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  1. Birth control pills - combination

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000655.htm Birth control pills - combination To use the sharing features on ... contain both progestin and estrogen. What Are Combination Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you from ...

  2. Birth Control Pill

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Pill KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Pill Print A A A What's in this ... español La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a daily ...

  3. Birth Control Pill

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Birth Control Pill KidsHealth > For Teens > Birth Control Pill A A A What's in this article? ... español La píldora anticonceptiva What Is It? The birth control pill (also called "the Pill") is a daily ...

  4. Morning-After Pill

    MedlinePlus

    ... morning-after pill is a type of emergency birth control (contraception). The purpose of emergency contraception is to ... woman has had unprotected sex or after her birth control method has failed. The morning-after pill is ...

  5. Birth control pill - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100108.htm Birth control pill - series—Normal female anatomy To use the ... to produce a successful pregnancy. To prevent pregnancy, birth control pills affect how these organs normally function. Review ...

  6. Birth control pills overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002599.htm Birth control pill overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Birth control pills, also called oral contraceptives, are prescription medicines ...

  7. Oral Contraceptive Pill and PCOS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health PCOS: The Oral Contraceptive Pill Posted under Health Guides . ... of oral contraceptive pills for young women with PCOS? Regular and Lighter Periods: Oral contraceptive pills can ...

  8. Birth control pills - progestin only

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000656.htm Birth control pills - progestin only To use the sharing features ... have estrogen in them. What Are Progestin Only Birth Control Pills? Birth control pills help keep you from ...

  9. Localization of magnetic pills

    PubMed Central

    Laulicht, Bryan; Gidmark, Nicholas J.; Tripathi, Anubhav; Mathiowitz, Edith

    2011-01-01

    Numerous therapeutics demonstrate optimal absorption or activity at specific sites in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Yet, safe, effective pill retention within a desired region of the GI remains an elusive goal. We report a safe, effective method for localizing magnetic pills. To ensure safety and efficacy, we monitor and regulate attractive forces between a magnetic pill and an external magnet, while visualizing internal dose motion in real time using biplanar videofluoroscopy. Real-time monitoring yields direct visual confirmation of localization completely noninvasively, providing a platform for investigating the therapeutic benefits imparted by localized oral delivery of new and existing drugs. Additionally, we report the in vitro measurements and calculations that enabled prediction of successful magnetic localization in the rat small intestines for 12 h. The designed system for predicting and achieving successful magnetic localization can readily be applied to any area of the GI tract within any species, including humans. The described system represents a significant step forward in the ability to localize magnetic pills safely and effectively anywhere within the GI tract. What our magnetic pill localization strategy adds to the state of the art, if used as an oral drug delivery system, is the ability to monitor the force exerted by the pill on the tissue and to locate the magnetic pill within the test subject all in real time. This advance ensures both safety and efficacy of magnetic localization during the potential oral administration of any magnetic pill-based delivery system. PMID:21257903

  10. Progestogen-only pills.

    PubMed

    2015-05-27

    Essential facts Oral contraception remains the most popular method of birth control for a majority of women in the UK. According to a 2012/13 report by the Health and Social Care Information Centre, it was chosen by 47% of women attending NHS community contraceptive clinics in England. An Office of National Statistics survey of 2008/09 shows that of the three quarters of UK women aged up to 49 using contraception, a third were prescribed the contraceptive pill. Of these, 6% used progestogen-only pills, also known as the mini-pill or POP.

  11. Pill counts and pill rental: unintended entrepreneurial opportunities.

    PubMed

    Viscomi, Christopher M; Covington, Melissa; Christenson, Catherine

    2013-07-01

    Prescription opioid diversion and abuse are becoming increasingly prevalent in many regions of the world, particularly the United States. One method advocated to assess compliance with opioid prescriptions is occasional "pill counts." Shortly before a scheduled appointment, a patient is notified that they must bring in the unused portion of their opioid prescription. It has been assumed that if a patient has the correct number and strength of pills that should be present for that point in a prescription interval that they are unlikely to be selling or abusing their opioids. Two cases are presented where patients describe short term rental of opioids from illicit opioid dealers in order to circumvent pill counts. Pill renting appears to be an established method of circumventing pill counts. Pill counts do not assure non-diversion of opioids and provide additional cash flow to illicit opioid dealers.

  12. Safe pill-dispensing.

    PubMed

    Testa, Massimiliano; Pollard, John

    2007-01-01

    Each patient is supplied with a smart-card containing a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) chip storing a unique identification code. The patient places the Smart-card on a pill-dispenser unit containing an RFID reader. The RFID chip is read and the code sent to a Base-station via a wireless Bluetooth link. A database containing both patient details and treatment information is queried at the Base-station using the RFID as the search key. The patient's treatment data (i.e., drug names, quantities, time, etc.) are retrieved and sent back to the pill-dispenser unit via Bluetooth. Appropriate quantities of the required medications are automatically dispensed, unless the patient has already taken his/her daily dose. Safe, confidential communication and operation is ensured.

  13. Thrombosis and the Pill.

    PubMed

    Vessey, M P

    1970-02-01

    The results of 3 British and 1 American investigation of the risk of thromboembolism among women using oral contraceptives are reviewed. 1 British study conducted among general practitioners found the risk of developing superficial thrombophlebitis about 3 times greater among pill users. Neither of 2 other studies, in which hospital admissions and fatalities were analyzed, found any significant link between oral contraceptives and coronary thrombosis, but both indicated a 6 to 8-fold increase in risks of venous thromboembolism and of cerebral thrombosis. The findings of the American study were similar. None of the 4 studies discovered any evidence that the thromboembolic risk is greater early in the course of medication or, that it increases with duration of use. The American study obtained some evidence that sequential preparations might be more harmful than combined ones. The British Committee on Safety of Drugs has since determined, on the basis of analysis of routinely submitted reports of suspected adverse reactions, that the thromboembolic risk is higher with pills containing 75 mcg or more of estrogen than among those containing only 50 mcg. For the woman, who for any reason finds oral contraception to be the only satisfactory method of birth control, the risks may be considered acceptable provided medical supervision is adequate. Use of the pill entails other known major hazards (jaundice, hypertension) and knowledge of the longterm effects is very incomplete. Substantial evidence suggests that the estrogenic component of combined and sequential pills is responsible for the thromboembolic risks. The greater risks of pregnancy and menstrual disturbances accompanying progestogen-only oral contraceptives may limit their advantages.

  14. Medical Uses of the Birth Control Pill

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Medical Uses of the Birth Control Pill Posted under Health Guides . Updated 2 June ... kinds of medical conditions can be helped with birth control pills? Birth control pills are used to treat ...

  15. Extended-cycle oral contraceptive pills with 10 microg ethinyl estradiol pills in place of placebo pills.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Anita L

    2007-09-01

    The elimination of monthly withdrawal bleeding with use of extended-cycle (84 pills) monophasic birth-control pills has modernized oral contraceptives. The use of ethinyl estradiol 10 microg pills in place of the seven placebo pills addresses the problems posed by 21/7 formulations of low-dose birth-control pills, which allow early stimulation of ovarian follicles, and of the early 84/7 formulations, which had higher rates of unscheduled bleeding and spotting.

  16. Choosing a combined oral contraceptive pill

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Mary; Black, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Summary The combined oral contraceptive pill is an effective contraceptive method which can also offer other benefits. However, other contraceptive options should be discussed. If the pill is the chosen method, prescribe a pill with the lowest effective dose of oestrogen and progestogen. Pills containing levonorgestrel or norethisterone in combination with ethinyloestradiol 35 microgram or less are considered first-line. They are effective if taken correctly, have a relatively low risk of venous thromboembolism, and are listed on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. The pill is usually taken in a monthly cycle. Some women may prefer an extended pill regimen with fewer or no inactive pills. PMID:26648603

  17. Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Medications Quick-Relief Medications Oral Steroids Oral Steroids Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer Patient ... Want to learn more about steroids? How are steroid pills and syrups used? Steroid pills and syrups ...

  18. Herbal Weight Loss Pill Overdose: Sibutramine Hidden in Pepper Pill

    PubMed Central

    Pamukcu Gunaydin, Gul; Dogan, Nurettin Ozgur; Levent, Sevcan; Kurtoglu Celik, Gulhan

    2015-01-01

    Supposedly herbal weight loss pills are sold online and are widely used in the world. Some of these products are found to contain sibutramine by FDA and their sale is prohibited. We report a case of a female patient who presented to the emergency department after taking slimming pills. 17-year-old female patient presented to the emergency room with palpitations, dizziness, anxiety, and insomnia. She stated that she had taken 3 pills named La Jiao Shou Shen for slimming purposes during the day. Her vital signs revealed tachycardia. On her physical examination, she was restless, her oropharynx was dry, her pupils were mydriatic, and no other pathological findings were found. Sibutramine intoxication was suspected. She was given 5 mg IV diazepam for restlessness. After supportive therapy and observation in emergency department for 12 hours there were no complications and the patient was discharged home. Some herbal pills that are sold online for weight loss have sibutramine hidden as an active ingredient, and their sale is prohibited for this reason. For people who use herbal weight loss drugs, sibutramine excessive intake should be kept in mind at all times. PMID:25861489

  19. An update on the pill.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    The discussion traces the development of the oral contraceptive (OC) pill and presents the most recent medical findings on OC and its effects. In 1959 the 1st combined OC, Enovid, was officially approved for use in the US after clinical trials in Los Angeles and Puerto Rico. By 1975, OCs were being used in the US by more than 1/3 of married women who practiced family planning and by an even higher percentage of unmarried contraceptive users. Retail pharmacy sales of OCs have declined by 40% during the 1975-79 period. The major reason given for the decline was the side effects or fear of side effects arising from OC use. Many OCs are available today because of an increasing variety of chemical combinations and the rapid increase in product names, according to "Oral Contraceptives: A Guide for Programs and Clinics," a Pathfinder Fund handbook. The authors classified OCs into 2 general groups -- combined pills and the mini-pills. OCs used in the combined preparation each contain 2 synthetic hormones -- estrogen and progestin. The combined OC is 99% effective when taken properly. The most popular belief now is that OCs act by interfering with the normal menstrual cycle. The mini-pills, which contain small doses of synthetic progestins, have a contraceptive effect by altering the cervical mucus and by altering the lining of the womb or endometrium. Absolute, strong relative, and other relative contraindications to pill use are listed. Side effects that are possibly life threatening include blood clots in the legs, pelvis (lower abdomen), lungs, heart, or brain. Women OC users over 40 have a higher risk of heart attack than younger users, and users over 40 who smoke have the highest risk of heart attack. Benign tumors of the liver, which have been found to be more common in women who use OCs, may cause rupture of the capsule of the liver, extensive bleeding, and even death. Rare tumors of the liver, hepatocelluar adenomas, are more likely to occur in long term OC users

  20. Contraceptive pills and acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, T N; Mital, H S; Gupta, S K

    1981-06-01

    This article reports a case of acute pancreatitis in a patient taking the oral contraceptive pill. A 32 year old mother had been on combined contraceptive pills since 1975. In 1978 she started having upper abdominal and retrosternal pain. She became critically ill with peripheral circulatory collapse, dyspnoea and cyanosis. A superficial thrombophlebitis was noted on the medial aspect of the right thigh. The diagnosis of pancreatitis was considered with history of recurrent abdominal pain. After several tests and supportive therapy (intravenous fluids, antibiotics, steriods), the woman started showing improvements in 48 hours and recovered in 10 days. This case differs from previously described cases in that the cholesterol and triglyceride levels were normal. The hypoglycemia has not been described previously.

  1. "Pills" relative safety gains further support.

    PubMed

    1969-02-17

    A symposium held in 1969 in Palm Springs, California on the current status of research and patient care in the field of oral contraceptives reviewed the relationship of the pill and various physiological complications. Alterations of blood coagulate factors were noted to occur in pill users, but women consuming progesterone-only pills did not show these changes. Other complications have stimulated study in areas of bile secretion, thyroid and pituitary function, and calcium metabolism in relation to the intake of orals.

  2. Introduction of the pill and its impact.

    PubMed

    Tyrer, L

    1999-01-01

    Introduction of the birth control pill in the United States in 1960 marked the end of a relatively short period of time (< 10 years) to intentionally produce an oral contraceptive, and the beginning of a relatively long period of controversy surrounding the use of the pill. Availability of the pill had an impact on various aspects of social life, including women's health, fertility trends, laws and policies, religion, interpersonal relationships and family roles, feminist issues, and gender relations, as well as sexual practices among both adults and adolescents. The pill proved to be highly effective from the outset. Although safety issues developed with the earlier formulations, continued evolution of pill hormones and doses has resulted in a greatly improved and safe oral contraceptive. A broad range of noncontraceptive health benefits also is associated with the pill. These health effects are significant, as they include protection against potentially fatal diseases, including ovarian and endometrial cancers, as well as against other conditions that are associated with substantial morbidity and potential hospitalization and associated costs. The popularity of the pill has remained high, with rates of use in the past 30 years in the United States ranging from one-quarter to almost one-third of women using contraception. Almost 40 years after its introduction, the pill's contraceptive efficacy is proven, its improved safety has been established, and the focus has shifted from supposed health risks to documented and real health benefits.

  3. Patient understanding of oral contraceptive pill instructions related to missed pills: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Lauren B; Steenland, Maria W; Brahmi, Dalia; Marchbanks, Polly A; Curtis, Kathryn M

    2013-05-01

    Instructions on what to do after pills are missed are critical to reducing unintended pregnancies resulting from patient non-adherence to oral contraceptive (OC) regimens. Missed pill instructions have previously been criticized for being too complex, lacking a definition of what is meant by "missed pills," and for being confusing to women who may not know the estrogen content of their formulation. To help inform the development of missed pill guidance to be included in the forthcoming US Selected Practice Recommendations, the objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence on patient understanding of missed pill instructions. We searched the PubMed database for peer-reviewed articles that examined patient understanding of OC pill instructions that were published in any language from inception of the database through March 2012. We included studies that examined women's knowledge and understanding of missed pill instructions after exposure to some written material (e.g., patient package insert, brochure), as well as studies that compared different types of missed pill instructions on women's comprehension. We used standard abstract forms and grading systems to summarize and assess the quality of the evidence. From 1620 articles, nine studies met our inclusion criteria. Evidence from one randomized controlled trial (RCT) and two descriptive studies found that more women knew what to do after missing 1 pill than after missing 2 or 3 pills (Level I, good, to Level II-3, poor), and two descriptive studies found that more women knew what to do after missing 2 pills than after missing 3 pills (Level II-3, fair). Data from two descriptive studies documented the difficulty women have understanding missed pill instructions contained in patient package inserts (Level II-3, poor), and evidence from two RCTs found that providing written brochures with information on missed pill instructions in addition to contraceptive counseling significantly improved

  4. Parental love pills: some ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Liao, S Matthew

    2011-11-01

    It may soon be possible to develop pills that allow parents to induce in themselves more loving behaviour, attitudes and emotions towards their children. In this paper, I consider whether pharmacologically induced parental love can satisfy reasonable conditions of authenticity; why anyone would be interested in taking such parental love pills at all, and whether inducing parental love pharmacologically promotes narcissism or results in self-instrumentalization. I also examine how the availability of such pills may affect the duty to love a child.

  5. The story of the pill.

    PubMed

    Davis, K S

    1978-01-01

    A 1951 meeting between feminist Margaret Sanger, philanthropist Katherine McCormick and biologist Dr. G.G. Pincus is described as the beginning of the project which was to culminate in the development of the oral contraceptive. The stories of the lives of the 3 participants are told. Dr. Pincus' field, endocrinology and mammalian reproduction, is explained in general terms for the lay reader. The results of early experimental work on mammalian sex hormones are described, as are some of the early problems in manufacturing synthetic estrogen and progesterone. Pincus' career is outlined, beginning at the time of his brief appointment at Harvard University in 1930-36. Notes on related work done by other scientists in this period are interspersed with the biographical sketches. The work of Dr. John Rock on induction of pregnancy through administration of estrogen and progesterone is described, with reference to Pincus' work. Pincus' search for an inexpensive progesterone which would be effective when taken orally is described, with a tangential story of how diosgenin was produced in Mexico. Pincus' bold declaration to the general public that the development of a safe oral contraceptive would be soon attained enabled him to obtain funding for conducting field trials. Results of field trials in Puerto Rico and subsequent changes in the pill are discussed. The possible consequences of use of a technology developed from a primitive science are discussed, as is the attitude of Puerto Rican and Haitian women who were willing to take the risks explained to them in order to avoid future pregnancy. Popular controversies over the pill in the USA in the 1960s and 1970s are described.

  6. The Return of Rainbow Diet Pills

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Pieter A.; Goday, Alberto; Swann, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently warned consumers about the risks of weight loss supplements adulterated with multiple pharmaceutical agents. Some of these supplements combine potent anorectics, such as amphetamines derivatives, with benzodiazepines, beta-blockers, and other medications to suppress the anorectics’ adverse effects. These weight loss supplements represent the most recent generation of rainbow diet pills, named for their bright and varied colors, which date back more than 70 years. Beginning in the 1940s, several US pharmaceutical firms aggressively promoted rainbow pills to physicians and patients. By the 1960s the pills had caused dozens of deaths before the FDA began removing them from the US market. We used a variety of original resources to trace these deadly pills from their origins in the United States to their popularity in Spain and Brazil to their reintroduction to the United States as weight loss dietary supplements. PMID:22813089

  7. The return of rainbow diet pills.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Pieter A; Goday, Alberto; Swann, John P

    2012-09-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently warned consumers about the risks of weight loss supplements adulterated with multiple pharmaceutical agents. Some of these supplements combine potent anorectics, such as amphetamines derivatives, with benzodiazepines, beta-blockers, and other medications to suppress the anorectics' adverse effects. These weight loss supplements represent the most recent generation of rainbow diet pills, named for their bright and varied colors, which date back more than 70 years. Beginning in the 1940s, several US pharmaceutical firms aggressively promoted rainbow pills to physicians and patients. By the 1960s the pills had caused dozens of deaths before the FDA began removing them from the US market. We used a variety of original resources to trace these deadly pills from their origins in the United States to their popularity in Spain and Brazil to their reintroduction to the United States as weight loss dietary supplements.

  8. The risks of oral contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Pymar, H C; Creinin, M D

    2001-12-01

    Oral contraceptive pills have been associated with increased risk for myocardial infarction, stroke, and venous thromboembolism. Studies have been published recently that suggest that these risks are minimal in appropriately chosen low-risk women. Stroke is a very uncommon event in childbearing women, occurring in approximately 11 per 100,000 women over 1 year. Thus, even a doubling of this risk with oral contraceptive pills would have minimal effect on attributable risk. The estimated risk of myocardial infarction associated with oral contraceptive pill use in nonsmokers is 3 per million women over 1 year. The estimated risk of venous thromboembolism attributable to oral contraceptive pills is less than 3 per 10,000 women per year. Additionally, the literature suggests that there may be an increased risk of breast cancer associated with long-term oral contraceptive pill use in women under the age of 35. However, because the incidence of breast cancer is so low in this population, the attributable risk of breast cancer from birth control pill use is small.

  9. Fabric pilling measurement using three-dimensional image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Wenbin; Wang, Rongwu; Xu, Bugao

    2013-10-01

    We introduce a stereovision system and the three-dimensional (3-D) image analysis algorithms for fabric pilling measurement. Based on the depth information available in the 3-D image, the pilling detection process starts from the seed searching at local depth maxima to the region growing around the selected seeds using both depth and distance criteria. After the pilling detection, the density, height, and area of individual pills in the image can be extracted to describe the pilling appearance. According to the multivariate regression analysis on the 3-D images of 30 cotton fabrics treated by the random-tumble and home-laundering machines, the pilling grade is highly correlated with the pilling density (R=0.923) but does not consistently change with the pilling height and area. The pilling densities measured from the 3-D images also correlate well with those counted manually from the samples (R=0.985).

  10. Radio pill antenna range test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, W. F.; Kane, R. J.

    1992-05-01

    In order to investigate the potential of a proposed 'radio pill' beacon transmitter, a range test experiment was devised and carried out in the VHF frequency range. Calculations and previous work indicated that optimum sensitivity and, thus, distance would be obtained in this frequency range provided body radio-frequency (RF) absorption was not too great. A ferrite-core loop antenna is compatible with a pill geometry and has better radiation efficiency than an air core loop. The ferrite core may be a hollow cylinder with the electronics and batteries placed inside. However, this range test was only concerned with experimentally developing test range data on the ferrite core antenna itself. A one turn strap loop was placed around a 9.5 mm diameter by 18.3 mm long stack of ferrite cores. This was coupled to a 50 Omega transmission line by 76 mm of twisted pair line and a capacitive matching section. This assembly was excited by a signal generator at output levels of -10 to +10 dBm. Signals were received on a VHF receiver and tape recorder coupled to a 14 element, circularly polarized Yagi antenna at a height of 2.5 m. Field strength measurements taken at ranges of 440, 1100, and 1714 m. Maximum field strengths referenced to 0 dBm transmitter level were -107 to -110 dB at 440 m, -124 to -127 dBm at 1100 m, and -116 to -119 dBm at 1714 m when the antenna cylinder was horizontal. Field strengths with a vertical antenna were about 6 dB below these values. The latter transmit site was elevated and had a clear line-of-site path to the receiving site. The performance of this test antenna was better than that expected from method-of-moment field calculations. When this performance data is scaled to a narrow bandwidth receiving system, ground level receiving ranges of a few to 10 km can be expected. Clear line-of-sight ranges where either or both the transmitter and receiver are elevated could vary from several km to 100 km.

  11. Should the pill be stopped preoperatively?

    PubMed

    Sue-Ling, H; Hughes, L E

    1988-02-13

    Many women are now advised not to take birth control pills from 4 to 6 weeks before elective surgery out of concern over serious thromboembolic complications. However, stopping the pill may lead to unwanted pregnancies, and drug prophylaxis for deep vein thrombosis carries risk of morbidity. A study in the 1970s of more than 60,000 British women showed a 4 to 6-fold increase in the relative risk of spontaneous venous thrombosis in young women taking the pill. However, the incidence of spontaneous deep vein thrombosis was remarkably low--43 cases in 23,000 women taking the pill (0.19%) compared with 8 cases in 23,000 women not taking it (0.035%). Since 1968, when the 2 studies were commenced, only 5 deaths (3 of current users and 2 of past users) from pulmonary embolism have been reported. Epidemiological studies have relied almost entirely on cases diagnosed clinically. The clinical diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis after surgery in young women taking the pill (12/1244, 0.96%) was about twice that of women not taking the pill (22/4359, 0.5%), but this difference was not statistically significant. The literature showed 3 studies conducted on young women taking the pill in which Iodine 125 fibrinogen scans were used to diagnose deep vein thrombosis after surgery. The incidences of thrombosis in patients taking the pill were 4.6% in patients who underwent gynecological operations for benign disease, nil in 99 patients who underwent various abdominal operations, and 20% in 33 patients who had emergency appendectomies. Present evidence indicates that the risk to young women of becoming pregnant from stopping the pill or of developing side effects from prophylaxis may be greater than the risk of developing postoperative deep vein thrombosis. It is important to define the true incidence of postoperative deep vein thrombosis so that a rational policy can be adopted. Until such time, the routine use of prophylaxis for deep vein thrombosis in women on the pill is probably

  12. Progestin-Only Hormonal Birth Control: Pill and Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ186 CONTRACEPTION Progestin-Only Hormonal Birth Control: Pill and Injection • What is progestin? • How effective are progestin-only pills and the birth control injection in preventing pregnancy? • What are progestin- ...

  13. Iron Pills No Help for Certain Type of Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165631.html Iron Pills No Help for Certain Type of Heart ... TUESDAY, May 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- High-dose iron pills don't improve the exercise capacity of ...

  14. "Take your pill": the role and fantasy of pills in modern medicine.

    PubMed

    Leder, Drew; Krucoff, Mitchell W

    2014-06-01

    The pharmaceutical industry has undergone a vast expansion in the 20th and 21st centuries. This article explores the central role now played by pills in clinical practice, but also in the public imagination. First, this article analyzes four properties that, together, account for many of the promises and perils associated with pills: They are ingestible, potent, reproducible, and miniaturized. This allows them to serve as ideal consumer items for widespread distribution and sale and also as model technological "devices" capable of downloading into the body healing chemicals. As such, they seem to promise a disburdening solution to many of life's ills. In our cultural fantasy, often shared by physician and patient alike, pills can be used not only to treat and prevent disease but also raise energy, lose weight, lessen pain, lift mood, cope with stress, and enhance sexual and athletic performance. This article also explores many adverse effects not only of pills themselves but of this exaggerated cultural fantasy of the pill. It tends to distract us from other, more holistic understandings of the locus of disease and healing. It even fosters misunderstandings of the ways in which pills themselves work, which is to assist bodily processes, and the mind's "meaning response." The intent here is not to demonize all pills-many have great therapeutic potential-but to learn how to better choose and use them wisely. We propose that this process be assisted through recontextualizing the pill as a multidimensional gift. Taken in such a way, with appropriate gratitude and discernment, we may ingest fewer pills, but with greater efficacy.

  15. Pill scare linked to rise in abortions.

    PubMed

    Dillner, L

    1996-04-20

    It is argued that the British media exposure of the potential harmful side effects from oral contraceptive use contributed to raising fears and panic among users. The government in 1995 announced that there was double the risk of deep vein thrombosis from use of contraceptive pills containing gestodene or desogestrel. The government was advised by the Committee on Safety of Medicines. The British Pregnancy Advisory Service (BPAS) announced that the rise in abortions after the announcement could have been due to the pill scare. BPAS reported that during December 1995-February 1996 the number of abortions performed increased by 823 over the number reported in the same period a year before. The increase reversed a declining trend in abortions performed by a service that carries out 20% of all abortions in Great Britain. A BPAS spokesperson suggested that women panicked and stopped taking their pills, even though the government warned against an abrupt stop in usage. Women appeared to have not understood that risk was highest among overweight women and women with a prior history of thromboses. Findings from a BPAS survey that was conducted among almost 300 women with unplanned pregnancies showed that over 40% of women stopped taking their contraceptive pills immediately after the government's warning. 61% did not finish taking their remaining pills in the month's cycle. Under 20% of women switched to another contraceptive method. Another BPAS survey among 90 women that sought contraceptive advice at BPAS clinics found that nearly 50% of women expected the pill to be an unsafe method. It was suggested that media messages should have emphasized that the risk of unplanned pregnancies was much greater than the risks of deep vein thromboses.

  16. Use and Knowledge of Diet Pills among Female College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorociak, Jeffery D.; Vincent, Murray L.

    1985-01-01

    A survey was conducted in an attempt to assess the use and knowledge of diet pills and dietary patterns of female college students. Analysis of the data indicated that, while many students used diet pills, their knowledge of the effects of the pills was minimal. Conclusions are presented. (MT)

  17. Use and Knowledge of Diet Pills among Female College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorociak, Jeffery D.; Vincent, Murray L.

    1985-01-01

    A survey was conducted in an attempt to assess the use and knowledge of diet pills and dietary patterns of female college students. Analysis of the data indicated that, while many students used diet pills, their knowledge of the effects of the pills was minimal. Conclusions are presented. (MT)

  18. Why do women miss oral contraceptive pills? An analysis of women's self-described reasons for missed pills.

    PubMed

    Smith, Janice D; Oakley, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    Inconsistent use of oral contraceptives (OCs) exposes women to risks of unintended pregnancy. This study explored women's self-described reasons for missed OC pills. Data from diary cards completed by 141 women were studied to see how reasons for missing pills were related to patterns of pill use. The findings suggest that practitioners might improve OC use by focusing on the reasons that women miss pills, thus providing a more tailored approach that addresses individual risks based on women's personal experiences.

  19. Undigested Pills in Stool Mimicking Parasitic Infection.

    PubMed

    Mir, Fazia; Achakzai, Ilyas; Ibdah, Jamal A; Tahan, Veysel

    2017-01-01

    Background. Orally ingested medications now come in both immediate release and controlled release preparations. Controlled release preparations were developed by pharmaceutical companies to improve compliance and decrease frequency of pill ingestion. Case Report. A 67-year-old obese male patient presented to our clinic with focal abdominal pain that had been present 3 inches below umbilicus for the last three years. This pain was not associated with any trauma or recent heavy lifting. Upon presentation, the patient reported that for the last two months he started to notice pearly oval structures in his stool accompanying his chronic abdominal pain. This had coincided with initiation of his nifedipine pills for his hypertension. He reported seeing these undigested pills daily in his stool. Conclusion. The undigested pills may pose a cause of concern for both patients and physicians alike, as demonstrated in this case report, because they can mimic a parasitic infection. This can result in unnecessary extensive work-up. It is important to review the medication list for extended release formulations and note that the outer shell can be excreted whole in the stool.

  20. Undigested Pills in Stool Mimicking Parasitic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Fazia; Achakzai, Ilyas; Ibdah, Jamal A.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Orally ingested medications now come in both immediate release and controlled release preparations. Controlled release preparations were developed by pharmaceutical companies to improve compliance and decrease frequency of pill ingestion. Case Report. A 67-year-old obese male patient presented to our clinic with focal abdominal pain that had been present 3 inches below umbilicus for the last three years. This pain was not associated with any trauma or recent heavy lifting. Upon presentation, the patient reported that for the last two months he started to notice pearly oval structures in his stool accompanying his chronic abdominal pain. This had coincided with initiation of his nifedipine pills for his hypertension. He reported seeing these undigested pills daily in his stool. Conclusion. The undigested pills may pose a cause of concern for both patients and physicians alike, as demonstrated in this case report, because they can mimic a parasitic infection. This can result in unnecessary extensive work-up. It is important to review the medication list for extended release formulations and note that the outer shell can be excreted whole in the stool. PMID:28255472

  1. Contraception. Low-dose pill launched.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    At a vibrant ceremony in Kampala, Uganda, the Minister of Women in Development, Youth and Culture launched the new low-dose oral contraceptive Pilplan which provides women more options for birth spacing. Diplomats, physicians, government officials, and business leaders attended the ceremony at the Sheraton Hotel Kampala. A dance group did an interpretation of "Women in Uganda: Gaining Momentum." The Minister considered the introduction of this new pill as a turning point for reproductive rights. A baseline survey among Ugandan women has shown that although almost all women were familiar with the pill, only 36% have ever used it and only 15% were currently using it. 80% thought that pill use was preferable to having an unplanned pregnancy. These findings convinced the Minister that ignorance and misconception keep women from using the pill. The government, health providers, and others need to educate women about Pilplan and how to use it correctly. A bilateral agreement between the Ministry of Health and USAID set in motion a social marketing project which has now launched two contraceptive methods: Pilplan in 1993 and the Protector condom in 1990. USAID vowed to continue to support Pilplan, particularly if men could also help in supporting birth spacing. A Uganda-based pharmaceutical firm will distribute Pilplan in Uganda through pharmacies, clinics, and health facilities. Pilplan targets all middle- to low-income women.

  2. Update on 1-benzylpiperazine (BZP) party pills.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Márcia Sá; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Guedes de Pinho, Paula; Carvalho, Márcia

    2013-06-01

    N-benzylpiperazine (BZP) has become popular among recreational drug users as the major active ingredient of "party pills" due to its stimulant and euphoric properties. Before BZP legal restrictions, these pills were sold as a safe and legal alternative to classical amphetamines like ecstasy. New Zealand, given the size of its legal market prior to BZP control, is the country that most contributed to the knowledge about the patterns of use, motivations and positive and adverse effects resulting from its consumption, though the interest in BZP-party pills was observed all over the world. The use of these pills has been associated with hospitalizations for adverse events and continued availability over the Internet makes this intoxication a continued concern. This paper provides a review on the characteristics of BZP recreational use, specifically the target population, patterns and motivations of use, and evolution of legal status. Moreover, the in vivo and in vitro studies performed in order to understand its pharmacology, toxicology and kinetics are also discussed. Lastly, analytical methodologies for the identification of BZP in clinical and forensic settings are addressed.

  3. The Administration of Tibetan Precious Pills

    PubMed Central

    Czaja, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Precious pills represent a special kind of Tibetan drug that once was, and still is, highly sought after by Tibetan, Chinese, and Mongolian patients. Such pills are generally taken as a potent prophylactic remedy, and can be used to cure various diseases. The present study seeks to discuss the dispensation and efficacy of precious pills according to the presentations of historical Tibetan medical scholars. Several treatises dealing with these instructions will be analysed, thereby revealing their underlying concepts, and highlighting their points of both general consensus and disagreement. The analysis of these detailed instructions will reveal the fact that these precious pills were not merely given to a patient but, in order to ensure their full efficacy, involved an elaborate regimen concerning three chronological periods: (1) the time of preparation, (2) the time of dispensation, and (3) the time after dispensation. Thus the present study surveys not only the ritual empowerment of drugs in Tibetan medicine, but also the importance of social relationships between doctors and patients in Tibetan medical history. PMID:27980504

  4. Pill Properties that Cause Dysphagia and Treatment Failure

    PubMed Central

    Fields, Jeremy; Go, Jorge T.; Schulze, Konrad S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pills (tablets and capsules) are widely used to administer prescription drugs or to take supplements such as vitamins. Unfortunately, little is known about how much effort it takes Americans to swallow these various pills. More specifically, it is not known to what extent hard-to-swallow pills might affect treatment outcomes (eg, interfering with adherence to prescribed medications or causing clinical complications). It is also unclear which properties (eg, size, shape, or surface texture) Americans prefer or reject for their pills. To learn more about these issues, we interviewed a small group of individuals. Methods We invited individuals in waiting rooms of our tertiary health care center to participate in structured interviews about their pill-taking habits and any problems they have swallowing pills. We inquired which pill properties they believed caused swallowing problems. Participants scored capsules and pills of representative size, shape, and texture for swallowing effort and reported their personal preferences. Results Of 100 successive individuals, 99 participants completed the interview (65% women, mean age = 41 years, range = 23-77 years). Eighty-three percent took pills daily (mean 4 pills/d; 56% of those pills were prescribed by providers). Fifty-four percent of participants replied yes to the question, "Did you ever have to swallow a solid medication that was too difficult?" Four percent recounted serious complications: 1% pill esophagitis, 1% pill impaction, and 2% stopped treatments (antibiotic and prenatal supplement) because they could not swallow the prescribed pills. Half of all participants routinely resorted to special techniques (eg, plenty of liquids or repeated or forceful swallows). Sixty-one percent of those having difficulties cited specific pill properties: 27% blamed size (20% of problems were caused by pills that were too large whereas 7% complained about pills that were too small to sense); 12% faulted rough surface

  5. The misunderstood pill: thirty years of testing and development have reduced pill's major, minor side effects.

    PubMed

    1986-01-01

    Many users of oral contraceptives (OCs) and potential users misunderstand the risks and benefits of OCs. A recent poll in the US revealed that 3 out of 4 women thought the pill carried substantial health risks. Nearly 2/3 of the women surveyed believe using OCs is at least as risky as childbearing. Family Health International (FHI) recently conducted a world survey of perceptions of OCs. It shows that women in many other countries share US womens negative image of the pill. Women believe in pill-related dangers scientists have never even suspected, much less proven, such as an increased risk of stomach cancer. Yet, many women, especially women in developing countries, are unaware of problems such as cardiovascular disease that are related to OC use, and they are ignorant of the proven health benefits of OCs, such as protection against ovarian and endometrial cancer. Despite the persistence of negative perceptions of the pill, research conducted over the past 30 years has shown that the pill is safe for the great majority of women and, in fact, provides significant health benefits for many users. With the contraceptive effectiveness of the pill established through the early tests, drug companies began steadily lowering the hormone dosages. By 1983, more than half of the OCs sold in the US contained less than 0.5 mg estrogen. Many of the combination OCs now sold have only 0.2 to 0.4 mg estrogen. Eventually, pill researchers learned that OCs containing only progestogen, even in comparatively small doses, also could effectively prevent pregnancy, though not as effectively as pills containing estrogen. The first progestogen-only pills received US Food and Drug Administration approval in 1973. Continued research on OCs shows that the increased risks of cardiovascular diseases actually were almost entirely confined to specific groups women who were over 35 or who both were over 30 and smoked. For the great majority of women, studies showed, the risk of cardiovascular

  6. The pill in figures and facts.

    PubMed

    Von Keep, P A

    1967-01-01

    A review of the use of oral contraceptives from 1956-1966 is presented for the U.S. and several European and Latin American countries. In 1969 an estimated 9,600,000 to 10,700,000 women in the world were pill users. Estimates for the number in 1985 vary from 20,000,000 to 40,000,000. However estimates are difficult because of the improvements in fertility control that are likely to occur in the future.

  7. The Pill vs. the Sword: Additional Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Lottes, Ilsa L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I present additional information for policy-makers and researchers to consider in response to the view proposed by Potts et al that "the pill is mightier than the sword." I identify states with both high rates of terrorism and a youth bulge and discuss correlates of both these societal characteristics. The research examined supports the view that factors other than access to family planning are more important in facilitating terrorism. PMID:26673473

  8. Fatal Fentanyl: One Pill Can Kill.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Mark E; Gerona, Roy R; Davis, M Thais; Roche, Bailey M; Colby, Daniel K; Chenoweth, James A; Adams, Axel J; Owen, Kelly P; Ford, Jonathan B; Black, Hugh B; Albertson, Timothy E

    2017-01-01

    The current national opioid epidemic is a public health emergency. We have identified an outbreak of exaggerated opioid toxicity caused by fentanyl adulterated tablets purchased on the street as hydrocodone/acetaminophen. Over an 8-day period in late March 2016, a total of 18 patients presented to our institution with exaggerated opioid toxicity. The patients provided a similar history: ingesting their "normal dose" of hydrocodone/acetaminophen tablets but with more pronounced symptoms. Toxicology testing and analysis was performed on serum, urine, and surrendered pills. One of the 18 patients died in hospital. Five patients underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation, one required extracorporeal life support, three required intubation, and two received bag-valve-mask ventilation. One patient had recurrence of toxicity after 8 hours after naloxone discontinuation. Seventeen of 18 patients required boluses of naloxone, and four required prolonged naloxone infusions (26-39 hours). All 18 patients tested positive for fentanyl in the serum. Quantitative assays conducted in 13 of the sera revealed fentanyl concentrations of 7.9 to 162 ng/mL (mean = 52.9 ng/mL). Pill analysis revealed fentanyl amounts of 600-6,900 μg/pill. The pills are virtually indistinguishable from authentic hydrocodone/acetaminophen tablets and are similar in weight. To date, our county has reported 56 cases of fentanyl opioid toxicity, with 15 fatalities. In our institution, the outbreak has stressed the capabilities and resources of the emergency department and intensive care units. A serious outbreak of exaggerated opioid toxicity caused by fentanyl-adulterated tablets purchased on the street as hydrocodone/acetaminophen is under way in California. These patients required higher dosing and prolonged infusions of naloxone. Additionally, observation periods off naloxone were extended due to delayed, recurrent toxicity. The outbreak has serious ramifications for public health and safety, law

  9. Exercise Pills: At the Starting Line.

    PubMed

    Li, Shunchang; Laher, Ismail

    2015-12-01

    Sedentary lifestyles, limited physical exercise, and prolonged inactivity undoubtedly increase chronic diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. It is widely acknowledged that exercise induces a number of physiological adaptations that have beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of these chronic metabolic diseases. Unfortunately, exercise compliance is extremely low and often not possible. The development of exercise science and molecular techniques has increased our understanding of the molecular pathways responsive to exercise. Knowledge of these molecular targets has led to the development of chemical interventions that can mimic the beneficial effects of exercise without requiring actual muscle activity. This review focuses on the concept of 'exercise pills' and how they mimic the effects produced by physical exercise including oxidative fiber-type transformation, mitochondrial biogenesis, increased fat oxidation, angiogenesis, and improvement of exercise capacity. We also review candidate exercise pills, and contrast the beneficial effects and molecular mechanisms between physical exercise and exercise pills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Estrogen potency of oral contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Chihal, H J; Peppler, R D; Dickey, R P

    1975-01-01

    The estrogen potencies of 9 oral contraceptive pills, Enovid-E, Enovid-5, Ovulen, Demulen, Norinyl+80, Norinyl+50, Ovral, Norlestrin 1 mg. and Norlestrin 2.5 mg., were determined by bioassay. Relative estrogen potency was determined by analysis of variance. Enovid-5, the most estrogenic compound, had a potency of 4.88 compared to ethinyl estradiol, 50 mcg. equal 1.00; Ovral, the least estrogenic compound, had a potency of 0.81, a sixfold difference. Estrogen potencies at a fractional dose of 0.00155 correlate with reports of the incidence of minor side effects and thromboembolic disease. The effect of progestins on estrogen potency was purely additive (norgestrel and norethynodrel), purely antagonistic, or additive at low concentrations and antagonistic at high concentrations (norethindrone, norethindrone acetate, and ethynodiol diacetate). These results suggest that pills with a greater margin of safety might be developed by utilizing greater ratios of progestin to estrogen. In addition, differences in relative estrogen potency of oral contraceptive pills may be used as a basis for better clinical selection.

  11. How to use mini-pills: helpful patient instructions.

    PubMed

    1982-09-01

    Progestin only birth control pills appeared on the US market in 1973. As there is no estrogen in these mini pills, they may have fewer dangerous side effects than the combined pills. Some clinics suggest mini pills for women who suffer from estrogen excess side effects. The 3 mini pills available in the U.S. are called Micronor, NOR-QD, and Ovrette. Instructions are presented for patients who are interested in using mini pills. The mini pills most likely work by affecting a women's fertility in several ways: act as a messenger to the woman's ovaries and uterus to prevent the release of an egg; thicken the mucous on the cervix, making it difficult for the sperm to "get through" the cervix and reach the egg; and change the lining of the uterus so that it may not develop properly for the fertilized egg to grow. The mini pills can be 97% effective is used perfectly. The mini pills are only effective for as long as a woman takes them. A woman must take a pill every day to prevent pregnancy. A woman should not use the mini pill if she has or ever has had any of these problems: blood clotting problems in veins; stroke; cancer of the breast or reproductive parts of the body; suspected pregnancy, current pregnancy; and undiagnosed, abnormal genital bleeding. Possible benefits for a woman using mini pills include: an effective method of birth control; a method for nursing mothers since it does not seem to affect the amount of their breast milk; and a possible reduction in premenstrual cramps. Possible risks for a woman using mini pills include: irregular periods; and a less effective method if the patient does not take a pill every day. The danger signals to look for are abdominal pain, chest pain, headaches, eye problems, and severe leg pain. A patient should revisit a clinic in the following situations: has not had a period within 45 days of the last period; severe abdominal pains while taking mini pills; experiences a warning signal; any time one thinks the pills are

  12. [Core body temperature monitoring using the telemetric pill].

    PubMed

    Rav-Acha, M; Heled, Y; Slypher, N; Moran, D S

    2003-03-01

    Exposure to extreme weather or physical work conditions can lead to dangerous core temperature changes, and to the clinical syndromes accompanying them. Core temperature measurement is the main tool for diagnosing these syndromes. Recent technological advances particularly NASA's telemetry and miniaturizing technologies, have led to the development of a CorTemp Ingestible Temperature Sensor, or "pill". The pill is a small electronic device, which senses the body's temperature and transmits it through a radio wave signal to an external receiver. The advantage of the pill over other temperature measurement devices is that it is a simple device that enables core temperature measurement for many hours without the need of any wire connections or other cumbersome instruments. For this reason, the pill is an ideal tool for core temperature measurements in field locales or for continuous long duration temperature monitoring of ambulatory patients. The following study reviews available literature concerning the use of the pill and the validity of its measurements. A high correlation has been revealed between pill temperature measurements and rectal or esophageal measurements. Pill temperature values usually fall between the high rectal and the low esophageal measurements, considered the gold standard for core temperature measurement. A number of studies emphasizing the advantage of the pill are presented in this review.

  13. Progestin-Only Hormonal Birth Control: Pill and Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ186 CONTRACEPTION Progestin-Only Hormonal Birth Control: Pill and Injection • What is progestin? • How effective are progestin-only pills and the birth control injection in preventing pregnancy? • What are progestin-only ...

  14. Other Factors That Affect Heart Disease: Birth Control Pills

    MedlinePlus

    ... you are now taking any kind of birth control pill or are considering using one, keep these guidelines in mind: Don't mix smoking and "the pill." If you smoke cigarettes, make a serious effort to quit. If you cannot quit, choose ... of birth control. Cigarette smoking boosts the risk of serious health ...

  15. [Tissue distribution of arsenic of liushen pills and realgar].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-Li; Wu, Qian; Xie, Yuan-Yuan; Shen, Lian-Zhong; Fan, Min-Wei; Liang, Qiong-Lin; Wang, Yi-Ming; Luo, Guo-An

    2011-06-01

    This study is to report the tissue distribution of arsenic after giving different doses of realgar and Liushen pills to Beagle dogs, in order to provide basis for the safety evaluation of Liushen pills. ICP-MS was used to measure arsenic concentration, and HPLC-ICP-MS was used to analyze arsenic speciation. The concentration of total arsenic and As(III) + DMA (arsenite + dimethylarsenic acid) increased with dosing of realgar. Total arsenic concentration in most tissues and As(III) + DMA concentration in all tissues of Liushen pills group are lower than that of realgar group, but AsB concentration in liver, spleen and kidney of Liushen pills group increased. The concentration of total arsenic showed a dose-dependent manner with dosage administered. It was indicated that components in Liushen pills can reduce solubility of arsenic in realgar, which may decrease toxicity of realgar.

  16. Sleeping Pill Administration Time and Patient Subjective Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seockhoon; Youn, Soyoung; Yi, Kikyoung; Park, Boram; Lee, Suyeon

    2016-01-01

    Taking hypnotic agents 30 min before bedtime is the usual suggested administration time, but some patients report dissatisfaction with their sleeping pills. We investigated whether the timing of sleeping pill administration influences patient subjective satisfaction with these drugs. One hundred twelve patients with primary insomnia currently taking benzodiazepine or nonbenzodiazepine gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists as sleeping pills were selected. The time of administration for their sleeping pills, bedtime, sleep onset time, and wake up time were obtained from their medical records. Subjects were also categorized into satisfied or dissatisfied groups. Hypnotic agents administration time (p < 0.001) and bedtime (p < 0.001), but not sleep onset or wake up time, occurred later in the night in the satisfied group. The durations from administration of pills to sleep onset (33.6 ± 20.7 min) and to wake up time (7.2 ± 1.2 h) were significantly shorter in the satisfied group when compared to the dissatisfied group (135.9 ± 73.4 min and 9.3 ± 1.5 h for time to sleep onset and wake up, respectively). Logistic regression analysis revealed that patient subjective satisfaction with hypnotic agents could be predicted by a short duration from administration of pills to sleep onset (odds ratio = 0.01; 95% confidence interval [0.001-0.09]) and a short duration from administration of pills to wake up time (0.53; [0.31-0.89], F = 49.9, p < 0.001). Taking sleeping pills at a later time and a shorter interval between pill administration and wake up time may increase patient subjective satisfaction with hypnotic agents. We propose that physicians advise patients to take sleeping pills approximately 7 h before their usual getting-out-of-bed time instead of the current standard of 30 min before bedtime. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  17. [Providing emergency contraceptive pills in pharmacies].

    PubMed

    Heidarsdóttir, Margrét Lilja; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Geirsson, Reynir Tómas

    2009-05-01

    Use of the levonorgestrel emergency contraception (EC) pill has become more common after being made formally available in pharmacies without prescription. It was investigated how pharmacists in the capital area of Reykjavik supply EC to clients. A total of 46 pharmacists of all working ages and both genders were asked to answer a questionnaire concerning how they sold the emergency contraception pill over the counter (84.8% reply rate). Four of five used <5 minutes to discuss emergency contraception with the client, but almost all enquired about time from intercourse. While only 20% asked about the woman s health, most considered concomitant drug use and potential interaction with levonorgestrel. Only about 50% pointed out that EC did not protect against sexually transmitted disease, (3/4) pointed out the need for permanent contraceptive use, 95% asked about previous EC use, but only 30% would provide EC again in the same menstrual cycle. One half of the pharmacists sold EC to men/teenage boys and wished to assist them with taking responsibility, while the others only sold the drug to the woman. Of those prepared to give the drug to the men, 55% asked to speak over the telephone with the woman to ensure correct prescription and information. Nearly a third would never or rarely provide consultation in private. Pharmacists agree mostly about main points in supplying EC, but not as regards provision to women through their male partners. Provisons for consultation can be improved.

  18. Factors predictive of adolescents' intentions to use birth control pills, condoms, and birth control pills in combination with condoms.

    PubMed

    Craig, D M; Wade, K E; Allison, K R; Irving, H M; Williams, J I; Hlibka, C M

    2000-01-01

    Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (Ajzen, 1988) as a conceptual framework, 705 secondary school students were surveyed to identify their intentions to use birth control pills, condoms, and birth control pills in combination with condoms. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that the theory explained between 23.5% and 45.8% of the variance in intentions. Variables external to the model such as past use, age, and ethnicity exhibited some independent effects. Attitudes were consistently predictive of intentions to use condoms, pills, and condoms in combination with pills for both male and female students. However, there were differences by gender in the degree to which subjective norms and perceived behavioural control predicted intentions. The findings suggest that programs should focus on: creation of positive attitudes regarding birth control pills and condoms; targeting important social influences, particularly regarding males' use of condoms; and developing strategies to increase students' control over the use of condoms.

  19. Emergency contraceptive pills in Sweden: evaluation of an information campaign.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Margareta; Eurenius, Karin; Westerling, Ragnar; Tydén, Tanja

    2004-08-01

    To evaluate a community-based intervention regarding emergency contraceptive pills, including a mass media campaign and information to women visiting family planning clinics. Quasi-experimental. Two counties in Sweden. Eight hundred randomly selected women aged 16-30 years, 400 women in the intervention group and 400 in a comparison group. Postal questionnaires before (2002) and after (2003) the intervention. Exposure to the intervention, knowledge, attitudes, practices and intention to use emergency contraceptive pills. Before the intervention, the response rate was 71% (n= 564); after the intervention, the corresponding figure was 83% (n= 467); overall response rate 58%. Two-thirds (64%) of the targeted women had noticed the information campaign. One out of six who had visited a family planning clinic during the intervention year recalled being given information about emergency contraceptive pills. Specific knowledge and attitudes improved over time in both groups, but there was no difference in change between the groups. The proportion of women who had used emergency contraceptive pills increased from 27% to 31% over time. Intention to use emergency contraceptive pills in case of need was reported by 74% of the women and remained stable over time, but logistic regression showed that information during the previous year contributed to willingness to use the method in the intervention group. Knowledge, attitudes and practices about emergency contraceptive pills increased in both groups. Emergency contraceptive pills is gradually becoming a more widely known, accepted and used contraceptive method in Sweden, a trend that may have limited the impact of the intervention.

  20. Patterns of Oral Contraceptive Pill-taking and Condom Use among Adolescent Contraceptive Pill Users

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Jennifer L.; Shew, Marcia L.; Tu, Wanzhu; Ofner, Susan; Ott, Mary A.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Imperfect oral contraceptive pill (OCP) regimen adherence may impair contraceptive effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to describe daily adherence patterns of OCP use, to analyze OCP protection on an event level basis, and to examine pill-taking and condom use during method transitions. Methods Women (n = 123, ages 14–17 years) completed quarterly interviews to classify OCP method choice into four categories: stable, initiated, stopped, and discordant use. Within each OCP category, daily diaries were used to assess occurrence of coitus, condom use, and patterns of day-to-day OCP use (i.e., consecutive days of OCP use reported with no more than two consecutive days of nonuse). A coital event was OCP protected if pills were used on both the day of the coitus and the day preceding. Results There were 123 participants who reported at least some OCP use in 210 diary periods (average diary length = 75.5 days). Fifty-three participants categorized as stable users reported 87 diary periods: the average interval of consecutive OCP use in this group was 32.5 days. Among stable users, only 45% of coital events were associated with both OCP and condom use. Over one-fifth of coital events in all groups were protected by no method of contraception. Conclusion Dual use of OCP and barrier contraception remains an elusive goal. The time during OCP adoption or discontinuation is often unprotected by condoms. However, concurrent missed pills and condom nonuse increase pregnancy and infection risk even among stable OCP users. Understanding motivation for method usage may improve education and prevention techniques. PMID:16919800

  1. The Pill vs. the Sword: Additional Considerations Comment on "The Pill Is Mightier Than the Sword".

    PubMed

    Lottes, Ilsa L

    2015-08-21

    In this paper, I present additional information for policy-makers and researchers to consider in response to the view proposed by Potts et al that "the pill is mightier than the sword." I identify states with both high rates of terrorism and a youth bulge and discuss correlates of both these societal characteristics. The research examined supports the view that factors other than access to family planning are more important in facilitating terrorism. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  2. Birth control pills and nonprofessional voice: acoustic analyses.

    PubMed

    Amir, Ofer; Biron-Shental, Tal; Shabtai, Esther

    2006-10-01

    Two studies are presented here. Study 1 was aimed at evaluating whether the voice characteristics of women who use birth control pills that contain different progestins differ from the voice characteristics of a control group. Study 2 presents a meta-analysis that combined the results of Study 1 with those from 3 recent studies that compared voices of women who use and do not use birth control pills. In Study 1, voice samples from 30 women with no history of voice training, who use pills with different progestins (drospirenone, desogestrel, gestodene), and 10 women who do not use the pill were recorded at specific time points across the menstrual cycle and were analyzed acoustically. In Study 2, results from Study 1 were analyzed jointly with results from three recent studies, which used similar methodologies. Results of Study 1 did not reveal acoustic differences in sustained phonation of vowels across the pill groups and controls. Results of the meta-analysis performed in Study 2 indicated that pill users exhibited lower jitter and shimmer values on sustained vowels, whereas no difference of fundamental frequency was observed among women who use the pill. These results support findings from previous studies, which suggested that no adverse effect on voice was detected among nonprofessional speakers who use new-generation monophasic birth control pills, for the measures studied. Furthermore, results of the meta-analysis suggested that some acoustic properties of the voice, which are reflected in perturbation measures in sustained vowels, may be improved among women who use the pill.

  3. Ortho markets first FDA-approved triphasic pill.

    PubMed

    1984-06-01

    Ortho-Novum 7/7/7, the 1st triphasic oral contraceptive to be approved by the FDA (Federal Food and Drug Administration) is now being marketed in the US by the Ortho Pharmaceutical Corporation. The triphasic pill is similar to the biphasic pill as the steriod level is varied during the cycle, but the new triphasic pill more closely follows the normal ovulatory cycle cycle in regard to steriod levels. During days 1-7 of the cycle, the dosage is 0.5 mg of progestogen and 35 mcg of estrogen. Respective doses for days 8-14 are 0.75 mg amd 35 mcg and for days 15-21 they are 1.0 mg and 35 mcg. The total dosage of progestogen for the entire cycle is 15.75 mg. The new pill is associated with less breakthrough bleeding than the biphasic pill and the bleeding pattern is similar to that observed for Ortho 1-35. 2 pregnancies were observed during worldwide clinical trails but only 1 was attributed to product failure. The Pearl Formula failure rate was 0.22 or less. The incidence of side effects was low. The pill is packaged in a 28-day circular dial pack which contains 7 white, 7 light peach, and 7 dark peach pills with an additional 7 placebo pills. Some objectives have been raised concerning the packaging of the product. The pills are very similar in color and patients might find this confusing. Ortho representatives indicated that this should not be a problem if patient are given sufficient counseling.

  4. Cellulose fiber diet pills. A new cause of esophageal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Jones, K R; Pillsbury, H C

    1990-09-01

    Cellulose fiber diet pills have recently become a popular form of weight control. In the past 2 months, we have seen two patients in whom ingestion of these pills has resulted in complete distal esophageal obstruction. Further studies revealed that each patient had a previously undiagnosed anatomical abnormality of the distal esophagus; in one case a Schatzki's ring, and in the other a stricture probably secondary to chronic reflux. We conclude that patients with known esophageal narrowing, or with a history of reflux and/or dysphagia, should use cellulose fiber diet pills only with extreme caution.

  5. Two Techniques to Make Swallowing Pills Easier

    PubMed Central

    Schiele, Julia T.; Schneider, Hendrik; Quinzler, Renate; Reich, Gabriele; Haefeli, Walter E.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether 2 techniques (the pop-bottle method for tablets and the lean-forward technique for capsules) ease swallowing of tablets and capsules, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 151 adults of the general German population. Participants swallowed 16 differently shaped placebos, rated their ease of swallowing on an 8-point Likert scale, and swallowed the 2 dosage forms that they had rated most difficult again using the appropriate technique. The pop-bottle method substantially improved swallowing of tablets in 59.7% (169/283) and the lean-forward technique for capsules in 88.6% (31/35). Both techniques were remarkably effective in participants with and without reported difficulties swallowing pills and should be recommended regularly. PMID:25384817

  6. Two techniques to make swallowing pills easier.

    PubMed

    Schiele, Julia T; Schneider, Hendrik; Quinzler, Renate; Reich, Gabriele; Haefeli, Walter E

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether 2 techniques (the pop-bottle method for tablets and the lean-forward technique for capsules) ease swallowing of tablets and capsules, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 151 adults of the general German population. Participants swallowed 16 differently shaped placebos, rated their ease of swallowing on an 8-point Likert scale, and swallowed the 2 dosage forms that they had rated most difficult again using the appropriate technique. The pop-bottle method substantially improved swallowing of tablets in 59.7% (169/283) and the lean-forward technique for capsules in 88.6% (31/35). Both techniques were remarkably effective in participants with and without reported difficulties swallowing pills and should be recommended regularly.

  7. Sleeping Pills for Insomnia: Which Ones Work Best?

    MedlinePlus

    ... pills. A team of physicians and researchers at Oregon Health & Science University Evidence-Based Practice Center conducted ... Buy Drugs is also a member of the Oregon-based research team, which has no financial interest ...

  8. Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring

    MedlinePlus

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ185 CONTRACEPTION Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring • What are combined hormonal birth control methods? • How do combined hormonal methods prevent ...

  9. ON IMPROVING THE DISINTEGRATION OF AYURVEDIC PILLS CONTAINING GUGGULU

    PubMed Central

    Chaube, Anjana; Dixit, S.K.; Sharma, P.V.

    1995-01-01

    An attempt is made in this communication to report a better way of preparing guggulu – containing pills. This technique improves the disintegration time of the preparation, thus enhancing its therapeutic value. PMID:22556694

  10. A new accurate pill recognition system using imprint information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiyuan; Kamata, Sei-ichiro

    2013-12-01

    Great achievements in modern medicine benefit human beings. Also, it has brought about an explosive growth of pharmaceuticals that current in the market. In daily life, pharmaceuticals sometimes confuse people when they are found unlabeled. In this paper, we propose an automatic pill recognition technique to solve this problem. It functions mainly based on the imprint feature of the pills, which is extracted by proposed MSWT (modified stroke width transform) and described by WSC (weighted shape context). Experiments show that our proposed pill recognition method can reach an accurate rate up to 92.03% within top 5 ranks when trying to classify more than 10 thousand query pill images into around 2000 categories.

  11. Blood Thinner Pills: Your Guide to Using Them Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reports Latest available findings on quality of and access to health care Data Data Data Infographics Data ... reviewed September 2015 Page originally created September 2012 Internet Citation: Blood Thinner Pills: Your Guide to Using ...

  12. CDC Vital Signs: Daily Pill Can Prevent HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Error processing SSI file Daily Pill Can Prevent HIV Reaching people who could benefit from PrEP Language: ... Problem Many people at very high risk for HIV infection are not getting PrEP. PrEP is for ...

  13. 4. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING TIMBER PILL APPROACH SPAN AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, SHOWING TIMBER PILL APPROACH SPAN AND BRIDGE IN OPEN POSITION - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Shaw's Cove Bridge, Spanning Shaw's Cove, New London, New London County, CT

  14. Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring

    MedlinePlus

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ185 CONTRACEPTION Combined Hormonal Birth Control: Pill, Patch, and Ring • What are combined hormonal birth control methods? • How do combined hormonal methods prevent pregnancy? • ...

  15. Sleeping Pill Administration Time and Patient Subjective Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Seockhoon; Youn, Soyoung; Yi, Kikyoung; Park, Boram; Lee, Suyeon

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Taking hypnotic agents 30 min before bedtime is the usual suggested administration time, but some patients report dissatisfaction with their sleeping pills. We investigated whether the timing of sleeping pill administration influences patient subjective satisfaction with these drugs. Methods: One hundred twelve patients with primary insomnia currently taking benzodiazepine or nonbenzodiazepine gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonists as sleeping pills were selected. The time of administration for their sleeping pills, bedtime, sleep onset time, and wake up time were obtained from their medical records. Subjects were also categorized into satisfied or dissatisfied groups. Results: Hypnotic agents administration time (p < 0.001) and bedtime (p < 0.001), but not sleep onset or wake up time, occurred later in the night in the satisfied group. The durations from administration of pills to sleep onset (33.6 ± 20.7 min) and to wake up time (7.2 ± 1.2 h) were significantly shorter in the satisfied group when compared to the dissatisfied group (135.9 ± 73.4 min and 9.3 ± 1.5 h for time to sleep onset and wake up, respectively). Logistic regression analysis revealed that patient subjective satisfaction with hypnotic agents could be predicted by a short duration from administration of pills to sleep onset (odds ratio = 0.01; 95% confidence interval [0.001–0.09]) and a short duration from administration of pills to wake up time (0.53; [0.31–0.89], F = 49.9, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Taking sleeping pills at a later time and a shorter interval between pill administration and wake up time may increase patient subjective satisfaction with hypnotic agents. We propose that physicians advise patients to take sleeping pills approximately 7 h before their usual getting-out-of-bed time instead of the current standard of 30 min before bedtime. Citation: Chung S, Youn S, Yi K, Park B, Lee S. Sleeping pill administration time and patient subjective satisfaction. J

  16. Quantifying the utility of taking pills for cardiovascular prevention.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Robert; Viera, Anthony J; Sheridan, Stacey L; Pignone, Michael P

    2015-03-01

    The decrease in utility attributed to taking pills for cardiovascular prevention can have major effects on the cost-effectiveness of interventions but has not been well studied. We sought to measure the utility of daily pill-taking for cardiovascular prevention. We conducted a cross-sectional Internet-based survey of 1000 US residents aged ≥30 in March 2014. We calculated utility values, using time trade-off as our primary method and standard gamble and willingness-to-pay techniques as secondary analyses. Mean age of respondents was 50 years. Most were female (59%) and white (63%); 28% had less than a college degree; and 79% took ≥1 pills daily. Mean utility using the time trade-off method was 0.990 (95% confidence interval, 0.988-0.992), including ≈70% not willing to trade any amount of time to avoid taking a preventive pill daily. Using the standard gamble method, mean utility was 0.991 (0.989-0.993), with 62% not willing to risk any chance of death. Respondents were willing to pay an average of $1445 to avoid taking a pill daily, which translated to a mean utility of 0.994 (0.940-0.997), including 41% unwilling to pay any amount. Time trade-off-based utility varied by age (decreasing utility as age increased), sex, race, numeracy, difficulty with obtaining pills, and number of pills taken per day but did not vary by education level, literacy, or income. Mean utility for taking a pill daily for cardiovascular prevention is ≈0.990 to 0.994. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Fabrication of CPA Salt Pill with Circulating Solution Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, A.; Tokoi, K.; Ishisaki, Y.; Shinozaki, K.; McCammon, D.

    2008-05-01

    We report results on fabrication of a Chromium Potassium Alum (CPA) salt pill. CPA is a typical paramagnetic salt used as refrigerant of Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator (ADR) because of its low Curie point, 4 11 mK. We made an test model of CPA salt pill by fast crystallizing method, namely circulating solution between 36°C and 15°C. The crystallizing rate was 0.5 g h-1, and 40 g of CPA crystal was obtained inside a stainless steel cylinder equipped with 160 copper wires. The cooling test was operated utilizing a commercial ADR system. We attached three thermometers and four heaters to the salt pill, in order to measure thermal conductance among different parts of the pill. It is confirmed that our salt pill was cooled down from B/ T=4 T/2 K to 64 mK at zero magnetic field. We suspect the cause of limiting the cooling temperature in the present level to be the dehydration of CPA, non-uniformity of magnetic field, and stainless steel of the pill which has large heat capacity below 0.1 K.

  18. Imported fenproporex-based diet pills from Brazil: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Pieter A

    2009-03-01

    Banned amphetamine-based anorectics are illicitly imported into the United States (US), but little is known regarding the harm these diet pills pose to US residents. A 26-year-old woman using imported diet pills presented with a two-year history of intermittent chest pains, palpitations, headaches and insomnia. Urine toxicology screen detected amphetamines and benzodiazepines. Fenproporex and chlordiazepoxide were detected in her pills. Her symptoms resolved after she stopped using diet pills. A 38-year-old man using imported diet pills presented after his occupational urine screen was significantly positive for amphetamine. Fenproporex and fluoxetine were detected in his pills. These cases illustrate the potential harm from imported prescription diet pills that combine fenproporex with benzodiazepines, antidepressants, diuretics, laxatives and other substances. Increasing physicians' awareness of imported diet pill use may improve care of patients suffering from the pills' many adverse effects.

  19. [Application of time domain reflectometry for determination of wate content in Xiangsha Yangwei pills].

    PubMed

    Long, Feng-Lai; Sun, Xiao-Mei; Peng, Xiu-Juan; Liu, Peng; He, Fang-Hui

    2016-08-01

    Xiangsha Yangwei pill was selected as a model drug in this research, and time domain reflectometry (TDR) was used to determine the water content in the pill. The effects of five factors including the number of pill layers, pill packing density, atmospheric moisture, ambient temperature and the ratio of pill formula were investigated on water content. The results showed that the number of pill layers and ambient temperature had significant effects on water content of pills, while the pill packing density, atmospheric moisture and pill formula ratio had little effect on the determination of water content in pills. The reflection value was stable when 6 layers of pills were used. Under the condition of 25 ℃ and 45% relative humidity, the water content of pills ranged from 4.01% to 22.38%, showing good linear relationship between water content and reflection value, and the model equation was as follows: Y=0.279X-21.670 (R²=0.997 0). Verification experiment was used to explain the feasibility of this prediction model. The precision of the method complied with the methodology standard. It is concluded that TDR can be used in determination of water content in Xiangsha Yangwei pills. Additionally, TDR, as a new way to quickly and efficiently determine the water content, has a prospect application in the processing of traditional Chinese medicine pharmacy, especially for concentrated pill. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. Histomorphological and Immunophenotypic Features of Pill-Induced Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Hwan; Kim, Won; Lee, Kook Lae; Byeon, Sun-ju; Choi, Euno; Chang, Mee Soo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate histomorphological and immunophenotypic features in pill-induced esophagitis. We comparatively evaluated the histomorphological, immunophenotypic features of pill-induced esophagitis vs. reflux esophagitis, as well as clinical information and endoscopic findings. Fifty-two tissue pieces from 22 cases of pill-induced esophagitis, 46 pieces from 20 reflux esophagitis, and 16 pieces from 14 control samples were subjected to immunohistochemistry for inflammatory infiltrates (CD3 for T lymphocyte, CD20 for B lymphocyte, CD56 for NK cell, CD68 for macrophage, CD117 for mast cell) and eosinophil chemotaxis-associated proteins (Erk, leptin, leptin receptor, pSTAT3, phospho-mTOR). As a result, Histomorphology showed that a diffuse pattern of dilated intercellular spaces was more frequently observed in pill-induced esophagitis, while reactive atypia and subepithelial papillary elongation were more often found in reflux esophagitis (P < 0.05, respectively). Interestingly, intraepithelial eosinophilic microabscess, intraepithelial pustule and diffuse pattern of dilated intercellular spaces were observed in 14% (3 cases), 9% (2 cases) and 32% (7 cases) of pill-induced esophagitis, respectively, but in no cases of reflux esophagitis. Regarding intraepithelial inflammatory infiltrates in pill-induced esophagitis, T lymphocytes were the most common cells, followed by eosinophil; 11 and 7 in one x400 power field, respectively. Intraepithelial pSTAT3-positive pattern was more frequently observed in pill-induced esophagitis than in reflux esophagitis, at 45% (10 cases) versus 10% (2 cases), respectively (P < 0.05). Considering the distal esophageal lesion only, intraepithelial pustule, diffuse dilated intercellular spaces and stromal macrophages were more frequently found in distal pill-induced esophagitis, whereas reactive atypia and intraepithelial mast cells in reflux esophagitis (P < 0.05, respectively). In conclusion, diffuse dilated

  1. Histomorphological and Immunophenotypic Features of Pill-Induced Esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Won; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Kim, Su Hwan; Kim, Won; Lee, Kook Lae; Byeon, Sun-ju; Choi, Euno; Chang, Mee Soo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate histomorphological and immunophenotypic features in pill-induced esophagitis. We comparatively evaluated the histomorphological, immunophenotypic features of pill-induced esophagitis vs. reflux esophagitis, as well as clinical information and endoscopic findings. Fifty-two tissue pieces from 22 cases of pill-induced esophagitis, 46 pieces from 20 reflux esophagitis, and 16 pieces from 14 control samples were subjected to immunohistochemistry for inflammatory infiltrates (CD3 for T lymphocyte, CD20 for B lymphocyte, CD56 for NK cell, CD68 for macrophage, CD117 for mast cell) and eosinophil chemotaxis-associated proteins (Erk, leptin, leptin receptor, pSTAT3, phospho-mTOR). As a result, Histomorphology showed that a diffuse pattern of dilated intercellular spaces was more frequently observed in pill-induced esophagitis, while reactive atypia and subepithelial papillary elongation were more often found in reflux esophagitis (P < 0.05, respectively). Interestingly, intraepithelial eosinophilic microabscess, intraepithelial pustule and diffuse pattern of dilated intercellular spaces were observed in 14% (3 cases), 9% (2 cases) and 32% (7 cases) of pill-induced esophagitis, respectively, but in no cases of reflux esophagitis. Regarding intraepithelial inflammatory infiltrates in pill-induced esophagitis, T lymphocytes were the most common cells, followed by eosinophil; 11 and 7 in one x400 power field, respectively. Intraepithelial pSTAT3-positive pattern was more frequently observed in pill-induced esophagitis than in reflux esophagitis, at 45% (10 cases) versus 10% (2 cases), respectively (P < 0.05). Considering the distal esophageal lesion only, intraepithelial pustule, diffuse dilated intercellular spaces and stromal macrophages were more frequently found in distal pill-induced esophagitis, whereas reactive atypia and intraepithelial mast cells in reflux esophagitis (P < 0.05, respectively). In conclusion, diffuse dilated

  2. Party pills and drug-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Meghan; Antia, Ushtana; Chang, Hsin-Yao; Han, Jae Young; Ibrahim, Ushtana; Tingle, Malcolm; Russell, Bruce

    2009-04-24

    This study aimed to explore the potential for drug-drug interactions involving benzylpiperazine (BZP) and trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP). This was achieved by determining the effects of BZP and TFMPP on the metabolism of drugs commonly found in the clinical setting by using pooled human liver microsomes. Incubations consisted of a probe substrate (drug of interest), a potential inhibitor (BZP or TFMPP), a suitable enzyme co-factor (NADPH), and pooled human liver microsomes. Loss of substrate was determined by analysing pre- and post-incubation concentrations in the samples by using HPLC/UV analysis. Both TFMPP and BZP were found to inhibit the metabolism of dextromethorphan, caffeine, and ethinyloestradiol. These are reported substrates of CYP2D6, CYP1A2, and CYP3A4 respectively. Greater enzyme inhibition was observed in TFMPP microsomal assays in comparison to those using BZP. The metabolism of omeprazole was not affected, suggesting that BZP and TFMPP do not have a significant inhibitory effect on CYP2C19. The inhibitory effects of BZP and TFMPP observed in this study are of potential significance to clinical practice because CYP2D6, CYP1A2, and CYP3A4 are involved in the metabolism of many commonly used drugs. Knowledge about the observed inhibitory effects will be a useful aid in preventing toxicity when drugs metabolised by these isoenzymes are taken with party pills.

