was obscure. A plausible incriminating factor was the contraceptive pill.

  5. Artichoke and milk thistle pills and syrups as sources of phenolic compounds with antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; José Alves, Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-07-13

    Dietary supplements based on hepatoprotective plants have been increasingly used in the prevention of liver injuries. In the present work, the aim was to study the phenolic profile and possibly relate it to the in vitro antimicrobial activity of two different formulations (pills and syrups) of artichoke and milk thistle, the antioxidant and anti-hepatocellular carcinoma activities of which were previously reported by our research group. The phenolic profiles were obtained by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, and the antimicrobial activity evaluation was performed with the clinical isolates of multiresistant bacteria (Escherichia coli, extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Artichoke syrup revealed the presence of vanillic acid and luteolin-7-O-glucoside while the pills possessed higher concentrations of 4-O-caffeoylquinic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and 1,3-O-dicaffeoylquinic acids, this latest being able to inhibit the growth of MRSA. Regarding milk thistle formulations, the syrup presented isorhamnetin-O-deoxyhexoside-O-dihexoside, isorhamnetin-O-deoxyhexoside-O-hexoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside as the major phenolic constituents whereas the pills were richer in taxifolin, silymarin derivatives and hydroxylated silibinin; the syrup revealed antimicrobial activity against all the studied bacteria with the exception of Proteus mirabilis whereas the pills revealed activity against ESBL producing Escherichia coli. Overall, all of the studied formulations revealed to be a good source of phenolic compounds, among which milk thistle syrup presented the highest variety and concentration of flavonoids, which is possibly related to its strongest antimicrobial activity.

  6. Quality evaluation of moluodan concentrated pill using high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprinting coupled with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lingyan; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Yongjiang; Liu, Xuesong

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a fast and effective high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to obtain a fingerprint chromatogram and quantitative analysis simultaneously of four indexes including gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, albiflorin and paeoniflorin of the traditional Chinese medicine Moluodan Concentrated Pill. The method was performed by using a Waters X-bridge C18 reversed phase column on an Agilent 1200S high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled with diode array detection. The mobile phase of the high-performance liquid chromatography method was composed of 20 mmol/L phosphate solution and acetonitrile with a 1 mL/min eluent velocity, under a detection temperature of 30°C and a UV detection wavelength of 254 nm. After the methodology validation, 16 batches of Moluodan Concentrated Pill were analyzed by this high-performance liquid chromatography method and both qualitative and quantitative evaluation results were achieved by similarity analysis, principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. The results of these three chemometrics were in good agreement and all indicated that batch 10 and batch 16 showed significant differences with the other 14 batches. This suggested that the developed high-performance liquid chromatography method could be applied in the quality evaluation of Moluodan Concentrated Pill.

  7. Use of diet pills and amphetamines to lose weight among smoking and nonsmoking high school seniors.

    PubMed

    Gritz, E R; Crane, L A

    1991-01-01

    Used data on 3,305 high school seniors collected as part of the 1984 Monitoring the Future project to examine the relationships among cigarette use, diet pill use, and use of amphetamines for weight loss. Results indicate that females were more likely than males to report use of all three substances. In addition, Whites were more likely than Blacks to use all three substances. Both female and male smokers were more likely than nonsmokers to use diet pills. Amphetamine use for weight loss was positively related to smoking among females, but not among males. The relationships between smoking and diet pill use, and smoking and amphetamine use to lose weight, were maintained when race, sex, and other drug use were controlled simultaneously. Two explanations for these relationships are considered. The first is that smoking is related to the use of most other licit and illicit drugs. The second explanation is that there is a greater preoccupation with weight among smokers, with weight concerns potentially motivating the initiation of smoking.

  8. [Pharmacokinetics study on costunolide and dehydrocostuslactone after administration of traditional Chinese medicine Weichang'an pills].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-ze; Wang, Lei; Jin, Zhao-xiang; Qu, Zhuo; Chen, Yu-ling; Gao, Wen-yuan

    2015-03-01

    A HPLC-MS/MS multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) quantitative analysis was made to establish a determination method for drug concentrations of costunolide (Co) and dehydrocostuslactone (De) in blood samples in the positive ion mode, with diazepam as the internal standard substance, in order to study the pharmacokinetic process of sesquiterpene lactones costunolide and dehydrocostuslactone after the oral administration of Weichang'an pills, and provide an theoretical basis for further studies on the substance basis for the anti-diarrhea effect of Weichang'an pills. In the blood samples, Co and De showed a good linearity within concentration ranges 0.700 0-769.7, 2.510-956.0 μg x L(-1), respectively. The results of precision, stability and recovery experiences proved the stability and reliability of the plasma concentration determination method. After the oral administration, the concentrations of Co and De in plasma increased with the increase in dose, with T(max) between 10.65-12.98 h, indicating a long time to reach peak plasma concentrations; C(max) of costunolide and dehydrocostuslactone ranged between 3.750-5.450,15.34-44.52 μg x L(-1), respectively. The in vivo adsorption of Co and De conformed to the one-compartment model, with a longer time to attain the peak plasma concentrations. These results provided an experimental basis for revealing the active substance basis and clinical medication of Weichang'an pills.

  9. Dragon's blood dropping pills have protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats model.

    PubMed

    Xin, Nian; Yang, Fang-Ju; Li, Yan; Li, Yu-Juan; Dai, Rong-Ji; Meng, Wei-Wei; Chen, Yan; Deng, Yu-Lin

    2013-12-15

    Dragon's blood is a bright red resin obtained from Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C.Chen (Yunnan, China). As a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, it has great traditional medicinal value and is used for wound healing and to stop bleeding. Its main biological activity comes from phenolic compounds. In this study, phenolic compounds were made into dropping pills and their protective effects were examined by establishing focal cerebral ischemia rats model used method of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO), and by investigating indexes of neurological scores, infarct volume, cerebral index, cerebral water content and oxidation stress. Compared to model group, high, middle and low groups of Dragon's blood dropping pills could improve the neurological function significantly (p<0.01) and reduce cerebral infarct volume of focal cerebral ischemia rats remarkably (p<0.05-0.01). Meanwhile, each group could alleviate cerebral water content and cerebral index (p<0.05-0.01) and regulate oxidative stress of focal cerebral ischemia rats obviously (p<0.05-0.01). Activities of middle group corresponded with that treated with positive control drug. The results obtained here showed that Dragon's blood dropping pills had protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats.

  10. Utilization of and Adherence to Oral Contraceptive Pills and Associated Disparities in the United States: A Baseline Assessment for the Impact of the Affordable Care Act of 2010.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsien-Chang; Lee, Hsiao-Yun

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated sociological factors that may influence women's utilization of and adherence to oral contraceptive pills. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study using the 2010-2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Female adults aged 18-50 years were included. Logistic regression was performed to discern women's decisions to use oral contraceptive pills or not. Ordinary least squares and Poisson regressions were conducted to examine the number of oral contraceptive pills received, refill frequency, and annual out-of-pocket expenditure on oral contraceptive pills. Covariates were based on the Andersen model of health care utilization. Among the study sample (weighted n = 207,007,531), 14.8% were oral contraceptive pill users. Factors positively related to oral contraceptive pill use included non-Hispanic white ethnicity, younger age, not currently married, having private insurance, residing in the Midwest, higher education level, and higher annual family income. Being non-Hispanic white and having a higher education level were positively related to oral contraceptive pill adherence. Our findings therefore demonstrate disparities in oral contraceptive pill utilization and adherence, especially according to women's race/ethnicity and educational level. This study serves as a baseline assessment for the impact of the Affordable Care Act on oral contraceptive pill utilization and adherence for future studies.

  11. Adherence to Varenicline Among African American Smokers: An Exploratory Analysis Comparing Plasma Concentration, Pill Count, and Self-report

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Nazir, Niaman; Benowitz, Neal L.; Yu, Lisa; Yturralde, Olivia; Jacob, Peyton; Choi, Won S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Nollen, Nicole L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Measuring adherence to smoking cessation pharmacotherapy is important to evaluating its effectiveness. Blood levels are considered the most accurate measure of adherence but are invasive and costly. Pill counts and self-report are more practical, but little is known about their relationship to blood levels. This study compared the validity of pill count and self-report against plasma varenicline concentration for measuring pharmacotherapy adherence. Methods: Data were obtained from a randomized pilot study of varenicline for smoking cessation among African American smokers. Adherence was measured on Day 12 via plasma varenicline concentration, pill count, 3-day recall, and a visual analogue scale (VAS; adherence was represented on a line with two extremes “no pills” and “all pills”). Results: The sample consisted of 55 African American moderate to heavy smokers (average 16.8 cigarettes/day, SD = 5.6) and 63.6% were female. Significant correlations (p < .05) were found between plasma varenicline concentration and pill count (r = .56), 3-day recall (r = .46), and VAS (r = .29). Using plasma varenicline concentration of 2.0 ng/ml as the cutpoint for adherence, pill count demonstrated the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.85, p = .01) and had 88% sensitivity (95% CI = 75.0–95.0) and 80% specificity (95% CI = 30.0–99.0) for detecting adherence. Conclusions: Of 3 commonly used adherence measures, pill count was the most valid for identifying adherence in this sample of African American smokers. Pill count has been used across other health domains and could be incorporated into treatment to identify nonadherence, which, in turn, could maximize smoking cessation pharmacotherapy use and improve abstinence rates. PMID:22367976

  12. Quantitative determination of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine by thin-layer chromatography in ecstasy illicit pills in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Shetab Boushehri, Seyed Vahid; Tamimi, Maryam; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas

    2009-11-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is the major ingredient of ecstasy illicit pills. It is a hallucinogen, central nervous system stimulant, and serotonergic neurotoxin that strongly releases serotonin from serotonergic nerves terminals. Moreover, it releases norepinephrine and dopamine from nerves terminal, but to a lesser extent than serotonin. Poisoning and even death from abusing MDMA-containing ecstasy illicit pills among abusers is usual. Thus, quantitative determination of MDMA content of ecstasy illicit pills in illicit drug bazaar must be done regularly to find the most high dose ecstasy illicit pills and removing them from illicit drug bazaar. In the present study, MDMA contents of 13 most abundant ecstasy illicit pills were determined by quantitative thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Two procedures for quantitative determination of MDMA contents of ecstasy illicit pills by TLC were used: densitometric and so-called 'scraping off' methods. The former was done in a reflection mode at 285 nm and the latter was done by absorbance measurement of eluted scraped off spots. Limit of detection (LOD), considering signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 2, and limit of quantification (LOQ), regarding S/N of 10, of densitometric and scraping off methods were 0.40 microg, 1.20 microg, and 6.87 mug, 20.63 microg, respectively. Repeatabilities (within-laboratory error) of densitometric and scraping off methods were 0.5% and 3.6%, respectively. The results showed that the ecstasy illicit pills contained 24-124.5 mg and 23.9-122.2 mg MDMA by densitometric and scraping off methods, respectively.

  13. Effect of a “pill mill” law on opioid prescribing and utilization: The case of Texas

    PubMed Central

    Lyapustina, Tatyana; Rutkow, Lainie; Chang, Hsien-Yen; Daubresse, Matthew; Ramji, Alim F.; Faul, Mark; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Alexander, G. Caleb

    2016-01-01

    Background States have attempted to reduce prescription opioid abuse through strengthening the regulation of pain management clinics; however, the effect of such measures remains unclear. We quantified the impact of Texas’s September 2010 “pill mill” law on opioid prescribing and utilization. Methods We used the IMS Health LRx LifeLink database to examine anonymized, patient-level pharmacy claims for a closed cohort of individuals filling prescription opioids in Texas between September 2009 and August 2011. Our primary outcomes were derived at a monthly level and included: (1) average morphine equivalent dose (MED) per transaction; (2) aggregate opioid volume; (3) number of opioid prescriptions; and (4) quantity of opioid pills dispensed. We compared observed values with the counterfactual, which we estimated from pre-intervention levels and trends. Results Texas’s pill mill law was associated with declines in average MED per transaction (−0.57 mg/month, 95% confidence interval [CI] −1.09, −0.057), monthly opioid volume (−9.99 kg/month, CI −12.86, −7.11), monthly number of opioid prescriptions (−12,200 prescriptions/month, CI −15,300, −9,150) and monthly quantity of opioid pills dispensed (−714,000 pills/month, CI −877,000, −550,000). These reductions reflected decreases of 8.1–24.3% across the outcomes at one year compared with the counterfactual, and they were concentrated among prescribers and patients with the highest opioid prescribing and utilization at baseline. Conclusions Following the implementation of Texas’s 2010 pill mill law, there were clinically significant reductions in opioid dose, volume, prescriptions and pills dispensed within the state, which were limited to individuals with higher levels of baseline opioid prescribing and utilization. PMID:26778760

  14. Harm reduction or women's rights? Debating access to emergency contraceptive pills in Canada and the United States.

    PubMed

    Wynn, L L; Erdman, Joanna N; Foster, Angel M; Trussell, James

    2007-12-01

    This article compares the ethical pivot points in debates over nonprescription access to emergency contraceptive pills in Canada and the United States. These include women's right to be informed about the contraceptive method and its mechanism of action, pharmacists' conscientious objection concerning the dispensing of emergency contraceptive pills, and rights and equality of access to the method, especially for poor women and minorities. In both countries, arguments in support of expanding access to the pills were shaped by two competing orientations toward health and sexuality. The first, "harm reduction," promotes emergency contraception as attenuating the public health risks entailed in sex. The second orientation regards access to pills as a question of women's right to engage in nonprocreative sex and to choose from among all reproductive health-care options. The authors contend that arguments for expanding access to emergency contraceptive pills that frame issues in terms of health and science are insufficient bases for drug regulation; ultimately, women's health is also a matter of women's rights.

  15. Quality evaluation of Shenmaidihuang Pills based on the chromatographic fingerprints and simultaneous determination of seven bioactive constituents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sifei; Zhang, Guangrui; Qiu, Ying; Wang, Xiaobo; Guo, Lihan; Zhao, Yanxin; Tong, Meng; Wei, Lan; Sun, Lixin

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we aimed to establish a comprehensive and practical quality evaluation system for Shenmaidihuang pills. A simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection method was developed both for fingerprint analysis and quantitative determination. In fingerprint analysis, relative retention time and relative peak area were used to identify the common peaks in 18 samples for investigation. Twenty one peaks were selected as the common peaks to evaluate the similarities of 18 Shenmaidihuang pills samples with different manufacture dates. Furthermore, similarity analysis was applied to evaluate the similarity of samples. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were also performed to evaluate the variation of Shenmaidihuang pills. In quantitative analysis, linear regressions, injection precisions, recovery, repeatability and sample stability were all tested and good results were obtained to simultaneously determine the seven identified compounds, namely, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, morroniside, loganin, paeonol, paeoniflorin, psoralen, isopsoralen in Shenmaidihuang pills. The contents of some analytes in different batches of samples indicated significant difference, especially for 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. So, it was concluded that the chromatographic fingerprint method obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection associated with multiple compounds determination is a powerful and meaningful tool to comprehensively conduct the quality control of Shenmaidihuang pills.

  16. Progestin-only pills may be a better first-line treatment for endometriosis than combined estrogen-progestin contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Casper, Robert F

    2017-03-01

    For decades, combined estrogen-progestin oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) have been the first-line treatment for menstrual and pelvic pain associated with endometriosis without any clinical evidence of efficacy. Initial relief provided by OCPs is likely a result of improvement in primary dysmenorrhea. Biologic data and limited clinical evidence support a potential adverse effect of long-term use of OCPs on the progression of endometriosis. In contrast, there is randomized, controlled trial data to support the use of oral progestin-only treatment for pelvic pain associated with endometriosis and for suppressing the anatomic extent of endometriotic lesions. Both norethindrone acetate and dienogest have regulatory approval for treating endometriosis and may be better than OCPs as a first-line therapy.

  17. A "Suicide Pill" for Older People: Attitudes of Physicians, the General Population, and Relatives of Patients Who Died after Euthanasia or Physician-Assisted Suicide in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rurup, Mette L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.; van der Wal, Gerrit; van der Heide, Agnes; van Der Maas, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    In the Netherlands there has been ongoing debate in the past 10 years about the availability of a hypothetical "suicide pill", with which older people could end their life in a dignified way if they so wished. Data on attitudes to the suicide pill were collected in the Netherlands from 410 physicians, 1,379 members of the general…

  18. Water-compatible imprinted pills for sensitive determination of cannabinoids in urine and oral fluid.

    PubMed

    Cela-Pérez, M Concepción; Bates, Ferdia; Jiménez-Morigosa, Cristian; Lendoiro, Elena; de Castro, Ana; Cruz, Angelines; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; López-Vilariño, José M; González-Rodríguez, M Victoria

    2016-01-15

    A novel molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) methodology followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed using cylindrical shaped molecularly imprinted pills for detection of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-nor-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD) in urine and oral fluid (OF). The composition of the molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) was optimized based on the screening results of a non-imprinted polymer library (NIP-library). Thus, acrylamide as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker were selected for the preparation of the MIP, using catechin as a mimic template. MISPE pills were incubated with 0.5 mL urine or OF sample for adsorption of analytes. For desorption, the pills were transferred to a vial with 2 mL of methanol:acetic acid (4:1) and sonicated for 15 min. The elution solvent was evaporated and reconstituted in methanol:formic acid (0.1%) 50:50 to inject in LC-MS/MS. The developed method was linear over the range from 1 to 500 ng mL(-1) in urine and from 0.75 to 500 ng mL(-1) in OF for all four analytes. Intra- and inter-day imprecision were <15%. Extraction recovery was 50-111%, process efficiency 15.4-54.5% and matrix effect ranged from -78.0 to -6.1%. Finally, the optimized and validated method was applied to 4 urine and 5 OF specimens. This is the first method for the determination of THC, THC-COOH, CBN and CBD in urine and OF using MISPE technology.

  19. [Investigation of JinKui ShenQi pills by ultraviolet spectra and tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-lan; Sun, Zhi; Cheng, Bin; Ji, Yu-bin; Bai, Jing

    2008-08-01

    On the base of establishing the fingerprint of JinKui ShenQi pills, the ultraviolet spectra-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, method was used to identify the fingerprint. Seperation was performed on the Symmetry Shield RP18 (5 microm, 4. 6 mm X 15 mm) analytical column with mobile phase consisting of 1% acetic acid and acetonitrile with gradient elute at the flow rate of 1.0 mL x min(-1), and the ultraviolet detection wavelength was set at 248 nm. Using the above-mentioned chromatographic condition, the fingerprint of different samples was established and the same fingerprint was defined. The fingerprints of different samples were compared with similarity evaluation software published by Pharmacopeia committee codex (2004A). The mass spectrograph with API-ESI ionization source was used, setting the flow rate at 0.5 mL x min(-1) after splitting stream. The pressure of atomization room was 50 Psi, the flow rate of dry gas was 9.0 L x min(-1), the capillary voltage was 4 kV, and the transmission voltage was 70 V. The negative scanner mode was chosen, scan scope was 100-2000, using ion trap to analyze quasimolecular ion peak and the selected fragment ion, and TIC chromatography and second order mass chromatogram were recorded. The major constituents among in JinKui ShenQi pills from different origins were separated well by HPLC. Although there was difference among different origins, they showed nineteen identical characteristic absorption bands. Three fingerprints chemical compositions such as loganin, cinnamal and paeonol were identified based on the retention time and ultraviolet spectra of standard preparation. According to their ultraviolet spectra, molecular weight and fragmentation information, ten peaks in the fingerprint were identified by ultraviolet spectroscopy-mass, spectrometry/massg spectrometry. They are 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-glucose, loganin, paeoniflorin, 1,2,3,6-tetro-O-galloyl-glucose, soya-cerebroside, cornuside, and PGG, benzoyl

  20. The Pill Really Can Be Mightier Than the Sword: A Response to Recent Commentaries

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Malcolm; Graves, Alisha

    2016-01-01

    We appreciate the four commentaries that add new material and fresh perspectives to our article "The pill is mightier than the sword." In emphasizing the role of voluntary family planning and girls’ education as achievable strategies with a potential to make the world a more peaceable place, we did not mean to oversimplify or disregard the intrinsic complexity of human conflict. On the whole, the commentators support and add to our thesis, although we question Pillai and Ya-Chien Wang’s suggestion that we may have overstated the unique human predisposition to kill our own species. We present additional data on male team aggression. PMID:26927598

  1. Ingestible pill for heart rate and core temperature measurement in cattle.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Angel; Schoenig, Scott; Andresen, Daniel; Warren, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The livestock industry is an integral part of the United States economy. The continued production of quality beef requires new and improved methods for long term monitoring of animal health. Additional benefits can be realized from this class of technology, such as the ability to identify the presence of disease early and thereby prevent its spread. An important element of health assessment is the ability to monitor vital data such as heart rate and core body temperature. This paper presents preliminary results from the design of an ingestible pill that allows one to acquire heart rate (via a phonocardiograph) and core temperature in cattle. Packaging, circuitry, algorithms, and the wireless link are addressed.

  2. Genome sequence of a crustacean iridovirus, IIV31, isolated from the pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Piégu, Benoît; Guizard, Sébastien; Yeping, Tan; Cruaud, Corinne; Asgari, Sassan; Bideshi, Dennis K; Federici, Brian A; Bigot, Yves

    2014-07-01

    Members of the family Iridoviridae are animal viruses that infect only invertebrates and poikilothermic vertebrates. The invertebrate iridovirus 31 (IIV31) was originally isolated from adult pill bugs, Armadillidium vulgare (class Crustacea, order Isopoda, suborder Oniscidea), found in southern California on the campus of the University of California, Riverside, USA. IIV31 virions are icosahedral, have a diameter of about 135 nm, and contain a dsDNA genome 220.222 kbp in length, with 35.09 mol % G+C content and 203 ORFs. Here, we describe the complete genome sequence of this virus and its annotation. This is the eighth genome sequence of an IIV reported.

  3. The Role of Oral Contraceptive Pills on Increased Risk of Breast Cancer in Iranian Populations: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Soroush, Ali; Farshchian, Negin; Komasi, Saeid; Izadi, Neda; Amirifard, Nasrin; Shahmohammadi, Afshar

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer is one of the main public health issues in the world. Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer among women. It is also the second cause of mortality in women. The association between the use of oral contraceptive pills and breast cancer is controversial and a main issue in public health. Some findings have shown that taking these pills does not have a significant effect in increasing the risk of breast cancer, while others have confirmed the carcinogenic effect of these products. These contradictory findings necessitated this meta-analysis, through of all correlated studies in Iran. Methods All published studies were considered from June 2000 until June 2015, using reliable Latin databases like PubMed, Google Scholar, Google search, Scopus, and Science Direct, and Persian database like SID, Irandoc, IranMedex, and Magiran. Finally, 26 papers were selected: 24 studies were case control while two were population based studies. A total of 26 papers with 46,260 participants were assessed since 2001. Results Overall estimate of OR for the effect of oral contraceptive pills on breast cancer is 1.521 (CI = 1.25–1.85), which shows that the intervention group had more chance (52%) compared to the control group (P = 0.001). Using these pills increased the risk of breast cancer up to 1.52 times. Conclusions Because of directly increasing levels of estrogen and the role of estrogen in gaining weight indirectly, oral contraceptive pills can stimulate the occurrence of breast cancer. More studies should be conducted for controlling the period of pill use. PMID:28053965

  4. A pill for HIV prevention: déjà vu all over again?

    PubMed

    Myers, Julie E; Sepkowitz, Kent A

    2013-06-01

    Recent FDA approval of tenofovir-emtricitabine for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as a form of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has led to concern about implementation of this strategy. Fifty years ago, a very similar national and international debate occurred when the oral contraceptive pill ("the Pill" or "OCP") was approved. Contentious issues included OCP safety, cost, and the potential impact on sexual behavior--many of the same concerns being voiced currently about PrEP. In this article, we review the social and medical history of OCP, drawing parallels with the current PrEP debate. We also explore the key areas where PrEP differs from its forbear: lower efficacy, presence of drug resistance, and a more circumscribed (and marginalized) target population. A thoughtful approach to PrEP implementation, bearing in mind the historical insights gained from the 1960s, might serve as well as we begin this new chapter in the control of the HIV epidemic.

  5. De-constructing 'choice': the social imperative and women's use of the birth control pill.

    PubMed

    Granzow, Kara

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the social construction of 'choice' in women's use of the oral contraceptive birth control pill. Using social and historical critiques of neo-liberalism, it is argued that the contemporary priority placed on 'choice' positions women in contradictory ways-requiring them to be both 'choosing' reproductive subjects and reproductive subjects with very few options. The paper works to de-construct contemporary understandings of choice and finds that women's use of the birth control pill is less an exercise of idealized individual agency than it is an act of repetition, tied to ambiguity around what a lived experience of choice might be. To elaborate elements of the theoretical discussion, findings from a qualitative study of women's use of the oral contraceptive are discussed. These reveal that women's articulations of 'choice' challenge the notion of genuinely available and viable alternatives for women, and demonstrate how the use of a technology can silence understandings of contraception as something other than an individual responsibility.

  6. Paramagnetic Salt Pill Design for Magnetic Refrigerators Used In-Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagmann, C.; Benford, D. J.; Richards, P. L.

    An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is described which was designed for use in the multiband imaging photometer for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). This refrigerator was required to cool bolometric detectors for infrared and millimetre waves to 0.1 K. A paramagnetic salt pill with a number of novel features was developed to meet the stringent requirements for an ADR used in space. An unusual paramagnetic salt, chromic caesium alum (CCA), is used to meet the requirement of thermal stability under the bake-out temperatures used in commissioning space cryogenic vacuum systems. The cycle time for the refrigerator has been reduced to almost-equal-to 30 min by attention to thermal time constants and by growing the CCA salt directly on to an array of gold wires. Crystal growing procedures were developed to overcome problems with the low solubility of CCA in water. The salt pill is sealed in stainless steel to retain water of hydration and is constructed of materials which are not corroded by commonly used paramagnetic salts.

  7. A Little Bit of Sugar Helps the Pill Go Down: Resilience, Peace, and Family Planning

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, Roger-Mark

    2016-01-01

    The article by Potts et al, "The Pill is Mightier than the Sword," points out that family planning has an important role to play in building peace by increasing women’s empowerment and their agency, ultimately helping peacebuilding efforts. Evidence has demonstrated that family planning programs are cost effective, produce quick results, help women and couples meet their desired fertility levels, and produce a multitude of benefits around economic productivity, community engagement, conservation, resilience, and peacebuilding. In order for policy audiences from a variety of sectors, including conflict and peacebuilding, to appreciate these benefits, it is important to find common ground and articulate co-benefits that will help them appreciate and value the role of family planning, as it were, give them sugar to help the pill go down. This commentary examines how resilience, peacebuilding and family planning efforts need to focus on co-benefits in order to build on the successful interventions and opportunities that Potts et al highlight. PMID:26927398

  8. Designing a flashcard with knowledge pills for learning to solve chemistry exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancela, Angeles; Sanchez, Angel; Maceiras, Rocio

    2012-08-01

    Nowadays, universities tend to promote more learner-centred learning, creating a more interactive and motivational environment for students and teachers. This paper describes an expanded framework to help chemical educators to construct a quiz for solution of chemical exercises in their courses. The novelty of this contribution is that the proposed tool combines a flashcards-based method with knowledge pills. The framework has three levels: definition of problem for a teacher; the quiz; use of the quiz for the student. The tool could provide predefined or automatically generated exercises of chemicals. Students could practise where and whenever they like via the Internet. Theirs answers would be registered automatically by the tool and if the students have doubts about any of the questions, they can see a knowledge pill with a teacher explanation about the solution of the exercise. Moreover, they would be able to check their scores from the tests. Once the flashcards were designed and produced, the opinions of other lecturers and students about them were considered. Both groups considered that the tool could be useful to improve the students' learning process. For future work, this design will be used with the students and its effectiveness will be analysed.

  9. Cure for empire: the 'Conquer-Russia-Pill', pharmaceutical manufacturers, and the making of patriotic Japanese, 1904-45.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoi-Eun

    2013-04-01

    Seirogan, a popular anti-diarrhoeal pill, is arguably one of the most successful pharmaceutical products of modern Japan. What is less known is that the Japanese army initially developed Seirogan during the Russo-Japanese War as the ‘Conquer-Russia-Pill’, which was later marketed to the public by private manufacturers. Previous scholars have emphasised the top–down governmental method of mobilising private sectors to manipulate public opinion for the cause of external imperialist expansion and domestic stability during wartime Japan. But the matrix that the Conquer-Russia-Pill allows us to glimpse is an inverted power relation among the state, commercial sectors, and imperial citizens. While the Japanese government remained indifferent if not hostile to jingoistic pharmaceutical manufacturers who could easily disrupt international relations, pharmaceutical companies quickly recognised and exploited the opportunities that the Conquer-Russia-Pill and its symbolism provided under the banner of the empire. In turn, Japanese consumers reacted to commercial sermons carefully anchored in patriotic and militaristic discourses and images by opening their wallets. In other words, the popularity of the Conquer-Russia-Pill was a culmination of the convergence of a governmental initiative to enhance military capabilities, the commercial ingenuity of pharmaceutical manufacturers, and a consumer response to patriotic exhortations.

  10. Using Caffeine Pills for Performance Enhancement. An Experimental Study on University Students' Willingness and Their Intention to Try Neuroenhancements.

    PubMed

    Brand, Ralf; Koch, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that university students sometimes use caffeine pills for neuroenhancement (NE; non-medical use of psychoactive substances or technology to produce a subjective enhancement in psychological functioning and experience), especially during exam preparation. In our factorial survey experiment, we manipulated the evidence participants were given about the prevalence of NE amongst peers and measured the resulting effects on the psychological predictors included in the Prototype-Willingness Model of risk behavior. Two hundred and thirty-one university students were randomized to a high prevalence condition (read faked research results overstating usage of caffeine pills amongst peers by a factor of 5; 50%), low prevalence condition (half the estimated prevalence; 5%) or control condition (no information about peer prevalence). Structural equation modeling confirmed that our participants' willingness and intention to use caffeine pills in the next exam period could be explained by their past use of neuroenhancers, attitude to NE and subjective norm about use of caffeine pills whilst image of the typical user was a much less important factor. Provision of inaccurate information about prevalence reduced the predictive power of attitude with respect to willingness by 40-45%. This may be because receiving information about peer prevalence which does not fit with their perception of the social norm causes people to question their attitude. Prevalence information might exert a deterrent effect on NE via the attitude-willingness association. We argue that research into NE and deterrence of associated risk behaviors should be informed by psychological theory.

  11. Seasonal abundance and activity of pill millipedes ( Arthrosphaera magna) in mixed plantation and semi-evergreen forest of southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashwini, Krishna M.; Sridhar, Kandikere R.

    2006-01-01

    Seasonal occurrence and activity of endemic pill millipedes ( Arthrosphaera magna) were examined in organically managed mixed plantation and semi-evergreen forest reserve in southwest India between November 1996 and September 1998. Abundance and biomass of millipedes were highest in both habitats during monsoon season. Soil moisture, conductivity, organic carbon, phosphate, potassium, calcium and magnesium were higher in plantation than in forest. Millipede abundance and biomass were about 12 and 7 times higher in plantation than in forest, respectively ( P < 0.001). Their biomass increased during post-monsoon, summer and monsoon in the plantation ( P < 0.001), but not in forest ( P > 0.05). Millipede abundance and biomass were positively correlated with rainfall ( P = 0.01). Besides rainfall, millipedes in plantation were positively correlated with soil moisture as well as temperature ( P = 0.001). Among the associated fauna with pill millipedes, earthworms rank first followed by soil bugs in both habitats. Since pill millipedes are sensitive to narrow ecological changes, the organic farming strategies followed in mixed plantation and commonly practiced in South India seem not deleterious for the endangered pill millipedes Arthrosphaera and reduce the risk of local extinctions.

  12. Using Caffeine Pills for Performance Enhancement. An Experimental Study on University Students’ Willingness and Their Intention to Try Neuroenhancements

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Ralf; Koch, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that university students sometimes use caffeine pills for neuroenhancement (NE; non-medical use of psychoactive substances or technology to produce a subjective enhancement in psychological functioning and experience), especially during exam preparation. In our factorial survey experiment, we manipulated the evidence participants were given about the prevalence of NE amongst peers and measured the resulting effects on the psychological predictors included in the Prototype-Willingness Model of risk behavior. Two hundred and thirty-one university students were randomized to a high prevalence condition (read faked research results overstating usage of caffeine pills amongst peers by a factor of 5; 50%), low prevalence condition (half the estimated prevalence; 5%) or control condition (no information about peer prevalence). Structural equation modeling confirmed that our participants’ willingness and intention to use caffeine pills in the next exam period could be explained by their past use of neuroenhancers, attitude to NE and subjective norm about use of caffeine pills whilst image of the typical user was a much less important factor. Provision of inaccurate information about prevalence reduced the predictive power of attitude with respect to willingness by 40-45%. This may be because receiving information about peer prevalence which does not fit with their perception of the social norm causes people to question their attitude. Prevalence information might exert a deterrent effect on NE via the attitude-willingness association. We argue that research into NE and deterrence of associated risk behaviors should be informed by psychological theory. PMID:26903909

  13. Estradiol valerate and dienogest: a novel four-phasic oral contraceptive pill effective for pregnancy prevention and treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding.

    PubMed

    Micks, Elizabeth; Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2011-09-01

    Estradiol valerate and dienogest have been combined to create a novel four-phasic oral contraceptive pill effective for both pregnancy prevention and treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding. This formulation represents the only oral contraceptive pill available in the USA containing an estrogen component that is biologically active as the endogenous estrogen 17β-estradiol. This medication was developed out of efforts to replace the most common estrogen in contraceptive pills, ethinyl estradiol, which is known to be a potent inducer of hepatic protein synthesis. Estradiol valerate has been available since the 1970s in oral and injectable forms indicated for the treatment of menopausal climacteric symptoms. Dienogest has been used in other oral contraceptive pills for over 10 years. Previous attempts to develop an oral contraceptive pill with natural estradiol or estradiol valerate were unsuccessful due to poor cycle control. A novel dynamic-dosing regimen was devised to improve the bleeding pattern. This medication has been shown in several clinical trials to have good contraceptive efficacy and cycle control. Recent studies have also demonstrated that this medication is effective for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding. However, compared with other oral contraceptive pills, this medication is associated with a higher frequency of absent withdrawal bleeding. Furthermore, the dynamic dosing regimen requires relatively complex instructions for users who miss pills.

  14. [Application of the theories of materiomic release kinetics to the evaluation of the sustained release kinetics and synchronicity of yinqiaojiedu honeyed pills].

    PubMed

    Ling, Die; Zhang, Ji-Wen; Chen, Li-Bing; Lin, Meng; Ge, Wei-Hong; Gu, Jing-Kai

    2008-11-01

    Yinqiaojiedu honeyed pills were equally divided into 1/4, 1/8, 1/12, and 1/16 parts. The materiomics release rates within 12 h of the intact Yinqiaojiedu honeyed pills and the divided granules were determined by the paddle method with a rotate speed at 100 r x min(-1), and the materiome was quantified by UV-scan and Kalman filter methods. The intact Yinqiaojiedu honeyed pills behaved typical sustained release profiles, while the well-divided portions also maintained a sustained release profile over 2-4 h. The release rates were well correlated with the extents for the divisions of the pills. The Weibull distribution parameters, Td and T50, were reduced in line with the particle size, indicating that the ways of administration of the pills may play a role in the in vivo pharmacokinetics of the pills. The visualization results showed obvious difference of materiomic release synchronicities between the intact pills and the equally divided particles, and the divisions enhanced the asynchronization. Therefore the novel theory of materiomic release/dissolution kinetics of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) quantitatively proved the traditional dosage form, namely, honeyed pills, as a prototype of the sustained-release dosage form with a visualization of the scientific connotation to the old saying in the classics of TCM, Pills, the moderate ones in action. In terms of materiome increase for each period of the release profiles, the materiomic release synchronicity was visually demonstrated. The novel theories provided methodological basis for the evaluation of traditional dosage forms and the design of the modern drug delivery systems for TCMs.

  15. Methamphetamine Pills

    MedlinePlus

    ... rush. What are the risks? Effects include irritability/aggression, anxiety, nervousness, convulsions, and insomnia. Meth is addictive, ... full-blown toxic psychosis (often exhibited as violent, aggressive behavior). This behavior is usually coupled with extreme ...

  16. Temperature Pill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Ingestible Thermal Monitoring System was developed at Johns Hopkins University as means of getting internal temperature readings for treatments of such emergency conditions as dangerously low (hypothermia) and dangerously high (hyperthermia) body temperatures. ITMS's accuracy is off no more than one hundredth of a degree and provides the only means of obtaining deep body temperature. System has additional applicability in fertility monitoring and some aspects of surgery, critical care obstetrics, metabolic disease treatment, gerontology (aging) and food processing research. Three-quarter inch silicone capsule contains telemetry system, micro battery, and a quartz crystal temperature sensor inserted vaginally, rectally, or swallowed.

  17. Methamphetamine Pills

    MedlinePlus

    ... rush. What are the risks? Effects include irritability/aggression, anxiety, nervousness, convulsions, and insomnia. Meth is addictive, ... Alzheimer’s disease. What are signs of use? Irritability/aggression Anxiety Nervousness Convulsions Insomnia Source : National Institute on ...

  18. A "suicide pill" for older people: attitudes of physicians, the general population, and relatives of patients who died after euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Rurup, Mette L; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; Van Der Wal, Gerrit

    2005-01-01

    In the Netherlands there has been ongoing debate in the past 10 years about the availability of a hypothetical "suicide pill", with which older people could end their life in a dignified way if they so wished. Data on attitudes to the suicide pill were collected in the Netherlands from 410 physicians, 1,379 members of the general population, and 87 relatives of patients who died after euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide. The general population and relatives were more in favor than physicians. Fifteen percent of the general population and 36% of the relatives thought a suicide pill should be made available.

  19. Pill power: oral contraceptives hold top spot in family planning arsenal.

    PubMed

    1998-10-01

    Results of the 1998 "Contraceptive Technology Update" Pill Survey indicate that oral contraceptives (OCs) remain the top birth control choice for US women. More than 70% of providers who responded to the survey reported that at least 50 women leave their offices each month with an OC prescription. When asked to cite their first OC choice, for a 21-year-old nonsmoking woman, Ortho Tri-Cyclen was selected by 43.6% of providers. This OC is considered an excellent choice for young women because of its ease of use, good cycle control, and beneficial effect on acne. The top choices for a 42-year-old nonsmoking woman were Loestrin (26.5%) and Alesse (21.1%), both of which have low estrogen doses. 25% of providers indicated they had prescribed OCs specifically to decrease the ovarian cancer risk in genetically predisposed women.

  20. Review on the Applications and Molecular Mechanisms of Xihuang Pill in Tumor Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qiujun; Lin, Jinyin; Liu, Rui; Gao, Yebo; He, Shulin; Xu, Xinyao; Hua, Baojin; Li, Conghuang; Hou, Wei; Zheng, Honggang; Bao, Yanju

    2015-01-01

    Xihuang pill (XH) is a complementary and alternative medicine that has been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of tumors since the 18th century. XH has clinical effects on non-Hodgkin lymphoma, breast cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, and bone metastasis. XH can also inhibit the growth of tumor cells and cancer stem cells, prevent tumor invasion and angiogenesis, and regulate the tumor microenvironment. XH is composed of Ru Xiang (olibanum), Mo Yao (Commiphora myrrha), She Xiang (Moschus), and Niu Huang (Calculus bovis). Some of the compounds found in these ingredients exert multiple antitumor effects and may synergize with the other ingredients. We aimed to summarize the clinical applications and molecular mechanisms of XH and its chemical composition. This review will provide potential new strategies and alternative perspectives for tumor treatments and basic research into complementary and alternative medicine. PMID:26170886

  1. Estrogen-free oral hormonal contraception: benefits of the progestin-only pill.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Nilson Roberto

    2010-09-01

    Although combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are commonly used and highly effective in preventing pregnancy, they may not be suitable for some women. COC use is associated with increased rates of cardiovascular events and is not recommended in nonbreastfeeding women in the immediate postpartum period or in breastfeeding women during the initial 6 months of breastfeeding. Moreover, estrogen-related adverse effects, such as headache, are common. Estrogen-free progestin-only pills (POPs) are a valuable option in women who prefer to take an oral hormonal contraceptive, but are ineligible for, or choose not to use, COCs. Although some POPs have been associated with lower contraceptive effectiveness than COCs, the POP containing desogestrel has shown similar contraceptive effectiveness to COCs. The most commonly reported complaints in women using all POPs are bleeding problems. Counseling women interested in using POPs about the variable bleeding patterns associated with this method may improve compliance and acceptance.

  2. Diet pills, powders, and liquids: predictors of use by healthy weight females.

    PubMed

    Thorlton, Janet; Park, Chang; Hughes, Tonda

    2014-04-01

    About 35% of healthy weight adolescent females describe themselves as overweight, and 66% report planning to lose weight.Body weight dissatisfaction is associated with unhealthy weight loss practices including diet pill/powder/liquid (PPL) use. Few studies have examined diet PPL use in healthy weight adolescent females; therefore, Youth Risk Behavior Survey data (n =247) were analyzed to identify predictors of use. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were conducted using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Complex Samples software. Social cognitive theory served as the framework guiding the analysis. Approximately 8% of healthy weight females reported using diet PPL for weight loss. Describing self as overweight, planning to lose weight, being offered drugs at school, fasting to lose weight, cigarette/alcohol use, vomiting, and laxative use were significantly associated (p < .05) with diet PPL use. Health professionals, including school nurses, must assess for unhealthy weight loss practices in healthy weight females, in order to adequately address related issues.

  3. [Wernicke's encephalopathy induced by the use of diet pills and unbalanced diet].

    PubMed

    Tóth, Adrián; Aradi, Gabriella; Várallyay, György; Arányi, Zsuzsanna; Bereczki, Dániel; Vastagh, Ildikó

    2014-03-23

    Wernicke's encephalopathy is an acute, potentially life-threatening, neurological syndrome resulting from thiamine deficiency. The disorder is still greatly underdiagnosed and, without prompt treatment, the condition can lead to the chronic form of the disease, Korsakoff's syndrome or even death. In developed countries Wernicke's encephalopathy has been associated with alcoholism, but in recent years there has been an increasing number of non-alcoholic cases. Authors report the case of a 23-year-old woman who developed oculomotor dysfunction, encephalopathy and ataxia as a result of an extreme diet and use of diet pills. The diagnosis of Wernicke's encephalopathy was supported by the resolution of neurological signs after parenteral thiamine replacement. This case is presented because of the rare etiology and diagnostic difficulty, and the latest diagnostic and therapic guidelines are also highlighted.

  4. Chinese herbal medicine Yougui Pill reduces exogenous glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in anterior pituitary cells

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yong-zhi; Geng, Long; Zhou, Hong-bo; Wei, Hua-chen; Chen, Hong-duo

    2016-01-01

    Long-term glucocorticoid use may result in sustained suppression of one or more secreted components from the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, and often results in apoptosis. Yougui Pill (YGP), a 10-component traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been shown to be clinically effective for glucocorticoid-induced suppression of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, the pharmacological and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that YGP would exert an anti-apoptosis effect on dexamethasone-treated anterior pituitary cells. In vivo experiments showed that YGP significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells, down-regulated mRNA expression of cytochrome c, caspase-3, and caspase-9, and up-regulated mRNA expression of Bcl-2. These findings suggest that YGP reduced glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in rat anterior pituitary cells by regulating the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. PMID:28197193

  5. Stokesian dynamics of pill-shaped Janus particles with stick and slip boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiang; Klaseboer, Evert; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Chan, Derek Y. C.

    2013-04-01

    We study the forces and torques experienced by pill-shaped Janus particles of different aspect ratios where half of the surface obeys the no-slip boundary condition and the other half obeys the Navier slip condition of varying slip lengths. Using a recently developed boundary integral formulation whereby the traditional singular behavior of this approach is removed analytically, we quantify the strength of the forces and torques experienced by such particles in a uniform flow field in the Stokes regime. Depending on the aspect ratio and the slip length, the force transverse to the flow direction can change sign. This is a novel property unique to the Janus nature of the particles.

  6. Frequency of Candidiasis and Colonization of Candida albicans in Relation to Oral Contraceptive Pills

    PubMed Central

    Aminzadeh, Atousa; Sabeti Sanat, Ali; Nik Akhtar, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background Candidiasis, the infection caused by Candida albicans, is one of the most common infections of the oral cavity in humans. Candidiasis causes irritation and is known for its carcinogenic effects. Thus, it is important to recognize the predisposing factors for this opportunistic infection. Several previous studies have demonstrated an increased frequency of vaginal candidiasis in relation to oral contraceptive consumption. Objectives Only a few studies on the relation between oral contraceptives and oral candidiasis have been previously conducted. This study aims to evaluate the possible relation between oral contraceptive pills and oral candidiasis. Methods This analytic, case-control study included 40 non-pregnant women divided into two groups: 20 who used oral contraceptive pills and 20 who did not. The groups were matched according to age, oral health, and past and present medical history. Samples were collected from the tongue’s dorsum using a cotton swab and inoculated on CHROMagar culture plates. The frequency of positive cultures and the number of Candida colonies were compared between the two groups using independent t-tests and Mann-Whitney statistical tests with SPSS18 software. Results The frequency of positive cultures of Candida albicans was higher (P value = 0.03) for the case group. Also, the number of C. albicans and C. krusei was significantly higher for the case group compared to the control group (P value = 0.04, P value = 0.03). Conclusions The results of the present study demonstrate that oral contraceptives containing estradiol can lead to Candida colonization in the oral cavity. It is recommended that further studies comparing the influence of oral contraceptives on Candida’s adherence to the epithelium is highly recommended. PMID:28184328

  7. How to uncoil your partner—"mating songs" in giant pill-millipedes (Diplopoda: Sphaerotheriida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesener, Thomas; Köhler, Jörn; Fuchs, Stefan; van den Spiegel, Didier

    2011-11-01

    The stridulation of the giant pill-millipede genus Sphaerotherium from South Africa, one of only three groups of millipedes that produce sounds, was studied. One hundred one stridulation series of a total of nine different species ( Sphaerotherium dorsaloide, Sphaerotherium hanstroemi, Sphaerotherium mahaium, Sphaerotherium similare, Sphaerotherium punctulatum, Sphaerotherium convexitarsum, Sphaerotherium dorsale, Sphaerotherium rotundatum, and Sphaerotherium perbrincki) were analyzed. Stridulation sounds are produced only with a special field of ribs on the posterior surface of the posterior telopod, which is actively moved over a field of sclerotized nubs on the inner margin of the anal shield. The Sphaerotherium male usually stridulates only when in contact with a female to initiate mating. This seems to prevent the female from volvating into a ball or stimulate the female to uncoil when already rolled in. The sound analyzes revealed a broad frequency spectrum in all stridulation sounds produced, without obvious differences in frequency distribution among species. However, the temporal pattern of the stridulation varies greatly between species and seems to be species-specific, arguing for a species recognition function of the stridulation during courtship behavior. A single species ( S. punctulatum) was found to stridulate during mating while three species also show postcopulatory stridulation. Apparently, pill-millipedes are not capable of acoustic perception, as no hearing organs are known, indicating that the communication is mainly based on perception of temporal vibration patterns, and not of the acoustic signal itself. The need to overcome the rolling-in reflex of the female is developed as a hypothesis why stridulation exists only in millipedes able to coil into a ball, and apparently evolved four times independently in the superorder Oniscomorpha.

