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Sample records for region influence mrna

  1. Mutations in a conserved region of RNA polymerase II influence the accuracy of mRNA start site selection.

    PubMed Central

    Hekmatpanah, D S; Young, R A

    1991-01-01

    A sensitive phenotypic assay has been used to identify mutations affecting transcription initiation in the genes encoding the two large subunits of Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II (RPB1 and RPB2). The rpb1 and rpb2 mutations alter the ratio of transcripts initiated at two adjacent start sites of a delta-insertion promoter. Of a large number of rpb1 and rpb2 mutations screened, only a few affect transcription initiation patterns at delta-insertion promoters, and these mutations are in close proximity to each other within both RPB1 and RPB2. The two rpb1 mutations alter amino acid residues within homology block G, a region conserved in the large subunits of all RNA polymerases. The three strong rpb2 mutations alter adjacent amino acids. At a wild-type promoter, the rpb1 mutations affect the accuracy of mRNA start site selection by producing a small but detectable increase in the 5'-end heterogeneity of transcripts. These RNA polymerase II mutations implicate specific portions of the enzyme in aspects of transcription initiation. Images PMID:1922077

  2. Does HIV-1 mRNA 5'-untranslated region bear an internal ribosome entry site?

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Victoria V; Terenin, Ilya M; Khutornenko, Anastasia A; Andreev, Dmitri E; Dmitriev, Sergey E; Shatsky, Ivan N

    2016-02-01

    Unspliced human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) mRNA is capped and therefore can be translated via conventional scanning mechanism. In addition, its 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) is thought to function as an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) during G2/M-phase of cell cycle or when cap-dependent translation is inhibited. Recently, customary methods of internal initiation demonstrating have been challenged, and consequently existence of certain IRESs of cellular origin has been put under question. Since a precise knowledge of translation initiation mechanism used by HIV may be important for cure development, presence of the IRES in HIV-1 mRNA demands a careful reexamination using contemporary stringent criteria. The key point of our strategy is to compare translation efficiency of bicistronic mRNA bearing HIV-1 unspliced mRNA 5' UTR in the intercistronic position to that of the corresponding capped monocistronic mRNA. This approach allows determination of internal initiation contribution into the overall level of particular mRNA translation. We found that both in cell-free systems and in cultured cells monocistronic mRNA with HIV-1 unspliced mRNA 5'UTR is translated significantly better than bicistronic one. Importantly, it is also true for G2/M-phase stalled cells or for cells under conditions of inhibited cap-dependent translation. Thus, in our hands contribution of internal ribosome entry into the overall level of translation driven by HIV-1 unspliced mRNA 5'UTR is negligible, and 5'-dependent scanning is a primary mechanism of its translation initiation.

  3. Determination of secondary structure in the initiation region of ovalbumin mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Liarakos, C D; Maddox, R P; Hilscher, K A; Bishop, J R; McGuire, D K; Kopper, R A

    1988-01-01

    We have analyzed the secondary structure in the region surrounding the initiation codons of both cellular and synthetic versions of ovalbumin mRNA. RNase V1 cleavage sites and structure-dependent, chemically modified bases in cellular ovalbumin mRNA were determined by reverse transcription of hen poly A(+) RNA using ovalbumin-specific, synthetic DNA primers. These results indicate an extensive region of unpaired nucleotides preceding the initiation codon and a region of base-paired nucleotides including and following the initiation codon. A synthetic ovalbumin mRNA (SP65.OV) was prepared by run-off transcription of a cloned ovalbumin cDNA (pSP65.OV). Identical regions of hen ovalbumin and SP65.OV mRNAs gave identical patterns of structure-dependent base modifications. A computer program for determining RNA secondary structure was used to find a 5'-region structure for ovalbumin mRNA that is consistent with our data. Images PMID:3205742

  4. Global changes in processing of mRNA 3' untranslated regions characterize clinically distinct cancer subtypes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyam; Alley, Travis L; Wright, Sarah M; Kamdar, Sonya; Schott, William; Wilpan, Robert Y; Mills, Kevin D; Graber, Joel H

    2009-12-15

    Molecular cancer diagnostics are an important clinical advance in cancer management, but new methods are still needed. In this context, gene expression signatures obtained by microarray represent a useful molecular diagnostic. Here, we describe novel probe-level microarray analyses that reveal connections between mRNA processing and neoplasia in multiple tumor types, with diagnostic potential. We now show that characteristic differences in mRNA processing, primarily in the 3'-untranslated region, define molecular signatures that can distinguish similar tumor subtypes with different survival characteristics, with at least 74% accuracy. Using a mouse model of B-cell leukemia/lymphoma, we find that differences in transcript isoform abundance are likely due to both alternative polyadenylation (APA) and differential degradation. While truncation of the 3'-UTR is the most common observed pattern, genes with elongated transcripts were also observed, and distinct groups of affected genes are found in related but distinct tumor types. Genes with elongated transcripts are overrepresented in ontology categories related to cell-cell adhesion and morphology. Analysis of microarray data from human primary tumor samples revealed similar phenomena. Western blot analysis of selected proteins confirms that changes in the 3'-UTR can correlate with changes in protein expression. Our work suggests that alternative mRNA processing, particularly APA, can be a powerful molecular biomarker with prognostic potential. Finally, these findings provide insights into the molecular mechanisms of gene deregulation in tumorigenesis.

  5. Feeding and insulin increase leptin translation. Importance of the leptin mRNA untranslated regions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Jeong; Yang, Rong-Ze; Gong, Da-Wei; Fried, Susan K

    2007-01-05

    The post-transcriptional mechanisms by which feeding and insulin increase leptin production are poorly understood. Starvation of 6-7-week-old rats for 14 h decreased leptin mRNA level by only 22% but decreased plasma levels, adipose tissue leptin content, and release by over 75%. The decreased leptin with starvation was explained by >85% decrease in relative rates of leptin biosynthesis measured by metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation. In vitro insulin treatment of adipose tissue from fed or starved rats for 2 h increased relative rates of leptin biosynthesis by 2-3-fold, and the effect was blocked by inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or mammalian target of rapamycin. Consistent with the hypothesis that feeding/insulin increases leptin translation, more leptin mRNA was associated with polysomes in adipose tissue of fed than starved rats, and in vitro incubation of adipose tissue of starved rats with insulin shifted leptin mRNA into polysomes. To assess the mechanisms regulating leptin translation, chimeric human leptin untranslated region (UTR) reporter constructs were transiently transfected into differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The 5'-UTR of leptin mRNA increased luciferase reporter activity 2-3-fold, whereas the full-length 3'-UTR (nucleotides 1-2804) was inhibitory (-65%). Sequences between nucleotides 462 and 1130 of the leptin 3'-UTR conferred most of the inhibitory effect. Insulin stimulated the expression of constructs that included both the full-length 5'-UTR and the inhibitory 3'-UTR, and the effect was blocked by inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or mammalian target of rapamycin. Our data suggest that insulin derepresses leptin translation by a mechanism that requires both the 5'-UTR and the 3'-UTR and may contribute to the increase in leptin production with feeding.

  6. Three-Dimensional mRNA Measurements Reveal Minimal Regional Heterogeneity in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wusheng; Shih, Joanna; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Tangrea, Michael A.; Player, Audrey; Diao, Lixia; Hu, Nan; Goldstein, Alisa M.; Wang, Jing; Taylor, Philip R.; Lippman, Scott M.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Emmert-Buck, Michael R.; Erickson, Heidi S.

    2014-01-01

    The classic tumor clonal evolution theory postulates that cancers change over time to produce unique molecular subclones within a parent neoplasm, presumably including regional differences in gene expression. More recently, however, this notion has been challenged by studies showing that tumors maintain a relatively stable transcript profile. To examine these competing hypotheses, we microdissected discrete subregions containing approximately 3000 to 8000 cells (500 to 1500 μm in diameter) from ex vivo esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) specimens and analyzed transcriptomes throughout three-dimensional tumor space. Overall mRNA profiles were highly similar in all 59 intratumor comparisons, in distinct contrast to the markedly different global expression patterns observed in other dissected cell populations. For example, normal esophageal basal cells contained 1918 and 624 differentially expressed genes at a greater than twofold level (95% confidence level of <5% false positives), compared with normal differentiated esophageal cells and ESCC, respectively. In contrast, intratumor regions had only zero to four gene changes at a greater than twofold level, with most tumor comparisons showing none. The present data indicate that, when analyzed using a standard array-based method at this level of histological resolution, ESCC contains little regional mRNA heterogeneity. PMID:23219752

  7. The leader region of Laminin B1 mRNA confers cap-independent translation.

    PubMed

    Petz, Michaela; Kozina, Daniela; Huber, Heidemarie; Siwiec, Tanja; Seipelt, Joachim; Sommergruber, Wolfgang; Mikulits, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Translation initiation of eukaryotic mRNAs generally occurs by cap-dependent ribosome scanning. However, certain mRNAs contain internal ribosome entry sites (IRES) allowing cap-independent translation. Several of these IRES-competent transcripts and their corresponding proteins are involved in tumourigenesis. This study focused on IRES-driven translation control during the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of hepatocytes that reflects crucial aspects of carcinoma progression. Expression profiling of EMT revealed Laminin B1 (LamB1) to be translationally upregulated. The 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of LamB1 was potent to direct IRES-dependent mRNA utilization of a bicistronic reporter construct. Stringent assays for cryptic promoter and splice sites showed no aberrantly expressed transcripts, suggesting that the reporter activity provided by the leader region of LamB1 mRNA exclusively depends on IRES. In accordance, LamB1 expression increased upon negative interference with cap-dependent translation by expression of human rhinovirus 2A protease or heat shock of cells. Finally, the enhanced expression of LamB1 during EMT correlated with an elevated IRES activity. Together, these data provide first evidence that the 5'-UTR of LamB1 contains a bona fide IRES that directs translational upregulation of LamB1 during stress conditions and neoplastic progression of hepatocytes.

  8. Cytochrome p450 mRNA expression in the rodent brain: species-, sex-, and region-dependent differences.

    PubMed

    Stamou, Marianna; Wu, Xianai; Kania-Korwel, Izabela; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Lein, Pamela J

    2014-02-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes play a critical role in the activation and detoxication of many neurotoxic chemicals. Although research has largely focused on P450-mediated metabolism in the liver, emerging evidence suggests that brain P450s influence neurotoxicity by modulating local metabolite levels. As a first step toward better understanding the relative role of brain P450s in determining neurotoxic outcome, we characterized mRNA expression of specific P450 isoforms in the rodent brain. Adult mice (male and female) and rats (male) were treated with vehicle, phenobarbital, or dexamethasone. Transcripts for CYP2B, CYP3A, CYP1A2, and the orphan CYP4X1 and CYP2S1 were quantified in the liver, hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum by quantitative (real-time) polymerase chain reaction. These P450s were all detected in the liver with the exception of CYP4X1, which was detected in rat but not mouse liver. P450 expression profiles in the brain varied regionally. With the exception of the hippocampus, there were no sex differences in regional brain P450 expression profiles in mice; however, there were marked species differences. In the liver, phenobarbital induced CYP2B expression in both species. Dexamethasone induced hepatic CYP2B and CYP3A in mice but not rats. In contrast, brain P450s did not respond to these classic hepatic P450 inducers. Our findings demonstrate that P450 mRNA expression in the brain varies by region, regional brain P450 profiles vary between species, and their induction varies from that of hepatic P450s. These novel data will be useful for designing mechanistic studies to examine the relative role of P450-mediated brain metabolism in neurotoxicity.

  9. The signal sequence coding region promotes nuclear export of mRNA.

    PubMed

    Palazzo, Alexander F; Springer, Michael; Shibata, Yoko; Lee, Chung-Sheng; Dias, Anusha P; Rapoport, Tom A

    2007-12-01

    In eukaryotic cells, most mRNAs are exported from the nucleus by the transcription export (TREX) complex, which is loaded onto mRNAs after their splicing and capping. We have studied in mammalian cells the nuclear export of mRNAs that code for secretory proteins, which are targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane by hydrophobic signal sequences. The mRNAs were injected into the nucleus or synthesized from injected or transfected DNA, and their export was followed by fluorescent in situ hybridization. We made the surprising observation that the signal sequence coding region (SSCR) can serve as a nuclear export signal of an mRNA that lacks an intron or functional cap. Even the export of an intron-containing natural mRNA was enhanced by its SSCR. Like conventional export, the SSCR-dependent pathway required the factor TAP, but depletion of the TREX components had only moderate effects. The SSCR export signal appears to be characterized in vertebrates by a low content of adenines, as demonstrated by genome-wide sequence analysis and by the inhibitory effect of silent adenine mutations in SSCRs. The discovery of an SSCR-mediated pathway explains the previously noted amino acid bias in signal sequences and suggests a link between nuclear export and membrane targeting of mRNAs.

  10. UU/UA dinucleotide frequency reduction in coding regions results in increased mRNA stability and protein expression.

    PubMed

    Al-Saif, Maher; Khabar, Khalid S A

    2012-05-01

    UU and UA dinucleotides are rare in mammalian genes and may offer natural selection against endoribonuclease-mediated mRNA decay. This study hypothesized that reducing UU and UA (UW) dinucleotides in the mRNA-coding sequence, including the codons and the dicodon boundaries, may promote resistance to mRNA decay, thereby increasing protein production. Indeed, protein expression from UW-reduced coding regions of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP), luciferase, interferon-α, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was higher when compared to the wild-type protein expression. The steady-state level of UW-reduced EGFP mRNA was higher and the mRNA half-life was also longer. Ectopic expression of the endoribonuclease, RNase L, did not reduce the wild type or UW-reduced mRNA. A mutant form of the mRNA decay-promoting protein, tristetraprolin (TTP/ZFP36), which has a point mutation in the zinc-finger domain (C124R), was used. The wild-type EGFP mRNA but not the UW-reduced mRNA responded to the dominant negative action of the C124R ZFP36/TTP mutant. The results indicate the efficacy of the described rational approach to formulate a general scheme for boosting recombinant protein production in mammalian cells.

  11. cis-acting translational effects of the 5' noncoding region of c-myc mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Parkin, N.; Darveau, A.; Nicholson, R.; Sonenberg, N.

    1988-07-01

    The authors previously shown that the 5' noncoding region of mouse c-myc mRNA has a negative effect on translational efficiency in a rabbit reticulocyte Iysate. They wanted to localize and characterize the inhibitory translational element(s) in the mRNA and to study its effect in other in vitro and in vivo systems. There they report that the restrictive element is confined to a 240-nucleotide sequence of the 5' noncoding region of mouse c-myc mRNA and that this sequence acts in cis to inhibit the translation of a heterologous mRNA. In addition, they report that the cis-inhibitory effect is also exhibited in microinjected Xenopus ooctyes and wheat-germ extracts but not in HeLa cell extracts. Transfection of corresponding plasmid DNA constructs into several established cell lines did not produce the cis-inhibitory effect. A model to explain these results is presented.

  12. Cap-independent translation of poliovirus mRNA is conferred by sequence elements within the 5' noncoding region.

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, J; Kaplan, G; Racaniello, V R; Sonenberg, N

    1988-01-01

    Poliovirus polysomal RNA is naturally uncapped, and as such, its translation must bypass any 5' cap-dependent ribosome recognition event. To elucidate the manner by which poliovirus mRNA is translated, we have determined the translational efficiencies of a series of deletion mutants within the 5' noncoding region of the mRNA. We found striking differences in translatability among the altered mRNAs when assayed in mock-infected and poliovirus-infected HeLa cell extracts. The results identify a functional cis-acting element within the 5' noncoding region of the poliovirus mRNA which enables it to translate in a cap-independent fashion. The major determinant of this element maps between nucleotides 320 and 631 of the 5' end of the poliovirus mRNA. We also show that this region (320 to 631), when fused to a heterologous mRNA, can function in cis to render the mRNA cap independent in translation. Images PMID:2835660

  13. Cap-independent translation of poliovirus mRNA is conferred by sequence elements within the 5' noncoding region

    SciTech Connect

    Pelletier, J.; Kaplan, G.; Racaniello, V.R.; Sonenberg, N.

    1988-03-01

    Poliovirus polysomal RNA is naturally uncapped, and as such, its translation must bypass any 5' cap-dependent ribosome recognition event. To elucidate the manner by which poliovirus mRNA is translated, the authors determined the translational efficiencies of a series of deletion mutants within the 5' noncoding region of the mRNA. They found striking differences in translatability among the altered mRNAs when assayed in mock-infected and poliovirus-infected HeLa cell extracts. The results identify a functional cis-acting element within the 5' noncoding region of the poliovirus mRNA which enables it to translate in a cap-independent fashion. The major determinant of this element maps between nucleotides 320 and 631 of the 5' end of the poliovirus mRNA. They also show that this region (320 to 631), when fused to a heterologous mRNA, can function in cis to render the mRNA cap independent in translation.

  14. TLR2 and TLR4 polymorphisms influence mRNA and protein expression in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Proença, Marcela Alcântara; de Oliveira, Juliana Garcia; Cadamuro, Aline Cristina Targa; Succi, Maysa; Netinho, João Gomes; Goloni-Bertolo, Eny Maria; Pavarino, Érika Cristina; Silva, Ana Elizabete

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of promoter region polymorphisms of toll-like receptor (TLR)2-196 to -174del and TLR4-1607T/C (rs10759932) on mRNA and protein expression in tumor tissue and of TLR4+896A/G (rs4986790) on colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. METHODS: The TLR2-196 to -174del polymorphism was investigated using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the TLR4-1607T/C and TLR4+896A/G by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). We genotyped 434 DNA samples from 194 CRC patients and 240 healthy individuals. The mRNA relative quantification (RQ) was performed in 40 tumor tissue samples by quantitative PCR TaqMan assay, using specific probes for TLR2 and TLR4 genes, and ACTB and GAPDH reference genes were used as endogenous controls. Protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry with specific primary antibodies. RESULTS: No association was found for TLR4-1607T/C and TLR4+896A/G by three statistical models (log-additive, dominant and recessive). However, based on dominant and log-additive models, the polymorphic variant TLR2-196 to -174del was associated with increased CRC risk [dominant: odds ratio (OR) = 1.72, 95%CI: 1.03-2.89; P = 0.038 and log-additive: OR =1.59, 95%CI: 1.02-2.48; P = 0.039]. TLR2 mRNA expression was increased in tumor tissue (RQ = 2.36) when compared to adjacent normal tissue (RQ = 1; P < 0.0001), whereas the TLR4 mRNA showed a basal expression (RQ = 0.74 vs RQ = 1, P = 0.452). Immunohistochemistry analysis of TLR2 and TLR4 protein expression was concordant with the findings of mRNA expression. In addition, the TLR2-196 to -174del variant carriers showed mRNA relative expression 2.19 times higher than wild-genotype carriers. The TLR2 protein expression was also higher for the TLR2-196 to -174del variant carriers [117 ± 10 arbitrary unit (a.u.) vs 95 ± 4 a.u., P = 0.03]. However, for the TLR4 -1607T/C polymorphism no significant difference was found for both mRNA (P = 0.56) and protein expression (P = 0

  15. Isolation and Translation of mRNA Encoded by a Specific Region of the Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Genome

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kevin P.; Holland, Louis E.; Gaylord, Beverley H.; Wagner, Edward K.

    1980-01-01

    We have examined in detail the major mRNA species encoded by the region of the herpes simplex virus type 1 genome encoded by HindIII fragment K (0.53-0.59 from the left end of the prototype arrangement of the genome) by using this restriction fragment bound to cellulose as a reagent for isolation of this mRNA. Before viral DNA replication in infected cells (early), a major species of viral mRNA 5.2 kilobases (kb) in length is abundant. After the onset of viral DNA replication (late), four mRNA species are abundant: 7, 5.2, 3.8, and 1.8 kb in size. We have used reverse transcriptase from avian myeloblastosis virus to make DNA complementary to these RNA species and their 3′ ends. We have shown by hybridization of this complementary DNA to Southern blots of herpes simplex virus type 1 DNA that the 7-, 5.2-, and 1.8-kb mRNA species have their 3′ ends to the right of 0.59 and are at least partially colinear. The 3.8-kb mRNA has a 3′ end mapping to the left of the 3′ ends of these other species. In vitro translation of HindIII fragment K-specific mRNA in a reticulocyte lysate system yielded three major polypeptide products: 140,000, 122,000, and 54,000 daltons (d). Less prominent species of 86,000 and 65,000 d also were produced. Translation of size-fractionated HindIII fragment K-specific mRNA showed that the 7-, 5.2-, and 3.8-kb mRNA's encoded the 54,000-, 140,000-, and 122,000-d polypeptides, respectively. The 140,000-d polypeptide was the major polypeptide translated using early HindIII fragment K-specific mRNA as a template. The 3.8-kb mRNA also encoded the 86,000-d polypeptide, whereas the 1.8-kb mRNA encoded a polypeptide that was indistinguishable from the 54,000-d polypeptide encoded by the 7-kb mRNA, in addition to the 65,000-d polypeptide. The implications of the data are discussed. Images PMID:6251246

  16. Detection of full-length and truncated neurokinin-1 receptor mRNA expression in human brain regions.

    PubMed

    Lai, Jian-Ping; Cnaan, Avital; Zhao, Huaqing; Douglas, Steven D

    2008-02-15

    We have applied a newly developed SYBR green-based real-time RT-PCR assay for quantification of full-length and truncated neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) mRNA expression in nine regions of human brain tissues obtained from 23 subjects who died with no evidence of neurological or neurodegenerative disease. The following brain regions were examined: cingulate cortex, cerebellum, nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, putamen, pons, hippocampus, locus coeruleus, and basal ganglia. The SYBR green-based real-time PCR was more sensitive than TaqMan probe-based real-time PCR in amplifying both full-length and truncated NK1R mRNA. The real-time RT-PCR assay had excellent specificity and sensitivity, with a dynamic range of detection between 100 and 1,000,000 copies of the NK1R cDNA per reaction. The truncated NK1R mRNA levels were more abundant than those of the full-length NK1R in most of the regions examined and there was no significant difference in the truncated NK1R mRNA levels among the nine regions studied. There was, however, a significant difference in the expression of full-length NK1R mRNA levels among the nine regions (P=0.0024), and the putamen region expressed the highest full-length NK1R mRNA. Further studies are needed in order to examine the differences between full-length and truncated NK1R in signal transduction and functional consequences in order to delineate the significance of the co-presence of the two forms of NK1R in the human brain.

  17. Detection of Full-Length and Truncated Neurokinin-1 Receptor mRNA Expression in Human Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Jian-Ping; Cnaan, Avital; Zhao, Huaqing; Douglas, Steven D.

    2008-01-01

    We have applied a newly developed SYBR green based real-time RT-PCR assay for quantification of full-length and truncated neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) mRNA expression in 9 regions of human brain tissues obtained from 23 subjects who died with no evidence of neurological or neurodegenerative disease. The following brain regions were examined: cingulate cortex, cerebellum, nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, putamen, pons, hippocampus, locus coeruleus, and basal ganglia. The SYBR green based-real-time PCR was more sensitive than TaqMan probe based real-time PCR in amplifying both full-length and truncated NK1R mRNA. The real-time RT-PCR assay had excellent specificity and sensitivity, with a dynamic range of detection between 100 and 1000,000 copies of the NK1R cDNA per reaction. The truncated NK1R mRNA levels were more abundant than those of the full-length NK1R in most of the regions examined and there was no significant difference in the truncated NK1R mRNA levels among the nine regions studied. There was, however, a significant difference in the expression of full-length NK1R mRNA levels among the nine regions (P=0.0024), and the putamen region expressed the highest full-length NK1R mRNA. Further studies are needed in order to examine the differences between full-length and truncated NK1R in signal transduction and functional consequences in order to delineate the significance of the copresence of the two forms of NK1R in the human brain. PMID:18035424

  18. Region effects influence local tree species diversity.

    PubMed

    Ricklefs, Robert E; He, Fangliang

    2016-01-19

    Global patterns of biodiversity reflect both regional and local processes, but the relative importance of local ecological limits to species coexistence, as influenced by the physical environment, in contrast to regional processes including species production, dispersal, and extinction, is poorly understood. Failure to distinguish regional influences from local effects has been due, in part, to sampling limitations at small scales, environmental heterogeneity within local or regional samples, and incomplete geographic sampling of species. Here, we use a global dataset comprising 47 forest plots to demonstrate significant region effects on diversity, beyond the influence of local climate, which together explain more than 92% of the global variation in local forest tree species richness. Significant region effects imply that large-scale processes shaping the regional diversity of forest trees exert influence down to the local scale, where they interact with local processes to determine the number of coexisting species.

  19. Anesthesia for euthanasia influences mRNA expression in healthy mice and after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Staib-Lasarzik, Irina; Kriege, Oliver; Timaru-Kast, Ralph; Pieter, Dana; Werner, Christian; Engelhard, Kristin; Thal, Serge C

    2014-10-01

    Tissue sampling for gene expression analysis is usually performed under general anesthesia. Anesthetics are known to modulate hemodynamics, receptor-mediated signaling cascades, and outcome parameters. The present study determined the influence of anesthetic paradigms typically used for euthanization and tissue sampling on cerebral mRNA expression in mice. Naïve mice and animals with acute traumatic brain injury induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) were randomized to the following euthanasia protocols (n=10-11/group): no anesthesia (NA), 1 min of 4 vol% isoflurane in room air (ISO), 3 min of a combination of 5 mg/kg midazolam, 0.05 mg/kg fentanyl, and 0.5 mg/kg medetomidine intraperitoneally (COMB), or 3 min of 360 mg/kg chloral hydrate intraperitoneally (CH). mRNA expression of actin-1-related gene (Act1), FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (FosB), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), heat shock protein beta-1 (HspB1), interleukin (IL)-6, tight junction protein 1 (ZO-1), IL-1ß, cyclophilin A, micro RNA 497 (miR497), and small cajal body-specific RNA 17 were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in hippocampus samples. In naïve animals, Act1 expression was downregulated in the CH group compared with NA. FosB expression was downregulated in COMB and CH groups compared with NA. CCI reduced Act1 and FosB expression, whereas HspB1 and TNFα expression increased. After CCI, HspB1 expression was significantly higher in ISO, COMB, and CH groups, and TNFα expression was elevated in ISO and COMB groups. MiR497, IL-6, and IL-1ß were upregulated after CCI but not affected by anesthetics. Effects were independent of absolute mRNA copy numbers. The data demonstrate that a few minutes of anesthesia before tissue sampling are sufficient to induce immediate mRNA changes, which seem to predominate in the early-regulated gene cluster. Anesthesia-related effects on gene expression might explain limited reproduciblity of real

  20. Anesthesia for Euthanasia Influences mRNA Expression in Healthy Mice and after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Staib-Lasarzik, Irina; Kriege, Oliver; Timaru-Kast, Ralph; Pieter, Dana; Werner, Christian; Engelhard, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tissue sampling for gene expression analysis is usually performed under general anesthesia. Anesthetics are known to modulate hemodynamics, receptor-mediated signaling cascades, and outcome parameters. The present study determined the influence of anesthetic paradigms typically used for euthanization and tissue sampling on cerebral mRNA expression in mice. Naïve mice and animals with acute traumatic brain injury induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) were randomized to the following euthanasia protocols (n=10–11/group): no anesthesia (NA), 1 min of 4 vol% isoflurane in room air (ISO), 3 min of a combination of 5 mg/kg midazolam, 0.05 mg/kg fentanyl, and 0.5 mg/kg medetomidine intraperitoneally (COMB), or 3 min of 360 mg/kg chloral hydrate intraperitoneally (CH). mRNA expression of actin-1-related gene (Act1), FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (FosB), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), heat shock protein beta-1 (HspB1), interleukin (IL)-6, tight junction protein 1 (ZO-1), IL-1ß, cyclophilin A, micro RNA 497 (miR497), and small cajal body-specific RNA 17 were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in hippocampus samples. In naïve animals, Act1 expression was downregulated in the CH group compared with NA. FosB expression was downregulated in COMB and CH groups compared with NA. CCI reduced Act1 and FosB expression, whereas HspB1 and TNFα expression increased. After CCI, HspB1 expression was significantly higher in ISO, COMB, and CH groups, and TNFα expression was elevated in ISO and COMB groups. MiR497, IL-6, and IL-1ß were upregulated after CCI but not affected by anesthetics. Effects were independent of absolute mRNA copy numbers. The data demonstrate that a few minutes of anesthesia before tissue sampling are sufficient to induce immediate mRNA changes, which seem to predominate in the early-regulated gene cluster. Anesthesia-related effects on gene expression might explain limited

  1. Dietary sodium deprivation evokes activation of brain regional neurons and down-regulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and angiotensin-convertion enzyme mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Lu, B; Yang, X J; Chen, K; Yang, D J; Yan, J Q

    2009-12-15

    Previous studies have indicated that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is implicated in the induction of sodium appetite in rats and that different dietary sodium intakes influence the mRNA expression of central and peripheral RAAS components. To determine whether dietary sodium deprivation activates regional brain neurons related to sodium appetite, and changes their gene expression of RAAS components of rats, the present study examined the c-Fos expression after chronic exposure to low sodium diet, and determined the relationship between plasma and brain angiotensin I (ANG I), angiotensin II (ANG II) and aldosterone (ALD) levels and the sodium ingestive behavior variations, as well as the effects of prolonged dietary sodium deprivation on ANG II type 1 (AT1) and ANG II type 2 (AT2) receptors and angiotensin-convertion enzyme (ACE) mRNA levels in the involved brain regions using the method of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results showed that the Fos immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) expression in forebrain areas such as subfornical organ (SFO), paraventricular hypothalamic nuclei (PVN), supraoptic nucleus (SON) and organum vasculosum laminae terminalis (OVLT) all increased significantly and that the levels of ANG I, ANG II and ALD also increased in plasma and forebrain in rats fed with low sodium diet. In contrast, AT1, ACE mRNA in PVN, SON and OVLT decreased significantly in dietary sodium depleted rats, while AT2 mRNA expression did not change in the examined areas. These results suggest that many brain areas are activated by increased levels of plasma and/or brain ANG II and ALD, which underlies the elevated preference for hypertonic salt solution after prolonged exposure to low sodium diet, and that the regional AT1 and ACE mRNA are down-regulated after dietary sodium deprivation, which may be mediated by increased ANG II in plasma and/or brain tissue.

  2. Structure and expression of the guinea pig preproenkephalin gene: site-specific cleavage in the 3' untranslated region yields truncated mRNA transcripts in specific brain regions.

    PubMed Central

    LaForge, K S; Unterwald, E M; Kreek, M J

    1995-01-01

    We isolated the guinea pig preproenkephalin gene from a genomic library by hybridization to a rat cDNA probe. The entire nucleotide sequence of the gene was determined. Genomic Southern blot hybridization demonstrated that the gene exists in a single copy within the genome. On the basis of RNase protection transcript mapping and homology comparisons with known preproenkephalin sequences from other species and assuming a poly(A) tail length of 100 residues, we predicted an mRNA transcript of approximately 1,400 nucleotides encoded by three exons. Northern (RNA) blot analysis of total RNA from several brain regions showed high levels of preproenkephalin mRNA in the caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, and hypothalamus, with detectable levels in the amygdala, ventral tegmental area, and central gray and also in the pituitary. Unexpectedly, in several brain regions, the mRNA appeared not only in the 1,400-nucleotide length but also in a shorter length of approximately 1,130 bases. Significant amounts of the shorter mRNA were found in the caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala. The longer, but not the shorter, transcripts from the caudate putamen were found to be polyadenylated, but the difference in size was not due solely to the presence of poly(A) tails. Northern gel analysis of total RNA from the caudate putamen with probes from each exon, together with RNase protection mapping of the 3' end of the mRNA demonstrated that the 1,400-base preproenkephalin mRNA transcripts are cleaved in a site-specific manner in some brain regions, yielding a 1,130-base transcript and a 165-base polyadenylated fragment derived from the terminal end of the 3' untranslated region of the mRNA. This cleavage may serve as a preliminary step in RNA degradation and provide a mechanism for control of preproenkephalin mRNA abundance through selective degradation. PMID:7891703

  3. Untranslated regions of mRNA and their role in regulation of gene expression in protozoan parasites.

    PubMed

    Rao, Shilpa J; Chatterjee, Sangeeta; Pal, Jayantapal K

    2017-03-01

    Protozoan parasites are one of the oldest living entities in this world that throughout their existence have shown excellent resilience to the odds of survival and have adapted beautifully to ever changing rigors of the environment. In view of the dynamic environment encountered by them throughout their life cycle, and in establishing pathogenesis, it is unsurprising that modulation of gene expression plays a fundamental role in their survival. In higher eukaryotes, untranslated regions (UTRs) of transcripts are one of the crucial regulators of gene expression (influencing mRNA stability and translation efficiency). Parasitic protozoan genome studies have led to the characterization (in silico, in vitro and in vivo) of a large number of their genes. Comparison of higher eukaryotic UTRs with parasitic protozoan UTRs reveals the existence of several similar and dissimilar facets of the UTRs. This review focuses on the elements of UTRs of medically important protozoan parasites and their regulatory role in gene expression. Such information may be useful to researchers in designing gene targeting strategies linked with perturbation of host-parasite relationships leading to control of specific parasites.

  4. Upstream open reading frame in 5'-untranslated region reduces titin mRNA translational efficiency.

    PubMed

    Cadar, Adrian G; Zhong, Lin; Lin, Angel; Valenzuela, Mauricio O; Lim, Chee C

    2014-10-10

    Titin is the largest known protein and a critical determinant of myofibril elasticity and sarcomere structure in striated muscle. Accumulating evidence that mRNA transcripts are post-transcriptionally regulated by specific motifs located in the flanking untranslated regions (UTRs) led us to consider the role of titin 5'-UTR in regulating its translational efficiency. Titin 5'-UTR is highly homologous between human, mouse, and rat, and sequence analysis revealed the presence of a stem-loop and two upstream AUG codons (uAUGs) converging on a shared in frame stop codon. We generated a mouse titin 5'-UTR luciferase reporter construct and targeted the stem-loop and each uAUG for mutation. The wild-type and mutated constructs were transfected into the cardiac HL-1 cell line and primary neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM). SV40 driven 5'-UTR luciferase activity was significantly suppressed by wild-type titin 5'-UTR (∼ 70% in HL-1 cells and ∼ 60% in NRVM). Mutating both uAUGs was found to alleviate titin 5'-UTR suppression, while eliminating the stem-loop had no effect. Treatment with various growth stimuli: pacing, PMA or neuregulin had no effect on titin 5'-UTR luciferase activity. Doxorubicin stress stimuli reduced titin 5'-UTR suppression, while H2O2 had no effect. A reported single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs13422986 at position -4 of the uAUG2 was introduced and found to further repress titin 5'-UTR luciferase activity. We conclude that the uAUG motifs in titin 5'-UTR serve as translational repressors in the control of titin gene expression, and that mutations/SNPs of the uAUGs or doxorubicin stress could alter titin translational efficiency.

  5. Translational efficiency of poliovirus mRNA: mapping inhibitory cis-acting elements within the 5' noncoding region.

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, J; Kaplan, G; Racaniello, V R; Sonenberg, N

    1988-01-01

    Poliovirus mRNA contains a long 5' noncoding region of about 750 nucleotides (the exact number varies among the three virus serotypes), which contains several AUG codons upstream of the major initiator AUG. Unlike most eucaryotic mRNAs, poliovirus does not contain a m7GpppX (where X is any nucleotide) cap structure at its 5' end and is translated by a cap-independent mechanism. To study the manner by which poliovirus mRNA is expressed, we examined the translational efficiencies of a series of deletion mutants within the 5' noncoding region of the mRNA. In this paper we report striking translation system-specific differences in the ability of the altered mRNAs to be translated. The results suggest the existence of an inhibitory cis-acting element(s) within the 5' noncoding region of poliovirus (between nucleotides 70 and 381) which restricts mRNA translation in reticulocyte lysate, wheat germ extract, and Xenopus oocytes, but not in HeLa cell extracts. In addition, we show that HeLa cell extracts contain a trans-acting factor(s) that overcomes this restriction. Images PMID:2836606

  6. Initiation of translation can occur only in a restricted region of the CYC1 mRNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Yun, D F; Sherman, F

    1995-01-01

    The steady-state levels and half-lives of CYC1 mRNAs were estimated in a series of mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae containing (i) TAA nonsense codons, (ii) ATG initiator codons, or (iii) the sequence ATA ATG ACT TAA (denoted ATG-TAA) at various positions along the CYC1 gene, which encodes iso-1-cytochrome c. These mutational alterations were made in backgrounds lacking all internal in-frame and out-of-frame ATG triplets or containing only one ATG initiator codon at the normal position. The results revealed a "sensitive" region encompassing approximately the first half of the CYC1 mRNA, in which nonsense codons caused Upf1-dependent degradation. This result and the stability of CYC1 mRNAs lacking all ATG triplets, as well as other results, suggested that degradation occurs unless elements associated with this sensitive region are covered with 80S ribosomes, 40S ribosomal subunits, or ribonucleoprotein particle proteins. While elongation by 80S ribosomes could be prematurely terminated by TAA codons, the scanning of 40S ribosomal units could not be terminated solely by TAA codons but could be disrupted by the ATG-TAA sequence, which caused the formation and subsequent prompt release of 80S ribosomes. The ATG-TAA sequence caused degradation of the CYC1 mRNA only when it was in the region spanning nucleotide positions -27 to +37 but not in the remaining 3' distal region, suggesting that translation could initiate only in this restricted initiation region. CYC1 mRNA distribution on polyribosomes confirmed that only ATG codons within the initiation region were translated at high efficiency. This initiation region was not entirely dependent on the distance from the 5' cap site and was not obviously dependent on the short-range secondary structure but may simply reflect an open structural requirement for initiation of translation of the CYC1 mRNA. PMID:7823918

  7. Tristetraprolin Regulates Interleukin-6 Expression Through p38 MAPK-Dependent Affinity Changes with mRNA 3′ Untranslated Region

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wenpu; Liu, Min; D'Silva, Nisha J.

    2011-01-01

    Tristetraprolin (TTP) is a well-characterized, zinc finger-containing, RNA-binding protein. TTP targets tumor necrosis factor α for degradation via the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR). Although AU-rich elements (AREs) in the 3′UTR of interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA dictate mRNA degradation, the role of TTP in the post-transcriptional regulation of IL-6 gene expression is unclear. Here we used TTP-deficient mice to test the hypothesis that IL-6 expression is influenced by TTP. Genetic and siRNA-mediated knockdown of TTP resulted in increased IL-6 production and overexpression of TTP had the reverse effect. IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α production were elevated after injection of IL-1β in TTP-deficient mice. Further, embryonic fibroblasts from these mice (mouse embryonic fibroblasts) exhibited greater IL-6 mRNA expression and longer half-life than wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Overexpression of TTP reduced IL-6 3′UTR luciferase reporter activity in an ARE-dependent manner. Proximal and distal regions of the 3′UTR acted synergistically to produce the full repression of TTP. Mutation-based luciferase assays show that ARE2, ARE3, and ARE4 are required for TTP-mediated repression. The constitutively activated p38-MK2 pathway abrogated TTP-mediated repression of IL-6 3′UTR reporter activity. RNA immunoprecipitation assay indicated that the deficiency of p38α resulted in the increased affinity of TTP to IL-6 mRNA. Taken together, we propose that TTP downregulates IL-6 gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by targeting ARE elements in the 3′UTR region. PMID:21457063

  8. Synthesis in Escherichia coli of human adenovirus type 12 transforming proteins encoded by early region 1A 13S mRNA and 12S mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Kimelman, D; Lucher, L A; Brackmann, K H; Symington, J S; Ptashne, M; Green, M

    1984-01-01

    Human adenovirus (Ad)-encoded early region 1A (E1A) tumor (T) antigens have been implicated in the positive regulation of viral early genes, the positive and negative regulation of some cellular genes, and cell immortalization and transformation. To further study the Ad E1A T antigens and to facilitate their purification, we have cloned cDNA copies of the Ad12 E1A 13S mRNA and 12S mRNA downstream of a hybrid Escherichia coli trp-lac (tac) promoter. Up to 8% of the protein synthesized in E. coli cells transformed by each of the two different Ad12 E1A cDNA constructs were immunoprecipitated as a Mr 47,000 protein by antibody to a synthetic peptide encoded in the Ad12 E1A DNA sequence. Both proteins produced in E. coli appear to be authentic and complete Ad12 E1A T antigens because they possess (i) the Ad12 E1A NH2-terminal amino acid sequence predicted from the DNA sequence; (ii) the Ad12 E1A COOH-terminal sequence, as shown by immunoprecipitation with anti-peptide antibody; and (iii) a molecular weight and an acidic isoelectric point similar to that of the E1A T antigens synthesized in Ad12-infected and transformed mammalian cells. The T antigens were purified to near homogeneity in yields of 100-200 micrograms per g wet weight of transformed E. coli cells. Images PMID:6387701

  9. cis-acting translational effects of the 5' noncoding region of c-myc mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Parkin, N; Darveau, A; Nicholson, R; Sonenberg, N

    1988-01-01

    We have previously shown that the 5' noncoding region of mouse c-myc mRNA has a negative effect on translational efficiency in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate (A. Darveau, J. Pelletier, and N. Sonenberg, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82:2315-2319, 1985). We wanted to localize and characterize the inhibitory translational element(s) in the mRNA and to study its effect in other in vitro and in vivo systems. Here we report that the restrictive element is confined to a 240-nucleotide sequence of the 5' noncoding region of mouse c-myc mRNA and that this sequence acts in cis to inhibit the translation of a heterologous mRNA. In addition, we report that the cis-inhibitory effect is also exhibited in microinjected Xenopus oocytes and wheat-germ extracts but not in HeLa cell extracts. Transfection of corresponding plasmid DNA constructs into several established cell lines did not produce the cis-inhibitory effect. A model to explain these results is presented. Images PMID:3043198

  10. mRNA Transcript abundance during plant growth and the influence of Li(+) exposure.

    PubMed

    Duff, M C; Kuhne, W W; Halverson, N V; Chang, C-S; Kitamura, E; Hawthorn, L; Martinez, N E; Stafford, C; Milliken, C E; Caldwell, E F; Stieve-Caldwell, E

    2014-12-01

    Lithium (Li) toxicity in plants is, at a minimum, a function of Li(+) concentration, exposure time, species and growth conditions. Most plant studies with Li(+) focus on short-term acute exposures. This study examines short- and long-term effects of Li(+) exposure in Arabidopsis with Li(+) uptake studies and measured shoot mRNA transcript abundance levels in treated and control plants. Stress, pathogen-response and arabinogalactan protein genes were typically more up-regulated in older (chronic, low level) Li(+)-treatment plants and in the much younger plants from acute high-level exposures. The gene regulation behavior of high-level Li(+) resembled prior studies due to its influence on: inositol synthesis, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthases and membrane ion transport. In contrast, chronically-exposed plants had gene regulation responses that were indicative of pathogen, cold, and heavy-metal stress, cell wall degradation, ethylene production, signal transduction, and calcium-release modulation. Acute Li(+) exposure phenocopies magnesium-deficiency symptoms and is associated with elevated expression of stress response genes that could lead to consumption of metabolic and transcriptional energy reserves and the dedication of more resources to cell development. In contrast, chronic Li(+) exposure increases expression signal transduction genes. The identification of new Li(+)-sensitive genes and a gene-based "response plan" for acute and chronic Li(+) exposure are delineated.

  11. mRNA Transcript Abundance during Plant Growth and the Influence of Li+ Exposure

    DOE PAGES

    Duff, M. C.; Kuhne, W. W.; Halverson, N. V.; ...

    2014-10-23

    Lithium (Li) toxicity in plants is, at a minimum, a function of Li+ concentration, exposure time, species and growth conditions. Most plant studies with Li+ focus on short-term acute exposures. This study examines short- and long-term effects of Li+ exposure in Arabidopsis with Li+ uptake studies and measured shoot mRNA transcript abundance levels in treated and control plants. Stress, pathogen-response and arabinogalactan protein genes were typically more up-regulated in older (chronic, low level) Li+-treatment plants and in the much younger plants from acute high-level exposures. The gene regulation behavior of high-level Li+ resembled prior studies due to its influence on:more » inositol synthesis, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthases and membrane ion transport. In contrast, chronically-exposed plants had gene regulation responses that were indicative of pathogen, cold, and heavy-metal stress, cell wall degradation, ethylene production, signal transduction, and calcium-release modulation. Acute Li+ exposure phenocopies magnesium-deficiency symptoms and is associated with elevated expression of stress response genes that could lead to consumption of metabolic and transcriptional energy reserves and the dedication of more resources to cell development. In contrast, chronic Li+ exposure increases expression signal transduction genes. The identification of new Li+-sensitive genes and a gene-based “response plan” for acute and chronic Li+ exposure are delineated.« less

  12. Differential targeting of VDAC3 mRNA isoforms influences mitochondria morphology.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Morgane; Ubrig, Elodie; Filleur, Sophie; Erhardt, Mathieu; Ephritikhine, Geneviève; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence; Duchêne, Anne-Marie

    2014-06-17

    Intracellular targeting of mRNAs has recently emerged as a prevalent mechanism to control protein localization. For mitochondria, a cotranslational model of protein import is now proposed in parallel to the conventional posttranslational model, and mitochondrial targeting of mRNAs has been demonstrated in various organisms. Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs) are the most abundant proteins in the outer mitochondrial membrane and the major transport pathway for numerous metabolites. Four nucleus-encoded VDACs have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation generate two VDAC3 mRNA isoforms differing by their 3' UTR. By using quantitative RT-PCR and in vivo mRNA visualization approaches, the two mRNA variants were shown differentially associated with mitochondria. The longest mRNA presents a 3' extension named alternative UTR (aUTR) that is necessary and sufficient to target VDAC3 mRNA to the mitochondrial surface. Moreover, aUTR is sufficient for the mitochondrial targeting of a reporter transcript, and can be used as a tool to target an unrelated mRNA to the mitochondrial surface. Finally, VDAC3-aUTR mRNA variant impacts mitochondria morphology and size, demonstrating the role of mRNA targeting in mitochondria biogenesis.

  13. Region- and sex-specific changes in CART mRNA in rat hypothalamic nuclei induced by forced swim stress.

    PubMed

    Balkan, Burcu; Gozen, Oguz; Koylu, Ersin O; Keser, Aysegul; Kuhar, Michael J; Pogun, Sakire

    2012-10-15

    Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) mRNA and peptides are highly expressed in the paraventricular (PVN), dorsomedial (DMH) and arcuate (ARC) nuclei of the hypothalamus. It has been suggested that these nuclei regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, autonomic nervous system activity, and feeding behavior. Our previous studies showed that forced swim stress augmented CART peptide expression significantly in whole hypothalamus of male rats. In another study, forced swim stress increased the number of CART-immunoreactive cells in female PVN, whereas no effect was observed in male PVN or in the ARC nucleus of either sex. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of forced swim stress on CART mRNA expression in PVN, DMH and ARC nuclei in both male and female rats. Twelve male (stressed and controls, n=6 each) and 12 female (stressed and controls, n=6 each) Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Control animals were only handled, whereas forced swim stress procedure was applied to the stressed groups. Brains were dissected and brain sections containing PVN, DMH and ARC nuclei were prepared. CART mRNA levels were determined by in situ hybridization. In male rats, forced swim stress upregulated CART mRNA expression in DMH and downregulated it in the ARC. In female rats, forced swim stress increased CART mRNA expression in PVN and DMH, whereas a decrease was observed in the ARC nucleus. Our results show that forced swim stress elicits region- and sex-specific changes in CART mRNA expression in rat hypothalamus that may help in explaining some of the effects of stress.

  14. Region- and sex-specific changes in CART mRNA in rat hypothalamic nuclei induced by forced swim stress

    PubMed Central

    Balkan, Burcu; Gozen, Oguz; Koylu, Ersin O.; Keser, Aysegul; Kuhar, Michael J.; Pogun, Sakire

    2012-01-01

    Cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART) mRNA and peptides are highly expressed in the paraventricular (PVN), dorsomedial (DMH) and arcuate (ARC) nuclei of the hypothalamus. It has been suggested that these nuclei regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, autonomic nervous system activity, and feeding behavior. Our previous studies showed that forced swim stress augmented CART peptide expression significantly in whole hypothalamus of male rats. In another study, forced swim stress increased the number of CART-immunoreactive cells in female PVN, whereas no effect was observed in male PVN or in the ARC nucleus of either sex. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of forced swim stress on CART mRNA expression in PVN, DMH and ARC nuclei in both male and female rats. Twelve male (stressed and controls, n=6 each) and 12 female (stressed and controls, n=6 each) Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Control animals were only handled, whereas forced swim stress procedure was applied to the stressed groups. Brains were dissected and brain sections containing PVN, DMH and ARC nuclei were prepared. CART mRNA levels were determined by in situ hybridization. In male rats, forced swim stress upregulated CART mRNA expression in DMH and downregulated it in the ARC. In female rats, forced swim stress increased CART mRNA expression in PVN and DMH, whereas a decrease was observed in the ARC nucleus. Our results show that forced swim stress elicits region and sex-specific changes in CART mRNA expression in rat hypothalamus that may help explain some of the effects of stress. PMID:22960117

  15. Hypoxia may increase rat insulin mRNA levels by promoting binding of the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) to the pyrimidine-rich insulin mRNA 3'-untranslated region.

    PubMed Central

    Tillmar, Linda; Welsh, Nils

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent reports identify the 3'-UTR of insulin mRNA as crucial for control of insulin messenger stability. This region contains a pyrimidine-rich sequence, which is similar to the hypoxia-responsive mRNA-stabilizing element of tyrosine hydroxylase. This study aimed to determine whether hypoxia affects insulin mRNA levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat islets were incubated at normoxic or hypoxic conditions and with or without hydrogen peroxide and a nitric oxide donor. Insulin mRNA was determined by Northern hybridization. Islet homogenates were used for electrophoretic mobility shift assay with an RNA-oligonucleotide, corresponding to the pyrimidine-rich sequence of the 3'-UTR of rat insulin I mRNA. The expression of reporter gene mRNA, in islets transfected with reporter gene constructs containing the wild-type or mutated insulin mRNA pyrimidine-rich sequences, was measured by semiquantitive RT-PCR. RESULTS: Insulin mRNA was increased in response to hypoxia. This was paralleled by increased binding of the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) to the pyrimidine-rich sequence of the 3'-UTR of insulin mRNA, which was counteracted by hydrogen peroxide. The reporter gene mRNA level containing the wild-type binding site was not increased in response to hypoxia, but mutation of the site resulted in a destabilization of the mRNA. CONCLUSIONS: The complete understanding of different diabetic conditions requires the elucidation of mechanisms that control insulin gene expression. Our data show that hypoxia may increase insulin mRNA levels by promoting the binding of PTB to the insulin mRNA 3'-UTR. Hydrogen peroxide abolishes the hypoxic effect indicating involvement of reactive oxygen species and/or the redox potential in the oxygen-signaling pathway. PMID:12359957

  16. Bacteriorhodopsin: partial sequence of mRNA provides amino acid sequence in the precursor region.

    PubMed Central

    Chang, S H; Majumdar, A; Dunn, R; Makabe, O; RajBhandary, U L; Khorana, H G; Ohtsuka, E; Tanaka, T; Taniyama, Y O; Ikehara, M

    1981-01-01

    mRNA for bacteriorhodopsin from Halobacterium halobium has been partially purified. By using this mRNA as template in the presence of reverse transcriptase RNA-dependent DNA nucleotidyltransferase and a 5'-[32P] synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotide corresponding to amino acids 9-12 of bacteriorhodopsin as primer, we have isolated the major 5'-[32P]cDNA product, approximately 80 nucleotides long, and determined its sequence. Based on the cDNA sequence, the 5'-proximal sequence of bacteriorhodopsin mRNA is G-C-A-U-G-U-U-G-G-A-G-U-U-A-U-U-G-C-C-A-A-C-A-G-C-A-G-U-G-G-A-G-G-G-G-G-U-A-U-C -G-C-A-G-G-C-C-C-A-G-A-U-C-A-C-C-G-G-A-C-G-U-C-C-G. This includes the expected sequence for amino acids 1-8 and shows that bacteriorhodopsin is synthesized as a precursor that is at least 13 amino acids longer (Met-Leu-Glu-Leu-Leu-Pro-Thr-Ala-Val-Glu-Gly-Val-Ser) at the NH2 terminus. Agarose/urea gel electrophoresis of the partially purified mRNA showed several bands; of these, a major one hybridized with 5'-[32P]cDNA. These results suggest that the bacteriorhodopsin mRNA in the partially purified preparation is homogeneous in size and that it constitutes a substantial portion of the RNA preparation subjected to electrophoresis. Images PMID:6943548

  17. Lifelong ethanol consumption and brain regional GABAA receptor subunit mRNA expression in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Sarviharju, Maija; Hyytiä, Petri; Hervonen, Antti; Jaatinen, Pia; Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Korpi, Esa R

    2006-11-01

    Brain regional gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor subunit mRNA expression was studied in ethanol-preferring AA (Alko, Alcohol) rats after moderate ethanol drinking for up to 2 years of age. In situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes specific for 13 different subunits was used with coronal cryostat sections of the brains. Selective alterations were observed by ethanol exposure and/or aging in signals for several subunits. Most interestingly, the putative highly ethanol-sensitive alpha4 and beta3 subunit mRNAs were significantly decreased in several brain regions. The age-related alterations in alpha4 subunit expression were parallel to those caused by lifelong ethanol drinking, whereas aging had no significant effect on beta3 subunit expression. The results suggest that prolonged ethanol consumption leading to blood concentrations of about 10 mM may downregulate the mRNA expression of selected GABAA receptor subunits and that aging might have partly similar effects.

  18. Influence of an altered methylation potential on mRNA methylation and gene expression in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Hermes, Marina; Osswald, Hartmut; Mattar, Julia; Kloor, Doris

    2004-04-01

    S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy), a by-product and inhibitor of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet)-dependent methylation reactions, is removed by AdoHcy hydrolase. The ratio of AdoMet and AdoHcy, also termed methylation potential (MP), is a metabolic indicator for cellular methylation status. In the present study, we have investigated the influence of hypoxia and inhibition of AdoHcy hydrolase on MP in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, we studied the impact of deviations in MP on mRNA and DNA methylation and the expression of selected genes: erythropoietin, VEGF-A, AdoHcy hydrolase, cyclophilin, and HIF-1alpha. Under hypoxic conditions, the MP raised from 53.4 +/- 3.3 to 239.4 +/- 24.8, which is the result of increased AdoMet and decreased AdoHcy levels. Inhibition of AdoHcy hydrolase by adenosine-2',3'-dialdehyde leads to a 40-fold reduction of the MP under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia increases erythropoietin (2.7-fold) and VEGF-A (5-fold) mRNA expression. During a reduced MP erythropoietin mRNA expression is lowered under normoxia and hypoxia by 70%, whereas VEGF-A mRNA expression is only reduced under hypoxic conditions by 60%. The mRNA expression of AdoHcy hydrolase, HIF-1alpha, and cyclophilin is insensitive to an altered MP. Furthermore, decreased MP leads to a highly significant decrease in overall mRNA methylation. Our results show that the mRNA levels of the studied genes respond differentially to changes in MP. This implies that genes with a slower transcription rate and mRNAs with a slower turnover are insensitive to short-term changes in MP.

  19. Secondary structure and the role in translation initiation of the 5'-terminal region of p53 mRNA.

    PubMed

    Błaszczyk, Leszek; Ciesiołka, Jerzy

    2011-08-23

    The p53 protein is one of the major factors involved in cell cycle control, DNA repair, and induction of apoptosis. We determined the secondary structure of the 5'-terminal region of p53 mRNA that includes two major translation initiation codons AUG1 and AUG2, responsible for the synthesis of p53 and its N-truncated isoform ΔN-p53. It turned out that a part of the coding sequence was involved in the folding of the 5' untranslated region for p53. The most characteristic structural elements in the 5'-terminal region of p53 mRNA were two hairpin motifs. In one of them, the initiation codon AUG1 was embedded while the other hairpin has been earlier shown to bind the Mdm2 protein. Alternative mechanisms of p53 mRNA translation initiation were investigated in vitro using model mRNA templates. The results confirmed that initiation from AUG1 was mostly cap-dependent. The process was stimulated by a cap structure and strongly inhibited by a stable hairpin at the template 5' end. Upon inhibition, the remaining protein fraction was synthesized in a cap-independent process, which was strongly stimulated by the addition of a cap analogue. The translation initiation from AUG2 showed a largely cap-independent character. The 5' cap structure actually decreased initiation from this site which argues against a leaky scanning mechanism but might suggest the presence of an IRES. Moreover, blocking cap-dependent translation from AUG1 by the stable hairpin did not change the level of initiation from AUG2. Upon addition of the cap analogue, translation from this site was even increased.

  20. A eukaryotic-like 3′ untranslated region in Salmonella enterica hilD mRNA

    PubMed Central

    López-Garrido, Javier; Puerta-Fernández, Elena; Casadesús, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Long 3′ untranslated regions (3′UTRs) are common in eukaryotic mRNAs. In contrast, long 3′UTRs are rare in bacteria, and have not been characterized in detail. We describe a 3′UTR of 310 nucleotides in hilD mRNA, a transcript that encodes a transcriptional activator of Salmonella enterica pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1). Deletion of the hilD 3′UTR increases the hilD mRNA level, suggesting that the hilD 3′UTR may play a role in hilD mRNA turnover. Cloning of the hilD 3′UTR downstream of the green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene decreases green fluorescent protein (GFP) activity in both Escherichia coli and S. enterica, indicating that the hilD 3′UTR can act as an independent module. S. enterica mutants lacking either ribonuclease E or polynucleotide phosphorylase contain similar amounts of hilD and hilD Δ3′UTR mRNAs, suggesting that the hilD 3′UTR is a target for hilD mRNA degradation by the degradosome. The hilD 3′UTR is also necessary for modulation of hilD and SPI-1 expression by the RNA chaperone Hfq. Overexpression of SPI-1 in the absence of the hilD 3′UTR retards Salmonella growth and causes uncontrolled invasion of epithelial cells. Based on these observations, we propose that the S. enterica hilD 3′UTR is a cis-acting element that contributes to cellular homeostasis by promoting hilD mRNA turnover. PMID:24682814

  1. Nucleotide sequences and mapping of novel heterogenous 5'-termini of adenovirus 2 early region 4 mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, S; Pursley, M H; Green, M

    1981-01-01

    The major 5'-termini of human adenovirus type 2 early gene block 4 mRNA were sequenced. Poly(A+) polyribosomal RNA was isolated from Ad2 early infected cells, the 5'-terminal m7GPPP removed and the 5'-OH of the penultimate 2'-0-methylated nucleotide labeled with [gamma-32P]ATP using polynucleotide kinase. Ad2 E4 mRNA was purified by hybridization to the Ad2 EcoRI-C fragment and was digested with RNase T1. The resulting oligonucleotides were resolved by two dimensional paper electrophoresis-homochromatography. Four major and 3-4 minor 5'-terminal sequences were identified and characterized. The sequence of the 5'-terminal structures of the major four termini are: (1) m7GpppUmU(m)UUACACUGp, (2) m7GpppUmU(m)UACACUGp, (3) m7GpppUmU(m)ACACUGp, and (4) m7Gppp(m6)AmC(m)ACUGp. These major 5'-terminal sequences were aligned with nucleotide 325, 326, 327, and 329 from the righthand end of the known Ad2 DNA sequence (1) in the region mapped as the 5'-terminus of E4 mRNA by electron microscopy (2,3) and S1 nuclease-gel (4) mapping. Two potential ribosomal binding sites and an initiator codon were found at 40 to 65 nucleotides and about 80 nucleotides, respectively, from these heterogenous 5'-termini. Ad2 E4 major mRNA species appear to be unique since mRNA molecules initiate at a pyrimidine, perhaps by RNA polymerase stuttering, or they are products of an unusual type of RNA processing. Images PMID:6164992

  2. Identification of a third region of cell-specific alternative splicing in human fibronectin mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Gutman, A; Kornblihtt, A R

    1987-01-01

    We describe here a third region of variability in human fibronectin (FN) due to alternative RNA splicing. Two other positions of alternative splicing have been reported previously (ED and IIICS). The third region involves a 273-nucleotide exon encoding exactly one 91-amino acid repeat of type III homology, located between the DNA- and the cell-binding domains of FN, which is either included in or excluded from FN mRNA. The two mRNA variants arising by an exon-skipping mechanism are present in cells known to synthesize the cellular form of FN. However, liver cells, which are the source of plasma FN, produce only messengers without the extra type III sequence. Therefore, the region described here resembles, both structurally and functionally, the previously described ED (for extra domain) region, located toward the C terminus of the molecule, between the cell- and heparin- (hep 2) binding domains. We conclude that both the extra type III repeat (named EDII) and ED represent sequences restricted to cellular FN. Combination of all the possible patterns of splicing in the three regions described to date may generate up to 20 distinct FN polypeptides from a single gene. Images PMID:3478690

  3. Identification of a third region of cell-specific alternative splicing in human fibronectin mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Gutman, A.; Kornblihtt, A.R.

    1987-10-01

    The authors describe here a third region of variability in human fibronectin (FN) due to alternative RNA splicing. Two other positions of alternative splicing have been reported previously (ED and IIICS). The third region involves a 273-nucleotide exon encoding exactly one 91-amino acid repeat of type III homology, located between the DNA- and the cell-binding domains of FN, which is either included in or excluded from FN mRNA. The two mRNA variants arising by an exon-skipping mechanism are present in cells known to synthesize the cellular form of FN. However, liver cells, which are the source of plasma FN, produce only messengers without the extra type III sequence. Therefore, the region described here resembles, both structurally and functionally, the previously described ED (for extra domain) region, located toward the C terminus of the molecule between the cell- and heparin- (hep 2) binding domains. The authors conclude that both the extra type III repeat (names EDII) and ED represent sequences restricted to cellular FN. Combination of all the possible patterns of splicing in the three regions described to date may generate up to 20 distinct FN polypeptides from a single gene.

  4. Melting temperature highlights functionally important RNA structure and sequence elements in yeast mRNA coding regions.

    PubMed

    Qi, Fei; Frishman, Dmitrij

    2017-03-07

    Secondary structure elements in the coding regions of mRNAs play an important role in gene expression and regulation, but distinguishing functional from non-functional structures remains challenging. Here we investigate the dependence of sequence-structure relationships in the coding regions on temperature based on the recent PARTE data by Wan et al. Our main finding is that the regions with high and low thermostability (high Tm and low Tm regions) are under evolutionary pressure to preserve RNA secondary structure and primary sequence, respectively. Sequences of low Tm regions display a higher degree of evolutionary conservation compared to high Tm regions. Low Tm regions are under strong synonymous constraint, while high Tm regions are not. These findings imply that high Tm regions contain thermo-stable functionally important RNA structures, which impose relaxed evolutionary constraint on sequence as long as the base-pairing patterns remain intact. By contrast, low thermostability regions contain single-stranded functionally important conserved RNA sequence elements accessible for binding by other molecules. We also find that theoretically predicted structures of paralogous mRNA pairs become more similar with growing temperature, while experimentally measured structures tend to diverge, which implies that the melting pathways of RNA structures cannot be fully captured by current computational approaches.

  5. Expression of choline acetyltransferase mRNA in spermatogenic cells results in an accumulation of the enzyme in the postacrosomal region of mature spermatozoa.

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, C F; Pelto-Huikko, M; Söder, O; Ritzèn, E M; Hersh, L B; Hökfelt, T; Persson, H

    1991-01-01

    The gene encoding choline acetyltransferase (ChAT; EC 2.3.1.6), the key enzyme in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh), is shown to be expressed in rat and human testes. High levels of two ChAT transcripts of 3.5 and 1.3 kilobases were detected by Northern blot analysis of adult rat testis RNA. A single ChAT mRNA species of 3.2 kilobases was detected in human testis. Cells responsible for the synthesis of ChAT mRNA in rat testis were localized by in situ hybridization in the middle part of the seminiferous epithelium, where the labeling was mostly found over spermatocytes and spermatids. Studies on the ontogeny of ChAT mRNA expression showed low levels in prepubertal rats with increasing levels as sexual maturation is reached. A peak of expression was seen at postnatal day 32, correlating with the onset of postmeiotic spermatogenesis. Results from surgical and pharmacological treatments suggest that androgens, as well as pituitary factors, could influence the relative levels of the two ChAT mRNAs detected in rat testis. Evidence for translation of the mRNA detected in the testis was obtained from the demonstration of ChAT-like immunoreactivity in ejaculated human spermatozoa. The staining was restricted to the postacrosomal region of the head, where the membrane of the sperm first fuses with that of the egg during fertilization, and to the annulus, a ring of dense material in the caudal end of the midpiece. Combined, these findings support the hypothesis that the neurotransmitter ACh is involved in reproductive function. Images PMID:2023918

  6. Distinct 3'-untranslated region elements regulate stage-specific mRNA accumulation and translation in Leishmania.

    PubMed

    McNicoll, François; Müller, Michaela; Cloutier, Serge; Boilard, Nathalie; Rochette, Annie; Dubé, Marthe; Papadopoulou, Barbara

    2005-10-21

    We recently characterized a large developmentally regulated gene family in Leishmania encoding the amastin surface proteins. While studying the regulation of these genes, we identified a region of 770 nucleotides (nt) within the 2055-nt 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) that regulates stage-specific gene expression at the level of translation. An intriguing feature of this 3'-UTR regulatory region is the presence of a approximately 450-nt element that is highly conserved among several Leishmania mRNAs. Here we show, using a luciferase reporter system and polysome profiling experiments, that the 450-nt element stimulates translation initiation of the amastin mRNA in response to heat shock, which is the main environmental change that the parasite encounters upon its entry into the mammalian host. Deletional analyses depicted a second region of approximately 100 nucleotides located at the 3'-end of several amastin transcripts, which also activates translation in response to elevated temperature. Both 3'-UTR regulatory elements act in an additive manner to stimulate amastin mRNA translation. In addition, we show that acidic pH encountered in the phagolysosomes of macrophages, the location of parasitic differentiation, triggers the accumulation of amastin transcripts by a distinct mechanism that is independent of the 450-nt and 100-nt elements. Overall, these important findings support the notion that stage-specific post-transcriptional regulation of the amastin mRNAs in Leishmania is complex and involves the coordination of distinct mechanisms controlling mRNA stability and translation that are independently triggered by key environmental signals inducing differentiation of the parasite within macrophages.

  7. Selenium Deficiency Influences the mRNA Expression of Selenoproteins and Cytokines in Chicken Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Luan, Yilin; Zhao, Jinxin; Yao, Haidong; Zhao, Xia; Fan, Ruifeng; Zhao, Wenchao; Zhang, Ziwei; Xu, Shiwen

    2016-06-01

    Selenium (Se) deficiency induces hemolysis in chickens, but the molecular mechanism for this effect remains unclear. Se primarily elicits its function through the activity of selenoproteins, which contain the unique amino acid selenocysteine (Sec). In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of Se deficiency on the expression of 24 selenoproteins and 10 cytokines. One hundred eighty chickens were randomly divided into 2 groups (90 chickens per group). During the entire experimental period, chickens were allowed ad libitum consumption of feed and water. The chickens were fed either a Se-deficient diet (0.008 mg Se/kg; produced in the Se-deficient area of Heilongjiang, China) or a Se-supplemented diet (as sodium selenite) at 0.2 mg/kg for 35 days. At the 35th day, the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of 24 selenoproteins and 10 cytokines were examined in erythrocytes of 5 chickens per group, and the correlation was analyzed. The results showed that the expression of 24 selenoproteins and 7 cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12β, TGF-β4, and IFN-γ) decreased (P < 0.05), and the expression of 3 cytokines (IL-1γ, IL-6 and IL-7) was higher in the Se-deficient group. In both groups, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), thioredoxin 1 (Txnrd1), selenoprotein P1 (SELP), and selenoprotein synthetase (SPS2) were highly expressed compared to the other selenoproteins in chicken erythrocytes (P < 0.05). These data suggest that GPXs, Txnrd1, SELP, and SPS2 possibly play a more important role than the other selenoproteins. The increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1γ, IL-6, and IL-7) suggested that the immune system of chickens was damaged by the Se deficiency. Correlation analysis suggested that although the expression of 24 selenoproteins and 7 cytokines decreased and that of 3 cytokines increased, there was a close correlation between their expression levels and a Se diet. These results suggested that Se deficiency influenced the expressions of 24 selenoproteins

  8. mRNA stability in mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, J

    1995-01-01

    This review concerns how cytoplasmic mRNA half-lives are regulated and how mRNA decay rates influence gene expression. mRNA stability influences gene expression in virtually all organisms, from bacteria to mammals, and the abundance of a particular mRNA can fluctuate manyfold following a change in the mRNA half-life, without any change in transcription. The processes that regulate mRNA half-lives can, in turn, affect how cells grow, differentiate, and respond to their environment. Three major questions are addressed. Which sequences in mRNAs determine their half-lives? Which enzymes degrade mRNAs? Which (trans-acting) factors regulate mRNA stability, and how do they function? The following specific topics are discussed: techniques for measuring eukaryotic mRNA stability and for calculating decay constants, mRNA decay pathways, mRNases, proteins that bind to sequences shared among many mRNAs [like poly(A)- and AU-rich-binding proteins] and proteins that bind to specific mRNAs (like the c-myc coding-region determinant-binding protein), how environmental factors like hormones and growth factors affect mRNA stability, and how translation and mRNA stability are linked. Some perspectives and predictions for future research directions are summarized at the end. PMID:7565413

  9. Investigation of biological factors influencing the placental mRNA profile in maternal plasma.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Nancy B Y; Wong, Cesar S C; Chow, Katherine C K; Lo, Elena S F; Cheng, Yvonne K Y

    2014-03-01

    Circulating placental-derived RNA is useful for noninvasive prenatal investigation. However, in addition to placental gene expression, there are limited investigations on other biological parameters that may affect the circulating placental RNA profile. In this study, we explored two of these potential parameters. We first demonstrated the existence of such biological parameters by comparing the relative levels of a panel of placental-derived transcripts between the placentas and maternal plasma by digital PCRs. We then compared the post-delivery clearance of the transcripts by serial plasma samples collected from pregnant women after delivery. We also studied the placental in vivo localization of the transcripts by in situ hybridization. There was an imperfect correlation of the transcript levels between the placentas and maternal plasma, with placenta-specific 4 (PLAC4) mRNA showing the largest discrepancy. Although PLAC4 mRNA showed a similar clearance half-life with other transcripts, we observed a preferential localization of PLAC4 mRNA around the villous surface. We speculated that this phenomenon might play a role in favoring the release of PLAC4 mRNA molecules into maternal plasma. We revealed that in addition to expression levels in the placenta, other biological factors might interplay to determine the maternal plasma profile of placental-derived RNAs. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. mRNA cap methylation influences pathogenesis of vesicular stomatitis virus in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuanmei; Wei, Yongwei; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yu; Cai, Hui; Zhu, Yang; Shilo, Konstantin; Oglesbee, Michael; Krakowka, Steven; Whelan, Sean P J; Li, Jianrong

    2014-03-01

    One role of mRNA cap guanine-N-7 (G-N-7) methylation is to facilitate the efficient translation of mRNA. The role of mRNA cap ribose 2'-O methylation is enigmatic, although recent work has implicated this as a signature to avoid detection of RNA by the innate immune system (S. Daffis, K. J. Szretter, J. Schriewer, J. Q. Li, S. Youn, J. Errett, T. Y. Lin, S. Schneller, R. Zust, H. P. Dong, V. Thiel, G. C. Sen, V. Fensterl, W. B. Klimstra, T. C. Pierson, R. M. Buller, M. Gale, P. Y. Shi, M. S. Diamond, Nature 468:452-456, 2010, doi:10.1038/nature09489). Working with vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), we previously showed that a panel of recombinant VSVs carrying mutations at a predicted methyltransferase catalytic site (rVSV-K1651A, -D1762A, and -E1833Q) or S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) binding site (rVSV-G1670A, -G1672A, and -G4A) were defective in cap methylation and were also attenuated for growth in cell culture. Here, we analyzed the virulence of these recombinants in mice. We found that rVSV-K1651A, -D1762A, and -E1833Q, which are defective in both G-N-7 and 2'-O methylation, were highly attenuated in mice. All three viruses elicited a high level of neutralizing antibody and provided full protection against challenge with the virulent VSV. In contrast, mice inoculated with rVSV-G1670A and -G1672A, which are defective only in G-N-7 methylation, were attenuated in vivo yet retained a low level of virulence. rVSV-G4A, which is completely defective in both G-N-7 and 2'-O methylation, also exhibited low virulence in mice despite the fact that productive viral replication was not detected in lung and brain. Taken together, our results suggest that abrogation of viral mRNA cap methylation can serve as an approach to attenuate VSV, and perhaps other nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses, for potential application as vaccines and viral vectors. Nonsegmented negative-sense (NNS) RNA viruses include a wide range of significant human, animal, and plant pathogens. For many

  11. Regional brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA and protein levels following transient forebrain ischemia in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kokaia, Z; Nawa, H; Uchino, H; Elmér, E; Kokaia, M; Carnahan, J; Smith, M L; Siesjö, B K; Lindvall, O

    1996-05-01

    Levels of BDNF mRNA and protein were measured in the rat brain using in situ hybridization and a two-site enzyme immunoassay. Under basal conditions, the highest BDNF concentration was found in the dentate gyrus (88 ng/g), while the levels in CA3 (50 ng/g), CA1 (18 ng/g) and parietal cortex (8 ng/g) were markedly lower. Following 10 min of forebrain ischemia, BDNF protein increased transiently in the dentate gyrus (to 124% of control at 6 h after the insult) and CA3 region (to 131% of control, at 1 week after the insult). In CA1 and parietal cortex, BDNF protein decreased to 73-75% of control at 24 h. In contrast, BDNF mRNA expression in dentate granule cells and CA3 pyramidal layer was transiently elevated to 287 and 293% of control, respectively, at 2 h, whereas no change was detected in CA1 or neocortex. The regional BDNF protein levels shown here correlate at least partly with regional differences in cellular resistance to ischemic damage, which is consistent with the hypothesis of a neuroprotective role of BDNF.