  3. The pill, parity, and rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Spector, T D; Roman, E; Silman, A J

    1990-06-01

    We report on a case-control study investigating the relationship of oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use and parity to the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Women with RA were compared with 2 separate control groups, women with osteoarthritis (OA) and women randomly selected from a population-based electoral register. Nulliparity was found to be a risk factor for the development of RA, with age-adjusted odds ratios of 1.82 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-3.03) versus the OA control group and 1.83 (95% CI 1.03-3.06) versus the population control group. Use of OCPs before the age of 35 was negatively associated with RA (odds ratio 0.56, 95% CI 0.29-1.12 versus the OA control group; odds ratio 0.6, 95% CI 0.30-1.17 versus the population control group). Some evidence of a duration-response effect was seen, although the numbers were small. The 2 variables were also multiplicative, with nulliparous non-OCP users having a 4-fold risk of RA compared with parous OCP users. These findings suggest that pregnancy and OCP use have a "protective effect" on the development of RA, although the mechanism remains unclear.

  4. Brief Report: Apparent Antiretroviral Overadherence by Pill Count is Associated With HIV Treatment Failure in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Okatch, Harriet; Beiter, Kaylin; Eby, Jessica; Chapman, Jennifer; Marukutira, Tafireyi; Tshume, Ontibile; Matshaba, Mogomotsi; Anabwani, Gabriel M; Gross, Robert; Lowenthal, Elizabeth

    2016-08-15

    Pill counts with calculated adherence percentages are used in many settings to monitor adherence, but can be undermined by patients discarding pills to hide nonadherence. Pill counts suggesting that >100% of prescribed doses were taken can signal "pill dumping." We defined "overadherence" among a cohort of 300 HIV-infected adolescents as having greater than one-third of pill counts with >100% adherence during a year of follow-up. Apparent overadherence was more common in those with virologic failure than in those with suppressed viral loads (33% vs 13%, χ P = 0.001). Pill count adherence repeatedly >100% may identify HIV-infected adolescents at increased risk of treatment failure.

  5. Monitoring Location and Angular Orientation of a Pill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schipper, John F.

    2012-01-01

    A mobile pill transmitter system moves through, or adjacent to, one or more organs in an animal or human body, while transmitting signals from its present location and/or present angular orientation. The system also provides signals from which the present roll angle of the pill, about a selected axis, can be determined. When the location coordinates angular orientation and the roll angle of the pill are within selected ranges, an aperture on the pill container releases a selected chemical into, or onto, the body. Optionally, the pill, as it moves, provides a sequence of visually perceptible images. The times for image formation may correspond to times at which the pill transmitter system location or image satisfies one of at least four criteria. This invention provides and supplies an algorithm for exact determination of location coordinates and angular orientation coordinates for a mobile pill transmitter (PT), or other similar device that is introduced into, and moves within, a GI tract of a human or animal body. A set of as many as eight nonlinear equations has been developed and applied, relating propagation of a wireless signal between either two, three, or more transmitting antennas located on the PT, to four or more non-coplanar receiving antennas located on a signal receiver appliance worn by the user. The equations are solved exactly, without approximations or iterations, and are applied in several environments: (1) association of a visual image, transmitted by the PT at each of a second sequence of times, with a PT location and PT angular orientation at that time; (2) determination of a position within the body at which a drug or chemical substance or other treatment is to be delivered to a selected portion of the body; (3) monitoring, after delivery, of the effect(s) of administration of the treatment; and (4) determination of one or more positions within the body where provision and examination of a finer-scale image is warranted.

  6. Women seeking emergency contraceptive pills by using the internet.

    PubMed

    Wu, Justine; Gipson, Teresa; Chin, Nancy; Wynn, L L; Cleland, Kelly; Morrison, Coleen; Trussell, James

    2007-07-01

    To assess barriers and attitudes related to emergency contraception access among women seeking emergency contraceptive pills by using the Internet. We conducted quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews of 200 women seeking emergency contraceptive pills from The Emergency Contraceptive Website (http://ec.princeton.edu). Main outcome measures included barriers to and attitudes toward emergency contraception access. Participants were predominately white, college-educated, urban residents. Women most frequently cited structural barriers to obtaining emergency contraceptive pills, such as inconvenient office hours. Although women supported advanced prescription of emergency contraceptive pills, there was less enthusiasm for nonprescription access because of concerns that others (but not they) would engage in risky sexual behavior. Women valued the consultation with a health professional; 42% stated they would still speak with a clinician even if nonprescription access was available. The Internet as a resource for emergency contraception appears limited to women of high socioeconomic status in our sample. There is a need to address beliefs that increased access to emergency contraception promotes risky sexual behavior because current evidence refutes this concern. Clinicians should still be prepared to discuss emergency contraception with patients, despite the fact that emergency contraceptive pills are now available to most (but not all) women without a prescription.

  7. EPR study on non- and gamma-irradiated herbal pills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksieva, K.; Lagunov, O.; Dimov, K.; Yordanov, N. D.

    2011-06-01

    The results of EPR studies on herbal pills of marigold, hawthorn, yarrow, common balm, tutsan, nettle and thyme before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation all samples exhibit one weak singlet EPR line with a g-factor of 2.0048±0.0005. After irradiation herbal pills could be separated in two groups according to their EPR spectra. Radiation-induced free radicals in pills of marigold, yarrow, nettle, tutsan and thyme could be attributed mainly to saccharide excipients. Tablets of hawthorn and common balm show "cellulose-like" EPR spectrum, superimposed on partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum, due to the active part (herb) and inulin, which is present in the pills as an excipient. Fading study of the radiation-induced EPR signals confirms that sugar radicals are more stable than cellulose species. The reported results show that the presence of characteristic EPR spectra of herbal pills due to excipients or active part can be used as unambiguous proof of radiation processing within 35 or more days after irradiation.

  8. Uganda women shy away from the pill.

    PubMed

    Sekatawa, E K

    1993-01-01

    According to the 1988/89 Demographic and Health Survey of Uganda (UDHS), over 80% of women of reproductive age were acquainted with how to obtain family planning methods. 33% of married women wanted to postpone childbearing, and 19% wanted no more children at all. In spite of this, the survey also showed that only 2.7% were currently using a modern method of contraception, and 7% had ever tried one. Most of these women were aged 20-40 years, and they were married with 4 or more children, lived in urban areas, and had at least primary school education. One of the barriers was poor information about modern methods such as injectables, IUDs, vasectomy, and spermicides. They knew only about pills and female sterilization. In addition, 40% of married women stated that their husbands disapproved of family planning (FP), and the medical community had not promoted FP as an alternative to pregnancy complications. The Family Planning Association of Uganda (FPAU) has recruited 33% of all FP acceptors, and government services another 42%. FPAU has only 17 clinics, and staff strength would have to be expanded to 150 providers, instead of the existing 40 service providers, to meet the demand. The poor, rural population is hard to reach. 76% of public health staff was located in urban areas serving only 11% of the total population. Most trained nurses and midwives have not been deployed to maternal-child health and FP delivery points. The side effects of contraceptives are also often exaggerated, leading to discontinuation with a current drop-out rate of 30%. Training for service providers requires practice: 15 IUDs have to be inserted before being certified competent in the procedure. In Kampala, there are an average of 250 IUD acceptors a month, thus training is compromised with fewer insertions. The lack of equipment is another hindrance, and students have to be taught using models.

  9. PILL AVERSION IN HIV-INFECTED PREGNANT WOMEN: THEORY TO PRACTICE

    PubMed Central

    Dorman, Robin M; Yee, Lynn M; Sutton, Sarah H

    2016-01-01

    In our perinatal HIV cohort we have observed difficulty swallowing pills as a frequent and significant barrier to adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy. We refer to this problem as pill aversion and define it as difficulty swallowing pills with no persistent medical or structural cause as well as the anxiety and physical symptoms associated with pill swallowing. By applying cognitive behavioral theory to behavioral patterns within our pregnant HIV-infected population, we seek to better understand the development and reinforcement of pill aversion behavior. Based upon this theory, our experience, and the pediatric pill swallowing literature, we propose a conceptual framework for understanding the multiple causes of pill aversion and applying therapeutic interventions to a perinatal population. In a theoretical discussion we address the roles of classical conditioning and cognitive theory in the development and experience of pill aversion in an HIV-infected pregnant population. We propose future steps for characterizing these behaviors and testing theories and interventions. PMID:27735932

  10. Imported Fenproporex-based Diet Pills from Brazil: A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Banned amphetamine-based anorectics are illicitly imported into the United States (US), but little is known regarding the harm these diet pills pose to US residents. A 26-year-old woman using imported diet pills presented with a two-year history of intermittent chest pains, palpitations, headaches and insomnia. Urine toxicology screen detected amphetamines and benzodiazepines. Fenproporex and chlordiazepoxide were detected in her pills. Her symptoms resolved after she stopped using diet pills. A 38-year-old man using imported diet pills presented after his occupational urine screen was significantly positive for amphetamine. Fenproporex and fluoxetine were detected in his pills. These cases illustrate the potential harm from imported prescription diet pills that combine fenproporex with benzodiazepines, antidepressants, diuretics, laxatives and other substances. Increasing physicians’ awareness of imported diet pill use may improve care of patients suffering from the pills’ many adverse effects. PMID:19096898

  11. Sbaa basin: A new oil-producing regino in Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Baghdadli, S.M.

    1988-08-01

    Discovery of a paraffinic oil in 1980 in the Adrar area, the west part of the Algerian Sahara within the Sbaa half-graben depression, opens a new oil- and gas-bearing region in Algeria. The oil and gas fields are located on highly faulted structures generated by differential movements of basement blocks. Oil deposits are connected with tidal sandy sediments of Strunian and Tournaisian age and occur at depths of 500 to 1,000 m (1,640 to 3,280 ft). Gas and wet gas deposits are related to sandstone reservoirs of Cambrian-Ordovician age at depths of 1,500 to 2,000 m (4,920 to 6,562 ft).

  12. The effect of cool water ingestion on gastrointestinal pill temperature.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, David M; Carter, James M; Richmond, Victoria L; Blacker, Sam D; Rayson, Mark P

    2008-03-01

    Telemetric gastrointestinal (GI) temperature pills are now commonly used to measure core body temperature and could minimize the risk of heat illness while maximizing operational effectiveness in workers subject to high levels of thermal strain. To quantify the effect of repeated cool water ingestion on the accuracy of GI pill temperature. Ten operational firefighters ingested a pill to measure GI temperature (T1int) before overnight sleep. Two hours following breakfast and 11.5 h after ingesting T1int, the firefighters ingested a second pill (T2int) before performing 8.5 h of intermittent activity (repetitive cycles of 30 min of seated rest followed by 30 min of general firefighter duties). During the first 2 min of each 30-min rest period, the firefighters consumed 250 mL of chilled water (5-8 degrees C). Water ingestion had a highly variable effect both within and between subjects in transiently (32 +/- 10 min) reducing the temperature of T2int in comparison with T1int. In general, this transient reduction in T2int became progressively smaller as time following ingestion increased. In some firefighters, the difference between T1int and T2int became negligible (+/- 0.1 degrees C) after 3 h, whereas in two others, large differences (peaking at 2.0 degrees C and 6.3 degrees C) were still observed when water was consumed 8 h after pill ingestion. These results show that a GI pill ingested immediately prior to physical activity cannot be used to measure core body temperature accurately in all individuals during the following 8 h when cool fluids are regularly ingested. This makes GI temperature measurement unsuitable for workers who respond to emergency deployments when regular fluid consumption is recommended operational practice.

  13. Provision of emergency contraceptive pills at college and university student health centers in Florida.

    PubMed

    Hemmick, Rob S; McCarthy, Susan K

    2007-01-01

    Provision of emergency contraceptive (EC) pills at Florida university and college student health centers was examined. Practices related to dosages, pill brands, advance prescriptions, restrictions, written policy, printed materials, routine contraceptive counseling, and publicity were identified. Barriers for centers not providing EC pills and practices were also determined.

  14. Frequency and severity of premenstrual symptoms in women taking birth control pills.

    PubMed

    Yuk, V J; Cumming, C E; Fox, E E; Cumming, D C

    1991-01-01

    A retrospective study of a wide range of premenstrual symptomatology using the Premenstrual Assessment Form found little difference between women taking a low-dose birth control pill and non-pill-takers. These data are in keeping with older, but narrower, studies of women taking high-dose pills and raise questions about mechanisms of symptomatic and subclinical premenstrual changes.

  15. Berlex introduces new 20 mcg birth control pill.

    PubMed

    1998-11-01

    Another low-dose oral contraceptive (OC), Levlite, has received US Food and Drug Administration approval. Levlite, manufactured by Berlex Laboratories, contains 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 100 mcg levonorgestrel. Alesse, an OC manufactured by Wyeth-Ayerst, has the same components. Two other OCs--Loestrin and Mircette--contain 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol, but differ in their progestin component or dose. A pill containing 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol provides women with 33% less estrogen than a 30-mcg pill. Clinical trials involving 755 US women confirmed that Levlite provides high contraceptive efficacy with good cycle control. Headache, reported by 17.3% of study participants, was the most common side effect.

  16. Pills, Thrills and Bellyaches: Case Studies of Prescription Pill Use and Misuse among Marijuana/Blunt Smoking Middle Class Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Bardhi, Flutura; Sifaneck, Stephen J.; Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise

    2008-01-01

    Recent survey research has documented important increases during the 2000s in the misuse and abuse of several prescription drugs (Vicodin, Percocet, Codeine, Dilaudid, Xanax, Klonopin, Valium, Ativan, Adderall, Ritalin, among others). This article focuses upon the patterns of pill use and misuse among young women who are middle-class white and college-educated, and they are also experienced marijuana users who report recreational consumption of other illegal drugs. The ethnographic data provides insights about various ways and reasons that such prescription pill misuse occurs among 12 college-educated, (upper) middle-class, white/Asian women in their 20s who were involved in a major ethnographic study of marijuana and blunts. Three patterns of pill use were observed: recreational; quasi-medical; and legal medical; shifts among these patterns of pill use was common. Few reported that their pill use interfered with their conventional jobs and lifestyles; they concealed such use from their employers and coworkers, and from non-using friends and family members. None reported contacts with police nor seeking treatment specifically for their pill misuse. Many reported misusing prescription pills in conjunction with illegal drugs (marijuana, cocaine, ecstasy) and alcohol. Pills were used as a way to enhance the euphoric effects of other drugs, as well as a way to avoid the negative side effects of illegal drugs. Some reported pill use as a means for reducing expenditures (and use of) alcohol and cocaine. The implications suggest a hidden subpopulation of prescription pill misusers among regular users of marijuana and other illegal drugs. Future research should include users and misusers of various pills to better understand how prescriptions pills interact with illegal drug use patterns. PMID:19081798

  17. Teaching children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autistic disorder (AD) how to swallow pills.

    PubMed

    Beck, Melissa H; Cataldo, Marilyn; Slifer, Keith J; Pulbrook, Valerie; Guhman, Jaswinder K

    2005-01-01

    One barrier to medication adherence in pediatric populations is difficulty swallowing pills. Some children may not have prerequisite skills for pill swallowing, while others may have developed conditioned anxiety from repeated negative experiences. Eight children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or autistic disorder participated in behavioral training to increase cooperation with pill swallowing. A pill-swallowing protocol was utilized during practice sessions with placebo "pills" of increasing size to implement systematic desensitization. Seven of the 8 children swallowed medication with a therapist. Six of the 8 children maintained treatment gains over time. Interventions used to succeed with these children are presented along with methods to reduce conditioned behavioral distress.

  18. Birth Control Pills and Nonprofessional Voice: Acoustic Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Ofer; Biron-Shental, Tal; Shabtai, Esther

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies are presented here. Study 1 was aimed at evaluating whether the voice characteristics of women who use birth control pills that contain different progestins differ from the voice characteristics of a control group. Study 2 presents a meta-analysis that combined the results of Study 1 with those from 3 recent studies that…

  19. Teaching through Trade Books: Roly-Poly Pill Bugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Emily; Ansberry, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Pill bugs, also called roly-polies, are small terrestrial isopods that are abundant in temperate areas throughout the world. Because they are engaging, harmless, and easily collected, they provide an excellent opportunity for children to learn about invertebrate body parts, behaviors, and information processing. This column includes activities…

  20. Ingestible Thermometer Pill Aids Athletes in Beating the Heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Developed by Goddard Space Flight Center and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory to monitor the core body temperature of astronauts during space flight, the ingestible "thermometer pill" has a silicone-coated exterior, with a microbattery, a quartz crystal temperature sensor, a space-aged telemetry system, and microminiaturized circuitry on the interior.

  1. A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials

    ScienceCinema

    Abergel, Rebecca

    2016-07-12

    Berkeley Lab's Rebecca Abergel discusses "A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas. Go here to watch the entire event with all 8 speakers:

  2. [The NHG guideline 'Sleep problems and sleeping pills'].

    PubMed

    Damen-van Beek, Zamire; Lucassen, Peter L B J; Gorgels, Wim; Smelt, Antonette F H; Knuistingh Neven, Arie; Bouma, Margriet

    2015-01-01

    The Dutch College of General Practitioners' (NHG) guideline 'Sleep problems and sleeping pills' provides recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of the most prevalent sleep problems and for the management of chronic users of sleeping pills. The preferred approach for sleeplessness is not to prescribe medication but to give information and behavioural advice. Practice assistants of the Dutch Association of Mental Health and Addiction Care are also expected to be able to undertake this management. The GP may consider prescribing sleeping pills for a short period only in cases of severe insomnia with considerable distress. Chronic users of sleeping pills should be advised by the GP to stop using them or to reduce the dose gradually (controlled dose reduction). The GP may refer patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) to a pulmonary or ear, nose and throat specialist or neurologist for further diagnosis depending on the regional arrangements. The GP may then consider the cardiovascular risk factors commonly present with OSA. In patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) who continue to experience major distress despite being given advice without the prescription of medication, the GP may consider prescribing a dopamine agonist.

  3. Fabric Pilling Image Segmentation Based on Mean Shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Junfeng; Kang, Xuejuan

    Fabric appearance is always considered to be one of the most important aspects of fabric quality. Testing for fabric appearance is the process of inspecting, measuring and evaluating characteristics and properties of a fabric surface. Fabric Pilling is a key step in fabric pilling objective evaluation,which is the important component of textile performance test digitization.Image analysis has been widely accepted as an objetive mothod for evaluating fabric appearance.This study presents the principles of new method of fabric pilling image segmenttation based on mean shift.The principle of mean shift was demonstrated, and the extend principle of mean shift was educed. The extended mean shift algorithm was used to try to solve the segmentation of fabric pilling image.In this issue, two main steps were introduced: the filting of image and the segmentation of image. The influences of three parameters to the segmentation effect were analysised. The laboratory result shows that the proposed algorithm can get excellent segmentation after chosen three better parameters.

  4. Birth Control Pills and Nonprofessional Voice: Acoustic Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Ofer; Biron-Shental, Tal; Shabtai, Esther

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies are presented here. Study 1 was aimed at evaluating whether the voice characteristics of women who use birth control pills that contain different progestins differ from the voice characteristics of a control group. Study 2 presents a meta-analysis that combined the results of Study 1 with those from 3 recent studies that…

  5. A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Abergel, Rebecca

    2013-10-31

    Berkeley Lab's Rebecca Abergel discusses "A pill to treat people exposed to radioactive materials" in this Oct. 28, 2013 talk, which is part of a Science at the Theater event entitled Eight Big Ideas. Go here to watch the entire event with all 8 speakers:

  6. Teaching through Trade Books: Roly-Poly Pill Bugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Emily; Ansberry, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Pill bugs, also called roly-polies, are small terrestrial isopods that are abundant in temperate areas throughout the world. Because they are engaging, harmless, and easily collected, they provide an excellent opportunity for children to learn about invertebrate body parts, behaviors, and information processing. This column includes activities…

  7. Association between birth control pills and voice quality.

    PubMed

    Amir, Ofer; Kishon-Rabin, Liat

    2004-06-01

    The objective was to extend our knowledge of the effect of birth control pills on voice quality in women based on various acoustic measures. A longitudinal comparative study of 14 healthy young women over a 36- to 45-day period. Voices of seven women who used birth control pills and seven women who did not were recorded repeatedly approximately 20 times. Voice samples were analyzed acoustically, using an extended set of frequency perturbation parameters (jitter, relative average perturbation, pitch period perturbation quotient), amplitude perturbation parameters (shimmer, amplitude average perturbation quotient), and noise indices (noise-to-harmonics ratio, voice turbulence index). Voice quality and stability were found to be better among the women who used birth control pills. Lower values were found for all acoustic measures with the exception of voice turbulence index. Results also provided preliminary indication for vocal changes associated with the days preceding ovulation. In contrast to the traditional view of oral contraceptives as a risk factor for voice quality, and in keeping with the authors' previous work, the data in the present study showed that not only did oral contraceptives have no adverse effect on voice quality but, in effect, most acoustic measures showed improved voice quality among women who used the birth control pill. The differences in the noise indices between groups may also shed light on the nature of the effect of sex hormones on vocal fold activity. It was suggested that hormonal fluctuations may have more of an effect on vocal fold regulation of vibration than on glottal adduction.

  8. Salt Pill Design and Fabrication for Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter J.; Mccammon, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The performance of an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is critically dependent on the design and construction of the salt pills that produce cooling. In most cases, the primary goal is to obtain the largest cooling capacity at the low temperature end of the operating range. The realizable cooling capacity depends on a number of factors, including refrigerant mass, and how efficiently it absorbs heat from the various instrument loads. The design and optimization of "salt pills" for ADR systems depend not only on the mechanical, chemical and thermal properties of the refrigerant, but also on the range of heat fluxes that the salt pill must accommodate. Despite the fairly wide variety of refrigerants available, those used at very low temperature tend to be hydrated salts that require a dedicated thermal bus and must be hermetically sealed, while those used at higher temperature - greater than about 0.5 K - tend to be single-­- or poly-­-crystals that have much simpler requirements for thermal and mechanical packaging. This paper presents a summary of strategies and techniques for designing, optimizing and fabricating salt pills for both low-­- and mid-­-temperature applications.

  9. Imported compounded diet pill use among Brazilian women immigrants in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Pieter A; McCormick, Danny; Casey, Carolyn; Dawson, Glen F; Hacker, Karen A

    2009-06-01

    In Brazil, compounded diet pills that combine amphetamines, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, diuretics and laxatives are often prescribed. In 2006, the Food and Drug Administration banned their sale in the United States (US) citing substantial safety concerns. This study evaluates the prevalence of, and factors associated with, use of these pills among Brazilian immigrant women aged 18-50. Pill use was assessed at one clinic and two churches using an anonymous survey (n = 307). While living in the US, 18% of clinic respondents and 9% of church respondents reported using these diet pills. Nearly two thirds of pill users reported adverse effects. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, being unmarried, college educated, dissatisfied with current weight, and advised by a US physician to lose weight were associated with greater odds of imported diet pill use. To enhance care of Brazilian immigrants, US physicians should become familiar with the health consequences of imported diet pills from Brazil.

  10. Determination and application of location and angular orientation of a pill transmitter within a body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A mobile pill transmitter system that moves through or adjacent to one or more organs in an animal's body and that provides signals from which the pill's present location and/or present angular orientation can be determined. The system also provides signals from which the present roll angle of the pill, about a selected axis, can be determined. When the location coordinates and the roll angle of the pill are within selected ranges, an aperture on the pill container releases a selected chemical into or onto the body. Optionally, the pill as it moves also provides a sequence of visually perceptible images; the times for image formation may correspond to times at which the pill transmitter system location or image satisfies one or at least four different criteria.

  11. Discussing Smart Pills versus Endorsing Smart Pills: Reply to Swanson, Wigal, and Volkow (2011) and Elliott and Elliott (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farah, Martha J.; Smith, M. Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    We find much of interest, and little to disagree with, in the commentaries on our article. We take issue only with the suggestion that our article was provocative and submit that the attempt to understand the use of stimulants as smart pills does not imply an endorsement of the practice.

  12. The combined oral contraceptive pill -- recent developments, risks and benefits.

    PubMed

    Dragoman, Monica V

    2014-08-01

    The introduction of the birth control pill as an effective, coitally-independent method of contraception was a public health milestone of the last century. Over time, combined oral contraception (COC) formulations and pill-taking regimens have evolved with improved safety and tolerability while maintaining contraceptive efficacy. In addition to protection against pregnancy, use of combined oral contraception confers a number of significant non-contraceptive benefits to users. COC use is also associated with well-studied risks. Common side effects are generally self-limiting and improve with increasing duration of use while serious adverse events, including venous thromboembolism, are rare among healthy COC users. Contraceptive decision-making should include consideration of both the risks and benefits of a given method versus the real consequences of unintended pregnancy.

  13. [An idolized pill: a pill to be gilded...or resistance to oral contraception].

    PubMed

    Debout, M

    1982-06-01

    Contraception can be perceived by a woman either as a subjugation to socioeconomic imperatives or as a means of escaping the fate of repeated pregnancies or abortions. Whether contraception liberates or constrains depends on the individual attitude. In France, decision of whether to have a child is influenced by the couple's perception of cultural norms such as the ideal 4-member family proposed by advertisers, the organization of collective life, and the design of consumer goods such as 4-seat automobiles. The 2-child norm is rapidly becoming internalized, but may be influenced by such societal factors as declining employment opportunities for women which prompt them to reassume the career of motherhood. Among sources of resistence to contraception are those stemming from the physician who may be reluctant to prescribe potent drugs with obvious societal implications to a healthy woman. The patient seeking cure of an ailment and the patient seeking OCs have completely different psychological encounters with the physician in the position of furnishing supplies rather than of diagnosing and explaining treatment. The resulting loss of power may frustrate some physicians. The woman may however return power to the physician by demanding reassurances about the medical aspects of pill use. Concern about the possibility of thromboses or other side effects also serves to return the OC consultation to the realm of a more traditional medical practice. The attitude of the physician can reinforce resistence of the woman to contraception or provide a scientific rationalization for it. Taking the pill daily, a regular reminder to the woman that she is suppressing her maternal potential, is a cause of stress and perhaps of forgetfulness for some women. OCs, because of their efficacy, may not be seen merely as the means of suspending the procreative function for a given time, but as suppressing and negating it permanently. Women who for various reasons are disturbed by the loss of

  14. The aftermath of a pill scare: regression to reassurance.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, W O

    1999-01-01

    In October 1995, following confidential exchanges of findings among investigators in several epidemiological studies, the UK Medicines Control Agency sent a 'Dear Doctor' letter to all clinical practitioners in the country. The letter alerted them to the possibility of an excess risk of venous thromboembolism among women taking combined oral contraceptives (OC) with the 'newer' progestins, notably desogestrel and gestodene. The communication provoked a major pill scare, not just in the United Kingdom but in other countries. The preliminary and unpublished findings from the four initial 1995-96 studies reported odds ratios (OR) ranging from 1.5 to 23 in the point estimates. These are very low relative risks but were communicated in a way that the public perceived as a 'doubling of the risks'. In the 3 years since the pill scare, additional research has been done. First, deliberate and careful analysis of some of the studies and replication of others have shown that the epidemiological investigations were affected by unavoidable systematic error. Three types of bias were demonstrated empirically, namely, prescription bias, referral bias and healthy user effect or attrition of susceptibles. All those biases would tend to drive OR spuriously upwards. Additional epidemiological studies have progressively shown lower ORs, some of them under the threshold of 1.0, i.e. 'no association'. Two major consensus assessments, one carried out by a World Health Organization Scientific Group and another undertaken by the International Federation of Fertility Societies, both attach little importance to differences between older (second generation) combined OC and newer ones (third generation). This paper is a synthesis of all published evidence since October 1995, at the time of the pill scare and in the 3 years since. In conclusion, all combined oral contraceptive pills are equally safe.

  15. Salt pill design and fabrication for adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirron, Peter J.; McCammon, Dan

    2014-07-01

    The performance of an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is critically dependent on the design and construction of the salt pills that produce cooling. In most cases, the primary goal is to obtain the largest cooling capacity at the low temperature end of the operating range. The realizable cooling capacity depends on a number of factors, including refrigerant mass, and how efficiently it absorbs heat from the various instrument loads. The design and optimization of “salt pills” for ADR systems depend not only on the mechanical, chemical and thermal properties of the refrigerant, but also on the range of heat fluxes that the salt pill must accommodate. Despite the fairly wide variety of refrigerants available, those used at very low temperature tend to be hydrated salts that require a dedicated thermal bus and must be hermetically sealed, while those used at higher temperature - greater than about 0.5 K - tend to be single- or poly-crystals that have much simpler requirements for thermal and mechanical packaging. This paper presents a summary of strategies and techniques for designing, optimizing and fabricating salt pills for both low- and mid-temperature applications.

  16. Menstrual suppression for combat operations: advantages of oral contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Powell-Dunford, Nicole C; Cuda, Amanda S; Moore, Jeffrey L; Crago, Mark S; Kelly, Amanda M; Deuster, Patricia A

    2011-01-01

    increasing numbers of women are deployed to austere settings in which menstruation may impose logistical challenges. Minimal data exists about the use of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) for menstrual suppression in this population. Post-deployment survey was undertaken to establish prevalence of continuous OCP use, perceived barriers, and associations with menstrual burden in a military population within the austere environment. voluntary and anonymous 44-item questionnaire. of 500 women, 78% (n = 390) had personal experience using OCPs and 66% (n = 330) desired menstrual suppression. However, only 40% (n = 192) reported any OCP use and only 21% (n = 99) reported continuous use during deployment. Sixty-seven percent of women reported some difficulty in daily pill compliance and nearly half (45%) missed ≥ 1 pill per week in the austere setting. Continuous users were nearly twice as compliant as conventional users (p = .019) and compliant OCP users reported significantly less menstrual burden than noncompliant users (p = .017). Almost all women (85%) desired mandatory education about menstrual suppression through OCPs. despite OCP experience and desire for amenorrhea, prevalence of extended cycle OCP use in this population is low. Extended OCPs users in the austere setting report improved compliance and reduced menstrual burden compared with conventional users. Education about OCPs is highly desirable for most military women and may benefit those in austere settings. 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. A comparison of patient adherence and preference of packaging method for oral anticancer agents using conventional pill bottles versus daily pill boxes.

    PubMed

    Macintosh, P W; Pond, G R; Pond, B J; Leung, V; Siu, L L

    2007-07-01

    Adherence to medications is an important issue in oncology due to the increasing number of anticancer agents, such as targeted therapies, formulated for oral dosing. A prospective, crossover design was utilized in which patients on capecitabine were randomly assigned to one of two packaging methods for one cycle, and then switched over to the alternate packaging method in the subsequent cycle. Twenty-five patients were accrued to this study. Adherence rates were similar when using the daily pill boxes (17/21 = 81%) and when using the conventional pill bottles (18/21 = 86%). However, more patients were satisfied with the daily pill boxes (61% versus 11%, P = 0.027), preferred the daily pill boxes (61% versus 17%, P = 0.061), and thought the daily pill boxes were more helpful in reminding them to take their medications (50% versus 11%, P = 0.070). In conclusion, this small pilot study did not demonstrate that the use of daily pill boxes improved patient adherence with capecitabine, but patient satisfaction and preference for this packaging method were greater than for the conventional pill bottles. Further exploration of this intervention in a larger study is warranted.

  18. Little knowledge and limited practice: emergency contraceptive pills, the public, and the obstetrician-gynecologist.

    PubMed

    Delbanco, S F; Mauldon, J; Smith, M D

    1997-06-01

    To assess Americans' knowledge and attitudes about emergency contraceptive pills and the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of obstetrician-gynecologists with respect to emergency contraceptive pills. A random sample of a national cross-section of 2002 Americans, age 18 and older, including 1000 women and 1002 men, was surveyed by telephone between October 12 and November 13, 1994. A nationally representative sample of 307 obstetrician-gynecologists, whose names were drawn from the American Medical Association Physicians' Masterfile, was surveyed by telephone between February 1 and March 21, 1995. Both Surveys addressed knowledge and attitudes about unplanned pregnancy and contraception options, including emergency contraception. Despite response rates of 50 and 77%, respectively, both unweighted samples closely mirror the populations from which they were drawn. Americans are not well informed about emergency contraceptive pills. Only 36% of respondents indicated that they knew "anything could be done" within a few days after unprotected sex to prevent pregnancy. Fifty-five percent said they had "heard of" emergency contraceptive pills, and only 1% had ever used them. Ninety-nine percent of obstetrician-gynecologists reported being "familiar" with emergency contraceptive pills. Twenty-two percent were "somewhat familiar." Among those who said they were "very familiar" with the method (77%), the majority considered emergency contraceptive pills to be "very safe" (88%) and "very effective" (85%). Overall, 70% of obstetrician-gynecologists surveyed said they had prescribed emergency contraceptive pills within the last year, but on an infrequent basis; 77% of those who prescribed emergency contraceptive pills did so five or fewer times. Public knowledge about the availability and use of emergency contraceptive pills is limited, as is the practice of prescribing the pills among obstetrician-gynecologists. Because patients rely on health care providers for information

  19. The oral contraceptive pill: a revolution for sportswomen?

    PubMed Central

    Bennell, K.; White, S.; Crossley, K.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) on skeletal health, soft tissue injury, and performance in female athletes. METHODS: A literature review was performed using literature retrieval methods to locate relevant studies. RESULTS: Most female athletes primarily choose to use the OCP for contraceptive purposes, but cycle manipulation and control of premenstrual symptoms are secondary advantages of its use. The effect of the OCP on bone density in normally menstruating women is unclear, with some studies reporting no effect, others a positive effect, and some even a negative effect. The OCP is often prescribed for the treatment of menstrual disturbances in female athletes, and improvements in bone density may result. Whether the OCP influences the risk of stress fracture and soft tissue injuries is not clear from research to date. Effects of the OCP on performance are particularly relevant for elite sportswomen. Although a reduction in Vo2MAX has been reported in some studies, this may not necessarily translate to impaired performance in the field. Moreover, some studies claim that the OCP may well enhance performance by reducing premenstrual symptoms and menstrual blood loss. A fear of weight gain with the use of the OCP is not well founded, as population studies report no effect on weight, particularly with the lower dose pills currently available. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the advantages of the pill for sportswomen would appear to outweigh any potential disadvantages. Nevertheless, there is individual variation in response to the OCP and these should be taken into account and monitored in the clinical situation. Women should be counselled as to the range of potential benefits and disadvantages in order to make an informed decision based on individual circumstances. 


 PMID:10450476

  20. Factors predicting mood changes in oral contraceptive pill users

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Over 100 million women worldwide are using oral contraceptives pills (OCP) and mood changes were being as the primary reason for OCP discontinuation. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and predicting factors of mood changes in oral contraceptive pills users. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 500 women aged 15–49 years old using low dose (LD) pills attending family planning centers in Ahwaz, Iran. Data were collected via face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire including items on demographic, self-efficacy and mood change. Both univarate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between reported mood change and the independent variables. Results In all 406 women reported that they did experience OCP side effects. Of these, 37.7% of women (n =153) reported mood changes due to OCP use. The results of multiple logistic regression revealed that place of living (OR =2.57, 95% CI = 1.06-6.20, p =0.03), not receiving information on OCP side effects (OR =1.80, 95% CI = 1.15-2.80, p =0.009), and lower self-efficacy (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.80-0.94, p =0.001) were significant predictors of mood changes. Conclusion The findings from this study indicated that the prevalence of reported mood changes due to OCP use among Iranian women appeared to be consistent with other studies. In addition the findings showed that receiving information on OCP side effects from health care workers and self-efficacy were important predicting factors for mood changes. Indeed implementing educational programs and improving self-efficacy among women are recommended. PMID:24015872

  1. University students' knowledge and attitudes toward emergency contraception pills.

    PubMed

    Downing, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess university students' knowledge and attitudes toward emergency contraception pills (ECPs). A written survey was administered to a convenience sample at a university. Study findings showed favorable student attitudes toward ECP and poor knowledge levels. Knowledge and attitude scores were not influenced by gender. Students who reported receiving health care provider ECP counseling had more positive attitudes toward ECP than those who did not receive counseling, but no knowledge level difference existed. More research is needed on methods to educate students on ECP and on the relationship between knowledge, attitudes and ECP utilization.

  2. [Serious adverse effect of combined oral contraceptive pills among teenagers].

    PubMed

    Nylander, Malin Chatarina; Clausen, Helle V

    2014-06-23

    PubMed-search found studies investigating adverse effects of combined oral contraceptive pills (COC) among teenagers. Four studies found a small negative impact of COC on acquisition of bone mineral density. COC is associated with elevated risk of venous thrombotic events (VTE), especially during the first year of usage. VTE risk increases with EE dose and progestin of 3rd and 4th generation. There are several difficulties in studying COC use in teenagers: high dropout rates, ethical considerations and many different COC formulas.

  3. Oral contraceptive pills: considerations for the adolescent patient.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, P F; Daley, A M

    2000-01-01

    Combined oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) are the most commonly prescribed method of birth control for adolescents. This article presents an overview of OCP pharmacology and summarizes the different types of OCPs. The initial patient evaluation and subsequent care are described, with a focus on management plans specific to adolescents. Emergency contraception, an alternative use of OCPs, is described as well. A thorough knowledge of OCPs and an appreciation of adolescent-specific management plans will enhance nurse practitioners' skills in preventing pregnancy in their adolescent patients.

  4. Wine, alcohol and pills: What future for the French paradox?

    PubMed

    Biagi, Marco; Bertelli, Alberto A E

    2015-06-15

    The present review discusses the acquisitions obtained to date on the subject of wine consumption, health and cardiovascular protection. We distinguished the cardiovascular effects related to the consumption of wine and other alcoholic beverages focusing on non-alcoholic wine fraction: polyphenols and especially resveratrol. In the second part of the review we have addressed the issue of resveratrol bioavailability and the importance of wine matrix and phytocomplex highlighting the biological effects that can be obtained with nutraceuticals and resveratrol pills compared to the daily consumption of a glass of red wine.

  5. The birth control pill, thromboembolic disease, science and the media: a historical review of the relationship.

    PubMed

    Lackie, Elyse; Fairchild, Amy

    2016-10-01

    The introduction of the birth control pill (the Pill) in 1960 revolutionized the options for contraception, sparking vibrant discussion in the scientific and social science literature and in the media. Much attention focused on issues of women's rights, including ethics and personal choice. But the Pill also introduced new questions about risk. Shortly after its introduction, the risk of thromboembolic disease was recognized [1]. After more than half a century, controversies about the relationship between the Pill and thromboembolic disease have persisted. The scientific and media communities have been active in the discussion, debate and delivery of information about this risk. Scientific and public attention to thromboembolism and the Pill has had dramatic consequences, both good and bad. The spotlight on risk has helped to change norms regarding the public's right to know and assess dangers; it has sparked Pill scares linked to increased unplanned pregnancy, birth and abortion rates; and it has led to a change in federally mandated policies regarding how new contraceptive products are studied and brought to market. This paper charts the narrative of the thromboembolic risk of the Pill from its introduction in 1960 until today and reviews the corresponding media response to this history. How does the story of the thromboembolic risk of the Pill - explored through the lens of science, media and contemporary social dynamics - frame contemporary understanding of risk for researchers, clinicians, individuals and the public?

  6. Expectancy effect: impact of pill administration on cognitive performance in healthy seniors.

    PubMed

    Oken, Barry S; Flegal, Kristin; Zajdel, Daniel; Kishiyama, Shirley; Haas, Mitchell; Peters, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    Expectancy or placebo effects on cognitive function have not been well studied. To determine the effect of taking pills on cognitive function, 40 participants were randomly assigned to a pill or no-pill condition. Healthy seniors who took a 2-week supply of methylcellulose pills, which they were told was an experimental cognitive enhancer, were compared to seniors not taking any pills. There were 2 primary outcome measures defined prior to the study-Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) Word List delayed recall and Stroop color word task time-as well as 7 other cognitive outcome measures. There was a significant effect of pill taking on the 2 primary outcome measures. There was also an effect of pill taking on choice reaction time and Word List immediate recall but not on the other 5 secondary cognitive outcome measures. In an exploratory analysis of potential predictors of the expectancy effect, perceived stress and self-efficacy but not personality traits interacted with the pill-taking effect on cognitive function. Further characterizing and understanding this observed expectancy effect is important to maximize cognitive health and improve clinical trial design.

  7. Why Did My Doctor Prescribe Birth Control Pills for My Acne?

    MedlinePlus

    ... my acne. Why did he do this? – Jessica* Birth control pills can help even out some of the hormone changes that cause extra oil on the skin and lead to acne. By keeping those hormones under control, doctors hope to ... around your period. Birth control pills aren't right for all girls ...

  8. Effects of the oral contraceptive pill cycle on physiological responses to hypoxic exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandoval, Darleen A.; Matt, Kathleen S.

    2003-01-01

    To test whether the oral contraceptive pill cycle affects endocrine and metabolic responses to hypoxic (fraction of inspired oxygen = 13%, P(IO2): 95 mmHg; H) versus normoxic (P(IO2):153 mmHg; N) exercise, we examined eight women (28 +/- 1.2 yr) during the third (PILL) and placebo (PLA) weeks of their monthly oral contraceptive pill cycle. Cardiopulmonary, metabolic, and neuroendocrine measurements were taken before, during, and after three 5-min consecutive workloads at 30%, 45%, and 60% of normoxic V(O2peak) in H and N trials. Heart rate response to exercise was greater in H versus N, but was not different between PILL and PLA. Lactate levels were significantly greater during exercise, and both lactate and glucose levels were significantly greater for 30 min after exercise in H versus N (p < 0.0001). When expressed relative to baseline, lactate levels were lower in PILL versus PLA, but glucose was greater in PILL versus PLA (p < 0.001). Cortisol levels were also significantly greater in PILL versus PLA (p < 0.001). Norepinephrine levels were significantly increased during exercise (p < 0.0001) and in H versus N (p < 0.0001). However, epinephrine levels were not different over time or with trial. Thus, the presence of circulating estradiol and progesterone during the PILL phase reduces glucose and lactate responses to hypoxic exercise.

  9. Effects of the oral contraceptive pill cycle on physiological responses to hypoxic exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandoval, Darleen A.; Matt, Kathleen S.

    2003-01-01

    To test whether the oral contraceptive pill cycle affects endocrine and metabolic responses to hypoxic (fraction of inspired oxygen = 13%, P(IO2): 95 mmHg; H) versus normoxic (P(IO2):153 mmHg; N) exercise, we examined eight women (28 +/- 1.2 yr) during the third (PILL) and placebo (PLA) weeks of their monthly oral contraceptive pill cycle. Cardiopulmonary, metabolic, and neuroendocrine measurements were taken before, during, and after three 5-min consecutive workloads at 30%, 45%, and 60% of normoxic V(O2peak) in H and N trials. Heart rate response to exercise was greater in H versus N, but was not different between PILL and PLA. Lactate levels were significantly greater during exercise, and both lactate and glucose levels were significantly greater for 30 min after exercise in H versus N (p < 0.0001). When expressed relative to baseline, lactate levels were lower in PILL versus PLA, but glucose was greater in PILL versus PLA (p < 0.001). Cortisol levels were also significantly greater in PILL versus PLA (p < 0.001). Norepinephrine levels were significantly increased during exercise (p < 0.0001) and in H versus N (p < 0.0001). However, epinephrine levels were not different over time or with trial. Thus, the presence of circulating estradiol and progesterone during the PILL phase reduces glucose and lactate responses to hypoxic exercise.

  10. Patient understanding and use of oral contraceptive pills in a southern public health family planning clinic.

    PubMed

    Davis, Terry C; Fredrickson, Doren D; Potter, Linda; Brouillette, Rose; Bocchini, Anna C; Williams, Mark V; Parker, Ruth M

    2006-07-01

    To assess patient understanding and use of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) and determine if these are associated with literacy. Four hundred OCP users from a southern public health family planning clinic were orally tested post visit for literacy, demographics, contraceptive knowledge, OCP use, side effects, and adherence. Patients were predominately African American (86%); 78% had completed high school and 42% read below a 9th grade level. Most (94%) understood what to do when they missed one pill, yet few knew the correct action to take after missing two or three pills (19% and 3% respectively); 33% reported missing one or more pills in the past 2 weeks. Literacy was not associated with OCP use, knowledge, or adherence. Patients of all literacy levels had limited understanding of OCP side effects and what to do about multiple missed pills. This puts them at risk for misuse.

  11. Features associated with diet pill use in individuals with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Reba-Harrelson, Lauren; Von Holle, Ann; Thornton, Laura M; Klump, Kelly L; Berrettini, Wade H; Brandt, Harry; Crawford, Steven; Crow, Scott; Fichter, Manfred M; Goldman, David; Halmi, Katherine A; Johnson, Craig; Kaplan, Allan S; Keel, Pamela; LaVia, Maria; Mitchell, James; Plotnicov, Katherine; Rotondo, Alessandro; Strober, Michael; Treasure, Janet; Woodside, D Blake; Kaye, Walter H; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the relation between diet pill use and eating disorder subtype, purging and other compensatory behaviors, body mass index (BMI), tobacco and caffeine use, alcohol abuse or dependence, personality characteristics, and Axis I and Axis II disorders in 1,345 participants from the multisite Price Foundation Genetics Studies. Diet pill use was significantly less common in women with restricting type of AN than in women with other eating disorder subtypes. In addition, diet pill use was associated with the use of multiple weight control behaviors, higher BMI, higher novelty seeking, and the presence of anxiety disorders, alcohol abuse or dependence, and borderline personality disorder. Findings suggest that certain clinical and personality variables distinguish individuals with eating disorders who use diet pills from those who do not. In the eating disorder population, vigilant screening for diet pill use should be routine clinical practice.

  12. Emergency contraceptive pills: knowledge and attitudes of pharmacy personnel in Managua, Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Ehrle, Nina; Sarker, Malabika

    2011-06-01

    As abortion is illegal in Nicaragua, postcoital contraception is an important option for preventing pregnancy. Emergency contraceptive pills are available in Nicaraguan pharmacies over the counter, but pharmacy personnel's knowledge and attitudes about this method can affect access. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Managua, Nicaragua's capital. Interviewers administered a semistructured questionnaire to 93 pharmacy employees to determine their knowledge of and attitudes toward emergency contraceptive pills. Descriptive statistics and cross-tabulations were used to examine responses of and differences between male and female employees. All participants knew about emergency contraceptive pills and reported experience selling them. The majority sold them at least once a week (92%), usually without a prescription (97%). Of participants who were aware that emergency contraceptive pills should be taken only after sexual intercourse, 45% knew that the pills can be taken up to three days afterward; none knew that the pills are effective up to five days afterward. More than one-third of all respondents (39%) thought the pills can induce abortion, and most overestimated contraindications and side effects. Large majorities believed the availability of emergency contraceptive pills discourages use of ongoing methods (75%), encourages sexual risk-taking (82%) and increases transmission of HIV and other STIs (76%). Sixty-three participants (68%) thought emergency contraceptive pills are necessary to reduce unwanted and unplanned pregnancy; 65% were willing to provide them to all women in need, although only 13% would provide them to minors. Managuan pharmacy personnel frequently dispense emergency contraceptive pills, but need additional education to accurately counsel women about the method.

  13. Misconceptions about the side effects of combined oral contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Küçük, Mert; Aksu, Hilmiye; Sezer, Selda Demircan

    2012-04-01

    Although combined oral contraceptive pills (COCPs) are one of the most commonly used methods of contraception in western countries, they are taken by only a minority of sexually active women in Turkey. The purpose of this research has been to define women's specific misconceptions with regard to the side effects of COCPs. This descriptive and cross-sectional research was conducted on 418 reproductive aged women who agreed to participate. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with a questionnaire which assessed socio-demographic characteristics and women's beliefs about the side effects of COCPs. It is observed that 45.2% believed that the pills cause weight gain. Another 7.9% of the cases held the belief that COCPs cause cancer. A group of 13.4% of the subjects thought that COCPs lead to infertility, 28.7% believed that they cause headache, 41.1% believed that they cause acne and/or an increase in body hair, and 11.7% were afraid that they cause a decrease in libido. The present study has shown that misconceptions about the side effects of COCPs were considerably prevalent among this cohort group of Turkish women. Healthcare professionals have the potential of playing an important role in dispersing these misconceptions.

  14. Misconceptions about oral contraception pills among adolescents and physicians.

    PubMed

    Hamani, Y; Sciaki-Tamir, Y; Deri-Hasid, R; Miller-Pogrund, T; Milwidsky, A; Haimov-Kochman, R

    2007-12-01

    Limited access to contraception and poor compliance are the major reasons for unintended pregnancy in adolescence. This study was designed to compare knowledge of the combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) in teenage users and non-users. We speculated that consultations between COCP users and their physicians would dispel misconceptions. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in public clinics affiliated with an academic center. High school-educated female adolescents aged 14-20 years opting for contraception (n = 254) and Israeli physicians (n = 114) specializing in Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Endocrinology participated in the study. Information about past or present COCP use and views of the COCP were recorded by employing a ten-question YES/NO self-completion questionnaire, designed by the researchers. The prevalence of incorrect beliefs was exceedingly high in the whole adolescent study group and relatively high among the physicians. The prevalence of incorrect beliefs was comparable between COCP users and non-users, regarding the 10 misconceptions investigated. The duration of COCP use did not influence the prevalence of misconceptions about the pill. Age did not serve as a confounding factor for all misconceptions. Lack of informative communication between COCP-prescribing physicians and users and mistaken knowledge of the caring physicians may contribute to adolescent ignorance of the COCP. Focusing on adolescent-specific disbeliefs could lead to construction of better educational programs in schools and clinics.

  15. Lipid profile of women using oral contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Naz, F; Jyoti, S; Akhtar, N; Afzal, M; Siddique, Y H

    2012-10-01

    Oral contraceptives (OCs) are the most popular type of birth control pills. The study was designed to examine the biochemical changes which occur due to the use of oral contraceptive pills (OCs). The study was based on the questionnaire for having the information of any reproductive history fasting, age, health, nature of menstrual cycle, bleeding, disease etc and blood profiling for biochemical analysis of the women includes high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG). Lipid profiling was carried out by using a commercially available diagnostic test kits. SPSS was used to analyze the data. The results showed statistically significant differences among users of OCs compared to non-users. Total cholesterol (242.92 +/- 2.842 mg dL(-1)), HDL-C (58.65 +/- 1.098 mg dL(-1)), LDL-C (115.84 +/- 1.266 mg dL(-1)) and triglycerides (105.56 +/- 2.341 mg dL(-1)) were significantly higher compared to the non-users (Total cholesterol 218.49 +/- 1.762, HDL-C 48.17 +/- 0.543, LDL-C 100.321 +/- 0.951 and triglycerides 83.77 +/- 2.299 mg dL(-1)). The result suggests that OCs increase the level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG).

  16. Treatment of hirsutism with combined pill containing drospirenone.

    PubMed

    Gregoriou, Odisseas; Papadias, Kostantinos; Konidaris, Sokratis; Bakalianou, Kostantina; Salakos, Nikolaos; Vrachnis, Nikolaos; Creatsas, George

    2008-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the biochemical and clinical effects of the combined pill consisting of ethinyl estradiol (EE) and drospirenone (DRSP) in hirsute patients. Fifty-two adolescents or young women from Greece were treated with 30 mug EE and 3 mg DRSP for 1 year. Hirsutism was evaluated by the Ferriman-Gallway (FG) score in the initial visit and at 3, 6 and 12 months. Follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, etradiol, free and total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), androstenedione and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate were determined at the same intervals. Hirsutism improved and FG scores reduced to 77.4%, 67.2% and 51.8% at 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. Plasma SHBG levels rose, while free and total T levels reduced from the third month onwards. In conclusion, the EE/DRSP pill improves hirsutism in women via antiandrogenic and antimineralocorticoid action. The biochemical manifestations of hyperandrogenism are also improved.

  17. Medicolegal file. Tell everything you know about birth control pills.

    PubMed

    Winkelaar, P G

    1999-02-01

    This paper presents a case in Quebec in 1976 concerning the alleged failure of the doctor to divulge everything he knew about the use of birth control pills to the patient. Nearly every oral contraceptive monograph in the Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties contains a statement that the pill should be stopped for a month before a major elective surgery. This information was available to the doctor, but evidence revealed he did not pass it on to the patient. The judge found that the doctor had failed to meet the standard required of him when did not advise the patient about this warning. The doctrine of informed consent requires that patients be given all the reasonable information a person would want in order to decide on a course of action. The case did not raise new issues of law, but should serve to raise awareness of the need to inform patients fully not only about the specific procedures patients would undergo but also about the effects that coexist with the conditions or medications.

  18. [Women's opinion on hormone pills and the main sources of information].

    PubMed

    Vanagiene, Virginija; Nadisauskiene, Rūta

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze and to evaluate women's opinion on hormone pills and the influence on hormone pill usage and reveal the main sources of information. Women who came for pregnancy termination (Group A) and women who came for consultation on further usage of contraception (Group K) have been interrogated. Interrogation according the special questionnaire has been performed at four consultation centers and three gynecologic clinics of Kaunas city. It was find out that due to the wrong information 25.1% of women in group A and 35% of women in group K thought that hormone pills cause irregular bleeding (p=0.01). Another myth - the possibility to become pregnant when taking pills - was indicated by 17% of women in group A and 32.4% of women in group K (p=0.01). Nine percent in group A and 12% in group K were confident that when taking hormone pills for some period of time one will not be able to become pregnant in the future. Seventy three percent of group A women and 80% of group K women indicated that the use of hormone pills increases the body weight (p=0.01). This research showed that the women that used hormone pills were properly informed about their treatment and side effects. Fifty four percent of group A women and 36% of group K women indicated that hormone pills were not suitable in case of several diseases (p=0.01). Eighty three percent of group A women and 71% of group K knew that hormone pills did not protect from cervical cancer (p=0.01). This information was mainly obtained from medical workers. The main reason why women of fertile age who took part in our research used little of hormone pills was false information received from insufficiently skilled persons and accordingly the negative opinion about hormone pills. Women's opinion on hormone pills is a very important factor for its usage. This opinion depends on sources of information, whether women received correct or false information on hormone pills. The most reliable source of

  19. The effect of low-oestrogen combined pill, progestogen-only pill and medroxyprogesterone acetate on oral glucose tolerance test.

    PubMed

    Kamau, R K; Maina, F W; Kigondu, C; Mati, J K

    1990-08-01

    The effect of a low-oestrogen combined pill, progestogen-only pill and medroxyprogesterone acetate on oral glucose tolerance test was studied in 29, 30 and 9 indigenous Kenyan women respectively. Glucose tolerance test was performed before treatment was started and then after 1,3 and 6 months in microgynon users. The mean areas under the glucose curves were also significantly elevated. Significant increase in blood glucose values were noted only at 30 minutes after 6 months of use of the progestogen-only oral contraceptive but the mean blood glucose values were higher than in the control after 1,3 and 6 months of use. However, the mean values of the areas under the glucose curves were significantly elevated after 1,3, and 6 months of use. Medroxyprogesterone acetate users showed significantly lower fasting blood glucose values at 60 and 90 minutes after 1 month of use, after which the blood glucose values returned to the pre-treatment values. The mean values of the glucose curve areas showed no significant change. It is concluded that both microgynon and minipill cause relative impairment of glucose tolerance test as early as after 1 month of use. Medroxyprogesterone acetate does not impair oral glucose tolerance for at least the first 6 months of use. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  20. Quantifying the utility of taking pills for preventing adverse health outcomes: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Hutchins, Robert; Pignone, Michael P; Sheridan, Stacey L; Viera, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The utility value attributed to taking pills for prevention can have a major effect on the cost-effectiveness of interventions, but few published studies have systematically quantified this value. We sought to quantify the utility value of taking pills used for prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Central North Carolina. Participants 708 healthcare employees aged 18 years and older. Primary and secondary outcomes Utility values for taking 1 pill/day, assessed using time trade-off, modified standard gamble and willingness-to-pay methods. Results Mean age of respondents was 43 years (19–74). The majority of the respondents were female (83%) and Caucasian (80%). Most (80%) took at least 2 pills/day. Mean utility values for taking 1 pill/day using the time trade-off method were: 0.9972 (95% CI 0.9962 to 0.9980). Values derived from the standard gamble and willingness-to-pay methods were 0.9967 (0.9954 to 0.9979) and 0.9989 (95% CI 0.9986 to 0.9991), respectively. Utility values varied little across characteristics such as age, sex, race, education level or number of pills taken per day. Conclusions The utility value of taking pills daily in order to prevent an adverse CVD health outcome is approximately 0.997. PMID:25967985

  1. Oral Contraceptive Pill Alters Acute Dietary Protein-Induced Thermogenesis in Young Women.

    PubMed

    Duhita, Maharani Retna; Schutz, Yves; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Dulloo, Abdul G; Miles-Chan, Jennifer L

    2017-09-01

    There is much interest in the role of dietary protein for weight control. However, there remains a need to characterize individual determinants of the thermogenic effects of protein. This study aimed to investigate the influence of menstrual cycle phase and the combined, monophasic oral contraceptive pill on the thermogenic response to a standardized high-protein (HP) versus normal-protein (NP) meal. Following an overnight fast, resting energy expenditure (EE) was measured in 16 healthy young women (8 taking and 8 not taking the pill) and 8 men for 30 minutes pre ingestion and 3 hours post ingestion of a NP (11%) or HP (24%) meal. There was no effect of menstrual phase or contraceptive pill use on fasting EE or NP response. However, HP increased EE significantly more than NP in women not taking the oral contraceptive pill and in men, but not in women taking the pill. This study shows an absence of the greater thermic effect of HP versus NP in women taking the oral contraceptive pill and has important implications regarding the effectiveness of HP for body weight regulation in women. With current obesity treatment/prevention strategies remaining largely ineffective, understanding the relationship between oral contraceptive pill use and protein-induced thermogenesis may enable the successful recalibration of existing dietary recommendations. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  2. Association between Physician Specialty and Risk of Prescribing Inappropriate Pill Splitting

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chia-Yu; Hsu, Chia-Chen; Chiang, Shu-Chiung; Ho, Chin-Chin; Chou, Chia-Lin; Wu, Min-Shan; Chang, Yuh-Lih; Tsai, Han-Yi; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chou, Yueh-Ching

    2013-01-01

    Background Prescription errors that occur due to the process of pill splitting are a common medication problem; however, available prescription information involving inappropriate pill splitting and its associated factors is lacking. Methods We retrospectively evaluated a cohort of ambulatory prescriptions involving extended-release or enteric-coated formulations in a Taiwan medical center during a 5-month period in 2010. For this study, those pill splitting prescriptions involving special oral formulations were defined as inappropriate prescriptions. Information obtained included patient demographics, prescriber specialty and prescription details, which were assessed to identify factors associated with inappropriate pill splitting. Results There were 1,252 inappropriate prescriptions identified in this cohort study, representing a prescription frequency for inappropriate pill splitting of 1.0% among 124,300 prescriptions with special oral formulations. Among 35 drugs with special oral formulations in our study, 20 different drugs (57.1%, 20/35) had ever been prescribed to split. Anti-diabetic agents, cardiovascular agents and central nervous system agents were the most common drug classes involved in inappropriate splitting. The rate of inappropriate pill splitting was higher in older (over 65 years of age) patients (1.1%, 832/75,387). Eighty-seven percent (1089/1252) of inappropriate prescriptions were prescribed by internists. The rate of inappropriate pill splitting was highest from endocrinologists (3.4%, 429/12,477), nephrologists (1.3%, 81/6,028) and cardiologists (1.3%, 297/23,531). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the strongest factor associated with individual specific drug of inappropriate splitting was particular physician specialties. Conclusion This study provides important insights into the inappropriate prescription of special oral formulation related to pill splitting, and helps to aggregate information that can assist

  3. Acceptability of the combined oral contraceptive pill among Hong Kong women.

    PubMed

    Lo, S St; Fan, S Ys

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the motivators and barriers to the use of the combined oral contraceptive pill among Hong Kong women. The Family Planning Association of Hong Kong commissioned the ESDlife to launch an online survey and invited its female members aged 18 to 45 years who had used contraceptives in the past 12 months to participate in this survey. The online survey was posted on the ESDlife website between April 2015 and May 2015. Measurements included contraceptive choice, and motivators and barriers to the use of a combined oral contraceptive pill. A total of 1295 eligible women with a median age of 32 years participated in this survey. In the past 12 months, 76.1% of them used a male condom, 20.9% practised coitus interruptus, 16.2% avoided coitus during the unsafe period, and 12.6% took a combined oral contraceptive pill. These women chose a combined oral contraceptive for convenience, effectiveness, and menstrual regulation, though 60.9% had stopped the pills because they were worried about side-effects, experienced side-effects, or consistently forgot to take the pills. Some women had never tried a combined oral contraceptive pill because they feared side-effects, they were satisfied with their current contraceptive method, or pill-taking was inconvenient. The combined oral contraceptive pill is underutilised by Hong Kong women compared with those in many western countries. A considerable proportion of respondents expressed concern about actual or anticipated side-effects. This suggests that there remains a great need for doctors to dispel the underlying myths and misconceptions about the combined oral contraceptive pill.

  4. Peripheral arterial disease in a female using high-dose combined oral contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Pallavee, P; Samal, Sunita; Samal, Rupal

    2013-01-01

    The association between oral contraceptive (OC) pills and vascular diseases is well-known, although, the present generation of pills is considered to be relatively safer in this regard. Hormonal treatment for severe abnormal uterine bleeding is usually considered after ruling out malignancy, when such bleeding is resistant to all other forms of treatment. We report a case of severe peripheral arterial disease in a female, who had been on high-dose OC pills for an extended period of time for severe uterine bleeding.

  5. Mainstreaming of emergency contraception pill in India: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Anvita; Khan, M E; Bhatnagar, Isha

    2015-01-01

    Emergency Contraception Pill (ECP) is an essential intervention to prevent unwanted pregnancies. However, its use has remained low due to various barriers including reservations among medical fraternity. This paper presents findings on barriers to ECP's easy access for potential users from (i) a cross-sectional survey of providers' attitudes, beliefs, and practices and interviews with key opinion leaders, (ii) three consultations organized by Population Council with policymakers and public health experts, and (iii) evidence from scientific literature. The major barriers to easy access of ECP include misconceptions and reservations of providers (disapproval of ECP provision by CHWs, opposition to its being an OTC product, and myths, misconceptions, and moral judgments about its users) including influential gynecologists. For mainstreaming ECP, the paper recommends educational campaign focusing on gynecologists and CHWs, relaxing restrictive policy on advertisement of ECP, involving press media and strengthening supply chain to ensure its regular supply to ASHA (CHW).

  6. Predictors of pharmacists' provision of emergency contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Milosavljevic, Jelena; Krajnovic, Dusanka; Bogavac-Stanojevic, Natasa

    2016-10-01

    We carried out a cross-sectional, web-based study to identify predictors (personal characteristics, knowledge, and attitudes) of Serbian pharmacists' decisions to decline emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) dispensing. In total, 452 questionnaires were completed and analyzed. Half of the surveyed pharmacists had poor knowledge of ECP. Almost the same number (42%) had either never undertaken training in these products or did not remember having training. The less knowledgeable respondents were more likely to decline ECP provision overall (OR 1.862) and in particular circumstances (nonintended user (OR 1.412) or >72 h after intercourse (OR 1.445)). To expand availability of these products, well-organized trainings are needed.

  7. Adolescents at risk: pain pills to heroin: part II.

    PubMed

    Fogger, Susanne; McGuinness, Teena M

    2015-02-01

    Casually exposing adolescents to prescription opioid agents may escalate to daily use. A trend exists for adolescents using prescription opioid agents to substitute heroin because it is significantly cheaper than pills (approximately half of the cost) and is often more readily available. Additionally, it is more potent than most prescription opioid agents and carries increased risks of overdose and death. Although treatment for substance use disorders has traditionally centered on total abstinence, opioid replacement therapy (ORT) is an option that saves lives and prevents overdose deaths. In the United States, ORT is based on two medicines: methadone and buprenorphine. These drugs can be substituted for other opiate agents and have much lower overdose risks. Nursing implications and web-based resources for teaching are presented. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (PCCE) in colonic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Diseases affecting the colon are common worldwide and can cause a major health problem. Colorectal cancer (CRC) as well as Inflammatory bowel diseases represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in western countries. PillCam colon capsule endoscopy (PCCE) is a novel and promising technology that can be useful for the screening and monitoring of colonic diseases. In the recent years many articles examined the use of various versions of PCCE—the 1st and 2nd generation versus various other endoscopic or radiologic modalities both for detection of colonic polyps or cancer and in both ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease. The aim of the current review is to provide up to date information regarding the use and usefulness of this method in these disease. PMID:27668227

  9. Pills, injections and audiotapes: reaching couples in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Collumbien, Martine; Douthwaite, Megan

    2003-01-01

    An innovative social marketing intervention in Pakistan distributes audiocassettes via chemist shops and Lady Health Visitors (LHVs) to reach women in a segregated society with accurate information on hormonal contraceptives. Operations research was done to assess the utility of the cassette in knowledge dissemination and adoption of hormonal use. In total 187 structured questionnaires were completed with couples who had obtained a cassette. Listeners were significantly more knowledgeable than non-listeners about correct use of hormonals (OR = 8.6 for women and OR = 12.7 for men). Hormonal use increased from 12% to 25%. LHVs also organized discussion groups for women, and attending such a chat group was the strongest predictor for adoption of pills and injectables (OR = 4.15). Equivalent male groups are suggested to reach apprehensive men. By providing accurate information to urban couples and by acquiring a knowledgeable critical mass of satisfied users, the cassette could be a powerful catalyst to further contraceptive diffusion.

  10. Pills on the World Wide Web: reducing barriers through technology.

    PubMed

    Gawron, Lori M; Turok, David K

    2015-10-01

    Oral contraceptive pills are safe, effective, and available without a prescription in most countries. Despite support from the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists to provide oral contraceptives as an over-the-counter medication, US women are still required to have a prescription to obtain them. Use of online applications and the Internet has made most things easier to obtain in our society and this includes contraceptive methods. Several online ventures are now underway to enable US women to obtain oral contraceptives without visiting a medical provider's office. Women's health care professionals should encourage these novel approaches, as they will improve contraceptive access. As US women experiment with innovative health care models, providers will need to lead, follow, or be left behind. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Decision-making and Anticipation in Pill Bugs (Armadillidium vulgare)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriyama, Tohru; Migita, Masao

    2004-08-01

    In the previous study, decision-making of the direction of motion was found in pill bugs. In the present experiment, we find that they autonomously choose specific places for the decision-making. Each individual was placed in a circle track surrounded by water. Small columnar marks were placed in the center of the track at equal intervals. At first, when they encountered the marks, they moved along and passed it. After some minutes, they tended to mount on the top of the marks, stayed for a while and swung the antennae as if they searched for the direction of motion. As time went on, they sometimes traced several marks. It seemed that they anticipated the appearance of the mark in advance to use it for decision-making of the direction of the next motion. In another circle track surrounded by wall, such behaviors were not observed.

  12. Maintenance of ovulation inhibition with a new progestogen-only pill containing drospirenone after scheduled 24-h delays in pill intake.

    PubMed

    Duijkers, Ingrid J M; Heger-Mahn, Doris; Drouin, Dominique; Colli, Enrico; Skouby, Sven

    2016-04-01

    Traditional progestogen-only pills (POPs) have stringent daily timing and missed pill rules that might affect contraceptive reliability. A new-generation oestrogen-free pill has been developed, containing 4-mg drospirenone with a unique regimen of 24 active treatment days followed by four placebo tablets. A previous study showed that this new drospirenone-only pill effectively inhibited ovulation. Clinical efficacy, however, can be affected by compliance, and delayed or forgotten pill intake often occurs in daily life. The aim of this study was to investigate if inhibition of ovulation was maintained after four scheduled 24-h delays in tablet intake. One hundred thirty healthy women with proven ovulatory cycles were randomized, and 127 were treated with the drospirenone-only pill during two cycles. In treatment Group A (n=62), 24-h delays in tablet intake were scheduled on days 3, 6, 11 and 22 during Cycle 2 and, in treatment Group B (n=65) during Cycle 1, respectively. Ovulation was defined as disappearance or persistence of a large follicle and progesterone levels higher than 5 ng/mL for at least 5 consecutive days. The overall ovulation rate was 0.8%; only one subject in Group A fulfilled the ovulation criteria in Cycle 2. Follicular diameters in the regular-intake and the delayed-intake cycles were similar. Despite the 4-day hormone-free period and multiple intentional 24-h delays in tablet intake, ovulation inhibition was maintained. This property distinguishes this new-generation oestrogen-free pill from traditional POPs by allowing the same "safety window" or flexibility in intake as combined oral contraceptives without compromising contraceptive reliability. Delayed or forgotten pill intake is very common. Ovulation inhibition by the new-generation oestrogen-free pill, containing 4-mg drospirenone for 24 days followed by a 4-day treatment-free period, was maintained despite four 24-h delays in tablet intake, so the impact of delayed intake on contraceptive

  13. Highs and lows: patterns of use, positive and negative effects of benzylpiperazine-containing party pills (BZP-party pills) amongst young people in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Rachael A; Sheridan, Janie L

    2007-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate patterns and context of use of BZP-party pills, function of use, and positive and negative effects experienced by a sample of New Zealand young people who had used the products. Methods A qualitative study comprised of semi-structured interviews and group discussions. Results The sample included 58 young people aged 17–23 years who had used BZP-party pills in the previous 12 months. Young people were using these substances in a range of settings – primarily during weekend social occasions – particularly as part of the dance party culture. They were mostly used for their stimulant properties and to enhance socialisation, and were often taken in combination with other legal and illicit drugs. Young people had suffered a range of physical and emotional negative effects, although none of these was reported as being life-threatening or long-term. Many participants had reduced the frequency with which they used BZP-party pills due to adverse effects. Potentially risky behaviours identified included taking large doses, mixing BZP-party pills with alcohol and other substances, and driving whilst under the influence of BZP-party pills. Conclusion Findings suggest that young people in this study were not suffering excessive or dangerous adverse effects. However, potentially risky use of these products raises the issue of the need for developing harm reduction interventions. PMID:18021425

  14. Pulmonary hypertension, systemic lupus erythematosus, and the contraceptive pill: another report.

    PubMed

    Miller, M H

    1987-02-01

    I report the case of a woman with systemic lupus erythematosus who had pulmonary hypertension unassociated with chronic interstitial lung disease or pulmonary emboli. She had started taking the contraceptive pill seven months previously.

  15. Exploring contraceptive pill taking among Hispanic women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joseph W; Villarruel, Antonia M; Oakley, Deborah; Eribes, Carmen

    2003-12-01

    Data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth have previously shown greater risk of inconsistent contraceptive pill use among Hispanic women. We used the same data to test aculturally based model of pill use among the subsample of Hispanic women. Hierarchical logit analyses revealed that primary use of Spanish, negative attitudes about women in the workplace, two or more recent sex partners, and recent pill adoption were factors that increased the odds of inconsistent use. Living alone or with non-kin was associated with more consistent use, as were showing preference for a stay-at-home model of motherhood, frequent church attendance, and frequent sexual intercourse. Our findings suggest that the strong effects of behavioral variables (e.g., duration of pill use, number of sex partners) are mediated by cultural indicators (e.g., primary use of Spanish, attitudes about sex roles). The extent to which programs address important cultural dimensions of health behaviors could enhance effectiveness.

  16. [Determination of dissolution of liuwei dihuang concentrated pills based on multi-index components].