  8. Do fixed-dose combination pills or unit-of-use packaging improve adherence? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Connor, Jennie; Rafter, Natasha; Rodgers, Anthony

    2004-12-01

    Adequate adherence to medication regimens is central to the successful treatment of communicable and noncommunicable disease. Fixed-dose combination pills and unit-of-use packaging are therapy-related interventions that are designed to simplify medication regimens and so potentially improve adherence. We conducted a systematic review of relevant randomized trials in order to quantify the effects of fixed-dose combination pills and unit-of-use packaging, compared with medications as usually presented, in terms of adherence to treatment and improved outcomes. Only 15 trials met the inclusion criteria; fixed-dose combination pills were investigated in three of these, while unit-of-use packaging was studied in 12 trials. The trials involved treatments for communicable diseases (n = 5), blood pressure lowering medications (n = 3), diabetic patients (n = 1), vitamin supplementation (n = 1) and management of multiple medications by the elderly (n = 5). The results of the trials suggested that there were trends towards improved adherence and/or clinical outcomes in all but three of the trials; this reached statistical significance in four out of seven trials reporting a clinically relevant or intermediate end-point, and in seven out of thirteen trials reporting medication adherence. Measures of outcome were, however, heterogeneous, and interpretation was further limited by methodological issues, particularly small sample size, short duration and loss to follow-up. Overall, the evidence suggests that fixed-dose combination pills and unit-of-use packaging are likely to improve adherence in a range of settings, but the limitations of the available evidence means that uncertainty remains about the size of these benefits.

  9. Do fixed-dose combination pills or unit-of-use packaging improve adherence? A systematic review.

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Jennie; Rafter, Natasha; Rodgers, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    Adequate adherence to medication regimens is central to the successful treatment of communicable and noncommunicable disease. Fixed-dose combination pills and unit-of-use packaging are therapy-related interventions that are designed to simplify medication regimens and so potentially improve adherence. We conducted a systematic review of relevant randomized trials in order to quantify the effects of fixed-dose combination pills and unit-of-use packaging, compared with medications as usually presented, in terms of adherence to treatment and improved outcomes. Only 15 trials met the inclusion criteria; fixed-dose combination pills were investigated in three of these, while unit-of-use packaging was studied in 12 trials. The trials involved treatments for communicable diseases (n = 5), blood pressure lowering medications (n = 3), diabetic patients (n = 1), vitamin supplementation (n = 1) and management of multiple medications by the elderly (n = 5). The results of the trials suggested that there were trends towards improved adherence and/or clinical outcomes in all but three of the trials; this reached statistical significance in four out of seven trials reporting a clinically relevant or intermediate end-point, and in seven out of thirteen trials reporting medication adherence. Measures of outcome were, however, heterogeneous, and interpretation was further limited by methodological issues, particularly small sample size, short duration and loss to follow-up. Overall, the evidence suggests that fixed-dose combination pills and unit-of-use packaging are likely to improve adherence in a range of settings, but the limitations of the available evidence means that uncertainty remains about the size of these benefits. PMID:15654408

  10. Is Time an Important Problem in Management of Hypertension and Hypercholesterolemia by Using an Amlodipine-Atorvastatin Single Pill Combination?

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Rui; Wang, Mian; Zhang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Background Is the timing of dosing for amlodipine and atorvastatin important with regard to therapeutic efficacy? To answer this question, we designed an outpatient, practice-based, case-control study lasting 8 weeks. Material/Methods Two hundred patients were divided into 2 groups: in Group I, patients were provided with a single pill containing amlodipine/atorvastatin (5/20 mg) to be taken each night at 10 pm, and in Group II, patients were taking amlodipine (5 mg) and atorvastatin (20 mg) each morning at 7 am. Results Our results indicated no obvious difference in blood pressure control between the 2 groups. Taking amlodipine at night not only lowered blood pressure, but it also provided better control during the peak blood pressure in the morning. Hypercholesterolemia control in the 2 groups was also not significantly different, taking atorvastatin in the morning was as effective as dosing at night in patients with hypercholesterolemia. While the carotid IMT, hs-CRP, and LVMI were significantly lower after treatment, no differences were found between the 2 groups. Although no obvious difference was found in adverse drug reactions between the 2 groups, compliance was much better in the single-pill group than in patients taking the 2 medications separately. Conclusions In conclusion, single-pill amlodipine-atorvastatin taken at night can lower blood pressure and reduce the morning peak blood pressure levels the next day. Additionally, this dosing method could improve patient adherence to the therapy. PMID:27459306

  11. Over-the-counter sleeping pills: a survey of use in Hong Kong and a review of their constituents.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ka Fai; Lee, Claire K Y

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the composition of over-the-counter (OTC) sleeping pills in Hong Kong and reviewed the current knowledge about the hypnotic efficacy and safety of their major herbal and dietary supplement constituents. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of OTC sleep aids at drug stores in a residential district of 0.3 million population and literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, China Journal Net, China Biomedical Database and relevant English and Chinese literature. We identified 17 brands of OTC sleeping pill: eleven of them were composed of mixtures of Chinese and Western herbal agents and six brands contained 3 mg of melatonin. The Chinese herbal mixture suanzaorentang, comprising zizyphi spinosi semen, poria cocos, ligusticum wallichii, anemarrhenae rhizoma and glycyrrhizae radix in ratio of 7:5:2:1:1, was the most common OTC sleeping pill available in the survey. Our literature review showed that kava, valerian and melatonin were the better-researched herbs and dietary supplements, however, the data on hypnotic efficacy and safety was inadequate to support their clinical use. More rigorous investigations of the risk-benefit relationship of herbal agents and dietary supplements used for insomnia are needed.

  12. Is Time an Important Problem in Management of Hypertension and Hypercholesterolemia by Using an Amlodipine-Atorvastatin Single Pill Combination?

    PubMed

    Zeng, Rui; Wang, Mian; Zhang, Li

    2016-07-26

    BACKGROUND Is the timing of dosing for amlodipine and atorvastatin important with regard to therapeutic efficacy? To answer this question, we designed an outpatient, practice-based, case-control study lasting 8 weeks. MATERIAL AND METHODS Two hundred patients were divided into 2 groups: in Group I, patients were provided with a single pill containing amlodipine/atorvastatin (5/20 mg) to be taken each night at 10 pm, and in Group II, patients were taking amlodipine (5 mg) and atorvastatin (20 mg) each morning at 7 am. RESULTS Our results indicated no obvious difference in blood pressure control between the 2 groups. Taking amlodipine at night not only lowered blood pressure, but it also provided better control during the peak blood pressure in the morning. Hypercholesterolemia control in the 2 groups was also not significantly different, taking atorvastatin in the morning was as effective as dosing at night in patients with hypercholesterolemia. While the carotid IMT, hs-CRP, and LVMI were significantly lower after treatment, no differences were found between the 2 groups. Although no obvious difference was found in adverse drug reactions between the 2 groups, compliance was much better in the single-pill group than in patients taking the 2 medications separately. CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, single-pill amlodipine-atorvastatin taken at night can lower blood pressure and reduce the morning peak blood pressure levels the next day. Additionally, this dosing method could improve patient adherence to the therapy.

  13. Design and performance of a fast thermal response miniature Chromium Potassium Alum (CPA) salt pill for use in a millikelvin cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, J.; Hardy, G.; Hepburn, I. D.

    2015-01-01

    The design and performance of a fast thermal response miniature (24 mm outer diameter by 30 mm long) Chromium Potassium Alum (CPA) salt pill is described. The need for a fast thermal response has been driven by the development of a continuously operating millikelvin cryocooler (mKCC) which uses 2 T superconducting magnets that can be ramped to full field in 30 s. The consequence of magnetising and demagnetising the CPA pill in such a short time is that thermal boundary resistance and eddy current heating have a significant impact on the performance of the pill, which was investigated in detail using modelling. The complete design of a prototype CPA pill is described in this paper, including the methods used to minimise thermal boundary resistance and eddy current heating as well as the manufacturing and assembly processes. The performance of the prototype CPA pill operated from a 3.6 K bath is presented, demonstrating that a complete CPA cycle (magnetising, cooling to bath and demagnetising) can be accomplished in under 2.5 min, with magnetisation and demagnetisation taking just 30 s each. The cold finger base temperature of the prototype varies with demagnetisation speed as a consequence of eddy current heating; for a 30 s demagnetisation, a base temperature of 161 mK is obtained, whilst for a 5 min demagnetisation, a base temperature of 149 mK was measured (both from a 3.6 K and 2 T starting position). The measured hold times of the CPA pill at 200 mK, 300 mK, and 1 K are given, proving that the hold time far exceeds the recycle time and demonstrating the potential for continuous operation when two ADRs are used in a tandem configuration. The ease and speed at which the CPA pill temperature can be changed and controlled when stepping between operating temperatures in the range of 200 mK to 4 K using a servo control program is also shown, once again highlighting the excellent thermal response of the pill. All of the test results are in good agreement with the

  14. Effect of the Garlic Pill in comparison with Plavix on Platelet Aggregation and Bleeding Time

    PubMed Central

    Fakhar, H; Hashemi Tayer, A

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Platelet aggregation plays a significant role in the etiology of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, treatments to inhibit platelet aggregation can reduce the risk of coronary thrombosis. Several studies indicated that garlic can inhibit platelet aggregation. This study aimed to determine the effect of garlic in comparison with Plavix on platelet aggregation. Materials and Methods In this randomized clinical trial, platelet aggregation and bleeding time was obtained from 36 healthy volunteers. Volunteers were randomly divided into 4 groups. The first, second and third groups respectively received 600, 1200 and 2400 mg garlic and the fourth group received 75 mg Plavix for three weeks. Afterwards, platelet aggregation and bleeding time were both evaluated and the results before and after the study were compared. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 16. Results Platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate and arachidonic acid agonists decreased in the groups that used 1200 or 2400 mg garlic. This difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). As compared to the other groups, the bleeding time also increased in those received 2400 mg garlic pill. Conclusion Since garlic can inhibit platelet aggregation, it is suggested to use it as a supplementary treatment to reduce platelet aggregation is highly recommended. PMID:24575255

  15. Bak Foong Pills induce an analgesic effect by inhibiting nociception via the somatostatin pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, Dewi Kenneth; Cui, Yu Gui; So, Siu Cheung; Tsang, Lai Ling; Chung, Yiu Wa; Chan, Hsiao Chang

    2012-01-01

    Dysmenorrhoea, defined as cramping pain in the lower abdomen occurring before or during menstruation, affects, to varying degrees, up to 90% of women of child-bearing age. We investigated whether BFP (Bak Foong Pills), a traditional Chinese medicine treatment for dysmenorrhoea, possesses analgesic properties. Results showed that BFP was able to significantly reduce pain responses following subchronic treatment for 3 days, but not following acute (1 h) treatment in response to acetic acid-induced writhing in C57/B6 mice. The analgesic effect was not due to inhibition of COX (cyclo-oxygenase) activity, evidenced by the lack of inhibition of prostacyclin and PGE2 (prostaglandin E2) production. Molecular analysis revealed that BFP treatment modulated the expression of a number of genes in the spinal cord of mice subjected to acetic acid writhing. RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) analysis of spinal cord samples showed that both sst4 (somatostatin receptor 4) and sst2 receptor mRNA, but not μOR (μ-opiate receptor) and NK1 (neurokinin-1) receptor mRNA, were down-regulated following BFP treatment, thus implicating somatostatin involvement in BFP-induced analgesia. Administration of c-som (cyclo-somatostatin), a somatostatin antagonist, prior to acetic acid-induced writhing inhibited the analgesic effect. Thus subchronic treatment with BFP has anti-nociceptive qualities mediated via the somatostatin pathway.

  16. Rationale for a single-pill combination of perindopril arginine and amlodipine besylate.

    PubMed

    Elliott, William J

    2015-04-01

    A systematic review identified 86 outcome-based clinical trials involving perindopril, amlodipine, or other antihypertensive drugs. In fixed-effects meta-analyses of 11 clinical trials (90,208 subjects), amlodipine was associated with a significant 24% increase in heart failure, but a significant decrease in death, cardiovascular death, stroke, coronary heart disease, and first major cardiovascular adverse event. In five clinical trials (52,565 subjects), perindopril was associated with a significant reduction in all six cardiovascular endpoints. Network and Bayesian meta-analyses suggested that (with the exception of amlodipine and heart failure), each agent was at least as effective as an initial diuretic to prevent these events. Short-term trials have demonstrated that the combination of perindopril and amlodipine is safe and effective, with statistically greater lowering of blood pressure than either agent alone and a potential synergistic effect on pedal edema. The single-pill combination of perindopril and amlodipine may be a useful addition to the antihypertensive armamentarium.

  17. Absorption, metabolism and effect of compatibility on absorption of qishenyiqi dropping pill.

    PubMed

    Han, Yan-Qi; Wang, Jing; Cui, Qing-Xin; Wang, Li-Qiang; Cheng, Bin-Feng; Zhao, Hong-Zhi; Jiang, Min; Bai, Gang; Luo, Guo-An

    2014-04-01

    Qishenyiqi dropping pill (QSYQ), is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription for treating heart diseases in China. Knowledge concerning the systemic identification of active compounds and metabolic components of QSYQ is generally lacking. Therefore, it is essential to develop a valid method for the analysis of active compounds of the combined prescription and determination of interactions among the herbs. The absorbable compounds and metabolites of QSYQ were profiled using computational chemistry prediction, an improved everted gut sac in vitro experiment, the Caco-2 cell monolayer in vitro test, a rat in vivo experiment and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection/quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrum (UPLC/DAD/Q-TOF MS). In total, 42 prototype compounds were recognized as absorbable compounds, and eight metabolites were identified by UPLC/DAD/Q-TOF MS. The absorption rates of phenolic acids and saponins were significantly improved and the absorption of isoflavone was inhibited after compatibility. The volatile oil component had an improved effect on the absorption of other compounds, while its own absorption was inhibited. In conclusion, the present study established a rapid and effective strategy for demonstrating the absorption and metabolism of QSYQ and revealing the compatible relationship among herbs. This investigation can provide a reference for the compatibility of prescriptions and the modernization of TCM.

  18. What’s in a Label? Ecstasy Sellers’ Perceptions of Pill Brands†

    PubMed Central

    Duterte, Micheline; Jacinto, Camille; Sales, Paloma; Murphy, Sheigla

    2009-01-01

    This article presents selected findings from a qualitative study of Ecstasy sellers and their sales practices, knowledge of distribution networks, buyer-seller relationships, and self-reported drug use. In-depth interviews were conducted with 80 men and women who had sold five or more hits of Ecstasy five or more times in the six months prior to the interview. Study participants described their perceptions of the various types of Ecstasy they had distributed or used themselves. The participants had experience with a variety of Ecstasy labels, from the popular “Blue Dolphin” tablets to the powdered form called “Molly.” We tracked pill brand mentions on Ecstasy-related websites to compare with interviewees’ descriptions of Ecstasy brands. This study examines Ecstasy sellers’ ideas about the role of brand names in Ecstasy markets and their relationship to their beliefs about different types of Ecstasy’s purity and quality. We demonstrate that considering Ecstasy branding increases our understanding of buyer and seller relationships. PMID:19455907

  19. Thin CVD-diamond RF Pill-Box vacuum windows for LHCD systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravera, G. L.; Ceccuzzi, S.; Cardinali, A.; Cesario, R.; Mirizzi, F.; Schettini, G.; Tuccillo, A. A.

    2014-02-01

    The preliminary assessment of a Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system for the DEMOnstration power plant (DEMO) is mainly focused on the R&D needs of the less conventional RF components of the Main Transmission Line (MTL) and of the launcher. 500 kW, CW klystrons will be used to deliver the RF power to independent Passive Active Multijunction (PAM) launcher modules at 5 GHz. This paper describes the criteria followed to investigate the optimum solution for the RF window used as vacuum barrier between the MTL and the launcher, an open issue in the LHCD system for ITER too. The best candidate, capable of withstanding a power level of, or above, 0.5 MW in CW operation and to satisfy the electrical and thermonuclear requirements, is a Pill-Box assembly, based on a thin single disk of CVD-diamond as dielectric, water cooled at the edge. A thickness of 3 mm, much shorter than half a wavelength of the TE°11 mode in the dielectric as in the conventional window (unfeasible and too expensive with CVD-diamond at these frequencies), is sufficient to limit the exerted stress at the edge under the fracture stress for a maximum pressure applied of 0.9 MPa. In this paper the simulation results of conventional and thin CVD-diamond vacuum windows are presented comparing S-parameters, losses and electric fields in both matching condition and with VSWR = 2, using WR284 and WR229 as input/output rectangular waveguide.

  20. Role of diet on the enterohepatic recycling of estrogen in women taking contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Sher, A; Rahman, A

    1994-09-01

    The effect of diet on the enterohepatic recycling of estrogen after oral administration of 1 mg non-radioactive estriol (E3) was studied in six women using contraceptive pills. The women were followed for two consecutive menstrual cycles, firstly on a high fibre diet (HFD) and then changing on to low fibre diet (LFD) during the next cycle, hence each subject acted as its own control. The extent of enterohepatic recycling of estriol (E3) during the early follicular phase of menstrual cycle was assessed by monitoring during 48 hours, the urinary excretion of its two major metabolites, i.e., estriol-3-qlucuronide (E3-3-G) and estriol 16 alpha-glucuronide (E3-16 alpha-G). An increase in values of the variables including E3-3-G/E3-16 alpha-G output ratio, E3-3-G output as % of total (E3-3-G+E3-16 alpha-G) excretion and total E3 (E3-3-G+E3-16 alpha-G) output as % dose was noted as a result of change from high to low fibre diet. The urinary excretion of E3 in the form of its metabolites was also delayed as a result of dietary change. These findings reveal that extent of enterohepatic recycling of estrogen containing contraceptives could be higher in women on LFD as compared to those who are on HFD.

  1. Diet pills and the cataract outbreak of 1935: reflections on the evolution of consumer protection legislation.

    PubMed

    Margo, Curtis E; Harman, Lynn E

    2014-01-01

    An outbreak of cataracts in 1935 caused by dinitrophenol (DNP), the active ingredient of popular diet pills, highlighted the inability of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prevent harmful drugs from entering the marketplace. Just two years earlier, the FDA used horrific images of ocular surface injury caused by cosmetics at the World's Fair in Chicago to garner public support for legislative reform. The FDA had to walk a fine line between a public awareness campaign and lobbying Congress while lawmakers debated the need for consumer protection. The cataract outbreak of 1935 was conspicuous in the medical literature during the height of New Deal legislation, but questions persist as to how much it affected passage of the proposed Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (of 1938). The legislation languished in committee for years. The cataract outbreak probably had little impact on the eventual outcome, but medical opinion concerning the safety of DNP may have contributed to the voluntary withdrawal of the diet drug from the market. We review the DNP cataract outbreak and examine it in context of the challenges facing regulatory reform at that time.

  2. Enhanced Estrogenic Activity of Soybean Isoflavones by Coadministration of Liuwei Dihuang Pills in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Xie, Baogang; Zhang, Shuohua; Liu, Jie; Zhan, Xuejun; Xie, Daze; Zhang, Zhirong

    2015-07-01

    Soybean isoflavones are beneficial for treating hormone-related diseases. Simultaneous consumption of soybean isoflavones and Liuwei Dihuang pills (LWPs) is effective for treating perimenopausal period syndrome. However, why the combination of isoflavones and LWPs is more effective than ingestion of each component alone remains unknown. Here, we show that enhanced estrogenic activities would appear when the ovariectomized rats were fed with a soybean diet in combination of LWPs treatment. Our further studies explored enhancements of Lactobacillus (19-fold) and Bifidobacterium (12-fold) contents in the intestine of rat and 1.84-fold higher intestinal β-glucosidase activity in LWPs treatment group compared with the control group. As a result, steady-state concentrations of genistein (1.20-fold), daidzein (1.36-fold), and equol (1.43-fold) in serum were significantly elevated in the combination group compared with the soybean alone group. The results present the first evidence of the mechanism of enhanced estrogenic activity of dietary soybean isoflavones in combination with LWPs. Our study indicates that alterations of gut bacteria after LWPs treatment play a key role in the enhanced estrogenic effect of dietary soybean, suggesting a direct relationship between dietary soybean, LWPs, and gut flora.

  3. Association between increased availability of emergency contraceptive pills and the sexual and contraceptive behaviors of women.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Danielle N

    2014-08-01

    In the United States (US), access to emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) expanded to nationwide in 2006 when regulators allowed Plan B, a brand of emergency contraception, to be sold without prescription. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2001 to 2010, I examined any association between increased access to these ECPs in the US and negative consequences. I found an association between increased access to ECPs and a 2.2 per cent higher probability of any sexual activity, a 5.2 per cent increase in the likelihood of reporting sex with multiple partners, an increase in the average number of partners by 0.35, and a -7.6 per cent decrease in the likelihood of injectable contraceptive use. These results suggest that policies in the US and other countries that expand access to ECPs should be paired with information on ECPs' lack of protection against sexually transmitted infections and relatively lower efficacy compared to other forms of contraception.

  4. [Research on bioactive ingredients in rat liver after oral administration of different combinations of Wuji pill].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui-Jie; Chen, Ying; Gong, Zi-Peng; Dong, Yu; Zhang, Hai-Xian; Yang, Qing; Weng, Xiao-Gang; Li, Yu-Jie; Zhu, Xiao-Xin

    2014-05-01

    A L9 (3(4)) orthogonal design table to be used to get nine combinations of extraction of three herbs of Wuji pill: Coptis chinensis, Tetradium ruticarpum and Paeonia lactiflora Pall., and nine extraction of single herbs correspondingly, altogether eighteen combinations. Quantification of five representative bioactive ingredients: berberine, palmatine, evodiamine, rutaecarpine, paeoniflorin in rat liver by ultra high liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after oral administration at 2 h time point of eighteen combinations. The result shows the bioactive ingredients have different concentrations betweem different combinations and the single herb with the same dosage significantly as well as the same dose combinations. C. chinensis with evodiamine concentration of low and high dose T. ruticarpum was positively correlated. T. ruticarpum with berberine concentration of low dose C. chinensis was negatively correlated and of meddle dose C. chinensis was correlated positively. T. ruticarpum with paeoniflorin concentration of middle dose P. lactiflora was correlated positively. P. lactiflora with palmatine concentration of middle dose C. chinensis was negatively correlated and with evodiamine and rutaecarpine concentration of middle dose T. ruticarpum was negatively correlated. These shows the three single herbs interactions resulted in the differences of each ingredients concentration in rat liver. The orthogonal analysis indicates the combination 12: 6: 6 make the maximum concentration in rat liver.

  5. Chinese Herbal Cardiotonic Pill Stabilizes Vulnerable Plaques in Rabbits by Decreasing the Expression of Adhesion Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Li, Xiaonan; Li, Changjiang; Rong, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Yawei; Xu, Xinsheng; Yao, Guihua; Jiang, Guihua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The cardiotonic pill (CP), consisting of a mixture of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Notoginseng, and Borneolum Syntheticum, has been widely used in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Adhesion molecules, including intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, are involved in the development of vulnerable plaque. We investigated the effect of the CP in a rabbit model of vulnerable plaque established by local transfection with p53 gene. Compared with the control group, rabbits with vulnerable plaque showed a significantly lower intima-media thickness and plaque burden after CP treatment for 12 weeks. Moreover, the reduction in rate of plaque rupture and vulnerability index was similar. On enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry analysis, the expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 was inhibited with CP treatment. CP treatment could postpone atherosclerotic plaque development and stabilize vulnerable plaque by inhibiting the expression of adhesion molecules in treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:27110743

  6. The effect of external marking on the behaviour of the common pill woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Drahokoupilová, Táňa; Tuf, Ivan Hadrián

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Zoologists distinguish individual animals using marking techniques. Generally they test the potential influence of marking on survival only; the influence on behaviour is usually neglected. We evaluated the influence of two external marking techniques (nail polish and queen-bee marker) on the behaviour of common pill woodlouse, Armadillidium vulgare. The behaviour was examined from two points of view: (1) activity during 24 hours and (2) specific expressions of behaviour (exploring, feeding, resting and hiding) over a 24 hour period. We compared behaviour among woodlice marked with nail polish and queen-bee marker with the unmarked control group during a nine-day experiment. Although we did not find any influence of marking on survival, there was an evident influence on behaviour in most cases. Generally, in the groups of marked individuals of Armadillidium vulgare there were large differences observed against the control group in the overall activity. Activity of marked individuals was significantly reduced and they preferred hiding. The influence of polish and marker on the overall frequencies of behavioural categories was evident, mainly in feeding, resting and hiding. The influence on the frequency of exploring was significant in the polish marked group only. PMID:22536105

  7. Severe Erosive Pill Esophagitis Induced by Crizotinib Therapy: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Fortinsky, Kyle J.; Gallinger, Zane R.; Tartaro, Piero

    2016-01-01

    Previous case reports have described esophagitis thought to be secondary to crizotinib, an oral tyrosine-kinase inhibitor used in the treatment of anaplastic lymphoma kinase- (ALK-) positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In those reports, the interval development of esophagitis was between two days and three months after initiating or reinitiating crizotinib therapy. We present a woman who developed ulcerative esophagitis ten months after beginning crizotinib therapy, which is highly unusual. We believe the provoking factor was a change in her medication administration routine, done to accommodate religious practices during the period of Ramadan. This case illustrates the mechanism of pill esophagitis and reinforces the importance of patient education when it comes to medication administration. Clinicians may consider early imaging or investigations in patients with concerning symptomatology in the context of crizotinib therapy or other offending medications. Future research may help to uncover additional risk factors for this exceedingly rare diagnosis in this patient population. Most importantly, this case highlights nonpharmacologic ways to improve tolerability and decrease adverse effects of a highly effective chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:28053793

  8. Pill count adherence to prenatal multivitamin/mineral supplement use among low-income women.

    PubMed

    Jasti, Sunitha; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Cogswell, Mary E; Hartzema, Abraham G; Bentley, Margaret E

    2005-05-01

    In the United States, the prevalence of third trimester anemia among low-income pregnant women is 29% and has not improved since the 1980s. Although low adherence has been linked to the ineffectiveness of iron supplementation programs, data regarding adherence to supplementation in low-income women are currently lacking. Hence this study was conducted to better understand the factors associated with adherence to the use of iron-containing prenatal multivitamin/mineral supplements among low-income pregnant women. Adherence to supplement use was assessed by pill counts among 244 pregnant women of 867 women who were initially randomized to receive 1 of 3 prenatal supplements. All women received care at a public prenatal clinic. Maternal characteristics associated with adherence were identified using predictive modeling. Women took 74% of supplements as prescribed. Adherence was higher among non-Hispanic white women than among non-Hispanic black women (79% vs. 72%, P

  9. The Effect on Treatment Adherence of Administering Drugs as Fixed-Dose Combinations versus as Separate Pills: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Galen, Katy A.; Nellen, Jeannine F.; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T.

    2014-01-01

    Administering drugs as fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) versus the same active drugs administered as separate pills is assumed to enhance treatment adherence. We synthesized evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the effect of FDCs versus separate pills on adherence. We searched PubMed for RCTs comparing a FDC with the same active drugs administered as separate pills, including a quantitative estimate of treatment adherence, without restriction to medical condition. The odds ratio (OR) of optimal adherence with FDCs versus separate pills was used as common effect size and aggregated into a pooled effect estimate using a random effect model with inverse variance weights. Out of 1258 articles screened, only six studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Across medical conditions, administering drugs as FDC significantly increased the likelihood of optimal adherence (OR 1.33 (95% CI, 1.03–1.71)). Within subgroups of specific medical conditions, the favourable effect of FDCs on adherence was of borderline statistical significance for HIV infection only (OR 1.46 (95% CI, 1.00–2.13)). We observed a remarkable paucity of RCTs comparing the effect on adherence of administering drugs as FDC versus as separate pills. Administering drugs as FDC improved medication adherence. However, this conclusion is based on a limited number of RCTs only. PMID:25276422

  10. The Effect on Treatment Adherence of Administering Drugs as Fixed-Dose Combinations versus as Separate Pills: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    van Galen, Katy A; Nellen, Jeannine F; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T

    2014-01-01

    Administering drugs as fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) versus the same active drugs administered as separate pills is assumed to enhance treatment adherence. We synthesized evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the effect of FDCs versus separate pills on adherence. We searched PubMed for RCTs comparing a FDC with the same active drugs administered as separate pills, including a quantitative estimate of treatment adherence, without restriction to medical condition. The odds ratio (OR) of optimal adherence with FDCs versus separate pills was used as common effect size and aggregated into a pooled effect estimate using a random effect model with inverse variance weights. Out of 1258 articles screened, only six studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Across medical conditions, administering drugs as FDC significantly increased the likelihood of optimal adherence (OR 1.33 (95% CI, 1.03-1.71)). Within subgroups of specific medical conditions, the favourable effect of FDCs on adherence was of borderline statistical significance for HIV infection only (OR 1.46 (95% CI, 1.00-2.13)). We observed a remarkable paucity of RCTs comparing the effect on adherence of administering drugs as FDC versus as separate pills. Administering drugs as FDC improved medication adherence. However, this conclusion is based on a limited number of RCTs only.

  11. Pill Burden Influences the Association Between Time-Based Prospective Memory and Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence in Younger But Not Older HIV-Infected Adults.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, David P; Weber, Erica; Casaletto, Kaitlin B; Avci, Gunes; Woods, Steven Paul

    2016-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is associated with antiretroviral (ARV) adherence in HIV, but little is known about how pill burden and age might affect this association. One hundred seventeen older (≥50 years) and 82 younger (<50 years) HIV-infected adults were administered a measure of PM in the laboratory and subsequently were monitored for ARV adherence for 30 days using the Medication Event Monitoring System. In the older group, better time-based PM performance was associated with higher likelihood of adherence, irrespective of pill burden. Within the younger sample, time-based PM was positively related to adherence only in participants with lower pill burdens. Younger HIV-infected individuals with higher pill burdens may overcome the normal effects of time-based PM on adherence through compensatory medication-taking strategies, whereas suboptimal use of these strategies by younger HIV-infected individuals with lower pill burdens may heighten their risk of ARV nonadherence secondary to deficits in time-based PM.

  12. Adherence to the oral contraceptive pill: a cross-sectional survey of modifiable behavioural determinants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Poor adherence to the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) is reported as one of the main causes of unintended pregnancy in women that rely on this form of contraception. This study aims to estimate the associations between a range of well-established modifiable psychological factors and adherence to OCP. Method A cross-sectional survey of 130 female University students currently using OCP (Mean age: 20.46 SD: 3.01, range 17–36) was conducted. An OCP specific Medication Adherence Report Scale was used to assess non-adherence. Psychological predictor measures included necessity and concern beliefs about OCP, intentions, perceived behavioural control (pbc), anticipated regret and action and coping planning. Multiple linear regression was used to analyse the data. Results Fifty-two per cent of participants reported missing their OCP once or more per month and 14% twice or more per month. In bivariate analysis intentions (r = −0.25), perceived behavioural control (r= −0.66), anticipated regret (r=0.20), concerns about OCP (r =0.31), and action (r= −0.25) and coping (r= −0.28) planning were all significantly associated with adherence to OCP in the predicted direction. In a multivariate model almost half (48%) of the variation in OCP adherence could be explained. The strongest and only statistically significant predictors in this model were perceived behavioural control (β=−0.62, p<0.01) and coping planning (β =−0.23, p=0.03). A significant interaction between intentions and anticipated regret was also observed. Conclusion The present data point to a number of key modifiable psychological determinants of OCP use. Future work will establish whether changing these variables results in better adherence to the OCP. PMID:23031437

  13. Compound Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) dripping pill for coronary heart disease: an overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing; Song, Weijiang; Yang, Guoyan; Xu, Hao; Chen, Keji

    2015-01-01

    Compound Danshen dripping pill (CDDP) is commonly used to treat coronary heart disease (CHD) in China. However, clinical practice has not been informed by evidence from relevant systematic reviews (SRs). This overview aims at summarizing evidence from SRs on CDDP for the treatment of CHD. We included SRs of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on CDDP in treating CHD until March 2014 by searching the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE and four Chinese databases. Data were extracted according to a pre-designed form. We assessed the quality of SRs according to AMSTAR and graded the quality of evidence in the included SRs using the GRADE approach. All data analyses were descriptive. About 13 SRs involving a total of 34,071 participants with angina or acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were included. Few SRs assessed endpoints (5/13, 38.5%) and quality of life (QOL) (4/13, 30.8%). Most of the SRs suggested that CDDP had potential benefits for patients with CHD, such as improving symptoms and electrocardiogram (ECG) results, with few adverse reactions, while benefits in endpoints were unproved. Moreover, the overall quality of evidence in the SRs was poor, ranging from "very low" to "moderate", and most of the included SRs were of "low" (3/13, 23.1%) or "moderate" (9/13, 69.2%) quality with many serious flaws. Current SRs suggested potential benefits of CDDP for the treatment of CHD. However, high-quality evidence is warranted to support the application of CDDP in treating CHD.

  14. Suxiao Jiuxin Pill Induces Potent Relaxation and Inhibition on Contraction in Human Artery and the Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Ping; Yang, Qin; Liu, Xiao-Cheng; Wang, Jun; Tong, Yong-Ling; Xiong, Song-Jin; Liu, Li-Hua; Wang, Lei; He, Guo-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Suxiao Jiuxin Pill, a compound Chinese traditional medicine with main components of tetramethylpyrazine and borneol, is widely used for antiangina treatment in China but its pharmacological effect on human blood vessels is unknown. We investigated the effect and possible mechanism of SJP in the human internal mammary artery (IMA, n = 78) taken from patients undergoing coronary surgery. SJP caused full relaxation in KCl- (99.4 ± 10.5%, n = 6) and U46619- (99.9 ± 5.6%, n = 6) contracted IMA. Pretreatment of IMA with plasma concentrations of SJP (1 mg/mL), calculated from the plasma concentration of its major component borneol, significantly depressed the maximal contraction to KCl (from 35.8 ± 6.0 mN to 12.6 ± 5.6 mN, P = 0.03) and U46619 (from 19.4 ± 2.9 mN to 5.7 ± 2.4 mN, P = 0.007) while SJP at 10 mg/mL abolished the subsequent contraction. Endothelium denudation and inhibition of eNOS significantly altered the SJP-induced relaxation without changes of eNOS expression. We conclude that SJP has a potent inhibitory effect on the vasoconstriction mediated by a variety of vasoconstrictors in human arteries. The vasorelaxation involves both endothelium-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Thus, the effect of SJP on human arteries demonstrated in this study may prove to be particularly important in vasorelaxing therapy in cardiovascular disease. PMID:24808920

  15. Reliability of intestinal temperature using an ingestible telemetry pill system during exercise in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Ruddock, Alan D; Tew, Garry A; Purvis, Alison J

    2014-03-01

    Ingestible telemetry pill systems are being increasingly used to assess the intestinal temperature during exercise in hot environments. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the interday reliability of intestinal temperature during an exercise-heat challenge. Intestinal temperature was recorded as 12 physically active men (25 ± 4 years, stature 181.7 ± 7.0 cm, body mass 81.1 ± 10.6 kg) performed two 60-minute bouts of recumbent cycling (50% of peak aerobic power [watts]) in an environmental chamber set at 35° C 50% relative humidity 3-10 days apart. A range of statistics were used to calculate the reliability, including a paired t-test, 95% limits of agreement (LOA), coefficient of variation (CV), standard error of measurement (SEM), Pearson's correlation coefficient (r), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Cohen's d. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. The method indicated a good overall reliability (LOA = ± 0.61° C, CV = 0.58%, SEM = 0.12° C, Cohen's d = 0.12, r = 0.84, ICC = 0.84). Analysis revealed a statistically significant (p = 0.02) mean systematic bias of -0.07 ± 0.31° C, and the investigation of the Bland-Altman plot suggested the presence of heteroscedasticity. Further analysis revealed the minimum "likely" change in intestinal temperature to be 0.34° C. Although the method demonstrates a good reliability, researchers should be aware of heteroscedasticity. Changes in intestinal temperature >0.34° C as a result of exercise or an intervention in a hot environment are likely changes and less influenced by error associated with the method.

  16. The chronic hepatotoxicity assessment of the herbal formula Zishen Yutai pill.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xiaoyan; Deng, Xuehong; Shi, Jinjin; Zhang, Meishuang; Sun, Guibo; Tang, Shimin; Huang, Qiuling; Sun, Xiaobo

    2017-02-01

    Zishen Yutai pill (ZYP) is an oriental herbal formula, while hepatotoxicity assessment of ZYP was rarely evaluated. Therefore, our aim is to re-evaluate its hepatotoxicity in both normal and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced chronic liver injury rats. In the normal model, two doses of ZYP (1.575 and 9.450 g kg(-1) d(-1); i.e. 1 × , 6 × clinical doses) were given orally to rats for 24 weeks. In the chronic liver injury model, 10% CCl4 was administered to rats abdominally twice a week at a dose of 5 mL kg(-1) for 12 consecutive weeks. Administration time started from 4 weeks after the beginning of CCl4 treatment. Toxicological parameters included mortality, body weight, food consumption, clinical signs, biochemical parameters, gross observation, organ weight, necropsy findings and histopathology were monitored. In the normal model, we found no any mortality or abnormality in clinical signs, relative liver weight, biochemical parameters and histopathology in ZYP treatment groups. In the chronic liver injury model, liver damage related parameter such as ALT was elevated at the high dose of ZYP treatment in contrast to the CCl4-treated group (P < 0.01). In histopathological assessment, there were no significant difference between ZYP treatment groups and CCl4-treated group. No observed adverse effect on livers were established for 9.450 g kg(-1) d(-1) ZYP in the normal rats and 9.450 g kg(-1) d(-1) ZYP in the injury rats.

  17. Should Providers Give Women Advance Provision of Emergency Contraceptive Pills? A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Diana G.; Raine, Tina R.; Brindis, Claire; Rostovtseva, Daria P.; Darney, Philip D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We sought to determine the potential effect and cost-effectiveness of different means of accessing emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) on unintended pregnancy rates in sexually active women. Methods We used a computer simulation model to compare the effects of advance provision, on-demand provision, and no use of ECP on unintended pregnancies and costs of care in three hypothetical cohorts of 1 million sexually active women. Data on effectiveness of ECP from the single-use clinical trials, and costs from Medi-Cal, California’s Medicaid program were used for the model. Findings Advance provision of ECP is projected to avert a greater or the same percentage of unintended pregnancies compared with on-demand provision, with the greatest percentage of pregnancies averted (66%) in low-risk women with advance provision. In the simulation model, the percentage of pregnancies averted decreases as the frequency of unprotected intercourse increases and ECP use decreases. In all scenarios, the cost-savings ratio—the number of dollars saved on averted pregnancy expenditures for each dollar spent on advance ECP—is greater than one. Conclusion Advance provision of ECP has the potential to avert unintended pregnancies and reduce medical expenditures. The most likely reason that the advance provision trials fail to demonstrate reductions in pregnancy rates is a result of a combination of small study sizes, the use of ECP in both treatment and control groups, and a failure to take into account a realistic range of rates of unprotected intercourse and imperfect ECP use. PMID:20620913

  18. Impact of oral contraceptive pills on central corneal thickness in young women

    PubMed Central

    Kurtul, Bengi Ece; Inal, Besime; Ozer, Pinar Altiaylik; Kabatas, Emrah Utku

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Hormonal changes during oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use may affect central corneal thickness (CCT) values. We aimed to evaluate the impact of OCP use on CCT values in healthy young women. Materials and Methods: Fifty women subjects who use OCP for contraception (Group 1) and forty control subjects (Group 2) who do not use OCP were included in this prospective study. None of the patients had any history of systemic or ocular diseases. The CCT values measured by ultrasonic pachymeter (Nidek US-4000 Echoscan, Japan) and the intraocular pressure (IOP) values were measured by noncontact tonometer (Reichert 7 CR Corneal Response Technology, USA) at the time of admission to our clinic. The demographic findings and body mass index (BMI) scores of participants were also recorded. Results: The mean ages were 32.8 ± 5.6 for OCP + patients (Group 1) and 31.3 ± 6.9 for OCP-patients (Group 2) (P = 0.28). The mean CCT values were significantly higher in Group 1 when compared to that of the Group 2 (540.9 ± 30.4 μm and 519.6 ± 35.6 μm, respectively) (P = 0.003). The mean IOP value was 14.3 ± 2.5 mmHg in Group 1 and 14.4 ± 2.7 mmHg in Group 2 (P = 0.96). The mean BMI scores were 24.4 ± 5.8 kg/m2 in Group 1 and 24.6 ± 3.5 kg/m2 in Group 2 (P = 0.83). Conclusion: Our findings revealed that CCT values were significantly higher in patients with OCP use. Ophthalmologists should be aware of potential elevated CCT levels in these patients. PMID:28066104

  19. Bak Foong pills combined with metformin in the treatment of a polycystic ovarian syndrome rat model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenhui; Liu, Wenpei; Fu, Yuling; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Yuanzhen

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the treatment effects and associated mechanism of Bak Foong pills (BFPs) combined with metformin in the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). BFPs and/or metformin were administrated to treat the PCOS rats, and the weights and morphologies of the ovary, uterus and adrenal gland were measured. The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone, fasting insulin (FIN) and insulin-like growth factor-1 were also measured, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. The expression level of androgen receptor (AR) in the ovarian tissue, and the cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) mRNA levels in the ovary and adrenal tissues were detected. The levels of T, FIN, FBG and HOMA-IR in the combination group were significantly reduced; the wet weights of the ovary and the adrenal gland were decreased significantly, while that of the uterus was increased, and the histological morphology benignly recovered. The rats of each treatment group all experienced restored ovulation. The AR expression level in the treatment group was reduced, and the P450scc mRNA levels in the ovary and the adrenal gland of the combined treatment group were decreased. BFPs combined with metformin significantly affected PCOS, and the possible mechanism involved in the treatment may have been through the reduction of P450scc generation. BFPs may reduce the androgen levels, thus allowing the ovary to restore ovulation.

  20. "Pregnancy and labour cause more deaths than oral contraceptives": The debate on the pill in the Spanish press in the 1960s and 1970s.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Gómez, Teresa; Ignaciuk, Agata

    2015-08-01

    From 1941 to 1978, Franco's regime in Spain banned all contraceptive methods. The pill started circulating in Spain from the 1960s, officially as a drug used in gynaecological therapy. However, in the following decade it was also increasingly used and prescribed as a contraceptive. This paper analyses debates about the contraceptive pill in the Spanish daily newspaper ABC and in two magazines, Blanco y Negro and Triunfo, in the 1960s and 1970s. It concludes that the debate on this contraceptive method was much more heterogeneous than might be expected given the Catholic-conservative character of the dictatorship. The daily press focused on the adverse effects of the drug and magazines concentrated on the ethical and religious aspects of the pill and discussed it in a generally positive light. Male doctors and Catholic authors dominated the debate.

  1. Patents, pills and politics: the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ken

    2004-11-08

    There is tension between the need of the pharmaceutical innovator for intellectual property protection and the need of society for equitable and affordable access to innovative drugs. The recent Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement provides a nice illustration of this interplay between patents, pills and politics. This article provides a brief history of patent law as applied to pharmaceuticals, describes how the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme got caught up in AUSFTA negotiations, analyses the clauses that are likely to impact upon the PBS and describes the political process that reviewed and ultimately amended the AUSFTA.

  2. The influence of medical education level on the Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum medical students' knowledge concerning oral hormonal contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Polak, Karina; Pityński, Kazimierz; Banaś, Tomasz; Bubel, Magdalena; Kałwa, Maria; Jamroga, Joanna; Knysak, Magdalena; Kusior, Magdalena; Truszkiewicz, Katarzyna; Oleksy, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    In December 2014 the authors carried out a research among Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum medical students in a form of a questionnaire which consisted of two parts: personal information and multiple choice test concerning student's knowledge on OCPs. It showed that the level of medical education, defined as the year of study, increases student's knowledge about oral hormonal contraceptive pills. New program of study introduced from academic year 2012/2013 gives students wider knowledge on OCPs at earlier stage of education. Factors as female sex, usage of OCPs by student or his partner, positive attitude towards recommending OCPs to future patients show positive correlation with student's knowledge.

  3. Rethinking agency and medical adherence technology: applying Actor Network Theory to the case study of Digital Pills.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Cabling, Mark L; Sheppard, Vanessa B

    2015-12-01

    Much literature surrounding medical technology and adherence posits that technology is a mechanism for social control. This assumes that the medical establishment can take away patients' agency. Although power relationships and social control can play a key role, medical technology can also serve as an agentive tool to be utilized. We (1) offer the alternative framework of Actor Network Theory to view medical technology, (2) discuss the literature on medication adherence and technology, (3) delve into the ramifications of looking at adherence as a network and (4) use Digital Pills as a case study of dispersed agency.

  4. Activity of the pituitary-ovarian axis in the pill-free interval during use of low-dose combined oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    van Heusden, A M; Fauser, B C

    1999-04-01

    This study was performed to evaluate pituitary-ovarian recovery in the pill-free interval during use of three low-dose combined oral contraceptives (COC). Either the estrogen component or the progestin component was comparable in the study groups, to evaluate their relative influence. Serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and estradiol (E2) levels were measured and follicle number and size estimated by transvaginal sonography daily during the 7-day pill-free interval in 44 healthy volunteers using three different low-dose oral contraceptives. Healthy volunteers were enrolled using 20 micrograms ethinyl estradiol (EE) + 75 micrograms gestodene (GSD) (Harmonet, Wyeth-Lederle; n = 15), 20 micrograms EE + 150 micrograms desogestrel (DSG) (Mercilon, Organon n = 17), or 30 micrograms EE + 150 micrograms DSG (Marvelon, Organon, n = 12) given according to the usual regimen of one tablet daily during 3 weeks and 1 week pill-free interval. No ovulations were observed. Pituitary hormones were not statistically significantly different at the beginning of the pill-free interval between the study groups. FSH concentrations were significantly higher at the end of the pill-free interval in the 30 micrograms EE group compared with both 20 micrograms EE groups (7.0 [0.6-12.4] IU/L vs 4.9 [1.4-6.1] IU/L and 4.5 [2.4-7.4] IU/L; p = 0.001). In both 20 micrograms EE groups, a single persistent follicle (24 and 28 mm) was present in one subject. Follicle diameters were statistically significantly smaller at the beginning and at the end of the pill-free period in the 30 micrograms EE group compared with both 20 micrograms EE study groups. Dominant follicles (defined as follicle diameter > or = 10 mm) were observed at the end of the pill-free interval in both 20 micrograms EE groups (in 27% and 18% of women, respectively) but not in the 30 micrograms EE group. Finally, the area-under-the-curve for E2 was statistically significantly lower in the 30 micrograms

  5. Pregnancy is more dangerous than the pill: A critical analysis of professional responses to the Yaz/Yasmin controversy.