  12. The influence of eccentric exercise on mRNA expression of skeletal muscle regulators.

    PubMed

    Jensky, Nicole E; Sims, Jennifer K; Rice, Judd C; Dreyer, Hans C; Schroeder, E Todd

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate change in myostatin, follistatin, MyoD and SGT mRNA gene expression using eccentric exercise to study mechanisms of skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Young (28+/-5 years) and older (68+/-6 years) men participated in a bout of maximal single-leg eccentric knee extension on an isokinetic dynamometer at 60 degrees /s: six sets, 12-16 maximal eccentric repetitions. Muscle biopsies of the vastus lateralis were obtained from the dominant leg before exercise and 24 h after exercise. Paired t tests were used to compare change (pre versus post-exercise) for normalized gene expression in all variables. Independent t tests were performed to test group differences (young vs. older). A probability level of PmRNA expression in young subjects 24 h after eccentric exercise. Similarly, we did not observe significant change in myostatin (-3.83+/-8.8; P=0.23), follistatin (-2.66+/-5.2; P=0.17), MyoD (-0.13+/-3.1; P=0.90), or SGT (-1.6+/-3.5; P=0.19) mRNA expression in older subjects. Furthermore, the non-significant changes in mRNA expression were not different between young and older subjects, P>0.23 for all variables. Our data suggests that a single bout of maximal eccentric exercise does not alter myostatin, follistatin, MyoD or SGT mRNA gene expression in young or older subjects.

  13. Regional induction of c-fos and heat shock protein-72 mRNA following fluid-percussion brain injury in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Raghupathi, R.; Welsh, F.A.; Gennarelli, T.A.

    1995-05-01

    To evaluate the cellular response to traumatic brain injury, the expression of mRNA for c-fos and the 72-kDa heat shock protein (hsp72) was determined using in situ hybridization following lateral fluid-percussion injury (2.2-2.4 atm) in rat brain. At 2 h after injury, induction of c-fos mRNA was restricted to regions of the cortex surrounding the contusion area. An increase in c-fos mRNA, but not hsp72 mRNA, was observed bilaterally in the CA{sub 3} subfield of the hippocampus and the granule cells of the dentate gyrus and in the thalamus ipsilateral to the impact site. By 6 h, increased expression of c-fos mRNA was observed only in the corpus callosum on the impact side; hsp72 mRNA persisted in the deep cortical layers and upper layers of the subcortical white matter below the site of maximal injury. By 24 h, both c-fos and hsp72 mRNA had returned to control levels in all regions of the brain. These results demonstrate that lateral fluid-percussion brain injury triggers regionally and temporally specific expression of c-fos and hsp72 mRNA, which may be suggestive of differential neurochemical alterations in neurons and glia following experimental brain injury. 33 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Structure of the coding region and mRNA variants of the apyrase gene from pea (Pisum sativum)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibata, K.; Abe, S.; Davies, E.

    2001-01-01

    Partial amino acid sequences of a 49 kDa apyrase (ATP diphosphohydrolase, EC 3.6.1.5) from the cytoskeletal fraction of etiolated pea stems were used to derive oligonucleotide DNA primers to generate a cDNA fragment of pea apyrase mRNA by RT-PCR and these primers were used to screen a pea stem cDNA library. Two almost identical cDNAs differing in just 6 nucleotides within the coding regions were found, and these cDNA sequences were used to clone genomic fragments by PCR. Two nearly identical gene fragments containing 8 exons and 7 introns were obtained. One of them (H-type) encoded the mRNA sequence described by Hsieh et al. (1996) (DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank Z32743), while the other (S-type) differed by the same 6 nucleotides as the mRNAs, suggesting that these genes may be alleles. The six nucleotide differences between these two alleles were found solely in the first exon, and these mutation sites had two types of consensus sequences. These mRNAs were found with varying lengths of 3' untranslated regions (3'-UTR). There are some similarities between the 3'-UTR of these mRNAs and those of actin and actin binding proteins in plants. The putative roles of the 3'-UTR and alternative polyadenylation sites are discussed in relation to their possible role in targeting the mRNAs to different subcellular compartments.

  15. Structure of the coding region and mRNA variants of the apyrase gene from pea (Pisum sativum)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibata, K.; Abe, S.; Davies, E.

    2001-01-01

    Partial amino acid sequences of a 49 kDa apyrase (ATP diphosphohydrolase, EC 3.6.1.5) from the cytoskeletal fraction of etiolated pea stems were used to derive oligonucleotide DNA primers to generate a cDNA fragment of pea apyrase mRNA by RT-PCR and these primers were used to screen a pea stem cDNA library. Two almost identical cDNAs differing in just 6 nucleotides within the coding regions were found, and these cDNA sequences were used to clone genomic fragments by PCR. Two nearly identical gene fragments containing 8 exons and 7 introns were obtained. One of them (H-type) encoded the mRNA sequence described by Hsieh et al. (1996) (DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank Z32743), while the other (S-type) differed by the same 6 nucleotides as the mRNAs, suggesting that these genes may be alleles. The six nucleotide differences between these two alleles were found solely in the first exon, and these mutation sites had two types of consensus sequences. These mRNAs were found with varying lengths of 3' untranslated regions (3'-UTR). There are some similarities between the 3'-UTR of these mRNAs and those of actin and actin binding proteins in plants. The putative roles of the 3'-UTR and alternative polyadenylation sites are discussed in relation to their possible role in targeting the mRNAs to different subcellular compartments.

  16. Incorporation of beta-globin untranslated regions into a Sindbis virus vector for augmentation of heterologous mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Strong, T V; Hampton, T A; Louro, I; Bilbao, G; Conry, R M; Curiel, D T

    1997-06-01

    Polynucleotide immunization has been employed as a means of inducing immune responses through the introduction of antigen-encoding DNA. While immunization against specific tumor antigens may be achieved through this strategy, various candidate tumor antigens may not be approached via DNA-based vaccines as they represent transforming oncogenes. As an alternative approach, we have explored the utility of mRNA vectors for polynucleotide immunization. The transient expression achieved by mRNA may provide an efficient and safe system for stimulating immune responses to tumor-specific antigens. Our previous work demonstrated that a self-replicating RNA enhances the magnitude and duration of transgene expression for this application. Here we further modify the vector for optimal use in gene therapy through the incorporation of untranslated regions flanking the encoded transgene. The beta-globin 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) were inserted directly flanking the luciferase gene in both nonreplicative and replicative RNA constructs. In both cases, elevated and prolonged levels of luciferase expression were detected from the beta-globin UTR-flanked luciferase as compared to luciferase without these sequences. These modifications improve the ability of replicative RNA vectors to produce high, yet transient transgene expression for cancer immunotherapy strategies.

  17. Regional atmospheric influence on the Chandler wobble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotov, L. V.; Bizouard, C.

    2015-03-01

    From the maps of regional contribution to atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) over the period 1948-2011 (NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data) time domain excitation in Chandler frequency band was extracted by Panteleev's filtering method. This permits us to investigate the evolution of the regional atmospheric influence on Chandler wobble. It appears that the temperate latitudes bring the strongest inputs. For pressure term they are limited to continents, and highlight the role of Europe. For the wind term they mostly result from ocean area, encompassing in particular North Atlantic. A quasi-20 year cycle is found in the regional patterns of the atmospheric excitation. The integrated AAM is finally compared with the geodetic excitation reconstructed from the observed polar motion.

  18. Influence of culture medium composition on relative mRNA abundances in domestic cat embryos.

    PubMed

    Hribal, R; Jewgenow, K; Braun, B C; Comizzoli, P

    2013-04-01

    Different culture conditions have been used to produce domestic cat embryos. As part of the in vitro procedures, the medium composition significantly affects the quality of the embryo development also. Quality assessments based on cleavage kinetics and blastomere symmetry are useful, but embryos also can differ in their relative gene expression patterns despite similar morphological characteristics. The aim of this study was to compare cat embryos produced with two different in vitro culture systems routinely used in two different laboratories [Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute, Washington D.C., USA (SCBI) and Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin, Germany (IZW)]. Specifically, relative mRNA expression patterns of critical genes for pre-implantation embryo development were assessed in both conditions. Embryos were produced in parallel in both culture systems by IVF using frozen-thawed ejaculated semen in the United States and fresh epididymal sperm in Germany. Success of embryo development in vitro was recorded as well as relative mRNA abundances [DNA methyltransferases 1 and 3A (DNMT1, DNMT3A), gap junction protein alpha 1 (GJA1), octamer-binding transcription factor 4 [OCT4], insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 receptors (IGF1R, IGF2R), beta-actin (ACTB)] in pools of days 4-5 morulae by semi-quantitative RT-PCR assay. Percentages of cleaved embryos were similar (p > 0.05) between both culture systems, regardless of the location. OCT4 mRNA abundance was higher (p < 0.05) in embryos derived in the SCBI culture system compared with those from the IZW system when epididymal sperm was used for IVF. No clear correlation between the expression pattern and the culture system could be found for all other genes. It is suggested that OCT4 expression might be affected by the media composition in some conditions and can be the indicator of a better embryo quality. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Effect of acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein mRNA 5'-untranslated region on gene expression and protein accumulation.

    PubMed

    Bermejo, B; Remacha, M; Ortiz-Reyes, B; Santos, C; Ballesta, J P

    1994-02-11

    Constructions were made from genes encoding ribosomal acidic phosphoproteins YP1 beta (L44') and YP2 beta (L45) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in which different parts of the 5'-untranslated regions were included. The constructs were inserted into centromeric plasmids under the control of the GAL1 promoter and expressed in yeast strains in which the genes coding for each acidic protein family, P1 and P2, had been disrupted. Deletions in the 5' region of the two genes have been found to oppositely affect their expression. Deletion of most of this region strongly stimulates the expression of YP2 beta (L45), increasing the translation efficiency of the mRNA, and generating a 6-fold excess of protein in the cell. A similar deletion in the rpYP1 beta gene represses the expression of the protein, reducing drastically the amount of the mRNA in the cell. The overexpression of rpYP2 beta affects the cell growth by inhibiting protein synthesis at the level of initiation. Reduction of the YP2 beta(L45) overproduction by growing in controlled concentrations of glucose abolishes the inhibitory effect. The excess protein, probably as a high molecular weight complex, apparently interferes with the joining of the 60 S subunit to the initiation complex generating the accumulation of polysome half-mers. In addition, the results indicate the existence of a regulatory mechanism by which each one of the two acidic proteins controls the expression of the other polypeptide. YP1 beta(L44') represses the expression of YP2 beta(L45), while this protein stimulates the expression of YP1 beta(L44').

  20. Influence of codon usage bias on FGLamide-allatostatin mRNA secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, Francisco; Bendena, William G; Chang, Belinda S W; Tobe, Stephen S

    2011-03-01

    The FGLamide allatostatins (ASTs) are invertebrate neuropeptides which inhibit juvenile hormone biosynthesis in Dictyoptera and related orders. They also show myomodulatory activity. FGLamide AST nucleotide frequencies and codon bias were investigated with respect to possible effects on mRNA secondary structure. 367 putative FGLamide ASTs and their potential endoproteolytic cleavage sites were identified from 40 species of crustaceans, chelicerates and insects. Among these, 55% comprised only 11 amino acids. An FGLamide AST consensus was identified to be (X)(1→16)Y(S/A/N/G)FGLGKR, with a strong bias for the codons UUU encoding for Phe and AAA for Lys, which can form strong Watson-Crick pairing in all peptides analyzed. The physical distance between these codons favor a loop structure from Ser/Ala-Phe to Lys-Arg. Other loop and hairpin loops were also inferred from the codon frequencies in the N-terminal motif, and the first amino acids from the C-terminal motif, or the dibasic potential endoproteolytic cleavage site. Our results indicate that nucleotide frequencies and codon usage bias in FGLamide ASTs tend to favor mRNA folds in the codon sequence in the C-terminal active peptide core and at the dibasic potential endoproteolytic cleavage site. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. CaMKIIalpha 3' untranslated region-directed mRNA translocation in living neurons: visualization by GFP linkage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rook, M. S.; Lu, M.; Kosik, K. S.

    2000-01-01

    The CaMKIIalpha mRNA extends into distal hippocampal dendrites, and the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) is sufficient to mediate this localization. We labeled the 3'UTR of the CaMKIIalpha mRNA in hippocampal cultures by using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)/MS2 bacteriophage tagging system. The CaMKIIalpha 3'UTR formed discrete granules throughout the dendrites of transfected cells. The identity of the fluorescent granules was verified by in situ hybridization. Over 30 min time periods these granules redistributed without a net increase in granule number; with depolarization there is a tendency toward increased numbers of granules in the dendrites. These observations suggest that finer time resolution of granule motility might reveal changes in the motility characteristics of granules after depolarization. So that motile granules could be tracked, shorter periods of observation were required. The movements of motile granules can be categorized as oscillatory, unidirectional anterograde, or unidirectional retrograde. Colocalization of CaMKIIalpha 3'UTR granules and synapses suggested that oscillatory movements allowed the granules to sample several local synapses. Neuronal depolarization increased the number of granules in the anterograde motile pool. Based on the time frame over which the granule number increased, the translocation of granules may serve to prepare the dendrite for mounting an adequate local translation response to future stimuli. Although the resident pool of granules can respond to signals that induce local translation, the number of granules in a dendrite might reflect its activation history.

  2. CaMKIIalpha 3' untranslated region-directed mRNA translocation in living neurons: visualization by GFP linkage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rook, M. S.; Lu, M.; Kosik, K. S.

    2000-01-01

    The CaMKIIalpha mRNA extends into distal hippocampal dendrites, and the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) is sufficient to mediate this localization. We labeled the 3'UTR of the CaMKIIalpha mRNA in hippocampal cultures by using a green fluorescent protein (GFP)/MS2 bacteriophage tagging system. The CaMKIIalpha 3'UTR formed discrete granules throughout the dendrites of transfected cells. The identity of the fluorescent granules was verified by in situ hybridization. Over 30 min time periods these granules redistributed without a net increase in granule number; with depolarization there is a tendency toward increased numbers of granules in the dendrites. These observations suggest that finer time resolution of granule motility might reveal changes in the motility characteristics of granules after depolarization. So that motile granules could be tracked, shorter periods of observation were required. The movements of motile granules can be categorized as oscillatory, unidirectional anterograde, or unidirectional retrograde. Colocalization of CaMKIIalpha 3'UTR granules and synapses suggested that oscillatory movements allowed the granules to sample several local synapses. Neuronal depolarization increased the number of granules in the anterograde motile pool. Based on the time frame over which the granule number increased, the translocation of granules may serve to prepare the dendrite for mounting an adequate local translation response to future stimuli. Although the resident pool of granules can respond to signals that induce local translation, the number of granules in a dendrite might reflect its activation history.

  3. Identification and characterization of a 44 kDa protein that binds specifically to the 3'-untranslated region of CYP2a5 mRNA: inducibility, subcellular distribution and possible role in mRNA stabilization.

    PubMed Central

    Geneste, O; Raffalli, F; Lang, M A

    1996-01-01

    Stabilization of mRNA is important in the regulation of CYP2a5 expression but the factors involved in the process are not known [Aida and Negishi (1991) Biochemistry 30, 8041-8045]. In this paper, we describe, for the first time, a protein that binds specifically to the 3'-untranslated region of CYP2a5 mRNA and which is inducible by pyrazole, a compound known to increase the half-life of CYP2a5 mRNA. We also demonstrate that pyrazole treatment causes an elongation of the CYP2a5 mRNA poly(A) tail, and that phenobarbital, which is transcriptional activator of the CYP2a5 gene that does not affect the mRNA half-life, neither induces the RNA-binding protein nor affects the poly(A) tail size. SDS/PAGE of the UV-cross-linked RNA-protein complex demonstrated that the RNA-binding protein has an apparent molecular mass of 44 kDa. The protein-binding site was localized to a 70-nucleotide region between bases 1585 and 1655. Treatment of cytoplasmic extracts with an SH-oxidizing agent, diamide, an SH-blocking agent, N-ethylmaleimide or potato acid phosphatase abolished complex-formation, suggesting that the CYP2a5 mRNA-binding protein is subject to post-translational regulation. Subcellular fractionation showed that the 44 kDa protein is present in polyribosomes and nuclei, and that its apparent induction is much stronger in polyribosomes than in nuclear extracts. We propose that this 44 kDa RNA-binding protein is involved in the stabilization of CYP2a5 mRNA by controlling the length of the poly(A) tail. PMID:8611142

  4. Influence of beta-blockers on the myocardial mRNA expressions of circadian clock- and metabolism-related genes.

    PubMed

    Ushijima, Kentarou; Maekawa, Tomohiro; Ishikawa-Kobayashi, Eiko; Ando, Hitoshi; Shiga, Tsuyoshi; Fujimura, Akio

    2013-01-01

    Daily rhythms are regulated by a master clock-system in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and by a peripheral clock-system in each organ. Because norepinephrine is one of the timekeepers for the myocardial circadian clock that influences cardiac metabolism, it is speculated that a beta-blocker may affect the circadian clock and metabolism in heart tissue. In this study, thirty mg/kg/day of propranolol (a lipophilic beta-blocker) or atenolol (a hydrophilic beta-blocker) was given orally to Wistar rats for 4 weeks. The mRNA expressions of Bmal1 and E4BP4 in heart tissue were suppressed by the beta-blockers. However, the mRNA expressions of these clock genes in the suprachiasmatic nucleus were unchanged. Myocardial mRNA expressions of lactate dehydrogenase a and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 were also suppressed by the beta-blockers. In addition, ATP content in heart tissue was significantly elevated by the beta-blockers throughout 24 hours. The effects of propranolol and atenolol did not differ significantly. This study showed for the first time that a beta-blocker affects myocardial clock gene expression. Propranolol and atenolol increased ATP content in heart tissue throughout 24 hours. The influences of beta-blockers may be negligible on the SCN, and may be independent of lipid solubility on heart tissue. It is well known that these drugs exert a protective effect against myocardial ischemia, which may be mediated by an increase in the preservation of myocardial ATP. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. FLT3-ITD and MLL-PTD influence the expression of MDR-1, MRP-1, and BCRP mRNA but not LRP mRNA assessed with RQ-PCR method in adult acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Nasilowska-Adamska, Barbara; Solarska, Iwona; Paluszewska, Monika; Malinowska, Iwona; Jedrzejczak, Wieslaw W; Warzocha, Krzysztof

    2014-04-01

    Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) and mixed-lineage leukemia gene-partial tandem duplication (MLL-PTD) are aberrations associated with leukemia which indicate unsatisfactory prognosis. Downstream regulatory targets of FLT3-ITD and MLL-PTD are not well defined. We have analyzed the expression of MDR-1, multidrug resistant protein-1 (MRP-1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and lung resistance protein (LRP) messenger RNA (mRNA) in relation to the mutational status of FLT3-ITD and MLL-PTD in 185 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) adult patients. The real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method was performed to assess the expression of the MDR-1, MRP-1, BCRP, and LRP mRNA, and the results were presented as coefficients calculated using an intermediate method according to Pfaffl's rule. Significantly higher expressions of MDR-1 mRNA were found in patients who did not harbor FLT3-ITD (0.20 vs. 0.05; p = 0.0001) and MRP-1 mRNA in patients with this mutation (0.96 vs. 0.70; p = 0.002) and of BCRP mRNA in patients with MLL-PTD (0.61 vs. 0.38; p = 0.03). In univariate analysis, the high expression of MDR-1 mRNA (≥0.1317) negatively influenced the outcome of induction therapy (p = 0.05), whereas the high expression of BCRP mRNA (≥1.1487) was associated with a high relapse rate (RR) (p = 0.013). We found that the high expression of MDR-1 (≥0.1317), MRP-1 (≥0.8409), and BCRP mRNA (≥1.1487) significantly influenced disease-free survival (DFS; p = 0.059, 0.032, and 0.009, respectively) and overall survival (0.048, 0.014, and 0.059, respectively). Moreover, a high expression of BCRP mRNA (≥1.1487) proved to be an independent prognostic factor for RR (p = 0.01) and DFS (p = 0.002) in multivariate analysis. The significant correlation between the expression of MDR-1, MRP-1, and BCRP mRNA and FLT3-ITD or MLL-PTD in AML patients requires further investigation.

  6. Alterations of BDNF and trkB mRNA Expression in the 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Model of Preclinical Stages of Parkinson’s Disease: An Influence of Chronic Pramipexole in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Berghauzen-Maciejewska, Klemencja; Wardas, Jadwiga; Kosmowska, Barbara; Głowacka, Urszula; Kuter, Katarzyna; Ossowska, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Our recent study has indicated that a moderate lesion of the mesostriatal and mesolimbic pathways in rats, modelling preclinical stages of Parkinson’s disease, induces a depressive-like behaviour which is reversed by chronic treatment with pramipexole. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signalling in the aforementioned model of depression. Therefore, we investigated the influence of 6-hydoxydopamine (6-OHDA) administration into the ventral region of the caudate-putamen on mRNA levels of BDNF and tropomyosin-related kinase B (trkB) receptor. The BDNF and trkB mRNA levels were determined in the nigrostriatal and limbic structures by in situ hybridization 2 weeks after the operation. Pramipexole (1 mg/kg sc twice a day) and imipramine (10 mg/kg ip once a day) were injected for 2 weeks. The lesion lowered the BDNF and trkB mRNA levels in the hippocampus [CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG)] and amygdala (basolateral/lateral) as well as the BDNF mRNA content in the habenula (medial/lateral). The lesion did not influence BDNF and trkB expression in the caudate-putamen, substantia nigra, nucleus accumbens (shell and core) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Chronic imipramine reversed the lesion-induced decreases in BDNF mRNA in the DG. Chronic pramipexole increased BDNF mRNA, but decreased trkB mRNA in the VTA in lesioned rats. Furthermore, it reduced BDNF and trkB mRNA expression in the shell and core of the nucleus accumbens, BDNF mRNA in the amygdala and trkB mRNA in the caudate-putamen in these animals. The present study indicates that both the 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic lesion and chronic pramipexole influence BDNF signalling in limbic structures, which may be related to their pro-depressive and antidepressant activity in rats, respectively. PMID:25739024

  7. Alterations of BDNF and trkB mRNA expression in the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced model of preclinical stages of Parkinson's disease: an influence of chronic pramipexole in rats.

    PubMed

    Berghauzen-Maciejewska, Klemencja; Wardas, Jadwiga; Kosmowska, Barbara; Głowacka, Urszula; Kuter, Katarzyna; Ossowska, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Our recent study has indicated that a moderate lesion of the mesostriatal and mesolimbic pathways in rats, modelling preclinical stages of Parkinson's disease, induces a depressive-like behaviour which is reversed by chronic treatment with pramipexole. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signalling in the aforementioned model of depression. Therefore, we investigated the influence of 6-hydoxydopamine (6-OHDA) administration into the ventral region of the caudate-putamen on mRNA levels of BDNF and tropomyosin-related kinase B (trkB) receptor. The BDNF and trkB mRNA levels were determined in the nigrostriatal and limbic structures by in situ hybridization 2 weeks after the operation. Pramipexole (1 mg/kg sc twice a day) and imipramine (10 mg/kg ip once a day) were injected for 2 weeks. The lesion lowered the BDNF and trkB mRNA levels in the hippocampus [CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG)] and amygdala (basolateral/lateral) as well as the BDNF mRNA content in the habenula (medial/lateral). The lesion did not influence BDNF and trkB expression in the caudate-putamen, substantia nigra, nucleus accumbens (shell and core) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Chronic imipramine reversed the lesion-induced decreases in BDNF mRNA in the DG. Chronic pramipexole increased BDNF mRNA, but decreased trkB mRNA in the VTA in lesioned rats. Furthermore, it reduced BDNF and trkB mRNA expression in the shell and core of the nucleus accumbens, BDNF mRNA in the amygdala and trkB mRNA in the caudate-putamen in these animals. The present study indicates that both the 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic lesion and chronic pramipexole influence BDNF signalling in limbic structures, which may be related to their pro-depressive and antidepressant activity in rats, respectively.

  8. Pacing-Induced Regional Differences in Adenosine Receptors mRNA Expression in a Swine Model of Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Del Ry, Silvia; Cabiati, Manuela; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Aquaro, Giovanni D.; Martino, Alessandro; Mattii, Letizia; Morales, Maria-Aurora

    2012-01-01

    The adenosinergic system is essential in the mediation of intrinsic protection and myocardial resistance to insult; it may be considered a cardioprotective molecule and adenosine receptors (ARs) represent potential therapeutic targets in the setting of heart failure (HF). The aim of the study was to test whether differences exist between mRNA expression of ARs in the anterior left ventricle (LV) wall (pacing site: PS) compared to the infero septal wall (opposite region: OS) in an experimental model of dilated cardiomyopathy. Cardiac tissue was collected from LV PS and OS of adult male minipigs with pacing-induced HF (n = 10) and from a control group (C, n = 4). ARs and TNF–α mRNA expression was measured by Real Time-PCR and the results were normalized with the three most stably expressed genes (GAPDH, HPRT1, TBP). Immunohistochemistry analysis was also performed. After 3 weeks of pacing higher levels of expression for each analyzed AR were observed in PS except for A1R (A1R: C = 0.6±0.2, PS = 0.1±0.04, OS = 0.04±0.01, p<0.0001 C vs. PS and OS respectively; A2AR: C = 1.04±0.59, PS = 2.62±0.79, OS = 2.99±0.79; A2BR: C = 1.2±0.1, PS = 5.59±2.3, OS = 1.59±0.46; A3R: C = 0.76±0.18, PS = 8.40±3.38, OS = 4.40±0.83). Significant contractile impairment and myocardial hypoperfusion were observed at PS after three weeks of pacing as compared to OS. TNF-α mRNA expression resulted similar in PS (6.3±2.4) and in OS (5.9±2.7) although higher than in control group (3.4±1.5). ARs expression was mainly detected in cardiomyocytes. This study provided new information on ARs local changes in the setting of LV dysfunction and on the role of these receptors in relation to pacing-induced abnormalities of myocardial perfusion and contraction. These results suggest a possible therapeutic role of adenosine in patients with HF and dyssynchronous LV contraction. PMID:23071699

  9. An mRNA putatively coding for an O-methyltransferase accumulates preferentially in maize roots and is located predominantly in the region of the endodermis.

    PubMed Central

    Held, B M; Wang, H; John, I; Wurtele, E S; Colbert, J T

    1993-01-01

    ZRP4, a 1.4-kb mRNA that preferentially accumulates in roots of young Zea mays L. plants, was identified by isolation of the corresponding cDNA clone. Genomic Southern analysis indicates that the zrp4 gene is represented once in the corn genome. The deduced ZRP4 polypeptide of 39,558 D is rich in leucine, serine, and alanine. Comparison of the deduced ZRP4 polypeptide sequence to polypeptide sequences of previously cloned plant and animal genes indicates that ZRP4 may be an O-methyltransferase. The ZRP4 mRNA preferentially accumulates in young roots and can be detected only at low levels in leaf, stem, and other shoot organs. ZRP4 mRNA accumulation is developmentally regulated within the root, with very low levels of accumulation in the meristematic region, higher levels in the regions of cell elongation, highest levels in the region of cell maturation, and low levels in the mature regions of the root. ZRP4 mRNA is predominantly located in the endodermis, with lower levels in the exodermis. An intriguing possibility is that the ZRP4 mRNA may code for an O-methyltransferase involved in suberin biosynthesis. PMID:8278520

  10. Anxiety behaviour of the male rat on the elevated plus maze: associated regional increase in c-fos mRNA expression and modulation by early maternal separation.

    PubMed

    Troakes, C; Ingram, C D

    2009-07-01

    Stressful stimuli cause region-specific increases in c-fos expression within the rat brain. Early maternal separation (EMS) is a model of early life adversity that results in long lasting changes to stress and anxiety responses. This study examined the regional distribution of c-fos mRNA after exposure to the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and how EMS altered this pattern. On each of post-natal days 5-21 pups were separated from the dam for 6 h -- control rats remained undisturbed. At 70 days old, male offspring were either exposed to the EPM or left undisturbed in the home cage. After exposure to the EPM, c-fos mRNA expression was significantly increased in specific brain areas, including cingulate cortex, medial amygdala and hippocampus. EMS rats displayed greater anxiety behaviour on the EPM vs. controls. Although EMS caused no overall effect on basal c-fos mRNA, a significant interaction between treatment group and exposure to the EPM occurred in the dentate gyrus and piriform cortex, with lower EPM-induced mRNA levels in EMS rats. The region-specific increase in c-fos mRNA reflects activation of neural circuits associated with EPM-induced anxiety. The effect of EMS on this activation in the two regions suggests these areas may contribute to the differential response to the anxiogenic stress of the EPM.

  11. Sequences throughout the basic beta-1,3-glucanase mRNA coding region are targets for homology dependent post-transcriptional gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Jacobs; Sanders; Bots; Andriessen; Van Eldik GJ; Litière; Van Montagu M; Cornelissen

    1999-10-01

    In the transgenic tobacco line T17, plants homozygous for the gn1 transgene display developmentally regulated post-transcriptional silencing of basic beta-1,3-glucanase genes. Previously, it has been shown that silencing involves a markedly increased turnover of silencing-target glucanase mRNAs. Using a two-component viral reporter system facilitated a comparison, in a quantitat- ive manner, of the relative silencing efficiencies of various sequences derived from the gn1 transgene. The results show that target sites for the silencing mechanism are present throughout the coding region of the gn1 mRNA. Similar-sized coding region sequences along the entire gn1 mRNA display a similar susceptibility to the silencing mechanism. The susceptibility to silencing increases as the coding region elements increase in size. Relative to internal sequences, the 5' and 3' terminal regions of the gn1 mRNA are inefficient targets for the silencing machinery. Importantly, sequences of the gn1 transgene that are not part of the mature gn1 mRNA are not recognized by the silencing machinery when expressed in chimeric viral RNAs. These results show that the glucanase silencing mechanism in T17 plants is primarily directed against gn1 mRNA-internal sequences and that terminal sequences of the gn1 mRNA are relatively unaffected by the silencing mechanism.

  12. The 3'-untranslated region length and AU-rich RNA location modulate RNA-protein interaction and translational control of β2-adrenergic receptor mRNA.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Kothandharaman; Kandasamy, Karthikeyan; Joseph, Kusumam; Spicer, Eleanor K; Tholanikunnel, Baby G

    2011-06-01

    Posttranscriptional controls play a major role in β(2)-adrenergic receptor (β(2)-AR) expression. We recently reported that β(2)-AR mRNA translation is suppressed by elements in its 3'-untranslated region (UTR). We also identified T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen-related protein (TIAR) and HuR as prominent AU-rich (ARE) RNA-binding proteins that associate with β(2)-AR mRNA 3'-UTR. In this study, we identified a poly(U) region at the distal end of the 3'-UTR as critical for TIAR binding to β(2)-AR mRNA and for translational suppression. Here, we also report that the locations of the poly(U) and ARE sequences within the 3'-UTR are important determinants that control the translation of β(2)-AR mRNA. Consistent with this finding, a 20-nucleotide ARE RNA from the proximal 3'-UTR that did not inhibit mRNA translation in its native position was able to suppress translation when re-located to the distal 3'-UTR of the receptor mRNA. Immunoprecipitation and polysome profile analysis demonstrated the importance of 3'-UTR length and the ARE RNA location within the 3'-UTR, as key determinants of RNA/protein interactions and translational control of β(2)-AR mRNA. Further, the importance of 3'-UTR length and ARE location in TIAR and HuR association with mRNA and translational suppression was demonstrated using a chimeric luciferase reporter gene.

  13. Light regulation of Fed-1 mRNA requires an element in the 5' untranslated region and correlates with differential polyribosome association.

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, L F; Petracek, M E; Nguyen, T T; Hansen, E R; Thompson, W F

    1998-01-01

    Light regulation of Fed-1 mRNA abundance in the leaves of green plants is primarily a post-transcriptional process. Previously, we have shown that the Fed-1 mRNA light response requires an open reading frame, indicating that the light regulation of the mRNA depends on its concurrent translation. We now show that light-induced increases in Fed-1 mRNA abundance are associated with increases in polyribosome association that require both a functional AUG and a normal Fed-1 translational start context. We also present evidence that light regulation of Fed-1 mRNA levels requires more than efficient translation per se. Substitution of the efficiently translated tobacco mosaic virus Omega 5' untranslated region resulted in a loss of Fed-1 light regulation. In addition, we identified a CAT T repeat element located near the 5' terminus of the Fed-1 5' untranslated region that is essential for light regulation. We introduced two different mutations in the CAT T repeat element, but only one of these substitutions blocked the normal light effect on polyribosome association, whereas both altered dark-induced Fed-1 mRNA disappearance. The element may thus be important for Fed-1 mRNA stability rather than polyribosome loading. We propose a model in which Fed-1 mRNA is relatively stable when it is associated with polyribosomes in illuminated plants but in darkness is not polyribosome associated and is thus rapidly degraded by a process involving the CAT T repeat element. PMID:9501119

  14. G-Quadruplex in the NRF2 mRNA 5' Untranslated Region Regulates De Novo NRF2 Protein Translation under Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang C; Zhang, Jack; Strom, Josh; Yang, Danzhou; Dinh, Thai Nho; Kappeler, Kyle; Chen, Qin M

    2017-01-01

    Inhibition of protein synthesis serves as a general measure of cellular consequences of chemical stress. A few proteins are translated selectively and influence cell fate. How these proteins can bypass the general control of translation remains unknown. We found that low to mild doses of oxidants induce de novo translation of the NRF2 protein. Here we demonstrate the presence of a G-quadruplex structure in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of NRF2 mRNA, as measured by circular dichroism, nuclear magnetic resonance, and dimethylsulfate footprinting analyses. Such a structure is important for 5'-UTR activity, since its removal by sequence mutation eliminated H2O2-induced activation of the NRF2 5' UTR. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based proteomics revealed elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1a) as a protein binding to the G-quadruplex sequence. Cells responded to H2O2 treatment by increasing the EF1a protein association with NRF2 mRNA, as measured by RNA-protein interaction assays. The EF1a interaction with small and large subunits of ribosomes did not appear to change due to H2O2 treatment, nor did posttranslational modifications, as measured by two-dimensional (2-D) Western blot analysis. Since NRF2 encodes a transcription factor essential for protection against tissue injury, our data have revealed a novel mechanism of cellular defense involving de novo NRF2 protein translation governed by the EF1a interaction with the G-quadruplex in the NRF2 5' UTR during oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. The 5'-untranslated region of the mouse mammary tumor virus mRNA exhibits cap-independent translation initiation.

    PubMed

    Vallejos, Maricarmen; Ramdohr, Pablo; Valiente-Echeverría, Fernando; Tapia, Karla; Rodriguez, Felipe E; Lowy, Fernando; Huidobro-Toro, J Pablo; Dangerfield, John A; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the identification of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) within the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV). The 5'-UTR of the full-length mRNA derived from the infectious, complete MMTV genome was cloned into a dual luciferase reporter construct containing an upstream Renilla luciferase gene (RLuc) and a downstream firefly luciferase gene (FLuc). In rabbit reticulocyte lysate, the MMTV 5'-UTR was capable of driving translation of the second cistron. In vitro translational activity from the MMTV 5'-UTR was resistant to the addition of m(7)GpppG cap-analog and cleavage of eIF4G by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) L-protease. IRES activity was also demonstrated in the Xenopus laevis oocyte by micro-injection of capped and polyadenylated bicistronic RNAs harboring the MMTV-5'-UTR. Finally, transfection assays showed that the MMTV-IRES exhibits cell type-dependent translational activity, suggesting a requirement for as yet unidentified cellular factors for its optimal function.

  16. Modified ribosome profiling reveals high abundance of ribosome protected mRNA fragments derived from 3′ untranslated regions

    PubMed Central

    Miettinen, Teemu P.; Björklund, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome profiling identifies ribosome positions on translated mRNAs. A prominent feature of published datasets is the near complete absence of ribosomes in 3′ untranslated regions (3′UTR) although substantial ribosome density can be observed on non-coding RNAs. Here we perform ribosome profiling in cultured Drosophila and human cells and show that different features of translation are revealed depending on the nuclease and the digestion conditions used. Most importantly, we observe high abundance of ribosome protected fragments in 3′UTRs of thousands of genes without manipulation of translation termination. Affinity purification of ribosomes indicates that the 3′UTR reads originate from ribosome protected fragments. Association of ribosomes with the 3′UTR may be due to ribosome migration through the stop codon or 3′UTR mRNA binding to ribosomes on the coding sequence. This association depends primarily on the relative length of the 3′UTR and may be related to translational regulation or ribosome recycling, for which the efficiency is known to inversely correlate with 3′UTR length. Together our results indicate that ribosome profiling is highly dependent on digestion conditions and that ribosomes commonly associate with the 3′UTR, which may have a role in translational regulation. PMID:25550424

  17. LDL-receptor mRNA expression in men is downregulated within an hour of an acute fat load and is influenced by genetic polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Pocathikorn, Anothai; Taylor, Roger R; James, Ian; Mamotte, Cyril D S

    2007-09-01

    Little is known about the immediate effects of dietary fat on the expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism in humans. We investigated the effects of a high-fat meal on circulating mononuclear cell messenger RNA (mRNA) for the LDL receptor (LDLR), LDLR-related protein (LRP), and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) over 10 h. Selection of 12 C and 7 T homozygotes for the LRP exon 22 C200T polymorphism for the study also enabled us to examine the influence of this polymorphism on postprandial mRNA expression and lipoproteins, of relevance because of LRP's role in postprandial lipoprotein metabolism and association of the polymorphism with coronary artery disease. We found a postprandial decrease in LDLR mRNA abundance relative to the reference beta-actin (BA) mRNA. The decreased LDLR/BA mRNA value was apparent at 1 h (P < 0.005) and decreased to 25% of baseline at 6 h (P < 0.005). The LRP/BA mRNA value was also lower at 6 h (16% decrease, P < 0.05). HMGCR mRNA expression was unchanged. C homozygotes for the C200T polymorphism had higher LDLR/BA values than T homozygotes (P = 0.01) and although plasma LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations decreased in the postprandial period (P < 0.002), the decrease was less in C than in T homozygotes (P < 0.05). This study constitutes the first observation, to our knowledge, of postprandial changes in LDLR and LRP mRNA expression. It documents immediate effects of a fatty meal on these mRNA as well as an LRP genotype effect on LDLR mRNA and LDL-C.

  18. The 3' untranslated region of the Andes hantavirus small mRNA functionally replaces the poly(A) tail and stimulates cap-dependent translation initiation from the viral mRNA.

    PubMed

    Vera-Otarola, Jorge; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Ricci, Emiliano P; Ohlmann, Théophile; Darlix, Jean-Luc; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2010-10-01

    In the process of translation of eukaryotic mRNAs, the 5' cap and the 3' poly(A) tail interact synergistically to stimulate protein synthesis. Unlike its cellular counterparts, the small mRNA (SmRNA) of Andes hantavirus (ANDV), a member of the Bunyaviridae, lacks a 3' poly(A) tail. Here we report that the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of the ANDV SmRNA functionally replaces a poly(A) tail and synergistically stimulates cap-dependent translation initiation from the viral mRNA. Stimulation of translation by the 3'UTR of the ANDV SmRNA was found to be independent of viral proteins and of host poly(A)-binding protein.

  19. The 3′ Untranslated Region of the Andes Hantavirus Small mRNA Functionally Replaces the Poly(A) Tail and Stimulates Cap-Dependent Translation Initiation from the Viral mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Otarola, Jorge; Soto-Rifo, Ricardo; Ricci, Emiliano P.; Ohlmann, Théophile; Darlix, Jean-Luc; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    In the process of translation of eukaryotic mRNAs, the 5′ cap and the 3′ poly(A) tail interact synergistically to stimulate protein synthesis. Unlike its cellular counterparts, the small mRNA (SmRNA) of Andes hantavirus (ANDV), a member of the Bunyaviridae, lacks a 3′ poly(A) tail. Here we report that the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of the ANDV SmRNA functionally replaces a poly(A) tail and synergistically stimulates cap-dependent translation initiation from the viral mRNA. Stimulation of translation by the 3′UTR of the ANDV SmRNA was found to be independent of viral proteins and of host poly(A)-binding protein. PMID:20660206

  20. Regional and Duration of Illness Differences in the Alteration of NCAM-180 mRNA Expression within the Cortex of Subjects with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, A. S.; Thomas, E. A.; Dean, B

    2009-01-01

    Schizophrenia has been proposed to have a neurodevelopmental aetiology. Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (NCAM1) is involved in several neurodevelopmental processes and abnormal expression of this gene has been associated in the pathology of schizophrenia and, thus, altered NCAM1 expression may be characteristic of the early stages of the illness. Alternative splicing of the NCAM1 transcript produces 3 major isoforms. Using qPCR we analysed mRNA expression of one of these isoforms; the 180 kDa isoform of NCAM1 (NCAM-180), in Brodmann Area (BA) 46, BA10 and BA17, postmortem, from 15 subjects with a short duration of illness of schizophrenia (<7 years) and 15 control subjects. NCAM-180 mRNA expression was increased in BA46 from subjects with schizophrenia compared to controls (P=0.013). By contrast, there were no significant differences in the expression of NCAM-180 mRNA in BA10 (P=0.575) or BA17 (P=0.772). We then analysed NCAM-180 mRNA expression in BA46 from 15 subjects with a longer duration of illness of schizophrenia (>22 years) and 15 controls. There was no significant difference in NCAM-180 mRNA expression in this second cohort. This data suggests NCAM-180 mRNA expression is altered in a regionally-specific manner in schizophrenia and these changes are associated with the early period following diagnosis. PMID:19411161

  1. The 5' untranslated region of the rbp1 mRNA is required for translation of its mRNA under low temperatures in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Rie; Sugita, Chieko; Sugita, Mamoru

    2017-01-01

    The unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus has three RNA-binding protein (Rbp) genes, rbp1, rbp2 and rbp3. The rbp1 gene was upregulated by cold treatment while rbp2 and rbp3 expression decreased remarkably after exposure to cold temperatures. To investigate the mechanism underlying cold-induced rbp1 expression, a series of rbp1-luxAB transcriptional fusion constructs were expressed in S. elongatus PCC 7942 under cold conditions. The results showed that the region from -33 to -3 of the transcription initiation site contains an essential sequence for basal transcription of the rbp1 gene and that the 120-bp region (-34 to -153) does not contain critical cis-elements required for cold-shock induction. In contrast, mutational analysis carrying the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of rbp1-luxAB translational fusions indicated that the 5'-UTR of rbp1 plays an important role in cold induction of the rbp1 gene product. Taken together, we conclude that the cold induction of rbp1 may be regulated at a posttranscriptional level rather than at the transcriptional level.

  2. Yeast Edc3 Targets RPS28B mRNA for Decapping by Binding to a 3′ Untranslated Region Decay-Inducing Regulatory Element

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunfang; Roy, Bijoyita

    2014-01-01

    mRNA decapping commits a transcript to complete turnover in eukaryotic cells. In yeast, general mRNA decapping requires the Dcp1/Dcp2 decapping enzyme and a set of decapping activators, including Pat1, Dhh1, Edc3, and the Lsm1-7 complex. The exact function and mode of action of each of these decapping activators in mRNA decapping largely remain elusive. Here, we analyzed the role of Edc3 in the decay of yeast RPS28B mRNA, a pathway triggered by a negative-feedback autoregulatory mechanism. We show that Edc3-mediated RPS28B mRNA decay requires either of two orthologous proteins, Rps28a and Rps28b, expressed from the RPS28A and RPS28B genes, respectively. Contrary to a generally accepted model, we found that Rps28b does not bind to the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) regulatory element in RPS28B mRNA. Instead, Edc3 is directly involved in binding the element, and Rps28b binds Edc3 and regulates its activity. Decay of RPS28B mRNA requires the Lsm and YjeF-N domains of Edc3, but surprisingly, decay of YRA1 pre-mRNA, the only other known substrate of Edc3, requires only the Lsm domain. Collectively, our experiments reveal a new role for Edc3 in mRNA substrate recognition and suggest that this activity is subject to intricate regulation by additional factors, including the Rps28 ribosomal protein. PMID:24492965

  3. Influence of functional polymorphisms in TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-10 cytokine genes on mRNA expression levels and risk of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Juliana Garcia; Rossi, Ana Flávia Teixeira; Nizato, Daniela Manchini; Cadamuro, Aline Cristina Targa; Jorge, Yvana Cristina; Valsechi, Marina Curado; Venâncio, Larissa Paola Rodrigues; Rahal, Paula; Pavarino, Érika Cristina; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria; Silva, Ana Elizabete

    2015-12-01

    Functional polymorphisms in promoter regions can produce changes in the affinity of transcription factors, thus altering the messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression levels of inflammatory cytokines associated with the risk of cancer development. The goal of this study was to evaluate the influence that polymorphisms in the cytokine genes known as TNF-α-308 G/A (rs1800629), TNF-α-857 C/T (rs1799724), IL-8-251 T/A (rs4073), IL-8-845 T/C (rs2227532), and IL-10-592 C/A (rs1800872) have on changes to mRNA expression levels and on the risks of chronic gastritis (CG) and gastric cancer (GC). A sample of 723 individuals was genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Relative mRNA expression levels were measured using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Polymorphisms TNF-α-308 G/A and IL-8-251 A/T were not associated with risks of these gastric lesions. However, TNF-α-857 C/T, IL-8-845 T/C, and IL-10-592 C/A were found to be associated with a higher risk of GC, and IL-10-592 C/A was found to be associated with a higher risk of CG. The relative mRNA expression levels (RQ) of TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-10 were markedly downregulated in the CG group (median RQs = 0.128, 0.247, and 0.614, respectively), while the RQ levels of TNF-α in the GC group were upregulated (RQ = 2.749), but were basal for IL-8 (RQ = 1.053) and downregulated for IL-10 (RQ = 0.179). When the groups were stratified according to wild-type and polymorphic alleles, only for IL-8-845 T/C the polymorphic allele was found to influence the expression levels of this cytokine. IL-8-845 C allele carriers were significantly upregulated in both groups (GC and CG; RQ = 3.138 and 2.181, respectively) when compared to TT homozygotes (RQ = -0.407 and 0.165, respectively). In silico analysis in the IL-8 promoter region revealed that the presence of the variant C allele in position -845 is responsible for the presence of the binding

  4. Influence of Pre-Training Predator Stress on the Expression of c-fos mRNA in the Hippocampus, Amygdala, and Striatum Following Long-Term Spatial Memory Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    VanElzakker, Michael B.; Zoladz, Phillip R.; Thompson, Vanessa M.; Park, Collin R.; Halonen, Joshua D.; Spencer, Robert L.; Diamond, David M.

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the influence of pre-training psychological stress on the expression of c-fos mRNA following long-term spatial memory retrieval. Rats were trained to learn the location of a hidden escape platform in the radial-arm water maze, and then their memory for the platform location was assessed 24 h later. Rat brains were extracted 30 min after the 24-h memory test trial for analysis of c-fos mRNA. Four groups were tested: (1) Rats given standard training (Standard); (2) Rats given cat exposure (Predator Stress) 30 min prior to training (Pre-Training Stress); (3) Rats given water exposure only (Water Yoked); and (4) Rats given no water exposure (Home Cage). The Standard trained group exhibited excellent 24 h memory which was accompanied by increased c-fos mRNA in the dorsal hippocampus and basolateral amygdala (BLA). The Water Yoked group exhibited no increase in c-fos mRNA in any brain region. Rats in the Pre-Training Stress group were classified into two subgroups: good and bad memory performers. Neither of the two Pre-Training Stress subgroups exhibited a significant change in c-fos mRNA expression in the dorsal hippocampus or BLA. Instead, stressed rats with good memory exhibited significantly greater c-fos mRNA expression in the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) compared to stressed rats with bad memory. This finding suggests that stressed rats with good memory used their DLS to generate a non-spatial (cue-based) strategy to learn and subsequently retrieve the memory of the platform location. Collectively, these findings provide evidence at a molecular level for the involvement of the hippocampus and BLA in the retrieval of spatial memory and contribute novel observations on the influence of pre-training stress in activating the DLS in response to long-term memory retrieval. PMID:21738501

  5. The stability of an mRNA is influenced by its concentration: a potential physical mechanism to regulate gene expression.

    PubMed

    Nouaille, Sébastien; Mondeil, Sophie; Finoux, Anne-Laure; Moulis, Claire; Girbal, Laurence; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel

    2017-09-07

    Changing mRNA stability is a major post-transcriptional way of controlling gene expression, particularly in newly encountered conditions. As the concentration of mRNA is the result of an equilibrium between transcription and degradation, it is generally assumed that at constant transcription, any change in mRNA concentration is the consequence of mRNA stabilization or destabilization. However, the literature reports many cases of opposite variations in mRNA concentration and stability in bacteria. Here, we analyzed the causal link between the concentration and stability of mRNA in two phylogenetically distant bacteria Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis. Using reporter mRNAs, we showed that modifying the stability of an mRNA had unpredictable effects, either higher or lower, on its concentration, whereas increasing its concentration systematically reduced stability. This inverse relationship between the concentration and stability of mRNA was generalized to native genes at the genome scale in both bacteria. Higher mRNA turnover in the case of higher concentrations appears to be a simple physical mechanism to regulate gene expression in the bacterial kingdom. The consequences for bacterial adaptation of this control of the stability of an mRNA by its concentration are discussed. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Life-long norepinephrine transporter (NET) knock-out leads to the increase in the NET mRNA in brain regions rich in norepinephrine terminals.

    PubMed

    Solich, Joanna; Kolasa, Magdalena; Kusmider, Maciej; Pabian, Paulina; Faron-Gorecka, Agata; Zurawek, Dariusz; Szafran-Pilch, Kinga; Kedracka-Krok, Sylwia; Jankowska, Urszula; Swiderska, Bianka; Dziedzicka-Wasylewska, Marta

    2015-08-01

    These studies aimed to identify the genes differentially expressed in the frontal cortex of mice bearing a life-long norepinephrine transporter knock-out (NET-KO) and wild-type animals (WT). Differences in gene expression in the mouse frontal cortex were studied using a whole-genome microarray approach. Using an alternative approach, i.e. RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) with primers complementary to various exons of the NET gene, as well as TaqMan arrays, the level of mRNA encoding the NET in other brain regions of the NET-KO mice was also examined. The analyses revealed a group of 92 transcripts (27 genes) that differentiated the NET-KO mice from the WT mice. Surprisingly, the studies have shown that the mRNA encoding NET accumulated in the brain regions rich in norepinephrine nerve endings in the NET-KO mice. Because there is no other source of NET mRNA besides the noradrenergic terminals in the brain regions studied, these results might speak in favor of the presence of mRNA in axon terminals. RNA-Binding Protein Immunoprecipitation approach indicated that mRNA encoding NET was detected in the Ago2 protein/mRNA complex. In addition, the amount of Ago2 protein in the frontal cortex was significantly higher in NET-KO mice as compared with that of the WT animals. These results are important for further characterization of the NET-KO mice, which - besides other merits - might serve as a good model to study the fate of truncated mRNA in neurons.

  7. AU-rich elements in the mRNA 3'-untranslated region of the rat receptor for advanced glycation end products and their relevance to mRNA stability.

    PubMed

    Caballero, José Juan; Girón, María Dolores; Vargas, Alberto Manuel; Sevillano, Natalia; Suárez, María Dolores; Salto, Rafael

    2004-06-18

    Several putative polyadenylation sequences and an adenylate plus timidylate rich element (ARE) are present at the 3' end of the rat advanced glycation end products receptor (RAGE) gene. Two transcripts are generated by the use of alternative polyadenylation sequences, one containing the ARE sequence in its 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR). Transfections of CHO-k1 or NRK cells with constructs expressing the 3'-UTRs of the transcripts fused to a green fluorescence protein mRNA show that the ARE sequence has a negative effect on protein expression correlating with a decrease in the amount of mRNA, as shown in CHO-k1 transfected cells. When transfected cells were incubated in the presence of Actinomycin D the amount of fluorescence decreased in cells transfected with the ARE sequence, indicating that this sequence induces lower mRNA stability. Thus, alternative polyadenylation signals and an ARE sequence provide a novel mechanism for the regulation of the rat RAGE gene expression.

  8. Characterizing the Coding Region Determinant-Binding Protein (CRD-BP)-Microphthalmia-associated Transcription Factor (MITF) mRNA interaction.

    PubMed

    Rensburg, Gerrit van; Mackedenski, Sebastian; Lee, Chow H

    2017-01-01

    Coding region determinant-binding protein (CRD-BP) binds to the 3'-UTR of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) mRNA to prevent its targeted degradation by miR-340. Here, we aim to further understand the molecular interaction between CRD-BP and MITF RNA. Using point mutation in the GXXG motif of each KH domains, we showed that all four KH domains of CRD-BP are important for their physical association with MITF RNA. We mapped the CRD-BP-binding site in the 3'-UTR of MITF RNA from nts 1330-1740 and showed that the 49-nt fragment 1621-1669 is the minimal size MITF RNA for binding. Upon deletion of nts 1621-1669 within the nts1550-1740 of MITF RNA, there was a 3-fold increase in dissociation constant Kd, which further confirms the critical role sequences within nts 1621-1669 in binding to CRD-BP. Amongst the eight antisense oligonucleotides designed against MITF RNA 1550-1740, we found MHO-1 and MHO-7 as potent inhibitors of the CRD-BP-MITF RNA interaction. Using RNase protection and fluorescence polarization assays, we showed that both MHO-1 and MHO-7 have affinity for the MITF RNA, suggesting that both antisense oligonucleotides inhibited CRD-BP-MITF RNA interaction by directly binding to MITF RNA. The new molecular insights provided in this study have important implications for understanding the oncogenic function of CRD-BP and development of specific inhibitors against CRD-BP-MITF RNA interaction.

  9. Characterizing the Coding Region Determinant-Binding Protein (CRD-BP)-Microphthalmia-associated Transcription Factor (MITF) mRNA interaction

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Coding region determinant-binding protein (CRD-BP) binds to the 3’-UTR of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) mRNA to prevent its targeted degradation by miR-340. Here, we aim to further understand the molecular interaction between CRD-BP and MITF RNA. Using point mutation in the GXXG motif of each KH domains, we showed that all four KH domains of CRD-BP are important for their physical association with MITF RNA. We mapped the CRD-BP-binding site in the 3’-UTR of MITF RNA from nts 1330–1740 and showed that the 49-nt fragment 1621–1669 is the minimal size MITF RNA for binding. Upon deletion of nts 1621–1669 within the nts1550-1740 of MITF RNA, there was a 3-fold increase in dissociation constant Kd, which further confirms the critical role sequences within nts 1621–1669 in binding to CRD-BP. Amongst the eight antisense oligonucleotides designed against MITF RNA 1550–1740, we found MHO-1 and MHO-7 as potent inhibitors of the CRD-BP-MITF RNA interaction. Using RNase protection and fluorescence polarization assays, we showed that both MHO-1 and MHO-7 have affinity for the MITF RNA, suggesting that both antisense oligonucleotides inhibited CRD-BP-MITF RNA interaction by directly binding to MITF RNA. The new molecular insights provided in this study have important implications for understanding the oncogenic function of CRD-BP and development of specific inhibitors against CRD-BP-MITF RNA interaction. PMID:28182633

  10. The role of CYP3A4 mRNA transcript with shortened 3'-untranslated region in hepatocyte differentiation, liver development, and response to drug induction.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Gaedigk, Roger; Hart, Steven N; Leeder, J Steven; Zhong, Xiao-bo

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) metabolizes more than 50% of prescribed drugs. The expression of CYP3A4 changes during liver development and may be affected by the administration of some drugs. Alternative mRNA transcripts occur in more than 90% of human genes and are frequently observed in cells responding to developmental and environmental signals. Different mRNA transcripts may encode functionally distinct proteins or contribute to variability of mRNA stability or protein translation efficiency. The purpose of this study was to examine expression of alternative CYP3A4 mRNA transcripts in hepatocytes in response to developmental signals and drugs. cDNA cloning and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) were used to identify CYP3A4 mRNA transcripts. Three transcripts were found in HepaRG cells and liver tissues: one represented a canonical mRNA with full-length 3'-untranslated region (UTR), one had a shorter 3'-UTR, and one contained partial intron-6 retention. The alternative mRNA transcripts were validated by either rapid amplification of cDNA 3'-end or endpoint polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Quantification of the transcripts by RNA-Seq and real time quantitative PCR revealed that the CYP3A4 transcript with shorter 3'-UTR was preferentially expressed in developed livers, differentiated hepatocytes, and in rifampicin- and phenobarbital-induced hepatocytes. The CYP3A4 transcript with shorter 3'-UTR was more stable and produced more protein compared with the CYP3A4 transcript with canonical 3'-UTR. We conclude that the 3'-end processing of CYP3A4 contributes to the quantitative regulation of CYP3A4 gene expression through alternative polyadenylation, which may serve as a regulatory mechanism explaining changes of CYP3A4 expression and activity during hepatocyte differentiation and liver development and in response to drug induction.

  11. Effects of alcohol on brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in discrete regions of the rat hippocampus and hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Arancibia, L; Rage, F; Givalois, L; Dingeon, P; Arancibia, S; Beaugé, F

    2001-01-15

    Chronic alcohol consumption has adverse effects on the central nervous system, affecting some hippocampal and hypothalamic functions. In this study we tempted to demonstrate that some of these modifications could involve impairment of neurotrophic factors. Three experimental groups of male Sprague Dawley rats were studied: one control group, one chronically treated with alcohol vapor according to a well-established model that induces behavioral dependence, and a third group treated similarly but killed 12 hr after alcohol withdrawal. In all groups, changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression occurring in the hippocampus and supraoptic nucleus were first analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and then by in situ hybridization. In parallel, we used ribonuclease protection assay to measure mRNA levels encoding trkB in the two central nervous system regions. We showed that chronic alcohol intoxication decreases brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA expression in discrete regions of the rat hippocampus (CA1 region and dentate gyrus) and in the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus. We also showed a global up-regulation of trkB mRNA expression encoding the high-affinity brain-derived neurotrophic factor receptor (TrkB), after applying the same treatment. Following 12 hr of alcohol withdrawal, a significant increase in BDNF mRNA expression was observed in the dentate gyrus and CA3 region of hippocampus and in the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus. These findings suggest that chronic alcohol intake may modify hippocampal and hypothalamic neuronal functions through modifications in growth factors and its receptors.

  12. The tRNA methyltransferase NSun2 stabilizes p16INK4 mRNA by methylating the 3′-untranslated region of p16

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaotian; Liu, Zhenyun; Yi, Jie; Tang, Hao; Xing, Junyue; Yu, Minqwei; Tong, Tanjun; Shang, Yongfeng; Gorospe, Myriam; Wang, Wengong

    2012-01-01

    The impact of methylation of the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of a messenger RNA (mRNA) remains largely unknown. Here we show that NSun2, a transfer RNA methyltransferase, inhibits the turnover of p16INK4 mRNA. Knockdown of NSun2 reduces p16 expression by shortening the half-life of the p16 mRNA, while overexpression of NSun2 stabilizes the p16 mRNA. In vitro methylation assays show that NSun2 methylates the p16 3′UTR at A988. Knockdown of NSun2 reduces the stability of the EGFP-p16 chimeric reporter transcripts bearing wild-type p16 3′UTR, but not p16 3′UTR with a mutant methylation site. Methylation by NSun2 prevents the association of p16 3′UTR with HuR, AUF1 and Ago2/RISC, and prevents the recruitment of EGFP-p16 3′UTR chimeric transcripts to processing bodies. In response to oxidative stress, NSun2 is essential for elevating p16 expression levels. We conclude that NSun2-mediated methylation of the p16 3′UTR is a novel mechanism to stabilize p16 mRNA. PMID:22395603

  13. The tRNA methyltransferase NSun2 stabilizes p16INK⁴ mRNA by methylating the 3'-untranslated region of p16.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaotian; Liu, Zhenyun; Yi, Jie; Tang, Hao; Xing, Junyue; Yu, Minqwei; Tong, Tanjun; Shang, Yongfeng; Gorospe, Myriam; Wang, Wengong

    2012-03-06

    The impact of methylation of the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of a messenger RNA (mRNA) remains largely unknown. Here we show that NSun2, a transfer RNA methyltransferase, inhibits the turnover of p16(INK4) mRNA. Knockdown of NSun2 reduces p16 expression by shortening the half-life of the p16 mRNA, while overexpression of NSun2 stabilizes the p16 mRNA. In vitro methylation assays show that NSun2 methylates the p16 3'UTR at A988. Knockdown of NSun2 reduces the stability of the EGFP-p16 chimeric reporter transcripts bearing wild-type p16 3'UTR, but not p16 3'UTR with a mutant methylation site. Methylation by NSun2 prevents the association of p16 3'UTR with HuR, AUF1 and Ago2/RISC, and prevents the recruitment of EGFP-p16 3'UTR chimeric transcripts to processing bodies. In response to oxidative stress, NSun2 is essential for elevating p16 expression levels. We conclude that NSun2-mediated methylation of the p16 3'UTR is a novel mechanism to stabilize p16 mRNA.

  14. mRNA decay during herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections: mutations that affect translation of an mRNA influence the sites at which it is cleaved by the HSV virion host shutoff (Vhs) protein.

    PubMed

    Shiflett, Lora A; Read, G Sullivan

    2013-01-01

    During lytic infections, the herpes simplex virus (HSV) virion host shutoff (Vhs) endoribonuclease degrades many host and viral mRNAs. Within infected cells it cuts mRNAs at preferred sites, including some in regions of translation initiation. Vhs binds the translation initiation factors eIF4H, eIF4AI, and eIF4AII, suggesting that its mRNA degradative function is somehow linked to translation. To explore how Vhs is targeted to preferred sites, we examined the in vitro degradation of a target mRNA in rabbit reticulocyte lysates containing in vitro-translated Vhs. Vhs caused rapid degradation of mRNAs beginning with cleavages at sites in the first 250 nucleotides, including a number near the start codon and in the 5' untranslated region. Ligation of the ends to form a circular mRNA inhibited Vhs cleavage at the same sites at which it cuts capped linear molecules. This was not due to an inability to cut any circular RNA, since Vhs cuts circular mRNAs containing an encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES) at the same sites as linear molecules with the IRES. Cutting linear mRNAs at preferred sites was augmented by the presence of a 5' cap. Moreover, mutations that altered the 5' proximal AUG abolished Vhs cleavage at nearby sites, while mutations that changed sequences surrounding the AUG to improve their match to the Kozak consensus sequence enhanced Vhs cutting near the start codon. The results indicate that mutations in an mRNA that affect its translation affect the sites at which it is cut by Vhs and suggest that Vhs is directed to its preferred cut sites during translation initiation.

  15. Influence of Industrialization in the Campinas Rural Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Alfonso Trujillo

    The Campinas region of Brazil was studied to determine if the introduction of industrial plants in rural areas influenced the life of the rural population. The purpose of this study was to obtain an insight into the manner by which the industrialization influence is functioning in the Campinas rural area. The region and its rural population were…

  16. A HuD-ZBP1 ribonucleoprotein complex localizes GAP-43 mRNA into axons through its 3' untranslated region AU-rich regulatory element.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Soonmoon; Kim, Hak H; Kim, Paul; Donnelly, Christopher J; Kalinski, Ashley L; Vuppalanchi, Deepika; Park, Michael; Lee, Seung J; Merianda, Tanuja T; Perrone-Bizzozero, Nora I; Twiss, Jeffery L

    2013-09-01

    Localized translation of axonal mRNAs contributes to developmental and regenerative axon growth. Although untranslated regions (UTRs) of many different axonal mRNAs appear to drive their localization, there has been no consensus RNA structure responsible for this localization. We recently showed that limited expression of ZBP1 protein restricts axonal localization of both β-actin and GAP-43 mRNAs. β-actin 3'UTR has a defined element for interaction with ZBP1, but GAP-43 mRNA shows no homology to this RNA sequence. Here, we show that an AU-rich regulatory element (ARE) in GAP-43's 3'UTR is necessary and sufficient for its axonal localization. Axonal GAP-43 mRNA levels increase after in vivo injury, and GAP-43 mRNA shows an increased half-life in regenerating axons. GAP-43 mRNA interacts with both HuD and ZBP1, and HuD and ZBP1 co-immunoprecipitate in an RNA-dependent fashion. Reporter mRNA with the GAP-43 ARE competes with endogenous β-actin mRNA for axonal localization and decreases axon length and branching similar to the β-actin 3'UTR competing with endogenous GAP-43 mRNA. Conversely, over-expressing GAP-43 coding sequence with its 3'UTR ARE increases axonal elongation and this effect is lost when just the ARE is deleted from GAP-43's 3'UTR. We have recently found that over-expression of GAP-43 using an axonally targeted construct with the 3'UTRs of GAP-43 promoted elongating growth of axons, while restricting the mRNA to the cell body with the 3'UTR of γ-actin had minimal effect on axon length. In this study, we show that the ARE in GAP-43's 3'UTR is responsible for localization of GAP-43 mRNA into axons and is sufficient for GAP-43 protein's role in elongating axonal growth.

  17. Regional mRNA expression of GABAergic receptor subunits in brains of C57BL/6J and 129P3/J mice: Strain and heroin effects

    PubMed Central

    Brownstein, A.J.; Zhang, Y.; Ho, A.; Kreek, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    C57BL/6J and 129 substrains of mice are known to differ in their basal levels of anxiety and behavioral response to drugs of abuse. We have previously shown strain differences in heroin-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) between C57BL/6J (C57) and 129P3/J (129) mice, and in the regional expression of several receptor and peptide mRNAs. In this study, we examined the contribution of the GABAergic system in the cortex, nucleus accumbens (NAc), caudate putamen (CPu) and the region containing the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA) to heroin reward by measuring mRNA levels of 7 of the most commonly expressed GABA-A receptor subunits, and both GABA-B receptor subunits, in these same mice following saline (control) or heroin administration in a CPP design. Using real-time PCR, we studied the effects of strain and heroin administration on GABA-A α1, α2, α3, β2, and γ2 subunits, which typically constitute synaptic GABA-A receptors, GABA-A α4 and δ subunits, which typically constitute extrasynaptic GABA-A receptors, and GABA-B R1 and R2 subunits. In saline-treated animals, we found an experiment-wise significant strain difference in GABA-Aα2 mRNA expression in the SN/VTA. Point-wise significant strain differences were also observed in GABA-Aα2, GABA-Aα3, and GABA-Aα4 mRNA expression in the NAc, as well as GABA-BR2 mRNA expression in the NAc and CPu, and GABA-BR1 mRNA expression in the cortex. For all differences, 129 mice had higher mRNA expression compared to C57 animals, with the exception of GABA-BR1 mRNA in the cortex where we observed lower levels in 129 mice. Therefore, it may be possible that known behavioral differences between these two strains are, in part, due to differences in their GABAergic systems. While we did not find heroin dose-related changes in mRNA expression levels in C57 mice, we did observe dose-related differences in 129 mice. These results may relate to our earlier behavioral finding that 129 mice are

  18. Disorders in barrier protein mRNA expression and placenta secretory activity under the influence of polychlorinated biphenyls in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowska, A; Mlynarczuk, J; Kotwica, J

    2017-02-01

    Pregnancy disorders are often correlated with the presence of organic pollutants in the tissues of living bodies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects (over 24 and 48 hours) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 153, 126, and 77 at doses of 1, 10, and 100 ng/mL on barrier function and secretory activity in cow placentome sections collected during the second trimester of pregnancy. None of the PCBs affected the viability of the sections (P > 0.05). Polychlorinated biphenyl 153 decreased (P < 0.05) connexin 26 (Cx 26) mRNA expression, and all three PCBs reduced (P < 0.05) Cx 43 mRNA expression. Cx 32 mRNA expression showed a downward trend (P > 0.05) under the influence of PCBs 126 and 77. Moreover, PCBs 153 and 126 increased keratin 8 (KRT8) mRNA expression, whereas all PCBs decreased (P < 0.05) placenta specific protein 1 (PLAC-1) mRNA expression without changing (P > 0.05) hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) mRNA expression. Concomitantly, PCBs 153 and 126 stimulated (P < 0.05) cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) mRNA expression, all PCBs increased (P < 0.05) prostaglandin E2 synthase (PGES) mRNA expression, and PCBs 126 and 77 increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion. All three PCBs decreased (P < 0.05) prostaglandin F2α synthase (PGFS) mRNA expression and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) secretion. In addition, all three PCBs increased (P < 0.05) neurophysin I/oxytocin (NP-I/OT) mRNA expression and OT secretion but did not affect peptidyl-glycine-α-amidating monooxygenase (PGA) mRNA expression (P > 0.05). Moreover, the PCBs increased (P < 0.05) estradiol (E2) secretion, whereas progesterone (P4) secretion remained unchanged (P > 0.05). These changes could affect trophoblast invasion and uterine contractility and thus impact the course of gestation and/or fetal development in the cow.

  19. The Role of Structural Elements of the 5'-Terminal Region of p53 mRNA in Translation under Stress Conditions Assayed by the Antisense Oligonucleotide Approach.

    PubMed

    Swiatkowska, Agata; Zydowicz, Paulina; Gorska, Agnieszka; Suchacka, Julia; Dutkiewicz, Mariola; Ciesiołka, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    The p53 protein is one of the major factors responsible for cell cycle regulation and stress response. In the 5'-terminal region of p53 mRNA, an IRES element has been found which takes part in the translational regulation of p53 expression. Two characteristic hairpin motifs are present in this mRNA region: G56-C169, with the first AUG codon, and U180-A218, which interacts with the Hdm2 protein (human homolog of mouse double minute 2 protein). 2'-OMe modified antisense oligomers hybridizing to the 5'-terminal region of p53 mRNA were applied to assess the role of these structural elements in translation initiation under conditions of cellular stress. Structural changes in the RNA target occurring upon oligomers' binding were monitored by the Pb2+-induced cleavage method. The impact of antisense oligomers on the synthesis of two proteins, the full-length p53 and its isoform Δ40p53, was analysed in HT-29, MCF-7 and HepG2 cells, under normal conditions and under stress, as well as in vitro conditions. The results revealed that the hairpin U180-A218 and adjacent single-stranded region A219-A228 were predominantly responsible for high efficacy of IRES-mediated translation in the presence of stress factors. These motifs play a role of cis-acting elements which are able to modulate IRES activity, likely via interactions with protein factors.

  20. Impact of cytokeratin-20 and carcinoembryonic antigen mRNA detection by RT-PCR in regional lymph nodes of patients with colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, R; Hoos, A; Mueller, J; Nekarda, H

    2000-01-01

    The reported rates for tumour cell involvement in the locoregional lymph nodes of colorectal cancer vary greatly, depending on the method used and case selection. In order to further evaluate the clinical value of molecular biologic detection of tumour cells we investigated 102 histologically tumour-free (pN0) regional lymph nodes from 51 consecutive, completely resected (UICC R0) colorectal carcinoma specimens for the presence of tumour cell mRNA by RT-PCR specific for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin 20 (CK-20). Two lymph nodes located nearest to the primary tumour were investigated in each case. CK-20 mRNA was found in 31 of 51 patients (60.8%) and CEA mRNA in 30 of 51 patients (58.8%), respectively. Identical transcription patterns of CK-20 and CEA mRNA (both positive or both negative) were found in 38 of 51 patients (74.5%). There was a significantly higher proportion of cases with CEA positivity in the lymph nodes of tubulopapillary than of mucinous adenocarcinomas (P< 0.03). Detection of CK-20 and CEA mRNA correlated in nine of 12 cases (75.0%) with the risk of tumour recurrence (not significant) and showed a tendency towards shorter disease-free survival by univariate analysis (not significant). Our data indicate that CK-20 and CEA mRNA detection by RT-PCR may prove useful for the prediction of tumour recurrence of patients with pN0 colorectal carcinoma, although neither reach statistical significance in this series of patients. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11044357

  1. Higher order structures of the 5'-proximal region decrease the efficiency of translation of the porcine pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA.

    PubMed

    Chevrier, D; Vézina, C; Bastille, J; Linard, C; Sonenberg, N; Boileau, G

    1988-01-15

    The SP6 polymerase/promoter system was used to synthesize porcine pro-opiomelanocortin mRNAs with nucleotide sequence deletions in the 5'- as well as 3'-untranslated and coding regions. The translational efficiency of the mutant mRNAs was evaluated by cell-free translation or by monitoring the rate and extent of ribosome binding in the presence of sparsomycin. The results of these experiments indicate that specific nucleotide sequences in the 5'-untranslated and coding regions of the pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA decrease its rate of translation. Structure mapping of the mRNA with double-strand and single-strand specific nucleases suggests that these sequences can form stable secondary structures.