    PubMed

    Luo, Yun; Hao, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Jing; Liang, Xin-Li; Zhao, Guo-Wei; Yang, Ming; Liao, Zheng-Gen

    2014-01-01

    With the content of gallic acid, loganin, paeoniflorin and paeonol as the indexes, to screen out dissolution determination conditions, establish the dissolution determination method for multi-index components in Liuwei Dihuang concentrated pills, calculate and map the accumulative dissolution curve, and then compare the dissolution of products from different pharmaceutical factories through the similarity factor (f2). According to the results, the optimum dissolution determination conditions were the paddle method, with 250 mL 0.1 mol x L(-1) hydrochloric acid as the dissolution medium, and a rotation rate of 100 r x min(-1). The similarity factor values (f2) of the dissolution curves of the four main components of Liuwei Dihuang concentrated pills from different pharmaceutical factories were mostly less than 50. This demonstrated a significant difference in the dissolution of Liuwei Dihuang concentrated pills from different pharmaceutical factories, and provided scientific basis for improving the equality evaluation of Liuwei Dihuang concentrated pills.

  17. New Combo Pill Offers Hope to Hepatitis C Patients Who Fail Other Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bourliere, from the Hospital Saint Joseph in Marseilles, France. This new pill is being developed as a ... Marc Bourliere, M.D., Hospital Saint Joseph, Marseilles, France; David Bernstein, M.D., chief, hepatology, Northwell Health, ...

  18. [Analysis on dosage form theory and current application situation of traditional Chinese medicine pill].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Gao, Tian-Hui; Fu, Chao-Mei; Zhang, Jin-Ming; Shi, Jin-Feng; He, Yao; Yin, Heng; Jiang, Mao-Yuan; Li, Jie; Gao, Fei

    2017-06-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) pill, the most representative and successive dosage form, is called as one of the four classical TCM dosage forms. "Pills could keep the lasting and lenitive therapeutic efficacy for a long period" is the most classical dosage form theory, showing a guidance significance in making recipe, preparations and clinic application. In this article, we would elucidate the inheritance and development significance of TCM pills in three key points, including dosage form theory, pharmaceutical preparation technology and clinic usage based on the pharmaceutics connotation of this theory. From this, it can provide the basis for researches on pills mechanism, material basis and mode of action in clinical application. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  19. Relative Weight, Smoking and Contraceptive Pills: Interrelations to Blood Pressure in Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtonen, Aapo; Perasalo, Juhani

    1982-01-01

    The relationships among weight, cigarette smoking, use of contraceptive pills, and blood pressure were investigated in over 1,500 college students who underwent physical examinations in their first and third academic years. Results of the study are discussed. (PP)

  20. A new estradiol-dienogest oral contraceptive marks "The Pill's" 50th anniversary.

    PubMed

    Keder, Lisa M

    2011-01-01

    Oral contraceptive pills were first approved by the Food and Drug Administration 50 years ago. Discovery of the physiology of reproduction and demonstration of the ability to inhibit ovulation with ovarian extracts laid the early groundwork for the development of contraceptives. Later, characterization of the hormones controlling ovulation and synthesis of progestins allowed production of oral contraceptives. Modern estrogen and progestin pills have undergone significant changes since their initial introduction. New formulations have been developed, doses have been lowered, and extended use introduced. The Food and Drug Administration has recently approved a new oral contraceptive containing estradiol valerate and dienogest. This pill contains an orally active estradiol in combination with a progestin with strong endometrial activity. The decreasing estrogen dose combined with an increasing progestin dose decreases the risk of break through bleeding when compared to previous estradiol valerate formulations. The contraceptive efficacy and a tolerability of this new pill are similar to currently marketed low dose combined estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives.

  1. Pill content, dose and resulting plasma concentrations of 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in recreational 'ecstasy' users.

    PubMed

    Morefield, Kate M; Keane, Michael; Felgate, Peter; White, Jason M; Irvine, Rodney J

    2011-07-01

    To improve our understanding of the pharmacology of 'ecstasy' in recreational environments; in particular, to describe the composition of ecstasy pills, patterns of ecstasy use and the relationship between dose of 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and resulting plasma concentrations. A naturalistic observational study of 56 experienced 'ecstasy' users in recreational settings in Australia. Drug use patterns (number of pills consumed, other drugs consumed). drug content of pills and resultant plasma concentrations of MDMA and related drugs were assessed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Ecstasy pills generally contained MDMA, but this was often combined with other drugs such as 3,4-ethylendioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) and methamphetamine. The dose of MDMA per pill ranged from 0 to 245 mg and users consumed from one-half to five pills, with the total dose consumed ranging up to 280 mg. Plasma concentrations of MDMA increased with number of pills consumed and cumulative MDMA dose. Use of larger numbers of pills was associated with extended exposure to the drug. MDMA is the major active drug in ecstasy pills, but there is a high degree of variation in doses. Use of multiple pills over the course of one session is common and results in a sustained increase in MDMA plasma concentrations over a number of hours. This is likely to lead to a much greater exposure of the brain to MDMA than would be predicted from controlled single-dose pharmacokinetic studies. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. [Correlation between physical characteristics of sticks and quality of traditional Chinese medicine pills prepared by plastic molded method].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Xian, Jiechen; Hong, Yanlong; Lin, Xiao; Feng, Yi

    2012-05-01

    To quantify the physical characteristics of sticks of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) honeyed pills prepared by the plastic molded method and the correlation of adhesiveness and plasticity-related parameters of sticks and quality of pills, in order to find major parameters and the appropriate range impacting pill quality. Sticks were detected by texture analyzer for their physical characteristic parameters such as hardness and compression action, and pills were observed by visual evaluation for their quality. The correlation of both data was determined by the stepwise discriminant analysis. Stick physical characteristic parameter l(CD) can exactly depict the adhesiveness, with the discriminant equation of Y0 - Y1 = 6.415 - 41.594l(CD). When Y0 < Y1, pills were scattered well; when Y0 > Y1, pills were adhesive with each other. Pills' physical characteristic parameters l(CD) and l(AC), Ar, Tr can exactly depict smoothness of pills, with the discriminant equation of Z0 - Z1 = -195.318 + 78.79l(AC) - 3 258. 982Ar + 3437.935Tr. When Z0 < Z1, pills were smooth on surface. When Z0 > Z1, pills were rough on surface. The stepwise discriminant analysis is made to show the obvious correlation between key physical characteristic parameters l(CD) and l(AC), Ar, Tr of sticks and appearance quality of pills, defining the molding process for preparing pills by the plastic molded and qualifying ranges of key physical characteristic parameters characterizing intermediate sticks, in order to provide theoretical basis for prescription screening and technical parameter adjustment for pills.

  3. Enhanced Oral Bioavailability of Pueraria Flavones by a Novel Solid Self-microemulsifying Drug Delivery System (SMEDDS) Dropping Pills.

    PubMed

    Guan, Qingxiang; Zhang, Guangyuan; Sun, Shilin; Fan, Hongbo; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Shaoyuan

    2016-05-01

    To improve bioavailability of pueraria flavones (PF), a self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) dropping pills composed of PF, Crodamol GTCC, Maisine 35-1, Cremophor RH 40, 1,2-propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000) was developed. Particle size, zeta potential, morphology and in vitro drug release were investigated, respectively. Pharmacokinetics, bioavailability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills and commercial Yufengningxin dropping pills were also evaluated and compared in rats. Puerarin treated as the representative component of PF was analyzed. Dynamic light scattering showed the ability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills to form a nanoemulsion droplet size in aqueous media. The type of media showed no significant effects on the release rate of PF. PF-SMEDDS dropping pills were able to improve the in vitro release rate of PF, and the in vitro release of these dropping pills was significantly faster than that of Yufengningxin dropping pills. There was a dramatic difference between the mean value of t1/2, peak concentration (Cmax), the area of concentration-time curve from 0 to 6 h (AUC0-6 h) of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills and that of commercial Yufengningxin dropping pills. A pharmacokinetic study showed that the bioavailability of PF was greatly enhanced by PF-SMEDDS dropping pills. The value of Cmax and relative bioavailability of PF-SMEDDS dropping pills were dramatically improved by an average of 1.69- and 2.36-fold compared with that of Yufengningxin dropping pills after gavage administration, respectively. It was concluded that bioavailability of PF was greatly improved and that PF-SMEDDS dropping pills might be an encouraging strategy to enhance the oral bioavailability of PF.

  4. PillCam ESO versus esophagogastroduodenoscopy in esophageal variceal screening: A decision analysis.

    PubMed

    White, Christopher M; Kilgore, Meredith L

    2009-01-01

    PillCam ESO has been evaluated as a possible strategy to screen patients with cirrhosis for esophageal varices, but current guidelines recommend patients undergo screening with esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), as it is currently the gold standard. Although recent data have suggested that PillCam ESO may be an acceptable alternative for screening, there is limited data on its cost-effectiveness compared with other screening modalities. This study was performed to compare the cost-effectiveness of PillCam ESO versus EGD for esophageal variceal screening. Markov models were constructed to compare 2 screening strategies: PillCam ESO versus EGD. In each arm, patients were followed for a time horizon of 15 years in 1-year transition intervals. All variables, transition probabilities, and costs were derived from the medical literature, and sensitivity analyses were performed on the different variables in the model. Base-case analysis shows that PillCam ESO is associated with an average expected cost of $22,589 and an average expected effectiveness measure of 12.81 life-years. EGD is associated with an average expected cost of $23,083 and an average expected effectiveness measure of 12.67 life-years. PillCam ESO was found to dominate EGD as a screening strategy for patients with cirrhosis. Sensitivity analyses found several variables within the model to have influential effects on the results. PillCam ESO is the dominant strategy for screening patients with cirrhosis for esophageal varices. However, based on a small difference in costs and effectiveness between each strategy, the results would suggest that PillCam ESO and EGD are essentially equivalent strategies.

  5. Incidental discovery of radiopaque pills on abdominal CT in a patient with abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Judge, Bryan S; Hoyle, John D

    2008-07-01

    We present a case in which a young female ingested several tablets of an over-the-counter cough and cold remedy over the course of a week. Pill fragments were identifiable and incidentally discovered when a CT scan of the abdomen was performed to evaluate the cause of her abdominal pain. Discovery of radiopaque pills on diagnostic imaging studies warrants further history and appropriate testing to rule out a life-threatening ingestion.

  6. Combined Oral Contraceptive Pills: Profile of Acceptors in a Tertiary Hospital in South-South Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Abasiattai, A M; Utuk, M N; Ojeh, S O; Eyo, U E

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Combined oral contraceptive pills were the first contraceptive method to provide sexual freedom of choice for women through reliable, personal and private control of fertility. They are the most widely used hormonal contraceptives and also the most popular non-surgical method of contraception. OBJECTIVE: To review the profile of acceptors of combined oral contraceptive pills at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo. METHODOLOGY: An 8 year review of all clients that accepted combined oral contraceptive pills in the family planning clinic. RESULTS: There were 1,146 new contraceptive acceptors during the period of study out of which 309 (27.9%) accepted the pills. Majority of the clients were between 20 and 29 years of age (54.0%), were multiparous (72.8%), Christians (99.7%) and 61.2% had tertiary level education. Two hundred and fifty-five women (82.5%) desired to use combined oral contraceptive pills to space births while 7.8% wanted to limit child bearing. There was a high discontinuation rate among the women (45.0%) and out of these 87.9% of the clients changed to other contraceptive methods. All the clients commenced their pills within seven days of menstruation and only the low dose monophasic preparations were available in the family planning unit and thus were given to the clients. CONCLUSION: Women who accept to initiate combined oral contraceptive pills in our center are young, well educated, multiparous women who want to space their pregnancies. However, due to the high discontinuation rate among the clients, there is need for further studies evaluating reasons for the high discontinuation rate, exploring interactions between clients and providers' and also providers' attitude towards combined pills in our environment.

  7. Omitting the first oral contraceptive pills of the cycle does not automatically lead to ovulation.

    PubMed

    Elomaa, K; Rolland, R; Brosens, I; Moorrees, M; Deprest, J; Tuominen, J; Lähteenmäki, P

    1998-07-01

    The hypothesis that omission of the first three pills of the oral contraceptive (OC) cycle leads to ovulation by extending further the pill-free period was investigated in 107 healthy women 18-35 years of age recruited from family planning programs in Finland, the Netherlands, and Belgium. Study participants were randomly allocated to one of the following treatment groups: 1) monophasic gestodene--75 mcg of gestodene and 30 mcg of ethinyl estradiol; 2) triphasic gestodene--6 days of 50 mcg gestodene and 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol, 5 days of 70 mcg gestodene and 40 mcg ethinyl estradiol, and 10 days of 100 mcg gestodene and 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol; or 3) monophasic desogestrel--150 mcg desogestrel and 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol. Noncompliance with OC taking was simulated by extending the pill-free period from 7 to 10 days. During or after the extended pill-free interval, follicular growth exceeding 18 mm occurred in 24% of women in the monophasic gestodene group, 24% in the triphasic gestodene group, and 40% in the monophasic desogestrel group. Follicle-stimulating hormone reached a maximum serum concentration in most women during the first 7 pill-free days, indicating complete pituitary recovery. No normal ovulation was observed after either a 7- or 10-day pill-free period as evaluated by ultrasonography of follicles and serum progesterone assays. Since normal ovulation did not occur when pill omissions were limited to 3 days, OC users who forget to take these three tablets can be safely advised to start the pill cycle on day 11.

  8. Unannounced telephone pill counts for assessing varenicline adherence in a pilot clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Nia; Nazir, Niaman; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Faseru, Babalola; Goggin, Kathy; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Nollen, Nicole L

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite consistent evidence linking smoking cessation pharmacotherapy adherence to better outcomes, knowledge about objective adherence measures is lacking and little attention is given to monitoring pharmacotherapy use in smoking cessation clinical trials. Objectives To examine unannounced telephone pill counts as a method for assessing adherence to smoking cessation pharmacotherapy. Research design Secondary data analysis of a randomized pilot study. Participants 46 moderate-to-heavy (>10 cigarettes per day) African-American smokers. Main measures Smokers received 1 month of varenicline (Pfizer Global Pharmaceuticals, New York, NY) in a pill box at baseline. Unannounced pill counts were completed by telephone 4 days prior to an in-person pill count conducted at Month 1. At both counts, each compartment of the pill box was opened and the number of remaining pills was recorded. Results Participants were a mean age of 48 years (SD = 13), predominately female (59%), low income (60% < $1800 monthly family income), and smoked an average of 17 (SD = 7) cigarettes per day. A high degree of concordance was observed between the number of pills counted by phone and in-person (rs = 0.94, P < 0.001). Participants with discordant counts (n = 7) had lower varenicline adherence (mean [SD] = 77% [18%] vs 95% [9%], P < 0.0005), but reported better medication adherence in the past (1.0 [0.8] vs 2.8 [1.0], P < 0.0004) than participants with matching phone and in-person counts (n = 39). Conclusion Unannounced telephone pill counts appear to be a reliable and practical method for measuring adherence to smoking cessation pharmacotherapy. PMID:22003285

  9. What is wrong with 'being a pill-taker'? The special case of statins.

    PubMed

    Polak, Louisa

    2016-11-16

    In an interview study of decision-making about statins, many participants said they took pills regularly, yet described themselves as 'not really pill-takers'. This paper explores this paradox and its implications. The practice of pill-taking itself can constitute a challenge to the presentation of moral adequacy, beyond the potential for rendering stigmatised illnesses visible. Meeting this challenge involves a complex process of calibrating often-conflicting moral imperatives: to be concerned, but not too concerned, over one's health; to be informed, but not over-informed; and deferential but not over-deferential to medical expertise. This calibration reflects a broader tension between rival tropes: embracing medical progress and resisting medicalisation. Participants who take statins present them as unquestionably necessary; 'needing' pills, as opposed to choosing to take them, serves as a defence against the devalued identity of being a pill-taker. However, needing to take statins offers an additional threat to identity, because taking statins is widely perceived to be an alternative strategy to 'choosing a healthy lifestyle'. This perception underpins a responsibilising health promotion discourse that shapes and complicates the work participants do to avoid presenting themselves as 'pill-takers'. The salience of this discourse should be acknowledged where discussions of medicalisation use statins as an example.

  10. Adolescents’ Knowledge, Attitude and Utilization of Emergency Contraceptive Pills in Nigeria’s Niger Delta Region

    PubMed Central

    Onasoga, Olayinka A.; Afolayan, Joel Adeleke; Asamabiriowei, Tariebi Florence; Jibril, Umar Nda; Imam, Abubakar Ayinla

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Risky sexual activity among adolescents is on the increase and contraceptive prevalence rate is low which is evidenced by high rate of teenage pregnancy in Bayelsa state, Nigeria. This study assesses the adolescents’ knowledge, attitude and utilization of emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) in Amassoma Community, Bayelsa State, in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Methods: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional research design. A purposive sampling technique was used to select a sample of 220 respondents from the target population. Data were collected using a self-structured questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data generated. Results: Majority of the respondents had high level of knowledge and positive attitude towards emergency contraceptive pills but had low level of utilization. Concerns about what others may say, parental attitude, contraceptive availability, contraceptive accessibility, and peer influences were the major factors that influenced the utilization of contraceptive pills. There was no significant relationship between knowledge and utilization of emergency contraceptive pills, as well as level of knowledge and their utilization of emergency contraceptive pills. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Adolescents in the study were more likely to use emergency contraceptive pills, if parents and others reaction to adolescents’ contraceptive use were positive about those. Health care professionals, especially nurses, should organize enlightenment programs to educate adolescents, parents and the public on the benefits of adolescents’ contraceptives use, especially ECP. PMID:28058193

  11. Adolescents' Knowledge, Attitude and Utilization of Emergency Contraceptive Pills in Nigeria's Niger Delta Region.

    PubMed

    Onasoga, Olayinka A; Afolayan, Joel Adeleke; Asamabiriowei, Tariebi Florence; Jibril, Umar Nda; Imam, Abubakar Ayinla

    2016-01-01

    Risky sexual activity among adolescents is on the increase and contraceptive prevalence rate is low which is evidenced by high rate of teenage pregnancy in Bayelsa state, Nigeria. This study assesses the adolescents' knowledge, attitude and utilization of emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) in Amassoma Community, Bayelsa State, in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The study was a descriptive cross-sectional research design. A purposive sampling technique was used to select a sample of 220 respondents from the target population. Data were collected using a self-structured questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data generated. Majority of the respondents had high level of knowledge and positive attitude towards emergency contraceptive pills but had low level of utilization. Concerns about what others may say, parental attitude, contraceptive availability, contraceptive accessibility, and peer influences were the major factors that influenced the utilization of contraceptive pills. There was no significant relationship between knowledge and utilization of emergency contraceptive pills, as well as level of knowledge and their utilization of emergency contraceptive pills. Adolescents in the study were more likely to use emergency contraceptive pills, if parents and others reaction to adolescents' contraceptive use were positive about those. Health care professionals, especially nurses, should organize enlightenment programs to educate adolescents, parents and the public on the benefits of adolescents' contraceptives use, especially ECP.

  12. Impact of Decontamination Therapy on Ultrasound Visualization of Ingested Pills

    PubMed Central

    Bothwell, Jason; Skinner, Carl; Della-Giustina, David; Kang, Christopher; Cookman, Laura; Laselle, Brooks

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Acute toxic ingestion is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Emergency physicians (EP) caring for overdose (OD) patients are often required to make critical decisions with incomplete information. Point of care ultrasound (POCUS) may have a role in assisting EPs manage OD patients. We evaluated the impact of different liquid adjuncts used for gastric decontamination on examiners’ ability to identify the presence of tablets using POCUS, and assessed examiners’ ability to quantify the numbers of tablets in a simulated massive OD. Methods This prospective, blinded, pilot study was performed at an academic emergency department. Study participants were volunteer resident and staff EPs trained in POCUS. Five nontransparent, sealed bags were prepared with the following contents: 1 liter (L) of water, 1 L of water with 50 regular aspirin (ASA) tablets, 1 L of water with 50 enteric-coated aspirin tablets (ECA), 1 L of polyethylene glycol (PEG) with 50 ECA, and 1 L of activated charcoal (AC) with 50 ECA. After performing POCUS on each of the bags using a 10-5 MHz linear array transducer, participants completed a standardized questionnaire composed of the following questions: (1) Were pills present? YES/NO; (2) If tablets were identified, estimate the number (1–10, 11–25, >25). We used a single test on proportions using the binomial distribution to determine if the number of EPs who identified tablets differed from 50% chance. For those tablets identified in the different solutions, another test on proportions was used to determine whether the type of solution made a difference. Since 3 options were available, we used a probability of 33.3%. Results Thirty-seven EPs completed the study. All (37/37) EP’s correctly identified the absence of tablets in the bag containing only water, and the presence of ECA in the bags containing water and PEG. For Part 2 of the study, most participants - 25/37 (67.5%) using water, 23/37 (62.1%) using PEG, and all 37

  13. Pill formulations and their effect on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Brooks, P G

    1984-07-01

    Recent data on oral contraceptives (OCs) employing new low-dose formulations appear to indicate that most of the previously reported metabolic effects are minimized, particularly when a product is neigher ovverly estrogenic nor progestational. Evidence suggests that elevated levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in the plasma are correlated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic students have indicated a correlation between elevation of low denisty lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and coronary heart disease, and a correlation between decreases in high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and arterial disease. Epidemiologic evidence seems to suggest that combination OCs are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, especially risks of venous thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and stroke. There is some debate as to whether OCs themselves are an independent risk factor or whether they increase the effects of other risk factors. Women using combination OCs have been reported to have higher total serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations, related primarily to the estrogen dose. While most of the earlier literature associated estrogens with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, recent studies have increasingly implicated the progestin component. Increasing potencies of progestin have been found to proportionally lower the HDL-cholesterol level. There is a positive association between the estrogen dose and HDL-cholesterol level. Among combination pill users, HDL levels gevverally depend on the relative amounts and potencies of both components. It is generally agreed that there are some high-risk women who should be carefully monitored while using the pill or who should not use it at all. Steroid type and dosage both play a role in affecting carbohydrate metabolism. Ethinyl estradiol (EE), the estrogen component in most OCs, does not seem to have the same biphasic effect on carbohydrate metaolism as most other estrogens. Most of the recent

  14. PillCam(TradeMark), a Noninvasive Endoscopic Device for the Measurement of Gastrointestinal Motility Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaksman, Zahman; Crady, Camille; Raju, G. S.; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Bioavailability and effectiveness of drugs given by mouth are governed in part by gastrointestinal (GI) motility and function. Microgravity has been shown to decrease GI motility as indicated by a 3 fold increase in gastrointestinal transit time (GITT). The PillCam(TradeMark), an endoscopic camera embedded in a capsule, is a novel noninvasive and unobtrusive device that is used for the diagnosis of GI pathology. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of PillCam(TradeMark) as an alternative to the Lactulose Breath Hydrogen Test (LBHT) for estimating GI motility. The sensitivity and applicability of this device for detection and estimation of the effect of promethazine, a deterrent, and caffeine, a prokinetic, on GI motility were also examined. Method: In this semi-randomized cross-over design study, six male and six female subjects were administered the following 4 treatments: PillCam(TradeMark) alone, PillCam(TradeMark)+Lactulose (10g), PillCam(TradeMark)+caffeine (200mg), and PillCam(TradeMark)+Promethazine (50mg). Results: GITT ranged between 1:24 and 7:52 hr:min. Lactulose did not alter GITT. A significant increase in GITT was noticed after administration of PMZ when compared to values from PillCam(TradeMark) treatment alone or PillCam(TradeMark)+Lactulose treatment. No difference in GITT after caffeine treatment was noticed. While there were no gender related differences in GITT after administration of PillCam(TradeMark) or with lactulose, a significant difference (p<.05) between genders was observed after promethazine administration with mean GITT higher in males (5:50 hr:min) than females (4:15 hr:min). Conclusion: The PillCam(TradeMark) capsule is applicable for the determination of GITT using time stamped GI images. It can be successfully used for the assessment of drug induced changes in GI motility and therefore, may be applicable for microgravity and analog environment studies on GI motility and function.

  15. PillCam(TradeMark), a Noninvasive Endoscopic Device for the Measurement of Gastrointestinal Motility Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaksman, Zahman; Crady, Camille; Raju, G. S.; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Bioavailability and effectiveness of drugs given by mouth are governed in part by gastrointestinal (GI) motility and function. Microgravity has been shown to decrease GI motility as indicated by a 3 fold increase in gastrointestinal transit time (GITT). The PillCam(TradeMark), an endoscopic camera embedded in a capsule, is a novel noninvasive and unobtrusive device that is used for the diagnosis of GI pathology. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of PillCam(TradeMark) as an alternative to the Lactulose Breath Hydrogen Test (LBHT) for estimating GI motility. The sensitivity and applicability of this device for detection and estimation of the effect of promethazine, a deterrent, and caffeine, a prokinetic, on GI motility were also examined. Method: In this semi-randomized cross-over design study, six male and six female subjects were administered the following 4 treatments: PillCam(TradeMark) alone, PillCam(TradeMark)+Lactulose (10g), PillCam(TradeMark)+caffeine (200mg), and PillCam(TradeMark)+Promethazine (50mg). Results: GITT ranged between 1:24 and 7:52 hr:min. Lactulose did not alter GITT. A significant increase in GITT was noticed after administration of PMZ when compared to values from PillCam(TradeMark) treatment alone or PillCam(TradeMark)+Lactulose treatment. No difference in GITT after caffeine treatment was noticed. While there were no gender related differences in GITT after administration of PillCam(TradeMark) or with lactulose, a significant difference (p<.05) between genders was observed after promethazine administration with mean GITT higher in males (5:50 hr:min) than females (4:15 hr:min). Conclusion: The PillCam(TradeMark) capsule is applicable for the determination of GITT using time stamped GI images. It can be successfully used for the assessment of drug induced changes in GI motility and therefore, may be applicable for microgravity and analog environment studies on GI motility and function.

  16. Qishen Yiqi Drop Pill improves cardiac function after myocardial ischemia

    PubMed Central

    JianXin, Chen; Xue, Xu; ZhongFeng, Li; Kuo, Gao; FeiLong, Zhang; ZhiHong, Li; Xian, Wang; HongCai, Shang

    2016-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia (MI) is one of the leading causes of death, while Qishen Yiqi Drop Pill (QYDP) is a representative traditional Chinese medicine to treat this disease. Unveiling the pharmacological mechanism of QYDP will provide a great opportunity to promote the development of novel drugs to treat MI. 64 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups: MI model group, sham operation group, QYDP treatment group and Fosinopril treatment group. Echocardiography results showed that QYDP exhibited significantly larger LV end-diastolic dimension (LVEDd) and LV end-systolic dimension (LVEDs), compared with the MI model group, indicating the improved cardiac function by QYDP. 1H-NMR based metabonomics further identify 9 significantly changed metabolites in the QYDP treatment group, and the QYDP-related proteins based on the protein-metabolite interaction networks and the corresponding pathways were explored, involving the pyruvate metabolism pathway, the retinol metabolism pathway, the tyrosine metabolism pathway and the purine metabolism pathway, suggesting that QYDP was closely associated with blood circulation. ELISA tests were further employed to identify NO synthase (iNOS) and cathepsin K (CTSK) in the networks. For the first time, our work combined experimental and computational methods to study the mechanism of the formula of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:27075394

  17. Young adult couples' decision making regarding emergency contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Richard; Kools, Susan M; Kennedy, Holly Powell; Humphreys, Janice

    2011-03-01

    Unintended pregnancy is a significant public health problem among young people worldwide. The purpose of this study was to explore and better understand the reasons for the apparent underuse of emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) in young people in coupled relationships. THEORETICAL RATIONAL: In postmodern explications of grounded theory, social construction of realities and the influence of subjectivities on the meanings of experiences lead to the development of partial truths that may change with time, context, and situation. Grounded theory methods guided semi-structured face-to-face interviews and data analysis. Twenty-two couples aged 18 to 25 years old were recruited through public notices. Four salient and interrelated conditions were constructed to help explain the complexities involved in young couples decision making regarding ECP use: (a) the shifting locus of responsibility for contraceptive decision making: in a perfect world versus biological reality; (b) relationship power: control-vulnerability continuum; (c) a woman's autonomy over her own body; and (d) conflicting views on ECP. Healthcare professionals whose practice includes young people need to be aware of possible couple dynamics when discussing contraception. Clients in supportive relationships should be encouraged to engage in open communication with their partners about their contraception needs, including possible ECP use. The results of this study contribute to the body of knowledge with regard to decision making related to ECP use in young adults. © 2011 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  18. Gastroretentive Accordion Pill: Enhancement of riboflavin bioavailability in humans.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Leonid; Lapidot, Noa; Afargan, Michel; Kirmayer, David; Moor, Eytan; Mardor, Yael; Friedman, Michael; Hoffman, Amnon

    2006-07-20

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of the Accordion Pill (AP), a novel controlled release gastroretentive unfolding dosage form (DF), to increase the bioavailability of riboflavin (RF) in humans. Three formulations containing 75 mg of RF and differing in release rate (immediate release (IR) capsule, AP#1, and AP#2) were administered with a low-calorie meal. Gastric residence time (GRT) of the AP was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Serial blood and urine samples were taken and assayed for RF. The AP demonstrated prolonged (up to 10.5 h) GRT in humans. Significant elevation in RF bioavailability (209+/-37%, mean+/-S.E.) was achieved by the AP#1 in comparison to the IR capsule. A correlation was established between the in-vitro release rates from DF and bioavailability of RF in humans, and it was modeled taking into account the saturable nature of RF absorption transport and its narrow absorption window (NAW) in the upper gastro-intestinal tract. It is anticipated that the AP will provide a valuable pharmaceutical solution to enhance therapy with NAW drugs.

  19. [Sequential contraceptive pills in the immediate postabortion period].

    PubMed

    Escudero, P; Viala, J L

    1982-05-01

    2637 abortions were done during 1980 at the Bionne Orthogenic Center in Montpellier, France. 12.83% of women treated were not using contraception at the time of conception; 61.89% had been using OC (oral contraception); reasons for not using contraception were lack of information, negligence, 1st sexual relation, and fear. 8.9% of women had undergone a previous induced abortion; 47.26% were unmarried, 35.52% were married, and 52.12% had no children. A sequential combination pill, 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol for 7 days, and 50 mcg of ethinyl estradiol and 2.5 mg of lynestrenol for the next 15 days, was prescribed beginning the day after abortion for 2320 women, or 88% of the total. Purpose of this treatment was to prevent hemorrhage, the formation of synechiae, and to favor an early return to normal endometrial physiology. Sequential OCs have the advantage of simulating a regular biphasic cycle, thus allowing the cicatrization of the placental scar, the return to normal of the uterine mucosa, and the hypervascularization of the endometrium; all these factors contribute to decreasing the risk of infection, such as endometritis. Effectiveness and acceptability of this method were excellent. After 3 months of this treatment a more specific type of contraception may be advisable.

  20. Oral contraceptives and venous thromboembolism: pill scares and public health.

    PubMed

    Reid, Robert L

    2011-11-01

    Post-marketing surveillance of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) for rare complications such as venous thromboembolism (VTE) presents unique challenges. Prospective studies, which are costly and time consuming, have to date been undertaken by only a few contraceptive manufacturers willing to commit to full evaluation of product safety. Often such studies are conducted with the approval of regulatory authorities as a precondition for marketing. Alternatively, independent investigators with access to large databases have conducted retrospective studies to compare the incidence of VTE between new and older products. Such studies, however, run the risk of erroneous conclusions if they cannot ensure comparable risk profiles for users of these different products. Often database studies are unable to access information on important confounders, and medical records may not be available to validate the actual diagnosis of VTE. "Pill scares" generated following publication and media dissemination of worrisome findings, when the conclusions are in doubt and not corroborated by stronger prospective study designs, are frequently damaging to public health. From a review of recent publications on the VTE risk with drospirenone-containing COCs, it can be concluded that the best quality evidence does not support a difference in risk between users of COCs containing drospirenone and those of COCs containing levonorgestrel.

  1. Pills easier to obtain as nations start to relax rules.

    PubMed

    1975-01-01

    In both developing and developed nations it has become easier to obtain oral contraception (OC). Generally, this means that the OC becomes available without a doctor's prescription and/or sources from outside a pharmacy. Sometimes there is no charge for the OC. In the People's Republic of China barefoot doctors distribute OC free of charge. Fiji, Israel, Korea and Pakistan have removed the prescription requirement. In India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and Turkey private family planning clinics distribute the OC on prescription but free of charge. Specially trained and registered midwives distribute OCs in Chile and Antigua has also recently lifted the prescription requirement. Free OC is available to low income women in Jamaica, Costa Rica and Peru. In Egypt family planning centers distribute the OC free and without prescription. The United Kingdom is making OCs available free-of-charge through the National Health Service. OCs are free in France. In the U.S. government agencies have provided free OCs to low-income women in government health centers and have subsidized free pills for distribution in private family planning clinics. In Canada and in the Democratic Republic of Germany, OCs are distributed free, on prescription, to low-income women.

  2. [Impact of media alerts on contraceptive pills medication].

    PubMed

    Pozzi-Gaudin, S; Deffieux, X; Davitian, C; Guerre, N; Faucher, P; Bacle, F; Teboul, M; Larmignat, P; Hatchuel, M; Benachi, A

    2015-09-01

    The end of 2012 was marked by some media alerts regarding combined hormonal contraceptives (CHC) and lawsuit against pharmaceutical companies selling these birth control pills. In this study, we analyzed whether these information had an impact on the number of abortion. Prospective study determining the number of women asking for abortion and who spontaneously declare that the contraception defect was due to an abandon of their oral contraception as they were scared of some information they received from media about the medication. Eleven centers out of 16 did participate to the study, allowing the study of 2300 abortion during this time frame. Ninety-eight of these pregnancies (4.2%) were due to an interruption of the contraceptive treatment as a consequence of media alerts. Average age was 26 years old. Within these pregnancies, 4 (6%) started in December 2012, 3 months after the beginning of the alerts, 11 (16%) in January, 24 (36%) in February and 18 (27%) in March 2013 (4-6 months later). In 7 cases (10%) CHC stopped by fear of information reported by media were of 2nd generation, in 17 cases (25%) of 3rd generation, in 32 cases (48%) of 4th generation and microprogestative in 2 cases (3%). Women who declared that they stopped their birth control medication by fear of information reported in media, represented 4% of the number of abortions performed between 2013 February 18th and 2013 April 30th. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Serum phosphorus levels and pill burden are inversely associated with adherence in patients on hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Steven; Alfieri, Thomas; Ramakrishnan, Karthik; Braunhofer, Peter; Newsome, Britt A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Phosphate binders (PBs) account for about one half of the daily pill burden for US hemodialysis (HD) patients, which may reduce adherence. Adherence can be estimated by the medication possession ratio (MPR), which is defined as the proportion of time a patient had sufficient medication to have taken it as prescribed. Gaps of time between prescription fills lower the patient's MPR. We assessed the association of PB pill burden and adherence (MPR) with phosphorus goal attainment. Methods Using pharmacy management program data, HD patients on PB monotherapy were tracked from first PB fill during 1 January 2007–30 June 2011 for 1 year, or until PB change or censoring. Data were assessed with generalized linear models. Results We analyzed 8616 patients. Higher pill burden was associated with lower adherence. Lower adherence tended to be associated with higher mean phosphorus levels and lower percentage of patients with serum phosphorus ≤5.5 mg/dL (P < 0.001). The association between adherence and these clinical outcomes was most pronounced in the lowest and highest pill burden strata (<3, >3–6, >12–15, >15). Conclusions Adherence, as measured by the MPR, was negatively related to higher pill burden and phosphorus levels and positively related to patients in the phosphorus target range. Within pill burden strata, phosphorus increased and patients in the target range generally decreased with decreasing adherence, suggesting that patients prescribed fewer PB pills are less likely to have treatment gaps, and may be more likely to achieve phosphorus targets. PMID:24009281

  4. Low-dose levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol patch and pill: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kaunitz, Andrew M; Portman, David; Westhoff, Carolyn L; Archer, David F; Mishell, Daniel R; Rubin, Arkady; Foegh, Marie

    2014-02-01

    To compare a new low-dose levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol contraceptive patch (Patch) with a combination oral contraceptive (Pill; 100 micrograms levonorgestrel, 20 micrograms ethinyl estradiol) regarding efficacy, safety, compliance, and unscheduled uterine bleeding. Women (17-40 years; body mass index 16-60) were randomized in a 3:1 ratio to one of two groups: Patch only (13 cycles) or Pill (six cycles) followed by Patch (seven cycles). Investigators evaluated adverse events during cycles 2, 4, 6, 9, and 13. Participants recorded drug administration and uterine bleeding on daily diary cards. Compliance was assessed by measuring levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol plasma levels. Pearl Index (pregnancies per 100 woman-years) was calculated to evaluate efficacy. Participants (N=1,504) were randomized to Patch (n=1,129) or Pill (n=375). Approximately 30% were obese, more than 40% were racial or ethnic minorities, and more than 55% were new users of hormonal contraceptives. Laboratory-verified noncompliance (undetectable plasma drug levels) was 11% of Patch and 12.6% of Pill users at cycle 6. Pearl Indices (95% confidence intervals) for the intention-to-treat population (cycles 1-6) were 4.45 (2.34-6.57) for Patch and 4.02 (0.50-7.53) for Pill; excluding laboratory-verified noncompliant participants, Pearl Indices were 2.82 (0.98-4.67) for Patch and 3.80 (0.08-7.52) for Pill (differences not statistically significant). Incidence of unscheduled bleeding and incidence and severity of adverse events were similar for both contraceptives (no statistically significant difference). Efficacy and safety of the new contraceptive Patch are comparable to those of a Pill. Laboratory-verified noncompliance and bleeding profile are similar between the two treatments. The Patch was well tolerated. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01181479. I.

  5. Effect of a "pill mill" law on opioid prescribing and utilization: The case of Texas.

    PubMed

    Lyapustina, Tatyana; Rutkow, Lainie; Chang, Hsien-Yen; Daubresse, Matthew; Ramji, Alim F; Faul, Mark; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Alexander, G Caleb

    2016-02-01

    States have attempted to reduce prescription opioid abuse through strengthening the regulation of pain management clinics; however, the effect of such measures remains unclear. We quantified the impact of Texas's September 2010 "pill mill" law on opioid prescribing and utilization. We used the IMS Health LRx LifeLink database to examine anonymized, patient-level pharmacy claims for a closed cohort of individuals filling prescription opioids in Texas between September 2009 and August 2011. Our primary outcomes were derived at a monthly level and included: (1) average morphine equivalent dose (MED) per transaction; (2) aggregate opioid volume; (3) number of opioid prescriptions; and (4) quantity of opioid pills dispensed. We compared observed values with the counterfactual, which we estimated from pre-intervention levels and trends. Texas's pill mill law was associated with declines in average MED per transaction (-0.57 mg/month, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.09, -0.057), monthly opioid volume (-9.99 kg/month, CI -12.86, -7.11), monthly number of opioid prescriptions (-12,200 prescriptions/month, CI -15,300, -9,150) and monthly quantity of opioid pills dispensed (-714,000 pills/month, CI -877,000, -550,000). These reductions reflected decreases of 8.1-24.3% across the outcomes at one year compared with the counterfactual, and they were concentrated among prescribers and patients with the highest opioid prescribing and utilization at baseline. Following the implementation of Texas's 2010 pill mill law, there were clinically significant reductions in opioid dose, volume, prescriptions and pills dispensed within the state, which were limited to individuals with higher levels of baseline opioid prescribing and utilization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Individual patient data meta-analysis of combined treatments versus psychotherapy (with or without pill placebo), pharmacotherapy or pill placebo for adult depression: a protocol

    PubMed Central

    Weitz, Erica; Kleiboer, Annet; van Straten, Annemieke; Hollon, Steven D; Cuijpers, Pim

    2017-01-01

    Introduction There are many proven treatments (psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy or their combination) for the treatment of depression. Although there is growing evidence for the effectiveness of combination treatment (psychotherapy + pharmacotherapy) over pharmacotherapy alone, psychotherapy alone or psychotherapy plus pill placebo, for depression, little is known about which specific groups of patients may respond best to combined treatment versus monotherapy. Conventional meta-analyses techniques have limitations when tasked with examining whether specific individual characteristics moderate the effect of treatment on depression. Therefore, this protocol outlines an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis to explore which patients, with which clinical characteristics, have better outcomes in combined treatment compared with psychotherapy (alone or with pill placebo), pharmacotherapy and pill placebo. Methods and Analysis Study searches are completed using an established database of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on the psychological treatment of adult depression that has previously been reported. Searches were conducted in PubMed, PsycInfo, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. RCTs comparing combination treatment (psychotherapy + pharmacotherapy) with psychotherapy (with or without pill placebo), pharmacotherapy or pill placebo for the treatment of adult depression will be included. Study authors of eligible trials will be contacted and asked to contribute IPD. Conventional meta-analysis techniques will be used to examine differences between studies that have contributed data and those that did not. Then, IPD will be harmonised and analysis using multilevel regression will be conducted to examine effect moderators of treatment outcomes. Dissemination Study results outlined above will be published in peer-reviewed journals. Study results will contribute to better understanding whether certain patients respond best to combined

  7. Clinical and metabolic effects of a pill containing 30 mcg ethinylestradiol plus 75 mcg gestodene.

    PubMed

    Fioretti, P; Fruzzetti, F; Navalesi, R; Ricci, C; Miccoli, R; Cerri, M; Melis, G B

    1989-12-01

    The clinical and metabolic effects of a short-term treatment with a combination contraceptive pill containing 30 mcg ethinylestradiol and 75 mcg gestodene were evaluated in a group of 31 healthy women. The pill exerted good cycle control and the incidence of irregular bleeding was low. Side effects rarely occurred, and an improvement in premenstrual symptoms was reported during pill intake. Among the different biochemical parameters tested to monitor the coagulatory system, the only modification observed was an increase of fibrinopeptide A plasma levels, confirming that low-dose pills have less effects on the haemostatic system than oral contraceptives with a higher estrogen content. No significant modification in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-CH), HDL2-CH, nor low density lipoprotein-cholesterol were observed. HDL3-CH levels were significantly increased. Moreover, the pill did not significantly alter the fasting insulin and glucose levels nor their response to an oral glucose tolerance test. It may be suggested that this new formulation has high efficacy and clinical acceptability, primarily due to the total absence of any adverse metabolic effect.

  8. Self-corrective behavior for turn alternation in pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare).

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Toru; Migita, Masao; Mitsuishi, Meiji

    2016-01-01

    Pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare) demonstrate a behavior called turn alternation that keeps their overall direction of movement straight after obstacles in experimental settings force them to deviate from a course. For example, this behavior is seen when they alternate their path choice on successive trials of the T-maze test. However, sometimes pill bugs stop after turning and change their direction (directional change). The function of this directional change has not been investigated because such individuals are usually omitted from the data. The present paper shows that pill bugs use directional changes to prevent them from turning in the same direction on two successive turns, a behavior called turn repetition. We examined the behavior of 36 pill bugs that each completed 130 successive T-maze trials. Directional changes appeared more frequently when individuals had begun a turn repetition than when they had begun a turn alternation. Furthermore, after correcting for turn repetition, turn alternations increased. These results suggest that pill bugs have an inherent mechanism that acts to maintain turn-alternating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Emergency contraceptive pills: dispensing practices, knowledge and attitudes of South Dakota pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Van Riper, Kristi K

    2005-03-01

    Despite a decision by the Food and Drug Administration to deny over-the-counter status to emergency contraceptive pills, pharmacists play a crucial role in a woman's access to this medication, especially in areas with large rural populations. Pharmacists' knowledge about and attitudes toward emergency contraceptive pills may affect whether pharmacies carry the medication and whether individual pharmacists dispense it. In October 2003, all registered pharmacists living and working in South Dakota were mailed a survey to assess their dispensing practices for, knowledge about, and attitudes toward emergency contraceptive pills. Data for 501 respondents were analyzed through chi-square testing and multivariate logistic regression. Fifty-four percent of respondents worked in pharmacies that carried emergency contraceptive pills. Of these, 67% had dispensed the medication in 2003, and 24% were not comfortable providing customer counseling about the method. Thirty-seven percent of all pharmacists did not understand its mechanism of action; 43% and 21%, respectively, incorrectly answered questions about the medication's link to birth defects and health risks. Only 5% correctly answered all three questions. Eighty-four percent of surveyed pharmacists believed that the medication should not be made available over the counter. Multivariate analysis showed that knowledge of emergency contraception and support for over-the-counter status were relatively low among pharmacists working in small communities. The education of pharmacists about emergency contraceptive pills must be strengthened to ensure that women receive accurate medical information and access to all contraceptive services.

  10. Efficacy and Safety of a Single-Pill Fixed-Dose Combination of Azilsartan and Amlodipine.

    PubMed

    Motozato, Kota; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Shiga, Yuhei; Kusumoto, Takaaki; Saku, Keijiro

    2016-12-01

    Guidelines for the management of hypertension recommend the use of drugs with different mechanisms of action in antihypertensive regimens that include single-pill fixed-dose combinations of medications. There is some controversy regarding which single-pill fixed-dose combinations of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are effective at reducing blood pressure (BP). Forty hypertensive patients who were receiving a single-pill fixed-dose combination of valsartan 80 mg/day and amlodipine 5 mg/day or irbesartan 100 mg/day and amlodipine 5 mg/day were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two treatment groups, a group that changed to a single-pill fixed-dose combination of azilsartan 20 mg/day and amlodipine 5 mg/day (changeover group) and a group that continued to receive valsartan 80 mg/day and amlodipine 5 mg/day or irbesartan 100 mg/day and amlodipine 5 mg/day (control group), and treated for 16 weeks. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) or pulse rate (PR) at 16 weeks between the control and changeover groups. In addition, there were no significant changes in biochemical parameters throughout the study period in both groups. The ability of a single-pill fixed-dose combination of azilsartan and amlodipine to reduce BP may be comparable to that of a combination of valsartan and amlodipine or irbesartan and amlodipine.

  11. Effects of herbal drugs prescribed in wood creosote pills on the dissolution profile of guaiacol.

    PubMed

    Baba, Tatsuya; Nishino, Takao; Tani, Tadato

    2003-02-01

    Wood creosote pills (P4) containing wood creosote and four herbal drugs, Gambir, Phellodendri Cortex, Glycyrrhizae Radix, and Citri Unshiu Pericarpium (CUP), have been used to treat food poisoning and diarrhea through self-medication in Japan. The mean dissolution time (MDT) of guaiacol, one of the active constituents of wood creosote, from P4 (138.3+/-3.3 min) was significantly longer than that (42.6+/-4.3 min) from pills (P0) containing only wood creosote. The MDT of the variant pills prepared from P4 without CUP (54.3+/-12.5 min) was found to be significantly shorter than that of P4. These findings suggest that CUP plays an important role in sustaining the dissolution of guaiacol from P4. The long MDT of guaiacol is considered one of the most important factors affecting the duration of efficacy after oral administration of wood creosote pills. The present findings are considered proof that CUP has been prescribed in traditional as well as new formulations of wood creosote pills.

  12. The effects of gender and birth control pill use on spontaneous blink rates.

    PubMed

    Yolton, D P; Yolton, R L; López, R; Bogner, B; Stevens, R; Rao, D

    1994-11-01

    Two major reference works suggest that men and women blink spontaneously at different rates, but they disagree with regard to which gender blinks faster. Spontaneous blink rates of 59 males and 86 females, 44 of whom were taking birth control (BC) pills, were measured for 5 consecutive minutes. Schirmer test results and tear break-up times (TBUTs) were also obtained. Females taking BC pills blinked at a mean rate of 19.6 times per minute, females not taking birth control pills blinked 14.9 times per minute, and males blinked 14.5 times per minute. There were very large differences between blink rates for individuals in each of the groups. No strong associations were found between spontaneous blink rates and a history of contact lens use, tear break-up time, Schirmer test results, temperature or humidity in the examination room, subject age, or menstrual cycle phase. The 32 percent increase in mean blink rate for females taking BC pills suggests that the pills affect at least one of the mechanisms that control spontaneous blinking, but it is unclear how they accomplish this.

  13. The oral contraceptive pill: use, user satisfaction, side effects and fears among Manawatu women.

    PubMed

    Trlin, A D; Perry, P E

    1982-10-13

    The 1978 Manawatu Family Growth Study included questions on the oral contraceptive pill to gauge aspects of its use, user satisfaction and the experience of side effects and fears. Of the 1390 women aged 16-44 interviewed, 1085 (78 percent) had ever used the pill--411 and 674 were current and previous users, respectively. Among the current users 45.2 percent stated they sometimes forgot to take the pill and 50 percent reported they were not entirely happy about using the pill. For dissatisfied current users and all previous users it was found that: (a) various side effects were experienced by substantial percentages in each group, the most common being weight gain or swelling; and (b) a fear of permanent damage to health was acknowledged by more than half of each group. Concern caused by publicity on side effects was reported by 46.9 percent of those who had ever used the pill. These and other results, and their implications, indicate a need for instruction, guidance and counselling for oral contraceptive users.

  14. Turkish pharmacists' counseling practices and attitudes regarding emergency contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Apikoglu-Rabus, Sule; Clark, Philip Martin; Izzettin, Fikret V

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study is to assess Turkish pharmacists' counseling practices and attitudes regarding emergency contraception pills (ECPs). This cross-sectional observational study was conducted via a web-based survey in Turkey. Pharmacists registered at a professional web site (n = 822) were invited to fill in the study questionnaire; 624 questionnaires were completed and further analyzed. Pharmacists who agreed to participate in the study completed the questionnaire which was structured to elicit their demography, professional experience, counseling practices and attitudes regarding ECP. Attitudes were measured by 18 items under four domains: "reproductive health; information and availability; risk behavior and regulatory restrictions". The answer choices consisted of five items as: "totally agree, agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree and totally disagree". The rate of counseling on various aspects of the ECPs and the rate of negative/positive attitudes. The aspects most frequently counseled on by the pharmacists were dosage, timeframes, efficacy and pregnancy testing. Less frequently counseled aspects were mechanism of action, methods of contraception and side-effects. In general, the pharmacists displayed positive attitudes towards all domains of the survey; while they were negative to the items suggesting that ECP should be sold only to women and only on prescription. Another interesting finding is that 58 % of the pharmacists agreed with the item suggesting limiting the ECP sales to those over 18 years of age. Our results showed that the pharmacists served the clients in need of emergency contraception more frequently than the other health-care providers and in general had favorable attitudes towards ECP. Some aspects of their counseling practices need to be improved. This can be accomplished through continuous education programs that would equip them with the competence to provide counseling on emergency contraception which will in turn help prevent

  15. Suicide, Canadian law, and Exit International's "peaceful pill".

    PubMed

    Ogden, Russel D

    2010-11-01

    Australia's Exit International ("Exit") is probably the most visible and controversial right-to-die organization in the world. Founded by Dr. Philip Nitschke, Exit is known for do-it-yourself ("DIY") suicide workshops and a book banned in Australia: The Peaceful Pill Handbook. In 2009, Exit held its first workshop in Canada. Due to legal concerns, the Vancouver Public Library reneged on a commitment to give Exit a venue, so the workshop proceeded in the sanctuary of a church hall. This article summarizes the history of suicide law in Canada and gives an overview of the emerging DIY movement. A case report describes how a Canadian woman studied Exit's literature and learned how to import veterinary pentobarbital. In accordance with Exit's information, she ended her life. Ethical and legal implications for researching DIY suicide are discussed and it is argued that prohibition contributes to an undesirable situation of uncontrolled and unregulated suicide. Whether they are prohibited, permitted, or tolerated, suicide and assisted suicide are controversial. Their legal treatment in Canada is conflicting because suicide is not a crime but it is a serious offense to assist, encourage, or counsel someone to suicide. Individuals can lawfully take their lives, but they must act independently. This legal situation has given rise to a do-it-yourself ("DIY") right-to-die movement dedicated to technologies and information to enhance the possibilities for planned and humane suicide, while limiting the legal exposure of sympathetic third parties (Martin, 2010; Ogden 2001). My aim is to summarize the legal history of suicide in Canada and discuss the emerging social movement for DIY suicide and assistance in suicide. Exit International ("Exit"), based in Australia, is a leading organization in this movement. I present a case report that describes how a Canadian woman ended her life using DIY techniques learned from Exit. Some ethical and legal implications for researching DIY

  16. Honduran women received no written information on contraceptive pill.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    In the period 1989-1994, Honduran women participating in the Project Health Sector 2 have been exposed to a contraceptive mini-pill, Ovrette. The Institute of Honduran Social Security (IHSS) approved the program (in which Ovrette distribution is included) in May 1990. The program is partly funded by the Population Council, which is funded by USAID Registry with the Department of Health was not required under the Health Code since Ovrette had entered the country as a donation. In June 1993, a Commission of the Honduran Medical Association reported that the women were not given any written information on the drug. Ovrette is an oral contraceptive manufactured by Wyeth. Its active ingredient is a progestagen, Norgestrel. Contraindications for Ovrette include: non-lactating women who exhibit side-effects such as dizziness, water retention, migraine, etc.; non-lactating women with contraindications for estrogen; lactating women who reject other contraceptive drugs. The US Pharmacopeia and the US Food and Drug Administration do not authorize the drug for use by lactating women. As with other progestagens, Norgestrel passes through to the mother's milk. In 1993, the US Pharmacopeia reported that these hormones can cause harmful effects to the child, and recommended switching medications or discontinuation of lactation. In 1983, the WHO expressed concern about the possibility of injury caused by the progestagens. The possibilities included alterations to personality, behavior, anatomy of sexual organs, reproductive capacity, immunological function and development of neoplasia. Possible damages in puberty or during the reproductive age are not known since there is no study of exposed children that are older than 12 years of age. full text

  17. Improved Design and Fabrication of Hydrated-Salt Pills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter J.; DiPirro, Michael J.; Canavan, Edgar R.

    2011-01-01

    A high-performance design, and fabrication and growth processes to implement the design, have been devised for encapsulating a hydrated salt in a container that both protects the salt and provides thermal conductance between the salt and the environment surrounding the container. The unitary salt/container structure is known in the art as a salt pill. In the original application of the present design and processes, the salt is, more specifically, a hydrated paramagnetic salt, for use as a refrigerant in a very-low-temperature adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR). The design and process can also be applied, with modifications, to other hydrated salts. Hydrated paramagnetic salts have long been used in ADRs because they have the desired magnetic properties at low temperatures. They also have some properties, disadvantageous for ADRs, that dictate the kind of enclosures in which they must be housed: Being hydrated, they lose water if exposed to less than 100-percent relative humidity. Because any dehydration compromises their magnetic properties, salts used in ADRs must be sealed in hermetic containers. Because they have relatively poor thermal conductivities in the temperature range of interest (<0.1 K), integral thermal buses are needed as means of efficiently transferring heat to and from the salts during refrigeration cycles. A thermal bus is typically made from a high-thermal-conductivity met al (such as copper or gold), and the salt is configured to make intimate thermal contact with the metal. Commonly in current practice (and in the present design), the thermal bus includes a matrix of wires or rods, and the salt is grown onto this matrix. The density and spacing of the conductors depend on the heat fluxes that must be accommodated during operation.

  18. Fertility effects of abortion and birth control pill access for minors.

    PubMed

    Guldi, Melanie

    2008-11-01

    This article empirically assesses whether age-restricted access to abortion and the birth control pill influence minors' fertility in the United States. There is not a strong consensus in previous literature regarding the relationship between laws restricting minors' access to abortion and minors' birth rates. This is the first study to recognize that state laws in place prior to the 1973 Roe v. Wade decision enabled minors to legally consent to surgical treatment-including abortion-in some states but not in others, and to construct abortion access variables reflecting this. In this article, age-specific policy variables measure either a minor's legal ability to obtain an abortion or to obtain the birth control pill without parental involvement. I find fairly strong evidence that young women's birth rates dropped as a result of abortion access as well as evidence that birth control pill access led to a drop in birth rates among whites.

  19. [Study on fluorescence sequencing typing technology identification of raw materials in liuwei dihuang pill].

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhan-Hu; Huang, Lu-Qi; Yuan, Yuan; Li, Min-Hui; Jiang, Chao; Zhou, Li-She

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, Liuwei Dihuang pill was used to study the identification of Chinese patent medicine by fluorescence sequencing typing technology. The DNA of Paeonia suffruticosa was used as template to amplify by five pair of FAM fluorescence labeling primers. Then, the amplified products were sequenced. The sequencing results were analyzed by GeneMarker V1.80 to screen the best fluorescence labeling primers. As a result, psbA-trnH fluorescence labeling primer was used to identify the raw materials of Liuwei Dihuang pill. The results showed that three kinds of raw plant medicinal materials in Liuwei Dihuang pill were able to be correctly identified by psbA-trnH fluorescence labeling primer. The fluorescence sequencing typing technology can stably and accurately distinguish raw medicinal materials in Chinese patent medicine.

  20. Emergency contraceptive pills: what does the law say about prescribing, dispensing, repackaging, and advertising?

    PubMed

    Jones, B S

    1998-01-01

    Despite the proven safety and efficacy of providing concentrated doses of oral contraceptive pills as postcoital contraception, many physicians and health care providers are unclear as to this "off-label" use and thus remain reluctant to dispense it. It is critical that health care providers learn about both the medical and legal aspects of providing emergency contraception so that they can make this important method of pregnancy prevention available to their patients. While a dedicated product may soon gain US Food and Drug Administration approval and go on the market, it is still important for health care providers to be aware of the legal issues surrounding the various aspects of both on- and off-label provision of emergency contraceptive pills. This paper provides an overview of the legal issues involved and suggests that there are a number of ways that health care providers can make emergency contraceptive pills available and readily accessible to patients with no serious legal risk.

  1. Imbibition, desiccation and mechanical deformations of zein pills in relation to their porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabino, M. A.; Pauchard, L.; Allain, C.; Colonna, P.; Lourdin, D.

    2006-05-01

    This paper deals with the interaction between zein (the main protein component of corn grain) and water. It induces macroscopic properties changes and may allow for the understanding of the basis of zein endosperm structure: vitreous endosperm is compact and floury endosperm is porous, giving the endosperm its hard and soft textures, respectively. In that aim porous pills made by compaction of zein powder submitted to different hydration/dehydration processes have been prepared and studied. In particular, imbibition measurements of a pure-water drop deposited onto a zein pill were performed. Also, desiccation of a zein pill previously imbibed induces strong mechanical stresses leading to crack formation and/or large deformations.

  2. Autopsy report on pseudo-Bartter syndrome with renal calcification induced by diuretics and diet pills.

    PubMed

    Unuma, Kana; Tojo, Akihiro; Harada, Kazuki; Saka, Kanju; Nakajima, Makoto; Ishii, Takeshi; Fujita, Toshiro; Yoshida, Ken-Ichi

    2009-01-01

    A woman in her mid-forties had repeated vomiting and diarrhoea accompanied by muscle weakness soon after she started taking seven different diet pills imported from Thailand. After she had taken the pills for 8 days, respiratory depression progressed rapidly to arrest. Blood tests at the Emergency Department showed severe hypokalaemia with metabolic alkalosis. We diagnosed that she had developed pseudo-Bartter syndrome from the findings based on ionic abnormalities and high renin and aldosterone levels, and hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular apparatus. A postmortem blood analysis indicated subtherapeutic levels of furosemide. We concluded that the patient died from pseudo-Bartter syndrome, which was triggered by chronic self-administration of furosemide and aggravated by the diet pills. This is the first pseudo-Bartter syndrome autopsy report to show histological localisation of calcification in the kidneys.

  3. Emergency contraceptive pills: Exploring the knowledge and attitudes of community health workers in a developing Muslim country.

    PubMed

    Mir, Azeem Sultan; Malik, Raees

    2010-08-01

    Unsafe abortion is a major Public health problem in developing countries, where women make several unsafe attempts at termination of the unintended pregnancy before turning to health services. Community health workers can act as a bridge between the community and their health facilities and can use Emergency Contraceptive Pills to significantly reduce the mortality and morbidity related to unsafe abortions. This study explores the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Lady Health Supervisor of the National Program for Family Planning, district Rawalpindi, regarding emergency contraception pills. The cross sectional survey was conducted during the monthly meeting of Lady Health Supervisors. Self administered, anonymous and voluntary questionnaire consisting of 17 items, regarding demographic profile, awareness, knowledge, attitudes and practices, was used. Insufficient knowledge, high misinformation and strongly negative attitudes were revealed. More than half did not know that emergency contraceptive pills do not cause abortion. About four fifths believed that emergency contraceptive pills will lead to 'evil' practices in society. More than four fifths recognized that the clients of National Program for Family Planning need emergency contraceptive pills. The attitudes were significantly associated with knowledge (P=0.034, Fisher's Exact Test). The awareness of emergency contraceptive pills is high. Serious gaps in knowledge have been identified. There is a clear recognition of the need of emergency contraceptive pills for the clients of National Program for Family Planning. However, any strategy to introduce emergency contraceptive pills must cater for the misplaced beliefs of the work force.

  4. Emergency contraceptive pills: Exploring the knowledge and attitudes of community health workers in a developing Muslim country

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Azeem Sultan; Malik, Raees

    2010-01-01

    Background: Unsafe abortion is a major Public health problem in developing countries, where women make several unsafe attempts at termination of the unintended pregnancy before turning to health services. Community health workers can act as a bridge between the community and their health facilities and can use Emergency Contraceptive Pills to significantly reduce the mortality and morbidity related to unsafe abortions. Aims: This study explores the knowledge, attitudes and practices of the Lady Health Supervisor of the National Program for Family Planning, district Rawalpindi, regarding emergency contraception pills. Materials and Methods: The cross sectional survey was conducted during the monthly meeting of Lady Health Supervisors. Self administered, anonymous and voluntary questionnaire consisting of 17 items, regarding demographic profile, awareness, knowledge, attitudes and practices, was used. Results: Insufficient knowledge, high misinformation and strongly negative attitudes were revealed. More than half did not know that emergency contraceptive pills do not cause abortion. About four fifths believed that emergency contraceptive pills will lead to ‘evil’ practices in society. More than four fifths recognized that the clients of National Program for Family Planning need emergency contraceptive pills. The attitudes were significantly associated with knowledge (P=0.034, Fisher's Exact Test). Conclusion: The awareness of emergency contraceptive pills is high. Serious gaps in knowledge have been identified. There is a clear recognition of the need of emergency contraceptive pills for the clients of National Program for Family Planning. However, any strategy to introduce emergency contraceptive pills must cater for the misplaced beliefs of the work force. PMID:22737673

  5. Phosphate binder pill burden, patient-reported non-adherence, and mineral bone disorder markers: Findings from the DOPPS.

    PubMed

    Fissell, Rachel B; Karaboyas, Angelo; Bieber, Brian A; Sen, Ananda; Li, Yun; Lopes, Antonio A; Akiba, Takashi; Bommer, Jürgen; Ethier, Jean; Jadoul, Michel; Pisoni, Ronald L; Robinson, Bruce M; Tentori, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Because of multiple comorbidities, hemodialysis (HD) patients are prescribed many oral medications, including phosphate binders (PBs), often resulting in a high "pill burden." Using data from the international Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS), we assessed associations between PB pill burden, patient-reported PB non-adherence, and levels of serum phosphorus (SPhos) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) using standard regression analyses. The study included data collected from 5262 HD patients from dialysis units participating in the DOPPS in 12 countries. PB prescription ranged from a mean of 7.4 pills per day in the United States to 3.9 pills per day in France. About half of the patients were prescribed at least 6 PB pills per day, and 13% were prescribed at least 12 PB pills per day. Overall, the proportion of patients who reported skipping PBs at least once in the past month was 45% overall, ranging from 33% in Belgium to 57% in the United States. There was a trend toward greater PB non-adherence and a higher number of prescribed PB pills per day. Non-adherence to PB prescription was associated with high SPhos (>5.5 mg/dL) and PTH (>600 pg/mL). Adherence to PB is a challenge for many HD patients and may be related to the number of PB pills prescribed. Prescription of a simplified PB regimen could improve patient adherence and perhaps improve SPhos and PTH levels. © 2015 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  6. New low-dose, extended-cycle pills with levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol: an evolutionary step in birth control.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Anita

    2010-08-09

    To review milestones in development of oral contraceptive pills since their introduction in the US 50 years ago in order to better understand how a new formulation with low-dose estrogen in an extended-cycle pattern fits into the evolution of birth control pills. This is a review of trends in the development of various birth controls pills and includes data from phase III clinical trials for this new formulation. The first birth control pill was a very high-dose monophasic formulation with the prodrug estrogen mestranol and a first-generation progestin. Over the decades, the doses of hormones have been markedly reduced, and a new estrogen and several different progestins were developed and used in different dosing patterns. The final element to undergo change was the 7-day pill-free interval. Many of these same changes have been made in the development of extended-cycle pill formulation. The newest extended-cycle oral contraceptive formulation with 84 active pills, each containing 20 μg ethinyl estradiol and 100 μg levonorgestrel, represents an important evolution in birth control that incorporates lower doses of estrogen (to reduce side effects and possibly reduce risk of thrombosis), fewer scheduled bleeding episodes (to meet women's desires for fewer and shorter menses) and the use of low-dose estrogen in place of placebo pills (to reduce the number of days of unscheduled spotting and bleeding). Hopefully, this unique formation will motivate women to be more successful contraceptors.

  7. Phosphate Binder Pill Burden, Patient-Reported Non-Adherence, and Mineral Bone Disorder Markers: Findings from the DOPPS

    PubMed Central

    Fissell, Rachel B.; Karaboyas, Angelo; Bieber, Brian A.; Sen, Ananda; Li, Yun; Lopes, Antonio A.; Akiba, Takashi; Bommer, Jürgen; Ethier, Jean; Jadoul, Michel; Pisoni, Ronald L.; Robinson, Bruce M.; Tentori, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to multiple comorbidities, hemodialysis (HD) patients are prescribed many oral medications, including phosphate binders (PBs), often resulting in a high “pill burden”. Methods Using data from the international Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS), we assessed associations between PB pill burden, patient-reported PB non-adherence, and levels of serum phosphorus (SPhos) and parathyroid hormone (PTH), using standard regression analyses. The study included data collected from 5,262 HD patients from dialysis units participating in the DOPPS in 12 countries. Results PB prescription ranged from a mean of 7.4 pills/day in the United States (US) to 3.9 pills/day in France. About half of the patients were prescribed at least 6 PB pills/day, and 13% were prescribed at least 12 PB pills/day. Overall, the proportion of patients who reported skipping PBs at least once in the past month was 45% overall, ranging from 33% in Belgium to 57% in the US. There was a trend toward greater PB non-adherence and a higher number of prescribed PB pills/day. Non-adherence to PB prescription was associated with high SPhos (>5.5 mg/dL) and PTH (> 600 pg/mL). Conclusions Adherence to PB is a challenge for many hemodialysis patients and may be related to the number of PB pills prescribed. Prescription of a simplified PB regimen could improve patient adherence and perhaps improve SPhos and PTH levels. PMID:25975222

  8. BZP-party pills: a review of research on benzylpiperazine as a recreational drug.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Bruce M Z; Butler, Rachael

    2011-03-01

    BZP-party pills are yet another 'designer drug' which mimics the stimulant qualities of amphetamines and MDMA/Ecstasy. As legal markets for the substance have developed in the last decade (especially amongst young people) so has public and governmental concern. This article provides a summary of the available international research on benzylpiperazine (BZP) and its popular use in the compound form known as 'party pills'. Through performing an analysis of the available medical and social scientific literature, the review outlines current knowledge on the compound, the prevalence of usage of BZP-party pills, as well as the associated harms, risks and rationales for use of the drug. Despite moves towards legislative control of BZP-party pills, the evidence presented suggests limited social and health harms associated with the drug, although research on long term effects is a significant gap in the literature. It also remains inconclusive as to whether BZP-party pills act as a 'gateway' to illegal drugs or, conversely, play a role in harm reduction with illegal drug users turning to legal alternatives; there is some evidence for both positions. With increasing controls of BZP-party pills, and with the increasing numbers of 'legal highs' and new designer drugs on the market, we conclude that new legal alternatives will continue to surface to replace the drug in the future. Considering a harm reduction approach to drug taking, it is suggested that policy makers consider the creation of a legal holding category which restricts and regulates the market in legal highs whilst the social and health harms associated with each drug can be thoroughly investigated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Study on self-microemulsifying membrane controlled-release drop pill of hawthorn leaves flavonoids].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Xuan; Huang, Hong-Zhang; Li, Ning; Gao, Chong-Kai

    2014-03-01

    To prepare the hawthorn leaves flavonoids self-microemulsifying membrane controlled-release coated drop pill, and to study its release rate in vitro and pharmacokinetics study in vivo. In order to improve the dissolution of hawthorn leaves flavonoids, self-microemulsifying technology was used to prepare the hawthorn leaves flavonoids self-microemulsion. Hawthorn leaves flavonoids self-microemulsifying drop pill was prepared with the PEG 6000. Studies were made on the in vitro release of flavonoids from hawthorn leaves self-micro-emulsifying membrane-moderated coated drop pills and the in vivo pharmacokinetic in rats. The prescription of flavonoids from hawthorn leaves self-micro-emulsifying drop pills was 0.25 g of flavonoids from hawthorn leaves, 0.25 g of iodophenyl maleimide, 0.375 g of polyethylene glycol 400, 0.375 g of cremophor RH 40 and 2 g of polyethylene glycol 6000. The optimized prescription was 4 g of ethyl cellulose 20, 0.64 g of polyethylene glycol 400, 1.8 g of diethyl phthalate, and the weight of coating materials increased by 3.5%. Flavonoids from hawthorn leaves self-micro-emulsifying membrane-moderated coated drop pills complied with the design of sustained-release in 12 h in terms of in vitro release and in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters in rats, and its bioavailability was 2.47 times of quick-release drop pills. Slightly soluble flavonoids from hawthorn leaves could be made into sustained-release preparations by the self-micro-emulsifying and coating technology.

  10. The expected and unexpected benefits of dispensing the exact number of pills

    PubMed Central

    Lescher, Sabine; Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Ventelou, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Background From November 2014 to November 2015, an experiment in French community pharmacies replaced traditional pre-packed boxes by per-unit dispensing of pills in the exact numbers prescribed, for 14 antibiotics. Methods A cluster randomised control trial was carried out in 100 pharmacies. 75 pharmacies counted out the medication by units (experimental group), the other 25 providing the treatment in the existing pharmaceutical company boxes (control group). Data on patients under the two arms were compared to assess the environmental, economic and health effects of this change in drug dispensing. In particular, adherence was measured indirectly by comparing the number of pills left at the end of the prescribed treatment. Results Out of the 1185 patients included during 3 sessions of 4 consecutive weeks each, 907 patients experimented the personalized delivery and 278 were assigned to the control group, consistent with a 1/3 randomization-rate at the pharmacy level. 80% of eligible patients approved of the per-unit dispensing of their treatment. The initial packaging of the drugs did not match with the prescription in 60% of cases and per-unit dispensing reduced by 10% the number of pills supplied. 13.1% of patients declared that they threw away pills residuals instead of recycling—no differences between groups. Finally, per-unit dispensing appeared to improve adherence to antibiotic treatment (marginal effect 0.21, IC 95, 0.14–0.28). Conclusions Supplying antibiotics per unit is not only beneficial in terms of a reduced number of pills to reimburse or for the environment (less pills wasted and non-recycled), but also has a positive and unexpected impact on adherence to treatment, and thus on both individual and public health. PMID:28926636

  11. Inhibitory effects of cardiotonic pills on platelet function in dogs fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Jun; Li, Hui-Min; Meng, Yong-Xia

    2006-06-01

    Insulin resistance and the consequent metabolic disorders are associated with a state of platelet hyperactivity. Oxidative stress is responsible for the persistent platelet activation. We sought to study the inhibitory effect of cardiotonic pills, an oral herbal component, on platelet function in a dog model with insulin resistance induced by high-fat feeding. We fed 18 dogs with a high-fat diet and six dogs with normal chow as control for 6 months. Then, six dogs were fed with a high-fat diet and received additional aspirin (250 mg/day), and another six dogs received additional cardiotonic pills (1,000 mg/day) for 4 months. Time-course changes in metabolic parameters and platelet function were detected. After high-fat feeding for 6 months, 18 dogs developed a series of metabolic disorders including obesity, dyslipidemia, oxidative stress and insulin resistance. In addition, a platelet hyperactivity state, characterized by increased agonist (arachidonic acid, ADP and collagen) induced platelet aggregation, platelet expression of adhesion molecules (P-selectin and GP IIb/IIIa), and platelet intracellular calcium concentration, was indicated. Cardiotonic pills showed a significant antioxidative activity by presenting an increase in plasma superoxide dismutase and decrease in erythrocyte glutathione, as well as a lipid-lowering effect (decrease in both plasma cholesterol and triglyceride). Either aspirin or cardiotonic pills could significantly reverse the platelet hypersensitivity and hyperfunction. Compared with aspirin, cardiotonic pills showed a more exaggerated inhibitory effect on platelet function (a significantly decreased collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation, and expression of adhesion molecules). In conclusion, cardiotonic pills inhibited platelet hyperfunction in dogs with insulin resistance. This inhibitory effect may mainly be explained by antioxidative activity and metabolic control.