    PubMed

    Geampana, Alina

    2016-10-01

    The fourth and most recent generation of hormones used in oral contraceptives has stirred a significant amount of debate regarding the safety of these compounds. Drospirenone, a new type of synthetic hormone used in popular oral contraceptives Yaz and Yasmin, has been found by epidemiologists to increase the risk of blood clots when compared to the previous generations of pills. North American regulatory bodies have investigated the health risks of drospirenone and concluded that the increased risks do not require pulling the new contraceptive technology off the market. Instead, the FDA and Health Canada along with several medical associations have actively managed the Yaz/Yasmin controversy through official statements and press releases between 2010 and 2014. This study provides an analysis of these documents and how risk information about drospirenone-containing pills has been presented to the public. The analysis addresses a gap in our knowledge about cultural factors that impact contraceptive risk assessment. Prevalent risk models used by professionals are highlighted and examined through the use of critical discourse analysis methods. More specifically, this paper highlights the main strategies used to put drospirenone risks into perspective and classify it as safe. I argue that while risks related to pregnancy and the postpartum period are overly-emphasized, other risks are downplayed through a selection process underscored by normative beliefs about women's bodies and sexuality. Future research needs to address consumer perspectives and bridge the gap between lay and scientific risk/benefit assessment of oral contraceptives.

  6. The Power of the Pill for the Next Generation: Oral Contraception’s Effects on Fertility, Abortion, and Maternal & Child Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Hungerman, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers how oral contraception’s diffusion to young unmarried women affected the number and parental characteristics of children born to these women. In the short-term, pill access caused declines in fertility and increases in both the share of children born with low birthweight and the share born to poor households. In the long-term, access led to negligible changes in fertility while increasing the share of children with college-educated mothers and decreasing the share with divorced mothers. The short-term effects appear to be driven by upwardly-mobile women opting out of early childbearing while the long-term effects appear to be driven by a retiming of births to later ages. These effects differ from those of abortion legalization, although we find suggestive evidence that pill diffusion lowered abortions. Our results suggest that abortion and the pill are on average used for different purposes by different women, but on the margin some women substitute from abortion towards the pill when both are available. JELNo. I0, J13, N12. PMID:22389533

  7. Emergency Contraceptive Pills: A 10-Year Follow-up Survey of Use and Experiences at College Health Centers in the Mid-Atlantic United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laura McKeller; Sawyer, Robin G.

    2006-01-01

    The authors conducted a 10-year follow-up study using a telephone survey to investigate the availability of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) at college health centers in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. They also examined related issues, such as distribution procedure, existence of a written protocol, personnel involved,…

  8. Emergency Contraceptive Pill (ECP) Use and Experiences at College Health Centers in the Mid-Atlantic United States: Changes since ECP Went Over-the-Counter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the availability of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) at college health centers since ECP went over-the-counter (OTC) in 2006. Related issues, such as distribution procedure, existence of a written protocol, personnel involved, contraindications, follow-up procedures, methods of advertising, and staff attitudes, were…

  9. Investigating Birth Control: Comparing Oestrogen Levels in Patients Using the Ortho Evra[R] Patch versus the Ortho-Cyclen[R] Pill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Theresa A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent drug studies have investigated the incidence of blood clots among patients using the Ortho Evra[R] birth control patch. In this article, the author describes an investigation of oestrogen levels in the body resulting from the application of the Ortho Evra[R] birth control patch versus daily use of Ortho-Cyclen[R] birth control pills.…

  10. How-To-Do-It: Snails, Pill Bugs, Mealworms, and Chi-Square? Using Invertebrate Behavior to Illustrate Hypothesis Testing with Chi-Square.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biermann, Carol

    1988-01-01

    Described is a study designed to introduce students to the behavior of common invertebrate animals, and to use of the chi-square statistical technique. Discusses activities with snails, pill bugs, and mealworms. Provides an abbreviated chi-square table and instructions for performing the experiments and statistical tests. (CW)

  11. The Combination of Pill Count and Self-Reported Adherence is a Strong Predictor of First-Line ART Failure for Adults in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Peng; Johnson, Brent A.; Nachega, Jean B.; Wu, Baohua; Ordóñez, Claudia E.; Hare, Anna Q.; Kearns, Rachel; Murphy, Richard; Sunpath, Henry; Marconi, Vincent C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a strong predictor of virologic failure (VF) among people with HIV. Various methods such as patient self-report, pill counts and pharmacy refills have been utilized to monitor adherence. However, there are limited data on the accuracy of combining methods to better predict VF in routine clinical settings. We examined various methods to assess adherence including pill count, medication possession ratio (MPR), and self-reported adherence in order to determine which was most highly associated with VF after ≥ 6 months on ART. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a case-control study. At enrollment, pharmacy refill data were collected retrospectively from the medical chart, pill counts were completed to derive a pill count adherence ratio (PCAR) and a self-report questionnaire was administered to all participants. Parametric smooth splines and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses were carried out to assess the accuracy of the adherence methods. Results 458 patients were enrolled from October 2010 to June 2012. Of these, 158 (34.50%) experienced VF (cases) and 300 (65.50%) were controls. The median (IQR) PCAR was 1.10 (0.99–1.14) for cases and 1.13 (1.08–1.18) for controls (p<0.0001). The median MPR was 1.00 (0.97–1.07) for cases and 1.03 (0.96–1.07) for controls (p=0.83). Combination of PCAR and self-reported questions was highly associated with VF. Conclusion In this setting, a combination of pill count adherence and self-report adherence questions had the highest diagnostic accuracy for VF. Further validation of this simple, low-cost combination is warranted in large prospective studies. PMID:25426940

  12. Intracerebral hemorrhage in a young woman with arteriovenous malformation after taking diet control pills containing phenylpropanolamine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chung, Y T; Hung, D Z; Hsu, C P; Yang, D Y; Wu, T C

    1998-07-01

    Administration of phenylpropanolamine (PPA) is a rare cause of intracerebral hemorrhage. We present the case of a young female patient with arteriovenous malformation who suffered an intracerebral hemorrhage after ingestion of diet pills containing PPA. The literature on PPA-related intracerebral hemorrhage is also reviewed. This is the first report of PPA-associated intracerebral hemorrhage in a patient with pathology-proven arteriovenous malformation of the brain. Because intracerebral hemorrhage may develop as a side effect of PPA when patients take the manufacturer's recommended dose, especially in patients with vascular abnormalities, we conclude that this medicine should be prescribed carefully and patients should be closely monitored by experienced physicians. Furthermore, its use should be contraindicated in patients who have, or possibly have, a family history of vascular abnormalities.

  13. How the pill became a lifestyle drug: the pharmaceutical industry and birth control in the United States since 1960.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Elizabeth Siegel

    2012-08-01

    Marketing decisions, rather than scientific innovations, have guided the development and positioning of contraceptive products in recent years. I review the stalled progress in contraceptive development in the decades following the advent of the Pill in 1960 and then examine the fine-tuning of the market for oral contraceptives in the 1990s and 2000s. Although birth control has been pitched in the United States as an individual solution, rather than a public health strategy, the purpose of oral contraceptives was understood by manufacturers, physicians, and consumers to be the prevention of pregnancy, a basic health care need for women. Since 1990, the content of that message has changed, reflecting a shift in the drug industry's view of the contraception business. Two factors contributed to bring about this change: first, the industry's move away from research and development in birth control and second, the growth of the class of medications known as lifestyle drugs.

  14. The pharmacokinetic characters of simvastatin after co-administration with Shexiang Baoxin Pill in healthy volunteers' plasma.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jianfei; Jiang, Peng; Peng, Chengcheng; Li, Min; Liu, Runhui; Zhang, Weidong

    2016-07-15

    To investigate the effect of Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SBP), a tranditional Chinese medicine, on the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of simvastatin in healthy volunteers' plasma, a quantitative method was developed using an Agilent G6410A rapid performance liquid chromatography (RPLC) coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry system. The established method was rapid with high extraction recovery and successfully applied for the determination of simvastatin in plasma of 16 healthy volunteers. The results demonstrated that the MRT(0-∞), T1/2 and Tmax value of simvastatin were significantly decreased, while the AUC(0-t) and Cmax values of smivastatin were increased by SBP. The pharmacokinetic study demonstrated that the metabolism parameters of simvastatin could be affected by SBP and the potential drug-drug interaction should be noted in the future clinical practice.

  15. How the Pill Became a Lifestyle Drug: The Pharmaceutical Industry and Birth Control in the United States Since 1960

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Elizabeth Siegel

    2012-01-01

    Marketing decisions, rather than scientific innovations, have guided the development and positioning of contraceptive products in recent years. I review the stalled progress in contraceptive development in the decades following the advent of the Pill in 1960 and then examine the fine-tuning of the market for oral contraceptives in the 1990s and 2000s. Although birth control has been pitched in the United States as an individual solution, rather than a public health strategy, the purpose of oral contraceptives was understood by manufacturers, physicians, and consumers to be the prevention of pregnancy, a basic health care need for women. Since 1990, the content of that message has changed, reflecting a shift in the drug industry's view of the contraception business. Two factors contributed to bring about this change: first, the industry's move away from research and development in birth control and second, the growth of the class of medications known as lifestyle drugs. PMID:22698049

  16. Pill characterization data streams for reducing exposure to inadequately identified anti-malarial medication in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A large fraction of anti-malaria medicines (and indeed many other medicines classes) used in developing countries are inadequately identified. Framing this problem as one of misidentification rather than the more common framing of criminal misrepresentation leads to new solutions sets not currently being considered. Method That reframing led to consideration and analysis of 4 new problems that informed design of a digital platform technology for delivering a distributed medicine characterization system: 1) problematic interests associated with a focus on preventing counterfeiting, 2) the complexity of the many ways that medicines can deviate from expected identities, 3) the challenge of choosing amongst a diversity of attribute characterization technologies, and 4) the need for a flexible and distributed data aggregation mechanism. Results Analysis of those new problems confirmed an initial insight that a previously described digital technology for tracking malaria tests results in infrastructure limited regions could be adapted for characterizing pill attributes. Feasibility is illustrated by describing how the platform design can be implemented using open-source software and commodity computational and communication technology readily available and supportable in developing countries. Discussion A system of this type would allow users to answer several questions. Is this medicine what it is supposed to be? Can it be used to treat locally encountered malaria? What has been the experience of others who have used pills having the same identity? Ubiquitous access to global digital telecommunication infrastructure allows the system to generate data streams from these distributed medicine characterization transactions that can be used to map global patterns of use of specifically identified medicines. This can provide feedback necessary to guide efforts to reduce the burden of malaria. PMID:20649985

  17. Report - Renovation of a traditional Ergh-al-Nassa pill (Hab) to a standard Pharmaceutical molded tablet.

    PubMed

    Zargaran, Arman; Daneshamouz, Saeid; Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2016-09-01

    The Ergh-al-Nassa pill (Hab) is a traditional combination suggested as one of the most effective preparations useful for treatment of sciatica. Although traditional preparations can be applied as new therapeutic drugs for investigations and clinical trials, they need to be reformulated to achieve pharmacopoeial standards for modern medicine. In this research, based on seven traditional Persian pharmacopeias for Ergh-al-NassaHab, nine different molded tablets were reformulated. Each formulation comprised the same amount of colchicum, ginger, aloe and yellow myrobalan fruit. Sweet almond oil had to be added in the maximum amount needed to be absorbed by the yellow myrobalan fruit according to its particle size (30-40 mesh sizes). The studies were performed in order to optimize the formulation process according to the role of three levels in particle size of the herbal ingredients (60-70, 80-100, 100-150 mesh sizes) and three levels of initial water for granulation. The molded tablets were evaluated according to standard quality controls for tablets (mass uniformity, LOD, hardness, friability, and disintegration time at 20 and 30 min). Myrobalan powdered to 30-40 mesh size absorbed the maximum amount of sweet almond oil (1:0.75 w/v). The best formulations occurred when the particle size of colchicum, ginger, and aloe was 60-70 mesh size with an initial moisture content of 0.47 ml per 1g of dried powder. The outcome of this research is a pharmaceutical standardized formulation from the traditional Ergh-al-Nassa pill which can be suggested as a sample drug discovery based on traditional knowledge.

  18. The suppression effect of a periodic surface with semicircular grooves on the high power microwave long pill-box window multipactor phenomenon

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xue Wang, Yong; Fan, Junjie; Zhong, Yong; Zhang, Rui

    2014-09-15

    To improve the transmitting power in an S-band klystron, a long pill-box window that has a disk with grooves with a semicircular cross section is theoretically investigated and simulated. A Monte-Carlo algorithm is used to track the secondary electron trajectories and analyze the multipactor scenario in the long pill-box window and on the grooved surface. Extending the height of the long-box window can decrease the normal electric field on the surface of the window disk, but the single surface multipactor still exists. It is confirmed that the window disk with periodic semicircular grooves can explicitly suppress the multipactor and predominantly depresses the local field enhancement and the bottom continuous multipactor. The difference between semicircular and sharp boundary grooves is clarified numerically and analytically.

  19. The suppression effect of a periodic surface with semicircular grooves on the high power microwave long pill-box window multipactor phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xue; Wang, Yong; Fan, Junjie; Zhong, Yong; Zhang, Rui

    2014-09-01

    To improve the transmitting power in an S-band klystron, a long pill-box window that has a disk with grooves with a semicircular cross section is theoretically investigated and simulated. A Monte-Carlo algorithm is used to track the secondary electron trajectories and analyze the multipactor scenario in the long pill-box window and on the grooved surface. Extending the height of the long-box window can decrease the normal electric field on the surface of the window disk, but the single surface multipactor still exists. It is confirmed that the window disk with periodic semicircular grooves can explicitly suppress the multipactor and predominantly depresses the local field enhancement and the bottom continuous multipactor. The difference between semicircular and sharp boundary grooves is clarified numerically and analytically.

  20. Soft X-ray stimulated bremsstrahlung in traveling longitudinal electric wake-fields of two-beam pill-box cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.; Chen, K. W.; Wilhelm, H. E.

    The amplification of laser light in a free electron laser (FEL) due to stimulated bremsstrahlung in a traveling longitudinal undulating electric field is derived. It is shown that this FEL provides sufficient gain to be used as a coherent radiation source down to the soft X-ray regime. It is suggested that, among other possibilities, the wake-field produced in a two-beam elliptical or annular pill-box cavity is suitable for the required traveling longitudinal undulating electric field.

  1. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled superiority trial of the Yiqigubiao pill for the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at a stable stage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng-Sen; Zhang, Yan-Li; Li, Zheng; Xu, Dan; Liao, Chun-Yan; Ma, Huan; Gong, Li; Su, Jun; Sun, Qi; Xu, Qian; Gao, Zhen; Wang, Ling; Jing, Jing; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Min; Tian, Ge; Hasan, Bilal

    2016-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the Yiqigubiao pill is commonly used to enhance physical fitness. The current clinical trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Yiqigubiao pill as an adjuvant therapy for patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The current trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled superiority trial. The participants were recruited from outpatients at the Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital affiliated with Xinjiang Medical University (Ürümqi, China) between February and September 2012. All participants were patients with stable COPD that were randomized to the Yiqigubiao pill (YQGB; n=84) or placebo (Pb; n=87) groups. The occurrences of acute exacerbation (AE) of COPD during the trial were recorded. Lung function value assessments, scoring of life quality and exercise endurance, arterial blood gas analysis and serum inflammatory cytokines level determination were performed prior to and throughout the study. A total of 139 participants completed the intervention and 132 participants completed the study. The interval between the initial intervention and the first AECOPD was greater in the YQGB group compared with the Pb group (P<0.01). The incidence rate of AECOPD was lower in the YQGB group than in the Pb group (P<0.01). Subsequent to the intervention or at the end of the study, the 6-min walking distance difference was longer in the YQGB group compared with the Pb group (P<0.01). The scores reflecting life quality decline became lower in the YQGB group (P<0.01). The serum levels of proinflammatory factors were downregulated to a greater extent in the YQGB group compared with the Pb group. Thus, the Yiqigubiao pill is an efficient and safe adjuvant therapy for the treatment of stable patients with COPD. PMID:27698749

  2. The Prescription of the Morning-After Pill in a Berlin Emergency Department Over a Four-Year Period - User Profiles and Reasons for Use.

    PubMed

    David, M; Radke, A-M; Pietzner, K

    2012-05-01

    Questions: There are no current health care studies from Germany regarding the "morning-after pill". This paper will use routine data to analyse details regarding the users' profiles, reasons for using it and the utilisation of hospital outpatient facilities. Patient Collective and Methods: Retrospective analysis of all triage sheets in the emergency department of the Virchow Hospital Campus/Charité University Hospital, Berlin, over a four-year period from 2007 to 2010 that were coded with the ICD diagnosis Z30 (= contraception advice) and statistical processing of the associated administrative data. Results: 860 triage sheets were included in the analysis. The emergency department is used most frequently for the prescription of the "morning-after pill" at the weekend. The average age of the users was 25.1 years. The most common reason cited for needing emergency contraception was unprotected sexual intercourse, with the second-most common being "condom failure". Around half of the women attended the department within 12 hours of having unprotected sex. Less than 2 % (n = 14) of all women decided against a prescription of emergency contraceptive after counselling. Conclusions: The user profile and reasons for using emergency oral contraception correlate largely with the information contained in international literature. Although the "morning-after pill" is probably prescribed mainly in general practices in Germany, and despite the availability of new drugs with a permitted post-exposure interval of up to 120 hours after unprotected sex, there appears to still be a high demand for counselling and prescriptions of the "morning-after pill" in the context of the emergency department.

  3. Monitoring the quality consistency of Fufang Danshen Pills using micellar electrokinetic chromatography fingerprint coupled with prediction of antioxidant activity and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhengchao; Sun, Wanyang; Sun, Guoxiang; Zhang, Jin

    2016-08-01

    A fast micellar electrokinetic chromatography fingerprint method combined with quantification was developed and validated to evaluate the quality of Fufang Danshen Pills, a traditional Chinese Medicine, which has been used in the treatment of cardiovascular system diseases, in which the tetrahedron optimization method was first used to optimize the background electrolyte solution. Subsequently, the index of the fingerprint information amount of I was performed as an excellent objective indictor to investigate the experimental conditions. In addition, a systematical quantified fingerprint method was constructed for evaluating the quality consistency of 20 batches of test samples obtained from the same drug manufacturer. The fingerprint analysis combined with quantitative determination of two components showed that the quality consistency of the test samples was quite good within the same commercial brand. Furthermore, the partial least squares model analysis was used to explore the fingerprint-efficacy relationship between active components and antioxidant activity in vitro, which can be applied for the assessment of anti-oxidant activity of Fufang Danshen pills and provide valuable medicinal information for quality control. The result illustrated that the present study provided a reliable and reasonable method for monitoring the quality consistency of Fufang Danshen pills.

  4. Women’s perceptions and reasons for choosing the pill, patch, or ring in the CHOICE study: a cross-sectional survey of contraceptive method selection after counseling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The European CHOICE study was a cross-sectional survey that evaluated women’s combined hormonal contraceptive choices before and after contraceptive counseling in Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic and Slovakia, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, Israel, Russia, and Ukraine. The changes in method selection before and after counseling were reported previously. In this paper we present the reasons given by the 18,787 participating women for selecting their contraceptive method of choice, as well as their perceptions about the contraceptive pill, patch, and ring after counseling. Methods Women with an interest in a combined hormonal contraceptive method (pill, patch, or ring) were counseled using a standardized counseling leaflet. The women completed questionnaires, which included questions on why they had selected a particular method of contraception, and the extent to which they agreed with statements about the attributes of the pill, patch, and ring. The results for each country were compared with the percentages for all countries combined by using a binomial regression model. Multiple logistic regression models were used to investigate the extent to which the probability of choosing a method was related to prespecified aspects (i.e. perceptions) of each contraceptive method. Results ‘Easy to use’, ‘convenience’, and ‘regular menstrual bleeding’ were important selection criteria. ‘Nondaily administration’ was one of the main reasons women selected the patch or ring. ‘Daily use’ and ‘will forget to take it’ were the primary reasons for not selecting the pill, while the main reasons for not choosing the patch included ‘not discrete, visible’ and ‘can fall off’. In a small number of instances, the ring was rejected because some women don’t like to use a ‘foreign body’. Women’s perceptions influenced their contraceptive decisions: positive perceptions about a method increased the likelihood that a woman

  5. Herb formula "Fufangqishe-Pill" prevents upright posture-induced intervertebral disc degeneration at the lumbar in rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qian-Qian; Xi, Zhi-Jie; Bian, Qin; Cui, Xue-Jun; Li, Chen-Guang; Hou, Wei; Shi, Qi; Wang, Yong-Jun

    2010-01-01

    Degeneration of the lumbar spine plays an important role in most chronic low back pain. Prevention of lumbar intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is therefore a high research priority. Both our previous multicenter clinical trials and pharmacological research showed that Fufangqishe-Pill (FFQSP), a newly patented traditional Chinese medicine, could effectively relieve the symptoms of neck pain and prevent cervical degeneration. To clarify the effect of FFQSP on lumbar IVD degeneration, we applied a lumbar IVD degeneration rat model induced by prolonged upright posture. Pretreatment of FFQSP for one month prevented the histological changes indicating IVD disorganization; increased type II-collagen level, decreased type X-collagen protein level, and increased Col2alpha1 mRNA expression at all time points; and decreased Col10alpha1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, MMP13, and Interleukin (IL)-1beta mRNA expression induced by upright posture for 7 and 9 months. These results suggest that FFQSP prevents lumbar IVD degeneration induced by upright posture. FFQSP is a promising medicine for lumbar IVD degeneration disease.

  6. Diversity and functional significance of cellulolytic microbes living in termite, pill-bug and stem-borer guts.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Zeenat; Kondapalli, Vamsi Krishna; Adlakha, Nidhi; Sharma, Anil; Bhatnagar, Raj K; Chandel, Girish; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2013-01-01

    Arthropods living on plants are able to digest plant biomass with the help of microbial flora in their guts. This study considered three arthropods from different niches - termites, pill-bugs and yellow stem-borers - and screened their guts for cellulase producing microbes. Among 42 unique cellulase-producing strains, 50% belonged to Bacillaceae, 26% belonged to Enterobacteriaceae, 17% belonged to Microbacteriaceae, 5% belonged to Paenibacillaceae and 2% belonged to Promicromonosporaceae. The distribution of microbial families in the three arthropod guts reflected differences in their food consumption habits. Most of the carboxymethylcellulase positive strains also hydrolysed other amorphous substrates such as xylan, locust bean gum and β-D-glucan. Two strains, A11 and A21, demonstrated significant activity towards Avicel and p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobiose, indicating that they express cellobiohydrolase. These results provide insight into the co-existence of symbionts in the guts of arthropods and their possible exploitation for the production of fuels and chemicals derived from plant biomass.

  7. The Protective Effect of Yi Shen Juan Bi Pill in Arthritic Rats with Castration-Induced Kidney Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongyan; Li, Jian; He, Xiaojuan; Lu, Cheng; Xiao, Cheng; Niu, Xuyan; Zhao, Ning; Ju, Dahong; Lu, Aiping

    2012-01-01

    Androgens have been linked to the onset, severity, and progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the most common pattern in RA is kidney deficiency, which partly corresponds to a low sex hormone state. In this study, TCM kidney deficiency was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats with castration surgery, and a TCM preparation, Yi Shen Juan Bi Pill (YJB), was used to treat collagen induced arthritis (CIA) rats with castration. Metabolomic technique was used to evaluate the pharmacological mechanism in castrated CIA rats treated by YJB. The results showed that castration significantly increased the severity of the arthritis in rats but was ameliorated by YJB. Its pharmacological mechanism was partially associated with lipid metabolites involving free fatty acid (FFA) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). In conclusion, the experimental results demonstrate the protective effect of YJB on the TCM kidney deficiency pattern induced by androgen deficiency in CIA rats and support that YJB should be used for the clinical treatment of RA with TCM kidney deficiency pattern. PMID:22550538

  8. Compound danshen dripping pills modulate the perturbed energy metabolism in a rat model of acute myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiahua; Yong, Yonghong; Aa, Jiye; Cao, Bei; Sun, Runbin; Yu, Xiaoyi; Huang, Jingqiu; Yang, Na; Yan, Lulu; Li, Xinxin; Cao, Jing; Aa, Nan; Yang, Zhijian; Kong, Xiangqing; Wang, Liansheng; Zhu, Xuanxuan; Ma, Xiaohui; Guo, Zhixin; Zhou, Shuiping; Sun, He; Wang, Guangji

    2016-12-01

    The continuous administration of compound danshen dripping pills (CDDP) showed good efficacy in relieving myocardial ischemia clinically. To probe the underlying mechanism, metabolic features were evaluated in a rat model of acute myocardial ischemia induced by isoproterenol (ISO) and administrated with CDDP using a metabolomics platform. Our data revealed that the ISO-induced animal model showed obvious myocardial injury, decreased energy production, and a marked change in metabolomic patterns in plasma and heart tissue. CDDP pretreatment increased energy production, ameliorated biochemical indices, modulated the changes and metabolomic pattern induced by ISO, especially in heart tissue. For the first time, we found that ISO induced myocardial ischemia was accomplished with a reduced fatty acids metabolism and an elevated glycolysis for energy supply upon the ischemic stress; while CDDP pretreatment prevented the tendency induced by ISO and enhanced a metabolic shift towards fatty acids metabolism that conventionally dominates energy supply to cardiac muscle cells. These data suggested that the underlying mechanism of CDDP involved regulating the dominant energy production mode and enhancing a metabolic shift toward fatty acids metabolism in ischemic heart. It was further indicated that CDDP had the potential to prevent myocardial ischemia in clinic.

  9. Safety, efficacy, actions, and patient acceptability of drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol contraceptive pills in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder

    PubMed Central

    Breech, Lesley L; Braverman, Paula K

    2010-01-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is estimated to affect 3%–8% of reproductive age women. Multiple therapeutic modalities have been evaluated with varying efficacy for the associated somatic and mood symptoms. The majority of older studies had shown that oral contraceptive pills (OCs) were most effective for the physical symptoms. However, newer OCs containing a novel progestin, drospirenone, have shown promise in alleviating both the somatic and affective/behavioral symptoms. This progestin, which is a derivative of spironolactone, has both antimineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic activity. A 24/4 formulation containing 20 μg of ethinyl estradiol has been found effective in randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials utilizing established scales documenting symptoms associated with PMDD. Multiple studies have shown that drospirenone-containing OCs are safe without evidence of clinically adverse effects on carbohydrate metabolism, lipids, blood pressure, weight, serum potassium or increased thrombotic events compared to other low dose OCs. In addition, significant improvements have been demonstrated in acne, hirsutism, and fluid retention symptoms. Several open label studies demonstrated good patient compliance and reported satisfaction with the method. Because of the significant placebo effect demonstrated in the blinded placebo-controlled trials, additional large randomized placebo-controlled trials are needed to confirm the efficacy of the drospirenone OCs in the treatment of PMDD. However, this OC formulation appears to be a promising therapeutic modality. PMID:21072278

  10. Knowledge and Use of Emergency Contraceptive Pill: An Analysis of Perception and Practice among Unmarried Urban Women

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Neetu; Mathur, Rakhi; Bakhshi, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to collect evidence with respect to perception and practice of unmarried women toward the use of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs). Materials and Methods: Non-probability purposive sampling was used to select respondents. A total of 250 respondents were administered the tools for the study, of which 228 were considered for analysis. Results and Discussion: Descriptive statistics showed that nearly 87% of the respondents were aware of ECPs and there was a significant difference in the knowledge of ECP of the respondents by type of the institution they had studied. More than half of the (52%) respondents admitted to have boyfriends of which 16% were sexually involved and were using some form of contraception. Nearly 84% of the respondents used ECP, which superseded the use of other contraceptives. It was further found that around two-third respondents were using ECP regularly. The reason that “ECP did not hinder pleasure” and that it was handy in case of “unplanned contact” were the most cited reasons for using ECP as a regular contraceptive. Conclusion: The fact that ECPs was preferred over condom and was used regularly shows that the respondents were at a risk of sexually transmitted infection/human immunodeficiency virus. Health-care providers could be the most authentic source of information for orienting young women toward the use of safe sexual practices. PMID:26664845

  11. Compound danshen dripping pills modulate the perturbed energy metabolism in a rat model of acute myocardial ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jiahua; Yong, Yonghong; Aa, Jiye; Cao, Bei; Sun, Runbin; Yu, Xiaoyi; Huang, Jingqiu; Yang, Na; Yan, Lulu; Li, Xinxin; Cao, Jing; Aa, Nan; Yang, Zhijian; Kong, Xiangqing; Wang, Liansheng; Zhu, Xuanxuan; Ma, Xiaohui; Guo, Zhixin; Zhou, Shuiping; Sun, He; Wang, Guangji

    2016-01-01

    The continuous administration of compound danshen dripping pills (CDDP) showed good efficacy in relieving myocardial ischemia clinically. To probe the underlying mechanism, metabolic features were evaluated in a rat model of acute myocardial ischemia induced by isoproterenol (ISO) and administrated with CDDP using a metabolomics platform. Our data revealed that the ISO-induced animal model showed obvious myocardial injury, decreased energy production, and a marked change in metabolomic patterns in plasma and heart tissue. CDDP pretreatment increased energy production, ameliorated biochemical indices, modulated the changes and metabolomic pattern induced by ISO, especially in heart tissue. For the first time, we found that ISO induced myocardial ischemia was accomplished with a reduced fatty acids metabolism and an elevated glycolysis for energy supply upon the ischemic stress; while CDDP pretreatment prevented the tendency induced by ISO and enhanced a metabolic shift towards fatty acids metabolism that conventionally dominates energy supply to cardiac muscle cells. These data suggested that the underlying mechanism of CDDP involved regulating the dominant energy production mode and enhancing a metabolic shift toward fatty acids metabolism in ischemic heart. It was further indicated that CDDP had the potential to prevent myocardial ischemia in clinic. PMID:27905409

  12. Qi-Shen-Yi-Qi Dripping Pills for the Secondary Prevention of Myocardial Infarction: A Randomised Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Hongcai; Zhang, Junhua; Yao, Chen; Liu, Baoyan; Gao, Xiumei; Ren, Ming; Cao, Hongbao; Dai, Guohua; Weng, Weiliang; Zhu, Sainan; Wang, Hui; Xu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Boli

    2013-01-01

    Background. Several types of drugs have been recommended for the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI). However, these conventional strategies have several limitations, such as low adherence, high cost, and side effects during long time use. Novel approaches to this problem are still needed. This trial aimed to test the effectiveness and safety of Qi-Shen-Yi-Qi Dripping Pills (QSYQ), a multi-ingredient Chinese patent medicine, for the secondary prevention of MI. Methods and Findings. A total of 3505 eligible patients were randomly assigned to QSYQ group (1746 patients) or aspirin group (1759). Patients took their treatments for 12 months. The final follow-up visit took place 6 months after the end of the trial drugs. The 12-month and 18-month estimated incidences of the primary outcome were 2.98% and 3.67%, respectively, in the QSYQ group. The figures were 2.96% and 3.81% in the aspirin group. No significant difference was identified between the groups. Conclusions. This trial did not show significant difference of primary and secondary outcomes between aspirin and QSYQ in patients who have had an MI. Though inconclusive, the result suggests that QSYQ has similar effects to aspirin in the secondary prevention of MI. PMID:23935677

  13. Reproductive Toxicity of Zishen Yutai Pill in Rats: The Fertility and Early Embryonic Development Study (Segment I)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Li; Huang, Qiuling; Wang, Rong; Zhou, Jie; Ma, Aicui; Chong, Liming; Wu, Yubing; Wang, Yong; Xu, Li; Chen, Ying; Jia, Yuling; Gui, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. This study was aimed to investigate the reproductive toxicity of Zishen Yutai Pill (ZYP) on fertility and early embryonic development in rats. Methods. SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: vehicle control group (distilled water, i.g.), positive control group (80 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide, i.p.), and three ZYP-treated groups (3, 6, and 12 g/kg/d, i.e., 12x, 24x, and 48x clinical doses, i.g.). The high dose was set as the maximum gavage dosage. Results. Cyclophosphamide showed diverse hazards, such as decreased weight of male reproductive organs and sperm density (P < 0.05). However, there were no obvious effects of ZYP on physical signs, animal behavior, and survival rate, as well as on weight and food intake during the premating and gestation periods. Importantly, there were no significant adverse effects of ZYP on indexes of copulation, fecundity and fertility indexes, weights and coefficients of male reproductive organs, epididymal sperm number and motility, estrous cycle, preimplantation loss rate, and implantation rate. Besides, the numbers of live and resorbed fetuses per litter were not significantly altered. Conclusions. ZYP had no reproductive toxicities on fertility and early embryonic development in rats at 48x equivalent clinical doses. PMID:28058057

  14. Study of the analgesic activities, chronic toxicity and addictive potential of Jia-Yuan-Qing pill in rats

    PubMed Central

    TIAN, YE; TENG, LI-RONG; WANG, ZHEN-ZUO; ZHAO, MIN; MENG, QING-FAN; LU, JIA-HUI; TIAN, JIAN-MING; ZHANG, WEI-WEI; ZHENG, XIAOYI; WANG, DI; TENG, LE-SHENG

    2015-01-01

    Jia-Yuan-Qing pill (JYQP) composed of Porcellio laevis Latreille, Corydalis Rhizoma and Radix Cynanchi Paniculati at a ratio of 9:7:7 has been found to be an effective analgesic agent. The present study aimed to evaluate the safety, addictive potential and anti-cancer pain activity of JYQP in a rat model. During the 6-month chronic toxicity test, no significant changes in general behavior, defecation, postural abnormalities, dietary or water intake or blood biochemical parameters were observed in male and female rats. Although a high dose of JYQP (5 g/kg) caused swelling of the liver, spleen and kidney in male and female rats, no pathological changes were observed in all organs examined via hematoxylin and eosin staining. The analgesic effect of JYQP on bone cancer pain was successfully confirmed in a rat model of Walker 256 cell-induced bone cancer. In contrast to morphine, in a physical dependence test, JYQP produced no withdrawal symptoms following chronic administration. The data from this study provide experimental evidence supporting the clinical use of JYQP as an effective, safe and non-addictive agent for the treatment of bone cancer pain. PMID:26136985

  15. Diversity and functional significance of cellulolytic microbes living in termite, pill-bug and stem-borer guts

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Zeenat; Kondapalli, Vamsi Krishna; Adlakha, Nidhi; Sharma, Anil; Bhatnagar, Raj K.; Chandel, Girish; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2013-01-01

    Arthropods living on plants are able to digest plant biomass with the help of microbial flora in their guts. This study considered three arthropods from different niches - termites, pill-bugs and yellow stem-borers - and screened their guts for cellulase producing microbes. Among 42 unique cellulase-producing strains, 50% belonged to Bacillaceae, 26% belonged to Enterobacteriaceae, 17% belonged to Microbacteriaceae, 5% belonged to Paenibacillaceae and 2% belonged to Promicromonosporaceae. The distribution of microbial families in the three arthropod guts reflected differences in their food consumption habits. Most of the carboxymethylcellulase positive strains also hydrolysed other amorphous substrates such as xylan, locust bean gum and β-D-glucan. Two strains, A11 and A21, demonstrated significant activity towards Avicel and p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobiose, indicating that they express cellobiohydrolase. These results provide insight into the co-existence of symbionts in the guts of arthropods and their possible exploitation for the production of fuels and chemicals derived from plant biomass. PMID:23990056

  16. Effect of Oral Contraceptive Pills on the Blood Serum Enzymes and DNA Damage in Lymphocytes Among Users.

    PubMed

    Naz, Falaq; Jyoti, Smita; Rahul; Akhtar, Nishat; Siddique, Yasir Hasan

    2016-07-01

    The continuous use of synthetic hormones as contraceptive pill or hormonal replacement therapy among women is increasing day by day. The widespread use of different formulations as oral contraceptives by women throughout their reproductive cycle has given rise to a serious concern for studying the effects of oral contraceptives on enzymatic profile and DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes among users. The present study was carried out on women taking oral contraceptives. The study was based on the questionnaire having the information of reproductive history, fasting, age, health, nature of menstrual cycle, bleeding and other disease. The profile of the blood serum enzymes i.e. alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aminotransferases (SGOT and SGPT), serum proteins (albumin and globulin) and DNA damage in lymphocytes was studied among users and non-users. The results of the present study suggest that OCs not only effects enzymatic activity but also results in DNA damage that may vary with the duration of using oral contraceptives. A significant increase in LDH, GGT, SGPT, SGOT, globulin and decrease in ALP as well as albumin was found among users as compared to non-users. The observed DNA damage was more in users as compared to non-users. Hormonal contraceptives seem to exert DNA damage and also have significant effects on blood serum enzymes.

  17. Efficacy of Acupuncture versus Combined Oral Contraceptive Pill in Treatment of Moderate-to-Severe Dysmenorrhea: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sriprasert, Intira; Suerungruang, Suparerk; Athilarp, Porntip; Matanasarawoot, Anuchart; Teekachunhatean, Supanimit

    2015-01-01

    This open-label randomized controlled trial was designed to compare the efficacy of acupuncture and combined oral contraceptive (COC) pill in treating moderate-to-severe primary dysmenorrhea. Fifty-two participants were randomly assigned to receive either acupuncture (n = 27) or COC (n = 25) for three menstrual cycles. Mefenamic acid was prescribed as a recue analgesic drug with both groups. The statistical approach used for efficacy and safety assessments was intention-to-treat analysis. By the end of the study, both treatments had resulted in significant improvement over baselines in all outcomes, that is, maximal dysmenorrhea pain scores, days suffering from dysmenorrhea, amount of rescue analgesic used, and quality of life assessed by SF-36 questionnaire. Over the three treatment cycles, COC caused greater reduction in maximal pain scores than acupuncture, while improvements in the remaining outcomes were comparable. Responders were defined as participants whose maximal dysmenorrhea pain scores decreased at least 33% below their baseline. Response rates following both interventions at the end of the study were not statistically different. Acupuncture commonly caused minimal local side effects but did not cause any hormone-related side effects as did COC. In conclusion, acupuncture is an alternative option for relieving dysmenorrhea, especially when COC is not a favorable choice. PMID:26346199

  18. Suxiaojiuxin pill enhances atherosclerotic plaque stability by modulating the MMPs/TIMPs balance in ApoE-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinbao; Zhuang, Pengwei; Lu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Mixia; Zhang, Teng; Zhang, Yanjun; Wang, Jinlei; Liu, Dan; Tong, Yongling

    2014-08-01

    : Suxiaojiuxin pill (SX) is a famous Chinese formulated product, which has been used to treat coronary heart disease and angina pectoris in China. This study was carried out to investigate the effect and possible mechanism of SX on the stability of atherosclerotic plaque in ApoE-deficient mice. ApoE-/- mice of 6-8 weeks old were fed with high-fat diet for developing artherosclerosis. After oral administration of SX for 8 weeks, histopathology of aortic plaque was performed by Sudan III and hematoxylin-eosin staining, and muscle protein was detected by Western blotting (WB). The mRNA and proteins associated with aortic plaque stability were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and WB, respectively. SX treatment could not only reduce serum triglyceride level and plaque area but also increase fibrous cap thickness and collagen content compared with the model group. WB results showed that SX could increase α-smooth muscle actin, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), and TIMP-2 protein expression, whereas decrease matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 protein expression. Moreover, SX could upregulate the expression of α-smooth muscle actin mRNA and downregulate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA. These results showed that SX could enhance atherosclerotic plaque stability in ApoE-deficient mice. The mechanism may be associated with modulating the MMPs/TIMPs balance.

  19. Pretreatment of normal responders in fresh in vitro fertilization cycles: A comparison of transdermal estradiol and oral contraceptive pills

    PubMed Central

    Petrini, Allison C.; Zhou, Zhen N.; Lekovich, Jovana P.; Kligman, Isaac; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of pretreatment with transdermal estradiol (E2) compared to oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) on controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) response in normal responders undergoing fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF)-embryo transfer (ET) cycles. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed of normal responders undergoing fresh IVF-ET cycles who received pretreatment with transdermal E2 versus OCPs prior to fresh IVF-ET. The total days of ovarian stimulation, total dosage of gonadotropins, total number of oocytes, and mature oocytes retrieved were noted. Pregnancy outcomes after ET were also recorded. Results A total of 2,092 patients met the inclusion criteria: 1,057 and 1,035 patients in the transdermal E2 and OCP groups, respectively. Patients in the OCP group had a longer duration of COS (10.7±1.63 days, p<0.01) than the E2 group (9.92±1.94 days). Patients in the OCP group also required higher cumulative doses of gonadotropins (2,657.3±1,187.9 IU) than those in the E2 group (2,550.1±1,270.2 IU, p=0.002). No statistically significant differences were found in the total and mature oocytes retrieved or in the rates of biochemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, spontaneous miscarriage, and live birth between the groups. Conclusion Our findings suggest that compared to OCPs, pretreatment with transdermal E2 is associated with a shorter duration of ovarian stimulation and lower gonadotropin utilization, without compromising the oocyte yield or pregnancy outcomes in normal-responder patients undergoing fresh IVF. PMID:28090462

  20. Effects of ovarian hormones and oral contraceptive pills on cardiac vagal withdrawal at the onset of dynamic exercise.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, André L; Ramos, Plinio S; Vianna, Lauro C; Ricardo, Djalma R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the ovarian hormones and the use of oral contraceptive pills (OCP) on cardiac vagal withdrawal at the onset of dynamic exercise. Thirty physically active women aged 19-32 years were divided into two groups: OCP users (n = 17) and non-OCP users (n = 13). Participants were studied randomly at three different phases of the menstrual cycle: early follicular (day 3.6 ± 1.2; range 1-5), ovulatory (day 14.3 ± 0.8; range 13-16) and midluteal (day 21.3 ± 0.8; range 20-24), according to endogenous (in non-OCP users) or exogenous (in OCP users) estradiol and progesterone variations. The cardiac vagal withdrawal was represented by the cardiac vagal index (CVI), which was obtained by the 4-s exercise test. Additionally, resting heart rate, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were obtained. The CVI was not significantly different between the three phases of the menstrual cycle in either the non-OCP users (early follicular: 1.58 ± 0.1; ovulatory: 1.56 ± 0.1; midluteal: 1.58 ± 0.1, P > 0.05) or OCP users (early follicular: 1.47 ± 0.1; ovulatory: 1.49 ± 0.1; midluteal: 1.47 ± 0.1, P > 0.05) (mean ± SEM). Resting cardiovascular responses were not affected by hormonal phase or OCP use, except that the SBP was higher in the OCP users than non-OCP users in all phases of the cycle (P < 0.05). In summary, our results demonstrate that cardiac vagal withdrawal at the onset of dynamic exercise was not impacted by the menstrual cycle or OCP use in physically active women.

  1. High serum prostate-specific antigen concentrations in hirsute women do not decrease with treatment by the combination of spironolactone and the contraceptive pill.

    PubMed

    Guzelmeric, K; Seker, N; Unal, O; Turan, C

    2004-10-01

    Using an ultrasensitive assay, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been detected in female serum and has been proposed as a potential marker of androgen excess in hirsute women. Measurement of PSA levels in serum may play a role in monitoring hirsutism during antiandrogen therapy. We investigated the role of PSA as a marker of androgen activity in hirsute patients taking spironolactone together with oral contraceptive pills containing ethinyl estradiol and gestodene. Twenty-eight hirsute patients were included in the study. Clinical and biochemical variables including serum levels of PSA (using an ultrasensitive chemiluminscent immunoassay), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, total testosterone, free testosterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone concentrations were recorded at baseline and after six cycles of treatment. Fifteen healthy women were included in the study as controls. Serum PSA levels in hirsute women were clearly higher than in the control group (0.023 +/- 0.004 vs. 0.006 +/- 0.003 ng/ml, p < 0.001) and correlated with baseline serum free testosterone concentrations (r = 0.518, p = 0.005). After 6 months, serum PSA concentrations as compared with baseline values did not change significantly in patients who were given spironolactone plus contraceptive pills (p = 0.4) despite a marked decrease in total testosterone, free testosterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and hirsutism score (p < 0.05). Thus, serum PSA levels in hirsute women were higher than in non-hirsute healthy controls. A 6-month course of treatment with spironolactone combined with contraceptive pills containing ethinylestradiol and gestodene did not reduce high serum PSA levels in these subjects. In conclusion, the serum PSA level is not a convenient biochemical marker with the available assays for the management of hirsute women treated with the combination of spironolactone and oral contraceptives.

  2. [Study on action mechanism and material base of compound Danshen dripping pills in treatment of carotid atherosclerosis based on techniques of gene expression profile and molecular fingerprint].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Song, Xiang-gang; Chen, Chao; Wang, Shu-mei; Liang, Sheng-wang

    2015-08-01

    Action mechanism and material base of compound Danshen dripping pills in treatment of carotid atherosclerosis were discussed based on gene expression profile and molecular fingerprint in this paper. First, gene expression profiles of atherosclerotic carotid artery tissues and histologically normal tissues in human body were collected, and were screened using significance analysis of microarray (SAM) to screen out differential gene expressions; then differential genes were analyzed by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and KEGG pathway analysis; to avoid some genes with non-outstanding differential expression but biologically importance, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) were performed, and 7 chemical ingredients with higher negative enrichment score were obtained by Cmap method, implying that they could reversely regulate the gene expression profiles of pathological tissues; and last, based on the hypotheses that similar structures have similar activities, 336 ingredients of compound Danshen dripping pills were compared with 7 drug molecules in 2D molecular fingerprints method. The results showed that 147 differential genes including 60 up-regulated genes and 87 down regulated genes were screened out by SAM. And in GO analysis, Biological Process ( BP) is mainly concerned with biological adhesion, response to wounding and inflammatory response; Cellular Component (CC) is mainly concerned with extracellular region, extracellular space and plasma membrane; while Molecular Function (MF) is mainly concerned with antigen binding, metalloendopeptidase activity and peptide binding. KEGG pathway analysis is mainly concerned with JAK-STAT, RIG-I like receptor and PPAR signaling pathway. There were 10 compounds, such as hexadecane, with Tanimoto coefficients greater than 0.85, which implied that they may be the active ingredients (AIs) of compound Danshen dripping pills in treatment of carotid atherosclerosis (CAs). The present method can be applied to the research on material

  3. Comprehensive quantitative analysis of Chinese patent drug YinHuang drop pill by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tin-Long; An, Ya-Qi; Yan, Bing-Chao; Yue, Rui-Qi; Zhang, Tian-Bo; Ho, Hing-Man; Ren, Tian-Jing; Fung, Hau-Yee; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang; Liu, Zhong-Liang; Pu, Jian-Xin; Han, Quan-Bin; Sun, Han-Dong

    2016-06-05

    YinHuang drop pill (YHDP) is a new preparation, derived from the traditional YinHuang (YH) decoction. Since drop pills are one of the newly developed forms of Chinese patent drugs, not much research has been done regarding the quality and efficacy. This study aims to establish a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the chemical profile of YHDP. ultra high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was used to identify 34 non-sugar small molecules including 15 flavonoids, 9 phenolic acids, 5 saponins, 1 iridoid, and 4 iridoid glycosides in YHDP samples, and 26 of them were quantitatively determined. Sugar composition of YHDP in terms of fructose, glucose and sucrose was examined via a high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector on an amide column (HPLC-NH2P-ELSD). Macromolecules were examined by high performance gel permeation chromatography coupled with ELSD (HPGPC-ELSD). The content of the drop pill's skeleton component PEG-4000 was also quantified via ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with charged aerosol detector (UHPLC-CAD). The results showed that up to 73% (w/w) of YHDP could be quantitatively determined. Small molecules accounted for approximately 5%, PEG-4000 represented 68%, while no sugars or macromolecules were found. Furthermore, YHDP showed no significant differences in terms of daily dosage, compared to YinHuang granules and YinHuang oral liquid; however, it has a higher small molecules content compared to YinHuang lozenge.