  2. mRNA Transcript Abundance during Plant Growth and the Influence of Li+ Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Duff, M. C.; Kuhne, W. W.; Halverson, N. V.; Chang, C. -S.; Kitamura, E.; Hawthorn, L.; Martinez, N. E.; Stafford, C.; Milliken, C. E.; Caldwell, E. F.; Stieve-Caldwell, E.

    2014-10-23

    Lithium (Li) toxicity in plants is, at a minimum, a function of Li+ concentration, exposure time, species and growth conditions. Most plant studies with Li+ focus on short-term acute exposures. This study examines short- and long-term effects of Li+ exposure in Arabidopsis with Li+ uptake studies and measured shoot mRNA transcript abundance levels in treated and control plants. Stress, pathogen-response and arabinogalactan protein genes were typically more up-regulated in older (chronic, low level) Li+-treatment plants and in the much younger plants from acute high-level exposures. The gene regulation behavior of high-level Li+ resembled prior studies due to its influence on: inositol synthesis, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthases and membrane ion transport. In contrast, chronically-exposed plants had gene regulation responses that were indicative of pathogen, cold, and heavy-metal stress, cell wall degradation, ethylene production, signal transduction, and calcium-release modulation. Acute Li+ exposure phenocopies magnesium-deficiency symptoms and is associated with elevated expression of stress response genes that could lead to consumption of metabolic and transcriptional energy reserves and the dedication of more resources to cell development. In contrast, chronic Li+ exposure increases expression signal transduction genes. The identification of new Li+-sensitive genes and a gene-based “response plan” for acute and chronic Li+ exposure are delineated.

  3. Fragile X mental retardation protein interactions with a G quadruplex structure in the 3'-untranslated region of NR2B mRNA.

    PubMed

    Stefanovic, Snezana; DeMarco, Brett A; Underwood, Ayana; Williams, Kathryn R; Bassell, Gary J; Mihailescu, Mihaela Rita

    2015-12-01

    Fragile X syndrome, the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability, is caused by a trinucleotide CGG expansion in the 5'-untranslated region of the FMR1 gene, which leads to the loss of expression of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP, an RNA-binding protein that regulates the translation of specific mRNAs, has been shown to bind a subset of its mRNA targets by recognizing G quadruplex structures. It has been suggested that FMRP controls the local protein synthesis of several protein components of the post synaptic density (PSD) in response to specific cellular needs. We have previously shown that the interactions between FMRP and mRNAs of the PSD scaffold proteins PSD-95 and Shank1 are mediated via stable G-quadruplex structures formed within the 3'-untranslated regions of these mRNAs. In this study we used biophysical methods to show that a comparable G quadruplex structure forms in the 3'-untranslated region of the glutamate receptor subunit NR2B mRNA encoding for a subunit of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors that is recognized specifically by FMRP, suggesting a common theme for FMRP recognition of its dendritic mRNA targets.

  4. The 5' untranslated mRNA region base content can greatly affect translation initiation in the absence of secondary structures in Prevotella bryantii TC1-1.

    PubMed

    Seničar, Lenart; Accetto, Tomaž

    2015-01-01

    It has become clear lately that many bacteria and even whole bacterial phyla do not use the classical Shine-Dalgarno sequence mediated pathway of protein translation initiation. The prominent phylum Bacteroidetes is one of them, and this was shown not only using bioinformatic but also functional reporter gene studies in its representative Prevotella bryantii. The latter studies revealed much higher sensitivity toward secondary structures in 5(') untranslated mRNA regions (5(') UTRs) during translation initiation compared to Escherichia coli. It was proposed that in the absence of Shine-Dalgarno sequence interaction the key elements enabling translation initiation are local absence of secondary structures in 5(') UTRs, and the ribosomal protein S1 which binds to mRNA. Here, we evaluate the 5(') UTRs devoid of secondary structures but containing divergent nucleotide compositions in P. bryantii reporter assay. We show that base composition profoundly affects the amount of the reporter synthesized, and further that these amounts were in agreement with S1 protein binding affinity for adenine/uracil bases in mRNA. This is the first, though indirect, clue that S1 is actually involved in translation initiation in Bacteroidetes and adds the second layer of control beside mRNA secondary structure affecting translation initiation in this phylum.

  5. Proteins associated with poly(A) and other regions of mRNA and hnRNA molecules as investigated by crosslinking

    SciTech Connect

    Setyono, B.; Greenberg, J.R.

    1981-06-01

    The proteins associated with poly(A) and other regions of mRNA and hnRNA molecules in mouse L cells were investigated with the aid of ultraviolet light-induced crosslinking of proteins to RNA. The poly(A)s of polyribosomal and free cytoplasmic mRNAs are associated with a protein, p78A. In contrast, the poly(A) of hnRNA is associated with a smaller protein, p60A, that differs from p78A in its partial peptide map. p78A occurs free in the cytoplasm, but p60A does not. There is a second 78 kd protein, p78X, associated with mRNA sequences other than poly(A). p78X differs from p78A in its partial peptide map. The total proteins crosslinked to polyribosomal and free cytoplasmic mRNAs are similar. However, the total proteins crosslinked to hnRNA are quite different from those crosslinked to mRNA. We suggest that newly synthesized mRNA molecules emerging from the nucleus into the cytoplasm shed the proteins with which they were associated in the nucleus and become associated with a new set of proteins derived from the cytosol. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic mRNA-associated proteins continue to exchange with free proteins.

  6. [Fragment of mRNA coding part that is complementary to region 1638-1650 of wheat 18S rRNA functions as a translational enhancer].

    PubMed

    Zhigaĭlov, A V; Babaĭlova, E S; Polimbetova, N S; Graĭfer, D M; Karpova, G G; Iskakov, B K

    2012-01-01

    Possible involvement of 18S rRNA fragment 1638-1650 including basements of the helices h44 and h28 and nucleotides of the ribosomal decoding site in the cap-independent translation initiation on plant ribosomes is studied. This rRNA fragment is shown to be accessible for complementary interactions within the 40S ribosomal subunit. It is found that the sequence complementary to the 18S rRNA fragment 1638-1650 is able to enhance efficiency of a reporter mRNA translation when placed just after the initiation codon. The results obtained indicate that in the course of the cap-independent translation initiation, complementary interactions can occur between mRNA coding sequence and 18S rRNA fragment in the region of the ribosomal decoding site.

  7. Tetrodotoxin administration in the suprachiasmatic nucleus prevents NMDA-induced reductions in pineal melatonin without influencing Per1 and Per2 mRNA levels.

    PubMed

    Paul, Ketema N; Gamble, Karen L; Fukuhara, Chiaki; Novak, Colleen M; Tosini, Gianluca; Albers, H Elliott

    2004-05-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus contains a light-entrainable circadian pacemaker. Neurons in the SCN are part of a circuit that conveys light information from retinal efferents to the pineal gland. Light presented during the night acutely increases mRNA levels of the circadian clock genes Per1 and Per2 in the SCN, and acutely suppresses melatonin levels in the pineal gland. The present study investigated whether the ability of light to increase Per1 and Per2 mRNA levels and suppress pineal melatonin levels requires sodium-dependent action potentials in the SCN. Per1 and Per2 mRNA levels in the SCN and pineal melatonin levels were measured in Syrian hamsters injected with tetrodotoxin (TTX) prior to light exposure or injection of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). TTX inhibited the ability of light to increase Per1 and Per2 mRNA levels and suppress pineal melatonin levels. TTX did not, however, influence the ability of NMDA to increase Per1 and Per2 mRNA levels, though it did inhibit the ability of NMDA to suppress pineal melatonin levels. These results demonstrate that action potentials in the SCN are not necessary for NMDA receptor activation to increase Per1 and Per2 mRNA levels, but are necessary for NMDA receptor activation to decrease pineal melatonin levels. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that the mechanism through which light information is conveyed to the pacemaker in the SCN is separate from and independent of the mechanism through which light information is conveyed to the SCN cells whose efferents suppress pineal melatonin levels.

  8. Region-specific expression and hormonal regulation of the first exon variants of rat prolactin receptor mRNA in rat brain and anterior pituitary gland.

    PubMed

    Nogami, H; Hoshino, R; Ogasawara, K; Miyamoto, S; Hisano, S

    2007-08-01

    Recent studies have revealed the occurrence of five first exon variants of the rat prolactin receptor mRNA, suggesting that multiple promoters direct prolactin receptor transcription in response to different regulatory factors. In the present study, regional expression of these first exon variants, as well as two prolactin receptor subtypes generated by alternative splicing, was examined in the brains and anterior pituitary glands of female rats. Expression of the long-form was detected in the choroid plexus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, cerebral cortex and anterior pituitary gland, whereas the short form was detected only in the choroid plexus. E1-3 mRNA, a first exon variant, was detected in the choroid plexus, hypothalamus, and anterior pituitary gland, whereas E1-4 was detected only in the choroid plexus. Other variants were not detectable by the polymerase chain reaction protocol employed in this study. Ovariectomy increased the short form in the choroid plexus and the E1-3 expression in the choroid plexus and pituitary gland, but changes in the long-form and E1-4 expression were minimal. Replacement of oestrogens and prolactin suggest that oestrogens down-regulate E1-3 expression in the choroid plexus and pituitary gland, and that the negative effect of oestrogen is mediated by prolactin in the pituitary gland. The present results revealed the region-specific promoter usage in prolactin receptor mRNA transcription, as well as the involvement of oestrogens in the regulation of E1-3 mRNA expression in the brain and pituitary gland.

  9. DNA sequence of a mutation in the leader region of the yeast iso-1-cytochrome c mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Stiles, J.I.; Szostak, J.W.; Young, A.T.; Wu, R.; Consaul, S.; Sherman, F.

    1981-07-01

    A plasmid was constructed that selectively integrates adjacent to the CYC1 locus, which determines iso-1-cytochrome c in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Different CYC1 alleles can be conveniently recovered by digestion of total DNA from transformed strains with BgI II, a restriction endouclease that does not cut the vector or the CYC1 gene, followed by transformation of Escherichia coli, selecting the ampicillin resistance gene carried on the original vector. This procedure was used to clone the cyc1-362 gene, which contains an alteration in front of the AUG initiation codon. The cyc1-362 mutation causes a deficiency of the iso-1-cytochrome c protein but still allows transcription of the iso-1-cytochrome c mRNA. DNA sequence analysis showed that the cyc1-362 mutation consisted of two single-base-pair substitutions, producing an A ..-->.. G change 18 nucleotides and a G ..-->.. A change 30 nucleotides in front of the AUG initiation codon in the mRNA. The A ..-->.. G change at position -18 resulted in the creation of an AUG triplet, which is proximal to the normal initiation site and out of phase with the normal reading frame. The deficiency of iso-1-cytochrome c is most simply explained by assuming that translation initiates at the more proximal abnormal AUG site but not at the normal AUG site.

  10. The Predicted Metal-Binding Region of the Arterivirus Helicase Protein Is Involved in Subgenomic mRNA Synthesis, Genome Replication, and Virion Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    van Dinten, Leonie C.; van Tol, Hans; Gorbalenya, Alexander E.; Snijder, Eric J.

    2000-01-01

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV), the prototype Arterivirus, is a positive-stranded RNA virus that expresses its replicase in the form of two large polyproteins of 1,727 and 3,175 amino acids. The functional replicase subunits (nonstructural proteins), which drive EAV genome replication and subgenomic mRNA transcription, are generated by extensive proteolytic processing. Subgenomic mRNA transcription involves an unusual discontinuous step and generates the mRNAs for structural protein expression. Previously, the phenotype of mutant EAV030F, which carries a single replicase point mutation (Ser-2429→Pro), had implicated the nsp10 replicase subunit (51 kDa) in viral RNA synthesis, and in particular in subgenomic mRNA transcription. nsp10 contains an N-terminal (putative) metal-binding domain (MBD), located just upstream of the Ser-2429→Pro mutation, and a helicase activity in its C-terminal part. We have now analyzed the N-terminal domain of nsp10 in considerable detail. A total of 38 mutants, most of them carrying specific single point mutations, were tested in the context of an EAV infectious cDNA clone. Variable effects on viral genome replication and subgenomic mRNA transcription were observed. In general, our results indicated that the MBD region, and in particular a set of 13 conserved Cys and His residues that are assumed to be involved in zinc binding, is essential for viral RNA synthesis. On the basis of these data and comparative sequence analyses, we postulate that the MBD may employ a rather unusual mode of zinc binding that could result in the association of up to four zinc cations with this domain. The region containing residue Ser-2429 may play the role of “hinge spacer,” which connects the MBD to the rest of nsp10. Several mutations in this region specifically affected subgenomic mRNA synthesis. Furthermore, one of the MBD mutants was replication and transcription competent but did not produce infectious progeny virus. This suggests that nsp10 is

  11. Plakophilins 1 and 3 Bind to FXR1 and Thereby Influence the mRNA Stability of Desmosomal Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Fischer-Kešo, Regina; Breuninger, Sonja; Hofmann, Sarah; Henn, Manuela; Röhrig, Theresa; Ströbel, Philipp; Stoecklin, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Plakophilins 1 and 3 (PKP1/3) are members of the arm repeat family of catenin proteins and serve as structural components of desmosomes, which are important for cell-cell-adhesion. In addition, PKP1/3 occur as soluble proteins outside desmosomes, yet their role in the cytoplasm is not known. We found that cytoplasmic PKP1/3 coprecipitated with the RNA-binding proteins FXR1, G3BP, PABPC1, and UPF1, and these PKP1/3 complexes also comprised desmoplakin and PKP2 mRNAs. Moreover, we showed that the interaction of PKP1/3 with G3BP, PABPC1, and UPF1 but not with FXR1 was RNase sensitive. To address the cytoplasmic function of PKP1/3, we performed gain-and-loss-of-function studies. Both PKP1 and PKP3 knockdown cell lines showed reduced protein and mRNA levels for desmoplakin and PKP2. Whereas global rates of translation were unaffected, desmoplakin and PKP2 mRNA were destabilized. Furthermore, binding of PKP1/3 to FXR1 was RNA independent, and both PKP3 and FXR1 stabilized PKP2 mRNA. Our results demonstrate that cytoplasmic PKP1/3 are components of mRNA ribonucleoprotein particles and act as posttranscriptional regulators of gene expression. PMID:25225333

  12. Influence of moonlight on mRNA expression patterns of melatonin receptor subtypes in the pineal organ of a tropical fish.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Ju; Park, Ji-Gweon; Takeuchi, Yuki; Hur, Sung-Pyo; Lee, Young-Don; Kim, Se-Jae; Takemura, Akihiro

    2014-04-01

    The goldlined spinefoot, Siganus guttatus, is a lunar-synchronized spawner, which repeatedly releases gametes around the first quarter moon during the reproductive season. A previous study reported that manipulating moonlight brightness at night disrupted synchronized spawning, suggesting involvement of this natural light source in lunar synchronization. The present study examined whether the mRNA expression pattern of melatonin receptor subtypes MT1 and Mel1c in the pineal organ of the goldlined spinefoot is related to moonlight. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the abundance of MT1 and Mel1c mRNA at midnight increased during the new moon phase and decreased during the full moon phase. Exposing fish to moonlight intensity during the full moon period resulted in a decrease in Mel1c mRNA abundance within 1h. Fluctuations in the melatonin receptor genes according to changes in the moon phase agreed with those of melatonin levels in the blood. These results indicate that periodic changes in cues from the moon influence melatonin receptor mRNA expression levels. The melatonin-melatonin receptor system may play a role in predicting the moon phase through changes in night brightness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Novel Tumor-Promoting Function Residing in the 5′ Non-coding Region of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Kiyoshi; Teshima-Kondo, Shigetada; Mukaijo, Mina; Yamagishi, Naoko; Nishikawa, Yoshiko; Nishida, Kensei; Kawai, Tomoko; Rokutan, Kazuhito

    2008-01-01

    Background Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) is one of the key regulators of tumor development, hence it is considered to be an important therapeutic target for cancer treatment. However, clinical trials have suggested that anti-VEGF monotherapy was less effective than standard chemotherapy. On the basis of the evidence, we hypothesized that vegf mRNA may have unrecognized function(s) in cancer cells. Methods and Findings Knockdown of VEGF with vegf-targeting small-interfering (si) RNAs increased susceptibility of human colon cancer cell line (HCT116) to apoptosis caused with 5-fluorouracil, etoposide, or doxorubicin. Recombinant human VEGF165 did not completely inhibit this apoptosis. Conversely, overexpression of VEGF165 increased resistance to anti-cancer drug-induced apoptosis, while an anti-VEGF165-neutralizing antibody did not completely block the resistance. We prepared plasmids encoding full-length vegf mRNA with mutation of signal sequence, vegf mRNAs lacking untranslated regions (UTRs), or mutated 5′UTRs. Using these plasmids, we revealed that the 5′UTR of vegf mRNA possessed anti-apoptotic activity. The 5′UTR-mediated activity was not affected by a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide. We established HCT116 clones stably expressing either the vegf 5′UTR or the mutated 5′UTR. The clones expressing the 5′UTR, but not the mutated one, showed increased anchorage-independent growth in vitro and formed progressive tumors when implanted in athymic nude mice. Microarray and quantitative real-time PCR analyses indicated that the vegf 5′UTR-expressing tumors had up-regulated anti-apoptotic genes, multidrug-resistant genes, and growth-promoting genes, while pro-apoptotic genes were down-regulated. Notably, expression of signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1) was markedly repressed in the 5′UTR-expressing tumors, resulting in down-regulation of a STAT1-responsive cluster of genes (43 genes). As a result, the

  14. The 5' untranslated region of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 mRNA enables cap-independent translation initiation.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Eduardo; Landry, Dori M; Cáceres, C Joaquín; Pino, Karla; Rossi, Federico; Navarrete, Camilo; Huidobro-Toro, Juan Pablo; Thompson, Sunnie R; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2014-06-01

    The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a complex human retrovirus that causes adult T cell leukemia and of HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. The mRNA of some complex retroviruses, including the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV), can initiate translation using a canonical cap-dependent mechanism or through an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). In this study, we present strong evidence showing that like HIV-1 and SIV, the 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR) of the HTLV-1 full-length mRNA harbors an IRES. Cap-independent translational activity was evaluated and demonstrated using dual luciferase bicistronic mRNAs in rabbit reticulocyte lysate, in mammalian cell culture, and in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Characterization of the HTLV-1 IRES shows that its activity is dependent on the ribosomal protein S25 (RPS25) and that its function is highly sensitive to the drug edeine. Together, these findings suggest that the 5'UTR of the HTLV-1 full-length mRNA enables internal recruitment of the eukaryotic translation initiation complex. However, the recognition of the initiation codon requires ribosome scanning. These results suggest that, after internal recruitment by the HTLV-1 IRES, a scanning step takes place for the 40S ribosomal subunit to be positioned at the translation initiation codon. The mechanism by which retroviral mRNAs recruit the 40S ribosomal subunit internally is not understood. This study provides new insights into the mechanism of translation initiation used by the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The results show that the HTLV-1 mRNA can initiate translation via a noncanonical mechanism mediated by an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). This study also provides evidence showing the involvement of cellular proteins in HTLV-1 IRES-mediated translation initiation. Together, the data presented in this report significantly contribute to the understanding of HTLV-1 gene expression.

  15. Brain region specific alterations in the protein and mRNA levels of protein kinase A subunits in the post-mortem brain of teenage suicide victims.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ghanshyam N; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Ren, Xinguo; Rizavi, Hooriyah S; Mondal, Amal C; Shukla, Pradeep K; Conley, Robert R

    2005-08-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA), a critical component of the adenylyl cyclase signaling system, phosphorylates crucial proteins and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and suicide. The objective of the study was to examine if changes in PKA activity or in the protein and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of any of its subunits are related to the pathophysiology of teenage suicide. We determined PKA activity and the protein and mRNA expression of different subunits of PKA in cytosol and membrane fractions obtained from the prefrontal cortex, (PFC) hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens (NA) of post-mortem brain from 17 teenage suicide victims and 17 nonpsychiatric control subjects. PKA activity was significantly decreased in the PFC but not the hippocampus of teenage suicide victims as compared with controls. However, the protein and mRNA expression of only two PKA subunits, that is, PKA RIalpha and PKA RIbeta, but not any other subunits were significantly decreased in both membrane and cytosol fractions of the PFC and protein expression of RIalpha and RIbeta in the NA of teenage suicide victims as compared to controls. A decrease in protein and mRNA expression of two specific PKA subunits may be associated with the pathogenesis of teenage suicide, and this decrease may be brain region specific, which may be related to the specific behavioral functions associated with these brain areas. Whether these changes in PKA subunits are related to suicidal behavior or are a result of suicide or are specific to suicide is not clear at this point.

  16. Influence of Olmesartan on Sirtuin 1 mRNA Expression in 5/6 Nephrectomized Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Takata, Tomoaki; Munemura, Chishio; Fukui, Takeaki; Fukuda, Satoko; Murawaki, Yoshikazu

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies revealed that sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) has a relation to the mechanism of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) mediated apoptosis in glomerular mesangial cells and plays an important role in blood pressure regulation. It has been suggested that SIRT1 contributes to the renoprotective effect of angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), but this has not yet become clearly recognized. In this study, we examined the relationship between SIRT1 and the therapeutic effect of olmesartan on renal injury in nephrectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Male Wistar rats and 5/6 nephrectomized (5/6Nx) SHRs were assigned to 5 groups as follows: group A, Wistar rats; group B, Wistar rats administered high-dose olmesartan (15 mg/kg/day); group C, 5/6Nx SHRs; group D, 5/6Nx SHRs administered low-dose (3 mg/kg/day) olmesartan; and group E, 5/6Nx SHRs administered high-dose olmesartan. The drugs were administered for 12 weeks. Blood pressure and urinary protein excretion were measured every 4 weeks. Serum creatinine, glomerular sclerosis, SIRT1 mRNA level, TGF-beta mRNA level and klotho mRNA level were measured at the end of the examination. Systolic blood pressure, urinary protein excretion, serum creatinine and glomerular sclerosis in Wistar rats were significantly lower than that of 5/6Nx SHRs. Among 5/6Nx SHRs, high doses of olmesartan significantly decreased urinary protein excretion, serum creatinine and glomerular sclerosis compared to the non-treated and low-dose olmesartan groups. Expression of SIRT1 and klotho mRNA were significantly downregulated in 5/6Nx SHRs; however, olmesartan did not attribute to any change in gene expression. Expression of TGF-beta mRNA was significantly increased in 5/6Nx SHRs, and olmesartan did not affect the level of TGF-beta mRNA expression. Expression of SIRT1 is decreased in 5/6Nx SHRs compared to Wistar rats. Olmesartan suppressed glomerular sclerosis, but did not increase the expression of SIRT1, suggesting that the

  17. Influence of dietary lipids on hepatic mRNA levels of proteins regulating plasma lipoproteins in baboons with high and low levels of large high density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, R S; McMahan, C A; Mott, G E; Carey, K D; Reardon, C A; Getz, G S; McGill, H C

    1991-12-01

    Selective breeding of baboons has produced families with increased plasma levels of large high density lipoproteins (HDL1) and very low (VLDL) and low (LDL) density lipoproteins when the animals consume a diet enriched in cholesterol and saturated fat. High HDL1 baboons have a slower cholesteryl ester transfer, which may account for the accumulation of HDL1, but not of VLDL and LDL. To investigate the mechanism of accumulation of VLDL + LDL in plasma of the high HDL1 phenotype, we selected eight half-sib pairs of baboons, one member of each pair with high HDL1, the other member with little or no HDL1 on the same high cholesterol, saturated fat diet. Baboons were fed a chow diet and four experimental diets consisting of high and low cholesterol with corn oil, and high and low cholesterol with lard, each for 6 weeks, in a crossover design. Plasma lipids and lipoproteins and hepatic mRNA levels were measured on each diet. HDL1 phenotype, type of dietary fat, and dietary cholesterol affected plasma cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) B concentrations, whereas dietary fat alone affected plasma triglyceride and apoA-I concentrations. HDL1 phenotype and dietary cholesterol alone did not influence hepatic mRNA levels, whereas dietary lard, compared to corn oil, significantly increased hepatic apoE mRNA levels and decreased hepatic LDL receptor and HMG-CoA synthase mRNA levels. Hepatic apoA-I message was associated with cholesterol concentration in HDL fractions as well as with apoA-I concentrations in the plasma or HDL. However, hepatic apoB message level was not associated with plasma or LDL apoB levels. Total plasma cholesterol, including HDL, was negatively associated with hepatic LDL receptor and HMG-CoA synthase mRNA levels. However, compared with low HDL1 baboons, high HDL1 baboons had higher concentrations of LDL and HDL cholesterol at the same hepatic mRNA levels. These studies suggest that neither overproduction of apoB from the liver nor decreased hepatic LDL

  18. Dietary protein quality and feed restriction influence abundance of nutrient transporter mRNA in the small intestine of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Li, Huifeng; Emmerson, Derek A; Webb, Kenneth E; Wong, Eric A

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary protein quality on intestinal peptide transporter (PepT1), amino acid transporter [Na+-independent cationic and zwitterionic amino acid transporter (b(o,+)AT), excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3), Na+-independent cationic and Na+-dependent neutral amino acid transporter (y+ LAT2), and Na+-independent cationic amino acid transporter 2 (CAT2)], glucose transporter [Na+-dependent glucose and galactose transporter 1 (SGLT1) and Na+-independent glucose, galactose, and fructose transporter 2 (GLUT2)], and digestive enzyme [aminopeptidase N (APN)] mRNA abundance in 2 lines of broilers (A and B). At day of hatch (doh), chicks from both lines were randomly assigned to corn-based diets containing 24% crude protein with either soybean meal (SBM) or corn gluten meal (CGM) as the supplemental protein source. Chicks were given unlimited access to feed and water. Groups of chicks from both lines were also assigned to the SBM diet at a quantity restricted to that consumed by the CGM group (SBM-RT). Intestinal transporter and enzyme mRNA abundance was assayed by real-time PCR using the absolute quantification method. Abundance of PepT1, EAAT3, and GLUT2 mRNA was greater in Line B (P < 0.03), whereas APN and SGLT1 were greater in Line A (P < 0.04). When feed intake was equal (CGM vs. restricted SBM), a greater abundance of PepT1 and b(o,+)AT mRNA was associated with the higher quality SBM (P < 0.04), whereas a greater abundance of EAAT3 and GLUT2 mRNA was associated with the lower quality CGM (P < 0.01). When feed intake was restricted (SBM vs. SBM-RT), a greater abundance of PepT1 mRNA was associated with the restricted intake (P < 0.04). These data demonstrate that both dietary protein quality and feed restriction influence expression of nutrient transporter mRNA in the small intestine of broiler chicks.

  19. Myometrial oxytocin receptor mRNA concentrations at preterm and term delivery - the influence of external oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Liedman, Ragner; Hansson, Stefan Rocco; Igidbashian, Sarah; Akerlund, Mats

    2009-03-01

    The hormonal system for induction of term and preterm labour is not fully understood. Therefore, we investigated myometrial gene expressions for neurohypophyseal hormones and their receptors, prostaglandin F(2alpha) and ovarian steroid receptors in women delivered by Caesarean section. Myometrial tissue for real time PCR was collected from 39 women delivered at term before and after the onset of labour and preterm. Women delivered electively at term had significantly higher oxytocin receptor mRNA expressions (2.52 +/- 0.37 oxytocin receptor/actin; median +/- SEM) than those delivered with ongoing labour at term (1.01 +/- 0.34; p = 0.015) and those at preterm (1.08 +/- 0.25; p = 0.004). Sub-analyses revealed that the difference at term pregnancies solely was related to patients receiving oxytocin during labour (p = 0.007). These patients had higher oxytocin peptide mRNA levels than those without labour at term (p = 0.009). PGF(2alpha) receptor mRNA concentrations were 27.80 +/- 3.55, 11.46 +/- 2.87 and 19.54 +/- 5.52 PGF receptor/actin, respectively, for the groups. Women without labour at term had higher concentration than those with labour (p = 0.005). Our results suggest that oxytocin, its receptor and the PGF(2alpha) receptor are involved in the regulation of labour through a paracrine mechanism.

  20. Regulation of protein translation through mRNA structure influences MHC class I loading and T cell recognition

    PubMed Central

    Tellam, Judy; Smith, Corey; Rist, Michael; Webb, Natasha; Cooper, Leanne; Vuocolo, Tony; Connolly, Geoff; Tscharke, David C.; Devoy, Michael P.; Khanna, Rajiv

    2008-01-01

    Many viruses avoid immune surveillance during latent infection through reduction in the synthesis of virally encoded proteins. Although antigen presentation critically depends on the level of viral protein synthesis, the precise mechanism used to regulate the generation of antigenic peptide precursors remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that a purine overloaded virally encoded mRNA lacking secondary structure significantly impacts the efficiency of protein translation and prevents endogenous antigen presentation. Reducing this purine bias through the generation of constructs expressing codon-modified sequences, while maintaining the encoded protein sequence, increased the stem–loop structure of the corresponding mRNA and dramatically enhanced self-synthesis of the viral protein. As a consequence, a higher number of HLA–peptide complexes were detected on the surface of cells expressing this viral protein. Furthermore, these cells were more efficiently recognized by virus-specific T cells compared with those expressing the same antigen expressed by a purine-biased mRNA. These findings delineate a mechanism by which viruses regulate self-synthesis of proteins and offer an effective strategy to evade CD8+ T cell-mediated immune regulation. PMID:18591662

  1. The rate-limiting step in yeast PGK1 mRNA degradation is an endonucleolytic cleavage in the 3'-terminal part of the coding region.

    PubMed Central

    Vreken, P; Raué, H A

    1992-01-01

    Insertion of an 18-nucleotide-long poly(G) tract into the 3'-terminal untranslated region of yeast phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK1) mRNA increases its chemical half-life by about a factor of 2 (P. Vreken, R. Van der Veen, V. C. H. F. de Regt, A. L. de Maat, R. J. Planta, and H. A. Raué, Biochimie 73:729-737, 1991). In this report, we show that this insertion also causes the accumulation of a degradation intermediate extending from the poly(G) sequence down to the transcription termination site. Reverse transcription and S1 nuclease mapping experiments demonstrated that this intermediate is the product of shorter-lived primary fragments resulting from endonucleolytic cleavage immediately downstream from the U residue of either of two 5'-GGUG-3' sequences present between positions 1100 and 1200 close to the 3' terminus (position 1251) of the coding sequence. Similar endonucleolytic cleavages appear to initiate degradation of wild-type PGK1 mRNA. Insertion of a poly(G) tract just upstream from the AUG start codon resulted in the accumulation of a 5'-terminal degradation intermediate extending from the insertion to the 1100-1200 region. RNase H degradation in the presence of oligo(dT) demonstrated that the wild-type and mutant PGK1 mRNAs are deadenylated prior to endonucleolytic cleavage and that the half-life of the poly(A) tail is three- to sixfold lower than that of the remainder of the mRNA. Thus, the endonucleolytic cleavage constitutes the rate-limiting step in degradation of both wild-type and mutant PGK1 transcripts, and the resulting fragments are degraded by a 5'----3' exonuclease, which appears to be severely retarded by a poly(G) sequence. Images PMID:1320194

  2. Light-associated and processing-dependent protein binding to 5' regions of rbcL mRNA in the chloroplasts of a C4 plant.

    PubMed

    McCormac, D J; Litz, H; Wang, J; Gollnick, P D; Berry, J O

    2001-02-02

    In amaranth, a C(4) dicotyledonous plant, the plastid rbcL gene (encoding the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase) is regulated post-transcriptionally during many developmental processes, including light-mediated development. To identify post-transcriptional regulators of rbcL expression, three types of analyses (polysome heel printing, gel retardation, and UV cross-linking) were utilized. These approaches revealed that multiple proteins interact with 5' regions of rbcL mRNA in light-grown, but not etiolated, amaranth plants. Light-associated binding of a 47-kDa protein (p47), observed by UV cross-linking, was highly specific for the rbcL 5' RNA. Binding of p47 occurred only with RNAs corresponding to mature processed rbcL transcripts (5'-untranslated region (UTR) terminating at -66); transcripts with longer 5'-UTRs did not associate with p47 in vitro. Variations in the length of the rbcL 5'-UTR were found to occur in vivo, and these different 5' termini may prevent or enhance light-associated p47 binding, possibly affecting rbcL expression as well. p47 binding correlates with light-dependent rbcL polysome association of the fully processed transcripts in photosynthetic leaves and cotyledons but not with cell-specific rbcL mRNA accumulation in bundle sheath and mesophyll chloroplasts.

  3. Replacement of the yeast TRP4 3' untranslated region by a hammerhead ribozyme results in a stable and efficiently exported mRNA that lacks a poly(A) tail.

    PubMed Central

    Düvel, Katrin; Valerius, Oliver; Mangus, David A; Jacobson, Allan; Braus, Gerhard H

    2002-01-01

    The mRNA poly(A) tail serves different purposes, including the facilitation of nuclear export, mRNA stabilization, efficient translation, and, finally, specific degradation. The posttranscriptional addition of a poly(A) tail depends on sequence motifs in the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of the mRNA and a complex trans-acting protein machinery. In this study, we have replaced the 3' UTR of the yeast TRP4 gene with sequences encoding a hammerhead ribozyme that efficiently cleaves itself in vivo. Expression of the TRP4-ribozyme allele resulted in the accumulation of a nonpolyadenylated mRNA. Cells expressing the TRP4-ribozyme mRNA showed a reduced growth rate due to a reduction in Trp4p enzyme activity. The reduction in enzyme activity was not caused by inefficient mRNA export from the nucleus or mRNA destabilization. Rather, analyses of mRNA association with polyribosomes indicate that translation of the ribozyme-containing mRNA is impaired. This translational defect allows sufficient synthesis of Trp4p to support growth of trp4 cells, but is, nevertheless, of such magnitude as to activate the general control network of amino acid biosynthesis. PMID:12003493

  4. The phosphorylation of protein S6 modulates the interaction of the 40 S ribosomal subunit with the 5'-untranslated region of a dictyostelium pre-spore-specific mRNA and controls its stability.

    PubMed

    Chiaberge, S; Cassarino, E; Mangiarotti, G

    1998-10-16

    AC914 mRNA, a pre-spore-specific mRNA that accumulates only in the post-aggregation stage of development, is transcribed constitutively as shown by nuclear run-off experiments and by fusing its promoter to the luciferase reporter gene. The same mRNA disappears quickly from disaggregated cells. If the 5'-untranslated region (5'UTR) of the constitutively expressed Actin 15 mRNA is substituted for the 5'UTR of AC914 mRNA, this can no longer be destabilized and accumulates both in growing and disaggregated cells. If the 5'UTR of AC914 mRNA is substituted for the 5'UTR of Actin 15 mRNA, the latter accumulates only in aggregated cells. Pactamycin, but not other inhibitors of protein synthesis, prevents AC914 mRNA from being destabilized in disaggregated cells, suggesting a role of 40 S subunits in the destabilization. This has been confirmed by using an in vitro system in which the in vivo stability of different mRNAs is reproduced. A protein kinase A-dependent phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 determines whether 40 S subunits are capable or not of destabilizing AC914 mRNA in the in vitro system.

  5. [Influence of ablactation rats' high calcium intake to the expression of uncoupling protein 2 mRNA after adulthood obesity induction].

    PubMed

    Xu, Shudi; Zhang, Keyuan; Zheng, Shutao; Wang, Zhong; Yu, Libo; Ding, Hiong

    2014-01-01

    To study the influence of early high calcium intake to adulthood obesity through detection the expression of uncoupling protein 2 ( UCP2) mRNA in muscle by a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction ( RT-PCR) technique. 120 male Wistar rats were divided randomly into normal control group, high dose calcium group, medium dose calcium group and low doses calcium group, with basic diet and high calcium diet for 4 weeks. After intervention, blood fat was compared. Subsequently, all rats were fed basic diet for 3 weeks and blood fat was compared. Then, normal feed rats were randomly divided into normal controls and obesity induction group. Obesity induction group, high dose calcium group, medium dose calcium group and low doses calcium group were fed high-fat food. After 8 weeks, RT-PCR was used for analysis After obesity induction, weight the expression of UCP2 mRNA in muscle. growth of three high calcium groups were below obesity induction group, weight growth of low doses and high doses of high calcium groups were no difference with normal control group. Serum triglyceride levels of high dose high calcium group were significantly lower than obesity induction group and no difference with normal control group. Expression level of UCP2 mRNA of obesity induction group and high doses of high calcium group were obviously lower than normal controls, low dose and medium dose high calcium group, medium dose high calcium group' expression was significantly higher than normal control group. In rats' early life high calcium intake can continue to affect adulthood obesity induced by high-fat feed, increase expression level of UCP2 mRNA, improve the disorder of blood fat metabolism.

  6. The 5′ Untranslated Region of the Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 mRNA Enables Cap-Independent Translation Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Olivares, Eduardo; Landry, Dori M.; Cáceres, C. Joaquín; Pino, Karla; Rossi, Federico; Navarrete, Camilo; Huidobro-Toro, Juan Pablo; Thompson, Sunnie R.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a complex human retrovirus that causes adult T cell leukemia and of HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. The mRNA of some complex retroviruses, including the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV), can initiate translation using a canonical cap-dependent mechanism or through an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). In this study, we present strong evidence showing that like HIV-1 and SIV, the 5′-untranslated region (5′UTR) of the HTLV-1 full-length mRNA harbors an IRES. Cap-independent translational activity was evaluated and demonstrated using dual luciferase bicistronic mRNAs in rabbit reticulocyte lysate, in mammalian cell culture, and in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Characterization of the HTLV-1 IRES shows that its activity is dependent on the ribosomal protein S25 (RPS25) and that its function is highly sensitive to the drug edeine. Together, these findings suggest that the 5′UTR of the HTLV-1 full-length mRNA enables internal recruitment of the eukaryotic translation initiation complex. However, the recognition of the initiation codon requires ribosome scanning. These results suggest that, after internal recruitment by the HTLV-1 IRES, a scanning step takes place for the 40S ribosomal subunit to be positioned at the translation initiation codon. IMPORTANCE The mechanism by which retroviral mRNAs recruit the 40S ribosomal subunit internally is not understood. This study provides new insights into the mechanism of translation initiation used by the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The results show that the HTLV-1 mRNA can initiate translation via a noncanonical mechanism mediated by an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). This study also provides evidence showing the involvement of cellular proteins in HTLV-1 IRES-mediated translation initiation. Together, the data presented in this report significantly contribute to the understanding of HTLV-1 gene

  7. Expression of beta2-microglobulin and c-fos mRNA: is there an influence of high- or low-flux dialyzer membranes?

    PubMed

    Haufe, C C; Eismann, U; Deppisch, R M; Stein, G

    2001-02-01

    Dialysis-related amyloidosis is an important complication of long-term hemodialysis (HD) therapy with several pathogenetic factors. One of them is the influence of the dialyzer membrane type on the synthesis of beta2-microglobulin (beta2m). In vitro results are controversial. Thus, the hypothesis of whether in vivo beta2m generation is induced by the HD procedure and whether this induction depends on the type of the used dialyzer membrane should be tested. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of "biocompatible" high-flux versus "bioincompatible" low-flux HD on in vivo beta2m generation as well as the induction of the early activation gene c-fos in peripheral blood cells. Six nondiabetic HD patients [mean age 46 (21 to 69) years; Kt/V> 1.2] were included in a randomized crossover study using either a low-flux (cellulosic/cuprophan) or a high-flux (polyamide) dialyzer membrane. At the end of a four-week run-in period for each membrane, whole blood samples were taken before, immediately at, and four hours after the end of the dialysis session. MRNA was extracted, and after transcription to cDNA, quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed for the beta2m gene, the early response gene c-fos, and the GAP-DH housekeeping gene. Based on the applied method for detection of specific mRNA, the results were given as ratio of beta2m or c-fos cDNA per GAP-DH cDNA. General cell activation during HD was indicated by increasing mRNA expression of c-fos related to the time course of the dialysis session, whereas beta2m did not change significantly. However, no difference was found when comparing the low-flux and the high-flux dialyzer membranes. Despite the evidence for activation of peripheral blood cells, as indicated by increasing c-fos message, no sign of beta2m mRNA induction during HD procedure with different dialyzer membranes was seen. Our results suggest that there is post-transcriptional regulation of beta2m generation and/or release as

  8. The nuclear RNA binding protein RBP33 influences mRNA and spliced leader RNA abundance in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Cirovic, Olivera; Trikin, Roman; Hoffmann, Anneliese; Doiron, Nicholas; Jakob, Martin; Ochsenreiter, Torsten

    2017-03-01

    RNA recognition motif (RRM) containing proteins are important regulators of gene expression in trypanosomes. Here we expand our current knowledge on the exclusively nuclear localized RRM domain containing protein RBP33 of Trypanosoma brucei. Overexpression of RBP33 leads to a quick growth arrest in G2/M in bloodstream form cells likely due to an overall mRNA- and spliced leader abundance decrease while the ribosomal RNAs remain unaffected. The recombinant RBP33 binds to poly(A) and random sequence RNA in vitro confirming its role as a RNA binding protein. Finally super-resolution microscopy detects RBP33 in small punctae throughout the nucleus and surrounding the nucleolus, however the signal is depleted inside the nucleolus.

  9. Noncoding regions of C. elegans mRNA undergo selective adenosine to inosine deamination and contain a small number of editing sites per transcript.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Emily C; Washburn, Michael C; Major, Francois; Rusch, Douglas B; Hundley, Heather A

    2015-01-01

    ADARs (Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA) "edit" RNA by converting adenosines to inosines within double-stranded regions. The primary targets of ADARs are long duplexes present within noncoding regions of mRNAs, such as introns and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs). Because adenosine and inosine have different base-pairing properties, editing within these regions can alter splicing and recognition by small RNAs. However, despite numerous studies identifying multiple editing sites in these genomic regions, little is known about the extent to which editing sites co-occur on individual transcripts or the functional output of these combinatorial editing events. To begin to address these questions, we performed an ultra-deep sequencing analysis of 4 Caenorhabditis elegans 3' UTRs that are known ADAR targets. Synchronous editing events were determined for the long duplexes in vivo. Furthermore, the validity of each editing event was confirmed by sequencing the same regions of mRNA from worms that lack A-to-I editing. This analysis identified a large number of editing sites that can occur within each 3' UTR, but interestingly, each individual transcript contained only a small fraction of these A-to-I editing events. In addition, editing patterns were not random, indicating that an editing event can affect the efficiency of editing at subsequent adenosines. Furthermore, we identified specific sites that can be both positively and negatively correlated with additional sites leading to mutually exclusive editing patterns. These results suggest that editing in noncoding regions is selective and hyper-editing of cellular RNAs is rare.

  10. Genome-Wide Associations between Genetic and Epigenetic Variation Influence mRNA Expression and Insulin Secretion in Human Pancreatic Islets

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Anders H.; Volkov, Petr; Bacos, Karl; Dayeh, Tasnim; Hall, Elin; Nilsson, Emma A.; Ladenvall, Claes; Rönn, Tina; Ling, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms may interact and together affect biological processes and disease development. However, most previous studies have investigated genetic and epigenetic mechanisms independently, and studies examining their interactions throughout the human genome are lacking. To identify genetic loci that interact with the epigenome, we performed the first genome-wide DNA methylation quantitative trait locus (mQTL) analysis in human pancreatic islets. We related 574,553 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with genome-wide DNA methylation data of 468,787 CpG sites targeting 99% of RefSeq genes in islets from 89 donors. We identified 67,438 SNP-CpG pairs in cis, corresponding to 36,783 SNPs (6.4% of tested SNPs) and 11,735 CpG sites (2.5% of tested CpGs), and 2,562 significant SNP-CpG pairs in trans, corresponding to 1,465 SNPs (0.3% of tested SNPs) and 383 CpG sites (0.08% of tested CpGs), showing significant associations after correction for multiple testing. These include reported diabetes loci, e.g. ADCY5, KCNJ11, HLA-DQA1, INS, PDX1 and GRB10. CpGs of significant cis-mQTLs were overrepresented in the gene body and outside of CpG islands. Follow-up analyses further identified mQTLs associated with gene expression and insulin secretion in human islets. Causal inference test (CIT) identified SNP-CpG pairs where DNA methylation in human islets is the potential mediator of the genetic association with gene expression or insulin secretion. Functional analyses further demonstrated that identified candidate genes (GPX7, GSTT1 and SNX19) directly affect key biological processes such as proliferation and apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells. Finally, we found direct correlations between DNA methylation of 22,773 (4.9%) CpGs with mRNA expression of 4,876 genes, where 90% of the correlations were negative when CpGs were located in the region surrounding transcription start site. Our study demonstrates for the first time how genome-wide genetic and epigenetic

  11. Influence of the African Great Lakes on the regional climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiery, Wim; Davin, Edouard; Panitz, Hans-Jürgen; Demuzere, Matthias; Lhermitte, Stef; van Lipzig, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    Although the African Great Lakes are important regulators for the East-African climate, their influence on atmospheric dynamics and the regional hydrological cycle remains poorly understood. We aim to assess this impact by conducting a regional climate model simulation which resolves individual lakes and explicitly computes lake temperatures. The regional climate model COSMO-CLM, coupled to a state-of-the-art lake parameterization scheme and land surface model, is used to dynamically downscale the COSMO-CLM CORDEX-Africa evaluation simulation to 7 km grid spacing for the period 1999-2008. Evaluation of the model reveals good performance compared to both in-situ and satellite observations, especially for spatio-temporal variability of lake surface temperatures and precipitation. Model integrations indicate that the four major African Great Lakes almost double precipitation amounts over their surface relative to a simulation without lakes, but hardly exert any influence on precipitation beyond their shores. The largest lakes also cool their near-surface air, this time with pronounced downwind influence. The lake-induced cooling happens during daytime, when the lakes absorb incoming solar radiation and inhibit upward turbulent heat transport. At night, when this heat is released, the lakes warm the near-surface air. Furthermore, Lake Victoria has profound influence on atmospheric dynamics and stability as it induces cellular motion with over-lake convective inhibition during daytime, and the reversed pattern at night. Overall, this study shows the added value of resolving individual lakes and realistically representing lake surface temperatures for climate studies in this region. Thiery, W., Davin, E., Panitz, H.-J., Demuzere, M., Lhermitte, S., van Lipzig, N.P.M., The impact of the African Great Lakes on the regional climate, J. Climate (in review).

  12. The association of SNPs in Hsp90β gene 5' flanking region with thermo tolerance traits and tissue mRNA expression in two chicken breeds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuo-Yu; Gan, Jian-Kang; Xiao, Xiong; Jiang, Li-Yan; Zhang, Xi-Quan; Luo, Qing-Bin

    2013-09-01

    Thermo stress induces heat shock proteins (HSPs) expression and HSP90 family is one of them that has been reported to involve in cellular protection against heat stress. But whether there is any association of genetic variation in the Hsp90β gene in chicken with thermo tolerance is still unknown. Direct sequencing was used to detect possible SNPs in Hsp90β gene 5' flanking region in 3 chicken breeds (n = 663). Six mutations, among which 2 SNPs were chosen and genotypes were analyzed with PCR-RFLP method, were found in Hsp90β gene in these 3 chicken breeds. Association analysis indicated that SNP of C.-141G>A in the 5' flanking region of the Hsp90β gene in chicken had some effect on thermo tolerance traits, which may be a potential molecular marker of thermo tolerance, and the genotype GG was the thermo tolerance genotype. Hsp90β gene mRNA expression in different tissues detected by quantitative real-time PCR assay were demonstrated to be tissue dependent, implying that different tissues have distinct sensibilities to thermo stress. Besides, it was shown time specific and varieties differences. The expression of Hsp90β mRNA in Lingshan chickens in some tissues including heart, liver, brain and spleen were significantly higher or lower than that of White Recessive Rock (WRR). In this study, we presume that these mutations could be used in marker assisted selection for anti-heat stress chickens in our breeding program, and WRR were vulnerable to tropical thermo stress whereas Lingshan chickens were well adapted.

  13. Effects of acute diuresis stress on egr-1 (zif268) mRNA levels in brain regions associated with motivated behavior.

    PubMed

    Aher, Chetan V; Duwaerts, Caroline C; Akama, Keith T; Lucas, Louis R

    2010-01-15

    Stressors evoke a well-studied physiological stress-response, namely, an immediate systemic release of catecholamines from the adrenals followed shortly afterwards by the release of adrenal steroids. The intensity of that response can often be inferred by the amount of adrenal steroids released into the circulatory system. It is still unclear however how the intensity and duration of the stressor affect a number of brain regions, including those in the motivational system. The present study sought to determine whether a brief stressor, such as an isotonic saline injection, activated the brain's motivational system in mesolimbic regions compared with a more intense stressor exemplified by pharmacological challenges caused by the administration of a diuretic. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were either injected (s.c.) with isotonic saline or 5mg of the diuretic, furosemide. Controls did not receive any injections. Animals were sacrificed at 30, 60, 120, and 240 min after injection and trunk blood and brains were collected. Serum corticosterone and aldosterone levels were assessed through radioimmunoassay and mesolimbic brain activity was determined through in situ hybridization of mRNA expression of the immediate-early gene egr-1 in the caudate-putamen and nucleus accumbens. While both adrenal steroids demonstrated an initial peak in both stress groups, levels were higher and longer lasting in rats treated with furosemide. Interestingly, egr-1 mRNA levels were significantly higher only in the furosemide-treated group compared with controls. These findings suggest that a selective activation of motivational circuits occurs under thirst and salt-appetite-induced conditions such as those caused by diuresis.

  14. The mRNA expression and histological integrity in rat forebrain motor and sensory regions are minimally affected by acrylamide exposure through drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, John F.; Latendresse, John R.; Delongchamp, Robert R.; Warbritton, Alan R.; Thomas, Monzy; Divine, Becky; Doerge, Daniel R.

    2009-11-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether alterations in the gene expression or overt histological signs of neurotoxicity in selected regions of the forebrain might occur from acrylamide exposure via drinking water. Gene expression at the mRNA level was evaluated by cDNA array and/or RT-PCR analysis in the striatum, substantia nigra and parietal cortex of rat after a 2-week acrylamide exposure. The highest dose tested (maximally tolerated) of approximately 44 mg/kg/day resulted in a significant decreased body weight, sluggishness, and locomotor activity reduction. These physiological effects were not accompanied by prominent changes in gene expression in the forebrain. All the expression changes seen in the 1200 genes that were evaluated in the three brain regions were <= 1.5-fold, and most not significant. Very few, if any, statistically significant changes were seen in mRNA levels of the more than 50 genes directly related to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, GABAergic or glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems in the striatum, substantia nigra or parietal cortex. All the expression changes observed in genes related to dopaminergic function were less than 1.5-fold and not statistically significant and the 5HT1b receptor was the only serotonin-related gene affected. Therefore, gene expression changes were few and modest in basal ganglia and sensory cortex at a time when the behavioral manifestations of acrylamide toxicity had become prominent. No histological evidence of axonal, dendritic or neuronal cell body damage was found in the forebrain due to the acrylamide exposure. As well, microglial activation was not present. These findings are consistent with the absence of expression changes in genes related to changes in neuroinflammation or neurotoxicity. Over all, these data suggest that oral ingestion of acrylamide in drinking water or food, even at maximally tolerable levels, induced neither marked changes in gene expression nor neurotoxicity in the motor and

  15. The mRNA expression and histological integrity in rat forebrain motor and sensory regions are minimally affected by acrylamide exposure through drinking water.

    PubMed

    Bowyer, John F; Latendresse, John R; Delongchamp, Robert R; Warbritton, Alan R; Thomas, Monzy; Divine, Becky; Doerge, Daniel R

    2009-11-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether alterations in the gene expression or overt histological signs of neurotoxicity in selected regions of the forebrain might occur from acrylamide exposure via drinking water. Gene expression at the mRNA level was evaluated by cDNA array and/or RT-PCR analysis in the striatum, substantia nigra and parietal cortex of rat after a 2-week acrylamide exposure. The highest dose tested (maximally tolerated) of approximately 44 mg/kg/day resulted in a significant decreased body weight, sluggishness, and locomotor activity reduction. These physiological effects were not accompanied by prominent changes in gene expression in the forebrain. All the expression changes seen in the 1200 genes that were evaluated in the three brain regions were < or =1.5-fold, and most not significant. Very few, if any, statistically significant changes were seen in mRNA levels of the more than 50 genes directly related to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, GABAergic or glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems in the striatum, substantia nigra or parietal cortex. All the expression changes observed in genes related to dopaminergic function were less than 1.5-fold and not statistically significant and the 5HT1b receptor was the only serotonin-related gene affected. Therefore, gene expression changes were few and modest in basal ganglia and sensory cortex at a time when the behavioral manifestations of acrylamide toxicity had become prominent. No histological evidence of axonal, dendritic or neuronal cell body damage was found in the forebrain due to the acrylamide exposure. As well, microglial activation was not present. These findings are consistent with the absence of expression changes in genes related to changes in neuroinflammation or neurotoxicity. Over all, these data suggest that oral ingestion of acrylamide in drinking water or food, even at maximally tolerable levels, induced neither marked changes in gene expression nor neurotoxicity in the motor and

  16. Association analysis between SNPs in the 5'-flanking region of the chicken GRP78 gene, thermotolerance parameters, and tissue mRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Kong, L N; Zhang, D X; Ji, C L; Zhang, X Q; Luo, Q B

    2015-06-10

    Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) is a molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum and can be induced by different kinds of environmental and physiological stress. Thus far, the role of the GRP78 gene in thermotolerance in chickens has not been investigated. In the present study, we detected sequence variations in the 5ꞌ-flanking region of the GRP78 gene and evaluated several thermotolerance parameters, such as T3, corticosterone, H/L ratio, and levels of CD3(+), CD4(+), and CD8(+) T cells, to further determine its associations at 35° and 15°C. The sequencing results revealed 10 SNPs in the 5'-flanking region of the GRP78 gene, and seven mutations were chosen for further genotyping in a White Recessive Rock (WRR) chicken population. The SNP C.-744C>G in WRR chickens was significantly correlated with heat tolerance parameters under both conditions; it may therefore exert a potential hereditary effect on heat tolerance, and the genotype GG may be advantageous for thermotolerance. The heart, liver, brain, and leg muscle tissues of 8-day-old WRR chickens were sampled from heat stress groups, which were defined by exposure to 1, 2, 3, and 6 h of persistent thermal stress, and a control group, which was not exposed to thermal stress. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay indicated that the mRNA expression level of the GRP78 gene increased gradually under heat stress, peaked at 3 h, and then decreased. We conclude that the mRNA expression of the GRP78 gene is time- and tissue-dependent.

  17. Splicing of goose parvovirus pre-mRNA influences cytoplasmic translation of the processed mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Long; Pintel, David J.

    2012-04-25

    Translation of goose parvovirus (GPV) 72 kDa Rep 1 is initiated from unspliced P9-generated mRNAs in ORF1 from the first in-frame AUG (537 AUG); however, this AUG is bypassed in spliced P9-generated RNA: translation of the 52 kDa Rep 2 protein from spliced RNA is initiated in ORF2 at the next AUG downstream (650 AUG). Usage of the 537 AUG was restored in spliced RNA when the GPV intron was replaced with a chimeric SV40 intron, or following specific mutations of the GPV intron which did not appear in the final spliced mRNA. Additionally, 650 AUG usage was gained in unspliced RNA when the GPV intron splice sites were debilitated. Splicing-dependent regulation of translation initiation was mediated in cis by GPV RNA surrounding the target AUGs. Thus, nuclear RNA processing of GPV P9-generated pre-mRNAs has a complex, but significant, effect on alternative translation initiation of the GPV Rep proteins.

  18. Distinct protein and mRNA kinetics of skeletal muscle proton transporters following exercise can influence interpretation of adaptations to training.

    PubMed

    McGinley, Cian; Bishop, David J

    2016-12-01

    What is the central question of this study? Following a training intervention, how is the interpretation of adaptations in skeletal muscle H(+) transporters influenced by biopsy timing in the context of individual protein and mRNA kinetics after the final exercise bout? What is the main finding and its importance? We show that distinct postexercise protein and mRNA kinetics for monocarboxylate transporter 1/4 and sodium-hydrogen exchanger 1 indicate that timing of a single end-point biopsy after a training intervention can influence the inferences made. Furthermore, we found the intrasubject, intersample variability of the muscle buffer capacity titration assay to be greater than the typical training effect. In order to gain a better understanding of training-induced adaptations in skeletal muscle pH regulation, in this study we measured protein and mRNA kinetics of proton (H(+) ) transporters for 72 h following a bout of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), conducted after 4 weeks of similar training. We also assayed muscle buffer capacity (βm) by a titration technique (βmin vitro ) over the same period. Sixteen active men cycled for seven bouts of 2 min at ∼80% of peak aerobic power, interspersed with 1 min rest. Compared with the first 9 h postexercise, monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 1 protein content was ∼1.3-fold greater 24-72 h post-HIIE, whereas there was no such change in MCT4 protein content. Conversely, MCT1 and MCT4 mRNA expression progressively decreased 9-72 h post-HIIE. Sodium-hydrogen exchanger 1 (NHE1) protein content was lower 9 h post-HIIE (∼0.8-fold) compared with every other postexercise time point, but NHE1 mRNA expression was 2.2 to 2.9-fold greater 24-72 h post-HIIE, compared with the first 24 h post-HIIE. Furthermore, we determined the intrasubject, intersample variability (11.5%) of βmin vitro for resting samples taken on consecutive days to be greater than the typical training effect (mean 6%; 95% confidence

  19. Prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke sex dependently influences methylation and mRNA levels of the Igf axis in lungs of mouse offspring.

    PubMed

    Meyer, K F; Krauss-Etschmann, S; Kooistra, W; Reinders-Luinge, M; Timens, W; Kobzik, L; Plösch, T; Hylkema, M N

    2017-04-01

    Prenatal smoke exposure is a risk factor for abnormal lung development and increased sex-dependent susceptibility for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Birth cohort studies show genome-wide DNA methylation changes in children from smoking mothers, but evidence for sex-dependent smoke-induced effects is limited. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays an important role in lung development. We hypothesized that prenatal exposure to smoke induces lasting changes in promoter methylation patterns of Igf1 and Igf1r, thus influencing transcriptional activity and contributing to abnormal lung development. We measured and compared mRNA levels along with promoter methylation of Igf1 and Igf1r and their protein concentrations in lung tissue of 30-day-old mice that had been prenatally exposed to cigarette smoke (PSE) or filtered air (control). Body weight at 30 days after birth was measured as global indicator of normal development. Female PSE mice showed lower mRNA levels of Igf1 and its receptor (Igf1: P = 0.05; Igf1r: P = 0.03). Furthermore, CpG-site-specific methylation changes were detected in Igf1r in a sex-dependent manner and the body weight of female offspring was reduced after prenatal exposure to smoke, while protein concentrations were unaffected. Prenatal exposure to smoke induces a CpG-site-specific loss of Igf1r promoter methylation, which can be associated with body weight. These findings highlight the sex-dependent and potentially detrimental effects of in utero smoke exposure on DNA methylation and Igf1 and Igf1r mRNA levels. The observations support a role for Igf1 and Igf1r in abnormal development. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Flood regionalization: A hybrid geographic and predictor-variable region-of-influence regression method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eng, K.; Milly, P.C.D.; Tasker, Gary D.

    2007-01-01

    To facilitate estimation of streamflow characteristics at an ungauged site, hydrologists often define a region of influence containing gauged sites hydrologically similar to the estimation site. This region can be defined either in geographic space or in the space of the variables that are used to predict streamflow (predictor variables). These approaches are complementary, and a combination of the two may be superior to either. Here we propose a hybrid region-of-influence (HRoI) regression method that combines the two approaches. The new method was applied with streamflow records from 1,091 gauges in the southeastern United States to estimate the 50-year peak flow (Q50). The HRoI approach yielded lower root-mean-square estimation errors and produced fewer extreme errors than either the predictor-variable or geographic region-of-influence approaches. It is concluded, for Q50 in the study region, that similarity with respect to the basin characteristics considered (area, slope, and annual precipitation) is important, but incomplete, and that the consideration of geographic proximity of stations provides a useful surrogate for characteristics that are not included in the analysis. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  1. Influence of the E region dynamo on equatorial spread F

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, W.B.; Sanatani, S.; Patterson, T.N.L.

    1983-04-01

    The integrated E region Pedersen conductivity can be an important parameter in determining whether the bottomside of the equatorial F layer will be stable against the Rayleigh-Taylor gravitational instability. The F layer is observed to become unstable when it rises to great heights after sunset. One effect of this height rise is to decrease the stabilizing influence of ion-neutral collisions at F region heights. It is shown here that the same eastward electric field that raises the F layer also decreases the Pedersen conductivity of the E region, which further destabilizes convective overturning. Because the conductivity of magnetic tubes that penetrate the main F layer is large compared to the E layer contribution, these effects are important only for the bottomside of the equatorial F layer.

  2. Influence of the E region dynamo on equatorial spread F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, W. B.; Sanatani, S.; Patterson, T. N. L.

    1983-01-01

    The integrated E region Pedersen conductivity can be an important parameter in determining whether the bottomside of the equatorial F layer will be stable against the Rayleigh-Taylor gravitational instability. The F layer is observed to become unstable when it rises to great heights after sunset. One effect of this height rise is to decrease the stabilizing influence of ion-neutral collisions at F region heights. It is shown here that the same eastward electric field that raises the F layer also decreases the Pedersen conductivity of the E region, which further destabilizes convective overturning. Because the conductivity of magnetic tubes that penetrate the main F layer is large compared to the E layer contribution, these effects are important only for the bottomside of the equatorial F layer.

  3. The 3' untranslated region of the membrane-bound IL-1R accessory protein mRNA confers tissue-specific destabilization.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Liselotte E; Whitehead, Alexander S

    2004-11-15

    IL-1alpha and IL-1beta are proinflammatory cytokines that promote activation of intracellular signaling cascades, leading to stabilization of certain mRNAs and activation of transcription factors. IL-1R type I (IL-1RI) binds IL-1alpha and IL-1beta, and subsequent recruitment of the membrane-bound IL-1R accessory protein (mIL-1RAcP) facilitates signal transduction. Two alternatively spliced isoforms, soluble IL-1RAcP (sIL-1RAcP) and sIL-1RAcP-beta, which lack transmembrane and intracellular domains, have been described. The sIL-1RAcP and possibly sIL-1RAcP-beta can inhibit IL-1 signaling. Proportional expression of the different IL-1RAcP splice variants may be an important determinant of responsiveness to IL-1. We show that although both mIL-1RAcP and sIL-1RAcP mRNAs are widely expressed in human tissue, their relative proportions differ significantly in a tissue-specific manner. Turnover studies revealed that the sIL-1RAcP mRNA has a half-life of approximately 48 h in both the kidney cell line 293 and the hepatoma cell line HepG2. The mIL-1RAcP mRNA has a similar half-life in 293 cells, but a considerably shorter half-life of approximately 5 h in HepG2 cells. Using luciferase reporter constructs, we demonstrated that this specific destabilization of the mIL-1RAcP mRNA in the latter cell type is mediated by its 2.8-kb 3'-untranslated region. Deletion analysis further established that the cell line-specific instability does not involve AU-rich elements, but is mediated by several novel elements that appear to act independently; such elements may be recognized by proteins expressed specifically in some, but not all, tissues. These data demonstrate that the cellular capacity to respond to IL-1 is tightly regulated in a tissue-specific manner.

  4. Influence of developmental stage and genotype on liver mRNA levels among wild, domesticated, and hybrid rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Release of domesticated strains of fish into nature may pose a threat to wild populations with respect to their evolved genetic structure and fitness. Understanding alterations that have occurred in both physiology and genetics as a consequence of domestication can assist in evaluating the risks posed by introgression of domesticated genomes into wild genetic backgrounds, however the molecular causes of these consequences are currently poorly defined. The present study has examined levels of mRNA in fast-growing pure domesticated (D), slow-growing age-matched pure wild (Wa), slow-growing size-matched pure wild (Ws), and first generation hybrid cross (W/D) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to investigate the influence of genotype (domesticated vs. wild, and their interactions in hybrids) and developmental stage (age- or size-matched animals) on genetic responses (i.e. dominant vs. recessive) and specific physiological pathways. Results Highly significant differences in mRNA levels were found between domesticated and wild-type rainbow trout genotypes (321 mRNAs), with many mRNAs in the wild-domesticated hybrid progeny showing intermediate levels. Differences were also found between age-matched and size-matched wild-type trout groups (64 mRNAs), with unique mRNA differences for each of the wild-type groups when compared to domesticated trout (Wa: 114 mRNAs, Ws: 88 mRNAs), illustrating an influence of fish developmental stage affecting findings when used as comparator groups to other genotypes. Analysis of differentially expressed mRNAs (found for both wild-type trout to domesticated comparisons) among the genotypes indicates that 34.8% are regulated consistent with an additive genetic model, whereas 39.1% and 26.1% show a recessive or dominant mode of regulation, respectively. These molecular data are largely consistent with phenotypic data (growth and behavioural assessments) assessed in domesticated and wild trout strains. Conclusions The present

  5. Wfs1-deficient animals have brain-region-specific changes of Na+, K+-ATPase activity and mRNA expression of α1 and β1 subunits.

    PubMed

    Sütt, S; Altpere, A; Reimets, R; Visnapuu, T; Loomets, M; Raud, S; Salum, T; Mahlapuu, R; Kairane, C; Zilmer, M; Vasar, E

    2015-03-01

    Mutations in the WFS1 gene, which encodes the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) glycoprotein, cause Wolfram syndrome, a disease characterized by juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness, and different psychiatric abnormalities. Loss of neuronal cells and pancreatic β-cells in Wolfram syndrome patients is probably related to the dysfunction of ER stress regulation, which leads to cell apoptosis. The present study shows that Wfs1-deficient mice have brain-region-specific changes in Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity and in the expression of the α1 and β1 subunits. We found a significant (1.6-fold) increase of Na-pump activity and β1 subunit mRNA expression in mice lacking the Wfs1 gene in the temporal lobe compared with their wild-type littermates. By contrast, exposure of mice to the elevated plus maze (EPM) model of anxiety decreased Na-pump activity 1.3-fold in the midbrain and dorsal striatum and 2.0-fold in the ventral striatum of homozygous animals compared with the nonexposed group. Na-pump α1 -subunit mRNA was significantly decreased in the dorsal striatum and midbrain of Wfs1-deficient homozygous animals compared with wild-type littermates. In the temporal lobe, an increase in the activity of the Na-pump is probably related to increased anxiety established in Wfs1-deficient mice, whereas the blunted dopamine function in the forebrain of Wfs1-deficient mice may be associated with a decrease of Na-pump activity in the dorsal and ventral striatum and in the midbrain after exposure to the EPM.

  6. Target specificity of neuronal RNA-binding protein, Mel-N1: direct binding to the 3' untranslated region of its own mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Abe, R; Yamamoto, K; Sakamoto, H

    1996-01-01

    We have identified cDNAs encoding Mel-N1, the mouse homologue of a human nervous system-specific RNA-binding protein, Hel-N1. Two major mRNA transcripts of Mel-N1 were detected predominantly in the adult mouse brain by Northern blot analysis. To gain insight into the RNA binding specificity of Mel-N1, we performed iterative in vitro RNA selection. The resulting in vitro selected RNAs were found to contain AU-rich sequences as well as a GAAA motif in the majority of clones. By means of in vitro binding assays we demonstrate that this GAAA sequence appears to significantly affect the Mel-N1 RNA-binding efficiency. Our studies further reveal that Mel-N1 can bind to its own 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) as well as to the c-fos 3'UTR, and is localized predominantly in the cytoplasmic region in cells, suggesting that posttranscriptional autoregulation of Mel-N1 gene expression occurs in vivo. PMID:8668530

  7. The 5' untranslated region of the VR-ACS1 mRNA acts as a strong translational enhancer in plants.

    PubMed

    Wever, Willem; McCallum, Emily J; Chakravorty, David; Cazzonelli, Christopher I; Botella, José R

    2010-08-01

    The structure and function of untranslated mRNA leader sequences and their role in controlling gene expression remains poorly understood. Previous research has suggested that the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of the Vigna radiata aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase synthase (VR-ACS1) gene may function as a translational enhancer in plants. To test such hypothesis we compared the translation enhancing properties of three different 5'UTRs; those from the VR-ACS1, the chlorophyll a/b binding gene from petunia (Cab22L; a known translational enhancer) and the Vigna radiata pectinacetylesterase gene (PAE; used as control). Identical constructs in which the coding region of the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene was fused to each of the three 5'UTRs and placed under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were prepared. Transient expression assays in tobacco cell cultures and mung bean leaves showed that the VR-ACS1 and Cab22L 5'UTRs directed higher levels of GUS activity than the PAE 5'UTR. Analysis of transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings, as well as different tissues from mature plants, confirmed that while transcript levels were equivalent for all constructs, the 5'UTRs from the VR-ACS1 and Cab22L genes can increase GUS activity twofold to fivefold compared to the PAE 5'UTR, therefore confirming the translational enhancing properties of the VR-ACS1 5'UTR.

  8. Regional lead dynamics in the Northeastern United States - Local versus regional industrial influences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wreschnig, A. J.; Bain, D. J.; Green, M. B.; Ruffing, C. M.; Adams, L. E.

    2009-12-01

    Elevated concentrations of lead in sediments are a phenomenon that has been primarily examined in the context of leaded gasoline usage and prehistoric smelting. However, regional trends in the Northeastern United States have not been well explained, particularly between the years of 1800 and 1920. Sediment core data from throughout the region were synthesized to characterize regional Pb deposition. There is a consistent increase in sediment Pb concentrations independent of geographic location that begins to occur around 1870. This increase occurs before the advent of leaded gasoline, requiring apportionment to other sources. Previous studies have used smaller scale distributions of Pb sediment concentrations to estimate the contribution of various anthropogenic sources including coal combustion, Pb smelting, and industrial waste. However, the robustness of these estimates when scaled up to an entire region is questionable. To improve understanding at larger scales, local, regional, and national metal production and coal combustion records are compared to sediment core data across the region. It is expected that both Midwestern smelting, undergoing great intensification during this time period, and local production of Pb intensive goods will be strongly correlated with Pb concentrations in sediments. Further, it is expected the large regional increase in coal combustion should influence regional Pb flux less than local metal production.

  9. Strong biotic influences on regional patterns of climate regulation services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serna-Chavez, H. M.; Swenson, N. G.; Weiser, M. D.; van Loon, E. E.; Bouten, W.; Davidson, M. D.; van Bodegom, P. M.

    2017-05-01

    Climate regulation services from forests are an important leverage in global-change mitigation treaties. Like most ecosystem services, climate regulation is the product of various ecological phenomena with unique spatial features. Elucidating which abiotic and biotic factors relate to spatial patterns of climate regulation services advances our understanding of what underlies climate-mitigation potential and its variation within and across ecosystems. Here we quantify and contrast the statistical relations between climate regulation services (albedo and evapotranspiration, primary productivity, and soil carbon) and abiotic and biotic factors. We focus on 16,955 forest plots in a regional extent across the eastern United States. We find the statistical effects of forest litter and understory carbon on climate regulation services to be as strong as those of temperature-precipitation interactions. These biotic factors likely influence climate regulation through changes in vegetation and canopy density, radiance scattering, and decomposition rates. We also find a moderate relation between leaf nitrogen traits and primary productivity at this regional scale. The statistical relation between climate regulation and temperature-precipitation ranges, seasonality, and climatic thresholds highlights a strong feedback with global climate change. Our assessment suggests the expression of strong biotic influences on climate regulation services at a regional, temperate extent. Biotic homogenization and management practices manipulating forest structure and succession will likely strongly impact climate-mitigation potential. The identity, strength, and direction of primary influences differed for each process involved in climate regulation. Hence, different abiotic and biotic factors are needed to monitor and quantify the full climate-mitigation potential of temperate forest ecosystems.