  12. Kinematic Kevlar suspension system for the HAWC and SAFIRE ADR salt pills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voellmer, George M.; Jackson, Michael; Shirron, Peter J.; Tuttle, James G.

    2003-03-01

    The High Resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) and the Submillimeter And Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE) will use identical Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADR) to cool their detectors to 200mK and 100mK, respectively. In order to minimize thermal loads on the salt pill, a Kevlar® suspension system is used to hold it in place. An innovative, kinematic suspension system is presented. The suspension system is unique in that it consists of two parts that can be assembled and tensioned offline, and later bolted onto the salt pill.

  13. Sleeping pill use in Brazil: a population-based, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kodaira, Katia; Silva, Marcus Tolentino

    2017-07-10

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of sleeping pill use in Brazil. A population-based cross-sectional study with a three-stage cluster sampling design (census tracts, households and adult residents) was used. The Brazilian 2013 National Health Survey was used. The study population consisted of household residents aged ≥18 years. A total of 60 202 individuals were interviewed, including 52.9% women, and 21% reported depressive symptoms. The primary outcome was sleeping pill use, which was self-reported with the question, 'Over the past two weeks, have you used any sleeping pills?' The prevalence was calculated and stratified according to sociodemographic characteristics. The associated factors were identified from prevalence ratios (PRs) obtained through a Poisson regression with robust variance and adjusted for sex and age. The prevalence of sleeping pill use was 7.6% (95% CI 7.3% to 8.0%), and the average treatment duration was 9.75 (95% CI 9.49 to 10.00) days. Self-medication was found in 11.2% (95% CI 9.6% to 12.9%) of users. The following factors were associated with sleeping pill use: female sex (PR=2.21; 95% CI 1.97 to 2.47), an age of ≥60 years (PR=5.43; 95% CI 4.14 to 7.11) and smoking (PR=1.47; 95% CI 1.28 to 1.68). Sleeping pill use was also positively associated with the severity of depressive symptoms (p<0.001), whereas alcohol intake was inversely associated (PR=0.66; 95% CI 0.56 to 0.77). One in every 13 Brazilians adults uses sleeping pills. There is a lack of information about the reasons for this use. Actions are required to raise awareness about the risks. The results could assist programmes in targeting rational sleeping pill use and the identification of factors demanding intervention. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Detecting esophageal disease with second-generation capsule endoscopy: initial evaluation of the PillCam ESO 2.

    PubMed

    Gralnek, I M; Adler, S N; Yassin, K; Koslowsky, B; Metzger, Y; Eliakim, R

    2008-04-01

    Esophageal capsule endoscopy (ECE) provides an alternative, minimally invasive modality for evaluating the esophagus. This study evaluates the performance and test characteristics of a second-generation esophageal capsule endoscope, the PillCam ESO 2. Adults with known or suspected esophageal disease were included. Using the simplified ingestion procedure, each patient underwent capsule endoscopy with the PillCam ESO 2. Following ECE, esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) was performed on the same day by an investigator who was blinded to the results of the ECE. In random order, capsule endoscopy videos were read and interpreted by the study investigator blinded to EGD results. 28 patients (19 men, 9 women; mean age 53.3 years) were included. In 82 % of the patients, at least 75 % of the Z line was visualized by the PillCam ESO 2. A per-lesion analysis demonstrated that the PillCam ESO 2 had definitive results in 30/43 lesions (69.8 %) and EGD in 29/43 (67.4 %), P value = 0.41. Compared with EGD for detecting suspected Barrett's esophagus and esophagitis, the PillCam ESO 2 had a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 74 %, and a sensitivity of 80 % and a specificity of 87 %, respectively. The PillCam ESO 2 demonstrated 86 % agreement with EGD in describing the Z line (kappa statistic 0.68). The modified ingestion protocol provided excellent cleansing, with bubbles/saliva having no or only a minor effect on Z line images in 86 % of cases. The PillCam ESO 2 demonstrated excellent visualization of the Z line. Compared with standard EGD, the PillCam ESO 2 had good test characteristics with high rates of detection of suspected Barrett's esophagus and esophagitis. This study provides indirect validation of the simplified ingestion procedure. The PillCam ESO 2 acquires high quality esophageal images, performs safely, and should be able to replace the current PillCam ESO.

  15. A Little Bit of Sugar Helps the Pill Go Down: Resilience, Peace, and Family Planning: Comment on "The Pill Is Mightier Than the Sword".

    PubMed

    De Souza, Roger-Mark

    2015-10-04

    The article by Potts et al, "The Pill is Mightier than the Sword," points out that family planning has an important role to play in building peace by increasing women's empowerment and their agency, ultimately helping peacebuilding efforts. Evidence has demonstrated that family planning programs are cost effective, produce quick results, help women and couples meet their desired fertility levels, and produce a multitude of benefits around economic productivity, community engagement, conservation, resilience, and peacebuilding. In order for policy audiences from a variety of sectors, including conflict and peacebuilding, to appreciate these benefits, it is important to find common ground and articulate co-benefits that will help them appreciate and value the role of family planning, as it were, give them sugar to help the pill go down. This commentary examines how resilience, peacebuilding and family planning efforts need to focus on co-benefits in order to build on the successful interventions and opportunities that Potts et al highlight.

  16. The "Pill scare" and fertility in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Bone, M

    1982-08-01

    In 1977 the published results of 2 major studies indicated that the use of oral contraceptives (OC)s increased the risk of death from cardiovascular disease. The studies were the Royal College of General Practitioner's (RCGP) Oral Contraception Study, and the other was the University of Oxford/FPA contraceptive study. Manufacturers' sales of OCs fell from their 1976 peak in 1977, and in 1978 fertility began to rise once more and continued to do so until 1980, when the increase evidently began to run out of steam. It is argued that the way people responded to the adverse findings about OCs may well have played a part in the recent rise in fertility. It is acknowledged, however, that in this complex field other factors will be involved and what is important is the extent to which each contributed to the rise. Between 1964 and 1977 the number of births/1000 women of childbearing age declined from 93.0 to 58.7 in England and Wales. OCs were introduced in 1961 and use grew steadily until at least 1975. A survey conducted in 1975 shows that OCs were easily the most popular method during the mid-1970s. The whole of the reduction in the rates at which pregnancies of higher orders occurred over the period seems to have been in unplanned pregnancies. It is worth noting that the decline could have been realized without modern contraception. The low general fertility rate of 1977 of 58.7 was only slightly lower than that for 1939 (61.3). It may be possible that whenever any commonly used effective method of birth control ceases to be available for some reason, the period of adjustment to other methods is accompanied by a temporary rise in fertility. The sequence of events of adverse publicity, i.e., decline in OC use and rise in fertility in England and Wales after 1976, could be an example of mere coincidence. 2 earlier sequences of the same kind suggest that it has not. There were earlier "Pill scares," all of which possibly the most important was that of 1969. Preliminary

  17. Digital Pills to Measure Opioid Ingestion Patterns in Emergency Department Patients With Acute Fracture Pain: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Chai, Peter R; Carreiro, Stephanie; Innes, Brendan J; Rosen, Rochelle K; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Mayer, Kenneth H; Boyer, Edward W

    2017-01-13

    Nonadherence to prescribed regimens for opioid analgesic agents contributes to increasing opioid abuse and overdose death. Opioids are frequently prescribed on an as-needed basis, placing the responsibility to determine opioid dose and frequency with the patient. There is wide variability in physician prescribing patterns because of the lack of data describing how patients actually use as-needed opioid analgesics. Digital pill systems have a radiofrequency emitter that directly measures medication ingestion events, and they provide an opportunity to discover the dose, timing, and duration of opioid therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of a novel digital pill system to measure as-needed opioid ingestion patterns in patients discharged from the emergency department (ED) after an acute bony fracture. We used a digital pill with individuals who presented to a teaching hospital ED with an acute extremity fracture. The digital pill consisted of a digital radiofrequency emitter within a standard gelatin capsule that encapsulated an oxycodone tablet. When ingested, the gastric chloride ion gradient activated the digital pill, transmitting a radiofrequency signal that was received by a hip-worn receiver, which then transmitted the ingestion data to a cloud-based server. After a brief, hands-on training session in the ED, study participants were discharged home and used the digital pill system to ingest oxycodone prescribed as needed for pain for one week. We conducted pill counts to verify digital pill data and open-ended interviews with participants at their follow-up appointment with orthopedics or at one week after enrollment in the study to determine the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding digital pills. We analyzed open-ended interviews using applied thematic analysis. We recruited 10 study participants and recorded 96 ingestion events (87.3%, 96/110 accuracy). Study participants reported being able to operate all

  18. Digital Pills to Measure Opioid Ingestion Patterns in Emergency Department Patients With Acute Fracture Pain: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Carreiro, Stephanie; Innes, Brendan J; Rosen, Rochelle K; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Mayer, Kenneth H; Boyer, Edward W

    2017-01-01

    Background Nonadherence to prescribed regimens for opioid analgesic agents contributes to increasing opioid abuse and overdose death. Opioids are frequently prescribed on an as-needed basis, placing the responsibility to determine opioid dose and frequency with the patient. There is wide variability in physician prescribing patterns because of the lack of data describing how patients actually use as-needed opioid analgesics. Digital pill systems have a radiofrequency emitter that directly measures medication ingestion events, and they provide an opportunity to discover the dose, timing, and duration of opioid therapy. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of a novel digital pill system to measure as-needed opioid ingestion patterns in patients discharged from the emergency department (ED) after an acute bony fracture. Methods We used a digital pill with individuals who presented to a teaching hospital ED with an acute extremity fracture. The digital pill consisted of a digital radiofrequency emitter within a standard gelatin capsule that encapsulated an oxycodone tablet. When ingested, the gastric chloride ion gradient activated the digital pill, transmitting a radiofrequency signal that was received by a hip-worn receiver, which then transmitted the ingestion data to a cloud-based server. After a brief, hands-on training session in the ED, study participants were discharged home and used the digital pill system to ingest oxycodone prescribed as needed for pain for one week. We conducted pill counts to verify digital pill data and open-ended interviews with participants at their follow-up appointment with orthopedics or at one week after enrollment in the study to determine the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding digital pills. We analyzed open-ended interviews using applied thematic analysis. Results We recruited 10 study participants and recorded 96 ingestion events (87.3%, 96/110 accuracy). Study participants

  19. Diet Pills, Powders, and Liquids: Predictors of Use by Healthy Weight Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorlton, Janet; Park, Chang; Hughes, Tonda

    2014-01-01

    About 35% of healthy weight adolescent females describe themselves as overweight, and 66% report planning to lose weight. Body weight dissatisfaction is associated with unhealthy weight loss practices including diet pill/powder/liquid (PPL) use. Few studies have examined diet PPL use in healthy weight adolescent females; therefore, Youth Risk…

  20. Diet Pills, Powders, and Liquids: Predictors of Use by Healthy Weight Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorlton, Janet; Park, Chang; Hughes, Tonda

    2014-01-01

    About 35% of healthy weight adolescent females describe themselves as overweight, and 66% report planning to lose weight. Body weight dissatisfaction is associated with unhealthy weight loss practices including diet pill/powder/liquid (PPL) use. Few studies have examined diet PPL use in healthy weight adolescent females; therefore, Youth Risk…

  1. Birthing the Pill at the University of Vermont (1970-1976)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christmas, William A.; Schultz, J. Donald

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of the birth control pill in 1960 precipitated 2 decades of intense social change in the United States, particularly in the area of sexuality. Colleges and universities were not immune to these changes. The author examines the struggles at 1 land-grant university to find common ground on this issue among students, faculty,…

  2. Bioaccessibility and excretion of arsenic in Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Iris; Sylvester, Steven; Lai, Vivian W.-M.; Owen, Andrew; Reimer, Kenneth J. Cullen, William R.

    2007-08-01

    Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) often contain significant levels of potentially toxic elements, including arsenic. Niu Huang Jie Du Pian pills were analyzed to determine the concentration, bioaccessibility (arsenic fraction soluble in the human gastrointestinal system) and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic. Arsenic excretion in urine (including speciation) and facial hair were studied after a one-time ingestion. The pills contained arsenic in the form of realgar, and although the total arsenic that was present in a single pill was high (28 mg), the low bioaccessibility of this form of arsenic predicted that only 4% of it was available for absorption into the bloodstream (1 mg of arsenic per pill). The species of arsenic that were solubilized were inorganic arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)) but DMAA and MMAA were detected in urine. Two urinary arsenic excretion peaks were observed: an initial peak several (4-8) hours after ingestion corresponding to the excretion of predominantly As(III), and a larger peak at 14 h corresponding predominantly to DMAA and MMAA. No methylated As(III) species were observed. Facial hair analysis revealed that arsenic concentrations did not increase significantly as a result of the ingestion. Arsenic is incompletely soluble under human gastrointestinal conditions, and is metabolized from the inorganic to organic forms found in urine. Bioaccessible arsenic is comparable to the quantity excreted. Facial hair as a bio-indicator should be further tested.

  3. Knowledge about missed contraceptive pills among married women at King Abdulaziz University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Iftikhar, Rahila; Aba Al Khail, Bahaa Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) are one of the most reliable methods of contraception. However, lack of knowledge about oral contraceptive use and inconsistent pill-taking might result in decreased efficacy. The study reported here aimed to explore women's knowledge about oral contraceptive use and assess the factors associated with knowledge about OCPs among users. This cross-sectional survey was conducted at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between April and June 2014. We included married, non-pregnant women >18 years old who had used a combined 21-day OCP for at least 3 months prior to recruitment. A questionnaire was used to collect the participants' demographic information. It also assessed their knowledge about OCPs. Data were entered into and analyzed using SPSS software. A total of 357 women were recruited. Of these, 57.7% reported they knew what to do after missing one or two pills, but only 18.3% knew exactly what to do after missing more than two pills consecutively. Postgraduate women had a significantly higher knowledge score than illiterate women (P=0.002) and those who had completed at least primary education (P=0.001). Conversely, there was no difference in knowledge scores between Saudi and expatriate women (P=0.2). Monthly incomes (P=0.2) and mode of OCP selection (P=0.2) were also not significantly associated with knowledge scores. Women had poor knowledge about OCP use. Appropriate measures should be taken to educate women about proper oral contraceptive use.

  4. The Role of Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets in Treating Diabetic Complications.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Yu, Jiangyi; Liu, Jingshun; An, Xiaofei

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To observe the clinical prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets for type 2 diabetic vascular complications. Methods. It was a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial. 140 outpatients with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly divided into the treatment group and control group. The two groups were given basic therapy (management of blood sugar, blood pressure, etc.). Additionally, the treatment group was given Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets, while the control group was given Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets placebos. All subjects were followed up for consecutive 36 months and observed monthly. The clinical data as urinary microalbumin to urinary creatinine ratio (Umalb/cr), carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), diabetic nephropathy (DN) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) prevalence, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, blood glucose, and blood pressure were collected and analyzed statistically. Results. After 36-month treatment, the Umalb/cr level and DN and DR prevalence in treatment group were all significantly lower than control group (P < 0.05). However, the IMT level and the incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events were not significantly different between the two groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets are beneficial to diabetic microvascular complications, while the efficacy to diabetic macrovascular complications needs more observations.

  5. The Administration of Tibetan Precious Pills: Efficacy in Historical and Ritual Contexts.

    PubMed

    Czaja, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Precious pills represent a special kind of Tibetan drug that once was, and still is, highly sought after by Tibetan, Chinese, and Mongolian patients. Such pills are generally taken as a potent prophylactic remedy, and can be used to cure various diseases. The present study seeks to discuss the dispensation and efficacy of precious pills according to the presentations of historical Tibetan medical scholars. Several treatises dealing with these instructions will be analysed, thereby revealing their underlying concepts, and highlighting their points of both general consensus and disagreement. The analysis of these detailed instructions will reveal the fact that these precious pills were not merely given to a patient but, in order to ensure their full efficacy, involved an elaborate regimen concerning three chronological periods: (1) the time of preparation, (2) the time of dispensation, and (3) the time after dispensation. Thus the present study surveys not only the ritual empowerment of drugs in Tibetan medicine, but also the importance of social relationships between doctors and patients in Tibetan medical history.

  6. Medicine and the law. The postcoital pill and intrauterine device: contraceptive or abortifacient?

    PubMed

    Brahams, D

    1983-05-07

    The use of the postcoital pill and the IUD might be illegal under British law if, as some groups contend, conception is defined as fertilization of the ovum. An amendment stipulating that conception includes implantation would erase the potential conflict between the law and current practice or dictionary definitions of conception.

  7. Birthing the Pill at the University of Vermont (1970-1976)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christmas, William A.; Schultz, J. Donald

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of the birth control pill in 1960 precipitated 2 decades of intense social change in the United States, particularly in the area of sexuality. Colleges and universities were not immune to these changes. The author examines the struggles at 1 land-grant university to find common ground on this issue among students, faculty,…

  8. [Application of microscopic spectroscopy in quality control of Niuhuang Qingxin pills].

    PubMed

    Nie, Li-Xing; Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Nan-Ping; Hu, Xiao-Ru; Kang, Shuai; Hou, Jian-Zhong; Dai, Zhong; Ma, Shuang-Cheng

    2016-10-01

    Application of microscopic spectroscopy in quality control of Niuhuang Qingxin pills was discussed. First, microscopic characteristics specified by the statutory standard of Niuhuang Qingxin pills were summarized. Then new identification method was established for Dioscoreae Rhizoma, Saigae Tataricae Cornu, Cinnamomi Cortex and Saposhnikoviae Radix. Finally, microscopic spectroscopy was used for test of Dioscoreae Rhizoma's adulterant Dioscoreae Fordii Rhizoma.It was the first time for this technology being applied in adulteration test of Chinese patent medicine.The results showed that Saigae Tataricae Cornu was not detected in 2 batches of Niuhuang Qingxin pills from 1 manufacturer while Dioscoreae Fordii Rhizoma was detected in 3 batches of samples from 2 manufacturers. The proposed methods were accurate, simple, rapid, objective and economic, which offered a more comprehensive approach for quality control of Niuhuang Qingxin pills. It was indicated that conventional technology such as microscopic spectroscopy could play an important role in identification of traditional Chinese medicine whose index ingredient was deficient or tiny. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  9. [Qilin pills combined with levofloxacin for asthenospermia accompanied with accessory sex gland infection: a clinical observation].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yong; Wan, Zi; Sun, Xiang-Zhou; Liu, Ya-Feng; Zhang, Ya-Dong; Ouyang, Bin; Chen, Sheng-Fu; Zheng, Tao; Chen, Xin; Yang, Qi-Yun; Han, Da-Yu; Yao, Bing; Deng, Chun-Hua; Tu, Xiang-An

    2013-12-01

    To observe the efficacy of the combination of Qilin Pills and levofloxacin in the treatment of asthenospermia accompanied with accessory sex gland infection. We randomly assigned 80 asthenospermia patients with accessory sex gland infection to groups 1 and 2 of equal number, the former treated with Qilin Pills + levofloxacin, and the latter with levofloxacin only. Qilin Pills were administered at the dose of 6 g tid for 30 days, and levofloxacin at the dose of 0.5 g qd for 20 days. We obtained semen parameters, including the percentage of progressively motile sperm and peroxidase-positive white blood cell (WBC) count, before and after medication, and compared the clinical effects between the two groups. All the patients accomplished the clinical trial. The therapeutic effectiveness rates in improving progressive sperm motility were 60% in group 1 and 17.5% in group 2, with statistically significant differences between the two groups (P < 0.05). As for the peroxidase-positive WBC count in semen, the effectiveness rates were 87.5% and 82.5%, respectively, with no significant differences between the two groups (P > 0.05). For the treatment of asthenospermia accompanied with accessory sex gland infection, Qilin Pills combined with levofloxacin is evidently better than levofloxacin alone in improving sperm motility, and it has no obvious adverse effects.

  10. The Role of Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets in Treating Diabetic Complications

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jiangyi; Liu, Jingshun

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To observe the clinical prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy of Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets for type 2 diabetic vascular complications. Methods. It was a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial. 140 outpatients with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly divided into the treatment group and control group. The two groups were given basic therapy (management of blood sugar, blood pressure, etc.). Additionally, the treatment group was given Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets, while the control group was given Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets placebos. All subjects were followed up for consecutive 36 months and observed monthly. The clinical data as urinary microalbumin to urinary creatinine ratio (Umalb/cr), carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), diabetic nephropathy (DN) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) prevalence, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, blood glucose, and blood pressure were collected and analyzed statistically. Results. After 36-month treatment, the Umalb/cr level and DN and DR prevalence in treatment group were all significantly lower than control group (P < 0.05). However, the IMT level and the incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events were not significantly different between the two groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Liuwei Dihuang Pills and Ginkgo Leaf Tablets are beneficial to diabetic microvascular complications, while the efficacy to diabetic macrovascular complications needs more observations. PMID:28077949

  11. TLC – SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF STRYCHNINE AND BRUCINE FROM THE AYURVEDIC PILLS OF NUX VOMICA

    PubMed Central

    Gaitonde, R. V.; Joshi, Sanjay

    1986-01-01

    Ayurvedic preparations claim on their label only the quantity of crude drugs and not the quantity of active ingredients present therein. So work was taken up to find the percentage of strychnine and brucine from Ayurvedic pills of Nux vomica powder by TLC spectrophotometric analysis, which study has not been reported earlier. However, the literature survey only revealed the following work. PMID:22557548

  12. Real-time electronic adherence monitoring is feasible, comparable to unannounced pill counts, and acceptable

    PubMed Central

    Haberer, Jessica E.; Robbins, Gregory K.; Ybarra, Michele; Monk, Alexandra; Ragland, Kathleen; Weiser, Sheri D.; Johnson, Mallory O.; Bangsberg, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Second generation electronic medication adherence monitors provide real-time data on pill bottle opening behavior. Feasibility, validity, and acceptability, however, have not been established. Med-eMonitor is a multi-compartment adherence device with reminder and education capacity that transmits data through a telephone connection. Monthly adherence levels were measured for 52 participants over approximately three months using the Med-eMonitor (unadjusted and adjusted for participant confirmed dosing) and unannounced pill counts. HIV RNA was assessed before and after the three-month period. Acceptability of Med-eMonitor was determined. Over 92% of Med-eMonitor data was transmitted daily. Unannounced pill counts significantly correlated with adjusted Med-eMonitor adherence (r=0.29, p=0.04). HIV RNA significantly correlated with unannounced pill counts (r=−0.34, p=0.02), and trended toward a significant correlation with unadjusted Med-eMonitor adherence (r=−0.26; p=0.07). Most, but not all, participants liked using the Med-eMonitor. Med-eMonitor allows for real-time adherence monitoring and potentially intervention, which may be critical for prolonging treatment success. PMID:21448728

  13. "Every 'never' I ever said came true": transitions from opioid pills to heroin injecting.

    PubMed

    Mars, Sarah G; Bourgois, Philippe; Karandinos, George; Montero, Fernando; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    This qualitative study documents the pathways to injecting heroin by users in Philadelphia and San Francisco before and during a pharmaceutical opioid pill epidemic. Data was collected through in-depth, semi-structured interviews (conducted between 2010 and 2012) that were, conducted against a background of longer-term participant-observation, ethnographic studies of street-based drug users and dealers in Philadelphia (2007-12) and San Francisco (1994-2007, 2012). Philadelphia and San Francisco were selected for their contrasting political economies, immigration patterns and source type of heroin. In Philadelphia the ethnographers found heroin injectors, usually white users, who had started their opiate using careers with prescription opioids rather than transitioning from other drugs. In both Philadelphia and San Francisco, most of the young heroin injectors interviewed began, their drug-use trajectories with opioid pills--usually Percocet (oxycodone and acetaminophen), generic short acting oxycodone or, OxyContin (long-acting oxycodone)--before transitioning to heroin, usually by nasal inhalation (sniffing) or smoking at first, followed by injecting. While most of the Philadelphia users were born in the city or its suburbs and had started using both opioid pills and heroin there, many of the San Francisco users had initiated their pill and sometimes heroin use elsewhere and had migrated to the city from around the country. Nevertheless, patterns of transition of younger injectors were similar in both cities suggesting an evolving national pattern. In contrast, older users in both Philadelphia and San Francisco were more likely to have graduated to heroin injection from non-opiate drugs such as cannabis, methamphetamine and cocaine. Pharmaceutical opioid initiates typically reported switching to heroin for reasons of cost and ease-of-access to supply after becoming physically and emotionally dependent on opioid pills. Many expressed surprise and dismay at their

  14. Efficacy and Safety of a Single-Pill Fixed-Dose Combination of Azilsartan and Amlodipine

    PubMed Central

    Motozato, Kota; Miura, Shin-ichiro; Shiga, Yuhei; Kusumoto, Takaaki; Saku, Keijiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Guidelines for the management of hypertension recommend the use of drugs with different mechanisms of action in antihypertensive regimens that include single-pill fixed-dose combinations of medications. There is some controversy regarding which single-pill fixed-dose combinations of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are effective at reducing blood pressure (BP). Methods Forty hypertensive patients who were receiving a single-pill fixed-dose combination of valsartan 80 mg/day and amlodipine 5 mg/day or irbesartan 100 mg/day and amlodipine 5 mg/day were enrolled. They were randomly divided into two treatment groups, a group that changed to a single-pill fixed-dose combination of azilsartan 20 mg/day and amlodipine 5 mg/day (changeover group) and a group that continued to receive valsartan 80 mg/day and amlodipine 5 mg/day or irbesartan 100 mg/day and amlodipine 5 mg/day (control group), and treated for 16 weeks. Results There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) or pulse rate (PR) at 16 weeks between the control and changeover groups. In addition, there were no significant changes in biochemical parameters throughout the study period in both groups. Conclusion The ability of a single-pill fixed-dose combination of azilsartan and amlodipine to reduce BP may be comparable to that of a combination of valsartan and amlodipine or irbesartan and amlodipine. PMID:27829955

  15. Evaluating the practice of Iranian community pharmacists regarding oral contraceptive pills using simulated patients

    PubMed Central

    Foroutan, Nazanin; Dabaghzadeh, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: As oral contraceptive pills are available over the counter in pharmacies, pharmacists are professionally responsible for checking and informing patients about every aspect of taking these drugs. Simulated patient method is a new and robust way to evaluate professional performance of pharmacists. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacy practice of Iranian pharmacists regarding over-the-counter use of oral contraceptive pills using simulated patient method. Methods: Simulated patients visited pharmacy with a prescription containing ciprofloxacin and asked for oral contraceptive pills. The pharmacist was expected to ask important questions for using these drugs and to inform the patient about them properly. Moreover, the Pharmacists should advise patients in regard to the possible interaction. Results: Ninety four pharmacists participated in this study. In 24 (25.3%) visits, the liable pharmacist was not present at the time of purchase. Furthermore, In 13 (18.57 %) visits by the simulated patients, the liable pharmacists did not pay any attention to the simulated patients even when they asked for consultation. Twenty nine (41.43%) pharmacists did not ask any question during dispensing. Nausea was the most frequent described side effect by pharmacists (27 (38.57%)). Yet important adverse effects of oral contraceptive pills were not mentioned by the pharmacists except for few ones. Only twelve (17.14%) pharmacists mentioned the possible interaction. There was a significant relation between the pharmacists’ gender and detection of possible interaction (p value= 0.048). Conclusion: The quality of the pharmacists’ consultations regarding the over the counter use of oral contraceptive pills was not satisfactory and required improvement. PMID:28042350

  16. Behavioral evidence for internal factors affecting duration of conglobation in pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare, Isopoda, Crustacea). Short communication.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, Hiroe; Moriyama, T

    2012-01-01

    Pill bugs individually walked an experimental pathway, then were induced to conglobate with a puff of air. After recovering, they were stimulated again. Sixty of 80 pill bugs conglobated both times, first moving either antennae (A) or legs (L) during recovery. Both AA and LL groups showed a significant positive correlation between first (t1) and second (t2) conglobation times. In the AL group, pathway locomotion time (t0) was significantly positively correlated to both t1 and t2. We conclude that pill bugs determine conglobation time based partly on their previous states.

  17. Accumulation of mesalazine pills in the medium ileum in a patient with Crohn´s disease.

    PubMed

    Martínez Huertas, Carmen; Garcia-Villanova Ruiz, Paloma; Pozo Sánchez, José; Dávila Arias, Cristina

    2017-03-01

    Crohn´s disease is an inflammatory disease that can involve any portion of the gastrointestinal tract, although terminal ileum is the most commonly affected portion. It is characterized by a transmural and discontinuous distribution pattern, with alternating periods of active disease and remission. We present the case of a 23-year-old patient diagnosed with Crohn´s disease, in treatment with extended release Mesalazine and corticoids. The CT Enterography showed activity signs and a great dilatation of medium ileum with lots of Mesalazine pills accumulated inside. Pill accumulation occurred because of stenosis, which did not let the pills at this level progress to distal ileum, and be absorbed.

  18. Continuation rates, bleeding profile acceptability, and satisfaction of women using an oral contraceptive pill containing estradiol valerate and dienogest versus a progestogen-only pill after switching from an ethinylestradiol-containing pill in a real-life setting: results of the CONTENT study

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Paula; Serrani, Marco; Vogtländer, Kai; Parke, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral contraceptives are still associated with high discontinuation rates, despite their efficacy. There is a wide choice of oral contraceptives available, and the aim of this study was to assess continuation rates, bleeding profile acceptability, and the satisfaction of women in the first year of using a contraceptive pill containing estradiol valerate and dienogest (E2V/DNG) versus a progestogen-only pill (POP) in a real-life setting after discontinuing an ethinylestradiol-containing pill. Methods and results In this prospective, noninterventional, observational study, 3,152 patients were included for the efficacy analyses (n=2,558 women in the E2V/DNG group and n=592 in the POP group (two patients fulfilled the criteria of the efficacy population, but the used product was not known). Women had been taking an ethinylestradiol-containing pill ≥3 months before deciding to switch to the E2V/DNG pill or a POP. Overall, 19.8% (n=506) of E2V/DNG users and 25.8% (n=153) of POP users discontinued their prescribed pill. The median time to discontinuation was 157.0 days and 127.5 days, respectively. Time to discontinuation due to bleeding (P<0.0001) or other reasons (P=0.022) was significantly longer in the E2V/DNG group versus the POP group. The E2V/DNG pill was also associated with shorter (48.7% vs 44.1%), lighter (54% vs 46.1%), and less painful bleeding (91.1% vs 73.7%) and greater user satisfaction (80.7% vs 64.6%) than POP use, within 3–5 months after switch. Conclusion The E2V/DNG pill was associated with higher rates of continuation, bleeding profile acceptability, and user satisfaction than POP use and may be an alternative option for women who are dissatisfied with their current pill. PMID:27695365

  19. Sham device v inert pill: randomised controlled trial of two placebo treatments

    PubMed Central

    Kaptchuk, Ted J; Stason, William B; Davis, Roger B; Legedza, Anna R T; Schnyer, Rosa N; Kerr, Catherine E; Stone, David A; Nam, Bong Hyun; Kirsch, Irving; Goldman, Rose H

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether a sham device (a validated sham acupuncture needle) has a greater placebo effect than an inert pill in patients with persistent arm pain. Design A single blind randomised controlled trial created from the two week placebo run-in periods for two nested trials that compared acupuncture and amitriptyline with their respective placebo controls. Comparison of participants who remained on placebo continued beyond the run-in period to the end of the study. Setting Academic medical centre. Participants 270 adults with arm pain due to repetitive use that had lasted at least three months despite treatment and who scored ≥3 on a 10 point pain scale. Interventions Acupuncture with sham device twice a week for six weeks or placebo pill once a day for eight weeks. Main outcomemeasures Arm pain measured on a 10 point pain scale. Secondary outcomes were symptoms measured by the Levine symptom severity scale, function measured by Pransky's upper extremity function scale, and grip strength. Results Pain decreased during the two week placebo run-in period in both the sham device and placebo pill groups, but changes were not different between the groups (-0.14, 95% confidence interval -0.52 to 0.25, P = 0.49). Changes in severity scores for arm symptoms and grip strength were similar between groups, but arm function improved more in the placebo pill group (2.0, 0.06 to 3.92, P = 0.04). Longitudinal regression analyses that followed participants throughout the treatment period showed significantly greater downward slopes per week on the 10 point arm pain scale in the sham device group than in the placebo pill group (-0.33 (-0.40 to -0.26) v -0.15 (-0.21 to -0.09), P = 0.0001) and on the symptom severity scale (-0.07 (-0.09 to -0.05) v -0.05 (-0.06 to -0.03), P = 0.02). Differences were not significant, however, on the function scale or for grip strength. Reported adverse effects were different in the two groups. Conclusions The sham device had greater

  20. Xiaoyao pill for treatment of functional dyspepsia in perimenopausal women with depression

    PubMed Central

    Du, Han-Guang; Ming, Li; Chen, Shu-Jiao; Li, Can-Dong

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Xiaoyao pill for treatment of functional dyspepsia (FD) associated with perimenopausal depression. METHODS: This was a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial including 180 patients with FD accompanied by depression that were divided into two groups of 90. Patients in the treatment group received oral administration of the Xiaoyao pill for soothing the liver and activating the spleen, and patients in the control group received a placebo. This trial included an 8-wk therapy period with a follow-up period of 6 mo. The total efficacy and degree of depression, as assessed by the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), were evaluated. Plasma levels of motilin and gastrin were measured and a gastric emptying test was conducted in each participant. RESULTS: The Xiaoyao pill had a good therapeutic effect and improved the symptoms in patients with perimenopausal FD as assessed by the HRSD score, motilin and gastrin levels, and rate of gastric emptying. The total effective rate of the Xiaoyao pill in the treatment group was significantly superior to that of the placebo in the control group. In the control group, the initial HRSD score was 12.12 ± 2.29 and decreased to 7.14 ± 1.67 after therapy (P < 0.01). In the treatment group, the initial HRSD score was 11.44 ± 2.15, which significantly decreased to 6.20 ± 2.08 after therapy (P < 0.01). Moreover, the HRSD score in the treatment group was significantly lower than in control group after 8 wk (P < 0.01). Motilin and gastrin levels in both groups were significantly increased after the 8-wk therapy (P < 0.05). The gastric emptying rate was also improved in both groups after therapy (P < 0.05), and the improvement was significantly better in the treatment group compared to the controls (P < 0.05). These results confirm the therapeutic effects of the Xiaoyao pill in perimenopausal FD patients and indicate that it is worthy of clinical promotion. CONCLUSION: The Xiaoyao

  1. Fixed combinations in the pragmatic management of hypertension: focus on aliskiren and hydrochlorothiazide as a single pill

    PubMed Central

    Burnier, Michel

    2010-01-01

    A majority of hypertensive patients need more than one antihypertensive drug to control their blood pressure. For this reason, most guidelines have introduced the possibility of prescribing fixed-dose combination therapies as first-line treatment in hypertension. Today, the concept of fixed-dose combinations has evolved and the term single pill combination might become more appropriate to reflect the large choice of drug combinations available on the market. Recently, a new single pill combination has been launched which combines the first direct renin inhibitor aliskiren and low doses of hydrochlorothiazide. This paper reviews the potential advantages of single pill combinations and presents the first results obtained with the aliskiren/HCTZ single pill combination in hypertension. PMID:21949621

  2. Simultaneous Determination of Five Active Components in the Chinese Patent Medicine Niuhuang Jiangya Pill by HPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Shan; Lei, Shanshan

    2016-12-16

    Niuhuang Jiangya (NHJY) pill is one of the well-known Chinese patent medicines in China used in the treatment of high blood pressure. The primary purpose of this study was to establish and validate a method using HPLC with tandem MS for the quality evaluation of NHJY pill through simultaneous determination of the following five active components: baicalin, paeoniflorin, astragaloside IV, ferulic acid, and emodin. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a Hypersil GOLD HPLC C18 column (50 × 4.6 mm, 3 μm) with acetonitrile and water as mobile phase and gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The method established in this study was selective, linear, precise, and accurate and was successfully applied to evaluate five active components in NHJY pill collected from different production batches, which could be considered a good approach to control the quality of NHJY pill and other related botanical drugs.

  3. An assessment of the quality of advice provided by patent medicine vendors to users of oral contraceptive pills in urban Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ujuju, Chinazo; Adebayo, Samson B; Anyanti, Jennifer; Oluigbo, Obi; Muhammad, Fatima; Ankomah, Augustine

    2014-01-01

    In Nigeria about 50% of oral contraceptive pill users obtain their products from proprietary patent medicine vendors (PPMVs). This group of service providers are poorly trained and have very limited knowledge about contraception. This paper investigated the nature of the advice offered to simulated current and potential users of oral contraceptive pills. The main objective was to assess the nature and quality of advice provided by PPMVs to pill users. This study is based on findings from a 'mystery client' approach in which three scenarios related to contraceptive pill use were simulated. Each of the 12 mystery clients simulated one of the following three scenarios: new pill users (new to family planning or switching from condom to pills); user seeking a resupply of pills; and dissatisfied pill users intending to discontinue use. Simple random sampling was used to select 410 PPMVs from a total of 1,826 in four states in Nigeria. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews was also conducted. A majority of the PPMVs had pills in stock on the day of the survey and resupplied pills to the clients. PPMVs also understood the reason and importance of referring clients who were new adopters of oral contraceptive methods to a health facility; 30% of the PPMVs referred new adopters to a health facility. However, demand from clients who do not want to go to health care facilities (for various reasons) necessitated the provision of oral contraceptive pills to 41% of the first time users. Some PPMVs prescribed treatment to mystery clients who presented with perceived complications arising from the use of pills, while 49% were referred to a health facility. The advice given by PPMVs often falls short of safety guidelines related to the use of oral contraceptive pills. There is a need to continuously update knowledge among the PPMVs to ensure that they provide quality oral contraceptive services as PPMVs bridge the gap between medical experts and users in rural communities.

  4. An assessment of the quality of advice provided by patent medicine vendors to users of oral contraceptive pills in urban Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ujuju, Chinazo; Adebayo, Samson B; Anyanti, Jennifer; Oluigbo, Obi; Muhammad, Fatima; Ankomah, Augustine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In Nigeria about 50% of oral contraceptive pill users obtain their products from proprietary patent medicine vendors (PPMVs). This group of service providers are poorly trained and have very limited knowledge about contraception. This paper investigated the nature of the advice offered to simulated current and potential users of oral contraceptive pills. The main objective was to assess the nature and quality of advice provided by PPMVs to pill users. Method This study is based on findings from a ‘mystery client’ approach in which three scenarios related to contraceptive pill use were simulated. Each of the 12 mystery clients simulated one of the following three scenarios: new pill users (new to family planning or switching from condom to pills); user seeking a resupply of pills; and dissatisfied pill users intending to discontinue use. Simple random sampling was used to select 410 PPMVs from a total of 1,826 in four states in Nigeria. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews was also conducted. Results A majority of the PPMVs had pills in stock on the day of the survey and resupplied pills to the clients. PPMVs also understood the reason and importance of referring clients who were new adopters of oral contraceptive methods to a health facility; 30% of the PPMVs referred new adopters to a health facility. However, demand from clients who do not want to go to health care facilities (for various reasons) necessitated the provision of oral contraceptive pills to 41% of the first time users. Some PPMVs prescribed treatment to mystery clients who presented with perceived complications arising from the use of pills, while 49% were referred to a health facility. Conclusion The advice given by PPMVs often falls short of safety guidelines related to the use of oral contraceptive pills. There is a need to continuously update knowledge among the PPMVs to ensure that they provide quality oral contraceptive services as PPMVs bridge the gap between medical

  5. New low-dose, extended-cycle pills with levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol: an evolutionary step in birth control

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Anita

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To review milestones in development of oral contraceptive pills since their introduction in the US 50 years ago in order to better understand how a new formulation with low-dose estrogen in an extended-cycle pattern fits into the evolution of birth control pills. Methods: This is a review of trends in the development of various birth controls pills and includes data from phase III clinical trials for this new formulation. Results: The first birth control pill was a very high-dose monophasic formulation with the prodrug estrogen mestranol and a first-generation progestin. Over the decades, the doses of hormones have been markedly reduced, and a new estrogen and several different progestins were developed and used in different dosing patterns. The final element to undergo change was the 7-day pill-free interval. Many of these same changes have been made in the development of extended-cycle pill formulation. Conclusion: The newest extended-cycle oral contraceptive formulation with 84 active pills, each containing 20 μg ethinyl estradiol and 100 μg levonorgestrel, represents an important evolution in birth control that incorporates lower doses of estrogen (to reduce side effects and possibly reduce risk of thrombosis), fewer scheduled bleeding episodes (to meet women’s desires for fewer and shorter menses) and the use of low-dose estrogen in place of placebo pills (to reduce the number of days of unscheduled spotting and bleeding). Hopefully, this unique formation will motivate women to be more successful contraceptors. PMID:21072303

  6. Neurological function following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion is improved by the Ruyi Zhenbao pill in a rats

    PubMed Central

    WANG, TIAN; DUAN, SIJIN; WANG, HAIPING; SUN, SHAN; HAN, BING; FU, FENGHUA

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect and underlying mechanisms of the Ruyi Zhenbao pill on neurological function following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion following reperfusion. The rats received intragastrically either sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (control and model groups) or Ruyi Zhenbao pill at doses of 0.2, 0.4 or 0.8 g/kg. Neurological function was assessed by cylinder, adhesive and beam-walking tests after 14-day Ruyi Zhenbao pill treatment. Neurogenesis and angiogenesis were detected using immunofluorescence staining. The expression levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Treatment with 0.4 and 0.8 g/kg Ruyi Zhenbao for 14 days significantly improved neurological function, and increased the number of von Willebrand Factor- and neuronal nuclear antigen-positive cells in the ischemic hemisphere of rats. Ruyi Zhenbao pill treatment also significantly enhanced the expression levels of BDNF, NGF and VEGF in the ischemic hemisphere. The results demonstrated that the Ruyi Zhenbao pill improved neurological function following ischemia in rats. The mechanisms of the Ruyi Zhenbao pill are associated with increasing the expression levels of BDNF, NGF and VEGF, and subsequently promoting neurogenesis and angiogenesis in the ischemic zone. PMID:26893831

  7. Providers' Knowledge, Attitude and Dispensing Practices of E-Pills in Government Dispensaries of South District in Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Kishore, Vertika; Misro, Man M; Nandan, Deoki

    2010-01-01

    Background: South Delhi is one of the well developed districts in the capital with best public health care facilities. Knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of emergency contraceptive pills (E-pills) were assessed among health care providers of government dispensaries in South Delhi. Study Design: A descriptive epidemiological study. Materials and Methods: Both medical and paramedical (n = 428) providers in 63 government health care facilities were interviewed between August to December 2007 using a semi-structured interview schedule. Results: Among the different categories of the providers, medical officers were observed to be most knowledgeable about E-pills and the pharmacists were the least. The correct prescribed dose of E-pill was known only to 32% of the providers while 49% knew about its right time of intake. Misconceptions and apprehensions for promoting its use were very much prevalent even among medical officers as majority felt that open access to E-pills would increase promiscuity. The dispensing practice of providers was found positively (P < 0.05) correlated with their knowledge. Training resulted a significant (P < 0.05) improvement in knowledge, attitude and dispensing practice of the providers. Knowledge and training combined together contributed 35% to the dispensing practice (R2 = 0.35). Conclusion: Besides knowledge, behavior change communication strategies should form a part of the training curricula of health care providers that would help to improve the dispensing practice of E-pills. PMID:20606919

  8. Providers' knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of e-pills in government dispensaries of South district in delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Kishore, Vertika; Misro, Man M; Nandan, Deoki

    2010-01-01

    South Delhi is one of the well developed districts in the capital with best public health care facilities. Knowledge, attitude and dispensing practices of emergency contraceptive pills (E-pills) were assessed among health care providers of government dispensaries in South Delhi. A descriptive epidemiological study. Both medical and paramedical (n = 428) providers in 63 government health care facilities were interviewed between August to December 2007 using a semi-structured interview schedule. Among the different categories of the providers, medical officers were observed to be most knowledgeable about E-pills and the pharmacists were the least. The correct prescribed dose of E-pill was known only to 32% of the providers while 49% knew about its right time of intake. Misconceptions and apprehensions for promoting its use were very much prevalent even among medical officers as majority felt that open access to E-pills would increase promiscuity. The dispensing practice of providers was found positively (P < 0.05) correlated with their knowledge. Training resulted a significant (P < 0.05) improvement in knowledge, attitude and dispensing practice of the providers. Knowledge and training combined together contributed 35% to the dispensing practice (R(2) = 0.35). Besides knowledge, behavior change communication strategies should form a part of the training curricula of health care providers that would help to improve the dispensing practice of E-pills.

  9. How can a state control swallowing? The home use of abortion pills in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Sally

    2016-11-01

    Evidence suggests that there is widespread home use of abortion pills in Ireland and that ending a pregnancy in this way is potentially safer than the alternatives available to many women. This paper argues that there is a strong case for women with unwanted pregnancies to be offered truthful and objective information regarding the use of abortion pills by trusted local professionals and, further, that this is possible within existing law. A move in this direction would not, however, negate the need for legal reform to address the fundamental moral incoherence of a law that treats women who terminate pregnancies within Ireland as criminals but those who travel to access services overseas as victims in need of support. In support of these arguments, the paper draws on both library research and a small number of interviews with government officials, service providers and activists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 'Stratified Contraception': Emergency Contraceptive Pills and Women's Differential Experiences in Contemporary India.

    PubMed

    Sheoran, Nayantara

    2015-01-01

    Available without prescriptions in India since 2005, emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) and their advertisements have provided women with increased contraceptive options and a vocabulary to talk about their reproductive lives. I draw on long-term fieldwork with women in urban India about ECPs, demonstrating a new form of 'stratified contraception' enabled by these pills and their advertisements. I posit that there are within India spaces that replicate the luxuries and privileges of the global North. These material conditions, I suggest, are replicated when it comes to contraception as there are hubs of women consumers of contraception and contraceptive advertising that participate in an 'imagined cosmopolitanism' within the global South in close proximity to 'contraceptive ghettos.' Moving beyond simplistic binaries, I outline three major stratifications along which women experience this medical technology and outline the implications for women and their contraceptive choices when notions of northern privilege exist in the 'South.'

  11. Oral Contraception for Younger Woman: The Benefits of the Low-Dose Pill

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Marion

    1986-01-01

    Oral contraceptives provide the woman under 35 with the most effective and safest reversible method of birth control. As the estrogen content of oral contraceptives has gradually been lowered during the past 20 years, there has been a lessening of the side-effects first reported by the Royal College of General Practice in 1967. The research of two decades has brought about changes in “the pill”. The most recent change has been the introduction of biphasic and triphasic pills with lower hormone dosages and fewer side-effects, but the same overall effectiveness and cycle control. Nevertheless, the percentage of women using OCs drops dramatically for those over the age of 25. Today's pills, with their lower hormone content, offer the physician a more flexible means of prescribing effectively for the individual patient. PMID:21267119

  12. Knowledge and perceptions of emergency contraceptive pills among a college-age population: a qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Harper, C; Ellertson, C

    1995-01-01

    Results from focus-group discussions with a population of university students who have convenient access to emergency contraceptive pills show that basic awareness about this method is high, although specific knowledge on appropriate use, such as the time limit for use, the level of effectiveness and the possible side effects, is lacking. Approval of the method is widespread among both female and male students, although students did voice anxieties about irresponsible use and the lack of protection against the human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted diseases. Many of their concerns stem from incomplete information about how the regimen works. Students noted how rarely emergency contraceptive pills are discussed, and were curious to know more. They asked for routine education on the method, as well as more general discussion.

  13. Deep vein thrombosis in a woman taking oral combined contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Piparva, Kiran G; Buch, Jatin G

    2011-07-01

    Oral combined contraceptive pill (OCCP) is popular as birth control pills. Like all other drugs, they are not free from risks. Women taking certain types of OCCP have higher risk of developing deep vein thrombosis (DVT). A 29 year old married woman had taken OCCP for 3.5 months, developed deep vein thrombosis of left leg. Hereditary and acquired causes of DVT were excluded. She was treated with parenteral and oral anticoagulants simultaneously and was advised to discontinue OCCP. Initially the risk of blood clot was believed to be due to dose of estrogen but recent study relates it to the type of progesterone involved in OCCP. Thus, it is still a matter of debate, whether to associate risk of DVT to the amount of estrogen alone or also to the type of progestin. Apart from careful selection of patients, one should also look for the risk of venous thromboembolism irrespective of type of OCCP prescribed.

  14. Isolated angiitis of the brain in a young female on the contraceptive pill.

    PubMed

    Nagaratnam, N; James, W E

    1987-12-01

    The case of a 15 year old girl with a rapidly progressing right sided hemiparesis is reported. The history and clinical manifestations were suggestive of either herpes simplex encephalitis or occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. At necropsy an occlusive thrombosis of the left middle cerebral artery due to a segmental necrotizing granulomatous panarteritis was found. The cause was obscure. A plausible incriminating factor was the contraceptive pill.

  15. Knowledge about missed contraceptive pills among married women at King Abdulaziz University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Iftikhar, Rahila; Aba Al Khail, Bahaa Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) are one of the most reliable methods of contraception. However, lack of knowledge about oral contraceptive use and inconsistent pill-taking might result in decreased efficacy. The study reported here aimed to explore women’s knowledge about oral contraceptive use and assess the factors associated with knowledge about OCPs among users. Methods This cross-sectional survey was conducted at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between April and June 2014. We included married, non-pregnant women >18 years old who had used a combined 21-day OCP for at least 3 months prior to recruitment. A questionnaire was used to collect the participants’ demographic information. It also assessed their knowledge about OCPs. Data were entered into and analyzed using SPSS software. Results A total of 357 women were recruited. Of these, 57.7% reported they knew what to do after missing one or two pills, but only 18.3% knew exactly what to do after missing more than two pills consecutively. Postgraduate women had a significantly higher knowledge score than illiterate women (P=0.002) and those who had completed at least primary education (P=0.001). Conversely, there was no difference in knowledge scores between Saudi and expatriate women (P=0.2). Monthly incomes (P=0.2) and mode of OCP selection (P=0.2) were also not significantly associated with knowledge scores. Conclusion Women had poor knowledge about OCP use. Appropriate measures should be taken to educate women about proper oral contraceptive use. PMID:25792813

  16. ADR salt pill design and crystal growth process for hydrated magnetic salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor); DiPirro, Michael J. (Inventor); Canavan, Edgar R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A process is provided for producing a salt pill for use in very low temperature adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADRs). The method can include providing a thermal bus in a housing. The thermal bus can include an array of thermally conductive metal conductors. A hydrated salt can be grown on the array of thermally conductive metal conductors. Thermal conductance can be provided to the hydrated salt.

  17. Pill testing or drug checking in Australia: Acceptability of service design features.

    PubMed

    Barratt, Monica J; Bruno, Raimondo; Ezard, Nadine; Ritter, Alison

    2017-06-20

    This study aimed to determine design features of a drug-checking service that would be feasible, attractive and likely to be used by Australian festival and nightlife attendees. Web survey of 851 Australians reporting use of psychostimulants and/or hallucinogens and attendance at licensed venues past midnight and/or festivals in the past year (70% male; median age 23 years). A drug-checking service located at festivals or clubs would be used by 94%; a fixed-site service external to such events by 85%. Most (80%) were willing to wait an hour for their result. Almost all (94%) would not use a service if there was a possibility of arrest, and a majority (64%) would not use a service that did not provide individual feedback of results. Drug-checking results were only slightly more attractive if they provided comprehensive quantitative results compared with qualitative results of key ingredients. Most (93%) were willing to pay up to $5, and 68% up to $10, per test. One-third (33%) reported willingness to donate a whole dose for testing: they were more likely to be male, younger, less experienced, use drugs more frequently and attend venues/festivals less frequently. In this sample, festival- or club-based drug-checking services with low wait times and low cost appear broadly attractive under conditions of legal amnesty and individualised feedback. Quantitative analysis of ecstasy pills requiring surrender of a whole pill may appeal to a minority in Australia where pills are more expensive than elsewhere. [Barratt MJ, Bruno R, Ezard N, Ritter A. Pill testing or drug checking in Australia: Acceptability of service design features. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;00:000-000]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  18. Artichoke and milk thistle pills and syrups as sources of phenolic compounds with antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; José Alves, Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-07-13

    Dietary supplements based on hepatoprotective plants have been increasingly used in the prevention of liver injuries. In the present work, the aim was to study the phenolic profile and possibly relate it to the in vitro antimicrobial activity of two different formulations (pills and syrups) of artichoke and milk thistle, the antioxidant and anti-hepatocellular carcinoma activities of which were previously reported by our research group. The phenolic profiles were obtained by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, and the antimicrobial activity evaluation was performed with the clinical isolates of multiresistant bacteria (Escherichia coli, extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Artichoke syrup revealed the presence of vanillic acid and luteolin-7-O-glucoside while the pills possessed higher concentrations of 4-O-caffeoylquinic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and 1,3-O-dicaffeoylquinic acids, this latest being able to inhibit the growth of MRSA. Regarding milk thistle formulations, the syrup presented isorhamnetin-O-deoxyhexoside-O-dihexoside, isorhamnetin-O-deoxyhexoside-O-hexoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside as the major phenolic constituents whereas the pills were richer in taxifolin, silymarin derivatives and hydroxylated silibinin; the syrup revealed antimicrobial activity against all the studied bacteria with the exception of Proteus mirabilis whereas the pills revealed activity against ESBL producing Escherichia coli. Overall, all of the studied formulations revealed to be a good source of phenolic compounds, among which milk thistle syrup presented the highest variety and concentration of flavonoids, which is possibly related to its strongest antimicrobial activity.

  19. Images of American sexuality in debates over nonprescription access to emergency contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Wynn, L L; Trussell, James

    2006-11-01

    The debate over emergency contraceptive pill access in the United States revolves around speculations about Americans' sexual lives. The recently released internal U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) memo that expresses fears that adolescents will form "sex-based cults" around emergency contraceptive pills echoes arguments made against the nonprescription switch at the 2003 FDA hearings. In these hearings, opponents argued that nonprescription access would lead to adolescent promiscuity and disease transmission and that adult predators would use the drug to facilitate the sexual abuse of young women. In contrast, proponents of expanded access to emergency contraceptive pills overwhelmingly portrayed their model user as a responsible adult who experiences a torn condom during consensual sex. These imaginations of American sexuality are tied to competing models of the role of medical providers in women's sexual decision making. Opponents of the nonprescription switch argued that women need a learned intermediary, not only to determine their need for emergency contraception, but also to educate them about proper sexual behavior and protect them from abuse. Proponents advocated putting more responsibility for sexual health decision making in the hands of women, not doctors, and complained about the moralizing scrutiny of medical providers. In the absence of nonprescription access to emergency contraception, advance prescription of emergency contraceptive pills can ensure that contraceptive education is not tied to a specific sexual act and therefore not perceived as a judgment about women's sexual decisions. However, advance prescription does not help women who lack access to health care or women who make sexual and contraceptive decisions without consulting physicians.

  20. HIV pill reminder device shows some adherence improvement. Technology now switched to cell phone.

    PubMed

    2005-12-01

    Researchers studying a population of HIV patients found that a pill reminder improved adherence for those who were memory impaired. "One reason patients don't take medications is because they simply forget it, and it's more of an issue in the population we studied because some started with mild cognitive impairment," says Adriana Andrade, MD, MPH, an assistant professor at Johns Hopkins University Division of Infectious Diseases in Baltimore, MD.

  1. A survey of bonobo (Pan paniscus) oral contraceptive pill use in North American zoos.

    PubMed

    Agnew, Mary K; Asa, Cheryl S; Clyde, Victoria L; Keller, Dominique L; Meinelt, Audra

    2016-09-01

    Contraception is an essential tool in reproductive management of captive species. The Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) Reproductive Management Center (RMC) gathers data on contraception use and provides recommendations. Although apes have been given oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) for at least 30 years, there have been no published reports with basic information on why the pill is administered, formulations and brands used, and effects on physiology and behavior. Here, we report survey results characterizing OCP use in bonobos (Pan paniscus) housed in North American zoos, as well as information accumulated in the RMC's Contraception Database. Of 26 females treated, there have been no failures and nine reversals. The most commonly administered OCP formulation in bonobos contained ethinyl estradiol (EE) 35 μg/norethindrone 1 mg. Few females on combined oral contraceptives (COCs) were given a continuous active pill regimen; a hormone-free interval of at least 5 days was allowed in most. Crushing the pill and mixing with juice or food was common. Females on COCs seldom experienced breakthrough estrus or bleeding, while these conditions were sometimes observed for females on continuous COCs. All females on COCs exhibited some degree of perineal swelling, with a mean score of 3 or 3+ most commonly reported. Behavioral changes included less sexual behavior, dominant females becoming subordinate, and a negative effect on mood. No appreciable change in weight was noted. Taken together, these results indicate that OCPs are an effective and reversible contraceptive option for bonobos that can be used by zoos and sanctuaries to limit reproduction. Zoo Biol. 35:444-453, 2016. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Resection and radiofrequency ablation of multiple liver adenomas secondary to anti-conceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Luis; Dabbs, Andy; Sewell, Patrick; Doherty, Mike

    2004-01-01

    A case of multiple hepatic adenomas associated with birth control pills in a 25-year-old female is presented. Her only complaint was abdominal pain, and an elevated alkaline phosphatase was the only laboratory abnormality. The largest adenoma was located in the caudate lobe and was resected. The other two were small, located deep in the right lobe, and treated with radiofrequency ablation. Currently, the patient is asymptomatic and her alkaline phosphatase has returned to normal levels.

  3. Continuous combination oral contraceptive pills to eliminate withdrawal bleeding: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Miller, Leslie; Hughes, James P

    2003-04-01

    To compare bleeding profiles of a traditional 28-day oral contraceptive pill cycle with continuous administration. After a 28-day run-in cycle, women were randomized to either 28-day cycles (21 active pills and a pill-free week) or continuous use of the same 20 microg ethinyl estradiol/100 microg levonorgestrel formulation for 12 study cycles (336 days). The number of bleeding and spotting days were measured by daily diary. A subset underwent cycle 1 (n = 16), and nine (n = 14) pelvic ultrasound and endometrial histology sampling. Blood pressure, weight, hemoglobin, and adverse events were measured at revisit. The sample size with 80% power to detect a 67% reduction in bleeding days required 27 subjects in each arm. Of the 79 subjects randomized, 28 (70%) of the 28-day cycle and 32 (82%) of the continuous-use subjects completed the entire study (P =.6). With continuous use, 49%, 68%, and 88% of women reported no bleeding during cycles 2, 6, and 12, respectively. Amenorrhea or infrequent bleeding was present in 68% of continuous users during cycles 1-3 and increased to 88% during cycles 10-12. Spotting during cycle days 1-21 increased initially with continuous use but reduced over time, and by 9 months was less than the spotting reported by cyclic users. Adverse events, blood pressure, weight, and hemoglobin findings were similar between groups. Extension of the 28-day oral contraceptive cycle to continuous use with a low-estrogen dose combination oral birth control pill resulted in significantly fewer bleeding days.

  4. Menstrual reduction with extended use of combination oral contraceptive pills: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Miller, L; Notter, K M

    2001-11-01

    To compare a traditional 28-day cycle to an extended 49-day cycle of the 30 microg ethinyl estradiol (E2)/300 microg norgestrel monophasic birth control pill regimen. Ninety subjects randomized to either 28-day cycles with 21 active pills or 49-day cycles with 42 active pills for a prospective open label trial over four 84-day reference periods or trimesters. Bleeding, pill taking, and symptom diaries were completed. The sample size with 80% power to detect a 40% reduction in bleeding days required 24 subjects in each arm. Of the 90 women, 24 subjects (54.5%) on the 28-day cycle and 29 (63%) on the 49-day cycle completed the entire study (P =.41). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups in demographics or continuation rates. There was a significant reduction in bleeding days in the experimental arm beginning in the first trimester (28-day = 10.9, 49-day = 6.4 mean days of bleeding, P <.001) and continuing to the fourth trimester (28-day = 11.3, 49-day = 5.8 mean days, P =.005). The number of spotting days was similar between both schedules in the first trimester (28-day = 4.8, 49-day = 3.7 mean days, P =.24) and continued into the fourth trimester (28-day = 3.4, 49-day = 2.9 mean days, P =.30). Annual expenditure for hygiene products was significantly less for extended use subjects (28-day = $41.45, 49-day = $17.54 spent, P <.001). Extension of the 28-day oral contraceptive (OC) cycle to a 49-day cycle resulted in fewer bleeding days and no increase in mean spotting days or bleeding episodes.

  5. Neoplasia of the cervix uteri and contraception: a possible adverse effect of the pill.

    PubMed

    Vessey, M P; Lawless, M; McPherson, K; Yeates, D

    1983-10-22

    The incidence of biopsy-proven cervical neoplasia during a 10-year follow-up was determined in 6838 parous women who entered the Oxford-Family Planning Association contraceptive study while using oral contraceptives and 3154 parous women who entered the study while using an intrauterine device (IUD). Risk factors for cervical neoplasia, continuation of attendance at family planning clinics, and frequency of examination by cervical cytology were similar in the two groups. All 13 cases of invasive cancer occurred in women in the oral contraceptive group; 9 had more than 6 years' use of the pill. Both carcinoma-in-situ and dysplasia also occurred more frequently in the oral contraceptive group than in the IUD group, and when the two conditions were considered together there was a trend in incidence with duration of oral contraceptive use. The incidence for all three forms of neoplasia combined rose from 0.9 per 1000 woman-years in those with up to 2 years' pill use to 2.2 per 1000 woman-years in those with more than 8 years' pill use. Amongst IUD users, there was no such trend in incidence with duration of use: the rate fluctuated around 1.0 per 1000 woman-years. The great majority of cases of invasive cancer were detected by means of cervical smears and were treated while the disease was still curable. Long-term users of oral contraceptives should have regular cervical cytological examination.

  6. [Pharmacokinetics study on costunolide and dehydrocostuslactone after administration of traditional Chinese medicine Weichang'an pills].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-ze; Wang, Lei; Jin, Zhao-xiang; Qu, Zhuo; Chen, Yu-ling; Gao, Wen-yuan

    2015-03-01

    A HPLC-MS/MS multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) quantitative analysis was made to establish a determination method for drug concentrations of costunolide (Co) and dehydrocostuslactone (De) in blood samples in the positive ion mode, with diazepam as the internal standard substance, in order to study the pharmacokinetic process of sesquiterpene lactones costunolide and dehydrocostuslactone after the oral administration of Weichang'an pills, and provide an theoretical basis for further studies on the substance basis for the anti-diarrhea effect of Weichang'an pills. In the blood samples, Co and De showed a good linearity within concentration ranges 0.700 0-769.7, 2.510-956.0 μg x L(-1), respectively. The results of precision, stability and recovery experiences proved the stability and reliability of the plasma concentration determination method. After the oral administration, the concentrations of Co and De in plasma increased with the increase in dose, with T(max) between 10.65-12.98 h, indicating a long time to reach peak plasma concentrations; C(max) of costunolide and dehydrocostuslactone ranged between 3.750-5.450,15.34-44.52 μg x L(-1), respectively. The in vivo adsorption of Co and De conformed to the one-compartment model, with a longer time to attain the peak plasma concentrations. These results provided an experimental basis for revealing the active substance basis and clinical medication of Weichang'an pills.

  7. Dragon's blood dropping pills have protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats model.

    PubMed

    Xin, Nian; Yang, Fang-Ju; Li, Yan; Li, Yu-Juan; Dai, Rong-Ji; Meng, Wei-Wei; Chen, Yan; Deng, Yu-Lin

    2013-12-15

    Dragon's blood is a bright red resin obtained from Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C.Chen (Yunnan, China). As a traditional Chinese medicinal herb, it has great traditional medicinal value and is used for wound healing and to stop bleeding. Its main biological activity comes from phenolic compounds. In this study, phenolic compounds were made into dropping pills and their protective effects were examined by establishing focal cerebral ischemia rats model used method of Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO), and by investigating indexes of neurological scores, infarct volume, cerebral index, cerebral water content and oxidation stress. Compared to model group, high, middle and low groups of Dragon's blood dropping pills could improve the neurological function significantly (p<0.01) and reduce cerebral infarct volume of focal cerebral ischemia rats remarkably (p<0.05-0.01). Meanwhile, each group could alleviate cerebral water content and cerebral index (p<0.05-0.01) and regulate oxidative stress of focal cerebral ischemia rats obviously (p<0.05-0.01). Activities of middle group corresponded with that treated with positive control drug. The results obtained here showed that Dragon's blood dropping pills had protective effects on focal cerebral ischemia rats.

  8. Single-pill triple-combination therapy: an alternative to multiple-drug treatment of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, Steven G

    2011-11-01

    Hypertension (HTN) affects an estimated 76.4 million US adults. Despite improvements in blood pressure (BP) control rates and the availability of effective antihypertensive agents, only 50% of these individuals achieve BP control. It is now recognized that many patients will require ≥ 2 antihypertensive agents to achieve BP control. Both the current US and reappraisal of the 2007 European guidelines include dual-combination regimens among recommended treatments for initial HTN therapy. For patients requiring 3 drugs, the combination of agents with complementary mechanisms of action (ie, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blocker, calcium channel blocker, and diuretic) has been recognized as rational and effective. Three single-pill triple-drug combinations have recently been approved for use in HTN in the United States: valsartan (VAL)/amlodipine (AML)/hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ); olmesartan medoxomil (OM)/AML/HCTZ; and aliskiren (ALI)/VAL/HCTZ. Triple-combination regimens have resulted in a greater proportion of patients achieving BP control compared with dual-combination regimens, with significantly lower BP levels documented after only 2 weeks at maximum doses. Single-pill combinations offer convenience to address barriers to BP control such as poor adherence to therapy and therapeutic inertia. Additional benefits of combining antihypertensive agents from different classes include improved efficacy, safety, and reduction of cardiovascular risk. In patients with essential HTN for whom dual therapy is inadequate, single-pill triple-drug therapy can offer a simplified and effective treatment strategy.

  9. Use of diet pills and amphetamines to lose weight among smoking and nonsmoking high school seniors.

    PubMed

    Gritz, E R; Crane, L A

    1991-01-01

    Used data on 3,305 high school seniors collected as part of the 1984 Monitoring the Future project to examine the relationships among cigarette use, diet pill use, and use of amphetamines for weight loss. Results indicate that females were more likely than males to report use of all three substances. In addition, Whites were more likely than Blacks to use all three substances. Both female and male smokers were more likely than nonsmokers to use diet pills. Amphetamine use for weight loss was positively related to smoking among females, but not among males. The relationships between smoking and diet pill use, and smoking and amphetamine use to lose weight, were maintained when race, sex, and other drug use were controlled simultaneously. Two explanations for these relationships are considered. The first is that smoking is related to the use of most other licit and illicit drugs. The second explanation is that there is a greater preoccupation with weight among smokers, with weight concerns potentially motivating the initiation of smoking.

  10. Quality evaluation of moluodan concentrated pill using high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprinting coupled with chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lingyan; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Yongjiang; Liu, Xuesong

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a fast and effective high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to obtain a fingerprint chromatogram and quantitative analysis simultaneously of four indexes including gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, albiflorin and paeoniflorin of the traditional Chinese medicine Moluodan Concentrated Pill. The method was performed by using a Waters X-bridge C18 reversed phase column on an Agilent 1200S high-performance liquid chromatography system coupled with diode array detection. The mobile phase of the high-performance liquid chromatography method was composed of 20 mmol/L phosphate solution and acetonitrile with a 1 mL/min eluent velocity, under a detection temperature of 30°C and a UV detection wavelength of 254 nm. After the methodology validation, 16 batches of Moluodan Concentrated Pill were analyzed by this high-performance liquid chromatography method and both qualitative and quantitative evaluation results were achieved by similarity analysis, principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. The results of these three chemometrics were in good agreement and all indicated that batch 10 and batch 16 showed significant differences with the other 14 batches. This suggested that the developed high-performance liquid chromatography method could be applied in the quality evaluation of Moluodan Concentrated Pill.

  11. Use of birth control pills, condoms, and withdrawal among U.S. high school students.

    PubMed

    Everett, S A; Warren, C W; Santelli, J S; Kann, L; Collins, J L; Kolbe, L J

    2000-08-01

    To examine the use of contraception at last sexual intercourse among currently sexually active adolescents. We analyzed data from national school-based Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS) conducted in 1991, 1993, 1995, and 1997. The YRBS is a self-administered, anonymous survey which uses a national probability sample of U.S. students in public and private schools from grades 9 through 12. From 1991 to 1997, condom use significantly increased (from 46% to 57%), birth control pill use decreased (from 21% to 17%), and use of withdrawal significantly decreased (from 18% to 13%). In 1997, although more students were using condoms, 13% reported using withdrawal and 15% reported using no method to prevent pregnancy at last sexual intercourse. In 1997, condom use among females was significantly lower in the 9th grade than in the 12th grade (p <.001), whereas birth control pill use was higher (p <.001) and use of withdrawal remained stable. Among males, condom use and withdrawal use remained stable from 9th to 12th grade, whereas birth control pill use by their partner increased (p <.001). Inadequate contraceptive use among sexually active adolescents continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. For young people who will not remain sexually abstinent, families, health care providers, schools, and other influential societal institutions should promote the correct and continued use of condoms as essential protection against sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency virus infection.