  4. Increasing appreciation for the role of single-pill combinations for the prevention of atherosclerotic disease: a pro-polypill polemic.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ross D; Nattel, Stanley

    2014-05-01

    The polypill concept for atherosclerosis is based on the notion that a single pill containing multiple products that attack frequently encountered risk factors will provide important advantages as a preventive strategy, particularly in the developing world. Potential benefits include improved efficacy and greater compliance because of simplicity and reduced costs. Here, we briefly review the rationale for the polypill and the evidence supporting its value. We consider the polypill to be a major advance in combat against cardiovascular disease, with enormous benefits to global health to be expected from its use.

  5. [Simultaneous determination of paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, prim-O-glucosylcimifugin and 4'-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-5-O-methylvisamminol in zhengtian pills by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Huang, Lan; Chen, Hui-Ling; Li, Ling-Ling

    2013-07-01

    To simultaneously determine paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, prim-O-glucosylcimifugin and 4'-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-5-O-methylvisamminol in Zhengtian pills. In the test, Insertil ODS-C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) was adopted, with acetonitrile-0.05% phosphoric acid solution as the mobile phase for gradient elution. The flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1), the column temperature was 30 degrees C and the detection wavelength was 230 nm. According to the results of the test, paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, prim-O-glucosylcimifugin and 4'-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-5-O-methylvisamminol showed good linear relations between peak areas and sample sizes in 11.37-170.5, 2.188-32.82, 2.896-43.44, and 3.000-45.00 mg x L(-1) (r = 0.999 9, 0.999 9, 1.000 0, 1.000 0), respectively. The average recoveries (n = 6) were 102.3% (RSD 1.2%), 99.71% (RSD 1.9%), 101.2% (RSD 1.2%), and 99.40% (RSD 2.4%), respectively. The above four components were determined in five batches of samples by using the established method, with satisfactory results. The method was so simple, accurate and highly reproducible that it could be used for quality control of the four components in Zhengtian pills.

  6. Comparison of combined hormonal vaginal ring with ultralow-dose combined oral contraceptive pills in the management of heavy menstrual bleeding: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, N; Gupta, M; Kriplani, A; Bhatla, N; Singh, N

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare combined hormonal vaginal ring with ultralow-dose combined oral contraceptive (COC) pills in management of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). Fifty patients were randomised into Group I: vaginal ring (n = 25) and group II: COC pills (n = 25). Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was assessed at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months (while on treatment) and at 9 months (3 months after stopping therapy). There was significant reduction in baseline pictorial blood loss assessment chart (PBAC) score from 440 ± 188 (Mean ± SD) to 178 ± 95, 139 ± 117, 112 ± 84 and 120 ± 108 in group I and from 452 ± 206 to 204 ± 152, 179 ± 125, 176 ± 164 and 202 ± 167 in group II at 1, 3, 6 and 9 months, respectively (p = 0.001). Reduction in MBL was 72% and 62% at 6 months and up to 71% and 55% at 9 months in group I and group II, respectively (p = 0.001). Reduction in MBL with ring was greater at higher baseline PBAC score but lesser in patients with fibroid > 2 cm. Combined vaginal hormonal treatment for HMB is as effective as oral hormonal therapy, with minor and transient side effects and persistence of response after cessation of therapy.

  7. Multiple effects of Xihuang pill aqueous extract on the Hs578T triple-negative breast cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wenxian; Han, Shuyan; Jiang, Shantong; Pang, Lina; Li, Xiaohong; Liu, Xijuan; Cao, Minhua; Li, Pingping

    2016-01-01

    The management of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is challenging due to the aggressive behavior, lack of therapeutic options and relatively poor prognosis. Xihuang pill (XHP) is a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine with anticancer activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the aqueous extract of XHP (AEXHP) has anti-proliferative activity against the Hs578T TNBC cell line, and to elucidate its molecular mechanisms of action. First, an MTT assay was used to evaluate the anti-proliferative activity of AEXHP on the Hs578T cell line; furthermore, the cell cycle distribution, mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptotic rate were determined by flow cytometry, and western blot analysis was used to assess the expression of apoptosis and cell cycle regulatory proteins to investigate the mechanisms of action. The results revealed that the cell viability was significantly inhibited by AEXHP in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential loss were detected, and after treatment with 4, 8 and 12 mg/ml AEXHP for 24 h, cleaved caspase-3 was 1.70-, 1.81- and 1.84-fold of that of the control, while procaspase-3, procaspase-8, cleaved caspase-8, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio were not significantly affected. Cell cycle analysis revealed that treatment with AEXHP led to S-phase arrest of Hs578T cells. Furthermore, AEXHP treatment resulted in decreased expression of cyclin A and cyclin dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), and increased expression of cyclin E and p21Cip1, as compared to the control group. In conclusion, the viability of Hs578T cells was significantly inhibited by AEXHP in a dose- and time-dependent manner, the likely mechanisms of which being induction of apoptosis, probably via the intrinsic, Bcl-2-independent pathway, and cell cycle arrest in S phase due to decreased expression of cyclin A and CDK2, and increased expression of cyclin E and p21Cip1. PMID

  8. Potential herb-drug interaction of shexiang baoxin pill in vitro based on drug metabolism/transporter

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhijie; Wang, Yingjie; Guo, Wei; Yao, Yili; Wang, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    Many researches have proved functions of anti-oxidation, endothelial protection and pro-angiogenesis efficiency of Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SBP). This study aims to investigate potential for metabolism-based interaction on CYP450s and transporter based interaction on OATP1B1, BRCP and MDR1. Human primary hepatocytes were used in this study. Probe substrates of cytochrome P450 enzymes were incubated in human liver microsomes (HLMs) with or without SBP and IC50 values were estimated. Inhibitive potential of SBP on activities of CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A4 was evaluated. Inducible potential of SBP on activities of CYP1A2, 2B6 and 3A4 was accessed. Inhibitive potential of SBP on human OATP1B1 was evaluated using cell-based assay. Inhibitive potential of SBP on human MDR1 and BCRP was also evaluated using vesicles assay. MDR1 and BCRP vesicle kit were used to determine ATP dependent uptake activity when incubated with SBP. SBP was a competitive inhibitor of CYP2B6, 2C19, while neither inhibitory nor inductive potentials toward other CYP450s were detected. No significant MDR1 inhibitory potential was estimated, while only high concentration of SBP (500 μg/ml) could inhibit activity of BCRP. Probe substrates Estradiol-17 β-glucuronide was incubated in HEK293-OATP1B1 and HEK293-MOCK cell system with different concentration of SBP and estimated IC50 was 179 μg/mL, which demonstrated a moderate inhibition potential against OATP1B1. In conclusion, outcome of this study suggests that SBP plays an important role in inhibition of CYP450 isozymes (including CYP2B6 and 2C9) and transporter OATP1B1. Therefore, precautions should be taken when using SBP for CYP and OATP-related herb-drug interactions. PMID:28078025

  9. Cycle scheduling for in vitro fertilization with oral contraceptive pills versus oral estradiol valerate: a randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Both oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) and estradiol (E2) valerate have been used to schedule gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles and, consequently, laboratory activities. However, there are no studies comparing treatment outcomes directly between these two pretreatment methods. This randomized controlled trial was aimed at finding differences in ongoing pregnancy rates between GnRH antagonist IVF cycles scheduled with OCPs or E2 valerate. Methods Between January and May 2012, one hundred consecutive patients (nonobese, regularly cycling women 18–38 years with normal day 3 hormone levels and <3 previous IVF/ICSI attempts) undergoing IVF with the GnRH antagonist protocol were randomized to either the OCP or E2 pretreatment arms, with no restrictions such as blocking or stratification. Authors involved in data collection and analysis were blinded to group assignment. Fifty patients received OCP (30 μg ethinyl E2/150 μg levonorgestrel) for 12–16 days from day 1 or 2, and stimulation was started 5 days after stopping OCP. Similarly, 50 patients received 4 mg/day oral E2 valerate from day 20 for 5–12 days, until the day before starting stimulation. Results Pretreatment with OCP (mean±SD, 14.5±1.7 days) was significantly longer than with E2 (7.8±1.9 days). Stimulation and embryological characteristics were similar. Ongoing pregnancy rates (46.0% vs. 44.0%; risk difference, –2.0% [95% CI –21.2% to 17.3%]), as well as implantation (43.5% vs. 47.4%), clinical pregnancy (50.0% vs. 48.0%), clinical miscarriage (7.1% vs. 7.7%), and live birth (42.0% vs. 40.0%) rates were comparable between groups. Conclusions This is the first study to directly compare these two methods of cycle scheduling in GnRH antagonist cycles. Our results fail to show statistically significant differences in ongoing pregnancy rates between pretreatment with OCP and E2 for IVF with the GnRH antagonist protocol. Although the

  10. [From a method for family planning to a differentiating lifestyle drug: images of the pill and its consumer in gynaecological advertising since the 1960s in West Germany and France].

    PubMed

    Malich, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Based upon flyers and advertisements for the contraceptive pill from 1961 until 2005, this paper discusses the ways in which the drug and its female users were represented in the marketing of two West European countries, France and the German Federal Republic. As my analysis suggests, national differences are only discernible in the marketing until the end of the 1970s. In West Germany, the pill was depicted from early on as a contraceptive, whereas, due to the restrictive legal situation, in France the pill was marketed as a multi-purpose drug. Nevertheless, the sources in both countries emphasized the safety of the drug. Likewise the representations of women changed from the notion of the married mother to a more diverse image, including young, modern and active women. From the early 1980s on, French and German materials conformed to one another. Now more classification systems were developed, emphasizing the differences between types of pills and types of women. Lifestyle, leisure and fun became increasingly central topics. Correspondingly, the female user was often portrayed in a sexualized way and represented as an active consumer with individual needs and wishes.

  11. Comparison of the Effect of Vaginal Zataria multiflora Cream and Oral Metronidazole Pill on Results of Treatments for Vaginal Infections including Trichomoniasis and Bacterial Vaginosis in Women of Reproductive Age.

    PubMed

    Abdali, Khadijeh; Jahed, Leila; Amooee, Sedigheh; Zarshenas, Mahnaz; Tabatabaee, Hamidreza; Bekhradi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Effect of Zataria multiflora on bacterial vaginosis and Trichomonas vaginalis is shown in vivo and in vitro. We compare the effectiveness of Zataria multiflora cream and oral metronidazole pill on results of treatment for vaginal infections including Trichomonas and bacterial vaginosis; these infections occur simultaneously. The study included 420 women with bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis, or both infections together, who were randomly divided into six groups. Criteria for diagnosis were wet smear and Gram stain. Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream and placebo pill were administered to the experiment groups; the control group received oral metronidazole pill and vaginal placebo cream. Comparison of the clinical symptoms showed no significant difference in all three vaginitis groups receiving metronidazole pill and vaginal Zataria multiflora cream. However, comparison of the wet smear test results was significant in patients with trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis associated with trichomoniasis in the two treatment groups (p = 0.001 and p = 0.01). Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream had the same effect of oral metronidazole tablets in improving clinical symptoms of all three vaginitis groups, as well as the treatment for bacterial vaginosis. It can be used as a drug for treatment of bacterial vaginosis and elimination of clinical symptoms of Trichomonas vaginitis.

  12. Comparison of the Effect of Vaginal Zataria multiflora Cream and Oral Metronidazole Pill on Results of Treatments for Vaginal Infections including Trichomoniasis and Bacterial Vaginosis in Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Abdali, Khadijeh; Jahed, Leila; Amooee, Sedigheh; Zarshenas, Mahnaz; Tabatabaee, Hamidreza; Bekhradi, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Effect of Zataria multiflora on bacterial vaginosis and Trichomonas vaginalis is shown in vivo and in vitro. We compare the effectiveness of Zataria multiflora cream and oral metronidazole pill on results of treatment for vaginal infections including Trichomonas and bacterial vaginosis; these infections occur simultaneously. The study included 420 women with bacterial vaginosis, Trichomonas vaginalis, or both infections together, who were randomly divided into six groups. Criteria for diagnosis were wet smear and Gram stain. Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream and placebo pill were administered to the experiment groups; the control group received oral metronidazole pill and vaginal placebo cream. Comparison of the clinical symptoms showed no significant difference in all three vaginitis groups receiving metronidazole pill and vaginal Zataria multiflora cream. However, comparison of the wet smear test results was significant in patients with trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis associated with trichomoniasis in the two treatment groups (p = 0.001 and p = 0.01). Vaginal Zataria multiflora cream had the same effect of oral metronidazole tablets in improving clinical symptoms of all three vaginitis groups, as well as the treatment for bacterial vaginosis. It can be used as a drug for treatment of bacterial vaginosis and elimination of clinical symptoms of Trichomonas vaginitis. PMID:26266260

  13. "Smart Pills" Promising, Problematic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    An explosion in the variety and availability of cognitive-enhancing drugs, from prescriptions like Ritalin to commercial drinks like NeuroFuel, raises concerns for scientists and educators alike--not just over the potential for abuse, but also over what educators and researchers consider, and how they approach, normal achievement. Evidence is…

  14. Birth control pills overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy , editorial process and privacy policy . A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of ... The information provided herein should not be used during any ...

  15. Birth control pills - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... woman's ovary from releasing an egg during her menstrual cycle (called ovulation). They do this by changing the ... cause many side effects. These include: Changes in menstrual cycles, no menstrual cycles, extra bleeding Nausea, mood changes, ...

  16. Nutraceutical pill containing berberine versus ezetimibe on plasma lipid pattern in hypercholesterolemic subjects and its additive effect in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia on stable cholesterol-lowering treatment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although statins (STs) are drugs of first choice in hypercholesterolemic patients, especially in those at high cardiovascular risk, some of them are intolerant to STs or refuse treatment with these drugs. In view of this, we have evaluated the lipid-lowering effect of a nutraceutical pill containing berberine (BBR) and of ezetimibe, as alternative treatments, in monotherapy or in combination, in 228 subjects with primary hypercholesterolemia (HCH), with history of STs intolerance or refusing STs treatment. In addition, since PCSK9 was found up-regulated by STs dampening their effect through an LDL receptors (LDLRs) degradation, and BBR suppressed PCSK9 expression in cellular studies, we supplemented the stable lipid-lowering therapy of 30 genotype-confirmed Familial Hypercholesterolemia heterozygotes (HeFH) with BBR, searching for a further plasma cholesterol reduction. Plasma lipid pattern was evaluated at baseline and during treatments. Results In HCH subjects the nutraceutical pill resulted more effective than EZE in lowering LDL cholesterol (−31.7% vs −25.4%, P < 0.001) and better tolerated. On treatment, LDL-C level below 3.36 mmol/L (≤130 mg/dl) was observed in 28.9% of subjects treated with the nutraceutical pill and 11.8% of those treated with EZE (P <0.007). In the group treated with EZE the subjects carrying the G allele of the g.1679 C > G silent polymorphism of NPC1L1 gene showed a higher response to EZE than homozygous for the common allele (GG + CG: LDL-C −29.4±5.0%, CC −23.6±6.5%, P <0.001). Combined treatment with these drugs was as effective as STs in moderate doses (LDL cholesterol −37%, triglycerides −23%). In HeFH patients the addition of BBR resulted in LDL cholesterol reductions inversely related to those induced by the stable therapy (r = −0.617, P <0.0001), with mean 10.5% further decrease. Conclusions The alternative treatments tested in our HCH subjects were rather effective and safe. The findings in

  17. The preparation of Cistanche phenylethanoid glycosides liquid proliposomes: Optimized formulation, characterization and proliposome dripping pills in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Li, Yunjing; Liu, Weiwei; Li, Rongli; Qin, Cuiying; Liu, Nan; Han, Jing

    2016-10-10

    Water-soluble Cistanche phenylethanoid glycosides (CPhGs) have poor permeability and low bioavailability. However, liposomes can improve the permeability of such drugs and their poor stability, and proliposomes have been used to overcome these problems. Based on this, Cistanche phenylethanoid glycoside liquid proliposomes (CPhGsP) and dripping(?) pills were prepared and optimized using response surface methodology. The properties of CPhGsP were evaluated in terms of their encapsulation efficiency, particle size, zeta potential, and morphology. The results obtained showed that the optimal formulation was drug/soybean phospholipid/poloxamer-188/sodium deoxycholate/propylene glycol 1:22.38:3.52:0.84:80 (w/w/w/w/v). This resulted in an encapsulation efficiency, particle size, and zeta potential of hydrated proliposomes with phosphate buffer solution (pH7.4) of 51.97%, 671.7nm, and -25.49mV, respectively. Stability testing of CPhGsP and CPhGs ordinary liposomes was carried out for 3months at 4±2°C, 25±2°C, 40±2°C, 75±5% RH. The results obtained showed that the stability of the proliposomes was better than that of ordinary liposomes at the same temperature, while a lower temperature of 4°C is ideal for storage. Cistanche phenylethanoid glycoside liquid proliposomes dripping pills (CPhGsPD) are efficiently released in gastrointestinal solution as shown by in vitro release experiments and the structure of the liposomes does not destroy the proliposome dripping pills by hydration. In vivo experiments showed that the areas under the plasma level-time curves and peak concentrations of CPhGsPD and hydrated proliposomes were higher than those of CPhGs. Moreover, with CPhGsPD, the pharmacokinetic parameters were similar to those with hydrated proliposomes. These results showed that CPhGsPD offer a good way to improve the oral delivery of CPhGs.

  18. Chemical fingerprinting of Shexiang Baoxin Pill and simultaneous determination of its major constituents by HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection and electrospray mass spectrometric detection.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shi-Kai; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Run-Hui; Zhan, Yong-Cheng

    2006-07-01

    High-performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with evaporative light scattered detection (ELSD) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection (ESI-MS) was employed to establish chemical fingerprint of Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SBP) and to simultaneously determinate its seven major constituents, including cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, cinobufagin, recibufogenin, and ginsenoside Rb1. The analysis was performed on a C18 column with water-acetonitrile gradient elution, and the investigated constituents were authenticated by comparing their retention times and mass spectra with those of reference compounds. The proposed method was applied to analyze nine SBP samples and produced data with acceptable linearity, precision, stability and accuracy. Both the chemical fingerprints and quantification data were used to evaluate the quality of various SBP products. The proposed method allows obtaining chemical fingerprint and quantification of multi-components in one run, and therefore can be readily utilized as a comprehensive quality control approach for traditional Chinese medicine.

  19. UFLC-MS/MS determination and pharmacokinetic studies of six Saikosaponins in rat plasma after oral administration of Bupleurum Dropping Pills.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiufeng; Wang, Xiangyang; Yan, Kaijing; Chu, Yang; Li, Shuming; Li, Wei; Yan, Xueying; Ma, Xiaohui; Zhou, Shuiping; Sun, He; Liu, Changxiao

    2016-05-30

    A rapid and sensitive ultra fast liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method (UFLC-MS/MS) was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of six Saikosaponins (SSs) (SSa, SSb1, SSb2, SSd, SSc, SSf) of Bupleurum Dropping Pills (BDP) in rat plasma using chloramphenicol as the internal standard (IS). The SSs were separated using an ACQUITY UPLC(®) BEH C18 column (50 mm × 2.1mm, 1.7 μm) and detection of these compounds were done by using a Qtrap 5500 mass spectrometer coupled with negative electrospray ionization (ESI) source under the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. According to regulatory guidelines, the established method was fully validated and results were showed within acceptable limits. The lower limit of quantifications (LLOQs) of all analytes were 0.2 ng/mL. The validated method was successfully applied into a pharmacokinetic study of orally administered BDP in rats.

  20. Analysis of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistor contact metal using Pilling-Bedworth theory and a variable capacitance diode model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiani, Ahmed; Hasko, David G.; Milne, William I.; Flewitt, Andrew J.

    2013-04-01

    It is widely reported that threshold voltage and on-state current of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide bottom-gate thin-film transistors are strongly influenced by the choice of source/drain contact metal. Electrical characterisation of thin-film transistors indicates that the electrical properties depend on the type and thickness of the metal(s) used. Electron transport mechanisms and possibilities for control of the defect state density are discussed. Pilling-Bedworth theory for metal oxidation explains the interaction between contact metal and amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide, which leads to significant trap formation. Charge trapping within these states leads to variable capacitance diode-like behavior and is shown to explain the thin-film transistor operation.

  1. The use of a wireless motility device (SmartPill®) for the measurement of gastrointestinal transit time after a dietary fibre intervention.

    PubMed

    Timm, Derek; Willis, Holly; Thomas, William; Sanders, Lisa; Boileau, Thomas; Slavin, Joanne

    2011-05-01

    Historically, measurement of gastrointestinal transit time has required collection and X-raying of faecal samples for up to 7 d after swallowing radio-opaque markers; a tedious, labour-intensive technique for both subjects and investigators. Recently, a wireless motility capsule (SmartPill®), which uses gut pH, pressure and temperature to measure transit time, has been developed. This device, however, has not been validated with dietary interventions. Therefore, we conducted a controlled cross-over trial to determine whether the device could detect a significant difference in transit time after ten healthy subjects (five men and five women) consumed 9 g of wheat bran (WB) or an equal volume, low-fibre control for 3 d. A paired t test was used to determine differences in transit times. Colonic transit time decreased by 10·8 (sd 6·6) h (P = 0·006) on the WB treatment. Whole-gut transit time also decreased by 8·9 (sd 5·4) h (P = 0·02) after the consumption of WB. Gastric emptying time and small-bowel transit time did not differ between treatments. Despite encouraging results, the present study had several limitations including short duration, lack of randomisation and unusable data due to delayed gastric emptying of the capsule. With minimal participant burden, the SmartPill technology appears to be a potentially useful tool for assessing transit time after a dietary intervention. This technology could be considered for digestive studies with novel fibres and other ingredients that are promoted for gut health.

  2. SmartPill® as an objective parameter for determination of severity and duration of postoperative ileus: study protocol of a prospective, two-arm, open-label trial (the PIDuSA study)

    PubMed Central

    Vilz, Tim O; Pantelis, Dimitrios; Lingohr, Philipp; Fimmers, Rolf; Esmann, Anke; Randau, Thomas; Kalff, Jörg C; Coenen, Martin; Wehner, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Postoperative ileus (POI) is a frequent complication after abdominal surgery (AS). Until today, neither a prophylaxis nor an evidence-based therapy exists. This originates from the absence of objective parameters evaluating the severity and duration of POI resulting in clinical trials of modest quality. The SmartPill®, a capsule which frequently measures pH value, temperature and intraluminal pressure after swallowing, offers an elegant option for analysing gastrointestinal (GI) transit times and smooth muscle activity in vivo. As the use in patients in the first months after AS is not covered by the marketing authorisation, we aim to investigate the safety and feasibility of the SmartPill® immediately after surgery. Additionally, we analyse the influence of prokinetics and laxatives as well as standardised physiotherapy on postoperative bowel contractility, as scientific evidence of its effects is still lacking. Methods and analysis The PIDuSA study is a prospective, single-centre, two-arm, open-label trial. The SmartPill® will be applied to 55 patients undergoing AS having a high risk for POI and 10 patients undergoing extra-abdominal surgery rarely developing POI. The primary objective is the safety of the SmartPill® in patients after surgery on the basis of adverse device effects/serious adverse device effects (ADE/SADE). The sample size suggests that events with a probability of 3% could be seen with a certainty of 80% for at least once in the sample. Secondary objective is the analysis of postoperative intestinal activity in the GI tract in both groups. Furthermore, clinical signs of bowel motility disorders will be correlated to the data measured by the SmartPill® to evaluate its significance as an objective parameter for assessing POI severity. Additionally, effects of prokinetics, laxatives and physiotherapy on postoperative peristaltic activity recorded by the SmartPill® will be analysed. Ethics and dissemination The protocol was

  3. In vitro and in vivo preclinical evaluation of a minisphere emulsion-based formulation (SmPill®) of salmon calcitonin.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Tanira A S; Rosa, Mónica; Coulter, Ivan S; Brayden, David J

    2015-11-15

    Salmon calcitonin (sCT, MW 3432Da) is a benchmark molecule for an oral peptide delivery system because it is degraded and has low intestinal epithelial permeability. Four dry emulsion minisphere prototypes (SmPill®) containing sCT were co-formulated with permeation enhancers (PEs): sodium taurodeoxycholate (NaTDC), sodium caprate (C10) or coco-glucoside (CG), or with a pH acidifier, citric acid (CA). Minispheres protected sCT from thermal degradation and the released sCT retained high bioactivity, as determined by cyclic AMP generation in T47D cells. Pre-minisphere emulsions of PEs combined with sCT increased absolute bioavailability (F) compared to native sCT following rat intra-jejunal (i.j.) and intra-colonic (i.c.) loop instillations, an effect that was more pronounced in colon. Minispheres corresponding to ~2000I.U. (~390μg) sCT/kg were instilled by i.j. or i.c. instillations and hypocalcaemia resulted from all prototypes. The absolute F (i.j.) of sCT was 11.0, 4.8, and 1.4% for minispheres containing NaTDC (10μmol/kg), CG (12μmol/kg) or CA (32μmol/kg) respectively. For i.c. instillations, the largest absolute F (22% in each case) was achieved for minispheres containing either C10 (284μmol/kg) or CG (12μmol/kg), whilst the absolute F was 8.2% for minispheres loaded with CA (32μmol/kg). In terms of relative F, the best data were obtained for minispheres containing NaTDC (i.j.), a 4-fold increase over sCT solution, and also for either C10 or CG (i.c.), where there was a 3-fold increase over sCT solution. Histology of instilled intestinal loops indicated that neither the minispheres nor components thereof caused major perturbation. In conclusion, selected SmPill® minisphere formulations may have the potential to be used as oral peptide delivery systems when delivered to jejunum or colon.

  4. The development of an inventory to assess the structural barriers to clinic attendance and pill-taking amongst users of antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Bronwyne; Kagee, Ashraf

    2013-01-01

    In addition to personal and psychological factors, structural factors may reduce the likelihood of optimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among persons living with HIV. In this mixed-method study we report on the development of a scale to assess the salience of various structural barriers to ART adherence. After following conventional guidelines for scale development, two scales measuring structural barriers to adherence to clinic attendance and pill-taking were administered to 291 patients receiving ART at a public hospital in South Africa. Both exploratory and higher order factor analysis indicated that a single underlying general factor was appropriate for both scales. The final scales consisted of 12 items for the structural barriers to clinic attendance scale and 13 items for the structural barriers to medication-taking scale. Both scales displayed excellent internal consistency with Cronbach alpha coefficients above 0.80. Research to determine the construct validity of the scales may be a next step in this line of research.

  5. Cardiotonic pill attenuates white matter and hippocampal damage via inhibiting microglial activation and downregulating ERK and p38 MAPK signaling in chronic cerebral hypoperfused rat

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The cardiotonic pill (CP) is a herbal medicine composed of Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM), Panax notoginseng (PN), and Dryobalanops aromatica Gaertner (DAG) that is widely used to treat cardiovascular diseases. The present experiment was conducted to examine the effects of CP on white matter and hippocampal damage induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. Methods Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion was induced in male Wistar rats by permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAo). Daily oral administration of CP (200 mg/kg) began 21 days after BCCAo and continued for 42 days. The levels of microglial activation and myelin basic protein (MBP) were measured in the white matter and hippocampus of rats with chronic BCCAo, and the expression levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and inflammatory markers such as cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 were examined. Results MBP expression was reduced in the white matter and hippocampal regions of rats that received BCCAo. In contrast, reduced levels of MBP were not observed in BCCAo rats given CP treatments. The administration of CP alleviated microglial activation, the alteration of ERK and p38 MAPK signaling, and inflammatory mediator expression in rats with chronic BCCAo. Conclusion These results suggest that CP may have protective effects against chronic BCCAo-induced white matter and hippocampal damage by inhibiting inflammatory processes including microglial activation and proinflammatory mediator expression, and downreguating the hyperphosphorylation of ERK and p38 MAPK signaling. PMID:24274593

  6. Improving Access to Emergency Contraception Pills through Strengthening Service Delivery and Demand Generation: A Systematic Review of Current Evidence in Low and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Angela; Tran, Nguyen-Toan; Westley, Elizabeth; Mangiaterra, Viviana; Festin, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Emergency contraception pills (ECP) are among the 13 essential commodities in the framework for action established by the UN Commission on Life-Saving Commodities for Women and Children. Despite having been on the market for nearly 20 years, a number of barriers still limit women's access to ECP in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) including limited consumer knowledge and poor availability. This paper reports the results of a review to synthesise the current evidence on service delivery strategies to improve access to ECP. Methods A narrative synthesis methodology was used to examine peer reviewed research literature (2003 to 2013) from diverse methodological traditions to provide critical insights into strategies to improve access from a service delivery perspective. The studies were appraised using established scoring systems and the findings of included papers thematically analysed and patterns mapped across all findings using concept mapping. Findings Ten papers were included in the review. Despite limited research of adequate quality, promising strategies to improve access were identified including: advance provision of ECP; task shifting and sharing; intersectoral collaboration for sexual assault; m-health for information provision; and scale up through national family planning programs. Conclusion There are a number of gaps in the research concerning service delivery and ECP in LMIC. These include a lack of knowledge concerning private/commercial sector contributions to improving access, the needs of vulnerable groups of women, approaches to enhancing intersectoral collaboration, evidence for social marketing models and investment cases for ECP. PMID:25285438

  7. Integrative revision of the giant pill-millipede genus Sphaeromimus from Madagascar, with the description of seven new species (Diplopoda, Sphaerotheriida, Arthrosphaeridae)

    PubMed Central

    Wesener, Thomas; Le, Daniel Minh-Tu; Loria, Stephanie F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Malagasy giant pill-millipede genus Sphaeromimus de Saussure & Zehntner, 1902 is revised. Seven new species, S. titanus sp. n., S. vatovavy sp. n., S. lavasoa sp. n., S. andohahela sp. n., S. ivohibe sp. n., S. saintelucei sp. n., and S. andrahomana sp. n. were discovered, in one case with the help of sequence data, in the rainforests of southeastern Madagascar. The species are described using light- and scanning electron microscopy. A key to all 10 species of the genus is presented. All but one (S. andohahela) of the newly discovered species are microendemics each occurring in isolated forest fragments. The mitochondrial COI barcoding gene was amplified and sequenced for 18 Sphaeromimus specimens, and a dataset containing COI sequences of 28 specimens representing all Sphaeromimus species (except S. vatovavy) was analyzed. All species are genetically monophyletic. Interspecific uncorrected genetic distances were moderate (4–10%) to high (18–25%), whereas intraspecific variation is low (0–3.5%). Sequence data allowed the correct identification of three colour morphs of S. musicus, as well as the identity of a cave specimen, which although aberrant in its morphology and colouration, was genetically identical to the holotype of S. andrahoma. PMID:25009417

  8. Massive pulmonary embolism associated with Factor V Leiden, prothrombin, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene mutations in a young patient on oral contraceptive pills: a case report.

    PubMed

    Charafeddine, Khalil M; Mahfouz, Rami A; Ibrahim, Georges Y; Taher, Ali T; Hoballah, Jamal J; Taha, Assad M

    2010-10-01

    Factor V Leiden (Factor V G1691A), prothrombin gene mutation G20210A, and homozygous C677T mutation in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene are known to predispose venous thromboembolism (VTE). We present herein a rare case of a young woman heterozygous for these mutations and taking oral contraceptive pills for less than 2 months, diagnosed to have massive deep venous thrombosis and bilateral pulmonary embolism. The patient was managed for 10 days in the hospital and discharged home on oral anticoagulants. This case suggests that screening for these factors in people with family history of thrombosis and in relatives of patients with these mutations is highly recommended to prevent fatal consequences. In addition, a new guideline for treatment and prophylaxis with anticoagulant for these patients and others who are at risk of developing VTE (American College of Chest Physicians [ACCP] guidelines-Chest 2008) has been published recently. Our recommendation is to promote for the internationally published algorithms through their application, where necessary, to prevent any future thrombotic morbidity or mortality incidents.

  9. Prevention of AMI Induced Ventricular Remodeling: Inhibitory Effects of Heart-Protecting Musk Pill on IL-6 and TNF-Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhiliang; Hoppe, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    Heart-Protecting Musk Pill (HMP) is a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) that has been used for the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease in clinic. The current study investigated the effect of HMP on the concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and observed the relationship between level changes of inflammatory cytokines and ventricular remodeling in rats with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Animal models of AMI were made by coronary artery ligation in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. AMI rats showed increased levels of IL-6 and TNF-α. Treatment with HMP decreases IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations in rats with AMI. Histopathological and transmission electron microscopic findings were also essentially in agreement with biochemical findings. The results of our study revealed that inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α induce cardiac remodeling in rats after AMI; HMP improves cardiac function and ameliorates ventricular remodeling by downregulating the expression of IL-6 and TNF-α and further suppressing the ultrastructural changes of myocardial cells. PMID:28373886

  10. Identification of NF-κB inhibitors in Qishenyiqi dropping pills for myocardial infarction treatment based on bioactivity-integrated UPLC-Q/TOF MS.

    PubMed

    Han, Yanqi; Zhou, Mengge; Xing, Lu; Jiang, Min; Bai, Gang; Luo, Guoan

    2015-10-01

    Qishenyiqi dropping pills (QSYQ) are a type of standardized cardiovascular multiherb medicine for the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI). Knowledge concerning the systemic identification of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) inhibitors of QSYQ is generally lacking. Therefore, it is necessary to establish an effective method to screen the bioactive components of NF-κB inhibition. In the present study, a rat model of coronary artery ligation was used to assess the cardioprotective effects of QSYQ. The electrocardiograms, histopathology of heart tissues and serum biochemical indicators, such as brain natriuretic peptide, cardiac troponin I and inflammatory cytokines, were measured. Subsequently, ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF MS) combined with the NF-κB luciferase reporter assay system was applied to screen the potential anti-inflammatory compounds in QSYQ. The results revealed that the administration of QSYQ could improve heart function, ameliorate neutrophil infiltration and diminish the levels of inflammatory cytokines in MI rats. Furthermore, 22 compounds were determined to be potential NF-κB inhibitors. In conclusion, NF-κB inactivation and cytokine suppression might be the main mechanisms of QSYQ for MI treatment. The method of UPLC-Q/TOF MS combined with a bioactive human cell functional evaluation system was proved to be a simple and effective strategy for screening bioactive compounds in traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions.

  11. Simultaneous determination of eight bioactive components of Qishen Yiqi Dripping Pills in rat plasma using UFLC-MS/MS and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yaping; Zhang, Wen; Tong, Ling; Huang, Jingyi; Li, Dongxiang; Nie, Wei; Zhu, Yan; Li, Yunfei; Lu, Tao

    2017-02-01

    In this study, a rapid and reliable ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of eight active ingredients, including astragaloside IV (AIV), ononin (ONO), tanshinol (TSL), protocatechualdehyde (PCA), protocatechuic acid (PA), salvianolic acid D (SAD), rosmarinic acid (RA), and ginsenoside Rg1 (GRg1 ), in rat plasma. The plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Waters Acquity UPLC® BEH C18 column (1.7 µm particles, 2.1 × 100 mm).The mobile phase consisted of 0.1% aqueous formic acid (A)-acetonitrile with 0.1% formic acid (B) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Quantification was performed on a triple quadruple tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization by multiple reaction monitoring both in the negative and positive ion mode. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of TSL was 2.0 ng/mL and the others were 5.0 ng/mL. The extraction recoveries, matrix effects, intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of eight tested components were all within acceptable limits. The validated method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of the eight active constituents after intragastric administration of three doses (1.0, 3.0, 6.0 g/kg body weight) of Qishen Yiqi dripping pills to rats.

  12. Hypertensive nephropathy treatment by heart-protecting musk pill: a study of anti-inflammatory therapy for target organ damage of hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Dengke; Ling, Shuang; Chen, Gangling; Li, Yajuan; Liu, Jun; Ferid, Murad; Bian, Ka

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of the heart-protecting musk pill (HMP) on inflammatory injury of kidney from spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Male SHRs aged 4 weeks were divided into SHR model group, HMP low-dosage group (13.5 mg/kg), and HMP high-dosage group (40 mg/kg). Age-matched Wistar–Kyoto rats were used as normal control. All rats were killed at 12 weeks of age. Tail-cuff method and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to determine rat systolic blood pressure and angiotensin II (Ang II) contents, respectively. Renal inflammatory damage was evaluated by the following parameters: protein expressions of inflammatory cytokines, carbonyl protein contents, nitrite concentration, infiltration of monocytes/macrophages in interstitium and glomeruli, kidney pathological changes, and excretion rate of urinary protein. HMP did not prevent the development of hypertension in SHR. However, this Chinese medicinal compound decreased renal Ang II content. Consistent with the change of renal Ang II, all the parameters of renal inflammatory injury were significantly decreased by HMP. This study indicates that HMP is a potent suppressor of renal inflammatory damage in SHR, which may serve as a basis for the advanced preventive and therapeutic investigation of HMP in hypertensive nephropathy. PMID:21475627

  13. The effect of oral contraceptive pill for cycle scheduling prior to GnRH-antagonist protocol on IVF cycle parameters and pregnancy outcome

    PubMed Central

    Sapir, Onit; Avrech, Ori M.; Ben-Haroush, Avi; Ashkenzi, Jacob; Fisch, Benjamin; Farhi, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of oral contraceptive pills (OCP) pretreatment on IVF cycle outcome in GnRH-antagonist protocol. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Major tertiary university-affiliated center. Patients All patients treated with GnRH antagonist in our IVF unit during the last 3 years were included in the study. Overall 1,799 IVF cycles were performed. Of these, in 604 cycles OCP pretreatment was used prior to GnRH-antagonist for cycle scheduling. Patients were divided into two age groups—young group aged ≤35 years and older group aged ≥36 years. Interventions The young group underwent 927 cycles, 281 cycles with OCP pretreatment and 646 cycles without. The older group underwent 872 cycles, 323 cycles with OCP pretreatment and 549 cycles without. Data was analyzed within each age group. Main outcome measures Treatment duration and total dose of FSH IU used for stimulation, number of oocytes retrieved, implantation and pregnancy rates. Results All OCP-pretreated cycles required significantly longer stimulation than non-pretreated cycles (young: 10.76 vs. 9.21 days; older: 10.48 vs. 8.73 days, respectively) and higher total dose of FSH IU (young: 3,210 IU vs. 2,565 IU; older: 4,973 IU vs. 3,983 IU, respectively). There were no other differences in cycle characteristics between groups. Implantation and pregnancy rates were not affected by OCP pretreatment. Conclusions OCP pretreatment can be offered as a mode for cycle scheduling prior to GnRH-antagonist protocol, though it may be associated with longer stimulation and higher gonadotropin consumption. PMID:18205037

  14. Liuwei Dihuang Pills Enhance the Effect of Western Medicine in Treating Diabetic Nephropathy: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lan; Wang, Qiuhong; Yi, Yongxin; Wang, Shihan; Qiu, Zonglin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the effectiveness and adverse effects of adding Liuwei Dihuang Pills (LDP) to Western medicine for treating diabetic nephropathy. Methods. Studies were retrieved from seven electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, CBM, CNKI, Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP), and Wanfang Data until November 2015. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to Cochrane standards. Meta-analysis was performed on the overall therapeutic efficacy of hyperglycemia and renal functions, and the study also analyzed adverse events. Results. A total of 1,275 patients from 18 studies were included. The methodological quality of these included trials was generally low. We found that adding LDP can lower patients' FBG (MD: −0.36 [−0.46, −0.25], P < 0.00001), PBG (MD: −1.10 [−1.35, −0.85], P < 0.00001), and HbA1c (MD: −0.14 [−0.49, 0.21], P = 0.43). There were also improvements in lowering patients' BUN (MD: −0.67 [−0.89, −0.45], P < 0.00001), SCr (MD: −0.96 [−1.53, −0.39], P < 0.00001), 24 h UTP (SMD: −1.26 [−2.38, −0.15], P < 0.00001), UAER (MD: −26.18 [−27.51, −24.85], P < 0.00001), and UmAlb (SMD: −1.72 [−2.67, −0.77], P < 0.00001). Conclusion. There is encouraging evidence that adding LDP to Western medicine might improve treatment outcomes of diabetic nephropathy, including hyperglycemia and renal functions. However, the evidence remains weak. More rigorous high-quality trials are warranted to substantiate or refute the results. PMID:26997962

  15. A first integrative study of the identity and origins of the British Dwarf Pill Millipede populations, Trachysphaera cf. lobata (Diplopoda, Glomerida, Glomeridae)

    PubMed Central

    Wilbrandt, Jeanne; Lee, Paul; Read, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Three populations of the pill millipede genus Trachysphaera Heller 1858 are present in Great Britain, one on the Isle of Wight, one in South Wales and one in mid-Wales. To identify and characterize the British Trachysphaera populations, the intraspecific and interspecific variation of the populations in South Wales and on the Isle of Wight were studied and evaluated in a first integrative study of members of Trachysphaera, utilizing barcoding and SEM. DNA was extracted from 28 British Trachysphaera and 10 French T. lobata (Ribaut 1954) specimens, one each of French T. cf. drescoi (Conde and Demange 1961) and T. pyrenaica (Ribaut 1908), and one of Spanish T. cf. rousseti (Demange 1959); the barcoding fragment of the COI gene was amplified and their genetic intra- and interpopulation distances compared with one another using two Italian T. spp. and one Croatian T. schmidti Heller 1858 specimens as near outgroups. To compare the genetic distances with the morphological characters, 15 characters of a total of 13 British Trachysphaera, together with two specimens of T. pyrenaica, two T. cf. drescoi and one of T. cf. rousseti were imaged, using the same individuals utilized for DNA extraction. Albeit both British populations are genetically distant, they are closely related (1.9–2.5% p-distance) to French T. lobata, corroborating results of earlier studies. Between different Trachysphaera species, genetic distance was high (16.7–18.8%). The morphological study showed the non-reliability of key taxonomic characters in Trachysphaera, with genetically identical individuals exhibiting morphological variation, especially on the telopods. The only observed morphological characters constant within and different between species were the number of rows of sclerotized bacilli on the tergites, as well as the shape of the male and female anal shield. Both, barcoding and the morphological study identify the British Trachysphaera populations as T. lobata. PMID:26175612

  16. Qi-Shen-Yi-Qi Dripping Pills Promote Angiogenesis of Ischemic Cardiac Microvascular Endothelial Cells by Regulating MicroRNA-223-3p Expression

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Guo-Hua; Liu, Ning; Zhu, Jing-Wei; Yao, Jing; Yang, Chun; Ma, Pei-Ze; Song, Xian-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) research shows that Qi-Shen-Yi-Qi Dripping Pills (QSYQ) can promote ischemic cardiac angiogenesis. Studies have shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are the key component of gene regulation networks, which play a vital role in angiogenesis and cardiovascular disease. Mechanisms involving miRNA by which TCM promotes ischemic cardiac angiogenesis have not been reported. We found that microRNA-223-3p (mir-223-3p) was the core miRNA of angiogenesis of rats ischemic cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) and inhibited angiogenesis by affecting RPS6KB1/HIF-1α signal pathway in previous study. Based on the results, we observed biological characteristics and optimal dosage for QSYQ intervening in rats ischemic CMECs angiogenesis and concluded that QSYQ low-dose group had the strongest ability to promote angiogenesis of ischemic myocardium. Using miRNA chip and real-time PCR techniques in this study, we identified mir-223-3p as the pivotal miRNA in QSYQ that regulated angiogenesis of ischemic CMECs. From real-time PCR and western blot analysis, research showed that gene and protein expression of factors located RPS6KB1/HIF-1α signaling pathway, including HIF-1α, VEGF, MAPK, PI3K, and AKT, were significantly upregulated by QSYQ to regulate angiogenesis of ischemic CMECs. This study showed that QSYQ promote ischemic cardiac angiogenesis by downregulating mir-223-3p expression in rats ischemic CMECs. PMID:27057198

  17. Chemical comparison of two dosage forms of Hemp Seed Pills by UHPLC-Q-ToF-MS/MS and multivariate statistical techniques.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen-Jun; Song, Jing-Zheng; Fu, Wen-Wei; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2013-10-01

    Hemp seed soft gel capsule (HSSGC) is a modernised dosage form that is derived from a traditional Chinese patent medicine, Hemp Seed Pills (HSP). Two dosage forms claim the same therapeutic effects; however, their chemical components and chemical equivalency are unclear. In the present study, an ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ToF-MS)-based chemical profiling approach was proposed to rapidly evaluate the chemical differences between HSP and HSSGC as model dosage forms. Samples of the two dosage forms were subjected to UHPLC-ToF-MS analysis. The datasets of retention time (TR) and mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) pairs, ion intensities and sample codes were processed with principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) to holistically compare the difference between these two dosage form samples. A clear classification trend was observed in the score plot, and a loading bi-plot was generated in which the variables are correlated with the group and the samples that were observed. The important chemical components that caused differences among the samples were explored with a Variables Importance Projection (VIP) index. Using the proposed approach, global chemical differences were found between the two dosage forms and among samples of the same dosage form. The most important components that are related to the differences were identified and most of them were attributed to Fructus Aurantii Immaturus. It is suggested that this newly established approach could be used for pre-clinical trial chemical equivalence study or the quality evaluation of the traditional medicinal products with large variations in quality.