  10. Regional mRNA expression of the endogenous opioid and dopaminergic systems in brains of C57BL/6J and 129P3/J mice: Strain and heroin effects

    PubMed Central

    Schlussman, S.D.; Cassin, J.; Zhang, Y.; Levran, O.; Ho, A.; Kreek, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown strain and dose differences in heroin-induced behavior, reward and regional expression of somatostatin receptor mRNAs in C57BL/6J and 129P3/J mice. Using Real Time PCR we examined the effects of five doses of heroin on the levels of the transcripts of endogenous opioid peptides and their receptors and dopaminergic receptors in the mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal pathways in these same mice. Compared to C57BL/6J animals, 129P3/J mice had higher mRNA levels of Oprk1 in the nucleus accumbens and of Oprd1 in the nucleus accumbens and a region containing both the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA). In the cortex of 129P3/J mice, lower levels of both Oprk1 and Oprd1 mRNAs were observed. Pdyn mRNA was also lower in the caudate putamen of 129P3/J mice. Strain differences were not found in the levels of Oprm1, Penk or Pomc mRNAs in any region examined. Within strains, complex patterns of heroin dose-dependent changes in the levels of Oprm1, Oprk1 and Oprd1 mRNAs were observed in the SN/VTA. Additionally, Oprd1 mRNA was dose-dependently elevated in the hypothalamus. Also in the hypothalamus, we found higher levels of Drd1a mRNA in C57BL/6J mice than in 129P3/J animals and higher levels of DAT (Slc6a3) mRNA in the caudate putamen of C57BL/6J animals than in 129P3/J counterparts. Heroin had dose-related effects on Drd1a mRNA in the hypothalamus and on Drd2 mRNA in the caudate putamen. PMID:21807019

  11. The 5′-untranslated region of the mouse mammary tumor virus mRNA exhibits cap-independent translation initiation

    PubMed Central

    Vallejos, Maricarmen; Ramdohr, Pablo; Valiente-Echeverría, Fernando; Tapia, Karla; Rodriguez, Felipe E.; Lowy, Fernando; Huidobro-Toro, J. Pablo; Dangerfield, John A.; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the identification of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) within the 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV). The 5′-UTR of the full-length mRNA derived from the infectious, complete MMTV genome was cloned into a dual luciferase reporter construct containing an upstream Renilla luciferase gene (RLuc) and a downstream firefly luciferase gene (FLuc). In rabbit reticulocyte lysate, the MMTV 5′-UTR was capable of driving translation of the second cistron. In vitro translational activity from the MMTV 5′-UTR was resistant to the addition of m7GpppG cap-analog and cleavage of eIF4G by foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) L-protease. IRES activity was also demonstrated in the Xenopus laevis oocyte by micro-injection of capped and polyadenylated bicistronic RNAs harboring the MMTV-5′-UTR. Finally, transfection assays showed that the MMTV-IRES exhibits cell type-dependent translational activity, suggesting a requirement for as yet unidentified cellular factors for its optimal function. PMID:19889724

  12. A QPCR-based reporter system to study post-transcriptional regulation via the 3' untranslated region of mRNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lind, Kristina; Norbeck, Joakim

    2009-07-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation via the 3' untranslated region (3' UTR) of mRNA is an important factor in governing eukaryotic gene expression. Achieving detailed understanding of these processes requires highly quantitative systems in which comparative studies can be performed. To this end, we have developed a plasmid reporter system for Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in which the 3' UTR can be easily replaced and modified. Accurate quantification of the tandem affinity purification tag (TAP)-reporter protein and of TAP-mRNA is achieved by immuno-QPCR and by RT-QPCR, respectively. We have used our reporter system to evaluate the consequences on gene expression from varying the 3' UTR, a problem often encountered during C-terminal tagging of proteins. It was clear that the choice of 3' UTR was a strong determinant of the reporter expression, in a manner dependent on the growth conditions used. Mutations affecting either decapping (lsm1Delta) or deadenylation (pop2Delta) were also found to affect reporter gene expression in a highly 3' UTR-dependent manner. Our results using this set-up clearly indicate that the common strategy used for C-terminal tagging, with concomitant replacement of the native 3' UTR, will very likely provide incorrect conclusions on gene expression.

  13. A Viral mRNA Motif at the 3′-Untranslated Region that Confers Translatability in a Cell-Specific Manner. Implications for Virus Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Moreno, Manuel; Sanz, Miguel Angel; Carrasco, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Sindbis virus (SINV) mRNAs contain several motifs that participate in the regulation of their translation. We have discovered a motif at the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of viral mRNAs, constituted by three repeated sequences, which is involved in the translation of both SINV genomic and subgenomic mRNAs in insect, but not in mammalian cells. These data illustrate for the first time that an element present at the 3′-UTR confers translatability to mRNAs from an animal virus in a cell-specific manner. Sequences located at the beginning of the 5′-UTR may also regulate SINV subgenomic mRNA translation in both cell lines in a context of infection. Moreover, a replicon derived from Sleeping disease virus, an alphavirus that have no known arthropod vector for transmission, is much more efficient in insect cells when the repeated sequences from SINV are inserted at its 3′-UTR, due to the enhanced translatability of its mRNAs. Thus, these findings provide a clue to understand, at the molecular level, the evolution of alphaviruses and their host range. PMID:26755446

  14. Binding of DEAD-box helicase Dhh1 to the 5'-untranslated region of ASH1 mRNA represses localized translation of ASH1 in yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianjun; Meng, Xiuhua; Li, Delin; Chen, Shaoyin; Luo, Jianmin; Zhu, Linjie; Singer, Robert H; Gu, Wei

    2017-06-09

    Local translation of specific mRNAs is regulated by dynamic changes in their subcellular localization, and these changes are due to complex mechanisms controlling cytoplasmic mRNA transport. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is well suited to studying these mechanisms because many of its transcripts are transported from the mother cell to the budding daughter cell. Here, we investigated the translational control of ASH1 mRNA after transport and localization. We show that although ASH1 transcripts were translated after they reached the bud tip, some mRNAs were bound by the RNA-binding protein Puf6 and were non-polysomal. We also found that the DEAD-box helicase Dhh1 complexed with the untranslated ASH1 mRNA and Puf6. Loss of Dhh1 affected local translation of ASH1 mRNA and resulted in delocalization of ASH1 transcript in the bud. Forcibly shifting the non-polysomal ASH1 mRNA into polysomes was associated with Dhh1 dissociation. We further demonstrated that Dhh1 is not recruited to ASH1 mRNA co-transcriptionally, suggesting that it could bind to ASH1 mRNA within the cytoplasm. Of note, Dhh1 bound to the 5'-UTR of ASH1 mRNA and inhibited its translation in vitro These results suggest that after localization to the bud tip, a portion of the localized ASH1 mRNA becomes translationally inactive because of binding of Dhh1 and Puf6 to the 5'- and 3'-UTRs of ASH1 mRNA. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. [Influence of BMP-7 on chondrocyte secretion and expression of Col-II,AGG and Sox9 mRNA in porous tantalum-chondrocyte composites in vitro].

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Li, L; Wang, Q; Gan, H Q; Wang, H; Bi, C; Li, Q J; Wang, Z Q

    2015-04-18

    To study the influence of bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) on chondrocyte secretion and expression of type II collagen (Col-II), aggrecan (AGG) and SRY-related high mobility group-box gene 9 (Sox9) mRNA in porous tantalum-chondrocyte composites. The articular chondrocytes were isolated from 3-week-old New Zealand immature rabbits and identified. The 2nd generation of chondrocytes with 1×10(6)/mL inoculate concentration was seeded in porous tantalum and divided into 4 groups, and control group (tantalum/chondrocyte), 50 μg/L BMP-7 group (50 μg/L BMP-7/tantalum/chondrocyte), 100 μg/L BMP-7 group (100 μg/L BMP-7/tantalum/chondrocyte), and 200 μg/L BMP-7 group (200 μg/L BMP-7/tantalum/chondrocyte). The proliferation of chondrocytes was measured by CCK-8 assay. The chondrocyte growth and morphology were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The synthesis of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) in chondrocytes was tested by dimethyl methylene blue (DMMB) colorimetric quantification method. Col-II, AGG and Sox9 mRNA in chondrocytes were detected by real-time PCR. The chondrocytes were spindle-shaped in 24 hours of primary cell culture and most cells became polygonal shaped in 4 days. The chondrocytes were affirmed by alcian blue, safranin O and Col-II immunocytochemistry staining. The result of CCK-8 assay showed that the level of cell proliferation in 100 μg/L BMP-7 groups were higher than those in the other groups (P<0.05). The chondrocytes implanted into porous tantalum scaffolds with BMP-7 had better functions, by which cytoplasmic processes developed and extended to the surface and inner of porous tantalum by SEM observation. DMMB quantitative determination of GAG showed that GAG amount of chondrocytes in 100 μg/L BMP-7 groups was significantly higher than those in the other groups (P<0.05). The expressions of Col-II, AGG and Sox9 mRNA in chondrocytes were up-regulated in the experimental groups, compared with the control group and the best effect appeared

  16. Influence of the Laurentian Great Lakes on Regional Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notaro, M.; Holman, K.; Zarrin, A.; Fluck, E.; Vavrus, S. J.; Bennington, V.

    2012-12-01

    The influence of the Laurentian Great Lakes on climate is assessed by comparing two decade-long simulations, with the lakes either included or excluded, using the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model Version 4. The Great Lakes dampen the variability in near-surface air temperature across the surrounding region, while reducing the amplitude of the diurnal cycle and annual cycle of air temperature. The impacts of the Great Lakes on the regional surface energy budget include an increase (decrease) in turbulent fluxes during the cold (warm) season and an increase in surface downward shortwave radiation flux during summer due to diminished atmospheric moisture and convective cloud amount. Changes in the hydrologic budget due to the presence of the Great Lakes include increases in evaporation and precipitation during October-March and decreases during May-August, along with springtime reductions in snowmelt-related runoff. Circulation responses consist of a regionwide decrease in sea-level pressure in autumn-winter and an increase in summer, with enhanced ascent and descent in the two seasons, respectively. The most pronounced simulated impact of the Great Lakes on synoptic systems traversing the basin is a weakening of cold-season anticyclones.

  17. Evaluating Observation Influence on Regional Water Budgets in Reanalyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Chern, Jiun-Dar; Mocko, David; Robertson, Franklin R.; daSilva, Arlindo M.

    2014-01-01

    The assimilation of observations in reanalyses incurs the potential for the physical terms of budgets to be balanced by a term relating the fit of the observations relative to a forecast first guess analysis. This may indicate a limitation in the physical processes of the background model, or perhaps inconsistencies in the observing system and its assimilation. In the MERRA reanalysis, an area of long term moisture flux divergence over land has been identified over the Central United States. Here, we evaluate the water vapor budget in this region, taking advantage of two unique features of the MERRA diagnostic output; 1) a closed water budget that includes the analysis increment and 2) a gridded diagnostic output data set of the assimilated observations and their innovations (e.g. forecast departures). In the Central United States, an anomaly occurs where the analysis adds water to the region, while precipitation decreases and moisture flux divergence increases. This is related more to a change in the observing system than to a deficiency in the model physical processes. MERRAs Gridded Innovations and Observations (GIO) data narrow the observations that influence this feature to the ATOVS and Aqua satellites during the 06Z and 18Z analysis cycles. Observing system experiments further narrow the instruments that affect the anomalous feature to AMSUA (mainly window channels) and AIRS. This effort also shows the complexities of the observing system, and the reactions of the regional water budgets in reanalyses to the assimilated observations.

  18. Regional influences on reconstructed global mean sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natarov, Svetlana I.; Merrifield, Mark A.; Becker, Janet M.; Thompson, Phillip R.

    2017-04-01

    Reconstructions of global mean sea level (GMSL) based on tide gauge measurements tend to exhibit common multidecadal rate fluctuations over the twentieth century. GMSL rate changes may result from physical drivers, such as changes in radiative forcing or land water storage. Alternatively, these fluctuations may represent artifacts due to sampling limitations inherent in the historical tide gauge network. In particular, a high percentage of tide gauges used in reconstructions, especially prior to the 1950s, are from Europe and North America in the North Atlantic region. Here a GMSL reconstruction based on the reduced space optimal interpolation algorithm is deconstructed, with the contributions of individual tide gauge stations quantified and assessed regionally. It is demonstrated that the North Atlantic region has a disproportionate influence on reconstructed GMSL rate fluctuations prior to the 1950s, notably accounting for a rate minimum in the 1920s and contributing to a rate maximum in the 1950s. North Atlantic coastal sea level fluctuations related to wind-driven ocean volume redistribution likely contribute to these estimated GMSL rate inflections. The findings support previous claims that multidecadal rate changes in GMSL reconstructions are likely related to the geographic distribution of tide gauge stations within a sparse global network.

  19. Heritable variation of mRNA decay rates in yeast.

    PubMed

    Andrie, Jennifer M; Wakefield, Jon; Akey, Joshua M

    2014-12-01

    Gene expression levels are determined by the balance between rates of mRNA transcription and decay, and genetic variation in either of these processes can result in heritable differences in transcript abundance. Although the genetics of gene expression has been a subject of intense interest, the contribution of heritable variation in mRNA decay rates to gene expression variation has received far less attention. To this end, we developed a novel statistical framework and measured allele-specific differences in mRNA decay rates in a diploid yeast hybrid created by mating two genetically diverse parental strains. We estimate that 31% of genes exhibit allelic differences in mRNA decay rates, of which 350 can be identified at a false discovery rate of 10%. Genes with significant allele-specific differences in mRNA decay rates have higher levels of polymorphism compared to other genes, with all gene regions contributing to allelic differences in mRNA decay rates. Strikingly, we find widespread evidence for compensatory evolution, such that variants influencing transcriptional initiation and decay have opposite effects, suggesting that steady-state gene expression levels are subject to pervasive stabilizing selection. Our results demonstrate that heritable differences in mRNA decay rates are widespread and are an important target for natural selection to maintain or fine-tune steady-state gene expression levels. © 2014 Andrie et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  20. Heritable variation of mRNA decay rates in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Andrie, Jennifer M.; Wakefield, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Gene expression levels are determined by the balance between rates of mRNA transcription and decay, and genetic variation in either of these processes can result in heritable differences in transcript abundance. Although the genetics of gene expression has been a subject of intense interest, the contribution of heritable variation in mRNA decay rates to gene expression variation has received far less attention. To this end, we developed a novel statistical framework and measured allele-specific differences in mRNA decay rates in a diploid yeast hybrid created by mating two genetically diverse parental strains. We estimate that 31% of genes exhibit allelic differences in mRNA decay rates, of which 350 can be identified at a false discovery rate of 10%. Genes with significant allele-specific differences in mRNA decay rates have higher levels of polymorphism compared to other genes, with all gene regions contributing to allelic differences in mRNA decay rates. Strikingly, we find widespread evidence for compensatory evolution, such that variants influencing transcriptional initiation and decay have opposite effects, suggesting that steady-state gene expression levels are subject to pervasive stabilizing selection. Our results demonstrate that heritable differences in mRNA decay rates are widespread and are an important target for natural selection to maintain or fine-tune steady-state gene expression levels. PMID:25258386

  1. Regional association analysis delineates a sequenced chromosome region influencing antinutritive seed meal compounds in oilseed rape.

    PubMed

    Snowdon, R J; Wittkop, B; Rezaidad, A; Hasan, M; Lipsa, F; Stein, A; Friedt, W

    2010-11-01

    This study describes the use of regional association analyses to delineate a sequenced region of a Brassica napus chromosome with a significant effect on antinutritive seed meal compounds in oilseed rape. A major quantitative trait locus (QTL) influencing seed colour, fibre content, and phenolic compounds was mapped to the same position on B. napus chromosome A9 in biparental mapping populations from two different yellow-seeded × black-seeded B. napus crosses. Sequences of markers spanning the QTL region identified synteny to a sequence contig from the corresponding chromosome A9 in Brassica rapa. Remapping of sequence-derived markers originating from the B. rapa sequence contig confirmed their position within the QTL. One of these markers also mapped to a seed colour and fibre QTL on the same chromosome in a black-seeded × black-seeded B. napus cross. Consequently, regional association analysis was performed in a genetically diverse panel of dark-seeded, winter-type oilseed rape accessions. For this we used closely spaced simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers spanning the sequence contig covering the QTL region. Correction for population structure was performed using a set of genome-wide SSR markers. The identification of QTL-derived markers with significant associations to seed colour, fibre content, and phenolic compounds in the association panel enabled the identification of positional and functional candidate genes for B. napus seed meal quality within a small segment of the B. rapa genome sequence.

  2. Polymorphisms of the Steroid Sulfatase [STS] Gene are Associated With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Influence Brain Tissue mRNA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Brookes, KJ; Hawi, Z; Park, J; Scott, S; Gill, M; Kent, L

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies in animals and humans have implicated the X-chromosome STS gene in the etiology of attentional difficulties and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This family based association study has fine mapped a region of the STS gene across intron 1 and 2 previously associated with ADHD, in an extended sample of 450 ADHD probands and their parents. Significant association across this region is demonstrated individually with 7 of the 12 genotyped SNPs, as well as an allele specific haplotype of the 12 SNPs. The over transmitted risk allele of rs12861247 was also associated with reduced STS mRNA expression in normal human post-mortem frontal cortex brain tissue compared to the non-risk allele (P = 0.01). These results are consistent with the hypothesis arising from previous literature demonstrating that boys with deletions of the STS gene, and hence no STS protein are at a significantly increased risk of developing ADHD. Furthermore, this study has established the brain tissue transcript of STS, which except from adipose tissue, differs from that seen in all other tissues investigated. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20862695

  3. Beta actin and its mRNA are localized at the plasma membrane and the regions of moving cytoplasm during the cellular response to injury

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    IgG localization is discontinuous. When injured endothelial and 3T3 cells were stained through wound closure, we localized beta actin only in motile cytoplasm at the wound edge. Staining disappeared as cells became quiescent upon monolayer restoration. Appearance of beta actin at the wound edge correlated with a two- to threefold increase in steady-state levels of beta actin mRNA, which rose within 15-60 min after injury and returned to noninjury levels during monolayer restoration. In situ hybridization revealed that transcripts encoding beta actin were localized at the wound edge in association with the repositioned protein. Results of these experiments indicate that beta actin and its encoded mRNA are polarized at the membrane-cytoskeletal interface within regions of moving cytoplasm. PMID:1993736

  4. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein binds to the 5' untranslated region of the mouse mammary tumor virus mRNA and stimulates cap-independent translation initiation.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, Carlos J; Contreras, Nataly; Angulo, Jenniffer; Vera-Otarola, Jorge; Pino-Ajenjo, Constanza; Llorian, Miriam; Ameur, Melissa; Lisboa, Francisco; Pino, Karla; Lowy, Fernando; Sargueil, Bruno; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2016-05-01

    The 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the full-length mRNA of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) harbors an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES). In this study, we show that the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB), an RNA-binding protein with four RNA recognition motifs (RRMs), binds to the MMTV 5' UTR stimulating its IRES activity. There are three isoforms of PTB: PTB1, PTB2, and PTB4. Results show that PTB1 and PTB4, but not PTB2, stimulate MMTV-IRES activity. PTB1 promotes MMTV-IRES-mediated initiation more strongly than PTB4. When expressed in combination, PTB1 further enhanced PTB4 stimulation of the MMTV-IRES, while PTB2 fully abrogates PTB4-induced stimulation. PTB1-induced stimulation of MMTV-IRES was not altered in the presence of PTB4 or PTB2. Mutational analysis reveals that stimulation of MMTV-IRES activity is abrogated when PTB1 is mutated either in RRM1/RRM2 or RRM3/RRM4. In contrast, a PTB4 RRM1/RRM2 mutant has reduced effect over MMTV-IRES activity, while stimulation of the MMTV-IRES activity is still observed when the PTB4 RRM3/RMM4 mutant is used. Therefore, PTB1 and PTB4 differentially stimulate the IRES activity. In contrast, PTB2 acts as a negative modulator of PTB4-induced stimulation of MMTV-IRES. We conclude that PTB1 and PTB4 act as IRES trans-acting factors of the MMTV-IRES.

  5. Influence of the Cardiac Myosin Hinge Region on Contractile Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margossian, Sarkis S.; Krueger, John W.; Sellers, James R.; Cuda, Giovanni; Caulfield, James B.; Norton, Paul; Slayter, Henry S.

    1991-06-01

    The participation of cardiac myosin hinge in contractility was investigated by in vitro motility and ATPase assays and by measurements of sarcomere shortening. The effect on contractile activity was analyzed using an antibody directed against a 20-amino acid peptide within the hinge region of myosin. This antibody bound specifically at the hinge at a distance of 55 nm from the S1/S2 junction, was specific to human, dog, and rat cardiac myosins, did not crossreact with gizzard or skeletal myosin, and had no effect on ATPase activity of purified S1 and myofibrils. However, it completely suppressed the movement of actin filaments in in vitro motility assays and reduced active shortening of sarcomeres of skinned cardiac myocytes by half. Suppression of motion by the antihinge antibody may reflect a mechanical constraint imposed by the antibody upon the mobility of the S2 region of myosin. The results suggest that the steps in the mechanochemical energy transduction can be separately influenced through S2.

  6. Geographical patterns in cyanobacteria distribution: climate influence at regional scale.

    PubMed

    Pitois, Frédéric; Thoraval, Isabelle; Baurès, Estelle; Thomas, Olivier

    2014-01-28

    Cyanobacteria are a component of public health hazards in freshwater environments because of their potential as toxin producers. Eutrophication has long been considered the main cause of cyanobacteria outbreak and proliferation, whereas many studies emphasized the effect of abiotic parameters (mainly temperature and light) on cell growth rate or toxin production. In view of the growing concerns of global change consequences on public health parameters, this study attempts to enlighten climate influence on cyanobacteria at regional scale in Brittany (NW France). The results show that homogeneous cyanobacteria groups are associated with climatic domains related to temperature, global radiation and pluviometry, whereas microcystins (MCs) occurrences are only correlated to local cyanobacteria species composition. As the regional climatic gradient amplitude is similar to the projected climate evolution on a 30-year timespan, a comparison between the present NW and SE situations was used to extrapolate the evolution of geographical cyanobacteria distribution in Brittany. Cyanobacteria composition should shift toward species associated with more frequent Microcystins occurrences along a NW/SE axis whereas lakes situated along a SW/NE axis should transition to species (mainly Nostocales) associated with lower MCs detection frequencies.

  7. Geographical Patterns in Cyanobacteria Distribution: Climate Influence at Regional Scale

    PubMed Central

    Pitois, Frédéric; Thoraval, Isabelle; Baurès, Estelle; Thomas, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are a component of public health hazards in freshwater environments because of their potential as toxin producers. Eutrophication has long been considered the main cause of cyanobacteria outbreak and proliferation, whereas many studies emphasized the effect of abiotic parameters (mainly temperature and light) on cell growth rate or toxin production. In view of the growing concerns of global change consequences on public health parameters, this study attempts to enlighten climate influence on cyanobacteria at regional scale in Brittany (NW France). The results show that homogeneous cyanobacteria groups are associated with climatic domains related to temperature, global radiation and pluviometry, whereas microcystins (MCs) occurrences are only correlated to local cyanobacteria species composition. As the regional climatic gradient amplitude is similar to the projected climate evolution on a 30-year timespan, a comparison between the present NW and SE situations was used to extrapolate the evolution of geographical cyanobacteria distribution in Brittany. Cyanobacteria composition should shift toward species associated with more frequent Microcystins occurrences along a NW/SE axis whereas lakes situated along a SW/NE axis should transition to species (mainly Nostocales) associated with lower MCs detection frequencies. PMID:24476711

  8. On how climate variability influences regional sea level change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunnabend, Sandra-Esther; Kusche, Jürgen; Rietbroek, Roelof; Forootan, Ehsan

    2016-04-01

    Regional trends in sea level change are strongly influenced by climate variations, such as ENSO (El-Nino Southern Oscillation), the IOD (Indian Ocean Dipole), or the PDO (Pacific Decadal Oscillation). Hence, before computing long term regional sea level change, these sea level variations need to be taken into account as they lead to strong dependencies of computed regional sea level trends on the time period of the investigation. In this study, sea level change during the years 1993 to 2013 is analysed to identify the dominant modes of sea level change caused by climate variations. Here, two different gridded altimetry products are analysed, namely ESA's combined CCI SeaLevel v1.1 ECV product (doi: 10.5270/esa-sea_level_cci-1993_2013-v_1.1-201412), and absolute dynamic topography produced by Ssalto/Duacs and distributed by Aviso, with support from Cnes (http://www.aviso.altimetry.fr/duacs/). Reconstructions using the different decomposition techniques including the standard principle component analysis (PCA), rotated empirical orthogonal functions (REOF) and independent component analysis (ICA) method are analysed. They are compared with sea level change modelled with the global finite-element sea-ice ocean model (FESOM). The results indicate that from the applied methods, ICA is most suitable to separate the individual climate variability signals in independent modes of sea level change. This especially holds for extracting the ENSO contribution in sea level changes, which was better separated by applying ICA, from both altimetry and modelled sea level products. In addition, it is presented how modelled sea level change reflects climate variations compared to that identified in the altimetry products.

  9. Comparative analysis of the base compositions of the pre-mRNA 3' cleaved-off region and the mRNA 3' untranslated region relative to the genomic base composition in animals and plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-Qing

    2014-01-01

    The precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) three-prime cleaved-off region (3'COR) and the mRNA three-prime untranslated region (3'UTR) play critical roles in regulating gene expression. The differences in base composition between these regions and the corresponding genomes are still largely uncharacterized in animals and plants. In this study, the base compositions of non-redundant 3'CORs and 3'UTRs were compared with the corresponding whole genomes of eleven animals, four dicotyledonous plants, and three monocotyledonous (cereal) plants. Among the four bases (A, C, G, and U for adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil, respectively), U (which corresponds to T, for thymine, in DNA) was the most frequent, A the second most frequent, G the third most frequent, and C the least frequent in most of the species in both the 3'COR and 3'UTR regions. In comparison with the whole genomes, in both regions the U content was usually the most overrepresented (particularly in the monocotyledonous plants), and the C content was the most underrepresented. The order obtained for the species groups, when ranked from high to low according to the U contents in the 3'COR and 3'UTR was as follows: dicotyledonous plants, monocotyledonous plants, non-mammal animals, and mammals. In contrast, the genomic T content was highest in dicotyledonous plants, lowest in monocotyledonous plants, and intermediate in animals. These results suggest the following: 1) there is a mechanism operating in both animals and plants which is biased toward U and against C in the 3'COR and 3'UTR; 2) the 3'UTR and 3'COR, as functional units, minimized the difference between dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants, while the dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous genomes evolved into two extreme groups in terms of base composition.

  10. Comparative Analysis of the Base Compositions of the Pre-mRNA 3′ Cleaved-Off Region and the mRNA 3′ Untranslated Region Relative to the Genomic Base Composition in Animals and Plants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiu-Qing

    2014-01-01

    The precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) three-prime cleaved-off region (3′COR) and the mRNA three-prime untranslated region (3′UTR) play critical roles in regulating gene expression. The differences in base composition between these regions and the corresponding genomes are still largely uncharacterized in animals and plants. In this study, the base compositions of non-redundant 3′CORs and 3′UTRs were compared with the corresponding whole genomes of eleven animals, four dicotyledonous plants, and three monocotyledonous (cereal) plants. Among the four bases (A, C, G, and U for adenine, cytosine, guanine, and uracil, respectively), U (which corresponds to T, for thymine, in DNA) was the most frequent, A the second most frequent, G the third most frequent, and C the least frequent in most of the species in both the 3′COR and 3′UTR regions. In comparison with the whole genomes, in both regions the U content was usually the most overrepresented (particularly in the monocotyledonous plants), and the C content was the most underrepresented. The order obtained for the species groups, when ranked from high to low according to the U contents in the 3′COR and 3′UTR was as follows: dicotyledonous plants, monocotyledonous plants, non-mammal animals, and mammals. In contrast, the genomic T content was highest in dicotyledonous plants, lowest in monocotyledonous plants, and intermediate in animals. These results suggest the following: 1) there is a mechanism operating in both animals and plants which is biased toward U and against C in the 3′COR and 3′UTR; 2) the 3′UTR and 3′COR, as functional units, minimized the difference between dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants, while the dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous genomes evolved into two extreme groups in terms of base composition. PMID:24941005

  11. Australian region tropical cyclones: Influence of environment at different scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsay, Hamish Andrew

    This dissertation explores the influence of environmental factors on a variety of spatial and temporal scales on tropical cyclones (TCs) in the Australian region. Chapter 1 provides the motivation for the work presented, and leads into a discussion on the current state of knowledge of large-scale factors affecting the interannual variability of TCs in each of the seven global TC basins (Chapter 2). Chapter 3 is an investigation of the role of large-scale environmental factors, notably sea surface temperature (SST), low-level relative vorticity, and deep tropospheric vertical wind shear, for the interannual variability of November-April tropical TC activity in the Australian region. Extensive correlation analyses were carried out between TC frequency and intensity and the above-mentioned large-scale parameters, using TC data for 1970-2006 from the official Australian TC data set. Large correlations were found between the seasonal number of TCs and SST in the Nino 3.4 and Nino 4 regions. These correlations were greatest (-0.73) during the August-October period, immediately preceding the Australian TC season. The correlations remain almost unchanged for the July-September period and therefore can be viewed as potential seasonal predictors of the forthcoming TC season. In contrast, only weak correlations (<+0.37) were found with the local SST in the region north of Australia where many TCs originate; these were reduced almost to zero when the ENSO component of the SST was removed by partial correlation analysis. The annual frequency of TCs was strongly correlated with 850-hPa relative vorticity and vertical shear of the zonal wind over the main TC genesis areas of the Australian region. A Principal Component Analysis of the SST data set revealed two main modes of Pacific Ocean SST variability that match very closely with the basin-wide patterns of correlations between SST and TC frequencies. It was also found that the above-mentioned large correlations could be

  12. Solar wind influences on atmospheric electricity variables in polar regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michnowski, Stanisław

    The measurement techniques applied in magnetospheric and ionospheric research enable detection of strong, intrinsic effects of solar wind on ionospheric electrical potential distribution and conductivity of the atmosphere. These manifestations of the solar wind interaction with the magnetosphere and ionosphere are especially evident at high latitudes. The possibility of observing there the response of the atmospheric electricity variables to solar wind has been questioned for a long time despite the fact that the atmospheric electric field and current variations at the ground are physically linked with electric potential of the ionosphere and conductivity of the lower atmosphere. The serious doubts were mainly due to the generally accepted opinion that the highly conducting ionosphere is an almost ideal equipotential electric screen that separates the weakly conductive lower atmosphere of the influence from space. This assumption could not be further upheld in view of the new findings. They have been provided for some time by ground-based atmospheric electric field and current measurements (AEMs) with simultaneous upper atmosphere observations and by corresponding balloon measurements. Recent ground-based AEMs in polar regions, i.e., in the near-subauroral, auroral, and polar cap high-latitude regions, have detected considerable influence of solar wind on the lower-atmosphere electric variables. However, the use of atmospheric electric observations in studying solar-terrestrial relations is still limited. The main reason is difficulty in separating various local meteorological effects, anthropogenic effects, and the effects of the global electric current circuit which affect simultaneously the measured quantities. Transmission of the electric signals through the lower atmosphere can also introduce troublesome disturbances. The paper outlines these problems and hints how the difficulties involved might be partly overcome in a feasible way. The needs and possible

  13. p190RhoGEF Binds to a destabilizing element in the 3' untranslated region of light neurofilament subunit mRNA and alters the stability of the transcript.

    PubMed

    Cañete-Soler, R; Wu, J; Zhai, J; Shamim, M; Schlaepfer, W W

    2001-08-24

    Stabilization of neurofilament (NF) mRNAs plays a major role in regulating levels of NF expression and in establishing axonal size and rate of axonal conduction. Previous studies have identified a 68-nucleotide destabilizing element at the junction of the coding region and 3' untranslated region of the light NF subunit (NF-L) mRNA. The present study has used the destabilizing element (probe A) to screen a rat brain cDNA library for interactive proteins. A cDNA clone encoding 1068 nucleotides in the C-terminal domain of p190RhoGEF (clone 39) was found to bind strongly and specifically to the RNA probe. The interaction was confirmed using a glutathione S-transferase/clone 39 fusion protein in Northwestern, gel-shift, and cross-linkage studies. The glutathione S-transferase/clone 39 fusion protein also enhanced the cross-linkage of a major 43-kDa protein in brain extract to the destabilizing element. Functional studies on stably transfected neuronal cells showed that p190RhoGEF expression increased the half-life of a wild-type NF-L mRNA but did not alter the half-life of a mutant NF-L mRNA lacking the destabilizing element. The findings reveal a novel interactive feature of p190RhoGEF that links the exchange factor with NF mRNA stability and regulation of the axonal cytoskeleton.

  14. Flood Frequency of Unregulated Streams of Tennessee Using Regional-Regression Equations and the Region-of-Influence Method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, G.S.; Tasker, Gary D.; Bizier, P.; DeBarry, P.

    2003-01-01

    The region-of-influence method and regional-regression equations are used to predict flood frequency of unregulated and ungaged rivers and streams of Tennessee. The prediction methods have been developed using strem-gage records from unregulated streams draining basins having 1-30% total impervious area. A computer application automates the calculation of the flood frequencies of the unregulated streams. Average deleted-residual prediction errors for the region-of-influence method are found to be slightly smaller than those for the regional regression methods.

  15. Identification of a novel AU-Rich element in the 3' untranslated region of epidermal growth factor receptor mRNA that is the target for regulated RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Balmer, L A; Beveridge, D J; Jazayeri, J A; Thomson, A M; Walker, C E; Leedman, P J

    2001-03-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) plays an important role in the growth and progression of estrogen receptor-negative human breast cancers. EGF binds with high affinity to the EGF-R and activates a variety of second messenger pathways that affect cellular proliferation. However, the underlying mechanisms involved in the regulation of EGF-R expression in breast cancer cells are yet to be described. Here we show that the EGF-induced upregulation of EGF-R mRNA in two human breast cancer cell lines that overexpress EGF-R (MDA-MB-468 and BT-20) is accompanied by stabilization (>2-fold) of EGF-R mRNA. Transient transfections using a luciferase reporter identified a novel EGF-regulated approximately 260-nucleotide (nt) cis-acting element in the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of EGF-R mRNA. This cis element contains two distinct AU-rich sequences (~75 nt), EGF-R1A with two AUUUA pentamers and EGF-R2A with two AUUUUUA extended pentamers. Each independently regulated the mRNA stability of the heterologous reporter. Analysis of mutants of the EGF-R2A AU-rich sequence demonstrated a role for the 3' extended pentamer in regulating basal turnover. RNA gel shift analysis identified cytoplasmic proteins (~55 to 80 kDa) from breast cancer cells that bound specifically to the EGF-R1A and EGF-R2A cis-acting elements and whose binding activity was rapidly downregulated by EGF and phorbol esters. RNA gel shift analysis of EGF-R2A mutants identified a role for the 3' extended AU pentamer, but not the 5' extended pentamer, in binding proteins. These EGF-R mRNA-binding proteins were present in multiple human breast and prostate cancer cell lines. In summary, these data demonstrate a central role for mRNA stabilization in the control of EGF-R gene expression in breast cancer cells. EGF-R mRNA contains a novel complex AU-rich 260-nt cis-acting destabilizing element in the 3'-UTR that is bound by specific and EGF-regulated trans-acting factors. Furthermore, the 3' extended AU

  16. Enhanced mRNA-protein fusion efficiency of a single-domain antibody by selection of mRNA display with additional random sequences in the terminal translated regions

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kazuki; Sunohara, Masato; Terai, Takuya; Kumachi, Shigefumi; Nemoto, Naoto

    2017-01-01

    In vitro display technologies such as mRNA and cDNA display are powerful tools to create and select functional peptides. However, in some cases, efficiency of mRNA-protein fusion is very low, which results in decreased library size and lower chance of successful selection. In this study, to improve mRNA-protein fusion efficiency, we prepared an mRNA display library of a protein with random N- and C-terminal coding regions consisting of 12 nucleotides (i.e. four amino acids), and performed an electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA)-based selection of successfully formed mRNA display molecules. A single-domain antibody (Nanobody, or VHH) was used as a model protein, and as a result, a pair of sequences was identified that increased mRNA-protein fusion efficiency of this protein by approximately 20%. Interestingly, enhancement of the fusion efficiency induced by the identified sequences was protein-specific, and different results were obtained for other proteins including VHHs with different CDRs. The results suggested that conformation of mRNA as a whole, rather than the amino acid sequence of the translated peptide, is an important factor to determine mRNA-protein fusion efficiency. PMID:28275529

  17. Enhanced mRNA-protein fusion efficiency of a single-domain antibody by selection of mRNA display with additional random sequences in the terminal translated regions.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazuki; Sunohara, Masato; Terai, Takuya; Kumachi, Shigefumi; Nemoto, Naoto

    2017-01-01

    In vitro display technologies such as mRNA and cDNA display are powerful tools to create and select functional peptides. However, in some cases, efficiency of mRNA-protein fusion is very low, which results in decreased library size and lower chance of successful selection. In this study, to improve mRNA-protein fusion efficiency, we prepared an mRNA display library of a protein with random N- and C-terminal coding regions consisting of 12 nucleotides (i.e. four amino acids), and performed an electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA)-based selection of successfully formed mRNA display molecules. A single-domain antibody (Nanobody, or VHH) was used as a model protein, and as a result, a pair of sequences was identified that increased mRNA-protein fusion efficiency of this protein by approximately 20%. Interestingly, enhancement of the fusion efficiency induced by the identified sequences was protein-specific, and different results were obtained for other proteins including VHHs with different CDRs. The results suggested that conformation of mRNA as a whole, rather than the amino acid sequence of the translated peptide, is an important factor to determine mRNA-protein fusion efficiency.

  18. Lesch-Nyhan syndrome: mRNA expression of HPRT in patients with enzyme proven deficiency of HPRT and normal HPRT coding region of the DNA.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Khue Vu; Naviaux, Robert K; Paik, Kacie K; Nyhan, William L

    2012-08-01

    Inherited mutation of the purine salvage enzyme, hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gives rise to Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) or Lesch-Nyhan variants (LNV). We report a case of two LNS affected members of a family with deficiency of activity of HPRT in intact cultured fibroblasts in whom mutation could not be found in the HPRT coding sequence but there was markedly decreased HPRT expression of mRNA. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Analysis of regional albedo characteristics and its influence in the regional climate model REMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preuschmann, S.; Jacob, D.

    2010-09-01

    The effects of land-use changes on climate have a high priority in climate impact researches. Nevertheless it is not trivial to integrate land-use changes in the Regional atmospherical climate Model REMO (Jacob 2001) so that characteristics of a typical land-use type can be created and therewith systematical effects can be analyzed. As in many regional dynamical climate models, REMO is calculating in the target resolution with parameters which are independent of land-use classes. Considering only one of these parameters, e.g. the albedo, the processing chain (Rechid et al. 2008) to construct the underlying model-albedo uses a number of assumptions which levels phase and amplitude of the albedo-cycle of a regional typical land cover. The albedo data product ALBEDOMAP (Fischer et al. 2006) of the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) on the ESA platform ENVISAT is used as comparative data set. The annual cycle of the ALBEDOMAP data exceeds the modeled variability of the annual albedo cycle permanently in some cases by a factor of ten. Results of REMO-sensitivity studies show, that even small changes in the albedo about one percent is influencing the simulation. Within this study the relevance of characteristically surface information concerning land-use change for fine resolutions in REMO were shown. Fischer, J. ; Preusker, R.; Muller, J.-P. & M. Zühlke (2007): ALBEDOMAP -Validation Report - ESA AO/1-4559/04/I-LG, Online-Publikation: http://www.brockmann-consult.de/albedomap/pdf/MERIS-AlbedoMap-Validation-1.0.pdf. Jacob, D. (2001): A note to the simulation of the annual and inter-annual variability of the water budget over the Baltic Sea drainage basin; Meteorol. Amtos. Phys., 77, 61-73, 2001. Rechid, D.; Raddatz, T. & D. Jacob (2008): Parameterization of snow-free land surface albedo as a function of vegetation phenology based on MODIS data and applied in climate modelling.; Theor. Appl. Climatol., DOI 10.1007/s00704-008-0003-y.

  20. Localization and differential regulation of angiotensinogen mRNA expression in the vessel wall.

    PubMed Central

    Naftilan, A J; Zuo, W M; Inglefinger, J; Ryan, T J; Pratt, R E; Dzau, V J

    1991-01-01

    Recent data demonstrate the existence of a vascular renin angiotensin system. In this study we examine the localization of angiotensinogen mRNA in the blood vessel wall of two rat strains, the Wistar and Wistar Kyoto (WKY), as well as the regulation of vascular angiotensinogen mRNA expression by dietary sodium. Northern blot analysis and in situ hybridization histochemistry demonstrate that in both strains angiotensinogen mRNA is detected in the aortic medial smooth muscle layer as well as the periaortic fat. In WKY rats fed a 1.6% sodium diet, angiotensinogen mRNA concentration is 2.6-fold higher in the periaortic fat than in the smooth muscle, as analyzed by quantitative slot blot hybridization. Angiotensinogen mRNA expression in the medial smooth muscle layer is sodium regulated. After 5 d of a low (0.02%) sodium diet, smooth muscle angiotensinogen mRNA levels increase 3.2-fold (P less than 0.005) as compared with the 1.6% sodium diet. In contrast, angiotensinogen mRNA level in the periaortic fat is not influenced by sodium diet. In summary, our data demonstrate regional (smooth muscle vs. periaortic fat) differential regulation of angiotensinogen mRNA levels in the blood vessel wall by sodium. This regional differential regulation by sodium may have important physiological implications. Images PMID:2010543

  1. MiR-193a-5p Targets the Coding Region of AP-2α mRNA and Induces Cisplatin Resistance in Bladder Cancers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ji; Duan, Huaxin; Xie, Yu; Ning, Yichong; Zhang, Xing; Hui, Na; Wang, Chunqing; Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Jianlin

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factor AP-2 alpha (AP-2α or TFAP2A) is a newly identified prognostic marker of chemotherapy; its expression is positively correlated with chemosensitivity and survival of cancer patients. Using computational programs, we predicted that the coding region of AP-2α gene contains a potential miRNA response element (MRE) of miR-193a-5p, and the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site (c.497A>G, rs111681798) resides within the predicted MRE. The results of luciferase assays and Western blot analysis demonstrated that miR-193a-5p negatively regulated the expression of AP-2α proteins, but have no influence on the mutant AP-2α (c.497A>G). Infection with lentiviral AP-2α gene or miR-193a-5p inhibitor in the bladder cancer cells decreased migration and cisplatin resistance, while knockdown of AP-2α gene or overexpression of miR-193a-5p in the urothelial cell line SV-HUC-1 increased migration and cisplatin resistances. We concluded that miR-193a-5p induced cisplatin resistance by repressing AP-2α expression in bladder cancer cells.

  2. Increased BDNF and trk-B mRNA expression in cortical and limbic regions following formation of a social recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Broad, Kevin D; Mimmack, Mike L; Keverne, E Barry; Kendrick, Keith M

    2002-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor, tyrosine receptor kinase (trk-B), play important roles in neural plasticity, long-term potentiation and memory formation. Sheep form a selective recognition memory for their lambs within 2 h of birth. Initially, this memory is exclusively based on olfactory cues; however, as it consolidates over a 12-h recognition period it extends to incorporate visual cues. We investigated whether changes in BDNF and trk-B mRNA expression occurred in both olfactory and visual processing systems at 4.5 h postpartum, 2-3 h after the behavioural manifestations of an olfactory recognition memory were found. Animals that formed a recognition memory showed increased BDNF mRNA expression in the inferior part of the temporal cortex, subfield CA1 of the hippocampus, the diagonal band, basolateral amygdala and the anterior cingulate, medial frontal, entorhinal and pyriform cortices. No increases were observed in either the olfactory bulbs or the dentate gyrus. Expression of trk-B mRNA was significantly increased only in the medial temporal, entorhinal and pyriform cortices. These findings demonstrate that by 2-3 h following the initial formation of olfactory recognition memory there are BDNF/trk-B-mediated plasticity changes in brain areas involved in the consolidation of olfactory memory (the pyriform and entorhinal cortices). However, similar changes also occur in areas of the brain involved in visual memory, face and object recognition (the temporal cortex, entorhinal cortex, hippocampal subfield CA1 and basolateral amygdala), and in areas of the brain with integrative and attentional functions (the medial frontal and anterior cingulate cortices and diagonal band). This suggests that reorganization of neural circuits underlying the visual recognition of lambs or the integration of olfactory/visual information is occurring even at this time even though accurate behavioural recognition at this stage can only be made using

  3. R and D -- Seismic report on the influence of the source region on regional seismic waveforms as inferred from modeling

    SciTech Connect

    App, F.N.; Jones, E.M.; Bos, R.J.

    1997-11-01

    The identification of an underground nuclear test from its seismic signal recorded by seismometers at regional distances is one of the fundamental scientific goals of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty R and D Program. The work being reported here addresses the issue of event discrimination through the use of computer models that use realistic simulations of nuclear explosions in various settings for the generation of near-regional and regional synthetic seismograms. The study exercises some unique, recently developed computer modeling capabilities that heretofore have not been available for discrimination studies. A variety of source conditions and regional paths are investigated. Under the assumptions of the study, conclusions are: (1) spall, non-linear deformation, and depth-of-burial do not substantially influence the near-regional signal and (2) effects due to basins along the regional path very much dominate over source region geology in influencing the signal at regional distances. These conclusions, however, are relevant only for the frequencies addressed, which span the range from 0.1 to 1 Hz for the regional calculations and 0.1 to 3 Hz for the near-regional calculations. They also are relevant only for the crudely ``China-like`` basin, crust, and mantle properties used in the study. If it is determined that further investigations are required, researchers may use this study as a template for such work.

  4. Predictors of Variation in CYP2A6 mRNA, Protein, and Enzyme Activity in a Human Liver Bank: Influence of Genetic and Nongenetic Factors.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Julie-Anne; Prasad, Bhagwat; Claw, Katrina G; Stapleton, Patricia; Chaudhry, Amarjit; Schuetz, Erin G; Thummel, Kenneth E; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2017-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 2A6 CYP2A6: metabolizes several clinically relevant substrates, including nicotine, the primary psychoactive component in cigarette smoke. Smokers vary widely in their rate of inactivation and clearance of nicotine, altering numerous smoking phenotypes. We aimed to characterize independent and shared impact of genetic and nongenetic sources of variation in CYP2A6 mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity in a human liver bank (n = 360). For the assessment of genetic factors, we quantified levels of CYP2A6, cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), and aldo-keto reductase 1D1 (AKR1D1) mRNA, and CYP2A6 and POR proteins. CYP2A6 enzyme activity was determined through measurement of cotinine formation from nicotine and 7-hydroxycoumarin formation from coumarin. Donor DNA was genotyped for CYP2A6, POR, and AKR1D1 genetic variants. Nongenetic factors assessed included gender, age, and liver disease. CYP2A6 phenotype measures were positively correlated to each other (r values ranging from 0.47-0.88, P < 0.001). Female donors exhibited higher CYP2A6 mRNA expression relative to males (P < 0.05). Donor age was weakly positively correlated with CYP2A6 protein (r = 0.12, P < 0.05) and activity (r = 0.20, P < 0.001). CYP2A6 reduced-function genotypes, but not POR or AKR1D1 genotypes, were associated with lower CYP2A6 protein (P < 0.001) and activity (P < 0.01). AKR1D1 mRNA was correlated with CYP2A6 mRNA (r = 0.57, P < 0.001), protein (r = 0.30, P < 0.001), and activity (r = 0.34, P < 0.001). POR protein was correlated with CYP2A6 activity (r = 0.45, P < 0.001). Through regression analyses, we accounted for 17% (P < 0.001), 37% (P < 0.001), and 77% (P < 0.001) of the variation in CYP2A6 mRNA, protein, and activity, respectively. Overall, several independent and shared sources of variation in CYP2A6 activity in vitro have been identified, which could translate to variable hepatic clearance of nicotine.

  5. Do region and gender influence hardwood product selection?

    Treesearch

    Delton Alderman

    2013-01-01

    Consumer preference is a fundamental focus of marketing research as it is used in developing marketing strategy and the positioning of products against competitors. This study evaluated consumer hardwood preferences of consumers from three United States geographical regions, which included six different metropolitan areas. Seven hardwood species and three laminate...

  6. Tracheal dead space influences regional ventilation measurement in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Delaunois, L.; Boileau, R.; Martin, R.R. )

    1990-02-01

    The lung volume at which airway closure begins during expiration (closing volume, CV) can be measured (1) with a radioactive bolus inspired at residual volume (RV) and (2) with the single-breath N2 elimination test. In previous studies in dogs, we observed that N2 CV was systematically larger than 133Xe bolus CV (Xe CV) (N2 CV %vital capacity (VC) = 35 +/- 2.3 (SE) vs. Xe CV %VC = 24 +/- 2.2, P less than 0.01). Because the regional RV in the dog is evenly distributed throughout the lung and all airways closed at RV, N2 CV is related to the regional distribution of the tracheal N2; differences between N2 and Xe CV could then be related to the size of the inhaled dead space. Simultaneous measurements of Xe and N2 CV were performed at various sites of Xe bolus injection while the regional distribution of the bolus was measured. Injections at the level of the carina increased Xe CV to a value (30 +/- 1.4%VC) near simultaneous N2 CV (32 +/- 1.5%VC) and increased the unevenness of regional distribution of the Xe bolus. The difference between N2 and Xe CV is then the result of the size of the inspired tracheal dead space. Moreover, comparisons between different values of Xe CV require injections of the boluses at the same distance from the carina.

  7. Adolescent testosterone influences BDNF and TrkB mRNA and neurotrophin-interneuron marker relationships in mammalian frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Purves-Tyson, Tertia D; Allen, Katherine; Fung, Samantha; Rothmond, Debora; Noble, Pam L; Handelsman, David J; Shannon Weickert, Cynthia

    2015-11-01

    Late adolescence in males is a period of increased susceptibility for the onset of schizophrenia, coinciding with increased circulating testosterone. The cognitive deficits prevalent in schizophrenia may be related to unhealthy cortical interneurons, which are trophically dependent on brain derived neurotrophic factor. We investigated, under conditions of depleted (monkey and rat) and replaced (rat) testosterone over adolescence, changes in gene expression of cortical BDNF and TrkB transcripts and interneuron markers and the relationships between these mRNAs and circulating testosterone. Testosterone removal by gonadectomy reduced gene expression of some BDNF transcripts in monkey and rat frontal cortices and the BDNF mRNA reduction was prevented by testosterone replacement. In rat, testosterone replacement increased the potential for classical TrkB signalling by increasing the full length to truncated TrkB mRNA ratio, whereas in the monkey cortex, circulating testosterone was negatively correlated with the TrkB full length/truncated mRNA ratio. We did not identify changes in interneuron gene expression in monkey frontal cortex in response to gonadectomy, and in rat, we showed that only somatostatin mRNA was decreased by gonadectomy but not restored by testosterone replacement. We identified complex and possibly species-specific, relationships between BDNF/TrkB gene expression and interneuron marker gene expression that appear to be dependent on the presence of testosterone at adolescence in rat and monkey frontal cortices. Taken together, our findings suggest there are dynamic relationships between BDNF/TrkB and interneuron markers that are dependent on the presence of testosterone but that this may not be a straightforward increase in testosterone leading to changes in BDNF/TrkB that contributes to interneuron health.

  8. A mechanism for intergenomic integration: abundance of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small-subunit protein influences the translation of the large-subunit mRNA.

    PubMed

    Rodermel, S; Haley, J; Jiang, C Z; Tsai, C H; Bogorad, L

    1996-04-30

    Multimeric protein complexes in chloroplasts and mitochondria are generally composed of products of both nuclear and organelle genes of the cell. A central problem of eukaryotic cell biology is to identify and understand the molecular mechanisms for integrating the production and accumulation of the products of the two separate genomes. Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) is localized in the chloroplasts of photosynthetic eukaryotic cells and is composed of small subunits (SS) and large subunits (LS) coded for by nuclear rbcS and chloroplast rbcL genes, respectively. Transgenic tobacco plants containing antisense rbcS DNA have reduced levels of rbcS mRNA, normal levels of rbcL mRNA, and coordinately reduced LS and SS proteins. Our previous experiments indicated that the rate of translation of rbcL mRNA might be reduced in some antisense plants; direct evidence is presented here. After a short-term pulse there is less labeled LS protein in the transgenic plants than in wild-type plants, indicating that LS accumulation is controlled in the mutants at the translational and/or posttranslational levels. Consistent with a primary restriction at translation, fewer rbcL mRNAs are associated with polysomes of normal size and more are free or are associated with only a few ribosomes in the antisense plants. Effects of the rbcS antisense mutation on mRNA and protein accumulation, as well as on the distribution of mRNAs on polysomes, appear to be minimal for other chloroplast and nuclear photosynthetic genes. Our results suggest that SS protein abundance specifically contributes to the regulation of LS protein accumulation at the level of rbcL translation initiation.

  9. Influence of atmospheric circulation on regional 14CO2 differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Quan; Barbetti, Mike

    2007-10-01

    Detailed analyses of published 14C data from tree rings and atmospheric CO2 samples for the northern tropics in Asia (India, Thailand, and Vietnam) and Africa (Ethiopia) have been performed for the heavily bomb-influenced period 1963-1967 A.D. The results show that the Asian summer monsoon and Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) position influenced atmospheric 14CO2 over the study area. Similar analyses of atmospheric records for northern and western Europe, northwestern Africa, and the northeastern United States and tree ring data for east Asia show that the Northern Hemisphere distribution of bomb 14C for 1963-1967 depended on atmospheric circulation controlled by the seasonal positions of Hadley cell boundaries and the ITCZ. The distribution of 14C did not have a simple latitudinal dependence. This work shows that the seasonal atmospheric circulation patterns are crucial for the description of atmospheric 14C gradients during the bomb peak period. These principles can be applied to the interpretation of the small intrahemispheric 14C offsets of the remote past.

  10. Socioeconomic factors influencing childhood vaccination in two northern Italian regions.

    PubMed

    Anello, Paola; Cestari, Laura; Baldovin, Tatjana; Simonato, Lorenzo; Frasca, Gabriella; Caranci, Nicola; Grazia Pascucci, Maria; Valent, Francesca; Canova, Cristina

    2017-08-24

    Infant vaccination rates have been declining in Italy over the past 5-7years. The aims of this study were to assess the trend in the proportions of children unvaccinated at 24months old, to identify sociodemographic factors associated with non-vaccination; and to examine changes in parental attitudes to vaccination over time. We conducted a population-based birth cohort study by combining existing electronic data sets. The study population consisted of children born from 1995 to 2010 in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia (FVG) region, and from 2007 to 2011 in part of the Emilia Romagna (ER) region, in north-eastern Italy. The immunization registers were linked with the medical birth registers, which contain sociodemographic data on both parents and the newborn. Unconditional logistic regressions were used to identify associations between vaccine uptake at 24months and maternal sociodemographic variables. Of 145,571 babies born in FVG and 75,308 in ER, there were 4222 (1.9%) who had not been vaccinated at all, and 23,948 (11.0%) without the optional measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination. The number of unvaccinated infants increased over time. Mothers who were over 35 or under 25years old, unmarried, with a higher formal education, and citizens of highly-developed countries were less compliant with vaccination recommendations in both the regions. A cohort effect was observed in FVG, for both educational level and citizenship: babies born between 1995 and 2000 to mothers without an Italian citizenship and with a lower formal education were more likely to refuse vaccination for their offspring, while this association was reversed between 2006 and 2010. Mothers who are Italian citizens and have a good formal education have begun to refuse vaccination for their children in recent years. Future public health action in this setting should target highly educated parents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Influence of ketamine on regional brain glucose use

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.W.; Mans, A.M.; Biebuyck, J.F.; Hawkins, R.A.

    1988-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different doses of ketamine on cerebral function at the level of individual brain structures as reflected by glucose use. Rats received either 5 or 30 mg/kg ketamine intravenously as a loading dose, followed by an infusion to maintain a steady-state level of the drug. An additional group received 30 mg/kg as a single injection only, and was studied 20 min later, by which time they were recovering consciousness (withdrawal group). Regional brain energy metabolism was evaluated with (6-/sup 14/C)glucose and quantitative autoradiography during a 5-min experimental period. A subhypnotic, steady-state dose (5 mg/kg) of ketamine caused a stimulation of glucose use in most brain areas, with an average increase of 20%. At the larger steady-state dose (30 mg/kg, which is sufficient to cause anesthesia), there was no significant effect on most brain regions; some sensory nuclei were depressed (inferior colliculus, -29%; cerebellar dentate nucleus, -18%; vestibular nucleus, -16%), but glucose use in the ventral posterior hippocampus was increased by 33%. In contrast, during withdrawal from a 30-mg/kg bolus, there was a stimulation of glucose use throughout the brain (21-78%), at a time when plasma ketamine levels were similar to the levels in the 5 mg/kg group. At each steady-state dose, as well as during withdrawal, ketamine caused a notable stimulation of glucose use by the hippocampus.

  12. The influence of regional feedbacks on circulation sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldl, N.; Frierson, D. M. W.; Roe, G. H.

    2014-03-01

    Weakening of the tropical overturning circulation in a warmer world is a robust feature in climate models. Here an idealized representation of ocean heat flux drives a Walker cell in an aquaplanet simulation. A goal of the study is to assess the influence of the Walker circulation on the magnitude and structure of climate feedbacks, as well as to global sensitivity. We compare two CO2 perturbation experiments, one with and one without a Walker circulation, to isolate the differences attributable to tropical circulation and associated zonal asymmetries. For an imposed Walker circulation, the subtropical shortwave cloud feedback is reduced, which manifests as a weaker tropical-subtropical anomalous energy gradient and consequently a weaker slow down of the Hadley circulation, relative to the case without a Walker circulation. By focusing on the coupled feedback circulation system, these results offer insights into understanding changes in atmospheric circulation and hence the hydrological cycle under global warming.

  13. Processes influencing rainfall features in the Amazonian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerken, T.; Chamecki, M.; Fuentes, J. D.; Katul, G. G.; Fitzjarrald, D. R.; Manzi, A. O.; Nascimento dos Santos, R. M.; von Randow, C.; Stoy, P. C.; Tota, J.; Trowbridge, A.; Schumacher, C.; Machado, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Amazon is globally unique as it experiences the deepest atmospheric convection with important teleconnections to other parts of the Earth's climate system. In the Amazon Basin a large fraction of the local evapotranspiration is recycled through the formation of deep convective precipitating storms. Deep convection occurs due to moist thermodynamic conditions associated with elevated amounts of convective available potential energy. Aerosols invigorate the formation of convective storms in the Amazon via their unique concentrations, physical size, and chemical composition to activate into cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), but important aspects of aerosol/precipitation feedbacks remain unresolved. During the wet season, low atmospheric aerosol concentrations prevail in the pristine tropical air masses. These conditions have led to the Green Ocean hypothesis, which compares the clean tropical air to maritime air-masses and emphasizes biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks, to explain the features of the convective-type rainfall events in the Amazon. Field studies have been designed to investigate these relationships and the development of mesoscale convective systems through the Green Ocean Amazon project and the GOAmazon Boundary Layer Experiment. From March to October 2014 a field experiment was conducted at the Cuieiras Biological Reserve (2°51' S, 54°58' W), 80 km north of the city of Manaus, Brazil. This investigation spans the biological, chemical, and physical conditions influencing emissions and reactions of precursors (biogenic and anthropogenic volatile organic compounds, VOCs), formation of aerosols and CCNs and transport out of the ABL, and their role in cloud formation and precipitation triggers. In this presentation we will show results on the magnitude turbulent fluxes of latent and sensible heat, CCN concentrations, and rain droplet size distribution for both the wet and dry season. Such influencing factors on precipitation, will be contrasted with the

  14. Slowly digestible starch influences mRNA abundance of glucose and short-chain fatty acid transporters in the porcine distal intestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Woodward, A D; Regmi, P R; Gänzle, M G; van Kempen, T A T G; Zijlstra, R T

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between starch chemistry and intestinal nutrient transporters is not well characterized. We hypothesized that inclusion of slowly instead of rapidly digestible starch in pig diets will decrease glucose and increase short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) transporter expression in the distal gut. Weaned barrows (n = 32) were fed 4 diets containing 70% starch [ranging from 0 to 63% amylose and from 1.06 (rapidly) to 0.22%/min (slowly) rate of in vitro digestion] at 3 × maintenance energy requirement in a complete randomized block design. Ileal and colon mucosa was collected on day 21 to quantify mRNA abundance of Na(+)-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1), monocarboxylic acid transporter 1 (MCT1), and Na(+)-coupled monocarboxylate transporter (SMCT). Messenger RNA was extracted and cDNA manufactured prior to relative quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Data were analyzed using the 2(-Δ ΔC)(T) method, with β-actin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as reference genes, and regression analysis was performed. As in vitro rate of digestion decreased, SGLT1 linearly increased (P < 0.05) in the ileum. Contrary to SGLT1, MCT1 tended to linearly decrease (P = 0.08) in the ileum and increased quadratically (P < 0.001) in the colon with decreasing rate of digestion. Starch digestion rate did not affect SMCT in the ileum; however, colonic SMCT quadratically decreased (P < 0.01) with decreasing rate of digestion. In conclusion, in contrast to our hypothesis, slowly digestible starch increased ileal glucose and decreased ileal SCFA transporter mRNA abundance, possibly due to an increased glucose in the luminal ileum. Effects of starch on colonic SCFA transporter mRNA abundance were inconsistent.

  15. Influence of Agricultural Practices on Micrometerological Spatial Variations at Local and Regional Scales

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfers significantly influence interactions and feedbacks between vegetation and boundary layer in relation with plant phenology and water status. The current study focused on linking micrometeorological conditions to cultural practices at the local and regional scales ...

  16. INFLUENCE OF AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES ON MICROMETEOROLOGICAL SPATIAL VARIATIONS AT THE LOCAL AND REGIONAL SCALES

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soil - vegetation - atmosphere transfers significantly influence interactions and feedbacks between vegetation and boundary layer, in relation with plant phenology and water status. The current study focused on linking micrometeorological conditions to cultural practices at the local and regional sc...

  17. Cloning, phylogeny, and regional expression of a Y5 receptor mRNA in the brain of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Fernández, Juan; Megías, Manuel; Pombal, Manuel A

    2014-04-01

    The NPY receptors known as Y receptors are classified into three subfamilies, Y1, Y2, and Y5, and are involved in different physiological functions. The Y5 receptor is the only member of the Y5 subfamily, and it is present in all vertebrate groups, except for teleosts. Both molecular and pharmacological studies show that Y5 receptor is highly conserved during vertebrate evolution. Furthermore, this receptor is widely expressed in the mammalian brain, including the hypothalamus, where it is thought to take part in feeding and homeostasis regulation. Lampreys belong to the agnathan lineage, and they are thought to have branched out between the two whole-genome duplications that occurred in vertebrates. Therefore, they are in a key position for studies on the evolution of gene families in vertebrates. Here we report the cloning, phylogeny, and brain expression pattern of the sea lamprey Y5 receptor. In phylogenetic studies, the lamprey Y5 receptor clusters in a basal position, together with Y5 receptors of other vertebrates. The mRNA of this receptor is broadly expressed in the lamprey brain, being especially abundant in hypothalamic areas. Its expression pattern is roughly similar to that reported for other vertebrates and parallels the expression pattern of the Y1 receptor subtype previously described by our group, as it occurs in mammals. Altogether, these results confirm that a Y5 receptor is present in lampreys, thus being highly conserved during the evolution of vertebrates, and suggest that it is involved in many brain functions, the only known exception being teleosts.

  18. Epigenome-wide association study suggests that SNPs in the promoter region of RETN influence plasma resistin level via effects on DNA methylation at neighbouring sites.

    PubMed

    Nakatochi, Masahiro; Ichihara, Sahoko; Yamamoto, Ken; Ohnaka, Keizo; Kato, Yosuke; Yokota, Shigeki; Hirashiki, Akihiro; Naruse, Keiko; Asano, Hiroyuki; Izawa, Hideo; Matsubara, Tatsuaki; Yokota, Mitsuhiro

    2015-12-01

    To investigate epigenetic regulation of the plasma concentration of resistin, we performed an epigenome-wide association study for this variable and DNA methylation (DNAm) in an elderly Japanese cohort and then assessed the relation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the plasma resistin concentration to DNAm level at identified sites. The association of plasma resistin level with DNAm status was examined in 191 nondiabetic elderly men with the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. The association between DNAm status at specific sites in the flanking region of the resistin gene (RETN) and RETN mRNA abundance was then evaluated with a public data set for 1202 monocyte samples from a multi-ethnic cohort. Finally, the association of DNAm status and SNPs in the promoter region of RETN was assessed in two cohorts comprising a total of 478 Japanese individuals. DNAm status at cg02346997 located in the RETN promoter region showed a negative genome-wide significant association with the plasma resistin level (p = 6.02 × 10(-10)). Four DNAm sites in the RETN promoter region including cg02346997 (p = 4.23 × 10(-70)) showed a negative genome-wide significant association with RETN mRNA abundance in monocytes. Furthermore, the number of minor alleles of the RETN promoter SNPs rs34861192 and rs3219175 was negatively associated with DNAm level at cg02346997 (p = 4.43 × 10(-17)). Our results suggest that RETN promoter SNPs might influence the circulating resistin level through an effect on DNAm at cg02346997 and on RETN mRNA abundance in monocytes.

  19. Single base mismatches in the mRNA target site allow specific seed region-mediated off-target binding of siRNA targeting human coagulation factor 7.

    PubMed

    Ravon, Morgane; Berrera, Marco; Ebeling, Martin; Certa, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    We have analyzed the off-target activity of two siRNAs (F7-1, F7-2) that knock-down human blood coagulation factor 7 mRNA. F7-1 modulates a significant number of non-target transcripts while F7-2 shows high selectivity for the target transcript under various experimental conditions. The 3'-UTRs of all F7-1 off-target genes show statistically significant enrichment of the reverse complement of the F7-1 siRNA seed region located in the guide strand. Seed region enrichment was confirmed in off-target transcripts modulated by siRNA targeting the glucocorticoid receptor. To investigate how these sites contribute to off-target recognition of F7-1, we employed CXCL5 transcript as model system because it contains five F7-1 seed sequence motifs with single base mismatches. We show by transient transfection of reporter gene constructs into HEK293 cells that three out of five sites located in the 3'-UTR region are required for F7-1 off-target activity. For further mechanistic dissection, the sequences of these sites were synthesized and inserted either individually or joined in dimeric or trimeric constructs. Only the fusion constructs were silenced by F7-1 while the individual sites had no off-target activity. Based on F7-1 as a model, a single mismatch between the siRNA seed region and mRNA target sites is tolerated for target recognition and the CXCL5 data suggest a requirement for binding to multiple target sites in off-target transcripts.

  20. Single base mismatches in the mRNA target site allow specific seed region-mediated off-target binding of siRNA targeting human coagulation factor 7

    PubMed Central

    Ravon, Morgane; Berrera, Marco; Ebeling, Martin; Certa, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    We have analyzed the off-target activity of two siRNAs (F7-1, F7-2) that knock-down human blood coagulation factor 7 mRNA. F7-1 modulates a significant number of non-target transcripts while F7-2 shows high selectivity for the target transcript under various experimental conditions. The 3′-UTRs of all F7-1 off-target genes show statistically significant enrichment of the reverse complement of the F7-1 siRNA seed region located in the guide strand. Seed region enrichment was confirmed in off-target transcripts modulated by siRNA targeting the glucocorticoid receptor. To investigate how these sites contribute to off-target recognition of F7-1, we employed CXCL5 transcript as model system because it contains five F7-1 seed sequence motifs with single base mismatches. We show by transient transfection of reporter gene constructs into HEK293 cells that three out of five sites located in the 3′-UTR region are required for F7-1 off-target activity. For further mechanistic dissection, the sequences of these sites were synthesized and inserted either individually or joined in dimeric or trimeric constructs. Only the fusion constructs were silenced by F7-1 while the individual sites had no off-target activity. Based on F7-1 as a model, a single mismatch between the siRNA seed region and mRNA target sites is tolerated for target recognition and the CXCL5 data suggest a requirement for binding to multiple target sites in off-target transcripts. PMID:22258146

  1. Influence of Lake Malawi on regional climate from a double-nested regional climate model experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diallo, Ismaïla; Giorgi, Filippo; Stordal, Frode

    2017-07-01

    We evaluate the performance of the regional climate model (RCM) RegCM4 coupled to a one dimensional lake model for Lake Malawi (also known as Lake Nyasa in Tanzania and Lago Niassa in Mozambique) in simulating the main characteristics of rainfall and near surface air temperature patterns over the region. We further investigate the impact of the lake on the simulated regional climate. Two RCM simulations, one with and one without Lake Malawi, are performed for the period 1992-2008 at a grid spacing of 10 km by nesting the model within a corresponding 25 km resolution run ("mother domain") encompassing all Southern Africa. The performance of the model in simulating the mean seasonal patterns of near surface air temperature and precipitation is good compared with previous applications of this model. The temperature biases are generally less than 2.5 °C, while the seasonal cycle of precipitation over the region matches observations well. Moreover, the one-dimensional lake model reproduces fairly well the geographical pattern of observed (from satellite measurements) lake surface temperature as well as its mean month-to-month evolution. The Malawi Lake-effects on the moisture and atmospheric circulation of the surrounding region result in an increase of water vapor mixing ratio due to increased evaporation in the presence of the lake, which combines with enhanced rising motions and low-level moisture convergence to yield a significant precipitation increase over the lake and neighboring areas during the whole austral summer rainy season.

  2. Alteration in NMDA receptor subunit mRNA expression in vulnerable and resistant regions of in vitro ischemic rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Small, D L; Poulter, M O; Buchan, A M; Morley, P

    1997-08-29

    Brain insults, including cerebral ischemia, can alter glutamate receptor subunit expression in vulnerable neurons. Understanding these post-ischemic changes in glutamate receptors could enhance our ability to identify specific, novel neuroprotective compounds. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification was used to quantify the altered expression of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) NR2A, NR2B and NR2C subunits relative to one another in rat hippocampal slices in resistant and vulnerable regions following in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation. Ninety minutes after re-oxygenation and return to 10 mM glucose, there was a significant increase in the expression of NR2C relative to NR2B and NR2A in the slice as a whole, as well as in the selectively vulnerable CA1 region and the resistant CA3 and dentate gyrus regions.

  3. Mapping contacts of the S12-S7 intercistronic region of str operon mRNA with ribosomal protein S7 of E. coli.

    PubMed

    Golovin, Andrey; Spiridonova, Vera; Kopylov, Alexei

    2006-10-30

    In E. coli, S7 initiates 30S ribosome assembly by binding to 16S rRNA. It also regulates translation of the S12 and S7 cistrons of the 'streptomycin' operon transcript by binding to the S12-S7 intercistronic region. Here, we describe the contacts of N-terminally His(6)-tagged S7 with this region as mapped by UV-induced cross-linking. The cross-links are located at U(-34), U(-35), quite distant from the start codons of the two cistrons. In order to explain the mechanism of translational repression of S12-S7, we consider a possible conformational rearrangement of the intercistronic RNA structure induced by S7 binding.

  4. Regulation of Rev expression by the equine infectious anaemia virus tat-rev mRNA Kozak sequence and its potential influence on viral replication.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Zhang, Zeli; Yao, Qiucheng; Su, Chao; Yin, Xin; Wang, Xiaojun

    2016-09-01

    Rev, an important accessory protein of equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV), induces the nuclear export of incompletely spliced viral mRNAs. Rev is translated from the tat-rev mRNA through leaky scanning of the tat CUG. In this study, the function of the Kozak sequence at the beginning of the rev ORF was investigated. Deletion or attenuation of the Kozak sequence resulted in expression of an N-terminal 11  aa-truncated Rev in addition to WT Rev. Truncated Rev displayed weaker promotion of Gag expression and processing than WT Rev. Furthermore, EIAV rescued from an infectious molecular clone (pEIAVUK3) with Kozak attenuation exhibited decreased viral replication in host cells in vitro. These results provide a new understanding of the relationship between EIAV Rev expression and viral replication.

  5. Mild stress induces brain region-specific alterations of selective ER stress markers' mRNA expression in Wfs1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Altperery, A; Raud, S; Sütt, S; Reimets, R; Visnapuu, T; Toots, M; Vasar, E

    2017-09-26

    In this work, the effect of mild stress (elevated plus maze test, EPM) on the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers in different brain areas of wild type (WT) and Wfs1-deficient (Wfs1KO) mice was investigated. The following ER stress markers were studied: activating transcription factor 6α (Atf6α), protein kinase-like ER kinase (Perk), X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1) and its spliced form (Xbp1s), 78-kilodalton glucose regulated protein (Grp78), 94-kilodalton glucose regulated protein (Grp94), C/EBP homologous protein (Chop). Wfs1KO and WT mice, not exposed to EPM, had similar patterns of ER stress markers in the studied brain areas. The exploratory activity of Wfs1KO mice in the EPM was inhibited compared to WT mice, probably reflecting increased anxiety in genetically modified mice. In response to the EPM, activation of inositol-requiring transmembrane kinase and endonuclease 1α (Ire1α) ER stress pathway was seen in both genotypes, but in different brain areas. Such a brain region-specific Ire1α activation was linked with dominant behavioural trends in these mice as more anxious, neophobic Wfs1KO mice had increased ER stress markers expression in the temporal lobe, the brain region related to anxiety, and more curious WT mice had ER stress markers increased in the ventral striatum which is related to the exploratory drive. The molecular mechanism triggering respective changes in ER stress markers in these brain regions is likely related to altered levels of monoamine neurotransmitters (serotonin, dopamine) in Wfs1KO mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. An AU-Rich Sequence Element (UUUN[A/U]U) Downstream of the Edited C in Apolipoprotein B mRNA Is a High-Affinity Binding Site for Apobec-1: Binding of Apobec-1 to This Motif in the 3′ Untranslated Region of c-myc Increases mRNA Stability

    PubMed Central

    Anant, Shrikant; Davidson, Nicholas O.