  12. Effect of educational leaflets and questions on knowledge of contraception in women taking the combined contraceptive pill: randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Little, P; Griffin, S; Kelly, J; Dickson, N; Sadler, C

    1998-06-27

    To assess whether provision of educational leaflets or questions on contraception improves knowledge of contraception in women taking the combined contraceptive pill. Randomisation of women into three groups according to type of educational leaflet on contraceptive information. These groups were subdivided into two on the basis of questions on contraception asked by the doctor or practice nurse. The women were followed up by postal questionnaire 3 months later. 15 general practices in South and West region. 636 women attending check up appointment for repeat prescription of the combined contraceptive pill. Knowledge of: factors causing pill failure, subsequent action, emergency contraception, and all the rules (pill rules) that apply to the contraceptive pill. 523 women returned completed questionnaires (response rate 82%). Knowledge of contraception with no intervention was low with only 10 (12%) women knowing all the pill rules. Educational intervention had a highly significant effect on knowledge of: factors causing pill failure (likelihood ratio chi2=22); subsequent action (21); emergency contraception (24); and all the pill rules (22) (P<0.01 in all cases). Improvement in knowledge of all the pill rules occurred with provision of the summary leaflet (28% knew all the rules, adjusted odds ratio 4.04, 95% confidence interval 1.68 to 9.75), the Family Planning Association's leaflet (27%, 3.43, 1.45 to 8.09), and asking questions (26%, 3.03, 1.30 to 7.00). Asking questions in addition to provision of leaflets improved knowledge of contraception further for the summary leaflet (39%, 6.81, 2.85 to 16.27) but not for the Family Planning Association leaflet (21%, 2.58, 1.07 to 6.18). Women attending check ups for repeat prescriptions of the contraceptive pill should be provided with educational leaflets on contraception or asked relevant questions to help improve their knowledge of contraception. Asking questions in addition to providing a summary leaflet is time

  13. Utilization of and Adherence to Oral Contraceptive Pills and Associated Disparities in the United States: A Baseline Assessment for the Impact of the Affordable Care Act of 2010.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsien-Chang; Lee, Hsiao-Yun

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated sociological factors that may influence women's utilization of and adherence to oral contraceptive pills. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study using the 2010-2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Female adults aged 18-50 years were included. Logistic regression was performed to discern women's decisions to use oral contraceptive pills or not. Ordinary least squares and Poisson regressions were conducted to examine the number of oral contraceptive pills received, refill frequency, and annual out-of-pocket expenditure on oral contraceptive pills. Covariates were based on the Andersen model of health care utilization. Among the study sample (weighted n = 207,007,531), 14.8% were oral contraceptive pill users. Factors positively related to oral contraceptive pill use included non-Hispanic white ethnicity, younger age, not currently married, having private insurance, residing in the Midwest, higher education level, and higher annual family income. Being non-Hispanic white and having a higher education level were positively related to oral contraceptive pill adherence. Our findings therefore demonstrate disparities in oral contraceptive pill utilization and adherence, especially according to women's race/ethnicity and educational level. This study serves as a baseline assessment for the impact of the Affordable Care Act on oral contraceptive pill utilization and adherence for future studies.

  14. Effect of a “pill mill” law on opioid prescribing and utilization: The case of Texas

    PubMed Central

    Lyapustina, Tatyana; Rutkow, Lainie; Chang, Hsien-Yen; Daubresse, Matthew; Ramji, Alim F.; Faul, Mark; Stuart, Elizabeth A.; Alexander, G. Caleb

    2016-01-01

    Background States have attempted to reduce prescription opioid abuse through strengthening the regulation of pain management clinics; however, the effect of such measures remains unclear. We quantified the impact of Texas’s September 2010 “pill mill” law on opioid prescribing and utilization. Methods We used the IMS Health LRx LifeLink database to examine anonymized, patient-level pharmacy claims for a closed cohort of individuals filling prescription opioids in Texas between September 2009 and August 2011. Our primary outcomes were derived at a monthly level and included: (1) average morphine equivalent dose (MED) per transaction; (2) aggregate opioid volume; (3) number of opioid prescriptions; and (4) quantity of opioid pills dispensed. We compared observed values with the counterfactual, which we estimated from pre-intervention levels and trends. Results Texas’s pill mill law was associated with declines in average MED per transaction (−0.57 mg/month, 95% confidence interval [CI] −1.09, −0.057), monthly opioid volume (−9.99 kg/month, CI −12.86, −7.11), monthly number of opioid prescriptions (−12,200 prescriptions/month, CI −15,300, −9,150) and monthly quantity of opioid pills dispensed (−714,000 pills/month, CI −877,000, −550,000). These reductions reflected decreases of 8.1–24.3% across the outcomes at one year compared with the counterfactual, and they were concentrated among prescribers and patients with the highest opioid prescribing and utilization at baseline. Conclusions Following the implementation of Texas’s 2010 pill mill law, there were clinically significant reductions in opioid dose, volume, prescriptions and pills dispensed within the state, which were limited to individuals with higher levels of baseline opioid prescribing and utilization. PMID:26778760

  15. Quantitative determination of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine by thin-layer chromatography in ecstasy illicit pills in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Shetab Boushehri, Seyed Vahid; Tamimi, Maryam; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas

    2009-11-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is the major ingredient of ecstasy illicit pills. It is a hallucinogen, central nervous system stimulant, and serotonergic neurotoxin that strongly releases serotonin from serotonergic nerves terminals. Moreover, it releases norepinephrine and dopamine from nerves terminal, but to a lesser extent than serotonin. Poisoning and even death from abusing MDMA-containing ecstasy illicit pills among abusers is usual. Thus, quantitative determination of MDMA content of ecstasy illicit pills in illicit drug bazaar must be done regularly to find the most high dose ecstasy illicit pills and removing them from illicit drug bazaar. In the present study, MDMA contents of 13 most abundant ecstasy illicit pills were determined by quantitative thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Two procedures for quantitative determination of MDMA contents of ecstasy illicit pills by TLC were used: densitometric and so-called 'scraping off' methods. The former was done in a reflection mode at 285 nm and the latter was done by absorbance measurement of eluted scraped off spots. Limit of detection (LOD), considering signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 2, and limit of quantification (LOQ), regarding S/N of 10, of densitometric and scraping off methods were 0.40 microg, 1.20 microg, and 6.87 mug, 20.63 microg, respectively. Repeatabilities (within-laboratory error) of densitometric and scraping off methods were 0.5% and 3.6%, respectively. The results showed that the ecstasy illicit pills contained 24-124.5 mg and 23.9-122.2 mg MDMA by densitometric and scraping off methods, respectively.

  16. Adherence to Varenicline Among African American Smokers: An Exploratory Analysis Comparing Plasma Concentration, Pill Count, and Self-report

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Nazir, Niaman; Benowitz, Neal L.; Yu, Lisa; Yturralde, Olivia; Jacob, Peyton; Choi, Won S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Nollen, Nicole L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Measuring adherence to smoking cessation pharmacotherapy is important to evaluating its effectiveness. Blood levels are considered the most accurate measure of adherence but are invasive and costly. Pill counts and self-report are more practical, but little is known about their relationship to blood levels. This study compared the validity of pill count and self-report against plasma varenicline concentration for measuring pharmacotherapy adherence. Methods: Data were obtained from a randomized pilot study of varenicline for smoking cessation among African American smokers. Adherence was measured on Day 12 via plasma varenicline concentration, pill count, 3-day recall, and a visual analogue scale (VAS; adherence was represented on a line with two extremes “no pills” and “all pills”). Results: The sample consisted of 55 African American moderate to heavy smokers (average 16.8 cigarettes/day, SD = 5.6) and 63.6% were female. Significant correlations (p < .05) were found between plasma varenicline concentration and pill count (r = .56), 3-day recall (r = .46), and VAS (r = .29). Using plasma varenicline concentration of 2.0 ng/ml as the cutpoint for adherence, pill count demonstrated the largest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC = 0.85, p = .01) and had 88% sensitivity (95% CI = 75.0–95.0) and 80% specificity (95% CI = 30.0–99.0) for detecting adherence. Conclusions: Of 3 commonly used adherence measures, pill count was the most valid for identifying adherence in this sample of African American smokers. Pill count has been used across other health domains and could be incorporated into treatment to identify nonadherence, which, in turn, could maximize smoking cessation pharmacotherapy use and improve abstinence rates. PMID:22367976

  17. Mothers' attitude to the use of a combined oral contraceptive pill by their daughters for menstrual disorders or contraception.

    PubMed

    Yiu, K W; Chan, S Sc; Chung, T Kh

    2017-04-01

    Mothers' attitude may affect use of combined oral contraceptive pills by their daughters. We explored Chinese mothers' knowledge of and attitudes towards the use of combined oral contraceptive pills by their daughters for menstrual disorders or contraception, and evaluate the factors affecting their attitude. This survey was conducted from October 2012 to March 2013, and recruited Chinese women who attended a gynaecology clinic or accompanied their daughter to a gynaecology clinic, and who had one or more daughters aged 10 to 18 years. They completed a 41-item questionnaire to assess their knowledge of and attitude towards use of the combined oral contraceptive pills by their daughters. The demographic data of the mothers and their personal experience in using the pills were also collected. A total of 300 women with a mean age of 45.2 (standard deviation, 5.0) years completed the questionnaire. Only 58.3% of women reported that they had knowledge about the combined oral contraceptive pills; among them, a majority (63.3%) reported that their source of knowledge came from medical professionals. Of a total possible score of 22, their mean knowledge score for risk, side-effects, benefits, and contra-indications to use of combined oral contraceptive pills was only 5.0 (standard deviation, 4.7). If the medical recommendation to use an oral contraceptive was to manage their daughter's dysmenorrhoea, menorrhagia, acne, or contraception needs, 32.0%, 39.3%, 21.0% and 29.7%, respectively would accept this advice. Women who were an ever-user of combined oral contraceptive pills or who were more knowledgeable about combined oral contraceptives had a higher acceptance rate. Chinese women had a low acceptance level of using combined oral contraceptive pills as a legitimate treatment for their daughters. This was associated with lack of knowledge or a high degree of uncertainty about their risks and benefits. It is important that health caregivers provide up-to-date information

  18. Progestin-only pills may be a better first-line treatment for endometriosis than combined estrogen-progestin contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Casper, Robert F

    2017-03-01

    For decades, combined estrogen-progestin oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) have been the first-line treatment for menstrual and pelvic pain associated with endometriosis without any clinical evidence of efficacy. Initial relief provided by OCPs is likely a result of improvement in primary dysmenorrhea. Biologic data and limited clinical evidence support a potential adverse effect of long-term use of OCPs on the progression of endometriosis. In contrast, there is randomized, controlled trial data to support the use of oral progestin-only treatment for pelvic pain associated with endometriosis and for suppressing the anatomic extent of endometriotic lesions. Both norethindrone acetate and dienogest have regulatory approval for treating endometriosis and may be better than OCPs as a first-line therapy.

  19. Quality evaluation of Shenmaidihuang Pills based on the chromatographic fingerprints and simultaneous determination of seven bioactive constituents.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sifei; Zhang, Guangrui; Qiu, Ying; Wang, Xiaobo; Guo, Lihan; Zhao, Yanxin; Tong, Meng; Wei, Lan; Sun, Lixin

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we aimed to establish a comprehensive and practical quality evaluation system for Shenmaidihuang pills. A simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection method was developed both for fingerprint analysis and quantitative determination. In fingerprint analysis, relative retention time and relative peak area were used to identify the common peaks in 18 samples for investigation. Twenty one peaks were selected as the common peaks to evaluate the similarities of 18 Shenmaidihuang pills samples with different manufacture dates. Furthermore, similarity analysis was applied to evaluate the similarity of samples. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis were also performed to evaluate the variation of Shenmaidihuang pills. In quantitative analysis, linear regressions, injection precisions, recovery, repeatability and sample stability were all tested and good results were obtained to simultaneously determine the seven identified compounds, namely, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, morroniside, loganin, paeonol, paeoniflorin, psoralen, isopsoralen in Shenmaidihuang pills. The contents of some analytes in different batches of samples indicated significant difference, especially for 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. So, it was concluded that the chromatographic fingerprint method obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection associated with multiple compounds determination is a powerful and meaningful tool to comprehensively conduct the quality control of Shenmaidihuang pills.

  20. Harm reduction or women's rights? Debating access to emergency contraceptive pills in Canada and the United States.

    PubMed

    Wynn, L L; Erdman, Joanna N; Foster, Angel M; Trussell, James

    2007-12-01

    This article compares the ethical pivot points in debates over nonprescription access to emergency contraceptive pills in Canada and the United States. These include women's right to be informed about the contraceptive method and its mechanism of action, pharmacists' conscientious objection concerning the dispensing of emergency contraceptive pills, and rights and equality of access to the method, especially for poor women and minorities. In both countries, arguments in support of expanding access to the pills were shaped by two competing orientations toward health and sexuality. The first, "harm reduction," promotes emergency contraception as attenuating the public health risks entailed in sex. The second orientation regards access to pills as a question of women's right to engage in nonprocreative sex and to choose from among all reproductive health-care options. The authors contend that arguments for expanding access to emergency contraceptive pills that frame issues in terms of health and science are insufficient bases for drug regulation; ultimately, women's health is also a matter of women's rights.

  1. Jamaican and Barbadian health care providers' knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding emergency contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Yam, Eileen A; Gordon-Strachan, Georgiana; McIntyre, Garth; Fletcher, Horace; Garcia, Sandra G; Becker, Davida; Ezcurra, Enrique

    2007-12-01

    Little is known about health care providers' knowledge of, attitudes toward and provision of emergency contraceptive pills in the English-speaking Caribbean, where sexual violence and unplanned pregnancies are persistent public health problems. We conducted interviewer-administered surveys of 200 Barbadian and 228 Jamaican pharmacists, general practitioners, obstetrician-gynecologists and nurses in 2005-2006. For each country, Pearson's chi-square tests were used to assess differences in responses among the four provider groups. Nearly all respondents had heard of emergency contraceptive pills, and large majorities of Barbadian and Jamaican providers had dispensed the method. However, about half had ever refused to dispense it; frequently cited reasons were medical contraindications to use, recent use, method unavailability, safety concerns and being uncomfortable prescribing it. Only one in five providers knew that the method could be safely used as often as needed, and few knew that it was effective if taken within 120 hours of unprotected sexual intercourse. About a quarter of Barbadian and half of Jamaican providers thought the method should be available without a prescription, and half of all providers believed that its use encourages sexual risk-taking and leads to increased STI transmission. Nonetheless, most respondents believed the method was necessary to reduce rates of unintended pregnancy and were willing to dispense it to rape victims, women who had experienced condom failure and women who had not used a contraceptive. Future educational efforts among Jamaican and Barbadian health care providers should emphasize the safety and proper use of emergency contraceptive pills, as well as the need to increase the availability of the method.

  2. Water-compatible imprinted pills for sensitive determination of cannabinoids in urine and oral fluid.

    PubMed

    Cela-Pérez, M Concepción; Bates, Ferdia; Jiménez-Morigosa, Cristian; Lendoiro, Elena; de Castro, Ana; Cruz, Angelines; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; López-Vilariño, José M; González-Rodríguez, M Victoria

    2016-01-15

    A novel molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) methodology followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed using cylindrical shaped molecularly imprinted pills for detection of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-nor-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabidiol (CBD) in urine and oral fluid (OF). The composition of the molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) was optimized based on the screening results of a non-imprinted polymer library (NIP-library). Thus, acrylamide as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker were selected for the preparation of the MIP, using catechin as a mimic template. MISPE pills were incubated with 0.5 mL urine or OF sample for adsorption of analytes. For desorption, the pills were transferred to a vial with 2 mL of methanol:acetic acid (4:1) and sonicated for 15 min. The elution solvent was evaporated and reconstituted in methanol:formic acid (0.1%) 50:50 to inject in LC-MS/MS. The developed method was linear over the range from 1 to 500 ng mL(-1) in urine and from 0.75 to 500 ng mL(-1) in OF for all four analytes. Intra- and inter-day imprecision were <15%. Extraction recovery was 50-111%, process efficiency 15.4-54.5% and matrix effect ranged from -78.0 to -6.1%. Finally, the optimized and validated method was applied to 4 urine and 5 OF specimens. This is the first method for the determination of THC, THC-COOH, CBN and CBD in urine and OF using MISPE technology.

  3. Are All Placebo Effects Equal? Placebo Pills, Sham Acupuncture, Cue Conditioning and Their Association

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Jian; Spaeth, Rosa; Cook, Amanda; Kirsch, Irving; Claggett, Brian; Vangel, Mark; Gollub, Randy L.; Smoller, Jordan W.; Kaptchuk, Ted J.

    2013-01-01

    Placebo treatments and healing rituals have been used to treat pain throughout history. The present within-subject crossover study examines the variability in individual responses to placebo treatment with verbal suggestion and visual cue conditioning by investigating whether responses to different types of placebo treatment, as well as conditioning responses, correlate with one another. Secondarily, this study also examines whether responses to sham acupuncture correlate with responses to genuine acupuncture. Healthy subjects were recruited to participate in two sequential experiments. Experiment one is a five-session crossover study. In each session, subjects received one of four treatments: placebo pills (described as Tylenol), sham acupuncture, genuine acupuncture, or no treatment rest control condition. Before and after each treatment, paired with a verbal suggestion of positive effect, each subject's pain threshold, pain tolerance, and pain ratings to calibrated heat pain were measured. At least 14 days after completing experiment one, all subjects were invited to participate in experiment two, during which their analgesic responses to conditioned visual cues were tested. Forty-eight healthy subjects completed experiment one, and 45 completed experiment two. The results showed significantly different effects of genuine acupuncture, placebo pill and rest control on pain threshold. There was no significant association between placebo pills, sham acupuncture and cue conditioning effects, indicating that individuals may respond to unique healing rituals in different ways. This outcome suggests that placebo response may be a complex behavioral phenomenon that has properties that comprise a state, rather than a trait characteristic. This could explain the difficulty of detecting a signature for “placebo responders.” However, a significant association was found between the genuine and sham acupuncture treatments, implying that the non-specific effects of

  4. [Investigation of JinKui ShenQi pills by ultraviolet spectra and tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-lan; Sun, Zhi; Cheng, Bin; Ji, Yu-bin; Bai, Jing

    2008-08-01

    On the base of establishing the fingerprint of JinKui ShenQi pills, the ultraviolet spectra-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, method was used to identify the fingerprint. Seperation was performed on the Symmetry Shield RP18 (5 microm, 4. 6 mm X 15 mm) analytical column with mobile phase consisting of 1% acetic acid and acetonitrile with gradient elute at the flow rate of 1.0 mL x min(-1), and the ultraviolet detection wavelength was set at 248 nm. Using the above-mentioned chromatographic condition, the fingerprint of different samples was established and the same fingerprint was defined. The fingerprints of different samples were compared with similarity evaluation software published by Pharmacopeia committee codex (2004A). The mass spectrograph with API-ESI ionization source was used, setting the flow rate at 0.5 mL x min(-1) after splitting stream. The pressure of atomization room was 50 Psi, the flow rate of dry gas was 9.0 L x min(-1), the capillary voltage was 4 kV, and the transmission voltage was 70 V. The negative scanner mode was chosen, scan scope was 100-2000, using ion trap to analyze quasimolecular ion peak and the selected fragment ion, and TIC chromatography and second order mass chromatogram were recorded. The major constituents among in JinKui ShenQi pills from different origins were separated well by HPLC. Although there was difference among different origins, they showed nineteen identical characteristic absorption bands. Three fingerprints chemical compositions such as loganin, cinnamal and paeonol were identified based on the retention time and ultraviolet spectra of standard preparation. According to their ultraviolet spectra, molecular weight and fragmentation information, ten peaks in the fingerprint were identified by ultraviolet spectroscopy-mass, spectrometry/massg spectrometry. They are 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-glucose, loganin, paeoniflorin, 1,2,3,6-tetro-O-galloyl-glucose, soya-cerebroside, cornuside, and PGG, benzoyl

  5. The Pill Really Can Be Mightier Than the Sword: A Response to Recent Commentaries

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Malcolm; Graves, Alisha

    2016-01-01

    We appreciate the four commentaries that add new material and fresh perspectives to our article "The pill is mightier than the sword." In emphasizing the role of voluntary family planning and girls’ education as achievable strategies with a potential to make the world a more peaceable place, we did not mean to oversimplify or disregard the intrinsic complexity of human conflict. On the whole, the commentators support and add to our thesis, although we question Pillai and Ya-Chien Wang’s suggestion that we may have overstated the unique human predisposition to kill our own species. We present additional data on male team aggression. PMID:26927598

  6. Effect of Florida's Prescription Drug Monitoring Program and Pill Mill Laws on Opioid Prescribing and Use.

    PubMed

    Rutkow, Lainie; Chang, Hsien-Yen; Daubresse, Matthew; Webster, Daniel W; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Alexander, G Caleb

    2015-10-01

    Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP) and pill mill laws are among the principal means states use to reduce prescription drug abuse and diversion, yet little high-quality evidence exists regarding their effect. To quantify the effect of Florida's PDMP and pill mill laws on overall and high-risk opioid prescribing and use. We applied comparative interrupted time-series analyses to IMS Health LifeLink LRx data to characterize the effect of PDMP and pill mill law implementation on a closed cohort of prescribers, retail pharmacies, and patients from July 2010 through September 2012 in Florida (intervention state) compared with Georgia (control state). We conducted sensitivity analyses, including varying length of observation and modifying requirements for continuous observation of individuals throughout the study period. Total opioid volume, mean morphine milligram equivalent (MME) per transaction, mean days' supply per transaction, and total number of opioid prescriptions dispensed. Analyses were conducted per prescriber and per patient, in aggregate and after stratifying by volume of baseline opioid prescribing for prescribers and use for patients. From July 2010 through September 2012, a cohort of 2.6 million patients, 431,890 prescribers, and 2829 pharmacies was associated with approximately 480 million prescriptions in Florida and Georgia, 7.7% of which were for opioids. Total monthly opioid volume, MME per transaction, days' supply, and prescriptions dispensed were higher in Florida than Georgia before implementation. Florida's laws were associated with statistically significant declines in opioid volume (2.5 kg/mo, P<.05; equivalent to approximately 500,000 5-mg tablets of hydrocodone bitartrate per month) and MME per transaction (0.45 mg/mo, P<.05), without any change in days' supply. Twelve months after implementation, the policies were associated with approximately a 1.4% decrease in opioid prescriptions, 2.5% decrease in opioid volume, and 5

  7. Ingestible pill for heart rate and core temperature measurement in cattle.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Angel; Schoenig, Scott; Andresen, Daniel; Warren, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The livestock industry is an integral part of the United States economy. The continued production of quality beef requires new and improved methods for long term monitoring of animal health. Additional benefits can be realized from this class of technology, such as the ability to identify the presence of disease early and thereby prevent its spread. An important element of health assessment is the ability to monitor vital data such as heart rate and core body temperature. This paper presents preliminary results from the design of an ingestible pill that allows one to acquire heart rate (via a phonocardiograph) and core temperature in cattle. Packaging, circuitry, algorithms, and the wireless link are addressed.

  8. A "Suicide Pill" for Older People: Attitudes of Physicians, the General Population, and Relatives of Patients Who Died after Euthanasia or Physician-Assisted Suicide in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rurup, Mette L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.; van der Wal, Gerrit; van der Heide, Agnes; van Der Maas, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    In the Netherlands there has been ongoing debate in the past 10 years about the availability of a hypothetical "suicide pill", with which older people could end their life in a dignified way if they so wished. Data on attitudes to the suicide pill were collected in the Netherlands from 410 physicians, 1,379 members of the general…

  9. A "Suicide Pill" for Older People: Attitudes of Physicians, the General Population, and Relatives of Patients Who Died after Euthanasia or Physician-Assisted Suicide in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rurup, Mette L.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D.; van der Wal, Gerrit; van der Heide, Agnes; van Der Maas, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    In the Netherlands there has been ongoing debate in the past 10 years about the availability of a hypothetical "suicide pill", with which older people could end their life in a dignified way if they so wished. Data on attitudes to the suicide pill were collected in the Netherlands from 410 physicians, 1,379 members of the general…

  10. The Role of Oral Contraceptive Pills on Increased Risk of Breast Cancer in Iranian Populations: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Soroush, Ali; Farshchian, Negin; Komasi, Saeid; Izadi, Neda; Amirifard, Nasrin; Shahmohammadi, Afshar

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer is one of the main public health issues in the world. Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer among women. It is also the second cause of mortality in women. The association between the use of oral contraceptive pills and breast cancer is controversial and a main issue in public health. Some findings have shown that taking these pills does not have a significant effect in increasing the risk of breast cancer, while others have confirmed the carcinogenic effect of these products. These contradictory findings necessitated this meta-analysis, through of all correlated studies in Iran. Methods All published studies were considered from June 2000 until June 2015, using reliable Latin databases like PubMed, Google Scholar, Google search, Scopus, and Science Direct, and Persian database like SID, Irandoc, IranMedex, and Magiran. Finally, 26 papers were selected: 24 studies were case control while two were population based studies. A total of 26 papers with 46,260 participants were assessed since 2001. Results Overall estimate of OR for the effect of oral contraceptive pills on breast cancer is 1.521 (CI = 1.25–1.85), which shows that the intervention group had more chance (52%) compared to the control group (P = 0.001). Using these pills increased the risk of breast cancer up to 1.52 times. Conclusions Because of directly increasing levels of estrogen and the role of estrogen in gaining weight indirectly, oral contraceptive pills can stimulate the occurrence of breast cancer. More studies should be conducted for controlling the period of pill use. PMID:28053965

  11. Pharmacists' knowledge and perceptions of emergency contraceptive pills in Soweto and the Johannesburg Central Business District, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Kelly; Harrison, Teresa; Sello, Mosala

    2005-12-01

    In South Africa, emergency contraceptive pills are available directly from pharmacies without a prescription, yet few studies have assessed pharmacists' knowledge of and attitudes toward the medication. In-person interviews were conducted with 34 pharmacists practicing in Soweto and the Johannesburg Central Business District, from February through April 2003. The pharmacists provided data on their knowledge of emergency contraceptive pills and their attitudes toward providing the medication to women in specific situations. Nearly all pharmacists sold at least one of the two types of dedicated emergency contraceptive pills available in South Africa. Although most had accurate knowledge about the method's dosing schedule, side effects and mechanism(s) of action, more than half erroneously believed that repeated use posed health risks. A large majority of pharmacists believed the pills should be available to rape victims, to single or married women and to women who had never given birth, but almost half did not think the pills should be given to women younger than 18, and a fourth said they would not give them to women with a late menstrual period. About one-third to half of pharmacists supported advance provision of the medication under certain circumstances. Most were willing to display promotional materials on emergency contraceptives in their pharmacies. Interventions aimed at educating pharmacists about the benefits of emergency contraceptive pills, especially for adolescents, are needed. Government and medical authorities should take advantage of pharmacists' willingness to display educational materials as a way to increase women's knowledge and use of the medication in South Africa.

  12. Comparing the effects of low-dose contraceptive pills to control dysfunctional uterine bleeding by oral and vaginal methods

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabian, Ferdous; Abbassi, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective : Contraceptive pills are generally taken orally and can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting and hypertension. The vaginal use of these pills can reduce such complications. Our objective was to compare the efficacy and side effects of low dose contraceptive pills by oral and vaginal route in the management of dysfunctional uterine bleeding-(DUB) Methods: This comparative observational study was conducted at Beheshti and Alzahra (SA) teaching hospitals, affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2010-2011. One hundred women who presented with DUB were randomly assigned into two groups of equal number, receiving the low dose oral contraceptive pills by oral or vaginal route for three month. The amount and duration of bleeding were compared at the beginning and at the end of the study and side effects by these two methods compared. Results: The results of this study showed that both oral and vaginal routes effectively reduced the duration and amount of bleeding due to DUB after three courses of treatment. This effect was better in the vaginal method compared with oral administration (P = 0.03). Regarding the side effects, nausea and vomiting were significantly higher in the oral group than in the vaginal group (P = 0.03). Vulvovaginitis infection was more frequent in the vaginal group than in the oral group (P = 0.03). Conclusion: Low dose contraceptive pills are effective in reducing the amount, time, and duration of bleeding in patients with DUB. In addition, reduction of gastrointestinal side effects by vaginal route helps to use these pills by the patient with proper training of physicians, midwives and patients. PMID:24353721

  13. Older peoples' attitudes towards euthanasia and an end-of-life pill in The Netherlands: 2001-2009.

    PubMed

    Buiting, Hilde M; Deeg, Dorly J H; Knol, Dirk L; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Pasman, H Roeline W; Widdershoven, Guy A M; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2012-05-01

    With an ageing population, end-of-life care is increasing in importance. The present work investigated characteristics and time trends of older peoples' attitudes towards euthanasia and an end-of-life pill. Three samples aged 64 years or older from the Longitudinal Ageing Study Amsterdam (N=1284 (2001), N=1303 (2005) and N=1245 (2008)) were studied. Respondents were asked whether they could imagine requesting their physician to end their life (euthanasia), or imagine asking for a pill to end their life if they became tired of living in the absence of a severe disease (end-of-life pill). Using logistic multivariable techniques, changes of attitudes over time and their association with demographic and health characteristics were assessed. The proportion of respondents with a positive attitude somewhat increased over time, but significantly only among the 64-74 age group. For euthanasia, these percentages were 58% (2001), 64% (2005) and 70% (2008) (OR of most recent versus earliest period (95% CI): 1.30 (1.17 to 1.44)). For an end-of-life pill, these percentages were 31% (2001), 33% (2005) and 45% (2008) (OR (95% CI): 1.37 (1.23 to 1.52)). For the end-of-life pill, interaction between the most recent time period and age group was significant. An increasing proportion of older people reported that they could imagine desiring euthanasia or an end-of-life pill. This may imply an increased interest in deciding about your own life and stresses the importance to take older peoples' wishes seriously.

  14. Associations of parity, breast-feeding, and birth control pills with lumbar spine and femoral neck bone densities.

    PubMed

    Hreshchyshyn, M M; Hopkins, A; Zylstra, S; Anbar, M

    1988-08-01

    The relationships between parity, breast-feeding, and the use of birth control pills and the bone densities of the lumbar spine and the femoral neck, measured by dual-photon densitometry, were studied in normal women. Femoral neck density was found to decrease by 1.1% per live-birth, whereas lumbar spine density showed no significant association with parity. Breast-feeding was found to increase lumbar spine density by 1.5% per breast-fed child, whereas femoral neck density was not significantly correlated. No significant relationships between the use of birth control pills and the bone densities were found.

  15. Designing a flashcard with knowledge pills for learning to solve chemistry exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cancela, Angeles; Sanchez, Angel; Maceiras, Rocio

    2012-08-01

    Nowadays, universities tend to promote more learner-centred learning, creating a more interactive and motivational environment for students and teachers. This paper describes an expanded framework to help chemical educators to construct a quiz for solution of chemical exercises in their courses. The novelty of this contribution is that the proposed tool combines a flashcards-based method with knowledge pills. The framework has three levels: definition of problem for a teacher; the quiz; use of the quiz for the student. The tool could provide predefined or automatically generated exercises of chemicals. Students could practise where and whenever they like via the Internet. Theirs answers would be registered automatically by the tool and if the students have doubts about any of the questions, they can see a knowledge pill with a teacher explanation about the solution of the exercise. Moreover, they would be able to check their scores from the tests. Once the flashcards were designed and produced, the opinions of other lecturers and students about them were considered. Both groups considered that the tool could be useful to improve the students' learning process. For future work, this design will be used with the students and its effectiveness will be analysed.

  16. Evaluation of Pharmacists' Services for Dispensing Emergency Contraceptive Pills in Delhi, India: A Mystery Shopper Study.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Nigam, Aruna

    2016-01-01

    Although emergency contraceptive pills are available over the counter, the quality of consultation, including key areas of contraceptive counseling and prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STI), has not been well documented. To evaluate actual pharmacist services while dispensing emergency contraception through a mystery shopper technique. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 81 pharmacies situated in Delhi by 4 trained mystery shoppers posed as customers over a period of 6 months. None of the pharmacists asked about the time lapsed since last unprotected sexual intercourse or last menstrual period before deciding the eligibility of the customer. The majority were unclear about side effects associated with emergency contraception (78.57%) or with anticipated changes in menstrual flow (78.57%); 85.71% did not know whether subsequent unprotected intercourse would be protected. Only 15.71% counseled shoppers regarding risk of STI on asking leading questions and 88.5% did not provide any contraceptive advice. There is a huge gap in the technical knowledge and mindset of the pharmacists when it comes to checking for the eligibility of the client and providing advice regarding use of regular contraception and barrier for protection from STI, which needs to be addressed in order to realize the full benefit of making emergency contraceptive pills available over the counter.

  17. Evaluation of Pharmacists' Services for Dispensing Emergency Contraceptive Pills in Delhi, India: A Mystery Shopper Study

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Pikee; Mishra, Archana; Nigam, Aruna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although emergency contraceptive pills are available over the counter, the quality of consultation, including key areas of contraceptive counseling and prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STI), has not been well documented. Objective: To evaluate actual pharmacist services while dispensing emergency contraception through a mystery shopper technique. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 81 pharmacies situated in Delhi by 4 trained mystery shoppers posed as customers over a period of 6 months. Results: None of the pharmacists asked about the time lapsed since last unprotected sexual intercourse or last menstrual period before deciding the eligibility of the customer. The majority were unclear about side effects associated with emergency contraception (78.57%) or with anticipated changes in menstrual flow (78.57%); 85.71% did not know whether subsequent unprotected intercourse would be protected. Only 15.71% counseled shoppers regarding risk of STI on asking leading questions and 88.5% did not provide any contraceptive advice. Conclusion: There is a huge gap in the technical knowledge and mindset of the pharmacists when it comes to checking for the eligibility of the client and providing advice regarding use of regular contraception and barrier for protection from STI, which needs to be addressed in order to realize the full benefit of making emergency contraceptive pills available over the counter. PMID:27385872

  18. Paramagnetic Salt Pill Design for Magnetic Refrigerators Used In-Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagmann, C.; Benford, D. J.; Richards, P. L.

    An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) is described which was designed for use in the multiband imaging photometer for the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). This refrigerator was required to cool bolometric detectors for infrared and millimetre waves to 0.1 K. A paramagnetic salt pill with a number of novel features was developed to meet the stringent requirements for an ADR used in space. An unusual paramagnetic salt, chromic caesium alum (CCA), is used to meet the requirement of thermal stability under the bake-out temperatures used in commissioning space cryogenic vacuum systems. The cycle time for the refrigerator has been reduced to almost-equal-to 30 min by attention to thermal time constants and by growing the CCA salt directly on to an array of gold wires. Crystal growing procedures were developed to overcome problems with the low solubility of CCA in water. The salt pill is sealed in stainless steel to retain water of hydration and is constructed of materials which are not corroded by commonly used paramagnetic salts.

  19. Evaluation of a combined oral contraceptive pill in black Zimbabwean women.

    PubMed

    Kasule, J; Mbizvo, M; Makuyana, D; Masona, D

    1991-12-01

    A prospective exploratory study was carried out on lipid metabolism (41 women); as well as efficacy, acceptability and safety on another 190 women who all were using a combined oral contraceptive pill (OC) containing 30 micrograms Ethinyl oestradiol and 150mg Desogestrel (Marvelon) over a period of twelve months. The 41 women had blood analysis of triglycerides, cholesterol and high density lipoproteins (HDL) before treatment and at each of follow-up visits scheduled at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months following admission. Triglycerides, cholesterol and HDL levels were computed and there were no significant changes in any of the measured levels except HDL which was increased. No pregnancy was reported in one year of use in both groups. Cycle control was good, with a very low incidence of breakthrough bleeding and spotting being reported. The pill did not affect body weight and blood pressure significantly. It was concluded that the Marvelon formulation does not have adverse effect on lipid metabolism and is an efficacious and well tolerated contraceptive amongst Zimbabwean women.

  20. Why use of dienogest for the first contraceptive pill with estradiol?

    PubMed

    Mueck, Alfred O; Seeger, Harald; Bühling, Kai J

    2010-02-01

    Dienogest (DNG) has the essential properties of an effective progestogen for use in a new contraceptive pill using estradiol valerate as estrogenic component -- it inhibits ovulation and protects against endometrial proliferation. DNG is a derivative of norethisterone (NET), but has a cyanomethyl- instead of an ethinyl-group in C17 position which may offer a variety of benefits regarding hepatic effects. The similarity to NET is reflected in the high endometriotropy and in similar pharmacokinetics like short plasma half-live and high bioavailability. However, DNG also elicits properties of progesterone derivatives like neutrality in metabolic and cardiovascular system and considerable antiandrogenic activity, the latter increased by lack of binding to SHBG as specific property of DNG. It has no glucocorticoid and antimineralocorticoid activity and has no antiestrogenic activity with the consequence that possible beneficial estradiol effects should not be antagonized. This may be of special importance for the tolerability and safety of the first pill with estradiol valerate instead of ethinylestradiol, although well-designed postmarketing studies are still ongoing to demonstrate what can be expected on the basis of pharmacology.

  1. [Effect of paidu baoshen pill in retarding the progression of chronic renal failure].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shui-hua; Deng, Hong-tao; Wang, Guo-bin

    2008-08-01

    To assess the impact of Paidu Baoshen Pill (PBP, modified Dahuang Zhechong Pill), in retarding the procession of chronic renal failure (CRF) of stage II-III. The 283 patients of CRF stage II-III were randomly assigned to two groups, 151 patients in the treatment group treated with oral administration of PBP 3 g twice a day, and 132 patients in the control group with oxidative amylase aldehyde enveloped capsule 5-10 capsules thrice a day after meal. The course for both groups was 2 months, and the changes after 1 or 2 courses treatment in scoring of quality of life (QOL) and clinical symptoms, also in laboratory indexes including serum levels of creatinine (Cr), urea nitrogen (UN), and intrinsic creatinine clearance rate were observed. The total effective rate was 70. 86% (107/151 cases) in the treatment group and 44.70% (59/132 cases) in the control group, showing significant difference between them (X2 = 18.69, P < 0.01). Significant differences between groups were also shown in comparisons of scores of QOL and clinical symptoms after treatment. Inter-group comparison showed no difference in all the three indexes detected before treatment, but they did show statistical significance respectively after 1 and 2 courses of treatment (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). PBP could effectively retard the progression of chronic renal failure and significantly improve the QOL of patients.

  2. A pill for HIV prevention: déjà vu all over again?

    PubMed

    Myers, Julie E; Sepkowitz, Kent A

    2013-06-01

    Recent FDA approval of tenofovir-emtricitabine for prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as a form of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has led to concern about implementation of this strategy. Fifty years ago, a very similar national and international debate occurred when the oral contraceptive pill ("the Pill" or "OCP") was approved. Contentious issues included OCP safety, cost, and the potential impact on sexual behavior--many of the same concerns being voiced currently about PrEP. In this article, we review the social and medical history of OCP, drawing parallels with the current PrEP debate. We also explore the key areas where PrEP differs from its forbear: lower efficacy, presence of drug resistance, and a more circumscribed (and marginalized) target population. A thoughtful approach to PrEP implementation, bearing in mind the historical insights gained from the 1960s, might serve as well as we begin this new chapter in the control of the HIV epidemic.

  3. De-constructing 'choice': the social imperative and women's use of the birth control pill.

    PubMed

    Granzow, Kara

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the social construction of 'choice' in women's use of the oral contraceptive birth control pill. Using social and historical critiques of neo-liberalism, it is argued that the contemporary priority placed on 'choice' positions women in contradictory ways-requiring them to be both 'choosing' reproductive subjects and reproductive subjects with very few options. The paper works to de-construct contemporary understandings of choice and finds that women's use of the birth control pill is less an exercise of idealized individual agency than it is an act of repetition, tied to ambiguity around what a lived experience of choice might be. To elaborate elements of the theoretical discussion, findings from a qualitative study of women's use of the oral contraceptive are discussed. These reveal that women's articulations of 'choice' challenge the notion of genuinely available and viable alternatives for women, and demonstrate how the use of a technology can silence understandings of contraception as something other than an individual responsibility.

  4. [Effect of Shexiang Baoxin Pills on isoprenaline-induced myocardial cell hypertrophy and Cx43 expression].

    PubMed

    Tang, Fen; Jiang, Zhentao; Tan, Wenting; Long, Junrong; Liu, Shengquan; Chu, Chun

    2017-08-28

    To observe the effects of Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SBP) on isoprenaline (Iso)-induced changes in myocardial cell volume, shape, and connexin 43 (Cx43) expression.
 Methods: H9C2 myocardial cells were randomly divided into a control group, a Iso group and a Iso+SBP group. After 72 h of culture, the average surface area of H9C2 cells was measured under phase contrast microscope. Bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein assay was carried out to determine the concentration of proteins. The survival rate of myocardial cells was measured by methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the Cx43 expression was detected by Western blot.
 Results: The mean surface area and Cx43 concentration in Iso-treated myocardial cells were increased under the phase contrast microscope (P<0.05). Compared with the Iso group, the mean surface area was decreased, and the Cx43 concentration was reduced in the Iso+SBP group (both P<0.05). Compared with the control group, the Cx43 expression was obviously down-regulated in the H9C2 cells of the Iso group (P<0.05); while compared with the Iso group, the Cx43 expression was obviously up-regulated in the Iso+SBP group (P<0.05).
 Conclusion: Shexiang Baoxin Pills can prevent Iso-induced myocardial hypertrophy and down-regulate Cx43 expression.

  5. A Little Bit of Sugar Helps the Pill Go Down: Resilience, Peace, and Family Planning

    PubMed Central

    De Souza, Roger-Mark

    2016-01-01

    The article by Potts et al, "The Pill is Mightier than the Sword," points out that family planning has an important role to play in building peace by increasing women’s empowerment and their agency, ultimately helping peacebuilding efforts. Evidence has demonstrated that family planning programs are cost effective, produce quick results, help women and couples meet their desired fertility levels, and produce a multitude of benefits around economic productivity, community engagement, conservation, resilience, and peacebuilding. In order for policy audiences from a variety of sectors, including conflict and peacebuilding, to appreciate these benefits, it is important to find common ground and articulate co-benefits that will help them appreciate and value the role of family planning, as it were, give them sugar to help the pill go down. This commentary examines how resilience, peacebuilding and family planning efforts need to focus on co-benefits in order to build on the successful interventions and opportunities that Potts et al highlight. PMID:26927398

  6. Temperature Pill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Ingestible Thermal Monitoring System was developed at Johns Hopkins University as means of getting internal temperature readings for treatments of such emergency conditions as dangerously low (hypothermia) and dangerously high (hyperthermia) body temperatures. ITMS's accuracy is off no more than one hundredth of a degree and provides the only means of obtaining deep body temperature. System has additional applicability in fertility monitoring and some aspects of surgery, critical care obstetrics, metabolic disease treatment, gerontology (aging) and food processing research. Three-quarter inch silicone capsule contains telemetry system, micro battery, and a quartz crystal temperature sensor inserted vaginally, rectally, or swallowed.

  7. Methamphetamine Pills

    MedlinePlus

    ... rush. What are the risks? Effects include irritability/aggression, anxiety, nervousness, convulsions, and insomnia. Meth is addictive, ... full-blown toxic psychosis (often exhibited as violent, aggressive behavior). This behavior is usually coupled with extreme ...

  8. Methamphetamine Pills

    MedlinePlus

    ... rush. What are the risks? Effects include irritability/aggression, anxiety, nervousness, convulsions, and insomnia. Meth is addictive, ... Alzheimer’s disease. What are signs of use? Irritability/aggression Anxiety Nervousness Convulsions Insomnia Source : National Institute on ...

  9. Methamphetamine Pills

    MedlinePlus

    ... rush. What are the risks? Effects include irritability/aggression, anxiety, nervousness, convulsions, and insomnia. Meth is addictive, ... full-blown toxic psychosis (often exhibited as violent, aggressive behavior). This behavior is usually coupled with extreme ...

  10. Using Caffeine Pills for Performance Enhancement. An Experimental Study on University Students' Willingness and Their Intention to Try Neuroenhancements.

    PubMed

    Brand, Ralf; Koch, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that university students sometimes use caffeine pills for neuroenhancement (NE; non-medical use of psychoactive substances or technology to produce a subjective enhancement in psychological functioning and experience), especially during exam preparation. In our factorial survey experiment, we manipulated the evidence participants were given about the prevalence of NE amongst peers and measured the resulting effects on the psychological predictors included in the Prototype-Willingness Model of risk behavior. Two hundred and thirty-one university students were randomized to a high prevalence condition (read faked research results overstating usage of caffeine pills amongst peers by a factor of 5; 50%), low prevalence condition (half the estimated prevalence; 5%) or control condition (no information about peer prevalence). Structural equation modeling confirmed that our participants' willingness and intention to use caffeine pills in the next exam period could be explained by their past use of neuroenhancers, attitude to NE and subjective norm about use of caffeine pills whilst image of the typical user was a much less important factor. Provision of inaccurate information about prevalence reduced the predictive power of attitude with respect to willingness by 40-45%. This may be because receiving information about peer prevalence which does not fit with their perception of the social norm causes people to question their attitude. Prevalence information might exert a deterrent effect on NE via the attitude-willingness association. We argue that research into NE and deterrence of associated risk behaviors should be informed by psychological theory.

  11. [Effects of dioscorea modified pill on cognitive impairment of patients with VCIND: an preliminary study of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinhuan; Chen, Jun; Tan, Zihu; Yang, Qiong; Lan, Hanchao; Zhao, Yilin; Liu, Changsheng; Qiu, Li

    2014-10-28

    To explore the therapeutic effect evaluation of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in patients with vascular cognitive impairment no dementia (VCIND) with dioscorea modified pill. A total of 100 patients with VCIND were randomly assigned into the dioscorea modified pill group (n = 50) and the aricept group (n = 50). And 50 healthy volunteers were recruited as normal group. Each patient was examined with (1)H-MRS and scored with mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale pre- and post-treatment. After therapy, the NAA/Cr ratios and the itemized scores of cognitive scale compared with that of pre-therapy had significantly difference (P < 0.05) in the dioscorea modified pill group (MMSE (26.5 ± 2.0), CDR(0.14 ± 0.23))vs(MMSE(25.1 ± 2.3), CDR(0.5)). But no difference existed in the aricept group (P > 0.05). (1)H-MRS may objectively reflect cognitive dysfunction in VCIND patients. And it has important values in the therapeutic effect evaluation of VCIND with dioscorea modified pill.

  12. Seasonal abundance and activity of pill millipedes ( Arthrosphaera magna) in mixed plantation and semi-evergreen forest of southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashwini, Krishna M.; Sridhar, Kandikere R.

    2006-01-01

    Seasonal occurrence and activity of endemic pill millipedes ( Arthrosphaera magna) were examined in organically managed mixed plantation and semi-evergreen forest reserve in southwest India between November 1996 and September 1998. Abundance and biomass of millipedes were highest in both habitats during monsoon season. Soil moisture, conductivity, organic carbon, phosphate, potassium, calcium and magnesium were higher in plantation than in forest. Millipede abundance and biomass were about 12 and 7 times higher in plantation than in forest, respectively ( P < 0.001). Their biomass increased during post-monsoon, summer and monsoon in the plantation ( P < 0.001), but not in forest ( P > 0.05). Millipede abundance and biomass were positively correlated with rainfall ( P = 0.01). Besides rainfall, millipedes in plantation were positively correlated with soil moisture as well as temperature ( P = 0.001). Among the associated fauna with pill millipedes, earthworms rank first followed by soil bugs in both habitats. Since pill millipedes are sensitive to narrow ecological changes, the organic farming strategies followed in mixed plantation and commonly practiced in South India seem not deleterious for the endangered pill millipedes Arthrosphaera and reduce the risk of local extinctions.

  13. Effect of progestin vs. combined oral contraceptive pills on lactation: A double-blind randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Espey, Eve; Ogburn, Tony; Leeman, Larry; Singh, Rameet; Schrader, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of progestin-only vs. combined hormonal contraceptive pills on rates of breastfeeding continuation in postpartum women. Secondary outcomes include infant growth parameters, contraceptive method continuation and patient satisfaction with breastfeeding and contraceptive method. Methods In this randomized controlled trial, postpartum breastfeeding women who desired oral contraceptives were assigned to progestin-only vs. combined hormonal contraceptive pills. At two and eight weeks postpartum, participants completed in-person questionnaires that assessed breastfeeding continuation and contraceptive use. Infant growth parameters including weight, length and head circumference were assessed at eight weeks postpartum. Telephone questionnaires assessing breastfeeding, contraceptive continuation and satisfaction were completed at 3-7 weeks and 4 and 6 months. Breastfeeding continuation was compared between groups using Cox proportional hazards regression. Differences in baseline demographic characteristics and in variables between the two intervention groups were compared using chi-square tests, Fisher’s Exact test, or two-sample t-tests as appropriate. Results Breastfeeding continuation rates, contraceptive continuation, and infant growth parameters did not differ between users of progestin-only and combined hormonal contraceptive pills. Infant formula supplementation and maternal perception of inadequate milk supply were associated with decreased rates of breastfeeding in both groups. Conclusions Choice of combined or progestin-only birth control pills administered two weeks postpartum did not adversely affect breastfeeding continuation. PMID:22143258

  14. Therapeutic effect of the compound Danshen dripping pill combined with laser acupoint irradiation on early diabetic retinopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui-Hui; Xiong, Guo-Xin; Zhang, Li-Ping

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of the compound Danshen dripping pill combined with laser acupoint irradiation on early diabetic retinopathy, 19 patients with early diabetic retinopathy were randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group. The TaiYang, YangBai, YuYao and ZanZhu acupoints of patients in the treatment group were irradiated with a semiconductor laser combined with the oral compound Danshen dropping pills, while those in the control group only used the oral compound Danshen dropping pills. The indicators of vision, mean defect of light sensitivity in the visual field, renal function and fasting blood glucose, were examined to evaluate the efficacy. After treatment, the above indicators of patients in the two groups were significantly improved and there was a significant difference between the two groups. This showed that the compound Danshen dripping pills combined with the laser acupoint irradiation can improve the ischemic and anoxic state of early diabetic retinopathy and improve the visual field.

  15. The association between current low-dose oral contraceptive pills and periodontal health: a matched-case-control study.

    PubMed

    Haerian-Ardakani, Ahmad; Moeintaghavi, Amir; Talebi-Ardakani, Mahammadreza Reza; Sohrabi, Keyvan; Bahmani, Shahin; Dargahi, Maede

    2010-05-01

    This study assessed the influence of current oral contraceptive pills on periodontal health in young females. Seventy women ranging in age from 17 to 35 years (mean 24 years) had a comprehensive periodontal examination. Their current and previous oral contraceptive pill use was assessed by a questionnaire. A periodontal assessment was performed that included recording the following: plaque index, gingival index, probing depth, and attachment level at six sites per tooth. The periodontal health of women taking birth control pills for at least two years was compared to that of women not taking an oral contraceptive. The control and test groups were matched for socioeconomic status, age, oral habits, occupation, and educational levels. Although there was no difference in plaque index levels between the two groups, current oral contraceptive pill users had higher levels of gingival inflammation and bleeding on probing. However, no significant differences were found regarding mean probing depths and attachment loss between the two groups. As birth control policies are advocated by most countries, and because oral contraceptives are the most widely used method for birth control, a need exists to assess the effects of oral contraceptives on the periodontal health of young women. Although additional studies are needed to better understand the mechanism of OC-induced gingivitis, female patients should be informed of the oral and periodontal side effects of OCs and the need for meticulous home care and compliance with periodontal maintenance.

  16. Volunteer Case Series of a New Telemetric Sensor for Blood Detection in the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract: The HemoPill.

    PubMed

    Schostek, Sebastian; Zimmermann, Melanie; Keller, Jan; Fode, Mario; Melbert, Michael; Schurr, Marc O; Gottwald, Thomas; Prosst, Ruediger L

    2016-10-01

    An acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding event is an emergency situation which requires immediate endoscopic assessment and treatment. A new telemetric real-time intracorporeal bleeding sensor can help in the timely diagnosis of an acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding event: The sensor capsule, HemoPill, is swallowed by the patient if gastrointestinal bleeding is suspected. Information about the bleeding status is displayed by telemetric communication of the capsule with an extracorporeal receiver. This is the first evaluation of the HemoPill to detect blood in the upper human gastrointestinal tract. A voluntary test person ate a defined meal with or without the adjunct of his own blood for a total of eight times and afterward swallowed the sensor capsule. The collected spectrometric receiver data were analyzed to assess whether the sensor system was capable of detecting blood and to evaluate the effect of stomach content as an artifact. With its optical sensor, the HemoPill was able to reliably indicate the ingested blood in the stomach. The data transmission from the swallowed sensor capsule to the extracorporeal receiver was achieved consistently. The evaluation of diverse concentrations of ingested blood and the respective sensor signals led to an exponential relationship of these variables. This relationship allows to define thresholds for categories indicating the likelihood of blood presence in the gastrointestinal tract. The HemoPill is a valuable tool to detect an acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding event without the need of endoscopy.

  17. Using Caffeine Pills for Performance Enhancement. An Experimental Study on University Students’ Willingness and Their Intention to Try Neuroenhancements

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Ralf; Koch, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that university students sometimes use caffeine pills for neuroenhancement (NE; non-medical use of psychoactive substances or technology to produce a subjective enhancement in psychological functioning and experience), especially during exam preparation. In our factorial survey experiment, we manipulated the evidence participants were given about the prevalence of NE amongst peers and measured the resulting effects on the psychological predictors included in the Prototype-Willingness Model of risk behavior. Two hundred and thirty-one university students were randomized to a high prevalence condition (read faked research results overstating usage of caffeine pills amongst peers by a factor of 5; 50%), low prevalence condition (half the estimated prevalence; 5%) or control condition (no information about peer prevalence). Structural equation modeling confirmed that our participants’ willingness and intention to use caffeine pills in the next exam period could be explained by their past use of neuroenhancers, attitude to NE and subjective norm about use of caffeine pills whilst image of the typical user was a much less important factor. Provision of inaccurate information about prevalence reduced the predictive power of attitude with respect to willingness by 40-45%. This may be because receiving information about peer prevalence which does not fit with their perception of the social norm causes people to question their attitude. Prevalence information might exert a deterrent effect on NE via the attitude-willingness association. We argue that research into NE and deterrence of associated risk behaviors should be informed by psychological theory. PMID:26903909

  18. Cure for empire: the 'Conquer-Russia-Pill', pharmaceutical manufacturers, and the making of patriotic Japanese, 1904-45.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoi-Eun

    2013-04-01

    Seirogan, a popular anti-diarrhoeal pill, is arguably one of the most successful pharmaceutical products of modern Japan. What is less known is that the Japanese army initially developed Seirogan during the Russo-Japanese War as the ‘Conquer-Russia-Pill’, which was later marketed to the public by private manufacturers. Previous scholars have emphasised the top–down governmental method of mobilising private sectors to manipulate public opinion for the cause of external imperialist expansion and domestic stability during wartime Japan. But the matrix that the Conquer-Russia-Pill allows us to glimpse is an inverted power relation among the state, commercial sectors, and imperial citizens. While the Japanese government remained indifferent if not hostile to jingoistic pharmaceutical manufacturers who could easily disrupt international relations, pharmaceutical companies quickly recognised and exploited the opportunities that the Conquer-Russia-Pill and its symbolism provided under the banner of the empire. In turn, Japanese consumers reacted to commercial sermons carefully anchored in patriotic and militaristic discourses and images by opening their wallets. In other words, the popularity of the Conquer-Russia-Pill was a culmination of the convergence of a governmental initiative to enhance military capabilities, the commercial ingenuity of pharmaceutical manufacturers, and a consumer response to patriotic exhortations.

  19. Effects of Qishe Pill, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, on cervical radiculopathy: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neck pain is a common symptom in most patients suffering from cervical radiculopathy. However, some conservative treatments are limited by their modest effectiveness. On the other hand, surgical intervention for cervical disc disorders is indicated when symptoms are refractory to conservative treatments and neurological symptoms are progressive. Many patients use complementary and alternative medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, to address their symptoms. The purpose of the present study is to examine the efficacy and safety of Qishe Pill, a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, for neck pain in patients with cervical radiculopathy. Methods/design A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Qishe Pill is proposed. The study will include 240 patients from five sites across China and diagnosed with cervical radiculopathy, according to the following inclusion criteria: age 18 to 65 with pain or stiffness in the neck for at least 2 weeks (neck disability index score 25 or more) and accompanying arm pain that radiates distally from the elbow. Qualified participants will be randomly allocated into two groups: Qishe Pill group and placebo group. The prescription of the trial medications (Qishe Pill/placebo) are 3.75 g each twice a day for 28 consecutive days. The primary outcome is pain severity. Secondary outcomes are functional status, patient satisfaction, and adverse events as reported in the trial. Discussion Qishe Pill is composed of processed Radix Astragali, Muscone, Szechuan Lovage Rhizome, Radix Stephaniae Tetrandrae, Ovientvine, and Calculus Bovis Artifactus. According to modern research and preparation standards, Qishe Pill is developed to improve on the various symptoms of cervical radiculopathy, especially for neck pain. As it has a potential benefit in treating patients with neck pain, we designed a double-blind, prospective, randomized-controlled trial and

  20. Estradiol valerate and dienogest: a novel four-phasic oral contraceptive pill effective for pregnancy prevention and treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding.

    PubMed

    Micks, Elizabeth; Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2011-09-01

    Estradiol valerate and dienogest have been combined to create a novel four-phasic oral contraceptive pill effective for both pregnancy prevention and treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding. This formulation represents the only oral contraceptive pill available in the USA containing an estrogen component that is biologically active as the endogenous estrogen 17β-estradiol. This medication was developed out of efforts to replace the most common estrogen in contraceptive pills, ethinyl estradiol, which is known to be a potent inducer of hepatic protein synthesis. Estradiol valerate has been available since the 1970s in oral and injectable forms indicated for the treatment of menopausal climacteric symptoms. Dienogest has been used in other oral contraceptive pills for over 10 years. Previous attempts to develop an oral contraceptive pill with natural estradiol or estradiol valerate were unsuccessful due to poor cycle control. A novel dynamic-dosing regimen was devised to improve the bleeding pattern. This medication has been shown in several clinical trials to have good contraceptive efficacy and cycle control. Recent studies have also demonstrated that this medication is effective for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding. However, compared with other oral contraceptive pills, this medication is associated with a higher frequency of absent withdrawal bleeding. Furthermore, the dynamic dosing regimen requires relatively complex instructions for users who miss pills.

  1. [Application of the theories of materiomic release kinetics to the evaluation of the sustained release kinetics and synchronicity of yinqiaojiedu honeyed pills].

    PubMed

    Ling, Die; Zhang, Ji-Wen; Chen, Li-Bing; Lin, Meng; Ge, Wei-Hong; Gu, Jing-Kai

    2008-11-01

    Yinqiaojiedu honeyed pills were equally divided into 1/4, 1/8, 1/12, and 1/16 parts. The materiomics release rates within 12 h of the intact Yinqiaojiedu honeyed pills and the divided granules were determined by the paddle method with a rotate speed at 100 r x min(-1), and the materiome was quantified by UV-scan and Kalman filter methods. The intact Yinqiaojiedu honeyed pills behaved typical sustained release profiles, while the well-divided portions also maintained a sustained release profile over 2-4 h. The release rates were well correlated with the extents for the divisions of the pills. The Weibull distribution parameters, Td and T50, were reduced in line with the particle size, indicating that the ways of administration of the pills may play a role in the in vivo pharmacokinetics of the pills. The visualization results showed obvious difference of materiomic release synchronicities between the intact pills and the equally divided particles, and the divisions enhanced the asynchronization. Therefore the novel theory of materiomic release/dissolution kinetics of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) quantitatively proved the traditional dosage form, namely, honeyed pills, as a prototype of the sustained-release dosage form with a visualization of the scientific connotation to the old saying in the classics of TCM, Pills, the moderate ones in action. In terms of materiome increase for each period of the release profiles, the materiomic release synchronicity was visually demonstrated. The novel theories provided methodological basis for the evaluation of traditional dosage forms and the design of the modern drug delivery systems for TCMs.

  2. A "suicide pill" for older people: attitudes of physicians, the general population, and relatives of patients who died after euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Rurup, Mette L; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; Van Der Wal, Gerrit

    2005-01-01

    In the Netherlands there has been ongoing debate in the past 10 years about the availability of a hypothetical "suicide pill", with which older people could end their life in a dignified way if they so wished. Data on attitudes to the suicide pill were collected in the Netherlands from 410 physicians, 1,379 members of the general population, and 87 relatives of patients who died after euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide. The general population and relatives were more in favor than physicians. Fifteen percent of the general population and 36% of the relatives thought a suicide pill should be made available.

  3. Chinese herbal medicine Yougui Pill reduces exogenous glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in anterior pituitary cells

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yong-zhi; Geng, Long; Zhou, Hong-bo; Wei, Hua-chen; Chen, Hong-duo

    2016-01-01

    Long-term glucocorticoid use may result in sustained suppression of one or more secreted components from the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, and often results in apoptosis. Yougui Pill (YGP), a 10-component traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been shown to be clinically effective for glucocorticoid-induced suppression of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, the pharmacological and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that YGP would exert an anti-apoptosis effect on dexamethasone-treated anterior pituitary cells. In vivo experiments showed that YGP significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells, down-regulated mRNA expression of cytochrome c, caspase-3, and caspase-9, and up-regulated mRNA expression of Bcl-2. These findings suggest that YGP reduced glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in rat anterior pituitary cells by regulating the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. PMID:28197193

  4. Genome sequence of a crustacean iridovirus, IIV31, isolated from the pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Piégu, Benoît; Guizard, Sébastien; Yeping, Tan; Cruaud, Corinne; Asgari, Sassan; Bideshi, Dennis K; Federici, Brian A; Bigot, Yves

    2014-07-01

    Members of the family Iridoviridae are animal viruses that infect only invertebrates and poikilothermic vertebrates. The invertebrate iridovirus 31 (IIV31) was originally isolated from adult pill bugs, Armadillidium vulgare (class Crustacea, order Isopoda, suborder Oniscidea), found in southern California on the campus of the University of California, Riverside, USA. IIV31 virions are icosahedral, have a diameter of about 135 nm, and contain a dsDNA genome 220.222 kbp in length, with 35.09 mol % G+C content and 203 ORFs. Here, we describe the complete genome sequence of this virus and its annotation. This is the eighth genome sequence of an IIV reported. © 2014 The Authors.

  5. Knowledge and opinions of emergency contraceptive pills among female factory workers in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    García, Sandra G; Becker, Davida; de Castro, Marcela Martínez; Paz, Francisco; Olavarrieta, Claudia Díaz; Acevedo-García, Dolores

    2008-09-01

    Workers in Mexico's maquiladoras (assembly plants) are mainly young, single women, many of whom could benefit from emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs). Because ECPs are readily available in Mexico, women who know about the therapy can obtain it easily. Do maquiladora workers know about the method? Could worksite programs help increase awareness? To investigate these questions, we conducted a five-month intervention during which workers in three maquiladoras along the Mexico-United States border could attend educational talks on ECPs, receive pamphlets, and obtain kits containing EC supplies. Among the workers exposed to our intervention, knowledge of ECPs increased. Reported ECP use also increased. Although our intervention apparently increased workers' knowledge and use, the factory proved to be a difficult intervention setting. Problems we experienced included a factory closure and management/staff opposition to certain project elements. Future studies should continue to investigate work-site interventions and other strategies to reach workers.

  6. Stokesian dynamics of pill-shaped Janus particles with stick and slip boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiang; Klaseboer, Evert; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Chan, Derek Y. C.

    2013-04-01

    We study the forces and torques experienced by pill-shaped Janus particles of different aspect ratios where half of the surface obeys the no-slip boundary condition and the other half obeys the Navier slip condition of varying slip lengths. Using a recently developed boundary integral formulation whereby the traditional singular behavior of this approach is removed analytically, we quantify the strength of the forces and torques experienced by such particles in a uniform flow field in the Stokes regime. Depending on the aspect ratio and the slip length, the force transverse to the flow direction can change sign. This is a novel property unique to the Janus nature of the particles.

  7. Estrogen-free oral hormonal contraception: benefits of the progestin-only pill.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Nilson Roberto

    2010-09-01

    Although combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are commonly used and highly effective in preventing pregnancy, they may not be suitable for some women. COC use is associated with increased rates of cardiovascular events and is not recommended in nonbreastfeeding women in the immediate postpartum period or in breastfeeding women during the initial 6 months of breastfeeding. Moreover, estrogen-related adverse effects, such as headache, are common. Estrogen-free progestin-only pills (POPs) are a valuable option in women who prefer to take an oral hormonal contraceptive, but are ineligible for, or choose not to use, COCs. Although some POPs have been associated with lower contraceptive effectiveness than COCs, the POP containing desogestrel has shown similar contraceptive effectiveness to COCs. The most commonly reported complaints in women using all POPs are bleeding problems. Counseling women interested in using POPs about the variable bleeding patterns associated with this method may improve compliance and acceptance.

  8. Pill power: oral contraceptives hold top spot in family planning arsenal.

    PubMed

    1998-10-01

    Results of the 1998 "Contraceptive Technology Update" Pill Survey indicate that oral contraceptives (OCs) remain the top birth control choice for US women. More than 70% of providers who responded to the survey reported that at least 50 women leave their offices each month with an OC prescription. When asked to cite their first OC choice, for a 21-year-old nonsmoking woman, Ortho Tri-Cyclen was selected by 43.6% of providers. This OC is considered an excellent choice for young women because of its ease of use, good cycle control, and beneficial effect on acne. The top choices for a 42-year-old nonsmoking woman were Loestrin (26.5%) and Alesse (21.1%), both of which have low estrogen doses. 25% of providers indicated they had prescribed OCs specifically to decrease the ovarian cancer risk in genetically predisposed women.

  9. Review on the Applications and Molecular Mechanisms of Xihuang Pill in Tumor Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qiujun; Lin, Jinyin; Liu, Rui; Gao, Yebo; He, Shulin; Xu, Xinyao; Hua, Baojin; Li, Conghuang; Hou, Wei; Zheng, Honggang; Bao, Yanju

    2015-01-01

    Xihuang pill (XH) is a complementary and alternative medicine that has been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of tumors since the 18th century. XH has clinical effects on non-Hodgkin lymphoma, breast cancer, gastric cancer, liver cancer, and bone metastasis. XH can also inhibit the growth of tumor cells and cancer stem cells, prevent tumor invasion and angiogenesis, and regulate the tumor microenvironment. XH is composed of Ru Xiang (olibanum), Mo Yao (Commiphora myrrha), She Xiang (Moschus), and Niu Huang (Calculus bovis). Some of the compounds found in these ingredients exert multiple antitumor effects and may synergize with the other ingredients. We aimed to summarize the clinical applications and molecular mechanisms of XH and its chemical composition. This review will provide potential new strategies and alternative perspectives for tumor treatments and basic research into complementary and alternative medicine. PMID:26170886

  10. Mechanism of action of Zhuyu Annao pill in mice with cerebral intrahemorrhage based on TLR4.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Hu, Yue-Qiang; Jiang, Ling-Fei; Wu, Lin

    2016-11-01

    To explore the protective effect and possible mechanism of action of Zhuyu Annao pill in mice with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Sixty mice were divided into the control group, hemorrhage group, drug-treated group (after hemorrhage), TLR4-knockout hemorrhage group and TLR4-knockout hemorrhage + drug-treated group (after hemorrhage) with 12 in each group. Model of autologous ICH was established in all groups. After drilling and 12 h of fasting, models in the control group hemorrhage group and TLR4-knockout hemorrhage group were all drenched with 10 mL/kg distilled water by intragastric administration. Models in the drug-treated group and TLR4-knockout hemorrhage + drug-treated group were drenched with 6.25 g/kg of Zhuyu Annao pill. All groups were treated for 7 d. Longa scoring method was used to measure the neurological defect scores and determine the brain water contents of all groups; ELISA was employed to detect the inflammatory factor interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-1β in brain tissues; and Western blot was applied to test the expression quantities of apoptotic protein Bax and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in brain tissues. At day 3 and 7, compared with the hemorrhage group, the neurological defect scores of the drug-treated group, TLR4-knockout hemorrhage group and TLR4-knockout hemorrhage + drug-treated group decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Compared with the hemorrhage group, the brain water contents of the drug-treated group, TLR4-knockout hemorrhage group and TLR4-knockout hemorrhage + drug-treated group reduced significantly (P < 0.05). Compared with the hemorrhage group, the inflammatory factor IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β of the drug-treated group, TLR4-knockout hemorrhage group and TLR4-knockout hemorrhage + drug-treated group decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Compared with the hemorrhage group, the expression of apoptotic protein Bax of the drug-treated group, TLR4-knockout hemorrhage group and TLR4

  11. Diet pills, powders, and liquids: predictors of use by healthy weight females.

    PubMed

    Thorlton, Janet; Park, Chang; Hughes, Tonda

    2014-04-01

    About 35% of healthy weight adolescent females describe themselves as overweight, and 66% report planning to lose weight.Body weight dissatisfaction is associated with unhealthy weight loss practices including diet pill/powder/liquid (PPL) use. Few studies have examined diet PPL use in healthy weight adolescent females; therefore, Youth Risk Behavior Survey data (n =247) were analyzed to identify predictors of use. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were conducted using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Complex Samples software. Social cognitive theory served as the framework guiding the analysis. Approximately 8% of healthy weight females reported using diet PPL for weight loss. Describing self as overweight, planning to lose weight, being offered drugs at school, fasting to lose weight, cigarette/alcohol use, vomiting, and laxative use were significantly associated (p < .05) with diet PPL use. Health professionals, including school nurses, must assess for unhealthy weight loss practices in healthy weight females, in order to adequately address related issues.

  12. [Wernicke's encephalopathy induced by the use of diet pills and unbalanced diet].

    PubMed

    Tóth, Adrián; Aradi, Gabriella; Várallyay, György; Arányi, Zsuzsanna; Bereczki, Dániel; Vastagh, Ildikó

    2014-03-23

    Wernicke's encephalopathy is an acute, potentially life-threatening, neurological syndrome resulting from thiamine deficiency. The disorder is still greatly underdiagnosed and, without prompt treatment, the condition can lead to the chronic form of the disease, Korsakoff's syndrome or even death. In developed countries Wernicke's encephalopathy has been associated with alcoholism, but in recent years there has been an increasing number of non-alcoholic cases. Authors report the case of a 23-year-old woman who developed oculomotor dysfunction, encephalopathy and ataxia as a result of an extreme diet and use of diet pills. The diagnosis of Wernicke's encephalopathy was supported by the resolution of neurological signs after parenteral thiamine replacement. This case is presented because of the rare etiology and diagnostic difficulty, and the latest diagnostic and therapic guidelines are also highlighted.

  13. Misconceptions about missed conceptions: the meanings of emergency contraceptive pills use among young adult couples.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Richard; Kools, Susan; Kennedy, Holly Powell; Humphreys, Janice

    2011-11-01

    Emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) are a safe and efficacious backup method of birth control. Despite widespread availability, ECP is underutilized by young women. While partner level of involvement has been shown to influence contraceptive behavior, there is a dearth of knowledge regarding any possible association between partner influence and ECP use. To better understand the reasons for the seemingly underuse of ECP, a grounded theory study was conducted to elucidate the relationship of couple dynamics and knowledge of, attitudes toward, and decision making regarding the use of ECP in coupled young adults. Consistent with contemporary constructivist grounded theory methods, several categories were identified including the meanings associated with ECP use. This article presents an elaboration of this particular finding. The meanings that participants ascribed to ECP use represented a continuum of value attributes regarding ethics, safety, efficacy, and responsibility.