  18. Local Hotspots of Endemism or Artifacts of Incorrect Taxonomy? The Status of Microendemic Pill Millipede Species of the Genus Glomeris in Northern Italy (Diplopoda, Glomerida)

    PubMed Central

    Wesener, Thomas; Conrad, Cathrin

    2016-01-01

    Local endemic species with their unique evolutionary history always stirred the interest of scientists. One such area especially rich in endemics is northern Italy. In case of pill millipedes of the genus Glomeris Latreille, 1803, only a single species is found in northern Europe, while 22 country-endemics alone are known from Italy. Many of these endemics, however, have not been studied in several decades; therefore we aimed to determine whether this diversity is the result of overlooked synonymies or natural processes. A focus was placed on the local endemics that are in some aspects morphologically similar to the widespread and variable G. klugii Brandt, 1833. The local endemics Glomeris larii Verhoeff, 1921, G. primordialis Verhoeff, 1930, G. oblongoguttata Verhoeff, 1894, G. oropensis Verhoeff, 1936, G. transalpina Koch, 1836, G. romana Verhoeff, 1900, G. ligurica Latzel, 1884 and G. apuana Verhoeff, 1911 were included in a molecular analysis incorporating ribosomal nuclear (28S) and mitochondrial (COI) genes. Individuals were sequenced and compared to 31 specimens from 18 localities of G. klugii. The final dataset included 657 base pairs for 56 terminals in the COI, and 14 terminals with 1068 base pairs in the combined 28S and COI analysis. Our analysis shows intraspecific distances of up to 5% in the COI gene in G. klugii that are not strictly correlated to geography or color pattern. G. larii is discovered to be genetically and morphologically identical to G. klugii and is synonymised with the latter. Interspecific distances in our dataset vary between 6.7 to 15.9%, with the lowest (6.7–9.0%) between G. primordialis and G. klugii. Our analysis confirms the species status of the local endemics G. primordialis, G. oblongoguttata, G. oropensis, G. transalpina, G. ligurica and G. apuana. We also confirm the synonymy of G. undulata Koch, 1844 under G. klugii. G. genuensis Latzel, 1886 is indistinguishable from G. ligurica. PMID:27632210

  19. Computational simulation of (nat)UO2, (232)ThO2 and U3O8-Al pills to estimate (p,fission) (99)Mo yield in the modeled targets irradiated by CYCLONE30 accelerator.

    PubMed

    Jozvaziri, Atieh; Gholamzadeh, Zohreh; Yousefi, Kamran; Mirvakili, Seyed Mohammad; Alizadeh, Masoomeh; Aboudzadeh, Mohammadreza

    2017-03-01

    (99)Mo is important for both therapy and imaging purposes. Accelerator and reactor-based procedures are applied to produce it. Newly proton-fission method has been taken in attention by some research centers. In the present work, computationally investigation of the (99)Mo yield in different fissionable targets irradiated by proton was aimed. The results showed UO2 pill target could be efficiently used to produce 11.12Ci/g-U saturation yield of (99)Mo using 25MeV proton irradiation of the optimized-dimension target with 70µA current.

  20. Fertility regulation in nursing women. IX. Contraceptive performance, duration of lactation, infant growth, and bleeding patterns during use of progesterone vaginal rings, progestin-only pills, Norplant implants, and Copper T 380-A intrauterine devices.

    PubMed

    Díaz, S; Zepeda, A; Maturana, X; Reyes, M V; Miranda, P; Casado, M E; Peralta, O; Croxatto, H B

    1997-10-01

    This study evaluated the performance of progesterone vaginal rings (n = 187), progestin-only pills (n = 117), Norplant implants (n = 120), and Copper T 380-A intrauterine devices (n = 122) in lactating women. Contraceptive efficacy, bleeding pattern, and influence of the method upon breastfeeding duration and infant growth were compared with those of untreated women (n = 236) who relied on lactational infertility. Participants were healthy, 18 to 38 years, had had a normal delivery, and were intending to breastfeed for as long as possible. Contraceptives were initiated at day 57 +/- 3 postpartum. Results are reported for the first year of use. All methods were highly effective, with pregnancy rates below 1%. None affected breastfeeding performance or the rate of infant growth. Users of the progestin-only methods experienced a period of lactational amenorrhea 4 to 5 months longer than did users of Copper T or untreated women. More than half of the women in each contraceptive group reported a bleeding in the first month after treatment initiation, which was not considered in the calculation of the duration of amenorrhea. Prolonged or frequent bleedings were infrequent. The proportion of bleedings lasting more than 10 days ranged from 0 in the progestin-only pills group to 7% in the Norplant implants group. The four methods, initiated around the eighth postpartum week, provided effective contraception with no negative effects upon lactation or infant growth and without the bleeding problems associated with their use in nonlactating women.

  1. Bioequivalence study between a fixed-dose single-pill formulation of nebivolol plus hydrochlorothiazide and separate formulations in healthy subjects using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vespasiano, Celso Francisco Pimentel; Laurito, Tiago Luders; Iwamoto, Renan Donomae; Moreno, Ronilson Agnaldo; Mendes, Gustavo D; De Nucci, Gilberto

    2016-11-03

    Systemic arterial hypertension is a major risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. Therefore, adequate control of blood pressure is of enormous importance. One of the many fixed-dose single-pill antihypertensive formulations available on the market is the combination of nebivolol and hydrochlorothiazide. The objective of this study was to develop two distinct high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry methods to simultaneously quantify nebivolol and hydrochlorothiazide in human plasma. The methods were employed in a bioequivalence study, the first assay involving a nebivolol fixed-dose single-pill formulation based on healthy Brazilian volunteers. Nebilet HCT™ (nebivolol 5 mg + hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg tablet, manufactured by Menarini) was the test formulation. The reference formulations were Nebilet™ (nebivolol 5 mg tablet, manufactured by Menarini) and Clorana™ (hydrochlorothiazide 25 mg tablet, manufactured by Sanofi). For both analytes, liquid-liquid extraction was employed for sample preparation and the chromatographic run time was 3.5 min. The limits of quantification validated were 0.02 ng/mL for nebivolol and 1 ng/mL for hydrochlorothiazide. Since the 90% CI for Cmax , AUC(0-last) and AUC(0-inf) individual test/reference ratios were within the 80-125% interval indicative of bioequivalence, it was concluded that Nebilet HCT™ is bioequivalent to Nebilet™ and Clorana™.

  2. Telmisartan and amlodipine single-pill combinations vs amlodipine monotherapy for superior blood pressure lowering and improved tolerability in patients with uncontrolled hypertension: results of the TEAMSTA-5 study.

    PubMed

    Neldam, Steen; Lang, Margreet; Jones, Russell

    2011-07-01

    An 8-week, randomized, double-blind, controlled study with single-pill combinations of telmisartan 40 mg or 80 mg/amlodipine 5 mg (T40/A5 or T80/A5) vs monotherapy with amlodipine 5 mg or 10 mg (A10) in 1097 patients with uncontrolled hypertension (diastolic blood pressure [BP] ≥ 90 mm Hg). T40/A5 and T80/A5 resulted in significantly greater (P<.0001) reductions in seated trough systolic/diastolic BP vs A5 (-7.4 mm Hg/-3.6 mm Hg; -8.8 mm Hg/-4.9 mm Hg) and a significantly greater (P<.001) proportion of patients achieving systolic/diastolic BP goal rate (60.0%/56.7%; 65.7%/63.8%) vs A5 (39.2%/42.0%). Superior BP reductions were also seen with T40-T80/A5 vs A10, with BP goal rates at least as high as with A10; however, there was significantly more peripheral edema with A10 (27.2% vs 4.3% for pooled T40-T80/A5; P<.0001). Switching patients with uncontrolled BP to a single-pill combination of T40/A5 or T80/A5 is a better treatment option than up-titration to full-dose monotherapy with A10.

  3. Efficacy of Combined Contraceptive Vaginal Ring Versus Oral Contraceptive Pills in Achieving Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian Axis Suppression in Egg Donor In Vitro Fertilization Cycles

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Robin Lynn; Halvorson, Lisa Marie; Carr, Bruce Richard; Doody, Kathleen Marie; Doody, Kevin John

    2013-01-01

    Background Our study compares the efficacy of the combined contraceptive vaginal ring to oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) for hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis suppression in egg donor in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. Methods Our retrospective cohort study includes patients from the Center for Assisted Reproduction (CARE) in Bedford, Texas undergoing IVF cycles as egg donors from January 2003 through December 2009. Twenty-five and thirty-nine women were treated with OCPs and the combined contraceptive vaginal ring, respectively. Statistical analyses were performed using the SigmaStat Software package (Systat, Chicago, IL). Data were analyzed by t or Mann-whitney test and Chi-square of Fisher exact test. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results Prior to gonadotropin initiation, endometrial thickness and serum estradiol were 5.6±2.6 mm and 33.6±19.9 pg/ml in the OCP group and 6.0±2.4 mm and 36.6±24.3 pg/ml in the combined contraceptive vaginal ring group, respectively (p=0.49 and p=0.33). Average serum FSH and LH were 1.7±1.9 and 1.7±2.5 mIU/ml in the OCP group and 1.7±1.6 and 1.2±1.4 mIU/ml in the combined contraceptive vaginal ring group, respectively (p=0.45 and p=0.95). No significant differences were found for gonadotropin requirement, peak estradiol, maximal endometrial thickness, number of oocytes retrieved, number of normally fertilized embryos, number of cryopreserved embryos, or live birth rates. Conclusion The combined contraceptive vaginal ring is effective for HPO axis suppression in egg donor IVF cycles and associated with cycle characteristics similar to those observed with OCP treatment. The combined contraceptive vaginal ring may provide an important advantage over OCPs due to improved patient compliance. PMID:24551576

  4. Aliskiren/amlodipine as a single-pill combination in hypertensive patients: subgroup analysis of elderly patients, with metabolic risk factors or high body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Axthelm, Christoph; Sieder, Christian; Meister, Franziska; Pittrow, David; Kaiser, Edelgard

    2013-01-01

    Aims Blood pressure (BP) reduction in hypertensive patients is more difficult to achieve in the elderly or in the presence of comorbidities. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of the single-pill combination (SPC) aliskiren/amlodipine in hypertensive elderly patients, patients with high body mass index (BMI), with at least one metabolic risk factor, and/or type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods In an open-label non-randomized study, patients not adequately controlled by previous treatment with the SPC olmesarten 40/amlodipine 10 (phase 1) were switched to the SPC aliskiren 300/amlodipine 10 (phase 2). The present post-hoc analysis investigated BP reduction in phase 2 in the named subgroups. The EudraCT identifier was 2009-016693-33, ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01113047. Results Of the 187 patients not adequately controlled in phase 1 and thus treated with the SPC aliskiren 300/amlodipine 10 in phase 2, 69 were of advanced age (≥65 years), 74 or 89 were overweight or obese (BMI 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 or ≥30 kg/m2, respectively), 91 had metabolic risk factors (without DM) and 41 had DM. At the beginning of phase 2, depending on the subgroup, baseline SBP was 168–169 mmHg and DBP 103–104 mmHg. After 4 weeks of treatment with aliskiren 300/amlodipine 10, SBP/DBP was lowered by −5.1/−4.8 mmHg in the total cohort, by −5.5/−5.1 mmHg in elderly patients, by −6.7/−5.5 in overweight and by −4.2/−4.5 mmHg in obese patients, by −6.4/−4.7 mmHg in patients with metabolic risk factors without DM, and by −3.3/−5.0 mmHg in DM patients. Limitations include low sample size, limited treatment duration and the fact that the post-hoc defined groups were not mutually exclusive. Conclusions In this study reflecting clinical practice, the aliskiren/amlodipine combination achieved effective BP reduction in elderly patients or with metabolic comorbidities, including DM that might be more difficult to treat. This consistent BP lowering

  5. [Premature ejaculation: pills or sexology?].

    PubMed

    Wisard, M; Audette, N

    2008-03-26

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a frequent male sexual complaint that affects 20 to 30% of men. The exact aetiology is unknown: psychological/behavioristic and biogenic etiologies have been proposed. The introduction of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) was revolutionary in the medical treatment of PE. However precautions should be taken because of potential adverse side effects. There is no clear consensus as to whether SSRI may represent an eventual cure of PE or will be required for life. The sexocorporal approach is an other treatment of PE, but convincing scientific treatment data are also lacking.

  6. Latest views on pill prescribing.

    PubMed

    Kay, C R

    1984-11-01

    Guidelines for prescribing oral contraceptives (Ocs), which take into account recent research findings concerning the relationship between OC use and the development of cervical and breast neoplasia and vascular diseases, were suggested. The findings of M.P. Vessey and his colleagues that the risk of cervical neoplasia increases with the duration of OC use are difficult to interpret. OC is strongly associated with certain types of sexual behavior, e.g., initiation of sexual activity at an early age, frequent intercourse, and intercourse with multiple partners, and these behavioral factors, in turn, are known to be associated with an increased risk of cervical cancer. Although an attempt was made to control for the effects of these behavioral factors, the findings of the study require further substantiation. Even if the findings are correct, OC users would appear to have only a minor excess risk of developing invasive carcinoma, and even this minimal increased risk could be avoided encouraging OC users to have cervical smears taken routinely. The findings of Pike and his colleagues in California concerning the risk of breast cancer among OC users are more controversial, and potentially more serious. The study found that there was a 4-fold increased risk of breast cancer in women, under the age of 37, who had used OCs prior to their 25th birthday, and the risk increased with duration of OC use. A study by McPerson and colleagues also reported that breast cancer was associated with the duration of OC use prior to 1st pregnancy. Other intensive studies have failed to reveal a relationship between breast neoplasia and OC use. Pike and his colleagues also published a table listing OC brands in rank order of their progestogen potency. Pike noted that there was a positive relationship between the occurrence of breast cancer and the level of progestogen potency. The table was harshly criticized because it is not possible to determine the potency level of combined formulations. Nevertheless, those brands associated with a higher risk of breast cancer contained high doses of progestogen as well as estrogen, and their use should be avoided. Furthermore, OCs with high progestogen doses should be avoided in order to reduce the risk of vascular diseases among OC users. The RCGP study demonstrated that there is a positive relationship between progestogen dosage and the development of arteriosclerotic diseases. OC formulations with doses exceeding 1 mg of norethisterone acetate and 150 mcg of levonorgestrel should be avoided. Breakthrough bleeding should be controlled by increasing the estrogen dose to 50 mcg rather than by altering the progesterone level. Effort should also be made to carefully tailor OC prescribing to the specific needs of each patient. The risk of vascular diseases among OC users is almost exclusively confined to older women who smoke. Care must be exercised in prescribing OCs for women who smoke and for women who other characteristics that place them at high risk of developing vascular disease. Since women differ considerably in the way they utilize and metabolize the steroids contained in OCs, efforts should be made to develop an inexpensive and simple technique for measuring serum steriod levels. This would allow physicians to reduce the steriod content of OCs for those women whose systems make maximal use of available steriods.

  7. The pill and the breast.

    PubMed

    Drife, J O

    1984-12-01

    Discussion focused on the role of the ovarian steriods, estrogen and progesterone, in the development of breast cancer, the effects of natural and synethic hormones on breast tissue, and recent epidemiological studies concerning breast cancer and the use of oral contraceptives (OCs). Apparently, ovarian hormones play a role in the development of breast cancer. Late menarche, early menopause, and the removal of the ovaries provides some protection against breast cancer. Women who experience a full term pregnancy also have a reduced risk, and the level of protection is increased if the pregnancy occurs early in the reproductive life span. Little is known about how these protective effects operate. It is known that estrogen proliferates endometrial cells and that progesterone checks this growth. Unchecked proliferation can produce malignant cells. Perhpas during pregnancy, breast epithelium becomes more responsive to progesterone, or perhaps the increased progesterone levels which prepare the breast for lactation alter the growth of breast epithelium. Changes in breast tissue during the course of the menstrual cycle, which could be attributed to the altering levels of ovarian hormones during the cycle, appear to be minimal; however, recent investigations report that DNA synthesis and mitotic counts in breast tissue increase during the 2nd half of the menstrual cycle. These findings indicate that progesterone might stimulate breast activity. The effect is the opposite of that observed for endometrial proliferation which occurs during the 1st half of the cycle in response to estrogen. One would expect that breast activity would also be increased for women who use OCs, but preliminary studies indicate that OCs do not overstimulate breast epithelium. Perhaps breast tissue is less responsive to synthetic hormone or perhaps OCs inhibit progesterone receptor synthesis. It is difficult to assess the epidemiological evidence concerning a link between breast cancer and OC use because the studies are based on only a few cases, the effects are delayed over many years, and most of the subjects in the studies took OCs when only high dose preparations were available. These studies include 1) a California study of 163 women, which found that OC use prior to 1st pregnancy increased the risk of breast cancer; 2) an additional 151 cases analyzed at a later date in the California study, which indicated that OC use, prior to age 25, increased the risk of breast cancer; and 3) a British study in which the addition of 27 cases to a previous study of 1176 cases to the reversal of earlier findings and indicated that prolonged use of OCs prior to last pregnancy increased the risk of breast cancer.

  8. 10 "Poison Pills" for Pets

    MedlinePlus

    ... left on the bedside table. Zolpidem may make cats wobbly and sleepy, but most pets become very ... very common pain killer found in most households. Cats are extremely sensitive to acetaminophen, but dogs can ...

  9. The serum metabolomic study of intervention effects of the traditional Chinese medicine Shexiang Baoxin Pill and a multi-component medicine polypill in the treatment of myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Li; Jiang, Peng; Zhan, Changsen; Chen, Zhongliang; Liu, Xiaojun; Huang, Xinming; Wang, Shuping; Hu, Yaohua; Zhang, Weidong; Liu, Runhui

    2012-09-01

    A metabolomic approach based on liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight detector (LC-Q-TOF/MS) was developed to investigate the therapeutic mechanism of a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SBP) and a multi-component medicine polypill (consisting of simvastatin (Sim), atenolol (Ate), ramipril (Ram), hydrochlorthiazide (Hyd) and aspirin (Asp), named as SARHA). Twenty-seven biomarkers were identified in the serum of MI rats. Thirteen related pathways and 4 main pathological processes including oxidative injury, energy metabolism dysfunction, amino acid metabolism dysfunction and inflammation are involved in MI development. Our study revealed that SBP showed better therapeutic effectiveness than the polypill on MI through regulation of the energy metabolism dysfunction, oxidative injury and inflammation. The combination agent polypill had only certain therapeutic effects on inhibiting oxidative injury and inflammation induced by MI. The reverse effect of the polypill on biomarkers related to MI was much better than mono-therapy groups.

  10. Effect of a low dose combined oral contraceptive pill on the hormonal profile and cycle outcome following COS with a GnRH antagonist protocol in women over 35 years old.

    PubMed

    Bakas, Panagiotis; Hassiakos, Dimitrios; Grigoriadis, Charalampos; Vlahos, Nikolaos F; Liapis, Angelos; Creatsas, George

    2014-11-01

    This prospective study examines if pre-treatment with two different doses of an oral contraceptive pill (OCP) modifies significantly the hormonal profile and/or the IVF/ICSI outcome following COS with a GnRH antagonist protocol. Infertile patients were allocated to receive either OCP containing 0.03 mg of ethinylestradiol and 3 mg of drospirenone, or OCP containing 0.02 mg of ethinylestradiol and 3 mg of drospirenone prior to initiation of controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with recombinant gonadotropins on a variable multi-dose antagonist protocol (Ganirelix), while the control group underwent COS without OCP pretreatment. Lower dose OCP was associated with recovery of FSH on day 3 instead of day 5, but the synchronization of the follicular cohort, the number of retrieved oocytes and the clinical pregnancy rate were similar to higher dose OCP.

  11. Use of a Multidrug Pill In Reducing cardiovascular Events (UMPIRE): rationale and design of a randomised controlled trial of a cardiovascular preventive polypill-based strategy in India and Europe.

    PubMed

    Thom, Simon; Field, Jane; Poulter, Neil; Patel, Anushka; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Stanton, Alice; Grobbee, Diederick E; Bots, Michiel L; Reddy, K Srinath; Cidambi, Raghu; Rodgers, Anthony

    2014-02-01

    The use of preventive medications in people at high risk of cardiovascular disease is conceptually straightforward, yet in practice the adoption of such measures is disappointingly low, plus there is wide international variation in preventive therapies. Several barriers might explain this shortfall and variation, but the simplicity and economy of a polypill-based strategy might overcome some barriers. The 'Use of a Multidrug Pill In Reducing cardiovascular Events' (UMPIRE) trial assesses whether a polypill strategy (by combining aspirin, a statin and two blood pressure lowering agents) would improve adherence to guideline-indicated therapies and would lower both blood pressure and cholesterol, in people with established cardiovascular disease. UMPIRE, running in India and three European countries (England, Ireland and the Netherlands), is an open, randomised, controlled trial designed to include 1000 participants in India and 1000 in Europe, with a followup of 12-24 months. Participants were randomised to one of two versions of the polypill or relegated to usual care. The primary study outcomes were the self-reported use of aspirin, a statin and at least two blood pressure lowering agents; as well as changes in blood pressure and cholesterol. Secondary outcomes included: any cardiovascular events, reasons for stopping medications, serious adverse events and perceived changes in quality of life. Interpretation of the study data will be enhanced by health, economic and process-related evaluations. UMPIRE is registered with the European Clinical Trials database, as EudraCT: 2009-016278-34 and the Clinical Trials Registry, India as CTRI/2010/091/000250. The trial was part of the 'Single Pill Against Cardiovascular Events (SPACE)' collaboration, which encompasses the 'IMProving Adherence using Combination Therapy (IMPACT)' and 'Kanyini Guidelines Adherence with the Polypill (Kanyini-GAP)' trials.

  12. Simultaneous quantification of catechin, epicatechin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, piperine and glycyrrhetinic acid in rat plasma by HPLC-MS/MS: application to a pharmacokinetic study of Longhu Rendan pills.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianming; Ding, Liqing; Jin, Huajia; Shi, Rong; Li, Yuanyuan; Wu, Jiasheng; Li, Yifei; Zhu, Li; Ma, Yueming

    2016-08-01

    A sensitive, specific, accurate HPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of catechin, epicatechin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, piperine and glycyrrhetinic acid from Longhu Rendan pills in rat plasma. Chromatographic separation was performed with a Hypersil Gold C18 column using a gradient of methanol and 0.01% acetic acid containing 0.2 mm ammonium acetate as mobile phase. The analytes were quantified on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, operating in selected reaction monitoring mode and switching the electrospray ion source polarity between positive and negative modes in a single run. The calibration curves of catechin, epicatechin, liquiritin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, piperine and glycyrrhetinic acid were linear over the concentration ranges of 5-2000, 5-2000, 0.5-200, 0.5-200, 0.25-100, 0.25-100, 0.025-10 and 0.50-200 ng mL(-1) , respectively. The intra- and inter-assay precisions and accuracies were <11.6 and 91.9-108.2%, respectively, for all analytes. Matrix effects for all analytes were between 88.2 and 114.2%. Stability testing showed that all analytes were stable in plasma at 24 °C for 3 h, at 4 °C for 24 h, after three freeze-thaw cycles, and at -80 °C for 15 days. The method was successfully applied to an in vivo study evaluating the pharmacokinetics of multiple nonvolatile compounds following intragastric administration of Longhu Rendan pills to rats. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Liuwei Dihuang pill treats diabetic nephropathy in rats by inhibiting of TGF-β/SMADS, MAPK, and NF-kB and upregulating expression of cytoglobin in renal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhong Ju; Shu, Shi; Li, Zhi Jie; Liu, Yu Min; Zhang, Rui Yi; Zhang, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Liuwei Dihuang pill (LDP) was assessed for its effects on renal deficiency. 90 STZ induced DN rats were divided into groups (n = 22) without treatment (STZ) and LDP treated (STZ-L) (n = 23), Zhenwu decoction treated (STZ-Z) (n = 22), and valsartan treated (STZ-V) (n = 23) groups, with 16 normal control rats. Total urine protein (TP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine (Cr) were measured. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations as well as expression/phosphorylation of SMAD3, SMAD2, and α-SMA, TGF-β, RI /II, P38, ERK, and NF-kB in renal tissues were determined. In vitro experiments analyzed the effect of enhanced TGF-β containing rat serums of the STZ groups on mesangial cells with and without transient transfection with a cytoglobin-containing plasmid. LDP treatment reduced the kidney coefficient, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and urine protein and prevented pathological changes. Expression of SOD and NOS in kidney tissue was increased but MDA expression reduced. LDP modulated multiple pathways, and its administration inhibited the phosphorylation of SMADS, ERK, p38, and the expression of NF-kB, α-SMA, and TGF-β RI/II, and upregulated the expression of cytoglobin. In vitro studies revealed that overexpression of cytoglobin suppressed phosphorylation of Smad2, ERK, and p38 induced by TGF-β and expression of NF-kB, α-SMA, and TGF-β RI. LDP prevented renal fibrosis and protected glomerular mesangial cells by upregulation of cytoglobin and suppression of multiple pathways involving TGF-β/SMADS, MAPK, NF-kB signaling. PMID:28099346

  14. Comparative Efficacy and Durability of Continuation Phase Cognitive Therapy for Preventing Recurrent Depression: Design of a Double-Blinded, Fluoxetine- and Pill-Placebo–Controlled, Randomized Trial with 2-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Thase, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) is highly prevalent and associated with disability and chronicity. Although cognitive therapy (CT) is an effective short-term treatment for MDD, a significant proportion of responders subsequently suffer relapses or recurrences. Purpose This design prospectively evaluates: 1) a method to discriminate CT-treated responders at lower versus higher risk for relapse; and 2) the subsequent durability of 8-month continuation phase therapies in randomized higher risk responders followed for an additional 24-months. The primary prediction is: after protocol treatments are stopped, higher risk patients randomly assigned to continuation phase CT (C-CT) will have a lower risk of relapse/recurrence than those randomized to fluoxetine (FLX). Methods Outpatients, aged 18 to 70 years, with recurrent MDD received 12–14 weeks of CT provided by 15 experienced therapists from two sites. Responders (i.e., no MDD and 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression ≤ 12) were stratified into higher and lower risk groups based on stability of remission during the last 6 weeks of CT. The lower risk group entered follow-up for 32 months; the higher risk group was randomized to 8 months of continuation phase therapy with either C-CT or clinical management plus either double-blinded FLX or pill placebo. Following the continuation phase, higher risk patients were followed by blinded evaluators for 24 months. Results The trial began in 2000. Enrollment is complete (N=523). The follow-up continues. Conclusions The trial evaluates the preventive effects and durability of acute and continuation phase treatments in the largest known sample of CT responders collected worldwide. PMID:20451668

  15. Simultaneous quantification of psoralen and isopsoralen in rat plasma by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of Haigou Pill.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yuan; Si, Duanyun; Gao, Jing; Zeng, Yong; Liu, Changxiao

    2009-10-01

    A rapid, specific and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS/MS) method has been established for simultaneous quantitation of psoralen and isopsoralen in rat plasma. Plasma samples were pretreated by direct protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Chromatographic separations were performed on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH C(18) column (50mmx2.1mm, i.d., 1.7microm) at 35 degrees C with a linear gradient of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water at a flow rate of 0.3mL/min. The two isomers were satisfactorily separated (R=1.7) with a runtime of 4min. Psoralen, isopsoralen, and the internal standard (IS) furazolidone were ionized with an APCI source operated in positive ion mode. The MS/MS transitions used for monitoring were at m/z 187.0-->130.9 for psoralen and isopsoralen, and m/z 225.9-->121.9 for IS. Calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 1-500ng/mL with the lower limit of quantitation of 1ng/mL for both isomers. The mean extraction recoveries were 78.5+/-6.7% and 81.9+/-8.0% for psoralen and isopsoralen, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 5.6% and 5.2%, and the accuracy was within +/-2.1% for both isomers. No matrix effect was observed in this method. Psoralen and isopsoralen were stable during all storage, pretreatment and analytical periods. The validated method has been successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of psoralen and isopsoralen after oral administration of Haigou Pill to rats.

  16. Protective effects of alginate–chitosan microspheres loaded with alkaloids from Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. (Zuojin Pill) against ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang-Song; Zhu, Xiao-Ning; Jiang, Heng-Li; Wang, Gui-Fang; Cui, Yuan-Lu

    2015-01-01

    Zuojin Pill (ZJP), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. in a ratio of 6:1 (w/w) and was first recorded in “Danxi’s experiential therapy” for treating gastrointestinal disorders in the 15th century. However, the poor solubility of alkaloids from ZJP restricted the protective effect in treating gastritis and gastric ulcer. The aim of the study was to investigate the protective mechanism of mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids from C. chinensis Franch. and E. rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Surface morphology, particle size, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, mucoadhesiveness, and fluorescent imaging of the microspheres in gastrointestinal tract were studied. The results showed that the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could sustain the release of drugs beyond 12 hours and had gastric mucoadhesive property with 82.63% retention rate in vitro. The fluorescence tracer indicated high retention of mucoadhesive microspheres within 12 hours in vivo. The mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could reduce the gastric injury by decreasing the mucosal lesion index, increasing the percentage of inhibition and increasing the amount of mucus in the gastric mucosa in an ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury rat model. Moreover, the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids reduce the inflammatory response by decreasing the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), downregulating the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, TNF-α, and IL-1β in gastric mucosa. All the results indicate that mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could not only increase the residence time of alkaloids in rat stomach, but also exert gastroprotective effects through reducing the inflammatory response on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. Thus

  17. Protective effects of alginate-chitosan microspheres loaded with alkaloids from Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. (Zuojin Pill) against ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang-Song; Zhu, Xiao-Ning; Jiang, Heng-Li; Wang, Gui-Fang; Cui, Yuan-Lu

    2015-01-01

    Zuojin Pill (ZJP), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, consists of Coptis chinensis Franch. and Evodia rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. in a ratio of 6:1 (w/w) and was first recorded in "Danxi's experiential therapy" for treating gastrointestinal disorders in the 15th century. However, the poor solubility of alkaloids from ZJP restricted the protective effect in treating gastritis and gastric ulcer. The aim of the study was to investigate the protective mechanism of mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids from C. chinensis Franch. and E. rutaecarpa (Juss.) Benth. on ethanol-induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. Surface morphology, particle size, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, mucoadhesiveness, and fluorescent imaging of the microspheres in gastrointestinal tract were studied. The results showed that the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could sustain the release of drugs beyond 12 hours and had gastric mucoadhesive property with 82.63% retention rate in vitro. The fluorescence tracer indicated high retention of mucoadhesive microspheres within 12 hours in vivo. The mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could reduce the gastric injury by decreasing the mucosal lesion index, increasing the percentage of inhibition and increasing the amount of mucus in the gastric mucosa in an ethanol-induced gastric mucosal injury rat model. Moreover, the mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids reduce the inflammatory response by decreasing the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), downregulating the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, TNF-α, and IL-1β in gastric mucosa. All the results indicate that mucoadhesive microspheres loaded with alkaloids could not only increase the residence time of alkaloids in rat stomach, but also exert gastroprotective effects through reducing the inflammatory response on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. Thus, these

  18. Progestin-Only Birth Control Pills

    MedlinePlus

    ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well-Being Mental Health ...

  19. Learning Difficulties and Nutrition: Pills or Pedagogy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Roy

    1999-01-01

    Examines the efforts to find effective ameliorative measures for literacy difficulties such as dyslexia and dyspraxia, focusing on noneducational techniques found in holistic medicine, complementary therapies, and nutritional supplements. Maintains that dyslexia has become big business for drug companies and that the appropriate research regarding…

  20. Major depressive episodes and diet pills.

    PubMed

    Patten, Scott B

    2002-10-01

    A variety of medications used to assist with weight loss have been implicated in the precipitation or induction of depressive symptoms and disorders. This is true of a large number of phenylethylamine agents possessing psychostimulant properties, non-phenylethylamine psychostimulants (e.g., caffeine) and the serotonergic agent, fenfluramine. There is, as yet, no substantial evidence linking the more modern weight loss drugs, sibutramine and orlistat, to the aetiology of major depression. Nevertheless, when these drugs are used, major depression will continue to be an important clinical consideration because of the elevated frequency with which major depression occurs in obese patients, the contribution that major depression may make to poor outcomes in non-pharmacological weight loss treatment and because of the interplay between symptoms of depression and weight loss treatment.

  1. The Pill is Mightier Than the Sword

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Malcolm; Mahmood, Aafreen; Graves, Alisha A.

    2015-01-01

    One determinant of peace is the role of women in society. Some studies suggest that a young age structure, also known as a "youth bulge" can facilitate conflict. Population growth and age structure are factors amenable to change in a human rights context. We propose that policies which favor voluntary family planning and the education of women can ameliorate the global burden of disease associated with conflict and terrorism. PMID:26340389

  2. Retraining America: Solutions or Sugar Pills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chris; Zemke, Ron

    1983-01-01

    The real retraining of the American work force will not come about through massive, federally operated job training programs. It will come about only when employers are able to look forward to a promising economic future that requires highly trained and motivated employees and that offers real jobs. (Author/SSH)

  3. A Bitter Pill: The Cosmic Lithium Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fields, Brian

    2014-03-01

    Primordial nucleosynthesis describes the production of the lightest nuclides in the first three minutes of cosmic time. We will discuss the transformative influence of the WMAP and Planck determinations of the cosmic baryon density. Coupled with nucleosynthesis theory, these measurements make tight predictions for the primordial light element abundances: deuterium observations agree spectacularly with these predictions, helium observations are in good agreement, but lithium observations (in ancient halo stars) are significantly discrepant-this is the ``lithium problem.'' Over the past decade, the lithium discrepancy has become more severe, and very recently the solution space has shrunk. A solution due to new nuclear resonances has now been essentially ruled out experimentally. Stellar evolution solutions remain viable but must be finely tuned. Observational systematics are now being probed by qualitatively new methods of lithium observation. Finally, new physics solutions are now strongly constrained by the combination of the precision baryon determination by Planck, and the need to match the D/H abundances now measured to unprecedented precision at high redshift. Supported in part by NSF grant PHY-1214082.

  4. Polymer chemistry: Proteins in a pill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, Heather D.

    2013-07-01

    Protein drugs are important therapies for many different diseases, but very few can be administered orally. Now, a cationic dendronized polymer has been shown to stabilize a therapeutic protein for delivery to the gut.

  5. Payments, promotion, and the purple pill.

    PubMed

    Ridley, David B

    2015-01-01

    Understanding competition in the US drug market requires knowing how sensitive demand is to prices. The relevant prices for insured consumers are copayments. There are many studies of copayment elasticity in the health literature, but they are of limited applicability for studies of competition. Because of a paucity of data, such studies typically control for neither competitor copayment nor advertising. Whereas previous studies examined copayment sensitivity when copayments for branded drugs move in unison, this study examines copayment sensitivity when copayments diverge. This study uses unique panel data of insurance copayments and utilization for 77 insurance groups, as well as data on advertising. The results indicate that demand can be much more sensitive to copayment than previously recognized. Manufacturers selling drugs with higher copayments than branded competitors can lose substantial market share. Manufacturers can offset the loss of demand by increasing advertising to physicians, but it is costly.

  6. Pretreatment with oral contraceptive pills to identify poor responders that may benefit from rLH supplementation during GnRH-antagonist treatment for IVF: A pilot perspective study proposal

    PubMed Central

    GIZZO, SALVATORE; ANDRISANI, ALESSANDRA; NOVENTA, MARCO; GANGEMI, MICHELE; NARDELLI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA; AMBROSINI, GUIDO

    2015-01-01

    Controlled ovarian stimulation, using a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol, is a potential treatment option for women with a low response to other fertility treatments as it appears to be at least as effective as GnRH agonists (long protocol). However, previous studies have indicated that the administration of GnRH antagonist may cause an excessive reduction in endogenous luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. The use of recombinant LH (rLH) supplementation during ovarian stimulation is controversial. The present article proposes a future study focused on women aged ≥40 years old, with the aim of identifying patients who are poor responders to GnRH-antagonist treatment that may benefit from rLH supplementation. We hypothesize that patients with suppressed hypothalamic-pituitary-axis activity may benefit from rLH supplementation, as GnRH-antagonist administration has the potential to induce a marked reduction in LH levels in such patients compared with that in patients that exhibit a regular recovery following the administration of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs). Furthermore, patients with hyper-responsive hypothalamic-pituitary-axis activity may be affected by ‘low-gonadotropin-responsiveness’, similar to that observed in patients with any mutation in the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor, who are known to benefit from rLH supplementation. The proposed pilot study would include 120 women who are predicted to be poor responders to GnRH-antagonist treatment. All subjects will be allocated at random (using 2:1 computerized randomization) into two study groups: Group A (OCP-treated) and group B (control). For all patients, the serum values of FSH, LH and 17β estradiol (E2) will be detected on day 3 of the menstrual cycle preceding OCP treatment (baseline) and at day 4 following OCP treatment. The Δ-variation from baseline levels for all markers, the FSH/LH ratio and the E2/FSH ratio will be determined. Δ-variation from the baseline

  7. Pretreatment with oral contraceptive pills to identify poor responders that may benefit from rLH supplementation during GnRH-antagonist treatment for IVF: A pilot perspective study proposal.

    PubMed

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Andrisani, Alessandra; Noventa, Marco; Gangemi, Michele; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista; Ambrosini, Guido

    2015-11-01

    Controlled ovarian stimulation, using a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol, is a potential treatment option for women with a low response to other fertility treatments as it appears to be at least as effective as GnRH agonists (long protocol). However, previous studies have indicated that the administration of GnRH antagonist may cause an excessive reduction in endogenous luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. The use of recombinant LH (rLH) supplementation during ovarian stimulation is controversial. The present article proposes a future study focused on women aged ≥40 years old, with the aim of identifying patients who are poor responders to GnRH-antagonist treatment that may benefit from rLH supplementation. We hypothesize that patients with suppressed hypothalamic-pituitary-axis activity may benefit from rLH supplementation, as GnRH-antagonist administration has the potential to induce a marked reduction in LH levels in such patients compared with that in patients that exhibit a regular recovery following the administration of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs). Furthermore, patients with hyper-responsive hypothalamic-pituitary-axis activity may be affected by 'low-gonadotropin-responsiveness', similar to that observed in patients with any mutation in the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor, who are known to benefit from rLH supplementation. The proposed pilot study would include 120 women who are predicted to be poor responders to GnRH-antagonist treatment. All subjects will be allocated at random (using 2:1 computerized randomization) into two study groups: Group A (OCP-treated) and group B (control). For all patients, the serum values of FSH, LH and 17β estradiol (E2) will be detected on day 3 of the menstrual cycle preceding OCP treatment (baseline) and at day 4 following OCP treatment. The Δ-variation from baseline levels for all markers, the FSH/LH ratio and the E2/FSH ratio will be determined. Δ-variation from the baseline of

  8. Electronic Health Record Use a Bitter Pill for Many Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Meigs, Stephen L.; Solomon, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Electronic health record (EHR) adoption among office-based physician practices in the United States has increased significantly in the past decade. However, the challenges of using EHRs have resulted in growing dissatisfaction with the systems among many of these physicians. The purpose of this qualitative multiple-case study was to increase understanding of physician perceptions regarding the value of using EHR technology. Important findings included the belief among physicians that EHR systems need to be more user-friendly and adaptable to individual clinic workflow preferences, physician beliefs that lack of interoperability among EHRs is a major barrier to meaningful use of the systems, and physician beliefs that EHR use does not improve the quality of care provided to patients. These findings suggest that although government initiatives to encourage EHR adoption among office-based physician practices have produced positive results, additional support may be required in the future to maintain this momentum. PMID:26903782

  9. Health is fine if pills are on time

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Medication non-adherence is a pervasive problem that can impact an individual’s health and wellness. MediSafe is a user-friendly and simple app that enables patients to improve their medication adherence by setting reminders, and enhance their provider relationships by sharing intake and health indicator history. PMID:28293612

  10. Beyond pills and tests: addressing the social determinants of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Wingfield, Tom; Tovar, Marco A; Huff, Doug; Boccia, Delia; Saunders, Matthew J; Datta, Sumona; Montoya, Rosario; Ramos, Eric; Lewis, James J; Gilman, Robert H; Evans, Carlton

    2016-12-01

    Poverty drives tuberculosis (TB) rates but the approach to TB control has been disproportionately biomedical. In 2015, the World Health Organization's End TB Strategy explicitly identified the need to address the social determinants of TB through socio-economic interventions. However, evidence concerning poverty reduction and cost mitigation strategies is limited. The research described in this article, based on the 2016 Royal College of Physicians Linacre Lecture, aimed to address this knowledge gap. The research was divided into two phases: the first phase was an analysis of a cohort study identifying TB-related costs of TB-affected households and creating a clinically relevant threshold above which those costs became catastrophic; the second was the design, implementation and evaluation of a household randomised controlled evaluation of socio-economic support to improve access to preventive therapy, increase TB cure, and mitigate the effects of catastrophic costs. The first phase showed TB remains a disease of people living in poverty - 'free' TB care was unaffordable for impoverished TB-affected households and incurring catastrophic costs was associated with as many adverse TB treatment outcomes (including death, failure of treatment, lost to follow-up and TB recurrence) as multidrug resistant (MDR) TB. The second phase showed that, in TB-affected households receiving socio-economic support, household contacts were more likely to start and adhere to TB preventive therapy, TB patients were more likely to be cured and households were less likely to incur catastrophic costs. In impoverished Peruvian shantytowns, poverty remains inextricably linked with TB and incurring catastrophic costs predicted adverse TB treatment outcome. A novel socio-economic support intervention increased TB preventive therapy uptake, improved TB treatment success and reduced catastrophic costs. The impact of the intervention on TB control is currently being evaluated by the Community Randomized Evaluation of a Socio-economic Intervention to Prevent TB (CRESIPT) study.

  11. Deliberate poisoning with dinitrophenol (DNP): an unlicensed weight loss pill.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, James; Brunner, Michael; Gough, Katie

    2010-02-01

    A 46-year-old man took a lethal dose of an agent called dinitrophenol (DNP). He presented 11 h after ingestion with loin pain, diarrhoea and vomiting. He rapidly deteriorated with profound hyperthermia, acute renal failure, hyperkalaemia, metabolic acidosis and eventually haemodynamic instability. Despite aggressive supportive measures and rapid sequence induction, he deteriorated and died 21 h after ingestion. DNP is a metabolic poison that acts by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation, leading to uncontrolled hyperthermia. It is an illegal weight loss agent that is used by body builders and is freely available on many internet websites. This case highlights the potential for patients to obtain and ingest exotic poisons. A summary of currently recommended treatment and a review of the literature on DNP is included, as well as a discussion of therapies that may be effective in treating hyperthermia in this situation.

  12. [Oral contraceptive pill and thrombotic risk: epidemiological studies].

    PubMed

    Fruzzetti, F; Perini, D; Spirito, N; Manca, R

    2012-12-01

    The venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a rare event during childbearing age and during the assumption of combined oral contraceptive. The absolute risk of VTE in users of combined oral contraceptives is 20-30 per 100000 women years. A number of case-control studies published in recent years have shown an apparent increase in the risk of VTE among users of oral contraceptives (OCs) containing desogestrel, gestodene, drospirenone and cyproterone, relative to the use of levonorgestrel. The data derived from these recent studies is of borderline statistical significance because any important factors are not considered to evaluate the real correlation between the assumption of OCs and risk of venous thromboembolism. Among the factors that should be considered, there are: EE dose, duration of use, coexistance of other risk factors of venous thromboembolism (age, BMI, familiarity, surgical interventions) and other prescription bias. The lack of these factors is likely to contribute to the increased risk of venous thromboembolism observed in users of third-generation OCs when compared to that in users of second-generation OCs. To date, because of the inadequacy of epidemiological studies, the data about the correlation between OCs and TVE, are not conclusive and it will be necessary to carry out other studies to clarify this debating point, definitively.

  13. Take the Red Pill: A New Matrix of Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brabazon, Tara

    2011-01-01

    Using "The Matrix" film series as an inspiration, aspiration and model, this article integrates horizontal and vertical models of literacy. My goal is to create a new matrix for media literacy, aligning the best of analogue depth models for meaning making with the rapid scrolling, clicking and moving through the read-write web. To…

  14. Resveratrol--pills to replace a healthy diet?

    PubMed

    Chachay, Veronique S; Kirkpatrick, Carl M J; Hickman, Ingrid J; Ferguson, Maree; Prins, Johannes B; Martin, Jennifer H

    2011-07-01

    Nutrapharmacology, or the use of bioactive food compounds at pharmacological doses is emerging as a therapeutic approach to target the complex metabolic dysregulations in ageing and obesity-related chronic disease. Resveratrol, a polyphenol found in the skin of grapes, and other edible plants and related food products, has received extensive attention through the link with the French paradox, and later with its chemopreventive activity demonstrated in vitro and in animal cancer models. A plethora of laboratory investigations has provided evidence for the multi-faceted properties of resveratrol and suggests that resveratrol may target ageing and obesity-related chronic disease by regulating inflammation and oxidative stress. A number of obstacles stand in the path to clinical usage however, not least the lack of clinical evidence to date, and the myriad of doses and formulations available. Further, data on the effects of resveratrol consumption in a capsule vs. food form is conflicting, and there are uncertain effects of long term dosing. The review will summarize the human pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic published data, and the topics for research if resveratrol is to become a multi-target therapeutic agent addressing chronic disease.

  15. Ravines and sugar pills: defending deceptive placebo use.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Jonathan

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, I argue that deceptive placebo use can be morally permissible, on the grounds that the deception involved in the prescription of deceptive placebos can differ in kind to the sorts of deception that undermine personal autonomy. In order to argue this, I shall first delineate two accounts of why deception is inimical to autonomy. On these accounts, deception is understood to be inimical to the deceived agent's autonomy because it either involves subjugating the deceived agent's will to another's authority or because it precludes the agent from acting effectively in pursuit of their ends. I shall argue that providing an agent with false beliefs is not inimical to their autonomy if they are only able to effectively pursue their autonomously chosen ends by virtue of holding those particular false beliefs. Finally, I show that deceptive placebo use need only involve this latter sort of deception.

  16. Astronomical Pills: One-shot questions about the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallotti, F.; Romaniello, S.; Sandrelli, S.

    2005-12-01

    In the last two years, the Public Outreach & Education office (POE) of the INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (Milano, Italy) has carried on an extensive survey (over 1300 tests) on the instinctive ideas that junior and secondary school students (aged 13-19) use when facing astronomical concepts. Students were asked to answer nine closed-answer questions and an open-answer one. They were only allowed a few seconds to make their choices. Our goal was to take a first step into the exploration of the naive view of the Universe developed by students in the different age ranges. In particular we explored the evolution (if any) of some misconceptions with respect to age and other educational factors. In this talk we present a critical review of our work, highlighting the following points: "lessons learned", "what works and what doesn't" and "what can be learned" from our personal experience.

  17. CDC Vital Signs: Daily Pill Can Prevent HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... prescribe PrEP, more HIV infections could be prevented. Health care providers can: Test patients for HIV as a regular part of ... Helping to monitor PrEP use and its effects. Health care providers can Test patients for HIV as a regular part of ...

  18. Pills for the Poor: John Wesley's Primitive Physick

    PubMed Central

    Rogal, Samuel J.