    2000-01-01

    Apobec-1, the catalytic subunit of the mammalian apolipoprotein B (apoB) mRNA-editing enzyme, is a cytidine deaminase with RNA binding activity for AU-rich sequences. This RNA binding activity is required for Apobec-1 to mediate C-to-U RNA editing. Filter binding assays, using immobilized Apobec-1, demonstrate saturable binding to a 105-nt apoB RNA with a Kd of ∼435 nM. A series of AU-rich templates was used to identify a high-affinity (∼50 nM) binding site of consensus sequence UUUN[A/U]U, with multiple copies of this sequence constituting the high-affinity binding site. In order to determine whether this consensus site could be functionally demonstrated from within an apoB RNA, circular-permutation analysis was performed, revealing one major (UUUGAU) and one minor (UU) site located 3 and 16 nucleotides, respectively, downstream of the edited base. Secondary-structure predictions reveal a stem-loop flanking the edited base with Apobec-1 binding to the consensus site(s) at an open loop. A similar consensus (AUUUA) is present in the 3′ untranslated regions of several mRNAs, including that of c-myc, that are known to undergo rapid degradation. In this context, it is presumed that the consensus motif acts as a destabilizing element. As an independent test of the ability of Apobec-1 to bind to this sequence, F442A cells were transfected with Apobec-1 and the half-life of c-myc mRNA was determined following actinomycin D treatment. These studies demonstrated an increase in the half-life of c-myc mRNA from 90 to 240 min in control versus Apobec-1-expressing cells. Apobec-1 expression mutants, in which RNA binding activity is eliminated, failed to alter c-myc mRNA turnover. Taken together, the data establish a consensus binding site for Apobec-1 embedded in proximity to the edited base in apoB RNA. Binding to this site in other target RNAs raises the possibility that Apobec-1 may be involved in other aspects of RNA metabolism, independent of its role as an apoB RNA

  7. MicroRNA-296 is enriched in cancer cells and downregulates p21WAF1 mRNA expression via interaction with its 3' untranslated region.

    PubMed

    Yoon, A-rum; Gao, Ran; Kaul, Zeenia; Choi, Il-Kyu; Ryu, Jihoon; Noble, Jane R; Kato, Yoshio; Saito, Soichiro; Hirano, Takashi; Ishii, Tetsuro; Reddel, Roger R; Yun, Chae-Ok; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu

    2011-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding small RNAs that act as negative regulators of gene expression. To identify miRNAs that may regulate human cell immortalization and carcinogenesis, we performed comparative miRNA array profiling of human normal and SV40-T antigen immortalized cells. We found that miR-296 was upregulated in immortalized cells that also had activation of telomerase. By an independent experiment on genomic analysis of cancer cells we found that chromosome region (20q13.32), where miR-296 is located, was amplified in 28/36 cell lines, and most of these showed enriched miR-296 expression. Overexpression of miR-296 in human cancer cells, with and without telomerase activity, had no effect on their telomerase function. Instead, it suppressed p53 function that is frequently downregulated during human cell immortalization and carcinogenesis. By monitoring the activity of a luciferase reporter connected to p53 and p21(WAF1) (p21) untranslated regions (UTRs), we demonstrate that miR-296 interacts with the p21-3'UTR, and the Hu binding site of p21-3'UTR was identified as a potential miR-296 target site. We demonstrate for the first time that miR-296 is frequently upregulated during immortalization of human cells and contributes to carcinogenesis by downregulation of p53-p21(WAF1) pathway.

  8. Strong influence of regional species pools on continent-wide structuring of local communities.

    PubMed

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Borregaard, Michael K; Fordyce, James A; Rahbek, Carsten; Weiser, Michael D; Dunn, Robert R; Sanders, Nathan J

    2012-01-22

    There is a long tradition in ecology of evaluating the relative contribution of the regional species pool and local interactions on the structure of local communities. Similarly, a growing number of studies assess the phylogenetic structure of communities, relative to that in the regional species pool, to examine the interplay between broad-scale evolutionary and fine-scale ecological processes. Finally, a renewed interest in the influence of species source pools on communities has shown that the definition of the source pool influences interpretations of patterns of community structure. We use a continent-wide dataset of local ant communities and implement ecologically explicit source pool definitions to examine the relative importance of regional species pools and local interactions for shaping community structure. Then we assess which factors underlie systematic variation in the structure of communities along climatic gradients. We find that the average phylogenetic relatedness of species in ant communities decreases from tropical to temperate regions, but the strength of this relationship depends on the level of ecological realism in the definition of source pools. We conclude that the evolution of climatic niches influences the phylogenetic structure of regional source pools and that the influence of regional source pools on local community structure is strong.

  9. Influence of climate change on the water resources in an alpine region.

    PubMed

    De Toffol, S; Engelhard, C; Rauch, W

    2008-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the global warming will impact on water resources. This study investigates the possible influence of climate change on the water resources in an alpine region. A description of the actual situation with emphasis on the water resources from the one side and on the water consuming factors, here called stressors, is given. The probable effects of climate change in the region and their influence on its water resources are then described. The main outcome is that in the analysed region the climate change will rather have positive influence on the water balance by inducing higher precipitations during the rivers' natural low flow period (winter). This outcome contradicts many common predictions, however, this due to the specifics induced by the alpine nature of the catchment. Copyright IWA Publishing 2008.

  10. An analysis of region-of-influence methods for flood regionalization in the Gulf-Atlantic Rolling Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eng, K.; Tasker, Gary D.; Milly, P.C.D.

    2005-01-01

    Region-of-influence (RoI) approaches for estimating streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites were applied and evaluated in a case study of the 50-year peak discharge in the Gulf-Atlantic Rolling Plains of the southeastern United States. Linear regression against basin characteristics was performed for each ungaged site considered based on data from a region of influence containing the n closest gages in predictor variable (PRoI) or geographic (GRoI) space. Augmentation of this count based cutoff by a distance based cutoff also was considered. Prediction errors were evaluated for an independent (split-sampled) dataset. For the dataset and metrics considered here: (1) for either PRoI or GRoI, optimal results were found when the simpler count based cutoff, rather than the distance augmented cutoff, was used; (2) GRoI produced lower error than PRoI when applied indiscriminately over the entire study region; (3) PRoI performance improved considerably when RoI was restricted to predefined geographic subregions.

  11. Regulation of cytoplasmic mRNA decay

    PubMed Central

    Schoenberg, Daniel R.; Maquat, Lynne E.

    2012-01-01

    Discoveries made over the past 20 years highlight the importance of mRNA decay as a means to modulate gene expression and thereby protein production. Up until recently, studies focused largely on identifying cis-acting sequences that serve as mRNA stability or instability elements, the proteins that bind these elements, how the process of translation influences mRNA decay, and the ribonucleases that catalyze decay. Now, current studies have begun to elucidate how the decay process is regulated. This review examines our current understanding of how mammalian-cell mRNA decay is controlled by different signaling pathways and lays out a framework for future research. PMID:22392217

  12. The Influence of Spirulina platensis Filtrates on Caco-2 Proliferative Activity and Expression of Apoptosis-Related microRNAs and mRNA.

    PubMed

    Śmieszek, Agnieszka; Giezek, Ewa; Chrapiec, Martyna; Murat, Martyna; Mucha, Aleksandra; Michalak, Izabela; Marycz, Krzysztof

    2017-03-07

    Spirulina platensis (SP) is a blue-green microalga that has recently raised attention not only as a nutritional component, but also as a source of bioactivities that have therapeutic effects and may find application in medicine, including cancer treatment. In the present study we determined the cytotoxic effect of S. platensis filtrates (SPF) on human colon cancer cell line Caco-2. Three concentrations of SPF were tested-1.25%, 2.5%, and 5% (v/v). We have found that the highest concentration of SPF exerts the strongest anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effect on Caco-2 cultures. The SPF negatively affected the morphology of Caco-2 causing colony shrinking and significant inhibition of metabolic and proliferative activity of cells. The wound-healing assay showed that the SPF impaired migratory capabilities of Caco-2. This observation was consistent with lowered mRNA levels for metalloproteinases. Furthermore, SPF decreased the transcript level of pro-survival genes (cyclin D1, surviving, and c-Myc) and reduced the autocrine secretion of Wnt-10b. The cytotoxic effect of SPF involved the modulation of the Bax and Bcl-2 ratio and a decrease of mitochondrial activity, and was related with increased levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). Moreover, the SPF also caused an increased number of cells in the apoptotic sub-G0 phase and up-regulated expression of mir-145, simultaneously decreasing expression of mir-17 and 146. Obtained results indicate that SPF can be considered as an agent with anti-cancer properties that may be used for colon cancer prevention and treatment.

  13. Suppression of p75 Neurotrophin Receptor Surface Expression with Intrabodies Influences Bcl-xL mRNA Expression and Neurite Outgrowth in PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Congcong; Helmsing, Saskia; Zagrebelsky, Marta; Schirrmann, Thomas; Marschall, Andrea L. J.; Schüngel, Manuela; Korte, Martin; Hust, Michael; Dübel, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Background Although p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) is the first neurotrophin receptor isolated, its diverse physiological functions and signaling have remained elusive for many years. Loss-of-function phenotypic analyses for p75NTR were mainly focused at the genetic level; however these approaches were impacted by off-target effect, insufficient stability, unspecific stress response or alternative active splicing products. In this study, p75NTR surface expression was suppressed for the first time at the protein level by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retained intrabodies. Results Three monoclonal recombinant antibody fragments (scFv) with affinities in the low nanomolar range to murine p75NTR were isolated by antibody phage display. To suppress p75NTR cell surface expression, the encoding genes of these scFvs extended by the ER retention peptide KDEL were transiently transfected into the neuron-like rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC12 and the mouse neuroblastoma x mouse spinal cord hybrid cell line NSC19. The ER retained intrabody construct, SH325-G7-KDEL, mediated a downregulation of p75NTR cell surface expression as shown by flow cytometry. This effect was maintained over a period of at least eight days without activating an unfolded protein response (UPR). Moreover, the ER retention of p75NTR resulted in downregulation of mRNA levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL as well as in strong inhibition of NGF-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Conclusion The ER retained intrabody SH325-G7-KDEL not only induces phenotypic knockdown of this p75NTR but also p75NTR-associated cellular responses in PC12 cells. PMID:22292018

  14. The Influence of Spirulina platensis Filtrates on Caco-2 Proliferative Activity and Expression of Apoptosis-Related microRNAs and mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Śmieszek, Agnieszka; Giezek, Ewa; Chrapiec, Martyna; Murat, Martyna; Mucha, Aleksandra; Michalak, Izabela; Marycz, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Spirulina platensis (SP) is a blue-green microalga that has recently raised attention not only as a nutritional component, but also as a source of bioactivities that have therapeutic effects and may find application in medicine, including cancer treatment. In the present study we determined the cytotoxic effect of S. platensis filtrates (SPF) on human colon cancer cell line Caco-2. Three concentrations of SPF were tested—1.25%, 2.5%, and 5% (v/v). We have found that the highest concentration of SPF exerts the strongest anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effect on Caco-2 cultures. The SPF negatively affected the morphology of Caco-2 causing colony shrinking and significant inhibition of metabolic and proliferative activity of cells. The wound-healing assay showed that the SPF impaired migratory capabilities of Caco-2. This observation was consistent with lowered mRNA levels for metalloproteinases. Furthermore, SPF decreased the transcript level of pro-survival genes (cyclin D1, surviving, and c-Myc) and reduced the autocrine secretion of Wnt-10b. The cytotoxic effect of SPF involved the modulation of the Bax and Bcl-2 ratio and a decrease of mitochondrial activity, and was related with increased levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). Moreover, the SPF also caused an increased number of cells in the apoptotic sub-G0 phase and up-regulated expression of mir-145, simultaneously decreasing expression of mir-17 and 146. Obtained results indicate that SPF can be considered as an agent with anti-cancer properties that may be used for colon cancer prevention and treatment. PMID:28272349

  15. Yersinia enterocolitica Type III Secretion: yscM1 and yscM2 Regulate yop Gene Expression by a Posttranscriptional Mechanism That Targets the 5′ Untranslated Region of yop mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Cambronne, Eric D.; Schneewind, Olaf

    2002-01-01

    Pathogenic Yersinia spp. secrete Yops (Yersinia outer proteins) via the type III pathway. The expression of yop genes is regulated in response to environmental cues, which results in a cascade of type III secretion reactions. yscM1 and yscM2 negatively regulate the expression of Yersinia enterocolitica yop genes. It is demonstrated that yopD and lcrH are required for yscM1 and yscM2 function and that all four genes act synergistically at the same regulatory step. Further, SycH binding to the protein products of yscM1 and yscM2 can activate yop gene expression even without promoting type III transport of YscM1 and YscM2. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis of yopQ mRNA as well as yopQ and yopE gene fusion experiments with the npt (neomycin phosphotransferase) reporter suggest that yscM1 and yscM2 regulate expression at a posttranscriptional step. The 178-nucleotide 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of yopQ mRNA was sufficient to confer yscM1 and yscM2-mediated regulation on the fused reporter, as was the 28-nucleotide UTR of yopE. The sequence 5′-AUAAA-3′ is located in the 5′ yop UTRs, and mutations that alter the sequence motif either reduced or abolished yscM1- and yscM2-mediated regulation. A model is proposed whereby YopD, LcrH, YscM1, YscM2, and SycH regulate yop expression in response to specific environmental cues and by a mechanism that may involve binding of some of these factors to a specific target sequence within the UTR of yop mRNAs. PMID:12374821

  16. CsrA represses translation of sdiA, which encodes the N-acylhomoserine-L-lactone receptor of Escherichia coli, by binding exclusively within the coding region of sdiA mRNA.

    PubMed

    Yakhnin, Helen; Baker, Carol S; Berezin, Igor; Evangelista, Michael A; Rassin, Alisa; Romeo, Tony; Babitzke, Paul

    2011-11-01

    The RNA binding protein CsrA is the central component of a conserved global regulatory system that activates or represses gene expression posttranscriptionally. In every known example of CsrA-mediated translational control, CsrA binds to the 5' untranslated region of target transcripts, thereby repressing translation initiation and/or altering the stability of the RNA. Furthermore, with few exceptions, repression by CsrA involves binding directly to the Shine-Dalgarno sequence and blocking ribosome binding. sdiA encodes the quorum-sensing receptor for N-acyl-l-homoserine lactone in Escherichia coli. Because sdiA indirectly stimulates transcription of csrB, which encodes a small RNA (sRNA) antagonist of CsrA, we further explored the relationship between sdiA and the Csr system. Primer extension analysis revealed four putative transcription start sites within 85 nucleotides of the sdiA initiation codon. Potential σ(70)-dependent promoters were identified for each of these primer extension products. In addition, two CsrA binding sites were predicted in the initially translated region of sdiA. Expression of chromosomally integrated sdiA'-'lacZ translational fusions containing the entire promoter and CsrA binding site regions indicates that CsrA represses sdiA expression. The results from gel shift and footprint studies demonstrate that tight binding of CsrA requires both of these sites. Furthermore, the results from toeprint and in vitro translation experiments indicate that CsrA represses translation of sdiA by directly competing with 30S ribosomal subunit binding. Thus, this represents the first example of CsrA preventing translation by interacting solely within the coding region of an mRNA target.

  17. CsrA Represses Translation of sdiA, Which Encodes the N-Acylhomoserine-l-Lactone Receptor of Escherichia coli, by Binding Exclusively within the Coding Region of sdiA mRNA ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Yakhnin, Helen; Baker, Carol S.; Berezin, Igor; Evangelista, Michael A.; Rassin, Alisa; Romeo, Tony; Babitzke, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The RNA binding protein CsrA is the central component of a conserved global regulatory system that activates or represses gene expression posttranscriptionally. In every known example of CsrA-mediated translational control, CsrA binds to the 5′ untranslated region of target transcripts, thereby repressing translation initiation and/or altering the stability of the RNA. Furthermore, with few exceptions, repression by CsrA involves binding directly to the Shine-Dalgarno sequence and blocking ribosome binding. sdiA encodes the quorum-sensing receptor for N-acyl-l-homoserine lactone in Escherichia coli. Because sdiA indirectly stimulates transcription of csrB, which encodes a small RNA (sRNA) antagonist of CsrA, we further explored the relationship between sdiA and the Csr system. Primer extension analysis revealed four putative transcription start sites within 85 nucleotides of the sdiA initiation codon. Potential σ70-dependent promoters were identified for each of these primer extension products. In addition, two CsrA binding sites were predicted in the initially translated region of sdiA. Expression of chromosomally integrated sdiA′-′lacZ translational fusions containing the entire promoter and CsrA binding site regions indicates that CsrA represses sdiA expression. The results from gel shift and footprint studies demonstrate that tight binding of CsrA requires both of these sites. Furthermore, the results from toeprint and in vitro translation experiments indicate that CsrA represses translation of sdiA by directly competing with 30S ribosomal subunit binding. Thus, this represents the first example of CsrA preventing translation by interacting solely within the coding region of an mRNA target. PMID:21908661

  18. Daily rhythms in activity and mRNA abundance of enzymes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism in liver of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Influence of light and food availability.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Pérez, Juan; Míguez, Jesús M; Librán-Pérez, Marta; Otero-Rodiño, Cristina; Naderi, Fatemeh; Soengas, José L; López-Patiño, Marcos A

    2015-01-01

    The present research aimed to investigate in a model of teleost fish (rainbow trout) the existence of daily changes in activity and mRNA abundance of several proteins involved in major pathways of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in liver, and to test whether or not both the light-dark cycle and food availability might influence such rhythms. For this purpose, four cohorts of animals previously adapted to normal housing conditions (12L:12D; Lights on at ZT0; feeding time at ZT2) were subjected to: normal conditions (LD); 48-h constant darkness (DD); 96-h food deprivation (LD + Fasting); or constant darkness and food deprivation (DD + Fasting) respectively. After such time periods, fish were sacrificed and sampled every 4-h on the following 24-h period (ZT/CT0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 0'). Our results reveal that cortisol and all the analysed genes (gk, pepck, g6pase, pk, glut2, hoad and fas) exhibited well defined daily rhythms, which persisted even in the absence of light and/or food indicating the endogenous nature of such rhythms. Even when the variations of enzyme activities were not significant, their rhythms mostly paralleled those of the respective gene expression. The rhythms of mRNA abundance were apparently dependent on the presence of food, but the light/dark cycle also influenced such rhythms. Since cortisol does not appear to be mainly involved in generating such daily rhythms in liver, alternative mechanisms might be involved, such as a direct interaction between metabolism and the circadian system.

  19. Global, Regional and Local Influences on Adult Literacy Policy in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between global, regional and local influences on adult literacy policy and practice in the UK through a discourse analysis of policy-related texts. The analysis is framed by theoretical perspectives from literacy studies and socio-material theory. The paper identifies a number of specific features in the UK…

  20. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENTS OF SPATIAL INFLUENCES IN THE AMBOS NOGALES REGION OF THE US-MEXICAN BORDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air measurements collected from 1994 to 1995 were used in a preliminary assessment of potential source and spatial influences in the Ambos Nogales border region (Nogales, Arizona, USA and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico). In this assessment, volatile organic compounds (VOC) and...

  1. Global, Regional and Local Influences on Adult Literacy Policy in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between global, regional and local influences on adult literacy policy and practice in the UK through a discourse analysis of policy-related texts. The analysis is framed by theoretical perspectives from literacy studies and socio-material theory. The paper identifies a number of specific features in the UK…

  2. PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENTS OF SPATIAL INFLUENCES IN THE AMBOS NOGALES REGION OF THE US-MEXICAN BORDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient air measurements collected from 1994 to 1995 were used in a preliminary assessment of potential source and spatial influences in the Ambos Nogales border region (Nogales, Arizona, USA and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico). In this assessment, volatile organic compounds (VOC) and...

  3. Regional variation of climatic influences on West Nile virus outbreaks in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wimberly, Michael C; Lamsal, Aashis; Giacomo, Paolla; Chuang, Ting-Wu

    2014-10-01

    The national resurgence of human West Nile virus (WNV) disease in 2012 raised questions about the factors responsible for WNV outbreaks. Interannual climatic variations may influence WNV amplification and transmission to humans through multiple pathways, including mosquito breeding habitats, gonotrophic cycles, extrinsic incubation, avian communities, and human behavior. We examined the influences of temperature and precipitation anomalies on interannual variation in human WNV cases in three regions of the United States. There were consistent positive influences of winter temperatures, weaker and more variable positive effects of spring and summer temperatures, and highly variable precipitation effects that ranged from positive to negative. The overwintering period may be a particularly important climatic constraint on the dynamics of WNV in cold-temperate regions of North America. Geographic differences in the seasonal timing and relative importance of climatic drivers of WNV risk likely reflect underlying variability in key ecological and social characteristics.

  4. Regional Variation of Climatic Influences on West Nile Virus Outbreaks in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wimberly, Michael C.; Lamsal, Aashis; Giacomo, Paolla; Chuang, Ting-Wu

    2014-01-01

    The national resurgence of human West Nile virus (WNV) disease in 2012 raised questions about the factors responsible for WNV outbreaks. Interannual climatic variations may influence WNV amplification and transmission to humans through multiple pathways, including mosquito breeding habitats, gonotrophic cycles, extrinsic incubation, avian communities, and human behavior. We examined the influences of temperature and precipitation anomalies on interannual variation in human WNV cases in three regions of the United States. There were consistent positive influences of winter temperatures, weaker and more variable positive effects of spring and summer temperatures, and highly variable precipitation effects that ranged from positive to negative. The overwintering period may be a particularly important climatic constraint on the dynamics of WNV in cold-temperate regions of North America. Geographic differences in the seasonal timing and relative importance of climatic drivers of WNV risk likely reflect underlying variability in key ecological and social characteristics. PMID:25092814

  5. Influence of static habitat attributes on local and regional Rocky intertidal community structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konar, B.; Iken, K.; Coletti, H.; Monson, Daniel H.; Weitzman, Ben P.

    2016-01-01

    Rocky intertidal communities are structured by local environmental drivers, which can be dynamic, fluctuating on various temporal scales, or static and not greatly varying across years. We examined the role of six static drivers (distance to freshwater, tidewater glacial presence, wave exposure, fetch, beach slope, and substrate composition) on intertidal community structure across the northern Gulf of Alaska. We hypothesized that community structure is less similar at the local scale compared with the regional scale, coinciding with static drivers being less similar on smaller than larger scales. We also hypothesized that static attributes mainly drive local biological community structure. For this, we surveyed five to six sites in each of the six regions in the mid and low intertidal strata. Across regions, static attributes were not consistently different and only small clusters of sites had similar attributes. Additionally, intertidal communities were less similar on the site compared with the region level. These results suggest that these biological communities are not strongly influenced by the local static attributes measured in this study. An alternative explanation is that static attributes among our regions are not different enough to influence the biological communities. This lack of evidence for a strong static driver may be a result of our site selection, which targeted rocky sheltered communities. This suggests that this habitat may be ideal to examine the influence of dynamic drivers. We recommend that future analyses of dynamic attributes may best be performed after analyses have demonstrated that sites do not differ in static attributes.

  6. Influence of cartilage interstitial fluid on the mRNA levels of matrix proteins, cytokines, metalloproteases and their inhibitors in synovial membrane.

    PubMed

    Hyc, Anna; Moskalewski, Stanislaw; Osiecka-Iwan, Anna

    2016-09-01

    Articular cartilage and the synovial membrane both ensure the smooth action of synovial joints; however, the influence of chondrocytes on synovial metabolism remains unclear. The secretory activity of chondrocytes is usually studied in cell cultures and may differ from that in intact cartilage. According to McCutchen's theory of 'weeping' joint lubrication, loading of the articular cartilage during motion squeezes the fluid with lubricating properties from the cartilage. The purpose of the study was to obtain cartilage interstitial fluid (CIF) from intact cartilage and to evaluate its influence on gene expression in the synovial membrane cells. CIF was rinsed out from the cartilage of newborn rats at a pressure of three bar. The chondrocytes survived rinsing and grew in culture. Cytokines in CIF were detected using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The influence of CIF and CIF-like cocktail (all cytokines found in CIF) on gene expression in the synovial membrane cells was studied after a 4 h-incubation, by real-time PCR. Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon matched-pair test or by the Mann‑Whitney U test. CIF contained basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)‑1, transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7), macrophage (M)-colony-stimulating factor (CSF), granulocyte (G)-CSF and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). CIF stimulated the expression of hyaluronan synthase (HAS)1 and 2, lubricin, collagen I, versican, aggrecan, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)2 and 3, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) 1-3, interleukin (IL)-6 and TGFβ1, and decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-1β. Incubation of the synovial membrane with CIF-like cocktail partially imitated the effects of CIF. Analysis of CIF composition may help to characterize the secretory activity of chondrocytes in their natural environment under various physiological and

  7. Individual and coupled influences of AMO and ENSO on regional precipitation characteristics and extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goly, Aneesh; Teegavarapu, Ramesh S. V.

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the influences of Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) and El Niño southern oscillation (ENSO) on regional precipitation extremes and characteristics in the state of Florida is the focus of this study. Exhaustive evaluations of individual and combined influences of these oscillations using, descriptive indices-based assessment of statistically significant changes in rainfall characteristics, identification of spatially varying influences of oscillations on dry and wet spell transition states, antecedent precipitation prior to extreme events, intraevent temporal distribution of precipitation and changes in temporal occurrences of extremes including dry/wet cycles are carried out. Rain gage and gridded precipitation data analysis using parametric hypothesis tests confirm statistically significant changes in the precipitation characteristics from one phase to another of each oscillation and also in coupled phases. Spatially nonuniform and uniform influences of AMO and ENSO, respectively, on precipitation are evident. AMO influences vary in peninsular and continental parts of Florida and the warm (cool) phase of AMO contributes to increased precipitation extremes during wet (dry) season. The influence of ENSO is confined to dry season with El Niño (La Niña) contributing to increase (decrease) in extremes and total precipitation. Wetter antecedent conditions preceding daily extremes are dominant in AMO warm phase compared to the cool and are likely to impact design floods in the region. AMO influence on dry season precipitation extremes is noted for ENSO neutral years. The two oscillations in different phases modulate each other with seasonal and spatially varying impacts and implications on flood control and water supply in the region.

  8. Regional Influence of Aerosol Emissions from Wildfires Driven by Combustion Efficiency: Insights from the BBOP Campaign

    DOE PAGES

    Collier, Sonya; Zhou, Shan; Onasch, Timothy B.; ...

    2016-07-11

    Wildfires are important contributors to atmospheric aerosols and a large source of emissions that impact regional air quality and global climate. In this study, the regional and nearfield influences of wildfire emissions on ambient aerosol concentration and chemical properties in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States were studied using real-time measurements from a fixed ground site located in Central Oregon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (~2700 m a.s.l.) as well as near their sources using an aircraft. In addition, the regional characteristics of biomass burning aerosols were found to depend strongly on the modified combustion efficiency (MCE), anmore » index of the combustion processes of a fire. Organic aerosol emissions had negative correlations with MCE, whereas the oxidation state of organic aerosol increased with MCE and plume aging. The relationships between the aerosol properties and MCE were consistent between fresh emissions (~1 h old) and emissions sampled after atmospheric transport (6–45 h), suggesting that biomass burning organic aerosol concentration and chemical properties were strongly influenced by combustion processes at the source and conserved to a significant extent during regional transport. In conclusion, these results suggest that MCE can be a useful metric for describing aerosol properties of wildfire emissions and their impacts on regional air quality and global climate.« less

  9. Regional Influence of Aerosol Emissions from Wildfires Driven by Combustion Efficiency: Insights from the BBOP Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Collier, Sonya; Zhou, Shan; Onasch, Timothy B.; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Kleinman, Lawrence; Sedlacek, III, Arthur J.; Briggs, Nicole L.; Hee, Jonathan; Fortner, Edward; Shilling, John E.; Worsnop, Douglas; Yokelson, Robert J.; Parworth, Caroline; Ge, Xinlei; Xu, Jianzhong; Butterfield, Zachary; Chand, Duli; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Springston, Stephen; Zhang, Qi

    2016-07-11

    Wildfires are important contributors to atmospheric aerosols and a large source of emissions that impact regional air quality and global climate. In this study, the regional and nearfield influences of wildfire emissions on ambient aerosol concentration and chemical properties in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States were studied using real-time measurements from a fixed ground site located in Central Oregon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (~2700 m a.s.l.) as well as near their sources using an aircraft. In addition, the regional characteristics of biomass burning aerosols were found to depend strongly on the modified combustion efficiency (MCE), an index of the combustion processes of a fire. Organic aerosol emissions had negative correlations with MCE, whereas the oxidation state of organic aerosol increased with MCE and plume aging. The relationships between the aerosol properties and MCE were consistent between fresh emissions (~1 h old) and emissions sampled after atmospheric transport (6–45 h), suggesting that biomass burning organic aerosol concentration and chemical properties were strongly influenced by combustion processes at the source and conserved to a significant extent during regional transport. In conclusion, these results suggest that MCE can be a useful metric for describing aerosol properties of wildfire emissions and their impacts on regional air quality and global climate.

  10. Regional Influence of Aerosol Emissions from Wildfires Driven by Combustion Efficiency: Insights from the BBOP Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Collier, Sonya; Zhou, Shan; Onasch, Timothy B.; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Kleinman, Lawrence; Sedlacek, III, Arthur J.; Briggs, Nicole L.; Hee, Jonathan; Fortner, Edward; Shilling, John E.; Worsnop, Douglas; Yokelson, Robert J.; Parworth, Caroline; Ge, Xinlei; Xu, Jianzhong; Butterfield, Zachary; Chand, Duli; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Springston, Stephen; Zhang, Qi

    2016-07-11

    Wildfires are important contributors to atmospheric aerosols and a large source of emissions that impact regional air quality and global climate. In this study, the regional and nearfield influences of wildfire emissions on ambient aerosol concentration and chemical properties in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States were studied using real-time measurements from a fixed ground site located in Central Oregon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (~2700 m a.s.l.) as well as near their sources using an aircraft. In addition, the regional characteristics of biomass burning aerosols were found to depend strongly on the modified combustion efficiency (MCE), an index of the combustion processes of a fire. Organic aerosol emissions had negative correlations with MCE, whereas the oxidation state of organic aerosol increased with MCE and plume aging. The relationships between the aerosol properties and MCE were consistent between fresh emissions (~1 h old) and emissions sampled after atmospheric transport (6–45 h), suggesting that biomass burning organic aerosol concentration and chemical properties were strongly influenced by combustion processes at the source and conserved to a significant extent during regional transport. In conclusion, these results suggest that MCE can be a useful metric for describing aerosol properties of wildfire emissions and their impacts on regional air quality and global climate.

  11. Regional Influence of Aerosol Emissions from Wildfires Driven by Combustion Efficiency: Insights from the BBOP Campaign.

    PubMed

    Collier, Sonya; Zhou, Shan; Onasch, Timothy B; Jaffe, Daniel A; Kleinman, Lawrence; Sedlacek, Arthur J; Briggs, Nicole L; Hee, Jonathan; Fortner, Edward; Shilling, John E; Worsnop, Douglas; Yokelson, Robert J; Parworth, Caroline; Ge, Xinlei; Xu, Jianzhong; Butterfield, Zachary; Chand, Duli; Dubey, Manvendra K; Pekour, Mikhail S; Springston, Stephen; Zhang, Qi

    2016-08-16

    Wildfires are important contributors to atmospheric aerosols and a large source of emissions that impact regional air quality and global climate. In this study, the regional and nearfield influences of wildfire emissions on ambient aerosol concentration and chemical properties in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States were studied using real-time measurements from a fixed ground site located in Central Oregon at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (∼2700 m a.s.l.) as well as near their sources using an aircraft. The regional characteristics of biomass burning aerosols were found to depend strongly on the modified combustion efficiency (MCE), an index of the combustion processes of a fire. Organic aerosol emissions had negative correlations with MCE, whereas the oxidation state of organic aerosol increased with MCE and plume aging. The relationships between the aerosol properties and MCE were consistent between fresh emissions (∼1 h old) and emissions sampled after atmospheric transport (6-45 h), suggesting that biomass burning organic aerosol concentration and chemical properties were strongly influenced by combustion processes at the source and conserved to a significant extent during regional transport. These results suggest that MCE can be a useful metric for describing aerosol properties of wildfire emissions and their impacts on regional air quality and global climate.

  12. Regional differences in lumbar spinal posture and the influence of low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Tim; O'Sullivan, Peter B; Burnett, Angus F; Straker, Leon; Smith, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Background Spinal posture is commonly a focus in the assessment and clinical management of low back pain (LBP) patients. However, the link between spinal posture and LBP is not fully understood. Recent evidence suggests that considering regional, rather than total lumbar spine posture is important. The purpose of this study was to determine; if there are regional differences in habitual lumbar spine posture and movement, and if these findings are influenced by LBP. Methods One hundred and seventy female undergraduate nursing students, with and without LBP, participated in this cross-sectional study. Lower lumbar (LLx), Upper lumbar (ULx) and total lumbar (TLx) spine angles were measured using an electromagnetic tracking system in static postures and across a range of functional tasks. Results Regional differences in lumbar posture and movement were found. Mean LLx posture did not correlate with ULx posture in sitting (r = 0.036, p = 0.638), but showed a moderate inverse correlation with ULx posture in usual standing (r = -0.505, p < 0.001). Regional differences in range of motion from reference postures in sitting and standing were evident. BMI accounted for regional differences found in all sitting and some standing measures. LBP was not associated with differences in regional lumbar spine angles or range of motion, with the exception of maximal backward bending range of motion (F = 5.18, p = 0.007). Conclusion This study supports the concept of regional differences within the lumbar spine during common postures and movements. Global lumbar spine kinematics do not reflect regional lumbar spine kinematics, which has implications for interpretation of measures of spinal posture, motion and loading. BMI influenced regional lumbar posture and movement, possibly representing adaptation due to load. PMID:19014712

  13. Regional differences in lumbar spinal posture and the influence of low back pain.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Tim; O'Sullivan, Peter B; Burnett, Angus F; Straker, Leon; Smith, Anne

    2008-11-18

    Spinal posture is commonly a focus in the assessment and clinical management of low back pain (LBP) patients. However, the link between spinal posture and LBP is not fully understood. Recent evidence suggests that considering regional, rather than total lumbar spine posture is important. The purpose of this study was to determine; if there are regional differences in habitual lumbar spine posture and movement, and if these findings are influenced by LBP. One hundred and seventy female undergraduate nursing students, with and without LBP, participated in this cross-sectional study. Lower lumbar (LLx), Upper lumbar (ULx) and total lumbar (TLx) spine angles were measured using an electromagnetic tracking system in static postures and across a range of functional tasks. Regional differences in lumbar posture and movement were found. Mean LLx posture did not correlate with ULx posture in sitting (r = 0.036, p = 0.638), but showed a moderate inverse correlation with ULx posture in usual standing (r = -0.505, p < 0.001). Regional differences in range of motion from reference postures in sitting and standing were evident. BMI accounted for regional differences found in all sitting and some standing measures. LBP was not associated with differences in regional lumbar spine angles or range of motion, with the exception of maximal backward bending range of motion (F = 5.18, p = 0.007). This study supports the concept of regional differences within the lumbar spine during common postures and movements. Global lumbar spine kinematics do not reflect regional lumbar spine kinematics, which has implications for interpretation of measures of spinal posture, motion and loading. BMI influenced regional lumbar posture and movement, possibly representing adaptation due to load.

  14. [Influence factors of deposition induced by melt water erosion in Naqu region, China].

    PubMed

    Feng, Jun-yuan; Cai, Qiang-guo; Li, Zhao-xia; Sun, Li-ying

    2015-02-01

    Melt water erosion is one of the important soil erosion forms caused by the melt water from glacier and snow in high altitude cold areas of China. This paper investigated the influencing factors of deposition caused by melt water erosion in Naqu region. Alluvial fan ratio was presented as an index to characterize the degree of the deposition induced by melt water erosion. Minimum polygon was determined based on spatial overlay technology of Geographic Information System (GIS). The regression equation between the deposition index and the influencing factors was established through the stepwise regression analysis based on minimum polygon. Key influencing factors were identified according to the stepwise regression equation. The results showed that large amounts of alluvial fan were observed in Naqu region; extensive alluvial fans were centered at gentle slope areas in the central part of Naqu region with great spatial differences; alluvial fans were mainly distributed at valley exits, most of which were at large scale with vast differences in area and thickness. Wind speed, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), K value of soil erodibility, annual temperature range and the steep slope area ratio were identified as the key influencing factors on the deposition induced by melt water erosion in the studied area. Index of deposition was positively correlated with the wind speed and NDVI, and showed negative relationships with the K value of soil erodibility, the annual temperature range and steep slope area ratio.

  15. Alternative splicing in the coding region of Ppo-A1 directly influences the polyphenol oxidase activity in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Sun, Youwei; He, Zhonghu; Ma, Wujun; Xia, Xianchun

    2011-03-01

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) plays a crucial role in browning reactions in fresh and processed fruits and vegetables, as well as products made from cereal grains. Common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has a large genome, representing an interesting system to advance our understanding of plant PPO gene expression, regulation and function. In the present study, we characterized the expression of Ppo-A1, a major PPO gene located on wheat chromosome 2A, using DNA sequencing, semi-quantitative RT-PCR, PPO activity assays and whole-grain staining methods during grain development. The results indicated that the expression of the Ppo-A1b allele was regulated by alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs, resulting from a 191-bp insertion in intron 1 and one C/G SNP in exon 2. Eight mRNA isoforms were identified in developing grains based on alignments between cDNA and genomic DNA sequences. Only the constitutively spliced isoform b encodes a putative full-length PPO protein based on its coding sequence whereas the other seven spliced isoforms, a, c, d, e, f, g and h, have premature termination codons resulting in potential nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. The differences in expression of Ppo-A1a and Ppo-A1b were confirmed by PPO activity assays and whole grain staining, providing direct evidence for the influence of alternative splicing in the coding region of Ppo-A1 on polyphenol oxidase activity in common wheat grains.

  16. Structural domains within the HIV-1 mRNA and the ribosomal protein S25 influence cap-independent translation initiation.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Felipe; Vallejos, Maricarmen; Walters, Beth; Contreras, Nataly; Hertz, Marla I; Olivares, Eduardo; Cáceres, Carlos J; Pino, Karla; Letelier, Alejandro; Thompson, Sunnie R; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2016-07-01

    The 5' leader of the HIV-1 genomic RNA is a multifunctional region that folds into secondary/tertiary structures that regulate multiple processes during viral replication including translation initiation. In this work, we examine the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) located in the 5' leader that drives translation initiation of the viral Gag protein under conditions that hinder cap-dependent translation initiation. We show that activity of the HIV-1 IRES relies on ribosomal protein S25 (eS25). Additionally, a mechanistic and mutational analysis revealed that the HIV-1 IRES is modular in nature and that once the 40S ribosomal subunit is recruited to the IRES, translation initiates without the need of ribosome scanning. These findings elucidate a mechanism of initiation by the HIV-1 IRES whereby a number of highly structured sites present within the HIV-1 5' leader leads to the recruitment of the 40S subunit directly at the site of initiation of protein synthesis.

  17. Structural domains within the HIV-1 mRNA and the ribosomal protein S25 influence cap-independent translation initiation

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal, Felipe; Vallejos, Maricarmen; Walters, Beth A.; Contreras, Nataly; Hertz, Marla I.; Olivares, Eduardo; Cáceres, C. Joaquín; Pino, Karla; Letelier, Alejandro; Thompson, Sunnie R.; López-Lastra, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The 5′leader of the HIV-1 genomic RNA is a multifunctional region that folds into secondary/tertiary structures that regulate multiple processes during viral replication including translation initiation. In this work we examine the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) located in the 5′leader that drives translation initiation of the viral Gag protein under conditions that hinder cap-dependent translation initiation. We show that activity of the HIV-1 IRES relies on ribosomal protein S25 (eS25). Additionally, a mechanistic and mutational analysis revealed that the HIV-1 IRES is modular in nature and that once the 40S ribosomal subunit is recruited to the IRES, translation initiates without the need of ribosome scanning. These findings elucidate a mechanism of initiation by the HIV-1 IRES whereby a number of highly structured sites present within the HIV-1 5′leader leads to the recruitment of the 40S subunit directly at the site of initiation of protein synthesis. PMID:27191820

  18. The 5' untranslated region and Gag product of Idefix, a long terminal repeat-retrotransposon from Drosophila melanogaster, act together to initiate a switch between translated and untranslated states of the genomic mRNA.

    PubMed

    Meignin, Carine; Bailly, Jean-Luc; Arnaud, Frédérick; Dastugue, Bernard; Vaury, Chantal

    2003-11-01

    Idefix is a long terminal repeat (LTR)-retrotransposon present in Drosophila melanogaster which shares similarities with vertebrates retroviruses both in its genomic arrangement and in the mechanism of transposition. Like in retroviruses, its two LTRs flank a long 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) and three open reading frames referred to as the gag, pol, and env genes. Here we report that its 5'UTR, located upstream of the gag gene, can fold into highly structured domains that are known to be incompatible with efficient translation by ribosome scanning. Using dicistronic plasmids analyzed by both (i) in vitro transcription and translation in rabbit reticulocyte or wheat germ lysates and (ii) in vivo expression in transgenic flies, we show that the 5'UTR of Idefix exhibits an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) activity that is able to promote translation of a downstream cistron in a cap-independent manner. The functional state of this novel IRES depends on eukaryotic factors that are independent of their host origin. However, in vivo, its function can be down-regulated by trans-acting factors specific to tissues or developmental stages of its host. We identify one of these trans-acting factors as the Gag protein encoded by Idefix itself. Our data support a model in which nascent Gag is able to block translation initiated from the viral mRNA and thus its own translation. These data highlight the fact that LTR-retrotransposons may autoregulate their replication cycle through their Gag production.

  19. Clusterin levels are increased in Alzheimer's disease and influence the regional distribution of Aβ.

    PubMed

    Miners, J Scott; Clarke, Polly; Love, Seth

    2017-05-01

    Clusterin, also known as apoJ, is a lipoprotein abundantly expressed within the CNS. It regulates Aβ fibril formation and toxicity and facilitates amyloid-β (Aβ) transport across the blood-brain barrier. Genome-wide association studies have shown variations in the clusterin gene (CLU) to influence the risk of developing sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). To explore whether clusterin modulates the regional deposition of Aβ, we measured levels of soluble (NP40-extracted) and insoluble (guanidine-HCl-extracted) clusterin, Aβ40 and Aβ42 by sandwich ELISA in brain regions with a predilection for amyloid pathology-mid-frontal cortex (MF), cingulate cortex (CC), parahippocampal cortex (PH), and regions with little or no pathology-thalamus (TH) and white matter (WM). Clusterin level was highest in regions with plaque pathology (MF, CC, PH and PC), approximately mirroring the regional distribution of Aβ. It was significantly higher in AD than controls, and correlated positively with Aβ42 and insoluble Aβ40. Soluble clusterin level rose significantly with severity of cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and in MF and PC regions was highest in APOE ɛ4 homozygotes. In the TH and WM (areas with little amyloid pathology) clusterin was unaltered in AD and did not correlate with Aβ level. There was a significant positive correlation between the concentration of clusterin and the regional levels of insoluble Aβ42; however, the molar ratio of clusterin : Aβ42 declined with insoluble Aβ42 level in a region-dependent manner, being lowest in regions with predilection for Aβ plaque pathology. Under physiological conditions, clusterin reduces aggregation and promotes clearance of Aβ. Our findings indicate that in AD, clusterin increases, particularly in regions with most abundant Aβ, but because the increase does not match the rising level of Aβ42, the molar ratio of clusterin : Aβ42 in those regions falls, probably contributing to Aβ deposition within the tissue. © 2016

  20. Classification of mammographic masses: influence of regions used for feature extraction on the classification performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Florian; Wittenberg, Thomas; Elter, Matthias

    2010-03-01

    Computer-assisted diagnosis (CADx) for the characterization of mammographic masses as benign or malignant has a very high potential to help radiologists during the critical process of diagnostic decision making. By default, the characterization of mammographic masses is performed by extracting features from a region of interest (ROI) depicting the mass. To investigate the influence of the region on the classification performance, textural, morphological, frequency- as well as moment-based features are calculated in subregions of the ROI, which has been delineated manually by an expert. The investigated subregions are (a) the semi-automatically segmented area which includes only the core of the mass, (b) the outer border region of the mass, and (c) the combination of the outer and the inner border region, referred to as mass margin. To extract the border region and the margin of a mass an extended version of the rubber band straightening transform (RBST) was developed. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the features extracted from the RBST transformed border region and mass margin is compared to the effectiveness of the same features extracted from the untransformed regions. After the feature extraction process a preferably optimal feature subset is selected for each feature extractor. Classification is done using a k-NN classifier. The classification performance was evaluated using the area Az under the receiver operating characteristic curve. A publicly available mammography database was used as data set. Results showed that the manually drawn ROI lead to superior classification performances for the morphological feature extractors and that the transformed outer border region and the mass margin are not suitable for moment-based features but yield to promising results for textural and frequency-based features. Beyond that the mass margin, which combines the inner and the outer border region, leads to better classification performances compared to the outer border

  1. Influence of rifting episodes on seismic and volcanic activity in the southern Red Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viltres, Renier; Ruch, Joël; Doubre, Cécile; Reilinger, Rob; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Jónsson, Sigurjón

    2017-04-01

    Rifting episodes cause large changes to the state of stress in the surrounding crust, both instantaneously (elastic stress transfer) and in the years following the episodes (viscoelastic stress transfer), and can significantly influence occurrence of future earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Here we report on a new project that aims at studying the stress impact of rifting episodes and focuses on the southern Red Sea, Afar and Gulf of Aden region, which has seen a significant increase in rifting activity during the past decade. The Afar rift system experienced a major rifting episode (Dabbahu segment) in 2005-2010 and the southern Red Sea also appears to have had one, indicated by three volcanic eruptions in 2007, 2011-12, and 2013 (the first in the area in over a century), accompanied by several seismic swarms. In addition, Gulf of Aden had an exceptionally strong seismic swarm activity starting in late 2010 that was associated with intrusion of magma in a separate rifting episode. To explore the influence of these recent rifting episodes in the region we will use new geodetic observations, seismicity analysis and modeling. We have analyzed new GPS data collected in Eritrea, in Afar, and in southern Saudi Arabia. Comparisons with older surveys has not only resulted in better GPS velocities for the observed sites, but also revealed changes to velocities at some sites influenced by the rifting activity. We use the results along with seismic data to better constrain the timing, magnitude and duration of the rifting activity in the region. We will then apply elastic and visco-elastic stress transfer modeling to assess the associated stress changes, in particular at locations where volcanic eruptions or intrusions have occurred or where significant seismicity has been detected. The project should provide new information about the impact rifting events and episodes can have on regional volcanic and earthquake activity and how rifting episodes may influence one another.

  2. The influence of regional deprivation index on personal happiness using multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kil Hun; Chun, Jin-Ho; Sohn, Hae Sook

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify the factors that influence the happiness index of community residents, by considering personal and regional aspects, and to use as evidence of efforts for improvement of the happiness index. The study was conducted based on information from 16,270 participants who met the data requirement among those who participated in the 2011 South Gyeongsang Community Health Survey. Of the factors that can influence the happiness index, socioeconomic characteristics, health behavior, morbidity, and healthcare use, social contact, and participation in social activities were classified as personal factors; for regional factors, data from the 2010 census were used to extrapolate the regional deprivation indices at the submunicipal-level (eup, myeon, and dong) in South Gyeongsang Province. The happiness index for each characteristic was compared to that for others via t-test and ANOVA, and multilevel analysis was performed, using four models: a basic model for identification of only random effects, model 1 for identification of personal factors, model 2 for identification of regional factors, and model 3 for simultaneous consideration of both personal and regional factors. The mean happiness index was 63.2 points (64.6 points in males and 62.0 points in females), while the mean deprivation index was -1.58 points. In the multilevel analysis, the regional-level variance ratio of the basic model was 10.8%, confirming interregional differences. At the personal level, higher happiness indices were seen in groups consisting of males with high educational level, high income, high degree of physical activity, sufficient sleep, active social contact, and participation in social activities; whereas lower happiness indices were seen in people who frequently skipped breakfast, had unmet healthcare needs, and had accompanying diseases, as well as those with higher deprivation index. The study confirmed that the happiness index of community

  3. The influence of regional deprivation index on personal happiness using multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kil Hun; Chun, Jin-Ho; Sohn, Hae Sook

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to identify the factors that influence the happiness index of community residents, by considering personal and regional aspects, and to use as evidence of efforts for improvement of the happiness index. METHODS: The study was conducted based on information from 16,270 participants who met the data requirement among those who participated in the 2011 South Gyeongsang Community Health Survey. Of the factors that can influence the happiness index, socioeconomic characteristics, health behavior, morbidity, and healthcare use, social contact, and participation in social activities were classified as personal factors; for regional factors, data from the 2010 census were used to extrapolate the regional deprivation indices at the submunicipal-level (eup, myeon, and dong) in South Gyeongsang Province. The happiness index for each characteristic was compared to that for others via t-test and ANOVA, and multilevel analysis was performed, using four models: a basic model for identification of only random effects, model 1 for identification of personal factors, model 2 for identification of regional factors, and model 3 for simultaneous consideration of both personal and regional factors. RESULTS: The mean happiness index was 63.2 points (64.6 points in males and 62.0 points in females), while the mean deprivation index was -1.58 points. In the multilevel analysis, the regional-level variance ratio of the basic model was 10.8%, confirming interregional differences. At the personal level, higher happiness indices were seen in groups consisting of males with high educational level, high income, high degree of physical activity, sufficient sleep, active social contact, and participation in social activities; whereas lower happiness indices were seen in people who frequently skipped breakfast, had unmet healthcare needs, and had accompanying diseases, as well as those with higher deprivation index. CONCLUSIONS: The study confirmed

  4. Analysis of the 3' untranslated regions of alpha-tubulin and S-crystallin mRNA and the identification of CPEB in dark- and light-adapted octopus retinas.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Shannan; Yamamoto, Hideki; Robles, Laura J

    2008-08-04

    We previously reported the differential expression and translation of mRNA and protein in dark- and light-adapted octopus retinas, which may result from cytoplasmic polyadenylation element (CPE)-dependent mRNA masking and unmasking. Here we investigate the presence of CPEs in alpha-tubulin and S-crystallin mRNA and report the identification of cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein (CPEB) in light- and dark-adapted octopus retinas. 3'-RACE and sequencing were used to isolate and analyze the 3'-UTRs of alpha-tubulin and S-crystallin mRNA. Total retinal protein isolated from light- and dark-adapted octopus retinas was subjected to western blot analysis followed by CPEB antibody detection, PEP-171 inhibition of CPEB, and dephosphorylation of CPEB. The following CPE-like sequence was detected in the 3'-UTR of isolated long S-crystallin mRNA variants: UUUAACA. No CPE or CPE-like sequences were detected in the 3'-UTRs of alpha-tubulin mRNA or of the short S-crystallin mRNA variants. Western blot analysis detected CPEB as two putative bands migrating between 60-80 kDa, while a third band migrated below 30 kDa in dark- and light-adapted retinas. The detection of CPEB and the identification of the putative CPE-like sequences in the S-crystallin 3'-UTR suggest that CPEB may be involved in the activation of masked S-crystallin mRNA, but not in the regulation of alpha-tubulin mRNA, resulting in increased S-crystallin protein synthesis in dark-adapted octopus retinas.

  5. Analysis of the 3’ untranslated regions of α-tubulin and S-crystallin mRNA and the identification of CPEB in dark- and light-adapted octopus retinas

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Shannan; Yamamoto, Hideki

    2008-01-01

    Purpose We previously reported the differential expression and translation of mRNA and protein in dark- and light-adapted octopus retinas, which may result from cytoplasmic polyadenylation element (CPE)–dependent mRNA masking and unmasking. Here we investigate the presence of CPEs in α-tubulin and S-crystallin mRNA and report the identification of cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein (CPEB) in light- and dark-adapted octopus retinas. Methods 3’-RACE and sequencing were used to isolate and analyze the 3’-UTRs of α-tubulin and S-crystallin mRNA. Total retinal protein isolated from light- and dark-adapted octopus retinas was subjected to western blot analysis followed by CPEB antibody detection, PEP-171 inhibition of CPEB, and dephosphorylation of CPEB. Results The following CPE-like sequence was detected in the 3’-UTR of isolated long S-crystallin mRNA variants: UUUAACA. No CPE or CPE-like sequences were detected in the 3’-UTRs of α-tubulin mRNA or of the short S-crystallin mRNA variants. Western blot analysis detected CPEB as two putative bands migrating between 60-80 kDa, while a third band migrated below 30 kDa in dark- and light-adapted retinas. Conclusions The detection of CPEB and the identification of the putative CPE-like sequences in the S-crystallin 3’-UTR suggest that CPEB may be involved in the activation of masked S-crystallin mRNA, but not in the regulation of α-tubulin mRNA, resulting in increased S-crystallin protein synthesis in dark-adapted octopus retinas. PMID:18682811

  6. Temporal variability in emission category influence on organic matter aerosols in the Indian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherian, R.; Venkataraman, C.; Ramachandran, S.

    2009-03-01

    The dependence of carbonaceous aerosol properties, like radiation absorption and hygroscopicity, on the emission source of origin motivate this work. The influence of emission categories, including crop residue and forest burning, biofuel combustion, brick kilns, thermal power plants, diesel transport and ``other industry'', is estimated on organic matter (OM) surface concentrations in the Indian ocean region. The approach uses general circulation model predicted OM surface concentrations during a ship cruise, identifies probable source regions for high concentration episodes using the potential source contribution function, and estimates collocated OM emissions resolved by category. Distinct source regions identified, are the Indo-Gangetic Plain during 20-30th January, 1999, and central/south India during 1-11th March, 1999. Contributing emission categories are primarily biofuel combustion (18 Gg) during 20-30th January, but a combination of forest burning (8 Gg), biofuel combustion (7 Gg) and crop residue (5 Gg) during 1-11th March. The magnitude of emission flux rather than spatial extent of an emission category, was seen to increase its influence on the receptor. This approach can be used to investigate seasonal and inter-annual variability in emission category influence on atmospheric pollutants.

  7. Influence of Distance Between Metal Squares in Checkerboard Patterns on Transmittance Characteristics in the Infrared Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashira, Takaya; Kageyama, Tomoaki; Kashiwagi, Kouhei; Miyashita, Hidetoshi; Takano, Keisuke; Nakajima, Makoto; Lee, Sang-Seok

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of the distance between metal squares in self-complementary metal checkerboard patterns (CPs) on the transmittance characteristics in the infrared (IR) region. Transmittance characteristics of CPs in the IR region are rarely studied. Here, to clarify experimentally the influence of reactance variation in CPs on the transmittance in the IR region, we fabricated self-complementary metallic CPs with differing distances between the metal squares, and their transmittances were measured. Initially, two types of capacitive CPs (C-CPs) and three types of inductive CPs (I-CPs) were fabricated, and their IR transmittances were measured. The CPs were configured to have different gaps or overlapping distances between the metal squares for the C-CPs and I-CPs, respectively. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of the distance configuration of CPs consisting of both C-CPs and I-CPs, on the transmittances of x- and y-polarized incident IR electromagnetic waves. The evaluated hybrid CPs, referred to as anisotropic CPs (A-CPs), were fabricated with horizontal metal patterns in contact with each other and separated vertical components. The results demonstrated that the transmittance depends on sensitively to the gap or the overlapping distance between the metal squares of the self-complementary metallic CPs. Moreover, we observed remarkable changes in the transmittance associated with the A-CPs, resulting from the polarization of the incident IR electromagnetic waves.

  8. An evaluation of the influence of natural science in regional-scale restoration projects.

    PubMed

    Van Cleve, F Brie; Leschine, Thomas; Klinger, Terrie; Simenstad, Charles

    2006-03-01

    Regional-scale restoration is a tool of growing importance in environmental management, and the number, scope, and complexity of restoration programs is increasing. Although the importance of natural science to the success of such projects generally is recognized, the actual use of natural science in these programs rarely has been evaluated. We used techniques of program evaluation to examine the use of natural science in six American and three Western European regional-scale restoration programs. Our results suggest that ensuring the technical rigor and directed application of the science is important to program development and delivery. However, the influence of science may be constrained if strategies for its integration into the broader program are lacking. Consequently, the influence of natural science in restoration programs is greatest when formal mechanisms exist for incorporating science into programs, for example, via a framework for integration of science and policy. Our evaluation proposes a model that can be used to enhance the influence of natural science in regional-scale restoration programs in the United States and elsewhere.

  9. Influences of dietary vitamin D restriction on bone strength, body composition and muscle in rats fed a high-fat diet: involvement of mRNA expression of MyoD in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Oku, Yuno; Tanabe, Rieko; Nakaoka, Kanae; Yamada, Asako; Noda, Seiko; Hoshino, Ayumi; Haraikawa, Mayu; Goseki-Sone, Masae

    2016-06-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with a greater risk of osteoporosis and also influences skeletal muscle functions, differentiation and development. The present study investigated the influences of vitamin D restriction on the body composition, bone and skeletal muscle in rats fed a high-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley strain male rats (11weeks old) were divided into four groups and fed experimental diets: a basic control diet (Cont.), a basic control diet with vitamin D restriction (DR), a high-fat diet (F) and a high-fat diet with vitamin D restriction (FDR). At 28days after starting the experimental diets, the visceral fat mass was significantly increased in the F group compared with Cont. group, and the muscle mass tended to decrease in the DR group compared with Cont. group. The total volume of the femur was significantly lower in the DR group compared with Cont. group, and the bone mineral density (BMD) of the femur was significantly lower in the FDR group compared with F group. MyoD is one of the muscle-specific transcription factors. The levels of mRNA expression of MyoD of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles from the DR group were reduced markedly compared with those from the Cont. group. In conclusion, our findings revealed the influences of a vitamin D-restricted high-fat diet on the bone strength, body composition and muscle. Further studies on vitamin D insufficiency in the regulation of muscle as well as fat and bone metabolism would provide valuable data for the prevention of lifestyle-related disorders, including osteoporosis and sarcopenia.

  10. The Influence of Marcellus Shale Extraction Emissions on Regionally Monitored Dry Reactive Nitrogen Deposition.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Justin G; Rose, Lucy A; Bain, Daniel J; Elliott, Emily M

    2017-03-09

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the United States (U.S.) from large stationary sources, such as electric generating units, have decreased since 1995, driving decreases in nitrogen deposition. However, increasing NOx emissions from emerging industries, such as unconventional natural gas (UNG) extraction, could offset stationary source emission reductions in shale gas producing regions of the U.S. The Marcellus Shale in the northeastern U.S. has seen dramatic increases in the number of wells and associated natural gas production during the past 10 years. In this study, we examine the potential impacts of shale gas development on regional NOx emission inventories and dry deposition fluxes to Clean Air Status and Trends (CASTNET) sites in Pennsylvania and New York. Our results demonstrate that the current distribution of CASTNET sites is ineffective for monitoring the influence of Marcellus well NOx emissions on regional nitrogen deposition. Despite the fact that existing CASTNET sites are not influenced by UNG extraction activity, NOx emissions densities from shale gas extraction are substantial and are estimated to reach up to 21 kg NOx ha(-1) year(-1) in some regions. If these emissions deposit locally, UNG extraction activity could contribute to critical nitrogen load exceedances in areas of high well density.

  11. The influence of atmospheric circulation types on regional patterns of precipitation in Marmara (NW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltacı, H.; Kındap, T.; Ünal, A.; Karaca, M.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, regional patterns of precipitation in Marmara are described for the first time by means of Ward's hierarchical cluster analysis. Daily values of winter precipitation data based on 19 meteorological stations were used for the period from 1960 to 2012. Five clusters of coherent zones were determined, namely Black Sea-Marmara, Black Sea, Marmara, Thrace, and Aegean sub-regions. To investigate the prevailing atmospheric circulation types (CTs) that cause precipitation occurrence and intensity in these five different rainfall sub-basins, objective Lamb weather type (LWT) methodology was applied to National Centers of Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) reanalysis of daily mean sea level pressure (MSLP) data. Precipitation occurrence suggested that wet CTs (i.e. N, NE, NW, and C) offer a high chance of precipitation in all sub-regions. For the eastern (western) part of the region, the high probability of rainfall occurrence is shown under the influence of E (SE, S, SW) atmospheric CTs. In terms of precipitation intensity, N and C CTs had the highest positive gradients in all the sub-basins of the Marmara. In addition, although Marmara and Black Sea sub-regions have the highest daily rainfall potential during NE types, high daily rainfall totals are recorded in all sub-regions except the Black Sea during NW types.

  12. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Ge, C.; Wang, J.; Eberwein, J. R.; Liang, L. L.; Allsman, L. A.; Grantz, D. A.; Jenerette, G. D.

    2015-11-01

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality.

  13. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region

    PubMed Central

    Oikawa, P. Y.; Ge, C.; Wang, J.; Eberwein, J. R.; Liang, L. L.; Allsman, L. A.; Grantz, D. A.; Jenerette, G. D.

    2015-01-01

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality. PMID:26556236

  14. Unusually high soil nitrogen oxide emissions influence air quality in a high-temperature agricultural region.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, P Y; Ge, C; Wang, J; Eberwein, J R; Liang, L L; Allsman, L A; Grantz, D A; Jenerette, G D

    2015-11-10

    Fertilized soils have large potential for production of soil nitrogen oxide (NOx=NO+NO2), however these emissions are difficult to predict in high-temperature environments. Understanding these emissions may improve air quality modelling as NOx contributes to formation of tropospheric ozone (O3), a powerful air pollutant. Here we identify the environmental and management factors that regulate soil NOx emissions in a high-temperature agricultural region of California. We also investigate whether soil NOx emissions are capable of influencing regional air quality. We report some of the highest soil NOx emissions ever observed. Emissions vary nonlinearly with fertilization, temperature and soil moisture. We find that a regional air chemistry model often underestimates soil NOx emissions and NOx at the surface and in the troposphere. Adjusting the model to match NOx observations leads to elevated tropospheric O3. Our results suggest management can greatly reduce soil NOx emissions, thereby improving air quality.

  15. Vaccination coverage in the South-East Anatolian Project (SEAP) region and factors influencing low coverage.

    PubMed

    Ozcirpici, B; Sahinoz, S; Ozgur, S; Bozkurt, A I; Sahinoz, T; Ceylan, A; Ilcin, E; Saka, G; Acemoglu, H; Palanci, Y; Ak, M; Akkafa, F

    2006-02-01

    To determine the vaccination coverage of children living in the South-east Anatolian Project (SEAP) region; whether the vaccination coverage was similar to formal reports, other studies and other countries; and which factors influence vaccination, in order to indicate how vaccination coverage can be improved. A descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in nine provinces of the SEAP region in order to determine public health problems and their causes. A population-based sample of 1150 houses was selected from rural and urban areas of the SEAP region and visited by the researchers. Questionnaires were applied in 2001 and 2002. In the SEAP region, only 30% of children had received a complete set of vaccines. The vaccination coverage was 76.7% for Bacille Calmette-Guérin; 62.0% for the third doses of diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, pertussis and polio vaccine; 62.7% for measles; 44% for the third dose of hepatitis B vaccine in children aged 12-23 months; and 13.3% for the second dose of tetanus toxoid in women who gave birth in the last 5 years. In logistic regression analysis, residence type, number of siblings, birth interval, follow-up visits of midwives, and maternal level of education were found to influence whether children were completely vaccinated. The findings of this study indicate that vaccination coverage is not acceptable in the SEAP region. Efforts must focus on family planning services, education of women, follow-up visits and strengthening health facilities, especially in rural regions, to improve vaccination.

  16. Regional influence of decadal to multidecadal Atlantic Oscillations in Morocco during the last 1200 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait Brahim, Y.; Sifeddine, A.; Cheng, H.; Khodri, M.; Cruz, F. W., Sr.; Pérez-Zanón, N.; SHA, L.; Wassenburg, J. A.; Bouchaou, L.

    2016-12-01

    Climate projections predict a substantial increase of extreme heats and drought occurrences during the coming decades in Morocco, while already under severe water stress. It is however not clear what can be attributed to natural climate variability and to anthropogenic forcing, as hydroclimate variations observed in areas such as Morocco are highly influenced by the Atlantic climate modes. Since observational data sets are too short to resolve properly natural modes of variability acting on decadal to multidecadal timescales, high resolution paleoclimate reconstructions are the only alternative to reconstruct climate variability in the remote past. However, the climate processes are still poorly understood in North Africa, which makes the investigation of hydroclimate variations during the last millennium in Morocco highly requested. Here, we present the first well-dated high resolution ( 1.7 years) stable oxygen isotope (δ18O) speleothem record from southwestern Morocco, covering the last 1200 years. Our record reveals substantial decadal to multidecadal swings between dry and humid periods, consistent with regional paleorecords, with prevailing dry conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), wetter conditions during the Little Ice Age (LIA), and a trend towards dry conditions during the current warm period. These coherent regional climate signals suggest common climate controls. Statistical analyses indicate that the climate of southwestern Morocco remained under the combined influence of both the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) over the last millennium. Interestingly, the generally warmer MCA and colder LIA at longer multidecadal timescales probably influenced the regional climate in North Africa through the influence on Sahara Low which weakened and strengthened the mean moisture inflow from the Atlantic Ocean during the MCA and LIA respectively.

  17. Regional Influence of Aerosol Emissions from Wildfires Driven by Combustion Efficiency: Insights from the BBOP Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Collier, Sonya; Zhou, Shan; Onasch, Timothy B.; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Kleinman, Lawrence; Sedlacek, Arthur J.; Briggs, Nicole L.; Hee, Jonathan; Fortner, Edward; Shilling, John E.; Worsnop, Douglas; Yokelson, Robert J.; Parworth, Caroline; Ge, Xinlei; Xu, Jianzhong; Butterfield, Zachary; Chand, Duli; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Springston, Stephen; Zhang, Qi

    2016-08-16

    Abstract Wildfires are important contributors to atmospheric aerosols and a large source of emissions that impact regional air quality and global climate. In this study, wildfire emissions in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States were characterized using real-time measurements near their sources using an aircraft, and farther downwind from a fixed ground site located at the Mt. Bachelor Observatory (~ 2700 m a.s.l.). The characteristics of aerosol emissions were found to depend strongly on the modified combustion efficiency (MCE), a qualitative index of the combustion processes of a fire. Organic aerosol emissions had negative correlations with MCE, whereas the carbon oxidation state of organic aerosol increased with MCE. The relationships between the aerosol properties and MCE were consistent between fresher emissions (~1 hour old) and emissions sampled after atmospheric transport (6 - 45 hours), suggesting that organic aerosol mass loading and chemical properties were strongly influenced by combustion processes at the source and conserved to a significant extent during regional transport. These results suggest that MCE can be a useful metric for describing aerosol properties of regionally transported wildfire emissions and their impacts on regional air quality and global climate.

  18. Glioblastoma Multiforme Regional Genetic and Cellular Expression Patterns: Influence on Anatomic and Physiologic MR Imaging1

    PubMed Central

    Barajas, Ramon F.; Hodgson, J. Graeme; Chang, Jamie S.; Vandenberg, Scott R.; Yeh, Ru-Fang; Parsa, Andrew T.; McDermott, Michael W.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Dillon, William P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is influenced by genetic and cellular features of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) aggressiveness. Materials and Methods: In this HIPAA-compliant institutional review board–approved study, multiple enhancing and peritumoral nonenhancing stereotactic neurosurgical biopsy samples from treatment-naïve GBMs were collected prospectively, with guidance from cerebral blood volume (CBV) MR imaging measurements. By using monoclonal antibodies, tissue specimens were examined for microvascular expression, hypoxia, tumor and overall cellular density, and histopathologic features of GBM aggressiveness. Genetic expression patterns were investigated with RNA microarrays. Imaging and histopathologic variables were compared with the Welch t test and Pearson correlations. Microarray analysis was performed by using false discovery rate (FDR) statistics. Results: Tumor biopsy of 13 adult patients yielded 16 enhancing and 14 peritumoral nonenhancing specimens. Enhancing regions had elevated relative CBV and reduced relative apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements compared with peritumoral nonenhancing biopsy regions (P < .01). A positive correlation was found between relative CBV and all histopathologic features of aggressiveness (P < .04). An inverse correlation was found between relative ADC and all histopathologic features of aggressiveness (P < .05). RNA expression patterns between tumor regions were found to be significantly different (FDR < 0.05), with hierarchical clustering by biopsy region only. Conclusion: These findings suggest MR imaging is significantly influenced by GBM genetic and cellular biologic features of aggressiveness and imply physiologic MR imaging may be useful in pinpointing regions of highest malignancy within heterogeneous tissues, thus facilitating histologic grading of primary glial brain tumors. © RSNA, 2010 Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10

  19. Estimation on the influence of uncertain parameters on stochastic thermal regime of embankment in permafrost regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Zhou, Guoqing; Wang, Jianzhou; Zhao, Xiaodong; Chen, Xing

    2017-03-01

    For embankments in permafrost regions, the soil properties and the upper boundary conditions are stochastic because of complex geological processes and changeable atmospheric environment. These stochastic parameters lead to the fact that conventional deterministic temperature field of embankment become stochastic. In order to estimate the influence of stochastic parameters on random temperature field for embankment in permafrost regions, a series of simulated tests are conducted in this study. We consider the soil properties as random fields and the upper boundary conditions as stochastic processes. Taking the variability of each stochastic parameter into account individually or concurrently, the corresponding random temperature fields are investigated by Neumann stochastic finite element method. The results show that both of the standard deviation under the embankment and the boundary increase with time when considering the stochastic effect of soil properties and boundary conditions. Stochastic boundary conditions and soil properties play a different role in random temperature field of embankment at different times. Each stochastic parameter has a different effect on random temperature field. These results can improve our understanding of the influence of stochastic parameters on random temperature field for embankment in permafrost regions.

  20. Sequences controlling histone H4 mRNA abundance.

    PubMed Central

    Capasso, O; Bleecker, G C; Heintz, N

    1987-01-01

    The post-transcriptional regulation of histone mRNA abundance is manifest both by accumulation of histone mRNA during the S phase, and by the rapid degradation of mature histone mRNA following the inhibition of DNA synthesis. We have constructed a comprehensive series of substitution mutants within a human H4 histone gene, introduced them into the mouse L cell genome, and analyzed their effects on the post-transcriptional control of the H4 mRNA. Our results demonstrate that most of the H4 mRNA is dispensable for proper regulation of histone mRNA abundance. However, recognition of the 3' terminus of the mature H4 mRNA is critically important for regulating its cytoplasmic half-life. Thus, this region of the mRNA functions both in the nucleus as a signal for proper processing of the mRNA terminus, and in the cytoplasm as an essential element in the control of mRNA stability. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3608993

  1. The Ribosome Uses Two Active Mechanisms to Unwind mRNA During Translation

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Xiaohui; Wen, Jin-Der; Lancaster, Laura; Noller, Harry F.; Bustamante, Carlos; Tinoco, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    The ribosome translates the genetic information encoded in messenger RNA into protein. Folded structures in the coding region of an mRNA represent a kinetic barrier that slows the peptide elongation rate, as the ribosome must disrupt structures it encounters in the mRNA at its entry site to enable translocation to the next codon. Such structures are exploited by the cell to create diverse strategies for translation regulation, such as programmed frameshifting1,2, protein expression levels3,4, ribosome localization5, and cotranslational protein folding6. Although strand separation activity is inherent to the ribosome, requiring no exogenous helicases7, its mechanism is still unknown. Here, using a single-molecule optical tweezers assay on mRNA hairpins, we find that the translation rate of identical codons at the decoding center is greatly influenced by the G•C content of folded structures at the mRNA entry site. Furthermore, force applied to the ends of the hairpin to favor its unfolding significantly speeds translation. Quantitative analysis of the force dependence of its helicase activity reveals that the ribosome, unlike previously studied helicases, uses two distinct active mechanisms to unwind mRNA structure: (i) it destabilizes the helical junction at the mRNA entry site by biasing its thermal fluctuations toward the open state, increasing the probability for the ribosome to translocate unhindered; and (ii) it also mechanically pulls apart the mRNA single-strands of the closed junction during the conformational changes that accompany ribosome translocation. Our results establish a quantitative mechanical basis for understanding the mechanism of regulation of the elongation rate of translation by structured mRNAs. PMID:21734708

  2. Influence of volcanic eruptions on the climate of the Asian monsoon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anchukaitis, K. J.; Buckley, B. M.; Cook, E. R.; Cook, B. I.; D'Arrigo, R. D.; Ammann, C. M.

    2010-11-01

    Several state-of-the-art general circulation models (GCMs) predict that large volcanic eruptions should result in anomalous dry conditions throughout much of monsoon Asia. Here, we use long and well-validated proxy reconstructions of Asian droughts and pluvials to detect the influence of volcanic radiative forcing on the hydroclimate of the region since the late Medieval period. Superposed epoch analysis reveals significantly wetter conditions over mainland southeast Asia in the year of an eruption, with drier conditions in central Asia. Our proxy and model comparison suggests that GCMs may not yet capture all of the important ocean-atmosphere dynamics responsible for the influence of explosive volcanism on the climate of Asia.