  14. Frequency of Candidiasis and Colonization of Candida albicans in Relation to Oral Contraceptive Pills

    PubMed Central

    Aminzadeh, Atousa; Sabeti Sanat, Ali; Nik Akhtar, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background Candidiasis, the infection caused by Candida albicans, is one of the most common infections of the oral cavity in humans. Candidiasis causes irritation and is known for its carcinogenic effects. Thus, it is important to recognize the predisposing factors for this opportunistic infection. Several previous studies have demonstrated an increased frequency of vaginal candidiasis in relation to oral contraceptive consumption. Objectives Only a few studies on the relation between oral contraceptives and oral candidiasis have been previously conducted. This study aims to evaluate the possible relation between oral contraceptive pills and oral candidiasis. Methods This analytic, case-control study included 40 non-pregnant women divided into two groups: 20 who used oral contraceptive pills and 20 who did not. The groups were matched according to age, oral health, and past and present medical history. Samples were collected from the tongue’s dorsum using a cotton swab and inoculated on CHROMagar culture plates. The frequency of positive cultures and the number of Candida colonies were compared between the two groups using independent t-tests and Mann-Whitney statistical tests with SPSS18 software. Results The frequency of positive cultures of Candida albicans was higher (P value = 0.03) for the case group. Also, the number of C. albicans and C. krusei was significantly higher for the case group compared to the control group (P value = 0.04, P value = 0.03). Conclusions The results of the present study demonstrate that oral contraceptives containing estradiol can lead to Candida colonization in the oral cavity. It is recommended that further studies comparing the influence of oral contraceptives on Candida’s adherence to the epithelium is highly recommended. PMID:28184328

  15. Can an inert sleeping pill affect sleep? Effects on polysomnographic, behavioral and subjective measures.

    PubMed

    Fratello, Fabiana; Curcio, Giuseppe; Ferrara, Michele; Marzano, Cristina; Couyoumdjian, Alessandro; Petrillo, Giovanna; Bertini, Mario; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2005-10-01

    Since two recent meta-analyses on sleep changes associated with placebo in clinical trials suggested a beneficial effect of placebo treatments, pointing to a dissociation between subjective and objective measures of sleep, the current experiment was directly aimed to assess the effects of an inert compound, administered with the suggestion that it was a hypnotic substance in subjects with mild sleep complaints. The aim of this study was to compare subjective, behavioral, polysomnographic (PSG), and quantitative electroencephalographic (EEG) changes during a night preceded or not by the intake of two 50-mg lactose capsules. Ten female students, selected by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, slept for three consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory, with the experimental (EXP) night defined by the administration of two 50-mg lactose pills. Self-ratings of sleep quality and performance were assessed upon morning awakening of baseline (BSL) and EXP nights. The EXP nights were self-rated as more restful and characterized by a decreased number of nocturnal awakenings than the BSL nights. PSG measures showed that wakefulness after sleep onset significantly decreased during the EXP night as compared to the BSL night. The EXP nights also showed an increase of 0.5-4.0 Hz power during nonrapid eye movement sleep and a decrease of EEG activity in the beta frequency range during rapid eye movement sleep only at central brain sites. A specific improvement of behavioral measures was also found upon morning awakening after the EXP night compared to the BSL night. The administration of an inert pill improves both the subjective and objective quality of sleep. The reduced sleep fragmentation and the effects on some quantitative EEG markers of sleep homeostasis suggest that the experimental manipulation induced coherent changes in the subsequent sleep, resembling an enhancement of sleep pressure. The regional differences of EEG activity suggest the involvement of a specific

  16. Low-cost, high-performance nonevaporable getter pumps using nonevaporable getter pills

    SciTech Connect

    Kodama, Hiraku; Ohno, Shinya; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Tanaka, Masato; Okudaira, Koji K.; Mase, Kazuhiko Kikuchi, Takashi

    2016-09-15

    Nonevaporable getter (NEG) pumps are widely used for maintaining a clean ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) of ≤10{sup −8 }Pa because of their high pumping speeds for hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and active gases in the UHV region. In addition, they are oil free, evaporation free, sputtering free, sublimation free, magnetic field free, vibration free, economical, compact, lightweight, and energy saving. In the present paper, the authors report a new NEG pump which is composed of commercial 60 NEG pills (ϕ10 × 3 mm; 70 wt. % Zr, 24.6 wt. % V, and 5.4 wt. % Fe), titanium parts, a DN 40 conflat flange, and a tantalum heater. The NEG pills are vertically and radially aligned around the heater to maximize the effective area for pumping. After activation at 400 °C for 30 min, the pumping speeds of the NEG pump were measured with the orifice method. Pumping speeds of 140–130, 200–140, 190–130, and 35–17 l/s were estimated for H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} gasses, respectively, in a pumped-quantity range of 0.01–0.1 Pa l. Since the NEG pump is composed of a heating unit and a NEG module, the pumping speeds can be improved by increasing the number of NEG modules. These NEG pumps are favorable alternatives to sputtering ion pumps or titanium sublimation pumps.

  17. Antiatherosclerotic and Cardioprotective Effects of Time-Released Garlic Powder Pills.

    PubMed

    Karagodin, Vasily P; Sobenin, Igor A; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Garlic is believed to produce beneficial changes in different cardiovascular risk factors, thus possessing antiatherosclerotic properties. The hypotensive and cholesterol-lowering effects were investigated in two studies in men with mild arterial hypertension and in men with mild hypercholesterolemia. Eight-week treatment resulted in the reduction of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 5.2% (P=0.008) and 4.0% (P=0.014), respectively. In hypolipidemic study, the 12-week treatment resulted in a decrease in LDL cholesterol by 11.8% (P=0.002), while HDL cholesterol increased by 11.5% (P=0.013). In men with cerebral atherosclerosis it has been demonstrated that 14-days treatment inhibited ADP-induced platelet aggregation by 25.4% (P<0.05) and increased plasma fibrinolytic activity by 22.4% (P<0.05). One more study was performed in high-risk patients to evaluate the changes of prognostic cardiovascular risk that was calculated using algorithms derived from Framingham and Muenster Studies. Twelve-months treatment lowered 10-years prognostic risk of CHD by 13.2% in men (P=0.005), and by 7.1% in women (P=0.040). Ten-year prognostic risk of acute myocardial infarction and sudden coronary death was lowered by 26.1% in men (P=0.025). The Atherosclerosis Monitoring and Atherogenicity Reduction Study (AMAR) was designed to estimate the effect of two-year treatment with garlic powder pills on the progression of carotid atherosclerosis in asymptomatic men. A significant correlation has been revealed between the changes in blood serum atherogenicity and the changes in carotid intima-media thickness (r=0.144, P=0.045). Evidence obtained from these studies as well as series of double-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trials indicates that garlic powder pills are effective for prevention of cardiovascular disorders.

  18. How to uncoil your partner—"mating songs" in giant pill-millipedes (Diplopoda: Sphaerotheriida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesener, Thomas; Köhler, Jörn; Fuchs, Stefan; van den Spiegel, Didier

    2011-11-01

    The stridulation of the giant pill-millipede genus Sphaerotherium from South Africa, one of only three groups of millipedes that produce sounds, was studied. One hundred one stridulation series of a total of nine different species ( Sphaerotherium dorsaloide, Sphaerotherium hanstroemi, Sphaerotherium mahaium, Sphaerotherium similare, Sphaerotherium punctulatum, Sphaerotherium convexitarsum, Sphaerotherium dorsale, Sphaerotherium rotundatum, and Sphaerotherium perbrincki) were analyzed. Stridulation sounds are produced only with a special field of ribs on the posterior surface of the posterior telopod, which is actively moved over a field of sclerotized nubs on the inner margin of the anal shield. The Sphaerotherium male usually stridulates only when in contact with a female to initiate mating. This seems to prevent the female from volvating into a ball or stimulate the female to uncoil when already rolled in. The sound analyzes revealed a broad frequency spectrum in all stridulation sounds produced, without obvious differences in frequency distribution among species. However, the temporal pattern of the stridulation varies greatly between species and seems to be species-specific, arguing for a species recognition function of the stridulation during courtship behavior. A single species ( S. punctulatum) was found to stridulate during mating while three species also show postcopulatory stridulation. Apparently, pill-millipedes are not capable of acoustic perception, as no hearing organs are known, indicating that the communication is mainly based on perception of temporal vibration patterns, and not of the acoustic signal itself. The need to overcome the rolling-in reflex of the female is developed as a hypothesis why stridulation exists only in millipedes able to coil into a ball, and apparently evolved four times independently in the superorder Oniscomorpha.

  19. Factors affecting the decision to hospitalise children admitted to the emergency department due to non-fatal suicide attempts by pills

    PubMed Central

    Gokalp, Gamze; Anil, Murat; Bal, Alkan; Bicilioglu, Yuksel; Kamit Can, Fulya; Anil, Ayse Berna

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Suicide attempts (SAs) in the paediatric age group represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to examine the factors affecting the decision to hospitalize children with a diagnosis of non-fatal SA by pills. Methods: Children <18 years of age admitted with SA by pills during 2014 were evaluated retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups: Group-I comprised hospitalised patients and Group-II included those who were discharged from the PED. These two groups were compared in terms of clinical and demographic characteristics recorded upon PED admission. Results: A total of 196 patients were included in the study. The number of pills taken for self-poisoning in Group-I (median: 20 pills) was higher than that in Group-II (median: 12 pills) (p < 0.001), and the rate of pathological findings during the first paediatric psychiatric consultation was higher in Group-I (91.1%) than in the Group-II (54.8%) (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Factors affecting the disposition decision in cases of children who performed non-fatal SA via pills included the amount of medication taken for the suicide attempt and the presence of psychiatric disorders, as determined by a paediatric psychiatrist during the acute phase. PMID:27375723

  20. Effect of pill burden on dosing preferences, willingness to pay, and likely adherence among patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hauber, A Brett; Han, Steven; Yang, Jui-Chen; Gantz, Ira; Tunceli, Kaan; Gonzalez, Juan Marcos; Brodovicz, Kimberly; Alexander, Charles M; Davies, Michael; Iglay, Kristy; Zhang, Qiaoyi; Radican, Larry

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To quantify willingness-to-pay (WTP) for reducing pill burden and dosing frequency among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and to examine the effect of dosing frequency and pill burden on likely medication adherence. Patients and methods Participants were US adults with T2DM on oral antihyperglycemic therapy. Each patient completed an online discrete-choice experiment (DCE) with eight choice questions, each including a pair of hypothetical medication profiles. Each profile was defined by reduction in average glucose (AG), daily dosing, chance of mild-to-moderate stomach problems, frequency of hypoglycemia, weight change, incremental risk of congestive heart failure (CHF), and cost. Patients were asked to rate their likely adherence to the profiles presented in each question. Choice questions were based on a predetermined experimental design. Choice data were analyzed using random-parameters logit. Likely treatment adherence was analyzed using a Heckman two-stage model. Results Of the 1,114 patients who completed the survey, 90 had lower dosing burden (<5 pills/day taken once/day or as needed) for all medications, and 1,024 had higher dosing burden (≥5 pills/day or more than once/day). Reduction in AG was valued most highly by patients. Hypoglycemia, chance of mild-to-moderate stomach problems, weight change, incremental risk of CHF, and daily dosing were less valued. Patients with higher current dosing burden had lower WTP for more convenient dosing schedules than patients with lower current dosing burden. Changes in dosing and cost impacted likely adherence. The magnitude of the impact of dosing on likely adherence was higher for patients with lower current dosing burden than for patients with higher current dosing burden. Conclusion Patients with T2DM were willing to pay for improvements in efficacy, side effects, and dosing. Patients’ WTP for more convenient dosing depended on current dosing burden, as did the effect of these attributes

  1. Acceptability of the use of cellular telephone and computer pictures/video for "pill counts" in buprenorphine maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive plan to attempt to minimize the diversion of prescribed controlled substances, many professional organization and licensing boards are recommending the use of "pill counts." This study sought to evaluate acceptability of the use of cellular phone and computer pictures/video for "pill counts" by patients in buprenorphine maintenance treatment. Patients prescribed buprenorphine/naloxone were asked a series of questions related to the type(s) of electronic communication to which they had access as well as their willingness to use these for the purpose of performing a "pill/film count." Of the 80 patients, 4 (5 percent) did not have a phone at all. Only 28 (35 percent) had a "smart phone" with some sort of data plan and Internet access. Forty (50 percent) of the patients had a phone with no camera and 10 (12.5 percent) had a phone with a camera but no video capability. All patients said that they would be willing to periodically use the video or camera on their phone or computer to have buprenorphine/naloxone pills or film counted as long as the communication was protected from electronic tampering. With the advent of applications for smart phones that allow for Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996-compliant picture/video communication, a number of things can now be done that can enhance patient care as well as reduce the chances of misuse/diversion of prescribed medications. This could be used in settings where a larger proportion of controlled substances are prescribed including medication assisted therapy for opioid use disorders and pain management programs.

  2. Do fixed-dose combination pills or unit-of-use packaging improve adherence? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Connor, Jennie; Rafter, Natasha; Rodgers, Anthony

    2004-12-01

    Adequate adherence to medication regimens is central to the successful treatment of communicable and noncommunicable disease. Fixed-dose combination pills and unit-of-use packaging are therapy-related interventions that are designed to simplify medication regimens and so potentially improve adherence. We conducted a systematic review of relevant randomized trials in order to quantify the effects of fixed-dose combination pills and unit-of-use packaging, compared with medications as usually presented, in terms of adherence to treatment and improved outcomes. Only 15 trials met the inclusion criteria; fixed-dose combination pills were investigated in three of these, while unit-of-use packaging was studied in 12 trials. The trials involved treatments for communicable diseases (n = 5), blood pressure lowering medications (n = 3), diabetic patients (n = 1), vitamin supplementation (n = 1) and management of multiple medications by the elderly (n = 5). The results of the trials suggested that there were trends towards improved adherence and/or clinical outcomes in all but three of the trials; this reached statistical significance in four out of seven trials reporting a clinically relevant or intermediate end-point, and in seven out of thirteen trials reporting medication adherence. Measures of outcome were, however, heterogeneous, and interpretation was further limited by methodological issues, particularly small sample size, short duration and loss to follow-up. Overall, the evidence suggests that fixed-dose combination pills and unit-of-use packaging are likely to improve adherence in a range of settings, but the limitations of the available evidence means that uncertainty remains about the size of these benefits.

  3. Do fixed-dose combination pills or unit-of-use packaging improve adherence? A systematic review.

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Jennie; Rafter, Natasha; Rodgers, Anthony

    2004-01-01

    Adequate adherence to medication regimens is central to the successful treatment of communicable and noncommunicable disease. Fixed-dose combination pills and unit-of-use packaging are therapy-related interventions that are designed to simplify medication regimens and so potentially improve adherence. We conducted a systematic review of relevant randomized trials in order to quantify the effects of fixed-dose combination pills and unit-of-use packaging, compared with medications as usually presented, in terms of adherence to treatment and improved outcomes. Only 15 trials met the inclusion criteria; fixed-dose combination pills were investigated in three of these, while unit-of-use packaging was studied in 12 trials. The trials involved treatments for communicable diseases (n = 5), blood pressure lowering medications (n = 3), diabetic patients (n = 1), vitamin supplementation (n = 1) and management of multiple medications by the elderly (n = 5). The results of the trials suggested that there were trends towards improved adherence and/or clinical outcomes in all but three of the trials; this reached statistical significance in four out of seven trials reporting a clinically relevant or intermediate end-point, and in seven out of thirteen trials reporting medication adherence. Measures of outcome were, however, heterogeneous, and interpretation was further limited by methodological issues, particularly small sample size, short duration and loss to follow-up. Overall, the evidence suggests that fixed-dose combination pills and unit-of-use packaging are likely to improve adherence in a range of settings, but the limitations of the available evidence means that uncertainty remains about the size of these benefits. PMID:15654408

  4. Is Time an Important Problem in Management of Hypertension and Hypercholesterolemia by Using an Amlodipine-Atorvastatin Single Pill Combination?

    PubMed

    Zeng, Rui; Wang, Mian; Zhang, Li

    2016-07-26

    BACKGROUND Is the timing of dosing for amlodipine and atorvastatin important with regard to therapeutic efficacy? To answer this question, we designed an outpatient, practice-based, case-control study lasting 8 weeks. MATERIAL AND METHODS Two hundred patients were divided into 2 groups: in Group I, patients were provided with a single pill containing amlodipine/atorvastatin (5/20 mg) to be taken each night at 10 pm, and in Group II, patients were taking amlodipine (5 mg) and atorvastatin (20 mg) each morning at 7 am. RESULTS Our results indicated no obvious difference in blood pressure control between the 2 groups. Taking amlodipine at night not only lowered blood pressure, but it also provided better control during the peak blood pressure in the morning. Hypercholesterolemia control in the 2 groups was also not significantly different, taking atorvastatin in the morning was as effective as dosing at night in patients with hypercholesterolemia. While the carotid IMT, hs-CRP, and LVMI were significantly lower after treatment, no differences were found between the 2 groups. Although no obvious difference was found in adverse drug reactions between the 2 groups, compliance was much better in the single-pill group than in patients taking the 2 medications separately. CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, single-pill amlodipine-atorvastatin taken at night can lower blood pressure and reduce the morning peak blood pressure levels the next day. Additionally, this dosing method could improve patient adherence to the therapy.

  5. Is Time an Important Problem in Management of Hypertension and Hypercholesterolemia by Using an Amlodipine-Atorvastatin Single Pill Combination?

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Rui; Wang, Mian; Zhang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Background Is the timing of dosing for amlodipine and atorvastatin important with regard to therapeutic efficacy? To answer this question, we designed an outpatient, practice-based, case-control study lasting 8 weeks. Material/Methods Two hundred patients were divided into 2 groups: in Group I, patients were provided with a single pill containing amlodipine/atorvastatin (5/20 mg) to be taken each night at 10 pm, and in Group II, patients were taking amlodipine (5 mg) and atorvastatin (20 mg) each morning at 7 am. Results Our results indicated no obvious difference in blood pressure control between the 2 groups. Taking amlodipine at night not only lowered blood pressure, but it also provided better control during the peak blood pressure in the morning. Hypercholesterolemia control in the 2 groups was also not significantly different, taking atorvastatin in the morning was as effective as dosing at night in patients with hypercholesterolemia. While the carotid IMT, hs-CRP, and LVMI were significantly lower after treatment, no differences were found between the 2 groups. Although no obvious difference was found in adverse drug reactions between the 2 groups, compliance was much better in the single-pill group than in patients taking the 2 medications separately. Conclusions In conclusion, single-pill amlodipine-atorvastatin taken at night can lower blood pressure and reduce the morning peak blood pressure levels the next day. Additionally, this dosing method could improve patient adherence to the therapy. PMID:27459306

  6. Over-the-counter sleeping pills: a survey of use in Hong Kong and a review of their constituents.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ka Fai; Lee, Claire K Y

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the composition of over-the-counter (OTC) sleeping pills in Hong Kong and reviewed the current knowledge about the hypnotic efficacy and safety of their major herbal and dietary supplement constituents. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of OTC sleep aids at drug stores in a residential district of 0.3 million population and literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, China Journal Net, China Biomedical Database and relevant English and Chinese literature. We identified 17 brands of OTC sleeping pill: eleven of them were composed of mixtures of Chinese and Western herbal agents and six brands contained 3 mg of melatonin. The Chinese herbal mixture suanzaorentang, comprising zizyphi spinosi semen, poria cocos, ligusticum wallichii, anemarrhenae rhizoma and glycyrrhizae radix in ratio of 7:5:2:1:1, was the most common OTC sleeping pill available in the survey. Our literature review showed that kava, valerian and melatonin were the better-researched herbs and dietary supplements, however, the data on hypnotic efficacy and safety was inadequate to support their clinical use. More rigorous investigations of the risk-benefit relationship of herbal agents and dietary supplements used for insomnia are needed.

  7. Menstrual abnormalities in the adolescent abuse of the birth control pill.

    PubMed

    Spence, J E

    1983-01-01

    This paper reviews the physiology of menstrual abnormalities in the adolescent and suggests a management protocol based on this pathophysiological framework. Initial discussion covers the physiology of puberty and menstruation. Menstrual abnormalities occur often in the adolescent. Excessive bleeding is the most dramatic symptom, but the most common complaints concern the frequency, duration, and variability of menstrual flow. Often the oral contraceptive (OC) pill is the panacea for the patient, her family, and the physician. This solution has several advantages. It is attractive, inexpensive, easy to use, and regulates the menstrual cycle. Although menstrual abnormalities are seemingly corrected, the treatment is not physiological. This use of the OC pill may mask the underlying problem and delay the diagnosis of a medical disorder and will interfere with the normal maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, which is necessary for regular menses to occur. The diagnosis of anovulatory bleeding is one of exclusion. Both local and systemic problems can mimic dysfunctional bleeding. Pregnancy must always be considered but is often overlooked in the young teenager. A satisfactory history and physical examination, including a vaginal and/or rectal examination, is paramount to rule out other causes. Coagulation defects may play a significant role in adolescent bleeding abnormalities. Endocrine disorders, including thyroid disease, Cushing's syndrome, hypoprolactinemia, and acromegaly, can result in menstrual abnormalities. After a meticulous history and physical examination, any teenager presenting with abnormal vaginal bleeding should not exhibit any physical abnormality other than the signs and symptoms of blood loss. The initial laboratory tests need not be extensive but must include a hemoglobin estimation, blood smear, platelet count, bleeding time, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and thyroid function tests. Only the simplest

  8. Design and performance of a fast thermal response miniature Chromium Potassium Alum (CPA) salt pill for use in a millikelvin cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, J.; Hardy, G.; Hepburn, I. D.

    2015-01-01

    The design and performance of a fast thermal response miniature (24 mm outer diameter by 30 mm long) Chromium Potassium Alum (CPA) salt pill is described. The need for a fast thermal response has been driven by the development of a continuously operating millikelvin cryocooler (mKCC) which uses 2 T superconducting magnets that can be ramped to full field in 30 s. The consequence of magnetising and demagnetising the CPA pill in such a short time is that thermal boundary resistance and eddy current heating have a significant impact on the performance of the pill, which was investigated in detail using modelling. The complete design of a prototype CPA pill is described in this paper, including the methods used to minimise thermal boundary resistance and eddy current heating as well as the manufacturing and assembly processes. The performance of the prototype CPA pill operated from a 3.6 K bath is presented, demonstrating that a complete CPA cycle (magnetising, cooling to bath and demagnetising) can be accomplished in under 2.5 min, with magnetisation and demagnetisation taking just 30 s each. The cold finger base temperature of the prototype varies with demagnetisation speed as a consequence of eddy current heating; for a 30 s demagnetisation, a base temperature of 161 mK is obtained, whilst for a 5 min demagnetisation, a base temperature of 149 mK was measured (both from a 3.6 K and 2 T starting position). The measured hold times of the CPA pill at 200 mK, 300 mK, and 1 K are given, proving that the hold time far exceeds the recycle time and demonstrating the potential for continuous operation when two ADRs are used in a tandem configuration. The ease and speed at which the CPA pill temperature can be changed and controlled when stepping between operating temperatures in the range of 200 mK to 4 K using a servo control program is also shown, once again highlighting the excellent thermal response of the pill. All of the test results are in good agreement with the

  9. Absorption, metabolism and effect of compatibility on absorption of qishenyiqi dropping pill.

    PubMed

    Han, Yan-Qi; Wang, Jing; Cui, Qing-Xin; Wang, Li-Qiang; Cheng, Bin-Feng; Zhao, Hong-Zhi; Jiang, Min; Bai, Gang; Luo, Guo-An

    2014-04-01

    Qishenyiqi dropping pill (QSYQ), is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) prescription for treating heart diseases in China. Knowledge concerning the systemic identification of active compounds and metabolic components of QSYQ is generally lacking. Therefore, it is essential to develop a valid method for the analysis of active compounds of the combined prescription and determination of interactions among the herbs. The absorbable compounds and metabolites of QSYQ were profiled using computational chemistry prediction, an improved everted gut sac in vitro experiment, the Caco-2 cell monolayer in vitro test, a rat in vivo experiment and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection/quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrum (UPLC/DAD/Q-TOF MS). In total, 42 prototype compounds were recognized as absorbable compounds, and eight metabolites were identified by UPLC/DAD/Q-TOF MS. The absorption rates of phenolic acids and saponins were significantly improved and the absorption of isoflavone was inhibited after compatibility. The volatile oil component had an improved effect on the absorption of other compounds, while its own absorption was inhibited. In conclusion, the present study established a rapid and effective strategy for demonstrating the absorption and metabolism of QSYQ and revealing the compatible relationship among herbs. This investigation can provide a reference for the compatibility of prescriptions and the modernization of TCM.

  10. Yueju Pill Rapidly Induces Antidepressant-Like Effects and Acutely Enhances BDNF Expression in Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Wenda; Zhou, Xin; Yi, Nan; Jiang, Lihua; Tao, Weiwei; Wu, Runjie; Wang, Dan; Jiang, Jingjing; Ge, Xiaoyin; Wang, Yuyue; Wu, Haoxin; Chen, Gang

    2013-01-01

    The traditional antidepressants have a major disadvantage in delayed onset of efficacy, and the emerging fast-acting antidepressant ketamine has adverse behavioral and neurotoxic effects. Yueju pill, an herb medicine formulated eight hundred years ago by Doctor Zhu Danxi, has been popularly prescribed in China for alleviation of depression-like symptoms. Although several clinical outcome studies reported the relative short onset of antidepressant effects of Yueju, this has not been scientifically investigated. We, therefore, examined the rapid antidepressant effect of Yueju in mice and tested the underlying molecular mechanisms. We found that acute administration of ethanol extract of Yueju rapidly attenuated depressive-like symptoms in learned helpless paradigm, and the antidepressant-like effects were sustained for at least 24 hours in tail suspension test in ICR mice. Additionally, Yueju, like ketamine, rapidly increased the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus, whereas the BDNF mRNA expression remained unaltered. Yueju rapidly reduced the phosphorylation of eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2), leading to desuppression of BDNF synthesis. Unlike ketamine, both the BDNF expression and eEF2 phosphorylation were revered at 24 hours after Yueju administration. This study is the first to demonstrate the rapid antidepressant effects of an herb medicine, offering an opportunity to improve therapy of depression. PMID:23710213

  11. General practitioners' competence and confidentiality determinations with a minor who requests the oral contraceptive pill.

    PubMed

    Bartholomew, Terence P; Carvalho, Tatiana

    2005-11-01

    The right of minors to make medical treatment decisions is an issue that is not explicitly addressed in the legislation of most Australian jurisdictions. While recent common law decisions allow competent minors to consent to treatment, current legislation in Victoria does not provide adequate guidelines on how competence is to be measured. It is also unclear whether the duty of confidentiality is extended to competent minors. The current study explored general practitioners' competence and confidentiality decisions with a hypothetical 14-year-old patient who requests the oral contraceptive pill (OCP). Questionnaires were sent to 1,000 Victorian general practitioners, 305 of whom responded. General practitioners were asked to determine whether "Liz" was competent to request the OCP, and whether they would maintain her confidentiality. A total of 81% of respondents found the patient competent, while 91% would have maintained her confidentiality. Results indicate that the majority of general practitioners used rationales that generally did not conform to current legal principles when making competence and confidentiality determinations regarding this patient.

  12. Exploring knowledge and attitudes about emergency contraceptive pills among university students in Jamaica. A qualitative approach.

    PubMed

    Sorhaindo, A; Becker, D; Fletcher, H; Garcia, S; Mitchell, S

    2004-01-01

    Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) are an important option for university students who may be at high risk for unplanned pregnancies. In the Caribbean, little research has been carried out on university student's knowledge and opinions of this method. This study uses qualitative methodology to explore knowledge and opinions on ECPs among university students attending The University of the West Indies (UWI) Mona campus. We conducted eight focus groups (n = 71) with female and male university students at The University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica, in March 2000. The group discussions lasted approximately two hours. We tape-recorded discussions and then transcribed and analyzed them by coding responses according to themes. General knowledge of ECPs was high, but students lacked specific information about the method such as its time frame and its mechanism of action. Most students supported the method, especially after learning correct information. However, several students were concerned about its side effects and the potential for abuse or irresponsible use by young adults. Although the university students in this study lacked detailed information about ECPs, their opinion toward the method was favourable. We suggest further research to investigate the prevalence of misinformation about the method among other groups of Jamaicans.

  13. Knowledge, use and attitudes towards emergency contraceptive pills among Swedish women presenting for induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Aneblom, Gunilla; Larsson, Margareta; Odlind, Viveca; Tydén, Tanja

    2002-02-01

    To investigate the knowledge, experiences and attitudes towards emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) among women presenting for induced abortion. Survey by self-administered waiting room questionnaires. Three large hospitals in the cities of Uppsala, Västerås and Orebro in Sweden. 591 Swedish-speaking women consecutively attending the clinics for an induced abortion during a four-month period in 2000. The response rate was 88% (n = 518). As many as 43% had a history of one or more previous abortions and 43% were daily smokers. Four out of five women, 83%, were aware of ECP, but only 15 women used it to prevent this pregnancy. Fewer, 38%, knew the recommended timeframes for use and 54% had knowledge of the mode of action. The two most common sources of information about ECP were media and friends. One out of five, 22%, had previously used the method, and at the time of conception, 55% would have taken ECP if it had been available at home, and 52% were positive to having ECP available over the counter. Emergency contraception is well known but is still underused. Lack of awareness of pregnancy risk may be one limiting factor for its use. Making ECP available over the counter may be an important measure towards better availability. Information strategies to the public are needed before ECP will be a widely used back-up method.

  14. Thin CVD-diamond RF Pill-Box vacuum windows for LHCD systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravera, G. L.; Ceccuzzi, S.; Cardinali, A.; Cesario, R.; Mirizzi, F.; Schettini, G.; Tuccillo, A. A.

    2014-02-01

    The preliminary assessment of a Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) system for the DEMOnstration power plant (DEMO) is mainly focused on the R&D needs of the less conventional RF components of the Main Transmission Line (MTL) and of the launcher. 500 kW, CW klystrons will be used to deliver the RF power to independent Passive Active Multijunction (PAM) launcher modules at 5 GHz. This paper describes the criteria followed to investigate the optimum solution for the RF window used as vacuum barrier between the MTL and the launcher, an open issue in the LHCD system for ITER too. The best candidate, capable of withstanding a power level of, or above, 0.5 MW in CW operation and to satisfy the electrical and thermonuclear requirements, is a Pill-Box assembly, based on a thin single disk of CVD-diamond as dielectric, water cooled at the edge. A thickness of 3 mm, much shorter than half a wavelength of the TE°11 mode in the dielectric as in the conventional window (unfeasible and too expensive with CVD-diamond at these frequencies), is sufficient to limit the exerted stress at the edge under the fracture stress for a maximum pressure applied of 0.9 MPa. In this paper the simulation results of conventional and thin CVD-diamond vacuum windows are presented comparing S-parameters, losses and electric fields in both matching condition and with VSWR = 2, using WR284 and WR229 as input/output rectangular waveguide.

  15. Intention to use emergency contraceptive pills and the role of knowledge in a Dutch national sample.

    PubMed

    Picavet, Charles; van der Vlugt, Ineke; Wijsen, Ciel

    2014-08-01

    Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) are underused for preventing unintended pregnancy. Not all women are willing to use them even when at risk of conceiving. This paper examines whether increased knowledge about ECPs may increase the intention to use these products. Factors associated with intention to use emergency contraception (EC) were assessed among 1310 women who participated in the nationally representative Sexual Health in the Netherlands 2009 Survey. Logistic regression models included demographics, prior use of ECPs, and ECP knowledge. Seventeen percent of the women did not intend to use EC after unprotected sexual intercourse and a further 27% were unsure whether they would use it. Intention is most strongly related to prior use and not having children. Only two of six knowledge items were related to intention in the multivariate analyses. Being aware that ECPs can be obtained without prescription upgrades intention, whereas knowing that a woman can still get pregnant after having taken the ECP has a negative impact on intention. Improving knowledge may contribute to intention to use EC, but its role will be modest. To understand the reasons behind ECP use it is essential to study the contribution of other factors, like attitudes and social norms.

  16. Association between increased availability of emergency contraceptive pills and the sexual and contraceptive behaviors of women.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Danielle N

    2014-08-01

    In the United States (US), access to emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) expanded to nationwide in 2006 when regulators allowed Plan B, a brand of emergency contraception, to be sold without prescription. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2001 to 2010, I examined any association between increased access to these ECPs in the US and negative consequences. I found an association between increased access to ECPs and a 2.2 per cent higher probability of any sexual activity, a 5.2 per cent increase in the likelihood of reporting sex with multiple partners, an increase in the average number of partners by 0.35, and a -7.6 per cent decrease in the likelihood of injectable contraceptive use. These results suggest that policies in the US and other countries that expand access to ECPs should be paired with information on ECPs' lack of protection against sexually transmitted infections and relatively lower efficacy compared to other forms of contraception.

  17. The effect of external marking on the behaviour of the common pill woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Drahokoupilová, Táňa; Tuf, Ivan Hadrián

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Zoologists distinguish individual animals using marking techniques. Generally they test the potential influence of marking on survival only; the influence on behaviour is usually neglected. We evaluated the influence of two external marking techniques (nail polish and queen-bee marker) on the behaviour of common pill woodlouse, Armadillidium vulgare. The behaviour was examined from two points of view: (1) activity during 24 hours and (2) specific expressions of behaviour (exploring, feeding, resting and hiding) over a 24 hour period. We compared behaviour among woodlice marked with nail polish and queen-bee marker with the unmarked control group during a nine-day experiment. Although we did not find any influence of marking on survival, there was an evident influence on behaviour in most cases. Generally, in the groups of marked individuals of Armadillidium vulgare there were large differences observed against the control group in the overall activity. Activity of marked individuals was significantly reduced and they preferred hiding. The influence of polish and marker on the overall frequencies of behavioural categories was evident, mainly in feeding, resting and hiding. The influence on the frequency of exploring was significant in the polish marked group only. PMID:22536105

  18. Effect of Jiaotai Pill () on intestinal damage in partially sleep deprived rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Ya; Zou, Xin; Lu, Fu-Er; Zhang, Chu; Ren, Yan-Lin; Xu, Li-Jun; Wang, Kai-Fu; Dong, Hui

    2017-10-06

    To explore the effect and mechanism of Jiaotai Pill (, JTW) on intestinal mucosal damage in rats with chronic partial sleep deprivation (PSD). Obesity resistant (OR) rats were selected, and underwent 4 h PSD by being exposed to environmental noise for 4 weeks. During the whole PSD period, JTW and estazolam were orally given to the rats respectively in the treating groups. Plasma concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) which is the marker of gut-origin endotoxemia was examined. Intestinal morphology changes were observed by optical microscopy. The protein expression of occludin (Ocln) in the intestine was measured by immunofluorescence technique and Western blot. The expressions of circadian proteins cryptochromes (Cry1 and Cry2) in the intestine were also determined. The treatment of JTW significantly decreased LPS level in OR rats with PSD (P<0.05). JTW also attenuated insomnia-induced intestinal injury like shorter, sparse and incomplete villus, wide gap between the villus, mucosal swelling and congesting (P<0.05). These changes were associated with the effect of JTW on up-regulating the expressions of Cry1 protein, Cry2 protein and Ocln protein in the intestine. JTW has the beneficial effect on improving intestinal mucosal damage caused by PSD. The mechanism appears to be related to the modulation of the expressions of circadian proteins and Ocln protein in the intestine, thereby attenuating inflammation and improving insulin resistance in insomnia rats.

  19. [Research on bioactive ingredients in rat liver after oral administration of different combinations of Wuji pill].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui-Jie; Chen, Ying; Gong, Zi-Peng; Dong, Yu; Zhang, Hai-Xian; Yang, Qing; Weng, Xiao-Gang; Li, Yu-Jie; Zhu, Xiao-Xin

    2014-05-01

    A L9 (3(4)) orthogonal design table to be used to get nine combinations of extraction of three herbs of Wuji pill: Coptis chinensis, Tetradium ruticarpum and Paeonia lactiflora Pall., and nine extraction of single herbs correspondingly, altogether eighteen combinations. Quantification of five representative bioactive ingredients: berberine, palmatine, evodiamine, rutaecarpine, paeoniflorin in rat liver by ultra high liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after oral administration at 2 h time point of eighteen combinations. The result shows the bioactive ingredients have different concentrations betweem different combinations and the single herb with the same dosage significantly as well as the same dose combinations. C. chinensis with evodiamine concentration of low and high dose T. ruticarpum was positively correlated. T. ruticarpum with berberine concentration of low dose C. chinensis was negatively correlated and of meddle dose C. chinensis was correlated positively. T. ruticarpum with paeoniflorin concentration of middle dose P. lactiflora was correlated positively. P. lactiflora with palmatine concentration of middle dose C. chinensis was negatively correlated and with evodiamine and rutaecarpine concentration of middle dose T. ruticarpum was negatively correlated. These shows the three single herbs interactions resulted in the differences of each ingredients concentration in rat liver. The orthogonal analysis indicates the combination 12: 6: 6 make the maximum concentration in rat liver.

  20. [Clinical observation on treatment of gastro-esophageal reflux with modified zhizhu pill].

    PubMed

    Ghen, Jian-yong; Qiu, Jian-rong; Pan, Feng

    2004-01-01

    To observe the therapeutic effect of modified Zhizhu pill (ZZP) in treating gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and to explore its mechanism. Sixty-three GERD patients were randomly divided into the treated group (n = 30) and the control group (n = 33). The treated group was treated with ZZP 100 ml, twice daily by orally taking half an hour before meal. The control group was treated with Ranitidine 0.15 g, twice daily and Cisapride 10 mg, three times a day by orally taking before meal. The therapeutic course for both groups was 8 weeks. The changes of symptom scoring, endoscopic examination, esophageal pressure, 24 hrs monitoring on pH and blood level of motilin in the two groups were recorded and compared. After treatment, the symptom scoring, esophageal pressure, 24 hrs monitoring on pH and blood motilin level were improved in both groups (P < 0.05), and the improvement in the treated group was more significant than that in the control group (P < 0.05). ZZP has good effect in treating GERD.

  1. Chinese Herbal Cardiotonic Pill Stabilizes Vulnerable Plaques in Rabbits by Decreasing the Expression of Adhesion Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Li, Xiaonan; Li, Changjiang; Rong, Yuanyuan; Xiao, Yawei; Xu, Xinsheng; Yao, Guihua; Jiang, Guihua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The cardiotonic pill (CP), consisting of a mixture of Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae, Radix Notoginseng, and Borneolum Syntheticum, has been widely used in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Adhesion molecules, including intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, are involved in the development of vulnerable plaque. We investigated the effect of the CP in a rabbit model of vulnerable plaque established by local transfection with p53 gene. Compared with the control group, rabbits with vulnerable plaque showed a significantly lower intima-media thickness and plaque burden after CP treatment for 12 weeks. Moreover, the reduction in rate of plaque rupture and vulnerability index was similar. On enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry analysis, the expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 was inhibited with CP treatment. CP treatment could postpone atherosclerotic plaque development and stabilize vulnerable plaque by inhibiting the expression of adhesion molecules in treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:27110743

  2. Bak Foong Pills induce an analgesic effect by inhibiting nociception via the somatostatin pathway in mice.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, Dewi Kenneth; Cui, Yu Gui; So, Siu Cheung; Tsang, Lai Ling; Chung, Yiu Wa; Chan, Hsiao Chang

    2012-01-01

    Dysmenorrhoea, defined as cramping pain in the lower abdomen occurring before or during menstruation, affects, to varying degrees, up to 90% of women of child-bearing age. We investigated whether BFP (Bak Foong Pills), a traditional Chinese medicine treatment for dysmenorrhoea, possesses analgesic properties. Results showed that BFP was able to significantly reduce pain responses following subchronic treatment for 3 days, but not following acute (1 h) treatment in response to acetic acid-induced writhing in C57/B6 mice. The analgesic effect was not due to inhibition of COX (cyclo-oxygenase) activity, evidenced by the lack of inhibition of prostacyclin and PGE2 (prostaglandin E2) production. Molecular analysis revealed that BFP treatment modulated the expression of a number of genes in the spinal cord of mice subjected to acetic acid writhing. RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) analysis of spinal cord samples showed that both sst4 (somatostatin receptor 4) and sst2 receptor mRNA, but not μOR (μ-opiate receptor) and NK1 (neurokinin-1) receptor mRNA, were down-regulated following BFP treatment, thus implicating somatostatin involvement in BFP-induced analgesia. Administration of c-som (cyclo-somatostatin), a somatostatin antagonist, prior to acetic acid-induced writhing inhibited the analgesic effect. Thus subchronic treatment with BFP has anti-nociceptive qualities mediated via the somatostatin pathway.

  3. Rationale for a single-pill combination of perindopril arginine and amlodipine besylate.

    PubMed

    Elliott, William J

    2015-04-01

    A systematic review identified 86 outcome-based clinical trials involving perindopril, amlodipine, or other antihypertensive drugs. In fixed-effects meta-analyses of 11 clinical trials (90,208 subjects), amlodipine was associated with a significant 24% increase in heart failure, but a significant decrease in death, cardiovascular death, stroke, coronary heart disease, and first major cardiovascular adverse event. In five clinical trials (52,565 subjects), perindopril was associated with a significant reduction in all six cardiovascular endpoints. Network and Bayesian meta-analyses suggested that (with the exception of amlodipine and heart failure), each agent was at least as effective as an initial diuretic to prevent these events. Short-term trials have demonstrated that the combination of perindopril and amlodipine is safe and effective, with statistically greater lowering of blood pressure than either agent alone and a potential synergistic effect on pedal edema. The single-pill combination of perindopril and amlodipine may be a useful addition to the antihypertensive armamentarium.

  4. Presence and formation of cobalamin analogues in multivitamin-mineral pills.

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, H; Binder, M J; Kolhouse, J F; Smythe, W R; Podell, E R; Allen, R H

    1982-01-01

    Because the origin of cobalamin (vitamin B12) analogues in animal chows and animal and human blood and tissues is unknown, we investigated the possibility that multivitamin interactions might convert cobalamin to cobalamin analogues. We homogenized three popular multivitamin-mineral pills in water, incubated them at 37 degrees C for 2 h, and isolated the cobalamin. Using paper chromatography we observed that 20-90% of the cobalamin was present as cobalamin analogues. Studies using CN-[57Co]cobalamin showed that these analogues were formed due to the concerted action of vitamin C, thiamine, and copper on CN-cobalamin. These cobalamin analogues are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract of mice and either fail to stimulate or actually inhibit cobalamin-dependent enzymes when injected parenterally. We conclude that CN-cobalamin can be converted to potentially harmful cobalamin analogues by multivitamin-mineral interactions and that these interactions may be responsible for the presence of cobalamin analogues in animal chows and animal and human blood and tissues. PMID:6126492

  5. Effect of the Garlic Pill in comparison with Plavix on Platelet Aggregation and Bleeding Time

    PubMed Central

    Fakhar, H; Hashemi Tayer, A

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Platelet aggregation plays a significant role in the etiology of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, treatments to inhibit platelet aggregation can reduce the risk of coronary thrombosis. Several studies indicated that garlic can inhibit platelet aggregation. This study aimed to determine the effect of garlic in comparison with Plavix on platelet aggregation. Materials and Methods In this randomized clinical trial, platelet aggregation and bleeding time was obtained from 36 healthy volunteers. Volunteers were randomly divided into 4 groups. The first, second and third groups respectively received 600, 1200 and 2400 mg garlic and the fourth group received 75 mg Plavix for three weeks. Afterwards, platelet aggregation and bleeding time were both evaluated and the results before and after the study were compared. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 16. Results Platelet aggregation induced by adenosine diphosphate and arachidonic acid agonists decreased in the groups that used 1200 or 2400 mg garlic. This difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). As compared to the other groups, the bleeding time also increased in those received 2400 mg garlic pill. Conclusion Since garlic can inhibit platelet aggregation, it is suggested to use it as a supplementary treatment to reduce platelet aggregation is highly recommended. PMID:24575255

  6. What’s in a Label? Ecstasy Sellers’ Perceptions of Pill Brands†

    PubMed Central

    Duterte, Micheline; Jacinto, Camille; Sales, Paloma; Murphy, Sheigla

    2009-01-01

    This article presents selected findings from a qualitative study of Ecstasy sellers and their sales practices, knowledge of distribution networks, buyer-seller relationships, and self-reported drug use. In-depth interviews were conducted with 80 men and women who had sold five or more hits of Ecstasy five or more times in the six months prior to the interview. Study participants described their perceptions of the various types of Ecstasy they had distributed or used themselves. The participants had experience with a variety of Ecstasy labels, from the popular “Blue Dolphin” tablets to the powdered form called “Molly.” We tracked pill brand mentions on Ecstasy-related websites to compare with interviewees’ descriptions of Ecstasy brands. This study examines Ecstasy sellers’ ideas about the role of brand names in Ecstasy markets and their relationship to their beliefs about different types of Ecstasy’s purity and quality. We demonstrate that considering Ecstasy branding increases our understanding of buyer and seller relationships. PMID:19455907

  7. Role of diet on the enterohepatic recycling of estrogen in women taking contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Sher, A; Rahman, A

    1994-09-01

    The effect of diet on the enterohepatic recycling of estrogen after oral administration of 1 mg non-radioactive estriol (E3) was studied in six women using contraceptive pills. The women were followed for two consecutive menstrual cycles, firstly on a high fibre diet (HFD) and then changing on to low fibre diet (LFD) during the next cycle, hence each subject acted as its own control. The extent of enterohepatic recycling of estriol (E3) during the early follicular phase of menstrual cycle was assessed by monitoring during 48 hours, the urinary excretion of its two major metabolites, i.e., estriol-3-qlucuronide (E3-3-G) and estriol 16 alpha-glucuronide (E3-16 alpha-G). An increase in values of the variables including E3-3-G/E3-16 alpha-G output ratio, E3-3-G output as % of total (E3-3-G+E3-16 alpha-G) excretion and total E3 (E3-3-G+E3-16 alpha-G) output as % dose was noted as a result of change from high to low fibre diet. The urinary excretion of E3 in the form of its metabolites was also delayed as a result of dietary change. These findings reveal that extent of enterohepatic recycling of estrogen containing contraceptives could be higher in women on LFD as compared to those who are on HFD.

  8. Diet pills and the cataract outbreak of 1935: reflections on the evolution of consumer protection legislation.

    PubMed

    Margo, Curtis E; Harman, Lynn E

    2014-01-01

    An outbreak of cataracts in 1935 caused by dinitrophenol (DNP), the active ingredient of popular diet pills, highlighted the inability of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to prevent harmful drugs from entering the marketplace. Just two years earlier, the FDA used horrific images of ocular surface injury caused by cosmetics at the World's Fair in Chicago to garner public support for legislative reform. The FDA had to walk a fine line between a public awareness campaign and lobbying Congress while lawmakers debated the need for consumer protection. The cataract outbreak of 1935 was conspicuous in the medical literature during the height of New Deal legislation, but questions persist as to how much it affected passage of the proposed Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (of 1938). The legislation languished in committee for years. The cataract outbreak probably had little impact on the eventual outcome, but medical opinion concerning the safety of DNP may have contributed to the voluntary withdrawal of the diet drug from the market. We review the DNP cataract outbreak and examine it in context of the challenges facing regulatory reform at that time.

  9. Are women ready for more liberal delivery of emergency contraceptive pills?

    PubMed

    Wan, Rebecca S F; Lo, Sue S T

    2005-06-01

    To investigate the knowledge, use and attitudes towards emergency contraception (EC) among women attending family planning clinics. Self-administered questionnaire survey. Eight birth control clinics and three youth health care centers of The Family Planning Association of Hong Kong. A total of 2454 women aged 15 to 53 attending the clinics between 1 November 2003 and 13 December 2003 were recruited. A total of 1405 completed questionnaires were analyzed. 63.7% of women had heard of EC and 51.8% knew that they had to take it within 72 h. 15.7% had used EC before. More advertising on EC was considered desirable by 46.3% of subjects. 48.7% of subjects supported advanced provision of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) and 25.7% supported over-the-counter sales. The awareness and use of EC were low in our study population. They were not ready for more liberal delivery of ECPs as less than 50% of women supported these new delivery modes and their knowledge on ECPs use was inadequate.

  10. Qualitative analysis of African-American adolescent females' beliefs about emergency contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Christie L; Santarsiero, Elizabeth C; Spatz, Diane

    2002-12-01

    This project was initiated to better understand why some African-American adolescent females do not use emergency contraceptive pills (ECP), despite their widespread availability. Adolescents are considered likely candidates for ECP because they are more likely to inconsistently use birth control and have sporadic sexual behavior patterns. These factors increase the risk of unprotected intercourse and unplanned pregnancy. A qualitative study design was employed to assess the knowledge of African-American adolescent females regarding ECP and their beliefs affecting use and nonuse of ECP. An adolescent clinic at a large, urban, academic children's hospital. Twenty-nine African-American adolescent (age 13-18) females.Interventions. Semi-structured, qualitative interviews lasting 15-20 minutes. Interviews yielded qualitative data that was coded and categorized into themes. Through the interviews, eight themes emerged: Taking Care of Self, Lack of Knowledge of ECP, Inaccurate Information, Sources of Information, Acceptability of Adolescent Pregnancy, Partner's Influence on Adolescent Choices, Discomfort Talking About Sex, and Concern About Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). The results from this qualitative study will contribute to future quantitative research efforts by providing insight into the decision-making process regarding ECP among this population. The themes provide a foundation for clinical implications and educational interventions. Although a large proportion of the sample (24%) had used ECP, misinformation about ECP and basic reproductive health issues was prevalent. Most of the adolescents report they obtain reproductive health information from a complex network of information sharing, in which their primary sources tend to be peers.

  11. Measuring perceptions of synergistic circulatory disease risk due to smoking and the oral contraceptive pill.

    PubMed

    French, David P; Gayton, Emma L; Burton, Jessica; Thorogood, Margaret; Marteau, Theresa M

    2002-12-01

    There is evidence that the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) and smoking contribute independently to risk of circulatory disease. There is mixed evidence that the combined risk may be greater than the sum of these factors operating in isolation. Little is known about how the general population views the risks from OCP use, singly and in combination with smoking. Previous attempts at assessing whether the public views risks as operating synergistically have generally found evidence for subadditive models, where the combined risk is less than the sum of factors operating in isolation. However, concerns have been expressed over the validity of the measures of risk perception used. Therefore, this study used three distinct methods of measurement to assess the extent to which 241 undergraduate students perceive the risks of smoking and the OCP separately and combined, for circulatory disease. For all three methods, respondents read each of four vignettes describing information about a woman's risk factors (with high and low levels of both OCP and smoking), and then estimated risk of circulatory disease using one of the three risk measures. The three measures produced similar ratings. Consistent with the epidemiological evidence, information about smoking had more impact on estimates of overall risk than did information about the OCP For all three measures, responses were consistent with an additive model of risk from smoking and the OCP. This convergence of results from different methods suggests that all three methods of measurement employed, which all had a large number of response options, may be valid.

  12. Enhanced Estrogenic Activity of Soybean Isoflavones by Coadministration of Liuwei Dihuang Pills in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Xie, Baogang; Zhang, Shuohua; Liu, Jie; Zhan, Xuejun; Xie, Daze; Zhang, Zhirong

    2015-07-01

    Soybean isoflavones are beneficial for treating hormone-related diseases. Simultaneous consumption of soybean isoflavones and Liuwei Dihuang pills (LWPs) is effective for treating perimenopausal period syndrome. However, why the combination of isoflavones and LWPs is more effective than ingestion of each component alone remains unknown. Here, we show that enhanced estrogenic activities would appear when the ovariectomized rats were fed with a soybean diet in combination of LWPs treatment. Our further studies explored enhancements of Lactobacillus (19-fold) and Bifidobacterium (12-fold) contents in the intestine of rat and 1.84-fold higher intestinal β-glucosidase activity in LWPs treatment group compared with the control group. As a result, steady-state concentrations of genistein (1.20-fold), daidzein (1.36-fold), and equol (1.43-fold) in serum were significantly elevated in the combination group compared with the soybean alone group. The results present the first evidence of the mechanism of enhanced estrogenic activity of dietary soybean isoflavones in combination with LWPs. Our study indicates that alterations of gut bacteria after LWPs treatment play a key role in the enhanced estrogenic effect of dietary soybean, suggesting a direct relationship between dietary soybean, LWPs, and gut flora. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Pill count adherence to prenatal multivitamin/mineral supplement use among low-income women.

    PubMed

    Jasti, Sunitha; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Cogswell, Mary E; Hartzema, Abraham G; Bentley, Margaret E

    2005-05-01

    In the United States, the prevalence of third trimester anemia among low-income pregnant women is 29% and has not improved since the 1980s. Although low adherence has been linked to the ineffectiveness of iron supplementation programs, data regarding adherence to supplementation in low-income women are currently lacking. Hence this study was conducted to better understand the factors associated with adherence to the use of iron-containing prenatal multivitamin/mineral supplements among low-income pregnant women. Adherence to supplement use was assessed by pill counts among 244 pregnant women of 867 women who were initially randomized to receive 1 of 3 prenatal supplements. All women received care at a public prenatal clinic. Maternal characteristics associated with adherence were identified using predictive modeling. Women took 74% of supplements as prescribed. Adherence was higher among non-Hispanic white women than among non-Hispanic black women (79% vs. 72%, P

  14. Severe Erosive Pill Esophagitis Induced by Crizotinib Therapy: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Fortinsky, Kyle J.; Gallinger, Zane R.; Tartaro, Piero

    2016-01-01

    Previous case reports have described esophagitis thought to be secondary to crizotinib, an oral tyrosine-kinase inhibitor used in the treatment of anaplastic lymphoma kinase- (ALK-) positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In those reports, the interval development of esophagitis was between two days and three months after initiating or reinitiating crizotinib therapy. We present a woman who developed ulcerative esophagitis ten months after beginning crizotinib therapy, which is highly unusual. We believe the provoking factor was a change in her medication administration routine, done to accommodate religious practices during the period of Ramadan. This case illustrates the mechanism of pill esophagitis and reinforces the importance of patient education when it comes to medication administration. Clinicians may consider early imaging or investigations in patients with concerning symptomatology in the context of crizotinib therapy or other offending medications. Future research may help to uncover additional risk factors for this exceedingly rare diagnosis in this patient population. Most importantly, this case highlights nonpharmacologic ways to improve tolerability and decrease adverse effects of a highly effective chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:28053793

  15. The Effect on Treatment Adherence of Administering Drugs as Fixed-Dose Combinations versus as Separate Pills: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Galen, Katy A.; Nellen, Jeannine F.; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T.

    2014-01-01

    Administering drugs as fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) versus the same active drugs administered as separate pills is assumed to enhance treatment adherence. We synthesized evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the effect of FDCs versus separate pills on adherence. We searched PubMed for RCTs comparing a FDC with the same active drugs administered as separate pills, including a quantitative estimate of treatment adherence, without restriction to medical condition. The odds ratio (OR) of optimal adherence with FDCs versus separate pills was used as common effect size and aggregated into a pooled effect estimate using a random effect model with inverse variance weights. Out of 1258 articles screened, only six studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Across medical conditions, administering drugs as FDC significantly increased the likelihood of optimal adherence (OR 1.33 (95% CI, 1.03–1.71)). Within subgroups of specific medical conditions, the favourable effect of FDCs on adherence was of borderline statistical significance for HIV infection only (OR 1.46 (95% CI, 1.00–2.13)). We observed a remarkable paucity of RCTs comparing the effect on adherence of administering drugs as FDC versus as separate pills. Administering drugs as FDC improved medication adherence. However, this conclusion is based on a limited number of RCTs only. PMID:25276422

  16. Pill Burden Influences the Association Between Time-Based Prospective Memory and Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence in Younger But Not Older HIV-Infected Adults.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, David P; Weber, Erica; Casaletto, Kaitlin B; Avci, Gunes; Woods, Steven Paul

    2016-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is associated with antiretroviral (ARV) adherence in HIV, but little is known about how pill burden and age might affect this association. One hundred seventeen older (≥50 years) and 82 younger (<50 years) HIV-infected adults were administered a measure of PM in the laboratory and subsequently were monitored for ARV adherence for 30 days using the Medication Event Monitoring System. In the older group, better time-based PM performance was associated with higher likelihood of adherence, irrespective of pill burden. Within the younger sample, time-based PM was positively related to adherence only in participants with lower pill burdens. Younger HIV-infected individuals with higher pill burdens may overcome the normal effects of time-based PM on adherence through compensatory medication-taking strategies, whereas suboptimal use of these strategies by younger HIV-infected individuals with lower pill burdens may heighten their risk of ARV nonadherence secondary to deficits in time-based PM.

  17. Monitoring quality consistency of Liuwei Dihuang Pill by integrating the ultraviolet spectroscopic fingerprint, a multi-wavelength fusion fingerprint method, and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bo; Sun, Guoxiang

    2017-08-24

    Liuwei Dihuang Pill, a classical traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used to treat kidney yin deficiency in China for hundreds of years. Little attention, however, has been paid to quality control methods for this formulation. In the present study, we aimed to establish a comprehensive and practical quality evaluation system for Liuwei Dihuang Pill. Thus, ultraviolet spectroscopic fingerprints and multi-wavelength fusion fingerprints have been proposed for quality consistency evaluation of the popular patent. The similarity analysis of Liuwei Dihuang Pill samples was evaluated by systematic quantitative fingerprint method from qualitative and quantitative perspectives. The results showed that 26 batches of samples were classified into five grades for fusion fingerprints and three grades for ultraviolet spectroscopic fingerprints. Moreover, the fingerprint-efficacy correlation was also established and confirmed through the partial least squares model to visualize the antioxidant activity of Liuwei Dihuang Pill in vitro. In conclusion, these results indicated that integrating ultraviolet spectroscopic fingerprints and multi-wavelength fusion fingerprints coupled with antioxidant activities provide a rapid and effective approach to monitor the quality consistency of Liuwei Dihuang Pill. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The Effect on Treatment Adherence of Administering Drugs as Fixed-Dose Combinations versus as Separate Pills: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    van Galen, Katy A; Nellen, Jeannine F; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T

    2014-01-01

    Administering drugs as fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) versus the same active drugs administered as separate pills is assumed to enhance treatment adherence. We synthesized evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) about the effect of FDCs versus separate pills on adherence. We searched PubMed for RCTs comparing a FDC with the same active drugs administered as separate pills, including a quantitative estimate of treatment adherence, without restriction to medical condition. The odds ratio (OR) of optimal adherence with FDCs versus separate pills was used as common effect size and aggregated into a pooled effect estimate using a random effect model with inverse variance weights. Out of 1258 articles screened, only six studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. Across medical conditions, administering drugs as FDC significantly increased the likelihood of optimal adherence (OR 1.33 (95% CI, 1.03-1.71)). Within subgroups of specific medical conditions, the favourable effect of FDCs on adherence was of borderline statistical significance for HIV infection only (OR 1.46 (95% CI, 1.00-2.13)). We observed a remarkable paucity of RCTs comparing the effect on adherence of administering drugs as FDC versus as separate pills. Administering drugs as FDC improved medication adherence. However, this conclusion is based on a limited number of RCTs only.

  19. Knowledge and opinion of pharmacists on emergency contraceptive pills in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Vanya, Melinda; Matuz, Maria; Benko, Ria; Viola, Reka; Horvath-Sziklai, Attila; Soos, Gyongyvér; Bartfai, Gyorgy

    2017-06-01

    Background Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) are used to prevent unintended pregnancy. There is a worldwide intention to improve access to ECPs; therefore, identifying potential barriers to introducing over-the counter (OTC) access is of utmost importance. As pharmacists are the key personnel to convey accurate drug information, their knowledge and attitude on ECPs is important. Objective We aimed to conduct a nationwide study to assess pharmacists' knowledge on ECPs and to survey their opinion on sales category change of ECPs (i.e. to introduce OTC access in pharmacies). Setting Registered pharmacists in Hungary. Method A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted with an anonymous, web-based questionnaire. Univariate analysis (Mann-Whitney U test and Fischer's exact test) was used to identify factors associated with supportive opinion toward OTC provision. Main outcome measure Knowledge level of pharmacists, proportion of pharmacists with supportive opinion on OTC access. Results 357 out of 2019 pharmacists completed the questionnaire, yielding a 17.7% response rate. Almost 30% of pharmacists (N = 99) agreed that ECPs should have an OTC availability in Hungary. More than 40% of pharmacists (N = 145) considered ECPs as contraceptives. On average, 55.18% (standard deviation: ±12.40%) of the answers were correct, showing moderate knowledge of the pharmacists. Age and rating ECPs as contraceptives were significantly associated with supportive opinion toward OTC provision (p < 0.001). The effect of knowledge on the pharmacist's opinion was significant in young pharmacists (p = 0.02). Conclusion Pharmacists' knowledge and opinion on ECPs should be improved, especially that of the young ones. Currently the attitude of pharmacists does not favor sales category changes of ECPs in Hungary.

  20. Effect of Zuogui Pill () on monoamine neurotransmitters and sex hormones in climacteric rats with panic attack.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Yun

    2017-03-01

    To explore the effects of Chinese medicine prescription Zuogui Pill (, ZGP) on monoamine neurotransmitters and sex hormones in climacteric rats with induced panic attacks. Forty-eight climacteric female rats were randomized into 6 groups with 8 rats in each group: the control group, the model group, the low-, medium- and high-dose ZGP groups and the alprazolam group. Rats in the low-, medium- and high-dose ZGP groups were administered 4.725, 9.45, or 18.9 g/kg ZGP by gastric perfusion, respectively. The alprazolam group was treated by gastric perfusion with 0.036 mg/kg alprazolam. The control and model groups were treated with distilled water. The animals were pretreated once daily for 8 consecutive weeks. The behaviors of rats in the open fifield test and the elevated T-maze (ETM) were observed after induced panic attack, and the levels of brain monoamine neurotransmitters and the plasma levels of sex hormones were measured. Compared with the control group, the mean ETM escape time and the levels of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and noradrenalin (NE) of the model group were signifificantly reduced (P<0.05), Compared with the model group, the mean ETM escape time and the 5-HT and NE levels of all the ZGP groups increased signifificantly (P<0.05 or P<0.01). However, no signifificant difference was observed in the levels of sex hormones between the groups. Pretreatment with ZGP in climacteric rats may improve the behavior of panic attack, which may be related to increased 5-HT and NE in the brain.

  1. Impact of oral contraceptive pills on central corneal thickness in young women

    PubMed Central

    Kurtul, Bengi Ece; Inal, Besime; Ozer, Pinar Altiaylik; Kabatas, Emrah Utku

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Hormonal changes during oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use may affect central corneal thickness (CCT) values. We aimed to evaluate the impact of OCP use on CCT values in healthy young women. Materials and Methods: Fifty women subjects who use OCP for contraception (Group 1) and forty control subjects (Group 2) who do not use OCP were included in this prospective study. None of the patients had any history of systemic or ocular diseases. The CCT values measured by ultrasonic pachymeter (Nidek US-4000 Echoscan, Japan) and the intraocular pressure (IOP) values were measured by noncontact tonometer (Reichert 7 CR Corneal Response Technology, USA) at the time of admission to our clinic. The demographic findings and body mass index (BMI) scores of participants were also recorded. Results: The mean ages were 32.8 ± 5.6 for OCP + patients (Group 1) and 31.3 ± 6.9 for OCP-patients (Group 2) (P = 0.28). The mean CCT values were significantly higher in Group 1 when compared to that of the Group 2 (540.9 ± 30.4 μm and 519.6 ± 35.6 μm, respectively) (P = 0.003). The mean IOP value was 14.3 ± 2.5 mmHg in Group 1 and 14.4 ± 2.7 mmHg in Group 2 (P = 0.96). The mean BMI scores were 24.4 ± 5.8 kg/m2 in Group 1 and 24.6 ± 3.5 kg/m2 in Group 2 (P = 0.83). Conclusion: Our findings revealed that CCT values were significantly higher in patients with OCP use. Ophthalmologists should be aware of potential elevated CCT levels in these patients. PMID:28066104

  2. The chronic hepatotoxicity assessment of the herbal formula Zishen Yutai pill.

    PubMed

    Xing, Xiaoyan; Deng, Xuehong; Shi, Jinjin; Zhang, Meishuang; Sun, Guibo; Tang, Shimin; Huang, Qiuling; Sun, Xiaobo

    2017-02-01

    Zishen Yutai pill (ZYP) is an oriental herbal formula, while hepatotoxicity assessment of ZYP was rarely evaluated. Therefore, our aim is to re-evaluate its hepatotoxicity in both normal and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced chronic liver injury rats. In the normal model, two doses of ZYP (1.575 and 9.450 g kg(-1) d(-1); i.e. 1 × , 6 × clinical doses) were given orally to rats for 24 weeks. In the chronic liver injury model, 10% CCl4 was administered to rats abdominally twice a week at a dose of 5 mL kg(-1) for 12 consecutive weeks. Administration time started from 4 weeks after the beginning of CCl4 treatment. Toxicological parameters included mortality, body weight, food consumption, clinical signs, biochemical parameters, gross observation, organ weight, necropsy findings and histopathology were monitored. In the normal model, we found no any mortality or abnormality in clinical signs, relative liver weight, biochemical parameters and histopathology in ZYP treatment groups. In the chronic liver injury model, liver damage related parameter such as ALT was elevated at the high dose of ZYP treatment in contrast to the CCl4-treated group (P < 0.01). In histopathological assessment, there were no significant difference between ZYP treatment groups and CCl4-treated group. No observed adverse effect on livers were established for 9.450 g kg(-1) d(-1) ZYP in the normal rats and 9.450 g kg(-1) d(-1) ZYP in the injury rats.

  3. Compound Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) dripping pill for coronary heart disease: an overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing; Song, Weijiang; Yang, Guoyan; Xu, Hao; Chen, Keji

    2015-01-01

    Compound Danshen dripping pill (CDDP) is commonly used to treat coronary heart disease (CHD) in China. However, clinical practice has not been informed by evidence from relevant systematic reviews (SRs). This overview aims at summarizing evidence from SRs on CDDP for the treatment of CHD. We included SRs of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on CDDP in treating CHD until March 2014 by searching the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE and four Chinese databases. Data were extracted according to a pre-designed form. We assessed the quality of SRs according to AMSTAR and graded the quality of evidence in the included SRs using the GRADE approach. All data analyses were descriptive. About 13 SRs involving a total of 34,071 participants with angina or acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were included. Few SRs assessed endpoints (5/13, 38.5%) and quality of life (QOL) (4/13, 30.8%). Most of the SRs suggested that CDDP had potential benefits for patients with CHD, such as improving symptoms and electrocardiogram (ECG) results, with few adverse reactions, while benefits in endpoints were unproved. Moreover, the overall quality of evidence in the SRs was poor, ranging from "very low" to "moderate", and most of the included SRs were of "low" (3/13, 23.1%) or "moderate" (9/13, 69.2%) quality with many serious flaws. Current SRs suggested potential benefits of CDDP for the treatment of CHD. However, high-quality evidence is warranted to support the application of CDDP in treating CHD.

  4. Should Providers Give Women Advance Provision of Emergency Contraceptive Pills? A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Diana G.; Raine, Tina R.; Brindis, Claire; Rostovtseva, Daria P.; Darney, Philip D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose We sought to determine the potential effect and cost-effectiveness of different means of accessing emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) on unintended pregnancy rates in sexually active women. Methods We used a computer simulation model to compare the effects of advance provision, on-demand provision, and no use of ECP on unintended pregnancies and costs of care in three hypothetical cohorts of 1 million sexually active women. Data on effectiveness of ECP from the single-use clinical trials, and costs from Medi-Cal, California’s Medicaid program were used for the model. Findings Advance provision of ECP is projected to avert a greater or the same percentage of unintended pregnancies compared with on-demand provision, with the greatest percentage of pregnancies averted (66%) in low-risk women with advance provision. In the simulation model, the percentage of pregnancies averted decreases as the frequency of unprotected intercourse increases and ECP use decreases. In all scenarios, the cost-savings ratio—the number of dollars saved on averted pregnancy expenditures for each dollar spent on advance ECP—is greater than one. Conclusion Advance provision of ECP has the potential to avert unintended pregnancies and reduce medical expenditures. The most likely reason that the advance provision trials fail to demonstrate reductions in pregnancy rates is a result of a combination of small study sizes, the use of ECP in both treatment and control groups, and a failure to take into account a realistic range of rates of unprotected intercourse and imperfect ECP use. PMID:20620913

  5. Adherence to the oral contraceptive pill: a cross-sectional survey of modifiable behavioural determinants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Poor adherence to the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) is reported as one of the main causes of unintended pregnancy in women that rely on this form of contraception. This study aims to estimate the associations between a range of well-established modifiable psychological factors and adherence to OCP. Method A cross-sectional survey of 130 female University students currently using OCP (Mean age: 20.46 SD: 3.01, range 17–36) was conducted. An OCP specific Medication Adherence Report Scale was used to assess non-adherence. Psychological predictor measures included necessity and concern beliefs about OCP, intentions, perceived behavioural control (pbc), anticipated regret and action and coping planning. Multiple linear regression was used to analyse the data. Results Fifty-two per cent of participants reported missing their OCP once or more per month and 14% twice or more per month. In bivariate analysis intentions (r = −0.25), perceived behavioural control (r= −0.66), anticipated regret (r=0.20), concerns about OCP (r =0.31), and action (r= −0.25) and coping (r= −0.28) planning were all significantly associated with adherence to OCP in the predicted direction. In a multivariate model almost half (48%) of the variation in OCP adherence could be explained. The strongest and only statistically significant predictors in this model were perceived behavioural control (β=−0.62, p<0.01) and coping planning (β =−0.23, p=0.03). A significant interaction between intentions and anticipated regret was also observed. Conclusion The present data point to a number of key modifiable psychological determinants of OCP use. Future work will establish whether changing these variables results in better adherence to the OCP. PMID:23031437

  6. Bak Foong pills combined with metformin in the treatment of a polycystic ovarian syndrome rat model

    PubMed Central

    LIU, WENHUI; LIU, WENPEI; FU, YULING; WANG, YAN; ZHANG, YUANZHEN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the treatment effects and associated mechanism of Bak Foong pills (BFPs) combined with metformin in the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). BFPs and/or metformin were administrated to treat the PCOS rats, and the weights and morphologies of the ovary, uterus and adrenal gland were measured. The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone, fasting insulin (FIN) and insulin-like growth factor-1 were also measured, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. The expression level of androgen receptor (AR) in the ovarian tissue, and the cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) mRNA levels in the ovary and adrenal tissues were detected. The levels of T, FIN, FBG and HOMA-IR in the combination group were significantly reduced; the wet weights of the ovary and the adrenal gland were decreased significantly, while that of the uterus was increased, and the histological morphology benignly recovered. The rats of each treatment group all experienced restored ovulation. The AR expression level in the treatment group was reduced, and the P450scc mRNA levels in the ovary and the adrenal gland of the combined treatment group were decreased. BFPs combined with metformin significantly affected PCOS, and the possible mechanism involved in the treatment may have been through the reduction of P450scc generation. BFPs may reduce the androgen levels, thus allowing the ovary to restore ovulation. PMID:26622758

  7. Suxiao Jiuxin Pill Induces Potent Relaxation and Inhibition on Contraction in Human Artery and the Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Ping; Yang, Qin; Liu, Xiao-Cheng; Wang, Jun; Tong, Yong-Ling; Xiong, Song-Jin; Liu, Li-Hua; Wang, Lei; He, Guo-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Suxiao Jiuxin Pill, a compound Chinese traditional medicine with main components of tetramethylpyrazine and borneol, is widely used for antiangina treatment in China but its pharmacological effect on human blood vessels is unknown. We investigated the effect and possible mechanism of SJP in the human internal mammary artery (IMA, n = 78) taken from patients undergoing coronary surgery. SJP caused full relaxation in KCl- (99.4 ± 10.5%, n = 6) and U46619- (99.9 ± 5.6%, n = 6) contracted IMA. Pretreatment of IMA with plasma concentrations of SJP (1 mg/mL), calculated from the plasma concentration of its major component borneol, significantly depressed the maximal contraction to KCl (from 35.8 ± 6.0 mN to 12.6 ± 5.6 mN, P = 0.03) and U46619 (from 19.4 ± 2.9 mN to 5.7 ± 2.4 mN, P = 0.007) while SJP at 10 mg/mL abolished the subsequent contraction. Endothelium denudation and inhibition of eNOS significantly altered the SJP-induced relaxation without changes of eNOS expression. We conclude that SJP has a potent inhibitory effect on the vasoconstriction mediated by a variety of vasoconstrictors in human arteries. The vasorelaxation involves both endothelium-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Thus, the effect of SJP on human arteries demonstrated in this study may prove to be particularly important in vasorelaxing therapy in cardiovascular disease. PMID:24808920

  8. Reliability of intestinal temperature using an ingestible telemetry pill system during exercise in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Ruddock, Alan D; Tew, Garry A; Purvis, Alison J

    2014-03-01

    Ingestible telemetry pill systems are being increasingly used to assess the intestinal temperature during exercise in hot environments. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the interday reliability of intestinal temperature during an exercise-heat challenge. Intestinal temperature was recorded as 12 physically active men (25 ± 4 years, stature 181.7 ± 7.0 cm, body mass 81.1 ± 10.6 kg) performed two 60-minute bouts of recumbent cycling (50% of peak aerobic power [watts]) in an environmental chamber set at 35° C 50% relative humidity 3-10 days apart. A range of statistics were used to calculate the reliability, including a paired t-test, 95% limits of agreement (LOA), coefficient of variation (CV), standard error of measurement (SEM), Pearson's correlation coefficient (r), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Cohen's d. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. The method indicated a good overall reliability (LOA = ± 0.61° C, CV = 0.58%, SEM = 0.12° C, Cohen's d = 0.12, r = 0.84, ICC = 0.84). Analysis revealed a statistically significant (p = 0.02) mean systematic bias of -0.07 ± 0.31° C, and the investigation of the Bland-Altman plot suggested the presence of heteroscedasticity. Further analysis revealed the minimum "likely" change in intestinal temperature to be 0.34° C. Although the method demonstrates a good reliability, researchers should be aware of heteroscedasticity. Changes in intestinal temperature >0.34° C as a result of exercise or an intervention in a hot environment are likely changes and less influenced by error associated with the method.