    1978-01-01

    While John Wesley's Primitive Physick (1747) cannot be termed a classic of British medical literature, it must certainly be identified as one of the most popular volumes published in England during the eighteenth century. Although the work came under attack from contemporary surgeons, physicians, and apothecaries, who maintained that its remedies were founded upon ignorance, Wesley probably knew as much as most members of the medical profession; in fact, on no less than twenty instances throughout the volume, he paraphrases or cites directly from prominent physicians and theorists—such figures as Sydenham, Boerhaave, Cheyne, Mead, and Huxham. However, despite its obvious emphasis upon practical remedies, the underlying focus of Primitive Physick is upon the soul of man. Wesley had consulted some sources, common sense, and his own experience, tempering those with the general principle of “doing good to all men,” particularly “those who desire to live according to the gospel....” Thus, the Methodist patriarch's own formula for life had as much to do with the spread of Primitive Physick throughout eighteenth-century Britain and America as did all of the remedies and suggestions imprinted upon its pages. PMID:354225

  19. Blood Thinner Pills: Your Guide to Using Them Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coordination Capacity Building Behavioral and Mental Health Self-Management Support Resources Clinical Community Relationships Measures Atlas Clinical-Community Relationships Evaluation Roadmap Potential ...

  20. Osteoarthritis: No Pills Yet | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ph.D., professor of Orthopaedic Surgery and of Cell Biology at the Washington University School of Medicine, in ... be used in humans. "Every person has stem cells, and some people are ... result of old age. It has a molecular start, and it takes a long time to ...

  1. Dose measurements in space by the Hungarian Pille TLD system.

    PubMed

    Apathy, I; Deme, S; Feher, I; Akatov, Y A; Reitz, G; Arkhanguelski, V V

    2002-10-01

    Exposure of crew, equipment, and experiments to the ambient space radiation environment in low Earth orbit poses one of the most significant problems to long-term space habitation. Accurate dose measurement has become increasingly important during the assembly (extravehicular activity (EVA)) and operation of space stations such as on Space Station Mir. Passive integrating detector systems such as thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) are commonly used for dosimetry mapping and personal dosimetry on space vehicles. The well-known advantages of passive detector systems are their independence of power supply, small dimensions, high sensitivity, good stability, wide measuring range, resistance to environmental effects, and relatively low cost. Nevertheless, they have the general disadvantage that for evaluation purposes they need a laboratory or large--in mass and power consumption--terrestrial equipment, and consequently they cannot provide time-resolved dose data during long-term space flights. KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute (KFKI AEKI) has developed and manufactured a series of thermoluminescent dosemeter systems for measuring cosmic radiation doses in the 10 microGy to 10 Gy range, consisting of a set of bulb dosemeters and a compact, self-contained, TLD reader suitable for on-board evaluation of the dosemeters. By means of such a system, highly accurate measurements were carried out on board the Salyut-6, -7 and Mir Space Stations as well as on the Space Shuttle. A detailed description of the system is given and the comprehensive results of these measurements are summarised.

  2. Some Professors Pop Pills for an Intellectual Edge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monastersky, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Professors know that some of their students pop Ritalin and other stimulants to give themselves a mental edge, but an informal survey suggests that some faculty members are also taking drugs for the express purpose of helping their careers. In an online survey of 1,400 readers published this month, the journal "Nature" found that 20 percent had…

  3. Other Factors That Affect Heart Disease: Birth Control Pills

    MedlinePlus

    ... trademark of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and American Heart Association. Skip footer links and go to content Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SITE INDEX | ACCESSIBILITY | ... OIG | CONTACT US National Institutes of Health Department of Health and Human Services USA.gov

  4. Continuous Assessment in Schools: Teachers' Bitter Pill to Swallow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumadi, Mutendwahothe Walter

    2011-01-01

    This paper articulates debates surrounding the concept of Continuous Assessment (CA) in South African schools. Although the research was focused on schools in this democratic country, it became evident from the findings that assessment is still a challenge besetting both General Education and Training (GET)and Further Education and Training Bands…

  5. The Red Pill: Social Studies, Media Texts, and Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Trenia L.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the use of media texts in contemporary high school social studies classrooms. Much of the current research regarding media education in social studies classes has focused on history classes and has centered on small idealized samples of both teachers and students. This study, based on the observations conducted in eight…

  6. A practical guide for prescribing birth control pills.

    PubMed

    Abrams, J

    1994-06-01

    More than 50 million US women have used oral contraceptives (OCs) in the past 25 years, and the consensus is that the benefits and advantages of OC use outweigh most of the disadvantages. Side effects have been reduced or eliminated by reduced dosage preparations, and effectiveness has been virtually 100%. Despite this widespread use, most US women are misinformed about OCs, perhaps because pediatricians, family physicians, and nurse-practitioners are insufficiently informed. The economic power of the drug manufacturers has been brought to bear on the medical profession to prescribe OCs for virtually every woman of child-bearing age. The drug industry which has been touting the safety of OCs has recently introduced new progestins which are supposed to be "lipid-neutral" and have fewer androgenic effects. Therefore, the potentially harmful effects of the old progestins were deemphasized deliberately. A cautious but advisable approach for physicians to follow in prescribing OCs has 8 points. 1) All sexually active females should be advised that barrier contraception is the best protection (except abstinence) from sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS. 2) OCs with more than 35 mcg estrogen should be withdrawn from the market. 3) All patients should be encouraged to lead a healthy lifestyle. 4) Barrier methods should be encouraged for patients with such medical conditions as migraine headaches, prominent varicose veins, diabetes, increasing weight gain, hypertension, thyroid dysfunction, and mitral valve prolapse. 5) Switching to a preparation with the new progestins should be considered for some patients who are smokers or have abnormal lipid profiles. 6) It might be advantageous under certain circumstances for a patient to discontinue OC use for a period of time. 7) Women who no longer desire a pregnancy should be encouraged to consider surgical sterilization. 8) Nulliparous women over 30 years old should discontinue OC use to diminish their risk of breast cancer. This last point is controversial, and the editors of this publication invite the readers' comments.

  7. Treatment of acne with oral contraceptives: criteria for pill selection.

    PubMed

    Koulianos, G T

    2000-10-01

    Combination oral contraceptives (OCs) (those that contain estrogen and progestin) are widely used in the treatment of acne because they modify an excessively androgenic hormonal environment and can decrease lesions. Dermatologists' knowledge of the most appropriate OC may be hampered by an incomplete understanding of these agents, misleading promotion, and confusion surrounding the new generation of OCs. Despite reports attributing significance to the degree of androgenicity of the progestin components of OCs, in vitro and animal bioassays of androgenicity have little clinical relevance. Because all of today's low-dose combination OCs are estrogen dominant, they are equally beneficial in women with androgenic conditions such as acne. Use of the OC containing the lowest dose of each hormone, consistent with the patient's needs, can enhance compliance by preventing or limiting common early-cycle side effects (e.g., nausea/vomiting, breast tenderness, weight gain, headache), while providing acne improvement.

  8. Danger signals and the combined oral contraceptive pill.

    PubMed

    Williams, H

    1999-12-01

    The COCP is a safe form of contraception for the majority of women. The challenge is to identify the women who have risk factors that make the use of COCP less safe. This approach is summarised by a recent consensus statement from an international conference on evidence based prescribing of COCPs. This states that 'current evidence suggests only two prerequisites for the safe provision of COCPs: a careful personal and family medical history with particular attention to cardiovascular risk factors, and an accurate blood pressure measurement'.

  9. Sleep complaints: Whenever possible, avoid the use of sleeping pills.

    PubMed

    2008-10-01

    (1) Most sleep complaints involve difficulties in getting to sleep or staying asleep, or not feeling refreshed on awakening. Misconceptions and worrying over the lack of sleep and its consequences can contribute to reinforcing these disorders; (2) How can patients who complain of poor-quality sleep be helped, without resorting to treatments that can have adverse effects? To answer this question, we conducted a systematic review of the literature based on the standard Prescrire procedure; (3) One effective approach is to explain the basic physiology of sleep, to discuss misconceptions, and to adopt a strategy of "stimulus control". This method has a similar efficacy to prescribing a benzodiazepine. and the effect is longer lasting; (4) Moderate, regular physical exercise, especially in the morning, seems to help some patients, but the evidence is weak; (5) Some clinical trials of phytotherapy have shown a positive risk-benefit balance of weak aqueous or hydroalcoholic valerian extracts. Efficacy is limited, however; (6) A meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials showed that benzodiazepines and related drugs increase the duration of sleep and help patients to fall asleep sooner. However, none of these trials provides comparative data spanning periods of more than two weeks. Efficacy is uncertain in the longer term, as patients quickly develop a tolerance to the hypnotic effects of benzodiazepines; (7) The adverse effects of benzodiazepines include frequent memory disorders, daytime drowsiness, falls, fractures and road accidents, and a withdrawal syndrome after treatment cessation. Related drugs such as zolpidem and zopiclone provoke similar adverse effects; (8) Sedative antihistamines have not been as well-evaluated as benzodiazepines in this setting. Small comparative trials of doxylamine and diphenhydramine showed no major difference in efficacy versus benzodiazepines and related drugs. The main adverse effects of sedative antihistamines are daytime drowsiness and altered vigilance, and atropinic effects; (9) Case-control studies showed a statistical link between benzodiazepine use in early pregnancy and birth defects such as cleft lip. In contrast, data on the use of doxylamine during pregnancy are reassuring; (10) Other sedative psychotropics have not been adequately tested in this setting or have been shown to have a negative risk-benefit balance; (11) In practice, patients who complain of poor-quality sleep should be given appropriate information on the mechanisms of normal sleep and related misconceptions, on the best methods for getting to sleep, and on the dangers of sedative psychotropics (dependence, withdrawal syndrome). When prescribing or dispensing a benzodiazepine to a woman of child-bearing age, the risk of birth defects, although not clearly demonstrated, must be mentioned.

  10. Sleeping Pills for Insomnia: Which Ones Work Best?

    MedlinePlus

    ... be more likely to help you stay asleep, direct comparisons of Lunesta with the other drugs are ... pharmacotherapy for insomnia: a randomized controlled trial and direct comparison. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(17):1888– ...

  11. Wish-fulfilling jewel pills: Tibetan medicines from exclusivity to ubiquity.

    PubMed

    Blaikie, Calum

    2015-04-01

    Despite the recent growth of social science literature concerning the traditional medicine industry in Asia, insights into the contemporary dynamics of so-called 'classical formulae' remain relatively scant, as do studies of small-scale, less capitally intensive and technologically advanced modes of production. This paper seeks to address these gaps by considering a single Sowa Rigpa (Tibetan medicine) formula known as Samphel Norbu, or 'wish-fulfilling jewel', which appears in numerous texts and is today among the most popular Tibetan medicines in the world. Drawing primarily upon long-term fieldwork in Himalayan India, the paper follows Samphel Norbu's rise from exclusivity to popularity and examines the ways it has been transformed in the process, both materially and in its economic, social and clinical significance. The paper shows how Samphel Norbu acts as a marker of inequality between different groups of healers, and examines the role the medicine played in the development of commercial pharmacy and the proliferation of complex medicines. Tracing out wide variations in the medicine's formulation, composition, mode of production and pattern of circulation places the issue of multiplicity at the centre of analysis, and leads to a questioning of the assumptions that underpin the category 'classical formula'. The paper reflects upon the repositioning of such formulae within emergent configurations of knowledge, power, industry and market, and on their transformations and transformative effects both over time and in the present moment.

  12. Optical properties of the breast during spontaneous and birth control pill-mediated menstrual cycles.

    PubMed

    Stahel, Michèle C; Wolf, Martin; Baños, Ana; Hornung, R

    2009-11-01

    Mastodynia is correlated with the menstrual cycle. Using frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (FD-NIRS), we investigated changes in breast perfusion in women who were or were not using hormonal contraception. Healthy volunteers, on or not on hormonal contraception, were examined. Optical properties were measured in all quadrants of both breasts, and physiological parameters were calculated. Measurements were repeated every other day during one complete menstrual cycle. Measurements were comparable in all quadrants. Data remained unchanged during the entire cycle in patients using hormonal contraception. However, a biphasic variation of deoxyhemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, total hemoglobin (tHb), and water content (H(2)O) was observed in women not using contraception. tHb and H(2)O distinctly increased during the ovulation period and remained elevated throughout the luteal phase. It was concluded that FD-NIRS allows accurate measurement of optical properties of human breasts. As opposed to the menstrual cycles of persons using oral contraception, spontaneous menstrual cycles exhibit biphasic variations of tissue perfusion parameters. These findings are important for the investigation of mastodynia.

  13. For Both Parties, Drug Costs Are a Hard Pill To Swallow.

    PubMed

    Greene, Jan

    2016-09-01

    When the election ends, the time for rhetoric will be over and the new president and lawmakers will face the task of actually managing a giant, unwieldy, and complex health care system, trying to wrestle drug costs into submission before they wreck more havoc on the budgets of Medicare, Medicaid, and the American consumer.

  14. Usability of patient-centered health IT: mixed-methods usability study of ePill.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Kraepelin, Manuel; Dehling, Tobias; Sunyaev, Ali

    2014-01-01

    To facilitate use of patient-centered health IT applications in everyday life, a high degree of usability is required. Based on the example of a patient-centered web application, we propose a usability study design enabling developers and researchers to assess usability of patient-centered health IT applications and derive implications for their improvement. Our study design integrates tasks that subjects have to process, an associated questionnaire based on Perceived Ease of Use, Perceived Usefulness, Attitude Toward Using, and Behavioral Intention to Use, a System Usability Scale questionnaire, and focus groups. Application of the usability study design demonstrates its feasibility and provides insights for assessment of usability in related projects in research and practice.

  15. The sweetest pill to swallow: how patient neurobiology can be harnessed to maximise placebo effects.

    PubMed

    Jubb, Jayne; Bensing, Jozien M

    2013-12-01

    The burgeoning interest in placebo effects over the last 10-15 years has fallen into two main research areas: elucidation of the neurobiological mechanisms recruited following placebo administration, and investigations into the situations and contexts in which placebo effects are evoked. There has been little attention focused on bridging these two i.e. how to actively translate and apply these neurobiological mechanisms into daily clinical practice in a responsible way. This article addresses this gap, first through a narrative review of the last 15 years of neuroscience findings with special attention focussed on the elucidation of the neurotransmitters, pathways and mechanisms involved in placebo effects, and secondly, at how these psycho(neuro)biological effects could be harnessed in medical care.

  16. [The end of an era. Fourteen radio sketches for the Pink Pills].

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Those sketches, restaured by the French "Institut national de l'audiovisuel", are transcribed and analyzed for the first time. They was probably broadcasted during the summer of 1939 by the private station Radio Gard Nîmes.

  17. The Pill Not Taken: Revisiting Physical Education Teacher Effectiveness in a Public Health Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Lounsbery, Monica A. F.

    2014-01-01

    In "Physical Education Teacher Effectiveness in a Public Health Context," we took a broad view of physical education (PE) teacher effectiveness that included public health need and support for PE. Public health officials have been consistent and fervent in their support of PE, and for more than two decades, they have called on schools to…

  18. Beware the yellow slimming pill: fatal 2,4-dinitrophenol overdose.

    PubMed

    Holborow, Alexander; Purnell, Richard M; Wong, Jenny Frederina

    2016-04-04

    An industrial chemical, 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), has found use as a weight loss drug. It is extremely toxic in overdose and has a narrow therapeutic window with significant interindividual variability in metabolism. The rise in internet-based sales and distribution of this drug has seen an increased incidence of both accidental and intentional overdose presenting to emergency departments across the UK. No antidote currently exists and overdose is often fatal despite management based on current recommendations. We report a case of intentional overdose of DNP in a young man and discuss the current treatment guidelines. The case highlights the need for an increased awareness among frontline medical staff of the effects of DNP poisoning and questions the need for a more aggressive approach in the management of acute toxicity.

  19. Bitter pill to swallow: a case of accidental poisoning with digitalis purpurea.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Andrew

    2010-10-21

    While digitoxicity secondary to therapeutic use is frequent, due to its distinctive appearance and unpleasant taste accidental ingestion of digitalis purpurea (foxglove) is uncommon. This report relates the case of two previously healthy individuals who inadvertently consumed significant quantities of digitalis in its plant form. Both men presented in first-degree atrioventricular block and had digoxin levels of 4.9 μg/litre, but were otherwise stable and made unremarkable recoveries with repeated dose activated charcoal.

  20. Finding Ponce de Leon’s Pill: Challenges in Screening for Anti-Aging Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Surinder; Lombard, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is characterized by the progressive accumulation of degenerative changes, culminating in impaired function and increased probability of death. It is the major risk factor for many human pathologies – including cancer, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases – and consequently exerts an enormous social and economic toll. The major goal of aging research is to develop interventions that can delay the onset of multiple age-related diseases and prolong healthy lifespan (healthspan). The observation that enhanced longevity and health can be achieved in model organisms by dietary restriction or simple genetic manipulations has prompted the hunt for chemical compounds that can increase lifespan. Most of the pathways that modulate the rate of aging in mammals have homologs in yeast, flies, and worms, suggesting that initial screening to identify such pharmacological interventions may be possible using invertebrate models. In recent years, several compounds have been identified that can extend lifespan in invertebrates, and even in rodents. Here, we summarize the strategies employed, and the progress made, in identifying compounds capable of extending lifespan in organisms ranging from invertebrates to mice and discuss the formidable challenges in translating this work to human therapies. PMID:27081480

  1. Women taking the "blue pill" (sildenafil citrate): such a big deal?

    PubMed

    Lo Monte, Giuseppe; Graziano, Angela; Piva, Isabella; Marci, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    For years, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors have been used for the treatment of erectile dysfunctions. Due to the similarities between male and female sexual response, several studies have assessed the effects of sildenafil citrate (Viagra(®)) in women affected by female sexual arousal disorder. The results are still conflicting and the drug is not devoid of adverse effects. Furthermore, female sexual arousal disorder is a heterogeneous condition whose underlying causes are difficult to diagnose and appropriate treatment requires a thorough sexual, psychological, and medical history along with specialist consultations. The clinician should pursue a global approach to the patient with sexual difficulties, while non-hormonal treatment such as phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (ie, sildenafil citrate) should be kept as the last option.

  2. Over-the-Counter Weight-Loss Pills: Do They Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... supplements The standards for regulating the production and marketing of these two types of treatments are different. ... not subject to FDA review or approval before marketing. Also, the type or quality of research used ...

  3. One pill makes you smaller: the demand for anti-obesity drugs.

    PubMed

    Cawley, John; Rizzo, John A

    2007-01-01

    The doubling of obesity in the U.S. over the last 25 years has led policymakers and physicians to encourage weight loss, but few methods of weight loss are effective. One promising avenue is pharmacotherapy. However, little is known about the use of anti-obesity drugs. This paper describes the market for anti-obesity drugs and studies the utilization of anti-obesity drugs using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey for 1996-2002, a period that is interesting because it covers the introduction of three, and the withdrawal of two, anti-obesity drugs from the market. Our results point to wide sociodemographic disparities in anti-obesity drug use. Women are almost 200% more likely than men to use anti-obesity drugs. Hispanics and African-Americans are only 39% as likely as Whites to use them. Those with prescription drug coverage are 46% more likely to use anti-obesity drugs. We also find that the vast majority of subjects who are approved to take these drugs are not taking them, and a significant number who are not approved to take the drugs are taking them. We find strong evidence that the well-publicized 1997 withdrawal of fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine had a chilling effect on the overall market for anti-obesity drugs. We find little difference in observed characteristics between those who took the withdrawn drugs and those who took the other anti-obesity drugs in the market.

  4. [Are z-hypnotics better and safer sleeping pills than benzodiazepines?].

    PubMed

    Mellingsaeter, Trude C; Bramness, Jørgen G; Slørdal, Lars

    2006-11-16

    Benzodiazepines and the benzodiazepine-like z-hypnotics (zopiclone, zolpidem, and zaleplon) have the same mode of action and many of the same effects. The use of z-hypnotics has had a steady and large increase since their introduction in Norway, and sales data suggest extensive use among the elderly. The relatively short half-lives of these drugs may cause less hangover effects, but z-hypnotics are hardly more effective or safer than benzodiazepines. The two classes of drugs should be prescribed with similar caution.

  5. Aggregation: An anti-aggravation pill for new-millennium consumers

    SciTech Connect

    Goldfarb, L.K.; Stevenson, D.

    1999-07-01

    A diverse array of providers is positioning aggregation as a no-headaches energy solution for residential and small commercial customers. Tied into millennial lifestyle concerns, aggregation can be an effective means of reaching customers for whom energy is not a major priority. From the seller's perspective, the opportunity to obtain meaningful market share in a single deal is appealing, especially at the threshold of a new market. These benefits translate into more favorable pricing and terms than otherwise available, including the availability of innovative energy efficiency and management services. Additionally, if the group maintains its presence and reputation in the market, members may find significant additional value when it is time to renew supply arrangements. Finally, a successful electric aggregation group can, over time, add new services to its product line, such as fuel oil, natural gas, telephone, cable, or Internet services, to increase benefits to members.

  6. Shark cartilage extracts as antiangiogenic agents: smart drinks or bitter pills?

    PubMed

    Gingras, D; Renaud, A; Mousseau, N; Béliveau, R

    2000-01-01

    The use of crude cartilage for the treatment of human cancers remains a subject of controversy. In this brief commentary, we reviewed the current knowledge on the anticancer properties of cartilage. We then presented the properties of AE-941, a novel standardized water-soluble extract derived from shark cartilage that represents less than 5% of the crude cartilage. It is a multifunctional antiangiogenic product that contains several biologically active molecules. EA-941 is one of the few antiangiogenic drugs that is under phase III clinical investigation. It is currently evaluated in Europe and North America for the treatment of refractory renal cell carcinoma and in North America for metastatic non small cell lung cancer.

  7. Cancer risks and the contraceptive pill. What is the evidence after nearly 25 years of use?

    PubMed

    Khoo, S K

    1986-02-17

    The question of whether the steroidal components in oral contraceptives (OCs) may have an initiating or promotional influence on the development of cancer continues to be raised as a public health issue. It is estimated that since the introduction of OCs nearly 25 years ago, more than 150 million women have used 1 or more types of the formulation and nearly 1 billion woman-years of exposure to the steroids have accumulated. Contraceptive practice in Australia would indicate that about 25% of women of reproductive age are using OCs. The debate about the OC's carcinogenic potential has recently been reopened with 2 reports in "The Lancet" of an association between the incidence of breast and cervical cancer and OC usage. Biologically the relationship between the contraceptive steroids and cancer must continue to be regarded as the most important concern with the longterm use of OCs. The demonstration of receptors to these steriods in these organs, in both normal and malignant tissues, further increases the speculation that the steroid hormones have a biological role in carcinogenesis in these target organs. Theoretical reasons exist for the concern about carcinogenesis and contraceptive steroids. This paper reviews the available evicence. Data can be derived only from large-scale epidemiological research, by means of case-control or cohort studies. No clear evidence exists that OCs cause or increase the chance of developing any cancer in the female genital tract and the breast. In fact, OC offers a significant protection against the development of endometrial and ovarian cancer, especially to those women who have taken OCs for a long time. The association between the risk of breast cancer and OC use is less certain, but factors such as the history of benign breast disease, a close relationship with breast cancer, or nulliparity -- previously considered to be important -- do not appear to contribute significantly to the risk. The weight of evidence indicates that no increased risk of breast cancer exists, even in those younger women aged less than 25 years who decide to use OCs before their 1st full-term pregnancy. There is some evidence that suggests that the risk of cervical neoplasia -- dysplasia, carcinoma-in-situ and invasive carcinoma -- may increase slightly in OC users but the actual part played by the patient's sexual history under these circumstances remains to be defined. There is now strong evidence to implicate multiplicity of sexual partners and wart virus infection in carcinogenesis of the uterine cervix. There does not appear to be an overall relationship between OCs and malignant melanoma. Overall, the evidence is reassuring. The low-dose combined OC can be considered safe, not only in terms of cardiovascular and thromboembolic risks, but also in relation to carcinogenesis.

  8. Taking pills for developmental ails in Southern Brazil: The biologization of adolescence?

    PubMed Central

    Béhague, Dominique P.

    2015-01-01

    In the late 1990s researchers in Pelotas Southern Brazil began documenting what they considered to be unacceptably high rates of licensed psychotropic use among individuals of all ages, including youth. This came as a surprise, since the vast majority of psychiatrists in Pelotas draw on psychoanalytic theory and approach pharmaceutical use, especially for children and adolescents, in a consciously tempered way. Drawing from a longitudinal ethnographic sub-study, part of a larger 1982 birth cohort study, this paper follows the circuitous trajectories of emergent pharma-patterns among “shantytown” youth over a ten-year period, exploring the thickly layered and often moralized contingencies in which psychodynamic psychiatrists' intention to resist excessive pharmaceuticalization both succeed and crumble. I juxtapose these trajectories with the growing salience of an “anti-biologizing” explanatory framework that psychiatrists and researchers are using to pre-empt the kind of diagnostics-driven “biopsychiatrization” so prevalent in North America. My analysis suggests that psychiatrists' use of this framework ironically contributes to their failed attempts to “resist” pharmaceuticalization. PMID:25533870

  9. Free-electron lasing in the wake field of an elliptical pill-box cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.

    1992-04-01

    It is shown using the photon concept that free-electron lasing (or net stimulated bremsstrahlung) is unrelated to the electron phase with respect to the laser wave, while the net acceleration (or net two-photon absorption) in an RF acceleration cavity depends on the electron phase with respect to the RF wave. The gain formula for the free-electron laser using a magnetic wiggler (MFEL) derived using the recently developed quantum-augmented classical theory in which the electron phase is ignored is in excellent agreement with that obtained quantum-mechanically. It is found by means of this theory that if an electric wiggler is added to a MFEL, the synchronization between the transverse velocity and the laser wave, which is required for coherence of the laser light, is not affected, while the laser gain is enhanced owing to the increase in the amplitude of the energy modulation by the electric wiggler. As a configuration of this turbo-MFEL, a two-beam elliptical wake-field cavity is proposed. An electron beam injected in the antiparallel direction along the lasing-beam path in this cavity lases through transverse wiggling by the transverse wake field and energy modulation by the longitudinal wake produced by relativistic drivingbeam bunches. This laser (WFEL) becomes of greater advantage compared with the MFEL as the laser wavelength is made shorter. It is also shown that the amplification of the WFEL is much greater than that of the present MFEL if we can produce a wake field whose longitudinal component has field strength greater than 1 MV m-1.

  10. Thrills, spills and pills: Bond, Benzedrine and the pharmacology of peace.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Sam

    2010-06-01

    This paper examines the conjunction of pharmacological science and espionage fiction of the post-war era. This paper argues that, during the 1950s, the relatively new science of pharmacology propounded the possibility that illness and human deficiency could be treated in a way that better reflected the post-war zeitgeist. The use of pharmacological medicine, perceived as cleaner and quicker than more 'bodily' forms of treatment, represented progress in contemporary medical science. It is argued that this philosophy extended to more overt means of pharmacological application, directly related to the geopolitical concerns of the 'Cold War'. A growing form of popular literature in this period was the espionage novel. This paper argues that the benefits proffered by pharmacology were incorporated into the fabric of espionage fiction, specifically the James Bond novels of Ian Fleming. Here, it is demonstrated how Fleming used pharmacological knowledge of Benzedrine throughout his novels. His works illustrate a belief that the augmentation of the spy's natural ability with pharmacological science would award decisive advantage in the Cold War conflict played out in spy fiction. However, the relationship between public use of Benzedrine and awareness of its side effects changed during the period of Fleming's publications, moving from a position of casual availability to one of controlled prescription. It is argued that the recognition of the dangers associated with the drug were over-ruled in favour of the benefits its use presented to the state. The continued use of the drug by Bond illustrates how the concerns of the nation are given priority over the health, and life, of the individual.

  11. Sugaring the pill: ethics and uncertainties in the use of sucrose for newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Dominic J C; Savulescu, Julian; Slater, Rebeccah

    2012-07-01

    Sucrose is widely used for the management of procedural pain in newborn infants, including capillary blood sampling, venepuncture, and vascular cannulation. Multiple randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that sweet-tasting solutions reduce behavioral responses to acute painful stimuli. It has been claimed that sucrose should be a standard of care in neonatal units and that further placebo-controlled trials of sucrose are unnecessary and unethical. However, recently published data cast doubt on the analgesic properties of sucrose. We review this new evidence and analyze the philosophical and ethical questions that it raises, including the "problem of other minds." Sugar may be better understood not as an analgesic, removing or relieving pain, but as a compensating pleasure. There is a need for further research on the mechanism of sucrose's effect on pain behavior and on the long-term effects of sucrose treatment. Such trials will require comparison with placebo or with other interventions. Given uncertainty about the benefit of sucrose, it may be wise to use alternative analgesics or nonpharmacological interventions where these are available and appropriate. Sucrose may not be the answer to procedural pain in newborns.

  12. [Alternatives to the "pill" as contraceptive methods from the andrological viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Schirren, C

    1973-10-25

    Methods of male contraception are discussed. Estrogens, although effective, are not acceptable because of the side effects (gynecomastia and libido changes). Androgens are effective for varying periods but require constant monitoring of effectiveness. Antiandrogens inhibit not only spermatogenesis but also libido and are thus unsuitable for use as contraceptives. Immunization against sperm protein components can be carried out in men or women; this promising technique is still experimental. Enzymatic techniques are still in the research stages. Vasectomy, a simple and practical alternative, requires thorough information and counseling of both husband and wife before it can be judged appropriate.

  13. Extracolonic findings with the PillCam Colon: is panendoscopy with capsule endoscopy closer?

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Vázquez, Javier; Caunedo-Álvarez, Ángel; Belda-Cuesta, Alba; Jiménez-García, Victoria Alejandra; Pellicer-Bautista, Francisco; Herrerías-Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Colon capsules display images from the moment they are ingested, making the study of other extracolonic areas possible. The aim of this study was to analyze the significance of these extracolonic findings. Patients and methods: In this single-center, prospective study, 165 patients underwent colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) between September 2009 and October 2012 to rule out colonic pathology. Images were recorded, without interruptions, from the moment the capsule was ingested until its battery ran out. The study was deemed complete when the capsule had traveled from the esophagus to excretion or until the hemorrhoidal plexus was observed. Results: CCE was used for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening (81.2 %), to investigate for chronic diarrhea (9.7 %) and chronic iron deficiency anemia (6.1 %), and for patients with incomplete colonoscopy (3.0 %). The capsule returned findings in the esophagus in 52.1 % of patients, in the stomach in 45.5 % of patients, and in the small bowel in 70.7 % of patients, with the findings being considered relevant in 4.9 %, 9.7 %, and 22.6 % of patients, respectively. The whole extent of the digestive tract was fully recorded in 86.1 % of patients and the Z line could be fully observed in 57.6 % of patients. There were no adverse events. Conclusions: CCE allows the recording of images from almost the whole extent of the digestive tract in most patients, enabling relevant pathologies to be identified in extracolonic areas, particularly the small bowel. Technical and procedural improvements are still necessary in order to achieve better observation of the stomach and esophagus. PMID:27747276

  14. Pigs, Pirates, and Pills: Using Film to Teach the Social Context of Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, David J.; Bejoian, Lynne M.

    2006-01-01

    With the overwhelming negative connotations of disability, how can people ever see disability as a natural part of human diversity, merely another bodily attribute, and one that people can frame in positive terms? In brief, how can people view disability as simply another way of being? In this article, the authors begin to address these questions…

  15. Another Pill, Another Test, and Another Procedure: One Resident's Reflection on Healthcare Cost Containment.

    PubMed

    Chertoff, Jason

    2015-03-01

    In the United States, healthcare expenditures have continued to rise at alarming rates despite numerous strategies to contain costs. One area of focus that is underappreciated is doctor-patient communication about expectations of treatment. Studies have shown that clinicians' misperceptions of assumptions about patients' expectations are an essential component to our nation's healthcare overuse problem. Strategies to address these misperceptions and assumptions as a method of reducing costs and providing higher-quality care to our patients are warranted.

  16. Finding Ponce de Leon's Pill: Challenges in Screening for Anti-Aging Molecules.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Surinder; Lombard, David B

    2016-01-01

    Aging is characterized by the progressive accumulation of degenerative changes, culminating in impaired function and increased probability of death. It is the major risk factor for many human pathologies - including cancer, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases - and consequently exerts an enormous social and economic toll. The major goal of aging research is to develop interventions that can delay the onset of multiple age-related diseases and prolong healthy lifespan (healthspan). The observation that enhanced longevity and health can be achieved in model organisms by dietary restriction or simple genetic manipulations has prompted the hunt for chemical compounds that can increase lifespan. Most of the pathways that modulate the rate of aging in mammals have homologs in yeast, flies, and worms, suggesting that initial screening to identify such pharmacological interventions may be possible using invertebrate models. In recent years, several compounds have been identified that can extend lifespan in invertebrates, and even in rodents. Here, we summarize the strategies employed, and the progress made, in identifying compounds capable of extending lifespan in organisms ranging from invertebrates to mice and discuss the formidable challenges in translating this work to human therapies.

  17. Sugaring the Pill: Assessing Rhetorical Strategies Designed to Minimize Defensive Reactions to Group Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornsey, Matthew J.; Robson, Erin; Smith, Joanne; Esposo, Sarah; Sutton, Robbie M.

    2008-01-01

    People are considerably more defensive in the face of group criticism when the criticism comes from an out-group rather than an in-group member (the intergroup sensitivity effect). We tested three strategies that out-group critics can use to reduce this heightened defensiveness. In all studies, Australians received criticism of their country…

  18. Systems, not pills: The options market for antibiotics seeks to rejuvenate the antibiotic pipeline.

    PubMed

    Brogan, David M; Mossialos, Elias

    2016-02-01

    Over the past decade, there has been a growing recognition of the increasing growth of antibiotic resistant bacteria and a relative decline in the production of novel antibacterial therapies. The combination of these two forces poses a potentially grave threat to global health, in both developed and developing countries. Current market forces do not provide appropriate incentives to stimulate new antibiotic development, thus we propose a new incentive mechanism: the Options Market for Antibiotics. This mechanism, modelled on the principle of financial call options, allows payers to buy the right, in early stages of development, to purchase antibiotics at a discounted price if and when they ever make it to market approval. This paper demonstrates the effect of such a model on the expected Net Present Value of a typical antibacterial project. As part of an integrated strategy to confront the impending antibiotic crisis, the Options Market for Antibiotics may effectively stimulate corporate and public investment into antibiotic research and development.

  19. Providing innovative solutions in a single pill: Servier's portfolio in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Jean-Jacques; Guillerm, Jean-Christophe

    2016-09-01

    Jean-Jacques Mourad & Jean-Christophe Guillerm speak to Henry Ireland, Drug Evaluation Editor: Jean-Jacques Mourad talks about his vision of the current landscape and unmet medical needs in the field of hypertension. Jean-Christophe Guillerm describes the family of antihypertensive treatments from Servier, which were designed to address the current challenges in the management of hypertension by providing an adapted solution to doctors and to the specific needs of each patient. Jean-Jacques Mourad currently works as Professor of Medicine and is the Head of the Hypertension Unit at the Hôpital Avicenne in Bobigny, France. He completed his academic degrees at the Pierre and Marie Curie University, Paris VI in the field of internal and vascular medicine in 1996, and in the area of cardiovascular medicine and pharmacology in 2001. He is the past president of the French League Against Hypertension (since 2012), and the former General Secretary of the French Microcirculation Society. He is the actual Scientific Secretary of the French Society of Hypertension. He is also a member of the administrative council of the Collège Français de Pathologie Vasculaire. His research focuses on the epidemiology of hypertension, arterial structure and function, determinants of adherence to chronic treatment and the effects of antihypertensive agents. He was involved in several studies and surveys. He is a co-author of more than 130 publications and of 900 communications presented at national and international meetings. Jean-Christophe Guillerm, joined the pharmaceutical industry 17 years ago. He is currently the Head of the Cardiovascular Division for Servier, in charge of both cardiology and hypertension's medical strategy at a global level. Prior to this, he was in charge of the diabetes and internal medicine franchise at a global level. He also has experience in French commercial operations.

  20. Conglobation in the pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare, as a water conservation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Smigel, Jacob T; Gibbs, Allen G

    2008-01-01

    Water balance of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, was investigated during conglobation (rolling-up behavior). Water loss and metabolic rates were measured at 18 +/- 1 degrees C in dry air using flow-through respirometry. Water-loss rates decreased 34.8% when specimens were in their conglobated form, while CO2 release decreased by 37.1%. Water loss was also measured gravimetrically at humidities ranging from 6 to 75 %RH. Conglobation was associated with a decrease in water-loss rates up to 53 %RH, but no significant differences were observed at higher humidities. Our findings suggest that conglobation behavior may help to conserve water, in addition to its demonstrated role in protection from predation.

  1. Conglobation in the Pill Bug, Armadillidium vulgare, as a Water Conservation Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Smigel, Jacob T.; Gibbs, Allen G.

    2008-01-01

    Water balance of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, was investigated during conglobation (rolling-up behavior). Water loss and metabolic rates were measured at 18 ± 1°C in dry air using flow-through respirometry. Water-loss rates decreased 34.8% when specimens were in their conglobated form, while CO2 release decreased by 37.1%. Water loss was also measured gravimetrically at humidities ranging from 6 to 75 %RH. Conglobation was associated with a decrease in water-loss rates up to 53 %RH, but no significant differences were observed at higher humidities. Our findings suggest that conglobation behavior may help to conserve water, in addition to its demonstrated role in protection from predation. PMID:20233103

  2. Repellents in the Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria japonica, against the pill-bug, Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Morisawa, Jun; Kim, Chul-Sa; Kashiwagi, Takehiro; Tebayashi, Shin-ichi; Horiike, Michio

    2002-11-01

    Sandaracopimarinol and (1S,6R)-2,7(14),10-bisabolatrien-1-ol-4-one were isolated and identified from Cryptomeria japonica as repellents against Armadillidium vulgare which is well known as an unpleasant pest in the house and as vegetable pest in Japan. These compounds strongly repelled A. vulgare when they were combined, although each compound alone did not show any activity.

  3. A review of the birth control pill and its relationship to thrombophlebitis.

    PubMed

    Julsrud, M E

    1979-06-01

    A perspective study by the Royal College of General Practitioners reported that the risk of developing deep venous thrombosis of the legs in women taking oral contraceptives was 5.66 times higher than women not on medication. Estrogen-progestogen compounds are highly potent hormones that produce alterations in metabolic and endocrine functions. Clinical examination of the leg is the most reliable method of determining the earliest indication of thrombophlebitis even with the latest diagnostic tools of venography. The key to diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary embolism, which often occurs with patients with thrombophlebitis, is a patient's complaint of leg pains. Those who have undergone surgery, especially abdominal and pelvic, are bedridden, and those who are taking oral contraceptives are at risk of thrombophlebitis. Deep thrombophlebitis of the leg is not recognized clinically in 50-80% of those with venographically documented thrombophlebitis because the signs and symptoms are so protean. Treatment with heparin and leg bandages is most common. Heparin is often followed with coumarin therapy. Some methods of diagnosis are calf tenderness, edema, skin temperature, Homan's Sign, Lowenberg's Sign, Pratt's Sign, cyanosis, systemic signs, and contrast venogram.

  4. An accurate, long-term, pH-sensitive radio pill for ingestion and implantation.

    PubMed

    Colson, R H; Watson, B W; Fairclough, P D; Walker-Smith, J A; Campbell, C A; Bellamy, D; Hinsull, S M

    1981-01-01

    The design of a new radiotelemetry capsule (26 mm long X 7.6 mm diameter), with an in vivo life of 1 month is described in the context of previous work in this field. In vitro evaluation of the capsule indicates an accuracy and performance comparable with a conventional pH meter. Several clinical applications are described, including measurements of gastrointestinal pH in humans and the measurement of extracellular pH in laboratory animals.

  5. Designing a Flashcard with Knowledge Pills for Learning to Solve Chemistry Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cancela, Angeles; Sanchez, Angel; Maceiras, Rocio

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, universities tend to promote more learner-centred learning, creating a more interactive and motivational environment for students and teachers. This paper describes an expanded framework to help chemical educators to construct a quiz for solution of chemical exercises in their courses. The novelty of this contribution is that the…

  6. Towards a life prolonging pill? Small molecules with anti-ageing properties.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Gerd

    2006-11-01

    While at present there is no scientific consensus on the reasons for cellular and organismal ageing--or indeed on a comprehensive definition for ageing--scientific efforts to unravel the complex biochemistry behind the ageing process have recently met with considerable success. Despite a still somewhat fragmented understanding of the phenomenon of ageing, a distinction has therefore become possible between those biochemical and physiological events that are causal to ageing, and those that merely accompany the process. Such a distinction is an important prerequisite for the selection of targets for pharmacological intervention, and for the design of "anti-ageing drugs" directed against these targets. This review looks from a chemical viewpoint at currently used model systems for the ageing process, at small molecules showing anti-ageing properties in these screens, and at their mechanisms of action.

  7. The Creeping Pearl: Why Has the Rate of Contraceptive Failure Increased in Clinical Trials of Combined Hormonal Contraceptive Pills?

    PubMed Central

    Trussell, James; Portman, David

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite several drawbacks, the Pearl Index continues to be the most widely used statistical measure of contraceptive failure. However, Pearl indices reported in studies of newer hormonal contraceptives appear to be increasing. STUDY DESIGN We searched PubMed and MIS databases for prospective trials evaluating oral contraceptive (OC) efficacy to examine potential factors that could contribute to increasing Pearl indices. RESULTS Numerous potential factors were identified, including an increased rate of failures of newer OCs, deficiencies in methods of calculating contraceptive failure rates, differences in study design and changes in patient populations resulting in increased rates of contraceptive failures due to the inappropriate or inconsistent use of the method. CONCLUSIONS The two most likely important contributors to the increase in Pearl indices are more frequent pregnancy testing with more sensitive tests and less adherent study populations. Because study populations appear to be increasingly representative of the likely actual users once the product is marketed, we can expect to see even higher failure rates in ongoing and future studies. This result poses challenges for companies and regulatory agencies. PMID:23683581

  8. Comparing the satisfaction and efficacy of Cyclofem and contraceptive pills among females in Northern Iran: A randomized controlled trial study.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Bita; Kiapoor, Azade; Firoozbakht, Mozhgan; Kazeminavaei, Fatemeh; Taghlili, Fatemeh

    2014-10-01

    Hormonal contraceptives are the most effective method for birth control, though they may have some default or complications. This research aimed to comparison of the efficacy and satisfaction of Cyclofem with oral contraceptives (OCs) among females. A descriptive-comparative method was conducted on 80 women who were selected through cluster sampling during November 2011-December 2012. The selected subjects start using OCs or Cyclofem for the 1(st) time in their life. They evaluated in 2 times frames, at the beginning of the study and then 3 and 6 months after the contraceptive precautions. The data were collected by questionnaire. The data were analysed using parametric and nonparametric test in SPSS 16 software. The reasons for discontinuation of the methods were varied, in which 50% of the sample group were Cyclofem users who discontinued because of menstrual changes and the desire to use other methods, and 50% were the OC users whose reason was medical problems, and absent-mindedness was the last reason for 35.7% of the cases. The efficacy of the both (OCs and Cyclofem) was high and only one unwanted pregnancy occurred at the end of the 6(th) month among OC users. There was no significant difference in term of satisfaction of two groups at the end of 3-6 months (PV = 0.433). The results indicated that Cyclofem can be well used by those women who desire for an easy and effective method which is not disturbing the sexual activity and does not also need to be used daily, but the users should be consulted before using the method.

  9. Comparing the satisfaction and efficacy of Cyclofem and contraceptive pills among females in Northern Iran: A randomized controlled trial study

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Bita; Kiapoor, Azade; Firoozbakht, Mozhgan; Kazeminavaei, Fatemeh; Taghlili, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Hormonal contraceptives are the most effective method for birth control, though they may have some default or complications. This research aimed to comparison of the efficacy and satisfaction of Cyclofem with oral contraceptives (OCs) among females. A descriptive-comparative method was conducted on 80 women who were selected through cluster sampling during November 2011-December 2012. The selected subjects start using OCs or Cyclofem for the 1st time in their life. They evaluated in 2 times frames, at the beginning of the study and then 3 and 6 months after the contraceptive precautions. The data were collected by questionnaire. The data were analysed using parametric and nonparametric test in SPSS 16 software. The reasons for discontinuation of the methods were varied, in which 50% of the sample group were Cyclofem users who discontinued because of menstrual changes and the desire to use other methods, and 50% were the OC users whose reason was medical problems, and absent-mindedness was the last reason for 35.7% of the cases. The efficacy of the both (OCs and Cyclofem) was high and only one unwanted pregnancy occurred at the end of the 6th month among OC users. There was no significant difference in term of satisfaction of two groups at the end of 3-6 months (PV = 0.433). The results indicated that Cyclofem can be well used by those women who desire for an easy and effective method which is not disturbing the sexual activity and does not also need to be used daily, but the users should be consulted before using the method. PMID:25364692

  10. Sending Learning Pills to Mobile Devices in Class to Enhance Student Performance and Motivation in Network Services Configuration Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz-Organero, M.; Munoz-Merino, P. J.; Kloos, C. D.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching electrical and computer software engineers how to configure network services normally requires the detailed presentation of many configuration commands and their numerous parameters. Students tend to find it difficult to maintain acceptable levels of motivation. In many cases, this results in their not attending classes and not dedicating…

  11. More than just a pill. How to include psychosocial approaches sin the treatment of anxiety & depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Anthony; Lenze, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety and depressive disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders, causing high personal and economic burden. Psychosocial approaches, such as psychotherapy or mind-body instruction, along with self-help approaches, exercise, and proper sleep hygiene are effective solo or additive (to pharmacotherapy) strategies. Many physicians are less familiar with these methods for treating anxiety/depressive disorders. This article seeks to illuminate psychosocial approaches for depression and anxiety that act additively or independently of pharmacotherapy and explain how physicians can utilize them.

  12. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism in women under combined oral contraceptive. The PILl Genetic RIsk Monitoring (PILGRIM) Study.

    PubMed

    Suchon, Pierre; Al Frouh, Fadi; Henneuse, Agathe; Ibrahim, Manal; Brunet, Dominique; Barthet, Marie-Christine; Aillaud, Marie-Françoise; Venton, Geoffroy; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Identifying women at risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major public health issue. The objective of this study was to identify environmental and genetic determinants of VTE risk in a large sample of women under combined oral contraceptives (COC). A total of 968 women who had had one event of VTE during COC use were compared to 874 women under COC but with no personal history of VTE. Clinical data were collected and a systematic thrombophilia screening was performed together with ABO blood group assessment. After adjusting for age, family history, and type and duration of COC use, main environmental determinants of VTE were smoking (odds ratio [OR] =1.65, 95% confidence interval [1.30-2.10]) and a body mass index higher than 35 kg.m⁻² (OR=3.46 [1.81-7.03]). In addition, severe inherited thrombophilia (OR=2.13 [1.32-3.51]) and non-O blood groups (OR=1.98 [1.57-2.49]) were strong genetic risk factors for VTE. Family history poorly predicted thrombophilia as its prevalence was similar in patients with or without first degree family history of VTE (29.3% vs 23.9%, p=0.09). In conclusion, this study confirms the influence of smoking and obesity and shows for the first time the impact of ABO blood group on the risk of VTE in women under COC. It also confirms the inaccuracy of the family history of VTE to detect inherited thrombophilia.