  3. Climate Variability is Influencing Agricultural Expansion and Output in a Key Agricultural Region of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spera, S. A.; Cohn, A.; VanWey, L.; Mustard, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade, the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso has both expanded and intensified its agricultural production to become the country's leading producer of soy, corn, and cotton. Yet this increase in agricultural production may be threatened due to changes in the region's climate stemming from deforestation caused by the agricultural expansion itself. The sensitivity of Mato Grosso's agriculture to climate variability has important implications for both climate change mitigation and climate adaptation. The vast bulk of research on the drivers of land use change in the region has examined economic and institutional drivers. Leveraging a novel remote sensing-derived dataset classifying shifts between single (cultivating one commercial crop per growing season) and double cropping (cultivating two commercial crops per growing season), we investigated the influence of climate variability on land use change during the period 2000 to 2011. Over the past decade, over half of Mato Grosso's farm area transitioned from single cropping to double cropping. We used regression analysis (controlling for space and time fixed effects) to show monthly rainfall, monthly temperature, agricultural commodity prices, and agricultural revenue to be the main drivers of adoption of double cropping and reversion to single cropping in the region. The influence of climate varies as much as five orders of magnitude across these outcomes, with both temperature and precipitation exhibiting the largest climatic influence on the transition from single to double cropping. Temperature consistently proves to be more important, explaining three times more of the variance than precipitation for each outcome. Months at the beginning of a given first crop season, the end of that first crop season, and middle of the subsequent second crop season are particularly important for planting decisions in the subsequent growing year. Fitting our land transition models using remote-sensing derived

  4. Vertical variations in the influence of the amount effect: South American Summer Monsoon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuels-Crow, K. E.; Galewsky, J.; Worden, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Recent theoretical studies have shown that convective recycling of atmospheric water vapor gives rise to the isotope "amount effect" in which d values are lower than predicted by simple Rayleigh distillation processes (i.e. (DdD = dDvapor ­- dDRayleigh < 0‰). Several studies have linked isotopes in precipitation [e.g. Vimeux et al., 2009] and atmospheric water vapor [e.g. Samuels-Crow et al., 2014] in the tropical Andes to upwind convection associated with the South American Summer Monsoon (SASM). The vertical structure of this convective influence, however, remains unknown. Understanding the vertical structure of the amount effect over South America is essential for improving theoretical constraints and developing better models of the influence of the SASM on southern hemisphere humidity. Additionally, evaluating the vertical and lateral extent of the SASM's convective influence can provide important constraints for interpreting paleoclimate proxies in the region. We use data from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) to examine the vertical structure of the amount effect associated with the SASM and relate these results to regional convective precipitation and local subcloud equivalent potential temperature. Preliminary results show that DdD is below 0‰ from the boundary layer through the mid-troposphere over tropical South America during austral summer, and meridional averages show that convective precipitation is highest over these areas where DdD < 0‰ extends higher in the atmosphere. We hypothesize that the depth of convection in the monsoon region controls the vertical structure of DdD, which should also be coherently linked to local equivalent potential temperature. References Vimeux et al. (2009), Palaeogeogr Palaeocl, 281(3-4), 229-241, doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2008.03.054. Samuels-Crow et al. (2014), J Geophys Res-Atmos, doi:10.1002/(ISSN)2169-8996.

  5. Magnetic instability regions in patterned structures: influence of element shape on magnetization reversal dynamics.

    PubMed

    Han, X F; Grimsditch, M; Meersschaut, J; Hoffmann, A; Ji, Y; Sort, J; Nogués, J; Divan, R; Pearson, J E; Keavney, D J

    2007-04-06

    We report a time-resolved imaging study of the influence of shape on magnetic instabilities in patterned magnetic structures. We find that in rectangular structures magnetization reversal initiates at the ends and interior simultaneously, while in structures with tapered ends the reversal begins in the middle of the structures and spreads out to the ends. The degree of tapering is important for both the switching field and the time required for full reversal. A model based on the concept of local instability regions yields good agreement with the observed location of the reversal onsets.

  6. Magnetic instability regions in patterned structures : influence of element shape on magnetization reversal dynamics.

    SciTech Connect

    Keavney, D. J.; Han, X. F.; Grimsditch, M.; Meersschaut, J.; Hoffmann, A.; Ji, Y.; Sort, J.; Notues, J.; Divan, R.; Pearson, J. E.; Guslienko, K. Y.; Bader, S. D.; Inst. voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica and INPAC; Univ. Autonoma de Barcelona

    2007-04-06

    We report a time-resolved imaging study of the influence of shape on magnetic instabilities in patterned magnetic structures. We find that in rectangular structures magnetization reversal initiates at the ends and interior simultaneously, while in structures with tapered ends the reversal begins in the middle of the structures and spreads out to the ends. The degree of tapering is important for both the switching field and the time required for full reversal. A model based on the concept of local instability regions yields good agreement with the observed location of the reversal onsets.

  7. Influence of cooling intensity on shock wave boundary layer interaction region in turbine cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczyński, P.; Szwaba, R.

    2016-10-01

    The shock wave boundary layer interaction on the suction side of a transonic turbine blade was one of the main objectives of the TFAST project. For this purpose a model of a turbine passage was designed, manufactured and assembled in a transonic wind tunnel. The paper presents the experimental investigations concerning the flow structure on the transonic turbine blade. A clean case (without a cooling system) with a normal shock wave interacting with a laminar boundary layer and also the influence of the blade cooling system with three different coolant blowing intensities on the laminar interaction region were investigated.

  8. Influences of regional pollution and long range transport over Hyderabad using ozone data from MOZAIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, S.; Naja, M.; Thouret, V.

    2015-09-01

    Long-term (2005-2011) MOZAIC (Measurements of OZone and water vapor by Airbus In-Service air Craft) ozone data have been investigated over Hyderabad (17.37° N, 78.47°E, 489 m amsl), India using back-air trajectories and contribution from regional pollution and long-range transport are assessed. Ozone data are grouped and analysed according to the air-mass residence time over the central India, marine region and Africa/Middle East regions. Ozone shows a linear dependence on air-mass residence time over the central India region for about six days. Rate of ozone increase is maximum during summer (boundary layer 6.8 ± 0.9 ppbv/day, lower free troposphere 2.4 ± 0.4 ppbv/day) and minimum during winter (boundary layer 1.5 ± 0.2 ppbv/day, lower free troposphere 0.8 ± 0.7 ppbv/day). The background ozone is estimated by extrapolating the linear regression line to zeroth residence day and is found to be significantly lower during summer/monsoon (15.8 ± 2.4 ppbv) within the boundary layer due to influence of marine air-mass. Monthly variation of the boundary layer ozone shows a distinct peak during March-April months. Simultaneous investigation of fire counts and potential source contribution function analysis confirms that Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) outflow has a significant contribution in ozone enhancement over even at this southern region throughout the year except in summer-monsoon season. The ozone in regionally polluted air masses influenced by the central Indian region is found to be higher than average ozone by 6-15% within the boundary layer and by 5-9% in the lower troposphere during different seasons. The marine air shows a lower ozone level by 4-28 ppbv throughout the year within the boundary layer. Role of long-range transport from Africa/Middle East is found to be significant in the lower troposphere and shows 4.4 ppbv and 9 ppbv higher ozone mixing ratio during summer and autumn, respectively.

  9. Region of influence regression for estimating the 50-year flood at ungaged sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tasker, Gary D.; Hodge, S.A.; Barks, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    Five methods of developing regional regression models to estimate flood characteristics at ungaged sites in Arkansas are examined. The methods differ in the manner in which the State is divided into subrogions. Each successive method (A to E) is computationally more complex than the previous method. Method A makes no subdivision. Methods B and C define two and four geographic subrogions, respectively. Method D uses cluster/discriminant analysis to define subrogions on the basis of similarities in watershed characteristics. Method E, the new region of influence method, defines a unique subregion for each ungaged site. Split-sample results indicate that, in terms of root-mean-square error, method E (38 percent error) is best. Methods C and D (42 and 41 percent error) were in a virtual tie for second, and methods B (44 percent error) and A (49 percent error) were fourth and fifth best.

  10. Influence of reservoirs on solute transport: A regional-scale approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, V.J.

    2001-01-01

    Regional transport of water and dissolved constituents through heavily regulated river systems is influenced by the presence of reservoirs. Analysis of seasonal patterns in solute fluxes for salinity and nutrients indicates that in-reservoir processes within large storage reservoirs in the Rio Grande and Colorado basins (southwestern USA) are superimposed over the underlying watershed processes that predominate in relatively unregulated stream reaches. Connectivity of the aquatic system with the landscape is apparently disrupted by processes within the reservoir systems; these processes result in large changes in characteristics for solute transport that persist downstream in the absence of significant inputs. Additionally, reservoir processes may be linked for upstream/downstream reservoirs that are located relatively close in a series. In contrast, the regional effect of in-reservoir processes is negligible for solute transport through run-of-river reservoirs in the lower Columbia River (northwestern USA).

  11. Utility of soil linear alkylbenzenes to assess regional anthropogenic influences with special reference to atmospheric transport.

    PubMed

    Wei, Gao-Ling; Bao, Lian-Jun; Guo, Ling-Chuan; He, Zai-Cheng; Wu, Feng-Chang; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2014-07-15

    Tracing regional anthropogenic influences is important for assessing the magnitude of human interferences with the environment. In the present study, the utility of soil linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) as indicators of anthropogenic influences was examined, with the emphasis on the role of atmospheric transport in dissipating LABs from input sources to remote areas. The Pearl River Delta, South China, which has experienced rapid economic growth and urbanization, was selected as the study region. The concentrations of LABs (mean: 8.6 ng/g and median: 5.7 ng/g, with an outlier of 2,020 ng/g excluded) suggested that sewage contamination throughout the entire study region was generally light. The spatial variation of sewage pollution was significantly positively correlated with population density and per capita gross domestic product, with hot spots concentrated in the central PRD. Atmospheric deposition was hypothesized as an important input route for soil LABs in forestry and drinking water source areas with little impact of irrigation or direct wastewater discharge. This proposition could explain the opposite spatial patterns of LAB concentrations and values of a biodegradation index (5-C12+5-C13)/(5-C11+5-C10), where i-Cn defines a specific LAB congener with i and n indicating the position of the phenyl group and the number of carbon atoms on the alkyl chain, respectively. These findings somewhat validated LABs as tracers of regional anthropogenically derived contamination, with atmospheric transport of LABs as a viable dissipating mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The relative influence of local to regional drivers of variation in reef fishes.

    PubMed

    Tuya, F; Wernberg, T; Thomsen, M S

    2011-07-01

    In this study, fishes and habitat attributes were quantified, four times over 1 year, on three reefs within four regions encompassing a c. 6° latitudinal gradient across south-western Australia. The variability observed was partitioned at these spatio-temporal scales in relation to reef fish variables and the influence of environmental drivers quantified at local scales, i.e. at the scale of reefs (the number of small and large topographic elements, the cover of kelp, fucalean and red algae, depth and wave exposure) and at the scale of regions (mean and maximum nutrient concentrations and mean seawater temperature) with regard to the total abundance, species density, species diversity and the multivariate structure of reef fishes. Variation in reef fish species density and diversity was significant at the regional scale, whereas variation in the total abundance and assemblage structure of fishes was also significant at local scales. Spatial variation was greater than temporal variation in all cases. A systematic and gradual species turnover in assemblage structure was observed between adjacent regions across the latitudinal gradient. The cover of red algae within larger patches of brown macroalgae (a biological attribute of the reef) and the number of large topographic elements (a structural attribute of the reef) were correlated with variation observed at local scales, while seawater temperature correlated with variation at the scale of regions. In conclusion, conservation efforts on reef fishes need to incorporate processes operating at regional scales with processes that shape local reef fish communities at local scales. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. The Influence of Regional Groundwater on the Dissolved Organic Matter in Costa Rican Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, E.; Osburn, C. L.; Oviedo-Vargas, D.; Genereux, D. P.; Oberbauer, S. F.; Dierick, D.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to better understand the role of regional groundwater in stream organic matter in two tropical watersheds in Costa Rica. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration, stable C isotopes, absorbance, and fluorescence were used to distinguish DOM sources in two adjacent watersheds, the Arboleda and the Taconazo, which are similar in size, soils, rainfall, and vegetation, yet differ because the Arboleda receives a significant input of regional groundwater that is chemically distinct from the local groundwater, whereas the Taconazo does not. Characteristics of the DOM differed largely among the two streams. Fluorescence and isotope data suggested that more degraded DOM was predominant during dry periods in the Arboleda due to the influence of regional groundwater in that stream. During wet periods, fresher soil-derived DOM was predominant in both streams, similar to the quality of DOM in the Taconazo during base flow. DOM δ13C values of the Arboleda during baseflow ranged from -23 to -34‰, while in the Taconazo values ranged from -25 to -34‰. During storm flow the ranges were smaller and more similar. The Taconazo ranged from -23 to -29‰ and the Arboleda ranged from -23 to -31‰. These differences were more noticeable at baseflow and during the dry season (December to April), suggesting that the DOM from regional groundwater entering the Arboleda had less of an impact when heavily diluted by soil DOM mobilized by precipitation. In both streams, during periods of heavy precipitation, DOM concentrations were much higher than during base flow. Further, at baseflow the Arboleda showed generally lower concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) than the Taconazo, yet export of DOC from the Arboleda watershed was far higher than from the Taconazo due to the large contribution by regional groundwater to the Arboleda water export. Results from this research emphasize the role of regional groundwater in shaping the quality of the organic

  14. Regional influence of climate patterns on the wave climate of the southwestern Pacific: The New Zealand region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoi, Victor A.; Bryan, Karin R.; Gorman, Richard M.

    2016-06-01

    This work investigates how the wave climate around New Zealand and the southwest Pacific is modulated by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), Zonal Wave-number-3 Pattern (ZW3), and Southern Annular Mode (SAM) during the period 1958-2001. Their respective climate indices were correlated with modeled mean wave parameters extracted from a 45 year (1957-2002) wave hindcast carried out with the WAVEWATCH III model using the wind and ice fields from the ERA-40 reanalysis project. The correlation was performed using the Pearson's correlation coefficient and the wavelet spectral analysis. Prior to that, mean annual and interannual variabilities and trends in significant wave height (Hs) were computed over 44 years (1958-2001). In general, higher annual and interannual variabilities were found along the coastline, in regions dominated by local winds. An increasing trend in Hs was found around the country, with values varying between 1 and 6 cm/decade at the shoreline. The greatest Hs trends were identified to the south of 48°S, suggesting a relationship with the positive trend in the SAM. Seasonal to decadal time scales of the SAM strongly influenced wave parameters throughout the period analyzed. In addition, larger waves were observed during extreme ENSO and IOD events at interannual time scale, while they were more evident at seasonal and intraseasonal time scales in the correlations with the ZW3. Negative phases of the ZW3 and ENSO and positive phases of the IOD, PDO, and SAM resulted in larger waves around most parts of New Zealand.

  15. Numerical Modeling of Deep Borehole Disposal Performance: Influence of Regional Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, E. R.; Hammond, G. E.; Freeze, G. A.; Hadgu, T.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term waste isolation at a deep borehole disposal facility is most favorable at a site where the crystalline basement is hydraulically isolated and groundwater flow is negligible. Site suitability guidelines include evidence of lack of fluid flow in basement, for example lack of significant topographic relief, or evidence of ancient and/or saline groundwater at depth. However, lack of local topographic relief does not preclude regional hydraulic gradients created by recharge and discharge at distant outcrops; and precisely because of hydraulic isolation, the crystalline basement has the potential to be over- or under-pressured relative to overlying units. In the absence of previous boreholes in the area of a potential site, hydraulic gradients at depth are difficult to predict, and the possibility remains that a deep borehole drilled for the disposal of waste will encounter vertical or lateral driving forces for fluid flow. This study asks the question: How large a driving force can be tolerated while still maintaining repository performance? We use PFLOTRAN (an open source, massively parallel subsurface flow and reactive transport code) and a 3-D model domain (representing a disposal borehole in crystalline basement overlain by sedimentary strata) to examine the influence of horizontal and vertical hydraulic gradients on the long-term performance of a deep borehole radioactive waste repository. Simulations include steady-state lateral hydraulic gradients and transient vertical hydraulic gradients, and predict radionuclide concentrations in an overlying aquifer to quantify the potential influence of regional hydraulic gradients on repository performance.

  16. The centrifugal and centripetal force influence on spatial competition of agricultural land in Bandung Metropolitan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadewo, E.

    2017-06-01

    Agricultural activity has suffered a massive land functional shift caused by market mechanism in Bandung metropolitan region (BMR). We argue that the existence of agricultural land in urban spatial structure is the result of interaction between centrifugal and centripetal force on spatial competition. This research aims to explore how several recognized centrifugal and centripetal force influence to the existence of agricultural land in BMR land development. The analysis using multivariate regression indicates that there exists spatial competition between population density and degree of urbanization with agricultural land areas. Its extended spatial regression model suggested that neighboring situation plays an important role to preserve agricultural land areas existences in BMR. Meanwhile, the influence of distance between the location of the city center and employment opportunities is found to be insignificant in the spatial competition. It is opposed to the theory of von Thünen and monocentric model in general. One of the possible explanation of such condition is that the assumption of centrality does not met. In addition, the agricultural land density decay in the southern parts of the area was related to its geographical conditions as protected areas or unfavorable for farming activity. It is suggested that BMR was in the early phase of polycentric development. Hence, better policies that lead redirected development to the southern part of the region is needed as well as population control and regulation of land use.

  17. Air quality resolution for health impacts assessment: influence of regional characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, T. M.; Saari, R. K.; Selin, N. E.

    2013-05-01

    We evaluate how regional characteristics of weather, population, and background pollution might impact the selection of optimal model resolution when calculating the human health impacts of changes to air quality. Using an approach consistent with air quality policy evaluation, we use a regional chemical transport model (CAMx) and a health benefits mapping program (BenMAP) to calculate the human health impacts associated with changes in ozone and fine particulate matter resulting from an emissions reduction scenario. We evaluate this same scenario at 36, 12 and 4 km resolution for nine regions in the Eastern US representing varied characteristics. We find that the human health benefits associated with changes in ozone concentrations are sensitive to resolution, especially in urban areas where we estimate that benefits calculated using coarse resolution results are on average two times greater than benefits calculated using finer scale results. In three urban areas we analyzed, results calculated using 36 km resolution modeling fell outside the uncertainty range of results calculated using finer scale modeling. In rural areas the influence of resolution is less pronounced with only an 8% increase in the estimated health impacts when using 36 km resolution over finer scales. In contrast, health benefits associated with changes in PM2.5 concentrations were not sensitive to resolution and did not follow a pattern based on any regional characteristics evaluated. The largest difference between the health impacts estimated using 36 km modeling results and either 12 or 4 km results was at most ±10% in any region. Several regions showed increases in estimated benefits as resolution increased (opposite the impact seen with ozone modeling) due to a higher contribution of primary PM in those regions, while some regions showed decreases in estimated benefits as resolution increased due to a higher contribution of secondary PM. Given that changes in PM2.5 dominate the human

  18. Influence of sea-land breezes on the tempospatial distribution of atmospheric aerosols over coastal region.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsieh-Hung; Yuan, Chung-Shin; Hung, Chung-Hsuang; Lin, Chitsan; Lin, Yuan-Chung

    2011-04-01

    The influence of sea-land breezes (SLBs) on the spatial distribution and temporal variation of particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere was investigated over coastal Taiwan. PM was simultaneously sampled at inland and offshore locations during three intensive sampling periods. The intensive PM sampling protocol was continuously conducted over a 48-hr period. During this time, PM2.5 and PM(2.5-10) (PM with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 microm and between 2.5 and 10 microm, respectively) were simultaneously measured with dichotomous samplers at four sites (two inland and two offshore sites) and PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameters < or =10 microm) was measured with beta-ray monitors at these same 4 sites and at 10 sites of the Taiwan Air Quality Monitoring Network. PM sampling on a mobile air quality monitoring boat was further conducted along the coastline to collect offshore PM using a beta-ray monitor and a dichotomous sampler. Data obtained from the inland sites (n=12) and offshore sites (n=2) were applied to plot the PM10 concentration contour using Surfer software. This study also used a three-dimensional meteorological model (Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research Meteorological Model 5) and the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions to simulate surface wind fields and spatial distribution of PM10 over the coastal region during the intensive sampling periods. Spatial distribution of PM10 concentration was further used in investigating the influence of SLBs on the transport of PM10 over the coastal region. Field measurement and model simulation results showed that PM10 was transported back and forth across the coastline. In particular, a high PM10 concentration was observed at the inland sites during the day because of sea breezes, whereas a high PM10 concentration was detected offshore at night because of land breezes. This study revealed that the accumulation of PM in the near-ocean region because of SLBs influenced the

  19. Numerical study of urbanization influence on local and regional climate of Yangtze River Delta, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, N.

    2016-12-01

    Yangtze River Delta is one of the most urbanized area in China, which has been experienced a very quick urbanization processes in the recent decades. Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) coupled with a single-layer urban canopy model is used to investigated the influence of urbanization in different scales, from a single city to regional area. The results show that the near-surface temperature increases in both near urbanized area and old city core. Urban heat island (UHI) circulation enhances the local lake breeze circulation in the daytime and weakens it at night. Horizontal convection rolls may occur in the downwind area of cities. The background south-east wind in summer may cause an `upwind UHI impact' in this area. The downwind city experienced a stronger UHI than the windward city, because the warm air is transported from the windward city to the downwind one. This may increases the downwind UHI intensity by 20% at night, while it increases the atmospheric boundary layer stability over the downwind city in the daytime. Two numerical simulation experiment sets of a five-January simulations and a five-July simulations are designed and the results show that the urbanization processes in this area not only impact local urban climate but also have influence on regional climate in Yangtze River Delta. The urbanization process increases the near-surface temperature, UHI intensity, decreases the diurnal temperature variation range, near-surface wind speed and humidity. The influences on UHI and near-surface temperature are greater in summer than in winter due to the background climate characteristics.

  20. Influence of estrogen and variations at the BRCA1 promoter region on transcription and translation.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Lívia R; Costa, Emmerson C B; Vargas, Fernando R; Moreira, Miguel A M

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed wild-type (WT) and four sequence variants of the BRCA1 promoter region-found in patients selected for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome-in respect to their influence on transcription and translation efficiencies in transient transfection assays in the presence or absence of estrogen. Five types of plasmids containing the EGFP reporter gene proceeded by WT 5'UTR-a, WT 5'UTR-b, and the three 5'UTR-b variants were constructed to evaluate their influence on translation. Plasmids containing the firefly luciferase reporter gene were constructed with the WT BRCA1 promoter region (containing promoter α, 5'UTR-a, promoter β, and 5'UTR-b) and with the four promoter variants for evaluating their influence on transcription and translation. All constructs were transfected in MCF7 cells maintained with and without estrogen. Expression of EGFP plasmids with WT 5'UTR-a was six to sevenfold higher than of plasmids with WT 5'UTR-b, expression of WT and the three variant 5'UTR-b plasmids showed slight differences in EGFP expression, and the presence or absence of estrogen result in non-significant changes in expression. Promoter's constructs that carry the variants WT or g.3988C showed a higher firefly luciferase activity when estrogen is present; conversely, no significant differences were found in the transcription efficiency of the reporter gene indicating that estrogen affect the translation rather than transcription. The presence or absence of estrogen did not affect the activity of firefly luciferase for constructs with the other promoter variants, being the transcription efficiencies equivalent in both conditions.

  1. Convective Influence on the Lower Stratospheric Water Vapor in the Boreal Summer Asian Monsoon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueyama, R.; Jensen, E. J.; Pfister, L.

    2016-12-01

    Processes maintaining the localized maxima in lower stratospheric water vapor over the boreal summer Asian monsoon region are investigated using trajectory and cloud models that resolve the detailed cloud microphysical processes, with observation-based convection and radiation schemes. We examine the impact of convective influence along parcel trajectories on cloud formation and dehydration by tracing the trajectories through time-dependent fields of convective cloud top heights estimated from global rainfall and geostationary brightness temperatures. Parameters such as the rainfall threshold used for identification of deep convection are derived by comparison with the CloudSat deep convective cloud top product as enhanced by colocated CALIOP measurements. The simulated water vapor field at the 100 hPa level and cloud occurrence frequencies in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) are constrained by corresponding observations from MLS and CALIPSO, respectively. The observed maximum in the 100 hPa level water vapor field over the Asian monsoon region is only present in the simulation with convective influence, indicating the importance of convective hydration for the summertime water vapor distribution. Convection moistens the 100 hPa level over the Asian monsoon by 1 ppmv, where 75% of this moistening is due to convection occurring locally within the monsoon region. Convection also increases the cloud occurrence frequency in the TTL over the southern sector of the Asian monsoon anticyclone by 20%. Parcels are convectively hydrated in the southeastern sector of the anticyclone, transported westward by the anticyclonic circulation, and dehydrated in the southwestern sector. The relative importance of extreme convective events that inject ice and water vapor near or above the tropopause will also be examined.

  2. The impact of storms and stratification on sediment transport in the Rhine region of freshwater influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Raúl P.; Rijnsburger, Sabine; Horner-Devine, Alexander R.; Souza, Alejandro J.; Pietrzak, Julie D.

    2017-05-01

    We present measurements of along and across-shore sediment transport in a region of the Dutch coast 10 km north of the Rhine River mouth. This section of the coast is characterized by strong vertical density stratification because it is within the midfield region of the Rhine region of freshwater influence, where processes typical of the far-field, such as tidal straining, are modified by the passage of distinct freshwater lenses at the surface. The experiment captured two storms, and a wide range of wind, wave, tidal and stratification conditions. We focus primarily on the mechanisms leading to cross-shore sediment flux at a mooring location in 12 m of water, which are responsible for the exchange of sediment between the nearshore and the inner shelf. Net transport during storms was directed offshore and influenced by cross-shelf winds, while net transport during spring tides was determined by the mean state of stratification. Tidal straining dominated during neap tides; however, cross-shore transport was negligible due to small sediment concentrations. The passage of freshwater lenses manifested as strong pulses of offshore transport primarily during spring tides. We observe that both barotropic and baroclinic processes are relevant for cross-shore transport at depth and, since transport rates due to these competing processes were similar, the net transport direction will be determined by the frequency and sequencing of these modes of transport. Based on our observations, we find that wind and wave-driven transport during storms tends move fine sediment offshore, while calmer, more stratified conditions move it back onshore.

  3. Understanding perception and factors influencing private voluntary health insurance policy subscription in the Lucknow region

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Tanuj; Paul, Ujjwal Kanti; Prasad, Himanshu Narayan; Das, Subodh Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health insurance has been acknowledged by researchers as a valuable tool in health financing. In spite of its significance, a subscription paralysis has been observed in India for this product. People who can afford health insurance are also found to be either ignorant or aversive towards it. This study is designed to investigate into the socio-economic factors, individuals’ health insurance product perception and individuals’ personality traits for unbundling the paradox which inhibits people from subscribing to health insurance plans. Methods: This survey was conducted in the region of Lucknow. An online questionnaire was sent to sampled respondents. Response evinced by 263 respondents was formed as a part of study for the further data analysis. For assessing the relationships between variables T-test and F-test were applied as a part of quantitative measuring tool. Finally, logistic regression technique was used to estimate the factors that influence respondents’ decision to purchase health insurance. Results: Age, dependent family members, medical expenditure, health status and individual’s product perception were found to be significantly associated with health insurance subscription in the region. Personality traits have also showed a positive relationship with respondent’s insurance status. Conclusion: We found in our study that socio-economic factors, individuals’ product perception and personality traits induces health insurance policy subscription in the region. PMID:25674567

  4. Lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region and their influence during BAQS-Met 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, D. M. L.; Brook, J. R.; Levy, I.; Makar, P. A.; Zhang, J.; Taylor, P. A.

    2011-08-01

    Meteorological observations from the BAQS-Met field experiment during the summer months of 2007 were integrated and manually analyzed in order to identify and characterize lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region of North America, and assess their potential impact on air quality. Lake breezes occurred frequently, with one or more lake breezes identified on 90 % of study days. They affected all parts of the study region, including southwestern Ontario and nearby portions of southeast Lower Michigan and northern Ohio, with lake-breeze fronts occasionally penetrating from 100 km to over 200 km inland. Occurrence rates and penetration distances were found to be higher than previously reported in the literature. This comprehensive depiction of observed lake breezes allows an improved understanding of their influence on the transport, dispersion, and production of pollutants in this region. The observational analyses were compared with output from subsequent runs of a high-resolution numerical weather prediction model. The model accurately predicted lake breeze occurrence and type in a variety of synoptic wind regimes, but selected cases showed substantial differences in the detailed timing and location of lake-breeze fronts, and with the initiation of deep moist convection. Knowledge of such strengths and weaknesses aids in the interpretation of results from air quality models driven by this meteorological model.

  5. Lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region and their influence during BAQS-Met 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, D. M. L.; Brook, J. R.; Levy, I.; Makar, P. A.; Zhang, J.; Taylor, P. A.

    2011-02-01

    Mesoscale observations from the BAQS-Met field experiment during the summer of 2007 were integrated and manually analyzed in order to identify and characterize lake breezes in the southern Great Lakes region of North America, and assess their potential impact on air quality. Lake breezes were found to occur on 90% of study days, often occurring in conditions previously thought to impede their development. They affected all parts of the study region, including southwestern Ontario and nearby portions of southeast Michigan and northern Ohio, occasionally penetrating inland from 100 km to over 200 km. Occurrence rates and penetration distances were found to be higher than previously reported in the literature. This more accurate depiction of observed lake breezes allows a better understanding of their influence on the production and transport of pollutants in this region. The observational analyses were compared with output from subsequent runs of a high-resolution numerical weather prediction model. The model accurately predicted lake breeze occurrence in a variety of synoptic wind regimes, but selected cases showed substantial differences in the detailed timing and location of lake-breeze fronts, and with the initiation of deep moist convection. Knowledge of such strengths and weaknesses will assist with interpretation of results from air quality modelling driven by this meteorological model.

  6. Taking a different perspective: Mindset influences neural regions that represent value and choice

    PubMed Central

    Beer, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    Most choices are complex and can be considered from a number of different perspectives. For example, someone choosing a snack may have taste, health, cost or any number of factors at the forefront of their mind. Although previous research has examined neural systems related to value and choice, very little is known about how mindset influences these systems. In the current study, participants were primed with Health or Taste while they made decisions about snack foods. Some neural regions showed consistent associations with value and choice across Health or Taste mindsets. Regardless of mindset, medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC) tracked value in terms of taste, regions in left lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) tracked value in terms of health, and MOFC and dorsal anterior cingulate were associated with choice. However, activity in other neural regions was modulated by the mindset manipulation. When primed with Taste, rostral anterior cingulate tracked value in terms of taste whereas left amygdala and left putamen were associated with choice. When primed with Health, right LPFC and posterior MOFC tracked value in terms of health. The findings contribute to the neural research on decision-making by demonstrating that changing perspectives can modulate value- and choice-related neural activity. PMID:21972426

  7. Influence of conservation programs on amphibians using seasonal wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balas, Caleb J.; Euliss, Ned H.; Mushnet, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive modification of upland habitats surrounding wetlands to facilitate agricultural production has negatively impacted amphibian communities in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America. In attempts to mitigate ecosystem damage associated with extensive landscape alteration, vast tracks of upland croplands have been returned to perennial vegetative cover (i.e., conservation grasslands) under a variety of U.S. Department of Agriculture programs. We evaluated the influence of these conservation grasslands on amphibian occupancy of seasonal wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region. Using automated call surveys, aquatic funnel traps, and visual encounter surveys, we detected eight amphibian species using wetlands within three land-use categories (farmed, conservation grasslands, and native prairie grasslands) during the summers of 2005 and 2006. Seasonal wetlands within farmlands were used less frequently by amphibians than those within conservation and native prairie grasslands, and wetlands within conservation grasslands were used less frequently than those within native prairie grasslands by all species and life-stages we successfully modeled. Our results suggest that, while not occupied as frequently as wetlands within native prairie, wetlands within conservation grasslands provide important habitat for maintaining amphibian biodiversity in the Prairie Pothole Region

  8. IL2/IL21 region polymorphism influences response to rituximab in systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Ana; Dávila-Fajardo, Cristina Lucía; Robledo, Gema; Rubio, José Luis Callejas; de Ramón Garrido, Enrique; García-Hernández, Francisco J; González-León, Rocío; Ríos-Fernández, Raquel; Barrera, José Cabeza; González-Escribano, Ma Francisca; García, Ma Teresa Camps; Palma, Ma Jesús Castillo; del Mar Ayala, Ma; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Martín, Javier

    2013-08-01

    To determine whether the IL2/IL21 region, a general autoimmunity locus, contributes to the observed variation in response to rituximab in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus as well as to analyze its influence in a cohort including other autoimmune diseases. rs6822844 G/T polymorphism at the IL2-IL21 region was analyzed by TaqMan assay in 84 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 60 different systemic autoimmune diseases Spanish patients receiving rituximab. Six months after the first infusion patients were classified, according to the EULAR criteria, as good responders, partial responders and non-responders. A statistically significant difference was observed in GG genotype frequency between responder (total and partial response) (83.56%) and non-responder (45.45%) SLE patients (p=0.010, odds ratio (OR)=6.10 [1.28-29.06]). No association with the response was evident in the group of patients with autoimmune diseases other than lupus. Furthermore, when both groups of patients were pooled in a meta-analysis, a reduced statistical significance of the association was observed (p=0.024, OR=3.53 [1.06-11.64]). Our results show for a first time that IL2-IL21 region seems to play a role in the response to rituximab in SLE patients but not in other autoimmune diseases.

  9. Air quality resolution for health impact assessment: influence of regional characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, T. M.; Saari, R. K.; Selin, N. E.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate how regional characteristics of population and background pollution might impact the selection of optimal air quality model resolution when calculating the human health impacts of changes to air quality. Using an approach consistent with air quality policy evaluation, we use a regional chemical transport model (CAMx) and a health benefit mapping program (BenMAP) to calculate the human health impacts associated with changes in ozone and fine particulate matter resulting from an emission reduction scenario. We evaluate this same scenario at 36, 12 and 4 km resolution for nine regions in the eastern US representing varied characteristics. We find that the human health benefits associated with changes in ozone concentrations are sensitive to resolution. This finding is especially strong in urban areas where we estimate that benefits calculated using coarse resolution results are on average two times greater than benefits calculated using finer scale results. In three urban areas we analyzed, results calculated using 36 km resolution modeling fell outside the uncertainty range of results calculated using finer scale modeling. In rural areas the influence of resolution is less pronounced with only an 8% increase in the estimated health impacts when using 36 km resolution over finer scales. In contrast, health benefits associated with changes in PM2.5 concentrations were not sensitive to resolution and did not follow a pattern based on any regional characteristics evaluated. The largest difference between the health impacts estimated using 36 km modeling results and either 12 or 4 km results was at most ±10% in any region. Several regions showed increases in estimated benefits as resolution increased (opposite the impact seen with ozone modeling), while some regions showed decreases in estimated benefits as resolution increased. In both cases, the dominant contribution was from secondary PM. Additionally, we found that the health impacts calculated using

  10. Observed and simulated influence of rainy-region SST on the tropical upper tropospheric humidity (UTH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, H.; Huang, X.

    2008-12-01

    Tropical deep convections play a key role in vertically transporting moisture from the boundary layer to the upper troposphere. In this study we investigate how the variations of surface temperature over the tropical deep convective regions (hereafter, rainy-region SST) affect the interannual variations of tropical UTH profiles. Interannual anomalies of UTH profiles from the 20th-century run of four IPCC-AR4 GCMs (GFDL- CM2.1, ECHAM5, MRI-CGCM2.3.2, and NCAR-CCSM3) are analyzed. For comparison, rainy-region SST is derived from the observed SST and GPCP pentad-resolution dataset and UTHs from ECMWF and AIRS are used. The four models have consistently high correlation (>0.9) between interannual anomalies of humidity and tropical-mean surface temperature, but it is not the case of the ECMWF and AIRS data. When the inner tropical (15S-15N) rainy-region surface temperature is used instead of the mean surface temperature, the correlations between UTH (250-450mb) anomalies and surface temperature anomalies are improved by 14.6% for ECMWF and by 24.6% for AIRS, but only slightly improved for four GCMs (between 0.6-4.9%). These results indicate that the GCMs, though consistent with each other, have difficulties in capturing observed influence of rainy-region SST on the UTH anomalies. We then examine the fractional change of specific humidity with respect to the inner tropical rainy-region SST as well as the cloud radiative forcing and the cloud fraction to investigate the connection between the maximum outflow level of deep convection and UTH variability. Though the fractional changes of specific humidity with rainy-region SST tend to have a maximum around 200mb for all GCMs, the analysis of cloud properties suggests that, in all GCMs, the variation of maximum outflow level should not dictate the UTH variability. Given that the air parcel more closely follows the isentropic surfaces rather than the isobaric surfaces, we further examine the UTH variability over the constant

  11. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy reveals coupled immunoglobulin regions of differential flexibility that influence stability.

    PubMed

    Kamerzell, Tim J; Middaugh, C Russell

    2007-08-28

    Despite the well-accepted importance of protein flexibility and dynamics in molecular recognition and conformational stability, our understanding of these relationships is incomplete. Immunoglobulin flexibility is essential for antigen binding and adaptation to diverse molecular shapes and sizes. The inherent flexibility of immunoglobulins also renders these molecules suitable for investigating the possible relationships between protein flexibility and stability. To better understand these inter-relationships, we employ generalized perturbation-based two-dimensional correlation FTIR spectroscopy to monitor the time evolution of H-D exchange of an IgG1 as a function of pH. The differential flexibility of various immunoglobulin regions is described in response to an external perturbation and shown to vary widely. The greatest number of regions with differential exchange rates and, thus differential flexibility, is seen at pH 6. Approximately seven, six, five, and four separate states that exchange with different rates were observed at pH 6, 8, 4, and 2, respectively. The overall distribution of exchange rates calculated from the decays of the integrated Amide I and Amide II areas provides further evidence of multiple regions with differential flexibility. The sequence of events at pH 4 determined from the asynchronous vibrational patterns is of significant interest and suggests protonation of Glu and Asp side chains occurs first and initiates changes in the conformation and flexibility of different sheet and turns structure. A complex inter-relationship between differential regional flexibility and conformational coupling (i.e., cooperativity) initiated by changes in pH influences the stability of this IgG.

  12. Analysis of Synoptic Weather Types and Its Influence on Precipitation in the Marmara Region (NW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltaci, H.; Kindap, T.; Unal, A.; Karaca, M.

    2012-04-01

    more common in the fall season 11% due to the expansion of spatial extent of the anticyclone center located over the Caspian Sea. Daily precipitation records for the period of between 2001 and 2010 belong to 14 meteorological stations in the region were investigated to understand the influence of synoptic weather types on precipitation. Based on daily precipitation records, about one-third of the NE-patterns result in precipitation which is slightly larger than patterns from other directions. The corresponding values for SW-, N- and S-patterns are 29%, 25% and 25%, respectively. Northerly patterns (N and NE) causes more frequent precipitation on the northern and eastern parts of the region. On the other hand, southerly patterns (S and SW) are more influential and cause more frequent precipitation on the south and northwestern parts of the region. Therefore, frequency of synoptic weather types and daily precipitation records suggest that precipitation regimes are of a different nature in northern and southern parts of the Marmara region. Keywords Synoptic weather types; Marmara Region; Lamb classification; Rainfall patterns

  13. The influence of hazard models on GIS-based regional risk assessments and mitigation policies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernknopf, R.L.; Rabinovici, S.J.M.; Wood, N.J.; Dinitz, L.B.

    2006-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) are important tools for understanding and communicating the spatial distribution of risks associated with natural hazards in regional economies. We present a GIS-based decision support system (DSS) for assessing community vulnerability to natural hazards and evaluating potential mitigation policy outcomes. The Land Use Portfolio Modeler (LUPM) integrates earth science and socioeconomic information to predict the economic impacts of loss-reduction strategies. However, the potential use of such systems in decision making may be limited when multiple but conflicting interpretations of the hazard are available. To explore this problem, we conduct a policy comparison using the LUPM to test the sensitivity of three available assessments of earthquake-induced lateral-spread ground failure susceptibility in a coastal California community. We find that the uncertainty regarding the interpretation of the science inputs can influence the development and implementation of natural hazard management policies. Copyright ?? 2006 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  14. Chromatin organization is a major influence on regional mutation rates in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Schuster-Böckler, Benjamin; Lehner, Ben

    2012-08-23

    Cancer genome sequencing provides the first direct information on how mutation rates vary across the human genome in somatic cells. Testing diverse genetic and epigenetic features, here we show that mutation rates in cancer genomes are strikingly related to chromatin organization. Indeed, at the megabase scale, a single feature—levels of the heterochromatin-associated histone modification H3K9me3—can account for more than 40% of mutation-rate variation, and a combination of features can account for more than 55%. The strong association between mutation rates and chromatin organization is upheld in samples from different tissues and for different mutation types. This suggests that the arrangement of the genome into heterochromatin- and euchromatin-like domains is a dominant influence on regional mutation-rate variation in human somatic cells.

  15. Model of ribosome translation and mRNA unwinding.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ping

    2013-05-01

    A ribosome is an enzyme that catalyzes translation of the genetic information encoded in messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins. Besides translation through the single-stranded mRNA, the ribosome is also able to translate through the duplex region of mRNA via unwinding the duplex. Here, based on our proposed ribosome translation model, we study analytically the dynamics of Escherichia coli ribosome translation through the duplex region of mRNA, and compare with the available single molecule experimental data. It is shown that the ribosome uses only one active mechanism (mechanical unwinding), rather than two active mechanisms (open-state stabilization and mechanical unwinding), as proposed before, to unwind the duplex. The reduced rate of translation through the duplex region is due to the occurrence of futile transitions, which are induced by the energy barrier from the duplex unwinding to the forward translocation along the single-stranded mRNA. Moreover, we also present predicted results of the average translation rate versus the external force acting on the ribosome translating through the duplex region and through the single-stranded region of mRNA, which can be easily tested by future experiments.

  16. Influence of Photospheric Magnetic Conditions on the Catastrophic Behaviors of Flux Ropes in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Quanhao; Wang, Yuming; Hu, Youqiu; Liu, Rui; Liu, Jiajia

    2017-02-01

    Since only the magnetic conditions at the photosphere can be routinely observed in current observations, it is of great significance to determine the influences of photospheric magnetic conditions on solar eruptive activities. Previous studies about catastrophe indicated that the magnetic system consisting of a flux rope in a partially open bipolar field is subject to catastrophe, but not if the bipolar field is completely closed under the same specified photospheric conditions. In order to investigate the influence of the photospheric magnetic conditions on the catastrophic behavior of this system, we expand upon the 2.5-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic model in Cartesian coordinates to simulate the evolution of the equilibrium states of the system under different photospheric flux distributions. Our simulation results reveal that a catastrophe occurs only when the photospheric flux is not concentrated too much toward the polarity inversion line and the source regions of the bipolar field are not too weak; otherwise no catastrophe occurs. As a result, under certain photospheric conditions, a catastrophe could take place in a completely closed configuration, whereas it ceases to exist in a partially open configuration. This indicates that whether the background field is completely closed or partially open is not the only necessary condition for the existence of catastrophe, and that the photospheric conditions also play a crucial role in the catastrophic behavior of the flux rope system.

  17. Influence of 2010 Canadian Forest Fires on Cloud Formation on the Regional Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, C.; Freitas, S. R.; Kraut, I.; Rieger, D.; Vogel, H.; Vogel, B.

    2014-12-01

    In July 2010 a strong biomass burning event occurred in the North of Saskatchewan, Canada. The fires were well observed by satellites. The changing synoptic situation and the variations in plume height created a complex distribution of the emitted gaseous and particulate matter. The comprehensive regional model system COSMO-ART allows us to study the influence of aerosols on the atmosphere. The formation of new aerosol particles from gaseous precursors is as well accounted as changes in the mixing state of existing aerosol particles. The impact of aerosol particles on cloud microphysics and precipitation is simulated by a two-moment scheme in combination with parameterizations for aerosol activation and ice nucleation. To address emissions from biomass burning, the model system was extended by a plume rise model. It delivers the effective emission height which depends on the current state of the atmosphere and the fire intensity. Datasets based on satellites provide the composition and source strength of numerous chemical tracers. With this framework we are able to gain insight into various effects of aerosols from biomass burning. We found that simulated aerosol optical depth is in very good agreement with AERONET measurements. Temperature at the surface is significantly influenced by adsorbing and scattering particles inside elevated smoke layers. This has further impact on thermal stratification. The high aerosol load inside clouds leads to displaced precipitation patterns. Number and size distributions of cloud droplets are examined for different smoke regimes. It turns out that it depends on the hygroscopicity of available aerosols.

  18. Influence of early linguistic experience on regional dialect categorization by an adult cochlear implant user: a case study.

    PubMed

    Tamati, Terrin N; Gilbert, Jaimie L; Pisoni, David B

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the ability of a cochlear implant user to categorize talkers by region of origin and examine the influence of prior linguistic experience on the perception of regional dialect variation. A postlingually deafened adult cochlear implant user from the Southern region of the United States completed a six-alternative forced-choice dialect categorization task. The cochlear implant user was most accurate at categorizing unfamiliar talkers from his own region and another familiar dialect region, and least accurate at categorizing talkers from less familiar regions. Although the dialect-specific information made available by a cochlear implant may be degraded compared with information available to normal-hearing listeners, this experienced cochlear implant user was able to reliably categorize unfamiliar talkers by region of origin. The participant made use of dialect-specific acoustic-phonetic information in the speech signal and previously stored knowledge of regional dialect differences from early exposure before implantation despite an early hearing loss.

  19. Region of influence: a methodology test at Vandenberg Air Force Base

    SciTech Connect

    Krummel, J.R.; Hunsaker, C.T.; Voelker, A.H.; Kornegay, F.C.

    1986-08-01

    This report documents a test of a region of influence (ROI) methodology and a biophysical base-line data base (BDB) which supports the data requirements of the methodology. Environmental issues at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) provided practical scenarios for demonstrating the ROI methodology. Using this methodology, the investigator determined the geographic extent of air-quality changes due to space shuttle launches, water-quality changes at discharge points on VAFB, and potential water-supply sources to meet future water needs at VAFB. The geographic distribution of both physical (e.g., topography) and biological (e.g., vegetation) attributes on VAFB and the surrounding region is maintained in the BDB. The BDB utilizes a computerized Geographic Information System (GIS) to provide the necessary automated bookkeeping of the spatial data about the attributes and a computerized data-base management system to provide statistical analyses of thematic data. The ROI methodology uses conventional modeling techniques to determine the geographic extent of a disturbance. Regulatory standards and criteria and/or the potential for biophysical effects define the boundary condition of an ROI. Defining an ROI for a proposed action includes three major steps: (1) careful definition of the types of disturbances that may be caused by the action; (2) determination of an appropriate boundary condition (e.g., regulatory criteria); and (3) mapping the ROI boundary, using transport and fate models or physical attributes (e.g., aquifer boundaries) that constrain the transport of the disturbance.

  20. Regional simulation of aerosol radiative effects and their influence on rainfall over India using WRFChem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedia, Sumita; Cherian, Ribu; Islam, Sahidul; Das, Subrata Kumar; Kaginalkar, Akshara

    2016-12-01

    A regional climate model, WRFChem has been utilized to simulate aerosol and rainfall distribution over India during July 2010 which was a normal monsoon year. Two identical simulations, one includes aerosol feedback via their direct and indirect effects and other one without any aerosol effect, are structured to understand the impact of aerosol net (direct + indirect) effect on rainfall pattern over India. Model results are accompanied by satellite and ground based observations to examine the robustness of the model simulations. It is shown that the model can reproduce the spatial and temporal characteristics of meteorological parameters, rainfall distribution, aerosol optical depth and single scattering albedo reasonably well. Model simulated spatial distribution and magnitude of aerosol optical depth over India are realistic, particularly over northwest India, where mineral dust is a major contributor to the total aerosol loading and over Indo-Gangetic Plain region (IGP) where AOD remains high throughout the year. Net (shortwave + longwave) atmospheric heating rate is the highest (> 0.27 K day - 1) over east IGP due to abundant dust and anthropogenic aerosols while it is the lowest over peninsular India and over the Thar desert (< 0.03 K day - 1) which can be attributed to less aerosol concentration and longwave cooling, respectively. It is shown that, inclusion of aerosol direct and indirect effects have strong influence ( ± 20%) on rainfall magnitude and its distribution over Indian subcontinent during monsoon.

  1. Regional Influences on Chinese Medicine Education: Comparing Australia and Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Vincent C. H.; Zhang, Anthony L.; Adams, Jon

    2016-01-01

    High quality education programs are essential for preparing the next generation of Chinese medicine (CM) practitioners. Currently, training in CM occurs within differing health and education policy contexts. There has been little analysis of the factors influencing the form and status of CM education in different regions. Such a task is important for understanding how CM is evolving internationally and predicting future workforce characteristics. This paper compares the status of CM education in Australia and Hong Kong across a range of dimensions: historical and current positions in the national higher education system, regulatory context and relationship to the health system, and public and professional legitimacy. The analysis highlights the different ways in which CM education is developing in these settings, with Hong Kong providing somewhat greater access to clinical training opportunities for CM students. However, common trends and challenges shape CM education in both regions, including marginalisation from mainstream health professions, a small but established presence in universities, and an emphasis on biomedical research. Three factors stand out as significant for the evolution of CM education in Australia and Hong Kong and may have international implications: continuing biomedical dominance, increased competition between universities, and strengthened links with mainland China. PMID:27379170

  2. Regions of significant influence on unforced global mean surface air temperature variability in climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Patrick T.; Li, Wenhong; Xie, Shang-Ping

    2015-01-01

    We document the geographic regions where local variability is most associated with unforced global mean surface air temperature (GMT) variability in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 coupled global climate models (GCMs) at both the subdecadal and interdecadal timescales. For this purpose, Regions of Significant Influence on GMT are defined as locations that have a statistically significant correlation between local surface air temperature (SAT) and GMT (with a regression slope greater than 1), and where local SAT variation leads GMT variation in time. In both GCMs and observations, subdecadal timescale GMT variability is most associated with SAT variation over the eastern equatorial Pacific. At the interdecadal timescale, GMT variability is also linked with SAT variation over the Pacific in many GCMs, but the particular spatial patterns are GCM dependent, and several GCMs indicate a primary association between GMT and SAT over the Southern Ocean. We find that it is difficult to validate GCM behavior at the interdecadal timescale because the pattern derived from observations is highly depended on the method used to remove the forced variability from the record. The magnitude of observed GMT variability is near the ensemble median at the subdecadal timescale but well above the median at the interdecadal timescale. GCMs with a stronger subdecadal relationship between GMT and SAT over the Pacific tend to have more variable subdecadal GMT while GCMs with a stronger interdecadal relationship between GMT and SAT over parts of the Southern Ocean tend to have more variable GMT.

  3. Does regional compared to local anaesthesia influence outcome after arteriovenous fistula creation?

    PubMed

    Macfarlane, Alan James Robert; Kearns, Rachel Joyce; Aitken, Emma; Kinsella, John; Clancy, Marc James

    2013-08-19

    An arteriovenous fistula is the optimal form of vascular access in patients with end-stage renal failure requiring haemodialysis. Unfortunately, approximately one-third of fistulae fail at an early stage. Different anaesthetic techniques can influence factors associated with fistula success, such as intraoperative blood flow and venous diameter. A regional anaesthetic brachial plexus block results in vasodilatation and improved short- and long-term fistula flow compared to the infiltration of local anaesthetic alone. This, however, has not yet been shown in a large trial to influence long-term fistula patency, the ultimate clinical measure of success.The aim of this study is to compare whether a regional anaesthetic block, compared to local anaesthetic infiltration, can improve long-term fistula patency. This study is an observer-blinded, randomised controlled trial. Patients scheduled to undergo creation of either brachial or radial arteriovenous fistulae will receive a study information sheet, and consent will be obtained in keeping with the Declaration of Helsinki. Patients will be randomised to receive either: (i) an ultrasound guided brachial plexus block using lignocaine with adrenaline and levobupivicaine, or (ii) local anaesthetic infiltration with lignocaine and levobupivicaine.A total of 126 patients will be recruited. The primary outcome is fistula primary patency at three months. Secondary outcomes include primary patency at 1 and 12 months, secondary patency and fistula flow at 1, 3 and 12 months, flow on first haemodialysis, procedural pain, patient satisfaction, change in cephalic vein diameter pre- and post-anaesthetic, change in radial or brachial artery flow pre- and post-anaesthetic, alteration of the surgical plan after anaesthesia as guided by vascular mapping with ultrasound, and fistula infection requiring antibiotics. No large randomised controlled trial has examined the influence of brachial plexus block compared with local anaesthetic

  4. Does regional compared to local anaesthesia influence outcome after arteriovenous fistula creation?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background An arteriovenous fistula is the optimal form of vascular access in patients with end-stage renal failure requiring haemodialysis. Unfortunately, approximately one-third of fistulae fail at an early stage. Different anaesthetic techniques can influence factors associated with fistula success, such as intraoperative blood flow and venous diameter. A regional anaesthetic brachial plexus block results in vasodilatation and improved short- and long-term fistula flow compared to the infiltration of local anaesthetic alone. This, however, has not yet been shown in a large trial to influence long-term fistula patency, the ultimate clinical measure of success. The aim of this study is to compare whether a regional anaesthetic block, compared to local anaesthetic infiltration, can improve long-term fistula patency. Methods This study is an observer-blinded, randomised controlled trial. Patients scheduled to undergo creation of either brachial or radial arteriovenous fistulae will receive a study information sheet, and consent will be obtained in keeping with the Declaration of Helsinki. Patients will be randomised to receive either: (i) an ultrasound guided brachial plexus block using lignocaine with adrenaline and levobupivicaine, or (ii) local anaesthetic infiltration with lignocaine and levobupivicaine. A total of 126 patients will be recruited. The primary outcome is fistula primary patency at three months. Secondary outcomes include primary patency at 1 and 12 months, secondary patency and fistula flow at 1, 3 and 12 months, flow on first haemodialysis, procedural pain, patient satisfaction, change in cephalic vein diameter pre- and post-anaesthetic, change in radial or brachial artery flow pre- and post-anaesthetic, alteration of the surgical plan after anaesthesia as guided by vascular mapping with ultrasound, and fistula infection requiring antibiotics. Conclusions No large randomised controlled trial has examined the influence of brachial plexus block

  5. Influence of weather, rank, and home advantage on football outcomes in the Gulf region.

    PubMed

    Brocherie, Franck; Girard, Olivier; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Millet, Grégoire P

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of weather, rank, and home advantage on international football match results and scores in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region. Football matches (n = 2008) in six GCC countries were analyzed. To determine the weather influence on the likelihood of favorable outcome and goal difference, generalized linear model with a logit link function and multiple regression analysis were performed. In the GCC region, home teams tend to have greater likelihood of a favorable outcome (P < 0.001) and higher goal difference (P < 0.001). Temperature difference was identified as a significant explanatory variable when used independently (P < 0.001) or after adjustment for home advantage and team ranking (P < 0.001). The likelihood of favorable outcome for GCC teams increases by 3% for every 1-unit increase in temperature difference. After inclusion of interaction with opposition, this advantage remains significant only when playing against non-GCC opponents. While home advantage increased the odds of favorable outcome (P < 0.001) and goal difference (P < 0.001) after inclusion of interaction term, the likelihood of favorable outcome for a GCC team decreased (P < 0.001) when playing against a stronger opponent. Finally, the temperature and wet bulb globe temperature approximation were found as better indicators of the effect of environmental conditions than absolute and relative humidity or heat index on match outcomes. In GCC region, higher temperature increased the likelihood of a favorable outcome when playing against non-GCC teams. However, international ranking should be considered because an opponent with a higher rank reduced, but did not eliminate, the likelihood of a favorable outcome.

  6. Understanding Space Weather influence on earthquake triggering to shield people living in seismic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachikyan, Galina; Inchin, Alexander; Kim, Alexander; Khassanov, Eldar

    2016-07-01

    There is an idea at present that space weather can influence not only the technological infrastructure and people's health, but seismic activity as well. Space weather impact on the Earth results from magnetic reconnection between the Sun's and Earth's magnetic fields. The effectiveness of reconnection depends on sign and magnitude of Z-components in solar wind magnetic field and earth's magnetic field as measured in the geocentric solar magnetosphere (GSM) coordinate system. The more negative value of Zgsm in the solar wind magnetic field, and the more positive value of Zgsm in the geomagnetic field, the more solar wind energy penetrates into the earth's environment due to reconnection. It was found recently by Khachikyan et al. [2012, http://www.scirp.org/journal/ijg] that maximal possible earthquake magnitude in a particular seismic region (seismic potential - Mmax) may be determined, in first approximation, on the base of maximal geomagnetic Zgsm value in this region, namely: Mmax = (5.22 +- 0.17) + (0.78 +- 0.06) x [abs (Zgsm)]. In this report we present statistical results on association between variations in space weather and global seismic activity, and demonstrate that a great Sumatra earthquake (M=9.1, on December 26, 2004, at 00:58:53 GMT) indeed occurred in region where the geomagnetic Zgsm components are largest at the globe. In the time of earthquake occurrence, geomagnetic Zgsm value in the epicenter (3.30N, 95.980E) was equal to ~37147 nT. A range of possible maximal magnitude, as estimated from above relation, could be of 8.8 - 9.2. The recorded magnitude M=9.1 is within this range.

  7. Does hospital ownership influence hospital referral region health rankings in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hamadi, Hanadi; Apatu, Emma; Spaulding, Aaron

    2017-07-21

    Extensive evidence demonstrates that a hospital's organizational ownership structure impacts its overall performance, but little is known concerning the influence of hospital structure on the health of its community. This paper explores the association between US hospital referral region (HRR) health rankings and hospital ownership and performance. Data from the 2016 Commonwealth Fund Scorecard on Local Health System Performance, the American Hospital Association dataset, and the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing dataset are utilized to conduct a cross-sectional analysis of 36 quality measures across 306 HRRs. Multivariate regression analysis was used to estimate the association among hospital ownership, system performance measures-access and affordability, prevention and treatment, avoidable hospital use and cost, and healthy lives-and performance as measured by value-based purchasing total performance scores. We found that indicators of access and affordability, as well as prevention and treatment, were significantly associated across all 3 hospitals' organizational structures. Hospital referral regions with a greater number of not-for-profit hospitals demonstrated greater indications of access and affordability, as well as better prevention and treatment rankings than for-profit and government hospitals. Hospital referral regions with a greater number of government, nonfederal hospitals had worse scores for healthy lives. Furthermore, the greater the total performance scores score, the better the HRR score on prevention and treatment rankings. The greater the per capita income, the better the score across all 4 dimensions. As such, this inquiry supports the assertion that performance of a local health system is dependent on its community's resources of health care delivery entities and their structure. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The influence of daily meteorology on boreal fire emissions and regional trace gas variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, E. B.; Veraverbeke, S.; Henderson, J. M.; Karion, A.; Miller, J. B.; Lindaas, J.; Commane, R.; Sweeney, C.; Luus, K. A.; Tosca, M. G.; Dinardo, S. J.; Wofsy, S.; Miller, C. E.; Randerson, J. T.

    2016-11-01

    Relationships between boreal wildfire emissions and day-to-day variations in meteorological variables are complex and have important implications for the sensitivity of high-latitude ecosystems to climate change. We examined the influence of environmental conditions on boreal fire emissions and fire contributions to regional trace gas variability in interior Alaska during the summer of 2013 using two types of analysis. First, we quantified the degree to which meteorological and fire weather indices explained regional variability in fire activity using four different products, including active fires, fire radiative power, burned area, and carbon emissions. Second, we combined daily emissions from the Alaskan Fire Emissions Database (AKFED) with the coupled Polar Weather Research and Forecasting/Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model to estimate fire contributions to trace gas concentration measurements at the Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment-NOAA Global Monitoring Division (CRV) tower in interior Alaska. Tower observations during two high fire periods were used to estimate CO and CH4 emission factors. We found that vapor pressure deficit and temperature had a level of performance similar to more complex fire weather indices. Emission factors derived from CRV tower measurements were 134 ± 25 g CO per kg of combusted biomass and 7.74 ± 1.06 g CH4 per kg of combusted biomass. Predicted daily CO mole fractions from AKFED emissions were moderately correlated with CRV observations (r = 0.68) and had a high bias. The modeling system developed here allows for attribution of emission factors to individual fires and has the potential to improve our understanding of regional CO, CH4, and CO2 budgets.

  9. Influence of selective brain cooling on the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA and infiltration of PMNLs and monocytes/macrophages in rats suffering from global brain ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jianping; Xu, Jianguo; Li, Weiyan; Liu, Jian

    2008-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate the effects of selective brain cooling on the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA and infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) and monocytes/macrophages (MPhi) during global cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R). Global ischemia of the brain was produced by four-vessel occlusion for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 240 min. Thirty-five SD rats were randomly divided into five groups: group I had no ischemia and reperfusion; groups II, III, IV, and V were subjected to ischemia for 30 min at 37 degrees C and reperfusion for 240 min at 37, 35, 32, and 28 degrees C, respectively. Cerebral tissue samples were taken for pathological examination of the infiltration of PMNLs and MPhi and to detect ICAM-1 mRNA expression by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expression of ICAM-1 mRNA and infiltration of PMNLs and MPhi increased more markedly in group II than in group I (p < 0.01), suggesting that hypothermia evidently inhibited ICAM-1 mRNA expression and PMNL and MPhi infiltration in the damaged cerebral tissue. In addition, significant differences were also found between group III and group II (p < 0.05) and among groups IV, V, and II (p < 0.01). These results suggest that I/R injury induces ICAM-1 mRNA expression and PMNL and MPhi infiltration in SD rats and that selective brain cooling, and especially moderate hypothermia (28-32 degrees C), may provide better cerebral protection by markedly inhibiting the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA while decreasing the infiltration of PMNLs and MPhi in the brain.

  10. Control of Cytokine mRNA Expression by RNA-binding Proteins and microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Palanisamy, V.; Jakymiw, A.; Van Tubergen, E.A.; D’Silva, N.J.; Kirkwood, K.L.

    2012-01-01

    Cytokines are critical mediators of inflammation and host defenses. Regulation of cytokines can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcription, mRNA export, and post- transcriptional and translational levels. Among these modes of regulation, post-transcriptional regulation has been shown to play a vital role in controlling the expression of cytokines by modulating mRNA stability. The stability of cytokine mRNAs, including TNFα, IL-6, and IL-8, has been reported to be altered by the presence of AU-rich elements (AREs) located in the 3′-untranslated regions (3′UTRs) of the mRNAs. Numerous RNA-binding proteins and microRNAs bind to these 3′UTRs to regulate the stability and/or translation of the mRNAs. Thus, this paper describes the cooperative function between RNA-binding proteins and miRNAs and how they regulate AU-rich elements containing cytokine mRNA stability/degradation and translation. These mRNA control mechanisms can potentially influence inflammation as it relates to oral biology, including periodontal diseases and oral pharyngeal cancer progression. PMID:22302144

  11. IL-1beta induces stabilization of IL-8 mRNA in malignant breast cancer cells via the 3' untranslated region: Involvement of divergent RNA-binding factors HuR, KSRP and TIAR.

    PubMed

    Suswam, Esther A; Nabors, L Burt; Huang, Yuanyuan; Yang, Xiuhua; King, Peter H

    2005-03-01

    IL-8 plays an integral role in promoting the malignant phenotype in breast cancer, and its production is directly influenced by inflammatory cytokines in the tumor microenvironment. Here, we show that activation of IL-1beta receptors on malignant HS578t and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells strongly induces IL-8 expression and that RNA stabilization is persistently activated at least 12-24 hr after stimulation. SB 203580 and rapamycin reversed the RNA stabilization effect of IL-1beta in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting involvement of the p38/MAP kinase and mTOR pathways. A luciferase reporter assay indicated that the stabilization effect was dependent on cis elements in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of the IL-8 transcript. By UV cross-linking, we identified multiple cellular factors that interact with the IL-8 3'UTR, ranging 34-76 kDa. Immunoprecipitation analysis indicated that HuR, KSRP and TIAR bound to one or more loci in the 3'UTR. While the cross-linking patterns were similar, quantitative immunoprecipitation of native IL-8 RNA from IL-1beta-stimulated cytoplasmic extract revealed a 20-fold greater association of transcript with the stabilizing factor HuR vs. the destabilizing factor KSRP. In conclusion, IL-1beta is a potent cytokine stimulus for IL-8 RNA stabilization in breast cancer cells, possibly by enhanced binding of cytoplasmic HuR to the 3'UTR.

  12. Determining if an mRNA is a Substrate of Nonsense-Mediated mRNA Decay in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Marcus J O

    2017-01-01

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is a conserved eukaryotic quality control mechanism which triggers decay of mRNAs harboring premature translation termination codons. In this chapter, I describe methods for monitoring the influence of NMD on mRNA abundance and decay rates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The descriptions include detailed methods for growing yeast cells, total RNA isolation, and Northern blotting. Although the chapter focuses on NMD, the methods can be easily adapted to assess the effect of other mRNA decay pathways.

  13. Differential influences of local subpopulations on regional diversity and differentiation for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus).

    PubMed

    Row, Jeffrey R; Oyler-McCance, Sara J; Fedy, Bradley C

    2016-09-01

    The distribution of spatial genetic variation across a region can shape evolutionary dynamics and impact population persistence. Local population dynamics and among-population dispersal rates are strong drivers of this spatial genetic variation, yet for many species we lack a clear understanding of how these population processes interact in space to shape within-species genetic variation. Here, we used extensive genetic and demographic data from 10 subpopulations of greater sage-grouse to parameterize a simulated approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) model and (i) test for regional differences in population density and dispersal rates for greater sage-grouse subpopulations in Wyoming, and (ii) quantify how these differences impact subpopulation regional influence on genetic variation. We found a close match between observed and simulated data under our parameterized model and strong variation in density and dispersal rates across Wyoming. Sensitivity analyses suggested that changes in dispersal (via landscape resistance) had a greater influence on regional differentiation, whereas changes in density had a greater influence on mean diversity across all subpopulations. Local subpopulations, however, varied in their regional influence on genetic variation. Decreases in the size and dispersal rates of central populations with low overall and net immigration (i.e. population sources) had the greatest negative impact on genetic variation. Overall, our results provide insight into the interactions among demography, dispersal and genetic variation and highlight the potential of ABC to disentangle the complexity of regional population dynamics and project the genetic impact of changing conditions.

  14. Differential influences of local subpopulations on regional diversity and differentiation for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Row, Jeffery R.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Fedy, Brad C.

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of spatial genetic variation across a region can shape evolutionary dynamics and impact population persistence. Local population dynamics and among-population dispersal rates are strong drivers of this spatial genetic variation, yet for many species we lack a clear understanding of how these population processes interact in space to shape within-species genetic variation. Here, we used extensive genetic and demographic data from 10 subpopulations of greater sage-grouse to parameterize a simulated approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) model and (i) test for regional differences in population density and dispersal rates for greater sage-grouse subpopulations in Wyoming, and (ii) quantify how these differences impact subpopulation regional influence on genetic variation. We found a close match between observed and simulated data under our parameterized model and strong variation in density and dispersal rates across Wyoming. Sensitivity analyses suggested that changes in dispersal (via landscape resistance) had a greater influence on regional differentiation, whereas changes in density had a greater influence on mean diversity across all subpopulations. Local subpopulations, however, varied in their regional influence on genetic variation. Decreases in the size and dispersal rates of central populations with low overall and net immigration (i.e. population sources) had the greatest negative impact on genetic variation. Overall, our results provide insight into the interactions among demography, dispersal and genetic variation and highlight the potential of ABC to disentangle the complexity of regional population dynamics and project the genetic impact of changing conditions.

  15. Fine-Scale Habitat Heterogeneity Influences Occupancy in Terrestrial Mammals in a Temperate Region of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Stirnemann, Ingrid; Mortelliti, Alessio; Gibbons, Philip; Lindenmayer, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation heterogeneity is an inherent feature of most ecosystems, characterises the structure of habitat, and is considered an important driver of species distribution patterns. However, quantifying fine-scale heterogeneity of vegetation cover can be time consuming, and therefore it is seldom measured. Here, we determine if heterogeneity is worthwhile measuring, in addition to the amount of cover, when examining species distribution patterns. Further, we investigated the effect of the surrounding landscape heterogeneity on species occupancy. We tested the effect of cover and heterogeneity of trees and shrubs, and the context of the surrounding landscape (number of habitats and distance to an ecotone) on site occupancy of three mammal species (the black wallaby [Wallabia bicolor], the long-nosed bandicoot [Perameles nasuta], and the bush rat [Rattus fuscipes]) within a naturally heterogeneous landscape in a temperate region of Australia. We found that fine-scale heterogeneity of vegetation attributes is an important driver of mammal occurrence of two of these species. Further, we found that, although all three species responded positively to vegetation heterogeneity, different mammals vary in their response to different types of vegetation heterogeneity measurement. For example, the black wallaby responded to the proximity of an ecotone, and the bush rat and the long-nosed bandicoot responded to fine-scale heterogeneity of small tree cover, whereas none of the mammals responded to broad scale heterogeneity (i.e., the number of habitat types). Our results highlight the influence of methodological decisions, such as how heterogeneity vegetation is measured, in quantifying species responses to habitat structures. The findings confirm the importance of choosing meaningful heterogeneity measures when modelling the factors influencing occupancy of the species of interest. PMID:26394327

  16. Mars landscape evolution: Influence of stratigraphy on geomorphology in the north polar region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, Kenneth S.; Williams, Rebecca M. E.; Malin, Michael C.; Cantor, Bruce A.; Thomas, Peter C.

    2003-06-01

    Lithology and physical properties of strata exposed at the Earth's surface have direct influence on the erosion and geomorphic expression of landforms. While this is well known on our planet, examples on Mars are just coming to light among the tens of thousands of airphoto-quality images (resolutions 1.5-12 m/pixel) acquired since 1997 by the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC). Specific examples occur among Martian north polar layered materials, which MOC images reveal are divided into two distinct stratigraphic units: a lower, dark-toned layered unit and a younger, upper, lighter-toned layered unit. The lower unit is less resistant to wind erosion than the upper unit. The upper unit most likely consists of stratified dust and ice, while the lower unit contains abundant, poorly-cemented sand. Sand is more easily mobilized by wind than dust; the lower resistance to erosion of the lower unit results from the presence of sand. Where wind erosion in polar troughs has penetrated to the lower unit, geomorphic change has proceeded more rapidly: sand has been liberated from the lower unit, and arcuate scarps have formed as the upper unit has been undermined. Wind erosion of the lower unit thus influences the geomorphology of the north polar region; this result likely explains the genesis of the large polar trough, Chasma Boreale, and the relations between dunes and arcuate scarps that have puzzled investigators for nearly three decades. The properties of the stratigraphic units suggest that the upper limit for the amount of water contained in the north polar layered materials may be 30-50% less than previously estimated.

  17. Brain regions influenced by the lateral parabrachial nucleus in angiotensin II-induced water intake.

    PubMed

    Davern, P J; McKinley, M J

    2013-11-12

    This study examined which brain regions are influenced by an inhibitory lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) mechanism that affects water intake. Controls and rats with bilateral LPBN lesions were administered angiotensin II (AngII) (0.5mg/kg subcutaneous - SC), drinking responses measured, and brains processed for Fos-immunohistochemistry. A separate group of LPBN-lesioned and non-lesioned animals were denied water for 90 min prior to perfusion to remove any confounding factor of water intake. LPBN-lesioned rats drank a cumulative volume of 9 mL compared with <4 mL by controls (p<0.01). Compared with sham-lesioned animals, Fos expression was attenuated in overdrinking LPBN-lesioned rats in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO), paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), supraoptic nucleus (SON) (p<0.001), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and central nucleus of the amygdala (p<0.01). In LPBN-lesioned rats that did not drink, greater numbers of activated neurons were detected in the PVN (p<0.001), SON (p<0.01), MnPO, nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and area postrema (p<0.05) in response to SC AngII, compared with non-lesioned rats. These data suggest that the direct effects of LPBN lesions caused an increase in AngII-induced water intake and in rats that did not drink an increase in Fos expression, while indirect secondary effects of LPBN lesions caused a reduction in Fos expression possibly related to excessive ingestion of water. An inhibitory mechanism, likely related to arterial baroreceptor stimulation, relayed by neurons located in the LPBN influences the responses of the MnPO, PVN and SON to increases in peripheral AngII.