  9. Use of emergency contraceptive pills and condoms by college students: a survey.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee Sun; Moneyham, Linda

    2008-05-01

    This study examined the intentions, knowledge, and attitudes of college students regarding the use of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) and condoms. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at 16 Korean colleges. Data were collected from March 15 to June 10, 2006 from a convenience sample of 1046 college students using a survey questionnaire. The survey included measures of demographic variables, intention to use ECPs (one item) and condoms (one item), knowledge about ECPs (12 items), and attitudes toward using ECPs (12 items) and condoms (16 items). All items except knowledge were rated on a 5-point Likert-type response format, with higher scores indicating greater intentions, more positive attitudes, and greater knowledge. Of the 1046 participants, 76.3% had heard of ECPs and 13.2% of the sexually active participants (n=190) had used them. Participants showed a general lack of knowledge about ECPs and misconceptions about their safety. The intentions of using ECPs and condoms were positively correlated with each other and with attitude such that the more positive the attitude, the greater their intention to use both ECPs and condoms. There were significant gender differences on many of the variables, in that female students had higher knowledge about ECPs, intention of using ECPs and condoms, and more positive attitude toward condoms than male students who had more positive attitudes toward ECPs. Females had more concerns about the safety of ECPs than males. The findings suggest that college students must be better informed about ECPs, and reassured about their safety. Additionally, promoting ECPs would not negatively affect condom use. Efforts are needed to disseminate up-to-date information to the general public and to develop educational and awareness programs to empower young people to make informed decisions about the use of ECPs and condoms.

  10. Bak Foong pills combined with metformin in the treatment of a polycystic ovarian syndrome rat model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenhui; Liu, Wenpei; Fu, Yuling; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Yuanzhen

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the treatment effects and associated mechanism of Bak Foong pills (BFPs) combined with metformin in the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). BFPs and/or metformin were administrated to treat the PCOS rats, and the weights and morphologies of the ovary, uterus and adrenal gland were measured. The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone, fasting insulin (FIN) and insulin-like growth factor-1 were also measured, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. The expression level of androgen receptor (AR) in the ovarian tissue, and the cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) mRNA levels in the ovary and adrenal tissues were detected. The levels of T, FIN, FBG and HOMA-IR in the combination group were significantly reduced; the wet weights of the ovary and the adrenal gland were decreased significantly, while that of the uterus was increased, and the histological morphology benignly recovered. The rats of each treatment group all experienced restored ovulation. The AR expression level in the treatment group was reduced, and the P450scc mRNA levels in the ovary and the adrenal gland of the combined treatment group were decreased. BFPs combined with metformin significantly affected PCOS, and the possible mechanism involved in the treatment may have been through the reduction of P450scc generation. BFPs may reduce the androgen levels, thus allowing the ovary to restore ovulation.

  11. [Adherence to antiretroviral therapy measured by pill count and drug serum concentrations. Variables associated with a bad adherence].

    PubMed

    Riera, Melcior; La Fuente Ld, Laura de; Castanyer, Bartomeu; Puigventós, Francesc; Villalonga, Concepción; Ribas, M Angels; Pareja, Antonio; Leyes, Maria; Salas, Ana

    2002-09-14

    We aimed at measuring the adherence to HAART by means of pill count and drug plasma levels. In addition, we aimed at determining variables associated with suboptimal adherence. Prospective observational study of 202 consecutive patients with HIV infection who were receiving antiretroviral treatment, followed up during 9 months. At baseline and at the end of the study a structured questionnaire was administered and a review of medical charts was performed. The adherence was assessed by monthly pill count while drug plasma levels were measured every three months. We considered that a patient adherence was not fulfilled when the mean pill count was < 90% or when any plasma drug level was lower than that expected. Of 143 available patients, 41.2% were non-adherent. According to the univariate analysis, non-adherent patients were more likely to be younger, female, under a methadone maintenance scheme, under psychiatric treatment, to have depression (according to the Beck Depression Inventory), to have adverse antiretroviral effects and to have a previous history of voluntary withdrawal of the treatment. Men who had sex with other men were significantly more adherent. In the multivariate analysis, female sex [OR 2.6 (1.04-6.65)], to be under a methadone program [OR 9.43 (1.01-88)], to have adverse drug effects [OR 2.63 (1.09-6.33)] and to have a previous history of voluntary withdrawal [OR 2.63 (1.09-6.36)] were independent risk factors for non-adherence. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy was 58.8%, similar to that seen in other chronic diseases. To be under a methadone maintenance program and having an active drug addiction was related with non-adherence. Women with worst adherence levels had frequently psychiatric comorbidity and more adverse drug effects.

  12. Oxycontin: the concept of a "ghost pill" and the postmortem tissue distribution of oxycodone in 36 cases.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Daniel T; Fritz, Kristina L; Muto, Joseph J

    2002-10-01

    Oxycodone is a semi-synthetic opioid that is structurally similar to codeine and equipotent to morphine in producing analgesic effects. Oxycodone has been prescribed in many immediate-release formulations including Percodan, Percocet, Tylox, Roxicodone, and Toxicet. In 1995, the Food and Drug Administration approved Oxycontin, a controlled-release form of oxycodone. Although the immediate-release forms of oxycodone can be prescribed in doses of 10-30 mg every 4 h, it is recommended that Oxycontin be prescribed in doses of 10-160 mg every 12 h. In a six-year period, the Los Angeles County Department of Coroner's Toxicology Laboratory detected oxycodone in 67 cases, 36 of which were determined to be the controlled-release form. The objectives of this paper are to provide general information about Oxycontin, including postmortem tissue distributions of oxycodone in cases in which the controlled-release form was identified, and to introduce the concept of ghost pills. A ghost pill is a seemingly intact but drug-free tablet that resembles an undigested pill. The isolation and identification of oxycodone from postmortem specimens was achieved using a basic, liquid-liquid extraction with screening and quantitation by gas chromatography-nitrogen-phosphorus detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. Oxycodone-d3 was used as an internal standard for quantitation. The assays were linear from 0.10 to 5.0 mg/L. The tissue distribution ranges of oxycodone in the 36 case examples were heart blood 0.12-46 mg/L (36), femoral blood + < 0.10-13 mg/L (35), liver 0.11-6.1 mg/kg (16), urine 2.5-122 mg/L (22), bile 0.19-49 mg/L (15), vitreous 0.24-0.82 mg/L (6), and gastric 0.06-119 mg total (21).

  13. The influence of medical education level on the Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum medical students' knowledge concerning oral hormonal contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Polak, Karina; Pityński, Kazimierz; Banaś, Tomasz; Bubel, Magdalena; Kałwa, Maria; Jamroga, Joanna; Knysak, Magdalena; Kusior, Magdalena; Truszkiewicz, Katarzyna; Oleksy, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    In December 2014 the authors carried out a research among Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum medical students in a form of a questionnaire which consisted of two parts: personal information and multiple choice test concerning student's knowledge on OCPs. It showed that the level of medical education, defined as the year of study, increases student's knowledge about oral hormonal contraceptive pills. New program of study introduced from academic year 2012/2013 gives students wider knowledge on OCPs at earlier stage of education. Factors as female sex, usage of OCPs by student or his partner, positive attitude towards recommending OCPs to future patients show positive correlation with student's knowledge.

  14. Rethinking agency and medical adherence technology: applying Actor Network Theory to the case study of Digital Pills.

    PubMed

    Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Cabling, Mark L; Sheppard, Vanessa B

    2015-12-01

    Much literature surrounding medical technology and adherence posits that technology is a mechanism for social control. This assumes that the medical establishment can take away patients' agency. Although power relationships and social control can play a key role, medical technology can also serve as an agentive tool to be utilized. We (1) offer the alternative framework of Actor Network Theory to view medical technology, (2) discuss the literature on medication adherence and technology, (3) delve into the ramifications of looking at adherence as a network and (4) use Digital Pills as a case study of dispersed agency.

  15. Patents, pills and politics: the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ken

    2004-11-08

    There is tension between the need of the pharmaceutical innovator for intellectual property protection and the need of society for equitable and affordable access to innovative drugs. The recent Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement provides a nice illustration of this interplay between patents, pills and politics. This article provides a brief history of patent law as applied to pharmaceuticals, describes how the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme got caught up in AUSFTA negotiations, analyses the clauses that are likely to impact upon the PBS and describes the political process that reviewed and ultimately amended the AUSFTA.

  16. "Pregnancy and labour cause more deaths than oral contraceptives": The debate on the pill in the Spanish press in the 1960s and 1970s.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Gómez, Teresa; Ignaciuk, Agata

    2015-08-01

    From 1941 to 1978, Franco's regime in Spain banned all contraceptive methods. The pill started circulating in Spain from the 1960s, officially as a drug used in gynaecological therapy. However, in the following decade it was also increasingly used and prescribed as a contraceptive. This paper analyses debates about the contraceptive pill in the Spanish daily newspaper ABC and in two magazines, Blanco y Negro and Triunfo, in the 1960s and 1970s. It concludes that the debate on this contraceptive method was much more heterogeneous than might be expected given the Catholic-conservative character of the dictatorship. The daily press focused on the adverse effects of the drug and magazines concentrated on the ethical and religious aspects of the pill and discussed it in a generally positive light. Male doctors and Catholic authors dominated the debate.

  17. Population pharmacokinetic modeling of the Qishe pill in three major traditional Chinese medicine-defined constitutional types of healthy Chinese subjects: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yue-li; Hou, Ting; Liu, Shu-fen; Zhang, Zhong-liang; Zhang, Ning; Yao, Min; Yang, Long; Shi, Qi; Cui, Xue-jun; Wang, Yong-jun

    2015-02-26

    High incidences of neck pain morbidity are challenging in various situations for populations based on their demographic, physiological and pathological characteristics. Chinese proprietary herbal medicines, as Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) products, are usually developed from well-established and long-standing recipes formulated as tablets or capsules. However, good quantification and strict standardization are still needed for implementation of individualized therapies. The Qishe pill was developed and has been used clinically since 2009. The Qishe pill's personalized medicine should be documented and administered to various patients according to the ancient TCM system, a classification of personalized constitution types, established to determine predisposition and prognosis to diseases as well as therapy and life-style administration. Therefore, we describe the population pharmacokinetic profile of the Qishe pill and compare its metabolic rate in the three major constitution types (Qi-Deficiency, Yin-Deficiency and Blood-Stasis) to address major challenges to individualized standardized TCM. Healthy subjects (N = 108) selected based on constitutional types will be assessed, and standardized pharmacokinetic protocol will be used for assessing demographic, physiological, and pathological data. Laboratory biomarkers will be evaluated and blood samples collected for pharmacokinetics(PK) analysis and second-generation gene sequencing. In single-dose administrations, subjects in each constitutional type cohort (N = 36) will be randomly divided into three groups to receive different Qishe pill doses (3.75, 7.5 and 15 grams). Multiomics, including next generation sequencing, metabolomics, and proteomics, will complement the Qishe pill's multilevel assessment, with cytochrome P450 genes as targets. In a comparison with the general population, a systematic population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) model for the Qishe pill will be established and verified. This

  18. Activity of the pituitary-ovarian axis in the pill-free interval during use of low-dose combined oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    van Heusden, A M; Fauser, B C

    1999-04-01

    This study was performed to evaluate pituitary-ovarian recovery in the pill-free interval during use of three low-dose combined oral contraceptives (COC). Either the estrogen component or the progestin component was comparable in the study groups, to evaluate their relative influence. Serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and estradiol (E2) levels were measured and follicle number and size estimated by transvaginal sonography daily during the 7-day pill-free interval in 44 healthy volunteers using three different low-dose oral contraceptives. Healthy volunteers were enrolled using 20 micrograms ethinyl estradiol (EE) + 75 micrograms gestodene (GSD) (Harmonet, Wyeth-Lederle; n = 15), 20 micrograms EE + 150 micrograms desogestrel (DSG) (Mercilon, Organon n = 17), or 30 micrograms EE + 150 micrograms DSG (Marvelon, Organon, n = 12) given according to the usual regimen of one tablet daily during 3 weeks and 1 week pill-free interval. No ovulations were observed. Pituitary hormones were not statistically significantly different at the beginning of the pill-free interval between the study groups. FSH concentrations were significantly higher at the end of the pill-free interval in the 30 micrograms EE group compared with both 20 micrograms EE groups (7.0 [0.6-12.4] IU/L vs 4.9 [1.4-6.1] IU/L and 4.5 [2.4-7.4] IU/L; p = 0.001). In both 20 micrograms EE groups, a single persistent follicle (24 and 28 mm) was present in one subject. Follicle diameters were statistically significantly smaller at the beginning and at the end of the pill-free period in the 30 micrograms EE group compared with both 20 micrograms EE study groups. Dominant follicles (defined as follicle diameter > or = 10 mm) were observed at the end of the pill-free interval in both 20 micrograms EE groups (in 27% and 18% of women, respectively) but not in the 30 micrograms EE group. Finally, the area-under-the-curve for E2 was statistically significantly lower in the 30 micrograms

  19. [Effect of Zhibai Dihuang Pill on uPA of Uu-infection infertility patients].

    PubMed

    Li, Xuan; He, Qing-Hu; Wang, Yi-Jun; Bai, Yong; Kuang, Ning-Zi; Liu, Chao-Sheng

    2014-12-01

    To study the effect of Zhibai Dihuang Pill (ZBDHP) on urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and sperm quality in ureaplasma urealyticum (Uu) infection infertile patients. Recruited were 80 infertility patients with Uu infection at Andriatrics Clinics and Department of Reproduction, including 130 cases of positive Uu semen and 50 cases of negative Uu semen. Patients with positive Uu semen were randomly assigned to the observation group (72 cases) and the control group (58 cases) according to the visit sequence. All patients took antibiotics for 2 weeks. Patients in the observation group additionally took ZBDHP, 6 g each time, twice daily. Those in the control group additionally took Vit E (100 mg each time, twice per day) and ATP (40 mg each time, twice per day). The therapeutic course for all was 90 days. Semen parameters and uPA contents of the sperm membrane were detected and comparatively analyzed. The sperm membrane uPA content, the sperm motility, the sperm viability, and the percentage of normal morphology sperm in Uu positive infected patients were lower than those in Uu negative infected patients with statistical difference (P < 0.05), but with no significant difference in the sperm density between the two groups (P > 0.05). There was no statistical difference in pre-treatment sperm membrane uPA contents and sperm parameters between the two groups (P > 0.05). Compared with before treatment in the same group, the sperm membrane uPA content, the sperm motility, the sperm viability, and the percentage of normal morphology sperm obviously increased in the two groups with statistical difference (P < 0.05). After treatment, the sperm membrane uPA content increased more obviously in the observation group, with statistical difference when compared with the control group (P < 0.05). Infection with Uu leads to decreased uPA content of sperm membrance and the sperm motility. ZBDHP could effectively treat Uu infected infertility possibly through fighting against

  20. Effect of acute pancreatitis on the pharmacokinetics of Chinese herbal micron Liuhe Pill ointment in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-ling; Zhao, Xian-lin; Li, Juan; Wan, Mei-hua; Chen, Guang-yuan; Chen, Wei-wei; Tang, Wen-fu

    2015-12-01

    To explore the effect of acute pancreatitis (AP) on the pharmacokinetics of herbal ointment micron Liuhe Pill, MLHP) components in anesthetized rats. Rats were randomly divided into a AP model group (n=6) and a normal group as a control (n=6). The rat model of AP was induced by intraperitoneal injection of L-arginine in rats (15 mg/kg, twice, interval 1 h). Chinese herbal ointment MLHP was used externally on the belly after the 2nd injection for 48 h in both groups. Emodin, rhein, aloe emodin, physcion, chrysophanol from MLHP were detected and quantified in rat serum and pancreas (at 48 h) by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Among the five components, only emodin, aloe emodin and physcion from MLHP were detected in all rat serum and most of the rats' pancreas. Rhein and chrysophanol were not detected in both serum and pancreas. T1/2α of emodin and physcion in MLHP were obviously shorter in the AP model group than those in the normal group (P<0.05), while there was no difference for T1/2α of aloe emodin. The peak concentration and area under curve of all three components were much higher in the AP group than those in the normal group with MLHP in external application for 48 h (P<0.05). Furthermore, the mean residence time (MRT) and maximum plasma concentration (Tmax) of emodin and aloe emodin were obviously longer in the AP model group than those in the normal control group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference for Ka of all components between the two groups. Emodin could be detected in all rats' pancreas at 48 h in both groups, while its mean pancreatic concentration was higher in the AP model group than in the normal group (0.61±0.54 ng/mL, 0.42±0.37 ng/mL, respectively,P<0.05). Aloe emodin could be detected in all rats' pancreas at 48 h in both groups and their mean pancreatic concentration were similar (0.31±0.24 ng/mL, 0.33±0.17 ng/mL, respectively,P>0.05). Physcion could be detected in pancreas of most rats in the

  1. Women's ability to self-screen for contraindications to combined oral contraceptive pills in Tanzanian drug shops.

    PubMed

    Chin-Quee, Dawn; Ngadaya, Esther; Kahwa, Amos; Mwinyiheri, Thomas; Otterness, Conrad; Mfinanga, Sayoki; Nanda, Kavita

    2013-10-01

    To estimate the accuracy of self-screening for contraindications to combined oral contraceptive pills (COCs) and to estimate the proportion of women with contraindications to hormonal methods among those using drug shops in Tanzania. Trained nurses interviewed 1651 women aged 18-39 years who self-screened for contraindications to COCs with the help of a poster at drug shops in Tanzania. Nurse assessment of the women served as the gold standard for comparison with self-assessment. Blood pressure was also measured onsite. Nurses reported that 437 (26.5%) women were not eligible to use COCs, compared with 485 (29.4%) according to self-report. Overall, 133 (8.1%) women who said that they were eligible were deemed ineligible by nurses. The rate of ineligibility was artificially high owing to participant and nurse assessments that were incorrectly based on adverse effects of pill use and cultural reasons, and because of the sampling procedure, which intercepted women regardless of their reasons for visiting the drug shop. Adjusted rates of ineligibility were 8.6% and 12.7%, respectively, according to nurse and participant assessment. Both nurses and women underestimated the prevalence of hypertension in the present group. Self-screening among women in rural and peri-urban Tanzania with regard to contraindications to COC use was comparable to assessment by trained nurses. © 2013.

  2. The effect of the oral contraceptive pill on the passive stiffness of the human gastrocnemius muscle in vivo.

    PubMed

    Morse, C I; Spencer, J; Hussain, A W; Onambele, G L

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of sustained monophasic oral contraceptive pill (MOCP) use on the in vivo passive stiffness of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle-tendon unit. Twenty four females volunteered for this study (age range 20-25 yrs); twelve participants had been taking the combined MOCP for a minimum of 12 months, and twelve participants, who had never taken the MOCP, formed a control group. Distal displacement of the GM myotendinous junction (MTJ) was measured during passive dorsiflexion at 2 Nm increments to 20 Nm, and at end range of motion using ultrasonography. In addition, GM MTJ displacement was measured at passive torques equivalent to 5, 10 and 15% of plantarflexion maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque, and relative to GM length. MOCP users had significantly greater GM MTJ displacement at all passive torques (P<0.01), reaching 40% more at 20 Nm; these displacements remained significantly different when MVC and GM length were accounted for (P<0.01). Passive muscle stiffness from 0-20 Nm was 31% less in MOCP users compared to non-users (P<0.01). In conclusion, based on the in vivo assessment of GM MTJ displacement, passive muscle stiffness is less in MOCP using females, compared to non-pill users.

  3. Investigating Birth Control: Comparing Oestrogen Levels in Patients Using the Ortho Evra[R] Patch versus the Ortho-Cyclen[R] Pill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Theresa A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent drug studies have investigated the incidence of blood clots among patients using the Ortho Evra[R] birth control patch. In this article, the author describes an investigation of oestrogen levels in the body resulting from the application of the Ortho Evra[R] birth control patch versus daily use of Ortho-Cyclen[R] birth control pills.…

  4. How-To-Do-It: Snails, Pill Bugs, Mealworms, and Chi-Square? Using Invertebrate Behavior to Illustrate Hypothesis Testing with Chi-Square.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biermann, Carol

    1988-01-01

    Described is a study designed to introduce students to the behavior of common invertebrate animals, and to use of the chi-square statistical technique. Discusses activities with snails, pill bugs, and mealworms. Provides an abbreviated chi-square table and instructions for performing the experiments and statistical tests. (CW)

  5. The Power of the Pill for the Next Generation: Oral Contraception’s Effects on Fertility, Abortion, and Maternal & Child Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ananat, Elizabeth Oltmans; Hungerman, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers how oral contraception’s diffusion to young unmarried women affected the number and parental characteristics of children born to these women. In the short-term, pill access caused declines in fertility and increases in both the share of children born with low birthweight and the share born to poor households. In the long-term, access led to negligible changes in fertility while increasing the share of children with college-educated mothers and decreasing the share with divorced mothers. The short-term effects appear to be driven by upwardly-mobile women opting out of early childbearing while the long-term effects appear to be driven by a retiming of births to later ages. These effects differ from those of abortion legalization, although we find suggestive evidence that pill diffusion lowered abortions. Our results suggest that abortion and the pill are on average used for different purposes by different women, but on the margin some women substitute from abortion towards the pill when both are available. JELNo. I0, J13, N12. PMID:22389533

  6. Emergency Contraceptive Pills: A 10-Year Follow-up Survey of Use and Experiences at College Health Centers in the Mid-Atlantic United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laura McKeller; Sawyer, Robin G.

    2006-01-01

    The authors conducted a 10-year follow-up study using a telephone survey to investigate the availability of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) at college health centers in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. They also examined related issues, such as distribution procedure, existence of a written protocol, personnel involved,…

  7. Emergency Contraceptive Pill (ECP) Use and Experiences at College Health Centers in the Mid-Atlantic United States: Changes since ECP Went Over-the-Counter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the availability of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) at college health centers since ECP went over-the-counter (OTC) in 2006. Related issues, such as distribution procedure, existence of a written protocol, personnel involved, contraindications, follow-up procedures, methods of advertising, and staff attitudes, were…

  8. Investigating Birth Control: Comparing Oestrogen Levels in Patients Using the Ortho Evra[R] Patch versus the Ortho-Cyclen[R] Pill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Theresa A.

    2008-01-01

    Recent drug studies have investigated the incidence of blood clots among patients using the Ortho Evra[R] birth control patch. In this article, the author describes an investigation of oestrogen levels in the body resulting from the application of the Ortho Evra[R] birth control patch versus daily use of Ortho-Cyclen[R] birth control pills.…

  9. Emergency Contraceptive Pills: A 10-Year Follow-up Survey of Use and Experiences at College Health Centers in the Mid-Atlantic United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laura McKeller; Sawyer, Robin G.

    2006-01-01

    The authors conducted a 10-year follow-up study using a telephone survey to investigate the availability of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) at college health centers in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. They also examined related issues, such as distribution procedure, existence of a written protocol, personnel involved,…

  10. Emergency Contraceptive Pill (ECP) Use and Experiences at College Health Centers in the Mid-Atlantic United States: Changes since ECP Went Over-the-Counter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the availability of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) at college health centers since ECP went over-the-counter (OTC) in 2006. Related issues, such as distribution procedure, existence of a written protocol, personnel involved, contraindications, follow-up procedures, methods of advertising, and staff attitudes, were…

  11. How-To-Do-It: Snails, Pill Bugs, Mealworms, and Chi-Square? Using Invertebrate Behavior to Illustrate Hypothesis Testing with Chi-Square.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biermann, Carol

    1988-01-01

    Described is a study designed to introduce students to the behavior of common invertebrate animals, and to use of the chi-square statistical technique. Discusses activities with snails, pill bugs, and mealworms. Provides an abbreviated chi-square table and instructions for performing the experiments and statistical tests. (CW)

  12. Use of birth control pills and condoms among 17-19-year-old adolescents in Norway: contraceptive versus protective behaviour?

    PubMed

    Traeen, B; Lewin, B; Sundet, J M

    1992-01-01

    This article addresses the relationship between sexual risk behaviour and contraceptive behaviour, and considers whether adolescents who use condoms are practising birth control or STD protective behaviour. The material comprised a representative sample of 3000 Norwegians aged 17-19 years. Data were collected by anonymous self-administered questionnaires. The response-rate was 63%. At the first sexual intercourse 51% of the adolescents used condoms and 7% birth control pills. At the most recent intercourse 31% used condoms and 38% the pill. Use of the pill was widespread among adolescents with high coital frequency and few coital partners. Use of condoms was not particularly widespread among adolescents who reported a relatively large number of coital partners. Irrespective of the number of years they had been coitally active there was no significant difference between those who intended to use condoms at the next sexual intercourse and those who did not as regards their beliefs about condoms as protection against STDs, HIV and unintended pregnancies. The results from this study indicate that the majority of adolescents who use contraception do this for protection against unintended pregnancy and not for protection against STDs. The preference for the pill may make teenagers less prepared to practise STD protective behaviour in specific situations.

  13. A successful practical application of Coverage with Evidence Development in Australia: Medical Services Advisory Committee interim funding and the PillCam Capsule Endoscopy Register.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Sue P; Selby, Warwick S; Jordan, Ernest

    2009-07-01

    In August 2002, an application for the listing on the Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) of PillCam Capsule Endoscopy (formally M2A) as a diagnostic procedure for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) was made to the Medical Services Advisory Committee (MSAC). As a result of this application, in May 2004 PillCam Capsule Endoscopy was approved with interim funding until April 2007. This funding was conditional on the collection of Australian data on the long-term safety, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of capsule endoscopy. A review was conducted of how the data were collected, the methodological difficulties associated with the collection and analysis of the data, and the outcomes of the data. The PillCam Capsule Endoscopy Register ran from 2004 to 2007 and amassed data on 4,099 patients forming the largest database on PillCam in the world. Based on these data, in November 2007, MSAC recommended that full public funding be supported under the current MBS Item Number 11820 as capsule endoscopy is as safe as and more effective than comparable diagnostic tests. It is the preferred choice of patients and has the potential to reduce the number and cost of previous investigations. This form of CED proved to be ideally suited to PillCam Capsule Endoscopy. The PillCam Capsule Endoscopy Register provided data that made it possible to validate assumptions used in the economic modeling in the assessment carried out for MSAC in response to the application for funding. The use of interim funding requires both risk and cost sharing among the key players: industry, government, the medical profession, and the hospitals. Although the characteristics of PillCam Capsule Endoscopy proved to be suited to data collection, this may not be the case with other emerging health technologies. If interim funding coupled with data collection is to become an effective mechanism for bridging the evidence gap, work needs to be carried out by health technology assessment agencies to provide

  14. Effects of the Chinese herbal formula "Zuojin Pill" on the pharmacokinetics of dextromethorphan in healthy Chinese volunteers with CYP2D6*10 genotype.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Furong; Liu, Songcan; Miao, Ping; Zeng, Jin; Zhu, Leilei; Zhao, TongFang; Ye, Yujie; Jiang, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Zuojin Pill has been shown to inhibit the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 isoenzyme in vitro. In Chinese individuals, CYP 2D6*10 is the most common allele with reduced enzyme activity. In this study, we investigated the pharmacokinetic interaction between Zuojin Pill and the sensitive CYP2D6 probe dextromethorphan in healthy Chinese volunteers with CYP2D6*10 genotype. A pharmacokinetics interaction study was carried out in three groups with CYP2D6*1/*1 (n = 6), CYP2D6*1/*10 (n = 6), and CYP2D6*10/*10 (n = 6) genotypes. Each participant received a single oral dose of dextromethorphan (15 mg) followed by Zuojin Pill (3 g twice daily) for 7 days, and received 3 g Zuojin Pill with 15 mg dextromethorphan in the last day. Blood samples (0-24 h) and urine samples (0-12 h) were collected at baseline and after the administration of Zuojin Pill, and the samples' concentration of dextromethorphan and its main metabolite dextrorphan was determined. Compared to baseline values, co-administration of Zuojin Pill (3 g twice daily) for 7 days increased the AUC0-24 of dextromethorphan [mean (90 % CI)] by 3.00-fold (2.49∼3.61) and 1.71-fold (1.42∼2.06), and decreased oral clearance(CL/F) by 0.27-fold (0.2-0.40) and 0.57-fold (0.48-0.67) in the participants with CYP2D6*1/*1 and CYP2D6*1/*10 genotypes, respectively. In contrast, no significant change was observed in these pharmacokinetic parameters of the participants with CYP2D6*10/*10 genotype. These data demonstrated that administration of Zuojin Pill inhibited moderately CYP2D6-mediated metabolism of dextromethorphan in healthy volunteers. The inhibitory influence of CYP2D6 was greater in CYP2D6*1/*1 and CYP2D6*1/*10 groups than CYP2D6 *10/*10 group.

  15. A Chinese patent medicine, Shexiang Baoxin Pill, for Non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhou; Shen, Weixing; Yu, Lili; Xu, Cong; Wu, Qibiao

    2016-12-24

    Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SXBXP) is a well-known Chinese patent medicine, widely used for Non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS). It is composed of seven materia medicas or extracts (Moschus, Radix Ginseng, Calculus Bovis, Cortex Cinnamomi, Styrax, Venenum Bufonis and Borneolum Syntheticum). This study is aimed to systematically review the relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the efficacy and safety of SXBXP for long-term management of NSTE-ACS. A systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: The PRISMA Statement. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing long-term Shexiang Baoxin Pill with conventional treatment, with outcome measures relating to efficacy and safety were selected. Primary clinical outcome was the risk of cardiovascular events, secondary outcomes were hospitalizations, angina symptoms, electrocardiogram (ECG) measurements, and adverse events. Eleven RCTs recruiting 1389 patients were included, the overall risk of bias of the included trials is high and the quality poor. Compared with conventional treatment alone, long-term Shexiang Baoxin Pill plus conventional treatment might be more effective in lowering the risk of cardiovascular events (RR=0.36, 95% CI 0.26-0.49, <0.00001), hospitalizations (RR=0.38, 95% CI 0.21-0.67, P=0.0009), and improving angina symptoms (RR=1.19, 95% CI 1.13-1.26, P<0.00001), ECG measurements (RR=1.25, 95% CI 1.13-1.39, P<0.00001). Overall rate of adverse events was not elevated (P=0.43). From the available evidence, SXBXP added to conventional treatment may have beneficial effects on the long-term outcomes of NSTE-ACS, without serious adverse events. However, given the high risk of bias and low quality of the included trials, currently, there is no adequate evidence to draw any conclusions about its routine use. Large, methodologically-sound trials are needed to further assess its

  16. [Effect of Paidu Baoshen Pill on renal fibrosis in 5/6 nephrectomized rats].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shui-Hua; Chen, Bang-Ming; Liu, Yong-Fang; Che, Wei-Ping; Wu, Zhao-Dong; Wang, Guo-Bing; Xia, Xiao-Qin; Huang, Hong-En; Wei, Lin; Zhu, Hai-Long; Liu, Gan-Yan

    2015-01-01

    To observe the anti-renal fibrosis effect of Paidu Baoshen Pill (PBP) on 5/6 nephrectomized rats and to explore its mechanism. Totally 50 SD male healthy rats were randomly divided into the normal control group (n = 10), the sham-operation group (n = 10), and the nephrectomy model group (n = 30) according to the proportion of 1:1:3. Rats in the sham-operation group had their renal capsule isolated without nephrectomy. Rats in the nephrectomy model group had their kidneys 5/6 nephrectomized. Then 24 h urine was collected and 24 h urinary protein (24 h UP) detected. Serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatitine (SCr) were also tested. According to the SCr level 30 rats of the model group were further randomly divided into the model group, the PBP group, and the Niaoduqing Granule (NG) group, 10 in each group. Rats in the PBP group and the NG group were respectively administered with PBP (at the daily dose of 1.0 g/kg) and NG (at the daily dose of 3.33 g/kg) by gastrogavage (they were dissolved in distilled water). At the same time, 2 mL distilled water was administered by gastrogavage to rats in the normal control group, the sham-operation group, and the nephrectomy model group, once daily for 4 successive weeks. Mental conditions, activities, hair color, shape of stool, and the body weight were observed during administration. After 4 weeks, urine was collected to detect 24 h UP. Blood was sampled to detect SCr, BUN, transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), type III procollagen (PC III), collagen type IV (Col IV), laminin (LN), and fibronectin (FN). After rats were killed, their left remnant renal tissues were collected for pathological examinations. The protein expression quantity of TGF-β1 and FN was detected by immunohistochemical method. mRNA expression levels of TGF-β1 and FN were detected using real time fluorescent quantitative PCR. There was no statistical difference in the above indices between the normal control group and the sham-operation group

  17. Quickly quantifying the dissolution fingerprints of compound Danshen dropping pill by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guoxiang; Song, Yuqing; Li, Lifeng; Hou, Zhifei; Tong, Ling

    2013-07-01

    To firstly accurately overall determine the all components of Compound Danshen Dropping Pills (CDDP) and assess how about the authentic quality is for each bath of samples through a quantified fingerprint that only can qualitatively identified which kind of a herbal or Traditional Chinese Medicine may be. The systematically quantified fingerprint method (SQFM) was employed to identify that the qualities of S4 and S6 were belong to best (grade 1), those of S3, S5, S7, S8 and S9 belong to better (grade 2), those of S2 and S10 belong to good (grade 3), and only S1 falling to fine (grade 4) where those were all with 19 fingerprint peaks. On the basis, the important HPLC dissolution fingerprints (DFPs) of CDDPs were meticulously established to investigate the dynamic process in water, 0.1 mol/L hydrogen chloride (HCl) and 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), respectively, in which SQFM executed the excellently quantified analyses for the DFPs. During the evaluation, the eighth time points of DFPs were selected as the standards for all dissolving to calculate how high are the macro quantitative similarity ( P m ) of DFPs for the other different time points. Finally in terms of Weibull function, lnln [1/(1- P m )]=-0.5951 x (2)+3.8146 x -4.5195 ( r =0.9974), lnln [1/(1- P m )]=-0.5555 x (2)+3.5814 x -4.6126 ( r =0.9972) were acquired in water and in 0.1 mol/L HCl solution respectively, but without in the SDS solution. In order to specially monitor the dissolution dynamic changes of the important fingerprints to guide the preparation technology and improve their bioavailability, We investigated the four strong peaks of CDDP-DFP and calculated out the fitting equations as follows, lnln [1/(1- A i / A max )]= y , the first one (No.6, Protocatechualdehyde), y =-0.5603 x (2)+3.4516 x -3.8974 ( r =0.9988); the second one (No.19, Salvianolic acid B), y =-1.7127 x (2) +9.6655x-11.947 ( r =0.9897); the third one (No.4, Danshensu), y =-0.4239 x (2)+3.0436 x -3.6276 ( r =0.9985); the

  18. The Combination of Pill Count and Self-Reported Adherence is a Strong Predictor of First-Line ART Failure for Adults in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Peng; Johnson, Brent A.; Nachega, Jean B.; Wu, Baohua; Ordóñez, Claudia E.; Hare, Anna Q.; Kearns, Rachel; Murphy, Richard; Sunpath, Henry; Marconi, Vincent C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a strong predictor of virologic failure (VF) among people with HIV. Various methods such as patient self-report, pill counts and pharmacy refills have been utilized to monitor adherence. However, there are limited data on the accuracy of combining methods to better predict VF in routine clinical settings. We examined various methods to assess adherence including pill count, medication possession ratio (MPR), and self-reported adherence in order to determine which was most highly associated with VF after ≥ 6 months on ART. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a case-control study. At enrollment, pharmacy refill data were collected retrospectively from the medical chart, pill counts were completed to derive a pill count adherence ratio (PCAR) and a self-report questionnaire was administered to all participants. Parametric smooth splines and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses were carried out to assess the accuracy of the adherence methods. Results 458 patients were enrolled from October 2010 to June 2012. Of these, 158 (34.50%) experienced VF (cases) and 300 (65.50%) were controls. The median (IQR) PCAR was 1.10 (0.99–1.14) for cases and 1.13 (1.08–1.18) for controls (p<0.0001). The median MPR was 1.00 (0.97–1.07) for cases and 1.03 (0.96–1.07) for controls (p=0.83). Combination of PCAR and self-reported questions was highly associated with VF. Conclusion In this setting, a combination of pill count adherence and self-report adherence questions had the highest diagnostic accuracy for VF. Further validation of this simple, low-cost combination is warranted in large prospective studies. PMID:25426940

  19. The pharmacokinetic characters of simvastatin after co-administration with Shexiang Baoxin Pill in healthy volunteers' plasma.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jianfei; Jiang, Peng; Peng, Chengcheng; Li, Min; Liu, Runhui; Zhang, Weidong

    2016-07-15

    To investigate the effect of Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SBP), a tranditional Chinese medicine, on the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of simvastatin in healthy volunteers' plasma, a quantitative method was developed using an Agilent G6410A rapid performance liquid chromatography (RPLC) coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry system. The established method was rapid with high extraction recovery and successfully applied for the determination of simvastatin in plasma of 16 healthy volunteers. The results demonstrated that the MRT(0-∞), T1/2 and Tmax value of simvastatin were significantly decreased, while the AUC(0-t) and Cmax values of smivastatin were increased by SBP. The pharmacokinetic study demonstrated that the metabolism parameters of simvastatin could be affected by SBP and the potential drug-drug interaction should be noted in the future clinical practice.

  20. How the pill became a lifestyle drug: the pharmaceutical industry and birth control in the United States since 1960.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Elizabeth Siegel

    2012-08-01

    Marketing decisions, rather than scientific innovations, have guided the development and positioning of contraceptive products in recent years. I review the stalled progress in contraceptive development in the decades following the advent of the Pill in 1960 and then examine the fine-tuning of the market for oral contraceptives in the 1990s and 2000s. Although birth control has been pitched in the United States as an individual solution, rather than a public health strategy, the purpose of oral contraceptives was understood by manufacturers, physicians, and consumers to be the prevention of pregnancy, a basic health care need for women. Since 1990, the content of that message has changed, reflecting a shift in the drug industry's view of the contraception business. Two factors contributed to bring about this change: first, the industry's move away from research and development in birth control and second, the growth of the class of medications known as lifestyle drugs.

  1. Intracerebral hemorrhage in a young woman with arteriovenous malformation after taking diet control pills containing phenylpropanolamine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chung, Y T; Hung, D Z; Hsu, C P; Yang, D Y; Wu, T C

    1998-07-01

    Administration of phenylpropanolamine (PPA) is a rare cause of intracerebral hemorrhage. We present the case of a young female patient with arteriovenous malformation who suffered an intracerebral hemorrhage after ingestion of diet pills containing PPA. The literature on PPA-related intracerebral hemorrhage is also reviewed. This is the first report of PPA-associated intracerebral hemorrhage in a patient with pathology-proven arteriovenous malformation of the brain. Because intracerebral hemorrhage may develop as a side effect of PPA when patients take the manufacturer's recommended dose, especially in patients with vascular abnormalities, we conclude that this medicine should be prescribed carefully and patients should be closely monitored by experienced physicians. Furthermore, its use should be contraindicated in patients who have, or possibly have, a family history of vascular abnormalities.

  2. How the Pill Became a Lifestyle Drug: The Pharmaceutical Industry and Birth Control in the United States Since 1960

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Elizabeth Siegel

    2012-01-01

    Marketing decisions, rather than scientific innovations, have guided the development and positioning of contraceptive products in recent years. I review the stalled progress in contraceptive development in the decades following the advent of the Pill in 1960 and then examine the fine-tuning of the market for oral contraceptives in the 1990s and 2000s. Although birth control has been pitched in the United States as an individual solution, rather than a public health strategy, the purpose of oral contraceptives was understood by manufacturers, physicians, and consumers to be the prevention of pregnancy, a basic health care need for women. Since 1990, the content of that message has changed, reflecting a shift in the drug industry's view of the contraception business. Two factors contributed to bring about this change: first, the industry's move away from research and development in birth control and second, the growth of the class of medications known as lifestyle drugs. PMID:22698049

  3. Rationale and design of the Pharmacist Intervention for Low Literacy in Cardiovascular Disease (PILL-CVD) study.

    PubMed

    Schnipper, Jeffrey L; Roumie, Christianne L; Cawthon, Courtney; Businger, Alexandra; Dalal, Anuj K; Mugalla, Ileko; Eden, Svetlana; Jacobson, Terry A; Rask, Kimberly J; Vaccarino, Viola; Gandhi, Tejal K; Bates, David W; Johnson, Daniel C; Labonville, Stephanie; Gregory, David; Kripalani, Sunil

    2010-03-01

    Medication errors and adverse drug events are common after hospital discharge due to changes in medication regimens, suboptimal discharge instructions, and prolonged time to follow-up. Pharmacist-based interventions may be effective in promoting the safe and effective use of medications, especially among high-risk patients such as those with low health literacy. The Pharmacist Intervention for Low Literacy in Cardiovascular Disease (PILL-CVD) study is a randomized controlled trial conducted at 2 academic centers-Vanderbilt University Hospital and Brigham and Women's Hospital. Patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome or acute decompensated heart failure were randomly assigned to usual care or intervention. The intervention consisted of pharmacist-assisted medication reconciliation, inpatient pharmacist counseling, low-literacy adherence aids, and tailored telephone follow-up after discharge. The primary outcome is the occurrence of serious medication errors in the first 30 days after hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes are health care utilization, disease-specific quality of life, and cost-effectiveness. Enrollment was completed September 2009. A total of 862 patients were enrolled, and 430 patients were randomly assigned to receive the intervention. Analyses will determine whether the intervention was effective in reducing serious medication errors, particularly in patients with low health literacy. The PILL-CVD study was designed to reduce serious medication errors after hospitalization through a pharmacist-based intervention. The intervention, if effective, will inform health care facilities on the use of pharmacist-assisted medication reconciliation, inpatient counseling, low-literacy adherence aids, and patient follow-up after discharge. Clinical Trial Registration- clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier: NCT00632021.

  4. Pill characterization data streams for reducing exposure to inadequately identified anti-malarial medication in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A large fraction of anti-malaria medicines (and indeed many other medicines classes) used in developing countries are inadequately identified. Framing this problem as one of misidentification rather than the more common framing of criminal misrepresentation leads to new solutions sets not currently being considered. Method That reframing led to consideration and analysis of 4 new problems that informed design of a digital platform technology for delivering a distributed medicine characterization system: 1) problematic interests associated with a focus on preventing counterfeiting, 2) the complexity of the many ways that medicines can deviate from expected identities, 3) the challenge of choosing amongst a diversity of attribute characterization technologies, and 4) the need for a flexible and distributed data aggregation mechanism. Results Analysis of those new problems confirmed an initial insight that a previously described digital technology for tracking malaria tests results in infrastructure limited regions could be adapted for characterizing pill attributes. Feasibility is illustrated by describing how the platform design can be implemented using open-source software and commodity computational and communication technology readily available and supportable in developing countries. Discussion A system of this type would allow users to answer several questions. Is this medicine what it is supposed to be? Can it be used to treat locally encountered malaria? What has been the experience of others who have used pills having the same identity? Ubiquitous access to global digital telecommunication infrastructure allows the system to generate data streams from these distributed medicine characterization transactions that can be used to map global patterns of use of specifically identified medicines. This can provide feedback necessary to guide efforts to reduce the burden of malaria. PMID:20649985

  5. Report - Renovation of a traditional Ergh-al-Nassa pill (Hab) to a standard Pharmaceutical molded tablet.

    PubMed

    Zargaran, Arman; Daneshamouz, Saeid; Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2016-09-01

    The Ergh-al-Nassa pill (Hab) is a traditional combination suggested as one of the most effective preparations useful for treatment of sciatica. Although traditional preparations can be applied as new therapeutic drugs for investigations and clinical trials, they need to be reformulated to achieve pharmacopoeial standards for modern medicine. In this research, based on seven traditional Persian pharmacopeias for Ergh-al-NassaHab, nine different molded tablets were reformulated. Each formulation comprised the same amount of colchicum, ginger, aloe and yellow myrobalan fruit. Sweet almond oil had to be added in the maximum amount needed to be absorbed by the yellow myrobalan fruit according to its particle size (30-40 mesh sizes). The studies were performed in order to optimize the formulation process according to the role of three levels in particle size of the herbal ingredients (60-70, 80-100, 100-150 mesh sizes) and three levels of initial water for granulation. The molded tablets were evaluated according to standard quality controls for tablets (mass uniformity, LOD, hardness, friability, and disintegration time at 20 and 30 min). Myrobalan powdered to 30-40 mesh size absorbed the maximum amount of sweet almond oil (1:0.75 w/v). The best formulations occurred when the particle size of colchicum, ginger, and aloe was 60-70 mesh size with an initial moisture content of 0.47 ml per 1g of dried powder. The outcome of this research is a pharmaceutical standardized formulation from the traditional Ergh-al-Nassa pill which can be suggested as a sample drug discovery based on traditional knowledge.

  6. Pregnancy is more dangerous than the pill: A critical analysis of professional responses to the Yaz/Yasmin controversy.

    PubMed

    Geampana, Alina

    2016-10-01

    The fourth and most recent generation of hormones used in oral contraceptives has stirred a significant amount of debate regarding the safety of these compounds. Drospirenone, a new type of synthetic hormone used in popular oral contraceptives Yaz and Yasmin, has been found by epidemiologists to increase the risk of blood clots when compared to the previous generations of pills. North American regulatory bodies have investigated the health risks of drospirenone and concluded that the increased risks do not require pulling the new contraceptive technology off the market. Instead, the FDA and Health Canada along with several medical associations have actively managed the Yaz/Yasmin controversy through official statements and press releases between 2010 and 2014. This study provides an analysis of these documents and how risk information about drospirenone-containing pills has been presented to the public. The analysis addresses a gap in our knowledge about cultural factors that impact contraceptive risk assessment. Prevalent risk models used by professionals are highlighted and examined through the use of critical discourse analysis methods. More specifically, this paper highlights the main strategies used to put drospirenone risks into perspective and classify it as safe. I argue that while risks related to pregnancy and the postpartum period are overly-emphasized, other risks are downplayed through a selection process underscored by normative beliefs about women's bodies and sexuality. Future research needs to address consumer perspectives and bridge the gap between lay and scientific risk/benefit assessment of oral contraceptives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Survey of knowledge and practice on oral contraceptive and emergency contraceptive pills of drugstore personnel in Hat Yai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ratanajamit, C; Chongsuvivatwong, V

    2001-01-01

    In Thailand, oral contraceptive (OC) and emergency contraceptive pill (ECP) are available as over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, and drugstores share 30% of services. While the rate of dispensing contraceptive pills has increased, the knowledge and awareness of ECP use is limited among users and providers. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge and practice of drugstore personnel on providing OC and ECP, in order to improve the quality of services. Drugstores located in Hat Yai District, Songkhla Province, Southern Thailand, were the accessible population. There were 109 drugstores, half of them owned by pharmacists. The population was stratified by owner (pharmacist or non-pharmacist) and randomly selected to obtain a sample size of 30 drugstores for each class. Two study methods, questionnaire interview and secret shopping, were used to measure knowledge, and practice, respectively. History-taking, drug-choosing, and advice-giving were the domains measured. The results demonstrated that knowledge on OC was fair, but that on ECP was poor. Pharmacists had better knowledge of proper history taking and ECP indication than non-pharmacists. OC and ECP provision were inappropriately practised in drugstores in the study area. A majority of drugstores were mainly owned by non-pharmacists. For OC practice, drug-choosing was good, but history-taking and advice-giving were poor in both groups. Although both groups dispensed ECP poorly, pharmacists dispensed significantly better than non-pharmacists. Among non-pharmacist staff, the average scores of OC advice-giving, and ECP dispensing, were statistically significantly better among those working in pharmacist-owned drugstores. Both knowledge and practice on OC and ECP should be improved in both types of drugstores in the study area.

  8. "They're legal so they're safe, right?" What did the legal status of BZP-party pills mean to young people in New Zealand?

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Janie; Butler, Rachael

    2010-01-01

    The legislation on psychoactive substances has a role to play with regard to shaping social values and influencing the normalisation of drug use. In New Zealand from 2005 to 2008, benzylpiperazine-containing 'legal' party pills (BZP-party pills) were legally available for purchase, subject to controls around a minimum purchase age of 18 years, and prohibitions on free of charge distribution and advertising in certain media. This paper explores what their legal status communicated to young users. Interviews and group discussions with young people (n=58) who had used BZP-party pills in the preceding 6 months. Data were collected between June and December 2006 via a series of interviews with individuals, 'friendship' pairs, and groups comprised of participants known to each other. Young people saw BZP-party pills as 'safe' and of good quality as they were legal/government sanctioned, but also thus of inferior strength, suggesting they could take more of them. However, after using them they often reviewed their view of their safety and quality due to varied experiences. Being legal for some people meant they could use the substances without breaking the law, or having to go to 'dealers'. Their legal status also meant they were easily accessible and were seen to be 'socially acceptable', with some young people indicating they would be happy to discuss their use with their parents. However, social acceptability was, for some, a reason not to use them. These data provide a unique insight into the tension between positive and negative harm reduction messages relating to the legal nature of psychoactive drugs and as such begin to fill an information void in this area. The legal status of these 'party pills' conveys mixed messages to young people and whilst being seen as potentially safe and of good quality, this often leads to higher than 'recommended' doses being used. Nevertheless, not breaking the law or having to access BZP-party pills from 'dealers', and being able to

  9. The suppression effect of a periodic surface with semicircular grooves on the high power microwave long pill-box window multipactor phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xue; Wang, Yong; Fan, Junjie; Zhong, Yong; Zhang, Rui

    2014-09-01

    To improve the transmitting power in an S-band klystron, a long pill-box window that has a disk with grooves with a semicircular cross section is theoretically investigated and simulated. A Monte-Carlo algorithm is used to track the secondary electron trajectories and analyze the multipactor scenario in the long pill-box window and on the grooved surface. Extending the height of the long-box window can decrease the normal electric field on the surface of the window disk, but the single surface multipactor still exists. It is confirmed that the window disk with periodic semicircular grooves can explicitly suppress the multipactor and predominantly depresses the local field enhancement and the bottom continuous multipactor. The difference between semicircular and sharp boundary grooves is clarified numerically and analytically.

  10. The suppression effect of a periodic surface with semicircular grooves on the high power microwave long pill-box window multipactor phenomenon

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xue Wang, Yong; Fan, Junjie; Zhong, Yong; Zhang, Rui

    2014-09-15

    To improve the transmitting power in an S-band klystron, a long pill-box window that has a disk with grooves with a semicircular cross section is theoretically investigated and simulated. A Monte-Carlo algorithm is used to track the secondary electron trajectories and analyze the multipactor scenario in the long pill-box window and on the grooved surface. Extending the height of the long-box window can decrease the normal electric field on the surface of the window disk, but the single surface multipactor still exists. It is confirmed that the window disk with periodic semicircular grooves can explicitly suppress the multipactor and predominantly depresses the local field enhancement and the bottom continuous multipactor. The difference between semicircular and sharp boundary grooves is clarified numerically and analytically.

  11. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled superiority trial of the Yiqigubiao pill for the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease at a stable stage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feng-Sen; Zhang, Yan-Li; Li, Zheng; Xu, Dan; Liao, Chun-Yan; Ma, Huan; Gong, Li; Su, Jun; Sun, Qi; Xu, Qian; Gao, Zhen; Wang, Ling; Jing, Jing; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Min; Tian, Ge; Hasan, Bilal

    2016-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the Yiqigubiao pill is commonly used to enhance physical fitness. The current clinical trial was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the Yiqigubiao pill as an adjuvant therapy for patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The current trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled superiority trial. The participants were recruited from outpatients at the Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital affiliated with Xinjiang Medical University (Ürümqi, China) between February and September 2012. All participants were patients with stable COPD that were randomized to the Yiqigubiao pill (YQGB; n=84) or placebo (Pb; n=87) groups. The occurrences of acute exacerbation (AE) of COPD during the trial were recorded. Lung function value assessments, scoring of life quality and exercise endurance, arterial blood gas analysis and serum inflammatory cytokines level determination were performed prior to and throughout the study. A total of 139 participants completed the intervention and 132 participants completed the study. The interval between the initial intervention and the first AECOPD was greater in the YQGB group compared with the Pb group (P<0.01). The incidence rate of AECOPD was lower in the YQGB group than in the Pb group (P<0.01). Subsequent to the intervention or at the end of the study, the 6-min walking distance difference was longer in the YQGB group compared with the Pb group (P<0.01). The scores reflecting life quality decline became lower in the YQGB group (P<0.01). The serum levels of proinflammatory factors were downregulated to a greater extent in the YQGB group compared with the Pb group. Thus, the Yiqigubiao pill is an efficient and safe adjuvant therapy for the treatment of stable patients with COPD. PMID:27698749

  12. Soft X-ray stimulated bremsstrahlung in traveling longitudinal electric wake-fields of two-beam pill-box cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.; Chen, K. W.; Wilhelm, H. E.

    The amplification of laser light in a free electron laser (FEL) due to stimulated bremsstrahlung in a traveling longitudinal undulating electric field is derived. It is shown that this FEL provides sufficient gain to be used as a coherent radiation source down to the soft X-ray regime. It is suggested that, among other possibilities, the wake-field produced in a two-beam elliptical or annular pill-box cavity is suitable for the required traveling longitudinal undulating electric field.

  13. Amlodipine/valsartan single-pill combination: a prospective, observational evaluation of the real-life safety and effectiveness in the routine treatment of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Karpov, Yuri; Dongre, Neelesh; Vigdorchik, Alexey; Sastravaha, Krisada

    2012-02-01

    As several international guidelines on hypertension have now recommended, single-pill/fixed-dose combination antihypertensive therapies may be particularly beneficial as first-line therapy in high-risk patients, in whom more rapid and pronounced blood pressure (BP) control is desired. Upon the single-pill combination of amlodipine and valsartan becoming available, the authors conducted this international, observational study to evaluate its efficacy and safety in a real-life practice setting. This prospective, open-label, postmarketing surveillance study enrolled adults with arterial hypertension (systolic BP >140 mmHg and/or diastolic BP >90 mmHg) who were prescribed antihypertensive therapy with single-pill combination amlodipine/valsartan 5/80, 5/160, or 10/160 mg once daily. Patients were observed over a 3-month period (12 weeks) with approximately monthly intervals between clinic visits. A total of 8336 patients completed all study visits and were included in the efficacy analysis. Mean age was 54.7 years and 83.4% of patients had received prior antihypertensive therapy. BP reductions were dose related. Overall, mean BP was reduced from 165.0/99.3 mmHg at baseline to 128.7/80.4 mmHg at 12 weeks (36.3/18.9 mmHg; P<0.0001). The magnitude of BP reduction rose with increasing severity of baseline BP. Control of BP (<140/90 mmHg) was achieved in 77.7% of patients. Efficacy was consistent in subgroups of patients with comorbidities and regardless of whether patients were previously treated with monotherapy or combination therapy. Adverse events were reported in 5.3% of patients. The incidence of edema declined from 10.4% at baseline to 8.5% at study end. Single-pill combination amlodipine/valsartan safely and effectively reduced BP across all hypertension grades and allowed the vast majority of patients to achieve BP goals.

  14. The Prescription of the Morning-After Pill in a Berlin Emergency Department Over a Four-Year Period - User Profiles and Reasons for Use.

    PubMed

    David, M; Radke, A-M; Pietzner, K

    2012-05-01

    Questions: There are no current health care studies from Germany regarding the "morning-after pill". This paper will use routine data to analyse details regarding the users' profiles, reasons for using it and the utilisation of hospital outpatient facilities. Patient Collective and Methods: Retrospective analysis of all triage sheets in the emergency department of the Virchow Hospital Campus/Charité University Hospital, Berlin, over a four-year period from 2007 to 2010 that were coded with the ICD diagnosis Z30 (= contraception advice) and statistical processing of the associated administrative data. Results: 860 triage sheets were included in the analysis. The emergency department is used most frequently for the prescription of the "morning-after pill" at the weekend. The average age of the users was 25.1 years. The most common reason cited for needing emergency contraception was unprotected sexual intercourse, with the second-most common being "condom failure". Around half of the women attended the department within 12 hours of having unprotected sex. Less than 2 % (n = 14) of all women decided against a prescription of emergency contraceptive after counselling. Conclusions: The user profile and reasons for using emergency oral contraception correlate largely with the information contained in international literature. Although the "morning-after pill" is probably prescribed mainly in general practices in Germany, and despite the availability of new drugs with a permitted post-exposure interval of up to 120 hours after unprotected sex, there appears to still be a high demand for counselling and prescriptions of the "morning-after pill" in the context of the emergency department.

  15. Health education alone and health education plus advance provision of emergency contraceptive pills on knowledge and attitudes among university female students in Enugu, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Arinze-Onyia, S U; Aguwa, E N; Nwobodo, Ed

    2014-01-01

    This was an intervention study to compare the effects of health education alone and health education plus advance provision of emergency contraception (EC) pills on the knowledge and attitudes to EC by female students of University of Nigeria in South-East Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data in February, 2009 from 290 female students of a tertiary educational institution (140 in the study group and 150 from the control group) who were selected by multistage sampling. Subsequently, health education was conducted among all the students. In addition, a pack containing 2 tablets of EC pills (Postinor) was given only to the students in the study group. Three months after this intervention, its effects were assessed through a survey using the same structured questionnaire employed in the baseline survey. knowledge of EC was significantly higher among the study group than the controls at post-intervention, P < 0.05. Attitudes to EC were also more favorable at post-intervention survey among the study group, P < 0.05 in most of the variables. Health education plus advance provision of EC pills effectively improved knowledge and attitudes to EC among female students of tertiary institutions more than health education alone and this should be promoted.

  16. Monitoring the quality consistency of Fufang Danshen Pills using micellar electrokinetic chromatography fingerprint coupled with prediction of antioxidant activity and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhengchao; Sun, Wanyang; Sun, Guoxiang; Zhang, Jin

    2016-08-01

    A fast micellar electrokinetic chromatography fingerprint method combined with quantification was developed and validated to evaluate the quality of Fufang Danshen Pills, a traditional Chinese Medicine, which has been used in the treatment of cardiovascular system diseases, in which the tetrahedron optimization method was first used to optimize the background electrolyte solution. Subsequently, the index of the fingerprint information amount of I was performed as an excellent objective indictor to investigate the experimental conditions. In addition, a systematical quantified fingerprint method was constructed for evaluating the quality consistency of 20 batches of test samples obtained from the same drug manufacturer. The fingerprint analysis combined with quantitative determination of two components showed that the quality consistency of the test samples was quite good within the same commercial brand. Furthermore, the partial least squares model analysis was used to explore the fingerprint-efficacy relationship between active components and antioxidant activity in vitro, which can be applied for the assessment of anti-oxidant activity of Fufang Danshen pills and provide valuable medicinal information for quality control. The result illustrated that the present study provided a reliable and reasonable method for monitoring the quality consistency of Fufang Danshen pills.

  17. Investigation of the effects of 'piperazine-containing party pills' and dexamphetamine on interhemispheric communication using electroencephalography.

    PubMed

    Lee, HeeSeung; Wang, Grace Y; Curley, Louise E; Kydd, Rob R; Kirk, Ian J; Russell, Bruce R

    2016-08-01

    'Piperazine-containing party pills' were marketed and sold as legal alternatives to methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) until 2008 in New Zealand. The major constituents of these 'pills' were benzylphenylpiperazine (BZP) and trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP). Despite their popularity, there is a paucity of knowledge about their central effects in humans. This study investigated their effects on human neural processing using electroencephalographic techniques. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigated the effects of an acute dose of these compounds on the interhemispheric transfer of information (IHTT) using the Poffenberger task. Reaction time data were also collected. Healthy, right-handed males were given an oral dose of either BZP (n = 13) (200 mg), TFMPP (n = 15) (60 mg), a combination of BZP + TFMPP (n = 15) (100 mg/30 mg), dexamphetamine (n = 16) (20 mg), or placebo (n = 23) and tested both before and 120 min after drug administration. A mixed factorial repeated measures analysis of variance of absolute N160 latency and contrast analysis revealed that only TFMPP (F (1,77) = 17.30, p ≤ 0.001) significantly reduced the absolute N160 latency. Analysis of the IHTT revealed that only TFMPP (F (1,77) = 5.266, p ≤ 0.02) significantly reduced the IHTT, while BZP, BZP + TFMPP and dexamphetamine had no effect. Contrast analysis revealed that both TFMPP (F (1,77) = 17.30, p ≤ 0.001) and placebo (F (1,77) = 15.08, p ≤ 0.001) preserved the laterality of information transfer from one hemisphere to the other. Reaction time (p > 0.05) was not significantly affected by any of the drug treatments. The usual directional asymmetry (i.e. faster R-to-L transfer relative to L-to-R) observed in healthy control group was absent following the administration of either BZP, BZP + TFMPP or dexamphetamine. Surprisingly, lateralised hemispheric function was not

  18. Ramipril/amlodipine single pill - effectiveness, tolerance and patient satisfaction with antihypertensive therapy in relation to nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena; Smertka, Mike; Almgren-Rachtan, Agnieszka; Chudek, Jerzy

    2014-12-01

    Overweight and obesity decrease the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy despite the more frequent use of polytherapy. One method for improving therapy effectiveness is by decreasing non-compliance with the use of fixed-dose combinations (FDC). The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness, tolerance, and satisfaction with ramipril/amlodipine FDC antihypertensive therapy in relation to nutritional status. The survey enrolled 24,240 hypertensive patients recently switched to ramipril/amlodipine FDC (EGIRAMLON) at the same doses as previously prescribed separate pills. The effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy increased during follow-up from 32.9% to 76.5%. Overweight and obesity were associated with the increased risk of not attaining the recommended BP values [adjusted for age OR=0.74 (95% CI 0.67-0.83) and 0.70 (0.61-0.81) for overweight; 0.54 (0.47-0.60) and 0.49 (0.42-0.57) for obese, at the first and the second examination, respectively]. "Very good" or "good" the FDP tolerance was reported by 98.8%, 97.6% and 96.4%, respectively. Adverse events (AE) were reported in 0.35% of patients regardless of nutritional status. High levels of satisfaction with the FDC were reported by 57.0% of patients with normal weight, 54.5% of overweight, and 50.6% with obesity. Effectiveness and convenience were the most important for patients. The effectiveness of therapy with ramipril/amlodipine FDC in the study population was high, but slightly lower in overweigh and obese. This FDC was well tolerated and a significant number of patients satisfied with the therapy regardless of nutritional status. Although the perceived tolerance and satisfaction with treatment were lower in obese and overweight than in normal weight patients; the incidence of AE and perceived benefit from the use of a single-pill, compared to multiple tablets, were comparable irrespective of nutritional status. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by

  19. Single-pill combination therapy in the initial treatment of marked hypertension: a propensity-matched analysis.

    PubMed

    Angeloni, Emiliano; Vitaterna, Angelo; Lombardo, Paola; Pirelli, Michele; Refice, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Many drugs combinations are available and equally recommended for the initial treatment of patients with marked blood pressure (BP) elevation and high cardiovascular risk. To investigate safety and efficacy of such combination therapies. Prospectively collected data were retrospectively reviewed, inclusion criteria were: initial single-pill combination therapy, availability of clinical and echocardiographic 6-month follow-up. Six treatment groups were identified: Enalapril 20 mg+ Hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg (E/H), E 20 mg + Lercanidipine 10 mg (E/L), Ramipril 2.5 mg+ H 12.5 mg (R/H), Perindopril 5 mg+ Amlodipine 5 mg (P/A), Olmesartan 40 mg+ H 12.5 mg (O/H) and Telmisartan 40 mg+ H 12.5 mg (T/H). To avoid selection bias a Propensity score (goodness of fit: c-statistic 0.78, p = 0.0001) was used to select comparable cohorts of patients (n = 142 each). After 4 weeks of treatment BP goal was achieved by 624/852 (73.2%) patients, and adverse events were registered in 24/852 (2.8%) patients. After 6 months, 562/624 (90.1%) patients maintained the BP goal. Six-month responder rate was significantly higher in the E/L (69.0%) and P/A (68.3%) groups (p = 0.05); especially among diabetics (52.0% and 51.0%, respectively; p = 0.003). Patients receiving E/L (-19.8 ± 3.2 mmHg) and P/A (-19.9 ± 4.6 mmHg) showed greater reductions of diastolic BP (p = 0.03); whereas reductions of systolic BP were similar between treatment groups (p = 0.46). Echocardiographic follow-up revealed greater left ventricular reverse remodeling among patients receiving ACE-inhibitors (E/L, R/H, E/H and P/A), but this trend did not reach statistical significance. Single-pill fixed-dose combination therapies are highly effective and safe in the study settings. Best clinical and echocardiographic outcomes were noted among patients receiving E/L, R/H and P/A.

  20. Women’s perceptions and reasons for choosing the pill, patch, or ring in the CHOICE study: a cross-sectional survey of contraceptive method selection after counseling

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The European CHOICE study was a cross-sectional survey that evaluated women’s combined hormonal contraceptive choices before and after contraceptive counseling in Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic and Slovakia, the Netherlands, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, Israel, Russia, and Ukraine. The changes in method selection before and after counseling were reported previously. In this paper we present the reasons given by the 18,787 participating women for selecting their contraceptive method of choice, as well as their perceptions about the contraceptive pill, patch, and ring after counseling. Methods Women with an interest in a combined hormonal contraceptive method (pill, patch, or ring) were counseled using a standardized counseling leaflet. The women completed questionnaires, which included questions on why they had selected a particular method of contraception, and the extent to which they agreed with statements about the attributes of the pill, patch, and ring. The results for each country were compared with the percentages for all countries combined by using a binomial regression model. Multiple logistic regression models were used to investigate the extent to which the probability of choosing a method was related to prespecified aspects (i.e. perceptions) of each contraceptive method. Results ‘Easy to use’, ‘convenience’, and ‘regular menstrual bleeding’ were important selection criteria. ‘Nondaily administration’ was one of the main reasons women selected the patch or ring. ‘Daily use’ and ‘will forget to take it’ were the primary reasons for not selecting the pill, while the main reasons for not choosing the patch included ‘not discrete, visible’ and ‘can fall off’. In a small number of instances, the ring was rejected because some women don’t like to use a ‘foreign body’. Women’s perceptions influenced their contraceptive decisions: positive perceptions about a method increased the likelihood that a woman

  1. Qi-Shen-Yi-Qi Dripping Pills for the Secondary Prevention of Myocardial Infarction: A Randomised Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Hongcai; Zhang, Junhua; Yao, Chen; Liu, Baoyan; Gao, Xiumei; Ren, Ming; Cao, Hongbao; Dai, Guohua; Weng, Weiliang; Zhu, Sainan; Wang, Hui; Xu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Boli

    2013-01-01

    Background. Several types of drugs have been recommended for the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction (MI). However, these conventional strategies have several limitations, such as low adherence, high cost, and side effects during long time use. Novel approaches to this problem are still needed. This trial aimed to test the effectiveness and safety of Qi-Shen-Yi-Qi Dripping Pills (QSYQ), a multi-ingredient Chinese patent medicine, for the secondary prevention of MI. Methods and Findings. A total of 3505 eligible patients were randomly assigned to QSYQ group (1746 patients) or aspirin group (1759). Patients took their treatments for 12 months. The final follow-up visit took place 6 months after the end of the trial drugs. The 12-month and 18-month estimated incidences of the primary outcome were 2.98% and 3.67%, respectively, in the QSYQ group. The figures were 2.96% and 3.81% in the aspirin group. No significant difference was identified between the groups. Conclusions. This trial did not show significant difference of primary and secondary outcomes between aspirin and QSYQ in patients who have had an MI. Though inconclusive, the result suggests that QSYQ has similar effects to aspirin in the secondary prevention of MI. PMID:23935677

  2. Efficacy of Acupuncture versus Combined Oral Contraceptive Pill in Treatment of Moderate-to-Severe Dysmenorrhea: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sriprasert, Intira; Suerungruang, Suparerk; Athilarp, Porntip; Matanasarawoot, Anuchart; Teekachunhatean, Supanimit

    2015-01-01

    This open-label randomized controlled trial was designed to compare the efficacy of acupuncture and combined oral contraceptive (COC) pill in treating moderate-to-severe primary dysmenorrhea. Fifty-two participants were randomly assigned to receive either acupuncture (n = 27) or COC (n = 25) for three menstrual cycles. Mefenamic acid was prescribed as a recue analgesic drug with both groups. The statistical approach used for efficacy and safety assessments was intention-to-treat analysis. By the end of the study, both treatments had resulted in significant improvement over baselines in all outcomes, that is, maximal dysmenorrhea pain scores, days suffering from dysmenorrhea, amount of rescue analgesic used, and quality of life assessed by SF-36 questionnaire. Over the three treatment cycles, COC caused greater reduction in maximal pain scores than acupuncture, while improvements in the remaining outcomes were comparable. Responders were defined as participants whose maximal dysmenorrhea pain scores decreased at least 33% below their baseline. Response rates following both interventions at the end of the study were not statistically different. Acupuncture commonly caused minimal local side effects but did not cause any hormone-related side effects as did COC. In conclusion, acupuncture is an alternative option for relieving dysmenorrhea, especially when COC is not a favorable choice. PMID:26346199

  3. Effect of Oral Contraceptive Pills on the Blood Serum Enzymes and DNA Damage in Lymphocytes Among Users.

    PubMed

    Naz, Falaq; Jyoti, Smita; Rahul; Akhtar, Nishat; Siddique, Yasir Hasan

    2016-07-01

    The continuous use of synthetic hormones as contraceptive pill or hormonal replacement therapy among women is increasing day by day. The widespread use of different formulations as oral contraceptives by women throughout their reproductive cycle has given rise to a serious concern for studying the effects of oral contraceptives on enzymatic profile and DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes among users. The present study was carried out on women taking oral contraceptives. The study was based on the questionnaire having the information of reproductive history, fasting, age, health, nature of menstrual cycle, bleeding and other disease. The profile of the blood serum enzymes i.e. alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aminotransferases (SGOT and SGPT), serum proteins (albumin and globulin) and DNA damage in lymphocytes was studied among users and non-users. The results of the present study suggest that OCs not only effects enzymatic activity but also results in DNA damage that may vary with the duration of using oral contraceptives. A significant increase in LDH, GGT, SGPT, SGOT, globulin and decrease in ALP as well as albumin was found among users as compared to non-users. The observed DNA damage was more in users as compared to non-users. Hormonal contraceptives seem to exert DNA damage and also have significant effects on blood serum enzymes.