  13. Some thoughts on the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease, (with special reference to women "on the pill"). Role of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Clemetson, C A

    1979-08-01

    Consideration of nine major factors predisposing to cerebral thrombosis, coronary thrombosis or thrombosis in the deep veins of the calf, reveals that these factors all have one thing in common. Estrogen administration, pregnancy, ageing, smoking, infection, trauma, surgery, soft water and winter season are all associated with a tendency towards decreased plasma ascorbic acid levels. Normally, ascorbic acid deficiency is thought of as causing a tendency towards hemorrhage rather than thrombosis, but it is here suggested that petechial hemorrhages under the endothelium of the blood vessels may precipitate thrombosis on the damaged endothelium. Is not blood coagulation the normal mechanism for the arrest of hemorrhage?

  14. "A magical little pill that will relieve you of your womanly issues": What young women say about menstrual suppression.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Colleen; Jenkins, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Perceptions of menstruation by media discourses portray this bodily function to be messy, inconvenient, and as an unnecessary phenomenon to be controlled or possibly eliminated. Commercials shown on YouTube targeted toward young women suggest that having a monthly period is not healthy and a lifestyle that is menses free is both pharmacologically available and recommended in order to live a fuller life. We explored the meanings attached to online menstrual suppression commercials with 10 women aged between 18 and 25. In-depth open-ended interviews were conducted over a 10-month period in 2014 after each participant viewed three menstrual suppression online advertisements. Feminist critical discourse was used for analysis with both authors coding for inter-rater reliability recognizing how our age difference and relationship as mother and daughter informed our interpretation. An overarching theme of tension emerged from the interviews with participants feeling detached due to the gendered stereotypes the commercials used to frame menstruation as compared to their own lived experience. Meanings associated with the menstrual suppression commercials were contrary to the participants' lived experience of menstruation as a healthy process not a detrimental one to their well-being as suggested by the commercials. Subliminal messages within the advertisements were identified as reinforcing gender bias and prejudices, including those associated with femininity. Despite attempting to emulate popular culture, the menstrual suppression advertisements were largely dismissed by this group of participants as undermining their intelligence and of intentionally creating divisive binaries between groups of women. This study suggests that historical bias and stereotypical prejudices were identified by this group of young women within the marketing of menstrual suppression products and, as such, were dismissed as inauthentic to the menstruation experience reflecting a form of menstrual activism.

  15. A hard pill to swallow: a qualitative study of women's experiences of adjuvant endocrine therapy for breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Harrow, Alison; Dryden, Ruth; McCowan, Colin; Radley, Andrew; Parsons, Mark; Thompson, Alastair M; Wells, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore women's experiences of taking adjuvant endocrine therapy as a treatment for breast cancer and how their beliefs about the purpose of the medication, side effects experienced and interactions with health professionals might influence adherence. Design Qualitative study using semistructured, one-to-one interviews. Setting 2 hospitals from a single health board in Scotland. Participants 30 women who had been prescribed tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors (anastrozole or letrozole) and had been taking this medication for 1–5 years. Results Women clearly wished to take their adjuvant endocrine therapy medication as prescribed, believing that it offered them protection against breast cancer recurrence. However, some women missed tablets and did not recognise that this could reduce the efficacy of the treatment. Women did not perceive that healthcare professionals were routinely or systematically monitoring their adherence. Side effects were common and impacted greatly on the women’s quality of life but did not always cause women to stop taking their medication, or to seek advice about reducing the side effects they experienced. Few were offered the opportunity to discuss the impact of side effects or the potential options available. Conclusions Although most women in this study took adjuvant endocrine therapy as prescribed, many endured a range of side effects, often without seeking help. Advice, support and monitoring for adherence are not routinely offered in conventional follow-up settings. Women deserve more opportunity to discuss the pros, cons and impact of long-term adjuvant endocrine therapy. New service models are needed to support adherence, enhance quality of life and ultimately improve survival. These should ideally be community based, in order to promote self-management in the longer term. PMID:24928595

  16. Pediatric fatality from gun bluing solution: the need for a chemical equivalent of the one-pill-can-kill list.

    PubMed

    Chomchai, Chulathida; Sirisamut, Thanakorn; Silpasupagornwong, Uraiwan

    2012-06-01

    Gun bluing solution is commonly used to polish guns and prevent rusting. The authors report a case of a 2-year-old boy who inadvertently ingested approximately 15 ml of his father's Fox Gun Blue solution. The patient subsequently developed acidosis, hypotension, and coma. He died within four hours after ingestion. His plasma selenium level was 857 ng/ml. A brief review of other reported ingestion of gun bluing liquid in both adults and children is also included.

  17. Peer mentors, mobile phone and pills: collective monitoring and adherence in Kenyatta National Hospital's HIV treatment programme

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the Kenyan state joined the international commitment to make antiretroviral treatment free in public health institutions to people infected with HIV. Less than a decade later, treatment has reached over 60% of those who need it in Kenya. This paper, which is based on an in-depth ethnographic case study of the HIV treatment programme at Kenyatta National Hospital, conducted intermittently between 2008 and 2014, examines how HIV-positive peer mentors encourage and track adherence to treatment regimens within and beyond the clinic walls using mobile phones and computer technology. This research into the everyday practices of patient monitoring demonstrates that both surveillance and adherence are collective activities. Peer mentors provide counselling services, follow up people who stray from treatment regimens, and perform a range of other tasks related to patient management and treatment adherence. Despite peer mentors’ involvement in many tasks key to encouraging optimal adherence, their role is rarely acknowledged by co-workers, hospital administrators, or public health officials. Following a biomedical paradigm, adherence at Kenyatta and in Kenya is framed by programme administrators as something individual clients must do and for which they must be held accountable. This framing simultaneously conceals the sociality of adherence and undervalues the work of peer mentors in treatment programmes. PMID:25175291

  18. A Pill for the Ill? Patients’ Reports of Their Experience of the Medical Encounter in the Treatment of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Vilhelmsson, Andreas; Svensson, Tommy; Meeuwisse, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Background Starting in the 1960s, a broad-based patients’ rights movement began to question doctors’ paternalism and to demand disclosure of medical information, informed consent, and active participation by the individual in personal health care. According to scholars, these changes contributed to downplay the biomedical approach in favor of a more patient-oriented perspective. The Swedish non-profit organization Consumer Association for Medicines and Health (KILEN) has offered the possibility for consumers to report their perceptions and experiences from their use of medicines in order to strengthen consumer rights within the health care sector. Methodology In this paper, qualitative content analysis was used to analyze 181 KILEN consumer reports of adverse events from antidepressant medications in order to explore patients’ views of mental ill health symptoms and the doctor-patient interaction. Principal Findings Overall, the KILEN stories contained negative experiences of the patients’ medical encounters. Some reports indicated intense emotional outrage and strong feelings of abuse by the health care system. Many reports suggested that doctors and patients had very different accounts of the nature of the problems for which the patient was seeking help. Although patients sought help for problems like tiredness and sleeplessness (often with a personal crisis of some sort as a described cause), the treating doctor in most cases was exceptionally quick in both diagnosing depression and prescribing antidepressant treatment. When patients felt they were not being listened to, trust in the doctor was compromised. This was evident in the cases when the doctor tried to convince them to take part in medical treatment, sometimes by threatening to withdraw their sick-listing. Conclusions Overall, this study suggests that the dynamics happening in the medical encounter may still be highly affected by a medical dominance, instead of a patient-oriented perspective. This may contribute to a questionable medicalization and/or pharmaceuticalization of depression. PMID:23823902

  19. Synergistic Effects of Clopidogrel and Fufang Danshen Dripping Pills by Modulation of the Metabolism Target and Pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Shitang; Ju, Wenzheng; Dai, Guoliang; Zhao, Wenzhu; Cheng, Xiaogui; Fang, Zhuyuan; Tan, Hengshan; Wang, Xiaoxiao

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective. The aim was to evaluate the synergistic effects of clopidogrel and FDDP by modulating the metabolism target and the pharmacokinetics. Methods. The inhibition effect of FDDP on the CES1 was first investigated by the molecular simulation method, and the synergistic effects on the pharmacokinetics of CPGS were studied as follows: SD rats were treated with oral clopidogrel alone at a dosage of 30 mg/kg or the combination of clopidogrel and FDDP at dosages of 30 mg/kg and 324 mg/kg, respectively, for 21 days. The concentrations of CPGS in the blood plasma samples were determined and the calculated concentrations were used to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters. Results. 20 compounds in FDDP potentially interacted with CES1 target. The CPGS showed a two-compartment model pharmacokinetic profile. The concentration-time course of CPGS was not changed by FDDP, but FDDP decreased the peak plasma concentration and area under the curve of CPGS. Conclusion. The CES1's activity could be partly inhibited by FDDP through the molecular simulation investigation. The concentration-time course of CPGS was altered slightly by FDDP. The results demonstrated the synergistic effects of clopidogrel and FDDP by modulating both the pharmacokinetics and the target metabolism. PMID:25530790

  20. Misperceptions of peer pill-popping: the prevalence, correlates, and effects of inaccurate assumptions about peer pharmaceutical misuse.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Amber; Stogner, John; Seibert, Jonathan; Miller, Bryan Lee

    2014-06-01

    Peer behaviors may significantly influence personal behavior yet individuals may not accurately estimate their peers' actions. Overestimations of peer substance use may encourage initiation or exacerbate extant problems. The present study examines misperceptions of peer pharmaceutical misuse and explores the relationship between reported misuse and perceptions of misuse for four categories of prescription drugs. Data collected from 2,349 college students in the Southeastern United States were analyzed and results indicated that overall perceptions of misuse were significantly higher than actual misuse. These findings suggest that intervention efforts may benefit from addressing misperceptions of pharmaceutical misuse. Study limitations and implications are addressed.

  1. Bomb or Boon: Linking Population, People and Power in Fragile Regions: Comment on "The Pill Is Mightier Than the Sword".

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Raymond

    2015-10-02

    The relationship between population structure and violent conflict is complex and heavily dependent on the behavior of other variables like governance, economic prospects, and urbanization. While addressing rapid population growth might be a necessary condition for peace, it is by no means sufficient. Concomitant steps must also be taken to foster inclusivity, guarantee broader rights for all, particularly women, rebuild social contracts and ensure that all citizens have equal access to economic opportunity. Measures to control family size could reduce dependency and create greater socio-economic opportunities for women and youth, By so doing, the "youth bulge" phenomenon could be a boon for rapidly growing developing countries.

  2. Treating Mycobacterium ulcerans disease (Buruli ulcer): from surgery to antibiotics, is the pill mightier than the knife?

    PubMed Central

    Converse, Paul J; Nuermberger, Eric L; Almeida, Deepak V; Grosset, Jacques H

    2011-01-01

    Until 2004, the skin disease known as Buruli ulcer, caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, could only be treated by surgery and skin grafting. Although this worked reasonably well on early lesions typically found in patients in Australia, the strategy was usually impractical on large lesions resulting from diagnostic delay in patients in rural West Africa. Based on promising preclinical studies, treatment trials in West Africa have shown that a combination of rifampin and streptomycin administered daily for 8 weeks can kill M. ulcerans bacilli, arrest the disease, and promote healing without relapse or reduce the extent of surgical excision. Improved treatment options are the focus of research that has increased tremendously since the WHO began its Global Buruli Ulcer Initiative in 1998. PMID:22004037

  3. Impact of pilling and long-term topsoil storage on the potential soil microbial activity in the Northern Chihuahuan Desert

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryptobiotic soil crusts in arid regions contribute to ecosystem stability through increased water infiltration, soil aggregate stability, and nutrient cycling between the soil community and vascular plants. Natural gas mining involves removal of the topsoil, including surface crust, and storage of ...

  4. Women with anorexia nervosa should not be treated with estrogen or birth control pills in a bone-sparing effect.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Ingrid; Crisby, Milita; Engström, Anne-May; Hölcke, Mats; Fored, Monika; Jakobsson Kruse, Pia; Of Sandberg, Ann-Marie

    2013-08-01

    Eating disorders are prevalent, serious conditions that affect mainly young women. An early and enduring sign of anorexia is amenorrhea. There is no evidence for benefits of hormone therapy in patients with anorexia; however, hormone medication and oral contraceptives are frequently prescribed for young women with anorexia as a prevention against and treatment for low bone mineral density. The use of estrogens may create a false picture indicating that the skeleton is being protected against osteoporosis. Thus the motivation to regain weight, and adhere to treatment of the eating disorder in itself, may be reduced. The most important intervention is to restore the menstrual periods through increased nutrition. Hormone and oral contraceptive therapy should not be prescribed for young women with amenorrhea and concurrent eating disorders.

  5. New connectors coming for enteral feeding tubes; marqibo and risk of errors; angeliq is not a birth control pill.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Michael R; Smetzer, Judy L

    2014-07-01

    These medication errors have occurred in health care facilities at least once. They will happen again-perhaps where you work. Through education and alertness of personnel and procedural safeguards, they can be avoided. You should consider publishing accounts of errors in your newsletters and/or presenting them at your inservice training programs. Your assistance is required to continue this feature. The reports described here were received through the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) Medication Errors Reporting Program. Any reports published by ISMP will be anonymous. Comments are also invited; the writers' names will be published if desired. ISMP may be contacted at the address shown below. Errors, close calls, or hazardous conditions may be reported directly to ISMP through the ISMP Web site (www.ismp.org), by calling 800-FAIL-SAFE, or via e-mail at ismpinfo@ismp.org. ISMP guarantees the confidentiality and security of the information received and respects reporters' wishes as to the level of detail included in publications.

  6. Are Prescription Stimulants "Smart Pills"? The Epidemiology and Cognitive Neuroscience of Prescription Stimulant Use by Normal Healthy Individuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Elizabeth; Farah, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    Use of prescription stimulants by normal healthy individuals to enhance cognition is said to be on the rise. Who is using these medications for cognitive enhancement, and how prevalent is this practice? Do prescription stimulants in fact enhance cognition for normal healthy people? We review the epidemiological and cognitive neuroscience…

  7. Huge right-handed current effects in B->K*(K pi)l+l- in supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Lunghi, E.; Matias, J.; /Barcelona, IFAE

    2006-12-01

    Transverse asymmetries in the decay B {yields} K*(K{pi}){ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} are an extremely sensitive probe of right-handed flavor-changing neutral currents. They show how to include the contribution from the chiral partner of the electromagnetic operator on the transverse asymmetries at NLO in QCD factorization. They then consider supersymmetric models with non-minimal flavor violation in the down-squark sector. They include all the relevant experimental constraints and present a numerical formula for B {yields} X{sub s}{gamma} that takes into account the most recent NNLO calculations. they show that the flavor-changing parameters of these models are poorly constrained by present data and allow for large effects on the transverse asymmetries that they consider.

  8. Pills or Push-Ups? Effectiveness and Public Perception of Pharmacological and Non-Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Caviola, Lucius; Faber, Nadira S.

    2015-01-01

    We review work on the effectiveness of different forms of cognitive enhancement, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological. We consider caffeine, methylphenidate, and modafinil for pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) and computer training, physical exercise, and sleep for non-pharmacological cognitive enhancement (NPCE). We find that all of the techniques described can produce significant beneficial effects on cognitive performance. However, effect sizes are moderate, and consistently dependent on individual and situational factors as well as the cognitive domain in question. Although meta-analyses allowing a quantitative comparison of effectiveness across techniques are lacking to date, we can conclude that PCE is not more effective than NPCE. We discuss the physiological reasons for this limited effectiveness. We then propose that even though their actual effectiveness seems similar, in the general public PCE is perceived as fundamentally different from NPCE, in terms of effectiveness, but also in terms of acceptability. We illustrate the potential consequences such a misperception of PCE can have. PMID:26696922

  9. Peer mentors, mobile phone and pills: collective monitoring and adherence in Kenyatta National Hospital's HIV treatment programme.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the Kenyan state joined the international commitment to make antiretroviral treatment free in public health institutions to people infected with HIV. Less than a decade later, treatment has reached over 60% of those who need it in Kenya. This paper, which is based on an in-depth ethnographic case study of the HIV treatment programme at Kenyatta National Hospital, conducted intermittently between 2008 and 2014, examines how HIV-positive peer mentors encourage and track adherence to treatment regimens within and beyond the clinic walls using mobile phones and computer technology. This research into the everyday practices of patient monitoring demonstrates that both surveillance and adherence are collective activities. Peer mentors provide counselling services, follow up people who stray from treatment regimens, and perform a range of other tasks related to patient management and treatment adherence. Despite peer mentors' involvement in many tasks key to encouraging optimal adherence, their role is rarely acknowledged by co-workers, hospital administrators, or public health officials. Following a biomedical paradigm, adherence at Kenyatta and in Kenya is framed by programme administrators as something individual clients must do and for which they must be held accountable. This framing simultaneously conceals the sociality of adherence and undervalues the work of peer mentors in treatment programmes.

  10. Pills or Push-Ups? Effectiveness and Public Perception of Pharmacological and Non-Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Caviola, Lucius; Faber, Nadira S

    2015-01-01

    We review work on the effectiveness of different forms of cognitive enhancement, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological. We consider caffeine, methylphenidate, and modafinil for pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) and computer training, physical exercise, and sleep for non-pharmacological cognitive enhancement (NPCE). We find that all of the techniques described can produce significant beneficial effects on cognitive performance. However, effect sizes are moderate, and consistently dependent on individual and situational factors as well as the cognitive domain in question. Although meta-analyses allowing a quantitative comparison of effectiveness across techniques are lacking to date, we can conclude that PCE is not more effective than NPCE. We discuss the physiological reasons for this limited effectiveness. We then propose that even though their actual effectiveness seems similar, in the general public PCE is perceived as fundamentally different from NPCE, in terms of effectiveness, but also in terms of acceptability. We illustrate the potential consequences such a misperception of PCE can have.

  11. Pills, shots, implants, vaccines: can the elusive sperm be reined in? Male contraceptive research extremely slow, but promising.

    PubMed

    1995-08-01

    Although it may be 20 years before a male contraceptive is marketed, researchers continue to explore various options. Part of the difficulty with male contraception is the fact that the oral contraceptives were so successful in women that they cornered the market. Another problem is that it is easier to control one egg per month than hundreds of millions of sperm cells each day. Another is that it is more expensive to do research on male than on female rats since the males require separate cages. The physiologic targets for male birth control are 1) the process of spermatogenesis, 2) the process of sperm maturation, and 3) the process of capacitation. The substance gossypol, which suppresses sperm without affecting androgen levels, has been the subject of male contraceptive research in the US since the 1970s. Clinical trials of gossypol are planned by a collaborative groups of investigators from developing countries. Research has also continued for more than 20 years on compounds to alter male hormone levels. The use of one such compound, testosterone enanthate, required weekly injections, so current research is centered on finding a more marketable product, such as a 3-month injectable that uses testosterone buciclate. The combination of testosterone enanthate with cyproterone acetate is also showing promise in achieving complete azoospermia in trials in men. The dosing schedule makes this regimen unmarketable, however. Protocols have also been completed for a clinical trial using two implanted rods to deliver a GnRH analog and a specially developed androgen. Work is also proceeding on the development of a GnRH vaccine and on a vaccine specific only to follicle-stimulating hormone. Other avenues of research are focusing on nifedipine, a drug used to treat high blood pressure, on mifepristone (RU-486) which temporarily blocks calcium, and on etoprine, which suppresses rapidly dividing sperm cells. Research has halted on two compounds that protect cells from oxidative damage (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) because of the potential damage to sperm DNA, which could cause early miscarriage or birth defects.

  12. Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD): Different from PMS?

    MedlinePlus

    ... taking SSRIs all month or only in the interval between ovulation and the start of your period. ... Taking birth control pills with no pill-free interval or with a shortened pill-free interval may ...

  13. Acne

    MedlinePlus

    ... with your doctor about your treatment plan. Can birth control pills help treat acne? For women who break out mainly around their menstrual cycle, some birth control pills can help. Research shows that these pills ...

  14. Oxcarbazepine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neosar); desmopressin (DDAVP, Minirin, Stimate); diazepam (Valium); diuretics ('water pills'); hormonal contraceptives (birth control pills, rings, patches, implants, injections, and intrauterine devices); indapamide (Natrilix); other medications for ...

  15. Medicines for sleep

    MedlinePlus

    Benzodiazepines; Sedatives; Hypnotics; Sleeping pills; Insomnia - medicines; Sleep disorder - medicines ... the-counter (OTC) sleeping pills contain antihistamines. These medicines are commonly used to treat allergies. While these ...

  16. An International Randomised Placebo-Controlled Trial of a Four-Component Combination Pill (“Polypill”) in People with Raised Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been widespread interest in the potential of combination cardiovascular medications containing aspirin and agents to lower blood pressure and cholesterol (‘polypills’) to reduce cardiovascular disease. However, no reliable placebo-controlled data are available on both efficacy and tolerability. Methods We conducted a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial of a polypill (containing aspirin 75 mg, lisinopril 10 mg, hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg and simvastatin 20 mg) in 378 individuals without an indication for any component of the polypill, but who had an estimated 5-year cardiovascular disease risk over 7.5%. The primary outcomes were systolic blood pressure (SBP), LDL-cholesterol and tolerability (proportion discontinued randomised therapy) at 12 weeks follow-up. Findings At baseline, mean BP was 134/81 mmHg and mean LDL-cholesterol was 3.7 mmol/L. Over 12 weeks, polypill treatment reduced SBP by 9.9 (95% CI: 7.7 to 12.1) mmHg and LDL-cholesterol by 0.8 (95% CI 0.6 to 0.9) mmol/L. The discontinuation rates in the polypill group compared to placebo were 23% vs 18% (RR 1.33, 95% CI 0.89 to 2.00, p = 0.2). There was an excess of side effects known to the component medicines (58% vs 42%, p = 0.001), which was mostly apparent within a few weeks, and usually did not warrant cessation of trial treatment. Conclusions This polypill achieved sizeable reductions in SBP and LDL-cholesterol but caused side effects in about 1 in 6 people. The halving in predicted cardiovascular risk is moderately lower than previous estimates and the side effect rate is moderately higher. Nonetheless, substantial net benefits would be expected among patients at high risk. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12607000099426 PMID:21647425

  17. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome prevention strategies: oral contraceptive pills-dual gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist suppression with step-down gonadotropin protocols.

    PubMed

    Damario, Mark A

    2010-11-01

    The identification of patients at high risk for excessive responses to ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer is essential in the tailoring of safe and effective treatment strategies. Known factors associated with increased sensitivity to gonadotropins include polycystic ovary syndrome, young age, prior ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), high baseline antral follicle count, and high baseline ovarian volume. Although several treatment strategies have been proposed for these patients, this report describes the experience using the dual suppression with gonadotropin step-down protocol. This protocol uses oral contraceptive pretreatment in combination with a long gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist followed by a programmed step-down in gonadotropin dosing. Hormonal characteristics of dual suppression include an improved luteinizing hormone-to-follicle-stimulating hormone ratio and lower serum androgens, particularly dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Clinical characteristics of the protocol include a lower cancellation rate and favorable clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates per initiated cycle while mitigating the risk of OHSS.

  18. A bitter pill for type 2 diabetes? The activation of bitter taste receptor TAS2R38 can stimulate GLP-1 release from enteroendocrine L-cells

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Hung; Hui, Hongxiang; Morvaridi, Susan; Cai, Jiena; Zhang, Sanqi; Tan, Jun; Wu, Vincent; Levin, Nancy; Knudsen, Beatrice; Goddard, William A.; Pandol, Stephen J.; Abrol, Ravinder

    2016-01-01

    The bitter taste receptor TAS2R38 is a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) that has been found in many extra-oral locations like the gastrointestinal (GI) system, respiratory system, and brain, though its function at these locations is only beginning to be understood. To probe the receptor’s potential metabolic role, immunohistochemistry of human ileum tissues was performed, which showed that the receptor was co-localized with glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in L-cells. In a previous study, we had modeled the structure of this receptor for its many taste-variant haplotypes (Tan et al. 2011), including the taster haplotype PAV. The structure of this haplotype was then used in a virtual ligand screening pipeline using a collection of ~2.5 million purchasable molecules from the ZINC database. Three compounds (Z7, Z3, Z1) were purchased from the top hits and tested along with PTU (known TAS2R38 agonist) in in vitro and in vivo assays. The dose-response study of the effect of PTU and Z7 on GLP-1 release using wild-type and TAS2R38 knockout HuTu-80 cells showed that the receptor TAS2R38 plays a major role in GLP-1 release due to these molecules. In vivo studies of PTU and the three compounds showed that they each increase GLP-1 release. PTU was also chemical linked to cellulose to slow its absorption and when tested in vivo, it showed an enhanced and prolonged GLP-1 release. These results suggest that the GI lumen location of TAS2R38 on the L-cell makes it a relatively safe drug target as systemic absorption is not needed for a TAS2R38 agonist drug to effect GLP-1 release. PMID:27208775

  19. Scaling up beyond 'pills and skills': preventing parent-to-child HIV/AIDS transmission and the public/private divide in southern India.

    PubMed

    Towle, Megan S

    2009-10-01

    This paper argues that current HIV/AIDS intervention models in southern India--in particular, those targeting the prevention of parent-to-child transmission (PPTCT)--underutilize the private sector and thereby compromise an efficient integration of HIV/AIDS humanitarian responses into India's health development system. While PPTCT is a critical strategy for curbing the HIV/AIDS epidemic-particularly in countries like India, where prevalence rates among young women are escalating-the cascade of prepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum PPTCT interventions are often difficult for women and spouses to access as a result of socio-cultural, structural and economic obstacles. Recognizing the complex ecologies within which PPTCT interventions must take place, qualitative analysis focussed on current PPTCT gaps in southern India and how healthcare providers and policymakers are moving to scale-up PPTCT by integrating into maternal, child and reproductive health services. Fieldwork highlighted a particularly stark gap in PPTCT delivery-the divide in scale-up efforts between public facilities and the private sector, which provides over 50% of national antenatal services. The private sector often serves as women's first point of healthcare contact, as they will avoid reputably poor-quality public facilities; vulnerable groups (e.g. rural and urban poor, tribal communities) are also seeking out subsidized private care, notably in faith-based facilities. Recognizing the need to revise the current humanitarian and health response, this paper details initial efforts to integrate into private care, with aim to present practitioners' successes, challenges and good practices for use in cross learning and a foundation for future research. This paper's analysis makes recommendations for key PPTCT providers and emphasizes the need to: (a) saturate PPTCT services in the private sector, and (b) strengthen mechanisms for integrating PPTCT across sector (private, public, and civil society) and decentralizing deeper into rural India to access vulnerable women, infants and spouses.

  20. Steps towards a phylogeny of the pill millipedes: non-monophyly of the family Protoglomeridae, with an integrative redescription of Eupeyerimhoffia archimedis (Diplopoda, Glomerida)

    PubMed Central

    Oeyen, Jan Philip; Wesener, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Eupeyerimhoffia archimedis (Strasser, 1965) is redescribed based on several specimens collected at a number of sites close to the type locality on Sicily, Italy. Scanning electron microscopy is used to illustrate several unusual morphological characters for a member of the Glomerida for the first time. A fragment of the mitochondrial COI gene (668bp) is sequenced for the first time in Eupeyerimhoffia to provide a species-specific barcode and to gain first insights into the genetic distances between the genera in the widespread family Protoglomeridae. The novel sequences are compared to representatives of all other genera of the family: Protoglomeris vasconica (Brölemann, 1897) from northern Spain, the dwarfed Glomerellina laurae Silvestri, 1908 from Italy and Glomeroides primus (Silvestri, 1929) from western North America. The addition of COI sequences from the two other families of the Glomerida renders the family Protoglomeridae paraphyletic with Glomeroides primus being more closely related to Glomeridella minima (Latzel, 1884) than to the other genera in the family. The large genetic distances (13.2–16.8%) between Eupeyerimhoffia and the other genera in the order, as well as its unusual morphological characters, including unique morphological adaptations to roll into a ball, are probably an indication of the old age of the group. PMID:26257534

  1. Preventing Depressive Relapse and Recurrence in Higher Risk Cognitive Therapy Responders: A Randomized Trial of Continuation Phase Cognitive Therapy, Fluoxetine, or Matched Pill Placebo

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, Robin B.; Minhajuddin, Abu; Gershenfeld, Howard; Friedman, Edward S.; Thase, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Context Strategies to improve the course of recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) have great public health relevance. To reduce the risk of relapse/recurrence after acute phase Cognitive Therapy (CT), a continuation phase model of therapy (C-CT) may improve outcomes. Objectives To test the efficacy of C-CT and fluoxetine (FLX) for relapse prevention in a placebo (PBO) controlled randomized trial and compare the durability of prophylaxis after discontinuation of treatments. Design A sequential, three stage design with: acute phase (all patients received 12 weeks of CT), 8 month experimental phase (responders at higher risk were randomized to C-CT, FLX, or PBO), and 24 months of longitudinal, post-treatment follow-up. Setting Two university-based specialty clinics. Patients 523 adults with recurrent MDD began acute phase CT, of which 241 “higher risk” responders were randomized and 181 subsequently entered the follow-up. Interventions CT responders at higher risk for relapse were randomized to receive 8 months of C-CT (n = 86), FLX (n = 86) or PBO (n = 69). Main Outcome Measures Survival analyses of relapse/recurrence rates, as determined by “blinded” evaluators using DSM-IV criteria and the LIFE interview. Results As predicted, the C-CT or FLX groups were significantly less likely to relapse than the PBO group across 8 months. Relapse/recurrence rates for C-CT and FLX were nearly identical during the 8 months of treatment, although C-CT patients were more likely to accept randomization, stayed in treatment longer, and attended more sessions than those in FLX/PBO. Contrary to prediction, relapse/recurrence rates following the discontinuation of C-CT and FLX did not differ. Conclusions Relapse risk was reduced by both C-CT and FLX in an “enriched” randomization sampling only CT responders. The preventive effects of C-CT were not significantly more ‘durable’ than those of FLX after treatment was stopped, suggesting that some higher risk patients may require alternate longer-term interventions. PMID:24005123

  2. "Now here come the pills that are going to save your life": pharmacists' discussions of antiretroviral drugs in a context of life and death.

    PubMed

    Watermeyer, Jennifer

    2011-07-01

    HIV/AIDS has associated cultural and social meanings which shape communication. The disease is closely linked to the concepts of life and death. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has brought hope and life, but its success is heavily dependent on strict adherence. Research has shown that patients and health professionals often find it difficult to talk about these topics. However, there is little research available which focuses on health professionals' and patients' discussion of ART. This paper thus presents some exploratory discussion of extracts from pharmacy interactions in an HIV context which illustrate how pharmacists talk about antiretrovirals (ARVs) with patients with particular reference to the concepts of life and death. Data are taken from 26 video pharmacist-patient interactions recorded in a South African HIV/AIDS pharmacy. A hybrid qualitative analytic approach enabled identification of three types of references to ART, including the need to take ART "for the rest of your life", ART as "saving your life" and ART as "making you better". Explicit references to death were infrequent. These references were often emphatic and there are several potential reasons for this. The pharmacists' communication appears to be influenced by the urgency of the disease, a desire to give patients hope and a need to "normalise" discussions of death and HIV. The importance of ensuring understanding of ARV dosage instructions and discouraging patients from seeking traditional healing also appears to affect communication. The disease, societal and cultural contexts are thus shown to be significant influences which shape discussions of ART. This study has a number of practical implications, which are discussed.

  3. “A magical little pill that will relieve you of your womanly issues”: What young women say about menstrual suppression

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Colleen; Jenkins, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Perceptions of menstruation by media discourses portray this bodily function to be messy, inconvenient, and as an unnecessary phenomenon to be controlled or possibly eliminated. Commercials shown on YouTube targeted toward young women suggest that having a monthly period is not healthy and a lifestyle that is menses free is both pharmacologically available and recommended in order to live a fuller life. We explored the meanings attached to online menstrual suppression commercials with 10 women aged between 18 and 25. In-depth open-ended interviews were conducted over a 10-month period in 2014 after each participant viewed three menstrual suppression online advertisements. Feminist critical discourse was used for analysis with both authors coding for inter-rater reliability recognizing how our age difference and relationship as mother and daughter informed our interpretation. An overarching theme of tension emerged from the interviews with participants feeling detached due to the gendered stereotypes the commercials used to frame menstruation as compared to their own lived experience. Meanings associated with the menstrual suppression commercials were contrary to the participants’ lived experience of menstruation as a healthy process not a detrimental one to their well-being as suggested by the commercials. Subliminal messages within the advertisements were identified as reinforcing gender bias and prejudices, including those associated with femininity. Despite attempting to emulate popular culture, the menstrual suppression advertisements were largely dismissed by this group of participants as undermining their intelligence and of intentionally creating divisive binaries between groups of women. This study suggests that historical bias and stereotypical prejudices were identified by this group of young women within the marketing of menstrual suppression products and, as such, were dismissed as inauthentic to the menstruation experience reflecting a form of menstrual activism. PMID:27885971

  4. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for rapid determination of ginsenoside Rg1 and Re in Chinese patent medicine Naosaitong pill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Qu, Zhengyi; Wang, Yingping; Yao, Chunlin; Bai, Xueyuan; Bian, Shuai; Zhao, Bing

    2015-03-01

    Ginsenosides in plant samples have been extensively studied because protopanaxadiol saponins are ubiquitous in Chinese patent medicines, in which they can be used in promoting human health as the main active ingredients. A method for rapid determination of two ginsenosides (Rg1 and Re) in Naosaitong (NST) samples using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is studied to determine the contents of ginsenoside Rg1 and Re in this work. Partial least square (PLS) regression was used for building the calibration models, and the effects of spectral preprocessing and variable selection on the models are investigated for optimization of the models. A total of 93 samples were scanned by NIRS, and also by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector to determine the contents of ginsenoside Rg1 and Re. The calibration models for Rg1 and Re had high values of the coefficient of determination (R2) (0.9766 and 0.9764) and low root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) (0.0136 and 0.0104), and the values of the standard error of prediction set (SEP) are 0.00764 and 0.0103, which indicate a good correlation between reference values and NIRS predicted values. The overall results show that NIRS could be applied for the rapid determination of the contents of ginsenosides in Ginseng byproducts for pharmaceuticals that develop high-quality Chinese patent medicines.

  5. "And mostly they have a need for sleeping pills": physicians' views on treatment of sleep disorders with drugs in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Flick, Uwe; Garms-Homolová, Vjenka; Röhnsch, Gundula

    2012-12-01

    The percentage of nursing home residents treated with hypnotic medications is high, as many authors report, despite the fact that such medications are almost always associated with undesirable effects for old people. This article takes a closer look at nursing home physicians' views of prescriptions when treating sleep disorders of nursing home residents. How do physicians characterize the treatment strategy for residents suffering from sleep disorders? How do they balance the benefits and risks of the hypnotic medication? Under what circumstances do they accept negative consequences? To answer these questions, N=20 physicians (aged 36 to 68 years) in 16 nursing homes in a German city were interviewed. The physicians were either employed by nursing homes or worked on a contract basis. Comparative categorization of the data produced a typology across cases. Three interpretative patterns concerning the use of drugs for treating sleep disorders were identified--"by request," "ambivalence," and "reflected prescription." Differences between them were determined by the significance of residents' wishes, neglect of risks, particularly that of addiction, and the attempt to balance benefits and disadvantages. The study showed deficits in professional management of sleep disorders in nursing homes.

  6. A double-blind, randomized, neoadjuvant study of the tissue effects of POMx pills in men with prostate cancer before radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Freedland, Stephen J; Carducci, Michael; Kroeger, Nils; Partin, Alan; Rao, Jian-Yu; Jin, Yusheng; Kerkoutian, Susan; Wu, Hong; Li, Yunfeng; Creel, Patricia; Mundy, Kelly; Gurganus, Robin; Fedor, Helen; King, Serina A; Zhang, Yanjun; Heber, David; Pantuck, Allan J

    2013-10-01

    Pomegranates slow prostate cancer xenograft growth and prolong prostate-specific antigen (PSA) doubling times in single-arm human studies. Pomegranates' effects on human prostate tissue are understudied. We hypothesized that orally administered pomegranate extract (POMx; Pom Wonderful) would lower tissue 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), an oxidative stress biomarker. Seventy men were randomized to two tablets, POMx or placebo, daily up to four weeks before radical prostatectomy. Tissue was analyzed for intraprostatic urolithin A, a pomegranate metabolite, benign and malignant 8-OHdG, and cancer pS6 kinase, NF-κB, and Ki67. Primary endpoint was differences in 8-OHdG, and the study was powered to detect 35% reduction. POMx was associated with 16% lower benign tissue 8-OHdG (P = 0.095), which was not statistically significant. POMx was well tolerated with no treatment-related withdrawals. There were no differences in baseline clinicopathological features between arms. Urolithin A was detected in 21 of the 33 patients in the POMx group versus 12 of the 35 in the placebo group (P = 0.031). Cancer pS6 kinase, NF-κB, Ki67, and serum PSA changes were similar between arms. POMx before surgery results in pomegranate metabolite accumulation in prostate tissues. Our primary endpoint in this modest-sized short-term trial was negative. Future larger longer studies are needed to more definitively test whether POMx reduces prostate oxidative stress, as well as further animal testing to better understand the multiple mechanisms through which POMx may alter prostate cancer biology.

  7. From the worm to the pill, the parasitic worm product ES-62 raises new horizons in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Pineda, M A; Eason, R J; Harnett, M M; Harnett, W

    2015-04-01

    Evidence from human studies suggests that parasitic worm infection can protect humans against rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and this idea is strengthened by data generated in model systems. Although therapeutic use of parasitic worms is currently being explored, there are obvious benefits in pursuing drug development through identification and isolation of the 'active ingredients'. ES-62 is a secreted glycoprotein of the filarial nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae, which we have found to protect against the development of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. ES-62 activity is dependent on the inflammatory phenotype of the local environment and protection arises via inhibition of Th17- and γδT cell-dependent IL-17 production. At the same time, NK and NK T cell IL-17 production is left intact, and such selectivity suggests that ES-62 might make a particularly attractive therapeutic for RA. However, as a potentially immunogenic protein, ES-62 is unsuitable for development as a drug. Nevertheless, ES-62 activity is dependent on covalently attached phosphorylcholine (PC) residues and we have therefore produced a library of PC-based drug-like ES-62 small-molecule analogues (SMAs) as an alternative therapeutic strategy. Screening this library, we have found an ES-62 SMA that mirrors ES-62 in protecting against CIA and by the same IL-17-dependent mechanism of action.

  8. "Doctor, would you prescribe a pill to help me … ?" a national survey of physicians on using medicine for human enhancement.

    PubMed

    Hotze, Timothy D; Shah, Kavita; Anderson, Emily E; Wynia, Matthew K

    2011-01-01

    Using medical advances to enhance human athletic, aesthetic, and cognitive performance, rather than to treat disease, has been controversial. Little is known about physicians' experiences, views, and attitudes in this regard. We surveyed a national sample of physicians to determine how often they prescribe enhancements, their views on using medicine for enhancement, and whether they would be willing to prescribe a series of potential interventions that might be considered enhancements. We find that many physicians occasionally prescribe enhancements, but doctors hold nuanced and ambiguous views of these issues. Most express concerns about the potential effects of enhancements on social equity, yet many also believe specific enhancements that are safe and effective should be available but not covered by insurance. These apparently contradictory views might reflect inherent tensions between the values of equity and liberty, which could make crafting coherent social policies on medical enhancements challenging.

  9. Single monthly administration of the anti-progestagen Org 31710 in users of the 75 microg desogestrel progestagen-only pill: effects on pituitary-ovarian activity.

    PubMed

    van Heusden, A M; Killick, S R; Coelingh Bennink, H J; Fauser, B C

    2000-03-01

    Endocrine and ultrasound effects were studied of an intermittent (every 28 days) oral administration of 150 mg of the anti-progestagen Org 31710 during the continued daily use of 75 microg desogestrel (DSG) for progestagen-only contraception. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled two-centre study was conducted in 50 healthy volunteers. Serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), oestradiol and progesterone concentrations, and follicle number and size were studied, as well as endometrial thickness, which was assessed by transvaginal sonography at least twice weekly during a single medication cycle (cycle 3-5). Forty-eight women were evaluated (Org 31710, n = 25; placebo, n = 23). Seven ovulations were observed in the treated group versus none in the placebo group. LH concentrations were higher on days 9 and 11 and oestradiol concentrations lower on day 3 in the treated group, irrespective of whether ovulation occurred. No parameter could predict ovulation. Endometrial thickness was greater on cycle days 7-13 and 19 in the treated group. However, within the Org 31710 group, no significant differences were found in volunteers who did or did not ovulate. Observed differences may be attributed to a competitive effect of Org 31710 with progestagen-induced suppression of the pituitary-ovarian axis, altered oestradiol feedback mechanisms, and/or altered receptor availability.

  10. If It Works for Pills, Can It Work for Skills? Direct-to-Consumer Social Marketing of Evidence-Based Psychological Treatments.

    PubMed

    Friedberg, Robert D; Bayar, Hasan

    2017-01-17

    The emergence of evidence-based psychological treatments (EVPTs) is a scientific success story, but unfortunately the application of these empirically supported procedures has been slow to gain ground in treatment-as-usual settings. This Open Forum commentary argues that direct-to-consumer (DTC) marketing, which has worked well in communicating the advantages of various medicines, should perhaps be considered for use in social marketing of EVPTs. DTC marketing of pharmaceuticals is a long-standing advertising strategy in the United States. In fact, DTC marketing of psychotropic medicines is quite a success story. The authors recommend various strategies for using marketing science to devise DTC advertising of EVPTs, discuss previous research on DTC campaigns, and describe initiatives launched in the United Kingdom and Europe to promote EVPTs. Suggestions for evaluating and regulating DTC marketing of EVPTs are included. Finally, the potential for DTC marketing of EVPTs to increase mental health literacy and reduce health disparities is explored.

  11. Randomized, placebo-controlled phase II trial of heat-killed Mycobacterium vaccae (Longcom batch) formulated as an oral pill (V7)

    PubMed Central

    Efremenko, Yuri V; Butov, Dmytro A; Prihoda, Natalia D; Zaitzeva, Svetlana I; Yurchenko, Larisa V; Sokolenko, Nina I; Butova, Tetyana S; Stepanenko, Anna L; Kutsyna, Galyna A; Jirathitikal, Vichai; Bourinbaiar, Aldar S

    2013-01-01

    One-month Phase II trial was conducted in 43 sputum smear-positive patients with pulmonary tuberculosis randomized into treatment (n = 22) and placebo (n = 21) arms to investigate the safety and efficacy of an orally-administered therapeutic TB vaccine (V7) containing 10 μg of heat-killed Mycobacterium vaccae provided by Longcom company. Immunotherapy and control groups comprised 8 newly diagnosed (1stDx TB; 18.6%), 6 re-treated (RTB; 14%), and 29 multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB; 67.4%) cases distributed at 5:4:13 and 3:2:16 ratios, respectively. Both arms received conventional TB drugs administered under directly observed therapy. The average weight gain in V7 arm was modest, but statistically significant (0.6 kg; p = 0.004), while placebo patients lost 0.1 kg (p = 0.77). Except defervescence and increased lymphocyte percentage, other secondary endpoints such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), leukocyte counts and hemoglobin content were not significantly affected. In control patients only one secondary endpoint, ESR, has improved. After one month mycobacterial clearance in sputum smears was observed in 31.8% (p = 0.03) and 9.5% (p = 0.83) of patients on V7 and placebo. However, the difference between outcomes in two arms was below significance threshold (p = 0.07). Thus, larger population of patients with prolonged follow-up is required to support these preliminary findings. PMID:23782489

  12. ["Haemorrhoidal colic", "strong pills of stahl", and "quacks". Johann Gottwerth Müller, writer of the enlightenment, critic of medicine and his evils in letters and books].

    PubMed

    Ritter, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Johann Gottwerth Müller, a so called "independent author", was one of the most successful novelists in the German Enlightenment around 1800. Educated as a scholar and trained as a physician, although not a practicing physician, Müller was sick throughout his life and constantly reflects on his diseases, and on what he considered to be an insufficient "medical system" and a socially "sick" society. This outlook is revealed by his library (in 1828: about 13300 volumes, of which 254 volumes of medical publications), his correspondence and his novels. Letters he exchanged with the publisher Friedrich Nicolai (74 letters between 1777 and 1796) about private and business affairs show that Miller uses statements about his sickness in order to win sympathy, to document his sufferings as part of an "independent" writer's identity, as a metaphor for social health, and as a means for excuses and compulsions in business connections. The didactic novels serve the author's transformation of individual suffering into the perspective of an enlightened humanitarian development of the government, the society, and the medical system within the structured society of his day.

  13. A Double Blind, Randomized, Neoadjuvant Study of the Tissue effects of POMx Pills in Men with Prostate Cancer Prior to Radical Prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Freedland, Stephen J.; Carducci, Michael; Kroeger, Nils; Partin, Alan; Rao, Jian-yu; Jin, Yusheng; Kerkoutian, Susan; Wu, Hong; Li, Yunfeng; Creel, Patricia; Mundy, Kelly; Gurganus, Robin; Fedor, Helen; King, Serina A.; Zhang, Yanjun; Heber, David; Pantuck, Allan J.