  18. Fine-Scale Habitat Heterogeneity Influences Occupancy in Terrestrial Mammals in a Temperate Region of Australia.

    PubMed

    Stirnemann, Ingrid; Mortelliti, Alessio; Gibbons, Philip; Lindenmayer, David B

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation heterogeneity is an inherent feature of most ecosystems, characterises the structure of habitat, and is considered an important driver of species distribution patterns. However, quantifying fine-scale heterogeneity of vegetation cover can be time consuming, and therefore it is seldom measured. Here, we determine if heterogeneity is worthwhile measuring, in addition to the amount of cover, when examining species distribution patterns. Further, we investigated the effect of the surrounding landscape heterogeneity on species occupancy. We tested the effect of cover and heterogeneity of trees and shrubs, and the context of the surrounding landscape (number of habitats and distance to an ecotone) on site occupancy of three mammal species (the black wallaby [Wallabia bicolor], the long-nosed bandicoot [Perameles nasuta], and the bush rat [Rattus fuscipes]) within a naturally heterogeneous landscape in a temperate region of Australia. We found that fine-scale heterogeneity of vegetation attributes is an important driver of mammal occurrence of two of these species. Further, we found that, although all three species responded positively to vegetation heterogeneity, different mammals vary in their response to different types of vegetation heterogeneity measurement. For example, the black wallaby responded to the proximity of an ecotone, and the bush rat and the long-nosed bandicoot responded to fine-scale heterogeneity of small tree cover, whereas none of the mammals responded to broad scale heterogeneity (i.e., the number of habitat types). Our results highlight the influence of methodological decisions, such as how heterogeneity vegetation is measured, in quantifying species responses to habitat structures. The findings confirm the importance of choosing meaningful heterogeneity measures when modelling the factors influencing occupancy of the species of interest.

  19. Medium term modelling of coupled hydrodynamics, turbulence and sediment pathways in a region of freshwater influence.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoudry, Laurent; Brown, Jenny; Souza, Alex; Norman, Danielle; Olsen, Karine

    2014-05-01

    Liverpool Bay, in the northwest of the UK, is a shallow, hypertidal region of freshwater influence. In this region, baroclinic processes significantly affect the residual circulation, which in turn influences the long term transport of sediment. A nested modelling system is implemented to simulate the coupled hydro and sediment dynamics in the bay. We use the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory Coastal Ocean Modelling System (POLCOMS), which is based on a three-dimensional baroclinic numerical model formulated in spherical polar terrain-following coordinates. The hydrodynamic model solves the three-dimensional, hydrostatic, Boussinesq equations of motion separated into depth-varying and depth-independent parts to allow time splitting between barotropic and baroclinic components. This model is coupled to the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM), to the WAve Model (WAM), and includes state-of-the-art Eulerian and Lagrangian sediment transport models. We implement POLCOMS to Liverpool Bay at a horizontal resolution of approximately 180 m. The bathymetry consists of digitized hydrographic charts combined with LIDAR and multibeam data. Three-dimensional baroclinic effects, river inputs, surface heating and offshore density structure are all considered. Liverpool Bay is subjected to a spring tidal range in excess of 10 m and thus intertidal areas are significant. Wetting and drying algorithms are therefore also implemented. A nesting approach is employed to prescribe offshore boundary conditions for elevations, currents, temperature and salinity. Boundary values are obtained from numerical simulations for the entire Irish and are then used to force the three-dimensional hydrodynamics in the Liverpool Bay domain. Atmospheric forcing consists of hourly wind velocity and atmospheric pressure, and three-hourly cloud cover, humidity and air temperature. We focus here on numerical simulations for a full year, 2008, which is considered to be a typical year for atmospheric

  20. Influence of ecohydrologic feedbacks from simulated crop growth on integrated regional hydrologic simulations under climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Walsum, P. E. V.; Supit, I.

    2012-06-01

    Hydrologic climate change modelling is hampered by climate-dependent model parameterizations. To reduce this dependency, we extended the regional hydrologic modelling framework SIMGRO to host a two-way coupling between the soil moisture model MetaSWAP and the crop growth simulation model WOFOST, accounting for ecohydrologic feedbacks in terms of radiation fraction that reaches the soil, crop coefficient, interception fraction of rainfall, interception storage capacity, and root zone depth. Except for the last, these feedbacks are dependent on the leaf area index (LAI). The influence of regional groundwater on crop growth is included via a coupling to MODFLOW. Two versions of the MetaSWAP-WOFOST coupling were set up: one with exogenous vegetation parameters, the "static" model, and one with endogenous crop growth simulation, the "dynamic" model. Parameterization of the static and dynamic models ensured that for the current climate the simulated long-term averages of actual evapotranspiration are the same for both models. Simulations were made for two climate scenarios and two crops: grass and potato. In the dynamic model, higher temperatures in a warm year under the current climate resulted in accelerated crop development, and in the case of potato a shorter growing season, thus partly avoiding the late summer heat. The static model has a higher potential transpiration; depending on the available soil moisture, this translates to a higher actual transpiration. This difference between static and dynamic models is enlarged by climate change in combination with higher CO2 concentrations. Including the dynamic crop simulation gives for potato (and other annual arable land crops) systematically higher effects on the predicted recharge change due to climate change. Crop yields from soils with poor water retention capacities strongly depend on capillary rise if moisture supply from other sources is limited. Thus, including a crop simulation model in an integrated

  1. Genetic variability in the tumor necrosis factor-lymphotoxin region influences susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Mulcahy, B.; Waldron-Lynch, F.; Adams, C.; O`Gara, F.

    1996-09-01

    The major histocompatibility complex class H1 tumor necrosis factor-tymphotoxin (TNF-LT) region (6p21.3) was investigated as a possible susceptibility locus for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Inheritance of five TNF microsatellite markers was determined in 50 multiplex families. Overall, 47 different haplotypes were observed. One of these, the TNF a6, b5, c1, d3, e3 (H1) haplotype, was present in 35.3% of affected, but in only 20.5% of unaffected, individuals (P < .005). This haplotype accounted for 21.5% of the parental haplotypes transmitted to affected offspring and only 7.3 % not transmitted to affected offspring (P = .0003). The TNF a6 and TNF c1 alleles were individually associated with RA (P = .0005 and .0008, respectively), as were the HLA-DRB1 {open_quotes}shared epitope{close_quotes} (SE) (P = .0001) and HLA-DRB1*0401 (P = .0018). Both univariate and bivariate conditional logistic regression analysis showed significant effects of TNF c1 and SE in increasing risk to RA (P < .001). Stratification by the presence of SE indicated an independent effect of the TNFc1 allele (P = .0003) and the HLA A1, BS, DR3 extended haplotype (always TNFa2, b3, c1, d1, e3) (P = .0027) in SE heterozygotes, while the H1 haplotype was associated with RA in SE homozygotes (P = .0018). The TNF-LT region appears to influence susceptibility to RA, distinct from HLA-DR. 50 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. The farmers' perceptions of ANPS pollution and its influencing factors in Poyang Lake Region, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meiqiu; Chen, Mengjiao; Lu, Yanfei; Wang, Liguo; Huang, Yujiao

    2016-01-01

    Individual farmers represent the main management entities of agricultural production under the family-contract responsibility system in China, and thus play crucial roles in the prevention and control of agricultural nonpoint source (ANPS) pollution. The analysis of the farmers' perceptions of ANPS pollution as well as the factors affecting their perceptions can provide valuable information for relevant policy-making to preserve high quality water in Poyang Lake and regional quality of arable land. Through a survey titled 'Farmers' perceptions of ANPS pollution and farming behaviors in the Poyang Lake Region', the data related to the perceptions of farmers on ANPS pollution were collected. The factors that affect their awareness of ANPS pollution were identified with the method of boosted regression trees (BRT). The results indicated that the farmers had awareness of the risk of ANPS pollution to some extent, but they lacked adequate scientific knowledge. Generally, they had no consciousness about how to prevent and control ANPS pollution and did not understand techniques needed for proper scientifically sound application of fertilizers and pesticides. The main factors that influenced their perceptions of ANPS pollution are (from high to low): the ratio of total income which comes from farming, per capita farmland, age, education level, and household income. Some measures targeted to improve the prevention and control of ANPS pollution were proposed: developing modern agricultural techniques and promoting large-scale farming, increasing public campaigns related to ANPS pollution prevention and control with the goal of raising the level of awareness of farmers, and reforming the methods used to promote science and technology in agriculture and encourage the proper use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides.

  3. The assessment of selected factors influencing intent to get pregnant in the Greater Poland Region.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowska, Małgorzata; Krauss, Hanna; Bogdański, Paweł; Mikrut, Kinga; Chęcińska, Zuzanna; Szulińska, Monika; Piątek, Jacek; Pięta, Beata; Sosnowski, Przemysław; Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Wioletta; Kupsz, Justyna

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, people decide to have a baby by first analysing their financial situation. Tradition is no longer a factor which determines the decision whether or not to have a baby. A prognosis of the Polish Central Statistical Office (GUS) shows that the population of Poland will fall from 38 to 36 million by 2035. The aim of this study is to assess the procreation behaviour of women in Greater Poland Region. For the research purpose, 3,120 women of reproductive age were examined by using an author designed questionnaire and a synthetic Family Financial Standard Index. 74.6% of the respondents lived in an urban area, 25.4% of women come from a rural area. 49% of examined women did not want to have a bigger family, 45% would like to have another child. Analysis of the reasons why women did not want to have another baby revealed that predominance of the financial factor - 67%, living conditions - 18.4% and health- 13.2%. Only 11.9% of the women declared their high financial status, 4.8% of families received family allowance from the government; 88.4% of the examined families did not receive any social benefits. Bad housing situation was declared by 5% of the respondents, 26.7% of the interviewees lived with family members, i.e. parents or grandparents. Analysis of the data concerning religious bonds showed that 67.6% of women declared their indifference to religion. The economic factor was an important reason limiting procreation. The bad situation on the real estate market combined with an insufficient range of social welfare led to a decrease in the birth-rate in the Greater Poland region. The impact of religion on family planning was less important. The influence of the analysed socio-economic factors on family planning was similar in rural and urban areas.

  4. Tillage and N-source influence soil-emitted nitrous oxide in the Alberta Parkland region

    SciTech Connect

    Lemke , R L.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.; Nyborg, M.; Solberg, E D.

    1999-01-01

    Zero tillage systems are receiving attention as possible strategies for sequestering atmospheric carbon. This benefit may be offset by increased N2O emissions, which have been reported for soils under zero tillage (ZT) compared to those under more intensive tillage (IT). Comparisons of N2O emissions from the two systems have been restricted to the growing season, but substantial losses of N2O have been reported during spring thaw events in many regions. Inorganic and organic additions of nitrogen and fallowing have also been shown to increase levels of soil-emitted N2O. The objectives for this study were: (i) to confirm that losses of N2O are higher under ZT than under IT in Alberta Parkland agroecosystems; (ii) to compare the relative influence of urea fertilizer (56 or 100 kg N h--1), field pea residue (dry matter at 5 Mg h--1), sheep manure (dry matter at 40 Mg h--1) additions, and fallow on total N2O losses; and (iii) to investigate possible interactions between fertility and tillage treatments. Gas samples were collected using vented soil covers at three sites near Edmonton, Alberta during 1993, 1994, and 1995. Gas samples were analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a 63Ni electron capture detector. Estimated annual N2O loss ranged from 0.1 to 4.0 kg N ha-1. Emissions during summer were slightly higher, similar, or lower on ZT compared to those under IT, but were consistently lower on ZT plots during spring thaw. Combined estimates (spring plus summer) of N2O loss under ZT were equal to or lower than those under IT. Highest overall losses were observed on fallow plots, followed by fertilizer, pea residue, and then either manure or control plots. We conclude that ZT management systems have potential for reducing agricultural greenhouse gas emissions in the Alberta Parkland region.

  5. Influence of the solar wind variability on atmospheric processes in the southern polar region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troshichev, O.; Egorova, L.; Vovk, V.

    Fluxes of galactic cosmic rays altered by solar wind and spikes of solar cosmic rays are usually examined as one possible mechanism of solar activity influencing the Earth's atmosphere. To study effects of the solar wind variability the daily data of aerological sounding carried out at the Antarctic station Vostok ( = 78°27S,= 106°52E) have been examined in the analysis. Vostok station is located at the ice flat homogeneous plain at height of 3.5 km, inland 1500 km from the coast, and is not subjected to local atmospheric vortices. The catabatic type of atmospheric circulation (i.e. vertical type of circulation) is typical of the central part of Antarctic, where the stratosphere cold air masses go down to ice dome and then flow along the dome surface toward the cost. All of these circumstances allow the Vostok station location act like a window into the nature of the nighttime middle atmosphere where solar influences are stronger than in the lower atmosphere. The detail analysis of the Vostok data for 1978-1992 made it possible to conclude that dramatic changes of the troposphere temperature, observed in the Southern near-pole region in relation to the interplanetary shocks, accompanying Forbush decreases (FD) and solar protons events (SPE), are caused, in actuality, by sharp changes of the IMF Bz component typical of interplanetary shocks, and by the corresponding fluctuations of the interplanetary electric field (ESW ). The warming is observed at altitudes h<5 km and cooling at h>10 km when changes in the IMF B Z component are negative and ESW increases. The regularity is especially supported by the fact that opposite temperature deviations are observed in relation with the northward BZ leaps. There is a linear relationship between the value ofE SW and ground temperature at Vostok station: the larger leap in the E W the stronger is temperature deviation. The effect reachesS maximum within one day and is damped equally quickly. It is suggested that electric

  6. Staufen-mediated mRNA decay

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eonyoung; Maquat, Lynne E.

    2013-01-01

    Staufen1 (STAU1)-mediated mRNA decay (SMD) is an mRNA degradation process in mammalian cells that is mediated by the binding of STAU1 to a STAU1-binding site (SBS) within the 3'-untranslated region (3'UTR) of target mRNAs. During SMD, STAU1, a double-stranded (ds) RNA-binding protein, recognizes dsRNA structures formed either by intramolecular base-pairing of 3'UTR sequences or by intermolecular base-pairing of 3'UTR sequences with a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) via partially complementary Alu elements. Recently, STAU2, a paralog of STAU1, has also been reported to mediate SMD. Both STAU1 and STAU2 interact directly with the ATP-dependent RNA helicase UPF1, a key SMD factor, enhancing its helicase activity to promote effective SMD. Moreover, STAU1 and STAU2 form homodimeric and heterodimeric interactions via domain-swapping. Since both SMD and the mechanistically related nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) employ UPF1, SMD and NMD are competitive pathways. Competition contributes to cellular differentiation processes, such as myogenesis and adipogenesis, placing SMD at the heart of various physiologically important mechanisms. PMID:23681777

  7. Evaluating the influences of biomass burning during 2006 BASE-ASIA: a regional chemical transport modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, J. S.; Hsu, N. C.; Gao, Y.; Huang, K.; Li, C.; Lin, N.-H.; Tsay, S.-C.

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of biomass burning from Southeast Asia to East Asia, this study conducted numerical simulations during NASA's 2006 Biomass-burning Aerosols in South-East Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Two typical episode periods (27-28 March and 13-14 April) were examined. Two emission inventories, FLAMBE and GFED, were used in the simulations. The influences during two episodes in the source region (Southeast Asia) contributed to the surface CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations as high as 400 ppbv, 20 ppbv and 80 μg m-3, respectively. The perturbations with and without biomass burning of the above three species during the intense episodes were in the range of 10 to 60%, 10 to 20% and 30 to 70%, respectively. The impact due to long-range transport could spread over the southeastern parts of East Asia and could reach about 160 to 360 ppbv, 8 to 18 ppbv and 8 to 64 μg m-3 on CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively; the percentage impact could reach 20 to 50% on CO, 10 to 30% on O3, and as high as 70% on PM2.5. In March, the impact of biomass burning mainly concentrated in Southeast Asia and southern China, while in April the impact becomes slightly broader and even could go up to the Yangtze River Delta region. Two cross-sections at 15° N and 20° N were used to compare the vertical flux of biomass burning. In the source region (Southeast Asia), CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations had a strong upward transport from surface to high altitudes. The eastward transport becomes strong from 2 to 8 km in the free troposphere. The subsidence process during the long-range transport contributed 60 to 70%, 20 to 50%, and 80% on CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively to surface in the downwind area. The study reveals the significant impact of Southeastern Asia biomass burning on the air quality in both local and downwind areas, particularly during biomass burning episodes. This modeling study might provide constraints of lower limit. An additional study is underway for an active

  8. Evaluating the influences of biomass burning during 2006 BASE-ASIA: a regional chemical transport modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, J. S.; Hsu, N. C.; Gao, Y.; Huang, K.; Li, C.; Lin, N.-H.; Tsay, S.-C.

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of biomass burning from Southeast Asia to East Asia, this study conducted numerical simulations during NASA's 2006 Biomass-burning Aerosols in South-East Asia: Smoke Impact Assessment (BASE-ASIA). Two typical episode periods (27-28 March and 13-14 April) were examined. Two emission inventories, FLAMBE and GFED, were used in the simulations. The influences during two episodes in the source region (Southeast Asia) contributed to the surface CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations as high as 400 ppbv, 20 ppbv and 80 μg m-3, respectively. The perturbations with and without biomass burning of the above three species during the intense episodes were in the range of 10 to 60%, 10 to 20% and 30 to 70%, respectively. The impact due to long-range transport could spread over the southeastern parts of East Asia and could reach about 160 to 360 ppbv, 8 to 18 ppbv and 8 to 64 μg m-3 on CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively; the percentage impact could reach 20 to 50% on CO, 10 to 30% on O3, and as high as 70% on PM2.5. In March, the impact of biomass burning was mainly concentrated in Southeast Asia and Southern China, while in April the impact becomes slightly broader, potentially including the Yangtze River Delta region. Two cross-sections at 15° N and 20° N were used to compare the vertical flux of biomass burning. In the source region (Southeast Asia), CO, O3 and PM2.5 concentrations had a strong upward transport from surface to high altitudes. The eastward transport becomes strong from 2 to 8 km in the free troposphere. The subsidence process during the long-range transport contributed 60 to 70%, 20 to 50%, and 80% to CO, O3 and PM2.5, respectively to surface in the downwind area. The study reveals the significant impact of Southeastern Asia biomass burning on the air quality in both local and downwind areas, particularly during biomass burning episodes. This modeling study might provide lower limit constraints. An additional study is underway for an active

  9. Groundwater Modeling in Coastal Arid Regions Under the Influence of Marine Saltwater Intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, Marc; Kolditz, Olaf; Grundmann, Jens; Liedl, Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    The optimization of an aquifer's "safe yield", especially within agriculturally used regions, is one of the fundamental tasks for nowaday's groundwater management. Due to the limited water ressources in arid regions, conflict of interests arise that need to be evaluated using scenario analysis and multicriterial optimization approaches. In the context of the government-financed research project "International Water Research Alliance Saxony" (IWAS), the groundwater quality for near-coastal, agriculturally used areas is investigated under the influence of marine saltwater intrusion. Within the near-coastal areas of the study region, i.e. the Batinah plains of Northern Oman, an increasing agricultural development could be observed during the recent decades. Simultaneously, a constant lowering of the groundwater table was registered, which is primarily due to the uncontrolled and unsupervised mining of the aquifers for the local agricultural irrigation. Intensively decreased groundwater levels, however, cause an inversion of the hydraulic gradient which is naturally aligned towards the coast. This, in turn,leads to an intrusion of marine saltwater flowing inland, endangering the productivity of farms near the coast. Utilizing the modeling software package OpenGeoSys, which has been developed and constantly enhanced by the Department of Environmental Informatics at the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig (UFZ; Kolditz et al., 2008), a three-dimensional, density-dependent model including groundwater flow and mass transport is currently being built up. The model, comprehending three selected coastal wadis of interest, shall be used to investigate different management scenarios. The main focus of the groundwater modelling are the optimization of well positions and pumping schemes as well as the coupling with a surface runoff model, which is also used for the determination of the groundwater recharge due to wadi runoff downstream of retention dams. Based on

  10. Insights for empirically modeling evapotranspiration influenced by riparian and upland vegetation in semiarid regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunting, Daniel P.; Kurc, Shirley A.; Glenn, Edward P.; Nagler, Pamela L.; Scott, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Water resource managers aim to ensure long-term water supplies for increasing human populations. Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key component of the water balance and accurate estimates are important to quantify safe allocations to humans while supporting environmental needs. Scaling up ET measurements from small spatial scales has been problematic due to spatiotemporal variability. Remote sensing products provide spatially distributed data that account for seasonal climate and vegetation variability. We used MODIS products [i.e., Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and nighttime land surface temperatures (LSTn)] to create empirical ET models calibrated using measured ET from three riparian-influenced and two upland, water-limited flux tower sites. Results showed that combining all sites introduced systematic bias, so we developed separate models to estimate riparian and upland ET. While EVI and LSTn were the main drivers for ET in riparian sites, precipitation replaced LSTn as the secondary driver of ET in upland sites. Riparian ET was successfully modeled using an inverse exponential approach (r2 = 0.92) while upland ET was adequately modeled using a multiple linear regression approach (r2 = 0.77). These models can be used in combination to estimate ET at basin scales provided each region is classified and precipitation data is available.

  11. Stable transformation of Theobroma cacao L. and influence of matrix attachment regions on GFP expression.

    PubMed

    Maximova, S; Miller, C; Antúnez de Mayolo, G; Pishak, S; Young, A; Guiltinan, M J

    2003-06-01

    We describe a protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Theobroma cacao L. using cotyledonary explants from primary somatic embryos (SEs) and A. tumefaciens strain AGL1. Transgenic plants carrying the visible marker, gene green fluorescent protein ( EGFP), the selectable marker gene neomycin phosphotransferase II ( NPTII), the class I chitinase gene from cacao ( Chi), and tobacco nuclear matrix attachment regions (MARs) in different combinations were successfully produced via regeneration of secondary SEs. The presence of the Chi gene or MARs did not influence the number of transgenic plants produced compared to the marker genes alone. However, the inclusion of MARs contributed to increased mean GFP expression in the population of transgenics. Additionally, the presence of MARs reduced the occurrence of gene silencing and stabilized high levels of GFP expression in lines of transgenic plants multiplied via reiterative somatic embryogenesis. Ninety-four transgenic plants were acclimated in a greenhouse and grown to maturity. Detailed growth analysis indicated that there were no differences in various growth parameters between transgenic and non-transgenic SE-derived plants. Seeds produced from two genetic crosses with one of the transgenic lines were analyzed for EGFP expression-a near-perfect 1:1 segregation was observed, indicating that this line resulted from the insertion of a single locus of T-DNA.

  12. Regional brain activation as a biological marker of affective responsivity to acute exercise: influence of fitness.

    PubMed

    Petruzzello, S J; Hall, E E; Ekkekakis, P

    2001-01-01

    Previous research has shown that regional brain activation, assessed via frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry, predicts affective responsivity to aerobic exercise. To replicate and extend this work, in the present study we examined whether resting brain activation was associated with affective responses to an acute bout of aerobic exercise and the extent to which aerobic fitness mediated this relationship. Participants (high-fit, n = 22; low/moderate-fit, n = 45) ran on a treadmill for 30 min at 75% VO2max. EEG and affect were assessed pre- and 0-, 10-, 20-, and 30-min postexercise. Resting EEG asymmetry predicted positive affect (as measured by the energetic arousal subscale of the Activation Deactivation Adjective Check List) postexercise. Furthermore, resting frontal EEG asymmetry predicted affect only in the high-fit group, suggesting the effect might be mediated by some factor related to fitness. It was also shown that subjects with relatively greater left frontal activation had significantly more energy (i.e., activated pleasant affect) following exercise than subjects with relatively greater right frontal activation. In conclusion, aerobic fitness influenced the relationship between resting frontal asymmetry and exercise-related affective responsivity.

  13. Regional tectonic influence on Early Cretaceous depositional patterns in Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, J.G.; Petta, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Integration of gravity, magnetic, seismic, and subsurface data from the Powder River basin indicates left-lateral wrenching caused principal and secondary shear compression to develop along northwest and east trends, respectively. This well-documented strain fabric caused by Laramide events has affected basin morphology and depositional patterns within the basin since the Early Cretaceous. Regional lineaments mapped at the surface have vertical displacements of tens of feet. These slightly displaced features can be correlated with wrench-related synthetic and antithetic fractures that display miles of subsurface lateral displacement. Results of detailed integrated forward modeling indicate these fractured zones had a significant effect on the distribution of Lower Cretaceous reservoir sands. Case histories from Buck Draw (Dakota Formation) and Bell Creek (Muddy Sandstone) fields illustrate how the consideration of basement tectonic influence is important to the proper evaluation of exploration leads. Proper use of all available data is essential to the reduction of exploratory risk and can aid in planning offset locations.

  14. The influence of landscape features on road development in a loess region, China.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xiaoli; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Rui

    2011-10-01

    Many ecologists focus on the effects of roads on landscapes, yet few consider how landscapes affect road systems. In this study, therefore, we quantitatively evaluated how land cover, topography, and building density affected the length density, node density, spatial pattern, and location of roads in Dongzhi Yuan, a typical loess region in China. Landscape factors and roads were mapped using images from SPOT satellite (Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre), initiated by the French space agency and a digital elevation model (DEM). Detrended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA), a useful ordination technique to explain species-environment relations in community ecology, was applied to evaluate the ways in which landscapes may influence roads. The results showed that both farmland area and building density were positively correlated with road variables, whereas gully density and the coefficient of variation (CV of DEM) showed negative correlations. The CV of DEM, farmland area, grassland area, and building density explained variation in node density, length density, and the spatial pattern of roads, whereas gully density and building density explained variation in variables representing road location. In addition, node density, rather than length density, was the primary road variable affected by landscape variables. The results showed that the DCCA was effective in explaining road-landscape relations. Understanding these relations can provide information for landscape managers and transportation planners.

  15. Urban anglers in the Great Lakes region: Fish consumption patterns, influences, and responses to advisory messages.

    PubMed

    Bruce Lauber, T; Connelly, Nancy A; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Knuth, Barbara A

    2017-07-15

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and many state advisory programs consider urban anglers at high risk of being exposed to contaminants through fish consumption because the urban poor may be dependent on fish they catch for food and lack access to non-contaminated fishing sites. Past research has supported this characterization of urban anglers, but most studies have been site-specific and limited to subsets of urban anglers. We used a mail survey and focus groups to (a) explore how urban anglers living in the Great Lakes region of the United States differed from rural and suburban anglers and (b) characterize their fishing patterns, fish consumption, factors influencing their fish consumption, and response to fish consumption advisory messages. Although we detected some differences between licensed urban, suburban, and rural anglers, their magnitude was not striking. Lower income urban anglers tended to consume less purchased and sport-caught fish than higher income urban anglers and were not at high risk as a group. Nevertheless, focus group data suggested there may be subpopulations of urban anglers, particularly from immigrant populations, that consume higher amounts of potentially contaminated fish. Although urban anglers in general may not require a special approach for communicating fish consumption advice, subpopulations within this group may be best targeted by using community-based programs to communicate fish consumption advice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The influence of Middle Range Energy Electrons on atmospheric chemistry and regional climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenovic, P.; Rozanov, E.; Stenke, A.; Funke, B.; Wissing, J. M.; Mursula, K.; Tummon, F.; Peter, T.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the influence of Middle Range Energy Electrons (MEE; typically 30-300 keV) precipitation on the atmosphere using the SOCOL3-MPIOM chemistry-climate model with coupled ocean. Model simulations cover the 2002-2010 period for which ionization rates from the AIMOS dataset and atmospheric composition observations from MIPAS are available. Results show that during geomagnetically active periods MEE significantly increase the amount of NOy and HOx in the polar winter mesosphere, in addition to other particles and sources, resulting in local ozone decreases of up to 35%. These changes are followed by an intensification of the polar night jet, as well as mesospheric warming and stratospheric cooling. The contribution of MEE also substantially enhances the difference in the ozone anomalies between geomagnetically active and quiet periods. Comparison with MIPAS NOy observations indicates that the additional source of NOy from MEE improves the model results, however substantial underestimation above 50 km remains and requires better treatment of the NOy source from the thermosphere. A surface air temperature response is detected in several regions, with the most pronounced warming occurring in the Antarctic during austral winter. Surface warming of up to 2 K is also seen over continental Asia during boreal winter.

  17. The Influence of Landscape Features on Road Development in a Loess Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Xiaoli; Wang, Hui; Zhou, Rui

    2011-10-01

    Many ecologists focus on the effects of roads on landscapes, yet few consider how landscapes affect road systems. In this study, therefore, we quantitatively evaluated how land cover, topography, and building density affected the length density, node density, spatial pattern, and location of roads in Dongzhi Yuan, a typical loess region in China. Landscape factors and roads were mapped using images from SPOT satellite (Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre), initiated by the French space agency and a digital elevation model (DEM). Detrended canonical correspondence analysis (DCCA), a useful ordination technique to explain species-environment relations in community ecology, was applied to evaluate the ways in which landscapes may influence roads. The results showed that both farmland area and building density were positively correlated with road variables, whereas gully density and the coefficient of variation (CV of DEM) showed negative correlations. The CV of DEM, farmland area, grassland area, and building density explained variation in node density, length density, and the spatial pattern of roads, whereas gully density and building density explained variation in variables representing road location. In addition, node density, rather than length density, was the primary road variable affected by landscape variables. The results showed that the DCCA was effective in explaining road-landscape relations. Understanding these relations can provide information for landscape managers and transportation planners.

  18. Major factors influencing linkage disequilibrium by analysis of different chromosome regions in distinct populations: demography, chromosome recombination frequency and selection.

    PubMed

    Zavattari, P; Deidda, E; Whalen, M; Lampis, R; Mulargia, A; Loddo, M; Eaves, I; Mastio, G; Todd, J A; Cucca, F

    2000-12-12

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping of disease genes is complicated by population- and chromosome-region-specific factors. We have analysed demographic factors by contrasting intermarker LD results obtained in a large cosmopolitan population (UK), a large genetic isolate (Sardinia) and a subisolate (village of Gavoi) for two regions of the X chromosome. A dramatic increase of LD was found in the subisolate. Demographic history of populations therefore influences LD. Chromosome-region-specific effects, namely the pattern and frequency of homologous recombination, were next delineated by the analysis of chromosome 6p21, including the HLA region. Patterns of global LD in this region were very similar in the UK and Sardinian populations despite their entirely distinct demographies, and correlate well with the pattern of recombinations. Nevertheless, haplotypes extend across recombination hot spots indicative of selection of certain haplotypes. Subisolate aside, chromosome-region-specific differences in LD patterns appear to be more important than the differences in intermarker LD between distinct populations.

  19. Influence of the Cyp1B1 L432V gene polymorphism and exposure to tobacco smoke on Cyp1B1 mRNA expression in human leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Helmig, Simone; Hadzaad, Bahar; Döhrel, Juliane; Schneider, Joachim

    2009-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1), a phase I enzyme, is involved in the activation of a broad spectrum of procarcinogens. An association of the Cyp1B1 L432V polymorphism with diverse types of cancer, as well as an impact on the catalytic activity of the enzyme, has been described. To show the functional impact of the allelic variant Cyp1B1*3, we investigated the quantitative Cyp1B1 mRNA expression in a population of smokers, nonsmokers, and ex-smokers and determined their genotypes. Detection of the L432V polymorphism in exon 3 of the Cyp1B1 gene was performed by rapid capillary polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with melting curve analysis. For quantitative comparison of Cyp1B1 mRNA levels, real-time PCR was performed using SYBR Green fluorescence in a LightCycler system. Calculations of expression were made with the 2(-DeltaDeltaCT) method. In comparing relative Cyp1B1 mRNA expression, highly significant differences between the two homozygote genotypes *1/*1 and *3/*3 (0.185 +/- 0.027, n = 118 versus 0.071 +/- 0.013, n = 56; p = 0.000), as well as between the heterozygote genotype *1/*3 and the homozygote genotype *3/*3 (0.178 +/- 0.025, n = 171 versus 0.071 +/- 0.013, n = 56; p = 0.000), were revealed. Significant differences between the genotypes were also detected within the subgroups of smokers, nonsmokers, and ex-smokers. No significant differences were determined in comparing the relative Cyp1B1 mRNA expression with regard to tobacco smoke exposure. Our results suggest that genotypes carrying the C allele (*1/*1 and *1/*3) at Cyp1B1 L432V polymorphism have a significantly higher Cyp1B1 mRNA expression compared with the genotype without the C allele (*3/*3). Gene expression of Cyp1B1 mRNA cannot be used as a biomarker for exposure of tobacco smoke.

  20. Partitioning the influence of regional warming and feedbacks in the global response to abrupt CO2 forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedemann, Christopher; Mauritsen, Thorsten; Jungclaus, Johann; Marotzke, Jochem

    2017-04-01

    We present a new analytical framework for diagnosing the regional causes of state-dependence in global radiative feedbacks. We apply this framework in long runs (˜1000 years) with the coupled climate model MPI-ESM-LR 1.2, subject to abrupt increases in CO2 concentration, including 2-, 4-, 8- and 16-times the pre-industrial levels. Two existing theories link a changing global feedback parameter to regional processes: either changing regional warming patterns activate constant regional feedbacks - "the pattern effect" - or the regional feedbacks themselves change -"regional state-dependence". Previous studies have typically tested one theory under particular conditions; we apply our method to diagnose both effects across a range of timescales and forcing strengths. Preliminary results indicate that the influence of the pattern effect is restricted to the initial warming phase. During the first decades of warming, ocean heat uptake allows regional warming to be non-linear with respect to the global mean, which our framework indicates is a necessary condition for the pattern effect. The evolution of global feedbacks over the remainder of the warming response is dominated by regional state-dependence and determined by the forcing strength. By identifying the conditions necessary for these effects to influence the global radiative response, we propose a link between both theories.

  1. The influence of fine-scale habitat features on regional variation in population performance of alpine White-tailed Ptarmigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fedy, B.; Martin, K.

    2011-01-01

    It is often assumed (explicitly or implicitly) that animals select habitat features to maximize fitness. However, there is often a mismatch between preferred habitats and indices of individual and population measures of performance. We examined the influence of fine-scale habitat selection on the overall population performance of the White-tailed Ptarmigan (Lagopus leucura), an alpine specialist, in two subdivided populations whose habitat patches are configured differently. The central region of Vancouver Island, Canada, has more continuous and larger habitat patches than the southern region. In 2003 and 2004, using paired logistic regression between used (n = 176) and available (n = 324) sites, we identified food availability, distance to standing water, and predator cover as preferred habitat components . We then quantified variation in population performance in the two regions in terms of sex ratio, age structure (n = 182 adults and yearlings), and reproductive success (n = 98 females) on the basis of 8 years of data (1995-1999, 2002-2004). Region strongly influenced females' breeding success, which, unsuccessful hens included, was consistently higher in the central region (n = 77 females) of the island than in the south (n = 21 females, P = 0.01). The central region also had a much higher proportion of successful hens (87%) than did the south (55%, P < 0.001). In light of our findings, we suggest that population performance is influenced by a combination of fine-scale habitat features and coarse-scale habitat configuration. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  2. Influence of terrain and highway construction on thermokarst distribution, North Slave region, NWT, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Peter; Wolfe, Stephen; McWade, Taylor

    2017-04-01

    Permafrost degradation has been observed throughout the north and is expected to have broad reaching effects on the land and its people. Nevertheless, for much of Northern Canada little quantified information about thermokarst exists. For example, in the southern North Slave region, NWT, thermokarst distribution has never been assessed though permafrost is in thermal disequilibrium and modelling suggests permafrost extent will decline. Additionally, differential subsidence has been observed in the subarctic city of Yellowknife and along highway infrastructure connecting it to the south. To better understand present and future permafrost conditions, we mapped the location and size of thermokarst ponding (a change from forest cover to water) in the study area by comparing historic and modern remotely sensed data sets available from 1945, 1961, and 2005. These data were used to evaluate the dominant terrain controls on the distribution of thermokarst in the region, and the potential influence that highway construction may have had on thermokarst development. Historically, discontinuous permafrost developed in a time-transgressive manner during the Holocene as lake-level receded from glacial Lake McConnell to present-day Great Slave Lake (5 mmṡa-1 over the last 8000 years). As a consequence of inundation the upland areas are characterized by extensive wave-washed bedrock outcrops with glaciolacustrine (GL) sediments and glaciofluvial materials occurring between them, whereas the lowland areas feature prominent GL deposits that cover nearly 70 % of the exposed surface. Throughout much of the region ground ice accumulation likely accompanied permafrost aggradation into fine-grained sediments, as is evident by lithalsa growth in particular. Highway 3, constructed during the mid-1960s, was preferentially aligned to crossed terrain underlain by fine-grained sediments to avoid bedrock and waterbodies. Local silt and clay used for highway embankment construction was sourced

  3. The influence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) on mRNA expression for NP-I/OT and PGA, involved in oxytocin synthesis in bovine granulosa and luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Mlynarczuk, Jaroslaw; Wrobel, Michal H; Kotwica, Jan

    2009-11-01

    The effect of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners (PCB 77, PCB 126, PCB 153) and their technical mixture-Aroclor (Ar) 1248, as well as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE; two individual isomers p,p'- and o,p'- or their mixture, 95% and 5%, respectively) at the dose of 10 ng/ml each, on the gene expression of (a) oxytocin (OT) precursor-neurophysin-oxytocin (NP-I/OT) and (b) peptidyl glycine-alpha-amidating mono-oxygenase (PGA), the terminal enzyme in the pathway of OT synthesis, was studied. Granulosa cells from follicles >1cm in diameter, collected on days 19-21 of estrous cycle, and luteal cells from corpora lutea (CL) collected on days 8-12 of the estrous cycle were used. The cells were incubated (6h) with these xenobiotics and the expression of NP-I/OT and PGA genes was determined. All PCBs increased (P<0.05) NP-I/OT gene expression in granulosa cells. Similarly, all PCBs but PCB 126 increased (P<0.05) PGA gene expression in these cells. DDT and DDE increased (P<0.05) gene expression of NP-I/OT in granulosa cells, while gene expression of PGA in these cells was stimulated (P<0.05) by DDE only. The mRNA expression for NP-I/OT and PGA in luteal cells was increased (P<0.05) by PCB 77 and PCB 153. Both DDE isomers and mixture also stimulated (P<0.05) of NP-I/OT mRNA expression, while increase (P<0.05) of PGA mRNA expression was elicited by incubation of these cells with DDE mixture and Ar 1248. Obtained data suggest that PCBs, DDT and DDE can affect the mRNA expression for NP-I/OT and PGA in bovine granulosa and luteal cells.

  4. Targeting mRNA Stability Arrests Inflammatory Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Chetan S; Liu, Min; Zhao, Wenpu; Coatney, Derek D; Li, Fei; VanTubergen, Elizabeth A; D’Silva, Nisha J; Kirkwood, Keith L

    2009-01-01

    Many proinflammatory cytokines contain adenylate-uridylate-rich elements (AREs) within the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) that confer rapid mRNA destabilization. During the inflammatory response, cytokine mRNA are stabilized via complex interactions with RNA-binding proteins controlled by phosphorylation via multiple signaling pathways including the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). In the absence of inflammation, a key cytokine-regulating RNA-binding protein, tristetraprolin (TTP), shuttles mRNA transcripts to degradation machinery in order to maintain low levels of inflammatory cytokines. Using this general model of mRNA decay, over expression of TTP was evaluated in an experimental model of inflammatory bone loss to determine whether altering cytokine mRNA stability has an impact in pathological bone resorption. Using adenoviral-delivered TTP, significant reductions of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and prostaglandin (PG)E2 were observed in vitro through a mechanism consistent with targeting mRNA stability. In vivo analysis indicates a significant protective effect from inflammation-induced bone loss and inflammatory infiltrate in animals overexpressing TTP compared with reporter controls. These findings provide experimental evidence that mRNA stability is a valid therapeutic target in inflammatory bone loss. PMID:18682699

  5. Influence of DMBA-induced mammary cancer on the liver CPT I, mit HMG-CoA synthase and PPARalpha mRNA expression in rats fed a low or high corn oil diet.

    PubMed

    Moral, Raquel; Solanas, Montserrat; Manzanares, Eva Mónica; Haro, Diego; Escrich, Eduard

    2004-08-01

    Hepatic mitochondrial outer membrane carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I) and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (HMG-CoA synthase) enzymes play a key role in regulation of fatty acid oxidation and in ketogenic pathways, respectively. Their expression are regulated by fatty acids mainly by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). To investigate possible mechanisms through which cancer alters the lipid metabolism, we analyzed by Northern blot, the mRNA relative abundance of these proteins in liver from healthy and DMBA-induced mammary tumor-bearing rats fed a low or high corn oil diet. Serum levels of lipids, body weight and mass were also determined. Whereas mRNA steady-state levels of CPT I and mit HMG-CoA synthase were unaffected by the presence of the extra-hepatic tumor, the cancer state seemed to modify the regulation of the expression of these genes by high fat diet. We hypothesize that putative changes in PPARalpha mRNA levels could have contributed to such alterations. These results, together with changes in serum lipid profiles, body weight and mass, indicate fat mobilization and non-enhanced oxidation rates despite a high-fat feeding. This effect of the cancer state could be related to tumor aggressiveness and suggest a preferential redirection of long-chain fatty acids into energetic and specific pathways of the cancer cells.

  6. Mutation creates an open reading frame within the 5' untranslated region of macaque erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase (CA) I mRNA that suppresses CA I expression and supports the scanning model for translation.

    PubMed Central

    Bergenhem, N C; Venta, P J; Hopkins, P J; Kim, H J; Tashian, R E

    1992-01-01

    A variant allele at the CA I locus that produces a deficiency of erythrocyte-specific CA I occurs as a widespread polymorphism in pigtail macaques from southeast Asia. Sequence analyses revealed a C----G substitution 12 nucleotides downstream of the cap site in the variant erythrocyte CA I mRNA. This mutation forms a new AUG start site and an open reading frame coding for 26 amino acids that terminates 6 nucleotides before the normal AUG initiation codon for CA I. It appears that the presence of this upstream open reading frame greatly diminishes reinitiation of translation from the normal start site, resulting in trace levels of CA I in erythrocytes. Preferential use of the first AUG codon supports the scanning model for translation initiation in eukaryotes. Images PMID:1528895

  7. Influences of age, tongue region, and chorda tympani nerve sectioning on signal detection measures of lingual taste sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Doty, Richard L; Heidt, Julie M; MacGillivray, Michael R; Dsouza, Merle; Tracey, Elisabeth H; Mirza, Natasha; Bigelow, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    Although the ability to taste is critical for ingestion, nutrition, and quality of life, a clear understanding of the influences of age, sex, and chorda tympani (CT) resection on taste function in different regions of the anterior tongue is generally lacking. In this study we employed criterion-free signal detection analysis to assess electric and chemical taste function on multiple tongue regions in normal individuals varying in age and sex and in patients with unilateral CT resections. The subjects were 33 healthy volunteers, ranging from 18 to 87 years of age, and 9 persons, 27 to 77 years of age, with unilateral CT lesions. The influences of age, sex, tongue region, and chorda tympani resections on signal detection sensitivity (d') and response bias (β) measures was assessed in 16 tongue regions to weak electric currents and solutions of sucrose, sodium chloride, and caffeine. Significant age-related decrements in d' were found for sucrose (p=0.012), sodium chloride (p=0.002), caffeine (p=0.006), and electric current (EC) (p=0.0001). Significant posterior to anterior, and medial to lateral, gradients of increasing performance were present for most stimuli. β was larger on the anterior than the posterior tongue for the electrical stimulus in the youngest subjects, whereas the opposite was true for sucrose in the oldest subjects. No sex differences were apparent. d' was depressed ipsilateral to the CT lesion side to varying degrees in all tongue regions, with the weakest influences occurring on the medial and anterior tongue. CT did not meaningfully influence β. This study is the first to employ signal detection analysis to assess the regional sensitivity of the tongue to chemical and electrical stimuli. It clearly demonstrates that tongue regions differ from one another in terms of their age-related sensitivity and their susceptibility to CT lesions.

  8. Time-Series Analysis of Remotely-Sensed SeaWiFS Chlorophyll in River-Influenced Coastal Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James G.; McMahon, Erin; Shen, Suhung; Hearty, Thomas; Casey, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    The availability of a nearly-continuous record of remotely-sensed chlorophyll a data (chl a) from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission, now longer than ten years, enables examination of time-series trends for multiple global locations. Innovative data analysis technology available on the World Wide Web facilitates such analyses. In coastal regions influenced by river outflows, chl a is not always indicative of actual trends in phytoplankton chlorophyll due to the interference of colored dissolved organic matter and suspended sediments; significant chl a timeseries trends for coastal regions influenced by river outflows may nonetheless be indicative of important alterations of the hydrologic and coastal environment. Chl a time-series analysis of nine marine regions influenced by river outflows demonstrates the simplicity and usefulness of this technique. The analyses indicate that coastal time-series are significantly influenced by unusual flood events. Major river systems in regions with relatively low human impact did not exhibit significant trends. Most river systems with demonstrated human impact exhibited significant negative trends, with the noteworthy exception of the Pearl River in China, which has a positive trend.

  9. The influence of weather variation on regional growth of Douglas-fir stands in the U.S. Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    Charles E. Peterson; Linda S. Heath

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we examine the influence of precipitation and temperature deviations on regional volume growth rates in even aged, onnen.,ed second growth Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco) stands. Between 1969 and 1986, average volume growth rates in natural stands of coast Douglas fix in western Washington and Oregon were negatively...

  10. Complex regional pain syndromes: the influence of cutaneous and deep somatic sympathetic innervation on pain.

    PubMed

    Schattschneider, Jörn; Binder, Andreas; Siebrecht, Dieter; Wasner, Gunnar; Baron, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS) can be relieved by sympathetic blockade. Different sympathetic efferent output channels innervate distinct effector organs (ie, cutaneous vasoconstrictor, muscle vasoconstrictor. and sudomotor neurons, as well as neurons innervating deep somatic tissues like bone, joints, and tendons). The aim of the present study was to elucidate in CRPS patients the sympathetically maintained pain (SMP) component that exclusively depends on cutaneous sympathetic activity compared with the SMP depending on the sympathetic innervation of deep somatic tissues. The sympathetic outflow to the painful skin was modulated selectively in awake humans. High and low cutaneous vasoconstrictor activity was produced in 12 CRPS type 1 patients by whole-body cooling and warming (thermal suit). Spontaneous pain was quantified during high and low cutaneous vasoconstrictor activity. By comparing the cutaneous SMP component with the change in pain that was achieved by modulation of the entire sympathetic outflow (sympathetic ganglion block), the SMP component originating in deep somatic structures was estimated. The relief of spontaneous pain after sympathetic blockade was more pronounced than changes in spontaneous pain that could be induced by selective sympathetic cutaneous modulation. The entire SMP component (cutaneous and deep) changes considerably over time. It is most prominent in the acute stages of CRPS. Sympathetic afferent coupling takes place in the skin and in the deep somatic tissues, but especially in the acute stages of CRPS, the pain component that is influenced by the sympathetic innervation of deep somatic structures is more important than the cutaneous activation. The entire sympathetic maintained pain component is not constant in the course of the disease but decreases over time.

  11. Influence of patient mispositioning on SAR distribution and simulated temperature in regional deep hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Aklan, Bassim; Gierse, Pia; Hartmann, Josefin; Ott, Oliver J; Fietkau, Rainer; Bert, Christoph

    2017-06-21

    Patient positioning plays an important role in regional deep hyperthermia to obtain a successful hyperthermia treatment. In this study, the influence of possible patient mispositioning was systematically assessed on specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature distribution. With a finite difference time domain approach, the SAR and temperature distributions were predicted for six patients at 312 positions. Patient displacements and rotations as well as the combination of both were considered inside the Sigma-Eye applicator. Position sensitivity is assessed for hyperthermia treatment planning -guided steering, which relies on model-based optimization of the SAR and temperature distribution. The evaluation of the patient mispositioning was done with and without optimization. The evaluation without optimization was made by creating a treatment plan for the patient reference position in the center of the applicator and applied for all other positions, while the evaluation with optimization was based on creating an individual plan for each position. The parameter T90 was used for the temperature evaluation, which was defined as the temperature that covers 90% of the gross tumor volume (GTV). Furthermore, the hotspot tumor quotient (HTQ) was used as a goal function to assess the quality of the SAR and temperature distribution. The T90 was shown considerably dependent on the position within the applicator. Without optimization, the T90 was clearly decreased below 40 °C by patient shifts and the combination of shifts and rotations. However, the application of optimization for each positon led to an increase of T90 in the GTV. Position inaccuracies of less than 1 cm in the X-and Y-directions and 2 cm in the Z-direction, resulted in an increase of HTQ of less than 5%, which does not significantly affect the SAR and temperature distribution. Current positioning precision is sufficient in the X (right-left)-direction, but position accuracy is required in the Y-and Z-directions.

  12. Postpartum practices of puerperal women and their influencing factors in three regions of Hubei, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Nian; Mao, Limei; Sun, Xiufa; Liu, Liegang; Chen, Banghua; Ding, Qiang

    2006-01-01

    Background 'Sitting month' is a Chinese tradition for women's postpartum custom. The present study aims to explore the postpartum dietary and health practices of puerperal women and identify their influential factors in three selected regions of Hubei, China. Methods A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted in the selected urban, suburban and rural areas in the province of Hubei from 1 March to 30 May 2003. A total of 2100 women who had given birth to full-term singleton infants in the past two years were selected as the participants. Data regarding postpartum practices and potentially related factors were collected through questionnaire by trained investigators. Results During the puerperium, 18% of the participants never ate vegetables, 78.8% never ate fruit and 75.7% never drank milk. Behaviour taboos such as no bathing, no hair washing or teeth brushing were still popular among the participants. About half of the women didn't get out of the bed two days after giving birth. The average time they stayed in bed during this period was 18.0 h. One third of them didn't have any outdoor activities in that time periods. The educational background of both women and their spouses, location of their residence, family income, postnatal visit, nutrition and health care educational courses were found to be the influencing factors of women's postpartum practices. Conclusion Traditional postpartum dietary and health behaviours were still popular among women in Hubei. Identifying the factors associated with traditional postpartum practices is critical to develop better targeting health education programs. Updated Information regarding postpartum dietary and health practices should be disseminated to women. PMID:17087836

  13. Postpartum practices of puerperal women and their influencing factors in three regions of Hubei, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nian; Mao, Limei; Sun, Xiufa; Liu, Liegang; Chen, Banghua; Ding, Qiang

    2006-11-07

    'Sitting month' is a Chinese tradition for women's postpartum custom. The present study aims to explore the postpartum dietary and health practices of puerperal women and identify their influential factors in three selected regions of Hubei, China. A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted in the selected urban, suburban and rural areas in the province of Hubei from 1 March to 30 May 2003. A total of 2100 women who had given birth to full-term singleton infants in the past two years were selected as the participants. Data regarding postpartum practices and potentially related factors were collected through questionnaire by trained investigators. During the puerperium, 18% of the participants never ate vegetables, 78.8% never ate fruit and 75.7% never drank milk. Behaviour taboos such as no bathing, no hair washing or teeth brushing were still popular among the participants. About half of the women didn't get out of the bed two days after giving birth. The average time they stayed in bed during this period was 18.0 h. One third of them didn't have any outdoor activities in that time periods. The educational background of both women and their spouses, location of their residence, family income, postnatal visit, nutrition and health care educational courses were found to be the influencing factors of women's postpartum practices. Traditional postpartum dietary and health behaviours were still popular among women in Hubei. Identifying the factors associated with traditional postpartum practices is critical to develop better targeting health education programs. Updated Information regarding postpartum dietary and health practices should be disseminated to women.

  14. Influence of patient mispositioning on SAR distribution and simulated temperature in regional deep hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aklan, Bassim; Gierse, Pia; Hartmann, Josefin; Ott, Oliver J.; Fietkau, Rainer; Bert, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    Patient positioning plays an important role in regional deep hyperthermia to obtain a successful hyperthermia treatment. In this study, the influence of possible patient mispositioning was systematically assessed on specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature distribution. With a finite difference time domain approach, the SAR and temperature distributions were predicted for six patients at 312 positions. Patient displacements and rotations as well as the combination of both were considered inside the Sigma-Eye applicator. Position sensitivity is assessed for hyperthermia treatment planning -guided steering, which relies on model-based optimization of the SAR and temperature distribution. The evaluation of the patient mispositioning was done with and without optimization. The evaluation without optimization was made by creating a treatment plan for the patient reference position in the center of the applicator and applied for all other positions, while the evaluation with optimization was based on creating an individual plan for each position. The parameter T90 was used for the temperature evaluation, which was defined as the temperature that covers 90% of the gross tumor volume (GTV). Furthermore, the hotspot tumor quotient (HTQ) was used as a goal function to assess the quality of the SAR and temperature distribution. The T90 was shown considerably dependent on the position within the applicator. Without optimization, the T90 was clearly decreased below 40 °C by patient shifts and the combination of shifts and rotations. However, the application of optimization for each positon led to an increase of T90 in the GTV. Position inaccuracies of less than 1 cm in the X-and Y-directions and 2 cm in the Z-direction, resulted in an increase of HTQ of less than 5%, which does not significantly affect the SAR and temperature distribution. Current positioning precision is sufficient in the X (right-left)-direction, but position accuracy is required in the Y-and Z-directions.

  15. Estimating the Influence of Biological Ice Nuclei on Clouds with Regional Scale Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, Matthias; Hoose, Corinna; Schaupp, Caroline; Möhler, Ottmar

    2014-05-01

    Cloud properties are largely influenced by the atmospheric formation of ice particles. Some primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP), e.g. certain bacteria, fungal spores or pollen, have been identified as effective ice nuclei (IN). The work presented here quantifies the IN concentrations originating from PBAP in order to estimate their influences on clouds with the regional scale atmospheric model COSMO-ART in a six day case study for Western Europe. The atmospheric particle distribution is calculated for three different PBAP (bacteria, fungal spores and birch pollen). The parameterizations for heterogeneous ice nucleation of PBAP are derived from AIDA cloud chamber experiments with Pseudomonas syringae bacteria and birch pollen (Schaupp, 2013) and from published data on Cladosporium spores (Iannone et al., 2011). A constant fraction of ice-active bacteria and fungal spores relative to the total bacteria and spore concentration had to be assumed. At cloud altitude, average simulated PBAP number concentrations are ~17 L-1 for bacteria and fungal spores and ~0.03 L-1 for birch pollen, including large temporal and spatial variations of more than one order of magnitude. Thus, the average, 'diagnostic' in-cloud PBAP IN concentrations, which only depend on the PBAP concentrations and temperature, without applying dynamics and cloud microphysics, lie at the lower end of the range of typically observed atmospheric IN concentrations . Average PBAP IN concentrations are between 10-6 L-1 and 10-4 L-1. Locally but not very frequently, PBAP IN concentrations can be as high as 0.2 L-1 at -10° C. Two simulations are compared to estimate the cloud impact of PBAP IN, both including mineral dust as an additional background IN with a constant concentration of 100 L-1. One of the simulations includes additional PBAP IN which can alter the cloud properties compared to the reference simulation without PBAP IN. The difference in ice particle and cloud droplet concentration between

  16. Assessment of the MACC reanalysis and its influence as chemical boundary conditions for regional air quality modeling in AQMEII-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, L.; Brunner, D.; Flemming, J.; Hogrefe, C.; Im, U.; Bianconi, R.; Badia, A.; Balzarini, A.; Baró, R.; Chemel, C.; Curci, G.; Forkel, R.; Jiménez-Guerrero, P.; Hirtl, M.; Hodzic, A.; Honzak, L.; Jorba, O.; Knote, C.; Kuenen, J. J. P.; Makar, P. A.; Manders-Groot, A.; Neal, L.; Pérez, J. L.; Pirovano, G.; Pouliot, G.; San José, R.; Savage, N.; Schröder, W.; Sokhi, R. S.; Syrakov, D.; Torian, A.; Tuccella, P.; Werhahn, J.; Wolke, R.; Yahya, K.; Žabkar, R.; Zhang, Y.; Galmarini, S.

    2015-08-01

    The Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII) has now reached its second phase which is dedicated to the evaluation of online coupled chemistry-meteorology models. Sixteen modeling groups from Europe and five from North America have run regional air quality models to simulate the year 2010 over one European and one North American domain. The MACC re-analysis has been used as chemical initial (IC) and boundary conditions (BC) by all participating regional models in AQMEII-2. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the MACC re-analysis along with the participating regional models against a set of ground-based measurements (O3, CO, NO, NO2, SO2, SO42-) and vertical profiles (O3 and CO). Results indicate different degrees of agreement between the measurements and the MACC re-analysis, with an overall better performance over the North American domain. The influence of BC on regional air quality simulations is analyzed in a qualitative way by contrasting model performance for the MACC re-analysis with that for the regional models. This approach complements more quantitative approaches documented in the literature that often have involved sensitivity simulations but typically were limited to only one or only a few regional scale models. Results suggest an important influence of the BC on ozone for which the underestimation in winter in the MACC re-analysis is mimicked by the regional models. For CO, it is found that background concentrations near the domain boundaries are rather close to observations while those over the interior of the two continents are underpredicted by both MACC and the regional models over Europe but only by MACC over North America. This indicates that emission differences between the MACC re-analysis and the regional models can have a profound impact on model performance and points to the need for harmonization of inputs in future linked global/regional modeling studies.

  17. Trade-offs between tRNA abundance and mRNA secondary structure support smoothing of translation elongation rate

    PubMed Central

    Gorochowski, Thomas E.; Ignatova, Zoya; Bovenberg, Roel A.L.; Roubos, Johannes A.

    2015-01-01

    Translation of protein from mRNA is a complex multi-step process that occurs at a non-uniform rate. Variability in ribosome speed along an mRNA enables refinement of the proteome and plays a critical role in protein biogenesis. Detailed single protein studies have found both tRNA abundance and mRNA secondary structure as key modulators of translation elongation rate, but recent genome-wide ribosome profiling experiments have not observed significant influence of either on translation efficiency. Here we provide evidence that this results from an inherent trade-off between these factors. We find codons pairing to high-abundance tRNAs are preferentially used in regions of high secondary structure content, while codons read by significantly less abundant tRNAs are located in lowly structured regions. By considering long stretches of high and low mRNA secondary structure in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli and comparing them to randomized-gene models and experimental expression data, we were able to distinguish clear selective pressures and increased protein expression for specific codon choices. The trade-off between secondary structure and tRNA-concentration based codon choice allows for compensation of their independent effects on translation, helping to smooth overall translational speed and reducing the chance of potentially detrimental points of excessively slow or fast ribosome movement. PMID:25765653

  18. The Transition to an Independent Southern Sudan: How Should the U.S. Military Posture to Influence and Deter Factors that May Cause Regional Instability?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    Military Posture to Influence and Deter Factors that May Cause Regional Instability? Approved by: , Thesis Committee Chair Douglas E...prevent full engagement; however, the US is striving to make positive strategic influences in the region. In his recent paper, ―The United States of...THE TRANSITION TO AN INDEPENDENT SOUTHERN SUDAN: HOW SHOULD THE US MILITARY POSTURE TO INFLUENCE AND DETER FACTORS THAT MAY CAUSE REGIONAL

  19. The influence of external forcing on subdecadal variability of regional surface temperature in CMIP5 simulations of the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Thanh; Sjolte, Jesper; Muscheler, Raimund

    2016-02-01

    We use Granger causality to investigate the influences of external forcings on subdecadal variability of regional near-surface air temperature (SAT) in past millennium simulations (period 850-1850 A.D.) of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models. Our results strengthen the conclusion for robust influence of volcanic forcing on SAT during preindustrial times of the last millennium. The SAT response to solar variations is detected in tropical and subtropical regions. In other regions, this response is weak. The impact of greenhouse gases (GHGs) radiative forcing to regional SAT is weak and uncertain. This is most probably due to the low amplitude of the variations in GHGs and hence weak GHGs forcing during the preindustrial millennium. The low agreement between models in simulating the impacts of solar variations on SAT in several regions suggests the different dynamical responses in these models, possibly associated with inaccurate parameterization of the processes related to solar forcing. Our analysis suggests that internal climate variability played a more significant role than external forcings in short-term SAT variability in the regions of the North Atlantic, the North Pacific, the Arctic, the Antarctic Peninsula, and its surrounding oceans. The possibility of long-term impacts of external forcings on SAT and the uncertainties that might be contained due to effects of internal climate modes other than El Niño-Southern Oscillation underscore the necessity for a more detailed understanding of the dynamical response of SAT to external forcings.

  20. Strong Influence of Variable Treatment on the Performance of Numerically Defined Ecological Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snelder, Ton; Lehmann, Anthony; Lamouroux, Nicolas; Leathwick, John; Allenbach, Karin

    2009-10-01

    Numerical clustering has frequently been used to define hierarchically organized ecological regionalizations, but there has been little robust evaluation of their performance (i.e., the degree to which regions discriminate areas with similar ecological character). In this study we investigated the effect of the weighting and treatment of input variables on the performance of regionalizations defined by agglomerative clustering across a range of hierarchical levels. For this purpose, we developed three ecological regionalizations of Switzerland of increasing complexity using agglomerative clustering. Environmental data for our analysis were drawn from a 400 m grid and consisted of estimates of 11 environmental variables for each grid cell describing climate, topography and lithology. Regionalization 1 was defined from the environmental variables which were given equal weights. We used the same variables in Regionalization 2 but weighted and transformed them on the basis of a dissimilarity model that was fitted to land cover composition data derived for a random sample of cells from interpretation of aerial photographs. Regionalization 3 was a further two-stage development of Regionalization 2 where specific classifications, also weighted and transformed using dissimilarity models, were applied to 25 small scale “sub-domains” defined by Regionalization 2. Performance was assessed in terms of the discrimination of land cover composition for an independent set of sites using classification strength (CS), which measured the similarity of land cover composition within classes and the dissimilarity between classes. Regionalization 2 performed significantly better than Regionalization 1, but the largest gains in performance, compared to Regionalization 1, occurred at coarse hierarchical levels (i.e., CS did not increase significantly beyond the 25-region level). Regionalization 3 performed better than Regionalization 2 beyond the 25-region level and CS values continued

  1. Dynamic m6A mRNA methylation directs translational control of heat shock response

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun; Wan, Ji; Gao, Xiangwei; Zhang, Xingqian; Qian, Shu-Bing

    2015-01-01

    The most abundant mRNA post-transcriptional modification is N6-methyladenosine (m6A) that has broad roles in RNA biology1-5. In mammalian cells, the asymmetric distribution of m6A along mRNAs leaves relatively less methylation in the 5′ untranslated region (5′UTR) compared to other regions6,7. However, whether and how 5′UTR methylation is regulated is poorly understood. Despite the crucial role of the 5′UTR in translation initiation, very little is known whether m6A modification influences mRNA translation. Here we show that in response to heat shock stress, m6A is preferentially deposited to the 5′UTR of newly transcribed mRNAs. We found that the dynamic 5′UTR methylation is a result of stress-induced nuclear localization of YTHDF2, a well characterized m6A “reader”. Upon heat shock stress, the nuclear YTHDF2 preserves 5′UTR methylation of stress-induced transcripts by limiting the m6A “eraser” FTO from demethylation. Remarkably, the increased 5′UTR methylation in the form of m6A promotes cap-independent translation initiation, providing a mechanism for selective mRNA translation under heat shock stress. Using Hsp70 mRNA as an example, we demonstrate that a single site m6A modification in the 5′UTR enables translation initiation independent of the 5′ end m7G cap. The elucidation of the dynamic feature of 5′UTR methylation and its critical role in cap-independent translation not only expands the breadth of physiological roles of m6A, but also uncovers a previously unappreciated translational control mechanism in heat shock response. PMID:26458103

  2. Influence of local and regional Mediterranean meteorology on SO₂ ground-level concentrations in SE Spain.

    PubMed

    Santacatalina, Milagros; Carratalá, Adoración; Mantilla, Enrique

    2011-06-01

    This work presents the results of a 4-year study on sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) ground-level concentrations in an area of southeastern Spain, the L'Alacantí region, where the cement industry is important and coke use extends to other industries as well. The main source of SO(2) emissions in the area was found to be a the Lepold cement plant (one of the two cement plants in the area). The high levels of SO(2) probably extend back to 1920 when this plant began operations. Both local and Mediterranean-scale meteorological processes influence the SO(2) ground-level concentration and together explain the dispersion dynamics of this pollutant. The location and topography of the study zone result in NW Atlantic advections and E-SE sea breezes being the dominant atmospheric circulation patterns in the area. Under stable meteorological conditions, minor local circulations are also relevant to the SO(2) concentration levels. The high frequency of local circulations determines a concentration pattern that changes during the day, with impacts occurring preferentially in a W-NW direction from the source at midday (sea breeze and strong thermal mixture), and in a SE direction at night. This causes the SO(2) concentrations to present well-defined diurnal cycles with well-differentiated shapes depending on the location of the sampling station relative to the source. The dependence of SO(2) 10 min levels on the wind origin and speed throughout the day has been evaluated by studying statistical parameters including P95, P50 and arithmetic mean. Exceedances occur under specific dispersion conditions at distances less than 1 km from the source. However, the source is traceable at larger distances and the levels are higher than typical urban ones. P95 was used as an estimator of the occurrence of larger levels or impacts. Leeward of NW winds and the source, at night and in early morning, P95 levels are comprised between 30 and 55 µg m(-3). In contrast, with SE winds and at midday, P95

  3. Promoter region hypermethylation and mRNA expression of MGMT and p16 genes in tissue and blood samples of human premalignant oral lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Vikram; Goel, Madhu Mati; Makker, Annu; Tewari, Shikha; Yadu, Alka; Shilpi, Priyanka; Kumar, Sandeep; Agarwal, S P; Goel, Sudhir K

    2014-01-01

    Promoter methylation and relative gene expression of O(6)-methyguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) and p16 genes were examined in tissue and blood samples of patients with premalignant oral lesions (PMOLs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methylation-specific PCR and reverse transcriptase PCR were performed in 146 tissue and blood samples from controls and patients with PMOLs and OSCC. In PMOL group, significant promoter methylation of MGMT and p16 genes was observed in 59% (P = 0.0010) and 57% (P = 0.0016) of tissue samples, respectively, and 39% (P = 0.0135) and 33% (P = 0.0074) of blood samples, respectively. Promoter methylation of both genes was more frequent in patients with OSCC, that is, 76% (P = 0.0001) and 82% (P = 0.0001) in tissue and 57% (P = 0.0002) and 70% (P = 0.0001) in blood, respectively. Significant downregulation of MGMT and p16 mRNA expression was observed in both tissue and blood samples from patients with PMOLs and OSCC. Hypermethylation-induced transcriptional silencing of MGMT and p16 genes in both precancer and cancer suggests important role of these changes in progression of premalignant state to malignancy. Results support use of blood as potential surrogate to tissue samples for screening or diagnosing PMOLs and early OSCC.

  4. Promoter Region Hypermethylation and mRNA Expression of MGMT and p16 Genes in Tissue and Blood Samples of Human Premalignant Oral Lesions and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Vikram; Makker, Annu; Tewari, Shikha; Yadu, Alka; Shilpi, Priyanka; Kumar, Sandeep; Agarwal, S. P.; Goel, Sudhir K.

    2014-01-01

    Promoter methylation and relative gene expression of O6-methyguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) and p16 genes were examined in tissue and blood samples of patients with premalignant oral lesions (PMOLs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methylation-specific PCR and reverse transcriptase PCR were performed in 146 tissue and blood samples from controls and patients with PMOLs and OSCC. In PMOL group, significant promoter methylation of MGMT and p16 genes was observed in 59% (P = 0.0010) and 57% (P = 0.0016) of tissue samples, respectively, and 39% (P = 0.0135) and 33% (P = 0.0074) of blood samples, respectively. Promoter methylation of both genes was more frequent in patients with OSCC, that is, 76% (P = 0.0001) and 82% (P = 0.0001) in tissue and 57% (P = 0.0002) and 70% (P = 0.0001) in blood, respectively. Significant downregulation of MGMT and p16 mRNA expression was observed in both tissue and blood samples from patients with PMOLs and OSCC. Hypermethylation-induced transcriptional silencing of MGMT and p16 genes in both precancer and cancer suggests important role of these changes in progression of premalignant state to malignancy. Results support use of blood as potential surrogate to tissue samples for screening or diagnosing PMOLs and early OSCC. PMID:24991542

  5. The turnip yellow mosaic virus tRNA-like structure cannot be replaced by generic tRNA-like elements or by heterologous 3' untranslated regions known to enhance mRNA expression and stability.

    PubMed Central

    Skuzeski, J M; Bozarth, C S; Dreher, T W

    1996-01-01

    The tRNA-like structure (TLS) at the 3' end of the turnip yellow mosaic virus genome was replaced with heterologous tRNA-like elements, and with a poly(A) tail, in order to assess its role. Replacement with the valylatable TLSs from two closely related tymoviruses resulted in infectious viruses. In contrast, no systemic symptoms on plants, and only low viral accumulations in protoplasts, were observed for three chimeric genomes with 3' sequences known to enhance mRNA stability and translatability. One of these chimeras had a poly(A) tail, and the others had the TLS with associated upstream pseudoknot tracts from the 3' ends of brome mosaic and tobacco mosaic viruses. The latter two chimeric RNAs were shown to be appropriately folded by demonstrating their aminoacylation in vitro with tyrosine and histidine, respectively. The results show that enhancement of genome stability or gene expression is not the major role of the turnip yellow mosaic virus TLS. The major role is likely to be replicational, dependent on features present in tymoviral TLSs but not in generic tRNA-like structures. PMID:8642631

  6. Influence of metallic ions on the plasma instabilities in the high-latitude E region

    SciTech Connect

    Schlegel, K.

    1985-08-01

    Metallic ions like Mg(+) and Fe(+) can be quite abundant at E region heights during meteor showers. Since their mass is significantly different from the mass of the normal E region ions like NO(+) and O2(+) the E region plasma will behave quite differently in the presence of these ions. As a consequence, the results of the dispersion relation of the modified two stream and the gradient drift plasma instability, occurring in the high latitude E region, are significantly different from the normal case. Some of these results are presented and the implications for the interpretation of auroral radar results (STARE) are discussed. 17 references.

  7. Regional Genetic Structure and Environmental Variables Influence our Conservation Approach for Feather Heads (Ptilotus macrocephalus).

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Collin W; James, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-01

    Continued alterations to the Australian environment compromise the long-term viability of many plant species. We investigate the population genetics of Ptilotus macrocephalus, a perennial herb that occurs in 2 nationally endangered communities on the Victorian Volcanic Plain Bioregion (VVP), Australia, to answer key questions regarding regional differentiation and to guide conservation strategies. We evaluate genetic structure and diversity within and among 17 P. macrocephalus populations from 3 regions of southeastern Australia using 17 microsatellite markers developed de novo. Genetic structure was present in P. macrocephalus between the 3 regions but not at the population level. Environmental factors, namely temperature and precipitation, significantly explained differentiation between the North region and the other 2 regions indicating isolation by environment. Within regions, genetic structure currently shows a high level of gene flow and genetic variation. Our results suggest that within-region gene flow does not reflect current habitat fragmentation in southeastern Australia whereas temperature and precipitation are likely to be responsible for the differentiation detected among regions. Climate change may severely impact P. macrocephalus on the VVP and test its evolutionary resilience. We suggest taking a proactive conservation approach to improve long-term viability by sourcing material for restoration to assist gene flow to the VVP region to promote an increased adaptive capacity. © The American Genetic Association. 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The influence of gravity on regional lung blood flow in humans: SPECT in the upright and head-down posture.

    PubMed

    Ax, M; Sanchez-Crespo, A; Lindahl, S G E; Mure, M; Petersson, J

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies in humans have shown that gravity has little influence on the distribution of lung blood flow while changing posture from supine to prone. This study aimed to evaluate the maximal influence of posture by comparison of regional lung blood flow in the upright and head-down posture in 8 healthy volunteers, using a tilt table. Regional lung blood flow was marked by intravenous injection of macroaggregates of human albumin labeled with (99m)Tc or (113m)In, in the upright and head-down posture, respectively, during tidal breathing. Both radiotracers remain fixed in the lung after administration. The distribution of radioactivity was mapped using quantitative single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) corrected for attenuation and scatter. All images were obtained supine during tidal breathing. A shift from upright to the head-down posture caused a clear redistribution of blood flow from basal to apical regions. We conclude that posture plays a role for the distribution of lung blood flow in upright humans, and that the influence of posture, and thereby gravity, is much greater in the upright and head-down posture than in horizontal postures. However, the results of the study demonstrate that lung structure is the main determinant of regional blood flow and gravity is a secondary contributor to the distribution of lung blood flow in the upright and head-down positions.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Using a dual-isotope quantitative SPECT method, we demonstrated that although a shift in posture redistributes blood flow in the direction of gravity, the results are also consistent with lung structure being a greater determinant of regional blood flow than gravity. To our knowledge, this is the first study to use modern imaging methods to quantify the shift in regional lung blood flow in humans at a change between the upright and head-down postures. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Influence of land use and climate on wetland breeding birds in the Prairie Pothole region of Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forcey, G.M.; Linz, G.M.; Thogmartin, W.E.; Bleier, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Bird populations are influenced by a variety of factors at both small and large scales that range from the presence of suitable nesting habitat, predators, and food supplies to climate conditions and land-use patterns. We evaluated the influences of regional climate and land-use variables on wetland breeding birds in the Canada section of Bird Conservation Region 11 (CA-BCR11), the Prairie Potholes. We used bird abundance data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey, land-use data from the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Administration, and weather data from the National Climatic Data and Information Archive to model effects of regional environmental variables on bird abundance. Models were constructed a priori using information from published habitat associations in the literature, and fitting was performed with WinBUGS using Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. Both land-use and climate variables contributed to predicting bird abundance in CA-BCR11, although climate predictors contributed the most to improving model fit. Examination of regional effects of climate and land use on wetland birds in CA-BCR11 revealed relationships with environmental covariates that are often overlooked by small-scale habitat studies. Results from these studies can be used to improve conservation and management planning for regional populations of avifauna. ?? 2007 NRC.