  4. Reproductive Toxicity of Zishen Yutai Pill in Rats: The Fertility and Early Embryonic Development Study (Segment I)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Li; Huang, Qiuling; Wang, Rong; Zhou, Jie; Ma, Aicui; Chong, Liming; Wu, Yubing; Wang, Yong; Xu, Li; Chen, Ying; Jia, Yuling; Gui, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. This study was aimed to investigate the reproductive toxicity of Zishen Yutai Pill (ZYP) on fertility and early embryonic development in rats. Methods. SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: vehicle control group (distilled water, i.g.), positive control group (80 mg/kg of cyclophosphamide, i.p.), and three ZYP-treated groups (3, 6, and 12 g/kg/d, i.e., 12x, 24x, and 48x clinical doses, i.g.). The high dose was set as the maximum gavage dosage. Results. Cyclophosphamide showed diverse hazards, such as decreased weight of male reproductive organs and sperm density (P < 0.05). However, there were no obvious effects of ZYP on physical signs, animal behavior, and survival rate, as well as on weight and food intake during the premating and gestation periods. Importantly, there were no significant adverse effects of ZYP on indexes of copulation, fecundity and fertility indexes, weights and coefficients of male reproductive organs, epididymal sperm number and motility, estrous cycle, preimplantation loss rate, and implantation rate. Besides, the numbers of live and resorbed fetuses per litter were not significantly altered. Conclusions. ZYP had no reproductive toxicities on fertility and early embryonic development in rats at 48x equivalent clinical doses. PMID:28058057

  5. A comparative systematic review of Yasmin (drospirenone pill) versus standard treatment options for symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Ren, Jing; Sun, Wenxia

    2017-03-01

    To systematically review the impact of Yasmin (drospirenone pill) compares with other standard treatments for symptoms of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). The relevant studies of the randomized controlled trials in women with PCOS treated with drospirenone were retrieved and the systematic evaluation was conducted. Eighteen articles were included. Compared with drospirenone (DRSP) monotherapy, DRSP plus metformin was better in reducing body mass index (BMI), luteinizing hormone (LH) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Compared with metformin, DRSP was better in modulating serum total testosterone (T), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and free androgen index (FAI), while metformin was more effective in reducing BMI, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-C and Triglyceride (TG). DRSP was superior to cyproterone acetate (CPA) in reducing TC and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). DRSP shows better effect in modulating LDL-C and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared with desogestrel (DSG). The available data suggested that DRSP was effective in modulating hormones, insulin and lipid metabolism in women with PCOS. Compared with commonly used drugs for symptoms of PCOS as CPA and DSG, DRSP shows identical or better effect in improving symptoms and protect cardiovascular system. For the PCOS patients with IR, obesity or high LH/FSH ratio, DRSP combines with metformin maybe more effective than use DRSP alone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diversity and functional significance of cellulolytic microbes living in termite, pill-bug and stem-borer guts.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Zeenat; Kondapalli, Vamsi Krishna; Adlakha, Nidhi; Sharma, Anil; Bhatnagar, Raj K; Chandel, Girish; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2013-01-01

    Arthropods living on plants are able to digest plant biomass with the help of microbial flora in their guts. This study considered three arthropods from different niches - termites, pill-bugs and yellow stem-borers - and screened their guts for cellulase producing microbes. Among 42 unique cellulase-producing strains, 50% belonged to Bacillaceae, 26% belonged to Enterobacteriaceae, 17% belonged to Microbacteriaceae, 5% belonged to Paenibacillaceae and 2% belonged to Promicromonosporaceae. The distribution of microbial families in the three arthropod guts reflected differences in their food consumption habits. Most of the carboxymethylcellulase positive strains also hydrolysed other amorphous substrates such as xylan, locust bean gum and β-D-glucan. Two strains, A11 and A21, demonstrated significant activity towards Avicel and p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobiose, indicating that they express cellobiohydrolase. These results provide insight into the co-existence of symbionts in the guts of arthropods and their possible exploitation for the production of fuels and chemicals derived from plant biomass.

  7. Diversity and functional significance of cellulolytic microbes living in termite, pill-bug and stem-borer guts

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Zeenat; Kondapalli, Vamsi Krishna; Adlakha, Nidhi; Sharma, Anil; Bhatnagar, Raj K.; Chandel, Girish; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2013-01-01

    Arthropods living on plants are able to digest plant biomass with the help of microbial flora in their guts. This study considered three arthropods from different niches - termites, pill-bugs and yellow stem-borers - and screened their guts for cellulase producing microbes. Among 42 unique cellulase-producing strains, 50% belonged to Bacillaceae, 26% belonged to Enterobacteriaceae, 17% belonged to Microbacteriaceae, 5% belonged to Paenibacillaceae and 2% belonged to Promicromonosporaceae. The distribution of microbial families in the three arthropod guts reflected differences in their food consumption habits. Most of the carboxymethylcellulase positive strains also hydrolysed other amorphous substrates such as xylan, locust bean gum and β-D-glucan. Two strains, A11 and A21, demonstrated significant activity towards Avicel and p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobiose, indicating that they express cellobiohydrolase. These results provide insight into the co-existence of symbionts in the guts of arthropods and their possible exploitation for the production of fuels and chemicals derived from plant biomass. PMID:23990056

  8. Policy maker and provider knowledge and attitudes regarding the provision of emergency contraceptive pills within Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Sychareun, Vanphanom; Phongsavan, Keokedthong; Hansana, Visanou; Phengsavanh, Alongkone

    2010-07-20

    The Ministry of Health (MOH) launched the National Reproductive Health Policy in 2005, which included recommendations regarding the use of emergency contraceptive pills (ECP). However, ECP have not yet been introduced officially in the public sector of the Lao PDR. Thus, their availability is limited. Understanding the knowledge of ECP and attitudes about their provision, barriers to use, and availability among health providers and policy makers is essential to successfully incorporate ECP into reproductive health services. Qualitative research methods using in-depth interviews were employed to collect data from policy makers and health providers (auxiliary medical staff, nurses, and medical doctors). Altogether, 10 policy makers, 22 public providers, and 10 providers at private clinics were interviewed. Content analysis was applied to analyze the transcribed data. The majority of policy makers and health care providers had heard about ECP and supported their introduction in the public sector. However, their knowledge was poor, many expressed inconsistent attitudes, and their ability to meet the demand of potential users is limited. There is a need to train health providers and policy makers on emergency contraception and improve their knowledge about ECP, especially regarding the correct timing of use and the availability of methods. In addition, the general public must be informed of the attributes, side effects, and availability of ECP, and policy makers must facilitate the approval of ECP by the Lao Food and Drug Administration. These interventions could lead to increased access to and demand for ECP.

  9. Knowledge and Use of Emergency Contraceptive Pill: An Analysis of Perception and Practice among Unmarried Urban Women

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Neetu; Mathur, Rakhi; Bakhshi, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to collect evidence with respect to perception and practice of unmarried women toward the use of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs). Materials and Methods: Non-probability purposive sampling was used to select respondents. A total of 250 respondents were administered the tools for the study, of which 228 were considered for analysis. Results and Discussion: Descriptive statistics showed that nearly 87% of the respondents were aware of ECPs and there was a significant difference in the knowledge of ECP of the respondents by type of the institution they had studied. More than half of the (52%) respondents admitted to have boyfriends of which 16% were sexually involved and were using some form of contraception. Nearly 84% of the respondents used ECP, which superseded the use of other contraceptives. It was further found that around two-third respondents were using ECP regularly. The reason that “ECP did not hinder pleasure” and that it was handy in case of “unplanned contact” were the most cited reasons for using ECP as a regular contraceptive. Conclusion: The fact that ECPs was preferred over condom and was used regularly shows that the respondents were at a risk of sexually transmitted infection/human immunodeficiency virus. Health-care providers could be the most authentic source of information for orienting young women toward the use of safe sexual practices. PMID:26664845

  10. Policy maker and provider knowledge and attitudes regarding the provision of emergency contraceptive pills within Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Ministry of Health (MOH) launched the National Reproductive Health Policy in 2005, which included recommendations regarding the use of emergency contraceptive pills (ECP). However, ECP have not yet been introduced officially in the public sector of the Lao PDR. Thus, their availability is limited. Understanding the knowledge of ECP and attitudes about their provision, barriers to use, and availability among health providers and policy makers is essential to successfully incorporate ECP into reproductive health services. Methods Qualitative research methods using in-depth interviews were employed to collect data from policy makers and health providers (auxiliary medical staff, nurses, and medical doctors). Altogether, 10 policy makers, 22 public providers, and 10 providers at private clinics were interviewed. Content analysis was applied to analyze the transcribed data. Results The majority of policy makers and health care providers had heard about ECP and supported their introduction in the public sector. However, their knowledge was poor, many expressed inconsistent attitudes, and their ability to meet the demand of potential users is limited. Conclusions There is a need to train health providers and policy makers on emergency contraception and improve their knowledge about ECP, especially regarding the correct timing of use and the availability of methods. In addition, the general public must be informed of the attributes, side effects, and availability of ECP, and policy makers must facilitate the approval of ECP by the Lao Food and Drug Administration. These interventions could lead to increased access to and demand for ECP. PMID:20642863

  11. Knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptive pills among tertiary level students in Trinidad: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Parey, B; Addison, L; Mark, J K; Maurice, B; Tripathi, V; Wahid, S; Antoine, R; Sahai, A

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the general knowledge, attitude and practice of Emergency Contraceptive pills (ECs) among tertiary level students in Trinidad. A 32-item questionnaire was constructed to assess knowledge, attitudes and practice of EC. There were 76 medical and 160 non-medical students who volunteered to fill-up the questionnaire. This survey was conducted by graduate students under supervision of the Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, UWI, St Augustine. Eighty-four per cent of the students were less than 25 years of age, 64% were Christians and 92% were single. Sixty-three per cent were female and there were more females in the non-medical group than the medical students group but the numbers were not significant. Eighty-one per cent used condoms as the main type of contraception. Only 63% had heard of ECs before and only 9% had heard of ECs from medical sources. Among the factors that related to attitude towards EC, only two factors were significant. Sixty-two per cent of students felt that increased EC use would increase promiscuity (p = 0.013) but 59% also felt that ECs should be made more easily available (p = 0.014). The general level of their knowledge about ECs was poor. The general attitude of students towards ECs was positive. This study will help policy-makers by providing evidence-based knowledge to promote EC use among university students.

  12. Limited impact of an intervention regarding emergency contraceptive pills in Sweden--repeated surveys among abortion applicants.

    PubMed

    Larsson, M; Aneblom, G; Eurenius, K; Westerling, R; Tydén, T

    2006-12-01

    To evaluate a community-based intervention consisting of an information campaign and advance provision of emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) to abortion applicants. Submission of repeated waiting room questionnaires to abortion applicants in two cities in mid-Sweden; one intervention city (IC) and one comparison city (CC) in 2002 (IC = 92, CC = 95) and 2003 (IC = 244, CC = 204). The overall response rate was 90%. The percentage of women who had undergone an abortion within the previous year had decreased in the intervention group but not in the comparison group. Almost two-thirds (63%) of the targeted women had noticed the information campaign and one out of three (33%) who had visited a family planning clinic recalled being given information about ECP. There was a small decline in the use of combined oral contraceptives and intrauterine devices over time. After the intervention, women in the intervention city had better knowledge of ECP and had used it more than women in the comparison city did. More than half of the targeted women had noticed the information campaign and it may have had a limited impact. Further investigations are needed to determine whether advance supply of ECP to abortion applicants can reduce repeat abortions.

  13. Study on material base and action mechanism of compound Danshen dripping pills for treatment of atherosclerosis based on modularity analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Yuan, Wen-Feng; Chen, Chao; Wang, Shu-Mei; Liang, Sheng-Wang

    2016-12-04

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely used in China and its surrounding countries in clinical treatments for centuries-long time. However, due to the complexity of TCM constituents, both action mechanism and material base of TCM remain nearly unknown. The present study was designed to uncover the action mechanism and material base of TCM in a low-cost manner. Compound Danshen dripping pills (DSP) is a widely used TCM for treatment of atherosclerosis, and was researched here to demonstrate the effectiveness of our method. We constructed a heterogeneous network for DSP, identified the significant network module, and analyzed the primary pharmacological units by performing GO and pathways enrichment analysis. Two significant network modules were identified from the heterogeneous network of DSP, and three compounds out of four hub nodes in the network were found to intervene in the process of atherosclerosis. Moreover, 13 out of 20 enriched pathways that were ranked in top 10 corresponding to both the two pharmacological units were found to be involved in the process of atherosclerosis. Quercetin, luteolin and apigenin may be the main active compounds which modulate the signaling pathways, such as metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450, retinol metabolism, etc. The present method helps reveal the action mechanism and material base of DSP for treatment of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-term safety and efficacy of telmisartan/amlodipine single pill combination in the treatment of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Billecke, Scott S; Marcovitz, Pamela A

    2013-01-01

    The use of multiple drug regimens is increasingly recognized as a tacit requirement for the management of hypertension, a necessity fueled in part by rising rates of metabolic syndrome and diabetes. By targeting complementary pathways, combinations of antihypertensive drugs can be applied to provide effective blood pressure control while minimizing side effects and reducing exposure to high doses of individual medications. In addition, combination therapies, including angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and calcium channel blockers (CCBs), have the added benefit of reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity over other dual therapies while providing equivalent blood pressure control. It is possible that angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), which unlike ACE inhibitors are minimally affected by upregulation of alternative pathways for angiotensin II accumulation following long-term treatment, would also provide such outcome benefits. At issue, however, is maintaining patient compliance, as adding medications is known to reduce adherence to treatment regimens. The purpose of this review is to summarize existing trial data for the long-term safety and efficacy of a recent addition to the armamentarium of dual-antihypertensive therapeutic options, the telmisartan/amlodipine single pill combination. The areas where long-term data are lacking, notably clinical information regarding minorities and women, will also be discussed.

  15. Herb formula "Fufangqishe-Pill" prevents upright posture-induced intervertebral disc degeneration at the lumbar in rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qian-Qian; Xi, Zhi-Jie; Bian, Qin; Cui, Xue-Jun; Li, Chen-Guang; Hou, Wei; Shi, Qi; Wang, Yong-Jun

    2010-01-01

    Degeneration of the lumbar spine plays an important role in most chronic low back pain. Prevention of lumbar intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is therefore a high research priority. Both our previous multicenter clinical trials and pharmacological research showed that Fufangqishe-Pill (FFQSP), a newly patented traditional Chinese medicine, could effectively relieve the symptoms of neck pain and prevent cervical degeneration. To clarify the effect of FFQSP on lumbar IVD degeneration, we applied a lumbar IVD degeneration rat model induced by prolonged upright posture. Pretreatment of FFQSP for one month prevented the histological changes indicating IVD disorganization; increased type II-collagen level, decreased type X-collagen protein level, and increased Col2alpha1 mRNA expression at all time points; and decreased Col10alpha1, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, MMP13, and Interleukin (IL)-1beta mRNA expression induced by upright posture for 7 and 9 months. These results suggest that FFQSP prevents lumbar IVD degeneration induced by upright posture. FFQSP is a promising medicine for lumbar IVD degeneration disease.

  16. Safety, efficacy, actions, and patient acceptability of drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol contraceptive pills in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder

    PubMed Central

    Breech, Lesley L; Braverman, Paula K

    2010-01-01

    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is estimated to affect 3%–8% of reproductive age women. Multiple therapeutic modalities have been evaluated with varying efficacy for the associated somatic and mood symptoms. The majority of older studies had shown that oral contraceptive pills (OCs) were most effective for the physical symptoms. However, newer OCs containing a novel progestin, drospirenone, have shown promise in alleviating both the somatic and affective/behavioral symptoms. This progestin, which is a derivative of spironolactone, has both antimineralocorticoid and antiandrogenic activity. A 24/4 formulation containing 20 μg of ethinyl estradiol has been found effective in randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trials utilizing established scales documenting symptoms associated with PMDD. Multiple studies have shown that drospirenone-containing OCs are safe without evidence of clinically adverse effects on carbohydrate metabolism, lipids, blood pressure, weight, serum potassium or increased thrombotic events compared to other low dose OCs. In addition, significant improvements have been demonstrated in acne, hirsutism, and fluid retention symptoms. Several open label studies demonstrated good patient compliance and reported satisfaction with the method. Because of the significant placebo effect demonstrated in the blinded placebo-controlled trials, additional large randomized placebo-controlled trials are needed to confirm the efficacy of the drospirenone OCs in the treatment of PMDD. However, this OC formulation appears to be a promising therapeutic modality. PMID:21072278

  17. Early pregnancy loss in women stimulated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist protocols according to oral contraceptive pill pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Bellver, José; Albert, Carmen; Labarta, Elena; Pellicer, Antonio

    2007-05-01

    To evaluate and compare the risk of early pregnancy loss in patients stimulated with GnRH antagonist protocols according to oral contraceptive pill (OCP) pretreatment. Retrospective case-control study. Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. University of Valencia. Spain. One thousand five hundred thirty-nine patients, aged <36, stimulated with GnRH antagonists for IVF between January 1, 2000 and November 1, 2005. Reproductive outcome was compared based on the application (or not) of OCP pretreatment: 944 women were included in the OCP group and 595 in the non-OCP group. The Student's t test was used for statistics. Pregnancy, biochemical pregnancy, ectopic pregnancy, early clinical pregnancy loss, early pregnancy loss, and ongoing pregnancy rates. No significant differences were observed in any of the outcome parameters. Early pregnancy loss rates were similar: 23% in the OCP pretreatment group versus 19.2% in the non-OCP pretreatment group. However, longer periods of ovarian stimulation and higher doses of gonadotropins needed to be employed in the OCP group. There is not sufficient evidence to confirm OCP pretreatment as a risk factor for miscarriage in patients stimulated with GnRH antagonist protocols.

  18. Study of the analgesic activities, chronic toxicity and addictive potential of Jia-Yuan-Qing pill in rats

    PubMed Central

    TIAN, YE; TENG, LI-RONG; WANG, ZHEN-ZUO; ZHAO, MIN; MENG, QING-FAN; LU, JIA-HUI; TIAN, JIAN-MING; ZHANG, WEI-WEI; ZHENG, XIAOYI; WANG, DI; TENG, LE-SHENG

    2015-01-01

    Jia-Yuan-Qing pill (JYQP) composed of Porcellio laevis Latreille, Corydalis Rhizoma and Radix Cynanchi Paniculati at a ratio of 9:7:7 has been found to be an effective analgesic agent. The present study aimed to evaluate the safety, addictive potential and anti-cancer pain activity of JYQP in a rat model. During the 6-month chronic toxicity test, no significant changes in general behavior, defecation, postural abnormalities, dietary or water intake or blood biochemical parameters were observed in male and female rats. Although a high dose of JYQP (5 g/kg) caused swelling of the liver, spleen and kidney in male and female rats, no pathological changes were observed in all organs examined via hematoxylin and eosin staining. The analgesic effect of JYQP on bone cancer pain was successfully confirmed in a rat model of Walker 256 cell-induced bone cancer. In contrast to morphine, in a physical dependence test, JYQP produced no withdrawal symptoms following chronic administration. The data from this study provide experimental evidence supporting the clinical use of JYQP as an effective, safe and non-addictive agent for the treatment of bone cancer pain. PMID:26136985

  19. The Protective Effect of Yi Shen Juan Bi Pill in Arthritic Rats with Castration-Induced Kidney Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongyan; Li, Jian; He, Xiaojuan; Lu, Cheng; Xiao, Cheng; Niu, Xuyan; Zhao, Ning; Ju, Dahong; Lu, Aiping

    2012-01-01

    Androgens have been linked to the onset, severity, and progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the most common pattern in RA is kidney deficiency, which partly corresponds to a low sex hormone state. In this study, TCM kidney deficiency was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats with castration surgery, and a TCM preparation, Yi Shen Juan Bi Pill (YJB), was used to treat collagen induced arthritis (CIA) rats with castration. Metabolomic technique was used to evaluate the pharmacological mechanism in castrated CIA rats treated by YJB. The results showed that castration significantly increased the severity of the arthritis in rats but was ameliorated by YJB. Its pharmacological mechanism was partially associated with lipid metabolites involving free fatty acid (FFA) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). In conclusion, the experimental results demonstrate the protective effect of YJB on the TCM kidney deficiency pattern induced by androgen deficiency in CIA rats and support that YJB should be used for the clinical treatment of RA with TCM kidney deficiency pattern. PMID:22550538

  20. Compound danshen dripping pills modulate the perturbed energy metabolism in a rat model of acute myocardial ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jiahua; Yong, Yonghong; Aa, Jiye; Cao, Bei; Sun, Runbin; Yu, Xiaoyi; Huang, Jingqiu; Yang, Na; Yan, Lulu; Li, Xinxin; Cao, Jing; Aa, Nan; Yang, Zhijian; Kong, Xiangqing; Wang, Liansheng; Zhu, Xuanxuan; Ma, Xiaohui; Guo, Zhixin; Zhou, Shuiping; Sun, He; Wang, Guangji

    2016-01-01

    The continuous administration of compound danshen dripping pills (CDDP) showed good efficacy in relieving myocardial ischemia clinically. To probe the underlying mechanism, metabolic features were evaluated in a rat model of acute myocardial ischemia induced by isoproterenol (ISO) and administrated with CDDP using a metabolomics platform. Our data revealed that the ISO-induced animal model showed obvious myocardial injury, decreased energy production, and a marked change in metabolomic patterns in plasma and heart tissue. CDDP pretreatment increased energy production, ameliorated biochemical indices, modulated the changes and metabolomic pattern induced by ISO, especially in heart tissue. For the first time, we found that ISO induced myocardial ischemia was accomplished with a reduced fatty acids metabolism and an elevated glycolysis for energy supply upon the ischemic stress; while CDDP pretreatment prevented the tendency induced by ISO and enhanced a metabolic shift towards fatty acids metabolism that conventionally dominates energy supply to cardiac muscle cells. These data suggested that the underlying mechanism of CDDP involved regulating the dominant energy production mode and enhancing a metabolic shift toward fatty acids metabolism in ischemic heart. It was further indicated that CDDP had the potential to prevent myocardial ischemia in clinic. PMID:27905409

  1. Compound danshen dripping pills modulate the perturbed energy metabolism in a rat model of acute myocardial ischemia.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiahua; Yong, Yonghong; Aa, Jiye; Cao, Bei; Sun, Runbin; Yu, Xiaoyi; Huang, Jingqiu; Yang, Na; Yan, Lulu; Li, Xinxin; Cao, Jing; Aa, Nan; Yang, Zhijian; Kong, Xiangqing; Wang, Liansheng; Zhu, Xuanxuan; Ma, Xiaohui; Guo, Zhixin; Zhou, Shuiping; Sun, He; Wang, Guangji

    2016-12-01

    The continuous administration of compound danshen dripping pills (CDDP) showed good efficacy in relieving myocardial ischemia clinically. To probe the underlying mechanism, metabolic features were evaluated in a rat model of acute myocardial ischemia induced by isoproterenol (ISO) and administrated with CDDP using a metabolomics platform. Our data revealed that the ISO-induced animal model showed obvious myocardial injury, decreased energy production, and a marked change in metabolomic patterns in plasma and heart tissue. CDDP pretreatment increased energy production, ameliorated biochemical indices, modulated the changes and metabolomic pattern induced by ISO, especially in heart tissue. For the first time, we found that ISO induced myocardial ischemia was accomplished with a reduced fatty acids metabolism and an elevated glycolysis for energy supply upon the ischemic stress; while CDDP pretreatment prevented the tendency induced by ISO and enhanced a metabolic shift towards fatty acids metabolism that conventionally dominates energy supply to cardiac muscle cells. These data suggested that the underlying mechanism of CDDP involved regulating the dominant energy production mode and enhancing a metabolic shift toward fatty acids metabolism in ischemic heart. It was further indicated that CDDP had the potential to prevent myocardial ischemia in clinic.

  2. Suxiaojiuxin pill enhances atherosclerotic plaque stability by modulating the MMPs/TIMPs balance in ApoE-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinbao; Zhuang, Pengwei; Lu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Mixia; Zhang, Teng; Zhang, Yanjun; Wang, Jinlei; Liu, Dan; Tong, Yongling

    2014-08-01

    : Suxiaojiuxin pill (SX) is a famous Chinese formulated product, which has been used to treat coronary heart disease and angina pectoris in China. This study was carried out to investigate the effect and possible mechanism of SX on the stability of atherosclerotic plaque in ApoE-deficient mice. ApoE-/- mice of 6-8 weeks old were fed with high-fat diet for developing artherosclerosis. After oral administration of SX for 8 weeks, histopathology of aortic plaque was performed by Sudan III and hematoxylin-eosin staining, and muscle protein was detected by Western blotting (WB). The mRNA and proteins associated with aortic plaque stability were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and WB, respectively. SX treatment could not only reduce serum triglyceride level and plaque area but also increase fibrous cap thickness and collagen content compared with the model group. WB results showed that SX could increase α-smooth muscle actin, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), and TIMP-2 protein expression, whereas decrease matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 protein expression. Moreover, SX could upregulate the expression of α-smooth muscle actin mRNA and downregulate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA. These results showed that SX could enhance atherosclerotic plaque stability in ApoE-deficient mice. The mechanism may be associated with modulating the MMPs/TIMPs balance.

  3. Therapeutic impact of colon capsule endoscopy with PillCam™ COLON 2 after incomplete standard colonoscopy: a Spanish multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Nogales, Óscar; García-Lledó, Javier; Luján, Marisol; Nicolás, David; Juanmartiñena, José Francisco; González-Suárez, Begoña; Sánchez Ceballos, Francisco; Couto, Ignacio; Olmedo, José; Garfia, Cristina; Carretero, Cristina; Fernández Urién, Ignacio; Rodríguez, Sarbelio; Asteinza, Matilde; Olivencia, Pilar; Masedo, Ángeles; Muñoz-Navas, Miguel; Merino, Beatriz; González Asanza, Cecilia

    2017-05-01

    Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) is an alternative approach for the examination of the colon in patients who refuse colonoscopy or after incomplete colonoscopy (IC). We conducted a study to determine the frequency of complete colonoscopy after IC, the diagnostic yield of CCE, the therapeutic impact of lesions found in CCE, the level of colon cleanliness and the safety of the procedure. We performed a prospective, multicenter study involving ten Spanish hospitals. Consecutive outpatients aged ≥ 18 years with previous IC were invited to participate. The latest version of the CCE device, PillCam™ COLON 2 (CCE-2), was administered to all patients according to the protocol. The study population comprised 96 patients. The most frequent cause of IC was the inability to move past a loop using standard maneuvers (75/96 patients, 78%). Complete visualization of the colon was obtained with CCE-2 in 69 patients (71.9%). Of the 27 patients in whom the CCE-2 did not reach the hemorrhoidal plexus, it passed the colonic segment explored with the previous colonoscopy in 20 cases; therefore, it could be inferred that a combined approach (CCE-2 plus colonoscopy) enabled complete visualization of the colonic mucosa in 92.7% of patients. CCE-2 revealed new lesions in 58 patients (60.4%). Polyps were the most frequent finding (41 patients; 42.7% of the total number of patients). In 43 of the 58 patients (44.8% of the total number of patients), the new lesions observed led to modification of therapy, which included a new colonoscopy for polyp resection or surgery in patients with colonic neoplasm. CCE-2 is a suitable diagnostic procedure that can lead to more frequent diagnosis of significant colonic lesions after IC.

  4. Pretreatment of normal responders in fresh in vitro fertilization cycles: A comparison of transdermal estradiol and oral contraceptive pills

    PubMed Central

    Petrini, Allison C.; Zhou, Zhen N.; Lekovich, Jovana P.; Kligman, Isaac; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of pretreatment with transdermal estradiol (E2) compared to oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) on controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) response in normal responders undergoing fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF)-embryo transfer (ET) cycles. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed of normal responders undergoing fresh IVF-ET cycles who received pretreatment with transdermal E2 versus OCPs prior to fresh IVF-ET. The total days of ovarian stimulation, total dosage of gonadotropins, total number of oocytes, and mature oocytes retrieved were noted. Pregnancy outcomes after ET were also recorded. Results A total of 2,092 patients met the inclusion criteria: 1,057 and 1,035 patients in the transdermal E2 and OCP groups, respectively. Patients in the OCP group had a longer duration of COS (10.7±1.63 days, p<0.01) than the E2 group (9.92±1.94 days). Patients in the OCP group also required higher cumulative doses of gonadotropins (2,657.3±1,187.9 IU) than those in the E2 group (2,550.1±1,270.2 IU, p=0.002). No statistically significant differences were found in the total and mature oocytes retrieved or in the rates of biochemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, spontaneous miscarriage, and live birth between the groups. Conclusion Our findings suggest that compared to OCPs, pretreatment with transdermal E2 is associated with a shorter duration of ovarian stimulation and lower gonadotropin utilization, without compromising the oocyte yield or pregnancy outcomes in normal-responder patients undergoing fresh IVF. PMID:28090462

  5. Effects of ovarian hormones and oral contraceptive pills on cardiac vagal withdrawal at the onset of dynamic exercise.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, André L; Ramos, Plinio S; Vianna, Lauro C; Ricardo, Djalma R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the ovarian hormones and the use of oral contraceptive pills (OCP) on cardiac vagal withdrawal at the onset of dynamic exercise. Thirty physically active women aged 19-32 years were divided into two groups: OCP users (n = 17) and non-OCP users (n = 13). Participants were studied randomly at three different phases of the menstrual cycle: early follicular (day 3.6 ± 1.2; range 1-5), ovulatory (day 14.3 ± 0.8; range 13-16) and midluteal (day 21.3 ± 0.8; range 20-24), according to endogenous (in non-OCP users) or exogenous (in OCP users) estradiol and progesterone variations. The cardiac vagal withdrawal was represented by the cardiac vagal index (CVI), which was obtained by the 4-s exercise test. Additionally, resting heart rate, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were obtained. The CVI was not significantly different between the three phases of the menstrual cycle in either the non-OCP users (early follicular: 1.58 ± 0.1; ovulatory: 1.56 ± 0.1; midluteal: 1.58 ± 0.1, P > 0.05) or OCP users (early follicular: 1.47 ± 0.1; ovulatory: 1.49 ± 0.1; midluteal: 1.47 ± 0.1, P > 0.05) (mean ± SEM). Resting cardiovascular responses were not affected by hormonal phase or OCP use, except that the SBP was higher in the OCP users than non-OCP users in all phases of the cycle (P < 0.05). In summary, our results demonstrate that cardiac vagal withdrawal at the onset of dynamic exercise was not impacted by the menstrual cycle or OCP use in physically active women.

  6. Awareness and attitudes towards emergency contraceptive pills among young people in the entertainment places, Vientiane City, Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Sychareun, Vanphanom; Hansana, Visanou; Phengsavanh, Alongkone; Phongsavan, Keokedthong

    2013-03-21

    Emergency Contraception is not officially available to the public sector in Laos. The potential of emergency contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies is well documented in developed countries, but in Laos no studies of ECPs exist. This study aimed to assess knowledge of and attitudes towards emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) in Vientiane, the capital city of the Lao PDR. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 500 young adults in entertainment venues by using the convenience sampling between May to July, 2007. Data were obtained through face-to-face interview. Participants were asked about socio- demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes related to ECPs, and source of information about ECPs. Data analysis was performed with chi-square test and logistic regression (p < .05). Only 22.4 percent of respondents had heard of ECPs and of these only 17.9 percent knew the correct time-frame for effective use. Most of the respondents (85%) agreed on the need for ECPs to be available in Laos and 66.8 percent stated that they would use them should the need arise, if they were available. Among those who said they would not use ECPs, 63.8 percent were concerned about possible health effects, or other side effects. Awareness of ECPs was associated with increasing age (OR = 2.78, p = .025) and male sex (OR = 2.91, p = .010). There is needed to provide effective health education about the method, timing of use, and how to obtain ECPs through both informal, peer channels, and also through formal channels such as health care providers.

  7. Continuous compared with cyclic use of oral contraceptive pills in the Dominican Republic: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Kavita; Lendvay, Anja; Kwok, Cynthia; Tolley, Elizabeth; Dubé, Karine; Brache, Vivian

    2014-05-01

    To estimate whether continuous combined oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use leads to higher continuation and lower pregnancy rates over 12 months than cyclic use in a developing country setting. We enrolled healthy women aged 18 to 30 years, in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. We randomly assigned women to cyclic or continuous use of OCPs. Participants made quarterly clinic visits for 12 months. During follow-up, we reviewed OCP adherence and continuation, side effects, and bleeding, and we tested for pregnancy. We enrolled 358 women (mean age, 22.7 years) and 335 (93.6%) completed the study. In intent-to-treat analyses, 77.6% of the continuous use group and 71.7% of the cyclic group continued OCPs at 12 months (P=.21). The main reason for OCP discontinuation in both groups was running out of OCPs or forgetting. Across all visits, 26.1% of women in the continuous use group and 22.3% of women in the cyclic group ever reported missing three or more OCPs in the past month (P=.43). In multivariable analyses, regimen was not associated with discontinuation, but both previous birth and perceived ease of use of OCPs decreased risk of discontinuation, whereas desire for reduced menstruation increased risk of discontinuation. Although more women reported amenorrhea or infrequent bleeding in the continuous use group, more women in the cyclic group found their bleeding patterns acceptable. Bleeding was not associated with discontinuation in multivariable analyses. Pregnancy rates at 12 months were similar (16.2% continuous and 17.4% cyclic). Continuous and cyclic OCP regimens were associated with similar 12-month continuation and pregnancy rates. Few factors predicted OCP discontinuation or pregnancy. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00570440. I.

  8. Awareness and attitudes towards emergency contraceptive pills among young people in the entertainment places, Vientiane City, Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Emergency Contraception is not officially available to the public sector in Laos. The potential of emergency contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancies is well documented in developed countries, but in Laos no studies of ECPs exist. This study aimed to assess knowledge of and attitudes towards emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) in Vientiane, the capital city of the Lao PDR. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 500 young adults in entertainment venues by using the convenience sampling between May to July, 2007. Data were obtained through face-to-face interview. Participants were asked about socio- demographic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes related to ECPs, and source of information about ECPs. Data analysis was performed with chi-square test and logistic regression (p < .05). Results Only 22.4 percent of respondents had heard of ECPs and of these only 17.9 percent knew the correct time-frame for effective use. Most of the respondents (85%) agreed on the need for ECPs to be available in Laos and 66.8 percent stated that they would use them should the need arise, if they were available. Among those who said they would not use ECPs, 63.8 percent were concerned about possible health effects, or other side effects. Awareness of ECPs was associated with increasing age (OR = 2.78, p = .025) and male sex (OR = 2.91, p = .010). Conclusions There is needed to provide effective health education about the method, timing of use, and how to obtain ECPs through both informal, peer channels, and also through formal channels such as health care providers. PMID:23514104

  9. Effects of Ovarian Hormones and Oral Contraceptive Pills on Cardiac Vagal Withdrawal at the Onset of Dynamic Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, André L.; Ramos, Plinio S.; Vianna, Lauro C.; Ricardo, Djalma R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the ovarian hormones and the use of oral contraceptive pills (OCP) on cardiac vagal withdrawal at the onset of dynamic exercise. Thirty physically active women aged 19–32 years were divided into two groups: OCP users (n = 17) and non-OCP users (n = 13). Participants were studied randomly at three different phases of the menstrual cycle: early follicular (day 3.6 ± 1.2; range 1–5), ovulatory (day 14.3 ± 0.8; range 13–16) and midluteal (day 21.3 ± 0.8; range 20–24), according to endogenous (in non-OCP users) or exogenous (in OCP users) estradiol and progesterone variations. The cardiac vagal withdrawal was represented by the cardiac vagal index (CVI), which was obtained by the 4-s exercise test. Additionally, resting heart rate, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were obtained. The CVI was not significantly different between the three phases of the menstrual cycle in either the non-OCP users (early follicular: 1.58 ± 0.1; ovulatory: 1.56 ± 0.1; midluteal: 1.58 ± 0.1, P > 0.05) or OCP users (early follicular: 1.47 ± 0.1; ovulatory: 1.49 ± 0.1; midluteal: 1.47 ± 0.1, P > 0.05) (mean ± SEM). Resting cardiovascular responses were not affected by hormonal phase or OCP use, except that the SBP was higher in the OCP users than non-OCP users in all phases of the cycle (P < 0.05). In summary, our results demonstrate that cardiac vagal withdrawal at the onset of dynamic exercise was not impacted by the menstrual cycle or OCP use in physically active women. PMID:25785599

  10. Pretreatment of normal responders in fresh in vitro fertilization cycles: A comparison of transdermal estradiol and oral contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Nigel; Petrini, Allison C; Zhou, Zhen N; Lekovich, Jovana P; Kligman, Isaac; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of pretreatment with transdermal estradiol (E2) compared to oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) on controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) response in normal responders undergoing fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF)-embryo transfer (ET) cycles. A retrospective cohort study was performed of normal responders undergoing fresh IVF-ET cycles who received pretreatment with transdermal E2 versus OCPs prior to fresh IVF-ET. The total days of ovarian stimulation, total dosage of gonadotropins, total number of oocytes, and mature oocytes retrieved were noted. Pregnancy outcomes after ET were also recorded. A total of 2,092 patients met the inclusion criteria: 1,057 and 1,035 patients in the transdermal E2 and OCP groups, respectively. Patients in the OCP group had a longer duration of COS (10.7±1.63 days, p<0.01) than the E2 group (9.92±1.94 days). Patients in the OCP group also required higher cumulative doses of gonadotropins (2,657.3±1,187.9 IU) than those in the E2 group (2,550.1±1,270.2 IU, p=0.002). No statistically significant differences were found in the total and mature oocytes retrieved or in the rates of biochemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, spontaneous miscarriage, and live birth between the groups. Our findings suggest that compared to OCPs, pretreatment with transdermal E2 is associated with a shorter duration of ovarian stimulation and lower gonadotropin utilization, without compromising the oocyte yield or pregnancy outcomes in normal-responder patients undergoing fresh IVF.

  11. Medical abortion as an alternative to vacuum aspiration: first experiences with the 'abortion pill' in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Rademakers, J; Koster, E; Jansen-van Hees, A C; Willems, F

    2001-12-01

    To establish to what extent medical abortion is desired as a supplement to existing care provision in The Netherlands and to establish the (dis)advantages of medical abortion versus surgical vacuum aspiration. The research project began in November 1999 and ended in September 2000. In two abortion clinics, the clients were asked to answer some questions about their expectations (before treatment) and their experiences with the treatment (at the post-treatment check-up). At the post-treatment check-up, the clients were also asked to fill out the Hopkin's Symptom Checklist (HSCL) which is an objective measure for the psychological and physical well-being of the clients during the previous week. One hundred and thirty-one clients who chose medical abortion and 131 clients who chose surgical vacuum aspiration participated in the study. The failure rate was 3.3% for medical abortion and 1.5% for surgical vacuum aspiration. Of the medical abortion clients, 80.2% reported they were satisfied with this treatment and 68.1% said they would choose the same treatment procedure in the future. For vacuum aspiration, these figures were 92.9% and 83.2%, respectively. The most reported advantage of medical abortion was the fact that it was a pill, and no surgical procedures were necessary. The most reported disadvantages of medical abortion were the amount of blood loss and insecurity concerning the time of abortion. Medical abortion seems to be a good supplement to the existing care provision in The Netherlands and should be offered in other clinics.

  12. Does tablet formulation alone improve adherence and persistence: a comparison of ezetimibe fixed dose combination versus ezetimibe separate pill combination?

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Louise E; Pratt, Nicole; Roughead, Elizabeth E

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare adherence and persistence in patients who add ezetimibe to statin therapy as a separate pill combination (SPC) or fixed dose combination (FDC). This is a retrospective cohort study of prescription data conducted in an Australian health dataset. Two cohorts were identified: those dispensed statins and subsequently ezetimibe as either SPC or FDC. We compared adherence to combination therapy using the medication possession ratio (MPR), multivariate linear and logistic regression. Persistence to initial combination medicines and any lipid-lowering therapies were analysed using Kaplan Meyer survival and Cox proportional hazards models. A total of 3651 people initiated ezetimibe SPC and 5740 ezetimibe FDC. There was no significant difference in adherence with mean MPRs: ezetimibe SPC = 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.98-1.01) and FDC = 0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.99). One year persistence rates to initial combination medicines were ezetimibe SPC 49.1% vs. FDC 62.4%; hazard ratio (HR) = 1.81 (95% CI 1.76-1.90). However, persistence to any lipid-lowering therapy was higher in those initiating ezetimibe SPC = 84.9% vs. FDC = 76%; HR = 0.62 (95% CI 0.55-0.72). One year persistence rates to any two lipid-lowering medicines were similar: ezetimibe SPC 65.2% and FDC 65%. In this study FDCs have little impact on either adherence or persistence to combination lipid-lowering therapy in people who have been taking statins. The benefit of higher persistence to FDCs in first episode of treatment with initial medicines is debatable as persistence to dual therapy was similar in both cohorts. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. [Protective effect of Liuweidihuang Pills against cellphone electromagnetic radiation-induced histomorphological abnormality, oxidative injury, and cell apoptosis in rat testes].

    PubMed

    Ma, Hui-rong; Cao, Xiao-hui; Ma, Xue-lian; Chen, Jin-jin; Chen, Jing-wei; Yang, Hui; Liu, Yun-xiao

    2015-08-01

    To observe the effect of Liuweidihuang Pills in relieving cellphone electromagnetic radiation-induced histomorphological abnormality, oxidative injury, and cell apoptosis in the rat testis. Thirty adult male SD rats were equally randomized into a normal, a radiated, and a Liuweidihuang group, the animals in the latter two groups exposed to electromagnetic radiation of 900 MHz cellphone frequency 4 hours a day for 18 days. Meanwhile, the rats in the Liuweidihuang group were treated with the suspension of Liuweidihuang Pills at 1 ml/100 g body weight and the other rats intragastrically with the equal volume of purified water. Then all the rats were killed for observation of testicular histomorphology by routine HE staining, measurement of testicular malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels by colorimetry, and determination of the expressions of bax and bcl-2 proteins in the testis tissue by immunohistochemistry. Compared with the normal controls, the radiated rats showed obviously loose structure, reduced layers of spermatocytes, and cavitation in the seminiferous tubules. Significant increases were observed in the MDA level (P < 0.01) and bax expression (P < 0.01) but decreases in the GSH level (P < 0.01) and bcl-2 expression (P < 0.01) in the testis issue of the radiated rats. In comparison with the radiated rats, those of the Liuweidihuang group exhibited nearly normal testicular structure, significantly lower MDA level (P < 0.05), bax expression (P < 0.01), and bcl-2 expression (P < 0.01). Liuweidihuang Pills can improve cellphone electromagnetic radiation-induced histomorphological abnormality of the testis tissue and reduce its oxidative damage and cell apoptosis.

  14. [Study on action mechanism and material base of compound Danshen dripping pills in treatment of carotid atherosclerosis based on techniques of gene expression profile and molecular fingerprint].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Song, Xiang-gang; Chen, Chao; Wang, Shu-mei; Liang, Sheng-wang

    2015-08-01

    Action mechanism and material base of compound Danshen dripping pills in treatment of carotid atherosclerosis were discussed based on gene expression profile and molecular fingerprint in this paper. First, gene expression profiles of atherosclerotic carotid artery tissues and histologically normal tissues in human body were collected, and were screened using significance analysis of microarray (SAM) to screen out differential gene expressions; then differential genes were analyzed by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis and KEGG pathway analysis; to avoid some genes with non-outstanding differential expression but biologically importance, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) were performed, and 7 chemical ingredients with higher negative enrichment score were obtained by Cmap method, implying that they could reversely regulate the gene expression profiles of pathological tissues; and last, based on the hypotheses that similar structures have similar activities, 336 ingredients of compound Danshen dripping pills were compared with 7 drug molecules in 2D molecular fingerprints method. The results showed that 147 differential genes including 60 up-regulated genes and 87 down regulated genes were screened out by SAM. And in GO analysis, Biological Process ( BP) is mainly concerned with biological adhesion, response to wounding and inflammatory response; Cellular Component (CC) is mainly concerned with extracellular region, extracellular space and plasma membrane; while Molecular Function (MF) is mainly concerned with antigen binding, metalloendopeptidase activity and peptide binding. KEGG pathway analysis is mainly concerned with JAK-STAT, RIG-I like receptor and PPAR signaling pathway. There were 10 compounds, such as hexadecane, with Tanimoto coefficients greater than 0.85, which implied that they may be the active ingredients (AIs) of compound Danshen dripping pills in treatment of carotid atherosclerosis (CAs). The present method can be applied to the research on material

  15. Blood Pressure Control with a Single-Pill Combination of Indapamide Sustained-Release and Amlodipine in Patients with Hypertension: The EFFICIENT Study

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Uday; Hiremath, Jagdish; Namjoshi, Deepak J.; Gujral, Vinod K.; Tripathi, Kamlakar K.; Siraj, Mohammad; Shamanna, Paramesh; Safar, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Objective Despite antihypertensive treatment, most hypertensive patients still have high blood pressure (BP), notably high systolic blood pressure (SBP). The EFFICIENT study examines the efficacy and acceptability of a single-pill combination of sustained-release (SR) indapamide, a thiazide-like diuretic, and amlodipine, a calcium channel blocker (CCB), in the management of hypertension. Methods Patients who were previously uncontrolled on CCB monotherapy (BP≥140/90 mm Hg) or were previously untreated with grade 2 or 3 essential hypertension (BP≥160/100 mm Hg) received a single-pill combination tablet containing indapamide SR 1.5 mg and amlodipine 5 mg daily for 45 days, in this multicenter prospective phase 4 study. The primary outcome was mean change in BP from baseline; percentage of patients achieving BP control (BP<140/90 mm Hg) was a secondary endpoint. SBP reduction (ΔSBP) versus diastolic BP reduction (ΔDBP) was evaluated (ΔSBP/ΔDBP) from baseline to day 45. Safety and tolerability were also assessed. Results Mean baseline BP of 196 patients (mean age 52.3 years) was 160.2/97.9 mm Hg. After 45 days, mean SBP decreased by 28.5 mm Hg (95% CI, 26.4 to 30.6), while diastolic BP decreased by 15.6 mm Hg (95% CI, 14.5 to 16.7). BP control (<140/90 mm Hg) was achieved in 85% patients. ΔSBP/ΔDBP was 1.82 in the overall population. Few patients (n = 3 [2%]) reported side effects, and most (n = 194 [99%]) adhered to treatment. Conclusion In patients who were previously uncontrolled on CCB monotherapy or untreated with grade 2 or 3 hypertension, single-pill combination indapamide SR/amlodipine reduced BP effectively—especially SBP— over 45 days, and was safe and well tolerated. Trial Registration Clinical Trial Registry – India CTRI/2010/091/000114 PMID:24714044

  16. High serum prostate-specific antigen concentrations in hirsute women do not decrease with treatment by the combination of spironolactone and the contraceptive pill.

    PubMed

    Guzelmeric, K; Seker, N; Unal, O; Turan, C

    2004-10-01

    Using an ultrasensitive assay, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been detected in female serum and has been proposed as a potential marker of androgen excess in hirsute women. Measurement of PSA levels in serum may play a role in monitoring hirsutism during antiandrogen therapy. We investigated the role of PSA as a marker of androgen activity in hirsute patients taking spironolactone together with oral contraceptive pills containing ethinyl estradiol and gestodene. Twenty-eight hirsute patients were included in the study. Clinical and biochemical variables including serum levels of PSA (using an ultrasensitive chemiluminscent immunoassay), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, total testosterone, free testosterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone concentrations were recorded at baseline and after six cycles of treatment. Fifteen healthy women were included in the study as controls. Serum PSA levels in hirsute women were clearly higher than in the control group (0.023 +/- 0.004 vs. 0.006 +/- 0.003 ng/ml, p < 0.001) and correlated with baseline serum free testosterone concentrations (r = 0.518, p = 0.005). After 6 months, serum PSA concentrations as compared with baseline values did not change significantly in patients who were given spironolactone plus contraceptive pills (p = 0.4) despite a marked decrease in total testosterone, free testosterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and hirsutism score (p < 0.05). Thus, serum PSA levels in hirsute women were higher than in non-hirsute healthy controls. A 6-month course of treatment with spironolactone combined with contraceptive pills containing ethinylestradiol and gestodene did not reduce high serum PSA levels in these subjects. In conclusion, the serum PSA level is not a convenient biochemical marker with the available assays for the management of hirsute women treated with the combination of spironolactone and oral contraceptives.

  17. Comprehensive quantitative analysis of Chinese patent drug YinHuang drop pill by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wong, Tin-Long; An, Ya-Qi; Yan, Bing-Chao; Yue, Rui-Qi; Zhang, Tian-Bo; Ho, Hing-Man; Ren, Tian-Jing; Fung, Hau-Yee; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang; Liu, Zhong-Liang; Pu, Jian-Xin; Han, Quan-Bin; Sun, Han-Dong

    2016-06-05

    YinHuang drop pill (YHDP) is a new preparation, derived from the traditional YinHuang (YH) decoction. Since drop pills are one of the newly developed forms of Chinese patent drugs, not much research has been done regarding the quality and efficacy. This study aims to establish a comprehensive quantitative analysis of the chemical profile of YHDP. ultra high-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was used to identify 34 non-sugar small molecules including 15 flavonoids, 9 phenolic acids, 5 saponins, 1 iridoid, and 4 iridoid glycosides in YHDP samples, and 26 of them were quantitatively determined. Sugar composition of YHDP in terms of fructose, glucose and sucrose was examined via a high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detector on an amide column (HPLC-NH2P-ELSD). Macromolecules were examined by high performance gel permeation chromatography coupled with ELSD (HPGPC-ELSD). The content of the drop pill's skeleton component PEG-4000 was also quantified via ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with charged aerosol detector (UHPLC-CAD). The results showed that up to 73% (w/w) of YHDP could be quantitatively determined. Small molecules accounted for approximately 5%, PEG-4000 represented 68%, while no sugars or macromolecules were found. Furthermore, YHDP showed no significant differences in terms of daily dosage, compared to YinHuang granules and YinHuang oral liquid; however, it has a higher small molecules content compared to YinHuang lozenge.

  18. Increasing appreciation for the role of single-pill combinations for the prevention of atherosclerotic disease: a pro-polypill polemic.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ross D; Nattel, Stanley

    2014-05-01

    The polypill concept for atherosclerosis is based on the notion that a single pill containing multiple products that attack frequently encountered risk factors will provide important advantages as a preventive strategy, particularly in the developing world. Potential benefits include improved efficacy and greater compliance because of simplicity and reduced costs. Here, we briefly review the rationale for the polypill and the evidence supporting its value. We consider the polypill to be a major advance in combat against cardiovascular disease, with enormous benefits to global health to be expected from its use.

  19. Impact of changes in pill appearance in the adherence to angiotensin receptor blockers and in the blood pressure levels: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lumbreras, B; López-Pintor, E

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the level of adherence to angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) in patients regularly attending a community pharmacy and the influence of a change in patients' adherence to pharmacological treatment. Design Retrospective cohort study of a random sample of consecutive patients collecting their medication. Setting 40 community pharmacies in Alicante (Southeast Spain). Participants 602 consecutive ≥18 years old patients following treatment with ARBs at least 3 previous refills were included. Main outcome measures Prevalence of uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) and adherence to prescribed pharmacological treatment (measured through both the Batalla and the Morisky-Green tests). A multivariate Poisson regression model was used to estimate the adjusted risk ratio (RRa) for non-adherence to pharmacological treatment by the presence of a change in patient's adherence and other significant variables. Results 161/602 (13.7%) patients presented uncontrolled BP. According to the Morisky test, 410/602 (68.2%) patients were considered adherent to pharmacological treatment and 231/602 (38.4%) patients according to the Batalla test. According to the Morisky-Green test, in the multivariable analysis, patients with a previous change in pill appearance were less likely to be adherent than those patients with no change in their pharmacological treatment (RRa 0.45; CI 95% 0.22 to 0.90; p=0.024). Systolic BP was higher in patients with a change in pill appearance in the previous 3 refills (median BP 142 mm Hg; IQR 136–148) than in those who did not have a change (median BP 127 mm Hg; IQR 118–135; p<0.001). Conclusions There was a low percentage of adherence and nearly 15% of uncontrolled BP in patients who regularly collected their medication. Switching between pills of different appearances was associated with lower patient adherence to pharmacological treatment and a higher uncontrolled BP than no change in pharmacological treatment or change only in

  20. Benzylpiperizine-based party pills' impact on the Auckland City Hospital Emergency Department Overdose Database (2002-2004) compared with ecstasy (MDMA or methylene dioxymethamphetamine), gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB), amphetamines, cocaine, and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Theron, Lynn; Jansen, Karl; Miles, Jennifer

    2007-02-16

    To examine the impact of 'party pills' (PP; herbal highs) on the Auckland City Hospital Emergency Department Overdose Database 2002-2004, and to present figures for five other substances in that database. Auckland City Hospital's Emergency Department's overdose database was reviewed for 2002, 2003, and 2004 for 'herbal ingestions' and 'party pills' (PP), ecstasy, methamphetamine, GHB, cocaine, and alcohol. Adverse effects attributed to PP were examined. In 2002, 1 patient presented with PP ingestion; 4 presented in 2003 and 21 in 2004 respectively (p<0.001). Of these 21 patients in 2004, 5 had allegedly ingested PP only and none required medical admission. PP only contributed to 1.58% of the overdose database for 2004. 'Party pills' appeared to have a minor impact on the overdose database at Auckland City Hospital between 2002 and 2004. There was a significant decrease in GHB presentations from 2003 to 2004 (p<0.001), but no significant fall in stimulant overdose presentations.

  1. Multiple effects of Xihuang pill aqueous extract on the Hs578T triple-negative breast cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wenxian; Han, Shuyan; Jiang, Shantong; Pang, Lina; Li, Xiaohong; Liu, Xijuan; Cao, Minhua; Li, Pingping

    2016-01-01

    The management of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is challenging due to the aggressive behavior, lack of therapeutic options and relatively poor prognosis. Xihuang pill (XHP) is a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine with anticancer activity. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the aqueous extract of XHP (AEXHP) has anti-proliferative activity against the Hs578T TNBC cell line, and to elucidate its molecular mechanisms of action. First, an MTT assay was used to evaluate the anti-proliferative activity of AEXHP on the Hs578T cell line; furthermore, the cell cycle distribution, mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptotic rate were determined by flow cytometry, and western blot analysis was used to assess the expression of apoptosis and cell cycle regulatory proteins to investigate the mechanisms of action. The results revealed that the cell viability was significantly inhibited by AEXHP in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential loss were detected, and after treatment with 4, 8 and 12 mg/ml AEXHP for 24 h, cleaved caspase-3 was 1.70-, 1.81- and 1.84-fold of that of the control, while procaspase-3, procaspase-8, cleaved caspase-8, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio were not significantly affected. Cell cycle analysis revealed that treatment with AEXHP led to S-phase arrest of Hs578T cells. Furthermore, AEXHP treatment resulted in decreased expression of cyclin A and cyclin dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), and increased expression of cyclin E and p21Cip1, as compared to the control group. In conclusion, the viability of Hs578T cells was significantly inhibited by AEXHP in a dose- and time-dependent manner, the likely mechanisms of which being induction of apoptosis, probably via the intrinsic, Bcl-2-independent pathway, and cell cycle arrest in S phase due to decreased expression of cyclin A and CDK2, and increased expression of cyclin E and p21Cip1. PMID

  2. Effect of QiShenYiQi pill on myocardial collagen metabolism in experimental autoimmune myocarditis rats.

    PubMed

    Lv, Shi-Chao; Wu, Meifang; Li, Meng; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Ao; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Jun-Ping

    2017-04-01

    To observe the effect of QiShenYiQi pill (QSYQ) on myocardial collagen metabolism in experimental autoimmune myocarditis rats, and to explore its mechanism of action. Lewis rats underwent the injection of myocardial myosin mixed with freund's complete adjuvant were randomized into three groups: model, valsartan and QSYQ groups. And we treated rats which were injected phosphate buffered saline (PBS) mixed with freund's complete adjuvant as control group. Rats were intervened and euthanized at 4 and 8 weeks. We use alkaline hydrolysis to detect the content of myocardial hydroxyproline (HYP), and ELISA to detect the level of serum procollagen type I carboxyterminal peptide (PICP), procollagen type III amino-terminal peptide (PIIINP), and collagen C telopeptide type I (CTX-I). Myocardial MMP-1 and TIMP-1 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry, and myocardial MMP-1 and TIMP-1 mRNA expression was detected by real-time qPCR. QSYQ reduced the content of myocardial HYP, and this reduction was greater over time. QSYQ also reduced the serum concentration of PICP, PIIINP, CTX-I and the PICP/PIIINP ratio, which further reduced over time, whereas its effect on lowering PICP was significantly greater than that of valsartan at 4 and 8 weeks, and lowering CTX-I was significantly greater than that of valsartan at 8 weeks. In addition, after 4 weeks, QSYQ enhanced the protein and mRNA expression of MMP-1 and TIMP-1, and its effect on highering TIMP-1 was significantly greater than that of valsartan, whereas there was no significant difference in the expression of myocardial MMP-1 or TIMP-1 at 8 weeks. QSYQ reduced the ratio of MMP-1/TIMP-1, which further reduced over time, and the effect of QYSQ was significantly greater than that of valsartan after 4 weeks. This study provides evidence that QSYQ can reduce the rate of myocardial collagen synthesis and degradation. It also effectively improved the degree of myocardial fibrosis in experimental autoimmune myocarditis

  3. You-gui Pill ameliorates renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis via inhibition of TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Cao, Ai-Li; Chi, Yang-Feng; Ju, Zheng-Cai; Yin, Pei-Hao; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Peng, Wen

    2015-07-01

    You-gui Pill (YGP), a traditional Chinese medicinal prescription, was widely used to warm and recuperate "kidney-yang" clinically for hundreds of years in China. Recent studies found that YGP had a potential benefit for renoprotection. The present study aimed to elucidate the in vivo and in vitro efficacy of YGP on renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and the molecular mechanism is also investigated. Rat renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis model was elicited by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Sprague-Dawley rats underwent UUO and were studied after 14 days. Animals were randomly subjected to six groups: sham, UUO, UUO/YGP (0.14, 0.42, 1.26g/kg/d), and UUO/enalapril (10mg/kg/d). HE, Masson and ELISA were used for evaluate renal injury and function. Immunohistochemical analysis and western blot were used to detect the expressions of α-SMA, fibronectin, collagen matrix and Smads. In vitro studies were investigated in TGF-β1-stiumlated NRK-49F cell line. Oral administration of YGP significantly decreased UUO-induced inflammatory cell infiltration, tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis, and there was no significant difference between YGP at 1.26g/kg and enalapril at 10mg/kg treatment (P>0.05). Meanwhile, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels were reduced dramatically (P<0.01). In coincide with the decreased of TGF-β1, α-SMA, fibronectin and collagen matrix expressions were also declined with YGP treatment in both UUO kidneys and TGF-β1-stimulated NRK-49F cell line. Additionally, nuclear translocation of p-Smad2/3 was markedly down-regulated by YGP (P<0.001), with a relative mild up-regulated expression of Smad7 (P<0.05). Our findings demonstrate that YGP had a renoprotective effect in ameliorating renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and this activity possibly via suppression of the TGF-β and its downstream regulatory signaling pathway, including Smad2/3. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Potential herb-drug interaction of shexiang baoxin pill in vitro based on drug metabolism/transporter

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhijie; Wang, Yingjie; Guo, Wei; Yao, Yili; Wang, Xiaolong

    2016-01-01

    Many researches have proved functions of anti-oxidation, endothelial protection and pro-angiogenesis efficiency of Shexiang Baoxin Pill (SBP). This study aims to investigate potential for metabolism-based interaction on CYP450s and transporter based interaction on OATP1B1, BRCP and MDR1. Human primary hepatocytes were used in this study. Probe substrates of cytochrome P450 enzymes were incubated in human liver microsomes (HLMs) with or without SBP and IC50 values were estimated. Inhibitive potential of SBP on activities of CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A4 was evaluated. Inducible potential of SBP on activities of CYP1A2, 2B6 and 3A4 was accessed. Inhibitive potential of SBP on human OATP1B1 was evaluated using cell-based assay. Inhibitive potential of SBP on human MDR1 and BCRP was also evaluated using vesicles assay. MDR1 and BCRP vesicle kit were used to determine ATP dependent uptake activity when incubated with SBP. SBP was a competitive inhibitor of CYP2B6, 2C19, while neither inhibitory nor inductive potentials toward other CYP450s were detected. No significant MDR1 inhibitory potential was estimated, while only high concentration of SBP (500 μg/ml) could inhibit activity of BCRP. Probe substrates Estradiol-17 β-glucuronide was incubated in HEK293-OATP1B1 and HEK293-MOCK cell system with different concentration of SBP and estimated IC50 was 179 μg/mL, which demonstrated a moderate inhibition potential against OATP1B1. In conclusion, outcome of this study suggests that SBP plays an important role in inhibition of CYP450 isozymes (including CYP2B6 and 2C9) and transporter OATP1B1. Therefore, precautions should be taken when using SBP for CYP and OATP-related herb-drug interactions. PMID:28078025

  5. Cycle scheduling for in vitro fertilization with oral contraceptive pills versus oral estradiol valerate: a randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Both oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) and estradiol (E2) valerate have been used to schedule gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles and, consequently, laboratory activities. However, there are no studies comparing treatment outcomes directly between these two pretreatment methods. This randomized controlled trial was aimed at finding differences in ongoing pregnancy rates between GnRH antagonist IVF cycles scheduled with OCPs or E2 valerate. Methods Between January and May 2012, one hundred consecutive patients (nonobese, regularly cycling women 18–38 years with normal day 3 hormone levels and <3 previous IVF/ICSI attempts) undergoing IVF with the GnRH antagonist protocol were randomized to either the OCP or E2 pretreatment arms, with no restrictions such as blocking or stratification. Authors involved in data collection and analysis were blinded to group assignment. Fifty patients received OCP (30 μg ethinyl E2/150 μg levonorgestrel) for 12–16 days from day 1 or 2, and stimulation was started 5 days after stopping OCP. Similarly, 50 patients received 4 mg/day oral E2 valerate from day 20 for 5–12 days, until the day before starting stimulation. Results Pretreatment with OCP (mean±SD, 14.5±1.7 days) was significantly longer than with E2 (7.8±1.9 days). Stimulation and embryological characteristics were similar. Ongoing pregnancy rates (46.0% vs. 44.0%; risk difference, –2.0% [95% CI –21.2% to 17.3%]), as well as implantation (43.5% vs. 47.4%), clinical pregnancy (50.0% vs. 48.0%), clinical miscarriage (7.1% vs. 7.7%), and live birth (42.0% vs. 40.0%) rates were comparable between groups. Conclusions This is the first study to directly compare these two methods of cycle scheduling in GnRH antagonist cycles. Our results fail to show statistically significant differences in ongoing pregnancy rates between pretreatment with OCP and E2 for IVF with the GnRH antagonist protocol. Although the

  6. An experimental study of a modified dahuang zhechong pill on the--angiogenesis of RF/6A cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xu-Sheng; Wu, Xing-Wei; Gu, Qing

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the effects of a modified Dahuang Zhechong Pill (MDZP) on the angiogenesis of rhesus choroid-retina endothelial (RF/6A) cells and its preliminary mechanism. A 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) method was used to assess the effect of a MDZP on RF/6A cell proliferation induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Transwell inserts were used to assess the effect of the MDZP on RF/6A cell migration. Matrigel was used to assess the effect of the MDZP on the tube formation of RF/ 6A cells. Western blotting and quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to detect the protein and mRNA expression, respectively, of VEGF and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in RF/6A cells treated with the MDZP. RF/6A cell proliferation induced by VEGF was inhibited by 0.2 mg/mL MDZP. At 0, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/mL MDZP, the number of cells that migrated through Transwell membranes was 73.33 +/- 4.51, 61.33 +/- 4.04, 28.67 +/- 6.66 and 17.67 +/- 4.16, respectively, and the number of tubes formed in Matrigel was 20.33 +/- 0.58, 13.33 +/- 1.53, 11.00 +/- 1.00 and 1.33 +/- 0.58, respectively. At 100 and 200 mg/mL MDZP, the protein and mRNA expression of VEGF and MMP-2 were inhibited in RF/6A cells. At 400 mg/mL MDZP, the expression of VEGF mRNA and MMP-2 protein were inhibited in RF/6A cells. MDZP inhibits the angiogenesis of RF/6A cells via the suppression of proliferation, migration and tube formation of RF/6A cells. Inhibition of the protein and mRNA expression of VEGF and MMP-2 in RF/6A cells may be an important mechanism.

  7. Results from a 12 months, randomized, clinical trial comparing an olmesartan/amlodipine single pill combination to olmesartan and amlodipine monotherapies on blood pressure and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Cicero, Arrigo F G; Carbone, Anna; Querci, Fabrizio; Fogari, Elena; D'Angelo, Angela; Maffioli, Pamela

    2014-01-23

    Hypertension affects nearly 1 in 3 adults in the United States, and it is an important modifiable risk factor for coronary artery disease, heart failure, renal failure, and stroke. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a fixed-dose olmesartan/amlodipine combination on blood pressure control, lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation compared to singles monotherapies. We randomized 276 hypertensive patients to olmesartan 20 mg, amlodipine 10mg or a single pill containing a fixed-dose olmesartan/amlodipine combination 20/5mg for 12 months. We evaluated: body weight, body mass index (BMI), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), lipid profile, omentin, chemerin, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP). At baseline, and after 6 and 12 months, patients underwent an euglycemic, hyperinsulinemic clamp to assess insulin sensitivity (M value). Olmesartan/amlodipine combination was more effective than amlodipine or olmesartan in reducing blood pressure. Olmesartan/amlodipine combination, but not amlodipine, decreased FPG after 12 months. Olmesartan/amlodipine combination better decreased FPI and HOMA index and increased M value compared to olmesartan and amlodipine monotherapies. Olmesartan/amlodipine significantly decreased chemerin and omentin compared to olmesartan and amlodipine. Other than to be more effective in reducing blood pressure, olmesartan/amlodipine single pill combination gave also a major increase of insulin sensitivity and a decrease of inflammatory markers compared to single monotherapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Simultaneous determination of paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, prim-O-glucosylcimifugin and 4'-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-5-O-methylvisamminol in zhengtian pills by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Huang, Lan; Chen, Hui-Ling; Li, Ling-Ling

    2013-07-01

    To simultaneously determine paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, prim-O-glucosylcimifugin and 4'-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-5-O-methylvisamminol in Zhengtian pills. In the test, Insertil ODS-C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) was adopted, with acetonitrile-0.05% phosphoric acid solution as the mobile phase for gradient elution. The flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1), the column temperature was 30 degrees C and the detection wavelength was 230 nm. According to the results of the test, paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, prim-O-glucosylcimifugin and 4'-O-beta-glucopyranosyl-5-O-methylvisamminol showed good linear relations between peak areas and sample sizes in 11.37-170.5, 2.188-32.82, 2.896-43.44, and 3.000-45.00 mg x L(-1) (r = 0.999 9, 0.999 9, 1.000 0, 1.000 0), respectively. The average recoveries (n = 6) were 102.3% (RSD 1.2%), 99.71% (RSD 1.9%), 101.2% (RSD 1.2%), and 99.40% (RSD 2.4%), respectively. The above four components were determined in five batches of samples by using the established method, with satisfactory results. The method was so simple, accurate and highly reproducible that it could be used for quality control of the four components in Zhengtian pills.

  9. Comparison of combined hormonal vaginal ring with ultralow-dose combined oral contraceptive pills in the management of heavy menstrual bleeding: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, N; Gupta, M; Kriplani, A; Bhatla, N; Singh, N

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare combined hormonal vaginal ring with ultralow-dose combined oral contraceptive (COC) pills in management of heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB). Fifty patients were randomised into Group I: vaginal ring (n = 25) and group II: COC pills (n = 25). Menstrual blood loss (MBL) was assessed at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months (while on treatment) and at 9 months (3 months after stopping therapy). There was significant reduction in baseline pictorial blood loss assessment chart (PBAC) score from 440 ± 188 (Mean ± SD) to 178 ± 95, 139 ± 117, 112 ± 84 and 120 ± 108 in group I and from 452 ± 206 to 204 ± 152, 179 ± 125, 176 ± 164 and 202 ± 167 in group II at 1, 3, 6 and 9 months, respectively (p = 0.001). Reduction in MBL was 72% and 62% at 6 months and up to 71% and 55% at 9 months in group I and group II, respectively (p = 0.001). Reduction in MBL with ring was greater at higher baseline PBAC score but lesser in patients with fibroid > 2 cm. Combined vaginal hormonal treatment for HMB is as effective as oral hormonal therapy, with minor and transient side effects and persistence of response after cessation of therapy.

  10. Analysis of bioactive components and pharmacokinetic study of herb-herb interactions in the traditional Chinese patent medicine Tongmai Yangxin Pill.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yaya; Man, Shuli; Li, Hongfa; Liu, Yuanxue; Liu, Zhen; Gao, Wenyuan

    2016-02-20

    Tongmai Yangxin (TMYX) Pill is a traditional Chinese patent medicine, composed of eleven Chinese medicinal herbs. It has been used to treat coronary heart disease for several decades. In this study, six male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed orally with TMYX methanol extract, and a serum pharmacochemistry technique was used to screen absorbed bioactive compounds by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS. By comparing MS spectra to the published literature data, 40 bioactive components were identified. The results indicated that almost 45% of the absorbed compounds were from Radix Glycyrrhizae (GC). Subsequently, a reliable HPLC method was used to determine the concentrations of liquiritin, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, glycyrrhizic acid, and glycyrrhetinic acid in rat plasma following oral administration of GC or the combination of GC and Ramulus Cinnamomi (GZ). The results showed that GZ enhanced the absorption of four bioactive components: liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, glycyrrhizic acid, and glycyrrhetinic acid. The data demonstrate that herb combination in TMYX Pill exhibit a synergistic action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Aspartame, a bittersweet pill.

    PubMed

    Paolini, Moreno; Vivarelli, Fabio; Sapone, Andrea; Canistro, Donatella

    2016-02-24

    For the first time, the aspartame case shows how a corporation decided to ban an artificial ingredient in the wake of public opinion notwithstanding the regulatory assurance claims that it is safe. PepsiCo Inc. made an unprecedented decision most likely based on life-span carcinogenicity bioassay studies from the Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center of the Ramazzini Institute (CMCRC/RI), which provide consistent evidence of aspartame's carcinogenicity in rodents. Although CMCRC/RI experiments have been criticized for not complying with Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines, the newly launched aspartame-free soft drink may not be an isolated case. In the light of vinyl chloride-, formaldehyde- or benzene-associated carcinogenicity discovered for the first time by CMCRC/RI in the same way, it seems the guidelines need to be re-evaluated to avoid the credibility of international regulatory agencies being compromised by consumer opinion. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Beyond pills and condoms.

    PubMed

    Steinhart, P

    1991-01-01

    Conditions and changes in Kenya, noted by the author after an absence of 20 years, are discussed. Commentary is provided on the marriage pattern and birth rate, modernization, unemployment, changes in transfers of wealth; the individual waste of natural resources in developed countries is contrasted with Kenya's population. The difficulty of individual action and the constraints on acting on the basis of one's understanding are presented. Kenya's population growth from 11 million in 1969 to 25 million in 1990 is evident in the differences in the road to Kutus. The 7 miles down the slope of Mount Kenya in 1969 were dotted with small farms and stretches of solitude, while in 1990 people were everywhere, hundreds going or coming and working in small farms metered out across the countryside. Kenya was 1 of the 1st African nations to adopt a population policy. The growth rate was very high at 4.1 in the 1980s. The present density is 1/2500 people/sq mile. 50% of the population is 15 years. 40,000 were unemployed in 1976 and 1 million are unemployed at present. 75% of the women now 40 married before the age of 20 years; 22% married before 15 years. Kenyans value children as wealth and old age secu