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranates slow prostate cancer xenograft growth and prolong PSA doubling times in single-arm human studies. Pomegranates’ effects on human prostate tissue are understudied. We hypothesized orally administered pomegranate extract (POMx; PomWonderful, Los Angeles, CA) would lower tissue 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), an oxidative stress biomarker. 70 men were randomized to 2 tablets POMx or placebo daily up to 4 weeks prior to radical prostatectomy. Tissue was analyzed for intra-prostatic Urolithin A, a pomegranate metabolite, benign and malignant 8-OHdG, and cancer pS6 kinase, NFκB, and Ki67. Primary end-point was differences in 8-OHdG powered to detect 30% reduction. POMx was associated with 16% lower benign tissue 8-OHdG (p=0.095), which was not statistically significant. POMx was well-tolerated with no treatment-related withdrawals. There were no differences in baseline clinicopathological features between arms. Urolithin A was detected in 21/33 patient in the POMx group vs. 12/35 in the placebo group (p=0.031). Cancer pS6 kinase, NFκB, Ki67, and serum PSA changes were similar between arms. POMx prior to surgery results in pomegranate metabolite accumulation in prostate tissues. Our primary end-point in this modest-sized short-term trial was negative. Future larger longer studies are needed to more definitely test whether POMx reduces prostate oxidative stress as well as further animal testing to better understand the multiple mechanisms through which POMx may alter prostate cancer biology. PMID:23985577

  14. [Effects of compound malt pills on expressions of ERα and ERβ in ovaries of rats with letrozole-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Lan, Nan; Yang, Yangbojun; Chen, Rong

    2016-02-01

    目的:观察复方麦芽丸对来曲唑诱导的多囊卵巢综合征(polycystic ovarian syndrome,PCOS)大鼠模型雌激素受体α亚型(estrogen receptor α,ERα)和雌激素受体β亚型(estrogen receptor β,ERβ)的影响,探讨其对PCOS的作用机制。方法:建立PCOS大鼠模型,48只6周龄雌性SD大鼠随机均分为6组(正常组、模型对照组、阳性对照组、复方低剂量组、复方中剂量组、复方高剂量组),21 d造模成功后,灌胃治疗21 d。观察治疗后各组大鼠卵巢组织形态变化,采用免疫组织化学、Western 印迹和RT-PCR检测各组大鼠卵巢组织中ERα和ERβ蛋白的表达。结果:模型对照组大鼠卵巢囊状扩张数较正常组增多,颗粒细胞减少;与模型对照组比较,治疗后各组大鼠囊状扩张的卵泡明显减少并缩小,原始卵泡、黄体、颗粒细胞增多。模型对照组ERα和ERβ的表达明显降低(P<0.01),药物干预组ERα和ERβ的表达升高(P<0.05或 P<0.01)。结论:复方麦芽丸可通过调控卵巢组织ERα和ERβ蛋白的表达而在PCOS的治疗中发挥作用。.

  15. Homemade Solar Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Through the use of NASA Tech Briefs, Peter Kask, was able to build a solarized domestic hot water system. Also by applying NASA's solar energy design information, he was able to build a swimming pool heating system with minimal outlay for materials.

  16. Update on the metabolic effects of steroidal contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Sondheimer, S J

    1991-12-01

    Modern oral contraceptive pills are safe and show minimal metabolic effects that have little clinical significance to smoking and reproductive age (even up to menopause). Multiphasic and 30 to 35 micrograms EE fixed combination pills are preferable to higher dose EE pills. Triphasic pills with norgestrel or norethindrone, monophasic norethindrone pills, and combination pills with the newer progestins are all probably metabolically comparable. The levonorgestrel implant is convenient, reversible, and effective and eliminates estrogenic metabolic effects. Metabolic benefits of the pill may include less acne, better preservation of bone mass, and less blood loss. Women who smoke should be encouraged to stop. Women with risk factors for atherosclerosis such as smoking, lipid abnormalities, diabetes, or hypertension should avoid combination pills. Women with a history of pregnancy, steroid-related thrombophlebitis, or thromboembolic disease should not use estrogen-containing pills.

  17. Renal cell carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... of certain medicines, such as pain pills or water pills (diuretics) Polycystic kidney disease Von Hippel-Lindau disease (a hereditary disease that affects blood vessels in the brain, eyes, and other body parts) Symptoms Symptoms of ...

  18. Treating Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... bodies need many nutrients — in different amounts — to work properly. So when you and the diabetes health ... 2 diabetes. Other times, pills that help insulin work better also need to be taken. These pills ...

  19. Testosterone Therapy May Be Linked to Serious Blood Clots

    MedlinePlus

    ... testosterone pills, gels or injections, hoping that the male hormone will boost their sex drive, stamina and strength. It's been known for a while that the estrogen in birth control pills increases a woman's risk of blood clots, ...

  20. Keeping Your Sex Life Going Despite Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... from a legitimate pharmacy. There’s a large counterfeit market for pills for ED. These pills are usually ... or worry about not appearing strong if they open up too much. Or, or they might think ...

  1. Diethylpropion

    MedlinePlus

    ... if you are allergic to diethylpropion; amphetamines; other diet pills; medications for allergies, hay fever, and colds; or ... Tell your doctor if you have taken other diet pills in the past year.tell your doctor if ...

  2. Icosapent Ethyl

    MedlinePlus

    ... Toprol XL), nadolol (Corgard), and propranolol (Inderal); diuretics ('water pills'); estrogen-containing contraceptives (birth control pills, patches, rings, and injections); or estrogen replacement therapy. Your doctor may need ...

  3. Emergency contraception

    MedlinePlus

    Morning-after pill; Postcoital contraception; Birth control - emergency; Plan B; Family planning - emergency contraception ... Emergency contraception most likely prevents pregnancy in the same way as regular birth control pills: By preventing or delaying ...

  4. HealthLines

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink coffee a new study suggests. Researchers compared caffeine (the stimulant in coffee, tea, soda, and energy ... took a nap, another took a pill with caffeine, and the third took a dummy pill with ...

  5. Cold Sore

    MedlinePlus

    ... packaged as pills to be swallowed. Others are creams to be applied to the sores several times ... In general, the pills work better than the creams. For very severe infections, some antiviral drugs can ...

  6. Redefining Adjuvant Therapy for Colon Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In this trial, patients with resected stage III colon cancer are being randomly assigned to receive FOLFOX chemotherapy for either 3 or 6 months and to take either a pill called celecoxib or a matching placebo pill for 3 years.

  7. Emergency Contraception

    MedlinePlus

    ... contraception are available: emergency contraceptive pills and the copper-containing intrauterine device (IUD).Emergency contraceptive pills include ... for emergency use, talk to your doctor.The copper-containing IUD (brand name: Paragard) is a small, ...

  8. Take Meds Faithfully

    MedlinePlus

    ... was a good idea.) I Wider use of electronic prescription pills boxes and reminder devices that can ... to help you take your medicines are proliferating. Electronic pill reminder devices are available at most large ...

  9. Postmenopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... more about treatments and symptoms: Symptoms Irregular Menstrual Cycles Missing periods is normal for women going through ... dose birth control pills: When problems with menstrual cycles persist, birth control pills can help regulate periods. ...

  10. Combined oral contraceptives: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Kiley, Jessica; Hammond, Cassing

    2007-12-01

    Millions of women use birth control pills for contraceptive and noncontraceptive reasons. Although there have been reports of rare adverse events, birth control pills do offer well-documented health benefits, including a decrease in the risk of ovarian and endometrial carcinoma. In addition, manufacturers continue to modify birth control pills to reduce side effects and medical risks.

  11. Using Covert Means to Establish Cybercraft Command and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Malware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.4 Virtualization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.4.1 Blue Pill ...and after infestation [20] . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2.12 Blue Pill before and after infestation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2.13 Two types of...2.11: SubVirt before and after infestation [20] Figure 2.12: Blue Pill before and after infestation per server. This gives way to substantial cost

  12. Male and Female Performance on Military Related Tasks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    three studies, we tested groups of men, women taking birth control pills, and normally cycling women not taking birth control pills. In Experiments...The subject groups are males and females. Because the military population used for these experiments yielded very few women using birth control pills

  13. Prioritizing HIV Comparative Effectiveness Trials based on Value of Information: Generic vs. Brand-Name ART in the US

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Pamela P.; Weinstein, Milton C.; Li, X. Cynthia; Hughes, Michael D.; Paltiel, A. David; Hou, Taige; Parker, Robert A.; Gaynes, Melanie R.; Sax, Paul E.; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Schackman, Bruce R.; Walensky, Rochelle P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Value of Information (VOI) analysis examines whether to acquire information before making a decision. We introduced VOI to the HIV audience, using the example of generic antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the US. Methods and Findings We used a mathematical model and probabilistic sensitivity analysis to generate probability distributions of survival (in quality-adjusted life years, QALYs) and cost for three potential first-line ART regimens: 3-pill generic, 2-pill generic, and 1-pill branded. These served as input for a comparison of two hypothetical two-arm trials: 3-pill generic vs. 1-pill branded; and 2-pill generic vs.1-pill branded. We modeled pre-trial uncertainty by defining probability distributions around key inputs, including 24-week HIV-RNA suppression and subsequent ART failure. We assumed that, without a trial, patients received the 1-pill branded strategy. Post-trial, we assumed that patients received the most cost-effective strategy. For both trials, we quantified the probability of changing to a generic-based regimen upon trial completion and the expected VOI in terms of improved health outcomes and costs. Assuming a willingness to pay threshold of $100,000/QALY, the 3-pill trial led to more treatment changes (84%) than the 2-pill trial (78%). Estimated VOI was $48,000 (3-pill trial) and $35,700 (2-pill trial) per future patient initiating ART. Conclusions A 3-pill trial of generic ART is more likely to lead to post-trial treatment changes and to provide more value than a 2-pill trial if policy decisions are based on cost-effectiveness. Value of Information analysis can identify trials likely to confer the greatest impact and value for HIV care. PMID:26651525

  14. “If I know I am on the pill and I get pregnant, it’s an act of God”: women’s views on fatalism, agency and pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rachel K.; Frohwirth, Lori F.; Blades, Nakeisha M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Fatalism is the idea that outside forces have control over events. Pregnancy and pregnancy prevention play a prominent role in many women’s lives, and we sought to understand if and how fatalism informed their thinking about these issues. Study design We conducted in-depth interviews with 52 unmarried women between the ages of 18 and 30. We used NVivo to analyze the transcripts. The current analysis focuses on the ways that women discussed fatalism and pregnancy both in response to a direct question and as it came up spontaneously. Results The majority of respondents expressed a mix of fatalistic and non-fatalistic views about pregnancy. Many related that “fate,” “destiny” and/or God play a role in pregnancy, but most also asserted that pregnancy risk could be substantially reduced, most commonly by using contraception. Fatalism sometimes served a positive function, for example as a mechanism to deal with an unintended pregnancy. Having a fatalistic outlook did not preclude contraceptive use. Rather, some women using highly effective methods related that if they were to become pregnant, they would interpret it as a sign that the pregnancy was “meant to happen.” Finally some women related that there was no guarantee a woman could get pregnant when she wanted to, suggesting that some degree of fatalism may be inevitable when it comes to pregnancy. Conclusions Fatalism and agency should not be viewed as opposing outlooks when it comes to pregnancy and pregnancy prevention; having fatalistic views about pregnancy does not preclude contraceptive use. Implications Given that women do not have total control over attainment of a wanted pregnancy or even prevention of pregnancy, some amount of fatalism about fertility is a logical and pragmatic response. Both research and clinical practice need to recognize that fatalism and contraceptive use are often not in conflict. PMID:26872719

  15. Vitamin D supply: from sun or pill? - Attitudes and recommendation on vitamin D and impact on sun protection practices among German general practitioners evaluated by the network of dermato-oncologists, Onkoderm e.V.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, Uwe; Dirschka, Thomas; Hartgens, Klaus; Kirchesch, Herbert; Ostendorf, Rolf; Petering, Holger; Prieur, Hanspeter; Krähn-Senftleben, Gertraud; Malaisse, Willy J

    2012-12-01

    Recommendations concerning the intake of vitamin D and/or sunlight exposure in the handling of patients with vitamin D deficiency remain a matter of debate. The present study of the German network of dermato-oncologists (Onkoderm e.V.) refers to an inquiry conducted among general practitioners on this and related issues. Based on 448 answers provided to 10 distinct questions, the consulted physicians recommended vitamin D intake (94% replies) and/or exposure to sunlight (63% replies) in their patients with vitamin D deficiency. An average of approximately 26 min daily unprotected exposure to sunlight at midday in spring and summer was recommended. Nevertheless, 91% of the physicians considered the use of creams protecting against sunlight to be judicious. However, only 54% of physicians considered it worthwhile practice to protect oneself intensively against UV radiation. This study indicates evidence of a reduction in sun protection practices. Yet, approximately 25% of the patients were considered to present vitamin D deficiency and, hence, recommendations to prevent or correct the latter situation should not be ignored. Nevertheless, we consider that there is a need to focus messages regarding sun exposure and for continued sun protection practices. These messages should specifically focus on the vitamin D issue to ensure that the incidence of skin cancer does not increase.

  16. Modeling the photocatalytic mineralization in water of commercial formulation of estrogens 17-β estradiol (E2) and nomegestrol acetate in contraceptive pills in a solar powered compound parabolic collector.

    PubMed

    Colina-Márquez, José; Machuca-Martínez, Fiderman; Li Puma, Gianluca

    2015-07-22

    Endocrine disruptors in water are contaminants of emerging concern due to the potential risks they pose to the environment and to the aquatic ecosystems. In this study, a solar photocatalytic treatment process in a pilot-scale compound parabolic collector (CPC) was used to remove commercial estradiol formulations (17-β estradiol and nomegestrol acetate) from water. Photolysis alone degraded up to 50% of estradiol and removed 11% of the total organic carbon (TOC). In contrast, solar photocatalysis degraded up to 57% of estrogens and the TOC removal was 31%, with 0.6 g/L of catalyst load (TiO2 Aeroxide P-25) and 213.6 ppm of TOC as initial concentration of the commercial estradiols formulation. The adsorption of estrogens over the catalyst was insignificant and was modeled by the Langmuir isotherm. The TOC removal via photocatalysis in the photoreactor was modeled considering the reactor fluid-dynamics, the radiation field, the estrogens mass balance, and a modified Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate law, that was expressed in terms of the rate of photon adsorption. The optimum removal of the estrogens and TOC was achieved at a catalyst concentration of 0.4 g/L in 29 mm diameter tubular CPC reactors which approached the optimum catalyst concentration and optical thickness determined from the modeling of the absorption of solar radiation in the CPC, by the six-flux absorption-scattering model (SFM).

  17. Draft Genome Sequences of Chryseobacterium artocarpi UTM-3T and Chryseobacterium contaminans C26T, Isolated from Rhizospheres, and Chryseobacterium arthrosphaerae CC-VM-7T, Isolated from the Feces of a Pill Millipede

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jin-Ju; Park, Byeonghyeok; Oh, Ji Yeon; Mannaa, Mohamed; Kim, Yoo Jun; Hong, Jeum Kyu; Choi, In-Geol

    2016-01-01

    Species of the genus Chryseobacterium belonging to the family Flavobacteriaceae are nonmotile, yellow-pigmented, and rod-shaped bacteria, some of which were frequently isolated from soil or plant-related materials. Here, we present draft genome sequences of three type strains of Chryseobacterium, which contain genes related to plant growth promotion, colonization, or stress adaptation. PMID:27795281

  18. Dispensing good sleep health behaviours not pills--a cluster-randomized controlled trial to test the feasibility and efficacy of pharmacist-provided brief behavioural treatment for insomnia.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Joanne M; Wong, Keith K; Hoyos, Camilla; Krass, Ines; Saini, Bandana

    2016-02-01

    Behavioural therapies are recommended as the first-line treatment of insomnia; however, sedatives and hypnotics constitute the main treatment modality used in primary care. Community pharmacies provide a unique conduit for identifying and providing appropriate treatment for those with insomnia either purchasing prescription sedatives or seeking over-the-counter treatments. A feasibility study using a cluster-randomized controlled trial, testing the efficacy of trained pharmacists providing behavioural interventions such as stimulus control and sleep restriction to patients with insomnia, in improving insomnia severity was conducted. The intervention involved three pharmacy visits (baseline, 1 and 3 months follow-up). The control group received usual care and information sheets on insomnia. The primary outcome was the Insomnia Severity Index. Twelve community pharmacists (five control, seven intervention) in New South Wales, Australia were recruited and trained. These pharmacists, in turn, recruited 46 patients (22 control, 24 intervention (mean age 53.7 ± 18.4, 72% females) and delivered a brief behavioural therapy intervention. The overall decrease in Insomnia Severity Index from baseline to the 3-month follow-up in the intervention group, n = 17 (7.6 ± 4.3 points), was significantly greater than for the control group, n = 19 (2.9 ± 8.8 points) (mean difference 4.6, 95% confidence interval: 0.005-9.2, P = 0.05). However, when the effect of clustering was taken into account using a mixed-effects model, the estimated difference in Insomnia Severity Index (change from baseline to visit 3) between the intervention and control groups was not significant (group difference in Insomnia Severity Index change = 3.78, 95% confidence interval: -0.81 to 8.37, P = 0.11; intracluster correlation = 0.18). The study highlights the use of a novel venue to deliver brief behavioural therapies for insomnia using trained non-psychologist health professionals. Although, when cluster effect was taken into account, the difference in Insomnia Severity Index reduction between the intervention versus control groups was non-significant, the results highlight that reductions in insomnia severity can be gained using trained pharmacists providing brief behavioural interventions. Future research in this area is warranted, with appropriately sized studies using the conventional, robust randomized trial design.

  19. Statins as Targeted "Magical Pills" for the Conservative Treatment of Endometriosis: May Potential Adverse Effects on Female Fertility Represent the "Dark Side of the Same Coin"? A Systematic Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Vitagliano, Amerigo; Noventa, Marco; Quaranta, Michela; Gizzo, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze all the available evidence from both in vitro and in vivo studies regarding the efficacy of statin therapy in the treatment of endometriosis, evaluating the potential efficacy, side effects, and contraindications of their administration in humans. We focused on defining the potential benefits that the administration of statins may have on patients affected by endometriosis and the possible adverse effects of such a therapy on ovarian function and fertility profile. According to our article selection criteria, we included in the review in vitro and in vivo studies performed on human or animal models. The systematic review of literature identified 24 eligible articles, 12 of which reported evidence regarding the effects of statins on endometrial/endometriotic cells and 12 regarding their effects on ovarian function and fertility. All articles seem to emphasize the utility of statin administration in the treatment of endometriosis due to their anti-proliferative/proapoptotic effects, their ability to reduce cell viability and migration, and the inhibition of angiogenesis and anti-inflammatory activities. Regarding the potential adverse effects on gonadal activities, steroidogenesis and fertility function, no conclusive data were collected in human models (excluding women affected by polycystic ovary syndrome in which significant decline of androgen levels was reported after statin treatment), while contrasting results were reported by studies conducted in in vitro and in vivo in animal models. Despite evidence supporting statins as the potential therapeutic agent for a targeted conservative treatment of endometriosis, the uncertainties regarding their impact on gonadal function may not define them as an appropriate therapy for all young fertile women.

  20. Thermally Insulating, Kinematic Tensioned-Fiber Suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voellmer, George M.

    2004-01-01

    A salt pill and some parts of a thermally insulating, kinematic suspension system that holds the salt pill rigidly in an adiabatic-demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is presented. "Salt pill" in this context denotes a unit comprising a cylindrical container, a matrix of gold wires in the container, and a cylinder of ferric ammonium alum (a paramagnetic salt) that has been deposited on the wires. The structural members used in this system for both thermal insulation and positioning are aromatic polyamide fibers (Kevlar(R) or equivalent) under tension. This suspension system is designed to satisfy several special requirements to ensure the proper operation of the ADR. These requirements are to (1) maintain the salt pill at a specified position within the cylindrical bore of an electromagnet; (2) prevent vibrations, which would cause dissipation of heat in the salt pill; and (3) minimize the conduction of heat from the electromagnet bore and other neighboring objects to the salt pill; all while (4) protecting the salt pill (which is fragile) against all tensile and bending loads other than those attributable to its own weight. In addition, the system is required to consist of two subsystems -- one for the top end and one for the bottom end of the salt pill -- that can be assembled and tensioned separately from each other and from the salt pill, then later attached to the salt pill.

  1. Evaluation of Drug Effects on Eustachian Tube Dysfunction in Divers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-19

    administered to satisfy comparisons of medication administration. Trials not utilizing oral pseudoephedrine required a placebo pill consisting of lactose ...by itself with accompanying administration of the oral lactose placebo pill for a placebo condition. Thus, the “saline” condition consists of a... lactose placebo pill and nasal saline, while the “pseudoephedrine” condition is oral pseudoephedrine with nasal saline. Some comparisons are done to

  2. [Evolution of the Hungarian oral contraceptives].

    PubMed

    Seregély, G

    1992-11-01

    Author gives a review of the development of Hungarian oral contraceptives from the beginning to the present status. He describes the three main historical phases that means the high-dose combined pills, the low-dose compositions and the most modern two- and three-phasic preparations. Besides, he mentions the monohormonal mini-pills and the so-called postcoital pill, too. He refers to the fact that the Hungarian pharmaceutical research followed truly the international development in oral contraception, too.

  3. The Canadian Diving Symposium (2nd) Held at Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine, 31 October - 1 November 1977.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    pill techniq •es) should not be lower then 360C. C 3. The man skin temperature (compriaed of at least four distisct skin temperature measuresmnts...pill is exposed over a range of approximately three feet. A separate hand-held radio pill read.Žut device has been developed which, although it cannot...developed by CTF Systems for DCIEM and which is intended for controlling dives to 600 fsw. It is a multiprocessor device, separate processors being devoted

  4. Cancer Incidence in the U.S. Military Population: Comparison with Rates from the SEER Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-08

    analysis, 34% of active-duty women and 29% of women in the general population used oral contraceptive pills in the preceding 12 months. Oral... contraceptive pill use has been shown to increase the risk for breast cancer, particu- larly in younger women (33, 34). Military women are also more likely to...screening with mam- mography in Sweden. Int J Cancer 2005;117:842–7. 33. Pymar HC, Creinin MD. The risks of oral contraceptive pills . Semin Reprod Med

  5. An Analysis of Hardware-Assisted Virtual Machine Based Rootkits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    can be ported to other x86/x64 OSs such as Linux or BSD as well. First presented and demonstrated by its designer Joanna Rutkowska at Black Hat...B. BLUE PILL SOURCE CODE Blue Pill source code was first made available by Invisible Things Lab (the company founded by Blue Pill creator Joanna ...opensecuritytraining.info/AdvancedX86-VTX.html [49] N. Lawson et al. “Don’t tell Joanna , the Virtualized Rootkit is dead” [Online]. Available: http

  6. Health Beliefs of Active Duty Army Women: Barriers to Well Woman Examinations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-01

    Birth control pill” was next. “ Birth control other than pills” was fourth, and the fifth option was “No problems with breast, only routine...detection examination 43 (28) Birth control pills 32 (21) Problems with female organs 22 (14) Problems with breast 12 (8) Birth control other than pills 8 (5...organs,” “ Birth control pills,” or “ Birth control other than pills” Health Beliefs 32 as the reason for seeking care. Twenty three, or 35%,

  7. 27 CFR 21.33 - Formula No. 2-B.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... processing (including manufacture of pills). 351.Processing dyes and intermediates. 352.Processing perfume... ethyl esters. 524.Sodium ethylate, anhydrous. 530.Ethylamines. 540.Dyes and intermediates....

  8. Substance use - amphetamines

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse - amphetamines; Drug abuse - amphetamines; Drug use - amphetamines ... Amphetamine: goey, louee, speed, uppers, whiz Dextroamphetamine (ADHD medicine used illegally): dexies, kiddie-speed, pep pills, uppers; ...

  9. Attitudes Toward Oral Contraception Among Canadian University Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardis, Panos D.

    The author conducted a cross-cultural survey of attitudes toward the pill among university students, part of this international sample being a group of young Canadians. The subjects were students from a southwestern Canadian university and were stratified as to sex and amount of education. The author employed his Pill Scale, a 25-item Likert type…

  10. Oral contraceptive use in women changes preferences for male facial masculinity and is associated with partner facial masculinity.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Burriss, Robert P; Petrie, Marion; Jones, Benedict C; Roberts, S Craig

    2013-09-01

    Millions of women use hormonal contraception and it has been suggested that such use may alter mate preferences. To examine the impact of oral contraceptive (pill) use on preferences, we tested for within-subject changes in preferences for masculine faces in women initiating pill use. Between two sessions, initiation of pill use significantly decreased women's preferences for male facial masculinity but did not influence preferences for same-sex faces. To test whether altered preference during pill use influences actual partner choice, we examined facial characteristics in 170 age-matched male partners of women who reported having either been using or not using the pill when the partnership was formed. Both facial measurements and perceptual judgements demonstrated that partners of women who used the pill during mate choice have less masculine faces than partners of women who did not use hormonal contraception at this time. Our data (A) provide the first experimental evidence that initiation of pill use in women causes changes in facial preferences and (B) documents downstream effects of these changes on real-life partner selection. Given that hormonal contraceptive use is widespread, effects of pill use on the processes of partner formation have important implications for relationship stability and may have other biologically relevant consequences.

  11. Searching for Ideal Contraceptives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djerassi, Carl

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the problem of adolescent pregnancy and focuses on improving contraception as a practical solution. Describes the advantages and disadvantages of existing methods (the condom, the pill, and the contraceptive sponge). Predicts that the development of a fundamentally new contraceptive, such as a monthly menses-inducer pill, will not occur…

  12. A Longitudinal Evaluation of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Contraception for College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Janet; Tymchyshyn, Patricia

    1992-01-01

    Assessed changes in contraceptive knowledge of 58 white female undergraduate students following computer-assisted instruction program on contraception. At six-month follow-up, students evidenced knowledge gains on duration of pill use, rationale for triphasics and biphasics, appropriate contingencies for missing two days of pill, danger signs…

  13. Molecular Biology and Prevention of Endometrial Cancer. Addendum

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    gain insight into the biologic mechanism underlying the chemopreventive effect of the oral contraceptive pill (OCP). Project 1: Objectives completed...oral contraceptive pill and hormone replacement therapy on reproductive organs. This objective has been completed and the results were submitted...protective effect of oral contraceptive (OC) therapy. Methods: 1) Oligonucleotide microarray analysis was performed on a panel of endometrial cancers

  14. Placebo Effect upon Complex Reaction Time When Hypnotic Suggestibility is Controlled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskridge, Veronica L.

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of a placebo (sugar pill) accompanied by suggestions that the pill would either (1) improve performance as a stimulant or (2) cause a deterioration in performance as a depressant when the performance in question was the subjects' complex reaction time to a light stimulus. The Harvard Group Scale of…

  15. Married Iranian Women's Knowledge, Attitude and Sense of Self-efficacy about Oral Contraceptives: Focus Group Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Peyman, Nooshin; Oakley, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Oral contraceptive pills effectiveness is lower in actual use than in clinical trials. The views of a group of married Iranian women were sought as a step toward improving the enhanced use of contraceptive pills. Methods Two focus groups of current pill users (n=13) and two focus groups of women not currently taking the pills (n=14) were held. Leaders trained facilitators; themes were identified from line-by-line analysis of transcripts. Results The majority of the participants were primary school graduates with a mean age of 34 years. Knowledge about mechanisms of action was low; some women wanted more information. Both users and non-users recognized positive and negative characteristics of contraceptive pills. For non-users, physical and emotional side-effects were the most important; and anecdotal information from their social network was more important. They tended to trust more traditional methods. For users, their own experience and more reality-based understanding of side-effects mitigated concerns about side-effects. They also felt that health clinic staff had a negative attitude toward the pills. A stronger expression of self-efficacy seemed to be associated with more positive attitudes toward oral contraceptive pills. Conclusion Although Iran has had a government-funded family planning program since 1990, and pills are the single most popular modern contraceptive method, women who take OCPs can provide important information that could increase effective health education about their use. PMID:23926515

  16. Early Impact Of The Affordable Care Act On Oral Contraceptive Cost Sharing, Discontinuation, And Nonadherence.

    PubMed

    Pace, Lydia E; Dusetzina, Stacie B; Keating, Nancy L

    2016-09-01

    The oral contraceptive pill is the contraceptive method most commonly used by US women, but inconsistent use of the pill is a contributor to high rates of unintended pregnancy. The relationship between consumer cost sharing and consistent use of the pill is not well understood, and the impact of the elimination of cost sharing for oral contraceptive pills in a mandate in the Affordable Care Act (ACA) is not yet known. We analyzed insurance claims for 635,075 women with employer-sponsored insurance who were initiating use of the pill, to examine rates of discontinuation and nonadherence, their relationship with cost sharing, and trends before and during the first year after implementation of the ACA mandate. We found that cost sharing for oral contraceptives decreased markedly following implementation, more significantly for generic than for brand-name versions. Higher copays were associated with greater discontinuation of and nonadherence to generic pills than was the case with zero copayments. Discontinuation of the use of generic or brand-name pills decreased slightly but significantly following ACA implementation, as did nonadherence to brand-name pills. Our findings suggest a modest early impact of the ACA on improving consistent use of oral contraceptives among women initiating their use.

  17. Passive Detection of Misbehaving Name Servers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    CIALIS|VIAGRA|MEDIC|PATIENT| PILL | DIET |CLINIC|NURSING| LEVITRA|WELNESS” was labeled as pharma-related. These strings were selected according to human...domain names. In Figure 3, any NS domain name that contained one of the strings “HEALTH|PHARM|HOSPITAL|DRUG|PRESCRIPTION| PILLS |WELLNESS|TABLET|MEDS|RX

  18. EFFECTS OF ETHINYL ESTRADIOL EXPOSURE ON REPRODUCTION IN AN ESTUARINE FISH TAUTOGLABRUS ADSPERSUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural estrogen levels in women are routinely supplemented by potent pharmaceutical estrogens through use of birth control pills and hormone therapy. Excess estrogen is excreted by these women. Currently, about seventeen percent of women in the US use birth control pills and som...

  19. Weck Ed. Weck Educational Development Program. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplin, Jennifer; And Others

    This document includes a final performance report and evaluation report from the Weck Ed program, through which job-linked adult basic education and General Educational Development (GED) test preparation courses that were jointly developed by the company Pilling Weck and Durham Technical Community College were offered to Pilling Weck employees on…

  20. NRH Neuroscience Research Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    substance in question or a nonactive placebo sugar of psychoanalysis . Surgeons struggle with creating pill. The whole patient experience is rigorously...placebo sugar of psychoanalysis . Surgeons struggle with creating pill. The whole patient experience is rigorously sham interventions,41" and a lot of

  1. A Study to Determine the Nature, If Any, of the Differences in Physician Assistants’ Perceptions, Their Training, and Their Utilization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    catheterization prescribing birth control pills prescribing narcotics treating hypertension delivering babies treating post surgical cases assisting in surgery...catheterization -3 prescribing birth control 1;i 11 -4 treating victims of poisoning -5 doing physical exams for nuclear surety -6 prescribing narcotics -7...narrative summaries. o__ physica, exams for reieet o.. do urinary tract catheterization. administer local anesthesia. prescribe birth control pills

  2. Biotelemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mundt, C.

    1999-01-01

    Sensors 2000! is developing pill-shaped biotelemeters for measuring physiological parameters during space flight life sciences experiments using rodents aboard the ISS Gravitational Biology Facility, with the additional capability for monitoring the health of astronauts in the Human Research Facility. The first "pill transmitter" is capable of measuring pressure and temperature for up to 10 months. The NASA objective is to utilize these devices. The pill-transmitters can also be used by non-NASA users for medical applications. One application is fetal surgery. The 44pill" is small enough to be endoscopically placed into the womb through a tube used during surgeries to correct fetal defects before birth. After surgery, the pill-transmitter will continue to monitor body temperature, pressure and other vital signs in the womb, radioing results to physicians. It will help them to detect preterm-labor, a serious problem after fetal surgery. The pill is about one-third-of-an-inch across and one-and-one-third-inches long. Future pill-versions will include pH, heartrate, and ECG. A pH-pill prototype is currently being tested. Sensors 2000! has also designed and built a 2-channel biotelemetry receiver and has developed data acquisition software to display and record the measured physiological parameters. A DSP-base hand-held receiver (trisponder) is currently under development.

  3. The Menstrual Cycle and Response to Erotic Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Paul R.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This study focuses upon the relationship between phase of the menstrual cycle and sexual arousability. Women (N=133) participated in an experiment that induced sexual arousal by means of an erotic story. Independent factors were use of contraceptive pills versus no contraceptive pills and phase of the menstrual cycle. (Author)

  4. "Sunday-start" OC regimen popular but may pose risk.

    PubMed

    1991-03-01

    There is a controversy over the effectiveness of the "Sunday-Start" oral contraceptive packaging. Some clinicians believe that the Sunday-start pills are dangerously ineffective because up to 6 days after menses can elapse before a new packet is started. This is particularly risky for women beginning orals, or switching from a combined pill to a new triphasic. These clinicians consider them merely a successful marketing strategy. Most physicians consider the Sunday-start pills more effective because of improved compliance. The reasons cited are that women are too confused to remember to start pill packets on odd days, and that they like having their menses occur on weekdays. Arguments on this side are studies showing that the length of the pill-free interval does not affect the efficacy of that cycle. There are not data to resolve this debate other than a report from Ortho Pharmaceuticals that women prefer Sunday-start 3:1.

  5. A less stressful alternative to oral gavage for pharmacological and toxicological studies in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Mary K.; Boberg, Jason R.; Walsh, Mary T.; Wolf, Valerie; Trujillo, Alisha; Duke, Melissa Skelton; Palme, Rupert

    2012-04-01

    Oral gavage dosing can induce stress and potentially confound experimental measurements, particularly when blood pressure and heart rate are endpoints of interest. Thus, we developed a pill formulation that mice would voluntarily consume and tested the hypothesis that pill dosing would be significantly less stressful than oral gavage. C57Bl/6 male mice were singly housed and on four consecutive days were exposed to an individual walking into the room (week 1, control), a pill being placed into the cage (week 2), and a dose of water via oral gavage (week 3). Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded by radiotelemetry continuously for 5 h after treatment, and feces collected 6–10 h after treatment for analysis of corticosterone metabolites. Both pill and gavage dosing significantly increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) during the first hour, compared to control. However, the increase in MAP was significantly greater after gavage and remained elevated up to 5 h, while MAP returned to normal within 2 h after a pill. Neither pill nor gavage dosing significantly increased heart rate during the first hour, compared to control; however, pill dosing significantly reduced heart rate while gavage significantly increased heart rate 2–5 h post dosing. MAP and heart rate did not differ 24 h after dosing. Lastly, only gavage dosing significantly increased fecal corticosterone metabolites, indicating a systemic stress response via activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. These data demonstrated that this pill dosing method of mice is significantly less stressful than oral gavage. -- Highlights: ► Developed a novel oral dosing method using a pill that mice will readily consume. ► Assessed stress by blood pressure, heart rate, and fecal corticosterone metabolites. ► Demonstrated that pill dosing is significantly less stressful than oral gavage.

  6. Biotelemeters for Space Flights and Fetal Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mundt, Carsten W.; Ricks, Robert D.; Hines, John W.

    1999-01-01

    Pill-shaped biotelemeters originally designed for space flight applications will soon be used for monitoring the health of a fetus during and after in-utero fetal surgery. The authors developed a family of biotelemeters that are not only small enough for rodent studies on board the space shuttle or international space station, but also fit through a 10 mm trocar, a plastic tube that is used in endoscopic fetal surgery to obtain minimally invasive access to the fetus. The first 'pill' measures pressure and temperature, and is currently undergoing long-term leakage and biocompatibility tests. A second pill under development measures pH and temperature. A prototype of the 'pH-pill' has been built and successfully tested and is presently being miniaturized into the same dimensions as the 'pressure pill'. Additional pills measuring heart rate, ECG, other ions such as calcium and potassium, and eventually glucose and blood gases, will follow. All pills are designed for ultra-low power consumption yielding lifetimes of up to 10 months in order to meet the requirements of fetal monitoring, but also to provide the capability of long-term space station experiments. Each pill transmits its pulse-interval-modulated signal on a unique carrier frequency in the frequency range of 174-216MHz. A custom-designed multi-channel receiver demodulates and decodes each pill signal and sends the data to a LabVIEW program that performs real-time data analysis and display. A patent for the pill family and its data analysis system is pending.

  7. Fixed-dose triple-combination treatments in the management of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ram, C Venkata S

    2013-12-01

    Hypertension remains uncontrolled in approximately 50% of patients with hypertension, which increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in these individuals. A key factor contributing to poor blood pressure (BP) control is nonadherence to prescribed antihypertensive medications. Improving patient adherence to antihypertensive therapy is the key to improving BP goal attainment. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) recommend a stepwise treatment algorithm for patients with stage 1 hypertension, with initial treatment consisting of a single antihypertensive drug. For most patients, however, combinations of 2 or more antihypertensive agents are necessary for adequate BP control. Antihypertensive regimens that combine agents from different antihypertensive drug classes can facilitate attainment of BP goals and improve cardiovascular outcomes at lower drug doses compared with monotherapy. Patient adherence to antihypertensive therapy decreases with increasing number of pills in multiple pill regimens, but fixed-dose triple-combination treatments for hypertension provide a tool for addressing patient nonadherence associated with pill burden. For patients whose antihypertensive therapy includes multiple medications, the use of a single-pill, fixed-dose combination therapy can significantly improve compliance and thereby help patients achieve BP goals. In addition, single-pill combinations may reduce health care utilization and medical costs compared with multiple single-pill therapies. The purpose of this article is to review the role of novel single-pill, fixed-dose, triple-combination treatments for modern hypertension management.

  8. Treatment adherence, clinical outcomes, and economics of triple-drug therapy in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Panjabi, Sumeet; Lacey, Michael; Bancroft, Timothy; Cao, Felix

    2013-01-01

    Poor antihypertensive treatment adherence adversely affects blood pressure control. We analyzed US health plan data to assess the impact of fixed- versus loose-dose triple-combination therapy on adherence, clinical, and economic outcomes. Patients initiating triple therapy with an angiotensin receptor blocker, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, or beta blocker plus amlodipine and hydrochlorothiazide comprised three cohorts. Within-cohort comparisons were made between fixed-dose combinations of two antihypertensives plus a second pill (two pills) or three separate pills. Outcomes included adherence, cardiovascular events, health care resource use, and costs for patients with ≥ 12 months follow-up. A total of 16,290 patients were matched. Patients receiving two pills were more likely to be adherent (P < .001) and less likely to discontinue treatment (P < .001) across all cohorts. Therapy with two versus three pills resulted in significantly lower adjusted risk of cardiovascular events (hazard ratio = 0.76, P = .005) in the beta blocker cohort only. Total adjusted health care costs were significantly lower for two- versus three-pill therapy in the beta blocker cohort only (cost ratio = 0.74 overall, P < .01; 0.71 hypertension-attributable, P < .01). In patients with hypertension requiring triple therapy, fixed-dose combinations that lower pill burden may improve adherence (seen across all cohorts) and clinical outcomes (seen in the beta blocker cohort) without increasing health care costs.

  9. Comparing the effects of the second-and third-generation oral contraceptives on sexual functioning

    PubMed Central

    Shahnazi, Mahnaz; Bayatipayan, Somaye; Khalili, Azizeh Farshbaf; Kochaksaraei, Fatemeh Ranjbar; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari; Banoi, Kamala Gaza; Nahaee, Jila

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the second- and third-generation oral contraceptives on women's reproductive sexual function. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 82 married women of reproductive age in Tehran. Samples were randomized into the groups receiving second- and third-generation oral contraceptive pills. Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) tool was used before the intervention and 2 and 4 months after the intervention. Data analysis was carried out using analysis of variance (ANOVA) within repeated measures and P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the positive and negative moods between the experimental and control groups before the intervention in the second and fourth months. The second-generation pills caused a decrease in sexual function in the second month and an increase in sexual function in the fourth month, but the third-generation pills led to an increase in sexual function in the second and fourth months. The increase in sexual function that resulted from using the third-generation pills was significantly higher than that resulted on using the second-generation pills. Conclusions: According to the results of this study, sexual functioning decreased in the second month of using the second-generation pills and sexual performance was significantly more on using the third-generation pills compared to second-generation pills. The most common type of oral contraceptive used in Iran is the second-generation oral contraceptive LD™ (low-dose estrogen), which is freely distributed in health centers. Therefore, it is necessary for women who wish to use these contraceptive methods to be educated and consulted before they start using them. The third-generation contraceptive pills can be recommended to women who wish to use oral contraceptives. PMID:25709690

  10. Evidence that treatment with monophasic oral contraceptive formulations containing ethinylestradiol plus gestodene reduces bone resorption in young women.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, A M; Orrù, M; Floris, S; Mannias, M; Vacca, A M; Ajossa, S; Guerriero, S; Melis, G B

    2000-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate if a pill containing the same dose of the same type of progestin compound (gestodene, GES, 75 microg) but different doses of ethinylestradiol (EE2) (20 or 30 microg) differently influences specific markers of bone resorption (urinary levels of pyridinoline (PYR) and dexoxypyridinoline (D-PYR)). During the 12 months of the study a significant decrease of urinary levels of PYR and D-PYR was found in 2 groups of young post-adolescent women taking the pills with 20 and 30 microg of EE2 in comparison with control women (subjects of the same age group with normal menstrual cycle who did not use contraception). In women taking pills with 20 or 30 microg EE2, the levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) significantly increased during treatment in comparison with baseline, whereas in the same time period no changes occurred in control women. These findings suggest that similar to the pill containing 30 microg EE2, the lower dosage of the EE2 pill (20 microg) is also capable of reducing bone resorption. Twenty and 30 microg EE2 pills exert the same biological estrogenic effect. In fact, SHBG levels significantly increased with both pills. However, an additional effect of the progestin compound that could act directly on progestin or estrogen receptors of bone cannot be excluded. Since contraception with a pill containing the lowest estrogen dose is associated with the lowest incidence of side effects, these findings further suggest a pill containing 20 microg EE2 for young post-adolescent women would be the best choice.

  11. Research on structural design and test technologies for a three-chamber launching device.

    PubMed

    Jun, Wu; Qiushi, Yan; Ling, Xiao; Tieshuan, Zhuang; Chengyu, Yang

    2016-07-01

    A three-chamber launching device with improved acceleration is proposed and developed. As indicated by the damage generated during the pill and engineering protection tests, the proposed device is applicable as a high-speed launching platform for pills of different shapes and quality levels. Specifically, it can be used to investigate kinetic energy weapons and their highly destructive effects due to the resulting large bomb fragments. In the horizontal direction of the barrel, two auxiliary chambers are set at a certain distance from the main chamber. When the pill reaches the mouth of the auxiliary chambers, the charges in the auxiliary chambers are ignited by the high-temperature, high-pressure combustible gas trailing the pill. The combustible gas in the auxiliary chambers can resist the rear pressure of the pill and thus maintain the high pressure of the pill base. In this way, the required secondary acceleration of the pill is met. The proposed device features the advantage of launching a pill with high initial velocity under low bore pressure. Key techniques are proposed in the design of the device to address the problems related to the angle between the main chamber axis and the ancillary chamber axis, the overall design of a three-chamber barrel, the structural design of auxiliary propellant charge, the high-pressure combustible gas sealing technology, and the sabot and belt design. Results from the launching test verify the reasonable design of this device and its reliable structural sealing. Additionally, the stiffness and the strength of the barrel meet design requirements. Compared with the single-chamber launching device with the same caliber, the proposed device increases the average launching velocity by approximately 15% and the amount of muzzle kinetic energy by approximately 35%. Therefore, this equipment is capable of carrying out small-caliber, high-speed pill firing tests.

  12. Research on structural design and test technologies for a three-chamber launching device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Wu; Qiushi, Yan; Ling, Xiao; Tieshuan, Zhuang; Chengyu, Yang

    2016-07-01

    A three-chamber launching device with improved acceleration is proposed and developed. As indicated by the damage generated during the pill and engineering protection tests, the proposed device is applicable as a high-speed launching platform for pills of different shapes and quality levels. Specifically, it can be used to investigate kinetic energy weapons and their highly destructive effects due to the resulting large bomb fragments. In the horizontal direction of the barrel, two auxiliary chambers are set at a certain distance from the main chamber. When the pill reaches the mouth of the auxiliary chambers, the charges in the auxiliary chambers are ignited by the high-temperature, high-pressure combustible gas trailing the pill. The combustible gas in the auxiliary chambers can resist the rear pressure of the pill and thus maintain the high pressure of the pill base. In this way, the required secondary acceleration of the pill is met. The proposed device features the advantage of launching a pill with high initial velocity under low bore pressure. Key techniques are proposed in the design of the device to address the problems related to the angle between the main chamber axis and the ancillary chamber axis, the overall design of a three-chamber barrel, the structural design of auxiliary propellant charge, the high-pressure combustible gas sealing technology, and the sabot and belt design. Results from the launching test verify the reasonable design of this device and its reliable structural sealing. Additionally, the stiffness and the strength of the barrel meet design requirements. Compared with the single-chamber launching device with the same caliber, the proposed device increases the average launching velocity by approximately 15% and the amount of muzzle kinetic energy by approximately 35%. Therefore, this equipment is capable of carrying out small-caliber, high-speed pill firing tests.

  13. The Opt-In Revolution? Contraception and the Gender Gap in Wages.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Martha J; Hershbein, Brad; Miller, Amalia R

    2012-07-01

    Decades of research on the US gender gap in wages describes its correlates, but little is known about why women changed their career paths in the 1960s and 1970s. This paper explores the role of "the Pill" in altering women's human capital investments and its ultimate implications for life-cycle wages. Using state-by-birth-cohort variation in legal access, we show that younger access to the Pill conferred an 8 percent hourly wage premium by age 50. Our estimates imply that the Pill can account for 10 percent of the convergence of the gender gap in the 1980s and 30 percent in the 1990s.

  14. The Emerging Threat of Illicit Drug Funding of Terrorist Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    military planner familiar with the terrorist threat, “ Bugs and Drugs are the wave of the future.”56 “The Communist trafficking operation began...sold as Dexedrine, as a “fatigue management tool,” with pilots commonly referring to them as “go pills .” “ B-1 pilots like Col. Robert Gass take the... pills to help stay alert on long missions. “During mission planning, we plan when we are going to take these pills , and its based on what we’re doing

  15. Mifepristone (Mifeprex)

    MedlinePlus

    ... steroids. It works by blocking the activity of progesterone, a substance your body makes to help continue ... after pill'); to treat tumors of the brain, endometriosis (growth of uterus tissue outside the uterus), or ...

  16. Male pattern baldness

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss returns when you stop using this medicine. Finasteride (Propecia, Proscar), a pill that interferes with the ... stop using this medicine. Dutasteride is similar to finasteride, but may be more effective. Hair transplants consist ...

  17. Psoriasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... form seems to be linked to strep infections. Inverse. Skin redness and irritation occur in the armpits, ... The goal of treatment is to control your symptoms and prevent infection. ... and shampoos. These are called topical treatments. Pills ...

  18. Osteoporosis Treatment: Medications Can Help

    MedlinePlus

    ... prescribed amount of medication Stopping the pills Two infusion medications — those that are injected directly into your ... some people to schedule a quarterly or yearly infusion than to remember to take a weekly or ...

  19. Study Tracks Bleeding Risk from Common Blood Thinners

    MedlinePlus

    ... as vitamin K antagonists (which includes Coumadin/warfarin); clopidogrel (Plavix); or other blood-thinning medications. Low-dose ... risk of the subdural hematoma bleed; use of clopidogrel plus a second blood-thinning pill was associated ...

  20. Tailored Barium Swallow Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... Esophagoscopy Gastroscopy Duodenoscopy (EGD) Hydrogen/Methane Breath Test Impedance and pH Study for Children Patency Test with Agile™ Patency Capsule Pediatric Endoscopy Impedance and pH Probe Study for Adults PillCam Small ...