  10. Influence of nutrition and stress on sugar maple at a regional scale

    Treesearch

    Richard A. Hallett; Scott W. Bailey; Stephen B. Horsley; Robert P. Long

    2006-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) decline disease on the Allegheny Plateau (region 1) resulted in high levels of mortality during the 1990s. Sugar maple was predisposed to decline because of an imbalance in Mg, Ca, and Mn nutrition and incited to decline by repeated defoliation. We sampled 33 stands in New York, Vermont, and New Hampshire (region 2...

  11. Factors Influencing Student Satisfaction in Universities in the Gulf Region: Does Gender of Students Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parahoo, Sanjai K.; Harvey, Heather L.; Tamim, Rana M.

    2013-01-01

    While various research studies have focused on antecedents and consequences of student satisfaction, few studies have done so in the Gulf region. The objective of the present study was therefore to design and empirically examine a model of student satisfaction in a private university in the Gulf region that operates in a high-technology-enabled…

  12. Influence of previous body mass index and sex on regional fat changes in a weight loss intervention.

    PubMed

    Benito, Pedro J; Cupeiro, Rocio; Peinado, Ana B; Rojo, Miguel A; Maffulli, Nicola

    2017-10-05

    Men and women may lose weight in a different fashion. This study compares the changes in different anatomical regions after a well-controlled weight loss program by sex and initial BMI. A total of 180 subjects (48 overweight women, 36 overweight men, and 48 obese women and 48 obese men) were recruited to participate in a 22-week weight loss programme (diet + exercise). Regarding percentage body weight change from baseline, there was no triple interaction (BMI, sex and anatomical region), but there was interaction between BMI and anatomical region (F2,840 = 34.5; p < 0.001), and between sex and anatomical region (F2,840 = 98.8; p < 0.001). Usually, the arms and legs are the regions that lose more weight in obese participants, but men lose the highest percentage of mass from the trunk. There were differences between men and women for the areas of left trunk mass (750g), right trunk mass (700g), total mass of the trunk (1400g), android mass (350g), and finally in the total mass in overweight participants (1300g), with higher values for men than for women. The region that loses more weight and fat is the trunk, followed by the legs, and then the arms, when the loss is observed in function of the total weight or fat lost. Both BMI and sex exert a definite influence fat loss, especially in some anatomical regions.

  13. Ask When—Not Just Whether—It's a Risk: How Regional Context Influences Local Causes of Diarrheal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Goldstick, Jason E.; Trostle, James; Eisenberg, Joseph N. S.

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary epidemiology is enriched when it incorporates ecological concepts about systems and dependencies. With regard to diarrheal disease, the causes of which are many and interacting, the dynamics of within- and between-community disease transmission have distinct components but are also linked in important ways. However, few investigators have studied how regional-scale disease dynamics affect local patterns of diarrheal disease transmission. Characterizing this dependence is important for identifying local- and regional-level transmission pathways. We used data from active surveillance of diarrheal disease prevalence gathered from February 2004 through July 2007 in 21 neighboring Ecuadorian villages to estimate how disease prevalence in spatially and temporally proximate villages modulates the influences of village-level risk and protective factors. We found that the impact of local, village-level interventions such as improved latrines and water treatment can be quite different under conditions of high and low regional disease prevalence. In particular, water treatment was effective only when regional disease prevalence was low, suggesting that person-to-person spread, not waterborne spread, is probably responsible for most between-village transmission in this region. Additional regional-scale data could enhance our understanding of how regional-scale transmission affects local-scale dynamics. PMID:24740889

  14. Effects of chronic cocaine administration on dopamine transporter mRNA and protein in the rat.

    PubMed

    Letchworth, S R; Daunais, J B; Hedgecock, A A; Porrino, L J

    1997-03-07

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered cocaine (10, 15 or 25 mg/kg) or vehicle, i.p., once daily for 8 consecutive days and killed 1 h after the last injection. Acute cocaine administration produced dose-dependent increases in spontaneous locomotor activity. These levels of activity were further enhanced by 8 days of chronic treatment, indicating the emergence of behavioral sensitization. Chronic cocaine administration resulted in dose-dependent decreases in the density of dopamine transporter (DAT) mRNA in both the substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area as shown by in situ hybridization histochemistry. Changes in DAT binding sites were assessed using [3H]mazindol quantitative autoradiography. In contrast to the levels of mRNA, there were few changes in the number of [3H]mazindol binding sites. Although the density of binding sites was unaltered in most regions, [3H]mazindol binding was increased in the anterior nucleus accumbens. This study extends previous findings by demonstrating the dose-dependent nature of the changes in DAT mRNA that accompanies chronic cocaine administration. The levels of DAT binding sites within the dorsal and ventral striatum, however, were largely unchanged. This mismatch suggests that cocaine may differentially influence the gene expression of DAT in the ventral midbrain as compared to the density of DAT binding sites in the basal forebrain.

  15. The influence of regional basic science campuses on medical students' choice of specialty and practice location: a historical cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Brokaw, James J; Mandzuk, Christina A; Wade, Michael E; Deal, Dennis W; Johnson, Mary T; White, Gary W; Wilson, Jeffrey S; Zollinger, Terrell W

    2009-01-01

    Background Indiana University School of Medicine (IUSM) employs eight regional basic science campuses, where half of the students complete their first two years of medical school. The other half complete all four years at the main campus in Indianapolis. The authors tested the hypothesis that training at regional campuses influences IUSM students to pursue primary care careers near the regional campuses they attended. Methods Medical school records for 2,487 graduates (classes of 1988–1997) were matched to the 2003 American Medical Association Physician Masterfile to identify the medical specialty and practice location of each graduate. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess the effect of regional campus attendance on students' choice of medical specialty and practice location, while simultaneously adjusting for several covariates thought to affect these career outcomes. Results Compared to Indianapolis students, those who attended a regional campus were somewhat more likely to be white, have parents with middle class occupations, and score slightly lower on the Medical College Admission Test. Any such differences were adjusted for in the regression models, which predicted that four of the regional campuses were significantly more likely than Indianapolis to produce family practitioners, and that five of the regional campuses were significantly more likely than the others to have former students practicing in the region. When analyzed collectively, attendance at any regional campus was a significant predictor of a primary care practice located outside the Indianapolis metropolitan area. Conclusion Attending a regional campus for preclinical training appears to increase the likelihood of practicing primary care medicine in local communities. PMID:19500392

  16. Translational enhancement of H-ferritin mRNA by interleukin-1 beta acts through 5' leader sequences distinct from the iron responsive element.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, J T; Andriotakis, J L; Lacroix, L; Durmowicz, G P; Kasschau, K D; Bridges, K R

    1994-01-01

    Interleukin-1 beta (Il-1 beta), a key cytokine in the acute phase response, elevates hepatic expression of both the heavy (H) and light (L) ferritin subunits without influencing the steady-state levels of either ferritin transcript. Transfection experiments with human hepatoma cells reveal that sequences within the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of H-ferritin mRNA confer translational regulation to chimaeric chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT) mRNAs in response to Il-1 beta in the absence of marked changes in CAT mRNA levels. Il-1 beta dependent translational enhancement is mediated by a distinct G + C rich RNA sequence within 70 nucleotides (nt) of the start codon. The upstream Iron Responsive Element RNA stemloop does not confer increased expression to CAT mRNA in Il-1 beta stimulated hepatoma transfectants. A 38 nucleotide consensus sequence within the 5'UTRs of the mRNAs encoding the hepatic acute phase proteins alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT), alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and haptoglobin (Dente et al., 1985) is similar to sequences in the G + C rich H-ferritin mRNA translational regulatory element. Deletion of three nucleotides from this region of the 61 nt G + C rich element in the H-ferritin mRNA 5' leader eliminates Il-1 beta translational enhancement of the CAT reporter transcripts. Images PMID:8041631

  17. Geo(spatial) Health Investigation of Rotavirus in an Endemic Region: Hydroclimatic Influences and Epidemiology of Rotavirus in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, M. A.; Akanda, A. S.; Jutla, A.; Colwell, R. R.

    2016-12-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe dehydrating diarrhea among children under 5. Over 80% of the approximate half a million child deaths every year occur in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa alone. Although less explored than cholera as a climate driven and influenced global health problem, recent studies have showed that the disease shown strong seasonality and spatio-temporal variability depending on regional hydroclimatic and local environmental conditions. Understanding the epidemiology of this disease, especially the spatio-temporal incidence patterns with respect to environmental factors is vitally important to allow for identification of "hotspots", preventative preparations, and vaccination strategies to improve wellbeing of the vulnerable populations. With climate change, spatio-temporal signatures and footprints of the disease are changing along with increasing burden. However, a robust understanding of the relationships between rotavirus epidemiology and hydroclimatic drivers is yet to be developed. In this study, we evaluate the seasonality and epidemiologic characteristics of rotavirous infection and its spatio-temporal incidence patterns with respect to regional hydroclimatic variables and their extremes in an endemic region in South Asia. Hospital-based surveillance data from different geographic locations allowed us to explore the detailed spatial and temporal characteristics of rotavirus propagation under the influence of climate variables in both coastal and inland areas. The rotavirus transmission patterns show two peaks in a year in the capital city of Dhaka, where winter season (highest in January) shows a high peak and the July-August monsoon season shows a smaller peak. Correlation with climate variables revealed that minimum temperature has strong influence on the winter season outbreak, while rainfall extremes show a strong positive association with the secondary monsoon peak. Spatial analysis also revealed that humidity and soil

  18. Toward a Quantitative Assessment of the Influence of Regional Emission Sources on Ozone Production in the Colorado Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDuffie, E. E.; Dube, W. P.; Wolfe, D. E.; Tevlin, A.; Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; De Gouw, J. A.; Murphy, J. G.; Fischer, E. V.; Brown, S. S.; Angevine, W. M.; Edwards, P.; Williams, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Photochemical ozone production results from the oxidation and reaction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO2 + NO). As with many US urban regions, ozone levels observed in the Northern Front Range Metropolitan Region of Colorado are influenced by urban emissions of NOx and VOCs. Despite nationwide decreases in these urban emissions, the Front Range of Colorado is one of the few US locations where ozone is currently increasing. It has also recently gone out of compliance with national ambient air quality standards for ozone during summer months. High ozone in Colorado may result from a number of factors, including long-range transport from Asia, increased influence of biomass burning, population increases, or increased emissions from oil and gas activities. The Front Range is home to the Denver-Julesburg (D-J) Basin, which has recently been experiencing a rise in oil and natural gas (O&NG) activity associated with the increase in non-conventional drilling techniques. The VOC and NOx emissions from O&NG activity in close proximity to the urban area may uniquely influence ozone in this region. This presentation will focus on using reactive nitrogen (NOx, NOy) and ozone measurements from a tall (300 m) tower to study the influence of local emissions on Front Range ozone. The tower is located between the D-J Basin and agricultural areas to the north and the Denver metro area to the south. In-situ reactive nitrogen and ozone measurements were collected using a custom Cavity Ring-Down instrument. Additional CH4, CO, and NH3 measurements from the tower serve as tracers for O&NG, urban, and agricultural emissions. Concurrently measured aircraft data is used to confirm the relationships between the tracer species. This presentation will discuss methods for determining the contributions of different emission sources to Front Range ozone, with a focus on differentiating the influence of urban and O&NG sources.

  19. Assessment of regional influence from a petrochemical complex by modeling and fingerprint analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yuan-Chang; Chen, Sheng-Po; Tong, Yu-Huei; Fan, Chen-Lun; Chen, Wei-Hao; Wang, Jia-Lin; Chang, Julius S.

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to demonstrate a strategy to investigate the influence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on its neighboring districts from a gigantic petrochemical complex. Monitoring of the VOCs in the region was achieved by a nine-station network, dubbed photochemical assessment measurement stations (PAMS), which produced speciated mixing ratios of 54 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) to represent VOCs with an hourly resolution within a 20 km radius. One-year (2013/10/1-2014/9/30) worth of PAMS data from the network were used in forms of total NMHCs (called PAMS-TNMHC) and speciated mixing ratios. Three dimensional modeling coupled with PAMS measurements successfully elucidated how the study domain was affected by the petrochemical complex and distant sources under three typical seasonal wind patterns: northeast monsoonal, southwest monsoonal, and local-circulation. More exquisite analysis of influence on the neighboring districts was permitted with the use of speciated mixing ratios of VOCs provided by the PAMS network. The ratios of ethylene/acetylene (E/A) > 3 and propylene/acetylene (P/A) > 1.5 were used as indicators to reveal the PAMS sites affected by the petrochemical emissions. Consequently, the hourly speciated data from the nine PAMS sites enabled a finer assessment of the districts affected by the complex to calculate the percent time of influence (dubbed TI%) for all the sites (districts). It was found that the region was more affected by the complex under both the northeast monsoonal and the local-circulation wind types with some of the PAMS sites greater than 5% for the TI%. By contrast, influence on the region was found minimal under the southwest monsoonal flow with the TI% small than 1.5% across all sites. This study successfully devised a method of assessment with the use of speciated measurements of selected VOCs and modeling to assess the influence of a prominent source on the neighboring districts by filtering out irrelevant sources under

  20. Influence of natural and technological emergency situations on tourism and sustainable development in St.Petersburg and Leningrad region (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shnyparkov, A. L.; Petrova, E. G.; Vashchalova, T. V.; Gavrilova, S. A.; Danilina, A. V.; Gryaznova, V. V.

    2012-04-01

    St.Petersburg and Leningrad region belong to the most populated and tourist-active regions in the European part of Russia. St.Petersburg is a second important transportation connection point in Russia, there are many industrial and infrastructure facilities in Leningrad region such as chemical plants, mechanic engineering, power stations including a nuclear power station, etc. That is why a lot of technical objects and people can be influenced or damaged by natural hazards and various types of technological accidents can be triggered by natural phenomena that have place in the region. According to the Russian Ministry of Emergency Situation, Leningrad region has a medium level of frequency of emergency situations caused by natural triggers (two to four cases a year). The climatic and orographic conditions of the area contribute to the development of many different types of dangerous natural processes such as floods, storms, strong winds, extreme heat and frost, snowfalls, heavy rains, hale, etc. Hydro-meteorological phenomena are the most often among all natural triggers of emergency situations in the region; about 50% of them are caused by storms and strong winds and 25% by floods. The biggest number of natural emergency situations happens in St.Petersburg. Storms make the marine navigation more difficult and even block the port sometimes. In Leningrad region, 5-10 villages and cities (including St.Petersburg) are at risk to be flooded. In November 1999, the work of Leningradskaya nuclear power station was partly blocked due to the increasing in water level. The federal road Moscow-St.Petersburg is often under influence of heavy snowfalls that cause many problems for transport system of the region during the winter. The majority of technological emergency situations are caused by fires in industrial facilities and residential sector, trafic accidents and shipcrashes. Sometimes natural phenomena can also trigger technological accidents. However, their frequency is

  1. The Large-Scale Oscillations Influence Over the Interdecadal Climate Variability in Mexico's Central Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jofre, R.; Brito-Castillo, L.; Tereshchenko, I.; Atmospheric Sciences Climatology Climate Variability

    2013-05-01

    Climate in the highlands of Mexico displays high variability due to its complex terrain and elevation. The knowledge to elucidate the principal forcings of these variations can be useful for forecasting annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation over this area. Due to its complexity a small area in the highlands was delimited with defined physical boundaries, encompassing several states of Mexico. The study area was defined as Mexico's Central Region (MCR), which is located between 19.5 ° - 22.5 ° N and 98.5 ° - 104 ° W. Most of this area overlies the plateau of Anahuac, whose physical boundaries extend to the north from the "Sierras Transversales" (composed by the "Sierra de Zacatecas", the "Sierra de la "Breña" and the "Sierra de San Luis") to the "Eje Neovolcánico" to the south; east and west boundaries are confined by the "Sierra Madre Oriental" and the "Sierra Madre Occidental", respectively. Daily data of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation series from a total of 112 weather stations were obtained from CLICOM and ERICIII databases. Several climatic indices with average periods of phase oscillations greater than five years, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDOI), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMOI), The Arctic Oscillation (AOI), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAOI), and Aleutian Low Pressure (ALPI) on a monthly basis for all series, except the ALPI series which is on annual rate, were also used in this study. Indices data were obtained from the web site http://www.cicimar.ipn.mx/oacis/Indices_Climaticos.php/. The common period of all series was 1961-2000. We applied Principal Component Analysis to precipitation and temperature series to identify the principal modes of variation of the series. The first mode explained more than 68% of the variance in the original series and corresponds to annual variations. Contour maps were useful to elucidate that temperature variations are highly correlated with the terrain

  2. Evaluation of the Analysis Influence on Transport in Reanalysis Regional Water Cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, M. G.; Chen, J.; Robertson, F. R.

    2011-01-01

    Regional water cycles of reanalyses do not follow theoretical assumptions applicable to pure simulated budgets. The data analysis changes the wind, temperature and moisture, perturbing the theoretical balance. Of course, the analysis is correcting the model forecast error, so that the state fields should be more aligned with observations. Recently, it has been reported that the moisture convergence over continental regions, even those with significant quantities of radiosonde profiles present, can produce long term values not consistent with theoretical bounds. Specifically, long averages over continents produce some regions of moisture divergence. This implies that the observational analysis leads to a source of water in the region. One such region is the Unite States Great Plains, which many radiosonde and lidar wind observations are assimilated. We will utilize a new ancillary data set from the MERRA reanalysis called the Gridded Innovations and Observations (GIO) which provides the assimilated observations on MERRA's native grid allowing more thorough consideration of their impact on regional and global climatology. Included with the GIO data are the observation minus forecast (OmF) and observation minus analysis (OmA). Using OmF and OmA, we can identify the bias of the analysis against each observing system and gain a better understanding of the observations that are controlling the regional analysis. In this study we will focus on the wind and moisture assimilation.

  3. Vegetation response to Holocene climate change in monsoon-influenced region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yan; Yu, Zicheng; Chen, Fahu; Zhang, Jiawu; Yang, Bao

    2009-12-01

    Fossil pollen records from 31 sites with reliable chronologies and high-resolution data in the monsoonal region of China were synthesized to document Holocene vegetation and climate change and to understand the large-scale controls on these changes. The reconstruction of moisture histories was based on a four-class ordinal wetness index at 200-year time slices at individual sites. The vegetation experienced diverse changes over the Holocene in different regions: (1) between tropical seasonal rain forest and more open forest in tropical seasonal rain forest region; (2) from mixed evergreen and deciduous broadleaved forest to more deciduous or Pinus-dominated forest in subtropical region; (3) from mixed evergreen and deciduous broadleaved forest to deciduous forest in temperate deciduous forest region; (4) from deciduous broadleaved forest to conifer-deciduous forest in conifer-deciduous mixed forest region; (5) from steppe forest to steppe in temperate steppe region; and (6) from steppe forest/meadow to meadow/steppe in highland meadow/steppe region. Despite various vegetation sequences in different regions, our synthesis results show that a humid climate generally characterized the early and middle Holocene, and a drier climate prevailed during the late Holocene, with an abrupt shift at ca. 4.5 ka (1 ka = 1000 cal yr BP). Abrupt palynological changes based on a squared-chord distance of pollen assemblages occurred at 11-10, 6-5 and 2-1 ka from most sites. The synthesized pattern of moisture change is similar to the ones inferred from other independent climate proxies; however, gradual vegetation changes in the early Holocene lagged about 1000 yr behind the summer monsoon maximum as indicated by speleothem isotope records from Dongge and Sanbao caves. Human activities likely affected vegetation change greatly during the late Holocene, but the magnitude and precise timing are less clear and require further investigation.

  4. Using FLEXPART-WRF to Identify Source Regions Influencing Arctic Trace Gases and Aerosols During the Summer 2014 NETCARE Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    In July and August 2014 the Canadian Network on Aerosols and Climate: Addressing Key Uncertainties in Remote Canadian Regions (NETCARE) project conducted aircraft and ship based campaigns with the goal of identifying both emissions and atmospheric processes influencing Arctic trace gas and aerosol concentrations. The aircraft campaign was conducted using the Alfred Wegener Institute's POLAR 6 aircraft (based in Resolute Bay, Canada) and the ship based campaign was conducted onboard the CCGS Amundsen (icebreaker and Arctic Ocean research vessel). Here, we use the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) to study meteorology and transport patterns that influence airmasses sampled during the aircraft campaign (5-21 July 2012) and research Legs 1a and 1b for Amundsen (1a: 8 - 24 July Quebec City to Resolute and 24 July - 14 August Resolute to Kugluktuk). The FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model driven by WRF meteorology (FLEXPART-WRF) run in backwards mode is used to study source regions that influenced enhanced concentrations in trace gases including DMS and NH3 as well as aerosols. Links between biomass burning in Northern Canada and measurements during the campaign are discussed. Finally FLEXPART-WRF run in forward mode is used to study links between shipping emissions from the Amundsen and enhanced pollution sampled by the POLAR 6 aircraft when both were operating in the same region of Lancaster Sound during the campaigns.

  5. Far-field model of the regional influence of affluent plumes from Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D. P.

    1985-07-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants discharge large volumes of cold water into the upper ocean. A three-dimensional, limited-area model was developed to investigate the regional influence of the far-field effluent plume created by the negatively buoyant discharge. The model was applied to discharges from a 40-MW sub e OTEC plant into coastal waters characterized by various ambient ocean conditions. A typical ambient temperature structure and nutrient distribution, as well as the behavior of the effluent plume itself, were strongly modified by the discharge-induced circulation. Although temperature perturbations in the plume were small, upward entrainment of nutrients from below the thermocline was significant. The regional influence of discharges from an 80-MW sub e OTEC plant, the interactions between the discharges from two adjacent 40-MW sub e OTEC plants, and the effects of coastal boundary and bottom discharge were examined with respect to the regional influence of a 40-MW sub e OTEC plant located in deep water off a coast (base case).

  6. Far-field model of the regional influence of effluent plumes from ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, D.P.

    1985-07-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants discharge large volumes of cold water into the upper ocean. A three-dimensional, limited-area model was developed to investigate the regional influence of the far-field effluent plume created by the negatively buoyant discharge. The model was applied to discharges from a 40-MW/sub e/ OTEC plant into coastal waters characterized by various ambient ocean conditions. A typical ambient temperature structure and nutrient distribution, as well as the behavior of the effluent plume itself, were strongly modified by the discharge-induced circulation. Although temperature perturbations in the plume were small, upward entrainment of nutrients from below the thermocline was significant. The regional influence of discharges from an 80-MW/sub e/ OTEC plant, the interactions between the discharges from two adjacent 40-MW/sub e/ OTEC plants, and the effects of coastal boundary and bottom discharge were examined with respect to the regional influence of a 40-MW/sub e/ OTEC plant located in deep water off a coast (base case).

  7. Marine aerosol source regions to Prince of Wales Icefield, Ellesmere Island, and influence from the tropical Pacific, 1979-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criscitiello, Alison S.; Marshall, Shawn J.; Evans, Matthew J.; Kinnard, Christophe; Norman, Ann-Lise; Sharp, Martin J.

    2016-08-01

    Using a coastal ice core collected from Prince of Wales (POW) Icefield on Ellesmere Island, we investigate source regions of sea ice-modulated chemical species (methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and chloride (Cl-)) to POW Icefield and the influence of large-scale atmospheric variability on the transport of these marine aerosols (1979-2001). Our key findings are (1) MSA in the POW Icefield core is derived primarily from productivity in the sea ice zone of Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea, with influence from waters within the North Water (NOW) polynya, (2) sea ice formation processes within the NOW polynya may be a significant source of sea-salt aerosols to the POW core site, in addition to offshore open water source regions primarily in Hudson Bay, and (3) the tropical Pacific influences the source and transport of marine aerosols to POW Icefield through its remote control on regional winds and sea ice variability. Regression analyses during times of MSA deposition reveal sea level pressure (SLP) anomalies favorable for opening of the NOW polynya and subsequent oceanic dimethyl sulfide production. Regression analyses during times of Cl- deposition reveal SLP anomalies that indicate a broader oceanic region of sea-salt sources to the core site. These results are supported by Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer- and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager-based sea ice reconstructions and air mass transport density analyses and suggest that the marine biogenic record may capture local polynya variability, while sea-salt transport to the site from larger offshore source regions in Baffin Bay is likely. Regression analyses show a link to tropical dynamics via an atmospheric Rossby wave.

  8. Influence of regional tectonics on halokinesis in the Nordkapp Basin, Barents Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, K.T.; Johansen, J.T.; Vendeville, B.C.

    1996-12-31

    Seismic analysis of salt structures in the Nordkapp Basin, a deep salt basin in the southern Barents Sea, combined with experimental modeling suggests that regional tectonics closely controlled diapiric growth. Diapirs formed in the Early Triassic during basement-involved regional extension. The diapirs then rose rapidly by passive growth and exhausted their source layer. Regional extension in the Middle-Late Triassic triggered down-to-the-basin gravity gliding, which laterally shortened the diapirs. This squeezed salt out of diapir stems, forcing diapirs to rise, extrude, and form diapir overhangs. After burial under more than 1000 m of Upper Triassic-Lower Cretaceous sediments, the diapirs were rejuvenated by a Late Cretaceous episode of regional extension and gravity gliding, which deformed their thick roofs. After extension, diapirs stopped rising and were buried under 1500 m of lower Tertiary sediments. Regional compression of the Barents Sea region in the middle Tertiary caused one more episode of diapiric rise. Diapirs in the Nordkapp Basin are now extinct.

  9. Glucose metabolism in different regions of the rat brain under hypokinetic stress influence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konitzer, K.; Voigt, S.

    1980-01-01

    Glucose metabolism in rats kept under long term hypokinetic stress was studied in 7 brain regions. Determination was made of the regional levels of glucose, lactate, glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, gamma-aminobutyrate and the incorporation of C-14 from plasma glucose into these metabolites, in glycogen and protein. From the content and activity data the regional glucose flux was approximated quantitatively. Under normal conditions the activity gradient cortex and frontal pole cerebellum, thalamus and mesencephalon, hypothalamus and pons and medulla is identical with that of the regional blood supply (measured with I131 serum albumin as the blood marker). Within the first days of immobilization a functional hypoxia occurred in all brain regions and the utilization of cycle amino acids for protein synthesis was strongly diminished. After the first week of stress the capillary volumes of all regions increased, aerobic glucose metabolism was enhanced (factors 1.3 - 2.0) and the incorporation of glucose C-14 via cycle amino acids into protein was considerably potentiated. The metabolic parameters normalized between the 7th and 11th week of stress. Blood supply and metabolic rate increased most in the hypothalamus.

  10. Worldwide genetic variation at the 3'-UTR region of the LDLR gene: possible influence of natural selection.

    PubMed

    Fagundes, N J R; Salzano, F M; Batzer, M A; Deininger, P L; Bonatto, S L

    2005-07-01

    The low density lipoprotein receptor gene (LDLR) contains many Alu insertions, and is especially Alu-rich at its 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR). Previous studies suggested that the LDLR 3'-UTR could regulate gene expression by the stabilization of its mRNA. Given the faster Alu evolutionary rate, and wondering about its consequences in a possibly regulatory locus, we have studied approximately 800 bp of 222 chromosomes from individuals of African, Asian, Caucasian and Amerind ancestry, to better understand the evolution of the worldwide genetic diversity at this locus. Twenty-one polymorphic sites, distributed in 15 haplotypes, were found. High genetic diversity was observed, concentrated in one Alu insertion (Alu U), which also shows a fast evolutionary rate. Genetic diversity is similar in all populations except Amerinds, suggesting a bottleneck during the peopling of the American continent. Three haplotype clusters (A, B, C) are distinguished, cluster A being the most recently formed (approximately 500,000 years ago). No clear geographic structure emerges from the haplotype network, the global F(st) (0.079) being lower than the average for the human genome. When ancestral population growth is taken into account, neutrality statistics are higher than expected, possibly suggesting the action of balancing selection worldwide.

  11. Helicobacter pylori cagA Promoter Region Sequences Influence CagA Expression and Interleukin 8 Secretion.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Rui M; Pinto-Ribeiro, Ines; Wen, Xiaogang; Marcos-Pinto, Ricardo; Dinis-Ribeiro, Mário; Carneiro, Fátima; Figueiredo, Ceu

    2016-02-15

    Heterogeneity at the Helicobacter pylori cagA gene promoter region has been linked to variation in CagA expression and gastric histopathology. Here, we characterized the cagA promoter and expression in 46 H. pylori strains from Portugal. Our results confirm the relationship between cagA promoter region variation and protein expression originally observed in strains from Colombia. We observed that individuals with intestinal metaplasia were all infected with H. pylori strains containing a specific cagA motif. Additionally, we provided novel functional evidence that strain-specific sequences in the cagA promoter region and CagA expression levels influence interleukin 8 secretion by the host gastric epithelial cells. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Variation trends and influencing factors of total gaseous mercury in the Pearl River Delta-A highly industrialised region in South China influenced by seasonal monsoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Laiguo; Liu, Ming; Xu, Zhencheng; Fan, Ruifang; Tao, Jun; Chen, Duohong; Zhang, Deqiang; Xie, Donghai; Sun, Jiaren

    2013-10-01

    Studies on atmospheric mercury in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region are important because of the economic relevance of this region to China, because of its economic developmental pattern and because it is a highly industrialised area influenced by the strong seasonal monsoons. Total gaseous mercury (TGM), meteorological parameters and criteria pollutant concentrations were measured at Mt. Dinghu (DH, a regional monitoring site) and Guangzhou (GZ, an urban monitoring site) in the PRD region from October 2009 to April 2010 and from November 2010 to November 2011, respectively. The ranges of daily average TGM concentrations at the DH and GZ sites were 1.87-29.9 ng m-3 (5.07 ± 2.89 ng m-3) and 2.66-11.1 ng m-3 (4.60 ± 1.36 ng m-3), respectively, which were far more significant than the background values in the Northern Hemisphere (1.5-1.7 ng m-3), suggesting that the atmosphere in the PRD has suffered from mercury pollution. Similar TGM seasonal distributions at the two sites were observed, with a descending order of spring, winter, autumn and summer. The different seasonal monsoons were the dominant factor controlling the seasonal variability of the TGM, with variations in the boundary layer and oxidation also possibly partially contributing. Different diurnal patterns of the TGM at two sites were observed. TGM levels during the daytime were higher than those during the nighttime and were predominantly influenced by mountain and valley winds at the DH site, whereas the opposite trend was evident at the GZ site, which was primarily influenced by the boundary-layer height and O3 concentration. During the monitoring period, the correlations between the daily TGM levels and the SO2 and NO2 levels at the DH site were significant (r = 0.36, p < 0.001; r = 0.29, p < 0.001), suggesting that coal-fired emission is an important source of mercury for this regional monitoring site. At the GZ site, the correlations between the daily TGM level and the NO, NO2, CO levels were

  13. Influence of site and soil properties on the DRIFT spectra of northern cold-region soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We investigated the influence of site characteristics and soil properties on the chemical composition of organic matter in soils collected from a latitudinal transect across Alaska through analysis of diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform mid infrared (MidIR) spectra of bulk soils. The stud...

  14. Translational Activation of Oskar mRNA: Reevaluation of the Role and Importance of a 5' Regulatory Element

    PubMed Central

    Kanke, Matt; Macdonald, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Local translation of oskar (osk) mRNA at the posterior pole of the Drosophila oocyte is essential for axial patterning of the embryo, and is achieved by a program of translational repression, mRNA localization, and translational activation. Multiple forms of repression are used to prevent Oskar protein from accumulating at sites other than the oocyte posterior. Activation is mediated by several types of cis-acting elements, which presumably control different forms of activation. We characterize a 5' element, positioned in the coding region for the Long Osk isoform and in the extended 5' UTR for translation of the Short Osk isoform. This element was previously thought to be essential for osk mRNA translation, with a role in posterior-specific release from repression. From our work, which includes assays which separate the effects of mutations on RNA regulatory elements and protein coding capacity, we find that the element is not essential, and conclude that there is no evidence supporting a role for the element only at the posterior of the oocyte. The 5' element has a redundant role, and is only required when Long Osk is not translated from the same mRNA. Mutations in the element do disrupt the anchoring function of Long Osk protein through their effects on the amino acid sequence, a confounding influence on interpretation of previous experiments. PMID:25938537

  15. A network of PUF proteins and Ras signaling promote mRNA repression and oogenesis in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Hubstenberger, Arnaud; Cameron, Cristiana; Shtofman, Rebecca; Gutman, Shiri; Evans, Thomas C.

    2012-01-01

    Cell differentiation requires integration of gene expression controls with dynamic changes in cell morphology, function, and control. Post-transcriptional mRNA regulation and signaling systems are important to this process but their mechanisms and connections are unclear. During C. elegans oogenesis, we find that two groups of PUF RNA binding proteins (RNABPs), PUF-3/11 and PUF-5/6/7, control different specific aspects of oocyte formation. PUF-3/11 limits oocyte growth, while PUF-5/6/7 promotes oocyte organization and formation. These two PUF groups repress mRNA translation through overlapping but distinct sets of 3’ untranslated regions (3’UTRs). Several PUF-dependent mRNAs encode other mRNA regulators suggesting both PUF groups control developmental patterning of mRNA regulation circuits. Furthermore, we find that the Ras-MapKinase/ERK pathway functions with PUF-5/6/7 to repress specific mRNAs and control oocyte organization and growth. These results suggest that diversification of PUF proteins and their integration with Ras-MAPK signaling modulates oocyte differentiation. Together with other studies, these findings suggest positive and negative interactions between the Ras-MAPK system and PUF RNA-binding proteins likely occur at multiple levels. Changes in these interactions over time can influence spatiotemporal patterning of tissue development. PMID:22542599

  16. [Expression of the Drosophila melanogaster limk1 gene 3'-UTRs mRNA in Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    PubMed

    Rumyantsev, A M; Zakharov, G A; Zhuravlev, A V; Padkina, M V; Savvateeva-Popova, E V; Sambuk, E V

    2014-06-01

    The stability of mRNA and its translation efficacy in higher eukaryotes are influenced by the interaction of 3'-untranscribed regions (3'-UTRs) with microRNAs and RNA-binding proteins. Since Saccharomyces cerevisiae lack microRNAs, it is possible to evaluate the contribution of only 3'-UTRs' and RNA-binding proteins' interaction in post-transcriptional regulation. For this, the post-transcriptional regulation of Drosophila limk1 gene encoding for the key enzyme of actin remodeling was studied in yeast. Analysis of limkl mRNA 3'-UTRs revealed the potential sites of yeast transcriptional termination. Computer remodeling demonstrated the possibility of secondary structure formation in limkl mRNA 3'-UTRs. For an evaluation of the functional activity of Drosophila 3'-UTRs in yeast, the reporter gene PHO5 encoding for yeast acid phosphatase (AP) fused to different variants of Drosophila limk1 mRNA 3'-UTRs (513, 1075, 1554 bp) was used. Assessments of AP activity and RT-PCR demonstrated that Drosophila limkl gene 3'-UTRs were functionally active and recognized in yeast. Therefore, yeast might be used as an appropriate model system for studies of 3'-UTR's role in post-transcriptional regulation.

  17. Integrating global socio-economic influences into a regional land use change model for China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xia; Gao, Qiong; Peng, Changhui; Cui, Xuefeng; Liu, Yinghui; Jiang, Li

    2014-03-01

    With rapid economic development and urbanization, land use in China has experienced huge changes in recent years; and this will probably continue in the future. Land use problems in China are urgent and need further study. Rapid land-use change and economic development make China an ideal region for integrated land use change studies, particularly the examination of multiple factors and global-regional interactions in the context of global economic integration. This paper presents an integrated modeling approach to examine the impact of global socio-economic processes on land use changes at a regional scale. We develop an integrated model system by coupling a simple global socio-economic model (GLOBFOOD) and regional spatial allocation model (CLUE). The model system is illustrated with an application to land use in China. For a given climate change, population growth, and various socio-economic situations, a global socio-economic model simulates the impact of global market and economy on land use, and quantifies changes of different land use types. The land use spatial distribution model decides the type of land use most appropriate in each spatial grid by employing a weighted suitability index, derived from expert knowledge about the ecosystem state and site conditions. A series of model simulations will be conducted and analyzed to demonstrate the ability of the integrated model to link global socioeconomic factors with regional land use changes in China. The results allow an exploration of the future dynamics of land use and landscapes in China.

  18. Does regional anesthesia influence early outcome of upper arm arteriovenous fistula?

    PubMed

    Elsharawy, Mohamed A; Al-Metwalli, Roshdi

    2010-11-01

    To assess the effect of regional anesthesia on the outcome of elbow arteriovenous fistula (AVF), prospectively studied consecutive patients with end-stage renal disease referred for permanent vascular access to the Vascular Unit of King Fahd University Hospital between September 2004 and September 2007. The patients were divided into 2 groups: Group 1: patients who underwent the construction of the AVF under regional anesthesia and Group 2: patients who were operated under general anesthesia, indicated by their preferences or failure of regional anesthesia. Data including patient characteristics and type of AVF were recorded. The internal diameter of the vein and the artery and intra-operative blood flow were measured. The complications of both types of anesthesia were recorded. The patients were followed up for three months. Eighty four cases were recruited in this study. Complete brachial plexus block was achieved in 57 (68%) patients. Seven patients were converted to general anesthesia and 20 patients had AVF under general anesthesia from the start. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups with regard to basic characteristics or operative data. There were no instances of systemic toxicity, hematomas, or nerve injury from the regional block. No major complications were reported from the general anesthesia. There was no significant difference between both groups regarding early failure of AVF (Group 1, 14% vs. Group2; 11%. P= 0.80). No significant advantage of regional over general anesthesia in terms of early outcome of AVF was seen in this study.

  19. Body regional influences of L-menthol application on the alleviation of heat strain while wearing firefighter's protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Young; Nakao, Kouhei; Bakri, Ilham; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of menthol application according to the amount of surface area on physiological and psychological heat strains, along with body regional influences. Male students underwent two stages of experiments: [Experiment 1] Cutaneous thermal threshold test at rest on eight body regions with/without a 0.8% menthol application at T (a) 28°C and 50% RH; [Experiment 2] Six exercise tests with/without a 0.8% menthol spray at T (a) 28°C and 40% RH, while wearing firefighter's protective clothing (No menthol, PC(NO); Face and neck menthol, PC(FN); Upper body menthol, PC(UP); Whole body menthol application, PC(WB)) or wearing normal clothing (No menthol, NC(NO); Upper body menthol, NC(UP)). Experiment 1 showed that menthol caused no significant influence on cutaneous warm thresholds, while menthol applications evoked earlier detection of cool sensations, especially on the chest (P = 0.043). Experiment 2 revealed that NC(UP), PC(UP) and PC(WB) caused lower mean skin temperature, especially with higher peripheral vasoconstrictions on the extremities at rest. During exercise, NC(UP), PC(UP) and PC(WB) induced greater and earlier increases in rectal temperatures (T (re)) and a delayed sweat response, but lessened psychological burdens (P < 0.05). Both physiological and psychological effects of PC(FN) were insignificant. For a composite analysis, individual Menthol Sensitivity Index at cooling in Experiment 1 had significant relationships with the threshold for T (re) increase and changes in heart rate in NC(UP) of Experiment 2 (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that menthol's topical influence is body region-dependent, as well as depending on the exposed body surface area.

  20. Inversion of Gravity Data to Define the Pre-Cenozoic Surface and Regional Structures Possibly Influencing Groundwater Flow in the Rainier Mesa Region, Nye County, Nevada.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas G. Hildenbrand; Geoffrey A. Phelps; Edward A. Mankinen

    2006-09-21

    A three-dimensional inversion of gravity data from the Rainier Mesa area and surrounding regions reveals a topographically complex pre-Cenozoic basement surface. This model of the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement rocks is intended for use in a 3D hydrogeologic model being constructed for the Rainier Mesa area. Prior to this study, our knowledge of the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement rocks was based on a regional model, applicable to general studies of the greater Nevada Test Site area but inappropriate for higher resolution modeling of ground-water flow across the Rainier Mesa area. The new model incorporates several changes that lead to significant improvements over the previous regional view. First, the addition of constraining wells, encountering old volcanic rocks lying above but near pre-Cenozoic basement, prevents modeled basement from being too shallow. Second, an extensive literature and well data search has led to an increased understanding of the change of rock density with depth in the vicinity of Rainier Mesa. The third, and most important change, relates to the application of several depth-density relationships in the study area instead of a single generalized relationship, thereby improving the overall model fit. In general, the pre-Cenozoic basement surface deepens in the western part of the study area, delineating collapses within the Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain caldera complexes, and shallows in the east in the Eleana Range and Yucca Flat regions, where basement crops out. In the Rainier Mesa study area, basement is generally shallow (< 1 km). The new model identifies previously unrecognized structures within the pre-Cenozoic basement that may influence ground-water flow, such as a shallow basement ridge related to an inferred fault extending northward from Rainier Mesa into Kawich Valley.

  1. Inversion of Gravity Data to Define the Pre-Cenozoic Surface and Regional Structures Possibly Influencing Groundwater Flow in the Rainier Mesa Region, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildenbrand, Thomas G.; Phelps, Geoffrey A.; Mankinen, Edward A.

    2006-01-01

    A three-dimensional inversion of gravity data from the Rainier Mesa area and surrounding regions reveals a topographically complex pre-Cenozoic basement surface. This model of the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement rocks is intended for use in a 3D hydrogeologic model being constructed for the Rainier Mesa area. Prior to this study, our knowledge of the depth to pre-Cenozoic basement rocks was based on a regional model, applicable to general studies of the greater Nevada Test Site area but inappropriate for higher resolution modeling of ground-water flow across the Rainier Mesa area. The new model incorporates several changes that lead to significant improvements over the previous regional view. First, the addition of constraining wells, encountering old volcanic rocks lying above but near pre-Cenozoic basement, prevents modeled basement from being too shallow. Second, an extensive literature and well data search has led to an increased understanding of the change of rock density with depth in the vicinity of Rainier Mesa. The third, and most important change, relates to the application of several depth-density relationships in the study area instead of a single generalized relationship, thereby improving the overall model fit. In general, the pre-Cenozoic basement surface deepens in the western part of the study area, delineating collapses within the Silent Canyon and Timber Mountain caldera complexes, and shallows in the east in the Eleana Range and Yucca Flat regions, where basement crops out. In the Rainier Mesa study area, basement is generally shallow (< 1 km). The new model identifies previously unrecognized structures within the pre-Cenozoic basement that may influence ground-water flow, such as a shallow basement ridge related to an inferred fault extending northward from Rainier Mesa into Kawich Valley.

  2. The influence of surface waves on water circulation in a mid-Atlantic continental shelf region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitlock, C. H.; Talay, T. A.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of wave-induced currents in different weather conditions and water depths (18.3 m and 36.6 m) is assessed in a mid-Atlantic continental-shelf region. A review of general circulation conditions is conducted. Factors which perturb the general circulation are examined using analytic techniques and limited experimental data. Actual wind and wave statistics for the region are examined. Relative magnitudes of the various currents are compared on a frequency of annual occurrence basis. Results indicated that wave-induced currents are often the same order of magnitude as other currents in the region and become more important at higher wind and wave conditions. Wind-wave and ocean-swell characteristics are among those parameters which must be monitored for the analytical computation of continental-shelf circulation.

  3. Single particle analysis of eastern Mediterranean aerosol particles: Influence of the source region on the chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemen, Hans-Christian; Schneider, Johannes; Köllner, Franziska; Klimach, Thomas; Pikridas, Michael; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Sciare, Jean; Borrmann, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    The Mediterranean region is one of the most climatically sensitive areas and is influenced by air masses of different origin. Aerosol particles are one important factor contributing to the Earth's radiative forcing, but knowledge about their composition and sources is still limited. Here, we report on results from the INUIT-BACCHUS-ACTRIS campaign, which was conducted at the Cyprus Atmospheric Observatory (CAO, Agia Marina Xyliatou) in Cyprus in April 2016. Our results show that the chemical composition of the aerosol particles in the eastern Mediterranean is strongly dependent on their source region. The composition of particles in a size range between 150 nm and 3 μm was measured using the Aircraft-based Laser ABlation Aerosol MAss spectrometer (ALABAMA), which is a single particle laser ablation instrument using a bipolar time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The mass spectral information on cations and anions allow for the analysis of different molecular fragments. The information about the source regions results from backward trajectories using HYSPLIT Trajectory Model (Trajectory Ensemble) on hourly basis. To assess the influence of certain source regions on the air masses arriving at CAO, we consider the number of trajectories that crossed the respective source region within defined time steps. For a more detailed picture also the height and the velocity of the air masses during their overpass above the source regions will be considered. During the campaign at CAO in April 2016 three main air mass source regions were observed: 1) Northern Central Europe, likely with an enhanced anthropogenic influence (e.g. sulfate and black carbon from combustion processes, fly ash particles from power plants, characterized by Sr and Ba), 2) Southwest Europe, with a higher influence of the Mediterranean Sea including sea salt particles (characterized by, e.g., NaxCly, NaClxNOy), 3) Northern Africa/Sahara, with air masses that are expected to have a higher load of mineral dust

  4. Regional factors interact with educational and income tax levels to influence food intake in France.

    PubMed

    Wyndels, K; Dallongeville, J; Simon, C; Bongard, V; Wagner, A; Ruidavets, J-B; Arveiler, D; Ferrières, J; Amouyel, P; Dauchet, L

    2011-09-01

    The goal of the present study was to assess whether geographic factors affect the relationship between socioeconomic indicators and adherence to the French National Nutritional Health Programme (Programme National Nutrition Santé (PNNS)) guidelines. The MONA LISA-NUT study (2005-2007) is a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample from northern, northeastern and southwestern France. Educational level and household income tax were recorded by trained interviewers. Food intake was assessed with a 3-day food diary in 3188 subjects aged from 35-64 years. Adherence to the PNNS guidelines was assessed with a validated score (the French score of indicators of the PNNS objective (FSIPO)). Multivariate analyses were adjusted for gender, age, marital status, body mass index, energy intake and medically prescribed diets. The FSIPO score was higher in southwestern France than in the two other regions (P<0.0001). The FSIPO score was correlated with the educational level in northern and northeastern France (P<0.0001) but not in southwestern France (region-education interaction: P<0.001). This interaction was accounted for by fruit and vegetable (P<0.0001), calcium (P=0.03), saturated fatty acid (P<0.0001), and fibre (P=0.0001) components of the FSIPO score. In contrast, the income tax level and the FSIPO score were positively correlated (P<0.0001) to a similar extent in all three regions (region × income tax interaction: P=0.09). The relationship between educational level and adherence to the national nutritional health guidelines differs from one region of France to another, suggesting that nutrition education programmes should perhaps be adapted on a regional basis. In contrast, guideline adherence is correlated with income tax level independently of geographical factors, suggesting that financial constraints on food choices are uniform across France.

  5. State environmental planning and local influence: a comparison of three regional natural resource management agencies

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, A.J.; Dyballa, C.D.

    1981-07-01

    Case studies of three regional natural-resource-management agencies in New York reveal different histories despite similar objectives. The Adirondack Park Agency (APA) enjoyed overwhelming statewide support and survived despite vigorous local opposition. The Catskill Commission faced similar local opposition and was discontinued by the state legislature. The Tug Hill Commission survived through combination of limited statewide interests and a strategy of building local support. Centeralized regulatory approaches like APA's may be transferable to other regions only under certain conditions. Otherwise, as the Catskill and Tug Hill cases suggest, more responsiveness to differing local viewpoints may be necessary. 57 references, 5 figures.

  6. Influence of forest road buffer zones on sediment transport in the Southern Appalachian Region

    Treesearch

    Johnny M. Grace; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2013-01-01

    A gap exists in the understanding of the effectiveness of forest road best management practices (BMP) in controlling sediment movement and minimizing risks of sediment delivery to forest streams. The objective of this paper is to report the findings of investigations to assess sediment travel distances downslope of forest roads in the Appalachian region, relate...

  7. Aftershock productivity of large megathrust earthquakes: regional variations and influence of mainshock source parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzler, N.; Brodsky, E. E.; Lay, T.

    2016-12-01

    On average, the number of aftershocks increases with mainshock magnitude following a well-defined relationship for any given region. However, variability around this average relationship provokes important questions. What regional variations exist? How do other mainshock properties such as stress drop affect aftershock productivity? To address these issues we focus on variations of aftershock productivity of large (MW ≥ 7.0) circum-Pacific megathrust earthquakes within the past 25 years. We capitalize on an extant set of finite-fault rupture model inversions to investigate how aftershock productivity varies regionally and with aftershock source parameters. We find aftershock productivity to be higher for islands arcs of the western circum-Pacific than for continental arcs of the eastern circum-Pacific. Surprisingly, events with larger static stress-drops do not produce more aftershocks than those with smaller stress drops. If anything, larger static stress-drops tend to produce fewer aftershocks than comparable magnitude events with lower stress-drop. The regional trend may reflect differences in fault susceptibility between island arcs and continental arcs, and the stress-drop behavior may imply near-total stress release for the largest stress drop events.

  8. When it matters how you pronounce it: the influence of regional accents on job interview outcome.

    PubMed

    Rakić, Tamara; Steffens, Melanie C; Mummendey, Amélie

    2011-11-01

    The visual dimension has featured prominently in person perception in the last 25 years. Alone, this dimension cannot give the complete 'picture' of others because language and speech (i.e., the auditory dimension) are also highly informative. Social-cognition research investigates the role of auditory information for impression formation. In a series of experiments, we tested perceived competence, hirability, and socio-intellectual status of different targets based on their regional accents. Given identical content of statements in different conditions of an alleged job interview, regional German accents (Saxon, Bavarian, and Berlin) resulted in lower perceived competence and hirability than standard German, even though the Bavarian accent at the same time resulted in higher ratings of socio-intellectual status compared to other regional accents (Experiment 1). These findings were confirmed when using a broader population sample and a 'matched guise' technique (Experiment 2). Our findings indicate that regional accents, similar to faces, can be very powerful in creating differentiated pictures of individuals.

  9. Investigating a solar influence on cloud cover using the North American Regional Reanalysis data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krahenbuhl, Daniel Scott

    2015-06-01

    The controversial connection between cosmic rays, solar activity, and cloud cover is investigated using a climatological reconstructed reanalysis product: the North American Regional Reanalysis which provides high-resolution, low, mid-level, high, and total cloud cover data over a Lambert conformal conic projection permitting land/ocean discrimination. Pearson's product-moment regional correlations were obtained between monthly cloud cover data and solar variability indicators, cosmic ray neutron monitors, several climatological indices, including the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), and between cloud layers. Regions of the mid-latitude oceans exhibited a positive correlation with cosmic ray flux. Additionally, this maritime low cloud cover exhibits the only failed correlation significance with other altitudes. The cross correlation reveals that cloud cover is positively correlated everywhere but for ocean low cloud cover, supporting the unique response of the marine layer. The results of this investigation suggest that with the assumption that solar forcing does impact cloud cover, measurements of solar activity exhibits a slightly higher correlation than GCRs. The only instance where GCRs exhibit a positive regional correlation with cloud cover is for maritime low clouds. The AMO exerts the greatest control of cloud cover in the NARR domain.

  10. Magnetic Source Region Characteristics Influencing the Velocity of Solar Eruptions in the Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliem, B.; Chintzoglou, G.; Torok, T.; Zhang, J.; Downs, C.

    2016-12-01

    The velocity of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is one of the primary parameters determining their potential geoeffectiveness. The great majority of very fast CMEs receive their main acceleration already in the corona. We study the magnetic source region structure for a complete sample of 15 very fast CMEs (v > 1500 km/s) during 2000-2006, originating within 30 deg from central meridian and find a correlation between CME speed and the decay index profile of the coronal field estimated by a PFSS extrapolation. Such a correlation is not found for a comparison sample of slower CMEs. We also study how the decay index profile is related to the structure of the photospheric field distribution. This is complemented by a parametric simulation study of flux rope eruptions using the analytic Titov-Demoulin active-region model for simple bipolar and quadrupolar source regions, which provide simple relationships between the photospheric field distribution and the coronal decay index profile. Very fast, moderate-velocity, and even confined eruptions are found. Detailed, data-constrained MHD modeling of a very fast and a relatively slow CME, including a comparison of their source region characteristics, will also be presented. Support by NSF and NASA's LWS program is acknowledged.

  11. Forest Influences on Climate and Water Resources at the Landscape to Regional Scale

    Treesearch

    Ge Sun; Yongqiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Although it is well known that climate controls the distribution, productivity and functioning of vegetation on earth, our knowledge about the role of forests in regulating regional climate and water resources is lacking. The studies on climate-forests feedbacks have received increasing attention from the climate change and ecohydrology research communities. The goal...

  12. Influence of Boundary Conditions on Regional Air Quality Simulations—Analysis of AQMEII Phase 3 Results

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical boundary conditions are a key input to regional-scale photochemical models. In this study, performed during the third phase of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII3), we perform annual simulations over North America with chemical boundary con...

  13. The Influence of Bilingualism on the Preference for the Mouth Region of Dynamic Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayneto, Alba; Sebastian-Galles, Nuria

    2017-01-01

    Bilingual infants show an extended period of looking at the mouth of talking faces, which provides them with additional articulatory cues that can be used to boost the challenging situation of learning two languages (Pons, Bosch & Lewkowicz, 2015). However, the eye region also provides fundamental cues for emotion perception and recognition,…

  14. Demographic Influence on Emotional Intelligence of Science Technology and Engineering Teachers in Region 1 Philippines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Llego, Jordan Hso

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the Emotional Intelligence (EI) of Science, Technology and Engineering (STE) science teachers based on their demographic profile. Total enumeration was used and 113 STE science teachers in Region 1 Philippines participated in this study. The study adopted descriptive- quantitative research design, frequency count and…

  15. The Influence of Bilingualism on the Preference for the Mouth Region of Dynamic Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayneto, Alba; Sebastian-Galles, Nuria

    2017-01-01

    Bilingual infants show an extended period of looking at the mouth of talking faces, which provides them with additional articulatory cues that can be used to boost the challenging situation of learning two languages (Pons, Bosch & Lewkowicz, 2015). However, the eye region also provides fundamental cues for emotion perception and recognition,…

  16. Influence of Metals on the Cyanobacterial Community in a Water Supply System in a Tropical Region.

    PubMed

    Baydum, Valderice P A; Oliveira, Fábio H P C

    2017-01-01

      This work aimed to study the influence of metals on the temporal dynamics of cyanobacteria community in Carpina Dam (7° 53' 22'' S and 35° 20' 34'' W). Samples were collected from Raw Water Pumping Station at the Water Treatment Station Feira Nova in the city of Feira Nova (Pernambuco, Brazil), from January 2011 to December 2013. The concentration of metals in water (aluminum, antimony, barium, lead, copper, chromium, cadmium, iron, manganese) was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy in the laboratory. For the identification and counting of cyanobacteria, an inverted optical microscope and Sedgewick-Rafter counting chambers were used. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used for recognition of cluster patterns between the studied points. There were variations in abiotic and biotic components in the different years of study. The metals iron, aluminum, barium and manganese had the greatest influence on the temporal dynamics of cyanobacteria in the reservoir.

  17. Unravelling the competing influence of regional uplift and active normal faulting in SW Calabria, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Alex; Roda Boluda, Duna; Boulton, Sarah; Erhardt, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    The Neogene geological and geomorphological evolution of Southern Italy is complex and is fundamentally controlled by the subduction of the Ionian slab along the Apennine belt from the Calabrian Arc, and back-arc extension driven by trench rollback. In the area of Calabria and the Straits of Messina the presence of (i) uplifted, deformed and dissected basin sediments and marine terraces, ranging in age from the early to mid-Pleistocene and (ii) seismicity associated with NE-SW normal faults that have well-developed footwall topography and triangular facets have led workers to suggest that both significant regional uplift and extensional faulting in SW Calabria have played a role in generating relief in the area since the mid Pleistocene. However, there is considerable uncertainty in the rates of total surface uplift relative to sea level in both time and space, and the relative partitioning of this uplift between a mantle-driven regional signal, potentially related to a slab tear, and the active extensional structures. Additionally, despite the widespread recognition of normal faults in Calabria to which historical earthquakes are often linked, there is much less agreement on (i) which ones are active and for what length of time; (ii) how the faults interact; and (iii) what their throw and throw rates are. In particular, the ability to resolve both regional uplift and normal faulting in SW Calabria is essential in order to fully understand the tectonic history of the region, while an understanding of location and slip rate of active faults, in an area where the population numbers more than two million people, is essential to assess regional seismic hazards. Here we address these important questions using a combination of tectonic geomorphology and structural geology. We critically examine existing constraints on the rates and distribution of active normal faulting and regional uplift in the area, and we derive new constraints on the along-strike variation in throw

  18. Climatic variability of river outflow in the Pantanal region and the influence of sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Carlos Batista; Silva, Maria Elisa Siqueira; Ambrizzi, Tércio

    2017-07-01

    This paper investigates possible linear relationships between climate, hydrology, and oceanic surface variability in the Pantanal region (in South America's central area), over interannual and interdecadal time ranges. In order to verify the mentioned relations, lagged correlation analysis and linear adjustment between river discharge at the Pantanal region and sea surface temperature were used. Composite analysis for atmospheric fields, air humidity flux divergence, and atmospheric circulation at low and high levels, for the period between 1970 and 2003, was analyzed. Results suggest that the river discharge in the Pantanal region is linearly associated with interdecadal and interannual oscillations in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, making them good predictors to continental hydrological variables. Considering oceanic areas, 51 % of the annual discharge in the Pantanal region can be linearly explained by mean sea surface temperature (SST) in the Subtropical North Pacific, Tropical North Pacific, Extratropical South Pacific, and Extratropical North Atlantic over the period. Considering a forecast approach in seasonal scale, 66 % of the monthly discharge variance in Pantanal, 3 months ahead of SST, is explained by the oceanic variables, providing accuracy around 65 %. Annual discharge values in the Pantanal region are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) variability (with 52 % of linear correlation), making it possible to consider an interdecadal variability and a consequent subdivision of the whole period in three parts: 1st (1970-1977), 2nd (1978-1996), and 3rd (1997-2003) subperiods. The three subperiods coincide with distinct PDO phases: negative, positive, and negative, respectively. Convergence of humidity flux at low levels and the circulation pattern at high levels help to explain the drier and wetter subperiods. During the wetter 2nd subperiod, the air humidity convergence at low levels is much more evident than during the other two

  19. Climatic variability of river outflow in the Pantanal region and the influence of sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Carlos Batista; Silva, Maria Elisa Siqueira; Ambrizzi, Tércio

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates possible linear relationships between climate, hydrology, and oceanic surface variability in the Pantanal region (in South America's central area), over interannual and interdecadal time ranges. In order to verify the mentioned relations, lagged correlation analysis and linear adjustment between river discharge at the Pantanal region and sea surface temperature were used. Composite analysis for atmospheric fields, air humidity flux divergence, and atmospheric circulation at low and high levels, for the period between 1970 and 2003, was analyzed. Results suggest that the river discharge in the Pantanal region is linearly associated with interdecadal and interannual oscillations in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, making them good predictors to continental hydrological variables. Considering oceanic areas, 51 % of the annual discharge in the Pantanal region can be linearly explained by mean sea surface temperature (SST) in the Subtropical North Pacific, Tropical North Pacific, Extratropical South Pacific, and Extratropical North Atlantic over the period. Considering a forecast approach in seasonal scale, 66 % of the monthly discharge variance in Pantanal, 3 months ahead of SST, is explained by the oceanic variables, providing accuracy around 65 %. Annual discharge values in the Pantanal region are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) variability (with 52 % of linear correlation), making it possible to consider an interdecadal variability and a consequent subdivision of the whole period in three parts: 1st (1970-1977), 2nd (1978-1996), and 3rd (1997-2003) subperiods. The three subperiods coincide with distinct PDO phases: negative, positive, and negative, respectively. Convergence of humidity flux at low levels and the circulation pattern at high levels help to explain the drier and wetter subperiods. During the wetter 2nd subperiod, the air humidity convergence at low levels is much more evident than during the other two

  20. Investigating the influence of Atlantic water inflow on primary production in a regional model for the Fram Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuelsen, Annette

    2016-04-01

    A regional model for the Fram Strait with resolution 3.5 km has been set up as a coupled physical-biogeochemical model, HYCOM-NORWECOM, nested into a 15-km basin-scale model for the North Atlantic and Arctic. Both the basin scale and regional model has been compared to the same in-situ dataset covering mostly the eastern part of the Fram Strait. In the Fram Strait flow of Atlantic water on one side of the strait and Arctic water on the other side of the strait influences, temperature, salinity and nutrient availability which in turn influencing the primary production in the strait. In particular the ratio of silicate to nitrate differs across he strait and it is hypothesized that this difference causes in addition to the physical environment influences the relative abundance of diatoms and flagellates across the strait. Using the model we investigate how the inflow of Atlantic water in the model affect the ecosystem in the Fram Strait and which factors controlling the primary production and phytoplankton composition.

  1. Investigating the influence of Atlantic water inflow on primary production in a regional model for the Fram strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuelsen, A.

    2016-02-01

    A regional model for the Fram Strait with resolution 3.5 km has been set up as a coupled physical-biogeochemical model, HYCOM-NORWECOM, nested into a 15-km basin-scale model for the North Atlantic. Both the basin scale and regional model has been compared to the same in-situ dataset covering mostly the eastern part of the Fram Strait. In the Fram Strait flow of Atlantic water on one side of the strait and Arctic water on the other side of the strait influences, temperature, salinity and nutrient availability which in turn influencing the primary production in the strait. In particular the ratio of silicate to nitrate differs across he strait and it is hypothesized that this difference causes in addition to the physical environment influences the relative abundance of diatoms and flagellates across the strait. Using the model we investigate how the inflow of Atlantic water in the model affect the lower trophic levels of the ecosystem in the Fram Strait and which factors control the primary production and phytoplankton composition.

  2. Characterization of mesostasis regions in lunar basalts: Understanding late-stage melt evolution and its influence on apatite formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potts, Nicola J.; TartèSe, Romain; Anand, Mahesh; Westrenen, Wim; Griffiths, Alexandra A.; Barrett, Thomas J.; Franchi, Ian A.

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies geared toward understanding the volatile abundances of the lunar interior have focused on the volatile-bearing accessory mineral apatite. Translating measurements of volatile abundances in lunar apatite into the volatile inventory of the silicate melts from which they crystallized, and ultimately of the mantle source regions of lunar magmas, however, has proved more difficult than initially thought. In this contribution, we report a detailed characterization of mesostasis regions in four Apollo mare basalts (10044, 12064, 15058, and 70035) in order to ascertain the compositions of the melts from which apatite crystallized. The texture, modal mineralogy, and reconstructed bulk composition of these mesostasis regions vary greatly within and between samples. There is no clear relationship between bulk-rock basaltic composition and that of bulk-mesostasis regions, indicating that bulk-rock composition may have little influence on mesostasis compositions. The development of individual melt pockets, combined with the occurrence of silicate liquid immiscibility, exerts greater control on the composition and texture of mesostasis regions. In general, the reconstructed late-stage lunar melts have roughly andesitic to dacitic compositions with low alkali contents, displaying much higher SiO2 abundances than the bulk compositions of their host magmatic rocks. Relevant partition coefficients for apatite-melt volatile partitioning under lunar conditions should, therefore, be derived from experiments conducted using intermediate compositions instead of compositions representing mare basalts.

  3. The influence of regional Arctic sea-ice decline on stratospheric and tropospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Christine; Bracegirdle, Thomas; Shuckburgh, Emily; Haynes, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Arctic sea-ice extent has rapidly declined over the past few decades, and most climate models project a continuation of this trend during the 21st century in response to greenhouse gas forcing. A number of recent studies have shown that this sea-ice loss induces vertically propagating Rossby waves, which weaken the stratospheric polar vortex and increase the frequency of sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs). SSWs have been shown to increase the probability of a negative NAO in the following weeks, thereby driving anomalous weather conditions over Europe and other mid-latitude regions. In contrast, other studies have shown that Arctic sea-ice loss strengthens the polar vortex, increasing the probability of a positive NAO. Sun et al. (2015) suggest these conflicting results may be due to the region of sea-ice loss considered. They find that if only regions within the Arctic Circle are considered in sea-ice projections, the polar vortex weakens; if only regions outwith the Arctic Circle are considered, the polar vortex strengthens. This is because the anomalous Rossby waves forced in the former/latter scenario constructively/destructively interfere with climatological Rossby waves, thus enhancing/suppressing upward wave propagation. In this study, we investigate whether Sun et al.'s results are robust to a different model. We also divide the regions of sea-ice loss they considered into further sub-regions, in order to examine the regional differences in more detail. We do this by using the intermediate complexity climate model, IGCM4, which has a well resolved stratosphere and does a good job of representing stratospheric processes. Several simulations are run in atmosphere only mode, where one is a control experiment and the others are perturbation experiments. In the control run annually repeating historical mean surface conditions are imposed at the lower boundary, whereas in each perturbation run the model is forced by SST perturbations imposed in a specific

  4. Losing Influence: Regional Effects of U.S. Foreign Policy with Venezuela

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    test of the hypothesis that there has been such an effect, by examining whether or not the influence of the United...appearance of 109 Mark P. Sullivan and Nelson Olhero, Venezuela: Political Conditions and U.S. Policy...CRS Report No. RL32488, March 12, 2007), 7, 14, 31. 112 Ibid., 32, 36. 113 Mark P. Sullivan and Nelson Olhero, Venezuela: Political Conditions and U.S

  5. Influence of global heterogeneities on regional imaging based upon full waveform inversion of teleseismic wavefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiller, Vadim; Beller, Stephen; Operto, Stephane; Virieux, Jean

    2015-04-01

    The current development of dense seismic arrays and high performance computing make feasible today application of full-waveform inversion (FWI) on teleseismic data for high-resolution lithospheric imaging. In teleseismic configuration, the source is often considered to first order as a planar wave that impinges the base of the lithospheric target located below the receiver array. Recently, injection methods coupling global propagation in 1D or axisymmetric earth model with regional 3D methods (Discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods, Spectral elements methods or finite differences) allow us to consider more realistic teleseismic phases. Those teleseismic phases can be propagated inside 3D regional model in order to exploit not only the forward-scattered waves propagating up to the receiver but also second-order arrivals that are back-scattered from the free-surface and the reflectors before their recordings on the surface. However, those computation are performed assuming simple global model. In this presentation, we review some key specifications that might be considered for mitigating the effect on FWI of heterogeneities situated outside the regional domain. We consider synthetic models and data computed using our recently developed hybrid method AxiSEM/SEM. The global simulation is done by AxiSEM code which allows us to consider axisymmetric anomalies. The 3D regional computation is performed by Spectral Element Method. We investigate the effect of external anomalies on the regional model obtained by FWI when one neglects them by considering only 1D global propagation. We also investigate the effect of the source time function and the focal mechanism on results of the FWI approach.

  6. Assessing the influence of watershed characteristics on chlorophyll a in waterbodies at global and regional scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woelmer, Whitney; Kao, Yu-Chun; Bunnell, David B.; Deines, Andrew M.; Bennion, David; Rogers, Mark W.; Brooks, Colin N.; Sayers, Michael J.; Banach, David M.; Grimm, Amanda G.; Shuchman, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Prediction of primary production of lentic water bodies (i.e., lakes and reservoirs) is valuable to researchers and resource managers alike, but is very rarely done at the global scale. With the development of remote sensing technologies, it is now feasible to gather large amounts of data across the world, including understudied and remote regions. To determine which factors were most important in explaining the variation of chlorophyll a (Chl-a), an indicator of primary production in water bodies, at global and regional scales, we first developed a geospatial database of 227 water bodies and watersheds with corresponding Chl-a, nutrient, hydrogeomorphic, and climate data. Then we used a generalized additive modeling approach and developed model selection criteria to select models that most parsimoniously related Chl-a to predictor variables for all 227 water bodies and for 51 lakes in the Laurentian Great Lakes region in the data set. Our best global model contained two hydrogeomorphic variables (water body surface area and the ratio of watershed to water body surface area) and a climate variable (average temperature in the warmest model selection criteria to select models that most parsimoniously related Chl-a to predictor variables quarter) and explained ~ 30% of variation in Chl-a. Our regional model contained one hydrogeomorphic variable (flow accumulation) and the same climate variable, but explained substantially more variation (58%). Our results indicate that a regional approach to watershed modeling may be more informative to predicting Chl-a, and that nearly a third of global variability in Chl-a may be explained using hydrogeomorphic and climate variables.

  7. Temperature and transmural region influence functional measurements in unloaded left ventricular cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Charles S; Campbell, Kenneth S

    2013-01-01

    Intact cardiomyocytes are increasingly being used to investigate the molecular mechanisms of contraction and to screen new therapeutic compounds. The function of the cardiomyocytes is often measured from the calcium transients and sarcomere length profiles. We studied the role of experimental temperature and transmural region on indices of function in freshly isolated, unloaded cardiomyocytes. Intact cardiomyocytes were isolated from the subendocardium, midmyocardium, and subepicardium of 3-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats. Myocytes from each region were studied at 25°C, 31°C, and 37°C. Cytosolic calcium transients were measured using Fura-2 fluorescence, whereas sarcomere length shortening and relengthening profiles were measured using high-speed video capture. For both the calcium transients and sarcomere length profiles, the time to peak and the time to half relaxation decreased significantly with increasing temperature. Increasing temperature also raised the minimum and maximum calcium levels of all cells. Of note, there was a reduced coefficient of variation (standard deviation divided by the mean) at higher temperatures for calcium fluorescence amplitudes, time to peak calcium, and rates of sarcomeric shortening and relengthening. The amplitudes and minimum of the calcium transients were significantly dependent on transmural region, and several sarcomere length parameters exhibited statistical interactions between temperature and transmural region. Together, these results show that biological variability can be reduced by performing experiments at 37°C rather than at room temperature, and by isolating cells from a specific transmural region. Adopting these procedures will improve the statistical power of subsequent analyses and increase the efficiency of future experiments. PMID:24400159

  8. Measurements of the Influence of Integral Length Scale on Stagnation Region Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanfossen, G. James; Ching, Chang Y.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose was twofold: first, to determine if a length scale existed that would cause the greatest augmentation in stagnation region heat transfer for a given turbulence intensity and second, to develop a prediction tool for stagnation heat transfer in the presence of free stream turbulence. Toward this end, a model with a circular leading edge was fabricated with heat transfer gages in the stagnation region. The model was qualified in a low turbulence wind tunnel by comparing measurements with Frossling's solution for stagnation region heat transfer in a laminar free stream. Five turbulence generating grids were fabricated; four were square mesh, biplane grids made from square bars. Each had identical mesh to bar width ratio but different bar widths. The fifth grid was an array of fine parallel wires that were perpendicular to the axis of the cylindrical leading edge. Turbulence intensity and integral length scale were measured as a function of distance from the grids. Stagnation region heat transfer was measured at various distances downstream of each grid. Data were taken at cylinder Reynolds numbers ranging from 42,000 to 193,000. Turbulence intensities were in the range 1.1 to 15.9 percent while the ratio of integral length scale to cylinder diameter ranged from 0.05 to 0.30. Stagnation region heat transfer augmentation increased with decreasing length scale. An optimum scale was not found. A correlation was developed that fit heat transfer data for the square bar grids to within +4 percent. The data from the array of wires were not predicted by the correlation; augmentation was higher for this case indicating that the degree of isotropy in the turbulent flow field has a large effect on stagnation heat transfer. The data of other researchers are also compared with the correlation.

  9. Investigating the influence of regional climate and oceanography on marine radiocarbon reservoir ages in southwest New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinojosa, Jessica L.; Moy, Christopher M.; Prior, Christine A.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; McIntyre, Cameron P.; Stirling, Claudine H.; Wilson, Gary S.

    2015-12-01

    The New Zealand fjords are located at a latitude where distinct oceanic and atmospheric fronts separate carbon reservoirs of varying residence time. The marine radiocarbon reservoir age in this region is likely to deviate from the global average reservoir age over space and time as frontal boundaries migrate north and south. Here we present new estimates of modern radiocarbon reservoir age using the radiocarbon content of bivalve shells collected live before 1950. Multiple measurements from hydrographically distinct sites support the use of a ΔR, defined as the regional offset between measured and modeled marine radiocarbon reservoir age, of 59 ± 35 years for the New Zealand fjords. We also assess the radiocarbon content of bulk surface sediments throughout the fjord region. Sediment with a higher proportion of marine organic carbon has relatively less radiocarbon than more terrestrial sediment, suggesting a short residence time of organic carbon on land before deposition in the fjords. Additionally, we constrain reservoir age variability throughout the Holocene using coeval terrestrial and marine macrofossils. Although our modern results suggest spatial consistency in ΔR throughout the fjords, large deviations from the global average marine radiocarbon reservoir age exist in the paleo record. We find four ancient ΔR values, extending back to ˜10.2 cal kyr BP, to be negative or near zero. A likely cause of younger radiocarbon reservoir ages at select intervals throughout the Holocene is the increased influence of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds, which cause extreme precipitation in the region that delivers terrestrial carbon, enriched in radiocarbon, to fjord basins. However, bivalve depth habitat may also influence radiocarbon content due to a stratified water column containing distinct carbon pools. This work highlights the need for thorough assessment of local radiocarbon cycling in similar regions of dynamic ocean/atmosphere frontal zones